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Sample records for acute regional ischemia

  1. Greater resistance of the rabbit antropyloric region to experimental acute gastric ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica B. Magalhães

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Gastric ischemia represents an important medical challenge in pathology and surgical practice. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of acute gastric ischemia on different regions of the stomach. METHOD: Rabbit stomachs were subjected to devascularization of the greater and lesser curvatures for 3, 6 and 12 hours. After these periods, the stomachs were removed for macro and microscopic analysis. RESULTS: Hemorrhagic necrosis was more marked in the gastric fundus and body. In contrast, the antropylorus remained preserved in 100% of the rabbits after 3 hours of ischemia (group I, and in 80% of the rabbits after 6 and 12 hours of ischemia (groups II and III. Necrosis of the gastric body and fundus mucosa were observed in all animals after 6 and 12 hours of ischemia. CONCLUSION: We concluded that this experimental model of acute gastric ischemia was effective in producing hemorrhagic necrosis of the gastric fundus and body in rabbits even within a short period of time. Furthermore, the antropyloric region was preserved in most animals.

  2. Value of Quantitative Tissue Velocity Imaging in the Detection of Regional Myocardial Function in Dogs with Acute Subendocardial Ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinyyang ZHANG; Youbin DENG; Yani LIU; Haoyi YANG; Bingbing LIU; Weihui SHENTU; Peng LI

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of quantitative tissue velocity imaging (QTVI) in assessing regional myocardial systolic and diastolic functions in dogs with acute subendocardial ischemia. Animal models of subendocardial ischemia were established by injecting microspheres (about 300 μm in diameter) into the proximal end of left circumflex coronary artery in 11 hybrid dogs through cannulation. Before and after embolization, two-dimensional echocardiography, QTVI and real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography (RT-MCE) via intravenous infusion of self-made microbubbles, were performed, respectively. The systolic segmental wall thickening and subendocardial myocardial longitudinal velocities of risk segments before and after embolization were compared by using paired t analysis. The regional myocardial video intensity versus contrast time could be fitted to an exponential function: y=A-(1-exp-β-t), in which the product of A and β provides a measure of myocardial blood flow. RT-MCE showed that subendocardial normalized A.β was decreased markedly from 0.99±0.19 to 0.35±0.11 (P0.05), the longitudinal peak systolic velocities (Vs) and early-diastolic peak velocities (Ve) recorded by QTVI were declined significantly (P<0.05). Moreover, the subendocardial velocity curves during isovolumic relaxation predominantly showed positive waves, whereas they mainly showed negative waves before the embolization. This study demonstrates that QTVI can more sensitively and accurately detect abnormal regional myocardial function and post-systolic systole causedby acute subendocardial ischemia.

  3. Diagnosis of acute cardiac ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, J Hector; Selker, Harry P

    2003-02-01

    A better understanding of coronary syndromes allow physicians to appreciate UAP and AMI as part of a continuum of ACI. ACI is a life-threatening condition whose identification can have major economic and therapeutic importance as far as threatening dysrhythmias and preventing or limiting myocardial infarction size. The identification of ACI continues to challenge the skill of even experienced clinicians, yet physicians continue (appropriately) to admit the overwhelming majority of patients with ACI; in the process, they admit many patients without acute ischemia [2], overestimating the likelihood of ischemia in low-risk patients because of magnified concern for this diagnosis for prognostic and therapeutic reasons. Studies of admitting practices from a decade ago have yielded useful clinical information but have shown that neither clinical symptoms nor the ECG could reliably distinguish most patients with ACI from those with other conditions. Most studies have evaluated the accuracy of various technologies for diagnosing ACI, yet only a few have evaluated the clinical impact of routine use. The prehospital 12-lead ECG has moderate sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of ACI. It has demonstrated a reduction of the mean time to thrombolysis by 33 minutes and short-term overall mortality in randomized trials. In the general ED setting, only the ACI-TIPI has demonstrated, in a large-scale multicenter clinical trial, a reduction in unnecessary hospitalizations without decreasing the rate of appropriate admission for patients with ACI. The Goldman chest pain protocol has good sensitivity for AMI but was not shown to result in any differences in hospitalization rate, length of stay, or estimated costs in the single clinical impact study performed. The protocol's applicability to patients with UAP has not been evaluated. Single measurement of biomarkers at presentation to the ED has poor sensitivity for AMI, although most biomarkers have high specificity. Serial

  4. Endovascular Management of Acute Limb Ischemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hynes, Brian G

    2011-09-14

    Despite major advances in pharmacologic and endovascular therapies, acute limb ischemia (ALI) continues to result in significant morbidity and mortality. The incidence of ALI may be as high as 13-17 cases per 100,000 people per year, with mortality rates approaching 18% in some series. This review will address the contemporary endovascular management of ALI encompassing pharmacologic and percutaneous interventional treatment strategies.

  5. Adult midgut malrotation presented with acute bowel obstruction and ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akile Zengin

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Malrotation should be considered in differential diagnosis in patients presented with acute abdomen and intestinal ischemia. Surgical intervention should be prompt to limit morbidity and mortality.

  6. One of the most urgent vascular circumstances: Acute limb ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Acar, Rezzan D; Sahin, Muslum; Kirma, Cevat

    2013-01-01

    Acute limb ischemia is a sudden decrease in limb perfusion that threatens limb viability and requires urgent evaluation and management. Most of the causes of acute limb ischemia are thrombosis of a limb artery or bypass graft, embolism from the heart or a disease artery, dissection, and trauma. Assessment determines whether the limb is viable or irreversibly damaged. Prompt diagnosis and revascularization by means of catheter-based thrombolysis or thrombectomy and by surgery reduce the risk o...

  7. Silent ischemia and severity of pain in acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, F E; Nielsen, S L; Knudsen, F;

    1991-01-01

    An overall low tendency to complain of pain, due to a low perception of pain, has been suggested in the pathogenesis of silent ischemia, independent of the extent of the diseased coronaries and a history of previous acute myocardial infarction. This hypothesis has been tested indirectly...... in this retrospective study by comparison of the use of analgesics during admission for a first acute myocardial infarction with the occurrence of silent ischemia at exertion tests four weeks after discharge from hospital. The study did not show a lower use of analgesics in patients with silent ischemia, but this may...

  8. Treatment of acute hydrocephalus and cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Hasan (Djo)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractOnly recently has acute hydrocephalus after subarachnoid hemorrhage been recognized as a clinical important problem. The mortality rate in patients with acute hydrocephalus after subarachnoid hemorrhage is higher than in those without, which is mainly caused by cerebral ischemia. An expl

  9. Acute limb ischemia in cancer patients: should we surgically intervene?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tsang, Julian S

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Cancer patients have an increased risk of venous thromboembolic events. Certain chemotherapeutic agents have also been associated with the development of thrombosis. Reported cases of acute arterial ischemic episodes in cancer patients are rare. METHODS: Patients who underwent surgery for acute limb ischemia associated with malignancy in a university teaching hospital over a 10-year period were identified. Patient demographics, cancer type, chemotherapy use, site of thromboembolism, treatment and outcome were recorded. RESULTS: Four hundred nineteen patients underwent surgical intervention for acute arterial ischemia, 16 of these patients (3.8%) had associated cancer. Commonest cancer sites were the urogenital tract (n = 5) and the lungs (n = 5). Eight patients (50%) had been recently diagnosed with cancer, and four (25%) of these cancers were incidental findings after presentation with acute limb ischemia. Four patients (25%) developed acute ischemia during chemotherapy. The superficial femoral artery was the most frequent site of occlusion (50%), followed by the brachial (18%) and popliteal (12%) arteries. All patients underwent thromboembolectomy, but two (12%) patients subsequently required a bypass procedure. Six patients (37%) had limb loss, and in-patient mortality was 12%. Histology revealed that all occlusions were due to thromboembolism, with no tumor cells identified. At follow-up, 44% of patients were found to be alive after 1 year. CONCLUSION: Cancer and chemotherapy can predispose patients to acute arterial ischemia. Unlike other reports that view this finding as a preterminal event most appropriately treated by palliative measures, in this series, early diagnosis and surgical intervention enabled limb salvage and patient survival.

  10. Acute coronary ischemia during alcohol withdrawal: a case report

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    Sriram Ganeshalingam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The potential of alcohol withdrawal to cause acute coronary events is an area that needs the urgent attention of clinicians and researchers. Case presentation We report the case of a 52-year-old heavy-alcohol-using Sri Lankan man who developed electocardiogram changes suggestive of an acute coronary event during alcohol withdrawal. Despite the patient being asymptomatic, subsequent echocardiogram showed evidence of ischemic myocardial dysfunction. We review the literature on precipitation of myocardial ischemia during alcohol withdrawal and propose possible mechanisms. Conclusions Alcohol withdrawal is a commonly observed phenomenon in hospitals. However, the number of cases reported in the literature of acute coronary events occurring during withdrawal is few. Many cases of acute ischemia or sudden cardiac deaths may be attributed to other well known complications of delirium tremens. This is an area needing the urgent attention of clinicians and epidemiologists.

  11. Acute Spinal Cord Ischemia during Aortography Treated with Intravenous Thrombolytic Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo, Lucas; Guttin, Jorge F.

    2006-01-01

    Acute anterior spinal cord ischemia is a rare but disastrous complication of endovascular aortic procedures. Although intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator is an effective treatment for acute brain ischemia, its use for the treatment of spinal cord ischemia has not previously been reported. We report the case of a patient who developed anterior spinal cord ischemia during diagnostic aortography. He was treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen ac...

  12. Diffusion and Perfusion MRI in Acute Cerebral Ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tchoyoson CC Lim; Chong-Tin Tan

    2001-01-01

    Reeent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in particular diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion weighted imaging (PWI), have allowed clinicians to have the ability to differentiate between irreversible cerebral infarction and the potentially reversible ischemic penumbra. This article examines the principles and practice of DWI and PWI. With continued advances in thrombolysis and other therapy for acute cerebral ischemia, neuroimaging is poised to play an increasingly important role in decisionmaking in aeute stroke.

  13. An Experimental Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Analysis on Early Stage of Acute Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易黎; 张苏明; 张新江

    2002-01-01

    Summary: Using different models of focal cerebral ischemia, the temporal and spatial rules ofmetabolism and energy changes in the post-ischemia brain tissue were measured by proton magnet-ic resonance spectroscopy(1HMRS) to provide valuable information for judging the prognosis of a-cute focal cerebral ischemia and carrying out effective therapy. Nine healthy Sprague-Dawly rats(both sexes) were randomly divided into two groups: The rats in the group A (n=4) were occlud-ed with self-thrombus for 1 h; The rats in the group B (n=5) were occluded with thread-embolifor 1 h. The 1H MRS at 30, 40, 50, 60 min respectively was examined and the metabolicchanges of NAA, Cho and Lac in the regions of interest were semiquantitatively analyzed. Thespectrum intregral calculus area ratio of NAA, Cho, Lac to Pcr+Ct was set as the criterion. Thevalues of NAA ~ Cho in the regions of interest were declined gradually within 1 h after ischemia,especially, the ratio of Cho/(Pcr+Cr), NAA/(Pcr+Cr) at 60 min had significant difference withthat at 50 min (P<0. 05). The ratio of Lac/(Pcr+Cr) began to decrease at 40 min from initial in-crease of Lac in both A and B groups. MR proton spectrum analysis was a non-invasive, direct andcomprehensive tool for the study of cellular metabolism and the status of the biochemical energy inacute ischemia stroke.

  14. Early CT findings in acute middle cerebral artery ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroke is characterized by a sudden onset of focal central neurological deficit, with symptoms lasting more than 24 hours, that can be fatal. The introduction of anti-coagulation treatments, together with continuous advances inneuroimaging techniques, have a positive impact, both on morbidity and mortality in stroke patients. It must be stressed, that 'therapeutic window' for fibrolytic treatment is up to 3 hours. The group consisted of 50 patients with clinical diagnosis of stroke, who met the following criteria: first ever, non-hemorrhagic stroke, middle cerebral artery territory involvement, first CT performed within 12 hours from the onset of symptoms, control CT, performed within 7 days, confirming signs of infarction in the distribution of middle cerebral artery. All CT were performed without contrast administration. First CT examinations were retrospectively studied for early evidence of ischemic changes, subsequently depicted as infarction in the control CT. Hyperdencemiddle cerebral artery sign (HMCAS), hypoattenuation of lentiform nucleus (ALN), loss of insular ribbon (LIR), hemispheric sulcus effacement (HES) were found as early abnormalities CT examinations continue to play a dominant role in the initial diagnosis of acute cerebral ischemia. Signs of early ischemia can be often detected within the first three hours from the onset, in the hyper acute phase. CT is used in evaluation of recent symptoms in acute phase and proper selection of patients for thrombolysis with significant therapeutic results. [author

  15. Acute mesenteric ischemia after cardio-pulmonary bypass surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bassam Abboud; Ronald Daher; Joe Boujaoude

    2008-01-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a highly-lethal surgical emergency.Several pathophysiologic events (arterial obstruction,venous thrombosis and diffuse vasospasm) lead to a sudden decrease in mesenteric blood flow.Ischemia/reperfusion syndrome of the intestine is responsible for systemic abnormalities,leading to multi-organ failure and death.Early diagnosis is difficult because the clinical presentation is subtle,and the biological and radiological diagnostic tools lack sensitivity and specificity.Therapeutic options vary from conservative resuscitation,medical treatment,endovascular techniques and surgical resection and revascularization.A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis,and prompt treatment is the only hope of reducing the mortality rate.Studies are in progress to provide more accurate diagnostic tools for early diagnosis.AMI can complicate the post-operative course of patients following cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB).Several factors contribute to the systemic hypo-perfusion state,which is the most frequent pathophysiologic event.In this particular setting,the clinical presentation of AMI can be misleading,while the laboratory and radiological diagnostic tests often produce inconclusive results.The management strategies are controversial,but early treatment is critical for saving lives.Based on the experience of our team,we consider prompt exploratory laparotomy,irrespective of the results of the diagnostic tests,is the only way to provide objective assessment and adequate treatment,leading to dramatic reduction in the mortality rate.

  16. Microdialysis in the assessment of regional intestinal ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Thorbjørn

     The Ph.D.thesis “Microdialysis in the assessment of regional intestinal ischemia” is based on three scientific papers. The diagnosis of intestinal ischemia remains a diagnostic challenge, since no technique has been able to monitor the intestinal perfusion continuously with a high sensitivity an...

  17. Depressive Symptoms Are Associated with Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Jingkai Wei; Pratik Pimple; Shah, Amit J.; Cherie Rooks; Douglas Bremner, J.; Nye, Jonathon A.; Ijeoma Ibeanu; Nancy Murrah; Lucy Shallenberger; Paolo Raggi; Viola Vaccarino

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Depression is an adverse prognostic factor after an acute myocardial infarction (MI), and an increased propensity toward emotionally-driven myocardial ischemia may play a role. We aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in young survivors of an MI. Methods We studied 98 patients (49 women and 49 men) age 38–60 years who were hospitalized for acute MI in the previous 6 months. Patients underwent myocardial perfusion ...

  18. Acute and chronic nociceptive phases observed in a rat hind paw ischemia/reperfusion model depend on different mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klafke, J Z; da Silva, M A; Rossato, M F; de Prá, S Dal Toé; Rigo, F K; Walker, C I B; Bochi, G V; Moresco, R N; Ferreira, J; Trevisan, G

    2016-02-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1) may be evoked by ischemia/reperfusion, eliciting acute and chronic pain that is difficult to treat. Despite this, the underlying mechanism of CRPS1 has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the goal of this study is to evaluate the involvement of inflammation, oxidative stress, and the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel, a chemosensor of inflammation and oxidative substances, in an animal model of chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP). Male Wistar rats were subjected to 3 h hind paw ischemia/reperfusion (CPIP model). Different parameters of nociception, inflammation, ischemia, and oxidative stress were evaluated at 1 (acute) and 14 (chronic) days after CPIP. The effect of a TRPA1 antagonist and the TRPA1 immunoreactivity were also observed after CPIP. In the CPIP acute phase, we observed mechanical and cold allodynia; increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (hind paw), ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) (serum), protein carbonyl (hind paw and spinal cord), lactate (serum), and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, hind paw and spinal cord); and higher myeloperoxidase (MPO) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activities (hind paw). In the CPIP chronic phase, we detected mechanical and cold allodynia and increased levels of IMA (serum), protein carbonyl (hind paw and spinal cord), and 4-HNE (hind paw and spinal cord). TRPA1 antagonism reduced mechanical and cold allodynia 1 and 14 days after CPIP, but no change in TRPA1 immunoreactivity was observed. Different mechanisms underlie acute (inflammation and oxidative stress) and chronic (oxidative stress) phases of CPIP. TRPA1 activation may be relevant for CRPS1/CPIP-induced acute and chronic pain. PMID:26490459

  19. THE EFFECT OF ANISODAMINE ON CEREBRAL RESUSCITATION OF RATS IN ACUTE CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA FROM CARDIAC ARREST

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    彭新琦; 曹苏谊; 可君

    1995-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms of acute cerebral ischemia,and to look for effective drugs on cerebral resuscitation,we made a model of acute complete global brain ischemia,reperfusion and resuscita-tion on rats according to Garavilla's method.Our results showed that the event of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury could result in the in-crease of total brain calcium content,and anisodamine has the same reducing brain calcium contents as dil-tiazem's,while improving neurological outcome and alleviating injury to neurons.

  20. Metabolism of biogenic amines in acute cerebral ischemia: Influence of systemic hyperglycemia

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    Milovanović Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin are biogenic amines which are transmitters of the central nervous system. The effects of ischemia on the brain parenchyma depends on many factors, such is the mechanism of blood flow interruption, velocity of the occurring blood flow interruption, duration of an ischemic episode, organization of anatomical structures of the brain blood vessels etc., which all influence the final outcome. During interruption of the brain circulation in experimental or clinical conditions, neurotransmitter metabolism, primarily of biogenic amines, is disturbed. Many researches with various experimental models of complete ischemia reported a decrease in the content of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in the CNS tissue. It was proven that hyperglycemia can drastically increase cerebral injury followed by short-term cerebral ischemia. Considering the fact that biogenic amines (dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin influence the size of neurologic damage, as well as the fact that in hyperglycemic conditions infarct size (from the morphological aspect is larger relative to normoglycemic status, the intention was to evaluate the role of biogenic amines in occurrence of damage in conditions of hyperglycemia, i.e. in the case of brain apoplexia in diabetics. Analysis of biogenic amines metabolism in states of acute hyperglycemia, as well as analysis of the effects of reversible and irreversible brain ischemia on metabolism of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine, showed that acute hyperglycemia slows down serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine metabolism in the cerebral cortex and n. caudatus. Brain ischemia in normoglycemic animals by itself has no influence on biogenic amines metabolism, but the effect of ischemia becomes apparent during reperfusion. In recirculation, which corresponds to the occurrences in penumbra, release of biogenic amines is uncontrolled and increased. Brain ischemia in acute hyperglycemic animals

  1. Stroke severity and incidence of acute large vessel occlusions in patients with hyper-acute cerebral ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christine Kraup; Christensen, Anders Fogh; Ovesen, C;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of acute large vessel occlusions in relation to clinical severity has not yet been established in a comprehensive, consecutive and unselected cohort of patients with hyper-acute cerebral ischemia. AIM: The aim of this study was to establish the frequency of acute large...... vessel occlusions and describe the relations to the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), lesion site and time from symptom onset in unselected consecutive patients with hyper-acute cerebral ischemia. METHODS: A prospective single hospital registry was based on consecutive unselected...... patients admitted from July 2009 to December 2011 with symptoms of acute cerebral ischemia within 4.5 h from symptom onset. ICA, M1, M2, ACA, PCA, BA and VA were assed for occlusions. Best NIHSS-cut-off values were calculated based on sensitivity and specificity for detecting any, anterior and posterior...

  2. Acute Occlusive Mesenteric Ischemia in Taif Province, Saudi Arabia

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    Mohamed Al Saeed ** Mohamed Abu Shady *Mohamed Hatem *Khalid Alzahrani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesenteric ischemia is relatively a rare disorder seen in the emergency department (ED. Due to the effect of hypobaric hypoxia and higher liability for thrombosis encountered in high altitude areas, acute occlusive mesenteric ischemia (AOMI would represent an actual challenge in Taif and related districts. Another risk factor is that about twenty-five percent of Saudis are victims of diabetes due to the changes in lifestyle and diet leading to increasing levels of obesity. Vague nonspecific clinical findings and limitations of diagnostic studies in addition to cultural and social factors, may lead to late presentation making the diagnosis a significant challenge and in turn higher morbidity and mortality are expected. Objectives: In this study, we review type of AOMI, pattern of presentation, laboratory, radiological, Intraoperative findings and results of treatment in 36 patients who were admitted to King Abdul Aziz Specialist Hospital and King Faisal Hospital, Al Taif, Saudi Arabia from January 2009 to January 2012. Methods: 36 patients with final diagnosis of AOMI were included in this retrospective study by means of review of their files and medical records. Results: The disease was more common in men than women (23 male and 13 females. The mean age of patients was 54 years. The mean time of presentation was 2.4 days after occurrence of symptoms. Abdominal pain was the most common symptom of patients followed by nausea, vomiting, constipation and bloody diarrhea. On physical examination; tachycardia was prevalent, Oliguria was seen in approximately 69.4% of patients, 11.1% of patients were in shock status. All patients had abdominal tenderness and 61.1% of patients had marked peritoneal signs (rebound tenderness with guarding or/and rigidity. Twenty one/36 (58.3% patients were diabetics, 17/36 patients (47.2% were hypertensive and 8/36 patients (22.2% with associated cardiac disorders. In laboratory tests, Leukocytosis was present in all

  3. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome and Intra-abdominal Ischemia in Patients with Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.; Buddingh, K. T.; Bosma, B; Nieuwenhuijs, V B; Hofker, H.S.; Zijlstra, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Severe acute pancreatitis may be complicated by intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS), and intestinal ischemia. The aim of this retrospective study is to describe the incidence, treatment, and outcome of patients with severe acute pancreatitis and ACS

  4. Aortic plaque rupture in the setting of acute lower limb ischemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, David H

    2012-02-01

    Acute aortic plaque rupture is an uncommon cause of acute lower limb ischemia. The authors report sequence computed tomographic imaging of a distal aortic plaque rupture in a young man with bilateral lower limb complications. Clinical awareness, prompt recognition and imaging, and appropriate treatment of this uncommon condition are necessary to improve patient outcomes.

  5. Catheter-directed thrombolysis for the treatment of acute lower limb ischemia: report of 30 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the efficacy and safety of catheter-directed thrombolysis in treating acute lower limb ischemia. Methods: During the period from October 2009 to October 2012, 30 patients with acute lower limb ischemia were admitted to authors' hospital and received catheter-directed thrombolysis. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Direct effective response was obtained in 24 patients. Fogarty catheter embolectomy under DSA monitoring had to be carried out in 2 patients as they failed to respond catheter-directed thrombolysis. Two patients underwent amputation as a result of irreversible limb necrosis. One patient died from acute myocardial infarction. One patient died from multiple organs dysfunction caused by the absorption of toxins from the putrid limb. Conclusion: As a kind of minimally- invasive technique for acute lower limb ischemia, catheter-directed thrombolysis is safe and effective. (authors)

  6. Expression of Bcl-2 and NF-κB in brain tissue after acute renal ischemia-reperfusion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Zhang; Gen-Yang Cheng; Xian-Zhi Liu; Feng-Jiang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of acute renal ischemia reperfusion on brain tissue. Methods:Fourty eight rats were randomly divided into four groups(n=12): sham operation group,30 min ischemia60 min reperfusion group,60 min ischemia60 min reperfusion group, and 120 min ischemia60 min reperfusion group.The brain tissues were taken after the experiment. TUNEL assay was used to detect the brain cell apoptosis, and western blot was used to detect the expression of apoptosis-related proteins and inflammatory factors.Results:Renal ischemia-reperfusion induced apoptosis of brain tissues, and the apoptosis increased with prolongation of ischemia time.The detection at the molecular level showed decreasedBcl-2 expression, increasedBax expression, upregulated expression ofNF-κB and its downstream factor COX-2/PGE2.Conclusions:Acute renal ischemia-reperfusion can cause brain tissue damage, manifested as induced brain tissues apoptosis and inflammation activation.

  7. N-Acetylaspartate distribution in rat brain striatum during acute brain ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sager, T.N.; Laursen, H; Fink-Jensen, A;

    1999-01-01

    Brain N-acetylaspartate (NAA) can be quantified by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and is used in clinical settings as a marker of neuronal density. It is, however, uncertain whether the change in brain NAA content in acute stroke is reliably measured by 1H-MRS and how NAA......]e increased linearly to 4 mmol/L after 3 hours and this level was maintained for the next 4 h. From the change in in vivo recovery of the interstitial space volume marker [14C]mannitol, the relative amount of NAA distributed in the interstitial space was calculated to be 0.2% of the total brain NAA during...... normal conditions and only 2 to 6% during ischemia. It was concluded that the majority of brain NAA is intracellularly located during ischemia despite large increases of interstitial [NAA]. Thus, MR quantification of NAA during acute ischemia reflects primarily changes in intracellular levels of NAA...

  8. Protective effects of allicin on acute cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGYan-hua; CHENChong-hong

    2004-01-01

    AIM To study the protective effects of allicin on acute focal cerebral ischemia reperfusioninjury. METHODS: The model of cerebral ishemia-3 h/reperfusion - 24h was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in SD rats. Allicin (10,20mg·kg-1) was administered once daily in rats: at 0 h of reperfusion. After 24h reperfusion, the content of

  9. The status of mitochondrial apparatus in rat atrial contractive cardiomyocites under the acute myocardial ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunaev A.V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to analyze morphological reactions of mitochondrial apparatus of atrial contractive cardiomyocites in rats on the acute myocardial ischemia. Modeling of the acute myocardial ischemia in rats was realized by daily introduction of vasopressin intraperitoneum in dosage 1 Ed of rat weight. Morphological research comprised both light and electronic microscopy of myocardium of right and left atria, right and left auricles, and also interatrial septum. Stereological estimation of several indexes was carried out: the compactness of mitochondria, numeral compactness of mitohondria, surface area of external mitochondrial membrane, compactness of mitochondrial cristae, number of mitochon-drial cristae, surface area of internal mitochondrial membrane, degree of cristae orientation, coefficient of mitochondrial sphericity, volume of mitochondrium, quantitative correlation of types of mitochondria. It was shown that the reaction of different types of mitochondria on development of acute myocardial ischemia in atrial contractive cardiomyocites depends on the structural-metabolic type of mitochondria. Under the acute myocardial ischemia the moderate diffuse reduction of mitochondrial apparatus of contractive cardiomyocites takes place that is accompanied by the prolonged renewal of high-energy mitochondria and causes energetical limitation of contractive function of atrial myocardium.

  10. Depressive symptoms are associated with mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia after acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingkai Wei

    Full Text Available Depression is an adverse prognostic factor after an acute myocardial infarction (MI, and an increased propensity toward emotionally-driven myocardial ischemia may play a role. We aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in young survivors of an MI.We studied 98 patients (49 women and 49 men age 38-60 years who were hospitalized for acute MI in the previous 6 months. Patients underwent myocardial perfusion imaging at rest, after mental stress (speech task, and after exercise or pharmacological stress. A summed difference score (SDS, obtained with observer-independent software, was used to quantify myocardial ischemia under both stress conditions. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II was used to measure depressive symptoms, which were analyzed as overall score, and as separate somatic and cognitive depressive symptom scores.There was a significant positive association between depressive symptoms and SDS with mental stress, denoting more ischemia. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, disease severity and medications, each incremental depressive symptom was associated with 0.14 points higher SDS. When somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms were examined separately, both somatic [β = 0.17, 95% CI: (0.04, 0.30, p = 0.01] and cognitive symptoms [β = 0.31, 95% CI: (0.07, 0.56, p = 0.01] were significantly associated with mental stress-induced ischemia. Depressive symptoms were not associated with ischemia induced by exercise or pharmacological stress.Among young post-MI patients, higher levels of both cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms are associated with a higher propensity to develop myocardial ischemia with mental stress, but not with physical (exercise or pharmacological stress.

  11. EFFECT OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE OF DUMAI-ACUPOINTS ON CEREBRAL NO AND BLOOD ENDOTHELIN CONTENTS IN RATS WITH ACUTE CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马杨; 许能贵; 许冠荪; 钟平; 王联发; 朱舜丽; 陈全珠

    2000-01-01

    Thirty Wistar rats were randomly and evenly divided into control group, cerebral ischemia group and ischemia + electroacupuncture (EA) group. The bilateral common carotid arteries were occluded to induce acute cerebral ischemia. Nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin (ET) contents in the cerebral tissues and blood were measured under normal condition, immediately after ischemia and following EA. Results showed that after acute cerebral ischemia NO and ET contents in the cerebral tissues increased significantly (P < 0.01) while serum ET increased and serum NO lowered obviously (P<0.05). Following EA of Baihui (GV 20) and Dazhui (GV 14), both NO and ET in cerebral tissues and serum turned to normal basically. It showed that EA could protect the cerebral tissues from injury induced bv ischemia. NO and ET might oarticioate in the modulation orocess of EA.

  12. EFFECT OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE OF DUMAI-ACUPOINTS ON CEREBRAL NO AND BLOOD ENDOTHELIN CONTENTS IN RATS WITH ACUTE CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaYang; XuNenggui; XuGuansun; ZhongPing; WangLianfa; ZhuShunli; ChenQuanzhu

    2000-01-01

    Thirty Wistar rats were randomly and evenly divided into control group, cerebral ischemia group and ischemia + electroacupuncture (EA) group. The bilateral common carotid arteries were occluded to induce acute cerebral ischemia. Nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin (ET)contents in the cerebral tissues and blood were measured under normal condition, immediately after ischemia and following EA. Results showed that after acute cerebral ischemia NO and ET contents in the cerebral tissues increased significantly (P<0.01) while serum ET increased and serum NO lowered obviously (P<0.05). Following EA of Baihui (GV 20) and Dazhui (GV 14), both NO and ET in cerebral tissues and serum turned to normal basically. It showed that EA could protect the cerebral tissues from injury induced by ischemia, NO and ET might participate in the modulation process of EA.

  13. An uncommon clinical presentation of acute limb ischemia: underscoring the role of perigenicular collaterals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Kapoulas, Konstantinos; Koukoumtzis, Dimitris; Mantatzis, Michalis; Lazarides, Miltos K

    2012-06-01

    We present a case of atypical acute limb ischemia in a non-diabetic patient, with ankle-brachial pressure index of 0.6 and rest pain localized exclusively over the gastrocnemius muscle, sparing the foot. This uncommon presentation was attributed to an impaired perigenicular collateral network. Thrombolysis restored adequate perfusion only temporarily and was followed by thromboembolectomy. The ischemia presentation in our case underscores the importance of the adequacy of the perigeniculate collateral network for the perfusion of the tibial muscles and, especially, the gastrocnemius muscle. PMID:22416262

  14. Obestatin Accelerates the Recovery in the Course of Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Bukowczan

    Full Text Available Several previous studies have shown that obestatin exhibits protective and regenerative effects in some organs including the stomach, kidney, and the brain. In the pancreas, pretreatment with obestatin inhibits the development of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis, and promotes survival of pancreatic beta cells and human islets. However, no studies investigated the effect of obestatin administration following the onset of experimental acute pancreatitis.The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of obestatin therapy in the course of ischemia/reperfusion-induced pancreatitis. Moreover, we tested the influence of ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute pancreatitis and administration of obestatin on daily food intake and pancreatic exocrine secretion.Acute pancreatitis was induced by pancreatic ischemia followed by reperfusion of the pancreas. Obestatin (8 nmol/kg/dose was administered intraperitoneally twice a day, starting 24 hours after the beginning of reperfusion. The effect of obestatin in the course of necrotizing pancreatitis was assessed between 2 and 14 days, and included histological, functional, and biochemical analyses. Secretory studies were performed on the third day after sham-operation or induction of acute pancreatitis in conscious rats equipped with chronic pancreatic fistula.Treatment with obestatin ameliorated morphological signs of pancreatic damage including edema, vacuolization of acinar cells, hemorrhages, acinar necrosis, and leukocyte infiltration of the gland, and led to earlier pancreatic regeneration. Structural changes were accompanied by biochemical and functional improvements manifested by accelerated normalization of interleukin-1β level and activity of myeloperoxidase and lipase, attenuation of the decrease in pancreatic DNA synthesis, and by an improvement of pancreatic blood flow. Induction of acute pancreatitis by pancreatic ischemia followed by reperfusion significantly decreased daily food intake and

  15. Classical and remote post-conditioning effects on ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute oxidant kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadkhodaee, Mehri; Najafi, Atefeh; Seifi, Behjat

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed to analyze and compare the effects of classical and remote ischemic postconditioning (POC) on rat renal ischemia/reperfusion (IR)-induced acute kidney injury. After right nephrectomy, male rats were randomly assigned into four groups (n = 8). In the IR group, 45 min of left renal artery occlusion was induced followed by 24 h of reperfusion. In the classical POC group, after induction of 45 min ischemia, 4 cycles of 10 s of intermittent ischemia and reperfusion were applied to the kidney before complete restoring of renal blood. In the remote POC group, 4 cycles of 5 min ischemia and reperfusion of left femoral artery were applied after 45 min renal ischemia and right at the time of renal reperfusion. There was a reduction in renal function (increase in blood urea and creatinine) in the IR group. Application of both forms of POC prevented the IR-induced reduction in renal function and histology. There were also significant improvements in kidney oxidative stress status in both POC groups demonstrated by a reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and preservation of antioxidant levels comparing to the IR group. We concluded that both methods of POC have protective effects on renal function and histology possibly by a reduction in IR-induced oxidative stress.

  16. High temporal resolution parametric MRI monitoring of the initial ischemia/reperfusion phase in experimental acute kidney injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Pohlmann

    Full Text Available Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury, a consequence of kidney hypoperfusion or temporary interruption of blood flow is a common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI. There is an unmet need to better understand the mechanisms operative during the initial phase of ischemic AKI. Non-invasive in vivo parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI may elucidate spatio-temporal pathophysiological changes in the kidney by monitoring the MR relaxation parameters T2* and T2, which are known to be sensitive to blood oxygenation. The aim of our study was to establish the technical feasibility of fast continuous T2*/T2 mapping throughout renal I/R. MRI was combined with a remotely controlled I/R model and a segmentation model based semi-automated quantitative analysis. This technique enabled the detailed assessment of in vivo changes in all kidney regions during ischemia and early reperfusion. Significant changes in T2* and T2 were observed shortly after induction of renal ischemia and during the initial reperfusion phase. Our study demonstrated for the first time that continuous and high temporal resolution parametric MRI is feasible for in-vivo monitoring and characterization of I/R induced AKI in rats. This technique may help in the identification of the timeline of key events responsible for development of renal damage in hypoperfusion-induced AKI.

  17. Acute coronary ischemia during alcohol withdrawal: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram Ganeshalingam; Epa Dhanesha; Rodrigo Chaturaka; Jayasinghe Saroj

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The potential of alcohol withdrawal to cause acute coronary events is an area that needs the urgent attention of clinicians and researchers. Case presentation We report the case of a 52-year-old heavy-alcohol-using Sri Lankan man who developed electocardiogram changes suggestive of an acute coronary event during alcohol withdrawal. Despite the patient being asymptomatic, subsequent echocardiogram showed evidence of ischemic myocardial dysfunction. We review the literatur...

  18. Diagnostic value of plasminogen activity level in acute mesenteric ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yusuf Gunerhan; Neset Koksal; Munire Kayahan; Yavuz Eryavuz; Hilal Sekban

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the changes in plasminogen activity level during mesenteric ischemia.METHODS: We performed laparotomy in 90 female Wistar-Albino rats (average weight 230 g).In sham groups (SL) (Groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ) the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and vein (SMV) were explored, but not tied.In SIA groups (Groups Ⅲ and Ⅳ) the SMA was ligated,and in SMV groups (Groups Ⅴ and Ⅵ) the SMV was ligated.On re-laparatomy 2 mL of blood was drawn at 1h in groups Ⅰ,Ⅲ and Ⅴ, and at 3 h in groups Ⅱ, Ⅳ and Ⅵ.Plasminogen levels were assessed and comparisons were made between groups and within each group.RESULTS: The mean plasminogen activity in the SL group was significantly higher than SMA (25.1±10.8 vs 11.8±4.6, P < 0.001) or SMV (25.1±10.8 vs 13.7 ±4.4,P< 0.001) groups both at 1 h and at 3 h (29.8±8.9 vs 15.1±5.7, P< 0.0001; 29.8±8.9 vs 14.2± 2.9, P<0.0001).There were no significant differences between the values of SMA and SMV groups at 1 h (P = 0.28) and at 3 h (P = 0.71).In each group, plasminogen activity levels did not change significantly between the two measurements performed at 1 h and 3 h.CONCLUSION: We conclude that blood plasminogen activities decrease during early phases of both arterial and venous mesenteric ischemia which may be a useful marker for early diagnosis.

