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Sample records for acute respiratory tract

  1. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Henrik Larsen, Hans; Koch, Anders;

    2004-01-01

    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...

  2. Respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection in Ghana

    Kwofie Theophilus B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Method Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Results Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2% were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3% patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%, Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3 in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8% and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3. Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36 of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. Conclusion The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection.

  3. Antibiotic use in acute upper respiratory tract infections.

    Zoorob, Roger; Sidani, Mohamad A; Fremont, Richard D; Kihlberg, Courtney

    2012-11-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections account for millions of visits to family physicians each year in the United States. Although warranted in some cases, antibiotics are greatly overused. This article outlines the guidelines and indications for appropriate antibiotic use for common upper respiratory infections. Early antibiotic treatment may be indicated in patients with acute otitis media, group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis, epiglottitis, or bronchitis caused by pertussis. Persistent cases of rhinosinusitis may necessitate the use of antibiotics if symptoms persist beyond a period of observation. Antibiotics should not be considered in patients with the common cold or laryngitis. Judicious, evidence-based use of antibiotics will help contain costs and prevent adverse effects and drug resistance.

  4. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Larsen, Hans Henrik; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper;

    2004-01-01

    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...... children 1-6 months of age. Asthmatic bronchitis was diagnosed in 66.7% of hMPV and 10.6% of RSV-infected children (p respiratory support. hMPV is present in young...

  5. Coxsackievirus A21, Enterovirus 68, and Acute Respiratory Tract Infection, China

    Xiang, Zichun; Gonzalez, Richard; Wang, Zhong; Ren, Lili; Xiao, Yan; Li, Jianguo; Li, Yongjun; Vernet, Guy; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Jin, Qi; Wang, Jianwei

    2012-01-01

    During August 2006–April 2010, in Beijing, China, 2 rare human enterovirus serotypes, coxsackievirus A21 and enterovirus 68, were detected most frequently in human enterovirus–positive adults with acute respiratory tract infections. Thus, during some years, these 2 viruses cause a substantial proportion of enterovirus-associated adult acute respiratory tract infections.

  6. Etiology of acute lower respiratory tract infections in children: current state of the issue (review

    A. V. Bogdanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lower respiratory tract infections are the leading cause of global morbidity and mortality in children under five years. Verification of the etiology of acute lower respiratory tract infections is necessary for definition of treatment and direction of prevention. Respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza 1, 2, and 3 and adenovirus are considered the main reasons of acute lower respiratory tract infections. The importance of different viruses depends on countries, district, seasons and ages of children. Analysis of the results of studies from different regions of the world showed fluctuations in frequency of etiology definition of respiratory viruses from 25 to 90%. Respiratory syncytial virus is the main reason of acute lower respiratory tract infections, especially in the group of children up to 1 year.

  7. Acute bacterial infections of the lower respiratory tract in children from low-income countries

    Fleer, A; Wolf, B.H.M.

    2000-01-01

    Acute bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children and is responsible for 4 million childhood deaths each year. Most of these deaths are caused by pneumonia and occur in the youngest children in the poorest parts of the world. Severe pneu

  8. ACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT OF 42 CASES OF ACUTE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTION

    ManWei; WangJinglan

    2000-01-01

    We made clinical observations on the therapeutic effect of acupuncture on acute upper respiratory tract infection and compared with the effect of paracetamol and Antondine, The result showed that acupuncture therapy could allay fever more rapidly than drugs, so long as the differentiation of syndromes is correct and the acupoint is selected properly.

  9. Viral respiratory tract infections among patients with acute undifferentiated fever in Vietnam

    H.L. Phuong; T.T.T. Nga; G.J. van Doornum; J. Groen; T.Q. Binh; P.T. Giao; L.Q. Hung; N.V. Nams; P.A. Kager; P.J. de Vries

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the proportion of viral respiratory tract infections among acute undifferentiated fevers (AUFs) at primary health facilities in southern Vietnam during 2001-2005, patients with AUF not caused by malaria were enrolled at twelve primary health facilities and a clinic for malaria control

  10. Detection of viral acute lower respiratory tract infection in hospitalized infants using real-time PCR

    Bassant Meligy

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: RV was the most commonly detected virus in children under 3 years admitted with acute lower respiratory tract infections. Coinfection was present in the majority of our patients; however it was not related significantly to parameters of disease severity.

  11. Profiling acute respiratory tract infections in children from Assam, India

    Farzana Islam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARI are leading global cause of under-five mortality and morbidity. Objective: To elicit the prevalence and risk factors associated with ARI among under-five children. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken in 21 registered urban slums of Guwahati in Assam to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with ARI among 370 under-five children from 184 households and 370 families. Results: The prevalence of ARI was found to be 26.22%; infants and female children were more affected. Majority of the ARI cases were from nuclear families (84.54%, living in kutcha houses (90.72% with inadequate ventilation (84.54%, overcrowded living condition (81.44%, with kitchen attached to the living room (65.98% and using biomass fuel for cooking (89.69%. ARI was significantly associated with ventilation, location of kitchen in household; presence of overcrowding, nutritional status, and primary immunization status also had impacts on ARI. Conclusion: The present study had identified a high prevalence of the disease among under-fives. It also pointed out various socio-demographic, nutritional, and environmental modifiable risk factors which can be tackled by effective education of the community.

  12. Viral-bacterial interactions and risk of acute otitis media complicating upper respiratory tract infection.

    Pettigrew, Melinda M; Gent, Janneane F; Pyles, Richard B; Miller, Aaron L; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Chonmaitree, Tasnee

    2011-11-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common complication of upper respiratory tract infection whose pathogenesis involves both viruses and bacteria. We examined risks of acute otitis media associated with specific combinations of respiratory viruses and acute otitis media bacterial pathogens. Data were from a prospective study of children ages 6 to 36 months and included viral and bacterial culture and quantitative PCR for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human bocavirus, and human metapneumovirus. Repeated-measure logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between specific viruses, bacteria, and the risk of acute otitis media complicating upper respiratory tract infection. In unadjusted analyses of data from 194 children, adenovirus, bocavirus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis were significantly associated with AOM (P virus loads (≥3.16 × 10(7) copies/ml) experienced increased acute otitis media risk. Higher viral loads of bocavirus and metapneumovirus were not significantly associated with acute otitis media. In adjusted models controlling for the presence of key viruses, bacteria, and acute otitis media risk factors, acute otitis media risk was independently associated with high RSV viral load with Streptococcus pneumoniae (odds ratio [OR], 4.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.90 and 10.19) and Haemophilus influenzae (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.38 and 3.02). The risk was higher for the presence of bocavirus and H. influenzae together (OR, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.90 and 6.86). Acute otitis media risk differs by the specific viruses and bacteria involved. Acute otitis media prevention efforts should consider methods for reducing infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus, bocavirus, and adenovirus in addition to acute otitis media bacterial pathogens.

  13. Diagnostic labelling as determinant of antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract episodes in general practice

    van Duijn, Huug J; Kuyvenhoven, Marijke M; Tiebosch, Hanneke M; Schellevis, François G; Verheij, Theo JM

    2007-01-01

    Background Next to other GP characteristics, diagnostic labelling (the proportion of acute respiratory tract (RT) episodes to be labelled as infections) probably contributes to a higher volume of antibiotic prescriptions for acute RT episodes. However, it is unknown whether there is an independent association between diagnostic labelling and the volume of prescribed antibiotics, or whether diagnostic labelling is associated with the number of presented acute RT episodes and consequently with the number of antibiotics prescribed per patient per year. Methods Data were used from the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (DNSGP-2) with 163 GPs from 85 Dutch practices, serving a population of 359,625 patients. Data over a 12 month period were analysed by means of multiple linear regression analysis. Main outcome measure was the volume of antibiotic prescriptions for acute RT episodes per 1,000 patients. Results The incidence was 236.9 acute RT episodes/1,000 patients. GPs labelled about 70% of acute RT episodes as infections, and antibiotics were prescribed in 41% of all acute RT episodes. A higher incidence of acute RT episodes (beta 0.67), a stronger inclination to label episodes as infections (beta 0.24), a stronger endorsement of the need of antibiotics in case of white spots in the throat (beta 0.11) and being male (beta 0.11) were independent determinants of the prescribed volume of antibiotics for acute RT episodes, whereas diagnostic labelling was not correlated with the incidence of acute RT episodes. Conclusion Diagnostic labelling is a relevant factor in GPs' antibiotic prescribing independent from the incidence of acute RT episodes. Therefore, quality assurance programs and postgraduate courses should emphasise to use evidence based prognostic criteria (e.g. chronic respiratory co-morbidity and old age) as an indication to prescribe antibiotics in stead of single inflammation signs or diagnostic labels. PMID:17883832

  14. Diagnostic labelling as determinant of antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract episodes in general practice

    Schellevis François G

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next to other GP characteristics, diagnostic labelling (the proportion of acute respiratory tract (RT episodes to be labelled as infections probably contributes to a higher volume of antibiotic prescriptions for acute RT episodes. However, it is unknown whether there is an independent association between diagnostic labelling and the volume of prescribed antibiotics, or whether diagnostic labelling is associated with the number of presented acute RT episodes and consequently with the number of antibiotics prescribed per patient per year. Methods Data were used from the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (DNSGP-2 with 163 GPs from 85 Dutch practices, serving a population of 359,625 patients. Data over a 12 month period were analysed by means of multiple linear regression analysis. Main outcome measure was the volume of antibiotic prescriptions for acute RT episodes per 1,000 patients. Results The incidence was 236.9 acute RT episodes/1,000 patients. GPs labelled about 70% of acute RT episodes as infections, and antibiotics were prescribed in 41% of all acute RT episodes. A higher incidence of acute RT episodes (beta 0.67, a stronger inclination to label episodes as infections (beta 0.24, a stronger endorsement of the need of antibiotics in case of white spots in the throat (beta 0.11 and being male (beta 0.11 were independent determinants of the prescribed volume of antibiotics for acute RT episodes, whereas diagnostic labelling was not correlated with the incidence of acute RT episodes. Conclusion Diagnostic labelling is a relevant factor in GPs' antibiotic prescribing independent from the incidence of acute RT episodes. Therefore, quality assurance programs and postgraduate courses should emphasise to use evidence based prognostic criteria (e.g. chronic respiratory co-morbidity and old age as an indication to prescribe antibiotics in stead of single inflammation signs or diagnostic labels.

  15. Clinical characteristics and risk factors of severe respiratory syncytial virus-associated acute lower respiratory tract infections in hospitalized infants

    Xiao-Bo Zhang; Li-Juan Liu; Li-Ling Qian; Gao-Li Jiang; Chuan-Kai Wang; Pin Jia; Peng Shi; Jin Xu; Li-Bo Wang

    2014-01-01

    Background: To investigate the clinical characteristics and analyze risk factors for severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in hospitalized infants with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRIs). Methods: A retrospective review of the medical records of infants with RSV-associated ALRIs between March 1st, 2011 and February 29th, 2012 was conducted. Subjects were followed up over the phone or by outpatient visit six and twelve months after discharge. Results: Among 913 RSV-associated ALRIs infants, 288 (31.5%) had severe infections, which accounted for 4.2% of hospitalized children. The hospital RSV mortality rate was 1.0%. The proportions of cases with tachypnea, apnea, cyanosis, and fine rales were significantly higher in the severe ALRIs group (all P Conclusions: Younger age, low birth weight and underlying disease are associated with severe RSVassociated ALRIs. Furthermore, severe RSV infections may be associated with a higher frequency of subsequent bronchitis, pneumonia and re-hospitalization in the following year.

  16. CLINICAL PROFILE OF ACUTE LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN BETWEEN 2MONTHS TO 5 YEARS

    Amitoj Singh Chhina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Acute respiratory infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in under - five children in developing countries. Hence, the present study was undertaken to study the various risk factors, clinical profile and outcome of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI in children aged 2 month to 5 years. OBJECTIVE : clinical features, laborato ry assessment and morbidity and mortality pattern associated with acute lower respiratory tract infections in children aged 2 months to 5 years. METHODS: 100 ALRI cases fulfilling WHO criteria for pneumonia, in the age group of 2 month to 5 years were evaluated for clinical profile as per a predesigned proforma in a rural medical college. RESULTS : Of cases 61% were infants and remaining 39%12 - 60 months age group, males outnumbered females with sex ratio of 1.3;1. Elevated total leukocyte counts for age were observed in only 22% of cases, of these 3% were having pneumonia, 9% severe pneumonia and 10% very severe pneumonia. Significant association was found between leukocytosis and ALRI severity (p= 0.0001 Positive blood culture was obtained in 8% of cases and was significantly associated with ALRI severity (p=. 0.027. Among the ALRI cases, 84% required oxygen supplementation at any time during the hospital stay and 8% required mechanical ventilation. The mortality rate was 1%; with 99% of cases recovering and getting discharged uneventfully. CONCLUSION : Among the clinical variables, the signs and symptoms of ALRI as per the WHO ARI Control Programme were found in almost all cases. Regarding the laboratory profile, leukocytosis and blood culture positivity w ere observed in a small percentage, but significant association with ALRI severity was observed for both. Thus, clinical signs, and not invasive blood tests are a better diagnostic tools, though the latter may provide additional therapeutic and prognostic information in severe disease

  17. Pteropine orthoreovirus infection among out-patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection in Malaysia.

    Voon, Kenny; Tan, Yeh Fong; Leong, Pooi Pooi; Teng, Cheong Lieng; Gunnasekaran, Rajasekaran; Ujang, Kamsiah; Chua, Kaw Bing; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to assess the incidence rate of Pteropine orthreovirus (PRV) infection in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in a suburban setting in Malaysia, where bats are known to be present in the neighborhood. Using molecular detection of PRVs directly from oropharyngeal swabs, our study demonstrates that PRV is among one of the common causative agents of acute URTI with cough and sore throat as the commonest presenting clinical features. Phylogenetic analysis on partial major outer and inner capsid proteins shows that these PRV strains are closely related to Melaka and Kampar viruses previously isolated in Malaysia. Further study is required to determine the public health significance of PRV infection in Southeast Asia, especially in cases where co-infection with other pathogens may potentially lead to different clinical outcomes.

  18. Viral Co-Infections in Pediatric Patients Hospitalized with Lower Tract Acute Respiratory Infections

    Cebey-López, Miriam; Herberg, Jethro; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Gormley, Stuart; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background Molecular techniques can often reveal a broader range of pathogens in respiratory infections. We aim to investigate the prevalence and age pattern of viral co-infection in children hospitalized with lower tract acute respiratory infection (LT-ARI), using molecular techniques. Methods A nested polymerase chain reaction approach was used to detect Influenza (A, B), metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza (1–4), rhinovirus, adenovirus (A—F), bocavirus and coronaviruses (NL63, 229E, OC43) in respiratory samples of children with acute respiratory infection prospectively admitted to any of the GENDRES network hospitals between 2011–2013. The results were corroborated in an independent cohort collected in the UK. Results A total of 204 and 97 nasopharyngeal samples were collected in the GENDRES and UK cohorts, respectively. In both cohorts, RSV was the most frequent pathogen (52.9% and 36.1% of the cohorts, respectively). Co-infection with multiple viruses was found in 92 samples (45.1%) and 29 samples (29.9%), respectively; this was most frequent in the 12–24 months age group. The most frequently observed co-infection patterns were RSV—Rhinovirus (23 patients, 11.3%, GENDRES cohort) and RSV—bocavirus / bocavirus—influenza (5 patients, 5.2%, UK cohort). Conclusion The presence of more than one virus in pediatric patients admitted to hospital with LT-ARI is very frequent and seems to peak at 12–24 months of age. The clinical significance of these findings is unclear but should warrant further analysis. PMID:26332375

  19. Serologic study on the outbreak of acute upper respiratory tract Infections caused by adenovirus 3

    JIANG Lufang; JU Liwen; JIANG Renjie; LIN Yuzun; ZHOU Liandi; YU Shunzhang; JIANG Qingwu

    2007-01-01

    From April to June,2004,an outbreak of acute upper respiratory tract infections(AURTI)occurred in the north area of Jiangsu Province,China.Twenty throat swabs were collected with 13 of them presenting an adenovirus (Ad)-like cytopathogenic effect on HEp-2.These were verified as Ad by the electron microscope,direct immunofluorescence assay and Ad primer-mediated PCR.Moreover,they were identified as adenovirus type 3(Ad3)by type-specific PCR and sequencing of the amplification products.Subsequent serologic studies were carried out to finally diagnose and document the outbreak.The neutralization test of paired serum of six in nine cases show obviously increased antibodies titers.The positive rate of IgM,IgG and recovery phase neutralization antibodies of the cases were 3.7%,44.4%and 59.5%respectively while those of the controls were 0%,8.3%and 33.3%respectively.The Pvalues of Chi-Square were 0.510,0.018 and 0.226 respectively.The concordance between IgG detected by ELISA and neutralization antibodies detected by the neutralization test was 61.4%and the Pvalue of Kappa was 0.070.By the serologic study,we can definitively diagnose that this outbreak of acute respiratory infections was caused by Adenovirus 3.

  20. Clinical characteristics of acute lower respiratory tract infections due to 13 respiratory viruses detected by multiplex PCR in children

    Jeong-Sook Lim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : This study was performed to investigate the epidemiologic and clinical features of 13 respiratory viruses in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRIs. Methods : Nasopharyngeal aspirates were prospectively obtained from 325 children aged 15 years or less from May 2008 to April 2009 and were tested for the presence of 13 respiratory viruses by multiplex real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results : Viruses were identified in 270 children (83.1%. Co-infections with ?#242; viruses were observed in 71 patients (26.3 %. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV was the most common virus detected (33.2%, followed by human rhinovirus (hRV (19.1%, influenza virus (Flu A (16.9%, human metapneumovirus (hMPV (15.4%, parainfluenza viruses (PIVs (8.3%, human bocavirus (hBoV (8.0%, adenovirus (ADV (5.8%, and human coronavirus (hCoV (2.2%. Clinical diagnoses of viral ALRIs were bronchiolitis (37.5%, pneumonia (34.5%, asthma exacerbation (20.9%, and croup (7.1%. Clinical diagnoses of viral bronchiolitis and pneumonia were frequently demonstrated in patients who tested positive for RSV, hRV, hMPV, or Flu A. Flu A and hRV were most commonly identified in children older than 3 years and were the 2 leading causes of asthma exacerbation. hRV C was detected in 14 (4.3% children, who were significantly older than those infected with hRV A (mean±SD, 4.1±3.5 years vs. 1.7±2.3 years; P=0.009. hBoV was usually detected in young children (2.3±3.4 years with bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Conclusion : This study described the features of ALRI associated with 13 respiratory viruses in Korean children. Additional investigations are required to define the roles of newly identified viruses in children with ALRIs.

  1. The development and validation of a multidimensional sum-scaling questionnaire to measure patient-reported outcomes in acute respiratory tract infections in primary care: the Acute Respiratory Tract Infection Questionnaire: ARTIQ

    Aabenhus, R.; Thorsen, H.; Siersma, V.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patient-reported outcomes are seldom validated measures in clinical trials of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in primary care. We developed and validated a patient-reported outcome sum-scaling measure to assess the severity and functional impacts of ARTIs. METHODS: Qualitative...... interviews and field testing among adults with an ARTI were conducted to ascertain a high degree of face and content validity of the questionnaire. Subsequently, a draft version of the Acute Respiratory Tract Infection Questionnaire (ARTIQ) was statistically validated by using the partial credit Rasch model...... to test dimensionality, objectivity, and reliability of items. Test of known groups' validity was conducted by comparing participants with and without an ARTI. RESULTS: The final version of the ARTIQ consisted of 38 items covering five dimensions (Physical-upper, Physical-lower, Psychological, Sleep...

  2. Antibiotic resistance of bacteria responsible of acute respiratory tract infections in children

    Makhtar Camara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most common causative agents of acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs. The objective of this study was to assess their susceptibility to several antibiotics.Materials and methods. A total of 58 strains (16 S. pneumoniae, 19 H. influenzae and 23 M. catarrhalis were isolated from samples collected in two paediatric centres, and their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics tested by E-test. Results. Among H. influenzae isolates, 10.5% were resistant to ampicillin (all β-lactamase-positive, and 88.9% were susceptible to cefaclor. High β-lactam resistance rates (penicillin: 31.3% and cephalosporins: 18.7 to 31.3% had been observed among S. pneumonia strains. Only 50% of isolates were susceptible to azithromycine. 91.3% of M. catarrhalis isolates β-lactamases producers were resistant to ampicillin while susceptible to the most tested antibiotics. Conclusions. Except M. catarrhalis β-lactamases producing strains, frequency of antibiotic resistance was mainly observed among S. pneumoniae, and to a lesser extent among H. influenzae clinical isolates, suggesting the need for continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance patterns in the management of RTIs.

  3. Maternal agency influences the prevalence of diarrhea and acute respiratory tract infections among young Indonesian children.

    Agustina, Rina; Shankar, Anita V; Ayuningtyas, Azalea; Achadi, Endang L; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2015-05-01

    To examine the relationship between measures of mother's caretaking, practice and individual agency on acute diarrhea and respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) of Indonesian children. Using population-based household data from the Indonesian Demographic Health Surveys for 2002-2003 (n = 9,151 children) and 2007 (n = 9,714 children), we selected 28 indicators related to mother' caretaking, and applied principal component analysis to derive indices for access to care, practice and experience, and agency. The association between index quartiles (level 1-4) and the prevalence of diarrhea and ARTIs in the youngest child Children of mothers with higher levels (level 4) of agency were protected against both diarrhea (adjusted OR 0.68, 95 % CI 0.60-0.77) and ARTIs (adjusted OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.66-0.91). Stratified analyses with child's age and mother's education, and tests of interaction, showed that agency had a stronger effect on diarrhea and ARTIs prevalence in children diarrhea and ARTIs in younger children. Interventions specifically designed to promote maternal autonomy and decision-making may lead to improved child health.

  4. Validation study of a diary for use in acute lower respiratory tract infection

    Watson, L; Little, P; Moore, M; Warner, G; Williamson, [No Value

    2001-01-01

    Background. Despite lower respiratory tract infection (LRTi) being the most common illness treated by doctors, no validated outcome measure to assess symptom duration and severity has been developed for patient self-completion. Methods. As part of a randomized control trial researching management of

  5. Clinical Characteristic and Outcome of Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    Krystle Gabriela

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (ALRTI is the leading cause of deaths in children under 5 years of age worldwide, and has high morbidity and mortality in children with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD. The objective of this study was to obtain the incidence, clinical characteristic, and outcome of ALRTI children with CHD. Methods: A retrospective hospital-based study was conducted from January 2007–December 2011 to medical record of child patients with ALRTI and CHD in the Department of Child Health of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung. The diagnosis of CHD was determined by echocardiography. The collected data was analyzed and presented in percentage shown in tables. Results : From 3,897 children who had ALRTI, there were 149 children with CHD (3.8%, with 11.4% of whom founded with recurrent episodes. This happened often in girls than boys with quite similar ratio of 1.37: 1.The majority of children (80% was under 1 year old of age, 72.5% with malnutrition, and 24.8% with severe malnutrition. Clinical symptoms mostly found were difficulty of breathing (98%, fever (85.2%, cough (75.2%, and runny nose (63.1%. The most common types of CHD were Patent Ductus Arteriosus (47.6%, followed by Ventricular Septal Defect (47%. Bronchopneumonia (86.6% was the common type of ALRTI. The length of stay was mostly less than 10 days (70.5%. From all the children 43.7% had complications, and 6.7% died. Conclusions: The ALRTI in children with CHD is not common and has good outcome. The majority for CHD lesions are Patent Ductus Arteriosus and Ventricular Septal Defect while for ALRTI is Bronchopneumonia.

  6. Clinical effects of erdosteine in the treatment of acute respiratory tract diseases in children.

    Balli, F; Bergamini, B; Calistru, P; Ciofu, E P; Domenici, R; Doros, G; Dragomir, D; Gherghina, I; Iordachescu, F; Murgoci, G; Orasanu, D; Plesca, D; Vaccaro, A; Assereto, R

    2007-01-01

    Erdosteine has positive effects on mucus rheology and transport due to the active metabolite (Metabolite I) which contains a free thiol group. Erdosteine inhibits bacterial adhesiveness and has antioxidant properties. A synergistic effect of erdosteine with various antibiotics has been demonstrated in pharmacological and clinical studies. The present study was multicenter, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled. The aims of the study were to compare a combination of erdosteine with amoxicillin against an amoxicillin-placebo combination in pediatric patients with acute lower respiratory tract disease. A total of 158 patients (78 in the erdosteine group and 80 in the placebo group) were treated for 7 +/- 2 days. The efficacy parameters were cough (primary), polypnea, rhonchi, rales and body temperature (all measured at baseline, on Day 3 and at the end of treatment). Safety was assessed by strictly monitoring the occurrence of adverse events and using standard laboratory parameters. The results of the intention-to-treat analysis showed that the severity of cough was decreased by 47% at Day 3 in the erdosteine group with a statistically significant difference compared to placebo, the difference was still significant at the final visit. The decrease in the severity of rales was significantly greater at Day 3 in the erdosteine group than in the placebo group. The incidence of polypnea and rhonchi in the two groups showed similar decreases, an improvement mainly due to the antibiotic. No adverse events occurred and no adverse changes in laboratory parameters were observed. It is concluded that the combination of erdosteine and amoxicillin is a safe medication which is clinically superior to that of the antibiotic combined with placebo, especially in regard to the effects on cough.

  7. ACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT OF 42 CASES OF ACUTE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTION

    满伟; 王敬兰

    2000-01-01

    We made clinical observations on the therapeutic effect of acupuncture on acute upperr espiratory tract infection and compared with the effect of paracetamol and Antondine, The result showed that acupuncture therapy could allay fever more rapidly than drugs, so long as the differentiation of syndromes is correct and the acupoint is selected properly.

  8. Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data

    Jolliffe, David A; Hooper, Richard L; Greenberg, Lauren; Aloia, John F; Bergman, Peter; Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Esposito, Susanna; Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Ginde, Adit A; Goodall, Emma C; Grant, Cameron C; Griffiths, Christopher J; Janssens, Wim; Laaksi, Ilkka; Manaseki-Holland, Semira; Mauger, David; Murdoch, David R; Neale, Rachel; Rees, Judy R; Simpson, Steve; Stelmach, Iwona; Kumar, Geeta Trilok; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Camargo, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess the overall effect of vitamin D supplementation on risk of acute respiratory tract infection, and to identify factors modifying this effect. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD) from randomised controlled trials. Data sources Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials Number registry from inception to December 2015. Eligibility criteria for study selection Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trials of supplementation with vitamin D3 or vitamin D2 of any duration were eligible for inclusion if they had been approved by a research ethics committee and if data on incidence of acute respiratory tract infection were collected prospectively and prespecified as an efficacy outcome. Results 25 eligible randomised controlled trials (total 11 321 participants, aged 0 to 95 years) were identified. IPD were obtained for 10 933 (96.6%) participants. Vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of acute respiratory tract infection among all participants (adjusted odds ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.96; P for heterogeneity vitamin D without additional bolus doses (adjusted odds ratio 0.81, 0.72 to 0.91) but not in those receiving one or more bolus doses (adjusted odds ratio 0.97, 0.86 to 1.10; P for interaction=0.05). Among those receiving daily or weekly vitamin D, protective effects were stronger in those with baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels Vitamin D did not influence the proportion of participants experiencing at least one serious adverse event (adjusted odds ratio 0.98, 0.80 to 1.20, P=0.83). The body of evidence contributing to these analyses was assessed as being of high quality. Conclusions Vitamin D supplementation was safe and it protected against acute respiratory tract infection overall. Patients who were very vitamin D deficient and those not

  9. Detection of human bocavirus from children and adults with acute respiratory tract illness in Guangzhou, southern China

    Liu Wen-Kuan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human bocavirus (HBoV is a newly discovered parvovirus associated with acute respiratory tract illness (ARTI and gastrointestinal illness. Our study is the first to analyze the characteristics of HBoV-positive samples from ARTI patients with a wide age distribution from Guangzhou, southern China. Methods Throat swabs (n=2811 were collected and analyzed from children and adults with ARTI over a 13-month period. The HBoV complete genome from a 60 year-old female patient isolate was also determined. Results HBoV DNA was detected in 65/2811 (2.3% samples, of which 61/1797 were from children (Mycoplasma pneumoniae had the highest frequency of 16.9% (11/65. Upper and lower respiratory tract illness were common symptoms, with 19/65 (29.2% patients diagnosed with pneumonia by chest radiography. All four adult patients had systemic influenza-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome revealed a close relationship with other HBoVs, and a more distant relationship with HBoV2 and HBoV3. Conclusions HBoV was detected from children and adults with ARTI from Guangzhou, southern China. Elderly people were also susceptive to HBoV. A single lineage of HBoV was detected among a wide age distribution of patients with ARTI.

  10. Prescriber and Patient Responsibilities in Treatment of Acute Respiratory Tract Infections — Essential for Conservation of Antibiotics

    Antonio C. Pignatari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate antibiotic use in normally self-limiting acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs, such as sore throat and the common cold, is a global problem and an important factor for increasing levels of antibiotic resistance. A new group of international experts—the Global Respiratory Infection Partnership (GRIP—is committed to addressing this issue, with the interface between primary care practitioners and their patients as their core focus. To combat the overuse of antibiotics in the community, and facilitate a change from prescribing empiric antibiotic treatment towards cautious deferment combined with symptomatic relief, there is a need to introduce and enhance evidence-based dialogue between primary care practitioners and their patients. Communication with patients should focus on the de-medicalisation of self-limiting viral infections, which can be achieved via a coherent globally endorsed framework outlining the rationale for appropriate antibiotic use in acute RTIs in the context of antibiotic stewardship and conservancy. The planned framework is intended to be adaptable at a country level to reflect local behaviours, cultures and healthcare systems, and has the potential to serve as a model for change in other therapeutic areas.

  11. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of 3 day azithromycin versus 10 day co-amoxiclav in the treatment of children with acute lower respiratory tract infections

    A. Ferwerda (Annemarie); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); J.M. Kouwenberg (Jan); C.V. Tjon Pian Gi

    2001-01-01

    textabstractTo compare the efficacy, safety and tolerability of a 3 day course of azithromycin with a 10 day course of co-amoxiclav in the treatment of children with acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), 118 patients with community-acquired LRTI were included

  12. High prevalence of acute respiratory tract infections among Warao Amerindian children in Venezuela in relation to low immunization coverage and chronic malnutrition.

    Verhagen, L.M.; Warris, A.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Nogal, B. del; Groot, R. de; Waard, J.H. de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Higher prevalence rates of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) have been described in Australian and Canadian indigenous populations than in nonindigenous age-matched counterparts. Few studies on ARTIs in South American indigenous populations have been published. We performed a cr

  13. Systematic Review of Clinical Trials Assessing the Effectiveness of Ivy Leaf (Hedera Helix for Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infections

    Felix Holzinger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Among nonantibiotic cough remedies, herbal preparations containing extracts from leaves of ivy (Hedera helix enjoy great popularity. Objective. A systematic review to assess the effectiveness and tolerability of ivy for acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs. Methods. We searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs, nonrandomized controlled clinical trials and observational studies evaluating the efficacy of ivy preparations for acute URTIs. Study quality was assessed by the Jadad score or the EPHPP tool. Results. 10 eligible studies were identified reporting on 17463 subjects. Studies were heterogeneous in design and conduct; 2 were RCTs. Three studies evaluated a combination of ivy and thyme, 7 studies investigated monopreparations of ivy. Only one RCT (=360 investigating an ivy/thyme combination used a placebo control and showed statistically significant superiority in reducing the frequency and duration of cough. All other studies lack a placebo control and show serious methodological flaws. They all conclude that ivy extracts are effective for reducing symptoms of URTI. Conclusion. Although all studies report that ivy extracts are effective to reduce symptoms of URTI, there is no convincing evidence due to serious methodological flaws and lack of placebo controls. The combination of ivy and thyme might be more effective but needs confirmation.

  14. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000103.htm Acute respiratory distress syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening lung condition that ...

  15. Prevalence and correlation of infectious agents in hospitalized children with acute respiratory tract infections in Central China.

    Jia Liu

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs are associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in children under the age of 5 years. Almost 2 million children die from ARTIs each year, and most of them are from developing countries. The prevalence and correlation of pathogens in ARTIs are poorly understood, but are critical for improving case prevention, treatment, and management. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and correlation of infectious agents in children with ARTIs. A total of 39,756 children with one or more symptoms, including fever, cough, sore throat, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, herpangina, pneumonia, and bronchiolitis, were enrolled in the study. All patients were hospitalized in Wuhan Children's Hospital between October 1, 2010 and September 30, 2012, and were evaluated for infectious agents. Pathogens, including Mycoplasma pneumoniae, influenza A virus, influenza B virus, adenoviruses, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, Legionella pneumophila, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Coxiella burnetii, were screened simultaneously in patient blood samples using anti-pathogen IgM tests. Regression analysis was used to reveal correlations among the pathogens. Our results showed that one or more pathogens were identified in 10,206 patients, and that Mycoplasma pneumoniae, adenoviruses, and influenza B virus were the leading infectious agents. Mixed-infections of pathogens were detected in 2,391 cases, with Mycoplasma pneumoniae as the most frequent pathogen. The most common agents in the co-infections were Mycoplasma pneumoniae and influenza B virus. Regression analysis revealed a linear correlation between the proportion of mixed infections and the incidence of multi-pathogen infections. The prevalence of infectious agents in children with ARTIs was determined. Equations were established to estimate multiple infections by single-pathogen detection. This revealed a linear correlation for

  16. Is acute idiopathic pericarditis associated with recent upper respiratory tract infection or gastroenteritis? A case–control study

    Rey, Florian; Delhumeau-Cartier, Cecile; Meyer, Philippe; Genne, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the association of a clinical diagnosis of acute idiopathic pericarditis (AIP), and a reported upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) or gastroenteritis (GE) in the preceding month. Design Patients who were hospitalised with a first diagnosis of AIP were retrospectively compared with a control group of patients admitted with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), matched by gender and age. Setting Primary and secondary care level; one hospital serving a population of about 170 000. Participants A total of 51 patients with AIP were included, of whom 46 could be matched with 46 patients with control DVT. Only patients with a complete review of systems on the admission note were included in the study. Main outcome measure Conditional logistic regression was used to assess the association of a clinical diagnosis of AIP and an infectious episode (URTI or GE) in the month preceding AIP diagnosis. Results Patients with AIP had more often experienced a recent episode of URTI or GE than patients with DVT (39.1% vs 10.9%, p=0.002). The multivariate conditional regression showed that AIP was independently associated with URTI or GE in the last month preceding diagnosis (OR=37.18, 95% CI=1.91 to 724.98, p=0.017). Conclusions This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study demonstrating an association between a recent episode of URTI or GE and a clinical diagnosis of AIP. PMID:26603247

  17. Extensive upper respiratory tract sarcoidosis.

    Soares, Mafalda Trindade; Sousa, Carolina; Garanito, Luísa; Freire, Filipe

    2016-04-18

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It can affect any part of the organism, although the lung is the most frequently affected organ. Upper airway involvement is rare, particularly if isolated. Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, established by histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas and the absence of other granulomatous diseases. The authors report a case of a man with sarcoidosis manifesting as a chronic inflammatory stenotic condition of the upper respiratory tract and trachea.

  18. Predictors of severe disease in a hospitalized population of children with acute viral lower respiratory tract infections.

    Pedraza-Bernal, Angela M; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E; Acuña-Cordero, Ranniery

    2016-05-01

    Although predictors of severe viral acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs) in children have been reported, there have been few research studies performed in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The aim of the present study was to determine predictors of disease severity in a population of Colombian children disease conditions and the infecting respiratory viruses as predictor variables of severe disease. We defined severe disease as the necessity of pediatric intensive care unit admission. Of a total of 1,180 patients admitted with a diagnosis of ALRI, 416 (35.3%) were included because they were positive for any kind of respiratory virus. After controlling for potential confounders, it was found that a history of pulmonary hypertension (RR 3.62; CI 95% 2.38-5.52; P disease. The present study shows that respiratory viruses are significant causes of ALRI in infants and young children in Colombia, a typical tropical LMIC, especially during the rainy season. Additionally, the results of the present study show that clinical variables such as a history of pulmonary hypertension and a history of recurrent wheezing are more relevant for predicting ALRI severity than the infecting respiratory viruses.

  19. [Cycloferon efficacy in the treatment of acute respiratory tract viral infection and influenza during the morbidity outbreak in 2009-2010].

    Romantsov, M G; Golofeevskiĭ, S V

    2010-01-01

    Clinical signs of acute respiratory tract viral infection and influenza in 150 patients under the standard symptomatic therapy with cycloferon, an early interferon 1 and 2 inductor are described. The patients were randomized by the body temperature on the day of the medical advise seeking. The clinical process of the respiratory tract infection was characterized by the second increase of the body temperature stated in 31.8% of the patients. By the clinical signs the infection was mixed (virus-virus) that explained the second increase of the body temperature. Normalization of the temperature was stated on the 4th or 5th day of the observation. The catarrhal and intoxication syndromes were observed for no more than 5 days. When the treatment was started in time (on the day of the medical advise seeking), cycloferon provided minimization of the intoxication and catarrhal syndromes and normalization of the body temperature on the 4th day of the therapy without the use of antibacterial agents.

  20. Clinical and epidemiological aspects related to the detection of adenovirus or respiratory syncytial virus in infants hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection

    Eduardo A. Ferone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize and compare clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory aspects ofinfants with acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI associated with the detection of adenovirus(ADV or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. METHODS: A preliminary respiratory infection surveillance study collected samples of nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA for viral research, linked to the completion of a standard protocol, from children younger than two years admitted to a university hospital with ALRI, between March of 2008 and August of 2011. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used for eight viruses: ADV, RSV, metapneumovirus, Parainfluenza 1, 2, and 3, and Influenza A and B. Cases with NPA collectedduring the first 24 hours of admission, negative results of blood culture, and exclusive detection of ADV (Gadv group or RSV (Grsv group were selected for comparisons. RESULTS: The preliminary study included collection of 1,121 samples of NPA, 813 collected in thefirst 24 hours of admission, of which 50.3% were positive for at least one virus; RSV was identifiedin 27.3% of cases surveyed, and ADV was identified in 15.8%. Among the aspects analyzed inthe Gadv (n = 58 and Grsv (n = 134 groups, the following are noteworthy: the higher meanage, more frequent prescription of antibiotics, and the highest median of total white blood cellcount and C-reactive protein values in Gadv. CONCLUSIONS: PCR can detect persistent/latent forms of ADV, an aspect to be considered wheninterpreting results. Additional studies with quantitative diagnostic techniques could elucidatethe importance of the high frequency observed.

  1. Concurrent acute illness and comorbid conditions poorly predict antibiotic use in upper respiratory tract infections: a cross-sectional analysis

    Perencevich Eli N

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inappropriate antibiotic use promotes resistance. Antibiotics are generally not indicated for upper respiratory infections (URIs. Our objectives were to describe patterns of URI treatment and to identify patient and provider factors associated with antibiotic use for URIs. Methods This study was a cross-sectional analysis of medical and pharmacy claims data from the Pennsylvania Medicaid fee-for-service program database. We identified Pennsylvania Medicaid recipients with a URI office visit over a one-year period. Our outcome variable was antibiotic use within seven days after the URI visit. Study variables included URI type and presence of concurrent acute illnesses and chronic conditions. We considered the associations of each study variable with antibiotic use in a logistic regression model, stratifying by age group and adjusting for confounders. Results Among 69,936 recipients with URI, 35,786 (51.2% received an antibiotic. In all age groups, acute sinusitis, chronic sinusitis, otitis, URI type and season were associated with antibiotic use. Except for the oldest group, physician specialty and streptococcal pharyngitis were associated with antibiotic use. History of chronic conditions was not associated with antibiotic use in any age group. In all age groups, concurrent acute illnesses and history of chronic conditions had only had fair to poor ability to distinguish patients who received an antibiotic from patients who did not. Conclusion Antibiotic prevalence for URIs was high, indicating that potentially inappropriate antibiotic utilization is occurring. Our data suggest that demographic and clinical factors are associated with antibiotic use, but additional reasons remain unexplained. Insight regarding reasons for antibiotic prescribing is needed to develop interventions to address the growing problem of antibiotic resistance.

  2. Antibiotics for acute respiratory tract infections: a mixed-methods study of patient experiences of non-medical prescriber management

    Courtenay, Molly; Rowbotham, Samantha; Lim, Rosemary; Deslandes, Rhian; Hodson, Karen; MacLure, Katie; Peters, Sarah; Stewart, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Objective To (1) explore patients' expectations and experiences of nurse and pharmacist non-medical prescriber-led management of respiratory tract infections (RTIs), (2) examine whether patient expectations for antibiotics affect the likelihood of receiving them and (3) understand factors influencing patient satisfaction with RTI consultations. Design Mixed methods. Setting Primary care. Participants Questionnaires from 120 patients and follow-up interviews with 22 patients and 16 nurse and pharmacist non-medical prescribers (NMPs). Results Patients had multiple expectations of their consultation with 43% expecting to be prescribed an antibiotic. There was alignment between self-reported patient expectations and those perceived by NMPs. Patient expectations for non-antibiotic strategies, such as education to promote self-management, were associated with receipt of those strategies, whereas patient expectations for an antibiotic were not associated with receipt of these medications. ‘Patient-centred’ management strategies (including reassurance and providing information) were received by 86.7% of patients. Regardless of patients' expectations or the management strategy employed, high levels of satisfaction were reported for all aspects of the consultation. Taking concerns seriously, conducting a physical examination, communicating the treatment plan, explaining treatment decisions and lack of time restrictions were each reported to contribute to patient satisfaction. Conclusions NMPs demonstrate an understanding of patient expectations of RTI consultations and use a range of non-antibiotic management strategies, particularly those resembling a patient-centred approach. Overall, patients' expectations were met and prescribers were not unduly influenced by patient expectations for an antibiotic. Patients were satisfied with the consultation, indicating that strategies used by NMPs were acceptable. However, the lower levels of satisfaction among patients who

  3. Patient Attitudes and Beliefs and Provider Practices Regarding Antibiotic Use for Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Minya, Egypt

    Amr Kandeel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The inappropriate use of antibiotics in the community is one of the major causes of antimicrobial resistance. This study aimed to explore the physician prescribing pattern of antibiotics for acute respiratory infections (ARIs and to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of patients regarding antibiotic use for ARIs. The study was conducted in Upper Egypt and used quantitative and qualitative research techniques. Eligible patients exiting outpatient clinics with ARIs were invited to participate in the study. A qualitative study was conducted through 20 focus group discussions. Out of 350 encounters for patients with various ARIs, 292 (83% had been prescribed at least one antibiotic. Factors significantly associated with antibiotic prescribing for adults included patient preference that an antibiotic be prescribed. For children younger than 18, presentation with fever, cough, loss of appetite, and sore throat, along with the caregiver’s antibiotic preference, were associated with an antibiotic prescription. Several misconceptions regarding antibiotic use among community members were stated, such as the strong belief of the curing and prophylactic power of antibiotics for the common cold. Interventions to promote proper antibiotic use for ARIs need to be piloted, targeting both physicians and the public. Educational programs for physicians and campaigns to raise public awareness regarding proper antibiotic use for ARIs need to be developed.

  4. The role of appropriate diagnostic testing in acute respiratory tract infections: An antibiotic stewardship strategy to minimise diagnostic uncertainty in primary care.

    Brink, Adrian John; Van Wyk, Johan; Moodley, V M; Corcoran, Craig; Ekermans, Pieter; Nutt, Louise; Boyles, Tom; Perovic, Olga; Feldman, Charles; Richards, Guy; Mendelson, Marc

    2016-05-10

    Antibiotic resistance has increased worldwide to the extent that it is now regarded as a global public health crisis. Interventions to reduce excessive antibiotic prescribing to patients can reduce resistance and improve microbiological and clinical outcomes. Therefore, although improving outpatient antibiotic use is crucial, few data are provided on the key interventional components and the effectiveness of antibiotic stewardship in the primary care setting, in South Africa. The reasons driving the excessive prescription of antibiotics in the community are multifactorial but, perhaps most importantly, the overlapping clinical features of viral and bacterial infections dramatically reduce the ability of GPs to distinguish which patients would benefit from an antibiotic or not. As a consequence, the need for tools to reduce diagnostic uncertainty is critical. In this regard, besides clinical algorithms, a consensus of collaborators in European and UK consortia recently provided guidance for the use of C-reactive protein point-of-care testing in outpatients presenting with acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) and/or acute cough, if it is not clear after proper clinical assessment whether antibiotics should be prescribed or not. A targeted application of stewardship principles, including diagnostic stewardship as described in this review, to the ambulatory setting has the potential to affect the most common indications for systemic antibiotic use, in that the majority (80%) of antibiotic use occurs in the community, with ARTIs the most common indication.

  5. Adenovirus respiratory tract infections in Peru.

    Julia S Ampuero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently, there is a paucity of data regarding human adenovirus (HAdv circulation in Andean regions of South America. To address this shortcoming, we report the clinical, phylogenetic, and epidemiologic characteristics of HAdv respiratory tract infection from a large sentinel surveillance study conducted among adults and children in Peru. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from participants visiting any of 38 participating health centers, and viral pathogens were identified by immunofluorescence assay in cell culture. In addition, molecular characterization was performed on 226 randomly selected HAdv samples. Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 26,375 participants with influenza-like illness (ILI or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI were enrolled in the study. HAdv infection was identified in 2.5% of cases and represented 6.2% of all viral pathogens. Co-infection with a heterologous virus was found in 15.5% of HAdv cases. HAdv infection was largely confined to children under the age of 15, representing 88.6% of HAdv cases identified. No clinical characteristics were found to significantly distinguish HAdv infection from other respiratory viruses. Geographically, HAdv infections were more common in sites from the arid coastal regions than in the jungle or highland regions. Co-circulation of subgroups B and C was observed each year between 2006 and 2010, but no clear seasonal patterns of transmission were detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HAdv accounted for a significant fraction of those presenting with ILI and SARI in Peru and tended to affect the younger population disproportionately. Longitudinal studies will help better characterize the clinical course of patients with HAdv in Peru, as well as determine the role of co-infections in the evolution of illness.

  6. Characterization of human coronavirus etiology in Chinese adults with acute upper respiratory tract infection by real-time RT-PCR assays.

    Roujian Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In addition to SARS associated coronaviruses, 4 non-SARS related human coronaviruses (HCoVs are recognized as common respiratory pathogens. The etiology and clinical impact of HCoVs in Chinese adults with acute upper respiratory tract infection (URTI needs to be characterized systematically by molecular detection with excellent sensitivity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we detected 4 non-SARS related HCoV species by real-time RT-PCR in 981 nasopharyngeal swabs collected from March 2009 to February 2011. All specimens were also tested for the presence of other common respiratory viruses and newly identified viruses, human metapneumovirus (hMPV and human bocavirus (HBoV. 157 of the 981 (16.0% nasopharyngeal swabs were positive for HCoVs. The species detected were 229E (96 cases, 9.8%, OC43 (42 cases, 4.3%, HKU1 (16 cases, 1.6% and NL63 (11 cases, 1.1%. HCoV-229E was circulated in 21 of the 24 months of surveillance. The detection rates for both OC43 and NL63 were showed significantly year-to-year variation between 2009/10 and 2010/11, respectively (P<0.001 and P = 0.003, and there was a higher detection frequency of HKU1 in patients aged over 60 years (P = 0.03. 48 of 157(30.57% HCoV positive patients were co-infected. Undifferentiated human rhinoviruses and influenza (Flu A were the most common viruses detected (more than 35% in HCoV co-infections. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, human parainfluenza virus (PIV and HBoV were detected in very low rate (less than 1% among adult patients with URTI. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: All 4 non-SARS-associated HCoVs were more frequently detected by real-time RT-PCR assay in adults with URTI in Beijing and HCoV-229E led to the most prevalent infection. Our study also suggested that all non-SARS-associated HCoVs contribute significantly to URTI in adult patients in China.

  7. Inter-observer agreement in interpreting chest X-rays on children with acute lower respiratory tract infections and concurrent wheezing

    Carlos Bada

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Many children with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI present to the emergency ward with concurrent wheezing. A chest x-ray is often requested to rule out pneumonia. We assessed inter-observer agreement in interpreting x-rays on such children. DESIGNS AND SETTING: Prospective consecutive case study at Instituto de Salud del Niño, Lima, Peru. METHODS: Chest x-rays were obtained from eligible children younger than two years old with ALRI and concurrent wheezing who were seen in the emergency ward of a nationwide pediatric referral hospital. The x-rays were read independently by three different pediatric residents who were aware only that the children had a respiratory infection. All the children had received inhaled beta-adrenergic agonists before undergoing chest x-rays. Lobar and complicated pneumonia cases were excluded from the study. RESULTS: Two hundred x-rays were read. The overall kappa index was 0.2. The highest individual kappa values for specific x-ray findings ranged from 0.26 to 0.34 for rib horizontalization and from 0.14 to 0.31 for alveolar infiltrate. Inter-observer variation was intermediate for alveolar infiltrate (kappa 0.14 to 0.21 and for air bronchogram (kappa 0.13 to 0.23. Reinforcement of the bronchovascular network (kappa 0.10 to 0.16 and air trapping (kappa 0.05 to 0.20 had the lowest agreement. CONCLUSIONS: There was poor inter-observer agreement for chest x-ray interpretation on children with ALRI and concurrent wheezing seen at the emergency ward. This may preclude reliable diagnosing of pneumonia in settings where residents make management decisions regarding sick children. The effects of training on inter-observer variation need further studies.

  8. Advances on mixed infection of acute respiratory tract multiple pathogens in children%儿童急性呼吸道多病原体混合感染的研究进展

    刘晓红; 谢正德

    2016-01-01

    急性呼吸道感染(ARTI)是儿童时期最常见的感染性疾病,其病原体包括病毒、细菌、真菌、支原体及衣原体等。近年来,随着病原检测手段的发展,急性呼吸道多病原体混合感染逐渐多见并引起重视,包括病毒与病毒、病毒与其他病原如细菌、支原体、衣原体等的混合感染。此文就儿童急性呼吸道多病原体混合感染的现状、感染特征、与疾病严重程度的关系等进行综述。%Acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) is a common infectious diseases in childhood. The pathogens include viruses, bacteria, fungi, mycoplasma, chlamydia and so on. In recent years, with the development of pathogen detection method, acute respiratory tract multiple pathogens infection in children is increasing and comes into notice, including virus-virus, viruses and other pathogens like bacteria, mycoplasma, chlamydia infection, etc. In this paper, the epidemic situation, characteristics of acute respiratory tract multiple pathogens infections in children, the relationship with disease severity are reviewed.

  9. Primary care management of respiratory tract infections in Dutch preschool children

    Jansen, Angelique G S C; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Schilder, Anne G M; Hoes, Arno W; de Jong, Vanya F G M; Hak, Eelko

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine age-specific antibiotic prescription and referral rates in preschool children diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infection (RTI) in primary care. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Research database of the Netherlands University Medical Center Utrecht Primary Ca

  10. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Carmen Sílvia Valente Barbas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, based on relevant literature articles and the authors' clinical experience, presents a goal-oriented respiratory management for critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS that can help improve clinicians' ability to care for these patients. Early recognition of ARDS modified risk factors and avoidance of aggravating factors during hospital stay such as nonprotective mechanical ventilation, multiple blood products transfusions, positive fluid balance, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and gastric aspiration can help decrease its incidence. An early extensive clinical, laboratory, and imaging evaluation of “at risk patients” allows a correct diagnosis of ARDS, assessment of comorbidities, and calculation of prognostic indices, so that a careful treatment can be planned. Rapid administration of antibiotics and resuscitative measures in case of sepsis and septic shock associated with protective ventilatory strategies and early short-term paralysis associated with differential ventilatory techniques (recruitment maneuvers with adequate positive end-expiratory pressure titration, prone position, and new extracorporeal membrane oxygenation techniques in severe ARDS can help improve its prognosis. Revaluation of ARDS patients on the third day of evolution (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA, biomarkers and response to infection therapy allows changes in the initial treatment plans and can help decrease ARDS mortality.

  11. Diversity and Evolutionary Histories of Human Coronaviruses NL63 and 229E Associated with Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Symptoms in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Al-Khannaq, Maryam Nabiel; Ng, Kim Tien; Oong, Xiang Yong; Pang, Yong Kek; Takebe, Yutaka; Chook, Jack Bee; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2016-05-01

    The human alphacoronaviruses HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E are commonly associated with upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Information on their molecular epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics in the tropical region of southeast Asia however is limited. Here, we analyzed the phylogenetic, temporal distribution, population history, and clinical manifestations among patients infected with HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 2,060 consenting adults presented with acute URTI symptoms in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between 2012 and 2013. The presence of HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E was detected using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The spike glycoprotein, nucleocapsid, and 1a genes were sequenced for phylogenetic reconstruction and Bayesian coalescent inference. A total of 68/2,060 (3.3%) subjects were positive for human alphacoronavirus; HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E were detected in 45 (2.2%) and 23 (1.1%) patients, respectively. A peak in the number of HCoV-NL63 infections was recorded between June and October 2012. Phylogenetic inference revealed that 62.8% of HCoV-NL63 infections belonged to genotype B, 37.2% was genotype C, while all HCoV-229E sequences were clustered within group 4. Molecular dating analysis indicated that the origin of HCoV-NL63 was dated to 1921, before it diverged into genotype A (1975), genotype B (1996), and genotype C (2003). The root of the HCoV-229E tree was dated to 1955, before it diverged into groups 1-4 between the 1970s and 1990s. The study described the seasonality, molecular diversity, and evolutionary dynamics of human alphacoronavirus infections in a tropical region.

  12. 上海地区儿童急性呼吸道病毒感染的流行特征%Epidemiological characteristics of common respiratory viruses among children with acute respiratory tract infections in Shanghai

    曾玫; 王晓红; 俞蕙; 朱启鎔

    2008-01-01

    目的 了解近年上海地区呼吸道合胞病毒(RSV)、甲型和乙型流感病毒(IV-A和IV-B)、副流感病毒1、2、3型(PIV-1、2、3)以及腺病毒(ADV)在急性呼吸道感染住院儿童中的流行特征.方法 回顾性分析2003-2006年连续4年复旦大学附属儿科医院收治入院的急性呼吸道感染儿童鼻咽吸取物7种常见呼吸道病毒的检出情况以及季节和年龄分布特点.直接免疫荧光法检测病毒.年龄分布比较作非参数检验.结果 4年期间共收集11214例患儿标本,其中98.7%取自急性下呼吸道感染,7种病毒总的阳性检出率为24.2%,其中RSV阳性率为17.7%,PIV-3为2.8%,ADV为2.2%,IV-A为0.7%,PIV-1为0.5%,PIV-2为0.3%,IV-B为0.1%,混合感染为0.2%.RSV通常在冬、春季流行,夏季很少检出,每2年RSV流行季节提前至秋季开始,持续流行较长时间.PIV-3、ADV和IV全年散发,某些月份时有流行.无固定的流行规律.病毒感染患儿年龄中位数RSV为4个月、PIV-3为8个月、PIV-1为9.5个月、PIV-2为10.5个月、ADV为12个月、IV为13个月,差异有统计学意义(X2154.319,P<0.01).RSV感染率随患儿年龄增长而降低,PIV-3在婴幼儿人群中感染率较高,ADV在1岁及以上儿童中感染率较高.结论 RSV是上海地区儿童呼吸道感染最常见的病毒病原,要幼儿易感,春、秋和冬季都有流行,PIV-3是第2位常见病原.感染儿童以婴幼儿常见,ADV是第3位常见病原,感染儿童年龄较大,IV检出率低,未出现ADV和IV在上海地区儿童中暴发流行.%Objective To understand the epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus(RSV),influenza virus type A and type B(IV-A and IV-B),parainfluenza virus type 1,2,3(PIV-1,2,3)and adenovirus(ADV) among children with acute respiratory tract infection in Shanghai.Methods A retrospective epidemiological investigation was conducted to analyze the prevalence rate,seasonality and susceptible pediatric population of seven common respiratory viruses among

  13. Winter in Wujin Region in Children with Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection of Viral Etiology Analysis%武进地区冬季儿童急性下呼吸道感染病毒病原学分析

    朱松立; 冯罗华

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To understand the winter in Wujin region in children with acute lower respiratory tract infection of viral etiology.Methods:With direct immunofluorescence assay(DIF) from January 2013 to March 2013 116 patients with lower respiratory tract infection in nasopharyngeal secretion in seven respiratory virus detection.Results:In 116 cases,39 cases were detected at least one kind of virus,the total positive rate was 33.6%.Among them,respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) detected the most,for 35 cases,the detection rate was 30.2%,adenovirus(ADV) in 8 cases(6.9%),parainfluenza 3(PIV3) in 3 cases(2.6%). Influenza virus A(IFA),influenza virus B(IFB),parainfluenza 1(PIV1),parainfluenza 2(PIV2) was not detected.RSV,ADV mixed infection in 7 cases,the detection rate was 6.0%.Conclusion:The virus is a major pathogen of lower respiratory tract infection in children.Acute lower respiratory tract infection in winter is the main pathogenic virus in Wujin area are RSV,ADV,PIV.%  目的:了解武进地区冬季儿童急性下呼吸道感染病毒病原学特点。方法:采用直接免疫荧光法(DIF)对2013年1-3月住院的116例下呼吸道感染患儿鼻咽分泌物进行七项呼吸道病毒检测。结果:116例患儿中,39例检出至少1种病毒,总检出率33.6%。其中呼吸道合胞病毒(RSV)35例(30.2%),腺病毒(ADV)8例(6.9%),副流感3(PIV3)3例(2.6%)。流感病毒A(IFA)、流感病毒B(IFB)、副流感1(PIV1)、副流感2(PIV2)均未检出。RSV、ADV混合感染7例,检出率6.0%。结论:病毒是儿童下呼吸道感染的主要病原,武进地区冬季急性下呼吸道感染的主要病毒病原是RSV、ADV、PIV。

  14. Validation of a multiplex reverse transcriptase PCR ELISA for the detection of 19 respiratory tract pathogens

    Puppe, W.; Weigl, J.; Groendahl, B.; Knuf, M.; Rockahr, S.; von Bismarck, P.; Aron, G.; Niesters, H. G. M.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Schmitt, H. -J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Since acute respiratory tract infections inflict a high burden of disease in children worldwide, a multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction combined with a microwell hybridization assay (m-RT-PCR ELISA) to detect 19 different respiratory pathogens was developed and vali

  15. ASSOCIATION OF MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE WITH RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Osama Mohammed Saed Abdul-Wahab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of four most common species of organisms that are responsible for most clinically significant infections in humans. It is a frequent cause of acute respiratory infections in both children and adults. The organism can cause pharyngitis, otitis, tracheobronchitis, or community-acquired pneumonia, but patients may also remain totally asymptomatic. Aim of this prospective study for children, was to investigate the association of M. pneumoniae with respiratory tract infections in a Saudi population. This study was designed as a case-control study in which 90 patients (Mean age of the patients in case group was 5.94±2.73 and in control group was 6.51±2.26 of either sexes were included. These patients were classified into two groups: first group (case group, included 45 patients who had been admitted in hospital with diagnosis of respiratory tract infections and the second group (control group, included 45 healthy patients who had no history of respiratory tract infections. Both the groups were age and sex matched. Presence of IgM antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae was assessed by ELISA technique in both groups. In the case group, 4 (9% cases out of 45 children were positive for anti-mycoplasma antibody whereas in the control group, all children were negative. All positive case group patients had symptoms of acute pneumonia. 18 (40% of the patients were diagnosed with bronchial asthma (40% inclusive of all the four cases diagnosed with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. The relative risk for the occurrence of mycoplasma infection was estimated to be 9 (95%C.I = 0.49-162.43. However, on comparing the case and control groups, the result was not found to be statistically significant. (Fischer Exact Test p = 0.0583. Children in Saudi Arabia are at a relatively higher risk of developing Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection especially those predisposed with underlying chronic respiratory illnesses such as asthma. This is a first

  16. 399例急性呼吸道感染患儿呼吸道病毒检出情况分析%Analysis on the detection situation of respiratory viruses in 399 children with acute respiratory tract infection

    杨阳; 贺菊晖; 郭威; 李小斌

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiological feature of respiratory viruses in children with respiratory tract infection and to provide evidences for diagnosis and rational use of drugs .Methods Nasopharyngeal secretion were collected from 399 chil‐dren with acute respiratory tract infection ,and 7 respiratory viruses ,including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) ,adenovirus(ADV) , influenza virus A (FA ) ,influenza virus B (FB) ,parainfluenza virus Ⅰ(PIVⅠ) ,parainfluenza virus Ⅱ (PIVⅡ )and parainfluenza vi‐rus Ⅲ(PIVⅢ) ,were detected by using direct immunofluorescence assay .The clinical epidemiological characteristics were analyzed by age group ,virus distribution and seasons .Results Among 399 children ,142 cases were positive for 7 viruses ,which included 40 cases of RSV infection(28 .2% ) ,26 cases of ADV infection (18 .3% ) ,43 cases of FA infection (30 .3% ) ,15 cases of FB infection (10 .6% ) ,5 cases of PIVⅠ infection(3 .5% ) ,4 cases of PIVⅡ infection(2 .8% ) and 9 cases of PIVⅢ infection(6 .3% ) .The total positive rate was 35 .6% .The number of infected infants of 3 year group were 54 cases(39 .1 .0% ) .In 4 seasons ,the positive rates were 32 .1% (spring) ,26 .9% (summer) ,29 .3% (autumn) ,45 .0% (winter)respectively .The positive rate in winter was the highest .Conclusion FA and RSV is the major virus in children with respiratory tract infection .FA infection rate in infants(>3 years old )is the highest ,and FA is most prevalent in winter .RSV infection rate in infants (< 1 years old )is the highest ,and RSV is most prevalent in spring .%目的:探讨儿童呼吸道感染的病毒病原情况,掌握该地区儿童病毒感染的病原学流行趋势,为儿童呼吸道病毒感染的诊断提供帮助,指导合理用药。方法选取呼吸道感染患儿399例,采集鼻咽深部分泌物,采用直接免疫荧光法快速检测呼吸道合胞病毒(RSV)、腺病毒(ADV)、流感病毒A(FA)、流感病毒B

  17. Risk factors for complicated bronchial asthma in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections%急性下呼吸道感染患儿合并支气管哮喘的危险因素分析

    赵红玲; 程学文; 程首超; 王立琼

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the risk factors for asthma in children with acute lower respiratory tract infec‐tions so as to provide guidance for clinical prevention of asthma .METHODS The clinical data of 2 410 children with acute lower respiratory tract infections who were treated in the hospital from Jun 2011 to Jan 2014 were ret‐rospectively analyzed .The univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to sta‐tistically analyze the risk factors for the asthma with the use of SPSS17 .0 software .RESULTS Of the 2 410 chil‐dren ,totally 112 cases were complicated with bronchial asthma ,with the incidence rate of 4 .6% .A total of 112 strains of pathogens have been isolated ,among which rhinovirus (RHV ) was dominant ,accounting for 37 .5%(23 strains) .The emergence of asthma in the children with acute lower respiratory tract infections was positively correlated with the young age ,family history of asthma ,allergic constitution ,respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection ,RHV infection ,and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection ,which were the high risk factors for the asthma in the children with acute lower respiratory tract infections (P<0 .05) .CONCLUSION The children with acute lower respiratory tract infections ,who have the family history of asthma ,allergic constitution ,RSV infec‐tion ,or RHV infection ,or are male ,or young ,are at higher risk of asthma .It is necessary for the hospital to take targeted prevention and control measures according to the high risk factors for the asthma .%目的:探讨急性下呼吸道感染患儿发生哮喘的危险因素,为临床哮喘防治提供参考。方法回顾性分析2011年6月-2014年1月医院收治2410例急性下呼吸道感染患儿的临床资料,采用单因素及多因素logistic回归方法对患儿可能发生哮喘的危险因素进行统计分析,采用SPSS17.0软件进行统计处理。结果2410例患儿中共有112例合并支

  18. Herpesvirus delivery to the murine respiratory tract.

    Tan, Cindy S E; Frederico, Bruno; Stevenson, Philip G

    2014-09-01

    Herpesvirus transmission is sporadic, and infection may be asymptomatic or present only with secondary lesions after dissemination. Consequently host entry remains ill-understood. Experimental infections can be informative, but depend on inoculations that are inherently artificial and so need validation. Mice are a widely used experimental host. Alert mice inhale readily small (5 μl) liquid volumes, and Indian ink, luciferase or radiolabel delivered thus distributed to the nasopharynx and oropharynx. Murid Herpesvirus-4 or Herpes simplex virus type 1 delivered thus infected only the nose, arguing that host entry is nasal rather than oral. Marker or virus delivery to the lung depended on general anesthesia and a large inoculum volume (30 μl), and so needs further validation of physiological relevance. While lungs could be infected at lower doses than the upper respiratory tract, tracking experiments showed that nasal inocula pass mostly into the oropharynx, even when restricted to 1 μl. Thus, the relative inefficiency of experimental upper respiratory tract infection was attributable to limited liquid retention in this site. Nonetheless low volume intranasal delivery to alert mice provides a convenient way to model experimentally an apparently natural mode of herpesvirus host entry.

  19. Interference between respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus in respiratory tract infections in children.

    Karppinen, S; Toivonen, L; Schuez-Havupalo, L; Waris, M; Peltola, V

    2016-02-01

    An acute viral respiratory tract infection might prevent infections by other viruses because of the antiviral innate immune response. However, with the use of PCR methods, simultaneous detection of two or more respiratory viruses is frequent. We analysed the effect of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection on the occurrence of simultaneous rhinovirus (RV) infection in children within a birth cohort study setting. We used PCR for virus detection in nasal swabs collected from children with an acute respiratory tract infection at the age of 0-24 months and from healthy control children, who were matched for age and date of sample collection. Of 226 children with RSV infections, 18 (8.0%) had co-infections with RV, whereas RV was detected in 31 (14%) of 226 control children (p 0.049 by chi-square test). Adjustment for sex, number of siblings and socio-economic status strengthened the negative association between RSV and RV (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.24-0.90; p 0.02). The median durations of symptoms (cough, rhinorrhoea, or fever) were 11 days in children with single RSV infections and 14 days in children with RSV-RV co-infections (p 0.02). Our results suggest that the presence of RSV reduces the probability of RV infection, but that, if a co-infection occurs, both viruses cause clinical symptoms.

  20. Randomized Trial of Probiotics and Calcium on Diarrhea and Respiratory Tract Infections in Indonesian Children

    Agustina, R.; Kok, F.J.; Rest, van de O.; Fahmida, U.; Firmansyah, A.; Lukito, W.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Heuvel, van den E.G.H.M.; Albers, R.; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of calcium and probiotics on the incidence and duration of acute diarrhea and acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in low-socioeconomic communities of Jakarta, Indonesia. METHODS: We conducted a 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 494 health

  1. Management of respiratory tract infections in children

    Paul SP

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Siba Prosad Paul,1 Rachel Wilkinson,2 Christine Routley3 1Southmead Hospital, Bristol, 2St Richard's Hospital, Chichester, 3Paediatric Services, Yeovil District Hospital, Yeovil, UK Abstract: Respiratory tract infections (RTIs in children are one of the most common reasons for parents consulting health professionals. Most RTIs are self-limiting viral illnesses that will resolve with time and supportive management. However, it is important for the health professional to identify any RTI that may have more serious implications for the child and require medical intervention. Diagnosis can usually be made from the history and presenting symptoms such as cough, wheeze, tachypnea, fever, or stridor. Exclusion of "red flag" symptoms will enable health professionals to appropriately reassure parents and advise symptomatic management with antipyretics and adequate fluid administration. With the expanding role of nurses in ambulatory settings, many children are now being seen by health professionals other than doctors, (eg, advanced nurse practitioners, some of whom are trained in pediatrics while others have limited knowledge of nursing sick children. It is therefore vital that these professionals remain aware of any risk factors and that they can recognize "red flags" in a sick child rapidly and escalate further management appropriately. Some children will require admission to hospital for respiratory support and other therapies, such as intravenous antibiotics and fluids. With advancement of the "non-medical prescriber" within the nursing profession, awareness of when to give or not give antibiotic therapy needs careful consideration, especially in light of the problems that may arise from overuse of antibiotic treatment. Nurses have a vital role, not only in administering medications and supporting other medical interventions, but also in supporting the child and family over the period of illness. The education of the parents and the child, in some

  2. Procalcitonin-guided antibiotic treatment of respiratory tract infections in a primary care setting

    Aabenhus, Rune; Jensen, Jens Ulrik Stæhr

    2011-01-01

    Clinical signs of infection do not allow for correct identification of bacterial and viral aetiology in acute respiratory infections. A valid tool to assist the clinician in identifying patients who will benefit from antibiotic therapy, as well as patients with a potentially serious infection......, could greatly improve patient care and limit excessive antibiotic prescriptions. Procalcitonin is a new marker of suspected bacterial infection that has shown promise in guiding antibiotic therapy in acute respiratory tract infections in hospitals without compromising patient safety. Procalcitonin...