  19. Acute embolic cerebral ischemia as an initial presentation of polycythemia vera: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Zoraster, Richard M; Rison, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Patients with polycythemia vera are at high risk for vaso-occlusive events including cerebral ischemia. Although unusual, acute ischemic stroke may be an initial presentation of polycythemia vera. It had been previously assumed that cerebral ischemic events were due to increased blood viscosity and platelet activation within the central nervous system arterial vessels. However, there are now a few isolated case reports of probable micro-embolic events originating from outside of ...

  20. Acute myocardial ischemia in adults secondary to missed Kawasaki disease in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Rizk, SRY; El Said, G; Daniels, LB; Burns, JC; El Said, H; Sorour, KA; Gharib, S; Gordon, JB

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Coronary artery aneurysms that occur in 25% of untreated Kawasaki disease (KD) patients may remain clinically silent for decades and then thrombose resulting in myocardial infarction. Although KD is now the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children in Asia, the United States, and Western Europe, the incidence of KD in Egypt is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that young adults in Egypt presenting with acute myocardial ischemia may have ...

  1. DEFICIENT PROTEIN C AND PROTEIN S INDUCED ACUTE VENOUS MESENTERIC ISCHEMIA: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin Britto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND A 35 year old lady presented with unresolved severe abdominal pain and vomiting. She was diagnosed to have superior mesenteric vein thrombosis with gangrenous small bowel and multiple splenic infarcts secondary to Protein C and Protein S deficiency. She underwent emergency explorative laparotomy and extensive small bowel resection and anastomosis and splenectomy. This is to stress the importance of keeping mesenteric ischemia as an important differential diagnosis in cases of acute abdomen

  2. National Heart Attack Alert Program position paper: chest pain centers and programs for the evaluation of acute cardiac ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalenski, R J; Selker, H P; Cannon, C P; Farin, H M; Gibler, W B; Goldberg, R J; Lambrew, C T; Ornato, J P; Rydman, R J; Steele, P

    2000-05-01

    The National Heart Attack Alert Program (NHAAP), which is coordinated by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), promotes the early detection and optimal treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction and other acute coronary ischemic syndromes. The NHAAP, having observed the development and growth of chest pain centers in emergency departments with special interest, created a task force to evaluate such centers and make recommendations pertaining to the management of patients with acute cardiac ischemia. This position paper offers recommendations to assist emergency physicians in EDs, including those with chest pain centers, in providing comprehensive care for patients with acute cardiac ischemia. PMID:10783408

  3. Oral Supplementation of Glucosamine Fails to Alleviate Acute Kidney Injury in Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Marc; Späth, Martin Richard; Denzel, Martin S.; Göbel, Heike; Kubacki, Torsten; Hoyer, Karla Johanna Ruth; Hinze, Yvonne; Benzing, Thomas; Schermer, Bernhard; Antebi, Adam; Burst, Volker; Müller, Roman-Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality in the ageing population. Proteotoxic stress response pathways have been suggested to contribute to the development of acute renal injury. Recent evidence suggests that increased synthesis of N-glycan precursors in the hexosamine pathway as well as feeding of animals with aminosugars produced in the hexosamine pathway may increase stress resistance through reducing proteotoxic stress and alleviate pathology in model organisms. As feeding of the hexosamine pathway metabolite glucosamine to aged mice increased their life expectancy we tested whether supplementation of this aminosugar may also protect mice from acute kidney injury after renal ischemia and reperfusion. Animals were fed for 4 weeks ad libitum with standard chow or standard chow supplemented with 0.5% N-acetylglucosamine. Preconditioning with caloric restriction for four weeks prior to surgery served as a positive control for protective dietary effects. Whereas caloric restriction demonstrated the known protective effect both on renal function as well as survival in the treated animals, glucosamine supplementation failed to promote any protection from ischemia-reperfusion injury. These data show that although hexosamine pathway metabolites have a proven role in enhancing protein quality control and survival in model organisms oral glucosamine supplementation at moderate doses that would be amenable to humans does not promote protection from ischemia-reperfusion injury of the kidney. PMID:27557097

  4. Regional myocardium function in rabbit with acute myocardial ischemia assessed by velocity vector imaging%速度向量成像技术评价兔急性心肌缺血局部心肌功能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周佳; 周启昌; 蒲大容; 刘红雨; 丁正东; 田蕾琪; 周嘉炜; 肖永志

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立新西兰大白兔急性心肌缺血的动物模型,应用速度向量成像(VVI)技术分析急性心肌缺血状态下左心室长轴和短轴方向上各节段局部心肌收缩功能的变化特点.方法 新西兰大白兔30只,随机分为冠状动脉结扎组和假手术组,于术前和术后30 min内行超声心动图检查并采集动态图像,脱机行VVI分析,测量左心室心肌各节段长轴和短轴方向上的VVI参数:收缩期峰值运动速度(Vs)、收缩期峰值应变(Ss)、收缩期峰值应变率(SRs),行统计学分析.结果 心肌缺血后,分别与术前及与假手术组比较,长轴方向上,前间隔心尖段与后壁心尖段的Vs明显减低;前间隔中间段、心尖段与后壁心尖段Ss、SRs明显减低,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);短轴方向上,前壁、侧壁的基底段,前间隔、前壁、侧壁的中间段和心尖水平的各节段的Vs明显减低;前间隔、前壁、侧壁的基底段,前间隔、前壁、侧壁、后壁的中间段以及心尖水平各节段的Ss、SRs明显减低,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 急性心肌缺血后左心室支供血节段及部分相邻节段的长轴及短轴局部心肌收缩功能减低.VVI技术能够客观、准确的检测实验兔心肌长轴和短轴方向上局部运动功能的微小变化,为急性心肌缺血的早期诊断提供了一种新的无创的、可靠的定量工具.%Objective To utilize velocity vector imaging ( VVI ) in analyzing regional myocardium function within 30 minutes before and after myocardial ischemia induced by occlusion of coronary artery in New Zealand white rabbits and to evaluate the changes of longitudinal and brachydiagonal segmental left ventricular( LV ) systolic function in rabbits with acute myocardial ischemia. Methods Thirty New Zealand white rabbits were divided into groups of myocardial ischemia and sham operation. All rabbits were performed by echocardiography before the operation and after

  5. Whole brain CT perfusion in acute anterior circulation ischemia: coverage size matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmer, B.J. [Erasmus Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Postbus 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rijkee, M.; Walderveen, M.A.A. van [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Niesten, J.M.; Velthuis, B.K. [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wermer, M.J.H. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Our aim was to compare infarct core volume on whole brain CT perfusion (CTP) with several limited coverage sizes (i.e., 3, 4, 6, and 8 cm), as currently used in routine clinical practice. In total, 40 acute ischemic stroke patients with non-contrast CT (NCCT) and CTP imaging of anterior circulation ischemia were included. Imaging was performed using a 320-multislice CT. Average volumes of infarct core of all simulated partial coverage sizes were calculated. Infarct core volume of each partial brain coverage was compared with infarct core volume of whole brain coverage and expressed using a percentage. To determine the optimal starting position for each simulated CTP coverage, the percentage of infarct coverage was calculated for every possible starting position of the simulated partial coverage in relation to Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score in Acute Stroke Triage (ASPECTS 1) level. Whole brain CTP coverage further increased the percentage of infarct core volume depicted by 10 % as compared to the 8-cm coverage when the bottom slice was positioned at the ASPECTS 1 level. Optimization of the position of the region of interest (ROI) in 3 cm, 4 cm, and 8 cm improved the percentage of infarct depicted by 4 % for the 8-cm, 7 % for the 4-cm, and 13 % for the 3-cm coverage size. This study shows that whole brain CTP is the optimal coverage for CTP with a substantial improvement in accuracy in quantifying infarct core size. In addition, our results suggest that the optimal position of the ROI in limited coverage depends on the size of the coverage. (orig.)

  6. Unilateral Renal Ischemia as a Model of Acute Kidney Injury and Renal Fibrosis in Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedt, C W; Brainard, B M; Hinson, W; Brown, S A; Brown, C A

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to define the acute and chronic effects of 1-hour unilateral in vivo renal ischemia on renal function and histology in cats. Twenty-one adult purpose-bred research cats were anesthetized, and 1 kidney underwent renal artery and vein occlusion for 1 hour. Serum creatinine and urea concentrations, urine protein:creatinine ratio, urine-specific gravity, glomerular filtration rate, hematocrit, platelet concentration and function, and white blood cell count were measured at baseline and variable time points after ischemia. Renal histopathology was evaluated on days 3, 6, 12, 21, 42, and 70 postischemia; changes in smooth muscle actin and interstitial collagen were examined. Following ischemia, whole animal glomerular filtration rate was significantly reduced (57% of baseline on day 6; P cats and demonstrates that ischemic acute kidney injury triggers chronic fibrosis, interstitial inflammation, and tubular atrophy in feline kidneys. These late changes are typical of those observed in cats with naturally occurring chronic kidney disease. PMID:26319781

  7. The Value of D-Dimer in Diagnosis of Acute Mesenteric Ischemia and Differential Diagnosis from Acute Pancreatitis and Acute Cholecystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Semih Hot; Nüvit Duraker; Ayhan Sarı; Kenan Çetin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Because of its poor prognosis and high mor­tality rate, early diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a challenge. The value of serum markers in the diagnosis of AMI is limited and the studies related with the D-dimer test carried out in recent years. In this prospec­tive study we investigated the value of the level of plasma D-dimer in the diagnosis of AMI and the differential diag­nosis from acute pancreatitis and acute cholecystitis. Methods: We included 89 patients w...

  8. Temporal relationship of serum markers and tissue damage during acute intestinal ischemia/reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Guzmán-de la Garza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It is essential to identify a serological marker of injury in order to study the pathophysiology of intestinal ischemia reperfusion. In this work, we studied the evolution of several serological markers after intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats. The markers of non-specific cell damage were aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransaminase, and lactic dehydrogenase, the markers of inflammation were tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1 beta, and the markers of intestinal mucosal damage were intestinal fatty acid binding protein and D-lactate. We used Chiús classification to grade the histopathological damage. METHODS: We studied 35 Wistar rats divided into groups according to reperfusion time. The superior mesenteric artery was clamped for 30 minutes, and blood and biopsies were collected at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after reperfusion. We plotted the mean ± standard deviation and compared the baseline and maximum values for each marker using Student’s t-test. RESULTS: The maximum values of interleukin-1 beta and lactic dehydrogenase were present before the maximal histopathological damage. The maximum tumor necrosis factor alpha and D-lactate expressions coincided with histopathological damage. Alanine aminotransaminase and aspartate aminotransferase had a maximum expression level that increased following the histopathological damage. The maximum expressions of interluken-6 and intestinal fatty acid binding protein were not significantly different from the Sham treated group. CONCLUSION: For the evaluation of injury secondary to acute intestinal ischemia reperfusion with a 30 minute ischemia period, we recommend performing histopathological grading, quantification of D-lactate, which is synthesized by intestinal bacteria and is considered an indicator of mucosal injury, and quantification of tumor necrosis factor alpha as indicators of acute inflammation three hours after reperfusion.

  9. Accuracy of multidetector row computed tomography for the diagnosis of acute bowel ischemia in a non-selected study population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, Walter [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); Clinic Stephanshorn, Medical Radiology Center, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Hauser, Andreas; Steinbrich, Wolfgang [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Basel (Switzerland)

    2004-12-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of multidetector row computed tomography for the prospective diagnosis of acute bowel ischemia in the daily clinical routine was analyzed. Two hundred ninety-one consecutive patients with an acute or subacute abdomen, examined by MDCT over a time period of 5 months, were included in the study. All original CT diagnoses made during the daily routine by radiological generalists were compared to the final diagnoses made by using all available medical information from endoscopies, surgical interventions, autopsies and follow-up. Finally, all CT examinations of patients with an initial CT diagnosis or a final diagnosis of bowel ischemia were reread by a radiologist specialized in abdominal imaging in order to analyze the CT findings and the reasons for initially false negative or false positive CT readings. Twenty-four patients out of 291 (8.2%) had acute bowel ischemia. The age of affected patients ranged from 50 to 94 years (mean age: 75.7 years). Eleven patients were male, and 13 female. Reasons for acute bowel ischemia were: arterio-occlusive (n=11), non-occlusive (n=5), strangulation (n=2), over-distension (n=3) and radiation (n=3). The prospective sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of MDCT for the diagnosis of acute bowel ischemia in the daily routine were 79.17, 98.51, 90.48 and 98.15%. MDCT reaches a similarly high sensitivity in diagnosing acute bowel as angiography. Furthermore, it has the advantage of being helpful in most of its clinical differential diagnoses and of being less invasive with the consecutive possibility of being used earlier in the diagnostic process with all the resulting positive effects on the patients prognosis. Therefore, nowadays MDCT should probably be used as the first step imaging modality of choice in patients with suspected acute bowel ischemia. (orig.)

  10. Tramadol Alleviates Myocardial Injury Induced by Acute Hindlimb Ischemia Reperfusion in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh; Asl, Adel Haghighi Khiabanian [Department of Pathobiology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahzamani, Mehran [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh, E-mail: dr-ashrafzadeh@yahoo.com [Young Researchers and Elites Club, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Allahverdi, Amin [Department of Surgery, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khansari, Mohammadreza [Department of Physiology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Organ injury occurs not only during periods of ischemia but also during reperfusion. It is known that ischemia reperfusion (IR) causes both remote organ and local injuries. This study evaluated the effects of tramadol on the heart as a remote organ after acute hindlimb IR. Thirty healthy mature male Wistar rats were allocated randomly into three groups: Group I (sham), Group II (IR), and Group III (IR + tramadol). Ischemia was induced in anesthetized rats by left femoral artery clamping for 3 h, followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Tramadol (20 mg/kg, intravenous) was administered immediately prior to reperfusion. At the end of the reperfusion, animals were euthanized, and hearts were harvested for histological and biochemical examination. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were higher in Groups I and III than those in Group II (p < 0.05). In comparison with other groups, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in Group II were significantly increased (p < 0.05), and this increase was prevented by tramadol. Histopathological changes, including microscopic bleeding, edema, neutrophil infiltration, and necrosis, were scored. The total injuryscore in Group III was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) compared with Group II. From the histological and biochemical perspectives, treatment with tramadol alleviated the myocardial injuries induced by skeletal muscle IR in this experimental model.

  11. Tramadol Alleviates Myocardial Injury Induced by Acute Hindlimb Ischemia Reperfusion in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Ashrafzadeh Takhtfooladi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organ injury occurs not only during periods of ischemia but also during reperfusion. It is known that ischemia reperfusion (IR causes both remote organ and local injuries. Objective: This study evaluated the effects of tramadol on the heart as a remote organ after acute hindlimb IR. Methods: Thirty healthy mature male Wistar rats were allocated randomly into three groups: Group I (sham, Group II (IR, and Group III (IR + tramadol. Ischemia was induced in anesthetized rats by left femoral artery clamping for 3 h, followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Tramadol (20 mg/kg, intravenous was administered immediately prior to reperfusion. At the end of the reperfusion, animals were euthanized, and hearts were harvested for histological and biochemical examination. Results: The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were higher in Groups I and III than those in Group II (p < 0.05. In comparison with other groups, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA levels in Group II were significantly increased (p < 0.05, and this increase was prevented by tramadol. Histopathological changes, including microscopic bleeding, edema, neutrophil infiltration, and necrosis, were scored. The total injuryscore in Group III was significantly decreased (p < 0.05 compared with Group II. Conclusion: From the histological and biochemical perspectives, treatment with tramadol alleviated the myocardial injuries induced by skeletal muscle IR in this experimental model.

  12. Heterogeneity of epigenetic changes at ischemia/reperfusion- and endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Daniel; Gharib, Sina A; Zager, Richard A; Johnson, Ali; Denisenko, Oleg; Bomsztyk, Karol

    2015-10-01

    Aberrant gene expression is a molecular hallmark of acute kidney injury (AKI). As epigenetic processes control gene expression in a cell- and environment-defined manner, understanding the epigenetic pathways that regulate genes altered by AKI may open vital new insights into the complexities of disease pathogenesis and identify possible therapeutic targets. Here we used matrix chromatin immunoprecipitation and integrative analysis to study 20 key permissive and repressive epigenetic histone marks at transcriptionally induced Tnf, Ngal, Kim-1, and Icam-1 genes in mouse models of AKI; unilateral renal ischemia/reperfusion, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and their synergistically injurious combination. Results revealed unexpected heterogeneity of transcriptional and epigenetic responses. Tnf and Ngal were transcriptionally upregulated in response to both treatments individually, and to combination treatment. Kim-1 was induced by ischemia/reperfusion and Icam-1 by LPS only. Epigenetic alterations at these genes exhibited distinct time-dependent changes that shared some similarities, such as reduction in repressive histone modifications, and also had major ischemia/reperfusion versus endotoxin differences. Thus, diversity of changes at AKI genes in response to different insults indicates involvement of several epigenetic pathways. This could be exploited pharmacologically through rational-drug design to alter the course and improve clinical outcomes of this syndrome. PMID:26061546

  13. Acute myocardial ischemia in adults secondary to missed Kawasaki disease in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Sherif R Y; El Said, Galal; Daniels, Lori B; Burns, Jane C; El Said, Howaida; Sorour, Khaled A; Gharib, Soliman; Gordon, John B

    2015-02-15

    Coronary artery aneurysms that occur in 25% of untreated Kawasaki disease (KD) patients may remain clinically silent for decades and then thrombose resulting in myocardial infarction. Although KD is now the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children in Asia, the United States, and Western Europe, the incidence of KD in Egypt is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that young adults in Egypt presenting with acute myocardial ischemia may have coronary artery lesions because of KD in childhood. We reviewed a total of 580 angiograms of patients ≤40 years presenting with symptoms of myocardial ischemia. Coronary artery aneurysms were noted in 46 patients (7.9%), of whom 9 presented with myocardial infarction. The likelihood of antecedent KD as the cause of the aneurysms was classified as definite (n = 10), probable (n = 29), or equivocal (n = 7). Compared with the definite and probable groups, the equivocal group had more traditional cardiovascular risk factors, smaller sized aneurysms, and fewer coronary arteries affected. In conclusion, in a major metropolitan center in Egypt, 6.7% of adults aged ≤40 years who underwent angiography for evaluation of possible myocardial ischemia had lesions consistent with antecedent KD. Because of the unique therapeutic challenges associated with these lesions, adult cardiologists should be aware that coronary artery aneurysms in young adults may be because of missed KD in childhood. PMID:25555655

  14. Early Diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome with Sensitive Troponin I and Ischemia Modified Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Takhshid

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study we compared the diagnostic performance ofserum ischemia modified albumin (IMA and sensitive cardiac troponin I (cTnIassay for the detection of acute coronary syndrome (ACS in patients presentingto the emergency department (ED with acute chest pain.Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 123 patients presenting tothe ED within three hours of acute chest pain. A 12-lead ECG was recorded andIMA and cTnI were measured on arrival at the ED. After diagnostic testing, thepatients were classified as either ACS (n=70 or non- ACS (n= 53. The resultsof IMA, ECG, and cTnI, alone and in combination, were correlated with finaldiagnoses.Results: IMA showed higher sensitivity (84% and negative predictivevalue (NPV, 88% compared to cTnI (sensitivity 42%, NPV 66% and ECG(sensitivity 58%, NPV 74%. Combined use of IMA, cTnI and ECG significantlyimproved the sensitivity (96%, P<0.05 and NPV (96% of IMA. The diagnosticperformance of IMA was similar in the case of non-ST-segment-elevation ACS(sensitivity 80%, NPV 80%. The sensitivity and specificity of IMA for diagnosisof acute myocardial infarction (AMI were 88% and 48%, respectively.Conclusion: Measuring IMA at the time of ED admission improves the earlydiagnosis of ACS and non-ST-segment-elevation ACS in patients with acute chestpain. However, the test is not an effective tool for diagnosis of AMI inpatients with chest pain presenting to ED.

  15. Acute embolic cerebral ischemia as an initial presentation of Polycythemia Vera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhatwani Chirag M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction-Patients with Polycythemia vera (PV are at high risk for vaso-occlusive events including cerebral ischemia. Ischemic stroke may be the first presenting symptom of PV in 15% or more of those affected. It had been previously assumed that cerebral ischemic events were due to increased blood viscosity and platelet activation within the central nervous system arterial vessels. However, there are now a few isolated case reports of probable micro-embolic events originating from outside of the brain. Case report- A 45-year old man presented with left sided hemiperesis (recovered within 12 hours in our Medicine OPD. Hematologic investigation revealed a hyperviscous state (Hemoglobin 21.9gm% and PCV 66%. Acute infarction in right corona radiata and basal ganglia was found in magnetic resonance imaging(MRI of brain. Conclusion- Although unusual, acute embolic cerebral ischemia may be an initial presentation of PV. The etiology of stroke in polycythemic patients is likely to be multifactorial. All clinicians involved in the care of stroke patients should be aware of the association of PV and ischemic stroke. [Natl J Med Res 2016; 6(2.000: 210-211

  16. [Imaging of intestinal ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beers, B E; Danse, E; Hammer, F; Goffette, P

    2004-04-01

    Ischemic bowel disease includes acute and chronic mesenteric ischemia, and colon ischemia. Cross-sectional imaging, and more particularly computed tomography, has an increasing role in the detection of acute and chronic mesenteric ischemia. Vascular obstructions or stenoses and changes in the bowel wall can be observed. Functional information can be added with MRI by using sequences that are sensitive to oxygen saturation in the superior mesenteric vein. Arteriography remains the reference examination in patients with acute mesenteric ischemia. PMID:15184799

  17. Unilateral Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion as a Robust Model for Acute to Chronic Kidney Injury in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Le Clef

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is an underestimated, yet important risk factor for development of chronic kidney disease (CKD. Even after initial total recovery of renal function, some patients develop progressive and persistent deterioration of renal function and these patients are more likely to progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Animal models are indispensable for unravelling the mechanisms underlying this progression towards CKD and ESRD and for the development of new therapeutic strategies in its prevention or treatment. Ischemia (i.e. hypoperfusion after surgery, bleeding, dehydration, shock, or sepsis is a major aetiology in human AKI, yet unilateral ischemia-reperfusion is a rarely used animal model for research on CKD and fibrosis. Here, we demonstrate in C57Bl/6J mice, by both histology and gene expression, that unilateral ischemia-reperfusion without contralateral nephrectomy is a very robust model to study the progression from acute renal injury to long-term tubulo-interstitial fibrosis, i.e. the histopathological hallmark of CKD. Furthermore, we report that the extent of renal fibrosis, in terms of Col I, TGFβ, CCN2 and CCN3 expression and collagen I immunostaining, increases with increasing body temperature during ischemia and ischemia-time. Thus, varying these two main determinants of ischemic injury allows tuning the extent of the long-term fibrotic outcome in this model. Finally, in order to cover the whole practical finesse of ischemia-reperfusion and allow model and data transfer, we provide a referenced overview on crucial technical issues (incl. anaesthesia, analgesia, and pre- and post-operative care with the specific aim of putting starters in the right direction of implementing ischemia in their research and stimulate them, as well as the community, to have a critical view on ischemic literature data.

  18. [Newly developed stenocardia: lack of ventricular electrical instability in the absence of acute myocardial ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areshev, G P; Agapov, A A; Gratsianskiĭ, N A; Ananich, V A

    1988-02-01

    A total of 130 patients with angina of new onset were examined within first 3 months of the disease. Macrofocal myocardial infarction survivors were not admitted to the study. The investigation included selective coronaro-angiography and ventriculography, Holter's ECG monitoring over 24 to 48 hours and bicycle ergometry. Programmed right-ventricular electric stimulation was conducted in 41 patients. Only one major coronary artery was affected in 78% of patients. Left-ventricular ejection fraction nearly always exceeded 50%. Groups of ventricular extrasystoles were detected by ECG monitoring in 10.8% and by bicycle ergometry in 2.5%. No signs of electrical instability were ever detected at programmed stimulation, done in the absence of anginal attacks. Groups of ventricular extrasystoles were more common, as compared to single extrasystoles (p less than 0.001), in acute myocardial ischemia, being more frequently associated with unstable rather than stable angina of new onset (p less than 0.05). In early coronary heart disease, signs of electric ventricular instability are not detectable in the absence of myocardial ischemia.

  19. I-FABP as biomarker for the early diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia and resultant lung injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel G Khadaroo

    Full Text Available Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI is a life-threatening condition that can result in multiple organ injury and death. A timely diagnosis and treatment would have a significant impact on the morbidity and mortality in high-risk patient population. The purpose of this study was to investigate if intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP and α-defensins can be used as biomarkers for early AMI and resultant lung injury. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to intestinal ischemia by occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery. A time course of intestinal ischemia from 0.5 to 3 h was performed and followed by reperfusion for 2 h. Additional mice were treated with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC at 300 mg/kg given intraperitoneally prior to reperfusion. AMI resulted in severe intestinal injury characterized by neutrophil infiltrate, myeloperoxidase (MPO levels, cytokine/chemokine levels, and tissue histopathology. Pathologic signs of ischemia were evident at 1 h, and by 3 h of ischemia, the full thickness of the intestine mucosa had areas of coagulative necrosis. It was noted that the levels of α-defensins in intestinal tissue peaked at 1 h and I-FABP in plasma peaked at 3 h after AMI. Intestinal ischemia also resulted in lung injury in a time-dependent manner. Pretreatment with NAC decreased the levels of intestinal α-defensins and plasma I-FABP, as well as lung MPO and cytokines. In summary, the concentrations of intestinal α-defensins and plasma I-FABP predicted intestinal ischemia prior to pathological evidence of ischemia and I-FABP directly correlated with resultant lung injury. The antioxidant NAC reduced intestinal and lung injury induced by AMI, suggesting a role for oxidants in the mechanism for distant organ injury. I-FABP and α-defensins are promising biomarkers, and may guide the treatment with antioxidant in early intestinal and distal organ injury.

  20. Effects of Corocalm (Shuguan Capsule,疏冠胶囊) on Acute Myocardial Ischemia in Anesthetized Dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of Corocalm (Shuguan Capsule, 疏冠胶囊) on acute myocardial ischemia in anesthetized dogs and its possible therapeutic mechanism. Methods: The acute ischemia model was established by ligating the left anterior descending (LAD) artery. Twentyfive dogs were randomly divided into 5 groups (5 dogs in each group): the control group (treated with normal saline 3 mL/kg), the refined Guanxin Capsule group (精制冠心胶囊, GXC 200 mg/kg), high and Iow dose Corocalm groups (48.5 mg/kg for low dose group and 194.0 mg/kg for high dose group) and the Diltiazem group (5 mg/kg). The animals were treated via a single duodenal administration after the model was established. The experiments used epicardial electrocardiogram (EECG) to measure the scope and degree of myocardial ischemia. Simultaneously, the coronary blood flow (CBF) and serum activity levels of creatine phosphokinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured by electromagnetic flow meter and automatic biochemical analyzer respectively. The plasma endothelin (ET) content was quantified by radioimmunoassay. Results: Corocalm (48.5 mg/kg and 194.0 mg/kg) significantly decreased the degree and scope of myocardial ischemia, reduced the infarct area, markedly increased the CBF, and inhibited the increase of CK and LDH activities and ET levels induced by myocardial ischemia/infarction. Conclusion: Corocalm could improve the state of acute myocardial ischemia and infarction in dogs. The mechanism of action might be correlated to increasing CBF,inhibiting CK and LDH activities and preventing ET release.

  1. Serum Ischemia-Modified Albumin Levels in Experimental Model of Acute Pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To establish whether the Ischemia-Modified Albumin (IMA), a new parameter of oxidative stress, has diagnostic role in experimental acute pancreatitis. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Experimental Animal Center, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Canakkale, Turkey, from May to September 2013. Methodology: Sixteen Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=8 each): Sham and AP groups. AP was induced by ligation of pancreatic duct. Serum IMA, amylase, lipase, AST, ALT and CRP were determined. The severity of pancreatitis was scored by a blinded pathologist under microscope. Results: Serum IMAlevels in the AP group increased significantly compared with the control group (p < 0.05). There was also a strong positive correlation between amylase and IMAlevels. Conclusion: The present study showed in a rodent model that serum IMAmight serve as an additional marker to monitor inflammation during pancreatitis. (author)

  2. The Value of D-Dimer in Diagnosis of Acute Mesenteric Ischemia and Differential Diagnosis from Acute Pancreatitis and Acute Cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Hot

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Because of its poor prognosis and high mor­tality rate, early diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI is a challenge. The value of serum markers in the diagnosis of AMI is limited and the studies related with the D-dimer test carried out in recent years. In this prospec­tive study we investigated the value of the level of plasma D-dimer in the diagnosis of AMI and the differential diag­nosis from acute pancreatitis and acute cholecystitis. Methods: We included 89 patients who admitted to our emergency department with abdominal pain. The number and the diagnosis of the patients were 17 AMI, 42 acute pancreatitis and 30 acute cholecystitis, respectively. We measured the levels of plasma D-dimer of all patients by using a latex agglutination ‘immunoassay’ method. Even­tually we calculated the sensitivity and specificity of D-dimer test in the diagnosis of AMI. Results: We determined the specificity of the D-dimer test in the differential diagnosis of AMI as 50% from acute pancreatitis, 70% from acute cholecystitis, 58.3% from all the control group and the sensitivity was 100%. Conclusion: The measurement of plasma D-dimer con­centration may be useful in the differential diagnosis of AMI from acute pancreatitis and acute cholecystitis. How­ever, to reveal the diagnostic value of D-dimer test more clearly, further studies with larger series are needed, where cut-off value is highly defined, and other patients with acute abdominal pain are added into the control group.

  3. Cardiac progenitor-derived exosomes protect ischemic myocardium from acute ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lijuan [Department of Cardiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Cardiovascular Disease, Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Wang, Yingjie [Cardiovascular Disease, Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Internal Medicine of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shuguang Hospital of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China); Pan, Yaohua; Zhang, Lan [Cardiovascular Disease, Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Shen, Chengxing [Department of Cardiology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Qin, Gangjian [Feinberg Cardiovascular Research Institute, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Ashraf, Muhammad [Pathology and Lab Med, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Weintraub, Neal [Cardiovascular Disease, Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Ma, Genshan, E-mail: magenshan@hotmail.com [Department of Cardiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Tang, Yaoliang, E-mail: tangyg@ucmail.uc.edu [Cardiovascular Disease, Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► Cardiac progenitor-derived (CPC) Exosomes protect H9C2 from apoptosis in vitro. ► CPC-exosomes protect cardiomyoyctes from MI/R induced apoptosis in vivo. ► CPC-exosomes were taken up by H9C2 with high efficiency using PKH26 labeling. ► miR-451, one of GATA4-responsive miRNA cluster, is enriched in CPC-exosomes. -- Abstract: Background: Cardiac progenitors (CPC) mediate cardioprotection via paracrine effects. To date, most of studies focused on secreted paracrine proteins. Here we investigated the CPC-derived-exosomes on protecting myocardium from acute ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Methods and results: CPC were isolated from mouse heart using two-step protocol. Exosomes were purified from conditional medium, and confirmed by electron micrograph and Western blot using CD63 as a marker. qRT-PCR shows that CPC-exosomes have high level expression of GATA4-responsive-miR-451. Exosomes were ex vivo labeled with PKH26, We observed exosomes can be uptaken by H9C2 cardiomyoblasts with high efficiency after 12 h incubation. CPC-exosomes protect H9C2 from oxidative stress by inhibiting caspase 3/7 activation invitro. In vivo delivery of CPC-exosomes in an acute mouse myocardial ischemia/reperfusion model inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis by about 53% in comparison with PBS control (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggest, for the first time, the CPC-exosomes can be used as a therapeutic vehicle for cardioprotection, and highlights a new perspective for using non-cell exosomes for cardiac disease.

  4. Cardiac progenitor-derived exosomes protect ischemic myocardium from acute ischemia/reperfusion injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Cardiac progenitor-derived (CPC) Exosomes protect H9C2 from apoptosis in vitro. ► CPC-exosomes protect cardiomyoyctes from MI/R induced apoptosis in vivo. ► CPC-exosomes were taken up by H9C2 with high efficiency using PKH26 labeling. ► miR-451, one of GATA4-responsive miRNA cluster, is enriched in CPC-exosomes. -- Abstract: Background: Cardiac progenitors (CPC) mediate cardioprotection via paracrine effects. To date, most of studies focused on secreted paracrine proteins. Here we investigated the CPC-derived-exosomes on protecting myocardium from acute ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Methods and results: CPC were isolated from mouse heart using two-step protocol. Exosomes were purified from conditional medium, and confirmed by electron micrograph and Western blot using CD63 as a marker. qRT-PCR shows that CPC-exosomes have high level expression of GATA4-responsive-miR-451. Exosomes were ex vivo labeled with PKH26, We observed exosomes can be uptaken by H9C2 cardiomyoblasts with high efficiency after 12 h incubation. CPC-exosomes protect H9C2 from oxidative stress by inhibiting caspase 3/7 activation invitro. In vivo delivery of CPC-exosomes in an acute mouse myocardial ischemia/reperfusion model inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis by about 53% in comparison with PBS control (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggest, for the first time, the CPC-exosomes can be used as a therapeutic vehicle for cardioprotection, and highlights a new perspective for using non-cell exosomes for cardiac disease

  5. Global Ischemia ECG pattern for diagnosis of acute left main occlusion: prevalence and associated mortality in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stengaard, Carsten; Sørensen, Jacob Thorsted; Andersen, M.P.;

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: P5632 Global ischemia ECG pattern for diagnosis of acute left main occlusion: prevalence and associated mortality in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction Authors: C. Stengaard1, J.T. Sorensen2, M.P. Andersen3, K. Thygesen1, J.F. Lassen2, K. Nikus4, G. Wagner5, C.J. Terkel......Abstract: P5632 Global ischemia ECG pattern for diagnosis of acute left main occlusion: prevalence and associated mortality in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction Authors: C. Stengaard1, J.T. Sorensen2, M.P. Andersen3, K. Thygesen1, J.F. Lassen2, K. Nikus4, G. Wagner5, C...... ischemia ECG pattern (GIP) has been proposed for diagnosis of acute left main stem (LM) occlusion. The GIP is defined by ST-elevation of 1mm in lead aVR and ST-depression of 0.5mm in seven or more ECG leads. Previous studies focus on the sensitivity of GIP in patients with confirmed LM occlusion. We...... present data of prevalence and associated mortality of GIP in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods: The study population consists of 4905 patients suspected of AMI, transported by emergency medical service, in whom a prehospital ECG was acquired. GIP was identified...

  6. The morphologic changes of remote-organs after acute cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats and the protective effects of rofecoxib

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUJuan; QIULi-Ying; ZHOUYu; CHENChong-Hong

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To observe the pathomorphologic changes of major organs in thoracic-abdominal cavity induced by acute cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI and explore the protective effects of rofecoxib. METHODS: The model of local cerebral ischemia-2h/reperfusion -24h was induced by reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO in SD rats.

  7. Circadian variation of transient myocardial ischemia in the early out-of-hospital period after first acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Pless, P; Nielsen, J R;

    1991-01-01

    Circadian rhythms have been demonstrated in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and in other clinical cardiac dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether a circadian pattern of transient myocardial ischemia exists after first AMI. Prospectively, 24-hour ambulatory ST......-segment monitoring was initiated at discharge on day 11 +/- 5 in 123 consecutive survivors of first AMI. A total of 93 ischemic episodes (91 asymptomatic) occurred in 21 of the 123 patients (17%) (mean duration of 30 minutes, range 4 to 292). A significant circadian rhythm of transient myocardial ischemia was found...... was significantly higher during morning episodes (p less than 0.02). Patients with transient myocardial ischemia had a diurnal distribution similar to the circadian variation displayed during ischemic activity. Thus, 16 of the 21 patients had ischemic episodes from 6 P.M. to 12 midnight versus 10 patients from 6 A...