  3. Prevalence and Risk Factor Analysis of Acute Respiratory tract Infections in Rural areas of Kashmir valley under 5 Years of Age

    Abid Ali Mir

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: How important is acute respiratory tract infections in children less than 5 years of age and what are the main factors that need attention. Objective: To determine the magnitude of ARI under 5 years of age in rural areas of Kashmir valley. 2 To identify various risk factors responsible for ARI. Methodology: Community based Cross sectional study using multistage sampling procedure was used to study 1644 children. A house to house survey was carried out in the defined geographical region in order to determine the prevalence and risk factors of ARI less than 5 years of age. Results: Among 1644 children under 5 years of age studied, 886 (53.89% were males and 758 (46.11% female. An overall prevalence of 21.41% under 5 years of age was observed in a Kashmir valley. The prevalence of ARI varied according to the age of child being 19.3% in age group of 0–1 years, 23.0% in 1–3 years and 20.4% in age group of 3–5 years. Prevalence of ARI was more (22.5% in male children as compared to female (20.05% children [P>0.05]. The socio demographic variables that showed a significant relationship with ARI prevalence were parental literacy status (OR = 1.806; CI = 1.333 – 2.447; P < 0.05 and more so the Mother’s literacy status (OR = 1.635; CI = 1.284 – 2.083; P < 0.05. ARI risk being high among Malnourished children (OR = 2.38; CI = 1.804 – 3.157; P<0.05, inappropriately immunized children (OR=2.41; CI = 1.853 – 3.154, P<0.05, children lacking exclusive Breast feeding (OR = 4.854; CI = 3.735 – 6.309; P< 0.05 or put on early or delayed weaning (OR = 1.66; CI = 1.302 – 2.140; P < 0.05. Environmental / housing variables also showed significant association with ARI with risk being high in children living in poor ventilation (OR = 4.865; CI = 3.78 – 6.259; P < 0.05, overcrowded houses (OR = 1.829; CI = 1.442 – 2.320; P < 0.05, houses with kitchen not separate (OR = 1.829, CI = 1.442 – 5.481, P < 0.05, and using cooking fuel

  4. Acute effects of low-level sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide exposures on the respiratory tract of susceptible subjects in cold environments

    Salonen, R.O.; Randell, J.T.; Haelinen, A.I.; Pennanen, A.S. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Div. of Environmental Health; Kosma, V.M. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Pathology; Pekkarinen, H. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physiology; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Tukiainen, H. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Pulmonary Diseases

    1995-12-31

    Several recent epidemiological studies from Finland have suggested that sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) cause adverse health effects in susceptible population groups, such as children and asthmatic patients, at much smaller concentrations than the present guideline values of the World Health Organization. One possible explanation of these findings is that the relatively long winter-time increases the sensitivity of the respiratory tract to irritant pollutants. This hypothesis is supported by experimental human and animal studies, which have shown obstruction and inflammatory changes in the conducting airways after ventilation of cold and dry air. Asthmatic patients are much more sensitive than healthy subjects to the irritating effects of cold and dry air and of air pollutants. The airways of many non-asthmatic a topic subjects are also sensitive to cold air, but these subjects are poorly defined as a potential susceptible population group to air pollutants. The aims of this project are: (1) to construct experimental human and animal facilities and protocols for short-term studies on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} exposures at subfreezing temperatures, (2) to apply advanced lung function methodologies and symptom assessment for characterisation of short-term respiratory responses of asthmatic and a topic subjects to these exposures, (3) to apply well-established pulmonary physiological, cytological and morphological methods for characterisation of short-term responses to and mechanisms of these exposures in the guinea-pig lower airways. (author)

  5. Equal virulence of rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in infants hospitalized for lower respiratory tract infection

    Leeuwen, van J.C.; Goossens, L.K.; Hendrix, R.; Palen, van der J.A.M.; Lusthusz, A.; Thio, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus (RV) are predominant viruses associated with lower respiratory tract infection in infants. We compared the symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection caused by RSV and RV in hospitalized infants. RV showed the same symptoms as RSV, so on clinical g

  6. A touchdown nucleic acid amplification protocol as an alternative to culture backup for immunofluorescence in the routine diagnosis of acute viral respiratory tract infections

    Feeney Susan A

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunofluorescence and virus culture are the main methods used to diagnose acute respiratory virus infections. Diagnosing these infections using nucleic acid amplification presents technical challenges, one of which is facilitating the different optimal annealing temperatures needed for each virus. To overcome this problem we developed a diagnostic molecular strip which combined a generic nested touchdown protocol with in-house primer master-mixes that could recognise 12 common respiratory viruses. Results Over an 18 month period a total of 222 specimens were tested by both immunofluorescence and the molecular strip. The specimens came from 103 males (median age 3.5 y, 80 females (median age 9 y and 5 quality assurance scheme specimens. Viruses were recovered from a number of specimen types including broncho-alveolar lavage, nasopharyngeal secretions, sputa, post-mortem lung tissue and combined throat and nasal swabs. Viral detection by IF was poor in sputa and respiratory swabs. A total of 99 viruses were detected in the study from 79 patients and 4 quality control specimens: 31 by immunofluorescence and 99 using the molecular strip. The strip consistently out-performed immunofluorescence with no loss of diagnostic specificity. Conclusions The touchdown protocol with pre-dispensed primer master-mixes was suitable for replacing virus culture for the diagnosis of respiratory viruses which were negative by immunofluorescence. Results by immunofluorescence were available after an average of 4–12 hours while molecular strip results were available within 24 hours, considerably faster than viral culture. The combined strip and touchdown protocol proved to be a convenient and reliable method of testing for multiple viruses in a routine setting.

  7. 908 cases of acute lower respiratory tract infection hospitalized children virus etiology research%908例急性下呼吸道感染住院儿童病毒病原学研究

    殷炽龙; 李海风; 何苑棉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analysis in children with acute respiratory tract infection virus-specific antibodies in Guidong area(IgM) test resμlts,study the situation of pathogenic virus in clinical acute respiratory infection in children,and to provide basis for etiological diagnosis,guide the clinical diagnosis and treatment.Methods Acute respiratory tract infection,specific antibodies from the blood with the XK2100 biochip detection screening of 4 kinds of common respiratory virus(IgM),including respiratory syncytial virus(RSV),adenovirus(ADV),influen za virus(IV) and parainfluenza virus(PIV),were detected by statistical analysis was made.Results The 235 samples of the virus specific antibody in 908 samples(IgM) positive,the total positive rate was 25.88%,in which ADV is the most common,the detection rate was 20.26%,followed by IV(9.14%),RSV(3.63%),PIV(1.76%).The detection rate between men and women had no significant difference(P>0.05).Virus positive rate among all age groups had significant difference(χ2=92.549,P0.05).病毒阳性检出率在各年龄组之间差异有统计学意义(χ2=92.549,P<0.001),以4~5岁年龄组检出率最高.病毒总检出率在四季分布差异有统计学意义(χ2=101.011,P<0.001),以夏季检出率最高.结论:病毒病原在桂东地区儿童ALRTI中占重要地位,其中ADV、IV是主要病毒病原,病毒检出率以4~5岁年龄组检出率最高;夏季病毒总检出率高于其他季节.

  8. Natural antibacterial remedy for respiratory tract infections

    Reham F.El-Kased

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of Egyptian honey against bacteria causing respiratory tract infections.Methods: Sputum and throat swab specimens were used, from which five bacterial species were isolated, namely, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumonia were isolated,identified and grown on suitable media for further identification or confirmation. Different concentrations(100%, 75% and 25%) of honey and simulated honey solution were used for activity assay and estimation of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration.Results: All the tested bacterial isolates were completely susceptible to the 75%concentrations of honey and to the 100% concentration of the simulated honey solution. This may be due to the high osmotic pressure exerted by the high sugar content in both honey samples. Moderate susceptibility of the isolated bacteria to honey at 100%v/v concentration, and resistance to honey at 25% concentration and the 75% and 25%concentrations of simulated honey solution, indicated the presence of other antimicrobial components responsible for the activity other than the osmotic pressure.Therefore, it was suggested that honey showed distinguished antibacterial activities against the most common bacteria causing respiratory infections with varied sensitivity.Conclusions: Honey, a non-toxic, nutritious, safe for human consumption and cheap natural antibacterial agent, should be globalized.

  9. Analysis of antibiotics in pediatric patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection%抗生素在儿科急性上呼吸道感染患者中的使用分析

    高燕

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the use of antibiotics in children patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection in township hospitals.Methods:566 cases of prescriptions of children patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection were randomly selected.The use of antibiotics were analyzed.Results:The prescriptions of antibiotics use reached 513 cases,and the use rate was 91% .The most used was the first generation cephalosporin antibiotics,cefuroxime sodium,the allergic person with clindamycin injection,all for a single drug,the single drug rate was 100%.467 cases were the use of antibiotics for intravenous infusion;the intravenous infusion rate was 91% ;46 cases were oral antibiotics.Conclusion:The township health center has antibiotic use irrational phenomenon in the treatment of children patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection,and the proportion of infusion is high.%目的:调查急性上呼吸道感染患儿在乡镇卫生院抗生素的使用情况。方法:随机抽查急性上呼吸道感染患儿的处方566张,分析抗生素的使用情况。结果:使用抗生素的处方达513张,使用率达91%;使用最多的是第一代头孢类抗生素,头孢呋辛钠、有过敏者用注射用克林霉素,全部为单一用药,单一用药率100%;静脉输液使用抗生素的467张,静脉输液率91%,口服使用抗生素46张。结论:乡卫生院在治疗患儿急性上呼吸道感染时存在抗生素使用不合理现象,且输液比例较高。

  10. WU多瘤病毒在急性呼吸道感染儿童中的检出及初步临床研究%Detection and clinical characterization of WU polyomavirus in acute respiratory tract infection in children

    庄婉莉; 陆学东; 林广裕; 谢淑霞; 张娜; 林创兴; 陈派镇; 吴扬; 马廉

    2010-01-01

    Objective WU polyomavirus (WUPyV), a new member of the genus Polyomavirus in the family Polyomaviridae, has been found to be associated with respiratory tract infections recently. But the role of the WUPyV as agents of human disease remains uncertain. We sought to describe the detection and clinical characterization of WUPyV in acute respiratory tract infection in children. Method From July 2008 through June 2009, nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from 771 children who were hospitalized with acute respiratory tract infection in Second Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, and from 82 asymptomatic children who visited the health checkup clinic. WUPyV was detected by using PCR technology and was identified by using DNA sequencing. All WUPyV-positive specimens were screened for 9 common viruses [influenza A and B, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus (PIV) 1 and 3, human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus, adenovirus and rhinovirus] by using PCR or RT-PCR. The clinical data of WUPyV infection were collected and analyzed. Result In this study, fifteen of the 771 tested specimens with acute respiratory tract infection were positive for WUPyV, the positive rate was 1.95% and all of the asymptomatic children who visited the health checkup clinic were negative. Of the 15 cases who were positive for the virus, the age range was 2 to 48 (mean 18.8) months, 9 (60%) were male and 6 (40%) were female. WUPyV was the sole virus detected in 9 specimens (60%) from patients with acute respiratory tract infection. WUPyV was associated with the co-infection with another respiratory virus in 6 of 15 (40%) cases, most frequently with RSV (n =4), followed by adenovirus (n = 1) and rhinovirus (n = 1). The most common clinical findings in the patients with WUPyV were cough, fever and wheezing. The most frequent diagnoses were pneumonia (n = 8), bronchiolitis (n = 4), upper respiratory tract infections (n = 2) and bronchitis (n = 1). A severe case

  11. Grepafloxacin Clinical Program for Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

    Arne C Rodloff

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper evaluates the clinical trial program in lower respiratory tract infections treated with a new fluoroquinolone antibiotic, grepafloxacin. Unlike older quinolones, grepafloxacin has excellent activity against Gram-positive organisms, which include Streptococcus pneumoniae and “atypical” pathogens Legionella species. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Grepafloxacin has a long half-life of 12 to 15 h, which allows once daily dosing. Six studies have been conducted regarding community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections (LRTls, four about community-acquired pneumonia (CAP and two about acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (ABECB . In these studies, grepafloxacin demonstrated clinical equivalence with standard therapies. but, in patients with documented infections. grepafloxacin was statistically superior to amoxycillin in both CAP and ABECB. The new fluoroquinolone has a good safety profile, comparable with that of ciprofloxacin. The most common adverse effects of grepafloxacin were nausea and a metallic taste; however, these effects resulted in only a few discontinuations of therapy. With the increasing prevalence of resistance in pathogens isolated from community-acquired LRTIs, grepafloxacin offers a good alternative for monotherapy in these patients.

  12. Microdistribution and Long-Term Retention of 239Pu (NO3)4 in the Respiratory Tracts of an Acutely Exposed Plutonium Worker and Experimental Beagle Dogs

    Nielsen, Christopher E.; Wilson, Dulaney A.; Brooks, Antone L.; McCord, Stacey; Dagle, Gerald E.; James, Anthony C.; Tolmachev, Sergei Y.; Thrall, Brian D.; Morgan, William F.

    2012-11-01

    The long-term retention of inhaled soluble forms of plutonium raises concerns as to the potential health effects in persons working in nuclear energy or the nuclear weapons program. The distributions of long-term retained inhaled plutonium-nitrate [239Pu (NO3)4] deposited in the lungs of an accidentally exposed nuclear worker (Human Case 0269) and in the lungs of experimentally exposed beagle dogs with varying initial lung depositions were determined via autoradiographs of selected histological lung, lymph node, trachea, and nasal turbinate tissue sections. These studies showed that both the human and dogs had a non-uniform distribution of plutonium throughout the lung tissue. Fibrotic scar tissue effectively encapsulated a portion of the plutonium and prevented its clearance from the body or translocation to other tissues and diminished dose to organ parenchyma. Alpha radiation activity from deposited plutonium in Human Case 0269 was observed primarily along the sub-pleural regions while no alpha activity was seen in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of this individual. However, relatively high activity levels in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the beagles indicated the lymphatic system was effective in clearing deposited plutonium from the lung tissues. In both the human case and beagle dogs, the appearance of retained plutonium within the respiratory tract was inconsistent with current biokinetic models of clearance for soluble forms of plutonium. Bound plutonium can have a marked effect on the dose to the lungs and subsequent radiation exposure has the potential increase in cancer risk.

  13. Microdistribution and long-term retention of 239Pu (NO3)4 in the respiratory tracts of an acutely exposed plutonium worker and experimental beagle dogs.

    Nielsen, Christopher E; Wilson, Dulaney A; Brooks, Antone L; McCord, Stacey L; Dagle, Gerald E; James, Anthony C; Tolmachev, Sergei Y; Thrall, Brian D; Morgan, William F

    2012-11-01

    The long-term retention of inhaled soluble forms of plutonium raises concerns as to the potential health effects in persons working in nuclear energy or the nuclear weapons program. The distributions of long-term retained inhaled plutonium-nitrate [(239)Pu (NO(3))(4)] deposited in the lungs of an accidentally exposed nuclear worker (Human Case 0269) and in the lungs of experimentally exposed beagle dogs with varying initial lung depositions were determined via autoradiographs of selected histologic lung, lymph node, trachea, and nasal turbinate tissue sections. These studies showed that both the human and dogs had a nonuniform distribution of plutonium throughout the lung tissue. Fibrotic scar tissue effectively encapsulated a portion of the plutonium and prevented its clearance from the body or translocation to other tissues and diminished dose to organ parenchyma. Alpha radiation activity from deposited plutonium in Human Case 0269 was observed primarily along the subpleural regions while no alpha activity was seen in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of this individual. However, relatively high activity levels in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the beagles indicated the lymphatic system was effective in clearing deposited plutonium from the lung tissues. In both the human case and beagle dogs, the appearance of retained plutonium within the respiratory tract was inconsistent with current biokinetic models of clearance for soluble forms of plutonium. Bound plutonium can have a marked effect on the dose to the lungs and subsequent radiation exposure has the potential to increase cancer risk.

  14. Frequent respiratory tract infections in children. The role of environmental and genetic factors.

    Ruskamp, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections (RTI), presenting as common cold, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, acute otitis media, bronchitis or pneumonia are a major health problem in children. In this thesis common environmental and host factors, as well as plausible genetic factors were evaluated in a large birth coho

  15. Physical activity and upper respiratory tract infections.

    Kostka, T; Drygas, W; Jegier, A; Praczko, K

    2008-02-01

    We explored the relationship of current and lifetime physical activity (PA) with upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) symptomatology in 142 male volunteers aged 33 to 90. They participated in baseline and one-year follow-up examinations and fulfilled the log books for daily recording of URTI symptomatology during the whole year. PA was assessed by the Seven Day Recall PA Questionnaire and the Historical Leisure Activity Questionnaire. Number of URTI episodes per year and the number of days with URTI per year were significantly inversely associated with the follow-up 7-Day Recall Hard score (rho = - 0.21; p = 0.013 and rho = - 0.18; p = 0.032, respectively). In logistic regression model, after adjustment for age and anthropometric data, the subjects with high follow-up 7-Day Recall Hard score (dichotomised as high vs. low) had a lower probability of having at least 2 URTI episodes per year (OR = 0.38; CI = 0.18 - 0.78), lower probability of having at least 3 URTI episodes per year (OR = 0.42; CI = 0.20 - 0.87), and lower probability of having at least 15 days with URTI (OR = 0.36; CI = 0.15 - 0.88). URTI symptomatology was not related to cardiorespiratory fitness or any measures of the historical PA questionnaire. We conclude that in middle-aged and older men the symptomatology of URTI over long periods of time is inversely related to current but not to lifetime PA.

  16. Respiratory tract deposition of polydisperse aerosols in humans.

    Diu, C K; Yu, C P

    1983-01-01

    Total and regional deposition of polydisperse aerosols in the human respiratory tract are studied theoretically. The size distribution of the aerosol is assumed to be lognormal. For a given mass median particle diameter, mass deposition fraction is found to vary with the geometric standard deviation of the aerosol. The departure of the deposition pattern in various regions of the respiratory system from that of a monodisperse aerosol is interpreted in terms of the average mobility effect and deposition limitation effect of the polydisperse aerosol together with the sequential filtering effect of the respiratory tract.

  17. Risk factors for acute respiratory syncytial virus infection of lower respiratory tract in hospitalized infants%婴儿急性下呼吸道呼吸道合胞病毒感染的危险因素研究

    张晓波; 刘丽娟; 施鹏; 蒋高立; 贾品; 王传凯; 王立波; 钱莉玲

    2014-01-01

    染的风险大为增加.%Objective To investigate the clinical epidemiologic characteristics and analyze risk factors for acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in hospitalized infants with acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI).Method ALRI infants admitted to Children's Hospital of Fudan University from March 1 st,2011 to February 29th,2012,were enrolled in this study.Patient information included demographic characteristics,feeding history,family status,clinical presentation,accessory examination,treatment and prognosis.According to the etiology of ALRI infants,we compared the seasonal distribution,demographic characteristics,household characteristics and underlying diseases between RSV-positive patients and RSV-negative patients.Univariate and multiple Logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors that were associated with risk of RSV infection.Result Among 1 726 ALRI infants,there were 913 RSV-positive infants (52.9%).The occurrence of RSV infection had a seasonal variation,with a peak in winter (59.1%).The median (P25,P75) age of RSV infants was 64 (21-155) days.The gestational age (GA) and body weight (BW) was (37.5 ± 2.4) weeks and (3.07 ±0.66) kg,respectively.The male/female ratio among these was 1.9:1.RSV infection was more popular among infants in the families with smoking members,crowded living conditions,history of atopic mother.Differences of the proportion of patients with underlying disease between RSV-positive and negative groups were statistically significant (59.4% vs.54.2%,P < 0.05).Univariate logistic regression demonstrated that factors increasing the risk of RSV infection were:GA < 37weeks (OR =1.346,95% CI:1.037-1.748),birth weight < 2 500 g (OR =1.447,95 % CI:1.103-1.898),underlying diseases (OR =1.232,95 % CI:1.018-1.492),underlying CHD (OR =1.391,95% CI:1.120-1.728),environmental tobacco smoke exposure (OR =1.254,95% CI:1.035-1.519),mother with atopic diseases (OR =1.827,95% CI:1.296-2.573),crowded house with four or

  18. Emerging novel and antimicrobial-resistant respiratory tract infections: new drug development and therapeutic options.

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Memish, Ziad A; Maeurer, Markus; Bates, Matthew; Mwaba, Peter; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Denning, David W; Hayden, Frederick G; Hui, David S

    2014-11-01

    The emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens for which diminishing treatment options are available is of major global concern. New viral respiratory tract infections with epidemic potential, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, swine-origin influenza A H1N1, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection, require development of new antiviral agents. The substantial rise in the global numbers of patients with respiratory tract infections caused by pan-antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and multiazole-resistant fungi has focused attention on investments into development of new drugs and treatment regimens. Successful treatment outcomes for patients with respiratory tract infections across all health-care settings will necessitate rapid, precise diagnosis and more effective and pathogen-specific therapies. This Series paper describes the development and use of new antimicrobial agents and immune-based and host-directed therapies for a range of conventional and emerging viral, bacterial, and fungal causes of respiratory tract infections.

  19. Clinical Investigation into Children’s Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infection by Parainfluenza Virus%小儿急性上呼吸道感染副流感病毒感染的临床调查

    刁娟娟; 李燕宁; 潘月丽; 宋惠霄; 王晓

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To undertake clinic investigation into the infection rate, season, age, area of children's acute upper respiratory tract infection caused by parainfluenza virus in clinic and to study treatment based on syndrome differentiation by TCM patent medicine. METHODS We collected 1090 cases with children's acute upper respiratory tract infection in the city of Ji'an, Shenyang and Nanjing from April 2009 to January 2011, of which 973 remained after falling off and rejecting. After syndrome differentiation, they were divided into two groups through center stratiform and interval. The control group (487 cases) were given ribavirin; while the treatment group were administrated by TCM patent medicine for three days as a course. The parainfluenza virus was detected to observe the therapeutic effect of the patent medicine and its related influential factors. RESULTS The infection rate of this virus was 5.65 %, spring is the season with high concurrency, the city of Nanjing and Ji'nan are the highly infection area, and also the infection of parainfluenza virus is not confined to one type. CONCLUSION Parainfluenza virus is one of the most common viruses causing children's acute upper respiratory tract infection; the infection rate is of a close relation with season and location; treatment based on syndrome differentiation by TCM patent medicine is stable and feasible.%目的 对小儿急性上呼吸道感染(简称上感)副流感病毒的感染率、季节、年龄、地域等状况进行临床调查,并进行中成药辨证分型治疗研究.方法 收集2009年4月-2011年1月济南、沈阳、南京地区急性上感患儿1 090例,脱落及剔除后共余973例,辨证分型后进行中心分层十区间随机分成2组,对照组(487例)使用利巴韦林,治疗组(486例)应用上市中成药辨证治疗方案治疗,3d为1个疗程,检测副流感病毒并观察上市中成药辨证治疗效果及相关因素.结果 副流感病毒感染率为5.65%,春季多发,

  20. Efficacy of Erythromycin Cydocarbonate in Treatment of Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Children%环酯红霉素干混悬剂治疗儿童急性呼吸道感染的疗效

    郑宝英; 曹玲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and adverse reactions of erythromycin cydocarbonate suspension in treatment of acute respiratory tract infections in children. Methods Sixty - three patients with acute respiratory tract infections were randomly divided into group A (29 cases) and group B (34 cases). Group A were treated with erythromycin cydocarbonate, 15 mg·kg-1,twice per day;the patients in group B were treated with azithromycin,10 mg·kg-1 ,once per day. And the fever time and clinical signs were observed to compare the cure rate, effective rate and side - effect incidence, all the records were analyzed. Results The cure rates were 51.72% and61.76% respectively in the group A and group B,there was no significant difference(P>0.05). The effective rates were 89.66% and 88.24% respectively in the group A and group B with,there was no significant difference(P >0.05) . Comparing the symptoms and signs such as fever,cough,etc, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups. Only 1 patient in group A complained of nausea,vomitting,loss of appetite, which could be tolerated and had no influence on therapy. Conclusions Erythromycin cydocarbonate suspension is effective and safe in treatment of acute respiratory tract infections in children, which has no significant difference with azithromycin suspension.%目的 评价环酯红霉素干混悬剂对小儿急性呼吸道感染的疗效及不良反应.方法 将急性呼吸道感染患儿63例随机分为A组(29例)和B组(34例).A组予环酯红霉素干混悬剂口服,每次15 mg·kg-1,2次·d-1.B组予阿奇霉素干混悬剂口服,每次10 mg·kg-1,1次·d-1.对2组患儿的发热时间、临床表现进行随访观察,比较2组临床痊愈率、有效率及不良反应情况,并对结果进行统计学分析.结果 A组和B组痊愈率分别为51.72%和61.76%,2组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).A组和B组有效率分别为89.66%和88.24%,2组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).

  1. 上呼吸道感染引发小儿急性外耳道炎的临床研究%Clinical study of children's acute otitis externa caused by upper respiratory tract infections

    肖英; 冶娟; 马新春

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究上呼吸道感染引发小儿急性外耳道炎的临床治疗效果,从而找到有效的治疗方案.方法 随机选择80例上呼吸道感染引发小儿急性外耳道炎患儿,按照不同的治疗方法分为观察组和对照组进行研究,每组各40例;观察组采用炎琥宁注射液治疗,对照组采用阿奇霉素注射液治疗,观察比较两组患者的疗效.结果 观察组的总有效率达95.0%,高于对照组的77.5%,治疗后患儿体温观察组为37.1℃,对照组为37.75℃,观察组的疗效比对照组有明显提高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);在治疗后的3d,观察组退热率为85.0%明显好于对照组的52.5%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 及时采用炎琥宁注射液治疗上呼吸道感染引发的小儿急性外耳道炎有很好的疗效,值得临床推广.%OBJECTIVE To study the effect of the clinical treatment of children with acute otitis externa caused by upper respiratory tract infections so as to find an effective treatment program.METHODS A total of 80 children suffering from acute otitis externa which was caused by upper respiratory tract infections were randomly selected as the study objects and were divided into the observation group and the control group according to the various treatment methods with 40 cases in each; the observation group was treated with Yanhuning injection,while the control group received azithromycin injection; there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of disease progression and basic conditions,which were not comparable,the clinical efficacy was observed and compared between the two groups.RESULTS The total effective rate of the observation group reached up to 95.0%,completely higher than 77.5% of the control group; the body temperature after the treatment was 37.1℃ in the observation group,significantly lower than 37.75 ℃ of the control group,the difference between the two groups was significant(P<0

  2. Clinical Effect of Tanreqing Injection in the Treatment of Children with Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection%痰热清辅助治疗小儿急性下呼吸道感染疗效观察

    肖铮铮; 宋涛; 王玮

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察痰热清注射液辅助治疗小儿急性下呼吸道感染的疗效和安全性.方法 将50例患儿随机分为两组,治疗组25例,在常规治疗基础上给予痰热清注射液0.3~0.5 mg/(kg·d),每天1次,静脉滴注;对照组25例,给予常规治疗,观察两组治疗后发热、咳嗽、喘息及肺部阳性体征消失时间.结果 观察组的有效率为92%,对照组的有效率为80%,两组有效率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).而退热、止咳、止喘、体征消失时间两组差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 痰热清辅助治疗小儿急性下呼吸道感染疗效好,安全性高,值得临床推广.%Objective To investigate the clinical effect of tanreqing injection and its safety in treatment on child with acute lower respiratory tract infection. Methods Fifty cases of child bronchopneumonia were divided into two groups: on the basis of routine method,the observed group(25 cases) was treated with tanreqing injection 0.3-0.5 mg/(kg · d) ,1 time a day,the control group(25 cases) was treated with routine drugs. The two groups were observed in the disappearance time of fever, cough, wheezing and positive signs of the lungs after treatment. Results The valid rate of observed group was 92% and the control group 80% ,there were not significantly different(P >0.05) ,the significant differences on the aspects of pyretolysis,cough stopping, wheezing stopping,physical sign disappearing were found between the observed group and the control group(P <0. 05). Conclusion Tanreqing injection was effective in the treatment of children with acute lower respiratory tract infection and heart failure,and it was worth clinical use.

  3. RT-PCR and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RT-PCR/ESI-MS) for Identifying Acute Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infections

    Chen, Kuan-Fu; Blyn, Lawrence; Rothman, Richard E.; Ramachandran, Padmini; Valsamakis, Alexandra; Ecker, David; Sampath, Rangarajan; Gaydos, Charlotte A.

    2010-01-01

    Diagnosis of respiratory viruses traditionally relies on culture or antigen detection.We aimed to demonstrate capacity of the RT-PCR/ESI-MS platform to identify clinical relevant respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) samples and compare the diagnostic performance characteristics relative to conventional culture- and antigen-based methods. A RT-PCR/ESI-MS respiratory virus surveillance kit designed to detect respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza types 1-4, adenoviridae types A-F, coronaviridae, human bocavirus, and human metapneumovirus was evaluated using both mock-ups and frozen archived NPA (N=280), 95 of which were positive by clinical virology methods. RT-PCR/ESI-MS detected 74/95 (77.9%) known positive samples and identified an additional 13/185 (7%) from culture negative samples. Viruses that are non-detectable with conventional methods were also identified. Viral load was semi-quantifiable and ranged from 2,400 to >320,000copies/ml. Time to results was 8hrs. RT-PCR/ESI-MS showed promise in rapid detection of respiratory viruses, merits further evaluation for use in clinical settings. PMID:21251562

  4. Pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome

    ZHANG Ding-mei; LU Jia-hai; ZHONG Nan-shan

    2008-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) first emerged in Guangdong province,China in November2002.During the following 3 months,it spread rapidly across the world,resulting in approximately 800 deaths.In 2004,subsequent sporadic cases emerged in Singapore and China.A novel coronavims,SARS-CoV,was identified as the etiological agent of SARS.1,2 This virus belongs to a family of large,positive,single-stranded RNA viruses.Nevertheless,genomic characterization shows that the SARS-CoV is only moderately related to other known coronaviruses.3 In contrast with previously described coronaviruses,SARS-CoV infection typically causes severe symptoms related to the lower respiratory tract.The SARS-CoV genome includes 14 putative open reading frames encoding 28 potential proteins,and the functions of many of these proteins are not known.4 A number of complete and partial autopsies of SARS patients have been reported since the first outbreak in 2003.The predominant pathological finding in these cases was diffuse alveolar damage (DAD).This severe pulmonary injury of SARS patients is caused both by direct viral effects and immunopathogenetic factors.5 Many important aspects of the pathogenesis of SARS have not yet been fully clarified.In this article,we summarize the most important mechanisms involved in the complex pathogenesis of SARS,including clinical characters,host and receptors,immune system response and genetic factors.

  5. Reverse Genetics for Fusogenic Bat-Borne Orthoreovirus Associated with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Humans: Role of Outer Capsid Protein σC in Viral Replication and Pathogenesis.

    Takahiro Kawagishi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nelson Bay orthoreoviruses (NBVs are members of the fusogenic orthoreoviruses and possess 10-segmented double-stranded RNA genomes. NBV was first isolated from a fruit bat in Australia more than 40 years ago, but it was not associated with any disease. However, several NBV strains have been recently identified as causative agents for respiratory tract infections in humans. Isolation of these pathogenic bat reoviruses from patients suggests that NBVs have evolved to propagate in humans in the form of zoonosis. To date, no strategy has been developed to rescue infectious viruses from cloned cDNA for any member of the fusogenic orthoreoviruses. In this study, we report the development of a plasmid-based reverse genetics system free of helper viruses and independent of any selection for NBV isolated from humans with acute respiratory infection. cDNAs corresponding to each of the 10 full-length RNA gene segments of NBV were cotransfected into culture cells expressing T7 RNA polymerase, and viable NBV was isolated using a plaque assay. The growth kinetics and cell-to-cell fusion activity of recombinant strains, rescued using the reverse genetics system, were indistinguishable from those of native strains. We used the reverse genetics system to generate viruses deficient in the cell attachment protein σC to define the biological function of this protein in the viral life cycle. Our results with σC-deficient viruses demonstrated that σC is dispensable for cell attachment in several cell lines, including murine fibroblast L929 cells but not in human lung epithelial A549 cells, and plays a critical role in viral pathogenesis. We also used the system to rescue a virus that expresses a yellow fluorescent protein. The reverse genetics system developed in this study can be applied to study the propagation and pathogenesis of pathogenic NBVs and in the generation of recombinant NBVs for future vaccines and therapeutics.

  6. 小儿呼吸道感染肺炎链球菌耐药性分析%Analysis on drug-resistance of streptococcus pneumoniae for children's acute upper respiratory tract infection

    农乐关

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To know about the detachment and drug- resistance of streptococcus pneumoniae on children's acute upper respiratory tract infection to provide basis for applying antibiotics properly. METHODS Go respiratory specimens of sick children from 2008 to 2010 and conducted germiculture and drug-resistance experiment. RESULTS 196 strains of streptococcus pneumoniae were separated from 3 132 samples. The separation rate was 6.26%. 40 strains of streptococcus pneumoniae had drug-resistance over penicillin. The drug-resistance rate was 20.41%. It was most sensitive to cefotaxime and vancomycin. CONCLUSION It is of great importance to reinforce the analysis of drug-resistance of streptococcus pneumoniae. It is helpful to doctors ' clinic drug application and decrease the drug-resistance of bacteria.%目的 了解某院患儿呼吸道感染肺炎链球菌的分离和耐药情况,以指导临床合理使用抗生素.方法 对该院2008~2010年患儿呼吸道标本进行细菌培养及药敏分析.结果 3 132份呼吸道标本中培养出肺炎链球菌196株,分离率为6.26%,对青霉素耐药菌40株,耐药率为20.41%,对头孢噻肟、万古霉素仍保持很好的敏感性.结论 加强肺炎链球菌耐药性检测,对临床诊疗及降低选择性耐药菌株增多具有重要意义.

  7. Lower respiratory tract infection caused by respiratory syncytial virus : current management and new therapeutics

    Mazur, Natalie; Martinon-Torres, Federico; Baraldi, Eugenio; Fauroux, Brigitte; Greenough, Anne; Heikkinen, Terho; Manzoni, Paolo; Mejias, Asuncion; Nair, Harish; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Polack, Fernando P.; Ramilo, Octavio; Sharland, Mike; Stein, Renato; Madhi, Shabir A.; Bont, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age. Evidence-based management guidelines suggest that there is no effective treatment for RSV lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and that supportive care, ie, hydration and

  8. Seasonality of long term wheezing following respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract infection

    Bont, L; Steijn, M; van Aalderen, WMC; Brus, F; Draaisma, JMT; Van Diemen-Steenvoorde, RAAM; Pekelharing-Berghuis, M; Kimpen, JLL

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is well known that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is associated with subsequent wheezing episodes, but the precise natural course of wheezing following RSV LRTI is not known. This study aimed to determine the continuous development of wheezi

  9. Pathogens associated with the acute respiratory tract infections:Analysis of the results in 422 children%422例儿童急性呼吸道感染病原体检测结果分析

    胡茂庆; 张士发

    2016-01-01

    age (P0.05).Conclusion:Of the children with acute respiratory tract infection in our cases,31.0%were as-sociated with viral and atypical bacterial infection,and the pathogens varied with ages and seasons.Breast feeding may reduce the overall rate of positive antibody and positive rate of MP,and should be encouraged.

  10. Different groups of human rhinovirus infection in children with acute respiratory tract infections in Beijing%不同基因型人鼻病毒感染所致儿童急性呼吸道感染的研究

    宋明辉; 赵林清; 钱渊; 朱汝南; 邓洁; 王芳; 孙宇; 田润

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the clinical characteristics of different groups human rhinovirus (HRV)-A,B and C infection in children with acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) in Beijing.Method Respiratory tract specimens (n =1412) collected from children with ARI during Jan.2011 to Dec.2012 were tested for HRV by using semi-nested PCR.Gene fragments of VP4/VP2 capsid protein amplified from HRV positive specimens were sequenced for HRV genotype confirmation.Then epidemiological characteristics of these HRV-positive cases were analyzed.Result Among these 1412 specimens tested,103 (7.3%) were HRV positive,including 54 (52.4%) positive for HRV-A,14 (13.6%) for HRV-B,35 (34.0%) for HRV-C determined by sequence analysis.The positive rates of HRV-A,B and C (2.5%,16/638; 0.3%,2/638 and 1.3%,8/638) in children with acute upper respiratory tract infections(URI) were lower than those(5.8%,36/623 ; 1.8%,11/623 and 3.9%,24/ 623) in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRI) (P =0.003,0.011,0.003).In children with LRI,the positive rates of HRV-A,C were similar to each other(P =0.112),and both were higher than that of HRV-B(P =0.000,P =0.026).The severity of ARI among children positive for different groups HRV showed no significant difference evaluated by Kruskal-Wallis H test(Hc =0.044,P > 0.05),as well as that between children co-infected with HRV and other viruses and those infected with HRV only evaluated by Wilcoxon rank sum test (Zc =0.872,P > 0.05).Conclusion HRV is one of important pathogens for children with ARI,especially LRI in Beijing.The positive rates of HRV-A and HRV-C are similar to each other,and both are higher than that of HRV-B.No significant difference was shown among children with different HRV genotypes by evaluation of the severity of ARI,and co-infections of HRV with other viruses do not significantly increase the severity of ARI.%目的 了解A、B、C各基因型人鼻病毒(HRV)感染所致儿童急性呼吸道

  11. Pathogenic analysis of acute lower respiratory tract infection in children under age of 5 years%5岁以下儿童急性下呼吸道感染的病原学分析

    刘京涛; 张君平

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨本地区5岁以下住院儿童急性下呼吸道感染常见病原体的流行病学分布及临床特点,为本地区儿童急性下呼吸道感染的临床治疗及预防提供一定的临床参考依据。方法随机选取2011年1月~2014年12月在本院住院的临床诊断为下呼吸道感染的患儿6729例。采集患儿外周静脉血2mL,采用间接免疫荧光法检测特异性抗体IgM,包括肺炎支原体、副流感病毒、甲型流感病毒、乙型流感病毒、腺病毒、呼吸道合胞病毒及肺炎衣原体。同时采集深部痰标本进行细菌学培养。结果6729例下呼吸道感染的患儿中,3500例患儿(52.01%,3500/6729)病原体检测阳性,其中单一感染1999例(57.11%,1999/3500),混合感染1501例(42.89%,1501/3500)。两种病原体感染1130例(75.28%,1130/1501),三种以上病原体感染371例(24.72%,371/1501)。细菌感染组痰培养检出细菌3086株。痰培养阳性病例中肺炎链球菌检出率最高(714/3086,23.14%),非细菌感染组特异性抗体阳性2571例次,其以肺炎支原体检出率最高757例(29.44%)。难治性支原体感染、耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌感染、青霉素耐药肺炎链球菌感染、产ESBLs大肠埃希菌及肺炎克雷白菌感染逐年升高,耐药菌感染多见于有基础疾病患儿。结论本地区急性下呼吸道感染最常见的细菌病原体为肺炎链球菌,非细菌病原体为肺炎支原体,耐药菌株逐年增加。%Objective To study the epidemiological distribution and clinical characteristics of the acute lower respiratory tract infection common pathogen in hospitalized children under age of 5 years in the area,in order to provide certain clinical reference for clinical treatment and prevention.Methods To randomly selected 6729 children patients who were diagnosed as lower respiratory tract infection,and were hospitalization in our hospital from January

  12. 呼吸护理对急性左心力衰竭患者预防院内呼吸道感染的影响分析%Analysis of the Effect of Respiratory Nursing in the Prevention of Nosocomial Respiratory Tract Infection in Patients With Acute Left Heart Failure

    廉幼军

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the treatment of acute left knee pads power failure were the effect of prevention of nosocomial respiratory infection effect. Methods 50 patients of acute heart failure were randomly divided into a control group and observation group in our hospital. The control group received routine care approach, the observation group respiratory care approach. Comparison of the two groups were respiratory infections and nursing job satisfaction situation. Results There were upper respiratory tract infection rate was 16.00%, the control group was 44.00%, higher than the observation group, and P<0.05, satisfaction of observation group was 96.00%, the control group was 76.00%, higher than the observation group, and P<0.05. Conclusion The use of left heart failure patients in acute respiratory care can effectively reduce nosocomial respiratory infections, help patients successfully for rehabilitation process.%目的:探讨呼吸护理对急性左心力衰竭患者预防院内呼吸道感染的效果。方法将我院接受急性左心力衰竭治疗的50例患者随机分成对照组和观察组。对照组采用常规护理方式,观察组采用呼吸护理方式。比较两组患者的呼吸道感染率以及对护理工作的满意度。结果观察组呼吸道感染率为16.00%,对照组为44.00%,观察组高于对照组,且P<0.05;观察组满意度为96.00%,对照组为76.00%,观察组高于对照组,且P<0.05。结论在急性左心力衰竭患者中运用呼吸护理能有效降低院内呼吸道感染,帮助患者康复。

  13. Dysbiosis of upper respiratory tract microbiota in elderly pneumonia patients

    Piters, Wouter A. A. de Steenhuijsen; Huijskens, Elisabeth G. W.; Wyllie, Anne L.; Biesbroek, Giske; van den Bergh, Menno R.; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Wang, Xinhui; Trzcinski, Krzysztof; Bonten, Marc J.; Rossen, John W. A.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Bogaert, Debby

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly. We hypothesize that dysbiosis between regular residents of the upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiome, that is balance between commensals and potential pathogens, is involved in pathogen overgrowth and consequently disease

  14. [Evaluation of occupational allergic diseases of the respiratory tract].

    Pankova, V B

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the basic etiological and pathogenetic aspects of occupational allergic diseases of the respiratory tract, discusses the clinical course, diagnosis, and priorities of the prevention of allergic diseases of the upper airways and bronchopulmonary apparatus from the action of industrial allergens.

  15. Acute otitis media and respiratory virus infections.

    Ruuskanen, O; Arola, M; Putto-Laurila, A; Mertsola, J; Meurman, O; Viljanen, M K; Halonen, P

    1989-02-01

    We studied the association of acute otitis media with different respiratory virus infections in a pediatric department on the basis of epidemics between 1980 and 1985. Altogether 4524 cases of acute otitis media were diagnosed. The diagnosis was confirmed by tympanocentesis in 3332 ears. Respiratory virus infection was diagnosed during the same period in 989 patients by detecting viral antigen in nasopharyngeal mucus. There was a significant correlation between acute otitis media and respiratory virus epidemics, especially respiratory syncytial virus epidemics. There was no significant correlation between outbreaks of other respiratory viruses and acute otitis media. Acute otitis media was diagnosed in 57% of respiratory syncytial virus, 35% of influenza A virus, 33% of parainfluenza type 3 virus, 30% of adenovirus, 28% of parainfluenza type 1 virus, 18% of influenza B virus and 10% of parainfluenza type 2 virus infections. These observations show a clear association of respiratory virus infections with acute otitis media. In this study on hospitalized children Haemophilus influenzae strains were the most common bacteriologic pathogens in middle ear fluid, occurring in 19% of cases. Streptococcus pneumoniae was present in 16% and Branhamella catarrhalis in 7% of cases. There was no association between specific viruses and bacteria observed in this study.

  16. Epidemiological features of acute lower respiratory tract viral infections in children%儿童急性下呼吸道病毒感染的临床流行特征

    张冰; 王晓; 张微; 陈旭央

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the epidemiological features of acute lower respiratory tract viral infections in chil-dren.MethodsA retrospective epidemiological investigation was conducted to analyze the prevalence rate, seasonality andsusceptible population of seven common respiratory viruses among 4355 hospitalized pediatric patients (<15 y) with acute respiratory tract infection during 2006 to 2010. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were screened for virus by direct immunofluorescent (DIF) assay.ResultsVirus was identified in 1093 out of 4355 patients (25.1%); RSV accounted for 17.6%, followed by PIV-3 (2.7%),ADV( 2%), IV-A( 1.3%), PIV-1 (0.7%), PIV-2(0.3%), IV-B(0.2% )and mixed( 0.3%). The median ages of infected pediatric patients were 4 months for RSV, 9 months for PIV-3, 13 months for ADV, 11 months for PIV-1 and 13.5 months for IV, respectively ( X2= 46.186, P<0.01 ).The infants and younger children were more susceptible for developing RSV and PIV-3 related disease, and RSV often occurred in winter and spring. The prevalence of viral infection in children with bronchiolitis,bronchitis,pneumonia and asthma were 64.5%, 15.6%, 17.6% and 31.7%, respectively.ConclusionThe respiratory viruses are still a main cause oflower respiratory tract infections in children, especially in infants and younger children. RSV remains the main pathogen of bronchiolitis.%目的 了解小儿急性病毒性下呼吸道感染的流行特征.方法 回顾性分析2006 至2010 年住院的急性下呼吸道感染儿童鼻咽吸取物4种7型常见呼吸道病毒的检出情况以及季节和年龄分布特点.直接免疫荧光法检测病毒.结果 4 355例患儿中有1 093例病毒检测阳性,总阳性率25.1%,其中呼吸道合胞病毒(RSV)阳性率17.6%,副流感病毒(PIV)-3 为2.7%,腺病毒(ADV)为2.0%,流感病毒(IV)-A1.3%,PIV-1 为0.7%,PIV-2 为0.3%,IV-B 为0.2%,混合感染0.3%.病毒感染患儿年龄中位数RSV 为4个月,PIV-3 为9个月,ADV 为13 个月,PIV-1 为11 个月,IV 为13.5 个

  17. NORMAL NASOPHARYNGEAL MICROFLORA AS A RESERVOIR OF MULTIRESISTANT STRAINS OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS

    Minukhin V.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharinheal carriage of bacteria may play a central role in the development and spread of respiratory infections. In addition, so-called "healthy" carriage is often transformed under the influence of various factors into an active infection.It is necessary to take into account not only the range of possible pathogens, but also trends in the development of antibiotic resistance of leading etiologic agents while choosing tactics of antimicrobial therapy. The investigation was designed to study the role of normal microflora of the nasopharynx as a reservoir of resistant strains of respiratory infections. Materials and Methods. Fifty three healthy individuals and 168 patients with acute upper respiratory tract infections who had been treated in CEHC "Kharkiv Municipal Clinical Hospital № 30" were examined. Microbiological study included isolation and identification of pathogens in accordance with the Order of the Ministry of Health Care № 535 from 22.04.1985., determination of the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics by diffusion method according to the Order of the Ministry of Health Care of Ukraine № 167 from 05.04.2007. Results and discussion. Bacteriological study of nasal swabs of healthy people showed that the composition of the microflora of the nasopharynx contained potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Among the isolated microorganisms essential place was occupied by S. epidermidis and S. aureus, both in monoculture and association. Epidermal staphylococcus was isolated in 36 % and Staphylococcus aureus in 27% of cases. Pneumococcus and hemolytic streptococcus of group A were isolated in 23 and 14% of cases, respectively. One hundred and eighty strains of opportunistic microorganisms were isolated in the study of nasopharyngeal microflora of patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection. The leading role belonged to S. pyogenes (40.5% and S.epidermidis (33,3%. S. aureus (12,8% and S.pneumoniae (10,6% were next

  18. Air pollution and multiple acute respiratory outcomes.

    Faustini, Annunziata; Stafoggia, Massimo; Colais, Paola; Berti, Giovanna; Bisanti, Luigi; Cadum, Ennio; Cernigliaro, Achille; Mallone, Sandra; Scarnato, Corrado; Forastiere, Francesco

    2013-08-01

    Short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory mortality and morbidity have been consistently reported but usually studied separately. To more completely assess air pollution effects, we studied hospitalisations for respiratory diseases together with out-of-hospital respiratory deaths. A time-stratified case-crossover study was carried out in six Italian cities from 2001 to 2005. Daily particulate matter (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm (PM10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) associations with hospitalisations for respiratory diseases (n = 100 690), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 38 577), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) among COPD patients (n = 9886) and out-of-hospital respiratory deaths (n = 5490) were estimated for residents aged ≥35 years. For an increase of 10 μg·m(-3) in PM10, we found an immediate 0.59% (lag 0-1 days) increase in hospitalisations for respiratory diseases and a 0.67% increase for COPD; the 1.91% increase in LRTI hospitalisations lasted longer (lag 0-3 days) and the 3.95% increase in respiratory mortality lasted 6 days. Effects of NO2 were stronger and lasted longer (lag 0-5 days). Age, sex and previous ischaemic heart disease acted as effect modifiers for different outcomes. Analysing multiple rather than single respiratory events shows stronger air pollution effects. The temporal relationship between the pollutant increases and hospitalisations or mortality for respiratory diseases differs.

  19. 老年急性下呼吸道感染患者的抗生素序贯治疗%Antibiotic sequential therapy in the elderly hospitalized with acute lower respiratory tract infection

    韩军

    2007-01-01

    Objective To discuss the rational use of antibiotic sequential therapy in the elderly hospitalized with acute lower respiratory tract infection.Methods Using a clinical prospective intervention study of random sample contrast and minimum cost analysis of pharmacoeconomic compared the clinical curative effect of two kinds of therapy methods including intravenous-oral sequential therapy group(sequential group)and continuous intravenous infusion therapy group(intravenous group).Meanwhile,the differences of two groups in the bacterial clearance rate,treatment time of intravenous infusion and length of hospitalization day were also investigated. Furthermore the costs of antibiotics of two groups were evaluated as well in the pharmacoeconomic. Results Compared with two therapies,it was shown equivalence in bacteriology and clinical outcome. Pharmacoedynamics of them were nearly same. There was no significant difference(P>0.05).In the clinical curative effect,two therapies' bacteria clearance,the times of restoring to normal of temperature,blood routine examination and chest X-ray were practically closed to each other,difference was in significant(P>0.05).However,the time of intravenous infusion therapy time and the length of hospitalization day had notable difference,and antibacterial cost of sequential group Was obviously lower than those of intravenous group,there were significant difference(P<0.05).Conclusion Sequential therapy was safe,operative,and had more reasonable cost-effect ratio in treating the elderly with acute lower respiratory tract infection. Moreover the optimum time from intravenous infusion therapy switching to oral antibiotics therapy was about 7 days.%目的 探讨抗生素序贯疗法在老年急性下呼吸道感染患者中的合理应用.方法 采用前瞻性、随机对照临床干预研究设计和药物经济学中的最小成本分析法,对老年急性下呼吸道感染患者进行两种治疗方案:静脉-口服序贯治疗组(序

  20. Do pollution and climate influence respiratory tract infections in children?

    Saulo Duarte Passos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To review if pollution and climate changes can influence respiratory tract infections in children. Data source: articles published on the subject in PubMed, SciELO, Bireme, EBSCO and UpTodate were reviewed. The following inclusion criteria were considered: scientific papers between 2002 and 2012, study design, the pediatric population, reference documents such as the CETESB and World Health Organization Summary of the data: We analyzed research that correlated respiratory viruses and climate and/or pollution changes. Respiratory syncytial virus has been the virus related most to changes in climate and humidity. Other "old and new" respiratory viruses such as Human Bocavirus, Metapneumovirus, Parechovirus and Parainfuenza would need to be investigated owing to their clinical importance. Although much has been studied with regard to the relationship between climate change and public health, specific studies about its influence on children's health remain scarce.

  1. Rhinovirus genome variation during chronic upper and lower respiratory tract infections.

    Caroline Tapparel

    Full Text Available Routine screening of lung transplant recipients and hospital patients for respiratory virus infections allowed to identify human rhinovirus (HRV in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, including immunocompromised hosts chronically infected with the same strain over weeks or months. Phylogenetic analysis of 144 HRV-positive samples showed no apparent correlation between a given viral genotype or species and their ability to invade the lower respiratory tract or lead to protracted infection. By contrast, protracted infections were found almost exclusively in immunocompromised patients, thus suggesting that host factors rather than the virus genotype modulate disease outcome, in particular the immune response. Complete genome sequencing of five chronic cases to study rhinovirus genome adaptation showed that the calculated mutation frequency was in the range observed during acute human infections. Analysis of mutation hot spot regions between specimens collected at different times or in different body sites revealed that non-synonymous changes were mostly concentrated in the viral capsid genes VP1, VP2 and VP3, independent of the HRV type. In an immunosuppressed lung transplant recipient infected with the same HRV strain for more than two years, both classical and ultra-deep sequencing of samples collected at different time points in the upper and lower respiratory tracts showed that these virus populations were phylogenetically indistinguishable over the course of infection, except for the last month. Specific signatures were found in the last two lower respiratory tract populations, including changes in the 5'UTR polypyrimidine tract and the VP2 immunogenic site 2. These results highlight for the first time the ability of a given rhinovirus to evolve in the course of a natural infection in immunocompromised patients and complement data obtained from previous experimental inoculation studies in immunocompetent volunteers.

  2. 利复星序贯疗法治疗急性下呼吸道细菌感染的研讨%Study on the sequential therapy of levofloxacin in treatment of acute lower respiratory tract bacterial infections

    韩钢

    2001-01-01

    目的:评价利复星序贯疗法治疗急性下呼吸道细菌性感染的疗效和安全性。方法:对102例急性下呼吸道细菌感染患者,采用利复星400mg/d,5~7d静脉滴注,继之以利复星400mg/d,4~7d口服。结果:痊愈30例(29.4%),显效64例(62.7%),有效率92.1%,细菌清除率88.9%,总疗程9~14d(平均11.8d),药物副作用发生较少(发生率3.92%)。结论:利复星序贯疗法治疗急性下呼吸道常见细菌性感染有效、安全、疗程短。%Objective:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Levofloxacin in treatment of acute lower respiratory tract bacterial infection (ALRTBI) by sequential therapy. Methods: One hundred and two patients with ALRTBI were treated with Levofloxacin iv drip in a regimen of 400mg/ d for 5~7d then with oral Levofloxacin in dose of 400mg/ d for 4~7d in sequence.Results: An effective rate of 92.1% and a bacterial eradication rate of 88.9% were obtained with a tolerable side effect of 3.92%. Conclusion: Levofloxacin in sequential therapy is an effective and safe agent for treatment of ALRTBI.

  3. Metal toxicity and the respiratory tract.

    Nemery, B

    1990-02-01

    The type of lung disease caused by metal compounds depends on the nature of the offending agent, its physicochemical form, the dose, exposure conditions and host factors. The fumes or gaseous forms of several metals, e.g. cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel carbonyl (Nl(CO)4, zinc chloride (ZnCl2), vanadium pentoxide (V2O5), may lead to acute chemical pneumonitis and pulmonary oedema or to acute tracheobronchitis. Metal fume fever, which may follow the inhalation of metal fumes e.g. zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and many others, is a poorly understood influenza-like reaction, accompanied by an acute self-limiting neutrophil alveolitis. Chronic obstructive lung disease may result from occupational exposure to mineral dusts, including probably some metallic dusts, or from jobs involving the working of metal compounds, such as welding. Exposure to cadmium may lead to emphysema. Bronchial asthma may be caused by complex platinum salts, nickel, chromium or cobalt, presumably on the basis of allergic sensitization. The cause of asthma in aluminium workers is unknown. It is remarkable that asthma induced by nickel (Ni) or chromium (Cr) is apparently infrequent, considering their potency and frequent involvement as dermal sensitizers. Metallic dusts deposited in the lung may give rise to pulmonary fibrosis and functional impairment, depending on the fibrogenic potential of the agent and on poorly understood host factors. Inhalation of iron compounds causes siderosis, a pneumoconiosis with little or no fibrosis. Hard metal lung disease is a fibrosis characterized by desquamative and giant cell interstitial pneumonitis and is probably caused by cobalt, since a similar disease has been observed in workers exposed to cobalt in the absence of tungsten carbide. Chronic beryllium disease is a fibrosis with sarcoid-like epitheloid granulomas and is presumably due to a cell-mediated immune response to beryllium. Such a mechanism may be responsible for the pulmonary fibrosis

  4. Pathobiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Sapru, Anil; Flori, Heidi; Quasney, Michael W; Dahmer, Mary K

    2015-06-01

    The unique characteristics of pulmonary circulation and alveolar-epithelial capillary-endothelial barrier allow for maintenance of the air-filled, fluid-free status of the alveoli essential for facilitating gas exchange, maintaining alveolar stability, and defending the lung against inhaled pathogens. The hallmark of pathophysiology in acute respiratory distress syndrome is the loss of the alveolar capillary permeability barrier and the presence of protein-rich edema fluid in the alveoli. This alteration in permeability and accumulation of fluid in the alveoli accompanies damage to the lung epithelium and vascular endothelium along with dysregulated inflammation and inappropriate activity of leukocytes and platelets. In addition, there is uncontrolled activation of coagulation along with suppression of fibrinolysis and loss of surfactant. These pathophysiological changes result in the clinical manifestations of acute respiratory distress syndrome, which include hypoxemia, radiographic opacities, decreased functional residual capacity, increased physiologic deadspace, and decreased lung compliance. Resolution of acute respiratory distress syndrome involves the migration of cells to the site of injury and re-establishment of the epithelium and endothelium with or without the development of fibrosis. Most of the data related to acute respiratory distress syndrome, however, originate from studies in adults or in mature animals with very few studies performed in children or juvenile animals. The lack of studies in children is particularly problematic because the lungs and immune system are still developing during childhood and consequently the pathophysiology of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome may differ in significant ways from that seen in acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults. This article describes what is known of the pathophysiologic processes of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome as we know it today while also presenting the much

  5. How often do general practitioners prescribe antibiotics for otitis media and the most common respiratory tract infections?

    Jørund Straand

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  ABSTRACTObjective:  Design:  Setting:  Material:  Results:  Conclusion:  Key words:  Antibiotics, general practice, diagnoses, respiratory tract infections, otitis media, pharmacoepidemiologyExcept for upper respiratory tract infection, antibiotic treatment is the rule not an exception, forall the diagnoses studied. In general practice, improved communication- and prescribing-skills are probablyessentials for implementing a more evidence based treatment of otitis media, and the common respiratorytract infections. The significance of patient related factors for seeing a GP (or not and for (not expectingantibiotics for otitis media and the common respiratory tract infections should be explored in future research.Antibiotics were issued during 57% of all contacts for the included diagnoses, ranging from 22%(upper respiratory tract infection to 91% (tonsillitis. All patients who had first time office consultations fortonsillitis, acute bronchitis and pneumonia, were prescribed antibiotics. One out of three patients who consultedthe doctor on the telephone for these diagnoses, were also prescribed an antibiotic.8610 physician-patient contacts, and 4909 antibiotic prescriptions for otitis media, upper respiratorytract infection, tonsillitis, sinusitis, acute bronchitis, and pneumonia.Cross sectional, multipractice study.GPs in the Norwegian county of Møre & Romsdal. Data were recorded during two months.To examine how frequently general practitioners actually prescribe antibiotics for patientscontacting them for otitis media, and the most common respiratory tract infection diagnoses, – by the type ofdoctor-patient contact during prescribing, and patients' age and sex.

  6. Nitrofurantoin-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome during pregnancy: A case report

    Sherif S. Wahba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is a rarely seen complication with nitrfurantoin. We report improvement of a parturient who was admitted to our hospital’s obstetrical unit with life threatening nitrofurantoin-induced acute respiratory failure. She had been taking nitrofurantoin for one week for urinary tract infection (UTI. Her chest radiography showed bilateral parenchymal infiltrates of the lung. The patient responded well to nitrofurantoin discontinuation and methylprednisolone infusion 1 mg/kg/day.

  7. Virological analysis on the hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory tract infection in winter and spring%冬春季住院患儿急性下呼吸道感染病毒学分析

    丁国标; 王智; 杨秀玲; 王清; 吴小玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To understand the status of viral infection of hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory tract infection (ARI) in winter and spring, provide a basis for virological diagnosis of children with ARI.Methods: The hospitalized children with ARI were selected from the hospital from November 2008 to April 2009, the venous blood samples on hospital day were obtained for IgM detection of respiratory viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus ( RSV), adenovirus ( ADV), influenza virus (IV) and parainfluenza virus (PIV); the children with positive results were analyzed statistically.Results: Among 151 children with ARI, 37 children were found with positive results, accounting for 24.5% (37/151), including 32 children with RSV ( 86.5% ), 1 child with ADV (2.7% ), 2 children with IV (5.4%) and 2 children with PIV (5.4%); the prevalence of RSV infection reached the peak from December to January, February in the coming year; the children under 3 years old were susceptible to RSV infection; the peak age of RSV infection was under 6 months, the ratio of boys to girls was 1.9: 1.Conclusion: The main pathogen of ARI among the hospitalized children from the hospital from November 2008 to April 2009 is RSV, followed by IV and PIV.%目的:了解冬春季住院患儿急性下呼吸道感染(ARI)的病毒感染状况,为临床儿童急性呼吸道感染提供病毒病原学诊断依据.方法:选择2008年11月~2009年4月在九江市妇幼保健院呼吸内科住院的急性下呼吸道感染患儿,取其入院当天的静脉血,进行呼吸道病毒IgM检测,包括呼吸道合胞病毒(RSV)、腺病毒(ADV)、流感病毒(IV)、副流感病毒(PIV),并对检测标本阳性的病例进行统计分析.结果:在151例患儿送检标本中,阳性37例,占24.5%(37/151).阳性标本中呼吸道合胞病毒32例(86.5%),腺病毒1例(2.7%),流感病毒2例(5.4%),副流感病毒2例(5.4%).RSV的发病高峰在12月至次年的1、2月份,RSV感染多见于3

  8. Acute respiratory failure in scrub typhus patients

    Jyoti Narayan Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory failure is a serious complication of scrub typhus. In this prospective study, all patients with a diagnosis of scrub typhus were included from a single center Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Demographic, clinical characteristics, laboratory, and imaging parameters of these patients at the time of ICU admission were compared. Of the 55 scrub typhus patients, 27 (49% had an acute respiratory failure. Seventeen patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome, and ten had cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Respiratory supported patients were older had significant chronic lungs disease and high severity illness scores (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. At ICU admission, these patients presented with more deranged laboratory markers, including high bilirubin, high creatine kinase, high lactate, metabolic acidosis, low serum albumin, and presence of ascites. The average ICU and hospital stay were 4.27 ± 2.74 and 6.53 ± 3.52 days, respectively, in the respiratory supported group. Three patients died in respiratory failure group, while only one patient died in nonrespiratory failure group.

  9. 北京地区急性呼吸道感染儿童中人鼻病毒感染状况研究%Human Rhinovirus with Different Genotypes in Children with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Beijing

    宋明辉; 赵林清; 钱渊; 朱汝南; 邓洁; 王芳; 孙宇; 田润

    2013-01-01

    To understand the infections and molecular biological characteristics of different human rhinovirus (HRV) genotypes -A, B, C, especially C in children with acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) in Beijing. Seven hundreds and three respiratory tract specimens were collected from children with ARI during Jan. 2011 to Dec. 2011. Semi-nested PCR was developed for detecting HRVs. Gene fragment of VP4/VP2 capsid protein amplified from HRV positive specimens was sequenced and analyzed by software DNAStar, the phylogenetic tree was then constructed by MEGA 5. 05. Among these 703 specimens tested, 54 (7.7%, 54/703) were HRV positive, including 25 (46.3%, 25/54) positive for HRV-A, 8 (14. 8%, 8/54) for HRV-B, 21 (38. 9%, 21/54) for HRV-C determined by sequence analysis. Most of these children (94. 4%, 51/54) infected with HRVs were younger than 5 years old, and the highest positive rate was shown in group younger than 1 year (11. 4%). These patients positive for HRVs were diagnosed as bronchiolitis (23.1%), asthma (20.0%), pneumonia (1.0%), bronchitis (4.4%) and upper respiratory tract infections (4. 1%). Sequence analysis of VP4/VP2 gene fragment revealed that 70. 0% to 100. 0% nucleotide identity was shown among the sequences within the same HRV genotype, and 55. 5% to 65. 8% nucleotide identity among the sequences from different HRV genotypes. In conclusion, HRVs, especially HRV-C, are important pathogens for children with ARI in Beijing. The prevalence of HRV-C is similar to that of HRV-A, higher than that of HRV-B. High sequence variation among different HRV genotypes was indicated in this study.%为了解北京地区急性呼吸道感染儿童中人鼻病毒(HRV)-A、B、C型(尤其是HRV-C)的感染状况及分子生物学特征,本研究收集了2011年1月至12月急性呼吸道感染患儿呼吸道标本703例,采用半巢式PCR方法同时进行HRV-A、B、C检测,并对HRV阳性标本进行VP4/VP2衣壳蛋白编码区基因序列测定及

  10. Clinical characteristics of human coronavirus in children with acute lower respiratory tract infection%人冠状病毒在急性下呼吸道感染儿童中的临床特征

    刘军; 谢正德; 徐保平; 钱素云; 杨燕; 申昆玲

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the clinical characteristics of acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI)caused by human coronavirus (HCoV)in children.Methods Three thousand five hundred and three hospi-talized children diagnosed with ALRTI in Beijing Children′s Hospital from March 2007 to February 201 3 were re-viewed.Nasopharyngeal aspirate(NPA)specimen was collected from each patient.Reverse transcription (RT)-poly-merase chain reaction(PCR)methods were applied to detect common respiratory viruses including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV),rhinovirus (RV),parainfluenza virus (PIV)type 1 -4,influenza virus type A and B (IFA,IFB),adeno-virus (AdV),enterovirus (EV),HCoV,human metapneumovirus (hMPV)and human bocavirus (HBoV).Serum anti-bodies of mycoplasma and sputum bacterial culture were also detected.Only HCoV positive patients were analyzed in this study.Results Eleven of 3 503 patients were proved as HCoV -positive in NPA specimens.Of the 1 1 children,8 cases were male and 3 cases were female (2.71 .0).The median age was 3 months.The clinical symptoms of HCoV infection included cough (1 1 /1 1 cases,1 00.0%),wheezing (1 0 /1 1 cases,90.9%),fever (6 /1 1 cases,54.5%)and poor appetite (7 /1 1 cases,63.6%).Wheezing (8 /1 1 cases,72.7%)and moist rale in inspiratory phase (5 /1 1 ca-ses,45.4%)could be heard.Most patient′s chest X -ray showed bronchopneumonia.Full blood count displayed that leukocyte was in the normal range.Conclusions Respiratory tract infection with HCoV -positive will be easier to spread to ALRTI,especially in infants less than 1 year old.The symptoms include fever,cough and wheezing,but poor appetite and diarrhea can also be detected.%目的:了解急性下呼吸道感染住院患儿人冠状病毒(HCoV)感染的临床表现。方法回顾性分析2007年3月至2013年2月在北京儿童医院因下呼吸道感染住院的患儿3503例,患儿在住院当日或次日采集鼻咽吸取物1份,采用反转录(RT)-PCR 方法进行

  11. Factors influencing the development of otitis media among Sicilian children affected by upper respiratory tract infections

    Francesco Martines

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Upper respiratory tract infection is a nonspecific term used to describe an acute infection involving the nose, paranasal sinuses, pharynx and larynx. Upper respiratory tract infections in children are often associated with Eustachian tube dysfunction and complicated by otitis media, an inflammatory process within the middle ear. Environmental, epidemiologic and familial risk factors for otitis media (such as sex, socioeconomic and educational factors, smoke exposure, allergy or duration of breastfeeding have been previously reported, but actually no data about their diffusion among Sicilian children with upper respiratory tract infections are available. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the main risk factors for otitis media and their prevalence in Sicilian children with and without upper respiratory tract infections. METHODS: A case-control study of 204 children with upper respiratory tract infections who developed otitis media during a 3 weeks monitoring period and 204 age and sex-matched healthy controls. Seventeen epidemiologically relevant features were inventoried by means of standardized questionnaires and skin tests were performed. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to examine the association between risk factors and occurrence of otitis media. RESULTS: Otitis media resulted strongly associated to large families, low parental educational attainment, schooling within the third years of life (p < 0.05; children were more susceptible to develop otitis media in the presence of asthma, cough, laryngopharyngeal reflux disease, snoring and apnea (p < 0.05. Allergy and urban localization increased the risk of otitis media in children exposed to smoke respectively of 166% and 277% (p < 0.05; the joint effect of asthma and presence of pets in allergic population increased the risk of recurrence of 11%, while allergy, cough and runny nose together increased this risk of 74%. CONCLUSIONS

  12. Antibiotic knowledge and self-care for acute respiratory tract infections in Mexico Conocimiento y automedicación de antibióticos para infecciones respiratorias en México

    Ralph Gonzales

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine knowledge of and self-treatment with antibiotics among medically-insured adults in Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered survey among 101 adult patients seeking care for acute respiratory tract infections in a family medicine clinic in Mexico. Knowledge scores were calculated as a composite of correct, incorrect and don't know responses. Factors associated with antibiotic knowledge and antibiotic self-treatment were explored with bivariate analyses. RESULTS: 47% of participants were taking antibiotics prior to the visit, 20% were self-treating. Antibiotic knowledge was highly variable. Many participants believed common non-antibiotic treatments for colds and coughs were antibiotics, such as ambroxol (45%, Desenfriol (45% and paracetamol (44%. Older participants (>40 years had better knowledge scores. DISCUSSION: Self-treatment with and misperceptions about antibiotics are common among medically insured adults seeking medical attention in Mexico.OBJETIVO: Examinar el conocimiento y automedicación de antibióticos en adultos asegurados en México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Llevamos a cabo un estudio transversal mediante la administración de un cuestionario a 101 pacientes adultos que solicitaban atención médica por infección respiratoria aguda en una clínica de medicina familiar en México. La puntuación de conocimiento estuvo compuesta por respuestas correctas, incorrectas y "no sé", los factores asociados con conocimiento y automedicación de antibióticos fueron explorados mediante análisis bivariado. RESULTADOS: 47% de los participantes tomaron antibióticos previamente y 20% fueron automedicados. La puntuación de conocimiento fue muy variable. Muchos de los participantes creyeron que tratamientos comunes para resfriado y tos eran antibióticos, como ambroxol (45%, Desenfriol (45% y paracetamol (44%. Los participantes con mayor edad (>40 años obtuvieron mejores

  13. Impact of chest radiography for children with lower respiratory tract infection: a propensity score approach.

    Emmanuelle Ecochard-Dugelay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Management of acute respiratory tract infection varies substantially despite this being a condition frequently encountered in pediatric emergency departments. Previous studies have suggested that the use of antibiotics was higher when chest radiography was performed. However none of these analyses had considered the inherent indication bias of observational studies. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to assess the relationship between performing chest radiography and prescribing antibiotics using a propensity score analysis to address the indication bias due to non-random radiography assignment. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of 697 children younger than 2 years of age who presented during the winter months of 2006-2007 for suspicion of respiratory tract infection at the Pediatric Emergency Department of an urban general hospital in France (Paris suburb. We first determined the individual propensity score (probability of having a chest radiography according to baseline characteristics. Then we assessed the relation between radiography and antibiotic prescription using two methods: adjustment and matching on the propensity score. RESULTS: We found that performing a chest radiography lead to more frequent antibiotic prescription that may be expressed as OR = 2.3, CI [1.3-4.1], or as an increased use of antibiotics of 18.6% [0.08-0.29] in the group undergoing chest radiography. CONCLUSION: Chest radiography has a significant impact on the management of infants admitted for suspicion of respiratory tract infection in a pediatric emergency department and may lead to unnecessary administration of antibiotics.

  14. Noninvasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure

    Mas A

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Arantxa Mas, Josep MasipCritical Care Department, Consorci Sanitari Integral (CSI, Hospital Sant Joan Despí Moisès Broggi and Hospital General de l’Hospitalet, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: After the institution of positive-pressure ventilation, the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV through an interface substantially increased. The first technique was continuous positive airway pressure; but, after the introduction of pressure support ventilation at the end of the 20th century, this became the main modality. Both techniques, and some others that have been recently introduced and which integrate some technological innovations, have extensively demonstrated a faster improvement of acute respiratory failure in different patient populations, avoiding endotracheal intubation and facilitating the release of conventional invasive mechanical ventilation. In acute settings, NIV is currently the first-line treatment for moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation as well as for acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and should be considered in immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory insufficiency, in difficult weaning, and in the prevention of postextubation failure. Alternatively, it can also be used in the postoperative period and in cases of pneumonia and asthma or as a palliative treatment. NIV is currently used in a wide range of acute settings, such as critical care and emergency departments, hospital wards, palliative or pediatric units, and in pre-hospital care. It is also used as a home care therapy in patients with chronic pulmonary or sleep disorders. The appropriate selection of patients and the adaptation to the technique are the keys to success. This review essentially analyzes the evidence of benefits of NIV in different populations with acute respiratory failure and describes the main modalities, new devices, and some practical aspects of the use of this technique. Keywords

  15. Current perspectives for management of acute respiratory insufficiency in premature infants with acute respiratory syndrome.

    Chen, Peng; Zhang, Ying; Li, Long-Yun

    2014-09-01

    Current perspectives for management of acute respiratory insufficiency in premature infants with acute respiratory syndrome and the pathology of acute respiratory insufficiency in the preterm infant, including the current therapy modalities on disposition are presented. Since the therapeutical challenge and primary clinical goal are to normalize ventilation ratio and lung perfusion, when respiratory insufficiency occurs, it is very important to introduce the respiratory support as soon possible, in order to reduce development of pulmonary cyanosis and edema, and intrapulmonary or intracardial shunts. A characteristic respiratory instability that reflects through fluctuations in gas exchange and ventilation is often present in premature infants. Adapting the respiratory support on a continuous basis to the infant's needs is challenging and not always effective. Although a large number of ventilation strategies for the neonate are available, there is a need for additional consensus on management of acute respiratory distress syndrome in pediatric population lately redefined by Berlin definition criteria, in order to efficiently apply various modes of respiratory support in daily pediatrician clinical use.

  16. Procalcitonin guided antibiotic therapy and hospitalization in patients with lower respiratory tract infections: a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial

    Henzen Christoph

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Lower respiratory tract infections like acute bronchitis, exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and community-acquired pneumonia are often unnecessarily treated with antibiotics, mainly because of physicians' difficulties to distinguish viral from bacterial cause and to estimate disease-severity. The goal of this trial is to compare medical outcomes, use of antibiotics and hospital resources in a strategy based on enforced evidence-based guidelines versus procalcitonin guided antibiotic therapy in patients with lower respiratory tract infections. Methods and design: We describe a prospective randomized controlled non-inferiority trial with an open intervention. We aim to randomize over a fixed recruitment period of 18 months a minimal number of 1002 patients from 6 hospitals in Switzerland. Patients must be >18 years of age with a lower respiratory tract infections Discussion: Use of and prolonged exposure to antibiotics in lower respiratory tract infections is high. The proposed trial investigates whether procalcitonin-guidance may safely reduce antibiotic consumption along with reductions in hospitalization costs and antibiotic resistance. It will additionally generate insights for improved prognostic assessment of patients with lower respiratory tract infections. Trial registration: ISRCTN95122877

  17. Microbiological Study On Respiratory Tract Infections In Libya

    *A. H. Eldeeb and **E.M. Khashan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent reports revealed that 10% of the worldwide burden of morbidity and mortality relates to respiratory tract infection. Patient and methods: Five hundreds and fifty nine clinical strains were isolated and identified from 322 patients suffering from respiratory tract infections. Patients represented different ages, sexes, and types of infections. Out of the 322 patients, 204 were suffering from upper respiratory tract infections and 118 patients were suffering from lower respiratory tract infections. Patients of upper respiratory tract infections were suffering from chronic suppurative otitis media (63 patients, tonsillitis (50 patients, pharyngitis (48 patients, and sinusitis (43 patients. Results: Out of the total isolates, Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent organism, followed by Streptococcus pyogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.71, 12.34, and 11.27% respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa represented 6.26%. Serratia marcescens and Morganella morganii were the least isolated organisms. The results revealed that 52.42% of the strains were isolated from males and 47.58% from females. Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent organism in males (21.16% while in females Strept. pyogenes was the most prevalent organism (14.29%. Also, the study revealed that Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent isolate in age groups between 1-20, 21-40 and 41-60 years old (20.85%, 17.02% and 16.67% respectively. However, both Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated with equal incidences, 12% each, in elder patients (more than 60 years. The susceptibility pattern of the isolated bacteria to different antimicrobial agents was studied. Both levofloxacin and gatifloxacin showed the highest activity (100%, followed by ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin (96.44% and 93.39%, respectively. Those are followed by amikacin (91.86%, cefotaxime (89.31%, cefoperazone (86.26%, gentamicin (84.22%, ampicillin-sulbactam (70

  18. 支气管哮喘急性发作期呼吸道感染患儿的临床诊治分析%Analysis of Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment of Children With Bronchial Asthma Acute Episodes of Respiratory Tract Infection

    段艳飞; 刘冬霞

    2016-01-01

    目的:探析支气管哮喘急性发作期呼吸道感染患儿治疗。方法随机将80例支气管哮喘急性发作期呼吸道感染患儿分为两组,分别行常规疗法和联合用药,比较两组疗效。结果两组治疗效果比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论临床上给予支气管哮喘急性发作期呼吸道感染患儿联合用药效果显著。%Objective To analyze the treatment for children with bronchial asthma acute episodes of respiratory tract infection.Methods 80 cases of children with bronchial asthma acute phase were randomly divided into two groups, which were respectively treated with routine therapy and combined medication, to compare the curative effect of two groups.Results There was the signiifcant difference between the treatment effect of two groups (P<0.05).Conclusion the effect of combined medication for children with bronchial asthma acute episodes of respiratory tract infection is remarkable.

  19. Computational modeling of aerosol deposition in respiratory tract: a review.

    Rostami, Ali A

    2009-02-01

    This review article is intended to serve as an overview of the current status of the computational tools and approaches available for predicting respiratory-tract dosimetry of inhaled particulate matter. There are two groups of computational models available, depending on the intended use. The whole-lung models are designed to provide deposition prediction for the whole lung, from the oronasal cavities to the pulmonary region. The whole-lung models are generally semi-empirical and hence provide more reliable results but within the range of parameters used for empirical correlations. The local deposition or computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based models, on the other hand, utilize comprehensive theoretical and computational approaches but are often limited to upper respiratory tracts. They are based on theoretical principles and are applicable to a wider range of parameters, but less accurate. One of the difficulties with modeling of aerosol deposition in human lung is related to the complexity of the airways geometry and the limited morphometric data available. Another difficulty corresponds to simulation of the realistic physiological conditions of lung environment. Furthermore, complex physical and chemical phenomena associated with dense and multicomponent aerosols complicate the modeling tasks. All of these issues are addressed in this review. The progress made in each area in the last three decades and the challenges ahead are discussed along with some suggestions for future direction. The following subjects are covered in this review: introduction, aerosol deposition mechanisms, elements of a computational model, respiratory-tract geometry models, whole-lung models, CFD based models, cigarette smoke deposition models, and conclusion.

  20. Central respiratory failure during acute organophosphate poisoning.

    Carey, Jennifer L; Dunn, Courtney; Gaspari, Romolo J

    2013-11-01

    Organophosphate (OP) pesticide poisoning is a global health problem with over 250,000 deaths per year. OPs affect neuronal signaling through acetylcholine (Ach) neurotransmission via inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), leading to accumulation of Ach at the synaptic cleft and excessive stimulation at post-synaptic receptors. Mortality due to OP agents is attributed to respiratory dysfunction, including central apnea. Cholinergic circuits are integral to many aspects of the central control of respiration, however it is unclear which mechanisms predominate during acute OP intoxication. A more complete understanding of the cholinergic aspects of both respiratory control as well as neural modification of pulmonary function is needed to better understand OP-induced respiratory dysfunction. In this article, we review the physiologic mechanisms of acute OP exposure in the context of the known cholinergic contributions to the central control of respiration. We also discuss the potential central cholinergic contributions to the known peripheral physiologic effects of OP intoxication.

  1. Enabling factors for antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Radzeviciene Jurgute, Ruta; Bjerrum, Lars;

    2013-01-01

    . This study aimed to explore experiences of GPs in Lithuania and the Russian Federation with regard to antibiotic prescription for upper respiratory tract infections. By such means it might be possible to reveal external enabling factors that influence antibiotic prescribing in these countries. Method. Five...... focus groups were performed with 22 GPs from Lithuania and 29 GPs from the Kaliningrad Region of the Russian Federation; then, thematic analysis of data was performed. Results. Six thematic categories were identified that are related to external forces enabling antibiotic prescription: the necessity...

  2. Incense use and respiratory tract carcinomas: a prospective cohort study

    Yuan, J.M.; Wang, R.; Koh, W.P.;

    2008-01-01

    between exposure to incense smoke and the development of cancer. Therefore, the relation between incense use and the risk of respiratory tract carcinomas was analyzed in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Between 1993 and 1998, a population-based cohort of 61,320 Singapore Chinese who were free...... of cancer and ages 45 to 74 years completed a comprehensive interview regarding living conditions and dietary and lifestyle factors. Through linkage to population-based registries, the cohort was followed through 2005 and cancer occurrence determined. The relative risk for these cancers associated...

  3. Anaerobic bacteria in upper respiratory tract and head and neck infections: microbiology and treatment.

    Brook, Itzhak

    2012-04-01

    Anaerobes are the predominant components of oropharyngeal mucous membranes bacterial flora, and are therefore a common cause of bacterial infections of endogenous origin of upper respiratory tract and head and neck. This review summarizes the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology and antimicrobials therapy of these infections. These include acute and chronic otitis media, mastoiditis and sinusitis, pharyngo-tonsillitis, peritonsillar, retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal abscesses, suppurative thyroiditis, cervical lymphadenitis, parotitis, siliadenitis, and deep neck infections including Lemierre Syndrome. The recovery from these infections depends on prompt and proper medical and when indicated also surgical management.

  4. Acute Respiratory Distress in Children: Croup and Acute Asthma.

    Sharma, B S; Shekhawat, Dhananjay S; Sharma, Prity; Meena, Chetan; Mohan, Hari

    2015-07-01

    Acute respiratory distress is one of the most common reason for emergency visits in children under 5 y of age. An accurate understanding of the epidemiology of these diseases, identification of risk factors and etiology is critical for successful treatment and prevention of related mortality. The cause of acute respiratory distress varies in etiology, and hence is amenable to different treatment modalities. Depending on the predominant symptoms and signs, a child presenting to the clinician can be divided into six groups, viz., stridor; cough, fever and difficulty in breathing or fast breathing; wheezing; mediastinal shift with severe respiratory distress; slow or irregular breathing in absence of any pulmonary sign; and respiratory distress with cardiac findings. A detailed history followed by a thorough clinical examination and laboratory evaluation assisted by imaging modalities if indicated, helps to establish the exact cause of respiratory distress in the child. Early recognition and prompt institution of appropriate management or referral can significantly improve the outcome of this illness. This article offers clinicians a brief update on the general management guidelines of respiratory distress in pediatric patients. Specific treatment depends on the exact cause, however croup and acute severe asthma have been discussed in this article.

  5. SMART phones and the acute respiratory patient.

    Gleeson, L

    2012-05-01

    Definition of Respiratory Failure using PaO2 alone is confounded when patients are commenced on oxygen therapy prior to arterial blood gas (ABG) measurement. Furthermore, classification of Respiratory Failure as Type 1 or Type 2 using PaCO2 alone can give an inaccurate account of events as both types can co-exist. 100 consecutive presentations of acute respiratory distress were assessed initially using PaO2, and subsequently PaO2\\/FiO2 ratio, to diagnose Respiratory Failure. Respiratory Failure cases were classified as Type 1 or Type 2 initially using PaCO2, and subsequently alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient. Any resultant change in management was documented. Of 100 presentations, an additional 16 cases were diagnosed as Respiratory Failure using PaO2\\/FiO2 ratio in place of PaO2 alone (p = 0.0338). Of 57 cases of Respiratory Failure, 22 cases classified as Type 2 using PaCO2 alone were reclassified as Type 1 using A-a gradient (p < 0.001). Of these 22 cases, management changed in 18.

  6. SMART phones and the acute respiratory patient.

    Gleeson, L; Alam, J; Lane, S

    2012-05-01

    Definition of Respiratory Failure using PaO2 alone is confounded when patients are commenced on oxygen therapy prior to arterial blood gas (ABG) measurement. Furthermore, classification of Respiratory Failure as Type 1 or Type 2 using PaCO2 alone can give an inaccurate account of events as both types can co-exist. 100 consecutive presentations of acute respiratory distress were assessed initially using PaO2, and subsequently PaO2/FiO2 ratio, to diagnose Respiratory Failure. Respiratory Failure cases were classified as Type 1 or Type 2 initially using PaCO2, and subsequently alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient. Any resultant change in management was documented. Of 100 presentations, an additional 16 cases were diagnosed as Respiratory Failure using PaO2/FiO2 ratio in place of PaO2 alone (p = 0.0338). Of 57 cases of Respiratory Failure, 22 cases classified as Type 2 using PaCO2 alone were reclassified as Type 1 using A-a gradient (p < 0.001). Of these 22 cases, management changed in 18.

  7. 急性呼吸窘迫综合征患者下呼吸道感染病原菌分布及耐药性特点%Distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing lower respiratory tract infections in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    崔青松

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the distribution of bacteria and drug resistance to antibiotics in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients with lower respiratory tract infections in respiratory intensive care unites (RICU) and to provide the reference for clinical treatment. METHODS Retrospective study of the clinical data was performed on 82 ARDS patients in RICU from department of respiratory medicine of Yanbian University hospital, from Jun. 2003 to Dec. 2010. The distribution and the dug susceptibility of bacteria were explored. The drug-susceptibility was examined by Kribry-Bauer (KB) method. RESULTS A total of 60 strains of bacteria were obtained in 82 patients, and gram-negative bacilli were the main bacteria (73. 3%), consisted of Acinetobacter bau-mannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli of 33. 3% .,11. 7%, 11. 7% respectively. Fungus was the second common bacteria (20. 0%) , and the majority of fungus was Candida albicans. In 20 cases more than two kinds of bacteria were obtained (45. 45%). The susceptibility rate of imipenem to Acinetobacter baumannii was over 50. 0%. CONCLUSION Gram-negative bacteria and fungus are the main pathogens of ARDS patients with lower respiratory tract infections; A. Baumannii is highly resistant to several antimicrobial agents. There is mixed infection caused by various bacteria in ARDS patients, and some strains are multi-resistant. We should monitor the dynamic drug-susceptibility to bacteria and use antibiotics reasonably.%目的 了解呼吸重症监护病房(RICU)急性呼吸窘迫综合征(ARDS)患者下呼吸道感染的病原菌分布及耐药性特点,以指导临床用药.方法 对2003年1月-2010年12月入住于延边大学附属医院呼吸内科RICU的82例ARDS患者的临床资料,及其下呼吸道感染病原菌构成及药物敏感性结果进行分析;抗菌药物敏感性测定采用K-B纸片扩散法.结果 82例患者共分离出病原菌60株,以革兰阴性杆菌为主,占73.3%,其

  8. A Study of status and disease burden in children with acute respiratory tract infection of Changchun area in 2008%2008年长春地区小儿急性呼吸道感染状况与疾病负担的研究

    刘迎新; 孙利炜; 刘愉; 张晓杰

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解2008年长春地区小儿急性呼吸道感染发病情况与疾病负担,为控制小儿急性呼吸道感染提供依据.方法:以2008年长春市儿童医院住院的急性呼吸道感染患儿为研究对象,用荧光定量PCR方法进行肺炎支原体检测,对患儿临床资料进行流行病学分析.结果:2008年长春地区小儿急性呼吸道感染发病率为33.67% (4923/14620),其中临床诊断急性上呼吸道感染(包括鼻炎、咽炎、扁桃体炎、喉炎)为14.08% (693/4923)、急性支气管炎为4.12% (203/4923)、急性毛细支气管炎为1.95% (96/4923)、支气管肺炎为76.88%(3785/4923)、大叶性肺炎1.14% (56/4923)、肺炎支原体肺炎1.83% (90/4923);患儿年龄均值为(28.59±20.32)月龄;发病人数1月份最多,5月份开始下降,10月份再次增多;平均住院天数为7天,平均每个患儿住院医疗费用3275.15元,总耗资约1912万元,1例因急性呼吸道感染死亡.结论:长春地区小儿急性呼吸道感染住院人数多、耗资大,控制小儿急性呼吸道感染是对社会和家庭的挑战也是儿科医务工作者的当务之急.%Objective; To study on the status and disease burden in children with acute respiratory tract infection of Changchun area in 2008 and to provide a basis for the control of acute respiratory infections. Methods; Children with acute respiratory infections in our hospital were studied. Using the method of fluorescence quantitative PCR to detect Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Clinical data of the children were studied by epidemiological method. Results: In 2008, in Changchun area, the incidence rate of acute respiratory tract infection in children was 33. 67% (4 923/14 620) . In which the rate of acute respiratory tract infection (including rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis) was 14. 08% (693/4 923), acute bronchitis was 4.12% (203/4923), acute bronchiolitis was 1. 95% (96/4923), bronchial pneumonia was 76. 889% (3 785/4 923), lobar

  9. Pharm GKB: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome [PharmGKB

    Full Text Available y syndrome PharmGKB Accession Id: PA136400566 External Vocabularies MeSH: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome ...Publications related to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: 1 view legend The following icons indicate that d...et al. Common Searches Search Medline Plus Search CTD Pharm GKB: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome ... ...(D045169) SnoMedCT: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (398447004) UMLS: C1175175 (C1175175) MedDRA: SARS (10061986) NDFRT: Severe Acu...te Respiratory Syndrome [Disease/Finding] (N0000010956)

  10. Cefditoren in upper and lower community-acquired respiratory tract infections

    Francisco Soriano

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Francisco Soriano1, María-José Giménez1,2, Lorenzo Aguilar1,21PRISM-AG, Madrid, Spain; 2Microbiology Department, School of Medicine, University Complutense, Madrid, SpainAbstract: This article reviews and updates published data on cefditoren in the evolving scenario of resistance among the most prevalent isolates from respiratory tract infections in the community (Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. By relating the in vitro activity of cefditoren (in national and multinational surveillance and against isolates with emerging resistant genotypes/phenotypes to its pharmacokinetics, the cefditoren pharmacodynamic activity predicting efficacy (in humans, animal models, and in vitro simulations is analyzed prior to reviewing clinical studies (tonsillopharyngitis, sinusitis, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, and community-acquired pneumonia and the relationship between bacterial eradication and clinical efficacy. The high in vitro activity of cefditoren against the most prevalent respiratory isolates in the community, together with its pharmacokinetics (enabling a twice daily regimen leading to adequate pharmacodynamic indexes covering all S. pyogenes, H. influenzae, and at least 95% S. pneumoniae isolates, makes cefditoren an antibiotic that will play a significant role in the treatment of respiratory tract infections in the community. In the clinical setting, studies carried out with cefditoren showed that treatments with the 400 mg twice daily regimen were associated with high rates of bacteriological response, even against penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae, with good correlation between bacteriological efficacy/response and clinical outcome.Keywords: cefditoren, Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, community-acquired respiratory tract infections

  11. 1402例小儿急性下呼吸道感染多病原学临床研究%Clinical and Etiological Analysis of 1402 Children With Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

    吴茜; 温柏平; 李杨方; 倪林仙; 赵明波; 樊茂; 陈祝

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical, etiological and epidemiological characteristics of acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) in Kunming region. The etiological agents, including bacteria, virus and atypical pathogens were studied in order to determine different characteristics of age distribution of respiratory infectious agents . Methods From October 2005 to October 2007, a total of 1402 hospitalized children with ALRI were included into this study (study group). Meanwhile, another 50 healthy children who underwent regular physical examination were recruited into control group . The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Review Board of Investigation in Human Being of Children s Hospital of Kunming . Informed consent was obtained from each participate . There had no significant difference between two groups on ages and so on . The nasal secretion samples were collected from study group for the bacterial agents culture and identification; viral antigens were detected by direct and indirect immunofluorescent analysis . Results The etiological agents were detected in 402 of 1402 patients (28 . 79% ), of which 9 .1% (127/1402) were mixed infections . The bacterial-, viral-, and non-typical etiological agents were identified in 402 (28 .79% ), 365 (26 .0% ) and 259 (18 .5% ) of 1402 patients with ALRI, respectively. Total positive rate of respiratory pathogens was 82.2% (1153/1402). The bacterial agents identified from the 402 positive samples mainly consisted of the Gram-negative (G-) bacteria (73 .1% ) [E.coli (41.3% ) , Klebsiella pneumoniae (15 .4% ), Haemo philus inflenzae (6 .0% )], and the G bacteria (mainly Streptococcus pneumoniae) was detected as causative agents responsible for ALRI ,for incidences of 14 .4% . Of 365 virus positive samples , 312 samples (85 .5% ) were tested as positive for the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antigen, 12 samples testing positive for influenza A virus (ⅣA), 7 samples for parainfluenza virus type (PⅣ )

  12. Epidemiological and clinical analysis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in children with acute respiratory tract infection%呼吸道感染患儿肺炎支原体感染流行特点和临床分析

    许蔓春; 马恒颢; 欧巧群; 罗爱武; 任广立; 王鲜艳; 荆丽娟

    2009-01-01

    Objective To summarize the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection in children with acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) in Guangzhou. Methods MP was detected using an indirect immunofluorescent method in 2084 children with ARI. The relations between MP infection rate and the gender, age, season, site of infection and wheezing diseases were analyzed. Results A total of 433 children (20.8%) were positive for MP, including 222 boys (19.8%) and 211 girls (21.9%) without significant difference in the infection rate between the genders (P>0.05). In 0-to 3-year-old group, 106 children were positive for MP (15.0%), while in 3-to 5-year-old group and 5-to 14-year-old group, 163 (25.2%) and 164 (22.5%) were positive, respectively, showing a significant difference in the infection rate between the 3 groups (P0.05). Among the children with LRI, those having wheezing disease had significantly higher MP positivity rate than those without wheezing. Conclusion MP is a common causative agent for ARI in children. MP infection is not related to gender and infection site, but to age and season. Children over 3 years old are vulnerable to MP infection. MP infection can be associated with wheezing in LRI.%目的 探讨小儿呼吸道感染者肺炎支原体(MP)感染的流行特点和临床情况.方法 回顾性分析我院2004~2008年呼吸道感染住院患儿2084例,采用间接免疫荧光法检测MP,分析MP感染率与性别、年龄、季节、部位及与喘息性疾病的关系.结果 2084例呼吸道感染患儿中MP阳性患儿433例(20.8%),其中男性222例(19.8%),女性211例(21.9%),男性与女性MP发病率无统计学差异(P>0.05).不同年龄组MP发病率分别为:小于3岁组106例(15.0%),3~5岁组163例(25.2%),5~14岁组164例(22.5%),三组之间MP感染率差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).不同季节MP感染率分别为:1~3月:18.0%,4-6月:25.1%,7~9月:17.7%,10~12月:20.5%,不同季节之间MP感染率

  13. ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME IN PREGNANCY

    Madhumala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is a clinical syndrome of severe dyspnea of rapid onset, hypoxemia, and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates leading to respiratory failure. ARDS occurs in pregnancy and may have unique causes. Overall mortality for both the mother and the fetus is high and significant morbidity can persist even after initial recovery. ARDS is associated with obstetric causes such as amniotic fluid embolism, preeclampsia, septic abortion, and retained products of conception or non - obstetr ic causes that include sepsis, aspiration pneumonitis, influenza pneumonia, blood transfusions, and trauma. Here is a 24 years old female admitted with 7months of amenorrhea, who presented with respiratory failure, she was intubated and ventilated for 47da ys. She recovered, and a live baby was delivered. She was discharged after 73days.

  14. Multipathogen infections in hospitalized children with acute respiratory infections

    Xicheng Hong

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore the epidemiologic and clinical features of, and interactions among, multipathogen infections in hospitalized children with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI. A prospective study of children admitted with ARTI was conducted. Peripheral blood samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence to detect respiratory agents including respiratory syncytial virus; adenovirus; influenza virus (Flu types A and B; parainfluenza virus (PIV types 1, 2, and 3; chlamydia pneumonia; and mycoplasma pneumonia. A medical history of each child was taken. Results Respiratory agents were detected in 164 (51.9% of 316 children with ARTI. A single agent was identified in 50 (15.8% children, and multiple agents in 114 (36.1%. Flu A was the most frequently detected agent, followed by Flu B. Coinfection occurred predominantly in August and was more frequent in children between 3 and 6 years of age. A significantly higher proportion of Flu A, Flu B, and PIV 1 was detected in samples with two or more pathogens per sample than in samples with a single pathogen. Conclusion Our study suggests that there is a high occurrence of multipathogen infections in children admitted with ARTI and that coinfection is associated with certain pathogens.

  15. Neuroleptic-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Francisco Garcia Soriano

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: A case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome and acute respiratory distress syndrome is presented and discussed with emphasis on the role of muscle relaxation, creatine kinase, and respiratory function tests. CASE REPORT: A 41-year-old man presented right otalgia and peripheral facial paralysis. A computed tomography scan of the skull showed a hyperdense area, 2 cm in diameter, in the pathway of the anterior intercommunicating cerebral artery. Preoperative examination revealed: pH 7.4, PaCO2 40 torr, PaO2 80 torr (room air, Hb 13.8 g/dl, blood urea nitrogen 3.2 mmol/l, and creatinine 90 mmol/l. The chest x-ray was normal. The patient had not eaten during the 12-hour period prior to anesthesia induction. Intravenous halothane, fentanyl 0.5 mg and droperidol 25 mg were used for anesthesia. After the first six hours, the PaO2 was 65 torr (normal PaCO2 with FiO2 50% (PaO2/FiO2 130, and remained at this level until the end of the operation 4 hours later, maintaining PaCO2 at 35 torr. A thrombosed aneurysm was detected and resected, and the ends of the artery were closed with clips. No vasospasm was present. This case illustrates that neuroleptic drugs can cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is a disease that is difficult to diagnose. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is another manifestation of neuroleptic malignant syndrome that has not been recognized in previous reports: it may be produced by neuroleptic drugs independent of the manifestation of neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Some considerations regarding the cause and effect relationship between acute respiratory distress syndrome and neuroleptic drugs are discussed. Intensive care unit physicians should consider the possibility that patients receiving neuroleptic drugs could develop respiratory failure in the absence of other factors that might explain the syndrome.

  16. Velocity profiles in idealized model of human respiratory tract

    Jicha M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with numerical simulation focused on velocity profiles in idealized model of human upper airways during steady inspiration. Three r gimes of breathing were investigated: Resting condition, Deep breathing and Light activity which correspond to most common regimes used for experiments and simulations. Calculation was validated with experimental data given by Phase Doppler Anemometry performed on the model with same geometry. This comparison was made in multiple points which form one cross-section in trachea near first bifurcation of bronchial tree. Development of velocity profile in trachea during steady inspiration was discussed with respect for common phenomenon formed in trachea and for future research of transport of aerosol particles in human respiratory tract.

  17. An association between Helicobacter pylori and upper respiratory tract disease: fact or fiction?

    Kariya, Shin; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2014-02-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major cause of chronic gastritis and gastric ulcers and considerable evidence supports the notion that infection with this bacterium is also associated with gastric malignancy in addition to various other conditions including pulmonary, vascular and autoimmune disorders. Gastric juice infected with H. pylori might play an important role in upper respiratory tract infection. Although direct and/or indirect mechanisms might be involved in the association between H. pylori and upper respiratory tract diseases, the etiological role of H. pylori in upper respiratory tract disorders has not yet been fully elucidated. Although various studies over the past two decades have suggested a relationship between H. pylori and upper respiratory tract diseases, the findings are inconsistent. The present overview describes the outcomes of recent investigations into the impact of H. pylori on upper respiratory tract and adjacent lesions.

  18. PCR Detection of Viral Nucleic Acid in Fatal Asthma: Is the Lower Respiratory Tract a Reservoir for Common Viruses?

    Vasilija Macek

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is indirect evidence implicating viral respiratory tract infections in the pathogenesis of fatal asthma. However, it is unknown whether viruses are present within the lower respiratory tract in fatal asthma.

  19. Etiology of acute respiratory tract infection in hospitalized children in Suzhou from 2005 to 2011%2005-2011年苏州地区急性呼吸道感染住院儿童病原学研究

    季伟; 陈正荣; 周卫芳; 孙慧明; 李蓓荃; 蔡利红; 严永东

    2013-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the etiology of acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) in hospitalized children in Suzhou from 2005 to 2011.Methods A total of 10 243 hospitalized children with ARI in Children's Hospital Affiliated to Soochow University from September 2005 to October 2011 were enrolled in the study.The clinical information was collected; and the nasopharyngeal aspiration fluid and serum samples were sent for multi-pathogen detection.Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV),influenza virus type A and B (IV-A,IV-B),parainfluenza virus type 1-3 (PIV-1-PIV-3) and adenovirus (ADV) were detected by direct immunofluorescence assay.Human bocavirus (HBoV),mycoplasma pneunoniae (MP) and chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) were detected by fluorescent quantitative PCR while human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was detected by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR).Sputum culture was applied to detect bacterial infection and quantitative ELISA was adopted to detect the specific antibodies of MP and CP.The results of the above detections were analyzed,and thereby to explore the prevalent pathogens among different aging children and the seasonal distribution and characteristics of the disease.Results At least one type of pathogen was detected in 5871 out of 10 243 hospitalized children and the overall positive rate was 57.32%; including 3326 virus samples with positive rate at 32.47% (3326/10 243),2870 bacteria samples with positive rate at 28.02% (2870/10 243) and 2759 atypical pathogen samples,with positive rate at 26.94% (2759/10 243).MP was the most common pathogen,whose detected rate was 25.74% (2637/10 243).The median age of children with RSV (6 months) or PIV-3(8 months) infection was younger than the median age of all hospitalized children (12 months) (x2 =380.992,34.826,P < 0.05).While the median age of children with ADV (42 months),HBoV (14 months) or IV-A (24 months)infection was older than it of all hospitalized children (x2 =83.583,13.169,18.012,P < 0.05).The median age of

  20. 热毒宁注射剂治疗儿童急性上呼吸道感染196例疗效分析%Reduning injection treatment of children with acute upper respiratory tract infection in 196 cases curative effect analysis

    张娴

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Analysis of reduning injection treatment of children with acute upper respiratory tract infection of chinical curatire effect. Methods: Our selection of pediatric since May 2012 to August 2012 clinical diagnosed with acute upper respiratory tract infection of 196 cases of children patients,age 1 full year of life to 6 years old,with conventional defervescence processing,to strengthen the diet care,based on this,and then divided into three groups for treatment,respectively reduning treatment group and control group ribavirin and reduning + amo schering clavulanic acid potassium treatment group. Results: After three days of treatment,hot poison better treatment group total effective rate reaches as high as 95.6%,and ribavirin control group have significant difference,and reduning + amo schering clavulanic acid potassium treatment group indifference. Conclusion: Reduning for children with acute upper respiratory tract infections have significant clinical curative effect,suit and safety.%  目的:分析热毒宁注射剂治疗儿童急性上呼吸道感染的临床疗效。方法:选取我院儿科2012年5~8月临床确诊为急性上呼吸道感染的196例儿童患者,年龄1~6周岁,予以常规退热处理,加强饮食护理,在此基础上,随机分为三组进行治疗,分别为热毒宁治疗组、利巴韦林对照组以及热毒宁+阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗组。结果:经过三天的治疗,热毒宁治疗组的总有效率高达95.6%,与利巴韦林对照组有显著性差异,与热毒宁+阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗组无差异。结论:热毒宁对儿童急性上呼吸道感染有显著的临床疗效,对症且安全。

  1. Differential expression of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus receptor in the upper respiratory tracts of humans and dromedary camels

    W. Widagdo; V.S. Raj (Stalin); D. Schipper (Debby); K. Kolijn (Kimberley); G.J.H.L. Leenders (Geert); B.J. Bosch (Berend Jan); A. Bensaid (Albert); J. Segalés (Joaquim); W. Baumgärtner (Wolfgang); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); J.M.A. van den Brand (Judith); B.L. Haagmans (Bart)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMiddle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is not efficiently transmitted between humans, but it is highly prevalent in dromedary camels. Here we report that the MERS-CoV receptor-dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4)-is expressed in the upper respiratory tract epithelium of camels

  2. The revised International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract

    Bair, W.J.

    1992-05-01

    A task group has revised the dosimetric model of the respiratory tract used to calculate annual limits on intake of radionuclides. The revised model can be used to project respiratory tract doses for workers and members of the public from airborne radionuclides and to assess past exposures. Doses calculated for specific extrathoracic and thoracic tissues can be adjusted to account for differences in radiosensitivity and summed to yield two values of dose for the respiratory tract that are applicable to the ICRP tissue weighted dosimetry system.

  3. The Revised International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract

    Bair, W.J.

    1991-09-01

    The new respiratory tract model is based on the premise that the large differences in radiation sensitivity of respiratory tract tissues, and the wide range of doses they receive, argue for calculating specific tissue doses rather than average lung doses for radiation protection purposes. The new model is more complex than the current lung model because it describes deposition of inhaled radioactive material in the clearance from several tissues and regions of the respiratory tract and is applicable to the worldwide population of both workers and the public. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Critical care ultrasonography in acute respiratory failure.

    Vignon, Philippe; Repessé, Xavier; Vieillard-Baron, Antoine; Maury, Eric

    2016-08-15

    Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a leading indication for performing critical care ultrasonography (CCUS) which, in these patients, combines critical care echocardiography (CCE) and chest ultrasonography. CCE is ideally suited to guide the diagnostic work-up in patients presenting with ARF since it allows the assessment of left ventricular filling pressure and pulmonary artery pressure, and the identification of a potential underlying cardiopathy. In addition, CCE precisely depicts the consequences of pulmonary vascular lesions on right ventricular function and helps in adjusting the ventilator settings in patients sustaining moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Similarly, CCE helps in identifying patients at high risk of ventilator weaning failure, depicts the mechanisms of weaning pulmonary edema in those patients who fail a spontaneous breathing trial, and guides tailored therapeutic strategy. In all these clinical settings, CCE provides unparalleled information on both the efficacy and tolerance of therapeutic changes. Chest ultrasonography provides further insights into pleural and lung abnormalities associated with ARF, irrespective of its origin. It also allows the assessment of the effects of treatment on lung aeration or pleural effusions. The major limitation of lung ultrasonography is that it is currently based on a qualitative approach in the absence of standardized quantification parameters. CCE combined with chest ultrasonography rapidly provides highly relevant information in patients sustaining ARF. A pragmatic strategy based on the serial use of CCUS for the management of patients presenting with ARF of various origins is detailed in the present manuscript.

  5. Dysbiosis of upper respiratory tract microbiota in elderly pneumonia patients.

    de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; Huijskens, Elisabeth G W; Wyllie, Anne L; Biesbroek, Giske; van den Bergh, Menno R; Veenhoven, Reinier H; Wang, Xinhui; Trzciński, Krzysztof; Bonten, Marc J; Rossen, John W A; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Bogaert, Debby

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly. We hypothesize that dysbiosis between regular residents of the upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiome, that is balance between commensals and potential pathogens, is involved in pathogen overgrowth and consequently disease. We compared oropharyngeal microbiota of elderly pneumonia patients (n=100) with healthy elderly (n=91) by 16S-rRNA-based sequencing and verified our findings in young adult pneumonia patients (n=27) and young healthy adults (n=187). Microbiota profiles differed significantly between elderly pneumonia patients and healthy elderly (PERMANOVA, Pdisease was less clear. A decision tree model based on the relative abundance of five bacterial community members in URT microbiota showed high specificity of 95% and sensitivity of 84% (89% and 73%, respectively, after cross-validation) for differentiating pneumonia patients from healthy individuals. These results suggest that pneumonia in elderly and young adults is associated with dysbiosis of the URT microbiome with bacterial overgrowth of single species and absence of distinct anaerobic bacteria. Whether the observed microbiome changes are a cause or a consequence of the development of pneumonia or merely coincide with disease status remains a question for future research.

  6. Effects of air pollution on daily clinic visits for lower respiratory tract illness.

    Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2002-01-01

    The authors used data obtained from clinic records and environmental monitoring stations in Taiwan during 1998 to estimate the association between air pollution and daily numbers of clinic visits for lower respiratory tract illness. A small-area design and hierarchical modeling were used for the analysis. Rates of daily clinic visits were associated with current-day concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter less than or equal to 10 microm in aerometric diameter. People over age 65 years were the most susceptible, and estimated pollution effects decreased as the exposure time lag increased. The analysis also suggested that several community-specific variables, such as a community's population density and yearly air pollution levels, modified the effects of air pollution. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the use of a small-area design to assess acute health effects of air pollution.

  7. Aetiology and prediction of pneumonia in lower respiratory tract infection in primary care

    Holm, Anette; Nexoe, Joergen; Bistrup, Lene A

    2007-01-01

    of pneumonia was low (0.23), but the vital signs, CRP, and leukocyte count had comparably low positive predictive values (0.23-0.30). CONCLUSION: Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common bacterial pathogen. The risk of hospitalisation was highest among patients with pneumonia or pneumococcal infection......BACKGROUND: Knowledge of predominant pathogens and their association with outcome are of importance for the management of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). As antibiotic therapy is indicated in pneumonia and not in acute bronchitis, a predictor of pneumonia is needed. AIM: To describe...... the aetiology and outcome of LRTI in adults with pneumonic and adults with non-pneumonic LRTI treated in general practice and to identify predictors of radiographic pneumonia. DESIGN OF STUDY: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: Forty-two general practices and an outpatient clinic at the Department...

  8. Antibiotic prescriptions for suspected respiratory tract infection in primary care in South America

    Cordoba Currea, Gloria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe and compare antibiotic prescribing patterns for primary care patients with respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in four South American countries. Methods: Prospective observational study. General practitioners (GPs) from Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay registered data...... an antibiotic prescription. There was a wide variation across countries in the use and selection of antibiotics. For example, 94% of patients with acute bronchitis were prescribed antibiotics in Bolivia, while in Uruguay only 21% received antibiotics. Amoxicillin was the most commonly prescribed antibiotic...... across countries, but prescription rates varied between 45% in Bolivia and 69% in Uruguay. Compared with the overall mean prescribing rate and after adjusting for clinical presentation and demographics, prescribing of antibiotics varied by a factor of 6, the odds ratio ranging from 0.37 (95% CI 0.21; 0...

  9. Acute respiratory failure following ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

    Antonello Nicolini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is a serious and potentially life-threatening physiological complication that may be encountered in patients who undergo controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycles. The syndrome is typically associated with regimes of exogenous gonadotropins, but it can be seen, albeit rarely, when clomiphene is administered during the induction phase. Although this syndrome is widely described in scientific literature and is well known by obstetricians, the knowledge of this pathological and potentially life-threatening condition is generally less than satisfactory among physicians. The dramatic increase in therapeutic strategies to treat infertility has pushed this condition into the realm of acute care therapy. The potential complications of this syndrome, including pulmonary involvement, should be considered and identified so as to allow a more appropriate diagnosis and management. We describe a case of a woman with an extremely severe (Stage 6 ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome who presented ascites, bilateral pleural effusion and severe respiratory failure treated with non-invasive ventilation. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit because of severe respiratory failure, ascites, and bilateral pleural effusion due to ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Treatment included non-invasive ventilation and three thoracentesis procedures, plus the administration of albumin, colloid solutions and high-dose furosemid. Severe form of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is observed in 0.5-5% of the women treated, and intensive care may be required for management of thromboembolic complications, renal failure and severe respiratory failure. Pulmonary intensive care may involve thoracentesis, oxygen supplementation and, in more severe cases, assisted ventilation. To our knowledge, there have been only two studies in English language medical literature that describe severe respiratory failure treated with non

  10. Chinese herbal medicine for severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Liu, Jianping; Manheimer, Eric; Shi, Yi

    2004-01-01

    To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of Chinese herbal medicine for treating severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) systematically.......To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of Chinese herbal medicine for treating severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) systematically....

  11. Clustering of acute respiratory infection hospitalizations in childcare facilities

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Benn, Christine Stabell; Simonsen, Jacob;

    2010-01-01

    To estimate how risk of acute respiratory infection (ARI) hospitalization in children attending childcare facilities with a recently (within 1 month) hospitalized child is affected by gender, age and other characteristics.......To estimate how risk of acute respiratory infection (ARI) hospitalization in children attending childcare facilities with a recently (within 1 month) hospitalized child is affected by gender, age and other characteristics....

  12. A new sampler for simulating aerosol deposition in the respiratory tract

    LI Dehong; ZHUO Weihai; YI Yanling; CHEN Bo; LIU Haikuan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract For estimation of the deposition fractions of radon progeny in different regions of the respiratory tract, a new sampler consisting of three different configurations of sampling heads was developed. The deposition fractions of aerosols on the wire screens inside the sampling heads were calculated with the fan model of filtration theory. The deposition fractions of aerosols in different regions of the respiratory tract were calculated with the lung dose evaluation program (LUDEP (C)) developed by National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) as References. In general indoor and mine environments, the deviation between the deposition fractions of attached aerosol on the wire screens designed in this study and its reference values in the respiratory tract is less than 5%. It is possible to accurately estimate the deposition fractions of radon progeny in different regions of the respiratory tract through mimic measurements of radon progeny collected with the new sampler.

  13. Antibiotic prescriptions for suspected respiratory tract infection in primary care in South America

    Cordoba, Gloria; Caballero, Lidia; Sandholdt, Håkon

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe and compare antibiotic prescribing patterns for primary care patients with respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in four South American countries. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study. General practitioners (GPs) from Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay r...

  14. Antibiotics for respiratory, ear and urinary tract disorders and consistency among GPs.

    Ong, D.S.Y.; Kuyvenhoven, M.M.; Dijk, L. van; Verheij, T.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To describe specific diagnoses for which systemic antibiotics are prescribed, to assess adherence of antibiotic choice to national guidelines and to assess consistency among general practitioners (GPs) in prescribed volumes of antibiotics for respiratory, ear and urinary tract disorders.

  15. Systematic review of the epidemiology literature on formaldehyde and cancers of the upper respiratory tract

    Background: EPA is currently drafting a Toxicological Review of formaldehyde. As part of the comprehensive evaluation of potential hazards associated with exposure to formaldehyde, the potential hazards for cancers of the upper respiratory tract are being evaluated. We are aware ...

  16. Progress and perspectives in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Rotta, Alexandre Tellechea; Piva, Jefferson Pedro; Andreolio, Cinara; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow; Garcia, Pedro Celiny Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a disease of acute onset characterized by hypoxemia and infiltrates on chest radiographs that affects both adults and children of all ages. It is an important cause of respiratory failure in pediatric intensive care units and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, until recently, the definitions and diagnostic criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome have focused on the adult population. In this article, we review the evolution of the definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome over nearly five decades, with a special focus on the new pediatric definition. We also discuss recommendations for the implementation of mechanical ventilation strategies in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome in children and the use of adjuvant therapies.

  17. Impact of aging on allergy and mucosal immunity in upper respiratory tract

    Seyyed Abbas Hashemi; Seyyed Abdollah Madani; Saied Abediankenari

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Although age-associated alterations on immune system are well described and aging is a subject of different investigations but studies did not discuss about the effect of advanced age on immunity in upper respiratory tract disorders. Therefore in this trial, we elucidated how aging imposes allergic reactions and mucosal immune responses mediated by salivary IgA and serum Total IgE in patients suffered from upper respiratory tract diseases. Study Design: Experimental study. Place a...

  18. 急性心肌梗死患者主动脉内球囊反搏术后下呼吸道感染风险及与预后关系%Risk factors for lower respiratory tract infection and its relation to prognosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction received intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation

    谢江; 牛丽丽; 崔俊玉; 谭琛

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To explore the risk factors for lower respiratory tract infection in patients with acute myo-cardial infarction (AMI) complicated with cardiogenic shock treated by intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) counterpul-sation,as well as its effect on prognosis. Methods:The risk factors for lower respiratory tract infection in 55 patients with AMI complicated with cardiogenic shock receiving IABP were analyzed logistically,and the effect of infection on prognosis was evaluated. Results: With treatment of IABP,43. 6% of the patients developed lower respiratory tract infection. The chance of developing the infection was higher in patients experienced invasive ventilation, blood transfusion, deep vein catheterization and lack of prophylactic use of antibiotics (P<0. 05). The mortality was higher in patients with infection than those without infection (75. 0% vs 38. 7%,P=0. 007). Cardiogenic shock, septic shock and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome were the main causes of death for patients with infections. Conclusion; Invasive ventilation, deep vein catheterization and blood transfusion are positively associated with lower respiratory tract infection, while prophylactic administration of antibiotics may reduce respiratory tract infections.%目的:探讨主动脉内球囊反搏(IABP)救治的急性心肌梗死(AMI)心源性休克患者发生下呼吸道感染的危险因素及对预后的影响.方法:回顾55例接受IABP治疗的AMI心源性休克患者,Logistic回归分析住院期间下呼吸道感染的危险因素,评估感染对预后的影响.结果:43.6% IABP治疗的AMI心源性休克患者发生下呼吸道感染,有创机械通气、输血(血液制品)、未预防性使用抗生素、深静脉置管者发生感染的机会比较大(P<0.05).感染患者病死率明显高于非感染者(75.0% vs 38.7%,P=0.007);心源性休克、感染性休克和多器官功能不全是下呼吸道感染患者主要的死因.结论:下呼吸道感染与有创通气

  19. Prone positioning in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Gibson, Kristy; Dufault, Marlene; Bergeron, Kathy

    2015-08-12

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a condition with a high morbidity and mortality rate, and treatment is often long and costly. Prone positioning is a rarely used intervention for patients with this syndrome, although research suggests it may be effective. A literature search was undertaken to examine the effects of prone positioning on oxygenation, morbidity and mortality in patients with ARDS. It revealed that prone positioning, when used with low tidal volume ventilation over an extended period, may reduce mortality rates in selected patients with severe ARDS. The selection of patients with severe ARDS for prone positioning should be done on a case-by-case basis to maximise benefits and minimise complications. Further research is required on the use of prone positioning in patients with severe ARDS to support or disclaim the therapy's use in practice, and to compare confounding variables such as ideal prone duration and mechanical versus manual pronation.

  20. Hospital admissions for lower respiratory tract infections among infants in the Canadian Arctic: a cohort study

    Banerji, Anna; Panzov, Val; Young, Michael; Robinson, Joan; Lee, Bonita; Moraes, Theo; Mamdani, Muhammad; Giles, B. Louise; Jiang, Depeng; Bisson, Danny; Dennis, Marguerite; Morel, Johanne; Hall, Judith; Hui, Charles; Paes, Bosco; Mahony, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is unknown whether this burden of disease of lower respiratory tract infections is comparable across the Canadian Arctic. The objectives of this surveillance study were to compare the rates of hospital admission for lower respiratory tract infection and the severity of infection across Arctic Canada, and to describe the responsible viruses. Methods: We performed a prospective multicentre surveillance study of infants less than 1 year of age admitted in 2009 with lower respiratory tract infection to all hospitals (5 regional, 4 tertiary) in the Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Nunavik to assess for regional differences. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were processed by means of a polymerase chain reaction respiratory viral panel, testing for 20 respiratory viruses and influenza A (H1N1). The role of coinfection was assessed by means of regression analysis for length of stay (short: 14 d). Outcomes compared included rates of lower respiratory tract infection, respiratory syncytial virus infection, transfer to tertiary hospital and severe lower respiratory tract infection (respiratory failure, intubation and mechanical ventilation, and/or cardiopulmonary resuscitation). Results: There were 348 admissions for lower respiratory tract infection in the population of interest in 2009. Rates of admission per 1000 live births varied significantly, from 39 in the Northwest Territories to 456 in Nunavik (p < 0.001). The rates of tertiary admissions and severe lower respiratory tract infection per 1000 live births in the Northwest Territories were 5.6 and 1.4, respectively, compared to 55.9 and 17.1, respectively, in Nunavut and 52.0 and 20.0, respectively, in Nunavik (p ≤ 0.001). Respiratory syncytial virus was the most common virus identified (124 cases [41.6% of those tested]), and coinfection was detected in 51 cases (41.1%) of infection with this virus. Longer length of stay was associated with coinfection (odds ratio [OR] 2.64) and underlying risk factors (OR

  1. Acute otitis media and respiratory viruses.

    Bulut, Yunus; Güven, Mehmet; Otlu, Bariş; Yenişehirli, Gülgün; Aladağ, Ibrahim; Eyibilen, Ahmet; Doğru, Salim

    2007-03-01

    The present study was performed to elucidate the clinical outcome, and etiology of acute otitis media (AOM) in children based on virologic and bacteriologic tests. The study group consisted of 120 children aged 6 to 144 months with AOM. Middle ear fluid (MEF) was tested for viral pathogens by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and for bacteria by gram-staining and culture. Clinical response was assessed on day 2 to 4, 11 to 13, 26 to 28. Respiratory viruses were isolated in 39 patients (32.5%). Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (46.5%) was the most common virus identified in MEF samples, followed by human rhinovirus (HRV) (25.6%), human coronavirus (HCV) (11.6%), influenza (IV) type A (9.3%), adenovirus type sub type A (AV) (4%), and parainfluenza (PIV) type -3 (2%) by RT-PCR. In total 69 bacterial species were isolated from 65 (54.8%) of 120 patients. Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) was the most frequently isolated bacteria. Viral RNA was detected in 31 (56.3%) of 55 bacteria-negative specimens and in 8 (12.3%) of 65 bacteria-positive MEF samples. No significant differences were found between children representing viral infection alone, combined viral and bacterial infection, bacterial infection alone, and neither viral nor bacterial infection, regarding clinical cure, relapse and reinfection rates. A significantly higher rate of secretory otitis media (SOM) was observed in alone or combined RSV infection with S. pneumonia or Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) than in other viruses infection. Conclusion. This study provides information about etiologic agents and diagnosis of AOM in Turkish children. The findings highlight the importance of common respiratory viruses and bacterial pathogens, particularly RSV, HRV, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, in predisposing to and causing AOM in children.

  2. Pathogenesis of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    A. M. Golubev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is a common complication of many diseases. Its polyetiological pattern determines the specific features of lung morphological changes and the clinical course of ARDS. Objective: to analyze the pathogenesis of ARDS in the context of the general pathological processes underlying its development. Material and methods. More than 200 lungs from the people who had died from severe concomitant injury or ARDS-complicated pneumonia were investigated. More than 150 rat experiments simulated various types of lung injury: ventilator-induced lung injury with different ventilation parameters; reperfusion injuries (systemic circulation blockade due to 12-minute vascular fascicle ligation, followed by the recovery of cardiac performance and breathing; microcirculatory disorder (injection of a thromboplastin solution into the jugular vein; blood loss; betaine-pepsin aspiration; and closed chest injury. Different parts of the right and left lungs were histologically examined 1 and 3 hours and 1 and 3 days after initiation of the experiment. Lung pieces were fixed in 10% neutral formalin solution and embedded in paraffin. Histological sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and using the van Gieson and Weigert procedures; the Schiff test was used. Results. The influence of aggression factors (trauma, blood loss, aspiration, infection, etc. results in damage to the lung and particularly air-blood barrier structures (endothelium, alveolar epithelium, their basement membrane. In turn the alteration of cellular and extracellular structures is followed by the increased permeability of hemomicrocirculatory bed vessels, leading to the development of non-cardiogenic (interstitial, alveolar pulmonary edema that is a central component in the pathogenesis of ARDS. Conclusion. The diagnosis of the early manifestations of ARDS must account for the nature of an aggression factor, the signs confirming the alteration of the lung

  3. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Obstetric Patients

    S. V. Galushka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the specific features of the course of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in puer-peras with a complicated postpartum period. Subjects and methods. Sixty-seven puerperas with ARDS were examined. Group 1 included 27 puerperas with postpartum ARDS; Group 2 comprised 10 puerperas who had been treated in an intensive care and died; Group 3 consisted of nonobstetric patients with ARDS of various genesis (a control group. Results. In obstetric patients, the baseline oxygenation index was significantly lower than that in the control group. However, Group 1 patients showed a rapid increase in PaO2/FiO2 on days 3—4 of treatment. In the control group, the changes occurred later — on days 5—6. The baseline alveolar-arterial oxygen difference was significantly higher in the obstetric patients than that in the controls. In Group 1, AaDpO2 drastically decreased on days 3—4, which took place in parallel with an increase in the oxygenation index. At the beginning of the study, pulmonary shunting was high in the group of survivors, deceased, and controls. In Group 1, the shunting decreased on days 3—4 whereas in the control group this index normalized later — only by days 6—7. In Group 1, compliance remained lower throughout the observation, but on day 7 there was a significant difference in this index between the deceased, survivors, and controls. Conclusion. Thus, more severe baseline pulmonary gas exchange abnormalities are observed in obstetric patients than in general surgical and traumatological patients; the oxygenation index, alveolar-arterial oxygen difference, and pulmonary shunting index more rapidly change in patients with severe obstetric disease in its favorable course than in general surgical and traumatological patients; throughout the observation, thoracopulmonary compliance was less in obstetric patients than in the controls. Key words: acute respiratory distress syndrome, puerperium.

  4. Analysis of antibiotic consumption for treating respiratory tract infections in children and compliance with the national clinical guidelines

    Lakić Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Respiratory infections are the most common infections in children. The aims of the study were to analyze the use of antibiotics for respiratory infections in the period 2008 - 2010 in children’s population in region of Niš and to estimate the rational use of antibiotics in relation to the recommendations of the National Guidelines for physicians in primary care. Material and methods. Data source was a Pharmacy Niš database. Antibiotics prescriptions were selected for the following diagnoses: H65-H75 (acute otitis media, mastoiditis, J01 (acute sinusitis, J02-J03 (tonsillopharyngitis, J12-J18 (community acquired pneumonia, J20 (acute bronchitis, J32 (chronic sinusitis, J42 (chronic bronchitis. Antibiotic consumption was expressed in defined daily dose/1000 inhabitants/day. Results. The most widely prescribed antibiotic for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections in children during the three years was amoxicillin (34.63; 32.50 and 31.00 defined daily dose/1000 inhabitants/day in 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively. In the treatment of infections of the middle ear and mastoid, the combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, was the most prescribed antibiotics (60% of total consumption of antibiotics for this indication. Azithromycin was the most widely prescribed antibiotic for the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections in children during the observed period (6.92; 8.20 and 7.18 defined daily dose/1000 inhabitans/day in 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively. Conclusion. Recommendations of national guidelines are not complied with the treatment of upper and lower respiratory infections in the children population in region of Niš. This could be a sign of potentially irrational use of antibiotics that need to be further examined. Education of physicians can influence irrational use of antibiotics.

  5. Viral and Bacterial Interactions in the Upper Respiratory Tract

    Bosch, Astrid A. T. M.; Biesbroek, Giske; Trzcinski, Krzysztof; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Bogaert, Debby

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory infectious diseases are mainly caused by viruses or bacteria that often interact with one another. Although their presence is a prerequisite for subsequent infections, viruses and bacteria may be present in the nasopharynx without causing any respiratory symptoms. The upper respiratory t

  6. Prone ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Claude Guérin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prone positioning has been used for many years in patients with acute lung injury (ALI/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, with no clear benefit for patient outcome. Meta-analyses have suggested better survival in patients with an arterial oxygen tension (PaO2/inspiratory oxygen fraction (FIO2 ratio <100 mmHg. A recent randomised controlled trial was performed in ARDS patients after a 12–24 h stabilisation period and severity criteria (PaO2/FIO2 <150 mmHg at a positive end-expiratory pressure ≥5 cmH2O. This trial has demonstrated a significant reduction in mortality from 32.8% in the supine group to 16% in the prone group (p<0.001. The reasons for this dramatic effect are not clear but probably involves a reduction in ventilator-induced lung injury due to prone positioning, for which there is ample evidence in experimental and clinical studies. The aims of this article are to discuss: the rationale of prone positioning in patients with ALI/ARDS; the evidence of its use based on trial analysis; and the limitations of its use as well as the current place of prone positioning in the management of patients with ALI/ARDS. From the currently available data, prone positioning should be used as a first-line therapy in patients with severe ALI/ARDS.

  7. Boussignac CPAP in acute respiratory failure

    Federico Lari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP is one of the most important therapeutic interventions used in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF secondary to acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE. Thanks to its positive effects on both hemodynamics and ventilation, CPAP improves clinical and blood-gas parameters. Compared with standard oxygen therapy, use of CPAP is associated with decreased mortality and reduced need for intubation in these patients. Aim of the study: This review examines the principles of CPAP, techniques and equipment used to deliver it, and clinical applications. Special emphasis is placed on CPAP delivered with the Boussignac device. Discussion and conclusions: In emergency departments, this simple, lightweight, disposable device has proved to be well tolerated and similar to Venturi-like flow generators in terms of effectiveness. These findings suggest that Boussignac CPAP might be useful for managing ARF in non-critical care areas where other more complicated CPAP equipment (Venturi-like flow generators and ventilators are not available (for example, in general medical wards.

  8. Acute respiratory distress in a silversmith

    Parikh, Jignesh Mukeshkumar; Dhareshwar, Shashank; Sharma, Anand; Karanth, Raghuveer; Ramkumar, V. S.; Ramaiah, Indira

    2014-01-01

    A 25-year-old young male patient presented in casualty department with severe respiratory distress on the fourth day from onset of symptoms. The patient was nonsmoker and had no antecedent medical or drug history. Prior to admission, patient had dry cough and bilateral pleuritic chest pain for the last three days. He was in severe respiratory distress with use of accessory muscles of respiration. On examination, he had heart rate of 120 beats/min, blood pressure (BP) of 150/80, respiratory rate of 48-52/min and central cyanosis present. On systemic examination, reduced intensity of breath sounds with extensive rhonchi and crepitation was found in both lung fields, with other examination being within normal limits. On pulse oximetry, oxygen saturation was 28% on room air, which increased up to 36% with the help of 4 L oxygen via nasal prongs. PaO2/FiO2 ratio was 100. Chest X-ray analysis was suggestive of non-cardiac pulmonary edema in view of bilateral fluffy opacity without cardiomegaly. In view of 2/3 positive criteria, his provisional diagnosis was Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). He required mechanical ventilatory support and was gradually weaned over a period of 10 days. The patient was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics and other supportive measures. On re-evaluation of history, we found that he was a goldsmith by occupation, smelting silver and gold for the past 8-10 years. On the day of onset of symptoms, while smelting silver he was exposed to golden yellow fumes for around 15 minutes, with the quantum of exposure more than any other day earlier. From previous experience and analysis of similar silver metals, he was able to tell us that the silver was adulterated with large amount of cadmium on that day than before. Serum level of cadmium was 2.9 μg/L 6 days after initial exposure. At the time of discharge, he had residual opacities in the chest radiograph and resting oxygen saturation was 94% on room air. PMID:25006313

  9. Acute respiratory distress in a silversmith

    Jignesh Mukeshkumar Parikh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 25-year-old young male patient presented in casualty department with severe respiratory distress on the fourth day from onset of symptoms. The patient was nonsmoker and had no antecedent medical or drug history. Prior to admission, patient had dry cough and bilateral pleuritic chest pain for the last three days. He was in severe respiratory distress with use of accessory muscles of respiration. On examination, he had heart rate of 120 beats/min, blood pressure (BP of 150/80, respiratory rate of 48-52/min and central cyanosis present. On systemic examination, reduced intensity of breath sounds with extensive rhonchi and crepitation was found in both lung fields, with other examination being within normal limits. On pulse oximetry, oxygen saturation was 28% on room air, which increased up to 36% with the help of 4 L oxygen via nasal prongs. PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio was 100. Chest X-ray analysis was suggestive of non-cardiac pulmonary edema in view of bilateral fluffy opacity without cardiomegaly. In view of 2/3 positive criteria, his provisional diagnosis was Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS. He required mechanical ventilatory support and was gradually weaned over a period of 10 days. The patient was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics and other supportive measures. On re-evaluation of history, we found that he was a goldsmith by occupation, smelting silver and gold for the past 8-10 years. On the day of onset of symptoms, while smelting silver he was exposed to golden yellow fumes for around 15 minutes, with the quantum of exposure more than any other day earlier. From previous experience and analysis of similar silver metals, he was able to tell us that the silver was adulterated with large amount of cadmium on that day than before. Serum level of cadmium was 2.9 μg/L 6 days after initial exposure. At the time of discharge, he had residual opacities in the chest radiograph and resting oxygen saturation was 94% on room air.

  10. Clinical features of probable severe acute respiratory syndrome in Beijing

    Hai-Ying Lu; Xiao-Yuan Xu; Yu Lei; Yang-Feng Wu; Bo-Wen Chen; Feng Xiao; Gao-Qiang Xie; De-Min Han

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To summarize clinical features of probable severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Beijing.METHODS: Retrospective cases involving 801 patients admitted to hospitals in Beijing between March and June 2003, with a diagnosis of probable SARS, moderate type.The series of clinical manifestation, laboratory and radiograph data obtained from 801 cases were analyzed. RESULTS: One to three days after the onset of SARS, the major clinical symptoms were fever (in 88.14% of patients), fatigue, headache, myalgia, arthralgia (25-36%), etc. The counts of WBC (in 22.56% of patients) lymphocyte (70.25%)and CD3, CD4, CD8 positive T cells (70%) decreased. From 4-7 d, the unspecific symptoms became weak; however, the rates of low respiratory tract symptoms, such as cough (24.18%), sputum production (14.26%), chest distress (21.04%) and shortness of breath (9.23%) increased, so did the abnormal rates on chest radiograph or CT. The low counts of WBC, lymphocyte and CD3, CD4, CD8 positiveT cells touched bottom. From 8 to 16 d, the patients presented progressive cough (29.96%), sputum production (13.09%), chest distress (29.96%) and shortness of breath (35.34%). All patients had infiltrates on chest radiograph or CT, some even with multi-infiltrates. Two weeks later, patients' respiratory symptoms started to alleviate, the infiltrates on the lung began to absorb gradually, the counts of WBC, lymphocyte and CD3, CD4, CD8 positive T cells were restored to normality.CONCLUSION: The data reported here provide evidence that the course of SARS could be divided into four stages, namely the initial stage, progressive stage, fastigium and convalescent stage.

  11. [The current problems of diagnostics and expertise of occupational diseases of the upper respiratory tract].

    Pankova, V B

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to systematize the main etiological factors as well as specific clinical, morphological, immunological, and microbiological features characteristic of the development of pathogenic changes in nasal cavity mucosa associated with occupational diseases of the upper respiratory tract (URT) of the subjects professionally exposed to the inhaled industrial aerosols (IA) with the special emphasis laid on the role of URT disorders in the development of occupational pathology of the respiratory system. The main clinical forms of occupational diseases of the upper respiratory tract are considered in accordance with the List of occupational diseases. Much attention is given to the criteria for the occupational origin of dystrophic and allergic diseases of the upper respiratory tract developing under the action of industrial aerosols.

  12. Respiratory support for severe acute respiratory syndrome: integration of efficacy and safety

    WANG Chen; CAO Zhi-xin

    2005-01-01

    @@ Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an acute respiratory illness caused by infection with the SARS virus. The most obvious clinical characteristic of SARS is rapidly progressive pneumonia, and about 20% patients need intensive care due to acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).1-3 In the absence of effective drugs for SARS, supportive care, especially respiratory support techniques (RSTs), is of primary importance. On the other hand, offering RSTs to SARS patients may carry a high-risk of infection to healthcare workers because of the high infectivity of SARS. Therefore, the strategy of RSTs for SARS should be the integration of efficacy and safety. In this issue of the Chinese Medical Journal, an article from Hong Kong has retrospectively compared both the safety and efficacy of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) with that of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in the treatment of respiratory failure in SARS.

  13. The effect of vitamin D on lower respiratory tract infections in children

    Şişmanlar, Tuğba; Aslan, Ayşe Tana; Gülbahar, Özlem; Özkan, Seçil

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Lower respiratory tract infections including mainly pneumonia represent an important public health problem leading to high mortality and mobidity rates in children aged below five years in developing countries including our country. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk of rickets/osteomalacia, various cancers, autoimmune diseases, hyperproliferative skin diseases, cardiovascular system diseases and infectious diseases. Vitamin D has an important role in cellular and humoral immunity and pulmonary functions. Vitamin D deficiency and lower respiratory tract infection are common health problems in children in our country and no clinical study investigating the relationship between these problems has been conducted so far. In this case-control study, we aimed to assess the association between vitamin D level and lower respiratory tract infection in children. Material and Methods: Sixty-three children aged between six months and five years with lower respiratory infections and 59 age-matched children who had no history of respiratory symptoms in the last month and no accompanying chronic disease were compared in terms of vitamin D levels. The children in the patient group were also evaluated by the clinical picture. Results: No significant correlation was found between vitamin D levels and lower respiratory tract infection in terms of disease and its severity. However, it was found that vitamin D deficiency/ insufficiency was observed with a high rate in all children included in the study. Conclusions: Although no correlation was found between vitamin D level and lower respiratory tract infection, it is recommended that vitamin D level should be measured in children with lower respiratory tract infection and vitamin D supplementation should be given to all children especially in winter months based on the fact that the level of vitamin D was lower than normal in approximately half of the children included in the study and considering the

  14. Distribution of respiratory viruses which cause lower respiratory tract infection in pediatric age group

    Selim Dereci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the appropriate treatment regimen and the clinical course of the lower respiratory tract infections( RTI s and to detect the common viral causes of lower RTI s. Methods: The present study included a total of 255 pediatric patients aged less than 7 years old and admitted to the Department of Pediatrics of Rize Training and Research Hospital between January 2014 and January 2015 with clinical pre-diagnosis of lower RTI . Nasopharyngeal swab specimens collected from these patients were tested for viral pathogens by using multiplex RT- PCR kit the ResPlex II plus Panel PRE (Qiagen, Germany. Results: A total of 212 out of 255 (83.1% specimens revealed positive for one or more viral pathogens. The most common detected pathogens were respiratory syncytial virus ( RSV A/B in 110 samples (43.1%, rhinovirus in 51 samples (20.0%, adenovirus in 36 samples (14.1%, influenzae virus A in 32 samples (12.5%, and coronavirus in 24 samples (9.4%. In 76 samples (29.8%, more than one viral pathogen were detected. RSV was seen in more than 50% patients in the first 2 years. RSV was the most common pathogen in each year of the first 5 years but rhinovirus, influenza A and adenovirus were seen more than RSV after the fifth year. A total of 95.8% of the viral detections were seen between November and April without a significant peak amongst these months. The distribution of the pathogens by months of the year showed no significance. Conclusions: These findings can contribute to epidemiological data of Turkey. Detection of the viral pathogens causing lower RTIs can be critical in management of the disease, decrease inappropriate antibiotic treatment, and lower the morbidity and mortality rates in such diseases.