  8. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in the hippocampal CA1 region of hyperlipidemic rats with chronic cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingying Cheng; Ying Zhang; Hongmei Song; Jiachun Feng

    2012-01-01

    Chronic cerebral ischemia is a pathological process in many cerebrovascular diseases and it is induced by long-term hyperlipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. After being fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks, rats were subjected to permanent occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries to establish rat models of chronic cerebral ischemia with hyperlipidemia. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in rat hippocampal CA1 region was determined to better understand the mechanism underlying the effects of hyperlipidemia on chronic cerebral ischemia. Water maze test results showed that the cognitive function of rats with hyperlipidemia or chronic cerebral ischemia, particularly in rats with hyperlipidemia combined with chronic cerebral ischemia, gradually decreased between 1 and 4 months after occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries. This correlated with pathological changes in the hippocampal CA1 region as detected by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Immunohistochemical staining showed that intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in the hippocampal CA1 region was noticeably increased in rats with hyperlipidemia or chronic cerebral ischemia, in particular in rats with hyperlipidemia combined with chronic cerebral ischemia. These findings suggest that hyperlipidemia aggravates chronic cerebral ischemia-induced neurological damage and cognitive impairment in the rat hippocampal CA1 region, which may be mediated, at least in part, by up-regulated expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

  9. Role of TRPV1 channels in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 -positive sensory nerves are widely distributed in the kidney, suggesting that TRPV1-mediated action may participate in the regulation of renal function under pathophysiological conditions. Stimulation of TRPV1 channels protects against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R-induced acute kidney injury (AKI. However, it is unknown whether inhibition of these channels is detrimental in AKI or not. We tested the role of TRPV1 channels in I/R-induced AKI by modulating these channels with capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist, capsazepine (TRPV1 antagonist and using Trpv1-/- mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Anesthetized C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 25 min of renal ischemia and 24 hrs of reperfusion. Mice were pretreated with capsaicin (0.3 mg/kg body weight or capsazepine (50 mg/kg body weight. Capsaicin ameliorated the outcome of AKI, as measured by serum creatinine levels, tubular damage,neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL abundance and Ly-6B.2 positive polymorphonuclear inflammatory cells in injured kidneys. Neither capsazepine nor deficiency of TRPV1 did deteriorate renal function or histology after AKI. Measurements of endovanilloids in kidney tissue indicate that 20-hydroxyeicosatetraeonic acid (20-HETE or epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs are unlikely involved in the beneficial effects of capsaicin on I/R-induced AKI. CONCLUSIONS: Activation of TRPV1 channels ameliorates I/R-induced AKI, but inhibition of these channels does not affect the outcome of AKI. Our results may have clinical implications for long-term safety of renal denervation to treat resistant hypertension in man, with respect to the function of primary sensory nerves in the response of the kidney to ischemic stimuli.

  10. 速度向量成像技术评价犬心肌缺血与梗死状态下左心室节段性旋转特征%Assessment of regional rotation by velocity vector imaging in canine with myocardial ischemia and acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓娟; 智光

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the regional rotation in canine with myocardial ischemia and acute myocardial infarction by velocity vector imaging( VVI ).Methods Myocardial ischemia and infarction model were successfully made by partly and fully ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery ( LAD ) in twelve mongrel dogs. The ventricle rotation and strain were measured by VVI. Results The results revealed: The LAD part ligation: rotation decreased in ventricular septal before LAD ligation status in LAD part ligation status( P <0. 05 ). The strain and strain rate has no significant difference. The LAD ful ligation: the rotation rate, rotation, circumferential strain and strain rate of the anterior septal, anterior wall and ventricular septal were significantly decreased in myocardial infarction status compared with those in the normal status, and were also significantly decreased compared with those in the myocardial ischemia status( P <0. 05 ). The strain and strain rate in the anterior septal,anterior wall and ventricular septal were significantly decreased in myocardial infarction status compared with those in the normal status( P <0. 05 ), but not significantly decreased compared with those in partly ligation status. Conclusion VVI can non-invasively and sensitively assess the left ventricular rotation and the results indicated the ventricular rotation is more sensitive than the strain and strain rate in evaluation of the ventricular systolic function.%目的 应用速度向量成像(VVI)技术评价心肌缺血及心肌梗死状态下犬心肌旋转运动特征.方法 选用杂种犬12只,在超声实时引导下结扎前降支定量制备前降支轻度狭窄(狭窄率:50%~75%)与完全闭塞模型,应用VVI技术分析前降支结扎前、轻度狭窄与完全闭塞状态下左心室旋转特征的改变.结果 12只杂种犬成功制备前降支轻度狭窄与完全闭塞模型,应用VVI技术对缺血与梗死状态下心肌旋

  11. Acute myocardial ischemia after aortic valve replacement: A comprehensive diagnostic evaluation using dynamic multislice spiral computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lembcke, Alexander [Department of Radiology, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Freie Universitaet Berlin and Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: alexander.lembcke@gmx.de; Hein, Patrick A. [Department of Radiology, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Freie Universitaet Berlin and Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Enzweiler, Christian N.H. [Department of Radiology, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Freie Universitaet Berlin and Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Hoffmann, Udo [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Klessen, Christian [Department of Radiology, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Freie Universitaet Berlin and Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Dohmen, Pascal M. [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Freie Universitaet Berlin and Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    We describe the case of a 72-year-old man presenting with endocarditis and clinical signs of acute myocardial ischemia after biological aortic valve replacement. A comprehensive cardiac dynamic multislice spiral computed tomography demonstrated: (1) an endocarditic vegetation of the aortic valve; (2) a subvalvular leakage feeding a paravalvular pseudoaneurysm based on an aortic root abscess with subsequent compromise of the systolic blood flow in the left main coronary artery and the resulting myocardial perfusion deficit.

  12. Ginsenoside Rd alleviates mouse acute renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by modulating macrophage phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Kaixi; Jin, Chao; Ma, Pengfei; Ren, Qinyou; Jia, Zhansheng; Zhu, Daocheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Ginsenoside Rd (GSRd), a main component of the root of Panax ginseng, exhibits anti-inflammation functions and decreases infarct size in many injuries and ischemia diseases such as focal cerebral ischemia. M1 Macrophages are regarded as one of the key inflammatory cells having functions for disease progression. Methods To investigate the effect of GSRd on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) and macrophage functional status, and their regulatory role on mouse polarized macrophag...

  13. Endovascular Therapy as a Primary Revascularization Modality in Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kärkkäinen, Jussi M., E-mail: jkarkkai@gmail.com [Kuopio University Hospital, Heart Center (Finland); Lehtimäki, Tiina T., E-mail: tiina.lehtimaki@kuh.fi; Saari, Petri, E-mail: petri.saari@kuh.fi [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology (Finland); Hartikainen, Juha, E-mail: juha.hartikainen@kuh.fi [Kuopio University Hospital, Heart Center (Finland); Rantanen, Tuomo, E-mail: tuomo.rantanen@kuh.fi; Paajanen, Hannu, E-mail: hannu.paajanen@kuh.fi [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery (Finland); Manninen, Hannu, E-mail: hannu.manninen@kuh.fi [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology (Finland)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeTo evaluate endovascular therapy (EVT) as the primary revascularization method for acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI).MethodsA retrospective review was performed on all consecutive patients treated for AMI during a 5-year period (January 2009 to December 2013). EVT was attempted in all patients referred for emergent revascularization. Surgical revascularization was performed selectively after failure of EVT. Patient characteristics, clinical presentation, and outcomes were studied. Failures and complications of EVT were recorded.ResultsFifty patients, aged 79 ± 9 years (mean ± SD), out of 66 consecutive patients with AMI secondary to embolic or thrombotic obstruction of the superior mesenteric artery were referred for revascularization. The etiology of AMI was embolism in 18 (36 %) and thrombosis in 32 (64 %) patients. EVT was technically successful in 44 (88 %) patients. Mortality after successful or failed EVT was 32 %. The rates of emergency laparotomy, bowel resection, and EVT-related complication were 40, 34, and 10 %, respectively. Three out of six patients with failure of EVT were treated with surgical bypass. EVT failure did not significantly affect survival.ConclusionsEVT is feasible in most cases of AMI, with favorable patient outcome and acceptable complication rate.

  14. Endovascular Therapy as a Primary Revascularization Modality in Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PurposeTo evaluate endovascular therapy (EVT) as the primary revascularization method for acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI).MethodsA retrospective review was performed on all consecutive patients treated for AMI during a 5-year period (January 2009 to December 2013). EVT was attempted in all patients referred for emergent revascularization. Surgical revascularization was performed selectively after failure of EVT. Patient characteristics, clinical presentation, and outcomes were studied. Failures and complications of EVT were recorded.ResultsFifty patients, aged 79 ± 9 years (mean ± SD), out of 66 consecutive patients with AMI secondary to embolic or thrombotic obstruction of the superior mesenteric artery were referred for revascularization. The etiology of AMI was embolism in 18 (36 %) and thrombosis in 32 (64 %) patients. EVT was technically successful in 44 (88 %) patients. Mortality after successful or failed EVT was 32 %. The rates of emergency laparotomy, bowel resection, and EVT-related complication were 40, 34, and 10 %, respectively. Three out of six patients with failure of EVT were treated with surgical bypass. EVT failure did not significantly affect survival.ConclusionsEVT is feasible in most cases of AMI, with favorable patient outcome and acceptable complication rate

  15. Neutralization of Osteopontin Ameliorates Acute Lung Injury Induced by Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yohei; Aziz, Monowar; Yang, Weng-Lang; Ochani, Mahendar; Wang, Ping

    2016-10-01

    Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Osteopontin (OPN), a glycoprotein secreted from immune-reactive cells, plays a deleterious role in various inflammatory diseases. Considering OPN as a pro-inflammatory molecule, we hypothesize that the treatment with its neutralizing antibody (anti-OPN Ab) protects mice against intestinal I/R-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Intestinal I/R was induced in mice by superior mesenteric artery occlusion with a vascular clip. After 45 min of occlusion, the clip was removed and anti-OPN Ab (25 μg/mouse) or normal IgG isotype control (25 μg/mouse) was immediately administrated intravenously. Blood, small intestine, and lung tissues were collected at 4 h after reperfusion for various analyses. After intestinal I/R, mRNA and protein levels of OPN were significantly induced in the small intestine, lungs, and blood relative to sham-operated animals. Compared with the IgG control group, treatment of anti-OPN Ab significantly reduced plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine (IL-6 and MIP-2) and organ injury markers (AST, ALT, and LDH). The histological architecture of the gut and lung tissues in anti-OPN Ab-treated intestinal I/R-induced mice showed significant improvement versus the IgG control mice. The lung inflammation measured by the levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and MIP-2 was also significantly downregulated in the anti-OPN Ab-treated mice as compared with the IgG control mice. Besides, the lung MPO and neutrophil infiltration in anti-OPN Ab-treated mice showed significant reduction as compared with the IgG control animals. In conclusion, we have demonstrated beneficial outcomes of anti-OPN Ab treatment in protecting against ALI, implicating a novel therapeutic potential in intestinal I/R. PMID:26974422

  16. [Acute and chronic limb ischemia in endurance athletes - a serious diagnosis of exercise-induced lower limb pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regus, Susanne; Lang, Werner

    2016-07-01

    Lower extremity pain due to acute or chronic ischemia in high performance endurance athletes is an often forgotten differential diagnosis. A variety of symptoms constitues a multi-disciplinary challenge. Intermittent claudication or acute ischemia are clinical symptoms indicative of this vascular disease. The most important basic methods of investigation are anamnesis and clinical examination. Furthermore, the determination of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) and duplexsonography should be considered. In addition, modern cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography angiography (CTA) or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) are recommended. In case of suspect findings, the digital substraction angiography (DSA) represents a high resolution image technique for illustration of the vessel lumen. If necessary, interventional therapy (balloon angioplasty or clot lysing) can be performed simultaneously. Surgical revision remains the gold-standard of therapy and the fastest way in which athletes regain maximum performance abilities. Correct diagnosis of lower limb ischemia affecting endurance athletes should be performed without delays. Determining the ankle-brachial index following maximal exertion represents the most important diagnostic tool. Surgical treatment techniques as decompression and revascularisation provide the best long-term results. PMID:27464284

  17. Regional cerebral blood flow during hypoxia-ischemia in immature rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannucci, R.C.; Lyons, D.T.; Vasta, F.

    1988-02-01

    Immature rats subjected to a combination of unilateral common carotid artery ligation and hypoxia sustain brain damage confined largely to the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere. To ascertain the extent and distribution of ischemic alterations in the brains of these small animals, we modified the Sakurada technique to measure regional cerebral blood flow using carbon-14 autoradiography. Seven-day-old rats underwent right common carotid artery ligation following which they were rendered hypoxic with 8% O2 at 37 degrees C. Before and during hypoxia, the rat pups received an injection of iodo(/sup 14/C)antipyrine for determination of regional cerebral blood flow. Blood flows to individual structures of the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere were not influenced by arterial occlusion alone; flows to the contralateral hemisphere and to the brainstem and cerebellum actually increased by 25-50%. Hypoxia-ischemia was associated with decreases in regional cerebral blood flow of the ipsilateral hemisphere such that by 2 hours, flows to subcortical white matter, neocortex, striatum, and thalamus were 15, 17, 34, and 41% of control, respectively. The hierarchy of the blood flow reductions correlated closely with the distribution and extent of ischemic neuronal necrosis. However, unlike the pathologic pattern of this model, the degree of ischemia appeared homogeneous within each brain region. Blood flows to contralateral cerebral hemispheric structures were relatively unchanged from prehypoxic values, whereas flows to the brainstem and cerebellum nearly doubled and tripled, respectively. Thus, ischemia is the predominant factor that determines the topography of tissue injury to major regions of immature rat brain, whereas metabolic factors may influence the heterogeneous pattern of damage seen within individual structures.

  18. Acute retinal ischemia caused by controlled low ocular perfusion pressure in a porcine model. Electrophysiological and histological characterisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhn, Maria Voss; Warfvinge, Karin; Scherfig, Erik;

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish, and characterize a porcine model of acute, controlled retinal ischemia. The controlled retinal ischemia was produced by clamping the ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) in the left eye to 5 mm Hg for 2 h. The OPP was defined as mean arterial blood pressure...... (MAP) minus the intraocular pressure (IOP). It was clamped to 0-30 mm Hg by continuous monitoring of MAP and adjustment of the IOP, which was controlled by cannulation of the anterior chamber. Inner retinal function was assessed by induced multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) with comparisons...... of the amplitudes obtained in the experimental, left eye, and the control, right eye. Quantitative histology was performed to measure the survival of ganglion cells, amacrine cells and horizontal cells 2-6 weeks after the ischemic insult. An OPP of 5 mm Hg for 2h induced significant reductions in the amplitudes...

  19. Experimental Study of the Effect of Autonomic Nervous System on the Transmural Dispersion of Ventricular Repolarization under Acute Myocardial Ischemia in Vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张存泰; 徐大文; 李泱; 刘念; 钟江华; 王琳; 陆再英

    2002-01-01

    Summary: The effect of the autonomic nerves on the transmural dispersion of ventricular repolariza tion (TDR) under acute myocardial ischemia in intact canine was investigated. Using the monophasic action potential (MAP) recording technique, MAPs of the epicardium (Epi), midmyocardium (Mid) and endocardium (Endo) were recorded simultaneously by specially designed plunge-needle electrodes at the left ventricular free wall under acute myocardial ischemia in 12 open-chest dogs.MAPD90 and TDR among three myocardial layers as well as the incidence of the early afterdepolar ization (EAD) before autonomic nervous stimulation and during autonomic nervous stimulation were compared. It was found that 10 min after acute myocardial I~hemia, TDR was increased from 55±8.ms to 86± 15 ms during sympathetic stimulation (P<0. 01). The TDR (53± 9 ms) during parasympathetic stimulation was not significantly different from that of the control (55±8 ms) (P>0.05). The EAD was elicited in the Mid of 2 dogs (16 %) 10 min after acute myocardial ischemia,but the EAD were elicited in the Mid of 7 dogs (58 %) during sympathetic stimulation (P<0. 01).It was concluded that: (1) Sympathetic stimulation can increase the transmural dispersion of repolari zation and induce early afterdepolarizations in the Mid under acute myocardial ischemia, which pro-vide the opportunity for the ventricular arrhythmia developing; (2) Parasympathetic stimulation has no significant effect on the transmural dispersion of repolarization under myocardial ischemia.

  20. Long-term primary patency prognostic factors after endovascular therapy for acute lower limb ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess prognostic factors regarding long-term primary patency for patients who underwent intra-arterial thrombolysis and/or adjuvant endovascular techniques due to acute lower limb ischemia. Methods: Consecutive patients with ALI of the lower extremities treated via interventional methods between January 2005 and June 2010 were identified and reviewed (exclude patient suffered from aortic dissection involved artery of lower extremity or trauma). Analyze the potential variables with univariable analysis and only factors associated with long-term primary patency with a P value less than 0.1 in univariable analysis were introduced into the Cox regression mode. Total long-term primary patency and grouped primary patency were assessed using Kaplan-Meier estimation. Results: The analyzed dataset included 107 limbs treated in 101 patients presenting with ALI (class Ⅰ 15, class Ⅱ A 36, class Ⅱ B to Ⅲ 56, according to Rutherford classification). Eight nine limbs were enrolled in follow-up.The mean followup was 34 months (range: 1 to 53 months). Primary patency at 12, 24 and 36 months was 87%, 68% and 55%, respectively. Multivariable analyses identified patients presenting with diabetes mellitus (P=0.00), PAOD (P<0.02) and thrombolysis time (P<0.02) were associated with primary patency. Compare the patency rate of patients with different thrombolysis time, the results showed that the patency rate of the patients thrombolysis time less than 4 d was higher than those more than 4 c. Conclusions: Interventional therapy remains an effective treatment option for patients presenting with lower extremity ALI. Diabetes mellitus and PAOD negatively affect the rates of limb primary patency. Thrombolysis should be limited to <4 days. (authors)

  1. Protective effects of pretreatment with Radix Paeoniae Rubra on acute lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/ reperfusion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chang; ZHANG Fan; XIA Zhong-yuan; LIN Hui; MO An-sheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of pretreatment with Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR) on acute lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in rats and its protective mechanism.Methods:n lung tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry and morphometry computer image analysis. Arterial blood gas analysis, lung permeability index, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) contents in lungs were measured. The histological changes of lung tissue were observed under light microscope.Results:The expression of HO-1 in RPR-pretreatment group and hemin group was obviously higher than that in sham-operation group and I/R group (P < 0.01). The level of MDA and lung permeability index in RPR-pretreatment and hemin group were significantly lower than those in I/R group (P<0.01 or P<0.05), while the activity of SOD in RPR-pretreatment and hemin group was obviously higher than that in I/R group (P<0.01 ). Under light microscope, the pathologic changes induced by I/R were significantly attenuated by RPR.Conclusion : Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion may result in acute lung injury and pretreatment with RPR injection can attenuate the injury. The protective effect of RPR on the acute lung injury is related to its property of inducing HO-1 expression and inhibiting lipid peroxidation.

  2. QRS-ST-T triangulation with repolarization shortening as a precursor of sustained ventricular tachycardia during acute myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchvarov, Velislav N; Behr, Elijah R

    2015-04-01

    We present segments from a 24-hour 12-lead digital Holter recording in a 48-year-old man demonstrating transient ST elevations in the inferior leads that triggered sustained ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) requiring cardioversion. The onset of VT was preceded by a gradual increase in the ST with marked QRS broadening that lacked distinction between the end of the QRS and the beginning of the ST (QRS-ST-T "triangulation"), and shortening of the QT interval not caused by an increased heart rate. This is a relatively rare documentation of the mechanisms immediately triggering sustained ventricular arrhythmias during acute myocardial ischemia obtained with 12-lead ECG.

  3. Protective Effects of Berberine on Isoproterenol-Induced Acute Myocardial Ischemia in Rats through Regulating HMGB1-TLR4 Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianzhu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid originally isolated from the Chinese herb Coptis chinensis (Huanglian, has been shown to display a wide array of pharmacological activities. The present study was to investigate the effects of berberine against myocardial ischemia produced in rats by isoproterenol. 50 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized equally into five groups: a control group, an untreated model group, berberine (30, 60 mg/kg treatment, or propranolol (30 mg/kg. Rats were treated for 12 days and then given isoproterenol, 85 mg/kg for 2 consecutive days by subcutaneous injection. ST-segment elevation was measured after the last administration. Serum levels of creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and interleukin-6 (IL-6 were measured after the rats were sacrificed. The hearts were excised for determining heart weight index, microscopic examination, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1, toll-like receptor (TLR4, prodeath protein (Bax, antideath protein (Bcl-2, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α protein were determined by western blot. Berberine decreased the ST elevation induced by acute myocardial ischemia, and decreased serum levels of CK-MB, LDH, TNF-α, and IL-6. Berberine increased total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD activity and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA content in myocardial tissue. Berberine can regulate HMGB1-TLR4 axis to protect myocardial ischemia.

  4. Acute administration of n-3 rich triglyceride emulsions provides cardioprotection in murine models after ischemia-reperfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hylde Zirpoli

    Full Text Available Dietary n-3 fatty acids (FAs may reduce cardiovascular disease risk. We questioned whether acute administration of n-3 rich triglyceride (TG emulsions could preserve cardiac function and decrease injury after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R insult. We used two different experimental models: in vivo, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to acute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD, and ex-vivo, C57BL/6 murine hearts were perfused using Langendorff technique (LT. In the LAD model, mice treated with n-3 TG emulsion (1.5 g/kg body weight, immediately after ischemia and 1 h later during reperfusion, significantly reduced infarct size and maintained cardiac function (p<0.05. In the LT model, administration of n-3 TG emulsion (300 mg TG/100 ml during reperfusion significantly improved functional recovery (p<0.05. In both models, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels, as a marker of injury, were significantly reduced by n-3 TG emulsion. To investigate the mechanisms by which n-3 FAs protects hearts from I/R injury, we investigated changes in key pathways linked to cardioprotection. In the ex-vivo model, we showed that n-3 FAs increased phosphorylation of AKT and GSK3β proteins (p<0.05. Acute n-3 TG emulsion treatment also increased Bcl-2 protein level and reduced an autophagy marker, Beclin-1 (p<0.05. Additionally, cardioprotection by n-3 TG emulsion was linked to changes in PPARγ protein expression (p<0.05. Rosiglitazone and p-AKT inhibitor counteracted the positive effect of n-3 TG; GSK3β inhibitor plus n-3 TG significantly inhibited LDH release. We conclude that acute n-3 TG injection during reperfusion provides cardioprotection. This may prove to be a novel acute adjunctive reperfusion therapy after treating patients with myocardial infarction.

  5. Effects of aging on time course of neovascularization-related gene expression following acute hindlimb ischemia in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jin-song; LIU Xia; XUE Zhen-yi; Lee Alderman; Justin U. Tilan; Remi Adenika; Stephen E. Epstein; Mary Susan Burnett

    2011-01-01

    Background Molecular analysis of neovascularization related genes by time course in response to ischemia has not been described in the context of aging. We aimed to provide a progressively deeper understanding of how aging compromises neovascularization.Methods Young (3-month) and old (18-month) C57BI mice were subjected to left hindlimb ischemia. Necrosis score was evaluated in calf muscles. Calf muscles,peripheral blood,bone marrow were harvested at different time points. The expressions of matrix metalloproteiniase-9 (MMPg),endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS),vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF),stromal derived growth factor-1 (SDF1),hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α),VEGF receptor-1(Fit1),VEGF receptor-2 (Flk1),angiopoietin-1 (Ang1),CD133,CD26 were detected by RT-PCR or Western blotting.White blood cells were counted in the peripheral blood. Gene expression data were compared by two-way analysis of variance.Results MMP9,HIF-1α and SDF-1 were more upregulated during acute ischemia in old vs. young mice,reflecting increased ischemia in aging mice. However VEGF and eNOS exhibited lower expression in old vs. young mice,despite greater ischemia intensity. Ang1 and Flk1 showed similar expression in old vs. young mice. MMP9 peaked earlier in peripheral blood in young vs. old mice. Concurrent decreasing CD26 and increasing CD133 expression in aging bonemarrow suggest aging impairs progenitor cell mobilization,Conclusions Our results indicate that a complex array of defects occur with aging that interfere with optimal neovascularization. These include potential impaired mobilization of progenitor cells to ischemic tissue,decreased levels of eNOS and VEGF and delayed responses to ischemia.ZLEr. WANG Jin-song,Division of Vascular Surgery,the First Affiliated Hospital,Sun Yat-sen University,Guangzhou,Guangdong 510080,China (Tel:86-20-87333440.Fax:86-20-87333242. Email:wangjs@mail.sysu.edu.cn)This work was supported by NIH RO1 HL085003-01A2,NNSF30100179.

  6. Popliteal artery entrapment presenting as acute limb ischemia: treatment with intra-arterial thrombolysis. Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslakian, Bedros; Haddad, Fady; Ghaith, Ola; Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad

    2012-11-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is a relatively rare condition, which occurs predominantly in active young adults who lack atherogenic risk factors. It has been rarely reported in patients under the age of 18 years. The most common presentation in the early stages is intermittent claudication; however, in the later stages of undiagnosed PAES, acute ischemia can occur as a result of complete arterial occlusion or embolism. We present a 14-year-old boy, who presented with acute limb ischemia which was managed with a multidisciplinary approach.

  7. Effects of electroacupuncture on cardiac and gastric activities in acute myocardial ischemia rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Bin Wang; Shu-Ping Chen; Yong-Hui Gao; Hing-Fu Luo; Jun-Ling Liu

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) of "Neiguan" (PC6) and "Gongsun" (SP4) on pathological changes of the heart and stomach in rats with acute myocardial ischemia (AMI), and to explore its underlying mechanism. METHODS: Fifty Wistar rats were randomized into control, model, PC6, SP4 and PC6 + SP4 groups (n = 8 each group). An AMI model was established by occlusion of the descending anterior branch (DAB) of the left coronary artery. ECG-ST of cervico-thoracic lead and electrogastrogram (EGG) were recorded. EA was applied to PC6, SP4 and PC6 + SP4 groups, respectively. At the end of experiments, the rats were transcardically perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde, and the heart base myocardium, gastric antrum and duodenum tissues were sampled, sectioned and stained with a reduced form of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-diaphorase histochemical method for displaying nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. RESULTS: After AMI, ECG-ST values elevated. After EA, the elevated ECG-ST values at 20 min in PC6 group, at 30 min in PC6 + SP4 and SP4 groups had no significant differences in comparison with their respective basal values before AMI. Following AMI, the amplitude and frequency of slow waves of EGG decreased remarkably (P < 0.05). At 30 min after EA, the mean amplitude and frequency of slow waves of EGG in the three EA groups had no marked differences compared with their individual basal levels and those in the control group. After AMI, the mean integral grey values of NOS-positive product in myocardium, gastric antrum and duodenum tissues in the model group increased remarkably in comparison with the control group, while those in three EA groups were lower than those in the model group. No significant differences were found in ECG-ST and EGG improvement among the three EA groups. However, EA of PC6 had a better effect on ECG-ST and EA of PC4 had a better effect on EGG, respectively. CONCLUSION: EA of PC6, SP4 and PC6 + SP4 can

  8. Adenosine A2A Receptors Modulate Acute Injury and Neuroinflammation in Brain Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicita Pedata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular concentration of adenosine in the brain increases dramatically during ischemia. Adenosine A2A receptor is expressed in neurons and glial cells and in inflammatory cells (lymphocytes and granulocytes. Recently, adenosine A2A receptor emerged as a potential therapeutic attractive target in ischemia. Ischemia is a multifactorial pathology characterized by different events evolving in the time. After ischemia the early massive increase of extracellular glutamate is followed by activation of resident immune cells, that is, microglia, and production or activation of inflammation mediators. Proinflammatory cytokines, which upregulate cell adhesion molecules, exert an important role in promoting recruitment of leukocytes that in turn promote expansion of the inflammatory response in ischemic tissue. Protracted neuroinflammation is now recognized as the predominant mechanism of secondary brain injury progression. A2A receptors present on central cells and on blood cells account for important effects depending on the time-related evolution of the pathological condition. Evidence suggests that A2A receptor antagonists provide early protection via centrally mediated control of excessive excitotoxicity, while A2A receptor agonists provide protracted protection by controlling massive blood cell infiltration in the hours and days after ischemia. Focus on inflammatory responses provides for adenosine A2A receptor agonists a wide therapeutic time-window of hours and even days after stroke.

  9. Effect of infliximab on acute hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Pergel, Ahmet; Aydin, Ibrahim; Alacam, Hasan; Karabicak, Ilhan; Kesicioglu, Tugrul; Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Ozer, Ender; Arslan, Zakir; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Sahin, Dursun Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of infliximab (IFX) against liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. A total of 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham, I/R, and I/R+IFX. IFX was given at a dose of 3 mg/kg for three days before I/R. Rat livers were subjected to 60 min of ischemia followed by 90 h of reperfusion. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), TNF-α, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutat...

  10. Effects of anisodamine on altered [Ca2+]i and cerebral cortex ultrastructure following acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daixing Zhou; Chengye Zhan; Puzhen Deng

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium ion (Ca2+) overload plays an important role in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Anisodamine, a type of alkaloid, can protect the myocardium from ischemia and reperfusion injury by inhibiting intracellular calcium [Ca2+]I overload.OBJECTIVE: To investigate effects of anisodamine on [Ca2+]I concentration and cortex ultrastructure following acute cerebral ischcmia/reperfusion in rabbits.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized and controlled trial was performed at the Department of Emergency, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology from September to December 2006.MATERIALS: Forty healthy rabbits were used to establish models of acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Anisodamine was provided by Lianyungang Dongfeng Pharmaceutical Factory; Fura-2 was purchased from Nanjing Jiancheng Bioengineering Institute; dual-wave length fluorescent spectrophotometry system and DM-300 software were provided by Bio-Rad, USA; OPTON-EM10C transmission electron microscope was product of Siemens, Germany.METHODS: Forty rabbits were randomly divided into the following groups: sham operation, ischemia, ischemia/reperfusion, and anisodamine, with ten rabbits in each group. Models of complete cerebral ischemia injury were established. In addition, blood was collected from the femoral artery of rats in the ischemia/reperfusion and anisodamine groups to induce hypotension and establish reperfusion injury models. The bilateral common carotid artery clamp was removed from the anisodamine group 20 minutes alter ischemia, and anisodamine (10 mg/kg body mass) was injected via the femoral vein. Rabbits in the sham operation group underwent only venous cannulation.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: [Ca2+]I concentration was determined using a dual-wave length fluorescent spectrophotometry system, and cortical ultrastructure was observed following uranyl-lead citrate staining.RESULTS: The levels of [Ca2+]I in the ischemia and ischemia

  11. Evidence that estrogen receptors play a limited role in mediating enhanced recovery of bile flow in female rats in the acute phase of liver ischemia reperfusion injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Heleen A. H.; Ponds, Fraukje A. M.; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B.; Morphett, Arthur; Padbury, Robert T. A.; Barritt, Greg J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Female patients exhibit better survival and less hepatic damage from ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury following surgery. However, the effects of sex and estrogens on liver function in the acute phase of IR are not well understood. Objective. The aim was to investigate this question. Ma

  12. Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell could participate in angiogenesis in a mouse model of acute hindlimb ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuy Thi-Thanh Dao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs transplantation for the treatment of acute hindlimb ischemia is recently attracting the attention of many scientists. Identifying the role of donor cells in the host is a crucial factor for improving the efficiency of treatment. This study evaluated the injury repair role of xenogeneic adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC transplantation in acute hindlimb ischemia mouse model. Methods: Human ADSCs were transplanted into the limb of ischemic mouse. The survival rate of grafted cells and expression of human VEGF-R2 and CD31 positive cells were assessed in the mouse. In addition, the morphological and functional recovery of ischemic hindlimb was also assessed. Results: The results showed that one-day post cell transplantation, the survival percentage of grafted cells was 3.62% +/- 2.06% at the injection site and 15.71% +/- 12.29% around the injection site. The rate of VEGFR2-positive cells had highest expression at 4 days post transplantation, 5.46% +/- 2.13% at the injection site; 9.12% +/- 7.17% at the opposite of injection site, and 7.22% +/- 4.59% at the lateral gastrocnemius. The percentage of CD31 positive cells increased on day 4 at the injection site to 0.8% +/- 1.60%, and further increased on day 8 at the lateral gastrocnemius site and the opposite injection site to 1.56% +/- 0.44% and 1.17% +/- 1.69%, respectively. After 14 days, the cell presentation and the angiogenesis marker expression were decreased to zero, except for CD31 expression at the opposite of injection site (0.72% +/- 1.03%. Histological structure of the cell-injected muscle tissue remained stable as that of the normal muscle. New small blood vessels were found growing in hindlimb. On the other hand, approximately 66.67% of mice were fully recovered from ischemic hindlimb at grade 0 and I after cell injection. Conclusion: Thus, xenotransplantation of human ADSCs might play a significant role in the formation of new blood vessel and can

  13. Time- and cell-type specific changes in iron, ferritin, and transferrin in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region after transient forebrain ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dae Young; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Park, Joon Ha; Kwon, Hyun Jung; Jung, Hyo Young; Kim, Jong Whi; Choi, Goang-Min; Moon, Seung Myung; Kim, Dae Won; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Won, Moo-Ho; Hwang, In Koo

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis to examine changes in the levels and cellular localization of iron, heavy chain ferritin (ferritin-H), and transferrin in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region from 30 minutes to 7 days following transient forebrain ischemia. Relative to sham controls, iron reactivity increased significantly in the stratum pyramidale and stratum oriens at 12 hours following ischemic insult, transiently decreased at 1–2 days and then increased once again within the CA1 region at 4–7 days after ischemia. One day after ischemia, ferritin-H immunoreactivity increased significantly in the stratum pyramidale and decreased at 2 days. At 4–7 days after ischemia, ferritin-H immunoreactivity in the glial components in the CA1 region was significantly increased. Transferrin immunoreactivity was increased significantly in the stratum pyramidale at 12 hours, peaked at 1 day, and then decreased significantly at 2 days after ischemia. Seven days after ischemia, Transferrin immunoreactivity in the glial cells of the stratum oriens and radiatum was significantly increased. Western blot analyses supported these results, demonstrating that compared to sham controls, ferritin H and transferrin protein levels in hippocampal homogenates significantly increased at 1 day after ischemia, peaked at 4 days and then decreased. These results suggest that iron overload-induced oxidative stress is most prominent at 12 hours after ischemia in the stratum pyramidale, suggesting that this time window may be the optimal period for therapeutic intervention to protect neurons from ischemia-induced death.

  14. Antiproteases in the Treatment of Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis: Continuous Regional Arterial Infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Takeda

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute necrotizing pancreatitis is still a fatal disease. Pancreatic necrosis might be, in part, a result of infarction due to ischemia with vasospasm and an increase in intravascular coagulability. Synthetic antiproteases have a broad inhibitory action on pancreatic enzymes, the coagulation system, the complement system and the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Therefore, antiproteases have been expected to prevent necrotic changes in the pancreas and to reduce the mortality rate. However, the clinical efficacy of antiproteases is still a matter of controversy. Unfortunately, an antiprotease cannot easily reach the pancreas when administered intravenously because of its pharmacokinetic characteristics and impaired microcirculation. Administration through a catheter placed in one of the arteries which supplies the inflamed area of the pancreas, dramatically increases the concentration of the antiprotease in the pancreas. Clinical studies of continuous regional arterial infusion of a protease inhibitor have been conducted in Japan and have demonstrated the possible therapeutic efficacy of the new treatment in severe acute pancreatitis.

  15. Metabolism of biogenic amines in acute cerebral ischemia: Influence of systemic hyperglycemia

    OpenAIRE

    Milovanović Aleksandar; Milovanović J.; Milovanović Anđela; Konstatinović Ljubica; Petrović M.; Kekuš Divna; Petronijević-Vrzić Svetlana; Artiko Vera

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin are biogenic amines which are transmitters of the central nervous system. The effects of ischemia on the brain parenchyma depends on many factors, such is the mechanism of blood flow interruption, velocity of the occurring blood flow interruption, duration of an ischemic episode, organization of anatomical structures of the brain blood vessels etc., which all influence the final outcome. During interruption of the brai...

  16. Pharmacological protection of mitochondrial function mitigates acute limb ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Wei; Bi, Yue; Gao, Xiang; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Yanrong; Harris, Jackie; Legalley, Thomas D; Gibson, K Michael; Bi, Lanrong

    2016-08-15

    We describe several novel curcumin analogues that possess both anti-inflammatory antioxidant properties and thrombolytic activities. The therapeutic efficacy of these curcumin analogues was verified in a mouse ear edema model, a rat arterial thrombosis assay, a free radical scavenging assay performed in PC12 cells, and in both in vitro and in vivo ischemia/reperfusion models. Our findings suggest that their protective effects partially reside in maintenance of optimal mitochondrial function. PMID:27390069

  17. Extraction and Identification of Ginsenoside Re and Its Effects and Mechanism of Protecting Acute Renal Ischemia-reperfusion Injury in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Xin-quan; CHEN Yan-ping; HU Ting-ting; LU Xiu-hua; LI Xi-qian1; DU Xiao-hui; CAO Xia; WANG Wei-hua; XU Zhong-gao

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the extraction and identification of ginsenoside Re from ginseng fruits and investigates the effect and mechanism of ginsenoside Re of protecting acute renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.Having been smashed,the ginseng fruits were ultrasonically extracted twice with 95% ethanol for 30 min each.Having been concentrated,the solution was dissolved with distilled water and separated by two-column chromatography,of which one was packed with macroporous resin D4020,and the other was packed with macroporous resin D941.The raw product was dissolved with methanol and was purified by elution on a Si gel column,finally ginsenoside Re was obtained.The structure of the ginsenoside Re was analyzed by the thin-layer chromatography and NMR methods,and HPLC was carried for the content determination.The model of acute renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats was established after ischemia for 1 h and reperfusion for 1 h or 24 h,serum SOD(superoxide dismutase),MDA(malondialdehyde) and plasma TXB2(thromboxane B2) and 6-keto-PGFlα were detected.The results show that it has accurately,fast,convenient merits and so on.Ginsenoside Re has a protective effect on acute renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats,the mechanism may be related to improving the imbalance of thromboxane A2(TXA2)/prostacyclin(PG12) and inhibiting lipid peroxidation reaction.

  18. Dynamics of cerebral tissue injury and perfusion after temporary hypoxia-ischemia in the rat - Evidence for region-specific sensitivity and delayed damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, RM; Knollema, S; van der Worp, H. Bart; Ter Horst, GJ; De Wildt, DJ; van der Sprenkel, JWB; Tulleken, KAF; Nicolay, K

    1998-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Selective regional sensitivity and delayed damage in cerebral ischemia provide opportunities for directed and late therapy for stroke. Our aim was to characterize the spatial and temporal profile of ischemia-induced changes in cerebral perfusion and tissue status, with the use

  19. Temporal and spatial characteristics of evolving cell injury during regional myocardial ischemia in the dog: the ''border zone'' controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An open chest dog heart with multiple coronary ligations was used to define the temporal and spatial characteristics of injury evolving during regional ischemia. With the use of a multiple (40 sample) biopsy device, adjacent transmural biopsy specimens were obtained from the transition zone between normal and ischemic tissue after 5, 30, 45, 60 and 120 minutes of ischemia. The first 1.8 mm of epicardial tissue was taken for the analysis of flow and metabolites. The results confirmed the existence of a sharp interface of flow and metabolism in the epicardial lateral plane at the boundary of the ischemic zone. There was no significant zone of intermediate injury (flow and metabolism being depressed uniformly throughout the ischemic area). Comparison of the distribution of flow determined by radiolabeled gadolinium-153 at onset of ischemia with that indicated by radiolabeled tin-113 microspheres given at the end of various periods of ischemia revealed no change in the position or steepness of the flow interface at any time during the first 2 hours of ischemia. This observation, together with the absence of any major redistribution or enhancement of residual flow to the ischemic zone, indicated that there was little or no significant collateralization between 5 and 120 minutes. Analysis of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content revealed a rapid depletion during the first 5 minutes of ischemia; the content then remained essentially unchanged until 30 minutes, after which time a second phase of accelerated ATP depletion was observed until 45 minutes. ATP content then remained relatively constant up to 2 hours

  20. Reactive changes in astrocytes, and delayed neuronal death, in the rat hippocampal CA1 region following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiqing Zhang; Xiang Luo; Zhiyuan Yu; Chao Ma; Shabei Xu; Wei Wang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood supply to the hippocampus is not provided by the middle cerebral artery. However, previous studies have shown that delayed neuronal death in the hippocampus may occur following focal cerebral ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. OBJECTIVE: To observe the relationship between reactive changes in hippocampal astrocytes and delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region following middle cerebral artery occlusion. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The immunohistochemical, randomized, controlled animal study was performed at the Laboratory of Department of Neurology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, from July to November 2007. MATERIALS: Rabbit anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) (Neomarkers, USA), goat anti-rabbit IgG (Sigma, USA) and ApoAlert apoptosis detection kit (Biosciences Clontech, USA) were used in this study. METHODS: A total of 42 healthy adult male Wistar rats, aged 3-5 months, were randomly divided into a sham operation group (n = 6) and a cerebral ischemia/reperfusion group (n = 36). In the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion group, cerebral ischemia/reperfusion models were created by middle cerebral artery occlusion. In the sham operation group, the thread was only inserted into the initial region of the internal carotid artery, and middle cerebral artery occlusion was not induced. Rats in the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion group were assigned to a delayed neuronal death (+) subgroup and a delayed neuronal death (-) subgroup, according to the occurrence of delayed neuronal death in the ischemic side of the hippocampal CA1 region following cerebral ischemia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region was measured by Nissl staining. GFAP expression and delayed neuronal death changes were measured in the rat hippocampal CA1 region at the ischemic hemisphere by double staining for GFAP and TUNEL. RESULTS: After 3 days of ischemia

  1. Proteasome alteration and delayed neuronal death in hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus regions following transient cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pengfei Ge; Tianfei Luo; Jizhou Zhang; Haifeng Wang; Wenchen Li; Yongxin Luan; Feng Ling; Yi'nan Luo

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Proteasome dysfunction has been reported to induce abnormal protein aggregation and cell death.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of proteasome changes on delayed neuronal death in CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) regions of the rat hippocampus following transient cerebral ischemia.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A randomized,controlled animal experiment.The study was performed at the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology,Norman Bethune Medical College of Jilin University,from September 2006 to May 2008.MATERIALS:Rabbit anti-19S S10B polyclonal antibody was purchased from Bioreagents,USA;propidium iodide and fluorescently-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG were purchased from Jackson Immunoresearch,USA;hematoxylin and eosin staining solution was purchased from Sigma,USA;LSM 510 confocal microscope was purchased from Zeiss,Germany.METHODS:A total of 40 healthy Wistar rats,male,4 months old,were randomly divided into sham surgery group (n=8) and model group (n=32).Ischemic models were established in the model group by transient clamping of the bilateral carotid arteries and decreased blood pressure.After 20 minutes of global ischemia,the clamp was removed to allow blood flow for 30 minutes,4,24,and 72 hours,respectively,with 8 rats at each time point.The bilateral carotid arteries were not ligated in the sham surgery group.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Neuronal death in the CA1 and DG regions was observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining.Proteasome expression in CA1 and DG region neurons was detected by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS:Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed neuronal death in the CA1 region alone at 72 hours of reperfusion following ischemia.In comparison to the sham surgery group,a significant decrease in proteasome expression was observed,by immunohistochemistry,in the CA1 and DG regions in the model group,following 30 minutes,4,24,and 72 hours of reperfusion (P<0.01).After 72 hours of reperfusion following ischemia,proteasome expression had almost completely

  2. Silent Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vulnerable Plaque Silent Ischemia | Share Related terms: ischemia, restricted blood flow Ischemia is a condition where the flow of ... used to diagnose silent ischemia: An exercise stress test can show blood flow through your coronary arteries in response to exercise. ...

  3. Acute Testicular Ischemia following Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair Identified in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Finnerty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR is perhaps the most widely utilized surgical procedure for patients with large abdominal aortic aneurysms. This procedure is minimally invasive and reduces inpatient hospitalization requirements. The case involves a 72-year-old male who presented to the emergency department with right testicular ischemia two days following EVAR. Given the minimal inpatient hospitalization associated with this procedure, emergency physicians are likely to encounter associated complications. Ischemic and thromboembolic events following EVAR are extremely rare but require prompt vascular surgery intervention to minimize morbidity and mortality.

  4. Effect of infliximab on acute hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Pergel, Ahmet; Aydin, Ibrahim; Alacam, Hasan; Karabicak, Ilhan; Kesicioglu, Tugrul; Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Ozer, Ender; Arslan, Zakir; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Sahin, Dursun Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of infliximab (IFX) against liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. A total of 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham, I/R, and I/R+IFX. IFX was given at a dose of 3 mg/kg for three days before I/R. Rat livers were subjected to 60 min of ischemia followed by 90 h of reperfusion. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), TNF-α, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels were measured in the serum. The liver was removed to evaluate the histopathologic changes. The I/R group had a significant increase in AST, ALT, MDA, and TNF-α levels, and a decrease in GSH-Px activity compared with the sham group. The use of IFX significantly reduced the ALT, AST, MDA and TNF-α levels and significantly increased GSH-Px activity. IFX attenuated the histopathologic changes. IFX has a protective effect on liver I/R injury. This liver protective effect may be related to antioxidant and anti-TNF-α effects. We propose that, for the relief of liver injury subsequent to transplantation, liver resection, trauma, and shock, tentative treatments can be incorporated with IFX, which is already approved for clinical use. PMID:26885068

  5. Experimental early detection of acute mesenteric ischemia with functional MRI (DWI) and parallel imaging; Experimentelle Fruehdiagnostik der akuten mesenterialen Ischaemie mittels diffusionsgewichteter MRT (DWI) und paralleler Bildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, C.A.; Haage, P. [HELIOS Klinikum Wuppertal, Klinikum der Privaten Univ. Witten/Herdecke (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Hohl, C. [HELIOS Klinikum Siegburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of diagnosing in statu nascendi mesenteric ischemia using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in a porcine model. All experiments were approved by the animal care committee at the district administration. Materials and Methods: Mesenteric blood supply was studied in ten healthy female pigs (weight {proportional_to}50 kg) with artificially induced mesenteric ischemia. In the DSA technique a branch of the superior mesenteric artery was embolized with tissue glue or small particles. DWI was performed using a 1.5 T MR scanner before embolization and 30 and 60 minutes after embolization using a 32-channel receiver coil. ADC maps were calculated for all animals. The findings were correlated to angiographic and autoptic findings. The image quality of DWI was assessed by means of SNR measurements and diagnostic impact by CNR measurements. Results: Embolization of the mesenteric branches was technically successful in all cases. DWI of the bowel was feasible with the applied sequences. In all animals, DWI displayed distinct cytotoxic edema as the earliest sign of ischemia thirty minutes after induction of ischemia. Furthermore, DWI yielded a distinct reduction in the water diffusion coefficient in all animals. Variance analysis showed good correlation between CNR measurements and infarction areas. Autoptic findings could confirm the detected infarction areas by DWI. Conclusion: DWI using parallel imaging techniques is feasible for the early detection of acute mesenteric ischemia. The presented DWI results offer encouraging prospects regarding more rapid disease diagnosis. (orig.)

  6. Quantitative Measurement of Cerebral Perfusion with Intravoxel Incoherent Motion in Acute Ischemia Stroke: Initial Clinical Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Bao Hu; Nan Hong; Wen-Zhen Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Background:Intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) has the potential to provide both diffusion and perfusion information without an exogenous contrast agent,its application for the brain is promising,however,feasibility studies on this are relatively scarce.The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of IVIM perfusion in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS).Methods:Patients with suspected AIS were examined by magnetic resonance imaging within 24 h of symptom onset.Fifteen patients (mean age was 68.7 ± 8.0 years) who underwent arterial spin labeling (ASL) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) were identified as having AIS with ischemic penumbra were enrolled,where ischemic penumbra referred to the mismatch areas of ASL and DWI.Eleven different b-values were applied in the biexponential model.Regions of interest were selected in ischemic penumbras and contralateral normal brain regions.Fast apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) and ASL cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured.The paired t-test was applied to compare ASL CBF,fast ADC,and slow ADC measurements between ischemic penumbras and contralateral normal brain regions.Linear regression and Pearson's correlation were used to evaluate the correlations among quantitative results.Results:The fast ADCs and ASL CBFs of ischemic penumbras were significantly lower than those of the contralateral normal brain regions (1.93 ± 0.78 μm2/ms vs.3.97 ± 2.49 μm2/ms,P =0.007;13.5 ± 4.5 ml· 100 g-1 ·min-1 vs.29.1 ± 12.7 ml·100 g-1 ·min-1,P < 0.001,respectively).No significant difference was observed in slow ADCs between ischemic penumbras and contralateral normal brain regions (0.203 ± 0.090 μm2/ms vs.0.198 ± 0.100 μm2/ms,P =0.451).Compared with contralateral normal brain regions,both CBFs and fast ADCs decreased in ischemic penumbras while slow ADCs remained the same.A significant correlation was detected between fast ADCs and ASL CBFs (r =0.416,P < 0.05).No statistically significant correlation was

  7. Changes of cerebral blood flow in rats with acute cerebral ischemia and the effect of nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Gao; Zhiqiang Yi; Guijun Lin

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies show that nitric oxide donor can increase cerebral blood flow and improve the function of neurons in cerebral ischemia, but the change does not happen in all the models of cerebral ischemia. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) on the cerebral blood flow, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) content in cerebral cortex, infarct volume and blood pressure in acute ischemic rat brain.DESIGN: A randomized and control animal experiment. SETTING: Department of Neurosurgery, Aerospace Central Hospital, Peking University. MATERIALS: Twenty-eight male Wistar rats of SPF grade, weighing 250-300 g, aged 10-12 weeks were randomly divided into control group (n =14) and SNAP-treated group (n =14). SNAP (5 mg/bottle) was provided by Beijing Chemical Reagent Company. Laser Doppler Flowmeter (FLO C1; Omegawave Inc., Tokyo, Japan) and immunoassay kit (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, UK) were applied.METHODS: ① Model establishment: In the control group, models of cerebral ischemia were induced by ligating right common, internal and external carotid arteries; In the SNAP-treated group, models of cerebral ischemia were induced by ligating right common and external carotid arteries, followed by occluding middle cerebral artery and ligating internal carotid artery. ② Administration: In the SNAP-treated group, SNAP (100 μg/kg) was intravenously infused within 2 minutes, whereas in the control group, phosphate buffered saline (PBS, 1 mL) was intravenously infused (0.5 mL per minute). Six rats were used to measure the volume of cerebral infarction, and the other 8 rats were used to determine other indexes in each group respectively. ③ Determination of indexes: Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was continuously measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry in the ischemic penumbra and contralateral cortex under the continuous monitoring of blood pressure, cGMP concentrations in brain tissue were determined

  8. Downregulation of organic anion transporters in rat kidney under ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute [corrected] renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, T; Watanabe, H; Yoshitome, K; Morisaki, T; Hamada, A; Nonoguchi, H; Kohda, Y; Tomita, K; Inui, K; Saito, H

    2007-03-01

    The effect of acute renal failure (ARF) induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) of rat kidney on the expression of organic anion transporters (OATs) was examined. The level of serum indoxyl sulfate (IS), a uremic toxin and substrate of OATs in renal tubules, shows a marked increase with the progression of ARF. However, this increase was significantly attenuated by ingestion of cobalt. The level of mRNA and protein of both rOAT1 and rOAT3 were markedly depressed in the ischemic kidney. The uptake of p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) and estrone sulfate (ES) by renal slices of ischemic rats was significantly reduced compared to control rats. Renal slices taken from ischemic rats treated with cobalt displayed significantly elevated levels of ES uptake. Cobalt intake did not affect PAH uptake, indicating the functional restoration of rOAT3 but not rOAT1. The expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was markedly depressed in the ischemic kidney, suggesting that the inward Na(+) gradient in renal tubular cells had collapsed, thereby reducing the outward gradient of alpha-ketoglutarate, a driving force of both rOATs. The decreased expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was significantly restored by cobalt treatment. Our results suggest that the downregulation of renal rOAT1 and rOAT3 could be responsible for the increase in serum IS level of ischemic rats. Cobalt treatment has a significant protective effect on ischemia-induced ARF, being accompanied by the restoration of rOAT3 and/or Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase function. PMID:17245393

  9. Selenium Pretreatment for Mitigation of Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Cardiovascular Surgery: Influence on Acute Organ Damage and Inflammatory Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrenner, Holger; Bilgic, Esra; Pinto, Antonio; Engels, Melanie; Wollschläger, Lena; Döhrn, Laura; Kellermann, Kristine; Boeken, Udo; Akhyari, Payam; Lichtenberg, Artur

    2016-08-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) contributes to morbidity and mortality after cardiovascular surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). Multi-organ damage is associated with substantial decreases of blood selenium (Se) levels in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. We compared the influence of a dietary surplus of Se and pretreatment with ebselen, a mimic of the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase, on IRI-induced tissue damage and inflammation. Male Wistar rats were fed either a Se-adequate diet containing 0.3 ppm Se or supplemented with 1 ppm Se (as sodium selenite) for 5 weeks. Two other groups of Se-adequate rats received intraperitoneal injection of ebselen (30 mg/kg) or DMSO (solvent control) before surgery. The animals were connected to a heart-lung-machine and underwent 45 min of global ischemia during circulatory arrest at 16 °C, followed by re-warming and reperfusion. Selenite and ebselen suppressed IRI-induced leukocytosis and the increase in plasma levels of tissue damage markers (AST, ALT, LDH, troponin) during surgery but did not prevent the induction of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α). Both Se compounds affected phosphorylation and expression of proteins related to stress response and inflammation: Ebselen increased phosphorylation of STAT3 transcription factor in the heart and decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 MAP kinases in the lungs. Selenite decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and HSP-70 expression in the heart. Pretreatment with selenite or ebselen protected against acute IRI-induced tissue damage during CPB and DHCA. Potential implications of their different actions with regard to molecular stress markers on the recovery after surgery represent promising targets for further investigation. PMID:27192987

  10. Correlation of albumin concentration and ischemia modified albumin in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    K, Arun Kumar; Uthappa, Sheila; Surendran, Sudarshan; Michael, Martina; S., Sushitha E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives:  To find out if there is any relationship between serum level of albumin and IMA estimated by albumin cobalt binding assay. The effectiveness of albumin adjusted IMA index in the diagnosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) was also studied.Material and methods: We analyzed serum levels of IMA and albumin adjusted IMA index in 120 patients each with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and apparently healthy subjects belonging to the control group. Further, both control and AMI gro...

  11. Perfusion and diffusion imaging in acute focal cerebral ischemia: Temporal vs. spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardutzky, Juergen; Shen, Qiang; Bouley, James; Sotak, Christopher H.; Duong, Timothy Q.; Fisher, Marc

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution diffusion- (DWI) and perfusion-weighted (PWI) imaging may provide substantial benefits in accurate delineation of normal, ischemic, and at-risk tissue. We compared the capability of low (400 × 400 µm2) and high (200 × 200 µm2) spatial resolution imaging in characterizing the spatiotemporal evolution of the ischemic lesion in a permanent middle artery occlusion (MCAO) model in rats. Serial measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were performed. Lesion volumes were calculated by using viability thresholds or by visual inspection, and correlated with infarct volume defined by TTC staining at 24 h after MCAO. At the very early phase of ischemia, high-resolution resulted in a significantly larger ADC-derived lesion volume and a smaller PWI/DWI mismatch. At 3 h after MCAO, ADC and CBF lesions showed similar robust correlations with TTC-defined infarct volumes for both groups using previously established thresholds. When lesions were determined visually, low-resolution resulted in a substantial overestimation of TTC-defined infarct volume and a lower inter-observer reliability (r = 0.75), whereas high-resolution produced an excellent correlation with TTC-defined infarct volume and inter-observer reliability (r = 0.96). In conclusion, high-resolution MRI resulted in substantial temporal averaging of the ischemic lesion during the early phase, but was clearly superior in visual determination of final infarct size. Low-resolution reasonably evaluated the temporal and spatial evolution of ischemia when thresholds were used. PMID:15862529

  12. Changes in plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide and serum neuron specific enolase in rats with acute cerebral ischemia after low-frequency electrical stimulation with different waveforms and intensities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Gao; Yonghong Yang; Shasha Li; Jing He; Chengqi He

    2011-01-01

    Following acute cerebral ischemia in rats, plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide decreased and the level of serum neuron specific enolase and the volume of the infarction increased. Square-wave and triangular-wave electrical stimulation with low or high intensities could increase the plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide, decrease the serum neuron specific enolase and reduce the infarction volume in the brain in rats with cerebral ischemia. There was no significant difference between different wave forms and intensities. The experimental findings indicate that low-frequency electrical stimulation with varying waveforms and intensities can treat acute cerebral ischemia in rats.

  13. The morphometrical characteristic of the elements of the heart conduction system in the acute myocardial ischemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Bodnar L.V.

    2007-01-01

    . Information of morphometric research of structural elements of the heart conduction system in 20 dying from an acute coronary failure and 40 dying from an acute myocardial infarction with determination of diameter of heart conduction myocytes and area of their karyon is resulted in the article by establishment of by volume maintenance of tissues compo-nents of sinoatrial and atrio-ventricular nodes with the use of computer analyzer of image “Olympus DP-Soft”. In the ex-plored groups both at...

  14. High Homocysteine and Blood Pressure Related to Poor Outcome of Acute Ischemia Stroke in Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changjiang; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Mo; Sun, Wenjie; Xu, Tan; Tong, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between plasma homocysteine (Hcy), blood pressure (BP) and poor outcome at hospital discharge among acute ischemic stroke patients, and if high Hcy increases the risk of poor outcome based on high BP status in a northern Chinese population. Methods Between June 1, 2009 and May 31, 2013, a total of 3695 acute ischemic stroke patients were recruited from three hospitals in northern Chinese cities. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, medical history, and other clinical characteristics were recorded for all subjects. Poor outcome was defined as a discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≥3 or death. The association between homocysteine concentration, admission blood pressure, and risk of poor outcome following acute ischemic stroke was analyzed by using multivariate non-conditional logistic regression models. Results Compared with those in the lowest quartile of Hcy concentration in a multivariate-adjusted model, those in the highest quartile of Hcy concentration had increased risk of poor outcome after acute ischemic stroke, (OR = 1.33, P<0.05). The dose-response relationship between Hcy concentration and risk of poor outcome was statistically significant (p-value for trend  = 0.027). High BP was significantly associated with poor outcome following acute ischemic stroke (adjusted OR = 1.44, 95%CI, 1.19–1.74). Compared with non-high BP with nhHcy, in a multivariate-adjusted model, the ORs (95% CI) of non-high BP with hHcy, high BP with nhHcy, and high BP with hHcy to poor outcome were 1.14 (0.85–1.53), 1.37 (1.03–1.84) and 1.70 (1.29–2.34), respectively. Conclusion The present study suggested that high plasma Hcy and blood pressure were independent risk factors for prognosis of acute ischemic stroke, and hHcy may further increase the risk of poor outcome among patients with high blood pressure. Additionally, the results indicate that high Hcy with high BP may cause increased susceptibility

  15. Do antioxidant vitamins reduce infarct size following acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, S D; Hale, S L; Simkhovich, B Z; Kay, G L; Kloner, R A

    1995-02-01

    There is controversy concerning the ability of antioxidant vitamins to reduce myocardial infarct size. We sought to determine whether a brief prophylactic treatment of vitamin C or vitamin C plus Trolox (a water-soluble form of vitamin E) could reduce myocardial infarct size in an experimental model. We used an anesthetized open-chest rabbit model in which a branch of the circumflex coronary artery was ligated for 30 minutes followed by 4 hours of reperfusion. Experiments were performed in a randomized and blinded fashion. An IV injection of normal saline pH balanced to 7.4 (control group n = 15), vitamin C (150 mg/kg, n = 14), or vitamin C plus Trolox (150 mg/kg plus 100 mg/kg, respectively, n = 15) was administered prior to coronary occlusion. Collateral blood flow during coronary occlusion was measured by radioactive microspheres, myocardial risk zone (AR) was assessed by blue dye injection, and myocardial infarct size (AN) was assessed by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. All rabbits received comparable ischemic insult: Collateral blood flow and AR were similar among all three groups. Infarct size, measured as a percent of AR, did not differ significantly among the controls (21%), vitamin C (29%), or the vitamin C plus Trolox (18%) groups. Therefore, in this ischemia/reperfusion model, antioxidant vitamins did not alter myocardial infarct size. PMID:7540423

  16. Study of T-wave morphology parameters based on Principal Components Analysis during acute myocardial ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglivo, Fabricio Hugo; Arini, Pedro David

    2011-12-01

    Electrocardiographic repolarization abnormalities can be detected by Principal Components Analysis of the T-wave. In this work we studied the efect of signal averaging on the mean value and reproducibility of the ratio of the 2nd to the 1st eigenvalue of T-wave (T21W) and the absolute and relative T-wave residuum (TrelWR and TabsWR) in the ECG during ischemia induced by Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. Also, the intra-subject and inter-subject variability of T-wave parameters have been analyzed. Results showed that TrelWR and TabsWR evaluated from the average of 10 complexes had lower values and higher reproducibility than those obtained from 1 complex. On the other hand T21W calculated from 10 complexes did not show statistical diferences versus the T21W calculated on single beats. The results of this study corroborate that, with a signal averaging technique, the 2nd and the 1st eigenvalue are not afected by noise while the 4th to 8th eigenvalues are so much afected by this, suggesting the use of the signal averaged technique before calculation of absolute and relative T-wave residuum. Finally, we have shown that T-wave morphology parameters present high intra-subject stability.

  17. Acute ethanol exposure increases the susceptibility of the donor hearts to ischemia/reperfusion injury after transplantation in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiliang Li

    contractility and relaxation, oxidative stress and altered protein expression were observed. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate acute alcohol abuse increases the susceptibility of donor hearts to ischemia/reperfusion in a rat heart transplant model even though the global contractile function recovers 6 h after ethanol-administration.

  18. T1-mapping for assessment of ischemia-induced acute kidney injury and prediction of chronic kidney disease in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueper, Katja; Gutberlet, Marcel; Wacker, Frank; Hartung, Dagmar [Hannover Medical School, Department of Radiology, Hannover (Germany); Hannover Medical School, REBIRTH Cluster of Excellence, Hannover (Germany); Peperhove, Matti; Tewes, Susanne; Barrmeyer, Amelie [Hannover Medical School, Department of Radiology, Hannover (Germany); Rong, Song [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nephrology, Hannover (Germany); Zunyi Medical College, Laboratory of Organ Transplantation, Zunyi (China); Gerstenberg, Jessica; Haller, Herman; Gueler, Faikah [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nephrology, Hannover (Germany); Mengel, Michael [University of Alberta, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Edmonton (Canada); Meier, Martin [Hannover Medical School, REBIRTH Cluster of Excellence, Hannover (Germany); Hannover Medical School, Institute for Animal Science, Hannover (Germany); Chen, Rongjun [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nephrology, Hannover (Germany); Zhejiang University, The Kidney Disease Center of the First Affiliated Hospital, Hangzhou (China)

    2014-09-15

    To investigate whether T1-mapping allows assessment of acute kidney injury (AKI) and prediction of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in mice. AKI was induced in C57Bl/6N mice by clamping of the right renal pedicle for 35 min (moderate AKI, n = 26) or 45 min (severe AKI, n = 23). Sham animals served as controls (n = 9). Renal histology was assessed in the acute (day 1 + day 7; d1 + d7) and chronic phase (d28) after AKI. Furthermore, longitudinal MRI-examinations (prior to until d28 after surgery) were performed using a 7-Tesla magnet. T1-maps were calculated from a fat-saturated echoplanar inversion recovery sequence, and mean and relative T1-relaxation times were determined. Renal histology showed severe tubular injury at d1 + d7 in both AKI groups, whereas, at d28, only animals with prolonged 45-min ischemia showed persistent signs of AKI. Following both AKI severities T1-values significantly increased and peaked at d7. T1-times in the contralateral kidney without AKI remained stable. At d7 relative T1-values in the outer stripe of the outer medulla were significantly higher after severe than after moderate AKI (138 ± 2 % vs. 121 ± 3 %, p = 0.001). T1-elevation persisted until d28 only after severe AKI. Already at d7 T1 in the outer stripe of the outer medulla correlated with kidney volume loss indicating CKD (r = 0.83). T1-mapping non-invasively detects AKI severity in mice and predicts further outcome. (orig.)

  19. T1-mapping for assessment of ischemia-induced acute kidney injury and prediction of chronic kidney disease in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate whether T1-mapping allows assessment of acute kidney injury (AKI) and prediction of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in mice. AKI was induced in C57Bl/6N mice by clamping of the right renal pedicle for 35 min (moderate AKI, n = 26) or 45 min (severe AKI, n = 23). Sham animals served as controls (n = 9). Renal histology was assessed in the acute (day 1 + day 7; d1 + d7) and chronic phase (d28) after AKI. Furthermore, longitudinal MRI-examinations (prior to until d28 after surgery) were performed using a 7-Tesla magnet. T1-maps were calculated from a fat-saturated echoplanar inversion recovery sequence, and mean and relative T1-relaxation times were determined. Renal histology showed severe tubular injury at d1 + d7 in both AKI groups, whereas, at d28, only animals with prolonged 45-min ischemia showed persistent signs of AKI. Following both AKI severities T1-values significantly increased and peaked at d7. T1-times in the contralateral kidney without AKI remained stable. At d7 relative T1-values in the outer stripe of the outer medulla were significantly higher after severe than after moderate AKI (138 ± 2 % vs. 121 ± 3 %, p = 0.001). T1-elevation persisted until d28 only after severe AKI. Already at d7 T1 in the outer stripe of the outer medulla correlated with kidney volume loss indicating CKD (r = 0.83). T1-mapping non-invasively detects AKI severity in mice and predicts further outcome. (orig.)

  20. Acute and chronic mesenteric ischemia: MDCT findings Isquemia mesentérica aguda e crônica: achados tomográficos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Schmitz Serpa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mesenteric ischemia is caused by a reduction in mesenteric blood flow. It can be divided into acute and chronic, based upon the rapidity and the degree to which the blood flow is compromised. The authors retrospectively reviewed 22 cases of mesenteric ischemia, diagnosed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT in our service, and confirmed by surgery or clinical follow-up. The frequency of the diagnostic findings of chronic and acute mesenteric ischemia was evaluated. The improvement of three-dimensional (3D MDCT allows accurate assessment of mesenteric vessels. Therefore, it demonstrates changes in ischemic bowel segments helpful in determining the primary cause of the disease, and can identify the complications in patients with acute and chronic mesenteric ischemia.A isquemia mesentérica é causada pela redução do fluxo sanguíneo mesentérico. Essa patologia pode ser dividida em aguda e crônica, baseada na rapidez e no grau em que o fluxo sanguíneo está sendo comprometido. Os autores retrospectivamente revisaram 22 casos de isquemia mesentérica, diagnosticados por tomografia computadorizada com mutidetectores (TCMD em nosso serviço, e confirmados por cirurgia ou seguimento clínico. Os achados diagnósticos de isquemia aguda e crônica e sua frequência foram avaliados. Os avanços na TCMD 3D (tridimensional permitiram o acesso detalhado aos vasos mesentéricos. Além disso, é possível demonstrar alterações nos segmentos intestinais, auxiliando na identificação da causa primária da doença e podendo identificar as complicações associadas a isquemia mesentérica e crônica.

  1. The morphometrical characteristic of the elements of the heart conduction system in the acute myocardial ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodnar L.V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available . Information of morphometric research of structural elements of the heart conduction system in 20 dying from an acute coronary failure and 40 dying from an acute myocardial infarction with determination of diameter of heart conduction myocytes and area of their karyon is resulted in the article by establishment of by volume maintenance of tissues compo-nents of sinoatrial and atrio-ventricular nodes with the use of computer analyzer of image “Olympus DP-Soft”. In the ex-plored groups both atrophy and hypertrophies changes of heart conduction myocardium, increasing of by volume mainte-nance of stromal component as the display of compensational processes was founded.

  2. Heterogeneity of epigenetic changes at ischemia/reperfusion- and endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury genes

    OpenAIRE

    Mar, Daniel; Gharib, Sina A; Zager, Richard A.; Johnson, Ali; Denisenko, Oleg; Bomsztyk, Karol

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant gene expression is a molecular hallmark of acute kidney injury (AKI). Since epigenetic processes control gene expression in a cell- and environment-defined manner, understanding the epigenetic pathways that regulate genes altered by AKI may open vital new insights into the complexities of disease pathogenesis and identify possible therapeutic targets. Here we used matrix chromatin immunoprecipitation and integrative analysis to study twenty key permissive and repressive epigenetic hi...

  3. Carbon monoxide-Releasing Molecule-2 (CORM-2 attenuates acute hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weihui

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/Ri is a serious complication occurring during liver surgery that may lead to liver failure. Hepatic I/Ri induces formation of reactive oxygen species, hepatocyte apoptosis, and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which together causes liver damage and organ dysfunction. A potential strategy to alleviate hepatic I/Ri is to exploit the potent anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of carbon monoxide (CO by application of so-called CO-releasing molecules (CORMs. Here, we assessed whether CO released from CORM-2 protects against hepatic I/Ri in a rat model. Methods Forty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups (n = 10. Sham group underwent a sham operation and received saline. I/R group underwent hepatic I/R procedure by partial clamping of portal structures to the left and median lobes with a microvascular clip for 60 minutes, yielding ~70% hepatic ischemia and subsequently received saline. CORM-2 group underwent the same procedure and received 8 mg/kg of CORM-2 at time of reperfusion. iCORM-2 group underwent the same procedure and received iCORM-2 (8 mg/kg, which does not release CO. Therapeutic effects of CORM-2 on hepatic I/Ri was assessed by measuring serum damage markers AST and ALT, liver histology score, TUNEL-scoring of apoptotic cells, NFkB-activity in nuclear liver extracts, serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, and hepatic neutrophil infiltration. Results A single systemic infusion with CORM-2 protected the liver from I/Ri as evidenced by a reduction in serum AST/ALT levels and an improved liver histology score. Treatment with CORM-2 also up-regulated expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, down-regulated caspase-3 activation, and significantly reduced the levels of apoptosis after I/Ri. Furthermore, treatment with CORM-2 significantly inhibited the activity of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB as measured in

  4. 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy of vascular endothelial growth factor-induced neuroprotection following acute cerebral ischemia and reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yi; Haiou Zhang; Hao Lei; Li Wei

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has become generally accepted that measuring N-acetyI-L-aspartic acid through the use of 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) could be used to evaluate neuronal injury. OBJECTIVE: To study metabolic changes of N-acetyl-L-aspanic acid surrounding the acute cerebral ischcmia area following vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment using 1H-MRS imaging, and to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of VEGE.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomly controlled animal study, according to one-factor analysis of variance, was performed at the Shenzhen Hospital of Peking University and State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences from August 2003 to December 2005.MATERIALS: Twelve healthy, adult, Sprague Dawley rats were used to establish an ischemia/reperfusion model through the use of middle cerebral artery occlusion. The 4.7T superconducting nuclear magnetic resonance meter was provided by Brucker Company. VEGF164 was purchased from Shenzhen Jingmei Bioengineering Co., Ltd. Titus ancsthesia machine was purchased from Draeger Medical AG & Co. KG.METHODS: The rats were randomly divided into model control (n = 6) and VEGF-injected (n = 6) groups. All animals received 60-minute middle cerebral artery occlusion and 24-hour repcrfusion. Lateral cerebral ventricle injection was performed by stereotaxic technique at respective time points. The VEGF group received 0. 1 μ g/μ L VEGF (5 μL), and the model group received the same amount of normal saline, once daily for 3 days.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Metabolic changes of N-acetyl-L-aspartic acid and lactic acid following cerebral ischemia and reperfusion were detected using 1H-MRS, and the ischemic volume was measured.RESULTS: Twelve rats were included in the final analysis. =H-MRS results revealed that the ischemic volume increased in the control group compared with prior to injection (P < 0.01). In the

  5. Chronic Losartan Treatment Up-Regulates AT1R and Increases the Heart Vulnerability to Acute Onset of Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minwoo A; Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Zhang, Lubo

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) is an important therapy in the management of hypertension, particularly in the immediate post-myocardial infarction period. Yet, the role of AT1R in the acute onset of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury still remains controversial. Thus, the present study determined the effects of chronic losartan treatment on heart ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats. Losartan (10 mg/kg/day) was administered to six-month-old male rats via an osmotic pump for 14 days and hearts were then isolated and were subjected to ischemia and reperfusion injury in a Langendorff preparation. Losartan significantly decreased mean arterial blood pressure. However, heart weight, left ventricle to body weight ratio and baseline cardiac function were not significantly altered by the losartan treatment. Of interest, chronic in vivo losartan treatment significantly increased ischemia-induced myocardial injury and decreased post-ischemic recovery of left ventricular function. This was associated with significant increases in AT1R and PKCδ expression in the left ventricle. In contrast, AT2R and PKCε were not altered. Furthermore, losartan treatment significantly increased microRNA (miR)-1, -15b, -92a, -133a, -133b, -210, and -499 expression but decreased miR-21 in the left ventricle. Of importance, addition of losartan to isolated heart preparations blocked the effect of increased ischemic-injury induced by in vivo chronic losartan treatment. The results demonstrate that chronic losartan treatment up-regulates AT1R/PKCδ and alters miR expression patterns in the heart, leading to increased cardiac vulnerability to ischemia and reperfusion injury.