  15. Distribution of respiratory viruses which cause lower respiratory tract infection in pediatric age group

    Selim Dereci; Ayegl opur iek; Serdar zkasap; Muhammed Ali Mutlu; Sema Kocyiit; Kazm ahin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the appropriate treatment regimen and the clinical course of the lower respiratory tract infections(RTIs) and to detect the common viral causes of lowerRTIs. Methods:The present study included a total of 255 pediatric patients aged less than 7 years old and admitted to the Department of Pediatrics of Rize Training and Research Hospital between January 2014 and January 2015 with clinical pre-diagnosis of lowerRTI. Nasopharyngeal swab specimens collected from these patients were tested for viral pathogens by using multiplexRT-PCR kit the ResPlex II plus PanelPRE (Qiagen, Germany). Results: A total of 212 out of 255 (83.1%) specimens revealed positive for one or more viral pathogens. The most common detected pathogens were respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) A/B in 110 samples (43.1%), rhinovirus in 51 samples (20.0%), adenovirus in 36 samples (14.1%), influenzae virus A in 32 samples (12.5%), and coronavirus in 24 samples (9.4%). In 76 samples (29.8%), more than one viral pathogen were detected.RSV was seen in more than 50% patients in the first 2 years.RSV was the most common pathogen in each year of the first 5 years but rhinovirus, influenza A and adenovirus were seen more thanRSV after the fifth year. A total of 95.8% of the viral detections were seen between November and April without a significant peak amongst these months. The distribution of the pathogens by months of the year showed no significance. Conclusions:These findings can contribute to epidemiological data of Turkey. Detection of the viral pathogens causing lowerRTIscan be critical in management of the disease, decrease inappropriate antibiotic treatment, and lower the morbidity and mortality rates in such diseases.

  16. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: epidemiology and management approaches

    Walkey AJ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Allan J Walkey,1 Ross Summer,1 Vu Ho,1 Philip Alkana21The Pulmonary Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 2Asthma Research Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Acute lung injury and the more severe acute respiratory distress syndrome represent a spectrum of lung disease characterized by the sudden onset of inflammatory pulmonary edema secondary to myriad local or systemic insults. The present article provides a review of current evidence in the epidemiology and treatment of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, with a focus on significant knowledge gaps that may be addressed through epidemiologic methods.Keywords: acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, review, epidemiology

  17. BACTERIAL PROFILE, ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY AND RESISTANCE OF LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS IN UPPER EGYPT

    Gamal Agmy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI account for a considerable proportion of morbidity and antibiotic use. We aimed to identify the causative bacteria, antibiotic sensitivity and resistance of hospitalized adult patients due to LRTI in Upper Egypt. METHODS: A multicentre prospective study was performed at 3 University Hospitals for 3 years. Samples included sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL for staining and culture, and serum for serology. Samples were cultured on 3 bacteriological media (Nutrient, Chocolate ,MacConkey's agars.Colonies were identified via MicroScan WalkAway-96. Pneumoslide IgM kit was used for detection of atypical pathogens via indirect immunofluorescent assay. RESULTS: The predominant isolates in 360 patients with CAP were S.pneumoniae (36%, C. pneumoniae (18%, and M. pneumoniae (12%. A higher sensitivity was recorded for moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, macrolides, and cefepime. A higher of resistance was recorded for doxycycline, cephalosporins, and β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitors. The predominant isolates in 318 patients with HAP were, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; MRSA (23%, K. pneumoniae (14%, and polymicrobial in 12%. A higher sensitivity was recorded for vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, and moxifloxacin. Very high resistance was recorded for β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitors and cephalosporins. The predominant organisms in 376 patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (AECOPD were H. influnzae (30%, S. pneumoniae (25%, and M. catarrhalis(18%. A higher sensitivity was recorded for moxifloxacin, macrolides and cefepime. A higher rate of resistance was recorded for aminoglycosides and cephalosporins CONCLUSIONS: The most predominant bacteria for CAP in Upper Egypt are S. pneumoniae and atypical organisms, while that for HAP are MRSA and Gram negative bacteria. For acute exacerbation of COPD,H.influnzae was the commonest organism. Respiratory quinolones

  18. Mucosal immunity and upper respiratory tract symptoms in recreational endurance runners.

    Ihalainen, Johanna K; Schumann, Moritz; Häkkinen, Keijo; Mero, Antti A

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of a 12-week endurance-training intervention on salivary proteins and upper respiratory tract symptoms (URS) in 25 young men. Saliva samples of 25 recreational male endurance runners (age 34.6 years, body mass index = 23.8 kg·m(-2), peak aerobic capacity = 47.2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were collected before (PRE) and after (POST) the training intervention, in a fasting state, as well as both before and after a maximal incremental treadmill run. The training consisted of both continuous and interval training sessions, 4-6 times per week based on the polarized training approach. Participants filled in Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 and were retrospectively divided into 2 groups according to whether they reported URS (URS group, n = 13) or not (HEALTHY group, n = 12). Basal salivary immunoglobulin A (sa-sIgA) levels were significantly higher (+70%, p < 0.05) in the HEALTHY group both at PRE and POST whereas no significant differences were observed in salivary immunoglobulin M, salivary immunoglobulin G, lysozyme, or salivary α-amylase activity (sAA). Sa-sIgA concentration at PRE significantly correlated with the number of sick-days (R = -0.755, p < 0.001) in all subjects. The incremental treadmill run acutely increased sAA significantly (p < 0.05) at PRE (200%) and POST (166%) in the HEALTHY group but not in the URS group. This study demonstrated that subjects, who experienced URS during the 12 weeks of progressive endurance training intervention, had significantly lower basal sa-sIgA levels both before and after the experimental endurance training period. In addition to sa-sIgA, acute sAA response to exercise might be a possible determinant of susceptibility to URS in endurance runners.

  19. 抗菌药物专项整治活动对某院急诊急性上呼吸道感染患者抗菌药物使用情况的影响%The change in the application of antimicrobial agent in emergency patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection before and after the special rectification activity of antibacterial drugs

    李建伟; 周子君

    2013-01-01

      目的:了解卫生部抗菌药物专项整治活动对某院急诊急性上呼吸道感染患者抗菌药物使用状况的影响。方法:回顾性分析2010年7月-2011年6月(整治前)和2011年7月-2012年6月(整治后)某院急诊急性上呼吸道感染全部病例在整治活动前后抗菌药物应用情况的差异。结果:整治后上呼吸道感染患者的每次抗菌药费用占总费用的比例由95.59%下降到78.99%;抗菌药物品种及类别结构得到优化和调整;不合理用药比例由20.25%下降到13.54%。结论:整治活动后抗菌药物应用指征的掌握有所改进;用药指标有所改进;抗菌药物使用剂量与用法不合理现象仍需改善。抗菌药物整治活动在该院取得了一定的效果,有效地促进了抗菌药物合理使用。%Objective: To investigate the effect of antibiotic in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection in emergency department of the hospital, the special rectification activity was carried out by the Ministry of Health. Methods: This paper analyzed the differences of the application of antibiotic in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection in emergency department of the hospital, from July 2010 to June 2011 retrospectively before and after the rectification activity. The intervention effect was analyzed and evaluated. Results: The proportion of per costs of antibiotic to total costs in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection came down from 95.59% to 78.99% after the rectification activity. The product and the category of antimicrobial agent were improved. The rate of irrational antibiotic application came down from 20.25% to 13.54%. Conclusion: The management improves the application of antibiotic. The evaluative indicators of antibiotic have been improved. However, after the activity, the dosage and usage of antibiotic is still unreasonable. In the antibiotic rectification activity, the hospital has attained some

  20. Non-invasive versus invasive mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure in severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Loretta YC Yam; Alfred YF Chan; Thomas MT Cheung; Eva LH Tsui; Jane CK Chan; Vivian CW Wong

    2005-01-01

    Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome is frequently complicated by respiratory failure requiring ventilatory support. We aimed to compare the efficacy of non-invasive ventilation against invasive mechanical ventilation treating respiratory failure in this disease. Methods Retrospective analysis was conducted on all respiratory failure patients identified from the Hong Kong Hospital Authority Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Database. Intubation rate, mortality and secondary outcome of a hospital utilizing non-invasive ventilation under standard infection control conditions (NIV Hospital) were compared against 13 hospitals using solely invasive ventilation (IMV Hospitals). Multiple logistic regression analyses with adjustments for confounding variables were performed to test for association between outcomes and hospital groups. Results Both hospital groups had comparable demographics and clinical profiles, but NIV Hospital (42 patients) had higher lactate dehydrogenase ratio and worse radiographic score on admission and ribavirin-corticosteroid commencement. Compared to IMV Hospitals (451 patients), NIV Hospital had lower adjusted odds ratios for intubation (0.36, 95% CI 0.164-0.791, P=0.011) and death (0.235, 95% CI 0.077-0.716, P=0.011), and improved earlier after pulsed steroid rescue. There were no instances of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome among health care workers due to the use of non-invasive ventilation.Conclusion Compared to invasive mechanical ventilation, non-invasive ventilation as initial ventilatory support for acute respiratory failure in the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome appeared to be associated with reduced intubation need and mortality.

  1. [Kinetic therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    Chechenin, M G; Voevodin, S V; Pronichev, E Iu; Shuliveĭstrov, Iu V

    2004-01-01

    The authors evaluated the clinical and physiological effects of kinetic therapy (KT) in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Forty-six patients with ARDS underwent successive postural positioning in accordance with two regimens: 1) lateral, prone, contralateral, supine positions; 2) prone, lateral, contralateral, supine positions. The criterion for changing each position was the change in monitoring indices: SpO2, PaO2, and thoracopulmonary compliance (C). KT was performed until a respirator was withdrawn from the patient. In 25 patients, each maneuver of positioning was made during 30-minute propofol sedation. The control group included 24 patients with ARDS who received neither KT nor propofol sedation. KT caused a decrease in Vd/Vt, Qs/Qt and an increase in PaO2/FiO2 and C was more intensive, as compared with the control group. The duration of the patient's prone position was 3.2-0.7 hours and that of the supine position was 3.4-0.8 hours. The right and left lateral positions lasted 1.1-0.2 and 1.3-0.2 hours, respectively. KT regimen 1 was found to be more effective than KT regimen 2. Propofol sedation enhanced the efficiency of KT. The latter reduced death rates in patients with ARDS.

  2. Pathological study on severe acute respiratory syndrome

    郎振为; 张立洁; 张世杰; 孟忻; 李俊强; 宋晨朝; 孙琳; 周育森

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the pathological characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and its relationship to clinical manifestation. Methods Tissue specimens from 3 autopsies of probable SARS cases were studied by microscope, and the clinical data was reviewed.Results The typical pathological changes of lungs were diffuse hemorrhaging on the surface. A combination of serous, fibrinous and hemorrhagic inflammation was seen in most of the pulmonary alveoli with the engorgement of capillaries and detection of micro-thrombosis in some of these capillaries. Pulmonary alveoli thickened with interstitial mononuclear inflammatory infiltrates, suffered diffuse alveolar damage, experienced desquamation of pneumocytes and had hyaline-membrane formation, fibrinoid materials, and erythrocytes in alveolar spaces. There were thromboembolisms in some bronchial arteries. Furthermore, hemorrhagic necrosis was also evident in lymph nodes and spleen with the attenuation of lymphocytes. Other atypical pathological changes, such as hydropic degeneration, fatty degeneration, interstitial cell proliferation and lesions having existed before hospitalization were observed in the liver, heart, kidney and pancreas.Conclusion Severe damage to the pulmonary and immunological systems is responsible for the clinical features of SARS and may lead to the death of patients.

  3. ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISEASE AS THE DEBUT OF SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

    A. Yu. Ischenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus — a chronic autoimmune disease that is often associated with infectious processes. The paper presents two clinical cases of systemic lupus erythematosus , debuted with acute respiratory infection.

  4. Detection and analysis of rhinovirus in acute upper respiratory tract infections in Shenzhen area from 2011 to 2012%深圳地区2011~2012年急性上呼吸道感染鼻病毒检测分析

    余光清; 黄运美; 茌静; 雷蕾; 张震文

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解深圳地区急性上呼吸道感染患者中的鼻病毒感染状况及流行特征. 方法 采用实时荧光定量PCR法,对采集深圳市宝安区人民医院635份咽拭子样本进行鼻病毒检测. 结果 2011~2012年急性上呼吸道感染患者鼻病毒的阳性率为18.27%(116/635),HRV感染主要集中在7岁以下儿童,占64.66% (75/116),其中幼儿检出率最高,其次婴儿和学龄前儿童.HRV主要在春、夏、秋季检出,冬季检出较少. 结论 鼻病毒是深圳地区急性上呼吸道感染患者的主要病原体,随着季节和年龄的不同而具有一定的流行规律.%Objective To investigate the epidemiological features of the human rhinovirus (HRV)in acute upper respiratory tract infections in Shenzhen.Methods Rhinovirus was detected in 635 clinical swabs by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR.Results The positie rate of HRV was 18.27% (116/635),most cases (64.66%)were under 7 years old,the detection rate of human rhinovirus in young child was higher,followed by infants and preschool child.The infection rate of human rhinovirus in Spring,Summer and Autumn was significantly higher than that in Winter.Conclusions Human rhinovirus is one of the most important pathogens for acute upper respiratory tract infection in Shenzhen area,showing seasonal feature3s and mainly infect children under 7 years old.

  5. Acute effects of winter air pollution on respiratory health

    Zee, van der S.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis, acute respiratory health effects of exposure to winter air pollution are investigated in panels of children (7-11 yr) and adults (50-70 yr) with and without chronic respiratory symptoms, living in urban and non-urban areas in the Netherlands. The study was performed during three cons

  6. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Prevention in Taiwan

    Liu, Hsueh-Erh

    2004-01-01

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a newly identified respiratory disease that threatened Taiwan between April 14 and July 5, 2003. Chang Gung University experienced various SARS-related episodes, such as the postponement of classes for 7 days, the reporting of probable SARS cases, and the isolation of students under Level A and B…

  7. Detection of respiratory viruses and the associated chemokine responses in serious acute respiratory illness

    Sumino, Kaharu C.; Walter, Michael J.; Mikols, Cassandra L.; Thompson, Samantha A.; Gaudreault-Keener, Monique; Arens, Max. Q.; Agapov, Eugene; Hormozdi, David; Gaynor, Anne M.; Holtzman, Michael J.; Storch, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Background A specific diagnosis of a lower respiratory viral infection is often difficult despite frequent clinical suspicion. This low diagnostic yield may be improved by use of sensitive detection methods and biomarkers. Methods We investigated the prevalence, clinical predictors and inflammatory mediator profile of respiratory viral infection in serious acute respiratory illness. Sequential bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids from all patients hospitalized with acute respiratory illness over 12 months (n=283) were tested for the presence of 17 respiratory viruses by multiplex PCR assay and for newly-discovered respiratory viruses (bocavirus, WU and KI polyomaviruses) by single-target PCR. BAL samples also underwent conventional testing (direct immunoflorescence and viral culture) for respiratory virus at the clinician’s discretion. 27 inflammatory mediators were measured in subset of the patients (n=64) using a multiplex immunoassay. Results We detected 39 respiratory viruses in 37 (13.1% of total) patients by molecular testing, including rhinovirus (n=13), influenza virus (n=8), respiratory syncytial virus (n=6), human metapneumovirus (n=3), coronavirus NL63 (n=2), parainfluenza virus (n=2), adenovirus (n=1), and newly-discovered viruses (n=4). Molecular methods were 3.8-fold more sensitive than conventional methods. Clinical characteristics alone were insufficient to separate patients with and without respiratory virus. The presence of respiratory virus was associated with increased levels of interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP -10)(p<0.001) and eotaxin-1 (p=0.017) in BAL. Conclusions Respiratory viruses can be found in patients with serious acute respiratory illness by use of PCR assays more frequently than previously appreciated. IP-10 may be a useful biomarker for respiratory viral infection. PMID:20627924

  8. Aerosolized prostacyclin for acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

    Afshari, Arash; Brok, Jesper; Møller, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are critical conditions that are associated with high mortality and morbidity. Aerosolized prostacyclin has been used to improve oxygenation despite the limited evidence available so far.......Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are critical conditions that are associated with high mortality and morbidity. Aerosolized prostacyclin has been used to improve oxygenation despite the limited evidence available so far....

  9. Acute respiratory failure as a first manifestation of syringomyelia

    Al Bashapshe Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 40 year old woman presented with a short history of acute onset of breathlessness to the ER of our hospital and after initial evaluation for acute pulmonary embolism which was ruled out after carrying out the appropriate investigations, she was diagnosed to be afflicted with syringomyelia based on her neurological symptoms and clinical findings, which was confirmed by doing an MRI scan, which was her basic diagnosis that was complicated by acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. This case is being reported to highlight syringomyelia as an unusual cause of acute respiratory failure, which manifested clinically in this patient as its first presentation and the underlying neurological diagnosis has been found to be present in very few reported cases (less than 0.01% of case reports in the available literature as the basic disease in the absence of its classical presenting features. Problems associated with acute respiratory failure in the setting of syringomyelia are discussed.

  10. Non lineal respiratory systems mechanics simulation of acute respiratory distress syndrome during mechanical ventilation.

    Madorno, Matias; Rodriguez, Pablo O

    2010-01-01

    Model and simulation of biological systems help to better understand these systems. In ICUs patients often reach a complex situation where supportive maneuvers require special expertise. Among them, mechanical ventilation in patients suffering from acuter respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is specially challenging. This work presents a model which can be simulated and use to help in training of physicians and respiratory therapists to analyze the respiratory mechanics in this kind of patients. We validated the model in 2 ARDS patients.

  11. Respiratory muscle strength and muscle endurance are not affected by acute metabolic acidemia.

    Nizet, T.; Heijdra, Y.F.; Elshout, F.J.J. van den; Ven, M.J.T. van de; Bosch, F.H.; Mulder, P.H.M. de; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory muscle fatigue in asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) contributes to respiratory failure with hypercapnia, and subsequent respiratory acidosis. Therapeutic induction of acute metabolic acidosis further increases the respiratory drive and, therefore, may diminish ventilator

  12. Application of sequence-independent amplification to screen for potentially viral pathogens from clinical respiratory samples of children with acute respiratory tract infection of unknown etiology%应用序列非依赖扩增技术检测儿童呼吸道标本中潜在病毒病原体

    郭英; 钱渊; 段招军

    2012-01-01

    目的 应用序列非依赖扩增技术(sequence-independent amplification,SIA)检测常见病毒筛查阴性的5岁以下急性呼吸道感染患儿的呼吸道标本中可能存在的潜在病毒病原体,了解SIA扩增文库中各种背景核酸的组成.方法 随机选择45份常见病毒筛查阴性的5岁以下急性呼吸道感染患儿的鼻咽吸出物,0.45μm过滤和DNase/RNase处理去除病毒颗粒外的各种外源性核酸,再通过序列非依赖扩增技术对处理后的标本提取的核酸进行扩增,继而对扩增产物进行克隆、测序和BLAST比对.结果 测序403个克隆,获得有效序列368个,检出16个(16/368,4.3%)真核病毒同源序列,分别与Torque teno mini virus,Torque teno midi virus和Human bocavirus同源.此外,还检出1个真菌病毒( sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirulence associated DNA virus 1)同源序列和5个细菌病毒(噬菌体)同源序列.其余检出序列包含206个( 206/368,56.0%)与人基因组DNA同源的序列,11个(11/368,3.0%) rRNA同源序列,72个(72/368,19.6%)细菌同源序列,4个(4/368,1.1%)真菌同源序列,5个(5/368,1.4%)寄生虫同源序列,6个(6/368,1.6%)食源性序列,以及36个(36/368,9.8%)未能确定分类的序列.结论 核酸消化结合SIA方法可以检出常规检测方法所无法检出的潜在病毒病原体,本研究为后续系统性的查找和监测未知病毒提供了基础.%Objective Application of sequence-independent amplification (SIA) to identify the potentially viral pathogens in the clinical respiratory samples of children with acute respiratory tract infection of unknown etiology and characterize the composition of various non-viral sequences in the library of SIA amplicons.Method 45 randomly selected pediatric nasopharyngeal aspirate(NPA) samples for which no causal agent could be identified by common viruses screening were subjected to filtration & DNase/RNase treatments to remove the non-viral nucleic acid and then followed by

  13. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: the Berlin Definition.

    Ranieri, V Marco; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Thompson, B Taylor; Ferguson, Niall D; Caldwell, Ellen; Fan, Eddy; Camporota, Luigi; Slutsky, Arthur S

    2012-06-20

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was defined in 1994 by the American-European Consensus Conference (AECC); since then, issues regarding the reliability and validity of this definition have emerged. Using a consensus process, a panel of experts convened in 2011 (an initiative of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine endorsed by the American Thoracic Society and the Society of Critical Care Medicine) developed the Berlin Definition, focusing on feasibility, reliability, validity, and objective evaluation of its performance. A draft definition proposed 3 mutually exclusive categories of ARDS based on degree of hypoxemia: mild (200 mm Hg Definition was empirically evaluated using patient-level meta-analysis of 4188 patients with ARDS from 4 multicenter clinical data sets and 269 patients with ARDS from 3 single-center data sets containing physiologic information. The 4 ancillary variables did not contribute to the predictive validity of severe ARDS for mortality and were removed from the definition. Using the Berlin Definition, stages of mild, moderate, and severe ARDS were associated with increased mortality (27%; 95% CI, 24%-30%; 32%; 95% CI, 29%-34%; and 45%; 95% CI, 42%-48%, respectively; P definition, the final Berlin Definition had better predictive validity for mortality, with an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.577 (95% CI, 0.561-0.593) vs 0.536 (95% CI, 0.520-0.553; P Definition for ARDS addresses a number of the limitations of the AECC definition. The approach of combining consensus discussions with empirical evaluation may serve as a model to create more accurate, evidence-based, critical illness syndrome definitions and to better inform clinical care, research, and health services planning.

  14. 儿童急性呼吸道感染肺炎支原体抗体检测结果分析%Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibody in children with acute respiratory tract infections

    郑曦

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究肺炎支原体(MP)感染发病率与季节、患儿年龄和性别的关系,了解MP流行趋势和致病特点,为临床诊断MP感染提供依据.方法 用被动凝集法检测呼吸道感染患儿血清中MP抗体(MP-Ab),并对2011年急性呼吸道感染患儿MP-Ab检测结果进行分析.结果 送检的5271份标本中有1603份检出阳性,阳性率为30.41%,其中MP-Ab检测滴度1:80的患儿所占比例最高为27.63%,滴度≥1:1280较少,占6.68%;MP感染的季节性明显,春季和冬季的检出率最高;在不同年龄组中,1~3岁组阳性率最高,为34.20%,其次是3~6岁组为31.25%,≥6岁组的阳性率最低为24.13%,各年龄组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);男、女性患儿阳性率分别为30.96%、29.42%,差异无统计学意义.结论 MP感染症状较轻,大多患儿预后良好;全年均可发病,其中以冬春季高发;1~6岁儿童为高危人群;男、女患儿感染机会相当.%OBJECTIVE To study the relationship between the incidence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection and the season,age and gender of patients in Xianning and understand the prevalence of MP and the pathogenic characteristics so as to provide basis for the clinical diagnosis of MP infection.METHODS The serum MP-Ab were detected in the patients with respiratory tract infections by passive agglutination,and the MP-Ab detection results were analyzed in 2011.RESULTS Of 5271 cases of specimens,1603 cases were detected positive with the positive rate of 30.41 %,the heist proportion was in the children with the titer of 1:80 (27.63%),the children with titer more than 1:1280 were less,accounting for 6.68%;the seasonal nature of MP infection was obvious,and the highest detection rate was in spring and winter;In different age groups,the highest positive rate was in the 1 to 3-year-old group (34.20%),followed by 3 to 6-year-old group (31.25%),and the more than 6-year-old group (24.13 %),the difference

  15. High flow nasal oxygen in acute respiratory failure.

    Ricard, J-D

    2012-07-01

    Use of high flow nasal cannula oxygen (HFNC) is increasingly popular in adult ICUs for patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. This is the result of the successful long-term use of HFNC in the neonatal field and recent clinical data in adults indicating beneficial effects of HFNC over conventional facemask oxygen therapy. HFNC rapidly alleviates symptoms of respiratory distress and improves oxygenation by several mechanisms, including deadspace washout, reduction in oxygen dilution and in inspiratory nasopharyngeal resistance, a moderate positive airway pressure effect that may generate alveolar recruitment and an overall greater tolerance and comfort with the interface and the heated and humidified inspired gases. Indications of HFNC are broad, encompassing most if not all causes of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. HFNC can also provide oxygen during invasive procedures, and be used to prevent or treat post-extubation respiratory failure. HFNC may also alleviate respiratory distress in patients at a palliative stage. Although observational studies suggest that HFNC might reduce the need for intubation in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure; such a reduction has not yet been demonstrated. Beyond this potential additional effect on outcome, the evidence already published argues in favor of the large use of HFNC as first line therapy for acute respiratory failure.

  16. Emergency thyroidectomy: Due to acute respiratory failure

    Zulfu Bayhan

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Respiratory failure due to giant nodular goiter is a life-threatening situation and should be treated immediately by performing awake endotracheal intubation following emergency total thyroidectomy.

  17. Acute abdomen in a patient with paraesophageal hernia, resulting in acute compromised respiratory function

    Mekhael, Mira Rober; El-Hussuna, Alaa

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We present a case of acute abdomen, causing increased intra-abdominal pressure, leading to further herniation of an existing paraesophageal hernia, and consequently acute compromised respiratory function. This acute respiratory complication to a paraesophageal hernia has not previou......INTRODUCTION: We present a case of acute abdomen, causing increased intra-abdominal pressure, leading to further herniation of an existing paraesophageal hernia, and consequently acute compromised respiratory function. This acute respiratory complication to a paraesophageal hernia has...... if complicated by acute abdomen. These patients could benefit from elective hernia repair, rather than watchful waiting, as it would eliminate pulmonary symptoms and prevent similar cases. Patients monitored using watchful waiting should be informed that acute abdomen could cause acute compromised respiratory...... function. CONCLUSION: Any case of acute abdomen causing high intra-abdominal pressure could potentially cause further herniation of an existing paraesophageal hernia, resulting in acute compromised respiratory function. In patients known to have a paraesophageal hernia, similar cases should be suspected...

  18. The bioactivity of plant extracts against representative bacterial pathogens of the lower respiratory tract

    Bocanegra-García Virgilio; del Rayo Camacho-Corona María; Ramírez-Cabrera Mónica; Rivera Gildardo; Garza-González Elvira

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Lower respiratory tract infections are a major cause of illness and death. Such infections are common in intensive care units (ICU) and their lethality persists despite advances in diagnosis, treatment and prevention. In Mexico, some plants are used in traditional medicine to treat respiratory diseases or ailments such as cough, bronchitis, tuberculosis and other infections. Medical knowledge derived from traditional societies has motivated searches for new bioactive molec...

  19. Interventional therapy for acute hemorrhage in gastrointestinal tract

    Hong-Hui Wang; Bin Bai; Kai-Bing Wang; Wei Xu; Yuan-Shu Ye; Wei-Feng Zhang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic angiography and therapy for acute massive hemorrhage in gastrointestinal tract.METHODS: Twenty-five cases of acute hemorrhage in gastrointestinal tract admitted between April 2002and September 2004 were reviewed and analyzed by angiography and embolotherapy.RESULTS: Fifteen patients were men and ten patients were women. The Seldinger technique and method of coaxial duct were used to get access to the bleeding region. PVA particles, gelfoam, and coils were used for embolism. All bleeding sites could be confirmed and were successfully embolized. Hemostasis was achieved in all the patients without bleeding again. The cure rate was 100%.CONCLUSION: Interventional therapy can not only ascertain the bleeding site, but also stop the bleeding .The method is simple and the effect is certain.

  20. ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS INFECTION IN CHILDREN IN THE AGE ASPECT

    V. B. Rovny

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical features of laboratory-confirmed acute respiratory syncytial virus infection (ARSVI are described in 221 children of the age from 1 month to 5 years. Febrile fever has been recorded in 76% of patients with ARSVI, and significantly more often in children in the second year of life (92%, but the difference in the temerature or duration has not been found. 98% of children have had symptoms of the lower respiratory tract lesions. The most common ARSVI manifestations in the patients of the first year of life were obstructive diseases of the lower respiratory tract (obstructive bronchitis in 53% and bronchiolitis in 11% of children, in the patients of the second year of life — pneumonia (28%, p < 0,05 and catarrhal otitis (26%; p < 0,05. Bronchial obstruction syndrome in children of the first year of life was characterized by the significantly higher frequency (73% and the maximal duration (9,7 ± 1,08 days. The largest number of cases of the severe respiratory failure has been recorded among patients of the second year of life (3 degree of respiratory failure in 22% of patients, p < 0,05.

  1. Respiratory tract infections and asthma control in children

    Zomer-Kooijker, Kim; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Verschueren, Kim J C; Maitland - van der Zee, Anke-Hilse; Balemans, Walter A F; van Ewijk, Bart E; van Velzen, Maartje F; van der Ent, Cornelis K

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Asthma control is considered the major goal of asthma management, while many determinants of control are difficult to modify. We studied the association between respiratory infection episodes (RTIs) of various types and asthma control. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were used from child

  2. Clinical relevance of prevention of respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract infection in preterm infants born between 33 and 35 weeks gestational age

    Carbonell-Estrany, X.; Bont, L.; Doering, G.; Gouyon, J-B; Lanari, M.

    2008-01-01

    Premature infants are vulnerable to severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) resulting in hospitalisation and the potential for longer-term respiratory morbidity. Whilst the severity and consequence of RSV LRTI are generally accepted and recognised in infants

  3. Aspergillus Thyroiditis: A Complication of Respiratory Tract Infection in an Immunocompromised Patient

    Madiha M. Alvi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year-old male with past medical history significant for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma status after chemotherapy presented with acute onset of neck pain, odynophagia, and dysphagia associated with subjective fever, chills, and dyspnea. Physical findings included a temperature of 38.4°C, hypertension, and tachycardia. Patient was found to have anterior neck tenderness. Laboratory evaluation revealed neutropenia. The patient was started on empiric antibacterial and antiviral therapy and continued on home prophylactic antifungal treatment. Thyroid function tests revealed overt hyperthyroidism. A thyroid ultrasound showed heterogeneous echotexture without discrete nodules. Subacute thyroiditis was treated with methylprednisolone, metoprolol, and opiate analgesics. Patient’s antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral treatments were broadened. A fine needle aspiration was not conducted. The patient’s condition deteriorated rapidly over his brief hospital course and he expired. Autopsy showed fungal thyroiditis secondary to disseminated invasive Aspergillus. This report describes the presentation of fungal thyroiditis secondary to disseminated invasive Aspergillus originating from the respiratory tract. The authors review the diagnostic challenges, pathophysiology, and treatment of this condition.

  4. Carriage of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in the Upper Respiratory Tract of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Children: An Observational Study

    E.B.M. Spuesens (Emiel); P.L.A. Fraaij (Pieter); E. Visser (Eline); T. Hoogenboezem (Theo); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); L.N.A. van Adrichem (Léon); F. Weber (Frank); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); B. Broekman (Berth); M.Y. Berger (Marjolein); T. van Rijsoort-Vos (Tineke); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); M. Schutten (Martin); S.D. Pas (Suzan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); N.G. Hartwig (Nico); C. Vink (Cornelis); A.M.C. van Rossum (Annemarie)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground:Mycoplasma pneumoniae is thought to be a common cause of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children. The diagnosis of M. pneumoniae RTIs currently relies on serological methods and/or the detection of bacterial DNA in the upper respiratory tract (URT). It is conceivable,

  5. 'The Right Ventricle in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome'.

    Zochios, Vasileios; Parhar, Ken; Tunnicliffe, William; Roscoe, Andrew; Gao, Fang

    2017-03-03

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with poor clinical outcomes with a pooled mortality rate of approximately 40% despite best standards of care. Current therapeutic strategies are based upon improving oxygenation and pulmonary compliance while minimizing ventilator induced lung injury. It has been demonstrated that relative hypoxemia can be well tolerated and improvements in oxygenation do not necessarily translate into survival benefit. Cardiac failure, in particular right ventricular dysfunction, is commonly encountered in moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and is reported to be one of the major determinants of mortality. The prevalence rate of echocardiographically evident right ventricular dysfunction in acute respiratory distress syndrome varies across studies ranging from 22% to 50%. Although there is no definitive causal relationship between right ventricular dysfunction and mortality, severe right ventricular dysfunction is associated with increased mortality. Factors that can adversely affect right ventricular function include hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, hypercapnia, and invasive ventilation with high driving pressure. It might be expected that early diagnosis of right ventricular dysfunction would be of benefit however, echocardiography markers (qualitative and quantitative) used to prospectively evaluate the right ventricle in acute respiratory distress syndrome have not been tested in adequately powered studies. In this review we examine the prognostic implications and pathophysiology of right ventricular dysfunction in acute respiratory distress syndrome and discuss available diagnostic modalities and treatment options. We aim to identify gaps in knowledge and directions for future research that could potentially improve clinical outcomes in this patient population.

  6. Rhinoviruses as Pathogens of the Lower Respiratory Tract

    Nikolaos G Papadopoulos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhinoviruses (RVs are the most common upper respiratory pathogens, inducing the majority of common colds worldwide. RV-related morbidity, although significant cumulatively, has been considered trivial for the individual patient. However, recent strong epidemiological associations of RVs with asthma exacerbations, including severe episodes requiring hospitalization, indicate that RV infections can result in serious disease. Current evidence supports the possibility that RVs infect the lower airways, inducing a local inflammatory response. Such evidence suggests that the role of RVs in other lower respiratory diseases, such as pneumonia, bronchitis, bronchiolitis and cystic fibrosis, should be re-examined with polymerase chain reaction-based methodologies, which are considerably more sensitive than traditional, cell culture-based techniques. The mechanisms through which RVs induce lower airway disease are studied to understand the relative contributions of the epithelial, neurogenic and immune components in the antiviral response, and to permit the design and implementation of specific treatments.

  7. Neonatal total IgE and respiratory tract infections in children with intrauterine smoke exposure

    Ruskamp, Jopje; Smit, Henriette; Rovers, Maroeska; Hoekstra, Maarten; Schilder, Anne; Brunekreef, Bert; Wijga, Alet; Kerkhof, Marjan; de Jongste, Johan; Sanders, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is known to increase the risk of respiratory tract infections (RTI). Some children, however, may be more susceptible to the harmful effects of ETS than others. We examined whether early atopic status (defined by elevated neonatal total IgE (tI

  8. Neonatal total IgE and respiratory tract infections in children with intrauterine smoke exposure.

    Ruskamp, J.; Smit, H.; Rovers, M.M.; Hoekstra, M.O.; Schilder, A.G.M.; Brunekreef, B.; Wijga, A.; Kerkhof, M.; de Jongste, J.; Sanders, E.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is known to increase the risk of respiratory tract infections (RTI). Some children, however, may be more susceptible to the harmful effects of ETS than others. We examined whether early atopic status (defined by elevated neonatal total IgE (t

  9. Functional and genetic predisposition to rhinovirus lower respiratory tract infections in prematurely born infants

    Drysdale, Simon B.; Alcazar, Mireia; Wilson, Theresa; Smith, Melvyn; Zuckerman, Mark; Hodemaekers, Hennie M.; Janssen, Riny; Bont, Louis; Johnston, Sebastian L.; Greenough, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Term born infants are predisposed to human rhinovirus (HRV) lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) by reduced neonatal lung function and genetic susceptibility. Our aim was to investigate whether prematurely born infants were similarly predisposed to HRV LRTIs or any other viral LRTIs. Infants bo

  10. Quality indicators for diagnosis and treatment of respiratory tract infections in general practice

    Plejdrup, Malene; Bjerrum, Lars; Gahrn-Hansen, Bente;

    2010-01-01

    , clinical microbiologists, and clinical pharmacologists were asked to rate the relevance of 59 quality indicators for diagnosis and treatment of respiratory tract infections with regard to reducing antimicrobial resistance and improving patient health. A thorough literature review was carried out to ensure...

  11. Mycoplasmas isolated from the respiratory tract of cattle and goats in Tanzania

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Ojeniyi, B.; Friis, N.F.;

    2000-01-01

    A microbiological study of the mycoplasma flora in the respiratory tracts of cattle and goats in selected regions of Tanzania is described. In the examination of cattle, mycoplasmas were isolated from 60 (17.8%) of the 338 examined lung samples, 8 (47.1%) of the 17 lymph nodes, 4 (13.3%) of the 3...

  12. Illness behaviour and antibiotic prescription in patients with respiratory tract symptoms.

    Duijn, H.J. van; Kuyvenhoven, M.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Verheij, T.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the vast majority of respiratory tract symptoms are self-limiting, many patients visit their GP for these symptoms and antibiotics are over-prescribed. AIM: To explore determinants of patients visiting GPs for recent cough, sore throat, or earache; for being prescribed antibioti

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections : Strategies for efficient management

    Oosterheert, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections are an important cause for morbidity and mortality and associated with considerable costs and antibiotic consumption, especially in patients needing hospitalization. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate diagnostic and treatment strategies to decrease costs and co

  14. Views on respiratory tract symptoms and antibiotics of Dutch general practitioners, practice staff and patients

    van Duijn, HJ; Kuyvenhoven, MA; Schellevis, FG; Verheij, TJM

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To explore views on respiratory tract symptoms (cough, sore throat and earache) and antibiotics of GPs, practice staff, and patients. Methods: In a nationwide study, 181 GPs, 204 practice staff members and 1250 patients from 90 practices participated by answering 14 items relating to vie

  15. Effects of chronic exposure to crack cocaine on the respiratory tract of mice.

    Herculiani, Percyleine P; Pires-Neto, Ruy C; Bueno, Heloisa M S; Zorzetto, Júlio C; Silva, Luiz C; Santos, Angela B G; Garcia, Raphael C T; Yonamine, Mauricio; Detregiachi, Cláudia R P; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Mauad, Thais

    2009-04-01

    Smoked cocaine (crack cocaine) causes several forms of injury to the respiratory tract, including asthma exacerbations, lung edema and hemorrhage, and nasal mucosal alterations. Few studies, however, have assessed respiratory tract pathology in habitual users of crack cocaine. Here, we describe the histological alterations in the respiratory tract of mice caused by chronic inhalation of crack cocaine. Twenty 2-month-old BALB/c mice were exposed to the smoke of 5 g crack cocaine in an inhalation chamber once a day for two months and compared to controls (n = 10). We then morphometrically analyzed nose and bronchiolar epithelial alterations, bronchiolar and alveolar macrophage cell density, alveolar hemosiderin content, and in addition determined the vasoconstriction index and the wall thickness of pulmonary arteries. The serum cocaine level was 212.5 ng/mL after a single inhalation. The mucus content of the nasal epithelium increased in crack-exposed animals, and the nasal and bronchial epithelium thickness decreased significantly. The alveolar hemosiderin content and the alveolar and bronchiolar macrophage cell density increased in animals exposed to crack. The vasoconstriction index increased in the pulmonary arteries of the exposed group. Chronic crack cocaine inhalation causes extensive histological changes along the entire respiratory tract.

  16. Cupping Therapy for 103 Cases of High Fever due to Infection of the Upper Respiratory Tract

    刘颖东

    2002-01-01

    @@ The cupping therapy has remarkable antipyretic effect in the treatment of fever. In recent years, the author has treated 103 cases of high fever caused by infection of the upper respiratory tract and obtained quite satisfactory therapeutic results. A report follows.

  17. Prescribing patterns for upper respiratory tract infections in general practice in France and in the Netherlands.

    Rosman, S.; Vaillant, M. le; Schellevis, F.; Clerc, P.; Verheij, R.; Pelletier-Fleury, N.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: France and the Netherlands are often presented as two contrasting countries with regard to drug prescriptions and consumption. This study aimed to analyse general practitioners' (GP's) prescription patterns for upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). METHODS: Data on diagnoses and pre

  18. Impact of aging on allergy and mucosal immunity in upper respiratory tract

    Seyyed Abbas Hashemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Although age-associated alterations on immune system are well described and aging is a subject of different investigations but studies did not discuss about the effect of advanced age on immunity in upper respiratory tract disorders. Therefore in this trial, we elucidated how aging imposes allergic reactions and mucosal immune responses mediated by salivary IgA and serum Total IgE in patients suffered from upper respiratory tract diseases. Study Design: Experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Otorhinolaringology, microbiology and immunology, Mazandaran university of medical sciences, sari, Iran, from September 2010 to august 2011. Methods: In this study, 140 patients in 7 age groups with upper respiratory tract infections underwent salivary IgA assessment by direct immunoenzymatic determination and serum Total IgE by enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay. We compared each study arm to the youngest subjects. Results: There was no significant difference in salivary IgA level for patients younger than 60 but a significant change observed for patients older than 60 (p=0.01. Likewise, there was no significant change for total IgE. Conclusion: This research didn’t provide any evidence about the minus impact of aging on allergic reactions in upper respiratory tract infections .There was an up regulation in mucosal immunity mediated by salivary IgA in patients aged over sixty which revealed secretory IgA plays an important role in mucosal defense of aged subjects.

  19. Epidemiology of respiratory tract infections in Dutch general practice: a historical analysis.

    Schellevis, F.G.; Donker, G.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To describe time trends in the incidence of respiratory tract infections in general practice in the Netherlands and its relation to sex and age. Design and Methods: Data will be presented from several morbidity surveys conducted in general practices in the Netherlands: the Intermittent Morbidi

  20. Disordered microbial communities in the upper respiratory tract of cigarette smokers.

    Emily S Charlson

    Full Text Available Cigarette smokers have an increased risk of infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract. Some effects of smoking on specific respiratory tract bacteria have been described, but the consequences for global airway microbial community composition have not been determined. Here, we used culture-independent high-density sequencing to analyze the microbiota from the right and left nasopharynx and oropharynx of 29 smoking and 33 nonsmoking healthy asymptomatic adults to assess microbial composition and effects of cigarette smoking. Bacterial communities were profiled using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S sequence tags (803,391 total reads, aligned to 16S rRNA databases, and communities compared using the UniFrac distance metric. A Random Forest machine-learning algorithm was used to predict smoking status and identify taxa that best distinguished between smokers and nonsmokers. Community composition was primarily determined by airway site, with individuals exhibiting minimal side-of-body or temporal variation. Within airway habitats, microbiota from smokers were significantly more diverse than nonsmokers and clustered separately. The distributions of several genera were systematically altered by smoking in both the oro- and nasopharynx, and there was an enrichment of anaerobic lineages associated with periodontal disease in the oropharynx. These results indicate that distinct regions of the human upper respiratory tract contain characteristic microbial communities that exhibit disordered patterns in cigarette smokers, both in individual components and global structure, which may contribute to the prevalence of respiratory tract complications in this population.

  1. The effect of using an interactive booklet on childhood respiratory tract infections in consultations: Study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial in primary care

    Nuttall Jacqueline

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory tract infections in children result in more primary care consultations than any other acute condition, and are the most common reason for prescribing antibiotics (which are largely unnecessary. About a fifth of children consult again for the same illness episode. Providing parents with written information on respiratory tract infections may result in a reduction in re-consultation rates and antibiotic prescribing for these illnesses. Asking clinicians to provide and discuss the information during the consultation may enhance effectiveness. This paper outlines the protocol for a study designed to evaluate the use of a booklet on respiratory tract infections in children within primary care consultations. Methods/Design This will be a cluster randomised controlled trial. General practices will be randomised to provide parents consulting because their child has an acute respiratory tract infection with either an interactive booklet, or usual care. The booklet provides information on the expected duration of their child's illness, the likely benefits of various treatment options, signs and symptoms that should prompt re-consultation, and symptomatic treatment advice. It has been designed for use within the consultation and aims to enhance communication through the use of specific prompts. Clinicians randomised to using the interactive booklet will receive online training in its use. Outcomes will be assessed via a telephone interview with the parent two weeks after first consulting. The primary outcome will be the proportion of children who re-consult for the same illness episode. Secondary outcomes include: antibiotic use, parental satisfaction and enablement, and illness costs. Consultation rates for respiratory tract infections for the subsequent year will be assessed by a review of practice notes. Discussion Previous studies in adults and children have shown that educational interventions can result in reductions

  2. Respiratory tract clearance model for dosimetry and bioassay of inhaled radionuclides

    Bailey, M.R.; Birchall, A. (National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (UK)); Cuddihy, R.G. (Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); James, A.C. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Roy, M. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire)

    1990-07-01

    The ICRP Task Group on Respiratory Tract Models is developing a model to describe the retention and clearance of deposited radionuclides for dose-intake calculations and interpretation of bioassay data. Clearance from each region is treated as competition between mechanical transport, which moves particles to the gastro-intestinal tract and lymph nodes, and the translocation of material to blood. It is assumed that mechanical transport rates are the same for all materials, and that rates of translocation to blood are the same in all regions. Time-dependent clearance is represented by combinations of compartments. Representative values of parameters to describe mechanical transport from the human respiratory tract have been estimated, and guidance is given on the determination of translocation rates. It is emphasized that the current version of the model described here is still provisional. 30 refs.

  3. A pilot study on respiratory and digestive tract cancer among woodworkers.

    Esping, B; Axelson, O

    1980-09-01

    Cancer of the nose and paranasal sinuses is a known occupational hazard among workers in the furniture industry. An increased frequency of cancer at other sites has also been suggested to occur among different types of woodworkers in the United States, eg, cancer of the gastrointestinal tract and lung but also lymphatic and hematopoietic malignancies. This case-referent study is of a pilot character and was undertaken for the further elucidation of respiratory and digestive tract cancer among Swedish woodworkers. A four-fold excess of respiratory cancer, other than nasal cancer, was found, particularly in relation to furniture workers, whereas no definite excess of digestive tract cancer was indicated. Further studies seem worthwhile regarding cancer hazard in the woodworking industry.

  4. A review of pulmonary coagulopathy in acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome and pneumonia

    Nieuwenhuizen, Laurens; de Groot, Philip G.; Grutters, Jan C.; Biesma, Douwe H.

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced bronchoalveolar coagulation is a hallmark of many acute inflammatory lung diseases such as acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome and pneumonia. Intervention with natural anticoagulants in these diseases has therefore become a topic of interest. Recently, new data on the rol

  5. Prevalence and resistance pattern of Moraxella catarrhalis in community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections

    Shaikh SBU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Safia Bader Uddin Shaikh, Zafar Ahmed, Syed Ali Arsalan, Sana Shafiq Department of Pulmonology, Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan Introduction: Moraxella catarrhalis previously considered as commensal of upper respiratory tract has gained importance as a pathogen responsible for respiratory tract infections. Its beta-lactamase-producing ability draws even more attention toward its varying patterns of resistance. Methods: This was an observational study conducted to evaluate the prevalence and resistance pattern of M. catarrhalis. Patients aged 20–80 years admitted in the Department of Chest Medicine of Liaquat National Hospital from March 2012 to December 2012 were included in the study. Respiratory samples of sputum, tracheal secretions, and bronchoalveolar lavage were included, and their cultures were followed. Results: Out of 110 respiratory samples, 22 showed positive cultures for M. catarrhalis in which 14 were males and eight were females. Ten samples out of 22 showed resistance to clarithromycin, and 13 samples out of 22 displayed resistance to erythromycin, whereas 13 showed resistance to levofloxacin. Hence, 45% of the cultures showed resistance to macrolides so far and 59% showed resistance to quinolones. Conclusion: Our study shows that in our environment, M. catarrhalis may be resistant to macrolides and quinolones; hence, these should not be recommended as an alternative treatment in community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections caused by M. catarrhalis. However, a study of larger sample size should be conducted to determine if the recommendations are required to be changed. Keywords: community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections or pneumonia, M. catarrhalis, antibiotic resistance, gram-negative diplococcic, Pakistan

  6. In vitro sensitivities to antimicrobial drugs of ureaplasmas isolated from the bovine respiratory tract, genital tract and eye.

    Kishima, M; Hashimoto, K

    1979-09-01

    The sensitivity to 18 antimicrobial drugs was examined for 66 strains of Ureaplasma sp isolated from respiratory tracts of calves suffering from enzootic pneumonia, urinary tracts of bulls and eyes of cows suffering from infectious bovine kerato-conjunctivitis. Furamizole, tiamulin fumarate, erythromycin lactobionate, malidomycin C, doxycycline hydrochloride, kitasamycin tartrate, tylosin tartrate, T-2636C, tetracycline hydrochloride, oxytetracycline hydrochloride, chlortetracycline hydrochloride, oleandomycin phosphate, furazolidone, spiramycin adipate, chloramphenicol and thiophenicol showed strong inhibiting activity on all the test strains. Among them, furamizole, tiamulin fumarate and erythromycin lactobionate were most active. Kanamycin sulphate showed weak activity on all the strains tested. The differences in origin of the test strains did not affect their sensitivity to any of the drugs.

  7. Is There Still Room for Novel Viral Pathogens in Pediatric Respiratory Tract Infections?

    Taboada, Blanca; Espinoza, Marco A.; Isa, Pavel; Aponte, Fernando E.; Arias-Ortiz, María A.; Monge-Martínez, Jesús; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Rubén; Díaz-Hernández, Fidel; Zárate-Vidal, Fernando; Wong-Chew, Rosa María; Firo-Reyes, Verónica; del Río-Almendárez, Carlos N.; Gaitán-Meza, Jesús; Villaseñor-Sierra, Alberto; Martínez-Aguilar, Gerardo; Salas-Mier, Ma. del Carmen; Noyola, Daniel E.; Pérez-Gónzalez, Luis F.; López, Susana; Santos-Preciado, José I.; Arias, Carlos F.

    2014-01-01

    Viruses are the most frequent cause of respiratory disease in children. However, despite the advanced diagnostic methods currently in use, in 20 to 50% of respiratory samples a specific pathogen cannot be detected. In this work, we used a metagenomic approach and deep sequencing to examine respiratory samples from children with lower and upper respiratory tract infections that had been previously found negative for 6 bacteria and 15 respiratory viruses by PCR. Nasal washings from 25 children (out of 250) hospitalized with a diagnosis of pneumonia and nasopharyngeal swabs from 46 outpatient children (out of 526) were studied. DNA reads for at least one virus commonly associated to respiratory infections was found in 20 of 25 hospitalized patients, while reads for pathogenic respiratory bacteria were detected in the remaining 5 children. For outpatients, all the samples were pooled into 25 DNA libraries for sequencing. In this case, in 22 of the 25 sequenced libraries at least one respiratory virus was identified, while in all other, but one, pathogenic bacteria were detected. In both patient groups reads for respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus-OC43, and rhinovirus were identified. In addition, viruses less frequently associated to respiratory infections were also found. Saffold virus was detected in outpatient but not in hospitalized children. Anellovirus, rotavirus, and astrovirus, as well as several animal and plant viruses were detected in both groups. No novel viruses were identified. Adding up the deep sequencing results to the PCR data, 79.2% of 250 hospitalized and 76.6% of 526 ambulatory patients were positive for viruses, and all other children, but one, had pathogenic respiratory bacteria identified. These results suggest that at least in the type of populations studied and with the sampling methods used the odds of finding novel, clinically relevant viruses, in pediatric respiratory infections are low. PMID:25412469

  8. Is there still room for novel viral pathogens in pediatric respiratory tract infections?

    Blanca Taboada

    Full Text Available Viruses are the most frequent cause of respiratory disease in children. However, despite the advanced diagnostic methods currently in use, in 20 to 50% of respiratory samples a specific pathogen cannot be detected. In this work, we used a metagenomic approach and deep sequencing to examine respiratory samples from children with lower and upper respiratory tract infections that had been previously found negative for 6 bacteria and 15 respiratory viruses by PCR. Nasal washings from 25 children (out of 250 hospitalized with a diagnosis of pneumonia and nasopharyngeal swabs from 46 outpatient children (out of 526 were studied. DNA reads for at least one virus commonly associated to respiratory infections was found in 20 of 25 hospitalized patients, while reads for pathogenic respiratory bacteria were detected in the remaining 5 children. For outpatients, all the samples were pooled into 25 DNA libraries for sequencing. In this case, in 22 of the 25 sequenced libraries at least one respiratory virus was identified, while in all other, but one, pathogenic bacteria were detected. In both patient groups reads for respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus-OC43, and rhinovirus were identified. In addition, viruses less frequently associated to respiratory infections were also found. Saffold virus was detected in outpatient but not in hospitalized children. Anellovirus, rotavirus, and astrovirus, as well as several animal and plant viruses were detected in both groups. No novel viruses were identified. Adding up the deep sequencing results to the PCR data, 79.2% of 250 hospitalized and 76.6% of 526 ambulatory patients were positive for viruses, and all other children, but one, had pathogenic respiratory bacteria identified. These results suggest that at least in the type of populations studied and with the sampling methods used the odds of finding novel, clinically relevant viruses, in pediatric respiratory infections are low.

  9. [Pathogenesis and target therapy of acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    Moroz, V V; Vlasenko, A V; Golubev, A M

    2014-01-01

    The paper summarizes results of experimental studies and clinical observations of the pathogenesis and effectiveness of respiratory, non-respiratory and pharmacological treatment methods for acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by direct and indirect damaging factors. The article deals with differences and peculiarities of morphological changes and lung functional disorders, clinical, laboratory and instrumental signs of various origins in ARDS and justifies necessity of differential diagnosis and differential treatment of ARDS, depending on the reasons for its development. Furthermore the article discusses an algorithm for differential diagnosis and differential treatment for ARDS caused by direct and indirect damaging factors.

  10. Man-made mineral fibers and the respiratory tract.

    Costa, Roser; Orriols, Ramon

    2012-12-01

    Man-made mineral fibers are produced using inorganic materials and are widely used as thermal and acoustic insulation. These basically include continuous fiberglass filaments, glass wool (fiberglass insulation), stone wool, slag wool and refractory ceramic fibers. Likewise, in the last two decades nanoscale fibers have also been developed, among these being carbon nanotubes with their high electrical conductivity, mechanical resistance and thermal stability. Both man-made mineral fibers and carbon nanotubes have properties that make them inhalable and potentially harmful, which have led to studies to assess their pathogenicity. The aim of this review is to analyze the knowledge that currently exists about the ability of these fibers to produce respiratory diseases.

  11. Experimentally determined human respiratory tract deposition of airborne particles at a busy street

    Löndahl, Jakob; Massling, Andreas; Swietlicki, Erik;

    2009-01-01

    Traffic is one of the major sources of harmful airborne particles worldwide. To relate exposure to adverse health effects it is important to determine the deposition probability of the inhaled particles in the human respiratory tract. The size-dependent deposition of 12-580 nm particles was measu......Traffic is one of the major sources of harmful airborne particles worldwide. To relate exposure to adverse health effects it is important to determine the deposition probability of the inhaled particles in the human respiratory tract. The size-dependent deposition of 12-580 nm particles...... was measured with a novel setup in 9 healthy subjects breathing by mouth on the windward side of a busy street in Copenhagen, Denmark. The aerosol was characterized both at the curbside and, to obtain the background concentration, at rooftop level. Particle hygroscopicity, a key parameter affecting respiratory...... investigated previously (equal inhaled mass concentrations). This was because the traffic exhaust particles had both a higher deposition probability and a higher number and surface area concentration per unit mass. To validate the results, the respiratory tract deposition was estimated by using the well...

  12. Acute respiratory viral infections in pediatric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    Eliana C.A. Benites

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to estimate the prevalence of infection by respiratory viruses in pediatric patients with cancer and acute respiratory infection (ARI and/or fever. METHODS: cross-sectional study, from January 2011 to December 2012. The secretions of nasopharyngeal aspirates were analyzed in children younger than 21 years with acute respiratory infections. Patients were treated at the Grupo em Defesa da Criança Com Câncer (Grendacc and University Hospital (HU, Jundiaí, SP. The rapid test was used for detection of influenza virus (Kit Biotrin, Inc. Ireland, and real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (FTD, Respiratory pathogens, multiplex Fast Trade Kit, Malta for detection of influenza virus (H1N1, B, rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, human parechovirus, bocavirus, metapneumovirus, and human coronavirus. The prevalence of viral infection was estimated and association tests were used (χ2 or Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: 104 samples of nasopharyngeal aspirate and blood were analyzed. The median age was 12 ± 5.2 years, 51% males, 68% whites, 32% had repeated ARIs, 32% prior antibiotic use, 19.8% cough, and 8% contact with ARIs. A total of 94.3% were in good general status. Acute lymphocytic leukemia (42.3% was the most prevalent neoplasia. Respiratory viruses were detected in 50 samples: rhinoviruses (23.1%, respiratory syncytial virus AB (8.7%, and coronavirus (6.8%. Co-detection occurred in 19% of cases with 2 viruses and in 3% of those with 3 viruses, and was more frequent between rhinovirus and coronavirus 43. Fever in neutropenic patients was observed in 13%, of which four (30.7 were positive for viruses. There were no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: the prevalence of respiratory viruses was relevant in the infectious episode, with no increase in morbidity and mortality. Viral co-detection was frequent in patients with cancer and ARIs.

  13. The role and regulation of catalase in respiratory tract opportunistic bacterial pathogens.

    Eason, Mia M; Fan, Xin

    2014-09-01

    Respiratory tract bacterial pathogens are the etiologic agents of a variety of illnesses. The ability of these bacteria to cause disease is imparted through survival within the host and avoidance of pathogen clearance by the immune system. Respiratory tract pathogens are continually bombarded by reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may be produced by competing bacteria, normal metabolic function, or host immunological responses. In order to survive and proliferate, bacteria have adapted defense mechanisms to circumvent the effects of ROS. Bacteria employ the use of anti-oxidant enzymes, catalases and catalase-peroxidases, to relieve the effects of the oxidative stressors to which they are continually exposed. The decomposition of ROS has been shown to provide favorable conditions in which respiratory tract opportunistic bacterial pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Legionella pneumophila, and Neisseria meningitidis are able to withstand exposure to highly reactive molecules and yet survive. Bacteria possessing mutations in the catalase gene have a decreased survival rate, yet may be able to compensate for the lack of catalatic activity if peroxidatic activity is present. An incomplete knowledge of the mechanisms by which catalase and catalase-peroxidases are regulated still persists, however, in some bacterial species, a regulatory factor known as OxyR has been shown to either up-regulate or down-regulate catalase gene expression. Yet, more research is still needed to increase the knowledge base in relation to this enzyme class. As with this review, we focus on major respiratory tract opportunistic bacterial pathogens in order to elucidate the function and regulation of catalases. The importance of the research could lead to the development of novel treatments against respiratory bacterial infections.

  14. Etiological surveillance of acute upper respiratory tract infections in winter and spring among school students in Beijing and Tianjin%北京市和天津市在校学生2009~2010年冬春季急性上呼吸道感染病原学监测

    罗明; 龚成; 张铁钢; 张颖; 吕敏; 陈伟; 骆晓燕; 牛艳芬; 丁小静

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To monitor the prevalence of pandemic influenza A (H1N1),seasonal influenza,Streptococcus pneumonia and Haemophilus influenza among school students from 2009 to 2010 in winter and spring of Beijing and Tianjin.METHODS In Beijing and Tianjin,school students at all levels and with acute upper respiratory tract infection were surveyed,including pandemic influenza A (H1N1),seasonal influenza,Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae.RESULTS A total of 154 flu cases,including 84 cases of Beijing and 70 of Tianjin,were surveyed.The testing positive rates of Influenza A (H1N1) nucleic acid,seasonal influenzae,Streptococcus pneumonia and Haemophilus influenzae were 4.76%,20.24%,11.69% and 91.56%,respectively.CONCLUSION Among school students from 2009 to 2010 in winter and spring of Beijing and Tianjin,no pandemic influenza A (H1N1) and seasonal influenza peak was observed,Haemophilus influenzae may be the major cause of the acute upper respiratory tract infections.%目的 监测2009~2010年冬春季北京市和天津市甲型H1N1流感、季节性流感、肺炎链球菌和流感嗜血杆菌的流行情况.方法 选择北京市和天津市大中小学生,对急性上呼吸道感染者开展病原学监测,包括甲型流感、季节性流感、肺炎链球菌和流感嗜血杆菌.结果 共调查了154例上感病例,其中北京84例,天津70例,甲型流感病毒核酸检测阳性率为4.76%,季节性流感病毒检测阳性率为20.24%,肺炎链球菌检测阳性率为11.69%,流感嗜血杆菌检测阳性率为91.56%.结论 2009~2010年冬春季京津地区在校学生中,并未出现甲型H1N1流感和季节性流感流行高峰,流感嗜血杆菌可能为急性上呼吸道感染的主要病因.

  15. 苏州地区儿童急性下呼吸道人鼻病毒感染的流行病学及喘息相关因素%Epidemiology and risk factors associated with wheezing of human rhinovirus infection in children with acute lower respiratory tract in Suzhou

    于乐香; 陈正荣; 蒋吴君; 王宇清; 黄莉; 王美娟; 季伟; 邵雪君; 严永东

    2015-01-01

    目的 分析苏州地区儿童急性下呼吸道人鼻病毒(HRV)感染的流行病学特点及其引起喘息的相关危险因素.方法 回顾性分析2013年1月1日至2014年12月31日于苏州大学附属儿童医院住院的2 942例急性下呼吸道感染(ALRTI)患儿的临床资料,探讨HRV的感染情况、人群分布和时间分布特点,并采用Logistic多元回归分析HRV感染导致喘息的危险因素.结果 2 942例患儿中HRV阳性356例,阳性率12.10%;男女检出率差异无统计学意义[12.45%(233/1 872例)比11.50%(123/1 070例),x2=0.579,P=0.447];6个月~1岁婴儿检出率最高,为13.32%(65/488例),92.00%感染患儿为<5岁儿童;HRV全年散发,夏秋季为高峰,检出率分别为12.93%(91/704例)和14.74%(93/631例),冬季8.97%(66/736例),冬季检出率显著低于其他季节,差异有统计学意义(x2=11.376,P<0.05).喘息组患儿HRV检出率高于非喘息组,差异有统计学意义[13.55%(174/1 284例)比10.98%(182/1 658例)x22=4.509,P=0.034].Logistw多因素分析显示:性别、过敏史、既往反复呼吸道感染史及母孕期疾病史是HRV感染患儿发生喘息的独立危险因素(OR=0.391,95% CI:0.240~0.636,P=0.000;OR=2.524,95% CI:1.432~4.447,P=0.001;OR=1.980,95% CI:1.225 ~3.199,P=0.005;OR=0.186,95%CI:0.050 ~0.695,P=0.012).结论 HRV是苏州地区儿童ALRTI的重要病原;5岁以下儿童易感,夏秋季为高峰.HRV感染患儿喘息发生率高,对于有个人过敏史、既往有反复呼吸道感染及母孕期有妊振高血压综合征等疾病史的患儿,尤其是男童,在HRV感染后更容易发生喘息,甚至发展为支气管哮喘.%Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and the risk factors for wheezing in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections with human rhinovirus (HRV).Methods The clinical data of 2 942 patients with acute lower respiratory tract HRV infections in Children's Hospital of Soochow University were

  16. New Role of Quinolones in Respiratory Tract Infections

    Ronald F Grossman

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of limited activity of the standard quinolones such as ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin against some clinically important organisms including Streptococcus pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, new quinolones have been developed. In addition to their improved activity against S pneumoniae, some also demonstrate excellent anaerobic activity. None of the quinolones have a role to play in the treatment of paediatric infections. Quinolones (both older and newer agents have demonstrated equivalent efficacy to standard antimicrobials in the treatment of acute sinusitis. Several groups have suggested that quinolones are excellent agents in the treatment of high risk patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. These patients include the elderly, and those with frequent exacerbations, significant comorbid conditions. long duration of chronic bronchitis and major impairment of lung function. There is no evidence to suggest that the newer quinolones will differ from the currently available agents for th is disease. The major advantage of the newer quinolones appears to be in the treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia where pneumococcal infection is a real concern. A new parenteral quinolone with pneumococcal activity may replace the standard macrolide/cephalosporin combination that is commonly prescribed. For patients with nosocomial pneumonia, the newer agents are alternative choices, especially among patients with early onset pneumonia (less than five days of hospitalization, but are unlikely to replace ciprofloxacin in the intensive care unit setting because of poor Pseudomonas aeruginosa coverage.

  17. Alimentary and respiratory tract lesions in eight medically fragile Holstein cattle with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD).

    Ackermann, M R; Kehrli, M E; Laufer, J A; Nusz, L T

    1996-05-01

    Lesions in the alimentary tract were studied in eight medically fragile Holstein cattle homozygous for the bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) allele as determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction endonuclease analysis. These cattle received institutional medical care but died or were euthanatized because of chronic debilitation associated with diarrhea (6/8) and pneumonia (4/8). The six cattle with diarrhea had acute (n = 3) or chronic (n = 3) intestinal ulcers, but the other two remained relatively healthy for 3 years and did not develop intestinal tract ulcers. Ulcerated areas were present in the small intestine in six animals, and two of these also had ulcers in the large intestine. Ulcers were covered by thick exudates that, in chronic lesions, partially occluded the intestinal lumen. Intramural and serosal fibrosis also contributed to lumen constriction. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from the intestine of four cattle. Bovine viral disease virus and Salmonella were not isolated from the five cattle that were tested. Respiratory tract lesions consisted of dense infiltrates of neutrophils in bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. This study suggests that intestinal lesions are integral to the demise of BLAD cattle that receive intensive medical care and that neutrophils do infiltrate the lung and enter airway lumina, despite the adhesion deficiency.

  18. Prone position in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Setten, Mariano; Plotnikow, Gustavo Adrián; Accoce, Matías

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome occupies a great deal of attention in intensive care units. Despite ample knowledge of the physiopathology of this syndrome, the focus in intensive care units consists mostly of life-supporting treatment and avoidance of the side effects of invasive treatments. Although great advances in mechanical ventilation have occurred in the past 20 years, with a significant impact on mortality, the incidence continues to be high. Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, especially the most severe cases, often present with refractory hypoxemia due to shunt, which can require additional treatments beyond mechanical ventilation, among which is mechanical ventilation in the prone position. This method, first recommended to improve oxygenation in 1974, can be easily implemented in any intensive care unit with trained personnel. Prone position has extremely robust bibliographic support. Various randomized clinical studies have demonstrated the effect of prone decubitus on the oxygenation of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome measured in terms of the PaO2/FiO2 ratio, including its effects on increasing patient survival. The members of the Respiratory Therapists Committee of the Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva performed a narrative review with the objective of discovering the available evidence related to the implementation of prone position, changes produced in the respiratory system due to the application of this maneuver, and its impact on mortality. Finally, guidelines are suggested for decision-making. PMID:27925054

  19. Estimates of committed effective dose and annual limit on intake for radioactive dusts using the new ICRP respiratory tract model

    O`Brien, R.S. [Australian Radiation Lab., Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the implications of using the new ICRP 66 respiratory tract model for calculation of the committed effective dose(CED), for a period of 50 years post-intake, together with the annual limit on intake(ALI), for radioactive dusts encountered in the uranium and mineral sand mining and processing industries. Some of the differences between the old ICRP 30 respiratory tract model and the LUDEP 1.1 computer code, which is based on the new ICRP 66 respiratory tract model, are discussed and a comparison of values obtained using both models is given. 4 figs; 8 tabs; 16 refs.

  20. Vaccination against acute respiratory virus infections and measles in man.

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); P. de Vries (Petra)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractSeveral viruses may cause more or less severe acute respiratory infections in man, some of which are followed by systemic infection. Only for influenza and measles are licensed vaccines available at present. The protection induced by influenza vaccines, which are based on inactivated who

  1. Blastomyces gilchristii as Cause of Fatal Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Dalcin, Daniel; Rothstein, Aaron; Spinato, Joanna; Escott, Nicholas; Kus, Julianne V

    2016-02-01

    Since the 2013 description of Blastomyces gilchristii, research describing the virulence or clinical outcome of B. gilchristii infection has been lacking. We report molecular evidence of B. gilchristii as an etiologic agent of fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome. B. gilchristii infection was confirmed by PCR and sequence analysis.

  2. Acute Respiratory Failure in 3 Children With Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    Gustafsson, Britt; Hellebostad, Marit; Ifversen, Marianne;

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is a rare hematopoietic stem cell disease in children with features of both myelodysplasia and myeloproliferation. Extramedullary involvement has been reported and pulmonary involvement secondary to leukemic infiltration is an initial manifestation, which may resu...... in acute respiratory failure....

  3. The severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic in mainland China dissected

    W.C. Cao (Wu Chun); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides a review of a recently published series of studies that give a detailed and comprehensive documentation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in mainland China, which severely struck the country in the spring of 2003. The epidemic spanned a large ge

  4. 11.3.Upper respiratory tract disease and bronchial asthma

    1993-01-01

    930295 Factors influencing carboxyhemog-lobin kinetics in inhalation lung injury.WU Wenxi (吴文溪).ist Affili Hosp,Nanjing MedCoil,210029.Chin J Intern Med 1992;31 (11):689—691.Anesthetized dogs were ventilated with 1%carbon monoxide (CO) in air for 10 minutes toproduce CO poisoning and then with room air (n=5) or pure oxygen (n=5) for 3 hours as con-trol.Acute lung injury was produced by intratra-cheal injection of 0.1 N HC1 (2 ml/kg) 30 min-utes before CO poisoning in another 10 experi-mental dogs.Arterial blood gas and earboxyhe-moglobin (COHb) were monitored before andafter CO poisoning.Pharmacokinetic analysis

  5. Impact of symptomatic upper respiratory tract infections on insulin absorption and action of Technosphere inhaled insulin

    Levin, Philip A; Heinemann, Lutz; Boss, Anders; Rosenblit, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Objective Uncomplicated, acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) occur in patients with diabetes at a similar frequency to the general population. This study (NCT00642681) investigated the effect of URTIs on the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of Technosphere inhaled insulin (TI) in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods This was a phase 2 study conducted in patients who developed a URTI while being treated with TI in a phase 3 study (N=20, mean age 50 years, 60% men). Patients underwent two 4-hour meal challenges, during which blood samples were drawn to measure serum fumaryl diketopiperazine (FDKP; the excipient representing an essential part of TI), serum insulin, serum C-peptide, and plasma glucose. The primary outcome was the ratio of serum FDKP area under the concentration–time curve from 0 to 240 min (AUC0–240 min) during URTI and after clinical resolution of URTI symptoms (≥15 to ≤45 days). Results No significant differences in PK parameters were seen during URTI versus post-URTI for FDKP. The ratio of serum FDKP AUC0–240 min during URTI and post-URTI was 1.1 (SD 0.6), p=0.4462. Plasma glucose concentrations during each 4-hour meal challenge were similar, showing small non-significant differences. No adverse events, including hypoglycemia, occurred during meal challenge visits. Conclusions Development of an active, symptomatic URTI during treatment with TI had no significant impact on the PK/PD properties of TI, suggesting that no adjustment in prandial insulin dosing is needed. However, if patients are unable to conduct proper inhalation, they should administer their prandial insulin subcutaneously. Trial registration number NCT00642681; Results. PMID:27648286

  6. Detection and clinical features of human rhinovirus in hospitalized children with acute respiratory tract infection in eastern areas of Guangdong province%粤东地区2008-2010年急性呼吸道感染住院儿童中人鼻病毒检出及临床分析

    封金花; 林广裕; 陆学东; 林创兴; 陈派镇; 周晓华; 蔡晓莹; 梁庆斌; 马廉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and clinical features of human rhinovirus (HRV) infection in hospitalized children with acute respiratory (ARI) in eastern areas of Guangdong province from 2008 to 2010.Methods From Oct.2008 through Sep.2010,nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected prospectively,from hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory tract infection at the Second Hospital,affiliated to the Shantou University Medical College.Multiplex PCR was applied to detect ten kinds of viruses including HRV,RSV in the hospitalized children with respiratory tract infection.Clinical data on HRV-positive cases or RSV-positive cases were collected and analyzed.Results Among all the 1335 specimens,124 were confirmed as HRV-positive cases (9.3%),with IVA-positive rate as the highest (25.1%),followed by RSV-positive rate (15.1%).HRV infection occurred sporadically around the year,with the highest HRV-positive rate seen in spring 2009 and autumn in 2010.Symptoms,signs,chest X-ray,leukocyte count and CRP count did not differ between patients with co-infection or single HRV infection.Clinical symptoms or signs were similar between those with single HRV infection or single RSV infection in children,but the single RSV infected children were more frequently seen with wheeze and cough.28.4% of the single RSV infected children had bronchiolitis while 10.7% of single HRV infected children were seen (x2=0.281,P=0.596).Conclusion HRV was a relatively common cause for acute respiratory infections in the eastern areas of Guangdong province.The highest HRV-positive rate was slightly different in different years.Infants and young children were generally susceptible to rhinovirus infection.Bronchiolitis,wheeze and cough associated with HRV infection happened less than those caused by RSV.%目的 了解2008-2010年粤东地区急性呼吸道感染住院儿童人鼻病毒(HRV)的检出情况、流行规律和感染特点.方法 应用PCR和RT-PCR技术对2008年10

  7. Stress-induced cardiomyopathy following infection of the upper respiratory tract in an elderly female patient: A case report

    Ding, Huaiyu; Huang, Rongchong; Shi, Xiaoli; Wu, Baolin

    2016-01-01

    Stress-induced cardiomyopathy (SIC), also known as takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC), is a relatively newly-described condition, which has been increasingly reported in the literature. It is characterized by acute onset of symptoms and electrocardiogram changes mimicking myocardial infarction, with transient but completely reversible left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. SIC commonly occurs following physical or emotional stress. The present study discusses the case of a 68-year-old female patient who had suffered from infection of the upper respiratory tract for 10 days before admission to the hospital with symptoms of chest stuffiness and dyspnea that persisted for 2 days. Coronary angiography showed normal coronary artery function, while LV angiography demonstrated systolic apical ballooning. Based on these observed characteristics, the patient was diagnosed with SIC and was successfully treated. PMID:27882121

  8. 小儿呼吸道人偏肺病毒感染25例流行病学和临床特征分析%Clinical analyses on human metapneumovirus infection in acute respiratory tract of 25 children

    刘恩梅; 谢晓虹; 邓兵; 王莉佳; 黄英; 陈坤华; 杨锡强

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨小儿呼吸道人偏肺病毒(human metapneumovirus,hMPV)的感染阳性率、流行病学及其临床特征.方法 2002年12月至2003年12月在本科固定时间收集新入院的急性呼吸道感染患儿的鼻咽分泌物,一式两份.1份采用免疫荧光快速诊断方法用于分析包括呼吸道合胞病毒(respiratory syncytial virus,RSV)、腺病毒(adenovirus)、流感病毒(influenza virus) A、B副流感病毒(parainfluenza virus)1、2、3 这7种常见呼吸道病毒;另1份采用RT-PCR的方法检测上述患儿鼻咽分泌物中hMPV的L基因和M基因,鼻病毒与冠状病毒的基因.结果 检出 hMPV阳性标本25例,阳性率为9.7%,主要分布在秋冬季;25例hMPV阳性标本中单纯hMPV感染10例,占40%,15例(60%)系hMPV与其他病毒合并感染,其中包括8例hMPV与RSV合并感染,hMPV与鼻病毒、冠状病毒合并感染各2例,3例标本同时检出hMPV、RSV、鼻病毒为阳性;分析hMPV阳性呼吸道感染患儿的临床特征:男:女=16:9,12例(48%)临床诊断为毛细支气管炎,9例(36%)临床诊断为肺炎,4例(16%)为哮喘急性发作患儿,除hMPV和其他病毒合并感染更容易出现发热外,单纯hMPV感染与hMPV与其他病毒混合感染在发病年龄、性别、病程及临床表现上无明显差异.结论 hMPV是小儿急性呼吸道感染的重要病原,可与呼吸道其他常见病毒混合感染,仅从临床表现上很难将hMPV感染与其他呼吸道病毒感染区别.

  9. In vivo Measurement of Unattached Radon Progeny Deposited in the Human Respiratory Tract

    Butterweck, G.; Vezzu, G.; Schuler, Ch.; Mueller, R.; Marsh, J.W.; Thrift, S.; Birchall, A

    2001-07-01

    Seven nose breathing and seven mouth breathing volunteers were exposed to atmospheres enriched with unattached radon progeny ({sup 218}Po, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi). The activity of these radionuclides deposited in the respiratory track was measured in vivo after the exposures. The results of these measurements are in agreement with predictions calculated with the ICRP Publication 66 Human Respiratory Tract Model. Temporal analysis of the activity deposited in the heads of the volunteers leads to the conclusion that a significant amount of the deposited activity associated with particle diameters of about 1 nm is not subject to a fast transport to the gastrointestinal tract as generally reported for larger aerosol particles. (author)

  10. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Streptococcus Pyogenes Isolated from Respiratory Tract Infections in Dakar, Senegal

    Camara, Makhtar; Dieng, Assane; Boye, Cheikh Saad Bouh

    2013-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is one of the major causes of respiratory tract infections. The objectives of this study were to identify isolates of S. pyogenes obtained from respiratory tract infections, and to assess their susceptibility to several antibiotics. A total of 40 strains were isolated and their susceptibility to 17 antibiotics was tested using a standard disk diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the E-test. All isolates were sensitive to β-lactam antibiotics including penicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalosporins. Macrolides remain active with the exception of spiramycin, which showed reduced susceptibility. Out of the 40 isolates, 100% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Interestingly, isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, teicoplanin, vancomycine, and levofloxacin, providing potential alternative choices of treatment against infections with S. pyogenes. PMID:24826076

  11. The role of rhinovirus in children hospitalized for acute respiratory disease, Santa Fe, Argentina.

    Rudi, Juan Manuel; Molina, Fabiana; Díaz, Rocío; Bonet, Virginia; Ortellao, Lucila; Cantarutti, Diego; Gómez, Alejandra; Pierini, Judith; Cociglio, Raquel; Kusznierz, Gabriela

    2015-12-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) were historically considered upper airway pathogens. However, they have recently been proven to cause infections in the lower respiratory tract, resulting in hospitalization of children with pneumonia, bronchiolitis, and chronic pulmonary obstruction. In this report, HRV frequency and seasonality are described together with patient clinical-epidemiological aspects. From a total of 452 surveyed samples, the HRV nucleic acids was detected in 172 (38.1%) and found in every month of the study year. 60% of inpatients with acute respiratory infection (ARI) associated with HRV were under 6 months of age and 31% had a clinical history, being preterm birth and recurrent wheezing the prevailing conditions. The most frequent discharge diagnoses were pneumonia (35.2%), bronchiolitis (32.4%), and bronchitis (12.4%). Fifteen point nine percent of patients required admission into intensive care units. The results obtained in this study demonstrated the association between HRV and children hospitalizations caused by ARI.

  12. Haemophilus haemolyticus: A Human Respiratory Tract Commensal to Be Distinguished from Haemophilus influenzae

    Murphy, T.F.; Brauer, A.L.; Sethi, S.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Haemophilus influenzae is a common pathogen in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a prospective study, selected isolates of apparent H. influenzae had an altered phenotype. We tested the hypothesis that these variant strains were genetically different from ty...... distinguish H. haemolyticus from H. influenzae. H. haemolyticus is a respiratory tract commensal. The recognition that some strains of apparent H. influenzae are H. haemolyticus substantially strengthens the association of true H. influenzae with clinical infection....

  13. CONSUMPTION OF ANTIBACTERIAL WITHIN THE SOUTHERN NIGERIAN POPULATION: SOURCES, PATTERN AND APPROPRIATENESS IN RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTION

    2010-01-01

    The study was designed to assess the sources and pattern of procurement, knowledge and attitude of consumers of antibacterial agents and the appropriateness of use in respect of respiratory tract infections. Buyers at the point of purchase were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. 65 respondents were randomly selected among buyers who had duly signed prescriptions but without prior laboratory tests. Sputum samples were collected for microbiology, culture and sensitivity to match up fo...

  14. Vitamin D for prevention of respiratory tract infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Jaykaran Charan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To explore the effect of vitamin D supplementation in prevention of respiratory tract infections on the basis of published clinical trials. Materials and Methods : Clinical trials were searched from various electronic databases. Five clinical trials were suitable for inclusion. Outcome was events of respiratory tract infections in vitamin D group and placebo group. Data was reported as odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Both random and fixed model was used for analysis. Analysis was done with the help of Comprehensive meta-analysis software 2. Results : Events of respiratory tract infections were significantly lower in vitamin D group as compared to control group [Odds ratio = 0.582 (0.417 - 0.812 P = 0.001] according to random model. Results were similar in fixed model. On separate analysis of clinical trials dealing with groups of children and adults, beneficial effect of vitamin D was observed in both, according to fixed model [Odds ratio = 0.579 (0.416 - 0.805, P = 0.001 and Odd ratio = 0.653 (0.472 - 0.9040, P = 0.010 respectively]. On using random model beneficial effect persisted in children′s group but became nonsignificant in adults group [Odds ratio = 0.579 (0.416 - 0.805, P = 0.001 and Odd ratio = 0.544 (0.278 - 1.063 P = 0.075 respectively]. Conclusion : Vitamin D supplementation decreases the events related to respiratory tract infections. There is need of more well conducted clinical trials to reach to a certain conclusion.

  15. Respiratory tract changes in guinea pigs, rats, and mice following a single six-hour exposure to methyl isocyanate vapor

    Fowler, E.H.; Dodd, D.E.

    1987-06-01

    Groups of male and female Fischer 344 rats, B6C3F1 mice, and Hartley guinea pigs were exposed once for 6 hr to mean concentrations of 10.5, 5.4, 2.4, 1.0, or 0 (control) ppm of methyl isocyanate (MIC) vapor. Rats and mice were also exposed to 20.4 ppm of MIC. The majority of deaths occurred during postexposure days 1 through 3. The 6-hr LC/sub 50/ values were 6.1 ppm for rats, 12.2 ppm for mice, and 5.4 ppm for guinea pigs. Notable clinical observations during and immediately following MIC exposure were lacrimation, perinasal/perioral wetness, respiratory difficulty (e.g., mouth breathing), decreased activity, ataxia, and hypothermia. Body weight losses were common in all species following MIC exposures of 2.4 ppm or greater. Microscopic lesions included acute necrosis of the epithelial lining throughout the respiratory tract in animals that died shortly after exposure, coupled with congestion, edema, and inflammation. A microscopic lesion that appeared unique to guinea pigs was bronchiolitis obliterans. Additional microscopic lesions observed in some animals that died or were sacrificed at the end of the study (postexposure day 14) consisted of squamous metaplasia of respiratory epithelium in the nasal cavity, which extended into the larynx, trachea, and in some cases, the bronchi. In addition, epithelial regeneration throughout the tract and submucosal fibroplasia in the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles were observed, the latter lesion being primarily confined to rodents. Only in guinea pigs were there lesions in the 1.0 ppm group attributed to MIC exposure. In conclusion, guinea pigs were more sensitive to the MIC vapor than were rats, which were in turn more sensitive than mice.

  16. Association of residential dampness and mold with respiratory tract infections and bronchitis: a meta-analysis

    Fisk, William J.; Eliseeva, Ekaterina A.; Mendell, Mark J.

    2010-11-15

    Dampness and mold have been shown in qualitative reviews to be associated with a variety of adverse respiratory health effects, including respiratory tract infections. Several published meta-analyses have provided quantitative summaries for some of these associations, but not for respiratory infections. Demonstrating a causal relationship between dampness-related agents, which are preventable exposures, and respiratory tract infections would suggest important new public health strategies. We report the results of quantitative meta-analyses of published studies that examined the association of dampness or mold in homes with respiratory infections and bronchitis. For primary studies meeting eligibility criteria, we transformed reported odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) to the log scale. Both fixed and random effects models were applied to the log ORs and their variances. Most studies contained multiple estimated ORs. Models accounted for the correlation between multiple results within the studies analyzed. One set of analyses was performed with all eligible studies, and another set restricted to studies that controlled for age, gender, smoking, and socioeconomic status. Subgroups of studies were assessed to explore heterogeneity. Funnel plots were used to assess publication bias. The resulting summary estimates of ORs from random effects models based on all studies ranged from 1.38 to 1.50, with 95% CIs excluding the null in all cases. Use of different analysis models and restricting analyses based on control of multiple confounding variables changed findings only slightly. ORs (95% CIs) from random effects models using studies adjusting for major confounding variables were, for bronchitis, 1.45 (1.32-1.59); for respiratory infections, 1.44 (1.31-1.59); for respiratory infections excluding nonspecific upper respiratory infections, 1.50 (1.32-1.70), and for respiratory infections in children or infants, 1.48 (1.33-1.65). Little effect of publication

  17. Respiratory syncytial virus, adenoviruses, and mixed acute lower respiratory infections in children in a developing country.

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos E; Rodríguez, Diego Andrés; Nino, Gustavo

    2015-05-01

    There is growing evidence suggesting greater severity and worse outcomes in children with mixed as compared to single respiratory virus infections. However, studies that assess the risk factors that may predispose a child to a mixture of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and adenoviral infections, are scarce. In a retrospective cohort study, the study investigated the epidemiology of RSV and adenovirus infections and predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections in young children hospitalized with acute lower respiratory infection in Bogota, Colombia, South America, over a 2-year period 2009-2011. Of a total of 5,539 children admitted with a diagnosis of acute lower respiratory infection, 2,267 (40.9%) who were positive for RSV and/or adenovirus were selected. Out the total number of cases, 1,416 (62.5%) infections occurred during the 3-month period from March to May, the first rainy season of Bogota, Colombia. After controlling for gender, month when the nasopharyngeal sample was taken, and other pre-existing conditions, it was found that an age greater than 6 months (OR:1.74; CI 95%:1.05-2.89; P = 0.030) and malnutrition as a comorbidity (OR:9.92; CI 95%:1.01-100.9; P = 0.049) were independent predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections in the sample of patients. In conclusion, RSV and adenovirus are significant causes of acute lower respiratory infection in infants and young children in Bogota, Colombia, especially during the first rainy season. The identified predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections should be taken into account when planning intervention, in order to reduce the burden of acute lower respiratory infection in young children living in the country.

  18. Prognostic value of procalcitonin in hospitalized patients with lower respiratory tract infections

    Nobre, Vandack; Borges, Isabela

    2016-01-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections are common and potentially lethal conditions and are a major cause of inadequate antibiotic prescriptions. Characterization of disease severity and prognostic prediction in affected patients can aid disease management and can increase accuracy in determining the need for and place of hospitalization. The inclusion of biomarkers, particularly procalcitonin, in the decision taken process is a promising strategy. This study aims to present a narrative review of the potential applications and limitations of procalcitonin as a prognostic marker in hospitalized patients with lower respiratory tract infections. The studies on this topic are heterogeneous with respect to procalcitonin measurement techniques, cutoff values, clinical settings, and disease severity. The results show that procalcitonin delivers moderate performance for prognostic prediction in patients with lower respiratory tract infections; its predictive performance was not higher than that of classical methods, and knowledge of procalcitonin levels is most useful when interpreted together with other clinical and laboratory results. Overall, repeated measurement of the procalcitonin levels during the first days of treatment provides more prognostic information than a single measurement; however, information on the cost-effectiveness of this procedure in intensive care patients is lacking. The results of studies that evaluated the prognostic value of initial procalcitonin levels in patients with community-acquired pneumonia are more consistent and have greater potential for practical application; in this case, low procalcitonin levels identify those patients with a low risk of adverse outcomes. PMID:27305038

  19. Lower respiratory tract infection in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) infected with group A Streptococcus.

    Olsen, Randall J; Ashraf, Madiha; Gonulal, Vedia E; Ayeras, Ara A; Cantu, Concepcion; Shea, Patrick R; Carroll, Ronan K; Humbird, Tammy; Greaver, Jamieson L; Swain, Jody L; Chang, Ellen; Ragasa, Willie; Jenkins, Leslie; Lally, Kevin P; Blasdel, Terry; Cagle, Philip; Musser, James M

    2010-12-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS), a human-specific pathogen, is best known for causing pharyngitis ("strep-throat") and necrotizing fasciitis ("flesh-eating disease"). However, the organism is also an uncommon but important cause of community-acquired bronchopneumonia, an infection with an exceptionally high mortality rate. Inasmuch as little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of GAS lower respiratory tract infection, we sought to develop a relevant human infection model. Nine cynomolgus macaques were infected by intra-bronchial instillation of either sterile saline or GAS (10(5) or 10(7) CFU). Animals were continuously monitored and sacrificed at five days post-inoculation. Serial bronchial alveolar lavage specimens and tissues collected at necropsy were used for histologic and immunohistochemical examination, quantitative microbial culture, lung and blood biomarker analysis, and in vivo GAS gene expression studies. The lower respiratory tract disease observed in cynomolgus macaques mimicked the clinical and pathological features of severe GAS bronchopneumonia in humans. This new monkey model will be useful for testing hypotheses bearing on the molecular pathogenesis of GAS in the lower respiratory tract.

  20. Change of immune indexes and oxidative stress state of children with recurrent respiratory tract infection

    Wei-Qing Wu; Shu-Ping Liao; Xiao-Lan Lin; Qiong-Fang Huang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe and analyze the change situation of immune indexes and oxidative stress state of children with recurrent respiratory tract infection.Methods:75 children with recurrent respiratory tract infection in our hospital from January 2014 to June 2015 were selected as observation group, 75 healthy children with health examination at the same time were selected as control group, then the immune indexes and oxidative stress state related serum indexes of two groups were detected,and the detection results of observation group with boys and girls, mild, moderate and severe disease were compared.Results: The cellular immune and erythrocyte immune and oxidative stress state related serum indexes of observation group were all worse than those of control group,and the detection results of observation group with mild, moderate and severe disease had obvious differences too, allP0.05.Conclusion:The change of immune indexes and oxidative stress state of children with recurrent respiratory tract infection are obvious,and the differences of children with mild, moderate and severe disease are obvious too,while the differences of boys and girls are not obvious.

  1. Protection of human upper respiratory tract cell lines against sulphur mustard toxicity by hexamethylenetetramine (HMT).

    Andrew, D J; Lindsay, C D

    1998-07-01

    1. Sulphur mustard ('mustard gas', HD) is a highly toxic chemical warfare agent which affects the skin and respiratory tract. The primary targets of inhaled HD are the epithelia of the upper respiratory tract. Hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) has been shown to protect human lung cells against HD toxicity and has also been shown to be effective in vivo against the chemical warfare agent phosgene. The ability of HMT to protect against the toxicity of HD was investigated in the human upper respiratory tract cell lines BEAS-2B and RPMI 2650. 2. HD was highly toxic to both cell lines, with LC50 values of 15-30 microM. HMT, at a concentration of 10 mM, was shown to protect the cell lines against the toxic effects of 20 microM and 40 microM HD. Results demonstrated that it was necessary for HMT to be in situ at the time of exposure to HD for effective cytoprotection. No protection was seen when cells were treated with HMT following exposure to HD, or where HMT was removed prior to HD exposure. 3. Results suggest that HMT may be effective prophylaxis for exposure to HD by inhalation.

  2. Deposition of inhaled asbestos and man-made mineral fibres in the respiratory tract.

    Morgan, A

    1995-10-01

    This paper reviews publications dealing with the deposition of fibrous particles, including asbestos and man-made mineral fibres, in the respiratory tract of man and experimental animals, particularly of the rat. The effects of fibre diameter and length on total, thoracic and alveolar deposition are discussed. Total deposition in the respiratory tract of the rat increases quite steeply with aerodynamic diameter (Dae) from about 20% at a Dae of 1 micron to 100% at a Dae of 5 microns. Deposition in the alveolar region reaches a peak of about 10% at a Dae of about 2 microns, which corresponds to an actual fibre diameter of about 0.4 microns. For fibres with diameters greater than this, alveolar deposition falls rapidly. For example, long glass fibres with an actual diameter of 1.5 microns or short glass fibres with an actual diameter of 3 microns are essentially non-respirable in the rat. The fate of fibres deposited in different regions of the respiratory tract of the rat is also discussed and the factors which predispose fibres either to remain in alveolar macrophages or to be transferred to the interstitium and pulmonary lymphatics. Finally, the distributions in the lungs of fibres administered by inhalation and by intratracheal instillation are compared, and the advantages and drawbacks of each method of delivery discussed.

  3. Activated protein C in the treatment of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome

    A.D. Cornet; G.P. van Nieuw Amerongen; A. Beishuizen; M.J. Schultz; A.R.J. Girbes; A.B.J. Groeneveld

    2009-01-01

    Background: Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) frequently necessitate mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit. The syndromes have a high mortality rate and there is at present no treatment specifically directed at the underlying pathogenesis. Central in

  4. Epidemiology of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome in The Netherlands : A survey

    Wind, Jan; Versteegt, Jens; Twisk, Jos; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Bindels, Alexander J. G. H.; Spijkstra, Jan-Jaap; Girbes, Armand R. J.; Groeneveld, A. B. Johan

    2007-01-01

    Background: The characteristics, incidence and risk factors for acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may depend on definitions and geography. Methods: A prospective, 3-day point-prevalence study was performed by a survey of all intensive care units (ICU) in the Neth

  5. Continued high rates of antibiotic prescribing to adults with respiratory tract infection : survey of 568 UK general practices

    Gulliford, Martin C; Dregan, Alex; Moore, Michael V; Ashworth, Mark; Staa, Tjeerd van; McCann, Gerard; Charlton, Judith; Yardley, Lucy; Little, Paul; McDermott, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Overutilisation of antibiotics may contribute to the emergence of antimicrobial drug resistance, a growing international concern. This study aimed to analyse the performance of UK general practices with respect to antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) among young

  6. Inhalation of beta 2 agonists impairs the clearance of nontypable Haemophilus influenzae from the murine respiratory tract

    Maris, N.A.; Florquin, S.; van 't Veer, C.; de Vos, A.F.; Buurman, W.; Jansen, H.M.; van der Poll, T.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common bacterial pathogen causing human respiratory tract infections under permissive conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Inhalation of beta2-receptor agonists is a widely used treatment in patients with chronic obstruct

  7. Treatment of 31 Cases of Infant Respiratory Tract Infection by Health-care Tuina plus Medicated Bath

    LI Jie; WU Xue-fei

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-one cases of infant respiratory tract infection were treated by no-pain health-care Tuina plus medicated bath. Since the therapeutic effects were satisfactory, so parents and infants are willing to accept.

  8. Efficacy and Safety of Procalcitonin-Guided Antibiotic Therapy in Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

    Werner C. Albrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 14 randomized controlled studies to date, a procalcitonin (PCT-based algorithm has been proven to markedly reduce the use of antibiotics along with an unimpaired high safety and low complication rates in patients with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs. However, compliance with the algorithm and safety out of controlled study conditions has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Methods: We performed a prospective international multicenter observational post-study surveillance of consecutive adults with community-acquired LRTI in 14 centers (Switzerland (n = 10, France (n = 3 and the United States (n = 1. Results: Between September 2009 and November 2010, 1,759 patients were enrolled (median age 71; female sex 44.4%. 1,520 (86.4% patients had a final diagnosis of LRTI (community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, 53.7%; acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD, 17.1%; and acute bronchitis, 14.4%. Compliance with the PCT-guided therapy (overall 68.2% was highest in patients with bronchitis (81.0% vs. AECOPD, 70.1%; CAP, 63.7%; p < 0.001, outpatients (86.1% vs. inpatients, 65.9%; p < 0.001 and algorithm-experienced centers (82.5% vs. algorithm-naive, 60.1%; p < 0.001 and showed significant geographical differences. The initial decision about the antibiotic therapy was based on PCT value in 72.4%. In another 8.6% of patients, antibiotics were administered despite low PCT values but according to predefined criteria. Thus, the algorithm was followed in 81.0% of patients. In a multivariable Cox hazard ratio model, longer antibiotic therapy duration was associated with algorithm-non-compliance, country, hospitalization, CAP vs. bronchitis, renal failure and algorithm-naïvety of the study center. In a multivariable logistic regression complications (death, empyema, ICU treatment, mechanical ventilation, relapse, and antibiotic-associated side effects were significantly associated with increasing CURB65-Score, CAP

  9. Importance of respiratory viruses in acute otitis media.

    Heikkinen, Terho; Chonmaitree, Tasnee

    2003-04-01

    Acute otitis media is usually considered a simple bacterial infection that is treated with antibiotics. However, ample evidence derived from studies ranging from animal experiments to extensive clinical trials supports a crucial role for respiratory viruses in the etiology and pathogenesis of acute otitis media. Viral infection of the upper respiratory mucosa initiates the whole cascade of events that finally leads to the development of acute otitis media as a complication. The pathogenesis of acute otitis media involves a complex interplay between viruses, bacteria, and the host's inflammatory response. In a substantial number of children, viruses can be found in the middle-ear fluid either alone or together with bacteria, and recent studies indicate that at least some viruses actively invade the middle ear. Viruses appear to enhance the inflammatory process in the middle ear, and they may significantly impair the resolution of otitis media. Prevention of the predisposing viral infection by vaccination against the major viruses would probably be the most effective way to prevent acute otitis media. Alternatively, early treatment of the viral infection with specific antiviral agents would also be effective in reducing the occurrence of acute otitis media.

  10. The application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of common pathogenic bacteria in lower respiratory tract infections

    陈愉生

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the spectrum of common pathogenic bacteria of low respiratory tract infection by loop-mediated isothermal amplification(LAMP)of nucleic acid test and to prove the clinical significance of this method.Methods A total of 289 qualified sputum samples from patients with lower respiratory tract infections in Fujian Province were detected by LAMP technique,and then the distribution of pathogenic bacteria was analyzed.The positive cases(the patients whose specific3

  11. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in upper respiratory tract mucosa in a group of pre-school children

    Jaroslaw Szydłowski; Katarzyna Jonczyk-Potoczna; Beata Pucher; Beata Buraczyńska-Andrzejewska; Magdalena Prauzińska; Jagoda Kolasińska-Lipńska; Hanna Krauss; Jacek Piątek; Wioletta Żukiewicz-Sobczak

    2014-01-01

    [b]introduction[/b]. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a group of DNA viruses which is an etiological factor of many benign and malignant diseases of the upper respiratory tract mucosa, female genital tract and the skin. HPV infection is considered a sexually-transmitted infection, but can also be transmitted by non-sexual routes, including perinatal vertical transmission, physical contact, iatrogenic infection and autoinoculation. Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP) in children is connect...

  12. 抗生素序贯疗法联合转移因子治疗儿童急性下呼吸道感染的疗效分析%Efficacy analysis of sequential antibiotic therapy combined with transfer factor therapy in the treatment of children with acute lower respiratory tract infection

    王誽; 丁淑贤; 边俊梅

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨抗生素序贯疗法联合转移因子治疗儿童急性下呼吸道感染疗效和安全性。方法174例急性下呼吸道感染儿童患者,随机分为观察组和对照组,每组87例。对照组给予阿奇霉素序贯治疗(常规治疗+阿奇霉素注射液3 d;再给予常规治疗+阿奇霉素片5 d),观察组在对照组的基础上加服转移因子4周。对两组患者治疗疗效、症状改善时间、细胞免疫功能、不良反应进行观察。结果观察组治疗总有效率为95.4%,显著高于对照组的86.2%(P<0.05);观察组退热时间、咳嗽消失时间为(2.39±0.57)天、(4.73±1.56)天,均显著低于对照组的(3.59±0.5)天、(6.35±1.89)天(P<0.05);治疗后观察组患者CD3+、CD4+和CD4+/CD8+分别为(62.09±12.29)%、(46.38±10.12)%和(1.72±0.76),显著高于对照组的(57.38±9.46)%、(42.43±9.69)%和(1.45±0.67),(P<0.05);观察组不良反为3.5%,低于对照组的4.6%(P>0.05)。结论抗生素序贯疗法联合转移因子治疗儿童急性下呼吸道感染疗效显著,提高儿童免疫力。%Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of sequential antibiotic therapy combined with transfer factor therapy in the treatment of children with acute lower respiratory tract infection.Methods 1 74 children with acute lower respiratory tract infection were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group,87 cases in each group.The control group was given azithromycin sequential therapy (conventional therapy +azithromy-cin injection,3d;and then conventional therapy +azithromycin tablets,5d),and the observation group was given transfer factor therapy (4 weeks)based on the control group.Their efficacy,symptoms improved time,immune func-tion,and adverse reactions of the two groups were observed.Results The total effective rate of the observation group was 95.4%,which

  13. 抗生素序贯疗法联合转移因子治疗儿童急性下呼吸道感染的疗效和安全性分析%Clinical efficacy and safety analysis of antibiotic sequential therapy combined with transfer factor in treatment of children with acute lower respiratory tract infection

    成登菊

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of antibiotic sequential ther-apy combined with transfer factor in treatment of children with acute lower respiratory tract infection. Methods One hundred and eighty children with acute lower respiratory tract infection were randomly di-vided into two groups,with 90 cases in each group. Children in control group were given antibiotics se-quential therapy,and children in observation group were given antibiotics sequential therapy combined with transfer factor oral solution. The total effective rates,symptoms improvement times,CRP and PCT levels,WBC counts,adverse reactions of the two groups were observed. Results The total effective rate of observation group was 91. 11% ,which was significantly higher than that in control group(82. 22% ), the difference was significant(P ﹤ 0. 05);The cooling time,cough time,and hospitalization of observa-tion group were(2. 41 ± 0. 59),(4. 84 ± 1. 56),(5. 25 ± 1. 17)d,which were significantly shorter than that in control group[(3. 47 ± 0. 48),(6. 45 ± 1. 93),6. 97 ± 1. 48)d],the differences were signifi-cant(P ﹤ 0. 05). After treatment,CRP,PCT,WBC counts levels of the two groups decreased signifi-cantly,CRP,PCT,WBC count levels of the observation group were significantly lower than those in con-trol group,the differences were significant(P ﹤ 0. 05). Conclusions Sequential antibiotic therapy combined with transfer factor can effectively treat children with acute lower respiratory infections, with characteristics of short symptoms improvement time,quicker inflammation recovery,and fewer adverse reactions.%目的:探讨抗生素序贯疗法联合转移因子治疗儿童急性下呼吸道感染的临床疗效及安全性。方法将180例急性下呼吸道感染儿童随机分成两组,每组90例。对照组给予抗生素序贯疗法,观察组在对照组的基础上给予转移因子口服液。观察两组疗效、症状改善时间、C-反应蛋白(CRP)

  14. Acute effects of urban air pollution on respiratory health of children with and without chronic respiratory symptoms

    van der Zee, S; Hoek, G; Boezen, H M; Schouten, J P; van Wijnen, J H; Brunekreef, B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate to what extent different components of air pollution are associated with acute respiratory health effects in children with and without chronic respiratory symptoms. METHODS: During three consecutive winters starting in 1992-3, peak expiratory flow (PEF) and respiratory sym

  15. Mammalian Cell-Derived Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Like Particles Protect the Lower as well as the Upper Respiratory Tract.

    Pramila Walpita

    Full Text Available Globally, Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV is a leading cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children less than one year of age and in USA alone, between 85,000 and 144,000 infants are hospitalized every year. To date, there is no licensed vaccine. We have evaluated vaccine potential of mammalian cell-derived native RSV virus-like particles (RSV VLPs composed of the two surface glycoproteins G and F, and the matrix protein M. Results of in vitro testing showed that the VLPs were functionally assembled and immunoreactive, and that the recombinantly expressed F protein was cleaved intracellularly similarly to the virus-synthesized F protein to produce the F1 and F2 subunits; the presence of the F1 fragment is critical for vaccine development since all the neutralizing epitopes present in the F protein are embedded in this fragment. Additional in vitro testing in human macrophage cell line THP-1 showed that both virus and the VLPs were sensed by TLR-4 and induced a Th1-biased cytokine response. Cotton rats vaccinated with RSV VLPs adjuvanted with alum and monophosphoryl lipid A induced potent neutralizing antibody response, and conferred protection in the lower as well as the upper respiratory tract based on substantial virus clearance from these sites. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first VLP/virosome vaccine study reporting protection of the lower as well as the upper respiratory tract: Prevention from replication in the nose is an important consideration if the target population is infants < 6 months of age. This is because continued virus replication in the nose results in nasal congestion and babies at this age are obligate nose breathers. In conclusion, these results taken together suggest that our VLPs show promise to be a safe and effective vaccine for RSV.

  16. Brazilian medicinal plants to treat upper respiratory tract and bronchial illness: systematic review and meta-analyses—study protocol

    Lopes, Luciane C; Silva, Maria Carolina O; Motta, Cristiane Bergamashi; Macho Quirós, Antonio; Biavatti, Maique Weber; de Oliveira, Jardel Corrêa; Guyatt, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory illness, often associated with cough and sputum, is frequent. In Brazil, herbal medicines are often recommended as a first-line treatment for respiratory illness. There exists uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of these treatments. No systematic review has evaluated Brazilian medicinal plants (BMP) to treat upper respiratory tract and bronchial illness (URTI). Methods and analysis We will conduct a systematic review and, if appropriate, a series of meta-analyses evaluating the safety and effectiveness of BMP for URTI. Eligible randomised controlled trials and observational studies will enrol adult or paediatric patients presenting with URTI treated by BMP approved by the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency compared with placebo, no treatment or an alternative therapy. Our search will include the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Illness Group's Specialized Register; MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature); Web of Science; AMED; LILACS; CAB abstracts; clinical trial.gov; the WHO Trial Register and the Brazilian thesis database (CAPES) without any language restrictions. Outcomes of interest are time to resolution of clinical symptoms and/or signs (cough, sputum production or activity limitations), severity of symptoms prior to resolution and major/minor adverse events. Teams of reviewers will, independently and in duplicate, screen titles and abstracts and the complete full text to determine eligibility. For eligible studies, reviewers will perform data abstraction and assess risk of bias of eligible trials. When appropriate, we will conduct meta-analyses. We will also assess the quality of body of evidence (confidence in estimates of effect) for each of the outcomes using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Ethics and dissemination The systematic review will be published in

  17. Message concerning Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome ("SARS")

    2003-01-01

    IMPORTANT REMINDER If you have just come back from one of the regions identified by the WHO as being infected with SARS, it is essential to monitor your state of health for ten days after your return. The syndrome manifests itself in the rapid onset of a high fever combined with respiratory problems (coughing, breathlessness, breathing difficulty). Should these signs appear, you must contact the CERN Medical Service as quickly as possible on number 73802 or 73186 during normal working hours, and the fire brigade at all other times on number 74444, indicating that you have just returned from one of the WHO-identified areas with recent local transmission.China: Beijing, Hong Kong (Special Administrative Region), Guangdong Province, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi Province, Tianjin ProvinceTaiwan:TaipeiMoreover, until further notice the CERN Management requests that all trips to these various regions of the world be reduced to a strict minimum and then only with the consent of the Division Leader concerned. Anyone comin...

  18. [Bocavirus in infants under 5 years with acute respiratory infection. Chaco Province, Argentina, 2014].

    Deluca, Gerardo D; Urquijo, María Cecilia; Passarella, Carolina; Picón, César; Picón, Dimas; Acosta, María; Rovira, Carina; Marín, Héctor M

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the most frequent pathology along human life, being the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bocavirus (BoV) in infants under 5 years with symptoms of ARI from north Argentina (Chaco province). The study was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates from 488 patients, in the period of January-December 2014. The samples were tested by real time PCR and 36 positive BoV cases (7.4%) were detected. The period with the highest detection rate was June-September with 28 cases (77.8%), of which 26 (72.2%) were infants between 6-18 moths of life. In half of BoV positive cases this virus was detected as single infection of the upper respiratory tract, and in the remaining 50%, as concomitant infection with other microorganisms. To our knowledge, this would be the first study on molecular epidemiology of BoV in northern Argentina. We emphasize the importance of investigating these new viruses capable of generating acute respiratory disease and also to disseminate awareness on their circulation within the community.

  19. Multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacilli in lower respiratory tract infections.

    Shashidhar Vishwanath

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lower respiratory tract infections are among important causes of morbidity and mortality for all age groups. The emergence of multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacilli is an issue of increasing concern.A retrospective study including respiratory specimens (sputum and BAL was conducted in our tertiary care centre. Samples were processed for microscopy, culture and susceptibility testing following standard methods. Multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacilli causing lower respiratory tract infections were studied for their causation of disease. The effect of appropriate treatment on clinical outcome was observed.A total of 472 Gram-negative pathogens were isolated from sputum and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid specimens during the study period. Among these Gram-negative pathogens 175 (37% were found to be multidrug resistant. Klebsiella pneumoniae 85 (48.6% and Acinetobacter spp. 59 (33.7% were the predominant multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacilli isolated. Based on clinico-microbiological correlation, 138 (78.9% multidrug resistant isolates were found to be pathogenic and the rest 37 (21.1% were considered as colonizers. After initiating appropriate antibiotic therapy, clinical improvement was seen in 110 (79.7% patients. In the patients who showed improvement, amikacin (34.3% and cefoperazone-sulbactum (21.8% were found to be the most effective drugs.A large majority of the isolated multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacilli were found to be pathogenic. Regular surveillance which directs appropriate empirical therapy; and good clinic-microbiological workup of each case of lower respiratory tract infection can reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with multidrug resistant organisms.

  20. [Pharmacological effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on the respiratory tract. (I). Quantitative and qualitative changes in respiratory tract fluid and sputum (author's transl)].

    Kogi, K; Saito, T; Kasé, Y; Hitoshi, T

    1981-06-01

    The following three experiments were performed to determine the effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) on the quantity and quality of respiratory tract fluid (RTF) and sputum. All drugs used were administered into the stomach through a gastric tube. 1) Indirect measurement of bronchial secretion in rats, which was expressed by the amounts of dye excreted into the respiratory tract, was carried out according the the Sakuno's method, with some modification. Some expectorants of the secretomotor type, such as bromhexine and pilocarpine, significantly increased the secretion, even at low doses. On the other hand, mucolytic agents such as NAC augmented the secretion only in doses of 500 to 1500 mg/kg. 2)As a direct method of measurements, Kasé's modification of Perry and Boyd's method was used to collect RTF, quantitatively, from rabbits. The RTF of healthy rabbits was colorless and watery. The administration of NAC in doses of 500 to 1500 mg/kg augmented the output volume and RTF became slightly turbid, probably due to an increase in the viscous mucus. 3) Rabbits with subacute bronchitis were prepared by long-term exposure to air contaminated with SO2 gas and sputa were collected before and after administration of NAC, respectively, according to the Kase's method. The sputa were opalescent and viscous gel included nodular masses. The administration of NAC, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg resulted in a dose dependent decrease in the relative viscosity. The percent-decreased in viscosity with NAC was statistically correlated with that in amounts of dry matter, those in protein and polysaccharide in the sputa. From the results described above, it was concluded that NAC given into the stomach can liquefy sputum by splitting mucoprotein disulphide linkages, that is, altering the rheological characteristics of sputum to facilitate expectoration.

  1. Acute respiratory failure secondary to mesalamine-induced interstitial pneumonitis.

    Abraham, Albin; Karakurum, Ali

    2013-08-20

    Interstitial pneumonitis as an adverse effect of mesalamine therapy is a rare but potentially serious complication. Patients typically have a mild disease course with no documented cases of respiratory failure in published literature. Given its variable latent period and non-specific signs and symptoms, it may be difficult to diagnose. We present the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with symptoms of fever, shortness of breath and a non-productive cough, 2 weeks after initiation of therapy with mesalamine. His hospital course was complicated by acute respiratory failure requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. Radiographic studies revealed bilateral lower lobe infiltrates and bronchosopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy were consistent with a diagnosis of drug-induced interstitial pneumonitis. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of considering a diagnosis of mesalamine-induced lung injury in patients presenting with respiratory symptoms while on mesalamine therapy and to review relevant literature.

  2. Differential expression of the MERS-coronavirus receptor in the upper respiratory tract of humans and dromedary camels

    Widagdo, W; Raj, V Stalin; Schipper, Debby; Kolijn, Kimberley; van Leenders, Geert J L H; Bosch, Berend J; Bensaid, Albert; Segalés, Joaquim; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Koopmans, Marion P; van den Brand, Judith M A; Haagmans, Bart L

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is not efficiently transmitted between humans, but it is highly prevalent in dromedary camels. Here we report that the MERS-CoV receptor - dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) - is expressed in the upper respiratory tract epithelium of camels but not

  3. Lower respiratory tract tumours in Syrian golden hamsters after intratracheal instillations of diethylnitrosamine alone and with ferric oxide

    Feron, V.J.; Emmelot, P.; Vossenaar, T.

    1972-01-01

    A total of 37 tumours of the lower respiratory tract (bronchi, bronchioli and alveoli) was observed in 62 male and female Syrian golden hamsters following 15 weekly intratracheal instillations of diethylnitrosamine (DENA) alone. The number of tumours in this segment of the respiratory system was 3 t

  4. Antiviral therapy and prophylaxis of acute respiratory infections

    L. V. Osidak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thearticle presents the results of years of studies (including biochemical and immunological of the effectiveness of application and prophylaxis (in relation to nosocomial infections and the safety of antiviral chemical preparation Arbidol in 694 children with influenza and influenza-like illness, including the coronavirus infection (43 children and combined lesions of respiratory tract (150, indicating the possible inclusion of the drug in the complex therapy for children with the listed diseases, regardless of the severity and nature of their course. The studies were conducted according to the regulated standard of test conditions and randomized clinical trials.

  5. Early Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Przybysz, Thomas M; Heffner, Alan C

    2016-02-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is defined by acute diffuse inflammatory lung injury invoked by a variety of systemic or pulmonary insults. Despite medical progress in management, mortality remains 27% to 45%. Patients with ARDS should be managed with low tidal volume ventilation. Permissive hypercapnea is well tolerated. Conservative fluid strategy can reduce ventilator and hospital days in patients without shock. Prone positioning and neuromuscular blockers reduce mortality in some patients. Early management of ARDS is relevant to emergency medicine. Identifying ARDS patients who should be transferred to an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation center is an important task for emergency providers.

  6. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome after near-drowning (author's transl)].

    Tempel, G; Jelen, S; Forster, B; Gullotta, U; Daum, S

    1977-08-01

    After successful rescue from drowning there may develop a situation which is called secondary drowning, resulting in acute respiratory distress characterized by interstitial pulmonary oedema, hypoxaemia, hypercapnia and acidosis during drowning, direct alteration of the alveolar membrane by aspirated water and particulate matters and a volume overloading by adsorption and--not seldom--inept therapy. This situation requires mechanical ventilation and forced diuresis, combined with high doses of steroids, antibiotics and digitalis. We present the case of an eleven year old patient whose clinical course demonstrate the necessity of exact clinical observation after rescue from drowning. After development of acute respiratory distress only the immediate utilization of the therapeutic modalities of an intensive care may result in a satisfactory outcome. Four months later our patient had normal pulmonary function except for a moderate reduction of compliance.

  7. Microscopic anatomy of the lower respiratory tract of the grey short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica).

    Cope, L A; Henry, R W; Reed, R B

    2012-04-01

    The respiratory tracts of seven grey short-tailed opossums were histologically examined. Six opossums were prepared by perfusion with buffered formalin. Opossum seven was perfused with gluteraldehyde. Samples taken from the respiratory passages and lungs of specimens 1-6 were stained with haematoxylin and eosin. A mixture of methylene and azure blue was used for specimen 7. The trachea and right and left principal bronchi are lined with a pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with occasional goblet cells. The secondary and tertiary bronchi and the primary and secondary bronchioles are lined by a simple ciliated columnar epithelium. The terminal bronchioles and a portion of the respiratory bronchioles are lined by a simple ciliated cuboidal epithelium. The terminal portion of the respiratory bronchioles and the alveolar ducts are lined with simple squamous epithelium. Alveoli are lined by type I and II pneumocytes. Tracheal glands are present in the tela submucosa. The fibromusculocartilaginous tunic of the trachea consists of c-shaped cartilage rings and the trachealis muscle. A lamina muscularis mucosa begins in the intrapulmonary portion of the principal bronchus and continues into the respiratory bronchioles. Bronchial glands are present in the propria submucosa and tela submucosa of the principal bronchi. The musculocartilaginous tunic is localized to the extrapulmonary portion of the principal bronchus. The bronchial cartilages are irregular shaped plates and limited to the extrapulmonary portion of the principal bronchus. The visceral pleura is a simple squamous mesothelium covering the outer surface of the lung.

  8. TCM Therapeutic Strategy on Acute Lung Injury Caused by Infectious Atypical Pneumonia and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    唐光华

    2003-01-01

    @@ Infectious atypical pneumonia (IAP) is also called severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) by WHO. In its development, around 20% of SARS can develop into the stage of acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), active and effective treatment of it constitutes the important basis for lowering mortality and reducing secondary pulmonary function impairment and pulmonary fibrosis.

  9. Inhaled nitric oxide for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury in children and adults

    Afshari, Arash; Brok, Jesper; Møller, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure (AHRF), defined as acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), are critical conditions. AHRF results from a number of systemic conditions and is associated with high mortality and morbidity in all ages. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) has...

  10. Acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with severe ulcerative colitis

    Shiho; Sagara; Yasuo; Horie; Yumiko; Anezaki; Hideaki; Miyazawa; Masahiro; Iizuka

    2010-01-01

    Various extraintestinal manifestations including pulmonary abnormalities have been reported in patients with ulcerative colitis. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious and fatal pulmonary manifestation. We have experienced a 67-year-old male patient with ARDS associated with a severe type of ulcerative colitis (UC). Severe dyspnea symptoms occurred during the treatment of UC in a previous hospital and the patient was transferred to our hospital on June 27, 2007. Both blood and sputa culture...

  11. Tropical pyomyositis presenting as sepsis with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Siddalingana Gouda TG; H Manjunath Hande; Weena Stanley; Ragini Bargur

    2011-01-01

    Tropical pyomyositis is an underdiagnosed condition. We reported a35 year old male farmer, who presented with septicemia and acute respiratory distress syndrome due to pyomyositis involving the paraspinal muscles. Culture of the pus grew methicillin sensitiveStaphylococcus aureus, and the patient recovered after surgical drainage and antibiotic treatment. Diagnostic delays can be avoided if tropical pyomyositis is considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with septicemia.

  12. Non-invasive mechanic ventilation in treating acute respiratory failure

    Federico Lari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Non invasive ventilation (NIV in acute respiratory failure (ARF improve clinical parameters, arterial blood gases, decrease mortality and endo tracheal intubation (ETI rate also outside the intensive care units (ICUs. Objective of this study is to verify applicability of NIV in a general non respiratory medical ward. We enrolled 68 consecutive patients (Pts with Hypoxemic or Hyper capnic ARF: acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE, exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, Pneu - monia, acute lung injury / acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS. NIV treatment was CPAP or PSV + PEEP. 12 Pts (18,5% met primary endpoint (NIV failure: 11 Pts (17% needed ETI (5ALI/ARDS p < 0,0001, 6COPD 16,6%, 1 Patient (1,5% died (Pneumonia. No Pts with ACPE failed (p = 0,0027. Secondary endpoints: significant improvement in Respiratory Rate (RR, Kelly Score, pH, PaCO2, PaO2 vs baseline. Median duration of treatment: 16:06 hours: COPD 18:54, ACPE 4:15. Mean length of hospitalisation: 8.66 days. No patients discontinued NIV, no side effects. Results are consistent with literature. Hypoxemic ARF related to ALI/ARDS and pneumonia show worst outcome: it is not advisable to manage these conditions with NIV outside the ICU. NIV for ARF due to COPD and ACPE is feasible, safe and effective in a general medical ward if selection of Pts, staff’s training and monitoring are appropriate. This should encourage the diffusion of NIV in this specific setting. According to strong evidences in literature, NIV should be considered a first line and standard treatment in these clinical conditions irrespective of the setting.

  13. Airway microbiota and acute respiratory infection in children

    Hasegawa, Kohei; Camargo, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory infection (ARI), such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia, is the leading cause of hospitalization for U.S. infants. While the incidence and severity of ARI can vary widely among children, the reasons for these differences are not fully explained by traditional risk factors (e.g., prematurity, viral pathogens). The recent advent of molecular diagnostic techniques has revealed the presence of highly functional communities of microbes inhabiting the human body (i.e., microbiota) th...

  14. Surveillance for hospitalized acute respiratory infection in Guatemala.

    Verani, Jennifer R; McCracken, John; Arvelo, Wences; Estevez, Alejandra; Lopez, Maria Renee; Reyes, Lissette; Moir, Juan Carlos; Bernart, Chris; Moscoso, Fabiola; Gray, Jennifer; Olsen, Sonja J; Lindblade, Kim A

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are an important cause of illness and death worldwide, yet data on the etiology of ARI and the population-level burden in developing countries are limited. Surveillance for ARI was conducted at two hospitals in Guatemala. Patients admitted with at least one sign of acute infection and one sign or symptom of respiratory illness met the criteria for a case of hospitalized ARI. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction for adenovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1,2 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B viruses, human metapneumovirus, Chlamydia pneumioniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Urine specimens were tested for Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen. Blood culture and chest radiograph were done at the discretion of the treating physician. Between November 2007 and December 2011, 3,964 case-patients were enrolled. While cases occurred among all age groups, 2,396 (60.4%) cases occurred in children Guatemala due to a variety of pathogens, can help guide public health policies aimed at reducing the burden of illness and death due to respiratory infections.

  15. CLINICAL ANALYSIS OF OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEASYNDROME WITH ACUTE RESPIRATORY FAILURE

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) induced acute respiratory failure. Methods The clinical and laboratory characteristics of 9 patients were reviewed. Results 9 patients (8 females, 1 male) presented with obesity and mental disturbance, with a BMI being 44.97 kg /m2, (45.25 kg/m2 in the fe male). The mean age of the group was 67.89 years (61~74 years). All had respiratory acidosis (mean pH 7.17), hypercapni a (mean PaCO2 94.10mmHg) (63.97~143.18mmHg), and hypoxemia (mean PaO2 39mmHg) (29.03~44.03mmHg). During periods of clinical stability all but 2 had awaken hypercapnia (mean PaCO2 46.73mmHg) (38.25~54.68mmHg). Four of the 9 patients had pulmonary function test showing FEV1>70%. Conclusion OSAS induced acute respiratory fail ure has a sudden onset and various presentations and can be reversed with early and proper treatment. The severity of abnormal pulmonary function was less than what would be expected to cause respiratory failure.

  16. Human Pharyngeal Microbiome May Play A Protective Role in Respiratory Tract Infections

    Zhancheng Gao; Yu Kang; Jun Yu; Lufeng Ren

    2014-01-01

    The human pharyngeal microbiome, which resides at the juncture of digestive and respi-ratory tracts, may have an active role in the prevention of respiratory tract infections, similar to the actions of the intestinal microbiome against enteric infections. Recent studies have demonstrated that the pharyngeal microbiome comprises an abundance of bacterial species that interacts with the local epithelial and immune cells, and together, they form a unique micro-ecological system. Most of the microbial species in microbiomes are obligate symbionts constantly adapting to their unique surroundings. Indigenous commensal species are capable of both maintaining dominance and evoking host immune responses to eliminate invading species. Temporary damage to the pha-ryngeal microbiome due to the impaired local epithelia is also considered an important predisposing risk factor for infections. Therefore, reinforcement of microbiome homeostasis to prevent invasion of infection-prone species would provide a novel treatment strategy in addition to antibiotic treat-ment and vaccination. Hence continued research efforts on evaluating probiotic treatment and developing appropriate procedures are necessary to both prevent and treat respiratory infections.

  17. Pediatric recurrent respiratory tract infections: when and how to explore the immune system? (About 53 cases)

    El-Azami-El-Idrissi, Mohammed; Lakhdar-Idrissi, Mounia; Chaouki, Sanae; Atmani, Samir; Bouharrou, Abdelhak; Hida, Moustapha

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent respiratory tract infections are one of the most frequent reasons for pediatric visits and hospitalization. Causes of this pathology are multiple ranging from congenital to acquired and local to general. Immune deficiencies are considered as underlying conditions predisposing to this pathology. Our work is about to determine when and how to explore the immune system when facing recurrent respiratory infections. This was based on the records of 53 children hospitalized at the pediatrics unit of Hassan II University Hospital, Fez Morocco. Thirty boys and 23 girls with age ranging from 5 months to 12 years with an average age of 2 years were involved in this study. Bronchial foreign body was the main etiology in children of 3 to 6 year old. Gastro-esophageal reflux, which in some cases is a consequence of chronic cough, as well as asthma were most frequent in infants (17 and 15% respectively). Immune deficiency was described in 7.5% of patients and the only death we deplored in our series belongs to this group. Recurrent respiratory tract infections have multiple causes. In our series they are dominated by foreign body inhalation and gastroesophageal reflux, which in some cases is a consequence of a chronic cough. Immune deficiency is not frequent but could influence the prognosis. Therefore immune explorations should be well codified. PMID:27642394

  18. Antimicrobial Resistance Trends among Community-Acquired Respiratory Tract Pathogens in Greece, 2009–2012

    Sofia Maraki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance trends of respiratory tract pathogens isolated from patients with community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs in Crete, Greece, over a 4-year period (2009–2012. A total of 588 community-acquired respiratory pathogens were isolated during the study period. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common organism responsible for 44.4% of CARTIs, followed by Haemophilus influenzae (44.2% and Moraxella catarrhalis (11.4%. Among S. pneumoniae, the prevalence of isolates with intermediate- and high-level resistance to penicillin was 27.2% and 12.3%, respectively. Macrolide resistance slightly decreased from 29.4% over the period 2009-2010 to 28.8% over the period 2011-2012. Multiresistance was observed among 56 (54.4% penicillin nonsusceptible isolates. A nonsignificant increase in resistance of H. influenzae isolates was noted for β-lactams, cotrimoxazole, and tetracycline. Among the 67 M. catarrhalis tested, 32 produced beta-lactamase and were resistant to ampicillin. Macrolide resistance decreased over the study period. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, and the fluoroquinolones. Although a decreasing trend in the prevalence of resistance of the three most common pathogens involved in CARTIs was noted, continuous surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility at the local and national level remains important, in order to guide appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy.

  19. Altered Function in CD8+ T Cells following Paramyxovirus Infection of the Respiratory Tract

    Gray, Peter M.; Arimilli, Subhashini; Palmer, Ellen M.; Parks, Griffith D.; Alexander-Miller, Martha A.

    2005-01-01

    For many respiratory pathogens, CD8+ T cells have been shown to play a critical role in clearance. However, there are still many unanswered questions with regard to the factors that promote the most efficacious immune response and the potential for immunoregulation of effector cells at the local site of infection. We have used infection of the respiratory tract with the model paramyxovirus simian virus 5 (SV5) to study CD8+ T-cell responses in the lung. For the present study, we report that over time a population of nonresponsive, virus-specific CD8+ T cells emerged in the lung, culminating in a lack of function in ∼85% of cells specific for the immunodominant epitope from the viral matrix (M) protein by day 40 postinfection. Concurrent with the induction of nonresponsiveness, virus-specific cells that retained function at later times postinfection exhibited an increased requirement for CD8 engagement. This change was coupled with a nearly complete loss of functional phosphoprotein-specific cells, a response previously shown to be almost exclusively CD8 independent. These studies add to the growing evidence for immune dysregulation following viral infection of the respiratory tract. PMID:15731228

  20. Fungi in the respiratory tract of horses with recurrent airway obstruction

    M.O. Xavier

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare the concentration of viable fungi, especially those of the genus Aspergillus in the respiratory tract of stabled horses with and without Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO. Thirty two housed horses from four equestrian centers in Brazil were included in the study. These animals were submitted to clinical examination and to a respiratory sample collection. They were categorized into two groups: healthy and RAO-affected horses. Samples obtained by tracheobronchial washes were evaluated for fungal microscopy, quantitative culture and Aspergillus spp. quantification. Eighteen healthy and 14 RAO-affected horses were studied. Fungi were more frequently recovered in the RAO group, in comparison to controls, for both fungal microscopy (P<0.0001, fungal culture (P<0.0001 and Aspergillus spp. quantitative culture (p=0.001. In conclusion, horses with RAO have significantly higher fungal load in the respiratory tract in comparison to healthy horses. The implications of these findings in terms of the pathogenesis of RAO deserve additional investigation.

  1. Epidemiological pattern of community-acquired respiratory tract infections of the conscripts in the North Fleet during a vaccine-challenged period

    Yu. V. Lobzin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the new military units in the North fleet is accompanied by vaccination using Exhausted diphtheria tetanus vaccine, modified. The accination coincides with periods of a rising number of army conscripts being taken ill with community-acquired infection of respiratory tracts: acute tonsillitis, acute bronchitis and community-acquired pneumonia. We need to study is to ascertain whether there is the correlation between the periods of the increase in the number of ervicemen fallen ill with community-acquired infection of respiratory tracts and the diphtheria and tetanus vaccination. The study was carried out on the North fleet conscripts who were drawn blood samples from the ulnar vein before and after the vaccination using Exhausted diphtheria tetanus vaccine, modified. The blood was examined for the presence of antibodies to diphtheria and tetanus using direct hemagglutination test. The health status of the vaccinated conscripts was under observation for 4 months, during which acute illnesses (acute tonsillitis, acute bronchitis and community-acquired pneumonia were registered. Serologic testing demonstrated a high rate of immunological protection against diphtheria and tetanus before vaccination. After the diphtheria and tetanus vaccination, the number of conscripts, who were taken ill in the first month, was significantly higher compared to the following months. The conscripts, who fell ill, had high antibody titers against diphtheria and tetanus in the vaccine-challenged period. Vaccination of the servicemen using Exhausted diphtheria tetanus vaccine, modified, is serologically unfounded; it leads to complications such as acute tonsillitis, acute bronchitis and community-acquired pneumonia during the vaccinechallenged period especially during the first month and less considerably during the following months.

  2. The effectiveness of systematic perioperative oral hygiene in reduction of postoperative respiratory tract infections after elective thoracic surgery in adults

    Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Larsen, Palle; Håkonsen, Sasja Jul

    2016-01-01

    to increase patients' risk for nosocomial respiratory tract infection. OBJECTIVES: To identify, appraise and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of systematic perioperative oral hygiene in the reduction of postoperative respiratory airway infections in adult patients undergoing...... elective thoracic surgery. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Patients over the age of 18 years who had been admitted for elective thoracic surgery, regardless of gender, ethnicity, diagnosis severity, co-morbidity or previous treatment.Perioperative systematic oral hygiene (such as mechanical removal of dental biofilm......% confidence interval [CI] 0.55-0.78) for respiratory tract infections RR 0.48 (95%CI: 0.36-0.65) and for deep surgical site infections RR 0.48 (95%CI 0.27-0.84). CONCLUSIONS: Systematic perioperative oral hygiene reduces postoperative nosocomial, lower respiratory tract infections and surgical site infections...

  3. Acute respiratory distress syndrome assessment after traumatic brain injury

    Shahrooz Kazemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is one of the most important complications associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI. ARDS is caused by inflammation of the lungs and hypoxic damage with lung physiology abnormalities associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Aim of this study is to determine the epidemiology of ARDS and the prevalence of risk factors. Methods: This prospective study performed on patients with acute traumatic head injury hospitalization in the intensive care unit of the Shohaday-e Haftom-e-Tir Hospital (September 2012 to September 2013 done. About 12 months, the data were evaluated. Information including age, sex, education, employment, drug and alcohol addiction, were collected and analyzed. The inclusion criteria were head traumatic patients and exclusion was the patients with chest trauma. Questionnaire was designed with doctors supervision of neurosurgery. Then the collected data were analysis. Results: In this study, the incidence of ARDS was 23.8% and prevalence of metabolic acidosis was 31.4%. Most injury with metabolic acidosis was Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH 48 (60% and Subdural hemorrhage (SDH was Next Level with 39 (48% Correlation between Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS and Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS were significantly decreased (P< 0.0001. The level of consciousness in patients with skull fractures significantly lower than those without fractures (P= 0.009 [(2.3±4.6 vs (4.02±7.07]. Prevalence of metabolic acidosis during hospitalization was 80 patients (31.4%. Conclusion: Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a common complication of traumatic brain injury. Management and treatment is essential to reduce the mortality. In this study it was found the age of patients with ARDS was higher than patients without complications. ARDS risk factor for high blood pressure was higher in men. Most victims were pedestrians. The most common injury associated with ARDS was SDH. Our analysis

  4. Successful treatment of Chlamydophila pneumoniae acute respiratory distress syndrome with extracorporeal membrane oxygenator: a case report and diagnostic review

    De Bels David

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Chlamydophila pneumoniae is a respiratory pathogen known to infect the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Infection severity can range from sub-clinical pulmonary infection to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Case presentation A previously healthy 62-year-old Caucasian man was admitted to our hospital for acute respiratory failure. Serum samples obtained every week starting from the day of admission showed clear-cut seroconversion for C. pneumoniae antibodies. All other cultures obtained during the first days of hospitalization were negative. Despite maximal ventilatory support (high positive end expiratory pressure, fraction of inspired oxygen of 1.0, nitric oxide inhalation, neuromuscular blocking agents and prone positioning, our patient remained severely hypoxemic, which led us to initiate an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and hemodiafiltration were withdrawn on day 12. Our patient was extubated on day 18 and discharged from our Intensive Care Unit on day 20. He went home a month later. Conclusion We describe the first published case of acute respiratory distress syndrome due to C. pneumoniae infection successfully treated by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, a very useful tool in this syndrome. A quick and specific method for the definite diagnosis of Chlamydophila infection should be developed.

  5. Characterization of human metapneumovirus from pediatric patients with acute respiratory infections in a 4-year period in Beijing, China

    ZHU Ru-nan; QIAN Yuan; ZHAO Lin-qing; DENG Jie; SUN Yu; WANG Fang; LIAO Bin; LI Yan; HUANG Rong-yan

    2011-01-01

    Background Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was discovered by scientists in the Netherlands as a novel respiratory virus in 2001 and had been found in children with acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI) in China. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of hMPV infection in children in Beijing and the genotypes of the circulating virus by the surveillance during a four-consecutive-year period.Methods Clinical specimens collected from children with ARTI from January 2006 to December 2009 were tested for hMPV by RT-PCR using primers targeting the matrix (M) gene, followed by genotyping of hMPV directly from positive samples by diplex PCR with primers for glycoprotein (G) genes. Sequence analysis was used for genotyping of those un-typable samples. Common respiratory viruses in these clinical specimens were tested by virus isolation and antigen detection, in addition to hMPV detection.Results Of 4730 tested specimens, 191 (4.0%) were positive for hMPV and 62.8% of 191 were identified as genotype A. The positive rate of hMPV from hospitalized patients was higher than that from outpatients each year. Most of hMPV positive children were under five years old. The peak of hMPV activity mostly occurred in late spring and overlapped with or followed that of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and followed by parainfluenza virus 3. Of hMPV infected cases,68.6% were lower respiratory tract infection, among which 79.4% were hospitalized, and upper respiratory tract infection was diagnosed for 31.4% of hMPV infected children. The 9.4% of hMPV positive samples were found to co-exist with other respiratory viruses.Conclusions hMPV was an important pathogen for ARTI in pediatric patients, especially those under five years old.Both genotypes A and B circulated simultaneously in Beijing.

  6. Drug resistance in community-acquired respiratory tract infections: role for an emerging antibacterial

    Lorenzo Aguilar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lorenzo Aguilar1, María-José Giménez1, José Barberán21Microbiology Department, School of Medicine, University Complutense, Madrid; 2Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital Central de la Defensa Gomez Ulla, Madrid, SpainAbstract: The nasopharynx is the ecological niche where evolution towards resistance occurs in respiratory tract isolates. Dynamics of different bacterial populations in antibiotic-free multibacterial niches are the baseline that antibiotic treatments can alter by shifting the competitive balance in favor of resistant populations. For this reason, antibiotic resistance is increasingly being considered to be an ecological problem. Traditionally, resistance has implied the need for development of new antibiotics for which basic efficacy and safety data are required prior to licensing. Antibiotic development is mainly focused on demonstrating clinical efficacy and setting susceptibility breakpoints for efficacy prediction. However, additional information on pharmacodynamic data predicting absence of selection of resistance and of resistant subpopulations, and specific surveillance on resistance to core antibiotics (to detect emerging resistances and its link with antibiotic consumption in the community are valuable data in defining the role of a new antibiotic, not only from the perspective of its therapeutic potential but also from the ecologic perspective (countering resistances to core antibiotics in the community. The documented information on cefditoren gleaned from published studies in recent years is an example of the role for an emerging oral antibacterial facing current antibiotic resistance in community-acquired respiratory tract infections.Keywords: respiratory tract infection, antibiotic resistance, cefditoren, community

  7. Associations between co-detected respiratory viruses in children with acute respiratory infections.

    Kaida, Atsushi; Kubo, Hideyuki; Takakura, Koh-ichi; Sekiguchi, Jun-ichiro; Yamamoto, Seiji P; Kohdera, Urara; Togawa, Masao; Amo, Kiyoko; Shiomi, Masashi; Ohyama, Minori; Goto, Kaoru; Hase, Atsushi; Kageyama, Tsutomu; Iritani, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Viruses are the major etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in young children. Although respiratory virus co-detections are common, analysis of combinations of co-detected viruses has never been conducted in Japan. Nineteen respiratory viruses or subtypes were surveyed using multiplex real-time PCR on 1,044 pediatric (patient age virus positive (1,414 viruses were detected), and 388 of the virus-positive specimens (43.5%, 388/891) were positive for multiple viruses. The ratio of multiple/total respiratory virus-positive specimens was high in children aged 0-35 months. Statistical analyses revealed that human bocavirus 1 and human adenovirus were synchronously co-detected. On the other hand, co-detections of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV-1) with HPIV-3, HPIV-3 with human metapneumovirus (hMPV), hMPV with respiratory syncytial virus A (RSV A), hMPV with influenza virus A (H1N1) 2009 (FLUA (H1N1) 2009), RSV A with RSV B, and human rhinovirus and FLUA (H1N1) 2009 were exclusive. These results suggest that young children (viruses, and some combinations of viruses are synchronously or exclusively co-detected.

  8. The association between invasive group A streptococcal diseases and viral respiratory tract infections

    Andrea L Herrera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections of the upper respiratory tract are associated with a variety of invasive diseases caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, the group A streptococcus, including pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, toxic shock syndrome, and bacteremia. While these polymicrobial infections, or superinfections, are complex, progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of disease. Areas of investigation have included the characterization of virus-induced changes in innate immunity, differences in bacterial adherence and internalization following viral infection, and the efficacy of vaccines in mitigating the morbidity and mortality of superinfections. Here, we briefly summarize viral-S. pyogenes superinfections with an emphasis on those affiliated with influenza viruses.