  6. Neuroprotective effect of osthole against acute ischemic stroke on middle cerebral ischemia occlusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Xiaodong; Zhou, Jun; Chen, Tao; Liu, Wenbo; Dong, Wenpeng; Qu, Yan; Jiang, Xiaofan; Ji, Xituan; Zhen, Haining; Fei, Zhou

    2010-12-01

    Osthole, a natural coumarin derivative, has taken considerable attention because of its diverse pharmacological functions. It has been reported to be useful in the treatment of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and neuronal damage. In the present study, we examined the neuroprotective effect of osthole and its potential mechanisms against acute ischemic stroke induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. The rats were pretreated with osthole 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg 30 min before MCAO. The neuroprotective effect of osthole against acute ischemic stroke was evaluated by neurological deficit score (NDS), dry-wet weight and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH), activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and the level of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-8 after 2h of MCAO in rats were detected to investigate its anti-oxidative action and anti-inflammatory property. Pretreatment with osthole significantly increased in GSH, and decreased the volume of infarction, NDS, edema, MDA, MPO, IL-1β and IL-8 compared with rats in the MCAO group at 24h after MCAO. The study suggests the neuroprotective effect of osthole in the MCAO model of rats. The anti-oxidative action and anti-inflammatory property of osthole may contribute to a beneficial effect against stroke. PMID:20869955

  7. A comparison of umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor and mononuclear cell transplantation for the treatment of acute hindlimb ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Van Pham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lower limb ischemia is a common peripheral artery disease whose treatment presents many difficulties. Stem cell transplantation is considered a novel and promising method of treating this disease. Umbilical cord blood (UCB is rich in stem cells, including hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs. However, historically, banked umbilical cord blood has been used mainly to treat blood-related diseases. Therefore, this study compared the efficacy of umbilical cord bloodderived mononuclear cells (UCB-MNCs with EPC transplantation for the treatment of acute hindlimb ischemia (ALI in mouse models. MNCs were isolated from UCB by Ficoll gradient centrifugation, after which the EPCs were sorted based on CD34+ and CD133+ markers and cultured according to a previously published protocol. To induce ALI, mice were immuno-suppressed using busulfan (BU and cyclophosphamide (CY, after which the femoral arteries were burned. Induction of ALI in the immune suppressed mice was confirmed by the grade of tissue damage, pedal frequency in water, tissue edema, changes in histology, total white blood cell count, and white blood cell composition. Model mice were injected with a dose of MNCs or EPCs and un-treated control mice were injected with phosphate buffered saline. The efficiency of treatment was evaluated by comparing the grade of tissue damage between the three groups of mice. Mice aged 6 and ndash;12 months were suitable for ALI, with 100% of mice exhibiting ischemia from grade I 10%, grade III 50%, grade IV 40%. For all ALI mice, a gradual increase in pedal frequency in water, increased tissue edema, necrosis of muscle tissue, and loss of hindlimb function were observed after 20 days. Transplanted MNCs and EPCs significantly improved hindlimb ischemia compared with control treatment. Moreover, EPC transplantation significantly improved hindlimb ischemia compared with MNC transplantation. Following

  8. A New Therapeutic Modality for Acute Myocardial Infarction: Nanoparticle-Mediated Delivery of Pitavastatin Induces Cardioprotection from Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via Activation of PI3K/Akt Pathway and Anti-Inflammation in a Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuhiro Nagaoka; Tetsuya Matoba; Yajing Mao; Yasuhiro Nakano; Gentaro Ikeda; Shizuka Egusa; Masaki Tokutome; Ryoji Nagahama; Kaku Nakano; Kenji Sunagawa; Kensuke Egashira

    2015-01-01

    Aim There is an unmet need to develop an innovative cardioprotective modality for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), for which the effectiveness of interventional reperfusion therapy is hampered by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Pretreatment with statins before ischemia is shown to reduce MI size in animals. However, no benefit was found in animals and patients with AMI when administered at the time of reperfusion, suggesting insufficient drug targeting into the IR myocardium. H...

  9. The effect of 6% Hydroxyethyl starch vs. Ringer's lactate on acute kidney injury after renal ischemia in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Lucia Fernandes de Azevedo; Paulo Sergio Santana Santos; Gildàsio Silveira de Oliveira Jr; Gabriel Pinheiro Módolo; Maria Aparecida Custódio Domingues; Yara Marcondes Machado Castiglia; Pedro Thadeu Galvão Vianna; Luiz Antonio Vane; Norma Sueli Pinheiro Módolo

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare fluid replacement therapy with Hydroxyethyl starch 6% (HES) versus Ringer's lactate (RL) in a rodent model of non-septic renal ischemia. METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats were randomized to receive HES 2 ml.kg-1.hr-1or RL 5 ml. kg-1.hr-1 that underwent 30 minutes of renal ischemia followed by reperfusion. Twelve hours after kidney ischemia, the kidneys were evaluated for histological changes. Serum NGAL levels were obtained at different times of the experimental protocol. RE...

  10. Effect of ischemic preconditioning on the expression of c-myb in the CA1 region of the gerbil hippocampus after ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Young Lee

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Our results show that a lethal transient ischemia significantly decreased c-myb immunoreactivity in the SP of the CA1 region and that IPC well preserved c-myb immunoreactivity in the SP of the CA1 region. We suggest that the maintenance of c-myb might be related with IPC-mediated neuroprotection after a lethal ischemic insult.

  11. Poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase-1 expression is related to cold ischemia, acute tubular necrosis, and delayed renal function in kidney transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco O'Valle

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Cold ischemia time especially impacts on outcomes of expanded-criteria donor (ECD transplantation. Ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury produces excessive poly[ADP-Ribose] Polymerase-1 (PARP-1 activation. The present study explored the hypothesis that increased tubular expression of PARP-1 contributes to delayed renal function in suboptimal ECD kidney allografts and in non-ECD allografts that develop posttransplant acute tubular necrosis (ATN. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nuclear PARP-1 immunohistochemical expression was studied in 326 paraffin-embedded renal allograft biopsies (193 with different degrees of ATN and 133 controls and in murine Parp-1 knockout model of IR injury. RESULTS: PARP-1 expression showed a significant relationship with cold ischemia time (r coefficient = 0.603, time to effective diuresis (r = 0.770, serum creatinine levels at biopsy (r = 0.649, and degree of ATN (r = 0.810 (p = 0.001, Pearson test. In the murine IR model, western blot showed an increase in PARP-1 that was blocked by Parp-1 inhibitor. Immunohistochemical study of PARP-1 in kidney allograft biopsies would allow early detection of possible delayed renal function, and the administration of PARP-1 inhibitors may offer a therapeutic option to reduce damage from IR in donor kidneys by preventing or minimizing ATN. In summary, these results suggest a pivotal role for PARP-1 in the ATN of renal transplantation. We propose the immunohistochemical assessment of PARP-1 in kidney allograft biopsies for early detection of a possible delayed renal function.

  12. Region-specific effects on brain metabolites of hypoxia and hyperoxia overlaid on cerebral ischemia in young and old rats: a quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliani Patricia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both hypoxia and hyperoxia, deregulating the oxidative balance, may play a role in the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders underlain by cerebral ischemia. In the present study, quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to evaluate regional metabolic alterations, following a 24-hour hypoxic or hyperoxic exposure on the background of ischemic brain insult, in two contrasting age-groups of rats: young - 3 months old and aged - 24 months old. Methods Cerebral ischemia was induced by ligation of the right common carotid artery. Concentrations of eight metabolites (alanine, choline-containing compounds, total creatine, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, lactate, myo-inositol and N-acetylaspartate were quantified from extracts in three different brain regions (fronto-parietal and occipital cortices and the hippocampus from both hemispheres. Results In the control normoxic condition, there were significant increases in lactate and myo-inositol concentrations in the hippocampus of the aged rats, compared with the respective values in the young ones. In the ischemia-hypoxia condition, the most prevalent changes in the brain metabolites were found in the hippocampal regions of both young and aged rats; but the effects were more evident in the aged animals. The ischemia-hyperoxia procedure caused less dedicated changes in the brain metabolites, which may reflect more limited tissue damage. Conclusions We conclude that the hippocampus turns out to be particularly susceptible to hypoxia overlaid on cerebral ischemia and that old age further increases this susceptibility.

  13. Radiological Evaluation of Bowel Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhatt, Harpreet S; Behr, Spencer C; Miracle, Aaron; Wang, Zhen Jane; Yeh, Benjamin M

    2015-11-01

    Intestinal ischemia, which refers to insufficient blood flow to the bowel, is a potentially catastrophic entity that may require emergent intervention or surgery in the acute setting. Although the clinical signs and symptoms of intestinal ischemia are nonspecific, computed tomography (CT) findings can be highly suggestive in the correct clinical setting. In our article, we review the CT diagnosis of arterial, venous, and nonocclusive intestinal ischemia. We discuss the vascular anatomy, pathophysiology of intestinal ischemia, CT techniques for optimal imaging, key and ancillary radiological findings, and differential diagnosis. PMID:26526436

  14. Effects of Acupuncture at Acupoint Neiguan (PC 6) and Intravenous Injection of Larginine on the Improvement of Acute Myocardial Ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周培华; 吕娟秀; 朱大年; 朱忠春

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The present study is to observe and compare the different effects of electroacupuncture(EA) at acupoint Neiguan (PC 6), intravenous administration of L-arginine(L-Arg, a precursor of nitric oxide), and the drug administration combined with the EA on acute myocardial ischemia(AMI) in rats. Methods: The rat model of AMI was established by occlusion of the anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery, then the animals were divided randomly into 5 groups,i.e. control group, AMI group, L-Arg treatment group, EA treatment group and L-Arg plus EA treatment group, the mean arterial pressure(MAP), heart rate(HR) and the cardiac functions were observed and recorded. Results: The data showed that MAP, HR and all the indices of cardiac functions in the AMI group were significantly lower than those in control group, and the indices in each treatment group were all improved to different extents, especially in L-Arg plus EA treatment group. Conclusion: The combined use of L-Arg and EA had the better therapeutic effect on the AMI.%目的:观察和比较针刺"内关"、静脉注射一氧化氮(NO)前体L-精氨酸(L-Arg)以及两者联合应用对急性心肌缺血(AMI)大鼠的不同改善效应.方法:采用结扎左冠状动脉前降支建立AMI模型,随机设立对照组、AMI组、LArg治疗组、针刺"内关"治疗组、LArg加针刺"内关"治疗组,观察平均动脉压(MAP)、心率(HR)和心功能多项指标的变化.结果:AMI组以上各项指标较正常对照组明显降低,而各治疗组以上各项指标均有不同程度的改善,其中针药结合治疗组改善最显著.结论:LArg加针刺内关联合应用对AMI有更好的治疗效果.

  15. Color-coded perfused blood volume imaging using multidetector CT: initial results of whole-brain perfusion analysis in acute cerebral ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloska, Stephan P.; Fischer, Tobias; Fischbach, Roman; Heindel, Walter [University of Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Nabavi, Darius G.; Dittrich, Ralf; Ringelstein, E.B. [University of Muenster, Department of Neurology, Muenster (Germany); Ditt, Hendrik; Klotz, Ernst [Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is still the primary imaging modality following acute stroke. To evaluate a prototype of software for the calculation of color-coded whole-brain perfused blood volume (PBV) images from CT angiography (CTA) and nonenhanced CT (NECT) scans, we studied 14 patients with suspected acute ischemia of the anterior cerebral circulation. PBV calculations were performed retrospectively. The detection rate of ischemic changes in the PBV images was compared with NECT. The volume of ischemic changes in PBV was correlated with the infarct volume on follow-up examination taking potential vessel recanalization into account. PBV demonstrated ischemic changes in 12/12 patients with proven infarction and was superior to NECT (8/12) in the detection of early ischemia. Moreover, PBV demonstrated the best correlation coefficient with the follow-up infarct volume (Pearson's R = 0.957; P = 0.003) for patients with proven recanalization of initially occluded cerebral arteries. In summary, PBV appears to be more accurate in the detection of early infarction compared to NECT and mainly visualizes the irreversibly damaged ischemic tissue. (orig.)

  16. Treatment of acute limb ischemia:a report of 126 cases%急性肢体动脉缺血126例治疗体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑宏飞; 李晓强; 段鹏飞; 于小滨; 姜坤

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨急性肢体动脉缺血(acute limb ischemia,ALI)的治疗方法.方法:采用药物、手术、介入方法治疗ALT 126例,其中动脉栓塞84例,血栓形成42例.按Rutherford分期,Ⅰ期13例,Ⅱ期107例,Ⅲ期6例.Ⅰ期采用药物抗凝溶栓,Ⅱ期采用手术取栓联合术中造影及介入治疗,Ⅲ期截肢.结果:Ⅰ期患者症状均完全缓解,无病死及截肢.Ⅱ、Ⅲ期术后30天病死6例,术后肢体存活109例,截肢(趾)11例.120例均痊愈出院.随访1~72个月,11例截肢(趾)肢体残体血供良好;存活109例肢体运动、感觉功能正常.结论:早期诊断,及时有效治疗和术后对再灌注损伤并发症的纠正,是提高疗效、降低截肢率和病死率的关键.%Objective:To discuss the management of acute limb ischemia. Methods:One hundred and twenty-six cases with acute limb ischemia that including 84 case of arterial embolism and 42 case of arterial thrombosis were analyzed. According to Rutherford criteria, there were 13 cases in category Ⅰ , 107 cases in category Ⅱ and 6 cases in category Ⅲ, respectively. Cases in category Ⅰ were adopted medical treatment,while in category Ⅱ , cases were mainly adopted surgical and/or interventional treatments, and cases in Ⅲ were amputated. Results :There were 6 deaths in category Ⅱ and Ⅲ within 30 days after treatments. Eleven cases were amputated. One hundred and twenty cases were recovered. The follow-up period was from 1 to 72 months. Conclusions: Expeditious diagnosis and immediate effective treatment, combined by alleviating reperfusion injury are key points in improving therapeutic effect of acute limb ischenia and reduce morbidity and mortality.

  17. Myocardial ischemia and angina pectoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambulatory monitoring of ST segment changes was performed in 60 patients presenting with angina, positive ECG stress tests and coronary artery disease, 85% of ischemic ECG events were asymptomatic, 37% occurred with no increase in heart rate and 15% of episodes either lasted 20 minutes or more or fluctuated in severity. A controlled pilot study in ten patients showed depression. Radionuclide studies in 50 patients with angina and coronary artery disease have shown that stress (i.e., atrial pacing) produced different patterns of disturbed regional myocardial perfusion related to the patient's exercise capacity and eventually leading to a decrease in regional myocardial perfusion during the ischemic episode. ST segment depression appeared only after the decrease in regional myocardial perfusion. These findings combined with past research suggest that patients with angina and coronary artery disease can suffer frequent asymptomatic disturbances of the regional myocardial perfusion. The frequency of these episodes and the time course for the recovery of the metabolic consequences mean that segments of ventricular myocardium may be constantly abnormal. The relative importance of changes in coronary tone and malfunction of platelets in the diseased coronary tree needs to be examined in clinical research. Pilot studies of antiplatelet agents have shown a significant beneficial effect on episodes of ischemia occurring at night and those occurring without any increase in heart rate. The techniques and observations in these patients with coronary artery disease all suggest that acute transient regional myocardial ischemia is caused by a variety of mechnisms. Further research using objective methods is required to discover the causes of ischemia and to rationalize treatment. (orig./MG)

  18. [Morphological characteristics of the changes in the skeletal muscle tissue in acute experimental ischemia of the extremities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savel'ev, V S; Chekareva, G A; Mishnev, O D; Bogdanov, O A

    1985-05-01

    A comprehensive morphological study of the ischemic skeletal muscles of the limbs was performed in experiments on dogs. Ischemia of the muscle tissue was induced by artificial embolic occlusion of the terminal part of the aorta. A quantitative functional and morphological study revealed serious disturbances in metabolism of the skeletal muscle that was subjected to a 6-hour ischemia. Depression of aerobic metabolism, ineffectiveness of anaerobic glycolysis (a spare pathway of the synthesis of macroergic substances), a dramatic lowering of ATPase activity, and activation of acid phosphatase in experiments of such a duration are important signs of a probably compromised adaptation process and irreversibility of the lesions in the tissue. The data should be taken into consideration in determining the optimal periods of the blood flow recovery in the limbs. Morphological changes in muscle fibers under ischemia progress with an increase in the experiment duration (up to 9 and 12 h). An important morphological sign of ischemia is a disturbed typification of muscle fibers. PMID:4005420

  19. Anti-Human Tissue Factor Antibody Ameliorated Intestinal Ischemia Reperfusion-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Human Tissue Factor Knock-In Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Marco; Li, Li; Cypel, Marcelo; Soderman, Avery; Picha, Kristen; Yang, Jing; Liu, Mingyao

    2008-01-01

    Background Interaction between the coagulation and inflammation systems plays an important role in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Anti-coagulation is an attractive option for ARDS treatment, and this has promoted development of new antibodies. However, preclinical trials for these antibodies are often limited by the high cost and availability of non-human primates. In the present study, we developed a novel alternative method to test the role of a humanized anti-tissue factor mAb in acute lung injury with transgenic mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Human tissue factor knock-in (hTF-KI) transgenic mice and a novel humanized anti-human tissue factor mAb (anti-hTF mAb, CNTO859) were developed. The hTF-KI mice showed a normal and functional expression of hTF. The anti-hTF mAb specifically blocked the pro-coagulation activity of brain extracts from the hTF-KI mice and human, but not from wild type mice. An extrapulmonary ARDS model was used by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion. Significant lung tissue damage in hTF-KI mice was observed after 2 h reperfusion. Administration of CNTO859 (5 mg/kg, i.v.) attenuated the severity of lung tissue injury, decreased the total cell counts and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced Evans blue leakage. In addition, the treatment significantly reduced alveolar fibrin deposition, and decreased tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity in the serum. This treatment also down-regulated cytokine expression and reduced cell death in the lung. Conclusions This novel anti-hTF antibody showed beneficial effects on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion induced acute lung injury, which merits further investigation for clinical usage. In addition, the use of knock-in transgenic mice to test the efficacy of antibodies against human-specific proteins is a novel strategy for preclinical studies. PMID:18231608

  20. Regional myocardial oxygen consumption estimated by carbon-11 acetate and positron emission tomography before and after repetitive ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, K F; Hansen, P R; Holm, S;

    2011-01-01

    Preserved myocardial oxygen consumption estimated by carbon 11-acetate and positron emission tomography (PET) in myocardial regions with chronic but reversibly depressed contractile function in patients with ischemic heart disease have been suggested to be caused by repeated short episodes of acute...

  1. Combined intra-arterial thrombolysis and neuprotectant agents reduce cerebral infarction in rabbits with experimental acute cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Shi

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy is one of main methods for more patients to obtain bene-fits.The percentage of arterial recanalization treated with intre-arterial therapy is higher than with intra-venous therapy.next,the dose of thrombolytic medicines is lower and the therapeutic time window may be possibly longer.Related researches are focus on intra-artedal thrombolysis combining with neuprotectant agents to treat acute ischemic stroke.The results show that combination of them can further prolong the therapeutic time window.improve the percentage of arterial recanalization and reduce cerebral infarction volume.OBJECTIVE:To observe the effect of single thmmbolitic therapy combined with neuroprotectant agents in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.DESIGN:Randomized block design.SETTING:Xinhua Hospital of Xixiang City.Henan Province.MATERIALS:Thirty-six adult male white rabbits.weighing 1.5-2.0 kg.dean grade.were provided by Expedmental Animal Center of Xinxiang Medical College.All rabbits were randomly divided into three groups:intra-arterial thrombolysis control group.corenalin control group and combination group with 12 in each group.Urekinase was provided by Beijing Saisheng Pharmaceutical Co.,Ltd.(batch number:020923);corenalin by Sanjing Pharmaceutical Co.,Ltd.of Harbin Pharmacautical Group(batch number:021106):nimodipine by Shandong Xihua Pharmaceutical Co.,Ltd.(batch number:020611):contrast medium IOPAMlR0300 by Bracco s.P.a.Milano italian (batch number:0584);2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride(TTC)by Beijing Mashi Fine ChemicaL Product Co.,Ltd.(batch number:020926).METHODS: The experiment was camed out in the Department of Intervention. Second People's Hospital of Xinxiang from September 2002 to May 2003.①According to techniques of Benes et al and Zhu et al,animal models with acute ischemia were established.Two hours later.the therapy began.Intra-artedal thrombolysis control group:5 000 U/kg urokinase was dripped in Ieft common

  2. Combined intra-arterial thrombolysis and neuprotectant agents reduce cerebral infarction in rabbits with experimental acute cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Shi

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy is one of main methods for more patients to obtain bene-fits.The percentage of arterial recanalization treated with intre-arterial therapy is higher than with intra-venous therapy.next,the dose of thrombolytic medicines is lower and the therapeutic time window may be possibly longer.Related researches are focus on intra-artedal thrombolysis combining with neuprotectant agents to treat acute ischemic stroke.The results show that combination of them can further prolong the therapeutic time window.improve the percentage of arterial recanalization and reduce cerebral infarction volume.OBJECTIVE:To observe the effect of single thmmbolitic therapy combined with neuroprotectant agents in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.DESIGN:Randomized block design.SETTING:Xinhua Hospital of Xixiang City.Henan Province.MATERIALS:Thirty-six adult male white rabbits.weighing 1.5-2.0 kg.dean grade.were provided by Expedmental Animal Center of Xinxiang Medical College.All rabbits were randomly divided into three groups:intra-arterial thrombolysis control group.corenalin control group and combination group with 12 in each group.Urekinase was provided by Beijing Saisheng Pharmaceutical Co.,Ltd.(batch number:020923);corenalin by Sanjing Pharmaceutical Co.,Ltd.of Harbin Pharmacautical Group(batch number:021106):nimodipine by Shandong Xihua Pharmaceutical Co.,Ltd.(batch number:020611):contrast medium IOPAMlR0300 by Bracco s.P.a.Milano italian (batch number:0584);2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride(TTC)by Beijing Mashi Fine ChemicaL Product Co.,Ltd.(batch number:020926).METHODS: The experiment was camed out in the Department of Intervention. Second People's Hospital of Xinxiang from September 2002 to May 2003.①According to techniques of Benes et al and Zhu et al,animal models with acute ischemia were established.Two hours later.the therapy began.Intra-artedal thrombolysis control group:5 000 U/kg urokinase was dripped in Ieft common

  3. Mechanisms of electroacupuncture effects on acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury: possible association with upregulation of transforming growth factor beta 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Biao; Yang, Lai-Fu; He, Qing-Song; Li, Tong; Ma, Yi-Yong; Zhang, Ping; Cao, Yi-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Electroacupuncture at the head acupoints Baihui (GV20) and Shuigou (GV26) improves recovery of neurological function following ischemic cerebrovascular events, but its mechanism remains incompletely understood. We hypothesized that the action of electroacupuncture at these acupoints is associated with elevated serum levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1). To test this, we established a rat model of cerebral ischemia by middle cerebral artery occlusion. Electroacupuncture was performed at Baihui and Shuigou with a "disperse-dense" wave at an alternating frequency of 2 and 150 Hz, and at a constant intensity of 3 mA. Each electroacupuncture session lasted 30 minutes and was performed every 12 hours for 3 days. Neurological severity scores were lower in injured rats after acupuncture than in those not subjected to treatment. Furthermore, serum level of TGF-β1 was greater after electroacupuncture than after no treatment. Our results indicate that electroacupuncture at Baihui and Shuigou increases the serum level of TGF-β1 in rats with acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and exerts neuroprotective effects. PMID:27630692

  4. A Case Report of Arterial Thrombosis in Wegener’s Granulomatosis Presenting with Acute Lower Limb Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Basiri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Wegener’s Granolomatosis (WG is a systemic, necrotizing, small-vessel vasculitis. Vascular inflammation and occlusion leading to tissue ischemia is a hallmark of WG. WG has a clinical predilection for the upper airways, lungs, and kidneys. Thromboembolic events do not usually occur and arterial thrombosis is extremely rare.Case Report: Here we reported 2 rare cases of arterial thrombosis that caused lower limb ischemia. There were not any risk factors such as deficiency of protein C, protein S or anti-thrombin 3, Factor V Leiden mutation, and anti-phospholipids syndrome. Limb perfusion returned as a result of emergency treatment and ischemia did not occur. High doses of prednisolone and endoxan were administrated for them. Conclusion: The thrombosis seemed to happen due to the inflammation process of the disease itself. Because of possible morbidity of limb gangrene we suggest special notice to limb pain, evaluation by paraclinics such as color doppler sonography or angiography to rule out or rule in thromboembolism, determining whether there are risk factors for thrombosis such as (deficiency of protein C and protein S or anti-thrombin III, Leiden 5 factor mutation and anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome, and treatment or removal of them. If no risk factor is found, high doses of immunosuppressive therapy like steroid and cytotoxic agents like Endoxan will be the choice.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(1:75-78

  5. DIGE proteome analysis reveals suitability of ischemic cardiac in vitro model for studying cellular response to acute ischemia and regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Haas

    Full Text Available Proteomic analysis of myocardial tissue from patient population is suited to yield insights into cellular and molecular mechanisms taking place in cardiovascular diseases. However, it has been limited by small sized biopsies and complicated by high variances between patients. Therefore, there is a high demand for suitable model systems with the capability to simulate ischemic and cardiotoxic effects in vitro, under defined conditions. In this context, we established an in vitro ischemia/reperfusion cardiac disease model based on the contractile HL-1 cell line. To identify pathways involved in the cellular alterations induced by ischemia and thereby defining disease-specific biomarkers and potential target structures for new drug candidates we used fluorescence 2D-difference gel electrophoresis. By comparing spot density changes in ischemic and reperfusion samples we detected several protein spots that were differentially abundant. Using MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and ESI-MS the proteins were identified and subsequently grouped by functionality. Most prominent were changes in apoptosis signalling, cell structure and energy-metabolism. Alterations were confirmed by analysis of human biopsies from patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy.With the establishment of our in vitro disease model for ischemia injury target identification via proteomic research becomes independent from rare human material and will create new possibilities in cardiac research.

  6. [Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair Following Axillo-femoral Bypass in a Patient with Stanford B Acute Aortic Dissection Accompanied by Abdominal Visceral Ischemia;Report of a Case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Takayuki; Bonkohara, Yukihiro; Azuma, Takashi; Iijima, Masaki; Higashidate, Masafumi

    2016-09-01

    A 60-year-old woman was transfer-red to the emergency department of our medical center with worsening chest and back pain. Computed tomography revealed Stanford type B aortic dissection. There was a false lumen from the distal arch to the abdominal aorta just above the celiac artery. Although she was at 1st treated conservatively, she abruptly developed acute renal failure and lower limb ischemia because of an enlarged false lumen, and emergency axillo-femoral bypass surgery was performed with an 8 mm tube graft. However, renal failure gradually worsened, which necessitated continuous hemodiafiltration was performed. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair was then performed, and her renal function recovered. PMID:27586321

  7. Serial Holter ST-segment monitoring after first acute myocardial infarction. Prevalence, variability, and long-term prognostic importance of transient myocardial ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Nielsen, J R; Berning, J;

    1998-01-01

    Based on serial Holter monitoring performed 7 times within 3 years after a first acute myocardial infarction, we assessed the prevalence, variability and long-term clinical importance of transient myocardial ischemia (TMI) defined as episodes of ambulatory ST-segment depression. In all, 121...... consecutive male patients Holter recordings varied around 20% ranging between 18 and 27%. Fifty-five of the patients (46%) had TMI on at least 1 of the 7 Holter recordings. Considerable variability was found within and between patients...... for the presence of TMI. No high-risk group for cardiac death, nonfatal reinfarction or coronary revascularization during up to 10 years of follow-up could be identified by the detection of TMI. From these results we conclude that a routine search for TMI on serial Holter monitoring cannot be recommended in male...

  8. Renoprotective effect of paricalcitol via a modulation of the TLR4-NF-κB pathway in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Won, E-mail: maestro97@hanmail.net; Kim, Sun Chul, E-mail: linefe99@hanmail.net; Ko, Yoon Sook, E-mail: rainboweyes@hanmail.net; Lee, Hee Young, E-mail: cell1023@hanmail.net; Cho, Eunjung, E-mail: icdej@naver.com; Kim, Myung-Gyu, E-mail: gyu219@hanmail.net; Jo, Sang-Kyung, E-mail: sang-kyung@korea.ac.kr; Cho, Won Yong, E-mail: wonyong@korea.ac.kr; Kim, Hyoung Kyu, E-mail: hyoung@korea.ac.kr

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • Paricalcitol. • Attenuation of renal inflammation. • Modulation of TLR4-NF-κB signaling. - Abstract: Background: The pathophysiology of ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) is thought to include a complex interplay between vascular endothelial cell dysfunction, inflammation, and tubular cell damage. Several lines of evidence suggest a potential anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D in various kidney injury models. In this study, we investigated the effect of paricalcitol, a synthetic vitamin D analog, on renal inflammation in a mouse model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods: Paricalcitol was administered via intraperitoneal (IP) injection at 24 h before ischemia, and then I/R was performed through bilateral clamping of the renal pedicles. Twenty-four hours after I/R, mice were sacrificed for the evaluation of injury and inflammation. Additionally, an in vitro experiment using HK-2 cells was also performed to examine the direct effect of paricalcitol on tubular cells. Results: Pre-treatment with paricalcitol attenuated functional deterioration and histological damage in I/R induced AKI, and significantly decreased tissue neutrophil and macrophage infiltration and the levels of chemokines, the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). It also decreased IR-induced upregulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and nuclear translocation of p65 subunit of NF-κB. Results from the in vitro study showed pre-treatment with paricalcitol suppressed the TNF-α-induced depletion of cytosolic IκB in HK-2 cells. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that pre-treatment with paricalcitol has a renoprotective effect in ischemic AKI, possibly by suppressing TLR4-NF-κB mediated inflammation.

  9. Renoprotective effect of paricalcitol via a modulation of the TLR4-NF-κB pathway in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Paricalcitol. • Attenuation of renal inflammation. • Modulation of TLR4-NF-κB signaling. - Abstract: Background: The pathophysiology of ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) is thought to include a complex interplay between vascular endothelial cell dysfunction, inflammation, and tubular cell damage. Several lines of evidence suggest a potential anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D in various kidney injury models. In this study, we investigated the effect of paricalcitol, a synthetic vitamin D analog, on renal inflammation in a mouse model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods: Paricalcitol was administered via intraperitoneal (IP) injection at 24 h before ischemia, and then I/R was performed through bilateral clamping of the renal pedicles. Twenty-four hours after I/R, mice were sacrificed for the evaluation of injury and inflammation. Additionally, an in vitro experiment using HK-2 cells was also performed to examine the direct effect of paricalcitol on tubular cells. Results: Pre-treatment with paricalcitol attenuated functional deterioration and histological damage in I/R induced AKI, and significantly decreased tissue neutrophil and macrophage infiltration and the levels of chemokines, the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). It also decreased IR-induced upregulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and nuclear translocation of p65 subunit of NF-κB. Results from the in vitro study showed pre-treatment with paricalcitol suppressed the TNF-α-induced depletion of cytosolic IκB in HK-2 cells. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that pre-treatment with paricalcitol has a renoprotective effect in ischemic AKI, possibly by suppressing TLR4-NF-κB mediated inflammation

  10. Increased regional epicardial fat volume associated with reversible myocardial ischemia in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Tuba; Greer, Christine; Thadani, Samir R; Kato, Tomoko S; Bhatia, Ketan; Shimbo, Daichi; Kontak, Andrew; Konkak, Andrew; Bokhari, Sabahat; Einstein, Andrew J; Schulze, P Christian

    2015-04-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue is a source of pro-inflammatory cytokines and has been linked to the development of coronary artery disease. No study has systematically assessed the relationship between local epicardial fat volume (EFV) and myocardial perfusion defects. We analyzed EFV in patients undergoing SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging combined with computed tomography (CT) for attenuation correction. Low-dose CT without contrast was performed in 396 consecutive patients undergoing SPECT imaging for evaluation of coronary artery disease. Regional thickness, cross-sectional areas, and total EFV were assessed. 295 patients had normal myocardial perfusion scans and 101 had abnormal perfusion scans. Mean EFVs in normal, ischemic, and infarcted hearts were 99.8 ± 82.3 cm(3), 156.4 ± 121.9 cm(3), and 96.3 ± 102.1 cm(3), respectively (P coronary artery (87.1 ± 76.4 vs 46.7 ± 40.6 cm(3); P = 0.005). Our results demonstrate increased regional epicardial fat in patients with active myocardial ischemia compared to patients with myocardial scar or normal perfusion on nuclear perfusion scans. Our results suggest a potential role for cardiac CT to improve risk stratification in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.

  11. Dietary n-3 fatty acids promote arrhythmias during acute regional myocardial ischemia in isolated pig hearts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coronel, R.; Wilms-Schopman, F.J.G.; Ruijter, den H.M.; Belterman, C.N.; Schumacher, C.A.; Opthof, T.; Hovernier, R.; Lemmens, A.G.; Terpstra, A.H.M.; Katan, M.B.; Zock, P.L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Dietary supplementation with fish oil-derived n-3 fatty acids reduces mortality in patients with myocardial infarction, but may have adverse effects in angina patients. The underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied the arrhythmias and the electrophysiologic

  12. Anti-human tissue factor antibody ameliorated intestinal ischemia reperfusion-induced acute lung injury in human tissue factor knock-in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interaction between the coagulation and inflammation systems plays an important role in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Anti-coagulation is an attractive option for ARDS treatment, and this has promoted development of new antibodies. However, preclinical trials for these antibodies are often limited by the high cost and availability of non-human primates. In the present study, we developed a novel alternative method to test the role of a humanized anti-tissue factor mAb in acute lung injury with transgenic mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human tissue factor knock-in (hTF-KI transgenic mice and a novel humanized anti-human tissue factor mAb (anti-hTF mAb, CNTO859 were developed. The hTF-KI mice showed a normal and functional expression of hTF. The anti-hTF mAb specifically blocked the pro-coagulation activity of brain extracts from the hTF-KI mice and human, but not from wild type mice. An extrapulmonary ARDS model was used by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion. Significant lung tissue damage in hTF-KI mice was observed after 2 h reperfusion. Administration of CNTO859 (5 mg/kg, i.v. attenuated the severity of lung tissue injury, decreased the total cell counts and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced Evans blue leakage. In addition, the treatment significantly reduced alveolar fibrin deposition, and decreased tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity in the serum. This treatment also down-regulated cytokine expression and reduced cell death in the lung. CONCLUSIONS: This novel anti-hTF antibody showed beneficial effects on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion induced acute lung injury, which merits further investigation for clinical usage. In addition, the use of knock-in transgenic mice to test the efficacy of antibodies against human-specific proteins is a novel strategy for preclinical studies.