  9. Influences of parameter uncertainties within the ICRP 66 respiratory tract model: particle deposition.

    Bolch, W E; Farfán, E B; Huh, C; Huston, T E; Bolch, W E

    2001-10-01

    Risk assessment associated with the inhalation of radioactive aerosols requires as an initial step the determination of particle deposition within the various anatomic regions of the respiratory tract. The model outlined in ICRP Publication 66 represents to date one of the most complete overall descriptions of not only particle deposition, but of particle clearance and local radiation dosimetry of lung tissues. In this study, a systematic review of the deposition component within the ICRP 66 respiratory tract model was conducted in which probability density functions were assigned to all input parameters. These distributions were subsequently incorporated within a computer code LUDUC (LUng Dose Uncertainty Code) in which Latin hypercube sampling techniques are used to generate multiple (e.g., 1,000) sets of input vectors (i.e., trials) for all of the model parameters needed to assess particle deposition within the extrathoracic (anterior and posterior), bronchial, bronchiolar, and alveolar-interstitial regions of the ICRP 66 respiratory tract model. Particle deposition values for the various trial simulations were shown to be well described by lognormal probability distributions. Geometric mean deposition fractions from LUDUC were found to be within approximately +/- 10% of the single-value estimates from the LUDEP computer code for each anatomic region and for particle diameters ranging from 0.001 to 50 microm. In all regions of the respiratory tract, LUDUC simulations for an adult male at light exertion show that uncertainties in particle deposition fractions are distributed only over a range of about a factor of approximately 2-4 for particle sizes between 0.005 to 0.2 microm. Below 0.005 microm, uncertainties increase only for deposition within the alveolar region. At particle sizes exceeding 1 microm, uncertainties in the deposition fraction within the extrathoracic regions are relatively small, but approach a factor of 20 for deposition in the bronchial

  10. The potential of methylxanthine-based therapies in pediatric respiratory tract diseases.

    Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Franco, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine are the most known methylxanthines as they are present in coffee, tea and/or chocolate. In the last decades, a huge experimental effort has been devoted to get insight into the variety of actions that these compounds exert in humans. From such knowledge it is known that methylxanthines have a great potential in prevention, therapy and/or management of a variety of diseases. The benefits of methylxanthine-based therapies in the apnea of prematurity and their translational potential in pediatric affections of the respiratory tract are here presented.

  11. Insights into the respiratory tract microbiota of patients with cystic fibrosis during early Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization

    Keravec, Marlene; Mounier, Jerome; Prestat , Emmanuel; Vallet, Sophie; Jansson, Janet K.; Bergaud , Gaetaqn; Rosec, Silvain; Gourious, Stephanie; Rault, Gilles; Coton, Emmanuel; Barbier, George; Hery-Arnaud, Geneveieve

    2015-08-09

    Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa plays a major role in cystic fibrosis (CF) progression. Therefore, it is important to understand the initial steps of P. aeruginosa infection. The structure and dynamics of CF respiratory tract microbial communities during the early stages of P. aeruginosa colonization were characterized by pyrosequencing and cloning-sequencing. The respiratory microbiota showed high diversity, related to the young age of the CF cohort (mean age 10 years). Wide inter- and intra-individual variations were revealed. A common core microbiota of 5 phyla and 13 predominant genera was found, the majority of which were obligate anaerobes. A few genera were significantly more prevalent in patients never infected by P. aeruginosa. Persistence of an anaerobic core microbiota regardless of P. aeruginosa status suggests a major role of certain anaerobes in the pathophysiology of lung infections in CF. Some genera may be potential biomarkers of pulmonary infection state.

  12. Lower Respiratory Tract Diseases Caused by Common Respiratory Viruses among Stem Cell Transplantation Recipients: A Single Center Experience in Korea

    Hong, Kyung-Wook; Choi, Su-Mi; Cho, Sung-Yeon; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Choi, Jae-Ki; Kim, Si-Hyun; Park, Sun Hee; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yoo, Jin-Hong; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To describe the incidence, clinical courses, and risk factors for mortality of lower respiratory tract diseases (LRDs) caused by common respiratory viruses (CRVs) in stem cell transplantation (SCT) recipients. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 1038 patients who received SCT between January 2007 and August 2011 at a single center in Korea. Results Seventy-one CRV-LRDs were identified in 67 (6.5%) patients. The human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) was the most common causative pathogen of CRV-LRDs at 100 days [cumulative incidence estimate, 23.5%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.3–43.7] and 1 year (cumulative incidence estimate, 69.2%; 95% CI, 45.9–92.5) following SCT. The 30-day overall mortality rates due to influenza-LRDs, respiratory syncytial virus-LRDs, HPIV-LRDs, and human rhinovirus-LRDs were 35.7, 25.8, 31.6, and 42.8%, respectively. Co-pathogens in respiratory specimens were detected in 23 (33.8%) patients. The overall mortality at day 30 after CRV-LRD diagnosis was 32.8% (22/67). High-dose steroid usage (p=0.025), a severe state of immunodeficiency (p=0.033), and lymphopenia (p=0.006) were significantly associated with death within 30 days following CRV-LRD diagnosis in a univariate analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that high-dose steroid usage [odds ratio (OR), 4.05; 95% CI, 1.12–14.61; p=0.033] and lymphopenia (OR, 6.57; 95% CI, 1.80–24.03; p=0.004) were independent risk factors for mortality within 30 days of CRV-LRDs. Conclusion CRV-LRDs among SCT recipients showed substantially high morbidity and mortality rates. Therefore, the implement of an active diagnostic approaches for CRV infections is required for SCT recipients with respiratory symptoms, especially those receiving high-dose steroids or with lymphopenia. PMID:28120567

  13. Acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome in the injured patient

    Bakowitz Magdalena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome are clinical entities of multi-factorial origin frequently seen in traumatically injured patients requiring intensive care. We performed an unsystematic search using PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews up to January 2012. The purpose of this article is to review recent evidence for the pathophysiology and the management of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome in the critically injured patient. Lung protective ventilation remains the most beneficial therapy. Future trials should compare intervention groups to controls receiving lung protective ventilation, and focus on relevant outcome measures such as duration of mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care unit stay, and mortality.

  14. Microbial communities in the upper respiratory tract of patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    HeeKuk Park

    Full Text Available Respiratory infections are well-known triggers of chronic respiratory diseases. Recently, culture-independent tools have indicated that lower airway microbiota may contribute to pathophysiologic processes associated with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, the relationship between upper airway microbiota and chronic respiratory diseases remains unclear. This study was undertaken to define differences of microbiota in the oropharynx of asthma and COPD patients relative to those in healthy individuals. To account for the qualitative and quantitative diversity of the 16S rRNA gene in the oropharynx, the microbiomes of 18 asthma patients, 17 COPD patients, and 12 normal individuals were assessed using a high-throughput next-generation sequencing analysis. In the 259,572 total sequence reads, α and β diversity measurements and a generalized linear model revealed that the oropharynx microbiota are diverse, but no significant differences were observed between asthma and COPD patients. Pseudomonas spp. of Proteobacteria and Lactobacillus spp. of Firmicutes were highly abundant in asthma and COPD. By contrast, Streptococcus, Veillonella, Prevotella, and Neisseria of Bacteroidetes dominated in the healthy oropharynx. These findings are consistent with previous studies conducted in the lower airways and suggest that oropharyngeal airway microbiota are important for understanding the relationships between the various parts of the respiratory tract with regard to bacterial colonization and comprehensive assessment of asthma and COPD.

  15. Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae biofilm production and severity in lower respiratory tract infections in a tertiary hospital in Mexico.

    Martínez-Reséndez, Michel Fernando; González-Chávez, Juan Manuel; Garza-González, Elvira; Castro-Fuentes, Lorena Nefertiti; Gutiérrez-Ferman, Jessica Lizzeth; Echániz-Aviles, Gabriela; Camacho-Ortíz, Adrián; Carnalla-Barajas, María Noemí; Soto-Noguerón, Araceli; Maldonado-Garza, Héctor Jesús; Hernández-Balboa, Cristina Liliana; Llaca-Díaz, Jorge M; Flores-Treviño, Samantha

    2016-12-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common opportunistic bacterial pathogen that primarily infects the respiratory mucosa. This study was conducted to assess clinical and microbiological data related to disease severity in patients with lower respiratory tract infections caused by NTHi in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico. NTHi isolates were subjected to serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility evaluationand analyses of β-lactamase production, genetic relatednessand biofilm formation. Clinical and demographic data were retrieved from patients' records. The mean age of the patients was 40.3 years; the majority (n=44, 72.1 %) were male. The main comorbidities were arterial hypertension (n=22, 36.1 %) and diabetes mellitus (n=17, 27.9 %). NTHi isolates (n=98) were recovered from tracheal aspirate (n=57, 58.2 %), sputum (n=26, 26.5 %)and bronchial aspirate (n=15, 15.3 %) specimens. Low resistance to cefotaxime (n=0, 0.0 %), rifampin (n=1, 1.1 %) and chloramphenicol (n=3, 3.2 %) and greater resistance to ampicillin (n=30, 32.3 %) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (n=49, 52.7 %) were detected. β-Lactamase production was found in 17 (17.3 %) isolates. Isolates displayed high genetic diversity, and only 10 (10.2 %) were found to be biofilm producers. The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of biofilm-producing and non-producing isolates did not differ. Biofilm production was associated with prolonged hospital stay (P=0.05). Lower respiratory NTHi isolates from Mexico showed low antimicrobial resistance and weak biofilm production. Younger age was correlated with lower Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (moderate, P=0.07; severe, P=0.03).

  16. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合复方福尔可定治疗小儿急性细菌性上呼吸道感染的临床疗效随机对照分析%The comparative analysis on the curative effect of amoxicillin clavulanate combined with compound pholcodine syrup for children with acute bacterial upper respiratory tract infection

    王冰; 徐洁; 唐新业; 姚红兵

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂联合复方福尔可定治疗小儿急性细菌性上呼吸道感染的临床疗效。方法选择急性细菌性上呼吸道感染患儿160例,分为治疗组(80例)和对照组(80例),治疗组选用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(7∶1)+复方福尔可定口服溶液,对照组选用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(7∶1)+肺力咳糖浆。治疗疗程均为7 d,比较治疗前后两组细菌清除率、口腔分泌性 SIgA 和总有效率。结果细菌清除率两组差异无统计学意义(P >0.05),治疗后实验组患儿口腔分泌性 SIgA 较治疗前有升高(P <0.05),而对照组差异无统计学意义(P >0.05),治疗组总有效率93.75%。显著高于对照组86.25%(P <0.05),两组患儿均无严重的不良反应发生。结论阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂联合复方福尔可定治疗小儿急性细菌性上呼吸道感染疗效显著。%Objective To observe the curative effect of amoxicillin clavulanate combined with compound phol-codine syrup for children with acute bacterial upper respiratory tract infection.Methods One hundred and sixty chil-dren with acute bacterial upper respiratory tract infection were chosen,and divided into treatment group(80 cases) and control group(80 cases)randomly.Amoxicillin clavulanic(7∶1)combined with compound pholcodine syrup were enrolled in the treatment group,while amoxicillin clavulanic(7∶1)combined with lung cough syrup were in the con-trol group.The bacterial clearance rate,oral secretory SIgA and total effective rate were compared before and after the treatment for 7 days.Results There was no significant difference in the bacterial clearance rate in the two groups (P >0.05).The oral secretory SigA increased after treatment comparing with that before treatment(P 0.05)in the control one.The total effective rate in the treatment group was higher than that

  17. Perioperative respiratory adverse events in children with active upper respiratory tract infection who received general anesthesia through an orotracheal tube and inhalation agents

    Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Jeong Min; Lee, Jae Hoon; Kang, Young Ran; Jeong, Seung Ho; Koo, Bon-Nyeo

    2013-01-01

    Background Active upper respiratory tract infection (URI), orotracheal intubation and use of inhalation anesthetics are known risk factors for perioperative respiratory adverse events (RAE). This study investigated the risk factors of perioperative RAE in children with these risk factors. Methods The records of 159 children who underwent general anesthesia with an orotracheal tube and inhalation were reviewed. These patients also had at least one of the following URI symptoms on the day of su...

  18. Seasonal and pandemic human influenza viruses attach better to human upper respiratory tract epithelium than avian influenza viruses.

    van Riel, Debby; den Bakker, Michael A; Leijten, Lonneke M E; Chutinimitkul, Salin; Munster, Vincent J; de Wit, Emmie; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Fouchier, Ron A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs

    2010-04-01

    Influenza viruses vary markedly in their efficiency of human-to-human transmission. This variation has been speculated to be determined in part by the tropism of influenza virus for the human upper respiratory tract. To study this tropism, we determined the pattern of virus attachment by virus histochemistry of three human and three avian influenza viruses in human nasal septum, conchae, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, and larynx. We found that the human influenza viruses-two seasonal influenza viruses and pandemic H1N1 virus-attached abundantly to ciliated epithelial cells and goblet cells throughout the upper respiratory tract. In contrast, the avian influenza viruses, including the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, attached only rarely to epithelial cells or goblet cells. Both human and avian viruses attached occasionally to cells of the submucosal glands. The pattern of virus attachment was similar among the different sites of the human upper respiratory tract for each virus tested. We conclude that influenza viruses that are transmitted efficiently among humans attach abundantly to human upper respiratory tract, whereas inefficiently transmitted influenza viruses attach rarely. These results suggest that the ability of an influenza virus to attach to human upper respiratory tract is a critical factor for efficient transmission in the human population.

  19. [Emergence of new pneumonia: besides severe acute respiratory syndrome].

    Mangiarotti, P; Pozzi, E

    2006-10-01

    Important epidemiological modifications have been registered in respiratory infections, both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. Pathogens with modified antibiotic susceptibility patterns have emerged, which display an increased antibiotic resistance, such as S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, H. influenzae. This trait has a strong impact on the therapeutic choices, particularly when an empiric antibiotic treatment is selected. The prevalence of bacterial species showing non-susceptibility to the most common prescribed antibiotics (betalactams, macrolides etc.) follows a different geographic distribution. Some pathogens have acquired a new epidemiological role in patients affected with immune deficiencies: among them P. carinii and other bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. The emergence of new, previously unknown, species, has been registered, both bacteria (C. pneumoniae) and viruses (Metapneumovirus, Hantavirus etc.). Such aspects must be considered in the diagnosis of respiratory infections, which should include diagnostic tests for the identification of such pathogens. Among the new respiratory infections severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has quickly become a health care emergency, so that efforts have been made to identify the aetiological agent as well as the main epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the disease. Avian influenza has raised great interest immediately after the first cases of human infection caused by the avian virus, especially after the outbreaks in Asian countries and in the Netherlands. A crucial step in containing infection is the prevention of the disease; efforts are directed toward this endpoint.

  20. Mineralogical analysis of the respiratory tract in aluminium oxide-exposed workers.

    Voisin, C; Fisekci, F; Buclez, B; Didier, A; Couste, B; Bastien, F; Brochard, P; Pairon, J C

    1996-09-01

    A retrospective study was conducted in order to characterize the retention of fibrous and nonfibrous mineral particles in the respiratory tract in subjects with previous occupational exposure in the aluminium industry. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (three samples) or lung parenchyma (two samples) were studied using analytical transmission electron microscopy in five patients. A high concentration of aluminium fibres (> 10(7) fibres.g-1 dry lung) was identified in two lung tissue samples, and aluminium fibres were also identified in BAL fluid in three patients. All fibres were short (mean length: 1-2 microns), with no fibre longer than 5 microns. Some biopersistence of these fibres in the respiratory tract is suggested from these observations, since fibres were identified in biological samples collected more than 4 yrs after cessation of exposure in four out of five patients. Occupational physicians should be aware of possible exposure to short, thin aluminium fibres during primary aluminium production. Further studies are needed to assess the potential health effects of these fibres. Industrial hygiene measurements should also be performed to document the potential sources of exposure to aluminium fibres in this industry.

  1. Glycomic analysis of human respiratory tract tissues and correlation with influenza virus infection.

    Trevenan Walther

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The first step in influenza infection of the human respiratory tract is binding of the virus to sialic (Sia acid terminated receptors. The binding of different strains of virus for the receptor is determined by the α linkage of the sialic acid to galactose and the adjacent glycan structure. In this study the N- and O-glycan composition of the human lung, bronchus and nasopharynx was characterized by mass spectrometry. Analysis showed that there was a wide spectrum of both Sia α2-3 and α2-6 glycans in the lung and bronchus. This glycan structural data was then utilized in combination with binding data from 4 of the published glycan arrays to assess whether these current glycan arrays were able to predict replication of human, avian and swine viruses in human ex vivo respiratory tract tissues. The most comprehensive array from the Consortium for Functional Glycomics contained the greatest diversity of sialylated glycans, but was not predictive of productive replication in the bronchus and lung. Our findings indicate that more comprehensive but focused arrays need to be developed to investigate influenza virus binding in an assessment of newly emerging influenza viruses.

  2. 慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期患者下呼吸道感染的革兰阴性菌分布及耐药性分析%Distribution and drug resistance of gram-negative bacteria causing lower respiratory tract infections ;in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    周炜; 王月平; 邵雪华; 齐激扬; 彭敏飞; 罗敏; 陈存国; 崔丹萍

    2016-01-01

    头孢哌酮/舒巴坦)、庆大霉素、妥布霉素、氟喹诺酮类、氨曲南、复方磺胺甲噁唑和米诺环素呈中、高度耐药,耐药率均≥50%,其耐药率均高于非产ESBLs 菌株,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或<0.01)。结论 AECOPD下呼吸道革兰阴性菌感染以非发酵菌和肠杆菌科细菌为主,其中耐碳青霉烯类鲍曼不动杆菌和铜绿假单胞菌、产ESBLs肺炎克雷伯菌和大肠埃希菌感染耐药现象尤为严重。%Objective To investigate the pathogen distribution and drug resistance of gram-negative bacteria causing lower respiratory tract infections in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( AECOPD) .Methods A total of 742 sputum samples were collected from AECOPD patients with lower respiratory tract infections in Taizhou Hospital of Zhejiang Province during January 2013 and December 2014.Vitek 2 Compact system combined with disk diffusion was used for strains identification and drug susceptibility test.Modified Hodge test and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) synergic test were used to screen carbapenem-resistant strains.Statistical analysis was performed using WHONET 5.6 and SPSS 20.0 software.Results A total of 593 strains of gram-negative bacteria were isolated , in which 367 strains were nonfermentative bacteria (61.89%), 220 strains were enterobacteriaceae (37.10%), and the rest 6 strains ( 1.01%) were other gram-negative bacteria.Acinetobacter baumannii ( 186 strains ), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (99 strains), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (33 strains) and Burkholderia cepacia (22 strains ) were top 4 nonfermentative bacteria , and they all showed high resistance to ampicillin , ampicillin/sulbactam, cefazolin, ceftriaxone, cefotetan and nitrofurantoin with resistant rates of 67.20%-100.00%. Drug resistance rates to other β-lactams, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycoside, compound sulfamethoxazole and minocycline were significantly higher

  3. Acute myocarditis associated with novel Middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    Alhogbani, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    The novel Middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MeRS-CoV) has been identified as a cause of pneumonia; however, it has not been reported as a cause of acute myocarditis. A 60-year-old man presented with pneumonia and congestive heart failure. On the first day of admission, he was found to have an elevated troponin-l level and severe global left ventricular systolic dysfunction on echo-cardiography. The serum creatinine level was found mildly elevated. Chest radiography revealed in the lower lung fields accentuated bronchovascular lung markings and multiple small patchy opacities. Laboratory tests were negative for viruses known to cause myocarditis. Sputum sample was positive for MeRS-CoV. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance revealed evidence of acute myocarditis. the patient had all criteria specified by the international Consensus Group on CMR in Myocarditis that make a clinical suspicion for acute myocarditis. this was the first case that demonstrated that MeRS-CoV may cause acute myocarditis and acute-onset heart failure.

  4. Respiratory virus multiplex RT-PCR assay sensitivities and influence factors in hospitalized children with lower respiratory tract infections.

    Deng, Jikui; Ma, Zhuoya; Huang, Wenbo; Li, Chengrong; Wang, Heping; Zheng, Yuejie; Zhou, Rong; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2013-04-01

    Multiplex RT-PCR assays have been widely used tools for detection and differentiation of a panel of respiratory viral pathogens. In this study, we evaluated the Qiagen ResPlex II V2.0 kit and explored factors influencing its sensitivity. Nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) specimens were prospectively collected from pediatric inpatients with lower respiratory tract infections at the time of admission in the Shenzhen Children's Hospital from May 2009 to April 2010. Total nucleic acids were extracted using the EZ1 system (Qiagen, Germany) and 17 respiratory viruses and genotypes including influenza A virus (FluA), FluB, parainfluenza virus 1 (PIV1), PIV2, PIV3, PIV4, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), rhinoviruses (RhV), enteroviruses (EnV), human bocaviruses (hBoV), adenoviruses (AdV), four coronaviruses (229E, OC43, NL63 and HKU1), and FluA 2009 pandemic H1N1(H1N1-p) were detected and identified by the ResPlex II kit. In parallel, 16 real-time TaqMan quantitative RT-PCR assays were used to quantitatively detect each virus except for RhV. Influenza and parainfluenza viral cultures were also performed. Among the total 438 NPS specimens collected during the study period, one or more viral pathogens were detected in 274 (62.6%) and 201(45.9%) specimens by monoplex TaqMan RT-PCR and multiplex ResPlex, respectively. When results from monoplex PCR or cell culture were used as the reference standard, the multiplex PCR possessed specificities of 92.9-100.0%. The sensitivity of multiplex PCR for PIV3, hMPV, PIV1 and BoV were 73.1%, 70%, 66.7% and 55.6%, respectively, while low sensitivities (11.1%-40.0%) were observed for FluA, EnV, OC43, RSV and H1N1. Among the seven viruses/genotypes detected with higher frequencies, multiplex PCR sensitivities were correlated significantly with viral loads determined by the TaqMan RT-PCR in FluA, H1N1-p and RSV (p=0.011-0.000). The Qiagen ResPlex II multiplex RT-PCR kit possesses excellent specificity for simultaneous

  5. Hypersensitivity Reaction and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Pyrethroid Poisoning and Role of Steroid Therapy

    Jisa George

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyrethroids are generally of low toxicity to humans, but in suicidal poisonings which are usually associated with ingestion of high doses, they lead to severe systemic effects. Case Report: A 30-year old woman presented to emergency department with a history of intentional ingestion of about 15 mL of prallethrin around 3 days earlier. She complained of shortness of breath along with chest pain for the last 2 days. She reported no vomiting or stomach pain prior to presentation to hospital. On chest auscultation, breath sounds were mildly decreased in bilateral infrascapular areas with generalized crepitation. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed respiratory alkalosis. Chest X ray and computed tomography of thorax revealed widespread confluent areas of consolidation with interlobular septal thickening involving bilateral parahilar regions suggestive of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. The patient did not respond to broad spectrum antibiotic coverage, diuretics and oxygen inhalation. Intravenous methylprednisolone (2 mg/kg/day divided 6 hourly was started and slowly tapered off during the next days. The patient discharged after 3 weeks in good health. Discussion: As pyrethroids can affect sodium channels, the osmotic gradient of alveolar epithelium probably disrupts and therefore, alveolar infiltrations gradually spread over lungs. In addition, there is a possibility of hypersensitivity reactions to pyrethroids, which can cause progressive inflammation and involve respiratory tract in severe cases. Conclusion: Pyrethroid poisoning can lead to ARDS. Steroid therapy may help such patients tide over the pulmonary crisis.

  6. A Comparison of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Outcomes Between Military and Civilian Burn Patients

    2015-03-01

    MILITARY MEDICINE, 180, 3:56, 2015 A Comparison of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Outcomes Between Military and Civilian Burn Patients J Alan...Chung, MC USA*‡ ABSTRACT Background: The objective of this report was to compare the prevalence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and...Development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common complication of burn injury and is associated with poor outcomes. Previous reports using

  7. Surveillance of acute respiratory infections among outpatients: A pilot study in Isfahan city

    Abbasali Javadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering that there was not any regional survey in Isfahan, Iran regarding the epidemiology of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI in different age groups of general population, the aim of this study was to determine the epidemiologic feature of ARTIs in Isfahan using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR method. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, patients aged 15 years old. Rhinovirus was the most common cause of ARTI in patients aged 50 years. Influenza virus B was the most common cause of ARTI in patients aged 5-50 years. Conclusion: Our study provides baseline information on the epidemiologic and clinical feature of outpatients with ARTIs in Isfahan city. Though our findings in this pilot study could be helpful in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of ARTI, planning preventive interventional.

  8. Therapeutic options for acute cough due to upper respiratory infections in children.

    Paul, Ian M

    2012-02-01

    Cough due to upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) is one of the most frequent complaints encountered by pediatric health-care providers, and one of the most disruptive symptoms for children and families. Despite the frequency of URIs, there is limited evidence to support the few therapeutic agents currently available in the United States (US) to treat acute cough due to URI. Published, well-designed, contemporary research supporting the efficacy of narcotics (codeine, hydrocodone) and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved over-the-counter (OTC) oral antitussives and expectorants (dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, chlophedianol, and guaifenesin) is absent for URI-associated pediatric cough. Alternatively, honey and topically applied vapor rubs may be effective antitussives.

  9. Control dynamics of severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission

    WANG Haiying; RONG Feng; KE Fujiu; BAI Yilong

    2003-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a serious disease with many puzzling features. We present a simple, dynamic model to assess the epidemic potential of SARS and the effectiveness of control measures. With this model, we analysed the SARS epidemic data in Beijing. The data fitting gives the basic case reproduction number of 2.16 leading to the outbreak, and the variation of the effective reproduction number reflecting the control effect. Noticeably, our study shows that the response time and the strength of control measures have significant effects on the scale of the outbreak and the lasting time of the epidemic.

  10. Digestive system manifestations in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome

    詹俊; 陈为宪; 李楚强; 伍卫; 李建军; 江山平; 王景峰; 曾志勇; 黄子通; 黄洪章

    2003-01-01

    Objective To explore digestive system manifestations in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).Method The clinical data of 96 cases with SARS admitted into our hospital from February 6, 2003 to March 28, 2003 were retrospectively analyzed.Results Among the 96 cases, 26 cases (27%) had diarrhea, 17 (18%) had nausea, 6 (6%) had vomiting, 16 (17%) had bellyache, and 8 (8%) had ALT elevation.Conclusions Patients with SARS may have digestive system manifestations; diarrhea is the most common symptom.

  11. [Ventilation in acute respiratory distress. Lung-protective strategies].

    Bruells, C S; Rossaint, R; Dembinski, R

    2012-11-01

    Ventilation of patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with protective ventilator settings is the standard in patient care. Besides the reduction of tidal volumes, the adjustment of a case-related positive end-expiratory pressure and preservation of spontaneous breathing activity at least 48 h after onset is part of this strategy. Bedside techniques have been developed to adapt ventilatory settings to the individual patient and the different stages of ARDS. This article reviews the pathophysiology of ARDS and ventilator-induced lung injury and presents current evidence-based strategies for ventilator settings in ARDS.

  12. Comparative morphologic and morphometric studies on the lower respiratory tract of adult Japanese quail (coturnix japonica and pigeon (columbia livia

    Sunday Akau Hena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was concerned with the comparative evaluation of the morphologic and morphometric parameters of the lower respiratory tract of Japanese quail and that of pigeon. In the course of this work twenty birds (ten pigeons and ten Japanese quails of both sexes were purchased from a poultry market in Sokoto metroplis, Sokoto, Nigeria and used. It was observed in this study that the lower respiratory tract extended from the caudal part of the oral cavity (around the larynx down to the neck and to the thoracic region. The lower respiratory tract structures were the trachea (including the syrinx, the bronchus and the lungs. In the study, all the birds used were adults with mean body weight of 159.51±8.19g and 265.78±4.88g for the Japanese quail and pigeon respectively, this was considered extremely significant (P

  13. Noninvasive Ventilation Practice Patterns for Acute Respiratory Failure in Canadian Tertiary Care Centres: A Descriptive Analysis

    Geneviève C Digby

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The extent of noninvasive ventilation (NIV use for patients with acute respiratory failure in Canadian hospitals, indications for use and associated outcomes are unknown.

  14. ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME DAN ACUTE PNEUMONIA PADA NEAR DROWNING:SEBUAH LAPORAN KASUS

    Michelle Prinka Adyana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Near drowning is a condition in which the victim survived the first 24 hours. The WorldHealth Organization (WHO , recorded worldwide in 2000 there were 400,000 incidentdrowned accidentally . That is, this figure ranks second only to traffic accidents.Aspiration pneumonia is a complication of near drwoning which occurred in 80 % ofcases of near drowning, while 50 % of patients sink into acute respiratory distresssyndrome ( ARDS . This case report discusses the acute respiratory distress syndromeand acute pneumonia in near drowning 24 years old , who had drowned at the beach for± 15 minutes , the chest x - ray obtained pulmonary edema dd / lung pnuemonia therepneuomothorax . Examination of multislice spiral computed tomography ( MSCT bilateral pneumothorax Thorax obtained major and minor fisuura right and left majorfissure , pneumomediastinum , pulmonary pneumonia contusio / suspected aspirationpneumonia , emphysema subcutis . In intensive care patients conducted for 9 days andreturn to akitivitas everyday

  15. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome: a review of the Berlin definition].

    de Luis Cabezón, N; Sánchez Castro, I; Bengoetxea Uriarte, U X; Rodrigo Casanova, M P; García Peña, J M; Aguilera Celorrio, L

    2014-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is due to many causes. The absence of a universal definition up until now has led to a series of practical problems for a definitive diagnosis. The incidences of ARDS and Acute Lung Injury (ALI) vary widely in the current literature. The American-European Consensus Conference definition has been applied since its publication in 1994 and has helped to improve knowledge about ARDS. However, 18 years later, in 2011, the European Intensive Medicine Society, requested a team of international experts to meet in Berlin to review the ARDS definition. The purpose of the Berlin definition is not to use it as a prognostic tool, but to improve coherence between research and clinical practice.

  16. [Corticosteroid administration for acute respiratory distress syndrome : therapeutic option?].

    Möhnle, P; Briegel, J

    2012-04-01

    Despite a number of clinical trials there is still controversy about the role of corticosteroid therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In addition recent meta-analyses differed markedly in the conclusions. This review is intended to provide a short practical guide for the clinician. Based on the available literature, high-dose and pre-emptive administration of corticosteroids is hazardous and not indicated. A low-dose corticosteroid regime given for 4 weeks may potentially be helpful and can be considered in acute or unresolved ARDS in less than 14 days after onset of ARDS, if a close infection surveillance program is available, if neuromuscular blockade can be avoided and if a stepwise dose reduction of corticosteroids is performed. The total daily dose at the beginning of treatment should not exceed 2 mg/kg body weight (BW) methylprednisolone.

  17. [Acute respiratory distress caused by a mediastinal pancreatic pseudocyst].

    Guillaume, A; Desport, J C; Dolan, P; Fressard, D; Feiss, P

    1993-01-01

    The pseudocyst of the pancreas is a frequent complication of acute pancreatitis. However to intrathoracic localization remains exceptional. A case of acute respiratory insufficiency in a 66-year-old man in whom artificial ventilation was required for such a complication is reported. This case stresses the difficulty often encountered for the differential diagnosis of these liquid tumors. The clinical signs are variable and non specific, especially in case of absence of any history of pancreatitis. The radiographic studies, in particular ultrasonography and CT-scanner defines its liquid nature and its connections. Endoscopy examination confirms its retro-oesophageal extension due to the migration through the oesophageal hiatus. Only the percutaneous needle aspiration of a collection or an associated pleural effusion confirms the diagnosis by the high content of amylases. The treatment of this type of localisation is surgical and essentially consists of an internal derivation.

  18. How French general practitioners manage and prevent recurrent respiratory tract infections in children: the SOURIRRE survey

    Chicoulaa, Bruno; Haas, Hervé; Viala, Jérôme; Salvetat, Maryline; Olives, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Background Recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs) are the most common reason for children’s visits to primary care physicians in France; however, little is known about general practitioners’ (GPs) opinions and expectations concerning the management and prevention of these common and recurrent pathologies. Purpose To describe French GPs’ daily practice in the management of respiratory infections and the prevention of their recurrence in children. Methods A sample group of French GPs answered a structured questionnaire on risk factors, RRTI management, antibiotic use and prevention measures. Results A total of 358 GPs participated in the survey. Rhinopharyngitis, the most frequent respiratory infection, was considered to be recurrent if six or more episodes occurred in a year. Four risk factors were acknowledged as substantial: living in communities, passive smoking, pollution and allergies. Around 63% of GPs said that RRTIs are too often treated with antibiotics. More than 85% thought that prevention of RRTIs is possible. Smoking cessation, vaccination, allergen avoidance and hygiene were identified as the main preventive measures. A large majority of GPs (84%) prescribed products for prevention and ~90% would prescribe a product stimulating immunity if the efficacy and tolerability of these agents was proven and confirmed in their daily practice. Conclusions French GPs are well aware of the health and socioeconomic burdens resulting from RRTIs, as well as the risk of antibiotic overuse. They have a prevention-oriented approach, implement preventive measures when possible and prescribe products for prevention. PMID:28293116

  19. Recurrent lower respiratory tract infections in children: a practical approach to diagnosis.

    Patria, Maria Francesca; Esposito, Susanna

    2013-03-01

    Many children are affected by recurrent lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), but the majority of them do not suffer from serious lung or extrapulmonary disease. The challenge for clinicians is to distinguish the recurrent RTIs with self-limiting or minor problems from those with underlying disease. The aim of this review is to describe a practical approach to children with recurrent LRTIs that limits unnecessary, expensive and time-consuming investigations. The children can be divided into three groups on the basis of their personal and family history and clinical findings: 1) otherwise healthy children who do not need further investigations; 2) those with risk factors for respiratory infections for whom a wait-and-see approach can be recommended; and 3) those in whom further investigations are mandatory. However, regardless of the origin of the recurrent LRTIs, it is important to remember that prevention by means of vaccines against respiratory pathogens (i.e. type b Haemophilus influenzae, pertussis, pneumococcal and influenza vaccines) can play a key role.

  20. [Peculiarities of growth and development of cultured mucosal cells from the upper respiratory tract stimulated by growth factors].

    Chekan, V L; Kvacheva, Z B; Petrova, L G

    2009-01-01

    Specific features of growth and development of cultured mucosal cells from the upper respiratory tract were studied during their in vitro stimulation by keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Phenotypic composition and quantitative characteristics of cultured epithelial cells was investigated with the use of monoclonal CD49F antibodies and flow cytofluorometry. The culture technique makes it possible to obtain a large amount of cells for the evaluation of their pathological changes. Moreover, cell cultures can be used to restore lesioned mucosa of the upper respiratory tract both in experiment and under clinical conditions.

  1. Study on Viral Pathogen in Hospitalized Children with Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection from 2011 to 2012 in Hunan Province%湖南地区2011~2012年急性下呼吸道感染住院儿童的病毒病原研究

    彭颖; 谢乐云; 钟礼立; 张兵; 段招军; 谢志萍

    2014-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the viral pathogen in hospitalized children with acute lower respira-tory tract infection(ALRTI) from 2011 to 2012 in Hunan province .[Methods]A total of 727 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples in hospitalized children due to ALRTI from April 2011 to March 2012 were collected .Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Nest-PCR were used to detect 13 kinds of common re-spiratoryvirusesincludinghumanbocavirus(HBoV),adenovirus(ADV),respiratory syncytialvirus(RSV), human rhinovirus(HRV) ,parainfluenza 1-4(PIV1-4) ,influenza virus A(IFVA) ,influenza virus B(IFVB) , human metapneumovirus (HMPV) ,human coronaviruses NL63 (HCoV-NL63) and human coronaviruses HKU1(HCoV-HKU1) .The positive amplification products were confirmed by gene sequencing .[Results]Vi-ruses were detected in 504 of 727 specimens ,and the total detection rate was 69 .3% (504/727) .The first three viruses were RSV(26 .3% ) ,HRV(18 .7% ) and ADV(18 .6% ) .The high detection rate of viruses was found in spring and summer and children aged less than 3 years old ,and there was significant difference . There was no significant difference in the detection rate of viruses between males and females .The mixed in-fection rate of two or more than two kinds of viruses was 38 .9% .[Conclusion]During the study period ,respir-atory syncytial virus and rhinovirus are the main pathogens in hospitalized children with ALRTI of Hunan province .Compared with former years ,the detection rate of adenovirus is obviously increased ,and becomes the third common virus ,and has important significance .The mixed infection rate of viruses is high .%【目的】了解湖南地区儿童急性下呼吸道感染(ALRTI)住院儿童的病毒病原情况。【方法】收集2011年4月至2012年3月因ALRTI住院的儿童鼻咽抽吸物标本727份,采用RT-PCR以及 Nest-PCR方法检测常见的13种呼吸道病毒,包括人博卡病毒(HBoV ),腺病毒(ADV )

  2. Reducing general practice trainees' antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections: an evaluation of a combined face-to-face workshop and online educational intervention.

    Magin, Parker J; Morgan, Simon; Tapley, Amanda; Davis, Joshua S; McArthur, Lawrie; Henderson, Kim M; Mulquiney, Katie J; Dallas, Anthea; Davey, Andrew R; Scott, John; van Driel, Mieke L

    2016-03-01

    Over-prescription of antibiotics for non-pneumonia respiratory tract infections (RTIs) is a major concern in general practice. Australian general practice registrars (trainees) have inappropriately high rates of prescription of antibiotics for RTIs. The 'apprenticeship' educational model and the trainee-trainer relationship are drivers of this inappropriate prescribing. We aimed to reduce registrars' non-pneumonia RTI antibiotic prescribing via an educational intervention (a 90-min face-to-face workshop supported by online modules), complemented by delivery of the same intervention, separately, to their trainers. We conducted a pre- and post-intervention comparison of the registrars' intention to prescribe antibiotics for common RTIs using McNemar's test. We similarly tested changes in supervisors' intended prescribing. Prescribing intentions were elicited by responses to six written clinical vignettes (upper respiratory tract infection, otitis media, sore throat and three acute bronchitis vignettes). We found that, for registrars, there were statistically significant reductions in antibiotic prescribing for the sore throat (24.0% absolute reduction), otitis media (17.5% absolute reduction) and two of the three acute bronchitis (12.0% and 18.0% absolute reduction) vignettes. There were significant reductions in supervisors' antibiotic prescribing intentions for the same four vignettes. We conclude that our intervention produced a significant change in registrars' intention to prescribe antibiotics for non-pneumonia RTIs.

  3. Chemical exposure-response relationship between air pollutants and reactive oxygen species in the human respiratory tract

    Lakey, Pascale S. J.; Thomas Berkemeier; Haijie Tong; Arangio, Andrea M.; Kurt Lucas; Ulrich Pöschl; Manabu Shiraiwa

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution can cause oxidative stress and adverse health effects such as asthma and other respiratory diseases, but the underlying chemical processes are not well characterized. Here we present chemical exposure-response relations between ambient concentrations of air pollutants and the production rates and concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the human respiratory tract. In highly polluted environments, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) con...

  4. Lactobacillus fermentum (PCC®) supplementation and gastrointestinal and respiratory-tract illness symptoms: a randomised control trial in athletes

    Hopkins William G; Cripps Allan W; Pyne David B; West Nicholas P; Eskesen Dorte C; Jairath Ashok; Christophersen Claus T; Conlon Michael A; Fricker Peter A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Probiotics purportedly reduce symptoms of gastrointestinal and upper respiratory-tract illness by modulating commensal microflora. Preventing and reducing symptoms of respiratory and gastrointestinal illness are the primary reason that dietary supplementation with probiotics are becoming increasingly popular with healthy active individuals. There is a paucity of data regarding the effectiveness of probiotics in this cohort. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effecti...

  5. Surveillance for hospitalized acute respiratory infection in Guatemala.

    Jennifer R Verani

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory infections (ARI are an important cause of illness and death worldwide, yet data on the etiology of ARI and the population-level burden in developing countries are limited. Surveillance for ARI was conducted at two hospitals in Guatemala. Patients admitted with at least one sign of acute infection and one sign or symptom of respiratory illness met the criteria for a case of hospitalized ARI. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction for adenovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1,2 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B viruses, human metapneumovirus, Chlamydia pneumioniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Urine specimens were tested for Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen. Blood culture and chest radiograph were done at the discretion of the treating physician. Between November 2007 and December 2011, 3,964 case-patients were enrolled. While cases occurred among all age groups, 2,396 (60.4% cases occurred in children <5 years old and 463 (11.7% among adults ≥65 years old. Viruses were found in 52.6% of all case-patients and 71.8% of those aged <1 year old; the most frequently detected was respiratory syncytial virus, affecting 26.4% of case-patients. Urine antigen testing for Streptococcus pneumoniae performed for case-patients ≥15 years old was positive in 15.1% of those tested. Among 2,364 (59.6% of case-patients with a radiograph, 907 (40.0% had findings suggestive of bacterial pneumonia. Overall, 230 (5.9% case-patients died during the hospitalization. Using population denominators, the observed hospitalized ARI incidence was 128 cases per 100,000, with the highest rates seen among children <1 year old (1,703 per 100,000, followed by adults ≥65 years old (292 per 100,000. These data, which demonstrate a substantial burden of hospitalized ARI in Guatemala due to a variety of pathogens, can help guide public health policies aimed at reducing the burden of illness and

  6. The bioactivity of plant extracts against representative bacterial pathogens of the lower respiratory tract

    Bocanegra-García Virgilio

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lower respiratory tract infections are a major cause of illness and death. Such infections are common in intensive care units (ICU and their lethality persists despite advances in diagnosis, treatment and prevention. In Mexico, some plants are used in traditional medicine to treat respiratory diseases or ailments such as cough, bronchitis, tuberculosis and other infections. Medical knowledge derived from traditional societies has motivated searches for new bioactive molecules derived from plants that show potent activity against bacterial pathogens. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hexanic, chloroformic (CLO, methanolic (MET and aqueous extracts from various plants used in Mexican traditional medicine on various microorganisms associated with respiratory disease. Methods thirty-five extracts prepared from nine plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of respiratory infections were evaluated against 15 control bacterial species and clinical isolates. Results Both chloroformic (CLO and methanolic (MET extracts of Larrea tridentata were active against Methicillin-resistant S. aureus, B. subtilis and L. monocytogenes. A MET extract of L. tridentata was also active against S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, S. maltophilia, E. faecalis and H. influenzae and the CLO extract was active against A. baumannii. An Aqueous extract of M. acumitata and a MET extract of N. officinale were active against S. pneumoniae. CLO and MET extracts of L. tridentata were active against clinical isolates of S. aureus, S. pneumoniae and E. faecalis. Conclusion Overall, our results support the potential use of L. tridentata as a source of antibacterial compounds.

  7. Severe brain atrophy in the elderly as a risk factor for lower respiratory tract infection

    Okada R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Rieko Okada,1 Takashi Okada,2 Akira Okada,2 Hideyuki Muramoto,3 Masahisa Katsuno,4 Gen Sobue,4 Nobuyuki Hamajima11Department of Preventive Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 2Okada Medical Clinic, 3Muramoto Clinic, 4Department of Neurology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study is to determine whether elderly subjects with severe brain atrophy, which is associated with neurodegeneration and difficulty swallowing (dysphagia, are more susceptible to lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI, including pneumonia.Methods: The severity of brain atrophy was assessed by computed tomography in 51 nursing home residents aged 60–96 years. The incidence of LRTI, defined by body temperature ≥ 38.0°C, presence of two or more respiratory symptoms, and use of antibiotics, was determined over 4 years. The incidence of LRTI was compared according to the severity and type of brain atrophy.Results: The incidence rate ratio of LRTI was significantly higher (odds ratio 4.60, 95% confidence interval 1.18–17.93, fully adjusted P = 0.028 and the time to the first episode of LRTI was significantly shorter (log-rank test, P = 0.019 in subjects with severe brain atrophy in any lobe. Frontal and parietal lobe atrophy was associated with a significantly increased risk of LRTI, while temporal lobe atrophy, ventricular dilatation, and diffuse white matter lesions did not influence the risk of LRTI.Conclusion: Elderly subjects with severe brain atrophy are more susceptible to LRTI, possibly as a result of neurodegeneration causing dysphagia and silent aspiration. Assessing the severity of brain atrophy might be useful to identify subjects at increased risk of respiratory infections in a prospective manner.Keywords: brain atrophy, dysphagia, elderly, pneumonia, respiratory infection, white matter lesions

  8. New Epidemiological and Clinical Signatures of 18 Pathogens from Respiratory Tract Infections Based on a 5-Year Study.

    Xiaohong Liao

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infections (RTIs are a heavy burden on society. However, due to the complex etiology of RTIs, the clinical diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these infections remain challenging, especially in developing countries.To determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 18 respiratory pathogens, we analyzed 12,502 patients with acute respiratory infections (ARIs by performing polymerase chain reaction (PCR on patient pharyngeal swabs.Samples positive for at least 1 pathogen were obtained from 48.42% of the total patients. Of these pathogen-positive patients, 17.99% were infected with more than 1 pathogen. Of the 18 pathogens analyzed, four were detected with a positive detection rate (PDR > 5%: influenza A virus (IAV > respiratory syncytial virus (RSV >Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP > human coronavirus (HCoV. The pathogens with the 4 highest co-infection rates (CIRs were as follows: HCoV > human bocavirus (HBoV > enterovirus (EV > parainfluenza virus (PIV. The overall positive detection rate (PDR varied significantly according to patient age, the season and year of detection, and the disease subgroup, but not according to patient sex. The individual PDRs of the pathogens followed 3 types of distributions for patient sex, 4 types of distributions for patient age, 4 types of seasonal distributions, 2 types of seasonal epidemic trends, 4 types of yearly epidemic trends, and different susceptibility distributions in the disease subgroups. Additionally, the overall CIR showed significantly different distributions according to patient sex, patient age, and the disease subgroup, whereas the CIRs of individual pathogens suggested significant preference characteristics.IAV remains the most common pathogen among the pathogens analyzed. More effort should be directed toward the prevention and control of pathogens that show a trend of increasing incidence such as HCoV, human adenovirus (ADV, and RSV. Although clinically

  9. Detection of viral respiratory pathogens in mild and severe acute respiratory infections in Singapore

    Jiang, Lili; Lee, Vernon Jian Ming; Cui, Lin; Lin, Raymond; Tan, Chyi Lin; Tan, Linda Wei Lin; Lim, Wei-yen; Leo, Yee-Sin; Low, Louie; Hibberd, Martin; Chen, Mark I-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the performance of laboratory methods and clinical case definitions in detecting the viral pathogens for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) from a prospective community cohort and hospital inpatients, nasopharyngeal swabs from cohort members reporting ARIs (community-ARI) and inpatients admitted with ARIs (inpatient-ARI) were tested by Singleplex Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (SRT-PCR), multiplex RT-PCR (MRT-PCR) and pathogen-chip system (PathChip) between April 2012 and December 2013. Community-ARI and inpatient-ARI was also combined with mild and severe cases of influenza from a historical prospective study as mild-ARI and severe-ARI respectively to evaluate the performance of clinical case definitions. We analysed 130 community-ARI and 140 inpatient-ARI episodes (5 inpatient-ARI excluded because multiple pathogens were detected), involving 138 and 207 samples respectively. Detection by PCR declined with days post-onset for influenza virus; decrease was faster for community-ARI than for inpatient-ARI. No such patterns were observed for non-influenza respiratory virus infections. PathChip added substantially to viruses detected for community-ARI only. Clinical case definitions discriminated influenza from other mild-ARI but performed poorly for severe-ARI and for older participants. Rational strategies for diagnosis and surveillance of influenza and other respiratory virus must acknowledge the differences between ARIs presenting in community and hospital settings. PMID:28218288

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of respiratory tract pathogens isolated from diseased cattle and pigs across Europe: the VetPath study.

    de Jong, Anno; Thomas, Valérie; Simjee, Shabbir; Moyaert, Hilde; El Garch, Farid; Maher, Kirsty; Morrissey, Ian; Butty, Pascal; Klein, Ulrich; Marion, Hervé; Rigaut, Delphine; Vallé, Michel

    2014-08-06

    VetPath is an ongoing pan-European antibiotic susceptibility monitoring programme collecting pathogens from diseased antimicrobial non-treated cattle, pigs and poultry. In the current study, 1001 isolates from cattle and pig respiratory tract infections were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Non-replicate lung samples or nasopharyngeal/nasal swabs were collected from animals with acute clinical signs in 11 countries during 2002-2006. Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica from cattle and P. multocida, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Streptococcus suis from pigs were isolated by standard methods. S. suis was also isolated from meningitis cases. MICs of 16 antibiotics were assessed centrally by broth microdilution following CLSI recommendations. Results were interpreted using CLSI breakpoints where available. P. multocida (231) and M. haemolytica (138) isolates were all susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Resistance to florfenicol and spectinomycin was 0.4% and 3.5% in P. multocida, respectively, and absent in M. haemolytica isolates. Tetracycline resistance was 5.7% and 14.6% for P. multocida and M. haemolytica. In pigs, 230 P. multocida, 220 A. pleuropneumoniae and 182 S. suis isolates were recovered. Resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tiamulin and tilmicosin was absent or cattle and pigs. Since for approximately half of the antibiotics in this panel no CLSI-defined breakpoints were available, setting of the missing veterinary breakpoints is important.

  11. Detection of herpesvirus EBV DNA in the lower respiratory tract of ICU patients: a marker of infection of the lower respiratory tract?

    Friedrichs, I; Bingold, T; Keppler, O T; Pullmann, B; Reinheimer, C; Berger, A

    2013-12-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a lymphotropic herpesvirus causing clinically self-limiting but lifelong persisting infections. Although several severe diseases (e.g., Hodgkin's disease) are associated with EBV, its role in lower respiratory tract infections is still elusive. The prevalence of EBV, herpes simplex virus (HSV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) in bronchoalveolar fluid (BAL) samples was evaluated in a retrospective study. BAL samples from 135 patients in the intensive or coronary care unit (ICU/ICC) at University Hospital Frankfurt/Main (Germany) were investigated using an in-house real-time PCR to detect EBV-, HSV- and CMV-specific DNA. Overall, herpesvirus DNA was detected in n = 82/135 BAL samples (60.7 %). Besides mono-infections with either EBV or HSV, concomitant infection with EBV and HSV DNA was most frequent, whereby the relative HSV viral load was typically higher. Patients with HSV-positive BAL required mechanical ventilation on average 5 days longer than patients with HSV-negative BAL (p = 0.006). Additionally, the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 was significantly elevated in sera of patients positive for EBV in comparison with patients with EBV-negative BAL (p = 0.01). This study demonstrates a high prevalence of herpesviruses in BAL samples of ICU/ICC patients. The detection of one or more herpesvirus in BAL is strongly associated with the duration of ventilation and patient's age. The association between IL-6 levels and EBV detection should be evaluated in further studies.

  12. The comparison and characterisation of glycolytic mycoplasmas isolated from the respiratory tract of sheep.

    Jones, G E; Foggie, A; Mould, D L; Livitt, S

    1976-02-01

    Nine strains of glycolytic mycoplasmas isolated from the respiratory tract of apparently healthy sheep, pneumonic sheep and sheep with pulmonary adenomatosis (SPA) were compared with a Queensland strain (Y98) of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae. All strains were very similar in their reactions in 14 biochemical tests and in their sensitivities to optochin, digitonin, sodium polyanethol sulphonate, and 11 antibiotics. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and serological cross-reactions by the agar-gel double diffusion, metabolic inhibition (MI) and growht-inhibition (GI) tests also showed that all strains could be classified as M. ovipneumoniae. The MI and GI tests, however, showed considerable intraspecific differences among strains, with apparent polarisation of SPA strains and non-SPA strains at opposite ends of the antigenic spectrum. Two representative strains were tested by the MI test against antisera to 39 mycoplasma species or serogroups, with negative results.

  13. Macroscopic Anatomy of the Saimaa Ringed Seal (Phoca hispida saimensis) Lower Respiratory Tract.

    Laakkonen, Juha; Jernvall, Jukka

    2016-04-01

    We studied the macroscopic anatomy of the lower respiratory tract of the endangered Saimaa ringed seal (Phoca hispida saimensis). Examination of one adult and one young individual found dead showed that trachea had 85 and 86 complete cartilage rings. The adjacent cartilages exhibited very few random anastomoses. There was variation in the confirmation of the trachea between the cranial and caudal part of the trachea. The right lung was divided by partly incomplete inter-lobar fissures into cranial, middle, caudal, and accessory lobes. The left lung consisted of cranial, middle, and caudal lobes. The lungs were characterized by a high amount of interlobular connective tissue. Silicone casts were prepared of the two specimens to visualize the tracheobronchial branching which was similar to that of marine ringed seals but in the Saimaa ringed seal the right middle lobar bronchus originated at the same level as the accessory lobar bronchus.

  14. Behavioral Effects of Upper Respiratory Tract Illnesses: A Consideration of Possible Underlying Cognitive Mechanisms

    Andrew P. Smith

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that both experimentally induced upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTIs and naturally occurring URTIs influence mood and performance. The present study investigated possible cognitive mechanisms underlying the URTI-performance changes. Those who developed a cold (N = 47 had significantly faster, but less accurate, performance than those who remained healthy (N = 54. Illness had no effect on manipulations designed to influence encoding, response organisation (stimulus-response compatilibility or response preparation. Similarly, there was no evidence that different components of working memory were impaired. Overall, the present research confirms that URTIs can have an effect on performance efficiency. Further research is required to identify the physiological and behavioral mechanisms underlying these effects.

  15. Antibiotic treatment and the diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae in lower respiratory tract infections in adults

    Korsgaard, Jens; Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Kilian, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the possible influence of antibiotic treatment on the results of different diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective cohort of 159 unselected adult immunocompetent patients...... of S. pneumoniae. RESULTS: When stratified for antibiotic treatment prior to microbiological sampling, three different groups of patients with documented or probable infection with S. pneumoniae could be identified. The first group comprised 14 patients who were culture positive in one or more culture...... in the diagnosis of infection with S. pneumoniae. The third group of patients with probable pneumococcal infection were identified as 26% and 20% of the remaining 137 patients with unknown or known non-pneumococcal etiology, respectively, who received recent antibiotic treatment within 2-4 weeks of diagnostic...

  16. [Cefditoren pivoxil: A new oral cephalosporin for skin, soft tissue and respiratory tract infections].

    Hernández-Martin, J; Romá, E; Salavert, M; Doménech, L; Poveda, J L

    2006-09-01

    Cefditoren pivoxil, a new-third generation cephalosporin antibiotic that has recently been granted approval in Spain, shows important activity over a large part of the pathogens causing skin, soft tissue and respiratory tract infections, including Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Cefditoren has also been shown to be stable against hydrolysis by many common beta-lactamases. Data from in vitro studies and clinical trials show this antibiotic as an oral formulation with an intrinsic activity against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae equivalent to that of other third-generation cephalosporins administered via parenteral, like cefotaxime or ceftriaxone, thereby placing its maximal benefits mainly in the treatment of ambulatory infections. This paper reviews the main characteristics of cefditoren pivoxil (spectrum of activity, chemical structure, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects and clinical efficacy) and attempts to find its place in current antibiotic therapeutics.

  17. Lower respiratory tract infection and rapid expansion of an abdominal aortic aneurysm: a case report

    Puppala Sapna

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The rate of abdominal aortic aneurysm expansion is related to multiple factors. There is some evidence that inflammation can accelerate aneurysm expansion. However, the association between pulmonary sepsis and rapid abdominal aortic aneurysm expansion is rarely reported. Case presentation Here we present a case of a rapidly expanding abdominal aortic aneurysm in a 68-year-old Caucasian man with a concomitant lower respiratory tract infection and systemic sepsis requiring intensive monitoring and urgent endovascular intervention. Our patient had an uncomplicated post-operative recovery and a follow-up computed tomography scan at one month demonstrated no evidence of an endoleak. Conclusion This case highlights the potential association between pulmonary sepsis and rapid abdominal aortic aneurysm expansion. In such cases, a policy of frequent monitoring should be adopted to identify those patients requiring definitive management.

  18. Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Fibrosis versus Repair

    Daniel eIm

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and basic experimental approaches to pediatric acute lung injury (ALI, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, have historically focused on acute care and management of the patient. Additional efforts have focused on the etiology of pediatric ALI and ARDS, clinically defined as diffuse, bilateral diseases of the lung that compromise function leading to severe hypoxemia within seven days of defined insult. Insults can include ancillary events related to prematurity, can follow trauma and/or transfusion, or can present as sequelae of pulmonary infections and cardiovascular disease and/or injury. Pediatric ALI/ARDS remains one of the leading causes of infant and childhood morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developing world. Though incidence is relatively low, ranging from 2.9-9.5 cases/100,000 patients/year, mortality remains high, approaching 35% in some studies. However, this is a significant decrease from the historical mortality rate of over 50%. Several decades of advances in acute management and treatment, as well as better understanding of approaches to ventilation, oxygenation and surfactant regulation, have contributed to improvements in patient recovery. As such, there is a burgeoning interest in the long term impact of pediatric ALI/ARDS. Chronic pulmonary deficiencies in survivors appear to be caused by inappropriate injury repair, with fibrosis and predisposition to emphysema arising as irreversible secondary events that can severely compromise pulmonary development and function, as well as the overall health of the patient. In this chapter, the long term effectiveness of current treatments will be examined, as will the potential efficacy of novel, acute and long term therapies that support repair and delay or even impede the onset of secondary events, including fibrosis.

  19. Respiratory Tract Lung Geometry and Dosimetry Model for Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Miller, Frederick J.; Asgharian, Bahman; Schroeter, Jeffry D.; Price, Owen; Corley, Richard A.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Jacob, Rick E.; Cox, Timothy C.; Kabilan, Senthil; Bentley, Timothy

    2015-07-24

    While inhalation toxicological studies of various compounds have been conducted using a number of different strains of rats, mechanistic dosimetry models have only had tracheobronchial (TB) structural data for Long-Evans rats, detailed morphometric data on the alveolar region of Sprague-Dawley rats and limited alveolar data on other strains. Based upon CT imaging data for two male Sprague-Dawley rats, a 15-generation, symmetric typical path model was developed for the TB region. Literature data for the alveolar region of Sprague-Dawley rats were analyzed to develop an eight-generation model, and the two regions were joined to provide a complete lower respiratory tract model for Sprague-Dawley rats. The resulting lung model was used to examine particle deposition in Sprague-Dawley rats and to compare these results with predicted deposition in Long-Evans rats. Relationships of various physiologic variables and lung volumes were either developed in this study or extracted from the literature to provide the necessary input data for examining particle deposition. While the lengths, diameters and branching angles of the TB airways differed between the two Sprague-Dawley rats, the predicted deposition patterns in the three major respiratory tract regions were very similar. Between Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans rats, significant differences in TB and alveolar predicted deposition fractions were observed over a wide range of particle sizes, with TB deposition fractions being up to 3- to 4-fold greater in Sprague-Dawley rats and alveolar deposition being significantly greater in Long-Evans rats. Thus, strain-specific lung geometry models should be used for particle deposition calculations and interspecies dose comparisons.

  20. Illness behaviour and antibiotic prescription in patients with respiratory tract symptoms

    van Duijn, Huug J; Kuyvenhoven, Marijke M; Schellevis, François G; Verheij, Theo JM

    2007-01-01

    Background Although the vast majority of respiratory tract symptoms are self-limiting, many patients visit their GP for these symptoms and antibiotics are overprescribed. Aim To explore determinants of patients visiting GPs for recent cough, sore throat, or earache; for being prescribed antibiotics; and for patients' satisfaction with visiting the GP. Design of the study Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (DNSGP-2) with a health interview and an additional questionnaire. Setting A total of 7057 adult patients of 163 GPs in the Netherlands. Method Characteristics of patients and GPs as well as morbidity data were derived from the DNSGP-2 and a health interview. Characteristics of the symptoms, GPs' management and patients' satisfaction were measured by an additional written questionnaire. Data were analysed by means of multivariate logistic regression. Results About 40% of the responders (n = 1083) reported cough, sore throat, or earache in the 2 weeks preceding the interview and, of them, 250 visited their GP. Of this latter group, 97 patients were prescribed antibiotics. Apart from non-medical reasons, relevant medical factors played an important role in deciding to visit the GP. Smokers and patients with cardiac disease or diabetes mellitus were not especially inclined to see their GP. Smoking behaviour, fever, and views on respiratory tract symptoms and antibiotics of patients and GPs were associated with being prescribed antibiotics. Patients' perception of having been carefully examined was associated with their satisfaction, while receiving antibiotics was not. Conclusion GPs should inform patients with clear elevated risk when to visit their GP in cases of cough, sore throat, or earache. There is still a need for GPs and patients to be better informed about the limited significance of single inflammation signs (for example, fever and green phlegm) as an indication for antibiotics. Careful examination of the patient contributes to patient

  1. The diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of acute and recurrent pediatric urinary tract infections.

    Becknell, Brian; Schober, Megan; Korbel, Lindsey; Spencer, John David

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections encountered by pediatricians. Currently, the diagnosis and management of acute UTI and recurrent UTI in children remain controversial. Recently published guidelines and large clinical trials have attempted to clarify UTI diagnostic and management strategies. In this manuscript, we review the diagnosis and management of acute and recurrent UTI in the pediatric population.

  2. Inhaled nitric oxide for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in children and adults

    Gebistorf, Fabienne; Karam, Oliver; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure (AHRF) and mostly acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are critical conditions. AHRF results from several systemic conditions and is associated with high mortality and morbidity in individuals of all ages. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) has been...

  3. Acute respiratory infections in elderly people: the role of micronutrients and lifestyle

    Graat, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections are the most frequent of all infectious diseases. In popular speech common cold, flu (influenza), and pneumonia all denote acute respiratory infections. Elderly people show an increased risk of these infections and their complications. In The Netherlands about 2.000 elde

  4. Acute effects of ambient air pollution episodes on respiratory health of children.

    Hoek, G.

    1992-01-01

    In this thesis the acute effects of air pollution episodes on respiratory health of seven to eleven year old children living in non-urban communities in the Netherlands are discussed. Repeated measurements of pulmonary function (spirometry) and the occurrence of acute respiratory symptoms using a da

  5. Respiratory viruses in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Koul, Parvaiz A; Mir, Hyder; Akram, Shabir; Potdar, Varsha; Chadha, Mandeep S

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) cause significant morbidity, mortality, and an inexorable decline of lung function. Data from developed countries have shown viruses to be important causes of AECOPD, but data from developing countries like India are scant. We set out to determine the contribution of viruses in the causation of hospitalized patients with AECOPD. Methods: Twin nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs collected from 233 patients admitted with an acute AECOPD and tested for respiratory viruses including respiratory syncytial virus A and B, parainfluenza were (PIV) 1, 2, 3, and 4, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) A and B, influenza A and B, enterovirus, corona NL65, OC43, and 229E viruses, adenovirus 2 and 4, rhinovirus, and bocavirus, by duplex real time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using CDC approved primers and probes. Samples positive for influenza A were subtyped for A/H1N1pdm09 and A/H3N2 whereas influenza B samples were subtyped into B/Yamagata and B/Victoria subtypes, using primers and probes recommended by CDC, USA. Results: Respiratory viruses were detected in 46 (19.7%) cases, influenza A/H3N2 and rhinoviruses being the most common viruses detected. More than one virus was isolated in four cases consisting of hMPV-B + adeno-2 + Inf-B; rhino + H3N2, PIV-1 + rhino; and PIV-1+ hMPV-B in one case each. Ancillary supportive therapeutic measures included bronchodilators, antibiotics, steroids, and ventilation (noninvasive in 42 and invasive in 4). Antiviral therapy was instituted in influenza-positive patients. Three patients with A/H3N2 infection died during hospitalization. Conclusions: We conclude that respiratory viruses are important contributors to AECOPD in India. Our data calls for prompt investigation during an exacerbation for viruses to obviate inappropriate antibiotic use and institute antiviral therapy in viral disease amenable to antiviral therapy. Appropriate

  6. Respiratory Virus Multiplex RT-PCR Assay Sensitivities and Influence Factors in Hospitalized Children with Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

    Jikui Deng; Zhuoya Ma; Wenbo Huang; Chengrong Li; Heping Wang; Yuejie Zheng; Rong Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Multiplex RT-PCR assays have been widely used tools for detection and differentiation of a panel of respiratory viral pathogens.In this study,we evaluated the Qiagen ResPlex Ⅱ V2.0 kit and explored factors influencing its sensitivity.Nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) specimens were prospectively collected from pediatric inpatients with lower respiratory tract infections at the time of admission in the Shenzhen Children's Hospital from May 2009 to April 2010.Total nucleic acids were extracted using the EZ1 system (Qiagen,Germany) and 17 respiratory viruses and genotypes including influenza A virus (FluA),FluB,parainfluenza virus 1 (PIV1),PIV2,PIV3,PIV4,respiratory syncytial virus (RSV),human metapneumovirus (hMPV),rhinoviruses (RhV),enteroviruses (EnV),human bocaviruses (hBoV),adenoviruses (AdV),four coronaviruses (229E,OC43,NL63 and HKU1),and FluA 2009 pandemic H1N1(H1N1-p) were detected and identified by the ResPlex Ⅱ kit.In parallel,16 real-time TaqMan quantitative RT-PCR assays were used to quantitatively detect each virus except for RhV.Influenza and parainfluenza viral cultures were also performed.Among the total 438 NPS specimens collected during the study period,one or more viral pathogens were detected in 274 (62.6%) and 201(45.9%) specimens by monoplex TaqMan RT-PCR and multiplex ResPlex,respectively.When results from monoplex PCR or cell culture were used as the reference standard,the multiplex PCR possessed specificities of 92.9-100.0%.The sensitivity of multiplex PCR for PIV3,hMPV,PIV1 and BoV were 73.1%,70%,66.7% and 55.6%,respectively,while low sensitivities (11.1%-40.0%) were observed for FluA,EnV,OC43,RSV and H1N1.Among the seven viruses/genotypes detected with higher frequencies,multiplex PCR sensitivities were correlated significantly with viral loads determined by the TaqMan RT-PCR in F luA,H 1N 1-p and RSV (p=0.011-0.000).The Qiagen ResPlex Ⅱ multiplex RT-PCR kit possesses excellent specificity for simultaneous detection of 17

  7. Prone positioning ventilation for treatment of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome

    LAN Mei-juan; HE Xiao-di

    2009-01-01

    Patients who are diagnosed with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) usually have ventilation-perfusion mismatch, severe decrease in lung capacity, and gas exchange abnormalities. Health care work-ers have implemented various strategies in an attempt to compensate for these pathological alterations. By rotating patients with ALI/ARDS between the supine and prone position, it is possible to achieve a significant improvement in PaO2/FiO2, decrease shunting and therefore improve oxy-genation without use of expensive, invasive and experimen-tal procedures.

  8. Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome: experimental and clinical investigations

    Hsing I Chen

    2011-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can be associated with various disorders.Recent investigation has involved clinical studies in collaboration with clinical investigators and pathologists on the pathogenetic mechanisms of ALl or ARDS caused by various disorders.This literature review includes a brief historical retrospective of ALI/ARDS, the neurogenic pulmonary edema due to head injury, the long-term experimental studies and clinical investigations from our laboratory, the detrimental role of NO, the risk factors, and the possible pathogenetic mechanisms as well as therapeutic regimen for ALI/ARDS.

  9. Acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection

    Pathoom Sukkaromdee; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    The sterile pyuria is an interesting problem in urology. Acute gross sterile pyuria is not a common clinical problem and is difficult to make a correct diagnosis. Here, the authors reported a case of acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection. The patient developed problem after complete course of 7-day acute upper urinary tract treatment. The patient was observed with cloudy whitish urine that had never seen before. The urinalysis showed sterile pyuria. This case was treated by conservative method and the problem was resolved within 7 days.

  10. BACTERIAL CAUSES OF LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS IN PATIENTS ATTENDING CENTRAL REFERRAL HOSPITAL, GANGTOK WITH REFERENCE TO ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PATTERN

    Priyanka Paul; Tukaram Prabhu

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There is inadequate information from India on various lower respiratory tract pathogens and their resistance pattern in hospital settings. The present study was undertaken to see the bacteriological profile an d the antibiotic resistance pattern of the isolates causing LRTI from this geographic region. OBJECTIVE: To identify and characterize bacterial pathogens causing community acquired and hospital acquired infections with reference to ant...

  11. Effects of vitamin A and ß-carotene on respiratory tract carcinogenesis in hamster - in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Wolterbeek, A.P.M.

    1995-01-01

    SummaryRespiratory tract cancer is the leading cause of death by cancer in 'Western' countries. The greater part of lung cancers are caused by smoking. Furthermore, environmental air pollution and occupational exposure contribute to the high incidence of lung cancer. Because it seem

  12. Clinical Observation on 46 Cases of Infantile Repeated Respiratory Tract Infection Treated by Mild-Moxibustion over Acupoints on Back

    龙训; 常奇; 寿琼

    2001-01-01

    @@Repeated respiratory tract infection is a frequently-occurring disease during childhood. At present, western medicine doctors generally adopt anti-infectives and immunomodulators to treat the disease, while traditional Chinese medicine doctors mainly administer decoction of Chinese herbs. The authors treated 46 cases of repeated respiratory tract infection from March 1990 to April 1996 by applying mild-moxibustion over points on the back with satisfactory therapeutic results. A report follows. Clinical Data All the 86 cases were outpatients in our hospital with duration of common cold for over 10 days and characterized by relapse of respiratory tract infection. There were over 7-time relapse of respiratory tract infection on each case within a year. Eighty-six cases were randomly divided into treatment group (46 cases) and control group (40 cases). Of the 46 cases in the treatment group, 22 were boys and 24 girls. 17 cases (36.9%) were 6 months to 4 years old, 18 (39.1%) 4 to 6 years, and 11 (23.9%) 6 to 12 years. Among the 40 cases in the control group, 19 cases were boys and 21 girls.