  13. Surgical therapeutic strategies for acute limb ischemia%急性下肢缺血杂交手术治疗策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘现虎; 李建军

    2016-01-01

    急性下肢缺血是血管外科面临的最具潜在危险性的疾病之一。早期治疗对挽救肢体甚至生命至关重要。目前治疗急性动脉栓塞最常用的方法是切开动脉 Fogarty 导管取栓术。尽管手术成功率非常高,但是临床疗效不理想,这与球囊导管不能达到末梢动脉,残留血栓致使血流不完全灌注有关。在这种情况下,通过细致的术中评估,用杂交手术来解决残留血栓、动脉粥样硬化性狭窄甚至球囊导管导致的二次损伤,能克服传统手术的局限性,同时急性下肢缺血的手术治疗策略也尤为重要,本文就此作一综述。%Acute limb ischemia(ALI)is one of the most potentially dangerous disease to the vascular sur-geon. It is crucial to intervene early for salvaging limb or saving life. The most efficient treatment for acute ar-terial embolism is embolectomy using Fogarty ˊs balloon catheter. Although the early outcome of arterial thromboembolectomy often acceptable,the efficacy still remains unsatisfactory. This may be related to the re-sidual thrombus in distal vessels which did not reach by the balloon catheter. In such a situation of a pains-taking and intraoperative assessment the enough of clot removal is important. Residual thrombus,chronic ath-erosclerotic disease and even vessel injuries secondary to balloon catheter passage can be corrected by hybrid procedures. The combination of surgical and endovascular options may overcome the limitations that charac-terize the traditional approach. The surgical therapeutic strategies of acute limb ischemia are particularly im-portant. This review summarizes that the disease until now.

  14. Hydroxyfasudil-mediated inhibition of ROCK1 and ROCK2 improves kidney function in rat renal acute ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Kentrup

    Full Text Available Renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury (IRI is a common and important trigger of acute renal injury (AKI. It is inevitably linked to transplantation. Involving both, the innate and the adaptive immune response, IRI causes subsequent sterile inflammation. Attraction to and transmigration of immune cells into the interstitium is associated with increased vascular permeability and loss of endothelial and tubular epithelial cell integrity. Considering the important role of cytoskeletal reorganization, mainly regulated by RhoGTPases, in the development of IRI we hypothesized that a preventive, selective inhibition of the Rho effector Rho-associated coiled coil containing protein kinase (ROCK by hydroxyfasudil may improve renal IRI outcome. Using an IRI-based animal model of AKI in male Sprague Dawley rats, animals treated with hydroxyfasudil showed reduced proteinuria and polyuria as well as increased urine osmolarity when compared with sham-treated animals. In addition, renal perfusion (as assessed by (18F-fluoride Positron Emission Tomography (PET, creatinine- and urea-clearances improved significantly. Moreover, endothelial leakage and renal inflammation was significantly reduced as determined by histology, (18F-fluordesoxyglucose-microautoradiography, Evans Blue, and real-time PCR analysis. We conclude from our study that ROCK-inhibition by hydroxyfasudil significantly improves kidney function in a rat model of acute renal IRI and is therefore a potential new therapeutic option in humans.

  15. Cerebral blood flow in cerebral ischemia. A review (with 1 color plate)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A

    1978-01-01

    In the majority of apoplexy patients the absence of a primary haemorrhage points to acute vascular occclusion with regional ischemia as the initiating event. Yet, in many such cases in particular with transient symptoms, no occlusions can be found angiographically. This along with other evidences...

  16. An Early Continuous Experimental Study on Magnetic Resonance Diffusion-weighted Image of Focal Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The chronological and spatial rules of changes during focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in different brain regions with magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in a model of occlusion of middle cerebral artery (MCAO) and the development of cytotoxic edema in acute phase were explored. Fifteen healthy S-D rats with MCA occluded by thread-emboli were randomly divided into three groups. 15 min after the operation, the serial imaging was scanned on DWI for the three groups. The relative mean signal intensity (RMSI) of the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, lateral cauda-putamen, medial cauda-putamen and the volume of regions of hyperintense signal on DWI were calculated. After the last DWI scanning, T2 WI was performed for the three groups. After 15min ischemia, the rats was presented hyperintense signals on DWI. The regions of hyperintense signal were enlarged with prolonging ischemia time. The regions of hyperintense signal were back to normal after 60 min reperfusion with a small part remaining to show hyperintense signal. The RMSIs of parietal lobe and lateral cauda-putamen were higher than that of the frontal lobe and medial cauda-putamen both in ischemia phase and recanalization phase. The three groups werenormal on T2WI imaging. DWI had good sensitivity to acute cerebral ischemia, which was used to study the chronological and spatial rules of development of early cell edema in ischemia regions.

  17. Effects of valproic acid and dexamethasone administration on early bio-markers and gene expression profile in acute kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan W Speir

    Full Text Available Renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR causes acute kidney injury (AKI with high mortality and morbidity. The objective of this investigation was to ameliorate kidney IR injury and identify novel biomarkers for kidney injury and repair. Under general anesthesia, left renal ischemia was induced in Wister rats by occluding renal artery for 45 minutes, followed by reperfusion and right nephrectomy. Thirty minutes prior to ischemia, rats (n = 8/group received Valproic Acid (150 mg/kg; VPA, Dexamethasone (3 mg/kg; Dex or Vehicle (saline intraperitoneally. Animals were sacrificed at 3, 24 or 120 h post-IR. Plasma creatinine (mg/dL at 24 h was reduced (P<0.05 in VPA (2.7±1.8 and Dex (2.3±1.2 compared to Vehicle (3.8±0.5 group. At 3 h, urine albumin (mg/mL was higher in Vehicle (1.47±0.10, VPA (0.84±0.62 and Dex (1.04±0.73 compared to naïve (uninjured/untreated control (0.14±0.26 group. At 24 h post-IR urine lipocalin-2 (μg/mL was higher (P<0.05 in VPA, Dex and Vehicle groups (9.61-11.36 compared to naïve group (0.67±0.29; also, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1; ng/mL was higher (P<0.05 in VPA, Dex and Vehicle groups (13.7-18.7 compared to naïve group (1.7±1.9. Histopathology demonstrated reduced (P<0.05 ischemic injury in the renal cortex in VPA (Grade 1.6±1.5 compared to Vehicle (Grade 2.9±1.1. Inflammatory cytokines IL1β and IL6 were downregulated and anti-apoptotic molecule BCL2 was upregulated in VPA group. Furthermore, kidney DNA microarray demonstrated reduced injury, stress, and apoptosis related gene expression in the VPA administered rats. VPA appears to ameliorate kidney IR injury via reduced inflammatory cytokine, apoptosis/stress related gene expression, and improved regeneration. KIM-1, lipocalin-2 and albumin appear to be promising early urine biomarkers for the diagnosis of AKI.

  18. Effects of Valproic Acid and Dexamethasone Administration on Early Bio-Markers and Gene Expression Profile in Acute Kidney Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speir, Ryan W.; Stallings, Jonathan D.; Andrews, Jared M.; Gelnett, Mary S.; Brand, Timothy C.; Salgar, Shashikumar K.

    2015-01-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) causes acute kidney injury (AKI) with high mortality and morbidity. The objective of this investigation was to ameliorate kidney IR injury and identify novel biomarkers for kidney injury and repair. Under general anesthesia, left renal ischemia was induced in Wister rats by occluding renal artery for 45 minutes, followed by reperfusion and right nephrectomy. Thirty minutes prior to ischemia, rats (n = 8/group) received Valproic Acid (150 mg/kg; VPA), Dexamethasone (3 mg/kg; Dex) or Vehicle (saline) intraperitoneally. Animals were sacrificed at 3, 24 or 120 h post-IR. Plasma creatinine (mg/dL) at 24 h was reduced (P<0.05) in VPA (2.7±1.8) and Dex (2.3±1.2) compared to Vehicle (3.8±0.5) group. At 3 h, urine albumin (mg/mL) was higher in Vehicle (1.47±0.10), VPA (0.84±0.62) and Dex (1.04±0.73) compared to naïve (uninjured/untreated control) (0.14±0.26) group. At 24 h post-IR urine lipocalin-2 (μg/mL) was higher (P<0.05) in VPA, Dex and Vehicle groups (9.61–11.36) compared to naïve group (0.67±0.29); also, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1; ng/mL) was higher (P<0.05) in VPA, Dex and Vehicle groups (13.7–18.7) compared to naïve group (1.7±1.9). Histopathology demonstrated reduced (P<0.05) ischemic injury in the renal cortex in VPA (Grade 1.6±1.5) compared to Vehicle (Grade 2.9±1.1). Inflammatory cytokines IL1β and IL6 were downregulated and anti-apoptotic molecule BCL2 was upregulated in VPA group. Furthermore, kidney DNA microarray demonstrated reduced injury, stress, and apoptosis related gene expression in the VPA administered rats. VPA appears to ameliorate kidney IR injury via reduced inflammatory cytokine, apoptosis/stress related gene expression, and improved regeneration. KIM-1, lipocalin-2 and albumin appear to be promising early urine biomarkers for the diagnosis of AKI. PMID:25970334

  19. Intraportal versus Systemic Pentoxifylline Infusion after Normothermic Liver Ischemia: Effects on Regional Blood Flow Redistribution and Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson A. Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentoxifylline (PTX has been shown to have beneficial effects on microcirculatory blood flow. In this study we evaluate the potential hemodynamic and metabolic benefits of PTX during hepatic ischemia. We also test the hypothesis that portal PTX infusion can minimize the I/R injury when compared to systemic infusion. Methods. Twenty-four dogs ( kg were subjected to portal triad occlusion (PTO for 45 min. The animals were assigned to 3 groups: CT (control, PTO, , PTX-syst (PTO + 25 mg/Kg of PTX IV, , and PTX-pv (PTO + 25 mg/Kg of PTX in the portal vein, . Animals were followed for 120 min. Systemic hemodynamics, gastrointestinal tract perfusion, oxygen-derived variables, and liver enzymes were evaluated throughout the experiment. Results. Animals treated with PTX presented significantly higher CO in the first hour after reperfusion, when compared to the CT (~3.7 vs. 2.1 L/min, . Alanine aminotransferase (ALT was similar in the PTX groups two hours after reperfusion but significantly higher in the CT (227 vs. ~64 U/L, . Conclusion. PTX infusion was associated with hemodynamic benefits and was able to minimize liver injury during normothermic hepatic I/R. However, local PTX infusion was not associated with any significant advantage over systemic route.

  20. [Ascaris lumbricoides in the nasogastric tube after operation on a patient with the diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiçek, Ayşegül Çopur; Gündoğdu, Deniz; Direkel, Sahin; Öztürk, Çinar

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a comman intestinal helminths in humans. It is a parasite which commonly affects society with a low socioeconomic status, especially in tropical and rural areas. Ascaris lumbricoides infestation can lead to serious complications because of the mobility of the worms. The parasite can cause a variety of complications like intestinal obstruction, perforation, biliary obstruction, pancreatitis, peritonitis, liver abscess, cholangiohepatitis, volvulus, and gangrene, etc. A 59-year-old female patient hospitalized with the diagnosis of mesenteric ischemia was operated on for jejunal resection. On the 6th postoperative day, a worm was noticed emerging through the nasogastric tube. Ascaris lumbricoides was determined as a result of the examination microbiology laboratory. The patient was treated successfully with one dose of albendazole 200 mg 1x2. Our case describes a clinical situation of ascariasis observed after jejunal resection and emphasizes the importance of remaining aware of this rare complication of ascariasis.

  1. 后肢急性缺血大鼠模型的构建及评估%Construction and evaluation of acute hind limb ischemia model in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白超; 杨琨; 王洋; 李新喜; 田野; 罗军

    2015-01-01

    model is needed for the related research. OBJECTIVE:To compare limb ischemia degree, duration and changing rule of acute hind limb ischemia models prepared by different ways in Sprague-Dawley rats, and find a method to prepare models that have moderate and stable limb ischemia and maintain a longer time. METHODS: 72 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups, with 18 rats in each group. Group A: sham operation group, abdominal aorta below renal artery and iliolumbar artery, right superficial femoral artery, popliteal artery, saphenous artery were separated. Group B: the right superficial femoral artery, popliteal artery, saphenous artery were cut off, and the right femoral artery was resected to establish acute hind limb ischemic model. Group C: abdominal aorta and bilateral abdominal perineal artery were ligated to establish acute hind limb ischemic model. Group D: abdominal aorta, iliolumbar artery and lumbar artery were ligated to establish acute hind limb ischemic model. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Right hind limb muscle strengths of rats in groups B, C, D were weaker than that in group A at weeks 2, 4, 6 after operation; muscle strengths in group D was weaker than that in groups B, C at week 4 after operation; muscle strengths in groups B, D was stil weaker than that in group C at week 6 after operation. The partial venous oxygen pressure of right hind limbs in groups B, C, D was lower than that in group A at weeks 2, 4, 6 after operation; the partial venous oxygen pressure in group D was lower than that in groups B and C at weeks 2, 4 after operation; and group D was stil lower than group C at week 6 after operation. At weeks 2, 4 after operation, some muscle cels in the right hind limb muscle tissue were disrupted, fibrous connective tissue hyperplasia and capilary hyperplasia were detected, inflammatory cels infiltrated in the groups B, C, D. These pathological findings were more apparent in group D. Fiber connective tissue hyperplasia was attenuated

  2. Reperfusion of the rat brain tissues following acute ischemia: the correlation among diffusion-weighted imaging, histopathology,and aquaporin-4 expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Hong; HU Hui; HE Zhan-ping

    2011-01-01

    Background Although some studies have reported that aquaporin-4 (AQP4) plays a role in the post-ischemic edema formation and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), little is known about the AQP4 expression in stage of the reperfusion following acute cerebral ischemia, as well as the correlation between histopathology and DWl. The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation among DWl, histopathology and the AQP4 expression in the reperfused rat brain tissues following acute ischemia.Methods Seventy Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group (group A), and several occluded and reperfusion groups. They had their middle cerebral artery unilaterally occluded (MCAO) for 30 minutes (group B) followed by 30 minutes (group D) or 60 minutes (group E) of reperfusion, or 60 minutes of MCAO (group C) followed by 30 minutes (group F), or 60 minutes (group G) of reperfusion (n=10 for each group). All rats underwent DWl scanning.The relative apparent diffusion coefficient (rADC) value of each rat was calculated. All the rats were sacrificed and the cerebral ischemic tissues were examined for histopathology. Real-time fluro-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western-blotting were performed. The amount of AQP4 mRNA (Ex △△Ct) and AQP4 protein (Q) was statistically analyzed. The correlation between rADC values and AQP4 mRNA expression was analyzed with the Pearson correlation test.Results In all the reperfusion groups, the areas of hyper-intensity signal in DWl were decreased, and the rADC value increased and the AQP4 expression decreased significantly compared with the occluded group (t=26.89, t=18.26, P<0.01). There was a negative correlation between AQP4 mRNA expression and rADC values (r=-0.72, P<0.01). A mixed edema, composed of cerebral intracelluar edema and vasogenic brain edema, was observed in all the reperfusion groups.It was more prevalent in groups D and F than in the groups E and G. With the reperfusion time postponed, the cerebral

  3. Cerebral white matter injury and damage to myelin sheath following whole-brain ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingzhu; Yi, Qiong; Liu, Gang; Shen, Xue; Xuan, Lihui; Tian, Ye

    2013-02-01

    Myelin sheath, either in white matter or in other regions of brain, is vulnerable to ischemia. The specific events involved in the progression of ischemia in white matter have not yet been elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine histopathological alterations in cerebral white matter and levels of myelin basic protein (MBP) in ischemia-injured brain tissue during the acute and subacute phases of central nervous injury following whole-brain ischemia. The whole cerebral ischemia model (four-vessel occlusion (4-VO)) was established in adult Sprague-Dawley rats and MBP gene expression and protein levels in the brain tissue were measured using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at 2 days, 4 days, 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days following ischemia. Demyelination was determined by Luxol fast blue myelin staining, routine histopathological staining, and electron microscopy in injured brain tissue. Results showed that edema, vascular dilation, focal necrosis, demyelination, adjacent reactive gliosis and inflammation occurred 7 days after ischemia in HE staining and recovered to control levels at 28 days. The absence of Luxol fast blue staining and vacuolation was clearly visible at 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days. Semiquantitative analysis showed that the transparency of myelin had decreased significantly by 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days. Demyelination and ultrastructual changes were detected 7 days after ischemia. The relative levels of MBP mRNA decreased 2 days after ischemia and this trend continued throughout the remaining four points in time. The MBP levels measured using ELISA also decreased significantly at 2 days and 4 days, but they recovered by 7 days and returned to control levels by 14 days. These results suggest that the impact of ischemia on cerebral white matter is time-sensitive and that different effects may follow different courses over time.

  4. Bone marrow-derived cells can acquire renal stem cells properties and ameliorate ischemia-reperfusion induced acute renal injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Xiaohua

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone marrow (BM stem cells have been reported to contribute to tissue repair after kidney injury model. However, there is no direct evidence so far that BM cells can trans-differentiate into renal stem cells. Methods To investigate whether BM stem cells contribute to repopulate the renal stem cell pool, we transplanted BM cells from transgenic mice, expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP into wild-type irradiated recipients. Following hematological reconstitution and ischemia-reperfusion (I/R, Sca-1 and c-Kit positive renal stem cells in kidney were evaluated by immunostaining and flow cytometry analysis. Moreover, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF was administrated to further explore if G-CSF can mobilize BM cells and enhance trans-differentiation efficiency of BM cells into renal stem cells. Results BM-derived cells can contribute to the Sca-1+ or c-Kit+ renal progenitor cells population, although most renal stem cells came from indigenous cells. Furthermore, G-CSF administration nearly doubled the frequency of Sca-1+ BM-derived renal stem cells and increased capillary density of I/R injured kidneys. Conclusions These findings indicate that BM derived stem cells can give rise to cells that share properties of renal resident stem cell. Moreover, G-CSF mobilization can enhance this effect.

  5. Intravenous Administration of Cilostazol Nanoparticles Ameliorates Acute Ischemic Stroke in a Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Injury Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Nagai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It was reported that cilostazol (CLZ suppressed disruption of the microvasculature in ischemic areas. In this study, we have designed novel injection formulations containing CLZ nanoparticles using 0.5% methylcellulose, 0.2% docusate sodium salt, and mill methods (CLZnano dispersion; particle size 81 ± 59 nm, mean ± S.D., and investigated their toxicity and usefulness in a cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury model (MCAO/reperfusion mice. The pharmacokinetics of injections of CLZnano dispersions is similar to that of CLZ solutions prepared with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, and no changes in the rate of hemolysis of rabbit red blood cells, a model of cell injury, were observed with CLZnano dispersions. In addition, the intravenous injection of 0.6 mg/kg CLZnano dispersions does not affect the blood pressure and blood flow, and the 0.6 mg/kg CLZnano dispersions ameliorate neurological deficits and ischemic stroke in MCAO/reperfusion mice. It is possible that the CLZnano dispersions will provide effective therapy for ischemic stroke patients, and that injection preparations of lipophilic drugs containing drug nanoparticles expand their therapeutic usage.

  6. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-vivo proton and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to detect changes in cerebral metabolism during ischemia and other types of metabolic stress. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in an animal model to observe morphological alterations during focal cerebral ischemia. Spectroscopy was performed in animal models with global ischemia, in volunteers during hyperventilation and pharmaco-logically altered cerebral perfusion, and in patients with acute and prolonged focal cerebral ischemia. (author). 396 refs.; 44 figs.; 14 tabs

  7. Chinese Medicine Injection Qingkailing for Treatment of Acute Ischemia Stroke: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fafeng Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Qingkailing (QKL injection was a famous traditional Chinese patent medicine, which was extensively used to treat the acute stages of cerebrovascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess the quantity, quality and overall strength of the evidence on QKL in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Methods. An extensive search was performed within MEDLINE, Cochrane, CNKI, Vip and Wan-Fang up to November 2011. Randomized controlled trails (RCTs on QKL for treatment of acute stroke were collected, irrespective of languages. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards, and RevMan5 was used for data analysis. Results. 7 RCTs (545 patients were included and the methodological quality was evaluated as generally low. The pooled results showed that QKL combined with conventional treatment was more effective in effect rate, and the score of MESSS and TNF-α level compared with conventional treatment alone, but there was no significant difference in mortality of two groups. Only one trial reported routine life status. There were four trials reported adverse events, and no obvious adverse event occurred in three trials while one reported adverse events described as eruption and dizziness.

  8. Protective effect of ginsenoside Rb1 against intestinal ischemia-reperfusion induced acute renal injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Sun

    Full Text Available Ginsenoside Rb1 (RB1, the most clinically effective constituent of ginseng, possesses a variety of biological activities. The objectives of this study were to investigate the protective effects of RB1 and its underlying mechanism on renal injury induced by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IIR in mice. RB1 was administered prior to inducing IIR achieved by occluding the superior mesenteric artery for 45 min followed by 120 min of reperfusion. All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA was used as an inhibitor of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2 signaling. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into six groups: (1 sham group, (2 IIR group, (3 RB1 group, (4 sham + ATRA group, (5 IIR + ATRA group, and (6 RB1 + ATRA group. Intestinal histology and pathological injury score were observed. Intestinal mucosal injury was also evaluated by measuring serum diamine oxidase (DAO. Renal injury induced by IIR was characterized by increased levels of histological severity score, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, serum creatinine (Scr and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, which was accompanied with elevated renal TUNEL-positive cells and the Bcl-2/Bax expression ratio. RB1 significantly reduced renal injury and apoptosis as compared with IIR group, which was reversed by ATRA treatment. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis demonstrated that RB1 significantly upregulated the protein expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and Nrf2, which were attenuated by ATRA treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that the protective effects of RB1 pretreatment against renal injury induced by IIR are associated with activation of the Nrf2/ anti-oxidant response element (ARE pathway.

  9. Establishment and Evaluation of Rat Acute Kidney Ischemia/Reperfusion Model%大鼠急性肾缺血再灌注损伤模型的建立与评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易小敏; 张更; 马帅军; 刘克普; 袁建林

    2011-01-01

    目的:对现有的经腹部切口建立急性肾缺血再灌注损伤动物模型进行改良,探索建立急性肾缺血再灌注损伤模型的新方法.方法:实验组大鼠16例,经背部切口进入腹膜后间隙,游离钳夹双侧肾动脉45 min后开放血流,建立急性肾缺血再灌注损伤模型;伪手术组8例,不夹闭肾动脉,余步骤与实验组相同;对照组8例无处理.术后通过建模成功率、组织病理检查、血肌酐和血尿素氮及氧化应激水平对模型进行评估.结果:实验组l5只成功建立急性肾缺血再灌注损伤模型.术后l天病理检查显示实验组肾组织出现广泛损伤,术后实验组肾小管坏死评分、肾MDA水平、血肌酐及血尿素氮值明显高于对照组(P<0.05).结论:经背部切口钳夹双侧肾动脉可建立稳定的大鼠急性肾缺血再灌注损伤模型.该造模方法简便易行,成功率高,且具备手术切口小、手术时间短及并发症少的优点,建立的模型适合于急性肾损伤的研究.%Objective: To improve current acute kidney ischemia/reperfusion animal model through abdominal incision and investigate a new approach to establish acute kidney ischemia/reperfusion animal model. Methods: Acute rat kidney ischemia/reperfusion model was established by dorsal incision by clamping bilateral renal arteries for 45 min in experimental group (n=16); The same procedure without renal artery clamping was implemented in sham operating group (n=8); No treatment was given to control group (n=8). Established model was assessed by histopathological examining, concentrations of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, and oxidative stress in kidney and success ratio of acute kidney ischemia/reperfusion model establishment. Results: Acute kidney ischemia/reperfusion model was established successfully. There were extensive injuries in experimental group, while kidney morphostructure appeared normal in control group. Tubular injury score, MDA level

  10. Loss of αT-catenin alters the hybrid adhering junctions in the heart and leads to dilated cardiomyopathy and ventricular arrhythmia following acute ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jifen; Goossens, Steven; van Hengel, Jolanda; Gao, Erhe; Cheng, Lan; Tyberghein, Koen; Shang, Xiying; De Rycke, Riet; van Roy, Frans; Radice, Glenn L

    2012-02-15

    It is generally accepted that the intercalated disc (ICD) required for mechano-electrical coupling in the heart consists of three distinct junctional complexes: adherens junctions, desmosomes and gap junctions. However, recent morphological and molecular data indicate a mixing of adherens junctional and desmosomal components, resulting in a 'hybrid adhering junction' or 'area composita'. The α-catenin family member αT-catenin, part of the N-cadherin-catenin adhesion complex in the heart, is the only α-catenin that interacts with the desmosomal protein plakophilin-2 (PKP2). Thus, it has been postulated that αT-catenin might serve as a molecular integrator of the two adhesion complexes in the area composita. To investigate the role of αT-catenin in the heart, gene targeting technology was used to delete the Ctnna3 gene, encoding αT-catenin, in the mouse. The αT-catenin-null mice are viable and fertile; however, the animals exhibit progressive cardiomyopathy. Adherens junctional and desmosomal proteins were unaffected by loss of αT-catenin, with the exception of the desmosomal protein PKP2. Immunogold labeling at the ICD demonstrated in the αT-catenin-null heart a preferential reduction of PKP2 at the area composita compared with the desmosome. Furthermore, gap junction protein Cx43 was reduced at the ICD, including its colocalization with N-cadherin. Gap junction remodeling in αT-catenin-knockout hearts was associated with an increased incidence of ventricular arrhythmias after acute ischemia. This novel animal model demonstrates for the first time how perturbation in αT-catenin can affect both PKP2 and Cx43 and thereby highlights the importance of understanding the crosstalk between the junctional proteins of the ICD and its implications for arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy.

  11. Upregulation of miR-21 by Ghrelin Ameliorates Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Kidney Injury by Inhibiting Inflammation and Cell Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanzhe; Shu, Liliang

    2016-08-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury can be caused by cardiac surgery, renal vascular obstruction, and kidney transplantation, mainly leading to acute kidney injury (AKI), which is complicated by lack of effective preventative and therapeutic strategies. Ghrelin has recently been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties in several types of cells; however, little attention has been given to the role of ghrelin in I/R-induced AKI. The aim of this study is to explore the role of ghrelin in I/R-induced AKI. In this study, an I/R-induced rat AKI model and a hypoxia-induced NRK-52E cell I/R model were successfully constructed. Ghrelin expression was increased significantly in these rat and cell models. After enhancing ghrelin level by injecting exogenous ghrelin into rats or transfecting a ghrelin-pcDNA3.1 vector into renal tubular epithelial cells, we observed that I/R-induced AKI can be ameliorated by ghrelin, as shown by alterations in histology, as well as changes in serum creatinine (SCr) level, cell apoptosis, and the levels of inflammatory factors. Based on the importance of microRNA-21 (miR-21) in renal disease and the modulation effect of ghrelin on miR-21 in gastric epithelial cells, we tested whether miR-21 participates in the protective effect of ghrelin on I/R-induced AKI. Ghrelin could upregulate the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway by increasing the miR-21 level, which led to the protective effect of ghrelin on I/R-induced AKI by inhibiting the inflammatory response and renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis. Our research identifies that ghrelin can ameliorate I/R-induced AKI by upregulating miR-21, which advances the understanding of mechanisms by which ghrelin ameliorates I/R-induced AKI. PMID:27152763

  12. Hybrid therapeutic procedures for patients with acute lower limb ischemia%急性下肢动脉缺血的杂交手术治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    厉建林; 吴斐; 丁语; 王兵; 王颍; 王洛波

    2014-01-01

    目的 比较外科式杂交手术(切开动脉取栓联合腔内血管成形术)与介入式杂交手术(机械性取栓联合动脉导管溶栓及腔内血管成形术)对急性下肢动脉缺血的疗效.方法 回顾性分析2011年6月至2012年6月在郑州大学附属医院介入科行介入式杂交手术(介入组)和在血管外科行外科式杂交手术(外科组)治疗的急性(<14 d)下肢动脉缺血患者的临床及随访资料.主要的随访观察终点包括围手术期(30 d)死亡或主要的不良结局(截肢或相关血管的再次重建手术),次要的观察终点是心脑血管事件如心肌梗死、脑卒中.结果 介入式和外科式杂交手术分别有105例和97例.外科组血管重建96例(99.0%)高于介入组97例(92.4%),外科组(7.2%)出现主要临床观察终点低于介入组(17.1%),介入组主要出血相关并发症发生率为6.7%高于外科组0%,术后肺部相关并发症外科组(9.3%)多于介入组(1.0%),差异有统计学意义,均P<0.05.结论 对于急性下肢动脉缺血患者外科手术和腔内介入技术的综合治疗临床效果较好.%Objective To compare surgical hybrid procedures (open thromboembolectomy/bypass,transluminal angioplasty/stenting) and endovascular hybrid procedures (percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy,catheter-directed intra-arterial thrombolysis,transluminal angioplasty/stenting) in patients with acute lower limb ischemia.Methods From June 2011 to June 2012,the clinical data and the six month follow-up data of patients with acute (less than 14 days) lower limb ischemia were collected and analyzed,who have underwent the endovascular modality hybrid procedures (endovascular modality group)or surgery modality of hybrid procedures (surgery modality group).The combined incidence of perioperative (30 days) death (POD) and major adverse limb event (MALE,include amputation or major intervention again) was defined as the primary end-point,and the secondary efficacy end

  13. A basic study on molecular hydrogen (H2) inhalation in acute cerebral ischemia patients for safety check with physiological parameters and measurement of blood H2 level

    OpenAIRE

    Ono Hirohisa; Nishijima Yoji; Adachi Naoto; Sakamoto Masaki; Kudo Yohei; Kaneko Kumi; Nakao Atsunori; Imaoka Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In animal experiments, use of molecular hydrogen ( H2) has been regarded as quite safe and effective, showing benefits in multiple pathological conditions such as ischemia-reperfusion injury of the brain, heart, kidney and transplanted tissues, traumatic and surgical injury of the brain and spinal cord, inflammation of intestine and lung , degenerative striatonigral tissue and also in many other situations. However, since cerebral ischemia patients are in old age group, th...

  14. Selection of reference genes in different myocardial regions of an in vivo ischemia/reperfusion rat model for normalization of antioxidant gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesentini Nicoletta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in cardiac gene expression due to myocardial injury are usually assessed in whole heart tissue. However, as the heart is a heterogeneous system, spatial and temporal heterogeneity is expected in gene expression. Results In an ischemia/reperfusion (I/R rat model we evaluated gene expression of mitochondrial and cytoplasmatic superoxide dismutase (MnSod, Cu-ZnSod and thioredoxin reductase (trxr1 upon short (4 h and long (72 h reperfusion times in the right ventricle (RV, and in the ischemic/reperfused (IRR and the remote region (RR of the left ventricle. Gene expression was assessed by Real-time reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. In order to select most stable reference genes suitable for normalization purposes, in each myocardial region we tested nine putative reference genes by geNorm analysis. The genes investigated were: Actin beta (actb, Glyceraldehyde-3-P-dehydrogenase (gapdh, Ribosomal protein L13A (rpl13a, Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (ywhaz, Beta-glucuronidase (gusb, Hypoxanthine guanine Phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (hprt, TATA binding box protein (tbp, Hydroxymethylbilane synthase (hmbs, Polyadenylate-binding protein 1 (papbn1. According to our findings, most stable reference genes in the RV and RR were hmbs/hprt and hmbs/tbp/hprt respectively. In the IRR, six reference genes were recommended for normalization purposes; however, in view of experimental feasibility limitations, target gene expression could be normalized against the three most stable reference genes (ywhaz/pabp/hmbs without loss of sensitivity. In all cases MnSod and Cu-ZnSod expression decreased upon long reperfusion, the former in all myocardial regions and the latter in IRR alone. trxr1 expression did not vary. Conclusions This study provides a validation of reference genes in the RV and in the anterior and posterior wall of the LV of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion model and shows that gene expression should be assessed separately in

  15. Transient myocardial ischemia after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H

    1995-01-01

    Ambulatory ST-segment monitoring is a relatively new device in the evaluation of myocardial ischemia. The method is unique in allowing us to continuously examine the patient over an extended period of time in a changing environmental milieu. In survivors of acute myocardial infarction...... the prevalence of ambulatory or transient myocardial ischemia is lower than in patients with chronic, stable coronary artery disease. A greater proportion of ischemic episodes, however, are silent than in other subgroups with ischemic heart disease. Early after the infarction, transient myocardial ischemia...... exhibits a circadian variation with a peak activity occurring in the late evening hours. Patients with non-Q wave infarction have more transient myocardial ischemia, whereas thrombolytic therapy seems to result in less residual ischemia. Exercise testing is more sensitive than ambulatory monitoring...

  16. 急性心肌缺血状态下左心室心肌的力学研究%Mechanics study on Left Ventricular myocardial During Acute Myocardial Ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘会若; 张瑞芳; 滑少华; 董刚; 高珂; 候苏芸; 许建威; 孙梦娇

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate segmental subendocardial mechanical pattern of left ventricle (LV) during acute myocardial ischemia using ultrasonic velocity vector imaging(VVI),and to demonstrate LV subendocardial mechanicals changs for the precise quantitative evaluation of early ischemic myocardial function.MethodsNine mongrel dogs after thoracotomy and the heart was exposed by ligation of the left anterior descending branch of the induced acute myocardial ischemia were collected before ischemia, after different left ventricular short axis two-dimensional dynamic grey scale of image plane, by off-line velocity vector imaging were left ventricular endocardium myocardial 16 segments of radial strain and the variation of circumferential strain.Results Beforeischemia,the myocardial circumferential strain of the left ventricle was increased from the basal level to the apical level in the same wall, thechanges disappear after ischemia, andthecircumferential strain of all segments decreased.Before ischemia with one compartment wall radial strain basal segment level were lower than those of the papillary muscle level segments and apical level segments, all room wall papillary myotome segments and apical section radial stress appeared as homogeneous change, after ischemia, part of segmental radial strain increases and the corresponding segment of strain is reduced.Conclusion Demonstrates that abnormal mechanical pattern of LV subendocardium induced by acute myocardial ischemia is the important pathophysiological mechanism of LV functional and anatomical remodeling.%目的:通过构建动物急性心肌缺血模型,运用速度向量成像技术观察急性心肌缺血前、后左心室心肌的径向应变、周向应变的变化,探讨急性心肌缺血状态下左心室心肌部分力学变化规律。方法9只杂种犬经开胸暴露心脏后,通过结扎左前降支造成急性心肌缺血,分别采集缺血前、后左心室不同的短轴二维动态灰阶切

  17. Silencing CHOP Gene gene Reduced reduced The the Acute acute Brain brain Injury injury in Cerebral cerebral Ischemia ischemia Reperfusion reperfusion in rRats%沉默CHOP基因减轻脑缺血再灌注大鼠的急性脑损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑胜哲; 谷月; 何春珂; 王婷婷; 贾丽君

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究大鼠脑缺血再灌注后急性脑损伤中CHOP蛋白的作用.方法 将36只SD大鼠随机分为对照组、vector组和LV-shRNA组,经微型注射泵向control组左脑室中注射PBS,vector组注射入LV-CMV-control 质粒,向LV-shRNA组注射入LV-CMV-CHOP shRNA质粒.线栓法制作大鼠缺血再灌注模型后,TTC染色检测各组大鼠脑梗死体积,Western Blot检测所有大鼠脑内CHOP、Bcl-2和Caspase 3的表达,TUNEL染色检测梗死区细胞凋亡.结果 LV-shRNA组大鼠脑梗死体积明显小于对照组和vector组(P<0.01);Western Blot结果显示LV-shRNA组大鼠脑内CHOP和Caspase3含量明显低于对照组和vector组(P<0.01),而Bcl-2高于对照组和vector组(P>0.05);TUNEL染色显示LV-shRNA组大鼠脑梗死区域内凋亡细胞明显少于对照组和vector组(P<0.01).结论 CHOP在脑缺血后具有促进急性脑损伤的作用,沉默CHOP可通过减轻细胞凋亡反应发挥神经保护作用.%Objective ive To investigate the role of CHOP in the acute cerebral injury in rats with focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Methods 36 rats were randomly divided into control group, vector group and LV-shRNA group. PBS was injected into the left ventricle of rats in control group via micro-injection pump,whereas LV-CMV-control plasmid and LV-CMV-CHOP shRNA plasmid were injected into the rats brain of vector group and LV-CMV-control group respectively. The animal model of the left MCA ischemia/reperfusion was established by suture method. Cerebral infarct volume was measured by TTC staining and the expression of CHOP, Bcl-2 and Caspase 3 in rats brain were detected by Western Blot-blot. In addition,TUNEL staining was utilized to examine cell apoptosis in infarct zone. Results The infarction volume of rats in LV-shRNA group was obviously less than control group and vector group (P 0.05). TUNEL staining showed that the apoptosis cells in LV-shRNA group rats' infarction area was markedly less than those in control

  18. Rearrangement of the breakpoint cluster region in Philadelphia chromosome positive acute leukemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Isao; Sekito,Noriko; Takeuchi, Makoto; Osada, Ken; Matsuzaki,Toshiro; Fukuda, Shunichi; Lai,Minyu; Uchida, Kozaburo; Kimura,Ikuro; Miyamoto,Kanji; Kitajima,Koichi; Sanada, Hiroshi

    1988-01-01

    The rearrangement of breakpoint cluster region (ber) was examined in leukemic cells obtained from 3 patients initially diagnosed as having Ph+ acute leukemia, 2 with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and one with acute mixed leukemia. DNA was digested with Bgl II and BamH I. The ber rearrangement was present in the case of acute mixed leukemia (Case 1), but was absent in the 2 cases of ALL (Cases 2 and 3). These results suggest that Case 1 represented a type of blast crisis of chronic myelocyt...