  13. The study of aerobic bacterial flora of the upper respiratory tract of equines from Jammu and Kashmir region of India

    Irfan Ahmad Mir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim:To isolate aerobic bacterial micro flora residing in the upper respiratory tract of equines used by the pilgrims and tourists in Jammu & Kashmir. Materials and Methods:88 apparently healthy equines and 53 equines with respiratory tract diseases were used in this study. Swab samples were collected from the upper respiratory tract of equines. Isolation and identification of the bacteria was conducted under aerobic conditions. Each of the sample processed yielded at least one type of bacteria species. Results: A total of 321 bacterial isolates were recovered from both groups of equines. The majority of the isolates were Gram positive (84.11% and the rest were Gram negative (15.88%. Bacterial isolates identified in order of the magnitude were Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (17.44%, Micrococcus spp. (9.96%, Corynebacterium (9.65%, Staphylococcus intermedius (9.65%, Staphylococcus aureus (8.72%, Bacillus spp. (7.16%, Streptococcus pneumonia (5.60%, Staphylococcus chromogens (5.60%, Streptococcus equismilis (5.29%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.29%, Rhodococcus equi (3.73%, Escherichia coli (3.73%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (3.42%, Proteus vulgaris (3.42%, and Streptococcus equisubsp. equi(1.24%. Conclusion: The present study reveals the predominance of Gram positive bacteria in both healthy and diseased animals. Bacteria were recovered at a higher rate from diseased equines than from apparently healthy animals. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicuswas mainly found to be associated with respiratory tract infections.

  14. College Students, Shared Decision Making, and the Appropriate Use of Antibiotics for Respiratory Tract Infections: A Systematic Literature Review

    Blyer, Kristina; Hulton, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This systematic review examines shared decision making to promote the appropriate use of antibiotics for college students with respiratory tract infections. Participants/Methods: CINAL, Cochrane, PubMed, EBSCO, and PsycNET were searched in October 2014 using the following criteria: English language, human subjects, peer-reviewed, shared…

  15. In utero exposure to 25(OH) D and risk of childhood asthma, wheeze and respiratory tract infections

    Feng, Haixia; Xun, Pengcheng; Pike, Katharine;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of the associations between in utero 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] exposure and childhood asthma risk, wheeze and respiratory tract infections are inconsistent and inconclusive. OBJECTIVES: To assess the associations between 25(OH) D levels in cord blood or maternal venous bl...

  16. The upper respiratory tract microbiome of hospitalised patients with community-acquired pneumonia of unknown aetiology: a pilot study

    Timothy L Wiemken

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available   The composition of the upper respiratory tract microbiome may play an important role in the development of lower respiratory tract infections. Here, we characterised the microbiome of the nasopharynx and oropharynx of hospitalised patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP with unknown aetiology in an attempt to obtain insight into the aetiology of CAP. A random sample of 10 patients hospitalised with CAP previously enrolled in a separate clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov registry, Study ID: NCT01248715 in which a complete microbiological workup was not able to define an aetiology were analysed in this pilot study. This larger trial (n = 1,221 enrolled patients from 9 adult hospitals in Louisville, Kentucky, USA. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were obtained for metagenomic analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR for Streptococcus pneumoniae was performed in all patients. One patient had a distinct nasophararyngeal microbiome consisting largely of Haemophilus influenzae. This was the only patient with a negative PCR for S. pneumoniae in both nasophararyngeal and oropharyngeal specimens. Overall, substantial differences were found between nasophararyngeal and oropharyngeal microbiomes. The upper respiratory tract microbiome of only one patient suggested H. influenzae as a probable aetiology of CAP. Although this was a pilot study of only 10 patients, the presence of S. pneumoniae in the upper respiratory tract of the other 9 patients warrants further investigation.

  17. MULTIPLE HAEMOPHILUS-INFLUENZAE STRAINS AND STRAIN VARIANTS COEXIST IN THE RESPIRATORY-TRACT OF PATIENTS WITH CYSTIC-FIBROSIS

    MOLLER, LVM; REGELINK, AG; GRASSELIER, H; DANKERTROELSE, JE; VANALPHEN, L

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, H. influenzae isolates from sputum specimens of 40 CF patients were analyzed longitudinally for 2 years. The isolates were characterized by analysis of the major outer mem

  18. Systematic review of evidence-based guidelines on medication therapy for upper respiratory tract infection in children with AGREE instrument.

    Linan Zeng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To summarize recommendations of existing guidelines on the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs in children, and to assess the methodological quality of these guidelines. METHODS: We searched seven databases and web sites of relevant academic agencies. Evidence-based guidelines on pediatric URTIs were included. AGREE II was used to assess the quality of these guidelines. Two researchers selected guidelines independently and extracted information on publication years, institutions, target populations, recommendations, quality of evidence, and strength of recommendations. We compared the similarities and differences of recommendations and their strength. We also analyzed the reasons for variation. RESULTS: Thirteen guidelines meeting our inclusion criteria were included. Huge differences existed among these 13 guidelines concerning the categorization of evidence and recommendations. Nearly all of these guidelines lacked the sufficient involvement of stake holders. Further, the applicability of these guidelines still needs to be improved. In terms of recommendations, penicillin and amoxicillin were suggested for group A streptococcal pharyngitis. Amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate were recommended for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS. An observation of 2-3 days prior to antibiotic therapy initiation for mild acute otitis media (AOM was recommended with amoxicillin as the suggested first choice agent. Direct evidence to support strong recommendations on the therapy for influenza is still lacking. In addition, the antimicrobial durations for pharyngitis and ABRS were still controversial. No consensus was reached for the onset of antibiotics for ABRS in children. CONCLUSIONS: Future guidelines should use a consistent grading system for the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. More effort needs to be paid to seek the preference of stake holders and to improve the applicability of guidelines

  19. Impacts of upper respiratory tract disease on olfactory behavior of the Mojave desert tortoise

    Germano, Jennifer; Van Zerr, Vanessa E.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Ken E.; Lamberski, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) caused by Mycoplasma agassizii is considered a threat to desert tortoise populations that should be addressed as part of the recovery of the species. Clinical signs can be intermittent and include serous or mucoid nasal discharge and respiratory difficulty when nares are occluded. This nasal congestion may result in a loss of the olfactory sense. Turtles are known to use olfaction to identify food items, predators, and conspecifics; therefore, it is likely that URTD affects not only their physical well-being but also their behavior and ability to perform necessary functions in the wild. To determine more specifically the impact nasal discharge might have on free-ranging tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), we compared the responses of tortoises with and without nasal discharge and both positive and negative for M. agassizii antibodies to a visually hidden olfactory food stimulus and an empty control. We found that nasal discharge did reduce sense of smell and hence the ability to locate food. Our study also showed that moderate chronic nasal discharge in the absence of other clinical signs did not affect appetite in desert tortoises.

  20. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in the respiratory tract of the frog, Rana temporaria.

    Bodegas, M E; Villaro, A C; Montuenga, L M; Moncada, S; Riveros-Moreno, V; Sesma, P

    1995-10-01

    Physiological and histochemical studies have recently supported the notion that nitric oxide (NO) is the transduction signal responsible for the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic relaxation of the vasculature as well as the airways of the mammalian lung. We report the presence of immunoreactivity to NO synthase (NOS) in nerve cell bodies and nerve fibres in the neural plexus of the buccal cavity and lungs of the frog, Rana temporaria, using the indirect immunocytochemical technique of avidin-biotin and the NADPH-diaphorase technique. The neural ganglia located next to the muscle layer and within the connective tissue of the buccal cavity were partially immunoreactive for NOS. In the lungs, NOS immunoreactivity occurred in nerve cell bodies, as well as in both myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibres. Fine nerve fibres immunoreactive to NOS were observed within the muscle fibre bundles and next to the respiratory epithelium. Both the presence of NOS immunoreactivity and the positive histochemical reaction for NADPH-diaphorase in the neural plexus of amphibian respiratory tract suggests a broad evolutionary role for NO as a peripheral neurotransmitter.

  1. The respiratory tract deposition model proposed by the ICRP Task Group

    James, A.C.; Briant, J.K. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Stahlhofen, W.; Rudolf, G. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Frankfurt am Main (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Biophysikalische Strahlenforschung); Egan, M.J.; Nixon, W. (AEA Safety and Reliability, Culcheth (UK)); Gehr, P. (Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Anatomisches Inst.)

    1990-11-01

    The Task Group has developed a new model of the deposition of inhaled aerosols in each anatomical region of the respiratory tract. The model is used to evaluate the fraction of airborne activity that is deposited in respiratory regions having distinct retention characteristics and clearance pathways: the anterior nares, the extrathoracic airways of the naso- and oropharynx and larynx, the bronchi, the bronchioles, and the alveolated airways of the lung. Drawn from experimental data on total and regional deposition in human subjects, the model is based on extrapolation of these data by means of a detailed theoretical model of aerosol transport and deposition within the lung. The Task Group model applies to all practical conditions, and for aerosol particles and vapors from atomic size up to very coarse aerosols with an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 100 {mu}m. The model is designed to predict regional deposition in different subjects, including adults of either sex, children of various ages, and infants, and also to account for anatomical differences among Caucasian and non-Caucasian subjects. The Task Group model represents aerosol inhalability and regional deposition in different subjects by algebraic expressions of aerosol size, breathing rates, standard lung volumes, and scaling factors for airway dimensions. 35 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Treatment of Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Primary Care: A Randomized Study Using Aromatic Herbs

    Eran Ben-Arye

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a prospective randomized double-blind controlled trial whose aim was to investigate the clinical effects of aromatic essential oils in patients with upper respiratory tract infections. The trial was conducted in six primary care clinics in northern Israel. A spray containing aromatic essential oils of five plants (Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Mentha piperita, Origanum syriacum, and Rosmarinus officinalisas applied 5 times a day for 3 days and compared with a placebo spray. The main outcome measure was patient assessment of the change in severity of the most debilitating symptom (sore throat, hoarseness or cough. Sixty patients participated in the study (26 in the study group and 34 in the control group. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that 20 minutes following the spray use, participants in the study group reported a greater improvement in symptom severity compared to participants in the placebo group (=.019. There was no difference in symptom severity between the two groups after 3 days of treatment (=.042. In conclusion, spray application of five aromatic plants reported in this study brings about significant and immediate improvement in symptoms of upper respiratory ailment. This effect is not significant after 3 days of treatment.

  3. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Wartime Military Burns: Application of the Berlin Criteria

    2014-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome in wartime military burns: Application of the Berlin criteria Slava M. Belenkiy, MD, Allison R. Buel, DO, Jeremy...Andriy I. Batchinsky, MD, Leopoldo C. Cancio, MD, and Kevin K. Chung, MD, San Antonio, Texas BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS...EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic/prognostic study, level III. KEY WORDS: Mechanical ventilation; adult respiratory distress syndrome ; the Berlin definition; combat

  4. Some viral and bacterial respiratory tract infections of dairy cattle during the summer season

    Kale M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, dairy cattle with respiratory system problems that were brought to a private slaughterhouse in Burdur province were investigated for viral and bacterial infections present in the summer season. The blood samples were collected from 56 animals. The samples were tested for antibodies against bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3 and bovine adenovirus 3 (BAV-3 by ELISA. Bacteriological cultivation was carried out from lung samples taken after cutting the same animals. The seropositivity rates which were determined for 5 viruses in cattle (BoHV- 1, BVDV, BRSV, BPIV-3 and BAV-3 were 7.14%, 50%, 94.64%, 94.64% and 82.14% respectively. The presence of antibodies against the viruses was as follows; 5.36% of cattle had antibodies against only one virus, 14.29% against two, 30.36% against three, 44.64% against four and 5.36% against five viruses. A total of 36 bacterial agents were isolated from 30 out of 56 lung samples. From the lung samples, only one bacterium was isolated from 39.3% (22/56 samples, and more than one bacterium from 14.3% (8/56. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp. were detected as the most often isolated agents. Compared to bacteria, the rates of viral infections associated with Escherichia coli (BRSV+BPIV-3+BAV- 3+Escherichia coli; 8.92% and BRSV+BPIV-3+Escherichia coli; 5.35% were higher. As a consequence, it was thought that primary agents which were the viruses and bacteria may have attended as secondary factors in respiratory tract infections of dairy cattle.

  5. [The nutritional status change the effectiveness of a dietary supplement of lactic bacteria on the emerging of respiratory tract diseases in children].

    Río, María Esther; Zago Beatriz, Liliana; Garcia, Hugo; Winter, Luis

    2002-03-01

    One hundred children 6 to 24 month old, normal or undernourished according to weight for height index, received during three months--autumn to winter--a dietary supplement of live Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus Casei, 10(7)-10(8)/ml in fermented milk (LB) or an equivalent amount of fluid milk (L) as control. Children's follow-up was performed as outpatients in the Hospital Posadas (Great Buenos Aires). Episodes of respiratory tract infections were recorded and classified according to severity as: Pneumonia (N); Bronchitis (B), Recurrent Obstructive Bronchitis (BOR) and upper respiratory tract infections (CVAS). 58% of children fitted the study protocol, 22 in the LB and 36 in the L group; 21 were undernourished and 37 presented normal weight/height. No deaths were recorded. Total episodes were 103: 34 in LB and 69 in L, that means a frequency of 1.55 and 1.92 episodes/children respectively. In LB a maximum of 3 episodes/children was recorded, meanwhile the number reached 7 in L (p = 0.0373). Severity was higher in L than LB: 0.06 vs. 0 for N; 0.69 vs. 0.45 for B + BOR and 1.17 vs. 1.09 for CVAS. In the control group frequency of severe pathologies was about twice in undernourished than in normal: 0.08 vs. 0.04 for N; 1.08 vs. 0.50 for B + BOR; no difference was found for CVAS. Live lactobacillus supplement suppressed pneumonia and decreased bronchitis in undernourished as well as in normal. In this study undernutrition not only increased the chance of suffering severe acute respiratory tract infections but also impaired the effectiveness of the supplement to decrease severity. The effect is explained on the basis of the immunocompetence depression linked to an inadequate nutritional status.

  6. [Incidence and risk factors for diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections in urban communities of Pernambuco, Brazil].

    Vásquez, M L; Mosquera, M; Cuevas, L E; González, E S; Veras, I C; Luz, E O; Batista Filho, M; Gurgel, R Q

    1999-01-01

    Magnitude and distribution of Diarrhoea and Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) in children were studied within a larger broader research that focused on health education. Two household surveys were conducted in a sample of families with at least one child under five years of Recife and Olinda in April-May 1992 and 1994. The total number of children studied was 5,436. The estimated adjusted annual incidence rate (AAIR) of diarrhoea was 2.7 episodes per child. The two-week incidence rate of diarrhoea was 10.2% for both years. Risk factors associated with higher incidence of diarrhoea were age (under two years), lack of sanitation facilities, and absence of electrical appliances in the household. Estimated AAIR of ARI was 9. 5 episodes per child. The two-week incidence rate of ARI was 41.0% in 1992 and 32.6% in 1994. Majority of ARIs affected the upper respiratory tract (75.9%). The only factor consistently associated with a higher risk of ARI was age (under three years). Study results indicate that both pathologies are still an important health problem for children under five in Pernambuco. In particular, in the case of diarrhoea the need for improving the access to basic services, such as water supply and sewage system is urgently needed.

  7. Anti-infectious treatment in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Min GAO

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is closely correlated with infection. Severe infection, e.g., sepsis and septic shock, can result in ARDS. Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP is one of the common complications in ARDS related infection. As regards ARDS related infection, community acquired infection (CAI is different from hospital acquired infection (HAI in bacterial spectrum. The former is mainly caused by Streptococcus pneumonia, Hemophilus influenzae, Moraxelle catarrhalis, atypical pathogens and Klebsiella pneumoniae. However, HAI is mainly caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA, and other drug-resistant bacteria. The drug-resistant bacterial infection not only makes treatment difficult, but also leads to an increase in mechanical ventilation time, length of ICU stay, mortality rate, and medical costs. The present paper has reviewed the relationship between ARDS and infection, therapeutic principles and measures of ARDS related infection, and introduced the optimal strategy of anti-infectious treatment of ARDS.

  8. Acute respiratory failure in a rapidly enlarging benign cervical goitre.

    Garingarao, Carlo Jan; Añonuevo-Cruz, Cecille; Gasacao, Ryan

    2013-07-22

    Benign goitres have the potential to reach massive sizes if neglected, but most have a protracted course that may or may not present with compressive symptoms. We report the case of a 57-year-old man who presented with a rapidly enlarging nodular goitre resulting in acute respiratory failure. Endotracheal intubation and emergency total thyroidectomy were performed, revealing massive thyroid nodules with minimal intrathoracic extension and tracheal erosion. Despite a course and clinical findings suggestive of malignant disease, histopathology was consistent with a benign multinodular goitre. Several cases of benign goitres necessitating endotracheal intubation have been reported. Airway compromise was attributed to a significant intrathoracic component, or inciting events such as thyroid haemorrhage, pregnancy, radioiodine uptake or major surgery. Obstructive symptoms may not correlate well with objective measures of upper airway obstruction such as radiographs or flow volume loops.

  9. Airway microbiota and acute respiratory infection in children.

    Hasegawa, Kohei; Camargo, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARIs), such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia, are the leading cause of hospitalization of infants in the US. While the incidence and severity of ARI can vary widely among children, the reasons for these differences are not fully explained by traditional risk factors (e.g., prematurity, viral pathogens). The recent advent of molecular diagnostic techniques has revealed the presence of highly functional communities of microbes inhabiting the human body (i.e., microbiota) that appear to influence development of local and systemic immune response. We propose a 'risk and resilience' model in which airway microbiota are associated with an increased (risk microbiota) or decreased (resilience microbiota) incidence and severity of ARI in children. We also propose that modulating airway microbiota (e.g., from risk to resilience microbiota) during early childhood will optimize airway immunity and, thereby, decrease ARI incidence and severity in children.

  10. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV in upper respiratory tract mucosa in a group of pre-school children

    Jaroslaw Szydłowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. Human Papillomavirus (HPV is a group of DNA viruses which is an etiological factor of many benign and malignant diseases of the upper respiratory tract mucosa, female genital tract and the skin. HPV infection is considered a sexually-transmitted infection, but can also be transmitted by non-sexual routes, including perinatal vertical transmission, physical contact, iatrogenic infection and autoinoculation. Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP in children is connected with HPV infection transmitted vertically from mother to child during the passage of the foetus through an infected birth canal. [b]objective. [/b]The aim of this study was to establish the level of Human Papillomaviruses carrier state in upper respiratory tract mucosa in healthy pre-school children, and to identify potential risk factors for HPV infection. [b]materials and method[/b]. After obtaining consent from their parents, 97 pre-school children were examined – 51 girls and 46 boys between the ages of 3 – 5 years; average age – 4 years and 5 months. 68 children were urban dwellers and 29 came from a rural environment. A questionnaire with detailed history was taken including parents’ and child`s personal data, as well as perinatal risk factors in pregnancy. Socio-demographic information was also obtained, including the standard of living, and chosen environmental factors. Routine ENT examination was performed. Exfoliated oral squamous cells were collected from swabs and analysed for the presence of DNA papillomaviruses by polymerase chain reaction. [b]results.[/b] The presence of HPV in the respiratory tract in children was detected in 19.6% cases. ‘High oncogenic potential’ HPVs, such as HPV-16 and HPV-18, were not observed in squamous cell mucosa of the respiratory tract in the children. No significant differences were observed between the HPV carrier state in urban and rural inhabitants.

  11. [Specific features of the development of pathology of the upper respiratory tracts in the workers employed in the ore mining industry in the subarctic regions].

    Fedina, I N; Sineva, E L

    2009-01-01

    Criteria for the risk of development of occupational pathology of the upper respiratory tracts in the workers employed in the ore mining industry have been proposed based on the results of evaluation of the occurrence of pathological changes, morpho-functional characteristics of upper respiratory tract mucosa, and immunological properties. These criteria provide a basis for the development of differential approach to the choice of priority hygienic and medical preventive measures designed to a lower the risk of respiratory organ pathology.

  12. Fibromyalgia after severe acute respiratory syndrome: a case report

    TIAN Xin-ping; ZENG Xiao-feng; XU Wen-bin

    2006-01-01

    @@ Since November 2002, an infectious disease with unknown cause occurred in China and many countries had been involved. Cases were reported in 28 countries and more than 5050 individuals had been infected.1 Lung is the most frequently involved organ and can be fatal in severe cases. At the end of February 2003, it was defined as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) by World Health Organization. China had a SARS epidemic in the spring of 2003. More than 1000 patients were infected and some patients died of respiratory failure.Finally, a new variant of coronavirus was suspected to be the pathogen although the pathogenesis was still unclear. Since it is a new disease and we have very limited knowledge about its clinical sequela, we followed the survived patients closely in order to understand it in depth. During the follow up, we discovered an interesting patient who was finally diagnosed as fibromyalgia. We report this case herein to share our experience with clinicians who may see patients with SARS or fibromyalgia.

  13. Viral etiology of acute respiratory infections (ari) in old adults from ageriatric care unit

    Beltrán, Karent Julieth; Grupo de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Línea de investigación Microbiología Molecular y Aplicada de las enfermedades Infecciosas, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá-Colombia.; Segura, Juan Camilo; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá-Colombia; Bettin, Laura; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá-Colombia; Coriat, Jeanette; Programa de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá-Colombia; Mercado, Marcela; Instituto Nacional de Salud, Bogotá-Colombia.; Hidalgo, Marylin; Grupo de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Departamento de Microbiología. Facultad de Ciencias. Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá, D.C. Colombia.; Díez, Hugo; Grupo de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá-Colombia.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine viral etiology of acute respiratory infections in older-than-60 adults, living at 4 geriatric care units in Bogota.Methods: The study was performed in two phases: Phase 1: Descriptive prospective study to evaluate incidence of viral respiratory infection during 1 year in old adults. 71 patients, suffering respiratory diseases, were selected, and evaluated, including physical exploration, thorax X-ray, and collection of respiratory samples for analysis. In order to dete...

  14. CLINICAL PROFILE OF CHILDREN IN THE AGE GROUP 6 MONTHS TO 60 MONTHS WITH LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTION

    Bharath Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT : Infections of the respiratory tract are perhaps the most common human ailments. Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI has quite a high morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries 1 ARI is responsible for about 30 - 50 percent of visits to health facilities and for about 20 - 40 percent of hospital admissions. Pneumonia is a leading cause of mortality in children worldwide. Because mortality due to pneumonia in developing countries is attributable mainly to bacterial etiology , IM NCI strategy recommends the use of antibiotics when a child presented with tachypnea as defined previously . AIMS : To re - define or refine tachypnea as a specific indicator of bacterial pneumonia. To identify other clinical predictors for identifying bacteri al pneumonia. DESIGNS : The study was designed to be done in two phases . In the first phase it is to be carried out as a descriptive study of children presenting with fever and respiratory distress in the OPD to identify the specific markers for bacterial p neumonia. In the second phase presenting clinical features in children with radiological pneumonia will be analysed to validate the findings from Phase I. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This was a hospital based study and was conducted in Sri Manakula V inayagar Me dical College and Hospital , Puducherry . The study included 100 Children in the age group 6 months to 5 years presenting in the out patients department with fever and respiratory distress Children attending the out - patient department on a fixed day of the w eek (Monday and who come under this study population during the study period were admitted and recruited in the study and informed verbal consent for participation was taken from the parents. Their clinical profiles were recorded as in phase I. All childr en coming under this study population were given antibiotics and supportive treatment. The cases were monitored for any worsening or improvement every 6 th hourly on day 1 and

  15. Lactobacillus fermentum (PCC® supplementation and gastrointestinal and respiratory-tract illness symptoms: a randomised control trial in athletes

    Hopkins William G

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probiotics purportedly reduce symptoms of gastrointestinal and upper respiratory-tract illness by modulating commensal microflora. Preventing and reducing symptoms of respiratory and gastrointestinal illness are the primary reason that dietary supplementation with probiotics are becoming increasingly popular with healthy active individuals. There is a paucity of data regarding the effectiveness of probiotics in this cohort. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a probiotic on faecal microbiology, self-reported illness symptoms and immunity in healthy well trained individuals. Methods Competitive cyclists (64 males and 35 females; age 35 ± 9 and 36 ± 9 y, VO2max 56 ± 6 and 52 ± 6 ml.kg-1.min-1, mean ± SD were randomised to either probiotic (minimum 1 × 109 Lactobacillus fermentum (PCC® per day or placebo treatment for 11 weeks in a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial. The outcome measures were faecal L. fermentum counts, self-reported symptoms of illness and serum cytokines. Results Lactobacillus numbers increased 7.7-fold (90% confidence limits 2.1- to 28-fold more in males on the probiotic, while there was an unclear 2.2-fold (0.2- to 18-fold increase in females taking the probiotic. The number and duration of mild gastrointestinal symptoms were ~2-fold greater in the probiotic group. However, there was a substantial 0.7 (0.2 to 1.2 of a scale step reduction in the severity of gastrointestinal illness at the mean training load in males, which became more pronounced as training load increased. The load (duration×severity of lower respiratory illness symptoms was less by a factor of 0.31 (99%CI; 0.07 to 0.96 in males taking the probiotic compared with placebo but increased by a factor of 2.2 (0.41 to 27 in females. Differences in use of cold and flu medication mirrored these symptoms. The observed effects on URTI had too much uncertainty for a decisive outcome. There were clear reductions in

  16. Respiratory protection and emerging infectious diseases: lessons from severe acute respiratory syndrome

    John H. Lange

    2005-01-01

    @@ The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) that emerged 2002-2003 and apparently again 2004 (reported by the news media on December 27, 2003) as the first confirmed case by the World Health Organization (WHO)1,2 raised awareness of emerging infectious diseases.3 Every year there are both new and old infectious diseases emerging as potential pandemic agents.4-6 However, few of these diseases receive the public attention and concern expressed as occurred during the emergence of SARS. Much of this concern was a result of the rapid spread of the novel coronavirus (CoV) to different regions of the world and its high infectivity, especially for health care workers (HCW).3 In many ways, the high percent of HCW infected is a warning of the potential hazards of old and emerging infectious diseases.6 However, SARS was not the only disease (e.g. Monkeypox) that emerged in 2003,3 rather it received the greatest attention.

  17. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in a Patient With Refractory Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Secondary to Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.

    2014-12-01

    life support (ECLS) in adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has increased markedly during the past few years after suc- cessful...Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in a Patient With Refractory Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Secondary to Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Christy...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in a Patient With Refractory Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Secondary to

  18. Factors associated with acute respiratory illness in day care children.

    Hatakka, Katja; Piirainen, Laura; Pohjavuori, Sara; Poussa, Tuija; Savilahti, Erkki; Korpela, Riitta

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between child characteristics, parental and environmental factors and the occurrence of acute respiratory illness (ARI) and acute otitis media (AOM) among Finnish children attending day care centres (DCCs). The study was a cross-sectional questionnaire of 594 children aged 1-6 y from 18 DCCs in Helsinki, Finland. Recurrent (> or =4 diseases/y) ARI was present in 44% of the 1-3-y-olds and 23% of the 4-6-y-olds, and recurrent AOM in 15% and 2.5%, respectively. Parent atopic disease (odds ratio (OR) 1.53, p = 0.033), mother's academic education (OR 1.77, p = 0.008) and a medium length of DCC attendance compared to a short period (OR 1.67, p = 0.049) increased, while furry pets (OR 0.44, p = 0.003) and older child age (OR 0.38, p or =6 months (OR 0.20, p = 0.002) and older child age (OR 0.05, p < 0.001) reduced the risk of recurrent AOM. Parental and environmental factors had a significant impact on recurrent ARI and AOM episodes in children attending DCCs. These risk factors should be considered in future studies intending to reduce DCC infections.

  19. Phospholipase A2 subclasses in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Kitsiouli, Eirini; Nakos, George; Lekka, Marilena E

    2009-10-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) catalyse the cleavage of fatty acids esterified at the sn-2 position of glycerophospholipids. In acute lung injury-acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI-ARDS) several distinct isoenzymes appear in lung cells and fluid. Some are capable to trigger molecular events leading to enhanced inflammation and lung damage and others have a role in lung surfactant recycling preserving lung function: Secreted forms (groups sPLA2-IIA, -V, -X) can directly hydrolyze surfactant phospholipids. Cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2-IVA) requiring Ca2+ has a preference for arachidonate, the precursor of eicosanoids which participate in the inflammatory response in the lung. Ca(2+)-independent intracellular PLA2s (iPLA2) take part in surfactant phospholipids turnover within alveolar cells. Acidic Ca(2+)-independent PLA2 (aiPLA2), of lysosomal origin, has additionally antioxidant properties, (peroxiredoxin VI activity), and participates in the formation of dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine in lung surfactant. PAF-AH degrades PAF, a potent mediator of inflammation, and oxidatively fragmented phospholipids but also leads to toxic metabolites. Therefore, the regulation of PLA2 isoforms could be a valuable approach for ARDS treatment.

  20. Sublingual immunotherapy as an alternative to induce protection against acute respiratory infections.

    Muñoz-Wolf, Natalia; Rial, Analía; Saavedra, José M; Chabalgoity, José A

    2014-08-30

    Sublingual route has been widely used to deliver small molecules into the bloodstream and to modulate the immune response at different sites. It has been shown to effectively induce humoral and cellular responses at systemic and mucosal sites, namely the lungs and urogenital tract. Sublingual vaccination can promote protection against infections at the lower and upper respiratory tract; it can also promote tolerance to allergens and ameliorate asthma symptoms. Modulation of lung's immune response by sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is safer than direct administration of formulations by intranasal route because it does not require delivery of potentially harmful molecules directly into the airways. In contrast to intranasal delivery, side effects involving brain toxicity or facial paralysis are not promoted by SLIT. The immune mechanisms underlying SLIT remain elusive and its use for the treatment of acute lung infections has not yet been explored. Thus, development of appropriate animal models of SLIT is needed to further explore its potential advantages. This work shows how to perform sublingual administration of therapeutic agents in mice to evaluate their ability to protect against acute pneumococcal pneumonia. Technical aspects of mouse handling during sublingual inoculation, precise identification of sublingual mucosa, draining lymph nodes and isolation of tissues, bronchoalveolar lavage and lungs are illustrated. Protocols for single cell suspension preparation for FACS analysis are described in detail. Other downstream applications for the analysis of the immune response are discussed. Technical aspects of the preparation of Streptococcus pneumoniae inoculum and intranasal challenge of mice are also explained. SLIT is a simple technique that allows screening of candidate molecules to modulate lungs' immune response. Parameters affecting the success of SLIT are related to molecular size, susceptibility to degradation and stability of highly concentrated

  1. Distribution patterns of influenza virus receptors and viral attachment patterns in the respiratory and intestinal tracts of seven avian species

    Costa Taiana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study assessed the presence of sialic acid α-2,3 and α-2,6 linked glycan receptors in seven avian species. The respiratory and intestinal tracts of the chicken, common quail, red-legged partridge, turkey, golden pheasant, ostrich, and mallard were tested by means of lectin histochemistry, using the lectins Maackia amurensis agglutinin II and Sambucus nigra agglutinin, which show affinity for α-2,3 and α-2,6 receptors, respectively. Additionally, the pattern of virus attachment (PVA was evaluated with virus histochemistry, using an avian-origin H4N5 virus and a human-origin seasonal H1N1 virus. There was a great variation of receptor distribution among the tissues and avian species studied. Both α-2,3 and α-2,6 receptors were present in the respiratory and intestinal tracts of the chicken, common quail, red-legged partridge, turkey, and golden pheasant. In ostriches, the expression of the receptor was basically restricted to α-2,3 in both the respiratory and intestinal tracts and in mallards the α-2,6 receptors were absent from the intestinal tract. The results obtained with the lectin histochemistry were, in general, in agreement with the PVA. The differential expression and distribution of α-2,3 and α-2,6 receptors among various avian species might reflect a potentially decisive factor in the emergence of new viral strains.

  2. Detection of respiratory viruses by real-time polymerase chain reaction in outpatients with acute respiratory infection

    Ronaldo Bragança Martins Júnior

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are the major contributors to the morbidity and mortality of upper and lower acute respiratory infections (ARIs for all age groups. The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies for a large range of respiratory viruses using a sensitive molecular detection technique in specimens from outpatients of all ages with ARIs. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained from 162 individuals between August 2007-August 2009. Twenty-three pathogenic respiratory agents, 18 respiratory viruses and five bacteria were investigated using multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIF. Through IIF, 33 (20.4% specimens with respiratory virus were recognised, with influenza virus representing over half of the positive samples. Through a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay, 88 (54.3% positive samples were detected; the most prevalent respiratory viral pathogens were influenza, human rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. Six cases of viral co-detection were observed, mainly involving RSV. The use of multiplex real-time RT-PCR increased the viral detection by 33.9% and revealed a larger number of respiratory viruses implicated in ARI cases, including the most recently described respiratory viruses [human bocavirus, human metapneumovirus, influenza A (H1N1 pdm09 virus, human coronavirus (HCoV NL63 and HCoV HKU1].

  3. Interleukin-13 promotes susceptibility to chlamydial infection of the respiratory and genital tracts.

    Kelly L Asquith

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are intracellular bacteria that commonly cause infections of the respiratory and genital tracts, which are major clinical problems. Infections are also linked to the aetiology of diseases such as asthma, emphysema and heart disease. The clinical management of infection is problematic and antibiotic resistance is emerging. Increased understanding of immune processes that are involved in both clearance and immunopathology of chlamydial infection is critical for the development of improved treatment strategies. Here, we show that IL-13 was produced in the lungs of mice rapidly after Chlamydia muridarum (Cmu infection and promoted susceptibility to infection. Wild-type (WT mice had increased disease severity, bacterial load and associated inflammation compared to IL-13 deficient (-/- mice as early as 3 days post infection (p.i.. Intratracheal instillation of IL-13 enhanced bacterial load in IL-13-/- mice. There were no differences in early IFN-g and IL-10 expression between WT and IL-13-/- mice and depletion of CD4+ T cells did not affect infection in IL-13-/- mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate a lack of CD4+ T cell involvement and a novel role for IL-13 in innate responses to infection. We also showed that IL-13 deficiency increased macrophage uptake of Cmu in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the depletion of IL-13 during infection of lung epithelial cells in vitro decreased the percentage of infected cells and reduced bacterial growth. Our results suggest that enhanced IL-13 responses in the airways, such as that found in asthmatics, may promote susceptibility to chlamydial lung infection. Importantly the role of IL-13 in regulating infection was not limited to the lung as we showed that IL-13 also promoted susceptibility to Cmu genital tract infection. Collectively our findings demonstrate that innate IL-13 release promotes infection that results in enhanced inflammation and have broad implications for the treatment of chlamydial

  4. Outcome at three months of COPD patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure treated with NPPV in an Acute Medicine Ward

    Fabrizio Vincenti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Non invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV is increasingly used for patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure secondary to acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. NPPV has been shown to improve arterial blood gas tensions and dyspnoea and to prevent the need for intubation in patients admitted to hospital with an exacerbation of COPD associated with respiratory acidosis. Although advantages of NPPV over conventional treatment have been convincingly documented in the short period, there are fewer data as to the outcomes following hospital discharge. We have undertaken a prospective descriptive study to obtain comprehensive data on the in hospital and 3 month outcomes of a cohort of 57 COPD patients treated with NPPV for acute hypercapnic respiratory failure as a first intervention in addition to usual medical care. Patients with a COPD exacerbation had better outcomes than patients with COPD complicated by other acute conditions. Pneumonia was specifically associated with a higher inhospital risk of death. In our series about one in four patients with an indicator of previous severe respiratory disease (past admission for acute respiratory failure, previous use of NPPV, long term oxygen therapy or home NPPV was dead at three months after discharge and almost one in two was dead or had been readmitted. On the contrary, patients without indicators of previous severe respiratory disease benefited from NPPV during an acute episode of respiratory failure and had a chance of approximately 80% of being alive and free from recurrence at three months.

  5. Infants with recurrent lower respiratory tract symptoms – who benefits of extensive investigations?

    Anne Kotaniemi-Syrjänen

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information on lung function and exhaled nitric oxide fraction (FeNO in infants with recurrent lower respiratory tract symptoms. In 2000–2003, 201 recurrently symptomatic infants were referred to a tertiary center for further investigation. As part of the clinical investigation, whole-body plethysmography, tidal FeNO measurements, and skin prick tests were performed. In addition, 77 (38% of the children underwent bronchoscopy. Increased work of breathing in clinical examination (in 22%, and abnormal chest radiograph (in 30%, were associated with decreased airway conductance (sGaw z-score –1.65 (p<0.001 and p = 0.048, respectively and hyperinflation of the lungs (FRC z-score 1.65(p = 0.004 and p = 0.038, respectively. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS was associated with FeNO 40 ppb (p = 0.009. Increased work of breathing, sGaw z-score –1.65, and FRC z-score 1.65, were associated with low FeNO (p = 0.002, p = 0.005, p = 0.026, respectively. A definitive diagnosis was made in 184 (92% children; asthma was diagnosed in 149 (74%, infection in 23 (11%, and a structural abnormality in 12 (6%. Abnormal findings in clinical examination predicted the diagnosis of asthma or a structural abnormality in 96% of cases, whereas in children with underlying respiratory infection or no definitive diagnosis, clinical examination was normal in 92% (p<0.001. In conclusion, clinical findings of bronchial obstruction predict well lung function and the diagnosis of asthma in recurrently symptomatic infants. FeNO is affected by ETS exposure, clinical state of the child, and the used methods, and the information obtained should be interpreted with care.

  6. Heat and water rate transfer processes in the human respiratory tract at various altitudes.

    Kandjov, I M

    2001-02-01

    The process of the respiratory air conditioning as a process of heat and mass exchange at the interface inspired air-airways surface was studied. Using a model of airways (Olson et al., 1970) where the segments of the respiratory tract are like cylinders with a fixed length and diameter, the corresponding heat transfer equations, in the paper are founded basic rate exchange parameters-convective heat transfer coefficient h(c)(W m(-2) degrees C(-1)) and evaporative heat transfer coefficient h(e)(W m(-2)hPa(-1)). The rate transfer parameters assumed as sources with known heat power are connected to airflow rate in different airways segments. Relationships expressing warming rate of inspired air due to convection, warming rate of inspired air due to evaporation, water diffused in the inspired air from the airways wall, i.e. a system of air conditioning parameters, was composed. The altitude dynamics of the relations is studied. Every rate conditioning parameter is an increasing function of altitude. The process of diffusion in the peripheral bronchial generations as a basic transfer process is analysed. The following phenomenon is in effect: the diffusion coefficient increases with altitude and causes a compensation of simultaneous decreasing of O(2)and CO(2)densities in atmospheric air. Due to this compensation, the diffusion in the peripheral generations with altitude is approximately constant. The elements of the human anatomy optimality as well as the established dynamics are discussed and assumed. The square form of the airways after the trachea expressed in terms of transfer supposes (in view of maximum contact surface), that a maximum heat and water exchange is achieved, i.e. high degree of air condition at fixed environmental parameters and respiration regime.

  7. Prolonged shedding of rhinovirus and re-infection in adults with respiratory tract illness.

    Zlateva, Kalina T; de Vries, Jutte J C; Coenjaerts, Frank E J; van Loon, Anton M; Verheij, Theo; Little, Paul; Butler, Christopher C; Goossens, Herman; Ieven, Margareta; Claas, Eric C J

    2014-07-01

    Rhinovirus infections occur frequently throughout life and have been reported in about one-third of asymptomatic cases. The clinical significance of sequential rhinovirus infections remains unclear. To determine the incidence and clinical relevance of sequential rhinovirus detections, nasopharyngeal samples from 2485 adults with acute cough/lower respiratory illness were analysed. Patients were enrolled prospectively by general practitioners from 12 European Union countries during three consecutive years (2007-2010). Nasopharyngeal samples were collected at the initial general practitioner consultation and 28 days thereafter and symptom scores were recorded by patients over that period. Rhinovirus RNA was detected in 444 (18%) out of 2485 visit one samples and in 110 (4.4%) out of 2485 visit two respiratory samples. 21 (5%) of the 444 patients had both samples positive for rhinovirus. Genotyping of both virus detections was successful for 17 (81%) out of 21 of these patients. Prolonged rhinovirus shedding occurred in six (35%) out of 21 and re-infection with a different rhinovirus in 11 (65%) out of 21. Rhinovirus re-infections were significantly associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p=0.04) and asthma (p=0.02) and appeared to be more severe than prolonged infections. Our findings indicate that in immunocompetent adults rhinovirus re-infections are more common than prolonged infections, and chronic airway comorbidities might predispose to more frequent rhinovirus re-infections.

  8. Bacterial Respiratory Tract Infections are Promoted by Systemic Hyperglycemia after Severe Burn Injury in Pediatric Patients

    Kraft, Robert; Herndon, David N; Mlcak, Ronald P; Finnerty, Celeste C; Cox, Robert A; Williams, Felicia N; Jeschke, Marc G

    2014-01-01

    Background Burn injuries are associated with hyperglycemia leading to increased incidence of infections with pneumonia being one of the most prominent and adverse complication. Recently, various studies in critically ill patients indicated that increased pulmonary glucose levels with airway/blood glucose threshold over 150 mg/dl lead to an overwhelming growth of bacteria in the broncho-pulmonary system, subsequently resulting in an increased risk of pulmonary infections. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a similar cutoff value exists for severely burned pediatric patients. Methods One-hundred six severely burned pediatric patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided in two groups: high (H) defined as daily average glucose levels >75% of LOS >150 mg/dl), and low (L) with daily average glucose levels >75% of the LOS pneumonia, atelectasis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were assessed. Incidence of infections, sepsis, and respiratory parameters were recorded. Blood was analyzed for glucose and insulin levels. Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test and chi-square test. Significance was set at pPatient groups were similar in demographics and injury characteristics. Pneumonia in patients on the mechanical ventilation (L: 21% H: 32%) and off mechanical ventilation (L: 5% H: 15%), as well as ARDS were significantly higher in the high group (L: 3% H: 19%), pPatients in the high group required significantly longer ventilation compared to low patients (ppneumonia confirming the previous studies in critically ill patients. PMID:24074819

  9. On the behavior of particles in the human respiratory tract. Ueber das Verhalten von Aerosolteilchen im menschlichen Atemtrakt

    Stahlhofen, W.; Scheuch, G. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-01-01

    The results of a series of inhalation experiments (nose- as well as mouth-breathing) are the basis for an estimation of particle behavior in the whole human respiratory tract and in certain regions as extrathoracic, tracheobronchial and alveolar region. Particle behavior depends on the breathing parameters and on particle diameter. Additionally the clearance function of the tracheobronchial tract is given. The clearance is shown to be slowed down for particles being smaller than six micrometers. This fact cannot be neglected in case dosis effect relations are calculated. The corresponding consequences are discussed. (orig.).

  10. Diagnosis of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Nosocomial Pneumonia

    A. N. Kuzovlev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the informative value of the parameters of gas exchange, lung volumetry, and central hemodynamics in the diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in nosocomial pneumonia (NP. Subjects and methods. The study included 38 patients with cancer and severe injury who were divided into 3 groups in accordance with the diagnostic criteria of ARDS and NP: 1 patients with ARDS + NP; 2 those with NP; 3 those with non-ARDS, non-PN. ARDS was diagnosed in 2 steps. At Step 1, the investigators took into account risk factors for ARDS and used the lung injury scale developed by J. Murray et al. and the ARDS diagnostic criteria defined by the American-European Consensus Conference on ARDS. At Step 2, after obtaining the data of lung volume-try (1—2 hours after Step 1, they assessed the compliance of the above criteria for ARDS with those developed by the V. A. Negovsky Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, and redistributed the patients between the groups. The stage of ARDS was determined in accordance with the classification of the above Institute. All the patients underwent a comprehensive examination the key element of which was to estimate gas exchange parameters and to monitor lung volumetry and central hemodynamics by the transpulmonary thermodilution methods, by using a Pulsion PiCCO Plus monitor (Pulsion Medical Systems, Germany. The findings were statistically analyzed using a Statistica 7.0 package (arithmetic mean, error of the mean, _ Student’s test, Newman-Keuls test, correlation analysis. The difference was considered to be significant if p-value was Results. The patients with ARDS + NP were observed to have a significantly lower oxygenation index (10 ml/kg and Murray scale scores (>2 than those in patients with NP without ARDS. The reference values of the pulmonary vascular permeability index due to its inadequate informative value call for further investigation. The

  11. Physician behaviour for antimicrobial prescribing for paediatric upper respiratory tract infections: a survey in general practice in Trinidad, West Indies

    Ramdhanie Joseph

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs are among the most frequent reasons for physician office visits in paediatrics. Despite their predominant viral aetiology, URTIs continue to be treated with antimicrobials. We explored general practitioners' (GPs prescribing behaviour for antimicrobials in children (≤ 16 years with URTIs in Trinidad, using the guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC as a reference. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 92 consenting GPs from the 109 contacted in Central and East Trinidad, between January to June 2003. Using a pilot-tested questionnaire, GPs identified the 5 most frequent URTIs they see in office and reported on their antimicrobial prescribing practices for these URTIs to trained research students. Results The 5 most frequent URTIs presenting in children in general practice, are the common cold, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis and acute otitis media (AOM in rank order. GPs prescribe at least 25 different antibiotics for these URTIs with significant associations for amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, cefaclor, cefuroxime, erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin (p 30 years were more likely to prescribe antibiotics for the common cold (p = 0.014. Severity (95.7% and duration of illness (82.5% influenced doctors' prescribing and over prescribing in general practice was attributed to parent demands (75% and concern for secondary bacterial infections (70%. Physicians do not request laboratory investigations primarily because they are unnecessary (86% and the waiting time for results is too long (51%. Conclusions Antibiotics are over prescribed for paediatric URTIs in Trinidad and amoxicillin with co-amoxiclav were preferentially prescribed. Except for AOM, GPs' prescribing varied from the CDC guidelines for drug and duration. Physicians recognise antibiotics are overused and consider parents expecting antibiotics and a concern for secondary

  12. Prophylactic antibody treatment and intramuscular immunization reduce infectious human rhinovirus 16 load in the lower respiratory tract of challenged cotton rats

    Jorge C.G. Blanco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human rhinoviruses (HRV represent the single most important etiological agents of the common cold and are the most frequent cause of acute respiratory infections in humans. Currently the performance of available animal models for immunization studies using HRV challenge is very limited. The cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus is a well-recognized model for the study of human respiratory viral infections. In this work we show that, without requiring any genetic modification of either the host or the virus, intranasal infection of cotton rats with HRV16 resulted in measurable isolation of infective virus, lower respiratory tract pathology, mucus production, and expression of interferon-activated genes. Intramuscular immunization with live HRV16 generated robust protective immunity that correlated with high serum levels of neutralizing antibodies. In addition, cotton rats treated prophylactically with hyperimmune anti-HRV16 serum were protected against HRV16 intranasal challenge. Finally, protection by immunization was efficiently transferred from mothers to newborn animals resulting in a substantial reduction of infectious virus loads in the lung following intranasal challenge. Overall, our results demonstrate that the cotton rat provides valuable additional model development options for testing vaccines and prophylactic therapies against rhinovirus infection.

  13. Respiratory tract exacerbations revisited: ventilation, inflammation, perfusion, and structure (VIPS) monitoring to redefine treatment.

    Tiddens, Harm A W M; Stick, Stephen M; Wild, Jim M; Ciet, Pierluigi; Parker, Geoffrey J M; Koch, Armin; Vogel-Claussen, Jens

    2015-10-01

    For cystic fibrosis (CF) patients older than 6 years there are convincing data that suggest respiratory tract exacerbations (RTE) play an important role in the progressive loss of functional lung tissue. There is a poor understanding of the pathobiology of RTE and whether specific treatment of RTE reduces lung damage in the long term. In addition, there are limited tools available to measure the various components of CF lung disease and responses to therapy. Therefore, in order to better understand the impact of RTE on CF lung disease we need to develop sensitive measures to characterize RTE and responses to treatment; and improve our understanding of structure-function changes during treatment of RTE. In this paper we review our current knowledge of the impact of RTE on the progression of lung disease and identify strategies to improve our understanding of the pathobiology of RTE. By improving our knowledge regarding RTE in CF we will be better positioned to develop approaches to treatment that are individualized and that can prevent permanent structural damage. We suggest the development of a ventilation, perfusion, inflammation and structure (VIPS)-MRI suite that supplies the clinician with data on ventilation, inflammation, perfusion, and structure in one MRI session. VIPS-MRI could be an important step to better understand the factors that contribute to and limit treatment efficacy of RTE.

  14. Sensitivites in vitro to antimicrobial drugs of bovine mycoplasmas isolated from respiratory and genital tracts.

    Kishima, M; Hashimoto, K; Minato, H

    1978-01-01

    A total of 155 Mycoplasma strains were examined for sensitivity to nine antibiotics and four nitrofurans by the agar dilution method. They consisted of 69 strains of Mycoplasma bovirhinis, 33 strains of M. bovigenitalium, 49 strains of Acholeplasma laidlawii and four strains of A. modicum isolated from the nasal secretions, tracheas and lungs of calves manifesting respiratory symptoms and from bovine genital tracts collected at a slaughterhouse. As a result, furamizole and mitomycin C showed the strongest growth-inhibiting effect on all the strains. They were followed in this effect by kitasamycin tartrate, spiramycin adipate, tylosin tartrate, tetracycline-HCl and chloramphenicol. Furthermore, these five drugs were followed in the effect by furazolidone, nitrofurantoin and sodium nifurstyrenate. Fradiomycin sulfate and kanamycin sulfate showed only little effect on all the strains. Erythromycin lactobionate showed a strong growth-inhibiting effect on the Acholeplasma strains, but not on the Mycoplasma strains. There were some cross resistant strains of the Acholeplasma species to the effects of the macrolides.

  15. Mycoplasmas isolated from the respiratory tract of cattle and goats in Tanzania.

    Kusiluka, L J; Ojeniyi, B; Friis, N F; Kazwala, R R; Kokotovic, B

    2000-01-01

    A microbiological study of the mycoplasma flora in the respiratory tracts of cattle and goats in selected regions of Tanzania is described. In the examination of cattle, mycoplasmas were isolated from 60 (17.8%) of the 338 examined lung samples, 8 (47.1%) of the 17 lymph nodes, 4 (13.3%) of the 30 pleural fluid samples and 4 (3.9%) of the 103 nasal swabs examined. All the isolates were identified as Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type except for one isolate from pleural fluid which was identified as Mycoplasma arginini. M. mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type was isolated from samples originating from Dodoma, Iringa, Mbeya, Morogoro and Shinyanga regions where outbreaks of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia had been reported. In the examination of goats, mycoplasmas were isolated from 54 (34.0%) of the 159 examined lung samples, 41 (18.1%) of the 226 nasal swabs and 4 (40.0%) of the 10 pleural fluid samples. The species demonstrated were Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, M. mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and M. Capricolum subsp. arginini. The isolation of M. capripneumoniae in the Coast and Morogoro regions confirmed the presence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in the regions.

  16. The Use of Bipolar Electrocautery Tonsillectomy in Patients with Pediatric Respiratory Tract Obstruction

    Sinan Kocatürk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study offers a comparative analysis of the intraoperative and postoperative clinical results of bipolar electrocautery tonsillectomy and conventional tonsillectomy techniques in children with respiratory tract obstruction because of tonsillar hypertrophy. Material and Method: Results in 31 children who underwent bipolar electrocautery tonsillectomy were compared with those in 45 children who had conventional cold dissection tonsillectomy. Postoperative pain scores were measured in the early postoperative period by the %u201CModified Hannalah Scale%u201D and in the late postoperative period by the %u201CVisual Analog Score.%u201D Intraoperative blood loss, operation time, duration of oral intake, intake of painkillers, recovery time, and postoperative pain scores of the two groups are also compared.Result: Children who underwent bipolar electrocautery tonsillectomy group had significantly less scores in pain throughout their recovery period, intraoperative blood loss, operation time, duration of oral intake, intake of painkiller, recovery time, and postoperative pain than those who had conventional tonsillectomy. Discussion: Bipolar electrocautery tonsillectomy is as effective and safe as conventional tonsillectomy to relieve obstructive sleep apnea in pediatric patients. Bipolar electrocautery tonsillectomy reduces postoperative pain, improves the quality of life and shortens the recovery time. Therefore, this procedure is more tolerable in children than conventional tonsillectomy.

  17. Characterisation of Candida within the Mycobiome/Microbiome of the Lower Respiratory Tract of ICU Patients.

    Robert Krause

    Full Text Available Whether the presence of Candida spp. in lower respiratory tract (LRT secretions is a marker of underlying disease, intensive care unit (ICU treatment and antibiotic therapy or contributes to poor clinical outcome is unclear. We investigated healthy controls, patients with proposed risk factors for Candida growth in LRT (antibiotic therapy, ICU treatment with and without antibiotic therapy, ICU patients with pneumonia and antibiotic therapy and candidemic patients (for comparison of truly invasive and colonizing Candida spp.. Fungal patterns were determined by conventional culture based microbiology combined with molecular approaches (next generation sequencing, multilocus sequence typing for description of fungal and concommitant bacterial microbiota in LRT, and host and fungal biomarkes were investigated. Admission to and treatment on ICUs shifted LRT fungal microbiota to Candida spp. dominated fungal profiles but antibiotic therapy did not. Compared to controls, Candida was part of fungal microbiota in LRT of ICU patients without pneumonia with and without antibiotic therapy (63% and 50% of total fungal genera and of ICU patients with pneumonia with antibiotic therapy (73% (p<0.05. No case of invasive candidiasis originating from Candida in the LRT was detected. There was no common bacterial microbiota profile associated or dissociated with Candida spp. in LRT. Colonizing and invasive Candida strains (from candidemic patients did not match to certain clades withdrawing the presence of a particular pathogenic and invasive clade. The presence of Candida spp. in the LRT rather reflected rapidly occurring LRT dysbiosis driven by ICU related factors than was associated with invasive candidiasis.

  18. A Computer Model for the Simulation of Nonspherical Particle Dynamics in the Human Respiratory Tract

    Robert Sturm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study presented here deposition of spheres and nonspherical particles with various aspect ratios (0.01–100 in the human respiratory tract was theoretically modeled. Shape of the nonspherical particles was considered by the application of the latest aerodynamic diameter concepts. Particle deposition was predicted by using a stochastic model of the lung geometry and simulating particle transport trajectories according to the random-walk algorithm. Concerning fibers total deposition is significantly enhanced with respect to that of spheres for μm-sized particles, whereby at normal breathing conditions peripheral lung compartments serve as primary deposition targets. In the case of oblate disks, total deposition becomes mostly remarkable for submicron particles, with the bronchioli and alveoli being targeted to a high extent. Enhancement of the aerodynamic diameter and/or flow rate generally causes a displacement of deposition maxima from peripheral to more proximal lung regions. From these findings, it can be concluded that these particle classes may represent tremendous occupational hazards, especially if they are attached with radioactive elements or heavy metals.

  19. Meeting report: Fourth Forum on Respiratory Tract Infections, Sitges, Spain, 8 11 February 2007.

    Tillotson, Glenn S; Ball, Peter

    2007-09-01

    Over 420 delegates participated in this, the fourth of a biennial series of scientific meetings, drawing from 30 or more nations and encompassing the specialties of infectious diseases, clinical microbiology, pulmonary and general medicine and Industry inter alia. The 2007 Forum was chaired by Professors Antoni Torres Marti, Giuliana Gialdroni Grassi and Dr Peter Ball and received academic endorsement from the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC), Italian Society for Chemotherapy, Spanish Pulmonology Society, Paul Ehrlich Society and the Société de Pneumologie de Langue Français. The Scientific Programme was scientifically and financially supported by the BSAC and a consortium of pharmaceutical companies. Discussion focused on key contemporary issues in respiratory tract infection (RTI), including the impact of antibiotic resistance on clinical outcomes and the continuing need for antibiotic conservation via evolving guidelines, the challenges of avian influenza, nosocomial RTIs and the emergence of new pathogens, e.g. community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, novel antimicrobial agents, disease definitions (e.g. healthcare-associated pneumonia) and therapeutic assessment criteria, such as patient-reported outcome measures, in improving RTI management. The entire meeting was granted CME recognition (18 sessions) by the European Accreditation Council for continuing medical education.

  20. Characteristics of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains Colonizing Upper Respiratory Tract of Healthy Preschool Children in Poland

    Izabela Korona-Glowniak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistant and invasive pneumococci may spread temporally and locally in day care centers (DCCs. We examined 267 children attending four DCCs located in the same city and 70 children staying at home in three seasons (autumn, winter, and spring to determine prevalence, serotype distribution, antibiotic resistance patterns, and transmission of pneumococcal strains colonizing upper respiratory tract of healthy children without antipneumococcal vaccination. By pheno- and genotyping, we determined clonality of pneumococci, including drug-resistant strains. The average carriage of pneumococci in three seasons was 38.2%. 73.4% and 80.4% of the isolates belonged to serotypes present in 10- and 13-valent conjugate vaccine, respectively. Among the pneumococcal strains, 33.3% were susceptible to all antimicrobial tested and 39.2% had decreased susceptibility to penicillin. Multidrug resistance was common (35.7%; 97.5% of drug-resistant isolates represented serotypes included to 10- and 13-valent conjugate vaccine. According to BOX-PCR, clonality definitely was observed only in case of serotype 14. Multivariate analysis determined DCC attendance as strongly related to pneumococcal colonization in all three seasons, but important seasonal differences were demonstrated. In children attending DCCs, we observed dynamic turnover of pneumococcal strains, especially penicillin nonsusceptible and multidrug resistant, which were mostly distributed among serotypes included to available pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

  1. Mycoplasmosis and upper respiratory tract disease of tortoises: a review and update

    Jacobson, Elliott R.; Brown, Mary B.; Wendland, Lori; Brown, Daniel R.; Klein, Paul A.; Christopher, Mary M.; Berry, Kristin H.

    2014-01-01

    Tortoise mycoplasmosis is one of the most extensively characterized infectious diseases of chelonians. A 1989 outbreak of upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) in free-ranging Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) brought together an investigative team of researchers, diagnosticians, pathologists, immunologists and clinicians from multiple institutions and agencies. Electron microscopic studies of affected tortoises revealed a microorganism in close association with the nasal mucosa that subsequently was identified as a new species, Mycoplasma agassizii. Over the next 24 years, a second causative agent, Mycoplasma testudineum, was discovered, the geographic distribution and host range of tortoise mycoplasmosis were expanded, diagnostic tests were developed and refined for antibody and pathogen detection, transmission studies confirmed the pathogenicity of the original M. agassizii isolate, clinical (and subclinical) disease and laboratory abnormalities were characterized, many extrinsic and predisposing factors were found to play a role in morbidity and mortality associated with mycoplasmal infection, and social behavior was implicated in disease transmission. The translation of scientific research into management decisions has sometimes led to undesirable outcomes, such as euthanasia of clinically healthy tortoises. In this article, we review and assess current research on tortoise mycoplasmosis, arguably the most important chronic infectious disease of wild and captive North American and European tortoises, and update the implications for management and conservation of tortoises in the wild.

  2. Measurement of the deposited activity of the short-lived radon progeny in the human respiratory tract

    Vezzu, G.; Butterweck-Dempewolf, G.; Schuler, C. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland). Div. for Radiation Protection and Waste Management

    1998-12-31

    Volunteers were exposed in the radon chamber at Paul Scherrer Institut to an atmosphere enriched with highly unattached radon progeny. The deposited radon progeny activity in the respiratory tract of the volunteers was determined using a low level in-vivo counter. The detector arrangement and its calibration for the measurement of deposited radon progeny activity is described and the results for a mouth and a nose breathing volunteer are presented. For the nose breathing volunteer 55% of the deposited radon progeny activity was located in the head and the remaining 45% in the chest whereas for the mouth breathing volunteer 25% was located in the head and the remaining 75% in the chest. A mean clearance half-life for the deposited radon progeny from the respiratory tract of (2{+-}1) h was obtained from the analyses of the temporal behaviour of the deposited radon progeny activity in the head. (orig.)

  3. The possibility of evaluation on inflammatory change at respiratory tract in chronic bronchial asthma using {sup 67}Ga scintigraphy

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Mori, Yutaka; Kawakami, Kenji [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Kikuchi, Ichiro; Shimada, Takao

    1997-05-01

    {sup 67}Ga scintigraphy was performed in 17 patients with chronic bronchial asthma to grasp the inflammatory change of respiratory tract. On {sup 67}Ga scintigraphy, abnormal accumulations were detected on lung fields in 6 cases (35.3%) of 17 cases. In 5 cases of these 6 cases, the defect areas which were pointed out on {sup 81m}Kr ventilation scintigraphy were matched to the abnormal accumulation areas which were pointed out on {sup 67}Ga scintigraphy. In dynamics, the abnormal accumulation areas which were pointed out on {sup 67}Ga scintigraphy were matched to the defect areas which had been at all times pointed out on {sup 81m}Kr ventilation scintigraphy. {sup 67}Ga scintigraphy was expected to be one of index to grasp the inflammatory change of respiratory tract in patients with chronic bronchial asthma. (author)

  4. Down's syndrome is a risk factor for severe lower respiratory tract infection due to respiratory syncytial virus

    Galleguillos, Constanza; Galleguillos, Bárbara; Larios, Guillermo; Menchaca, Gonzalo; Bont, Louis; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Previous studies have suggested that Down's syndrome is an independent risk factor for severe respiratory infection due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We compared the clinical characteristics of children with and without Down's syndrome hospitalised due to RSV. METHODS: This retrospectiv

  5. Novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus attachment to the respiratory tract of five animal models

    J.Y. Siegers (Jurre); K.R. Short (Kirsty); L.M.E. Leijten (Lonneke); M.T. de Graaf (Marieke); M.I. Spronken (Monique); E.J.A. Schrauwen (Eefje); N. Marshall (Nicolle); A.C. Lowen (Anice); G. Gabriel (Gülsah); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Kuiken (Thijs); D.A.J. van Riel (Debby)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe determined the pattern of attachment of the avian-origin H7N9 influenza viruses A/Anhui/1/2013 and A/Shanghai/1/2013 to the respiratory tract in ferrets, macaques, mice, pigs, and guinea pigs and compared it to that in humans. The H7N9 attachment pattern in macaques, mice, and to a le

  6. Association between respiratory tract diseases and secondhand smoke exposure among never smoking flight attendants: a cross-sectional survey

    Murawski Judith

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about long-term adverse health consequences experienced by flight attendants exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS during the time smoking was allowed on airplanes. We undertook this study to evaluate the association between accumulated flight time in smoky airplane cabins and respiratory tract diseases in a cohort of never smoking flight attendants. Methods We conducted a mailed survey in a cohort of flight attendants. Of 15,000 mailed questionnaires, 2053 (14% were completed and returned. We excluded respondents with a personal history of smoking (n = 748 and non smokers with a history of respiratory tract diseases before the age of 18 years (n = 298. The remaining 1007 respondents form the study sample. Results The overall study sample was predominantly white (86% and female (89%, with a mean age of 54 years. Overall, 69.7% of the respondents were diagnosed with at least one respiratory tract disease. Among these respondents, 43.4% reported a diagnosis of sinusitis, 40.3% allergies, 30.8% bronchitis, 23.2% middle ear infections, 13.6% asthma, 13.4% hay fever, 12.5% pneumonia, and 2.0% chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. More hours in a smoky cabin were observed to be significantly associated with sinusitis (OR = 1.21; p = 0.024, middle ear infections (OR = 1.30; p = 0.006, and asthma (OR = 1.26; p = 0.042. Conclusion We observed a significant association between hours of smoky cabin exposure and self-reported reported sinusitis, middle ear infections, and asthma. Our findings suggest a dose-response between duration of SHS exposure and diseases of the respiratory tract. Our findings add additional evidence to the growing body of knowledge supporting the need for widespread implementation of clean indoor air policies to decrease the risk of adverse health consequences experienced by never smokers exposed to SHS.

  7. Avascular necrosis of bone in severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Hong, N. E-mail: hongnan@bjmu.edu.cn; Du, X.K

    2004-07-01

    AIM: To report the incidence of avascular osteonecrosis (AVN) in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-seven SARS patients who had large joint pain between March 2003 and May 2003 underwent both plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination on the same day. All patients received steroids and ribavirin treatment. All plain radiographs and MR images were analysed by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. Any abnormalities, location, extent, morphology, the number, size and signal intensity of lesions were evaluated. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients were identified with AVN, The mean time to diagnosis of AVN was 119 days after the onset of SARS, or 116 days after steroid use. Three patients had early bilateral AVN of the femoral head, four patients of one femoral head, five patients of the bilateral hips and knees, four patients of the ipsilateral hip and knees, 10 patients of the knee(s), one patient of the right proximal fibula, and one patient of the knees and talus. Results of hip, knee and ankle plain radiographs were negative. CONCLUSION: AVN can occur in the patients with SARS. AVN had a strong association with steroid use. More studies are required to confirm whether the virus itself can also lead to AVN.

  8. Current status of severe acute respiratory syndrome in China

    Qing-He Nie; Xin-Dong Luo; Jian-Zhong Zhang; Qin Su

    2003-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), also called infectious atypical pneumonia, is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel variant of coronavirus (SARS associated coronavirus, SARS-CoV). It is mainly characterized by pulmonary infection with a high infectivity and fatality.SARS is swept across almost all the continents of the globe, and has currently involved 33 countries and regions, including the mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, North America and Europe. On June 30, 2003, an acumulative total reached 8450 cases with 810 deaths. SARS epidemic was very rampant in March, April and May 2003 in the mainland of China and Hong Kong. Chinese scientists and healthcare workers cooperated closely with other scientists from all over the world to fight the disease. On April 16, 2003, World Health Organization (WHO) formally declared that SARSCoV was an etiological agent of SARS. Currently, there is no specific and effective therapy and prevention method for SARS. The main treatments include corticosteroid therapy,antiviralagents, anti-infection, mechanical ventilation and isolation. This disease can be prevented and controlled, and it is also curable. Under the endeavor of the Chinese Government, medical staffs and other related professionals,SARS has been under control in China, and Chinese scientists have also made a great contribution to SARS research.Otherstudies in developing new detection assays and therapies, and discovering new drugs and vaccines are in progress. In this paper, we briefly review the current status of SARS in China.

  9. Severe acute respiratory syndrome: vaccine on the way

    ZHANG Ding-mei; WANG Guo-ling; LU Jia-hai

    2005-01-01

    @@ In November 2002, a new disease-severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS-first emerged in Guangdong Province, China. Subsequently, it spread to more than 30 countries worldwide.1 The causative agent was identified to be a previously unknown member of the coronaviridae family, and was named SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). SARS coronavirus is a large, enveloped, positive-sense RNA virus. The genome is about 30 kb, which is predicted to contain 14 functional open reading frames (ORFs). Two large 5'-terminal ORFs (1a and 1b) encode the polymerases that are required for viral RNA synthesis. The remaining twelve ORFs encode four structural proteins [spike protein (S), envelope protein (E), membrane protein (M) and nucleocapsid protein (N)] and eight accessory proteins.2 Though the SARS-CoV genome is clear, a great deal more work will be required to develop an efficient vaccine and effective drugs. Neutralizing antibodies were detectable in the convalescent sera of SARS patients, and sera from recovered patients could be used to treat newly infected individuals.3 The data suggest that protective humoral immunity is achievable and that vaccines can be developed for prevention of SARS. In this article, we review and discuss progress towards development of a SARS vaccine.

  10. Pulmonary hypertension due to acute respiratory distress syndrome

    S.A. Ñamendys-Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Our aims were to describe the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, to characterize their hemodynamic cardiopulmonary profiles, and to correlate these parameters with outcome. All consecutive patients over 16 years of age who were in the intensive care unit with a diagnosis of ARDS and an in situ pulmonary artery catheter for hemodynamic monitoring were studied. Pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed when the mean pulmonary artery pressure was >25 mmHg at rest with a pulmonary artery occlusion pressure or left atrial pressure <15 mmHg. During the study period, 30 of 402 critically ill patients (7.46% who were admitted to the ICU fulfilled the criteria for ARDS. Of the 30 patients with ARDS, 14 met the criteria for pulmonary hypertension, a prevalence of 46.6% (95% CI; 28-66%. The most common cause of ARDS was pneumonia (56.3%. The overall mortality was 36.6% and was similar in patients with and without pulmonary hypertension. Differences in patients' hemodynamic profiles were influenced by the presence of pulmonary hypertension. The levels of positive end-expiratory pressure and peak pressure were higher in patients with pulmonary hypertension, and the PaCO2 was higher in those who died. The level of airway pressure seemed to influence the onset of pulmonary hypertension. Survival was determined by the severity of organ failure at admission to the intensive care unit.

  11. Clinical Practice Guideline of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Cho, Young-Jae; Moon, Jae Young; Shin, Ein-Soon; Kim, Je Hyeong; Jung, Hoon; Park, So Young; Kim, Ho Cheol; Sim, Yun Su; Rhee, Chin Kook; Lim, Jaemin; Lee, Seok Jeong; Lee, Won-Yeon; Lee, Hyun Jeong; Kwak, Sang Hyun; Kang, Eun Kyeong; Chung, Kyung Soo

    2016-01-01

    There is no well-stated practical guideline for mechanically ventilated patients with or without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We generate strong (1) and weak (2) grade of recommendations based on high (A), moderate (B) and low (C) grade in the quality of evidence. In patients with ARDS, we recommend low tidal volume ventilation (1A) and prone position if it is not contraindicated (1B) to reduce their mortality. However, we did not support high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (1B) and inhaled nitric oxide (1A) as a standard treatment. We also suggest high positive end-expiratory pressure (2B), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a rescue therapy (2C), and neuromuscular blockage for 48 hours after starting mechanical ventilation (2B). The application of recruitment maneuver may reduce mortality (2B), however, the use of systemic steroids cannot reduce mortality (2B). In mechanically ventilated patients, we recommend light sedation (1B) and low tidal volume even without ARDS (1B) and suggest lung protective ventilation strategy during the operation to lower the incidence of lung complications including ARDS (2B). Early tracheostomy in mechanically ventilated patients can be performed only in limited patients (2A). In conclusion, of 12 recommendations, nine were in the management of ARDS, and three for mechanically ventilated patients.