  19. Mechanism research on the effects of fasudil to postoperative acute hepatic failure induced by hepatic ischemia & hepatectomy on rats with obstructive jaundice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-Hua Chen; Li Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To establish a kind of animal model of postoperative acute hepatic failure induced by hepatic ischemia & hepatectomy on rats with obstructive jaundice, which could show similar clinical pathophysiological changes in hunman beings. To investigate the influence of fasudil to this model.Method:Selected 96 Wistar big rats as animal model of obstructive jaundice, which were treated with ligation and cuting off common bile duct. Rats in low-dose group were immediately injected fasudil of 10 mg/kg through portal vein after hepatectomy, while rats in high-dose group were immediately injected fasudil of 30 mg/kg through portal vein after hepatectomy, rats in control group were immediately injected equivalent normal saline through portal vein after hepatectomy. To determine the serum ALT, AST, TBIL (tumor necrosis factor-α, TNF-α)and (interferon-γ, INF-γ) levels in postoperative rats with hepatic failure within 6 h; to determine the (superoxide dismutase, SOD) activity and (malondialdehyde, MDA) content in hepatic tissue; hepatic tissue HE staining to observe the pathological injury; to observe animal model 96 h of survival rate.Results:That Proceeding internal biliary drainage operation to rats after obstruction for 14 h, and blocking 70% of hepatic blood supply, excising remnant liver after 30 min was in accordance with criteria of hepatic failure animal, and was deserved to further research. Compared with control group, serum AST, ALT, TBIL, TNF-α, INF-γ levels decreased in fasudil treatment group, SOD activity increased in hepatic tissue, MDA content decreased, pathological injury in hepatic tissue reduced, rats 96 h of survival rate increased, and the effects of high-dose group were more obvious than that in low-dose group.Conclusion:A surgical hepatic failure model in rat was established, which showed similar clinical pathophysiological changes in hunman beings. In addition, we have found that fasudil possibly played a role of protection to hepatic

  20. Effect of Prone Position on Regional Shunt, Aeration, and Perfusion in Experimental Acute Lung Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Torsten; Bellani, Giacomo; Harris, R. Scott; Melo, Marcos F. Vidal; Winkler, Tilo; Venegas, Jose G.; Musch, Guido

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: The prone position is used to improve gas exchange in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, the regional mechanism by which the prone position improves gas exchange in acutely injured lungs is still incompletely defined. Methods: We used positron emission tomography imaging of [13N]nitrogen to assess the regional distribution of pulmonary shunt, aeration, perfusion, and ventilation in seven surfactant-depleted sheep in supine and prone positions. Results: In t...

  1. IMPACT OF IODINE-CONTAINING PUMPKIN OIL ON THE COURSE OF CARDIAC ISCHEMIA IN THE RESIDENTS OF ZAKARPATTYA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALINT LYUBOV

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was exploration of the impact of the conventional treatment in combination with simvastatin and iodine-containing pumpkin oil “Fortuna vita” on the values of lipid metabolism in cardiac ischemia patients residing in the setting of iodine deficit. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1– patients underwent conventional treatment with application of simvastatin of 20mg/day during the whole course of observation; group 2 – same treatment in combination with iodine-containing pumpkin oil “Fortuna vita” of 10ml/day, which contains 200μg of organically combined iodine form. The level of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol and lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL cholesterol in serum, and aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotrasferase in patients before treatment, after 10 days, and after 1 month of treatment was measured. It was determined, that simvastatin is an effective and safe cholesterol-reducing preparation for cardiac ischemia patients which results in reduction of cholesterol level by 18% and LDL by 23% in one month. A combination of simvastatin and iodine-containing pumpkin oil appears more effective, probably because of potentiation of their effects, which also facilitate growth of antiatherogenic HDL and consequently decrease the atherogenicity coefficient. The general clinical state of both groups improved as a result of the treatment, though more so for the patients treated in combination with iodine-containing pumpkin oil. We are inclined to explain this fact by normalization of iodine-thyroid status, and consequently, of the general metabolism of the patients in the setting of ecologic iodine deficit because of iodine-containing fatty acids.

  2. Study on Effect of Shenmai Injection Protecting Myocardium against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Thrombolytic Therapy with Urokinase for Acute Myocardial Infarction Patient Evaluated by 99mTc-MIBI Myocardial Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭松鹏; 张言镇

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the myocardial protecting effect of Shenmai injection (SMI) against ischemia/reperfusion injury in thrombolytic therapy with urokinase (UK) for acute myocardial infarction patients by 99mTc-MIBI myocardial imaging (SPECT). Methods: Five hundred and thirty-seven patients were divided into two groups randomly. The SMI group (n=292) was treated with thrombolytictreatment plus SMI and the control group (n=245) with thrombolytic treatment solely. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was carried out on the 7th day after thrombolysis to determine the ischemic myocardial area (IMA) and ejection fraction (EF) in both groups and compared. Results: The infarction related area (IRA) of reperfusion rate in the two groups was not different significantly (72.26% vs 72.65%, P >0.05). The IMA in patients of the SMI group, no matter with or without reperfused IRA (211 cases and 81 cases) respectively, was significantly lower than that in the control group (178 cases and 67 cases) respectively, P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively. The EF value in the SMI group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.01). Conclusion:Using SMI in early stage of thrombolytic treatment in acute myocardial infarction could significantly reduce IMA and increase EF. SMI showed good protective effect against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in thrombolytic treatment.

  3. Study on Effect of Shenmai Injection Protecting Myocardium against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Thrombolytic Therapy with Urokinase for Acute Myocardial Infarction Patient Evaluated by 99mTc-MIBI Myocardial Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the myocardial protecting effect of Shenmai injection (SMI) against ischemia/reperfusion injury in thrombolytic therapy with urokinase (UK) for acute myocardial infarction patients by 99mTc-MIBI myocardial imaging (SPECT). Methods: Five hundred and thirty-seven patients were divided into two groups randomly. The SMI group (n=292) was treated with thrombolytictreatment plus SMI and the control group (n=245) with thrombolytic treatment solely. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was carried out on the 7th day after thrombolysis to determine the ischemic myocardial area (IMA) and ejection fraction (EF) in both groups and compared. Results: The infarction related area (IRA) of reperfusion rate in the two groups was not different significantly (72.26% vs 72.65%, P >0.05). The IMA in patients of the SMI group, no matter with or without reperfused IRA (211 cases and 81 cases) respectively, was significantly lower than that in the control group (178 cases and 67 cases) respectively, P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively. The EF value in the SMI group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.01). Conclusion:Using SMI in early stage of thrombolytic treatment in acute myocardial infarction could significantly reduce IMA and increase EF. SMI showed good protective effect against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in thrombolytic treatment.

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow during mechanical hyperventilation in patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Høgh, Peter; Larsen, Fin Stolze;

    2000-01-01

    Mechanical hyperventilation is often instituted in patients with acute bacterial meningitis when increased intracranial pressure is suspected. However, the effect on regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) is unknown. In this study, we measured regional CBF (rCBF) in patients with acute bacterial...... meningitis before and during short-term hyperventilation. In 17 patients with acute bacterial meningitis, absolute rCBF (in ml/100 g min-1) was measured during baseline ventilation and hyperventilation by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using intravenous 133Xe bolus injection. Intravenous...... in the frontal and parietal cortex as well as in the basal ganglia. Focal perfusion abnormalities were present in 10 of 12 patients. Regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities are frequent in patients with acute bacterial meningitis. Short-term hyperventilation does not enhance these abnormalities....

  5. Effect of verapamil on ischemia and ventricular arrhythmias after an acute myocardial infarction: prognostic implications. The Danish Verapamil Infarction Trial II Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Hansen, J F;

    1991-01-01

    for 24-48 h at 1 week, i.e., before randomization to long-term treatment with placebo or verapamil, and after 1 month and about 1 year of study treatment. Ischemia: 18% of the patients had transient ST-segment deviation before randomization; 24% of the placebo- and 8% of the verapamil-treated patients (p......This article is a review of presented subsets of the Danish Verapamil Infarction Trial II (DAVIT II) regarding the effect of verapamil on postinfarction ischemia, ventricular arrhythmias, and heart rate (HR), and the prognostic implications of these findings. Patients underwent Holter monitoring...

  6. Effect of anisodine on acute forebrain ischemia-reperfusion damage in rats%樟柳碱对大鼠脑缺血再灌注损伤的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟; 邓亦峰

    1996-01-01

    To study the protective effect of anisodine (Ani) on acute forebrain ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. METHODS: Both vertebral arteries were occluded by electrocautery. Severe, but transient bilateral cerebral ischemia was produced by clamping both common carotid arteries in rats. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric and spectrophotometric methods were used to determine the contents of calcium and extravasated Evans blue (EB), respectively, remained in forebrain at 60-min recirculation after 30-min ischemia. RESULTS: At 60-min recirculation, the brain calcium contents were increased from 112 ± 6 μg/g brain dry weight in control (sham operation) group to 165 ± 7μg/g brain dry weight with marked increase of EB extravasation.and extravasated EB contents. CONCLUSION:Ani prevented the brain from ischemia insults through reducing intracellular calcium accumulation resulted from ischemia and reperfusion.%研究樟柳碱对大鼠急性脑缺血及再灌注损伤的影响.方法:电灼闭塞锥动脉并夹闭颈动脉,使大鼠前脑缺血30 min,放开双侧颈总动脉重灌60 min,并在重灌40 min时iv 2%伊文思蓝0.2 mL.分别用原子吸收分光光度法,分光光度法测定前脑钙含量和伊文思蓝含量.结果:缺血重灌后,大鼠脑钙含量由对照的112±6μg/g干重脑增加至165±7μg/g干重脑,伊文思蓝含量由对照的3.3±0.3μg/g湿重脑增加至6.7±0.5μg/g湿重脑,樟柳碱,东莨菪碱可使异常增高的脑钙含量以及伊文思蓝含量明显降低.结论:樟柳碱和东莨菪碱通过降低缺血及重灌引起的脑积累,减轻脑损伤改善脑功能.

  7. 浸入式金属自显影技术检测游离锌离子在人脑外伤、急性脑缺血、癫痫后神经元中的异常聚集%Abnormal accumulation of free zinc ions in neurons of patients after traumatic brain injury/acute ischemia/epilepsy by immersion autometallography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱林; 纪祥军; 王汉东

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究游离锌离子在脑外伤、急性脑缺血和癫痫患者神经元中的分布,为探讨锌离子是否参与上述疾病的神经元损伤提供形态学证据. 方法 于南京军区南京总医院神经外科手术台上直接采集3例脑缺血标本、3例癫痫标本、5例脑外伤标本和5例相对正常新鲜皮层标本,应用浸入式金属自显影方法检测标本中的锌离子分布,应用HE染色观察神经元形态学变化.结果 脑外伤、急性脑缺血和癫痫患者皮层神经元内聚集了大量的锌离子,阳性反应产物主要位于含锌神经元的胞体和轴突终末,胶质细胞中未见明显着色.在正常皮层未见阳性反应产物沉积.进一步的HE染色提示这些富含锌的神经元呈明显损伤样外观. 结论 锌离子可能在脑外伤、急性脑缺血和癫痫的神经元损伤中起重要作用,参与这些疾病的病理生理过程.%Objective To study the distributions of free zinc ions in the neurons of patients after traumatic brain injury/acute ischemia/epilepsy and to provide morphological evidence of involvement of zinc ions in the neuronal injury.Methods Fresh cortex specimens from patients suffered from brain trauma (n=5),acute ischemia (n=3) and epilepsy(n=3) were collected during the surgeries.Immersion autometallography was used to detect the free zinc ions in the neurons,and HE staining was employed to observe the morphological changes of the neurons.Results Pathological zinc accumulation was extensively presented in the neurons of patients after ischemia,epilepsy and mechanical head trauma.Zinc-positive products were predominantly located in the neural bodies and the axon terminals,and could not be seen in the glial cells and the neurons of normal cortex.HE staining indicated that apparently damaged neurons were observed in all of the brain regions with zinc ions labeled neuronal somata.Conclusion zinc ions might play important roles in the neurons of patients after brain

  8. Effects of L-Tetrahydropalmatine on the Expressions of bcl-2 and bax in Rat after Acute Global Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彬; 杨光田

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the effects of L-Tetrahydropalmatine (L-THP) on the expressions of bcl2, bax and neuronal apoptosis after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion, 60 Wistars rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham-operation group (group S, n = 20), ischemic-reperfusion group treated with saline (group I, n=20) and ischemia-reperfusion group treated with L-THP (group T, n=20) . The rat model of global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion was induced by Pulsinelli's four-vessel occlusion method. The expression of bcl-2 and bax mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization and reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The number of apoptotic neurons was examined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method. Compared with group S, the expression of bcl-2 and bax mRNA in group I was increased significantly (P<0.01), and the number of apoptotic neurons increased either (P<0.01). After L-THP treatment, the expression of bcl-2 mRNA was up-regulated (P<0.01) and that of bax mRNA was down-regulated (P<0.01); the number of apoptotic neurons was decreased (P<0.01). Our results indicated that bcl-2 may suppress apoptosis and bax promote apoptosis after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. L-THP could ameliorate cerebral ischemia and reperfusion damage by reducing the apoptosis through regulating bcl-2 and bax.

  9. Effect of angiopoietin-related protein 2 on coronary angiogenesis and myocardial function in a porcine model of acute myocardial ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Meng; Changqian Wang; Fei Wang; Renjian Zhou; Fangbao Ding; Fuxin Chen

    2008-01-01

    Our previous studies have suggested that angiopoietin-related protein 2 (Arp2) may improve rat cardiac function after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by accelerating angiogenesis.We want to study the efficacy of the adenoviral vector-mediated gene transfer of Arp2 (Ad.Arp2) in inducing angiogenesis and in improving the myocardial perfusion and function in a porcine acute myocardial ischemic model.Methods The minipigs underwent ligation of the proximal circumflex coronary artery (LCx) and were randomly assigned to treatment with Ad.Arp2,adenoviral vectors with no transgene (Ad.Null) or PBS.Four weeks later,the animals were evaluated using echocardiography,cardiac perfusion imaging and pathologic observation.Results Four weeks after treatment,the Arp2 protein was revealed in the myocardium of Ad.Arp2 animals,but was not found in the Ad.Null or PBS animals.Also,a significant revival of myocardial perfusion was found in the ischemic area in Ad.Arp2-treated animals,whose global and regional myocardial function was greatly improved.The quantitation of new capillaries was much greater in the Ad.Arp2 group than in the Ad.Null or PBS groups.Conclusion Treatment with Ad.ARP2 offers the obvious advantage of greatly improving the blood supply and the heart function.(J Geriatr Cardiol 2008;5:230-234)

  10. 老年人急性肠系膜缺血的临床特征%Clinical features of acute mesenteric ischemia in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫静; 杨昆; 甘华田

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨老年人急性肠系膜缺血(AMI)的临床特征,为老年人AMI的早期预防、诊治提供依据. 方法 将104例住院AMI患者分为老年组(≥60岁)和中青年组(<60岁),对其临床表现、误诊情况、血液生化检查、基础疾病、治疗及预后等进行回顾性对比分析. 结果 老年AMI患者以急性肠系膜上动脉血栓栓塞(ASMATE)为主要病因,中青年患者以急性肠系膜静脉血栓形成(ASMVT)为主要病因;老年患者误诊率高于中青年患者(P=0.007).AMI患者最常见的临床表现是腹痛(100.0%),其次是呕吐(58.7%);老年患者更易出现恶心、呕吐(P<0.05).老年组血肌酐、血尿素及尿酸水平高于中青年组(P<0.05),而D-二聚体水平低于中青年组(P=0.036).老年组并存高血压、心房颤动、动脉粥样硬化、缺血性心脏病、脑梗死及慢性肾功能不全更为多见(P<0.05),中青年组饮酒史多于老年组(P=0.042).高血压、动脉粥样硬化、脑梗死是老年AMI患者发病独立的相关因素(P=0.000,OR=4.057;P=0.001,OR=4.585;P=0.007,OR=4.269);老年组结肠坏死者多(P=0.038),预后差(P=0.001). 结论 老年AMI患者以急性肠系膜上动脉血栓栓塞为主要病因.临床表现以恶心、呕吐为主,肾功能受损指标明显升高.高血压、动脉粥样硬化及脑梗死是老年人AMI发病独立的相关因素.老年AMI患者更容易出现误诊,且病情更重,预后更差.%Objective To investigate the clinical features of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) in the elderly and provide evidence for early prevention,diagnosis and treatment of AMI for elderly patients.Methods A retrospective analysis was performed in 104 patients with AMI in our hospital,who were divided into two groups:the elderly group (aged≥60 years) and the non-elderly group (aged < 60 years).Clinical manifestations,misdiagnosis rate,laboratory data,underlying diseases,treatment and prognosis were compared between the two groups

  11. Neuronal autophagy in cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Xu; Jin-Hua Gu; Zheng-Hong Qin

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy has evolved as a conserved process for the bulk degradation and recycling of cytosolic components,such as long-lived proteins and organelles.In neurons,autophagy is important for homeostasis and protein quality control and is maintained at relatively low levels under normal conditions,while it is upregulated in response to pathophysiological conditions,such as cerebral ischemic injury.However,the role of autophagy is more complex.It depends on age or brain maturity,region,severity of insult,and the stage of ischemia.Whether autophagy plays a beneficial or a detrimental role in cerebral ischemia depends on various pathological conditions.In this review,we elucidate the role of neuronal autophagy in cerebral ischemia.

  12. Patterns of regional cerebral blood flow in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T S; Skriver, E B

    1981-01-01

    In a consecutive group of 56 stroke patients the regional cerebral blood flow was measured within 84 hours after stroke. A 254 multidetector scintillation camera and the intracarotid Xenon-133 injection method was used to study rCBF. Typical rCBF-patterns are described and compared to the findings...

  13. Clinical Neuroimaging of cerebral ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawara, Jyoji [Nakamura Memorial Hospital, Sapporo (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    Notice points in clinical imaging of cerebral ischemia are reviewed. When cerebral blood flow is determined in acute stage of cerebral embolism (cerebral blood flow SPECT), it is important to find area of ischemic core and ischemic penumbra. When large cortex area is assigned to ischemic penumbra, thrombolytic therapy is positively adapted, but cautious correspondence is necessary when ischemic core is recognized. DWI is superior in the detection of area equivalent to ischemic core of early stage, but, in imaging of area equivalent to ischemic penumbra, perfusion image or distribution image of cerebral blood volume (CBV) by MRI need to be combined. Luxury perfusion detected by cerebral blood flow SPECT in the cases of acute cerebral embolism suggests vascular recanalization, but a comparison with CT/MRI and continuous assessment of cerebral circulation dynamics were necessary in order to predict brain tissue disease (metabolic abnormality). In hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, it is important to find stage 2 equivalent to misery perfusion by quantification of cerebral blood flow SPECT. Degree of diaschisis can indicate seriousness of brain dysfunction for lacuna infarct. Because cerebral circulation reserve ability (perfusion pressure) is normal in all areas of the low cerebral blood flow by diaschisis mechanism, their areas are easily distinguished from those of hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. (K.H.)

  14. Acute administration of non-classical estrogen receptor agonists attenuates ischemia-induced hippocampal neuron loss in middle-aged female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Lebesgue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pretreatment with 17beta-estradiol (E2 is profoundly neuroprotective in young animals subjected to focal and global ischemia. However, whether E2 retains its neuroprotective efficacy in aging animals, especially when administered after brain insult, is largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the neuroprotective effects of E2 and two agonists that bind to non-classical estrogen receptors, G1 and STX, when administered after ischemia in middle-aged rats after prolonged ovarian hormone withdrawal. Eight weeks after ovariectomy, middle-aged female rats underwent 10 minutes of global ischemia by four vessel occlusion. Immediately after reperfusion, animals received a single infusion of either E2 (2.25 microg, G1 (50 microg or STX (50 microg into the lateral ventricle (ICV or a single systemic injection of E2 (100 microg/kg. Surviving pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 were quantified 1 week later. E2 and both agonists that target non-classical estrogen receptors (G1 and STX administered ICV at the time of reperfusion provided significant levels of neuroprotection, with 55-60% of CA1 neurons surviving vs 15% survival in controls. A single systemic injection of a pharmacological dose of E2 also rescued approximately 50% of CA1 pyramidal neurons destined to die. To determine if E2 and G1 have similar mechanisms of action in hippocampal neurons, we compared the ability of E2 and G1 to modify CA1 pyramidal neuron responses to excitatory inputs from the Schaffer collaterals recorded in hippocampal slices derived from female rats not subjected to global ischemia. E2 and G1 (10 nM significantly potentiated pyramidal neuron responses to excitatory inputs when applied to hippocampal slices. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest (1 that middle-aged female rats retain their responsiveness to E2 even after a long period of hormone withdrawal, (2 that non-classical estrogen receptors may mediate the neuroprotective

  15. Characteristics of regional sympathetic dysfunction in acutely ischemic myocardium assessed by {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging. Impairment of myocardial norepinephrine uptake or retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Yoshio; Hirose, Yoshiaki [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Maeno, Masakazu [and others

    1995-07-01

    To characterize regional cardiac sympathetic dysfunction due to myocardial ischemia, we examined {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial distribution of initial 15-min and 4-hr delayed SPECT images in 14 patients with recent myocardial infarction (MI), 25 patients with vasospastic angina which was angiographically proven with elgonovine maleate (Gp VSAP) and 16 patients with chest pain syndrome and normal CAG findings (Gp CP). In those with MI, the study was serially done at 2 weeks after (Gp MI-1) and at 3 months after the onset of MI (Gp MI-2). We estimated regional tracer uptake in 20 segments of tomographic images by using a 4-point scoring system (0=normal, 1=mild, 2=moderate, 3=severe reduction) and calculated the total defect score (IDS). In all patients with MI, the area of reduced MIBG uptake was more extensive than the {sup 201}Tl perfusion defect in the acute stage (Gp MI-1) indicating the presence of viable but denervated myocardial tissue. Also, the MIBG defect was persistently observed from initial (TDS: 24{+-}13) to delayed imaging (TDS: 26{+-}12). However, in the chronic stage (Gp MI-2), the initial MIBG uptake improved (TDS: 18 {+-}9) but the delayed uptake remained almost the same (TDS: 22{+-}10) indicating high washout of MIBG from the ischemic myocardium. Fourteen in Gp VSAP and 14 in Gp CP showed the regional MIBG defect in the delayed image more extensively than in the initial image indicating high washout of MIBG in the involved myocardial regions. These results suggest that neuronal uptake of MIBG is impaired in the acute stage of MI although neuronal retention of MIBG is predominantly impaired in the chronic stage of MI or in Gps VSAP and CP. (author).

  16. Effects of grade of ischemia on arrhythmia in patients with acute myocardial infarction%缺血分级对急性心肌梗死患者心律失常的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣英; 石汉文; 田英平; 郭宪立; 马玉腾; 苏建玲

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过对急性ST段抬高心肌梗死(STEMI)患者入院时心电图QRS波群形态进行缺血分级,探讨缺血分级对急性ST段抬高心肌梗死(STEMI)患者发生严重心律失常的预测意义.方法 为前瞻性观察研究,选择2003年7月至2008年4月在河北医科大学第二医院急诊科收治STEMI患者223例,纳入标准:(1)缺血性胸痛≥30 min.(2)心电图可见相邻两个或两个以上导联ST段抬高.(3)发病时间≤12 h.排除标准:(1)有束支传导阻滞;(2)有左室肥厚者.根据入院时心电图QRS波群形态进行缺血分级:2级缺血组(134例):ST段抬高但QRS波终末部无改变;3级缺血组(89例):除ST段抬高外,QRS波终末部扭曲且常伴R波增高与S波消失.两组患者在年龄、性别、冠心病危险因素等方面具有可比性.两组患者在发病12 h内均行溶栓治疗,观察心电图ST段变化;住院期间观察严重心律失常的发生率.结果 入院时和溶栓后2h,3级缺血组ST段抬高的幅度(∑ST)均显著大于2级缺血组(P<0.01),溶栓后2h,ST段回降率显著低于2级缺血组(P<0.01);3级缺血组肌酸激酶MB同工酶峰值显著高于2级缺血组(P<0.01);两组患者严重心律失常如室早、室速或室颤、Ⅱ度或Ⅲ度房室传导阻滞、窦性停搏的发生率差异无统计学意义(P<0.05),但3级缺血组严重心律失常的发生率有高于2级缺血组的趋势;多元Logistic回归分析显示:从发病到溶栓的时间和入院时心电图∑ST是急性ST段抬高心肌梗死(STEMI)患者发生严重心律失常发生的独立预测因素,而3级缺血的预测意义最强.结论 STEMI患者入院时心电图呈3级缺血,溶栓后易于出现ST段回降不良,是发生严重心律失常的独立预测因素.%Objective To evaluate clinical significance of the grade of ischemia by QRS complex on the admission electrocardiogram(ECG)to predict severe arrithmia in patients with acute ST-segment elevation

  17. Evaluation of Global and Regional Strain in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome without Previous Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Moaref

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Speckle Tracking Echocardiography (STE is a new non-invasive method, which has been recently used as an alternative technique to assess regional and global myocardial function, especially left ventricular function. It is also considered to be a valid technique to evaluate the patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS.

  18. Cerebral lactate production and blood flow in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Gideon, P; Sperling, B;

    1992-01-01

    Eight stroke patients were examined serially in the acute phase and 1 week and 2-4 weeks after stroke with water-suppressed proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The time courses of lactate level and regional cerebral blood flow were studied. A high lactate level was found in the acute phase...... that follows reperfusion. The amount of lactate present in the acute phase reflects the severity of ischemia in the affected region. The lactate level was still above normal in the subacute phase with hyperemia, suggesting lactate production through aerobic glycolysis. Thus, the lactate level in the subacute...

  19. Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion induces bronchial hyperreactivity and increases serum TNF-alpha in rats

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    Arruda Marcio Jose Cristiano de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Intestinal or hepatic ischemia/reperfusion induces acute lung injury in animal models of multiple organ failure. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF- alpha is involved in the underlying inflammatory mechanism of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although the inflammatory cascade leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome has been extensively investigated, the mechanical components of acute respiratory distress syndrome are not fully understood. Our hypothesis is that splanchnic ischemia/reperfusion increases airway reactivity and serum TNF-alpha levels. OBJECTIVE: To assess bronchial smooth muscle reactivity under methacholine stimulation, and to measure serum TNF-alpha levels following intestinal and/or hepatic ischemia/reperfusion in rats. METHOD: Rats were subjected to 45 minutes of intestinal ischemia, or 20 minutes of hepatic ischemia, or to both (double ischemia, or sham procedures (control, followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. The animals were then sacrificed, and the bronchial response to increasing methacholine molar concentrations (10-7 to 3 x 10-4 was evaluated in an ex-vivo bronchial muscle preparation. Serum TNF-alpha was determined by the L929-cell bioassay. RESULTS: Bronchial response (g/100 mg tissue showed increased reactivity to increasing methacholine concentrations in the intestinal ischemia and double ischemia groups, but not in the hepatic ischemia group. Similarly, serum TNF-alpha (pg/mL concentration was increased in the intestinal ischemia and double ischemia groups, but not in the hepatic ischemia group. CONCLUSION: Intestinal ischemia, either isolated or associated with hepatic ischemia, increased bronchial smooth muscle reactivity, suggesting a possible role for bronchial constriction in respiratory dysfunction following splanchnic ischemia/reperfusion. This increase occurred in concomitance with serum TNF-alpha increase, but whether the increase in TNF-alpha caused this bronchial contractility remains

  20. Point application with Angong Niuhuang sticker protects hippocampal and cortical neurons in rats with cerebral ischemia

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    Dong-shu Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Angong Niuhuang pill, a Chinese materia medica preparation, can improve neurological functions after acute ischemic stroke. Because of its inconvenient application and toxic components (Cinnabaris and Realgar, we used transdermal enhancers to deliver Angong Niuhuang pill by modern technology, which expanded the safe dose range and clinical indications. In this study, Angong Niuhuang stickers administered at different point application doses (1.35, 2.7, and 5.4 g/kg were administered to the Dazhui (DU14, Qihai (RN6 and Mingmen (DU4 of rats with chronic cerebral ischemia, for 4 weeks. The Morris water maze was used to determine the learning and memory ability of rats. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and Nissl staining were used to observe neuronal damage of the cortex and hippocampal CA1 region in rats with chronic cerebral ischemia. The middle- and high-dose point application of Angong Niuhuang stickers attenuated neuronal damage in the cortex and hippocampal CA1 region, and improved the memory of rats with chronic cerebral ischemia with an efficacy similar to interventions by electroacupuncture at Dazhui (DU14, Qihai (RN6 and Mingmen (DU4. Our experimental findings indicate that point application with Angong Niuhuang stickers can improve cognitive function after chronic cerebral ischemia in rats and is neuroprotective with an equivalent efficacy to acupuncture.

  1. [Regional anaesthesia may be used in selected acute compartment syndrome patients.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine; Kristensen, Billy B

    2011-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is a serious condition which, if not treated promptly, can cause severe disability or even death. Regional anaesthesia (epidural analgesia or peripheral nerve blocks) is increasingly used in postoperative pain management in orthopaedic surgery, but has been presumed...... to mask the symptoms of ACS. We present a short review of the current literature relating regional anaesthesia to a delayed diagnosis of ACS and find no convincing evidence that regional anaesthesia is unsafe in patients with a high risk of ACS. Udgivelsesdato: 2011-Jan-31...

  2. A New Therapeutic Modality for Acute Myocardial Infarction: Nanoparticle-Mediated Delivery of Pitavastatin Induces Cardioprotection from Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via Activation of PI3K/Akt Pathway and Anti-Inflammation in a Rat Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Nagaoka

    Full Text Available There is an unmet need to develop an innovative cardioprotective modality for acute myocardial infarction (AMI, for which the effectiveness of interventional reperfusion therapy is hampered by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury. Pretreatment with statins before ischemia is shown to reduce MI size in animals. However, no benefit was found in animals and patients with AMI when administered at the time of reperfusion, suggesting insufficient drug targeting into the IR myocardium. Here we tested the hypothesis that nanoparticle-mediated targeting of pitavastatin protects the heart from IR injury.In a rat IR model, poly(lactic acid/glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticle incorporating FITC accumulated in the IR myocardium through enhanced vascular permeability, and in CD11b-positive leukocytes in the IR myocardium and peripheral blood after intravenous treatment. Intravenous treatment with PLGA nanoparticle containing pitavastatin (Pitavastatin-NP, 1 mg/kg at reperfusion reduced MI size after 24 hours and ameliorated left ventricular dysfunction 4-week after reperfusion; by contrast, pitavastatin alone (as high as 10 mg/kg showed no therapeutic effects. The therapeutic effects of Pitavastatin-NP were blunted by a PI3K inhibitor wortmannin, but not by a mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor cyclosporine A. Pitavastatin-NP induced phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β, and inhibited inflammation and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the IR myocardium.Nanoparticle-mediated targeting of pitavastatin induced cardioprotection from IR injury by activation of PI3K/Akt pathway and inhibition of inflammation and cardiomyocyte death in this model. This strategy can be developed as an innovative cardioprotective modality that may advance currently unsatisfactory reperfusion therapy for AMI.

  3. 缺血修饰白蛋白在急性冠状动脉综合征中的诊断价值%The Diagnosis Value of Ischemia Modified Albumin in the Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍海英

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究缺血修饰白蛋白(IMA)对急性冠状动脉综合征(ACS)的诊断价值。方法:选取2011-2012年本院ACS患者50例为病例组,同时选择健康对照50例;再将患者分为缺血性组和非缺血性组,检测IMA、CK-MB等,并进行统计学分析。结果:病例组和对照组的IMA水平比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.001);缺血性组的IMA显著升高,与非缺血性组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.001),OR为16.35(6.24-46.21),CK-MB的OR为2.13(1.12-6.11)。IMA对ACS的灵敏度和特异性分别为78%和85%,CK-MB则为56%和61%, IMA对心肌缺血和非缺血患者的曲线下面积(AUC)为0.831。结论:IMA对心肌缺血性疾病有良好的诊断价值。%Objective:To study the diagnosis value of ischemia modified albumin(IMA) in the acute coronary syndrome(ACS).Method:50 ACS patients admitted to our hospital were selected in our study from 2011 to 2012. 50 healthy volunteers formed the control group. IMA, CK-MB were detected on their admission, then analyzed statistically. Result:IMA comparative difference of the case group and the control group was statistically significant (P<0.001). IMA was significantly raised in ischemia patients, compared with the ischemic group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.001), with anOR of 16.35 (6.24-46.21). CK-MB showed anOR of 2.13(1.12-6.11). Sensitivity and specificity of IMA for the detection of ACS was 78% and 85% , and CK-MB was 56% and 61%.The area under the ROC curve of IMA was 0.831 for ischemic v/s non-ischemic patients.Conclusion:IMA appears to be developing into a good and very potent marker of cardiac ischemia.

  4. Improving mitochondrial bioenergetics under ischemic conditions increases warm ischemia tolerance in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Hazel H; Liu, Shaoyi; Soong, Yi; Birk, Alexander V

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia time during partial nephrectomy is strongly associated with acute and chronic renal injury. ATP depletion during warm ischemia inhibits ATP-dependent processes, resulting in cell swelling, cytoskeletal breakdown, and cell death. The duration of ischemia tolerated by the kidney depends on the amount of ATP that can be produced with residual substrates and oxygen in the tissue to sustain cell function. We previously reported that the rat can tolerate 30-min ischemia quite well but 45-min ischemia results in acute kidney injury and progressive interstitial fibrosis. Here, we report that pretreatment with SS-20 30 min before warm ischemia in the rat increased ischemia tolerance from 30 to 45 min. Histological examination of kidney tissues revealed that SS-20 reduced cytoskeletal breakdown and cell swelling after 45-min ischemia. Electron microscopy showed that SS-20 reduced mitochondrial matrix swelling and preserved cristae membranes, suggesting that SS-20 enhanced mitochondrial ATP synthesis under ischemic conditions. Studies with isolated kidney mitochondria showed dramatic reduction in state 3 respiration and respiratory control ratio after 45-min ischemia, and this was significantly improved by SS-20 treatment. These results suggest that SS-20 increases efficiency of the electron transport chain and improves coupling of oxidative phosphorylation. SS-20 treatment after ischemia also significantly reduced interstitial fibrosis. These new findings reveal that enhancing mitochondrial bioenergetics may be an important target for improving ischemia tolerance, and SS-20 may serve well for minimizing acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease following surgical procedures such as partial nephrectomy and transplantation.