  12. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): HRCT findings in survivors

    Jung, Jung Im; Park, Seog Hee; Lee, Jae Mun; Song, Jeong Sup; Lee, Kyo Young [The Catholic Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of the lung in survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Among eleven patients who survived ARDS for one year, chest radiography and HRCT revealed pulmonary fibrosis in four. Causes of ARDS included pneumonia during pregnancy, near drowning, pneumonia during liver cirrhosis, and postoperative sepsis. Thoracoscopic biopsy and histopathologic correlation were available in one patient. HRCT showed diffuse interlobular septal thickening, ground glass opacity, parenchymal distortion, and traction bronchiectasis. Fuzzy centrilobular nodules were seen in two patients and one patient had multiple, large bullae in the left hemithorax. In all patients, lesions affected the upper and anterior zones of the lung more prominently. The distribution of pulmonary fibrosis was characteristic and reflected the pathogenesis of lung injury; fibrosis was largely due to hyperoxia caused by ventilator care. In one patient, histopathologic correlation showed that imaging findings were accounted for by thickening of the alveolar septum along with infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells and fibrosis. Fuzzy centrilobular nodules corresponded with bronchiolitis.

  13. Fluid in the management of the acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Karki S

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema is the hallmark of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. The amount of fluid and which fluid should be used in these patients is controversial. Methods 43 patients with ARDS treated in the intensive care unit (ICU of the Second Hospital, Jilin University between November 1, 2011-November 1, 2012 were prospectively analyzed and was observational. Volume and the type of fluid administered were compared to 90 day mortality and the 24 and 72 hour sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA score, lactate level, oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2, duration of ICU stay, total ventilator days, and need for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT. Results Mortality was increased when hydroxylethyl starch (HES was used in the first day or plasma substitutes were used during the first 3 days (P3000 ml during the first 24 hours or >8000 ml during the first 72 hours were associated with higher SOFA scores at 24 and 72 hours (P<0.05, both comparisons. Colloid, especially higher volume colloid use was also associated with increased SOFA scores at either 24 or 72 hours. Conclusions Limiting the use of colloids and the total amount of fluid administered to patients with ARDS is associated with improved mortality and SOFA scores.

  14. Lung tissue remodeling in the acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Souza Alba Barros de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is characterized by diffuse alveolar damage, and evolves progressively with three phases: exsudative, fibroproliferative, and fibrotic. In the exudative phase, there are interstitial and alveolar edemas with hyaline membrane. The fibropro­liferative phase is characterized by exudate organization and fibroelastogenesis. There is proliferation of type II pneumocytes to cover the damaged epithelial surface, followed by differentiation into type I pneumocytes. The fibroproliferative phase starts early, and its severity is related to the patient?s prognosis. The alterations observed in the phenotype of the pulmonary parenchyma cells steer the tissue remodeling towards either progressive fibrosis or the restoration of normal alveolar architecture. The fibrotic phase is characterized by abnormal and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, mainly collagen. The dynamic control of collagen deposition and degradation is regulated by metalloproteinases and their tissular regulators. The deposition of proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix of ARDS patients needs better study. The regulation of extracellular matrix remodeling, in normal conditions or in several pulmonary diseases, such as ARDS, results from a complex mechanism that integrate the transcription of elements that destroy the matrix protein and produce activation/inhibition of several cellular types of lung tissue. This review article will analyze the ECM organization in ARDS, the different pulmonary parenchyma remodeling mechanisms, and the role of cytokines in the regulation of the different matrix components during the remodeling process.

  15. Inhaled Nitric Oxide for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Acute Lung Injury in Adults and Children: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis

    Afshari, Arash; Brok, Jesper; Møller, Ann

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, defined as acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, are critical conditions associated with frequent mortality and morbidity in all ages. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been used to improve oxygenation, but its role remains...... be recommended for patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. iNO results in a transient improvement in oxygenation but does not reduce mortality and may be harmful....

  16. Scandinavian clinical practice guideline on fluid and drug therapy in adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Claesson, J; Freundlich, M; Gunnarsson, I

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of the Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (SSAI) task force on fluid and drug therapy in adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was to provide clinically relevant, evidence-based treatment recommendations according...

  17. Mortality and morbidity of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome in infants and young children

    ZHU Yan-feng; YU Wen-liang; XIE Min-hui; YAN Chao-ying; LU Zhu-jin; SUN Bo; XU Feng; LU Xiu-lan; WANG Ying; CHEN Jian-li; CHAO Jian-xin; ZHOU Xiao-wen; ZHANG Jian-hui; HUANG Yan-zhi

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) often develops acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS),and its incidence and mortalities in critically ill pediatric patients in China were 2% and 40% respectively.This study aimed at prospectively investigating incidence,causes,mortality and its risk factors,and any relationship to initial tidal volume (VT) levels of mechanical ventilation,in children ≤5 years of age with AHRF and ARDS.Methods In 12 consecutive months in 23 pediatric intensive care units (PICU),AHRF and ARDS were identified in those requiring >12 hour intratracheal mechanical ventilation and followed up for 90 days or until death or discharge.ARDS was diagnosed according to the American-European Consensus definitions.The mortality and ventilation free days (VFD) were measured as the primary outcome,and major complications,initial disease severity,and burden were measured as the secondary outcome.Results In 13 491 PICU admissions,there were 439 AHRE,of which 345 (78.6%) developed ARDS,resulting in incidences of 3.3% and 2.6%,and corresponding mortalities of 30.3% and 32.8% respectively along with 8.2 and 6.7 times of relative risk of death in those with pneumonia (62.9%) and sepsis (33.7%) as major underlying diseases respectively.No association was found in VT levels during the first 7 days with mortality,nor for VT at levels <6,6-8,8-10,and >10 ml/kg in the first 3 days with mortality or length of VFD.By binary Logistic regression analyses,higher pediatric risk of mortality score Ⅲ,higher initial oxygenation index,and age <1 year were associated with higher mortality or shorter VFD in AHRF.Conclusions The incidence and mortalities of AHRF and ARDS in children ≤5 years were similar to or lower than the previously reported rates (in age up to 15 years),associated with initial disease severity and other confounders,but causal relationship for the initial VT levels as the independent factor to the major outcome

  18. Seasonal behavior of radon decay products in indoor air and resulting radiation dose to human respiratory tract

    A.M.A. Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of radiation hazard of indoor radon is largely due to the radon progenies, which are inhaled and deposited in the human respiratory tract. It is essential to evaluate aerodynamic characteristics of the radon progenies, which are either attached or unattached to aerosol particles, because the dose is strongly dependent on the location of deposition in respiratory tract and hence on the aerodynamic characteristics of the aerosol particles. This paper presents the seasonal behavior of radon decay products in indoor air under domestic conditions at Nagoya University, Japan. A low pressure cascade impactor as an instrument for classifying aerosol sizes and imaging plate as a radiation detector have been employed to characterize the activity size distribution of short-lived radon decay products. In parallel, radon and its progenies concentrations were measured. Taking into account the progeny characteristics, the inhalation dose in the different seasons was also estimated based on a lung dose model with the structure that is related to the ICRP66 respiratory tract model. The result evident that, the highest dose 0.22 mSvy−1 was observed during the winter where the highest value of equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon (EEC and lowest value of the activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD were found in this season; whereas, the dose in spring appeared to be lowest 0.02 mSvy−1.

  19. Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP): relationship to Hamman-Rich syndrome, diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjay; Parambil, Joseph G

    2012-10-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) is a term used for an idiopathic form of acute lung injury characterized clinically by acute respiratory failure with bilateral lung infiltrates and histologically by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), a combination of findings previously known as the Hamman-Rich syndrome. This review aims to clarify the diagnostic criteria of AIP, its relationship with DAD and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), key etiologies that need to be excluded before making the diagnosis, and the salient clinical features. Cases that meet clinical and pathologic criteria for AIP overlap substantially with those that fulfill clinical criteria for ARDS. The main differences between AIP and ARDS are that AIP requires a histologic diagnosis of DAD and exclusion of known etiologies. AIP should also be distinguished from "acute exacerbation of IPF," a condition in which acute lung injury (usually DAD) supervenes on underlying usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP)/idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).

  20. 双黄连注射剂治疗急性上呼吸道感染随机对照试验的系统评价%Shuang huang-lian Injection for acute upper respiratory tract infections: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    白云苹; 王明航; 王至婉; 王海峰; 李建生

    2012-01-01

    目的:评价双黄连注射剂治疗急性上呼吸道感染的疗效和安全性.方法:检索双黄连注射剂治疗急性上呼吸道感染随机对照试验文献,根据纳入标准及排除标准选择文献.对文献进行质量评价,并根据干预措施采用RevMan 5.0软件进行统计分.结果:符合纳入标准的论文共有16篇,均为中文发表且均为低质量文献.①双黄连组与抗感染组:包括8个研究,Meta分析显示有效率RR为1.17,95%CI [1.12,1.22];痊愈率RR为1.42,95%CI [1.25,1.61];不良反应发生率RR为4.51,95%CI [1.80,11.26].②双黄连组与其他中药组比较:纳入文献4篇,Meta分析显示有效率RR为0.86,95%CI [0.74,1.00];痊愈率RR为0.95,95%CI [0.82,1.10];不良反应率RR为3.00,95%CI [0.78,11.56].③联合治疗组与抗感染组:纳入文献4篇,Meta分析退热时间(d) WMD为-0.73,95%CI [-1.10,-0.37];咽痛消失时间(d) WMD为-0.96,95%CI [-1.14,-0.78];咳嗽消失时间(d) WMD为-0.90,95%CI [-1.15,-0.65];不良反应发生率RR为6.06,95%CI [0.74,49.70].结论:双黄连注射剂治疗急性上呼吸道感染的疗效优于西医抗感染治疗,但不良反应发生率高;与其他中药注射剂效果比较差异无统计学意义,双黄连注射剂与抗感染药物联合使用退热、咳嗽和咽痛消失时间均短于单纯抗感染治疗.双黄连注射剂平均不良反应率为5.05%,主要表现为变态反应和消化道反应.由于本次评价纳入研究质量所限,尚需开展更多高质量的临床研究.%Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Shuang Huang-lian Injection for acute upper respiratory tract infections(AURI). Methods: Literatures regarding randomized clinical trials of shuang huang-lian Injection in treating AURI were reviewed. According to the inclusion standard and the elimination standard, related literatures were selected and analyzed according to the different intervention measures of the trials. The methodological

  1. Chest sonography: a useful tool to differentiate acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema from acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Soldati Gino

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differential diagnosis between acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (APE and acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS may often be difficult. We evaluated the ability of chest sonography in the identification of characteristic pleuropulmonary signs useful in the diagnosis of ALI/ARDS and APE. Methods Chest sonography was performed on admission to the intensive care unit in 58 consecutive patients affected by ALI/ARDS or by acute pulmonary edema (APE. Results Ultrasound examination was focalised on finding in the two groups the presence of: 1 alveolar-interstitial syndrome (AIS 2 pleural lines abnormalities 3 absence or reduction of "gliding" sign 4 "spared areas" 5 consolidations 6 pleural effusion 7 "lung pulse". AIS was found in 100% of patients with ALI/ARDS and in 100% of patients with APE (p = ns. Pleural line abnormalities were observed in 100% of patients with ALI/ARDS and in 25% of patients with APE (p All signs, except the presence of AIS, presented a statistically significant difference in presentation between the two syndromes resulting specific for the ultrasonographic characterization of ALI/ARDS. Conclusion Pleuroparenchimal patterns in ALI/ARDS do find a characterization through ultrasonographic lung scan. In the critically ill the ultrasound demonstration of a dyshomogeneous AIS with spared areas, pleural line modifications and lung consolidations is strongly predictive, in an early phase, of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema.

  2. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and respiratory tract infections in pre-school children – a cross-sectional study in Poland

    Dorota Emilia Bielska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available [b][/b]Introduction and objective. Knowledge of the harmful influence of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS has a positive impact on changing social behaviours worldwide. In many homes smoking is totally prohibited; in some others, partial limitations of tobacco consumption have been introduced. Objective. To study the correlation between the adopted rules of tobacco use in homes of 3-year-olds, and the kind and frequency of acute respiratory system infections within a 6-month period of attending pre-schools. Materials and methods. The study was performed among children attending municipal pre-schools in Białystok, Poland. The data was collected by anonymous questionnaires completed by the parents of 302 children aged 3 years chosen randomly from 1,200 children attending 51 pre-schools. The exposure of children to tobacco smoke was measured by determining cotinine to creatinine ratio (CCR in urine. Results. In the 150 families of children who were surveyed, 210 were smokers. Every day, the smokers consisted of fathers (37.3% and mothers (23.6%. The 3-year-old children were divided into 3 groups according to smoking habits in their homes: 28.5% of the children under examination came from homes where tobacco smoking was forbidden (mean CCR – 15.21ng/mg, SD=11.86, 26.2% came from homes where tobacco was smoked in separate rooms (mean CCR – 65.75 ng/ml, SD=81.51, 45.4% lived in homes where no rules connected with smoking had been established (mean CCR – 61.75 ng/ml, SD= 70.29. During the analyzed period of 6 months, 85% of the children had at least 1 respiratory tract infection (60% – upper, 16.9% – lower, 16.5% – upper and lower, 7.1% – otitis media. Conclusions. The majority of the 3-year-old children who had lower respiratory tract infections required antibiotics and hospitalization. Living in a home where no tobacco rules were established may cause an increase of respiratory tract infections.

  3. Acute Respiratory Failure due to Neuromyelitis Optica Treated Successfully with Plasmapheresis

    Massa Zantah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO is a demyelinating autoimmune disease involving the central nervous system. Acute respiratory failure from cervical myelitis due to NMO is known to occur but is uncommon in monophasic disease and is treated with high dose steroids. We report a case of a patient with NMO who developed acute respiratory failure related to cervical spinal cord involvement, refractory to pulse dose steroid therapy, which resolved with plasmapheresis.

  4. Respiratory inductive plethysmography accuracy at varying PEEP levels and degrees of acute lung injury

    D.G. Markhorst (Dick); M.A. van Van Gestel (Miriam); H.R. van Genderingen (Huibert); J.J. Haitsma (Jack); B.F. Lachmann (Burkhard); A.J. van Vught (Adrianus)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground and objective: This study was performed to assess the accuracy of respiratory inductive plethysmographic (RIP) estimated lung volume changes at varying positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP) during different degrees of acute respiratory failure. Methods: Measurements of insp

  5. Probiotics and respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections in Finnish military conscripts - a randomised placebo-controlled double-blinded study.

    Kalima, K; Lehtoranta, L; He, L; Pitkäniemi, J; Lundell, R; Julkunen, I; Roivainen, M; Närkiö, M; Mäkelä, M J; Siitonen, S; Korpela, R; Pitkäranta, A

    2016-09-01

    Military conscripts are susceptible to respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections. In previous studies probiotics have shown potency to reduce upper respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. The aim was to study whether probiotic intervention has an impact on seasonal occurrence of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in two different conscript groups. In a randomised, double-blinded, placebo controlled study (https://clinicaltrials.gov NCT01651195), a total of 983 healthy adults were enrolled from two intakes of conscripts. Conscripts were randomised to receive either a probiotic combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB12 (BB12) or a control chewing tablet twice daily for 150 days (recruits) or for 90 days (reserve officer candidates). Clinical examinations were carried out and daily symptom diaries were collected. Outcome measures were the number of days with respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and symptom incidence, number and duration of infection episodes, number of antibiotic treatments received and number of days out of service because of the infection. Statistically no significant differences were found between the intervention groups either in the risk of symptom incidence or duration. However, probiotic intervention was associated with reduction of specific respiratory infection symptoms in military recruits, but not in reserve officer candidates. Probiotics did not significantly reduce overall respiratory and gastrointestinal infection morbidity.

  6. Risk factors for and impact of respiratory failure on mortality in the early phase of acute pancreatitis

    Dombernowsky, Tilde; Kristensen, Marlene Østermark; Rysgaard, Sisse

    2016-01-01

    : Retrospective cohort study including 359 patients admitted with acute pancreatitis. Information was gathered from electronic patient records. We defined respiratory failure based on the modified Marshall scoring system in the revised Atlanta criteria. Predictors of respiratory failure were evaluated......, or pneumonia may develop respiratory failure, suggests that acute lung injury, possibly associated with systemic inflammation, may be important.......BACKGROUND: The incidence of respiratory failure and other respiratory complications in the early phase of acute pancreatitis (AP) is not well investigated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of respiratory failure, and its impact on mortality in the early phase AP. METHODS...

  7. Chemical exposure-response relationship between air pollutants and reactive oxygen species in the human respiratory tract

    Lakey, Pascale S. J.; Berkemeier, Thomas; Tong, Haijie; Arangio, Andrea M.; Lucas, Kurt; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shiraiwa, Manabu

    2016-09-01

    Air pollution can cause oxidative stress and adverse health effects such as asthma and other respiratory diseases, but the underlying chemical processes are not well characterized. Here we present chemical exposure-response relations between ambient concentrations of air pollutants and the production rates and concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the human respiratory tract. In highly polluted environments, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) containing redox-active transition metals, quinones, and secondary organic aerosols can increase ROS concentrations in the ELF to levels characteristic for respiratory diseases. Ambient ozone readily saturates the ELF and can enhance oxidative stress by depleting antioxidants and surfactants. Chemical exposure-response relations provide a quantitative basis for assessing the relative importance of specific air pollutants in different regions of the world, showing that aerosol-induced epithelial ROS levels in polluted megacity air can be several orders of magnitude higher than in pristine rainforest air.

  8. An assessment of the effect of statin use on the incidence of acute respiratory infections in England during winters 1998-1999 to 2005-2006.

    Fleming, D M; Verlander, N Q; Elliot, A J; Zhao, H; Gelb, D; Jehring, D; Nguyen-Van-Tam, J S

    2010-09-01

    Statins reduce cardiovascular mortality and related risks associated with pneumonia suggesting potentially beneficial use in influenza pandemics. We investigated the effect of current statin use on acute respiratory infections in primary care. Data from anonymized electronic medical records of persons aged 45 years were examined for statin use, chronic morbidity, respiratory diagnoses, vaccination procedures, and immune suppression. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for statin users vs. non-users in respiratory infection outcomes. A total of 329 881 person-year observations included 18% statin users and 46% influenza vaccinees. Adjusted ORs for statin users vs. non-users were: influenza-like illness, 1.05 (95% CI 0.92-1.20); acute bronchitis, 1.08 (95% CI 1.01-1.15); pneumonia, 0.91 (95% CI 0.73-1.13); all acute respiratory infections, 1.03 (95% CI 0.98-1.07); and urinary tract infections, 0.91 (95% CI 0.85-0.98). We found no benefit in respiratory infection outcomes attributable to statin use, although uniformly higher ORs in non-vaccinated statin users might suggest synergism between statins and influenza vaccination.

  9. Four country healthcare-associated infection prevalence survey: pneumonia and lower respiratory tract infections.

    Humphreys, H

    2010-03-01

    In 2006, the Hospital Infection Society was funded by the respective health services in England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland to conduct a prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI). Here, we report the prevalence of pneumonia and lower respiratory tract infection other than pneumonia (LRTIOP) in these four countries. The prevalence of all HCAIs was 7.59% (5743 out of 75 694). Nine hundred (15.7%) of these infections were pneumonia, and 402 (7.0%) were LRTIOP. The prevalence of both infections was higher for males than for females, and increased threefold from those aged <35 to those aged >85 years (P<0.001). At the time of the survey or in the preceding seven days, 23.7% and 18.2% of patients with pneumonia and LRTIOP, respectively, were mechanically ventilated compared to 5.2% of patients in the whole study population. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was the cause of pneumonia and LRTIOP in 7.6% and 18.1% of patients, respectively (P<0.001). More patients with LRTIOP (4.2%) had concurrent diarrhoea due to Clostridium difficile compared to patients with pneumonia (2.4%), but this did not reach statistical significance. Other HCAIs were present in 137 (15.2%) of patients with pneumonia and 66 (16.4%) of those with LRTIOP. The results suggest that reducing instrumentation, such as mechanical ventilation where possible, should help reduce infection. The higher prevalence of MRSA as a cause of LRTIOP suggests a lack of specificity in identifying the microbial cause and the association with C. difficile emphasises the need for better use of antibiotics.

  10. Microbiology of lower respiratory tract infection in workers of garment industry of Kathmandu

    S Pant

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study was designed with the objectives of describing the distribution pattern of microorganisms responsible for causing LRTI in the workers of garment industries. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 198 cases of suspected person of Lower Respiratory Tract infection (LRTI LRTI were included in this study. This study was conducted between November 2009 to April 2010. Specimen for the study was expectorated sputum. Gram-stain, Ziehl-Neelsen stains and culture were performed. RESULTS On direct microscopic examination, 20.51% were Gram positive bacteria, 79.48% were Gram negative bacteria and 4% were smear positive AFB. On culture sensitivity examination, 22% percent showed growth of different bacteria in different culture media. The bacteria isolated from the samples included Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.38%, Proteus mirabilis (15.38% and Citrobacterfruendii (15.38%. Gram Negative bacteria were found most susceptible to Ciprofloxacin (92.30%, 24/26 and Amikacin (92.30%, 24/26. Similarly, Gram Positive bacteria were found most susceptible to Ciprofloxacin (100%, 8/8 followed by Cloxacillin and Cephalexin (87.5%, 7/8. Smear positive AFB was significantly associated with not using the protective measures (mask by workers and presence of symptoms (cough for more than two weeks, night sweat, hemoptysis and anorexia (p=0.031. Culture positivity was significantly associated with symptoms like production of purulent sputum (p=0.045. CONCLUSION There was insignificant association between LRTI and risk factors present in working room of garment industries. Most of the isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and resistance to Ampicillin and Cephalexin.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i3.12772 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol-10, No-3, 14-22

  11. Experimental determination of the regional deposition of aerosol particles in the human respiratory tract

    Stahlhofen, W.; Gebhart, J.; Heyder, J.

    1980-06-01

    The experimental techniques and the results of inhalation studies with radioaerosols on normal non-smokers for mouth-breathing are described and discussed. Monodisperse iron oxide particles tagged with /sup 198/Au are produced with a spinning top generator in the aerodynamic size range between 1 to 10 ..mu..m. An aerosol inhalation apparatus enables the subjects to breathe under standardized conditions with respect to tidal volume and breathing frequency. The calculation of total deposition is based upon measurements of the number of in- and exhaled particles per breath by means of photometric methods and pneumotachography. The retention of the radioactive particles present in the body after aerosol administration is measured with a body counter designed and constructed for these experiments. Retention measurements as functions of time after inhalation are carried out in extrathoracic-, chest- and stomach-position. The body counter consists of four shielded NaF(Tl)-dectors. Characteristic feature of the body counter is its low sensitivity to neighboring organs and to neighboring regions within the respiratory tract. For the evaluation of extrathoracic deposition, the activity measured in the stomach immediately after inhalation is added to extrathoracic activity. The elimination of material from the chest is found to be much slower for the material deposited in the alveolar region than for the amount deposited in the tracheobronchial tree. This allows the intrathoracic deposition to be divided into tracheolbronchial and alveolar deposition by means of the different slopes of the normalized chest retention function. Different normalized chest retention functions are presented and analyzed with respect to their different elimination rats belonging to the tracheobronchial and alveolar region. Total, tracheobronchial, alveolar and extrathoracic deposition data are reported in the aerodynamic diameter range between 1 and 10 ..mu..m.

  12. Comparisons of calculated respiratory tract deposition of particles based on the NCRP/ITRI model and the new ICRP66 model

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Phalen, R.F. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Chang, I. [Lovelace Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) in the United States and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) have been independently reviewing and revising respiratory tract dosimetry models for inhaled radioactive aerosols. The newly proposed NCRP respiratory tract dosimetry model represents a significant change in philosophy from the old ICRP Task Group model. The proposed NCRP model describes respiratory tract deposition, clearance, and dosimetry for radioactive substances inhaled by workers and the general public and is expected to be published soon. In support of the NCRP proposed model, ITRI staff members have been developing computer software. Although this software is still incomplete, the deposition portion has been completed and can be used to calculate inhaled particle deposition within the respiratory tract for particle sizes as small as radon and radon progeny ({approximately} 1 nm) to particles larger than 100 {mu}m. Recently, ICRP published their new dosimetric model for the respiratory tract, ICRP66. Based on ICRP66, the National Radiological Protection Board of the UK developed PC-based software, LUDEP, for calculating particle deposition and internal doses. The purpose of this report is to compare the calculated respiratory tract deposition of particles using the NCRP/ITRI model and the ICRP66 model, under the same particle size distribution and breathing conditions. In summary, the general trends of the deposition curves for the two models were similar.

  13. Causes of Acute Water Scarcity in the Barind Tract, Bangladesh

    Md. Bazlar Rashid

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Barind tract is an elevated landmass (about 11-48 m amsl comprised with Pleistocene terraces and is situated in the northwestern part of Bangladesh. At present, this area faces scarcity of water. The present study is an attempt to unveil the causes of water scarcity of the area. Several aspects like change in climatic condition, irrigation practice and drainage characteristics of major rivers are the prime factors for water scarcity. Interpretation of recent satellite imagery and historical records reveal that the major rivers of the area like Ganges (Padma, Tista and Kosi have remarkably migrated from Barind tract during last few hundred years. Shifting of these rivers causes great change in hydrodynamics of the Barind tract. As a result, flow of other related rivers of the area like the Mahananda, Kulic, Tangon, Punarbhaba, Atrai, Little Jamuna, Karatoya and Nagar reduces remarkably in the dry season. As a result aquifers in the area are not recharged sufficiently by river water in the dry season. India constructed Farakka barrage on the Ganges (Padma river in 1975 to divert the flow of water from Bangladesh to the other parts of India. This diversion of water also leads to the decreasing of water in the area. Climatic data interpretation of the last 50 years also reveals that annual rainfall in the area is decreasing while overall temperature is increasing. To boost up the cropping intensity (117% to 200% compared to national average of 174% and to meet present demand 74% of cultivable lands are being irrigated with 96% share of groundwater owing to unavailability or scarcity of rainfall and hence surface water. Irrigation by groundwater has dramatically been increased (250 times in the last 30 years. Due to over exploitation, water table progressively declined (av. rate 0.10 m/year which ultimately leads the area to water scarcity zone. The aquifers are confined or semi-confined and do not get appreciable vertical recharge through clay

  14. Retrospective analysis on acute respiratory distress syndrome in ICU

    LI Jin-bao; ZHANG Liang; ZHU Ke-ming; DENG Xiao-ming

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To assess the incidence, etiology, physiological and clinical features, mortality, and predictors of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in intensive care unit (ICU).Methods: A retrospective analysis of 5 314 patients admitted to the ICU of our hospital from April 1994 to December 2003 was performed in this study. The ARDS patients were identified with the criteria of the American-European Consensus Conference ( AECC ). Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation Ⅲ ( APACHE in), multiple organ dysfunction syndrome score (MODS score), and lung injury score (LIS) were determined on the onset day of ARDS for all the patients. Other recorded variables included age, sex, biochemical indicators, blood gas analysis, length of stay in ICU, length of ventilation, presence or absence of tracheostomy, ventilation variables, elective operation or emergency operation.Results:Totally, 131 patients (2.5%) developed ARDS, among whom, 12 patients were excluded from this study because they died within 24 hours and other 4 patients were also excluded for their incomplete information. Therefore, there were only 115 cases (62 males and 53 females, aged 22-75 years, 58 years on average) left,accounting for 2. 2% of the total admitted patients. Their average ICU stay was (11. 27±7. 24) days and APACHE in score was 17.23±7.21. Pneumonia and sepsis were the main cause of ARDS. The non-survivors were obviously older and showed significant difference in the ICU length of stay and length of ventilation as compared with the survivors. On admission, the non-survivors had significantly higher MODS and lower BE ( base excess). The hospital mortality was 55. 7%. The main cause of death was multiple organ failure. Predictors of death at the onset of ARDS were advanced age, MODS≥8, and LIS≥2.76.Conclusions: ARDS is a frequent syndrome in this cohort. Sepsis and pneumonia are the most common risk factors. The main cause of death is multiple organ failure. The mortality is

  15. Recovery from Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome with Long-Run Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    Jin Jeon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is a severe lung disease associated with high mortality despite recent advances in management. Significant advances in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO devices and management allow short-term support for patients with acute reversible respiratory failure and can serve as a bridge to transplantation in patients with irreversible respiratory failure. When ARDS does not respond to conventional treatment, ECMO and the interventional lung assist membrane (iLA are the most widely used complementary treatment options. Here, we report a clinical case of an adult patient who required prolonged duration venovenous (VV-ECMO for severe ARDS resulting in improvement while waiting for lung transplantation.

  16. Nutrition: A Primary Therapy in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Bryan Wilson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate nutrition is an essential component of intensive care management of children with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS and is linked to patient outcomes. One out of every two children in the PICU will develop malnutrition or have worsening of baseline malnutrition, and present with specific micronutrient deficiencies. Early and adequate enteral nutrition (EN is associated with improved 60-day survival after pediatric critical illness and yet, despite early EN guidelines, critically ill children receive on average only 55% of goal calories by PICU day 10. Inadequate delivery of EN is due to perceived feeding intolerance, reluctance to enterally feed children with hemodynamic instability, and fluid restriction. Underlying each of these factors is large practice variation between providers and across institutions for initiation, advancement and maintenance of EN. Strategies to improve early initiation, advancement, and to maintain delivery of EN are needed to improve morbidity and mortality from pediatric ARDS. Both over and underfeeding prolongs duration of mechanical ventilation in children and worsens other organ function such that precise calorie goals are needed. The gut is thought to act as a ‘motor’ of organ dysfunction and emerging data regarding the role of intestinal barrier functions and the intestinal microbiome on organ dysfunction and outcomes of critical illness present exciting opportunities to improve patient outcomes. Nutrition should be considered a primary rather than supportive therapy for pediatric ARDS. Precise nutritional therapies, which are titrated and targeted to preservation of intestinal barrier function, prevention of intestinal dysbiosis, preservation of lean body mass, and blunting of the systemic inflammatory response, offer great potential for improving outcomes of pediatric ARDS. In this review we examine the current evidence regarding dose, route, and timing of nutrition, current

  17. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus persistence in Vero cells

    Gustavo Palacios; Omar Jabado; Neil Renwick; Thomas Briese; W. Ian Lipkin

    2005-01-01

    Background Several coronaviruses establish persistent infections in vitro and in vivo, however it is unknown whether persistence is a feature of the severe acute respiratory syndorme coronavirus (SARS-CoV) life cycle. This study was conducted to investigate viral persistence.Methods We inoculated confluent monolayers of Vero cells with SARS-CoV at a multiplicity of infection of 0.1 TCID50 and passaged the remaining cells every 4 to 8 days for a total of 11 passages. Virus was titrated at each passage by limited dilution assay and nucleocapsid antigen was detected by Western blot and immunofluoresence assays. The presence of viral particles in passage 11 cells was assessed by electron microscopy. Changes in viral genomic sequences during persistent infection were examined by DNA sequencing. Results Cytopathic effect was extensive after initial inoculation but diminished with serial passages. Infectious virus was detected after each passage and viral growth curves were identical for parental virus stock and virus obtained from passage 11 cells. Nucleocapsid antigen was detected in the majority of cells after initial inoculation but in only 10%-40% of cells at passages 2-11. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of viral particles in passage 11 cells. Sequence analysis at passage 11 revealed fixed mutations in the spike (S) gene and ORFs 7a-8b but not in the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Conclusions SARS-CoV can establish a persistent infection in vitro. The mechanism for viral persistence is consistent with the formation of a carrier culture whereby a limited number of cells are infected with each round of virus replication and release. Persistence is associated with selected mutations in the SARS-CoV genome. This model may provide insight into SARS-related lung pathology and mechanisms by which humans and animals can serve as reservoirs for infection.

  18. The severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic in mainland China dissected

    Wuchun Cao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of a recently published series of studies that give a detailed and comprehensive documentation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS epidemic in mainland China, which severely struck the country in the spring of 2003. The epidemic spanned a large geographical extent but clustered in two areas: first in Guangdong Province, and about 3 months later in Beijing with its surrounding areas. Reanalysis of all available epidemiological data resulted in a total of 5327 probable cases of SARS, of whom 343 died. The resulting case fatality ratio (CFR of 6.4% was less than half of that in other SARS-affected countries or areas, and this difference could only partly be explained by younger age of patients and higher number of community acquired infections. Analysis of the impact of interventions demonstrated that strong political commitment and a centrally coordinated response was the most important factor to control SARS in mainland China, whereas the most stringent control measures were all initiated when the epidemic was already dying down. The long-term economic consequence of the epidemic was limited, much consumption was merely postponed, but for Beijing irrecoverable losses to the tourist sector were considerable. An important finding from a cohort study was that many former SARS patients currently suffer from avascular osteo­necrosis, as a consequence of the treatment with corticosteroids during their infection. The SARS epidemic provided valuable information and lessons relevant in controlling outbreaks of newly emerging infectious diseases, and has led to fundamental reforms of the Chinese health system. In particular, a comprehensive nation-wide internet-based disease reporting system was established.

  19. Sepsis-related acute respiratory distress syndrome in children with cancer: the respiratory dynamics of a devastating condition

    Arduini, Rodrigo Genaro; de Araujo, Orlei Ribeiro; da Silva, Dafne Cardoso Bourguignon; Senerchia, Andreza Almeida; Petrilli, Antonio Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical course and respiratory parameters of mechanically ventilated children with cancer suffering from sepsis-related acute respiratory distress syndrome. Methods This 2-year prospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study enrolled 29 children and adolescents. Clinical data, measurements of blood gases and ventilation parameters were collected at four different time points. Fluctuations between measurements as well as differences in estimated means were analyzed by linear mixed models in which death within 28 days from the onset of acute respiratory distress syndrome was the primary endpoint. Results There were 17 deaths within 28 days of acute respiratory distress syndrome onset and another 7 between 29 - 60 days. Only 5 patients survived for more than 60 days. Nine (31%) patients died as a direct consequence of refractory hypoxemia, and the others died of multiple organ failure and catecholamine-refractory shock. In 66% of the measurements, the tidal volume required to obtain oxygen saturation equal to or above 90% was greater than 7mL/kg. The estimated means of dynamic compliance were low and were similar for survivors and non-survivors but with a negative slope between the first and final measurements, accompanied by a negative slope of the tidal volume for non-survivors. Non-survivors were significantly more hypoxemic, with PaO2/FiO2 ratios showing lower estimated means and a negative slope along the four measurements. Peak, expiratory and mean airway pressures showed positive slopes in the non-survivors, who also had more metabolic acidosis. Conclusions In most of our children with cancer, sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome progressed with deteriorating ventilation indexes and escalating organic dysfunction, making this triad nearly fatal in children. PMID:28099641

  20. Mass casualty acute pepper spray inhalation – Respiratory severity effect

    B.M. Sweeting*

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: While the respiratory complaint was perceived as being the most detrimental of all presenting complaints, there was an overall non-threatening outcome in all patients. The presenting respiratory complaints were mostly subjective with benign outcome. Although various risk factors associated with severity increase of respiratory status, were present in a few of the index cases patients, their affect was negligible with a resultant benign outcome.

  1. Neonatal bronchial hyperresponsiveness precedes acute severe viral bronchiolitis in infants

    Chawes, Bo L K; Poorisrisak, Porntiva; Johnston, Sebastian L;

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus and other respiratory tract viruses lead to common colds in most infants, whereas a minority develop acute severe bronchiolitis often requiring hospitalization. We hypothesized that such an excessive response to respiratory tract viral infection is caused by host factors...

  2. Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal for patients with acute respiratory failure secondary to the acute respiratory distress syndrome: a systematic review.

    Fitzgerald, Marianne; Millar, Jonathan; Blackwood, Bronagh; Davies, Andrew; Brett, Stephen J; McAuley, Daniel F; McNamee, James J

    2014-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) continues to have significant mortality and morbidity. The only intervention proven to reduce mortality is the use of lung-protective mechanical ventilation strategies, although such a strategy may lead to problematic hypercapnia. Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO₂R) devices allow uncoupling of ventilation from oxygenation, thereby removing carbon dioxide and facilitating lower tidal volume ventilation. We performed a systematic review to assess efficacy, complication rates, and utility of ECCO₂R devices. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), case-control studies and case series with 10 or more patients. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS (Literatura Latino Americana em Ciências da Saúde), and ISI Web of Science, in addition to grey literature and clinical trials registries. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers against predefined criteria and agreement was reached by consensus. Outcomes of interest included mortality, intensive care and hospital lengths of stay, respiratory parameters and complications. The review included 14 studies with 495 patients (two RCTs and 12 observational studies). Arteriovenous ECCO₂R was used in seven studies, and venovenous ECCO₂R in seven studies. Available evidence suggests no mortality benefit to ECCO₂R, although post hoc analysis of data from the most recent RCT showed an improvement in ventilator-free days in more severe ARDS. Organ failure-free days or ICU stay have not been shown to decrease with ECCOvR. Carbon dioxide removal was widely demonstrated as feasible, facilitating the use of lower tidal volume ventilation. Complication rates varied greatly across the included studies, representing technological advances. There was a general paucity of high-quality data and significant variation in both practice and technology used among studies, which confounded analysis. ECCO₂R is a rapidly evolving technology and is an efficacious treatment

  3. Does virus-bacteria coinfection increase the clinical severity of acute respiratory infection?

    Damasio, Guilherme A C; Pereira, Luciane A; Moreira, Suzana D R; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N; Dalla-Costa, Libera M; Raboni, Sonia M

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective cohort study investigated the presence of bacteria in respiratory secretions of patients hospitalized with acute respiratory infections and analyzed the impact of viral and bacterial coinfection on severity and the mortality rate. A total of 169 patients with acute respiratory infections were included, viruses and bacteria in respiratory samples were detected using molecular methods. Among all samples, 73.3% and 59.7% were positive for viruses and bacteria, respectively; 45% contained both virus and bacteria. Bacterial coinfection was more frequent in patients infected by community respiratory viruses than influenza A H1N1pdm (83.3% vs. 40.6%). The most frequently bacteria detected were Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Both species were co-detected in 54 patients and identified alone in 22 and 21 patients, respectively. Overall, there were no significant differences in the period of hospitalization, severity, or mortality rate between patients infected with respiratory viruses alone and those coinfected by viruses and bacteria. The detection of mixed respiratory pathogens is frequent in hospitalized patients with acute respiratory infections, but its impact on the clinical outcome does not appear substantial. However, it should be noted that most of the patients received broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, which may have contributed to this favorable outcome.

  4. The role of respiratory syncytial virus and other viral pathogens in acute otitis media.

    Klein, B S; Dollete, F R; Yolken, R H

    1982-07-01

    We utilized recently developed enzyme immunoassay techniques to examine the role of selected viruses in the etiology of acute otitis media. Viral pathogens were found in middle ear fluids obtained from 13 (24%) of 53 children with acute otitis media; respiratory syncytial virus accounted for ten of the 13 viral agents identified. In addition, respiratory syncytial viral antigen was found in nasopharyngeal washings obtained from 15 of the 53 children. Seven of these children had RSV identified as the sole middle ear pathogen, whereas six children had otitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae as either the sole middle ear pathogen or in combination with RSV. Similarly, all three children with respiratory infections caused by influenza virus had ear infections caused by bacterial pathogens, either alone or in combination with influenza virus. These findings suggest that, in patients with viral respiratory infection, coexisting acute otitis media may be associated with the recovery of either viruses or bacteria from the middle ear exudates.

  5. Incidence of GP-diagnosed respiratory tract infections according to age, gender and high-risk co-morbidity: the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice.

    Hak, E.; Rovers, M.M.; Kuyvenhoven, M.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Verheij, T.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Figures on GP-diagnosed respiratory tract infections (RTI) are outdated because of demographic changes and increase in co-morbid conditions, respiratory vaccination programmes and change in illness behaviour. Objective. To determine the incidence of RTI in patients presenting to the GP a

  6. Incidence of GP-diagnosed respiratory tract infections according to age, gender and high-risk co-morbidity : the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice

    Hak, E; Rovers, M M; Kuyvenhoven, M M; Schellevis, F G; Verheij, T J M

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Figures on GP-diagnosed respiratory tract infections (RTI) are outdated because of demographic changes and increase in co-morbid conditions, respiratory vaccination programmes and change in illness behaviour. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of RTI in patients presenting to the GP a

  7. Diagnostic value of real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect viruses in young children admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit with lower respiratory tract infection

    van de Pol, Alma C; Wolfs, Tom F W; Jansen, Nicolaas J G; van Loon, Anton M; Rossen, John W A

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aetiology of lower respiratory tract infections in young children admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) is often difficult to establish. However, most infections are believed to be caused by respiratory viruses. A diagnostic study was performed to compare convention

  8. [Quantification of the acute respiratory insufficiency of laryngo-tracheal origin].

    Pintilie, Cătălina; Burlacu, Gabriela; Costinescu, V

    2009-01-01

    Acute respiratory insufficiency defines that status in which the respiratory system is not able to supply the metabolic requirements of the organism. The laryngo-tracheal segment plays an important role in the respiratory function, an obstruction at this level inducing an important limitation of oxygen intake. Due to the requirement of fast repermeabilisation of this segment, it is necessary to define all criteria (clinical and laboratory examination) required to diagnose and to evaluate the respiratory failure. The present paper depicts the clinical aspects, the acid-base equilibrium impairment induced by high level airway obstruction and the functional investigations available by ventilation tests.

  9. Implementing hospital-based surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections caused by influenza and other respiratory pathogens in New Zealand

    Q Sue Huang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent experience with pandemic influenza A(H1N1pdm09 highlighted the importance of global surveillance for severe respiratory disease to support pandemic preparedness and seasonal influenza control. Improved surveillance in the southern hemisphere is needed to provide critical data on influenza epidemiology, disease burden, circulating strains and effectiveness of influenza prevention and control measures. Hospital-based surveillance for severe acute respiratory infection (SARI cases was established in New Zealand on 30 April 2012. The aims were to measure incidence, prevalence, risk factors, clinical spectrum and outcomes for SARI and associated influenza and other respiratory pathogen cases as well as to understand influenza contribution to patients not meeting SARI case definition. Methods/Design: All inpatients with suspected respiratory infections who were admitted overnight to the study hospitals were screened daily. If a patient met the World Health Organization’s SARI case definition, a respiratory specimen was tested for influenza and other respiratory pathogens. A case report form captured demographics, history of presenting illness, co-morbidities, disease course and outcome and risk factors. These data were supplemented from electronic clinical records and other linked data sources. Discussion: Hospital-based SARI surveillance has been implemented and is fully functioning in New Zealand. Active, prospective, continuous, hospital-based SARI surveillance is useful in supporting pandemic preparedness for emerging influenza A(H7N9 virus infections and seasonal influenza prevention and control.

  10. Surveillance of acute community acquired urinary tract bacterial infections

    Sibanarayan Rath; Rabindra N. Padhy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To record the antibiotic resistance of community acquired uropathogens over a period of 24 months (May 2011-April 2012). Methods: Urine samples from patients of outpatient department (OPD) were used for isolating urinary tract infection (UTI)-causing bacteria that were cultured on suitable selective media and identified by biochemical tests. Their antibiograms were ascertained by Kirby-Bauer’s disc diffusion method, using 17 antibiotics of 5 different classes. Results: From 2137 urine samples 1332 strains of pathogenic bacteria belonging to 11 species were isolated. Two Gram-positives, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis and nine Gram-negatives, Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter sp., Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated. Both S. aureus and E. faecalis were vancomycin resistant, and resistant-strains of all pathogens increased in each 6-month period of study. Particularly, all Gram-negatives were resistant to nitrofurantoin and co-trimoxazole, the most preferred antibiotics of empiric therapy for UTI, but were moderately resistant to gentamicin, ampicillin, amoxyclav, ofloxacin and gatifloxacin. Most Gram-negatives produced extended spectrum β-lactamase. Conclusions: It was concluded that periodic surveillance of pathogens is an essential corollary in effective health management in any country, as empiric therapy is a common/essential practice in effective clinical management.

  11. Effect of Antimicrobial Consumption and Production Type on Antibacterial Resistance in the Bovine Respiratory and Digestive Tract.

    Boudewijn Catry

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between antimicrobial use and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in the digestive and respiratory tract in three different production systems of food producing animals. A longitudinal study was set up in 25 Belgian bovine herds (10 dairy, 10 beef, and 5 veal herds for a 2 year monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibilities in E. coli and Pasteurellaceae retrieved from the rectum and the nasal cavity, respectively. During the first year of observation, the antimicrobial use was prospectively recorded on 15 of these farms (5 of each production type and transformed into the treatment incidences according to the (animal defined daily dose (TIADD and (actually used daily dose (TIUDD. Antimicrobial resistance rates of 4,174 E. coli (all herds and 474 Pasteurellaceae (beef and veal herds only isolates for 12 antimicrobial agents demonstrated large differences between intensively reared veal calves (abundant and inconstant and more extensively reared dairy and beef cattle (sparse and relatively stable. Using linear mixed effect models, a strong relation was found between antimicrobial treatment incidences and resistance profiles of 1,639 E. coli strains (p<0.0001 and 309 Pasteurellaceae (p≤0.012. These results indicate that a high antimicrobial selection pressure, here found to be represented by low dosages of oral prophylactic and therapeutic group medication, converts not only the commensal microbiota from the digestive tract but also the opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in the respiratory tract into reservoirs of multi-resistance.

  12. 人类博卡病毒载量与儿童呼吸道感染临床特征的相关性%The correlation study of viral load of human bocavirus and clinical features of children with acute respiratory tract infection

    尹芳; 周卫芳; 王美娟; 严永东; 季伟

    2014-01-01

    导致患儿细胞免疫功能紊乱,且HBoV载量愈高,愈能引起婴幼儿发生喘息.对于HBoV低病毒载量的患儿,要考虑存在其他病原体混合感染可能.%Objective To investigate the detection of human bocavirus (HBoV) in children with acute respiratory infection and to explore the relationship between viral load and clinical characteristics of acute respiratory infection in children.Methods A total of 4 501 nasopharyngeal secretion samples were collected from hospitalized children with acute respiratory infection from January 2013 to June 2013.HBoV-positive children were divided into simple infection group and mixed infection group.Children with HBoV DNA≥1 × 104 copy/mL were categorized into high viral load group,while those with HBoV DNA <1 × 104 copy/mL were categorized into low viral load group.HBoV was determined by fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV),influenza virus (Inf)-A,Inf-B,parainfluenza virus (Pinf)-Ⅰ 、Pinf-Ⅱ 、Pinf-Ⅲ and adeno virus antigen were detected by direct antigen-specific immunofluorescence assays.Mycoplasm Pnuemonia was detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR.Serum mycoplasma antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Bacteria was detected by sputum culture.Over the same period,23 children undergoing elective inguinal hernia operation with no respiratory infection or fever were considered as control group.The percentage of peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets were tested by flow cytometry.Inter-group differences were compared using Chi-square test or Fisher exact test.Viral loads were compared using Mann-Whitney test.Results Two hundred and twenty-two HBoV-positive cases were detected with a positive rate of 5.41% (222/4 105),33.33% (74/222) of which were with high viral load and 66.67% (148/222) were with low viral load.There was a high incidence in the age group of 1-2 years.The simple HBoV infection

  13. Severe acute respiratory syndrome vaccine development: experiences of vaccination against avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus.

    Cavanagh, Dave

    2003-12-01

    Vaccines against infectious bronchitis of chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) have arguably been the most successful, and certainly the most widely used, of vaccines for diseases caused by coronaviruses, the others being against bovine, canine, feline and porcine coronaviruses. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), together with the genetically related coronaviruses of turkey (Meleagris gallopovo) and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), is a group 3 coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus being tentatively in group 4, the other known mammalian coronaviruses being in groups 1 and 2. IBV replicates not only in respiratory tissues (including the nose, trachea, lungs and airsacs, causing respiratory disease), but also in the kidney (associated with minor or major nephritis), oviduct, and in many parts of the alimentary tract--the oesophagus, proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, bursa of Fabricius, caecal tonsils (near the distal end of the tract), rectum and cloaca (the common opening for release of eggs and faeces), usually without clinical effects. The virus can persist, being re-excreted at the onset of egg laying (4 to 5 months of age), believed to be a consequence of the stress of coming into lay. Genetic lines of chickens differ in the extent to which IBV causes mortality in chicks, and in respect of clearance of the virus after the acute phase. Live attenuated (by passage in chicken embryonated eggs) IBV strains were introduced as vaccines in the 1950s, followed a couple of decades later by inactivated vaccines for boosting protection in egg-laying birds. Live vaccines are usually applied to meat-type chickens at 1 day of age. In experimental situations this can result in sterile immunity when challenged by virulent homologous virus. Although 100% of chickens may be protected (against clinical signs and loss of ciliary activity in trachea), sometimes 10% of vaccinated chicks do not respond with a protective immune response

  14. Empyema and Respiratory Failure Secondary to Nephropleural Fistula Caused by Chronic Urinary Tract Infection: A Case Report

    G. H. Jones

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of nephropleural fistula causing empyema and respiratory failure in a 68-year-old gentleman with a long history of urological problems including recurrent nephrolithiasis and urinary tract infections. He was admitted with sepsis, a productive cough, pyuria, and reduced breath sounds over the left hemithorax. Radiological imaging revealed a fistulous connection between a left-sided perinephric abscess and the pleural space. He was commenced on broad spectrum intravenous antibiotics but developed progressive respiratory failure requiring intensive care admission. Urinary and pleural aspirates cultured facultative anaerobic pathogens with identical resistance patterns. Drainage of thoracic and perinephric collections was carried out, allowing him to be extubated after 24 hours and discharged home after 18 days on an extended course of oral antibiotics. Left nephrectomy is now planned after a period of convalescence. Empyema developing in patients with known urolithiasis should alert the treating physician to the possibility that a pathological communication has formed especially if typical urinary tract pathogens are cultured from respiratory sampling.

  15. Monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of respiratory tract pathogens isolated from diseased cattle and pigs across Europe, 2009-2012: VetPath results.

    El Garch, Farid; de Jong, Anno; Simjee, Shabbir; Moyaert, Hilde; Klein, Ulrich; Ludwig, Carolin; Marion, Hervé; Haag-Diergarten, Silke; Richard-Mazet, Alexandra; Thomas, Valérie; Siegwart, Ed

    2016-10-15

    VetPath is an ongoing pan-European antibiotic susceptibility monitoring programme that collects pathogens from diseased cattle, pigs and poultry. In the current study, 996 isolates from cattle and pig respiratory tract infections were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Non-replicate lung samples or nasopharyngeal/nasal swabs were collected from animals with acute clinical signs in 10 countries during 2009-2012. Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica and Histophilus somni from cattle and P. multocida, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Streptococcus suis from pigs were isolated by standard methods. S. suis was also isolated from meningitis cases. MIC values of 16 or 17 antibiotics were assessed centrally by broth microdilution following CLSI standards. Results were interpreted using CLSI breakpoints where available. Cattle isolates were generally highly susceptible to most antibiotics, except to tetracycline (3.0-12.0% resistance). Low levels of resistance (0-4.0%) were observed for the macrolide antibiotics. Resistance to spectinomycin varied from 0 to 6.0%. In pig isolates similar observations were made. Resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tulathromycin, tiamulin and tilmicosin was absent or <2%. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance varied from 1.9 to 5.3%, but tetracycline resistance varied from 20.4% in P. multocida to 88.1% in S. suis. For most antibiotics and pathogens the percentage resistance remained unchanged or only increased numerically as compared to that of the period 2002-2006. In conclusion, absence or low resistance to antibiotics with defined clinical breakpoints, except for tetracycline, was observed among the major respiratory tract pathogens recovered from livestock. Comparison of all antibiotics and organisms was hampered since for almost half of the antibiotics no CLSI-defined breakpoints were available.

  16. Evaluation of corticospinal tract injury with three-dimensional diffusion tensor tract in patients with acute cerebral infarction

    Hui Xiao; Ziqian Chen; Biyun Zhang; Ping Ni

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional diffusion tensor tract (DTT) is the newest imaging to describe the structure of white matter fiber in three-dimensions, it has great significance in dividing the concrete anatomic site of gray and white matter lesions, displaying the correlation with fibrous band and judging clinical prognosis, which is incomparable by other imagings.OBJECTTVE: To observe the conditions of corticospinal tract (CST) in acute cerebral ischemic stroke patients,and analyze the relationship between motor function and the severity of CST injury.DESIGN: A case-control observation.SETTTNG: Department of Medical Imaging, Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.PARTTCTPANTS: Fifteen patients with acute cerebral infarction were selected from Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA from February to December in 2005. They all suffered from acute attack and motor disorder of hemiplegic limbs to different extent, and were conformed by CT or MRI.There were 9 males and 6 females, aging 16-87 years old, the median age was 51.7 years, and all were right handed. Fifteen right-handed normal subjects, who were matched by age and sex with the patients in the cerebral infarction group, were selected from the relatives of patients and physicians of the Imaging Department as the control group. All the subjects were informed and agreed with the study.METHODS: The patients with acute cerebral infarction and subjects in the control group received MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with GE 1.5 T nuclear magnetic resonance system, fiber tracking with the software of dTV- Ⅱ. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps and three-dimensional tractography of bilateral CST of all patients were created. Displacement, continuity and destroy of fibrous bands were observed. At the same time, muscle strength of ipsilateral hand of patients with cerebral infarction was measured with Brunnstrom standard. The correlation between the severity

  17. Drug-resistant genes carried by Acinetobacter baumanii isolated from patients with lower respiratory tract infection

    DAI Ning; ZHANG Wei; LI Jia-shu; YU Qin; WAN Huan-ying; MU Lan; ZHONG Xiao-ning; WEI Li-ping; MA Jian-jun; WANG Qiu-yue; HU Ke; LI De-zhi; TIAN Gui-zhen; CAI Shao-xi; WANG Rui-qin; HE Bei; WANG Si-qin; WANG Zhan-wei; ZHAO Su-rui; GAO Zhan-cheng; CHEN Ji-chao; CHEN Yu-sheng; GENG Rong; HU Ying-hui; YANG Jing-ping; DU Juan; HU Cheng-ping

    2010-01-01

    Background Acinetobacter baumanii (A. baumanii) remains an important microbial pathogen resulting in nosocomial acquired infections with significant morbidity and mortality. The mechanism by which nosocomial bacteria, like A.baumanii, attain multidrug resistance to antibiotics is of considerable interest. The aim in this study was to investigate the spread status of antibiotic resistance genes, such as multiple β-lactamase genes and aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes, from A. baumanii strains isolated from patients with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs).Methods Two thousand six hundred and ninety-eight sputum or the bronchoalveolar lavage samples from inpatients with LRTIs were collected in 21 hospitals in the mainland of China from November 2007 to February 2009. All samples were routinely inoculated. The isolated bacterial strains and their susceptibility were analyzed via VITEK-2 expert system.Several kinds of antibiotic resistant genes were further differentiated via polymerase chain reaction and sequencing methods.Results Totally, 39 A. baumanii strains were isolated from 2698 sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage samples. There was not only a high resistant rate of the isolated A. baumanii strains to ampicillin and first- and second-generation cephalosporins (94.87%, 100% and 97.44%, respectively), but also to the third-generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone at 92.31%, ceftazidine at 51.28%) and imipenem (43.59%) as well. The lowest antibiotic resistance rate of 20.51% was found to amikacin. The OXA-23 gene was identified in 17 strains of A. baumanii, and the AmpC gene in 23 strains. The TEM-1 gene was carried in 15 strains. PER-1 and SHV-2 genes were detected in two different strains.Aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme gene aac-3-la was found in 23 strains, and the aac-6'-lb gene in 19 strains, aac-3-la and aac-6'-lb genes hibernated in three A. baumanii strains that showed no drug-resistant phenotype.Conclusions A. baumaniican carry multiple drug

  18. The cost of lower respiratory tract infections hospital admissions in the Canadian Arctic

    Anna Banerji

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Inuit infants who reside in the Nunavut (NU regions of Arctic Canada have extremely high rates of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs associated with significant health expenditures, but the costs in other regions of Arctic Canada have not been documented. Objective . This prospective surveillance compares, across most of Arctic Canada, the rates and costs associated with LRTI admissions in infants less than 1 year of age, and the days of hospitalization and costs adjusted per live birth. Design . This was a hospital-based surveillance of LRTI admissions of infants less than 1 year of age, residing in Northwest Territories (NT, the 3 regions of Nunavut (NU; [Kitikmeot (KT, Kivalliq (KQ and Qikiqtani (QI] and Nunavik (NK from 1 January 2009 to 30 June 2010. Costs were obtained from the territorial or regional governments and hospitals, and included transportation, hospital stay, physician fees and accommodation costs. The rates of LRTI hospitalizations, days of hospitalization and associated costs were calculated per live birth in each of the 5 regions. Results . There were 513 LRTI admissions during the study period. For NT, KT, KQ, QI and NK, the rates of LRTI hospitalization per 100 live births were 38, 389, 230, 202 and 445, respectively. The total days of LRTI admission per live birth were 0.25, 3.3, 2.6, 1.7 and 3 for the above regions. The average cost per live birth for LRTI admission for these regions was $1,412, $22,375, $14,608, $8,254 and $10,333. The total cost for LRTI was $1,498,232 in NT, $15,662,968 in NU and $3,874,881 in NK. Medical transportation contributed to a significant proportion of the costs. Conclusion . LRTI admission rates in NU and Nunavik are much higher than that in NT and remain among the highest rates globally. The costs of these admissions are exceptionally high due to the combination of very high rates of admission, very expensive medical evacuations and prolonged hospitalizations

  19. Molecular Epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates from Children with Recurrent Upper Respiratory Tract Infections.

    Korona-Glowniak, Izabela; Maj, Maciej; Siwiec, Radosław; Niedzielski, Artur; Malm, Anna

    2016-01-01

    A total of 125 isolates were recovered from adenoids and/or nasopharynx of 170 children aged 2 to 5 from south-east Poland; they had undergone adenoidectomy for recurrent and/or persistent symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections. Pneumococcal isolates were analyzed by phenotyping (serotyping and antimicrobial resistance tests) and genotyping together with the clonality of the pneumococcal isolates based on resistance determinants, transposon distribution and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Serotypes 19F, 6B and 23F constituted 44.8% of the isolates. Among all of the strains, 44.8% showed decreased susceptibility to penicillin and resistance to co-trimoxazole (52.8%), tetracycline (38.4%), erythromycin (53.6%), clindamycin (52.8%) and chloramphenicol (27.2%) was observed. Tn6002 was found in 34.8% of erythromycin-resistant isolates while composite Tn2010-in 16.7% of erm(B)-carrying isolates that harboured also mef(E) gene. Tn3872-related elements were detected in 27.3% of erythromycin-resistant strains. In the majority of chloramphenicol-resistant catpC194-carrying isolates (79.4%), ICESp23FST81-family elements were detected. The genotyping showed that pneumococcal population was very heterogeneous; 82 sequence types (STs) were identified, and the most frequent contributed to not more than 8% of the isolates. Nearly 44% STs were novel, each of them was recovered only from one child. Four STs belonged to one of the 43 worldwide spread resistant pneumococcal clones currently accepted by Pneumococcal Molecular Epidemiology Network (PMEN), i.e. Spain 9V-3, Spain 23F-1, Norway NT-42 and Poland 6B-20, accounting for 12 (16.7%) of the 75 nonususceptible isolates, and five STs were single-locus variants of PMEN resistant clones (England 14-9, Spain 9V-3, Spain 23F-1, Greece 21-30, Denmark 14-32), accounting 9 (12%) of nonsusceptible isolates. A few MDR clones belonging to 6B and 19F serotypes found among preschool children emphasizes rather the role of clonal

  20. Use and feasibility of delayed prescribing for respiratory tract infections: A questionnaire survey

    Lindbæk Morten

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delayed prescribing of antibiotics for respiratory tract infections (RTIs lowers the amount of antibiotics consumed. Several national treatment guidelines on RTIs recommend the strategy. When advocating treatment innovations, the feasibility and credibility of the innovation must be taken into account. The objective of this study was to explore GPs use and patients uptake of wait-and-see prescriptions for RTIs, and to investigate the feasibility of the strategy from GPs' and patients' perspectives. Methods Questionnaire survey among Norwegian GPs issuing and patients receiving a wait-and-see-prescription for RTIs. Patients reported symptoms, confidence and antibiotics consumption, GPs reported diagnoses, reason for issuing a wait-and-see-prescription and their opinion about the method. Results 304 response pairs from consultations with 49 GPs were received. The patient response rate was 80%. The most common diagnosis for the GPs to issue a wait-and-see prescription was sinusitis (33% and otitis (21%. 46% of the patients reported to consume the antibiotics. When adjusted for other factors, the diagnosis did not predict antibiotic consumption, but both being 16 years or more (p = 0,006 and reporting to have a fever (p = 0,012 doubled the odds of antibiotic consumption, while feeling very ill more than quadrupled the odds (p = 0,002. In 210 cases (69%, the GP found delayed prescribing a very reasonable strategy, and 270 patients (89% would prefer to receive a wait-and-see prescription in a similar situation in the future. The GPs found delayed prescribing very reasonable most frequently in cases of sinusitis (79%, p = 0,007 and least frequently in cases of lower RTIs (49%, p = 0,002. Conclusion Most patients and GPs are satisfied with the delayed prescribing strategy. The patients' age, symptoms and malaise are more important than the diagnosis in predicting antibiotic consumption. The GP's view of the method as a reasonable

  1. The Clinical and Economic Impact of Probiotics Consumption on Respiratory Tract Infections: Projections for Canada

    Gerlier, Laetitia; Roy, Denis; Reid, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is accumulating evidence supporting the use of probiotics, which are defined as “live micro-organisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host”, as a preventive measure against respiratory tract infections (RTI). Two recent meta-analyses showed probiotic consumption (daily intake of 107 to 1010 CFU in any form for up to 3 months) significantly reduced RTI duration, frequency, antibiotic use and work absenteeism. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the impact of probiotic use in terms of number of RTI episodes and days averted, and the number of antibiotic prescriptions and missed workdays averted, in the general population of Canada. In addition, the corresponding economic impact from both a healthcare payer and a productivity perspective was estimated. Methods A microsimulation model was developed to reproduce the Canadian population (sample rate of 1/1000 = 35 540 individuals) employing age and gender. RTI incidence was taken from FluWatch consultation rates for influenza-like illness (2013–14) and StatCan all-cause consultations statistics. The model was calibrated on a 2.1% RTI annual incidence in the general population (5.2 million RTI days) and included known risk factors (smoking status, shared living conditions and vaccination status). RTI-related antibiotic prescriptions and work absenteeism were obtained from the literature. Results The results indicate that probiotic use saved 573 000–2.3 million RTI-days, according to the YHEC–Cochrane scenarios respectively. These reductions were associated with an avoidance of 52 000–84 000 antibiotic courses and 330 000–500 000 sick-leave days. A projection of corresponding costs reductions amounted to Can$1.3–8.9 million from the healthcare payer perspective and Can$61.2–99.7 million when adding productivity losses. Conclusion The analysis shows that the potential of probiotics to reduce RTI-related events may have a substantial

  2. Public health and budget impact of probiotics on common respiratory tract infections: a modelling study.

    Irene Lenoir-Wijnkoop

    Full Text Available Two recent meta-analyses by the York Health Economics Consortium (YHEC and Cochrane demonstrated probiotic efficacy in reducing the duration and number of common respiratory tract infections (CRTI and associated antibiotic prescriptions. A health-economic analysis was undertaken to estimate the public health and budget consequences of a generalized probiotic consumption in France.A virtual age- and gender-standardized population was generated using a Markov microsimulation model. CRTI risk factors incorporated into this model were age, active/passive smoking and living in a community setting. Incidence rates and resource utilization were based on the 2011-2012 flu season and retrieved from the French GPs Sentinelles network. Results of both meta-analyses were independently applied to the French population to estimate CRTI events, assuming a generalized probiotic use compared to no probiotics during winter months: -0.77 days/CRTI episode (YHEC scenario or odds-ratio 0.58 for ≥1 CRTI episode (Cochrane scenario with vs. without probiotics. Economic perspectives were National Health System (NHS, society, family. Outcomes included cost savings related to the reduced numbers of CRTI episodes, days of illness, number of antibiotic courses, sick leave days, medical and indirect costs.For France, generalized probiotic use would save 2.4 million CRTI-days, 291,000 antibiotic courses and 581,000 sick leave days, based on YHEC data. Applying the Cochrane data, reductions were 6.6 million CRTI days, 473,000 antibiotic courses and 1.5 million sick days. From the NHS perspective, probiotics' economic impact was about €14.6 million saved according to YHEC and €37.7 million according to Cochrane. Higher savings were observed in children, active smokers and people with more frequent human contacts.Public health and budget impact of probiotics are substantial, whether they reduce CRTI episodes frequency or duration. Noteworthy, the 2011-12 winter CRTI

  3. Progress in Pediatrics in 2012: choices in allergy, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hematology, infectious diseases, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses.

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Vottero, Alessandra; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2013-05-08

    In this review, we summarize the progresses in allergy, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hematology, infectious diseases, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses that have been published in The Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2012. The induction of Treg activity by probiotics might be effective for promoting tolerance towards food allergens. Nasal cytology is useful in patients with rhinitis for diagnosing chronic non-allergic non-infectious diseases. Atopic eczema is associated both with an aberrant skin matrix and impaired systemic immune response. Therefore, isolated topical treatment may have suboptimal effect. Diagnostic work-up of exercise-induced anaphylaxis, including exercise challenge test, is necessary to reach a diagnosis. Studies may support a role for nutrition on prevention of asthma and cardiovascular diseases. Clinicians need to early identify adolescent menstrual abnormalities to minimize sequelae, and to promote health information. In Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2B investigations include acetylcholinesterase study of rectal mucosa followed by the molecular analysis of RET mutation. Low adherence to gluten-free diet and osteopenia are common problems in children with diabetes mellitus type 1 and celiac disease. In infantile colic, laboratory tests are usually unnecessary and the treatment is based on reassurance. Prevalence of obesity and stunting is elucidated by several studies. Evidences are growing that dietetic measures are needed to prevent obesity in children with acute leukemia. Treatment studies for infectious diseases show promise for probiotics along with standard triple therapy in children with Helicobacter pilori infection, while zinc has no effect on pneumonia. Educational programs about the proper management of the febrile child are warranted. A new hour-specific total serum bilirubin nomogram has been shown to be able to predict newborns without hyperbilirubinemia after 48 to 72 hours of life. Newborns with

  4. Impact on respiratory tract infections of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine administered at 3, 5 and 11 months of age

    Cesati Laura

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical and public health importance of pneumococcal infections justifies the implementation of measures capable of reducing their incidence and severity, and explains why the recently marketed heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7 has been widely studied by pediatricians. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of PCV-7 administered at 3, 5 and 11 months of age on respiratory tract infections in very young children. Methods A total of 1,571 healthy infants (910 males aged 75–105 days (median 82 days were enrolled in this prospective cohort trial to receive a hexavalent vaccine (DTaP/IPV/HBV/Hib and PCV-7 (n = 819 or the hexavalent vaccine alone (n = 752 at 3, 5 and 11 months of age. Morbidity was recorded for the 24 months following the second dose by monthly telephone interviews conducted by investigators blinded to the study treatment assignment using standardised questionnaires. During these interviews, the caregivers and the children's pediatricians were questioned about illnesses and the use of antibiotics since the previous telephone call. All of the data were analysed using SAS Windows v.12. Results Among the 1,555 subjects (98.9% who completed the study, analysis of the data by the periods of follow-up demonstrated that radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia (CAP was significantly less frequent in the PCV-7 group during the follow-up as a whole and during the last period of follow-up. Moreover, there were statistically significant between-group differences in the incidence of acute otitis media (AOM in each half-year period of follow-up except the first, with significantly lower number of episodes in children receiving PCV-7 than in controls. Furthermore, the antibiotic prescription data showed that the probability of receiving an antibiotic course was significantly lower in the PCV-7 group than in the control group. Conclusion Our findings show the effectiveness of the simplified

  5. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and lung fibrosis after ingestion of a high dose of ortho-phenylphenol.

    Cheng, Shih-Lung; Wang, Hao-Chien; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2005-08-01

    Ortho-phenylphenol (OPP) and its sodium salt are used as fungicides and antibacterial agents, ingestion of which has been found to cause liver toxicity, renal toxicity and carcinomas in the urinary tract of rats. Lung damage due to OPP ingestion has not been reported in humans. We report a suicidal 39-year-old woman with stage II cervical cancer who drank a potentially lethal dose of OPP in the form of a commercial antiseptic, which led to the complication of liver and renal function impairment, severe lung damage with acute respiratory distress syndrome and subsequent severe lung fibrosis. Open lung biopsy showed diffuse alveolar damage. She was discharged after 34 days of hospitalization with continuing domiciliary oxygen therapy.