  5. Homogenization of atrial electrical activities: conceptual restoration of regional electrophysiological parameters to deter ischemia-dependent conflictogenic atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Petras Stirbys

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF as a severe arrhythmia is now spreading worldwide at overwhelmingly high rates, particularly in elderly patients. Despite new insights, the mechanisms underlying AF are not conclusively determined yet. Taking into account the ischemic origin of arrhythmia induction (according to the so-called conflictogenic atrial fibrillation, declared recently restoration of regional electrophysiological parameters is essential in tackling AF. We hypothesized that some atrial electrophysiological parameters, preferably the effective refractory period, might need to be controlled to prevent AF. All the remaining parameters - conduction velocity, conduction time, recovery time, vulnerability, excitability, repolarization etc. being as if secondary and less important could be ignored. Homogenization of the milieu producing AF might be implemented, at least theoretically, through restoration of blood supply in ischemic areas and/or via attenuation of electrophysiological differences between conflicting regions by delivery of atrial sub-threshold non-captured pulse-trains. Adjunctive therapy by drugs containing vasodilatory features and affecting the effective refractory period appears to be fundamental. Thus, stabilization of disorganized atrial cellular activities likely may lead to the recovery of atrial excitable characteristics. Despite the lack of compelling evidence, the application of the concept may be helpful in order to search for more precise and more effective methods to favorably change the refractory period. Further studies are necessary to determine whether restoration or improvement of blood circulation of atrial wall is feasible. On the basis of such considerations a novel preventive AF strategies are to be designed. Abbreviations: AF=atrial fibrillation, ERP=effective refractory period, TMR=transmyocardial revascularization

  6. Automated versus manual post-processing of perfusion-CT data in patients with acute cerebral ischemia: influence on interobserver variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Bruno P.; Bhogal, Sumail; Dillon, William P.; Wintermark, Max [University of California, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, 505 Parnassus Avenue, Box 0628, San Francisco, CA (United States); Dankbaar, Jan Willem [University of California, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, 505 Parnassus Avenue, Box 0628, San Francisco, CA (United States); University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bredno, Joerg [Philips Research North America, San Francisco, CA (United States); Cheng, SuChun [University of California, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study is to compare the variability of PCT results obtained by automatic selection of the arterial input function (AIF), venous output function (VOF) and symmetry axis versus manual selection. Imaging data from 30 PCT studies obtained as part of standard clinical stroke care at our institution in patients with suspected acute hemispheric ischemic stroke were retrospectively reviewed. Two observers performed the post-processing of 30 CTP datasets. Each observer processed the data twice, the first time employing manual selection of AIF, VOF and symmetry axis, and a second time using automated selection of these same parameters, with the user being allowed to adjust them whenever deemed appropriate. The volumes of infarct core and of total perfusion defect were recorded. The cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time (MTT) and blood-brain barrier permeability (BBBP) values in standardized regions of interest were recorded. Interobserver variability was quantified using the Bland and Altman's approach. Automated post-processing yielded lower coefficients of variation for the volume of the infarct core and the volume of the total perfusion defect (15.7% and 5.8%, respectively) compared to manual post-processing (31.0% and 12.2%, respectively). Automated post-processing yielded lower coefficients of variation for PCT values (11.3% for CBV, 9.7% for CBF, and 9.5% for MTT) compared to manual post-processing (23.7% for CBV, 32.8% for CBF, and 16.7% for MTT). Automated post-processing of PCT data improves interobserver agreement in measurements of CBV, CBF and MTT, as well as volume of infarct core and penumbra. (orig.)

  7. Deletion of chromosomal region 13q14.3 in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavé, H; Avet-Loiseau, H; Devaux, I; Rondeau, G; Boutard, P; Lebrun, E; Méchinaud, F; Vilmer, E; Grandchamp, B

    2001-03-01

    Deletion of the 13q14 chromosomal region is frequent in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) and is believed to inactivate a tumor supressor gene (TSG) next to RB1. We studied microsatellite markers spanning the 13q14 chromosomal region in 138 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Allelic loss was demonstrated in six cases (4.3%). Deletion did not include RB1 in two cases. In five patients, the deleted region overlapped that described in B-CLL. A sixth patient harbored a smaller deletion, slightly more telomeric than minimal deleted regions reported in B-CLL. Apparent differences in the delineation of the minimal deleted region could be due to the fact that the putative TSG is a very large gene, with some deletions affecting only a part of it. Our present findings suggest that at least some of its exons lie within a region of less than 100 kb more telomeric that previously thought.

  8. Guidelines for acute management of hyperammonemia in the Middle East region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadhel, Majid; Mutairi, Fuad Al; Makhseed, Nawal; Jasmi, Fatma Al; Al-Thihli, Khalid; Al-Jishi, Emtithal; AlSayed, Moeenaldeen; Al-Hassnan, Zuhair N; Al-Murshedi, Fathiya; Häberle, Johannes; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyperammonemia is a life-threatening event that can occur at any age. If treated, the early symptoms in all age groups could be reversible. If untreated, hyperammonemia could be toxic and cause irreversible brain damage to the developing brain. Objective There are major challenges that worsen the outcome of hyperammonemic individuals in the Middle East. These include: lack of awareness among emergency department physicians about proper management of hyperammonemia, strained communication between physicians at primary, secondary, and tertiary hospitals, and shortage of the medications used in the acute management of hyperammonemia. Therefore, the urge to develop regional guidelines is extremely obvious. Method We searched PubMed and Embase databases to include published materials from 2011 to 2014 that were not covered by the European guidelines, which was published in 2012. We followed the process of a Delphi conference and involved one preliminary meeting and two follow-up meetings with email exchanges between the Middle East Hyperammonemia and Urea Cycle Disorders Scientific Group regarding each draft of the manuscript. Results and discussion We have developed consensus guidelines based on the highest available level of evidence. The aim of these guidelines is to homogenize and harmonize the treatment protocols used for patients with acute hyperammonemia, and to provide a resource to not only metabolic physicians, but also physicians who may come in contact with individuals with acute hyperammonemia. Conclusion These suggested guidelines aim to ease the challenges faced by physicians dealing with acute hyperammonemia in the region. In addition, guidelines have demonstrated useful collaboration between experts in the region, and provides information that will hopefully improve the outcomes of patients with acute hyperammonemia. PMID:27099506

  9. [Platelets, atherothrombosis, antiplatelet drugs and cerebral ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousser, Marie-Germaine

    2013-02-01

    Platelets play a much more important role in myocardial ischemia than in cerebral ischemia, because atherothrombosis - the underlying cause of the vast majority of myocardial infarcts - is responsible for only 25-30% of cerebral infarcts. Aspirin is the only effective antiplatelet drug for primary prevention of ischemic events, especially those affecting the heart. For secondary prevention of cerebral infarction, clopidogrel and the combination of aspirin with extended-release dipyridamole are both marginally better than aspirin alone, but aspirin remains the gold standard worldwide because of its remarkable cost/benefit/tolerability ratio. The clopidogrel-aspirin combination is to be avoided because of the risk of hemorrhage, particularly in the brain and gastrointestinal tract. Revascularization strategies and the choice of antiplatelet drugs for the acute phase of myocardial and cerebral ischemia are very different, consisting of endovascular treatment and aggressive platelet inhibition for coronary infarcts, versus intravenous thrombolysis and / or aspirin for cerebral infarcts. None of the new antiplatelet drugs used in acute coronary syndromes has so far been studied in acute cerebral ischemia. PMID:24919368

  10. Speckle tracking imaging in evaluation of radial strain of subendocardial and epicardial myocardium in canine acute myocardial ischemia and reperfusion%斑点追踪技术评价犬急性心肌缺血及再灌注心内膜下心肌和心外膜下心肌径向应变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋平梅; 任卫东; 马春燕; 王秀芹; 乔伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the radial strain function of subendocardial and epicardial myocardium in acute myocardial ischemia and reperfusion canine with speckle tracking imaging. Methods The first diagonal branch of left coronary artery of 20 adult healthy hybrid dogs were ligated. Radial strain of subendocardial and epicardial myocardium at basal, apical and papillary muscle level were compared by speckle tracking imaging before ligation, ligation immediately, 60,120, 180 min after ligation, reperfusion immediately, and 60, 120 min after reperfusion, respectively. Results Radial strain of basal level elevated by compensatory role in canine acute ischemic process. Radial strain of apical and papillary muscle level decreased obviously. Myocardial reverse movement was even found at apical level. In acute ischemia and reperfusion process, subendocardial myocardium was more sensitive to ischemia. After reperfusion, radial strain of subendocardial and epicardial myocardium at apical and papillary muscle level were still lower than that in basic status. Conclusion Speckle tracking imaging can objectively quantify regional and overall heart function and transmural extent of myocardial infarction in canine.%目的 应用斑点追踪技术检测犬急性心肌缺血及再灌注不同时间点心内膜下心肌和心外膜下心肌的径向应变.方法 选取20只健康成年杂种犬,结扎左冠状动脉第一对角支,分别对结扎前、结扎即刻、60、120和180 min及再灌注即刻、60和120 min基底水平、乳头肌水平和心尖水平心内膜下和心外膜下心肌的径向应变进行比较.结果 在急性缺血过程中,基底水平心肌起代偿作用,其径向应变上升;乳头肌水平和心尖水平心肌下降明显,心尖水平心肌甚至出现反向运动.在急性缺血及再灌注过程中,心内膜下心肌对缺血更加敏感.再灌注后,乳头肌水平和心尖水平心内膜下和心外膜下心肌及跨壁的径向应变

  11. Delayed administration of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) protects retinal ganglion cells in a pig model of acute retinal ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhn, Maria Voss; Klassen, Henry; Johansson, Ulrica Englund;

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates whether intravitreal administration of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) enhances survival of NeuN positive retinal cells in a porcine model of retinal ischemia. 16 pigs were subjected to an ischemic insult where intraocular pressure was maintained at 5 mm......Hg below mean arterial blood pressure for 2 h. The mean IOP during the ischemic insult was 79.5 mmHg (s.e.m. 2.1 mmHg, n = 15). Three days after the insult the pigs received an intravitreal injection of GDNF microspheres or blank microspheres. The pigs were evaluated by way of multifocal.......04-0.16) in eyes treated with blank microspheres, and 0.24 (95% CI: 0.18-0.32) and 0.23 (95% CI: 0.15-0.33) in eyes treated with GDNF microspheres. These differences were statistically significant (P

  12. [Preventive effects of troxipide on a newly developed model of acute gastric mucosal lesion (AGML) induced by ischemia/reperfusion plus ammonia in the rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momo, K; Hoshina, K; Ishibashi, Y; Saito, T

    1994-10-01

    We have developed a unique rat AGML model produced by ischemia/reperfusion plus 0.2% ammonia (I/R.NH3), either treatment which would not induce mucosal injury when used alone. The effects of troxipide and other gastric mucosal defensive drugs were investigated with this I/R.NH3-induced AGML model and other AGML models in rats. The following results were obtained: 1) Like allopurinol, troxipide at 50-200 mg/kg, p.o. dose-dependently prevented I/R.NH3-induced development of AGML and also the ischemia/reperfusion-induced increase of gastric mucosal thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-reactive substances; 2) Troxipide at 10(-6)-10(-4) M, like allopurinol, inhibited concentration-dependently in vitro xanthine oxidase activity in gastric mucosal homogenates; 3) Troxipide at 50-200 mg/kg, p.o. inhibited AGMLs induced by bleeding plus 0.2% ammonia and by 1.0% ammonia alone; and 4) Troxipide and sofalcone were similar in preventing all AGMLs tested and also the increase of mucosal TBA-reactive substances, but somewhat differed from teprenone, cetraxate hydrochloride, azulene plus L-glutamine and sucralfate. These findings suggest that troxipide may inhibit I/R.NH3-induced AGML development by preventing generation of oxygen free radicals and by protecting against mucosal fragility due to reduced energy metabolism from poor blood flow and also against ammonia-induced disruption of the gastric mucosal barrier. Therefore, troxipide may be highly effective for various AGMLs with multifactor involvement.

  13. A basic study on molecular hydrogen (H2 inhalation in acute cerebral ischemia patients for safety check with physiological parameters and measurement of blood H2 level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono Hirohisa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In animal experiments, use of molecular hydrogen ( H2 has been regarded as quite safe and effective, showing benefits in multiple pathological conditions such as ischemia-reperfusion injury of the brain, heart, kidney and transplanted tissues, traumatic and surgical injury of the brain and spinal cord, inflammation of intestine and lung , degenerative striatonigral tissue and also in many other situations. However, since cerebral ischemia patients are in old age group, the safety information needs to be confirmed. For the feasibility of H2 treatment in these patients, delivery of H2 by inhalation method needs to be checked for consistency. Methods Hydrogen concentration (HC in the arterial and venous blood was measured by gas chromatography on 3 patients, before, during and after 4% (case 1 and 3% (case2,3 H2 gas inhalation with simultaneous monitoring of physiological parameters. For a consistency study, HC in the venous blood of 10 patients were obtained on multiple occasions at the end of 30-min H2 inhalation treatment. Results The HC gradually reached a plateau level in 20 min after H2 inhalation in the blood, which was equivalent to the level reported by animal experiments. The HC rapidly decreased to 10% of the plateau level in about 6 min and 18 min in arterial and venous blood, respectively after H2 inhalation was discontinued. Physiological parameters on these 3 patients were essentially unchanged by use of hydrogen. The consistency study of 10 patients showed the HC at the end of 30-min inhalation treatment was quite variable but the inconsistency improved with more attention and encouragement. Conclusion H2 inhalation of at least 3% concentration for 30 min delivered enough HC, equivalent to the animal experiment levels, in the blood without compromising the safety. However, the consistency of H2 delivery by inhalation needs to be improved.

  14. Regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 inlfuences hippocampal neuronal survival in a rat model of diabetic cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaning Zhao; Jianmin Li; Qiqun Tang; Pan Zhang; Liwei Jing; Changxiang Chen; Shuxing Li

    2014-01-01

    Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 has been demonstrated in acute brain ischemia. We hypothesized that activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 can protect hippocampal neurons from injury in a diabetic model after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. In this study, transient whole-brain ischemia was induced by four-vessel occlusion in normal and diabetic rats, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 inhibitor (U0126) was administered into diabetic rats 30 minutes before ischemia as a pretreatment. Results showed that the number of surviving neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region was reduced, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation and Ku70 activity were decreased, and pro-apoptotic Bax expression was upregulated after intervention using U0126. These ifndings demonstrate that inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activity aggravated neuronal loss in the hippocampus in a diabetic rat after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, further decreased DNA repairing ability and ac-celerated apoptosis in hippocampal neurons. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation plays a neuroprotective role in hippocampal neurons in a diabetic rat after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

  15. Effects of “Shuxin Decoction” Preconditioning on Fas in Myocardium in Rats of Acute Myocardial Ischemia%舒心饮预给药对急性心肌缺血大鼠心肌Fas的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    励冬斐; 孙鑫; 胡丹丹; 孙勇; 章怡祎; 梁知; 陈伟

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨舒心饮预给药对急性心肌缺血大鼠心肌细胞凋亡抑制因子(Fas)的影响,为舒心饮的临床应用提供依据.方法:将40只Wistar健康雄性大鼠随机分为对照组、模型组、舒心饮组、单硝酸异山梨酯组.对照组、模型组给予灌胃蒸馏水,舒心饮组灌胃2.43 g/kg生药,单硝酸异山梨酯组灌胃1 mg/kg.用药5周后,结扎左冠状动脉前降支造模,观察大鼠血清肌酸磷酸激酸(CPK)及乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)浓度,RT-PCR检测心肌肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)、Fas mRNA,Western blot检测心肌Fas、半胱氨酸蛋白酶-3(Caspase-3)表达水平,评价舒心饮对大鼠急性心肌缺血的作用.结果:舒心饮可明显降低血CPK、LDH浓度,下调TNF-α、Fas转录水平及Fas、Caspase3蛋白水平的表达.结论:舒心饮预处理对大鼠急性缺血心肌有保护作用,下调死亡途径的受体和配体从而拮抗心肌组织的凋亡可能是其作用机制之一.%Objective; To observe the effects of "Shuxin Decoction" on Fas in myocardium in rats of acute myocardial ischemia, in order to provide reference for clinical application of "Shuxin Decoction". Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into4 groups with 10 rats in each group: control group, model group, "Shuxin Decoction" group and isosorbide mononi-tiate group. The rats in " Shuxin Decoction" group and isosorbide mononitrate group were administered intragastrically with "Shuxin Decoction" 2.43 g/kg and isosorbide mononitrate 1 mg/kg respectively, and the rats in control group and model group were administered intragastrically with distilled water. Five weeks after treatment, the acute myocardial ischemia model was established by ligation of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). The levels of serum creatine phosphokinase ( CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase ( LDH) were tested by colorimetric method, the tumor necrosis factor-a ( TNF-a) and Fas mR-NA were determined by RT-PCR, and the

  16. 外源性硫化氢对大鼠急性心肌缺血损伤时炎性反应的影响%Effects of exogenous hydrogen sulfide on inflammatory responses during acute myocardial ischemia in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 刘广杰; 张建新; 李兰芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of exogenous hydrogen sulfide on inflammatory responses during acute myocardial ischemia in rats.Methods Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats,weighing 250-290 g,were randomly divided into 3 groups (n =8 each):sham operation group,acute myocardial ischemia group,and sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) group.The animals were anesthetized with intraperitoneal chloral hydrate.The model of acute myocardial ischemia was established by ligating the left anterior descending branch of coronary artery.Normal saline 2 ml/kg and NaHS 3.12 mg/kg were intraperitoneally injected at 3 h of ischemia in AMI and NaHS groups,respectively.The rats were sacrificed at 6 h after ligation and hearts were removed for determination of interleukin-1β (IL-1β),IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) contents (by ELISA) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA expression (by semi-quantitative PCR) in myocardial tissues and for examination of myocardial ultrastructure with transmission electron microscope.Results Compared with S group,IL-1β,IL-6 and TNF-α conte.nts and ICAM-1 mRNA expression in myocardial tissues were significantly increased in AMI group (P < 0.05).Compared with AMI group,IL-1β,IL-6 and TNF-α contents and ICAM-1 mRNA expression in myocardial tissues were significantly decreased in NaHS group (P < 0.05).The damage to myocardial ultrastructure was significantly alleviated in NaHS group when compared with AMI group.Conclusion The mechanism by which exogenous H2S alleviates the acute myocardial ischemia injury is related to inhibition of the inflammatory responses in rats.%目的 评价外源性硫化氢对大鼠急性心肌缺血损伤时炎性反应的影响.方法 清洁级健康成年雄性SD大鼠24只,体重250 ~ 290 g,采用随机数字表法分为3组(n=6):假手术组(S组)、急性心肌缺血组(AMI组)和硫氢化钠组(NaHS组).采用结扎大鼠左冠状动脉前降支的方法制备急性心肌缺血模型.AMI

  17. Thyroid disorders in acute period after radiation therapy on neck region

    OpenAIRE

    E I Bobrova; V V Fadeev; V M Sotnikov; M G Pavlova; Yu P Sych

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The aim of our study was to analyze thyroid status in adult patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma in acute period after radiotherapy on neck region. Material and methods. Thyroid function (TSH, free T 4, anti-TPO) and thyroid ultrasound were evaluated in 22 adults (10 women, 12 men, mean age 30.2 yrs) with a history of Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) before radiotherapy on neck region, 7-14 days, 6 month, 1 year after treatment. Results. Incidence of subclinical hyperthyroidism was 1...

  18. Regional changes in renal cortical glucose, lactate and urea during acute unilateral ureteral obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Peter-Martin; Stolle, Lars B; Rawashdeh, Yazan F;

    2007-01-01

    . Furthermore, we investigated regional variations in renal interstitial fluid (RIF) glucose, lactate and urea during acute UUO. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight anesthetized pigs were used. Microdialysis probes were inserted in the upper, middle and lower thirds of the left renal cortex and perfused with Ringer...... third. RIF lactate did not change. Interstitial urea increased in all regions of the kidney, but most markedly in the upper and lower poles. CONCLUSIONS: Microdialysis is of potential value for assessing the renal interstitial milieu under different pathophysiological conditions. Ureteral obstruction...

  19. Enhancement of an outwardly rectifying chloride channel in hippocampal pyramidal neurons after cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianguo; Chang, Quanzhong; Li, Xiaoming; Li, Xiawen; Qiao, Jiantian; Gao, Tianming

    2016-08-01

    Cerebral ischemia induces delayed, selective neuronal death in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. The underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear, but it is known that apoptosis is involved in this process. Chloride efflux has been implicated in the progression of apoptosis in various cell types. Using both the inside-out and whole-cell configurations of the patch-clamp technique, the present study characterized an outwardly rectifying chloride channel (ORCC) in acutely dissociated pyramid neurons in the hippocampus of adult rats. The channel had a nonlinear current-voltage relationship with a conductance of 42.26±1.2pS in the positive voltage range and 18.23±0.96pS in the negative voltage range, indicating an outward rectification pattern. The channel is Cl(-) selective, and the open probability is voltage-dependent. It can be blocked by the classical Cl(-) channel blockers DIDS, SITS, NPPB and glibenclamide. We examined the different changes in ORCC activity in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons at 6, 24 and 48h after transient forebrain ischemia. In the vulnerable CA1 neurons, ORCC activity was persistently enhanced after ischemic insult, whereas in the invulnerable CA3 neurons, no significant changes occurred. Further analysis of channel kinetics suggested that multiple openings are a major contributor to the increase in channel activity after ischemia. Pharmacological blockade of the ORCC partly attenuated cell death in the hippocampal neurons. We propose that the enhanced activity of ORCC might contribute to selective neuronal damage in the CA1 region after cerebral ischemia, and that ORCC may be a therapeutic target against ischemia-induced cell death. PMID:27181516

  20. A Translational Study of a New Therapeutic Approach for Acute Myocardial Infarction: Nanoparticle-Mediated Delivery of Pitavastatin into Reperfused Myocardium Reduces Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in a Preclinical Porcine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimura, Kenzo; Matoba, Tetsuya; Nakano, Kaku; Tokutome, Masaki; Honda, Katsuya; Koga, Jun-ichiro; Egashira, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    Background There is an unmet need to develop an innovative cardioprotective modality for acute myocardial infarction, for which interventional reperfusion therapy is hampered by ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. We recently reported that bioabsorbable poly(lactic acid/glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle-mediated treatment with pitavastatin (pitavastatin-NP) exerts a cardioprotective effect in a rat IR injury model by activating the PI3K-Akt pathway and inhibiting inflammation. To obtain preclinical proof-of-concept evidence, in this study, we examined the effect of pitavastatin-NP on myocardial IR injury in conscious and anesthetized pig models. Methods and Results Eighty-four Bama mini-pigs were surgically implanted with a pneumatic cuff occluder at the left circumflex coronary artery (LCx) and telemetry transmitters to continuously monitor electrocardiogram as well as to monitor arterial blood pressure and heart rate. The LCx was occluded for 60 minutes, followed by 24 hours of reperfusion under conscious conditions. Intravenous administration of pitavastatin-NP containing ≥ 8 mg/body of pitavastatin 5 minutes before reperfusion significantly reduced infarct size; by contrast, pitavastatin alone (8 mg/body) showed no therapeutic effects. Pitavastatin-NP produced anti-apoptotic effects on cultured cardiomyocytes in vitro. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging performed 4 weeks after IR injury revealed that pitavastatin-NP reduced the extent of left ventricle remodeling. Importantly, pitavastatin-NP exerted no significant effects on blood pressure, heart rate, or serum biochemistry. Exploratory examinations in anesthetized pigs showed pharmacokinetic analysis and the effects of pitavastatin-NP on no-reflow phenomenon. Conclusions NP-mediated delivery of pitavastatin to IR-injured myocardium exerts cardioprotective effects on IR injury without apparent adverse side effects in a preclinical conscious pig model. Thus, pitavastatin-NP represents a novel therapeutic

  1. Superior mesenteric arterial branch occlusion causing partial jejunal ischemia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van De Winkel Nele

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ischemic bowel disease comprises both mesenteric ischemia and colonic ischemia. Mesenteric ischemia can be divided into acute and chronic ischemia. These are two separate entities, each with their specific clinical presentation and diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. However, diagnosis may be difficult due to the vague symptomatology and subtle signs. Case presentation We report the case of a 68-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with abdominal discomfort, anorexia, melena and fever. A physical examination revealed left lower quadrant tenderness and an irregular pulse. Computed tomography of her abdomen as well as computed tomography enterography, enteroscopy, angiography and small bowel enteroclysis demonstrated an ischemic jejunal segment caused by occlusion of a branch of the superior mesenteric artery. The ischemic segment was resected and an end-to-end anastomosis was performed. The diagnosis of segmental small bowel ischemia was confirmed by histopathological study. Conclusion Mesenteric ischemia is a pathology well-known by surgeons, gastroenterologists and radiologists. Acute and chronic mesenteric ischemia are two separate entities with their own specific clinical presentation, radiological signs and therapeutic modalities. We present the case of a patient with symptoms and signs of chronic mesenteric ischemia despite an acute etiology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report presenting a case of acute mesenteric ischemia with segmental superior mesenteric artery occlusion.

  2. Regional pulmonary inflammation in an endotoxemic ovine acute lung injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Bustamante, A; Easley, R B; Fuld, M; Mulreany, D; Chon, D; Lewis, J F; Simon, B A

    2012-08-15

    The regional distribution of inflammation during acute lung injury (ALI) is not well known. In an ovine ALI model we studied regional alveolar inflammation, surfactant composition, and CT-derived regional specific volume change (sVol) and specific compliance (sC). 18 ventilated adult sheep received IV lipopolysaccharide (LPS) until severe ALI was achieved. Blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from apical and basal lung regions were obtained at baseline and injury time points, for analysis of cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β), BAL protein and surfactant composition. Whole lung CT images were obtained in 4 additional sheep. BAL protein and IL-1β were significantly higher in injured apical vs. basal regions. No significant regional surfactant composition changes were observed. Baseline sVol and sC were lower in apex vs. base; ALI enhanced this cranio-caudal difference, reaching statistical significance only for sC. This study suggests that apical lung regions show greater inflammation than basal ones during IV LPS-induced ALI which may relate to differences in regional mechanical events.

  3. Migraine and ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wammes-van der Heijden, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    An association between migraine and ischemic events, especially ischemic stroke, has been debated for many years. Whether migraine is a risk factor for ischemic events or ischemia triggers migraine, or both, is still unclear. This thesis explores different relationships between migraine and ischemia

  4. Transient myocardial ischemia after a first acute myocardial infarction and its relation to clinical characteristics, predischarge exercise testing and cardiac events at one-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Pless, P; Nielsen, J R;

    1993-01-01

    response in group 1 compared with group 2: systolic blood pressure at maximal work load 160 +/- 31 vs 176 +/- 28 mm Hg (p ...The relation between early out-of-hospital ambulatory ST-segment monitoring, clinical characteristics, predischarge maximal exercise testing and cardiac events was determined in 123 consecutive men (age 55 +/- 8 years) with a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). During 36 hours of ambulatory...

  5. 肠脂肪酸结合蛋白在急腹症患者中鉴别急性肠缺血的价值%The value of serum intestinal fatty acid binding protein measurement in discriminating intestinal ischemia in patients with acute abdomen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石卉; 吴本俨; 刘文徽; 苏斌斌; 李婷婷

    2012-01-01

    目的 评估肠脂肪酸结合蛋白( I-FABP)在急腹症患者中鉴别急性肠缺血的价值.方法 2009年11月至2011年8月解放军总医院151例住院急腹症患者及17例健康对照者纳入本研究,测定其血清I-FABP水平,根据ROC曲线计算I-FABP诊断急性肠缺血的临界值、敏感性、特异性、阳性似然比、阴性似然比、阳性预测值、阴性预测值,评估其诊断及鉴别诊断价值.结果 151例急腹症患者中急性肠缺血24例,非肠缺血127例.肠缺血组的I-FABP水平[(109.67 ±48.82)μg/L]明显高于非肠缺血组[(36.78±11.25) μg/L]和健康对照组[(8.33±6.25) μg/L],P值均<0.01.I-FABP的诊断临界值为87.52 μg/L,I-FABP诊断急性肠缺血的敏感度为0.762,阴性预测值为0.963,阳性似然比3.05,阴性似然比0.24.结论 血清I-FABP用于鉴别急腹症中急性肠缺血患者具有临床诊断价值.%Objective To assess the differential diagnostic value of serum intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) in distinguishing intestinal ischemia patients from acute abdomen patients.Methods A total of 151 patients with acute abdomen and 17 healthy controls from the PLA General Hospital were enrolled from November,2009 to August,2011. Serum I-FABP levels were measured by ELISA.According to the ROC curve,the cut-off value,sensitivity,specificity,positive likelihood ratio (PLR),negative likelihood ratio ( NLR),positive predietive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated. Results Of the 151 acute abdomen patients,there were 24 intestinal ischemia patients and 127 without intestinal ischemia.Serum I-FABP level in intestinal ischemia group [( 109.67 ±48.82) μg/L]was significantly higher than those in patients without intestinal ischemia [(36.78 ± 11.25) μg/L]and healthy controls[(8.33 ±6.25) μg/L]( all P values <0.01 ).The serum I-FABP cut-off value for the diagnosis of intestinal ischemia was 87.52 μg/L.Serum I-FABP was efficient in terms of

  6. Perfil del peso corporal en la isquemia mesentérica aguda: Estudio experimental en conejos Nueva Zelanda Body weight profile in acute mesenteric ischemia: Experimental study in New-Zealand rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Guijarro Escribano

    2005-12-01

    final del estudio un peso porcentual significativamente inferior que el alcanzado por la serie I. En los procesos de isquemia reperfusión mesentérica experimental animal, la pérdida de peso porcentual inicial en el postoperatorio, está influenciada no sólo por el tiempo de isquemia, sino por las manipulaciones pre y postoperatorias; en cambio, la pérdida de peso al final del estudio es más acentuada, cuanto mayor es el tiempo de isquemia.Introduction and objectives: There are few investigation studies that relate acute mesenteric ischemia and body weight in animal experimentation. The aim is to studying whether initial weight loss is related to the magnitude of the aggression induced by clamps of the superior mesenteric artery for 30 and 60 minutes, and whether reperfusion ischemia may hinder weight recovery in surviving animals at the end of 11 weeks of experimental work with New Zealand rabbits through a valid experimental model. Materials and method: 80 animals (rabbits were distributed in four series of 20 each one: series I (control, animals were weighed for 11 weeks; series II (simulated surgery; series III (mesenteric ischemia for 30 minutes; series IV (mesenteric ischemia for 60 minutes. We induced ischemia by clamping the superior mesenteric artery. Animals from series II, III, and IV were weighed 24 hours before the surgical procedure and weekly after surgery along their survival, until completing 11 weeks. For weight analysis, an ANOVA test was used by confronting the percentage weight variation according to the series. All animals were necropsied to know the cause of death and histological lesions of the intestinal mucosa. Results: Series I had a linear weight increase until the end of the observation period. Series II, III and IV had a significant initial decrease of the percentage weight during the first post-surgical week, with a recovery towards the end of the study, but significantly lower as compared to the control series. Significant

  7. Increases in acute hepatitis C (HCV incidence across Europe: which regions and patient groups are affected?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rockstroh J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background In the last decade, several outbreaks of sexually acquired acute HCV have been described in men who have sex with men (MSM infected with HIV in Australia, Europe, and North America. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of acute HCV within the large EuroSIDA cohort and to explore possible regional differences throughout Europe and in different HIV transmission risk groups. Methods Baseline was defined as 1st Jan of 2002 or entry into EuroSIDA, whichever comes later. All patients from EuroSIDA who were HCV antibody-negative at baseline and had at least 2 HCV antibody test results available were included into the study. HCV seroconversion was defined as change from negative to positive HCV-antibody test within the observation period from 2002 onwards. Follow-up was counted from baseline to HCV antibody positivity for seroconverters and to the last HCV antibody-negative test result for those that did not seroconvert for HCV. Poisson regression analyses were performed to identify predictive factors for HCV seroconversion. Results A total of 150 HCV seroconversions (95 [63.3%] in MSM occurred in 4295 patients during 18,928 person years of follow-up (PYFU, overall incidence of 0.79 acute infections per 100 PYFU (95% CI: 0.67–0.92 (see figure. The incidence of HCV seroconversions increased from 0.47 (CI: 0.19–0.74 in 2002 to 2.34 (CI: 1.24–3.44 in 2010. Similar patterns were observed across all European regions (p=0.89, test for interaction. In multivariate analysis, IDU was associated with a higher incidence rate ratio (IRR than MSM: 4.59 (2.40–8.80; p<0.0001, South and East Europe both had higher IRR compared to Western Europe, respectively (1.98 [1.12–3.49]; p=0.018 and 2.41 [1.41–4.12]; p=0.0014. Calendar year per 2 years was also associated with a higher IRR (1.29 [1.19–1.39]; p<0.0001. Conclusion The incidence of acute HCV within EuroSIDA increased over time. Although, the incidence of seroconversion was

  8. Acute hepatitis C in a chronically HIV-infected patient: Evolution of different viral genomic regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diego Flichman; Veronica Kott; Silvia Sookoian; Rodolfo Campos

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the molecular evolution of different viral genomic regions of HCV in an acute HCV infected patient chronically infected with HIV through a 42-month follow-up.METHODS: Serum samples of a chronically HIV infected patient that seroconverted to anti HCV antibodies were sequenced, from the event of superinfection through a period of 17 months and in a late sample (42nd month). Hypervariable genomic regions of HIV (V3 loop of the gp120) and HCV (HVR-1 on the E2 glycoprotein gene) were studied. In order to analyze genomic regions involved in different biological functions and with the cellular immune response, HCV core and NS5A were also chosen to be sequenced. Amplification of the different regions was done by RT-PCR and directly sequenced. Confirmation of sequences was done on reamplified material. Nucleotide sequences of the different time points were aligned with CLUSTAL W 1.5, and the corresponding amino acid ones were deduced.RESULTS: Hypervariable genomic regions of both viruses (HVR1 and gp120 V3 loop) presented several nonsynonymous changes but, while in the gp120 V3 loop mutations were detected in the sample obtained right after HCV superinfection and maintained throughout, they occurred following a sequential and cumulative pattern in the HVR1. In the NS5A region of HCV, two amino acid changes were detected during the follow-up period, whereas the core region presented several amino acid replacements, once the HCV chronic infection had been established.CONCLUSION: During the HIV-HCV superinfection, each genomic region analyzed shows a different evolutionary pattem.Most of the nucleotide substitutions observed are nonsynonymous and clustered in previously described epitopes,thus suggesting an immune-driven evolutionary process.

  9. Guidelines for acute management of hyperammonemia in the Middle East region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfadhel M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Majid Alfadhel,1,2 Fuad Al Mutairi,1,2 Nawal Makhseed,3 Fatma Al Jasmi,4 Khalid Al-Thihli,5 Emtithal Al-Jishi,6 Moeenaldeen AlSayed,7 Zuhair N Al-Hassnan,7,8 Fathiya Al-Murshedi,5 Johannes Häberle,9 Tawfeg Ben-Omran10 Middle East Hyperammonemia and Urea Cycle Disorders Scientific Group (MHUSG 1Department of Pediatrics, Division of Genetics, 2King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Pediatrics, Jahra Hospital, Ministry of Health, Jahra City, Kuwait; 4Department of Pediatric, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates; 5Genetic and Developmental Medicine Clinic, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman; 6Salmaniya Medical Complex, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 7Department of Medical Genetics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, 8The National Newborn Screening Program, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 9Department of Pediatrics, Division of Metabolism and Children’s Research Center, University Children’s Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 10Division of Clinical and Metabolic Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Background: Hyperammonemia is a life-threatening event that can occur at any age. If treated, the early symptoms in all age groups could be reversible. If untreated, hyperammonemia could be toxic and cause irreversible brain damage to the developing brain.Objective: There are major challenges that worsen the outcome of hyperammonemic individuals in the Middle East. These include: lack of awareness among emergency department physicians about proper management of hyperammonemia, strained communication between physicians at primary, secondary, and tertiary hospitals, and shortage of the medications used in the acute management of hyperammonemia. Therefore, the urge to develop regional guidelines is

  10. 斑点追踪技术评价缺血心肌短轴缩短率和圆周应变%Evaluation of Regional Shortening Fraction and Circumferential Strain in Patients with Myocardial Ischemia by Speckle Tracking Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何艳; 王东平; 陈金国; 张娜; 杨体霞; 张军; 周利民

    2012-01-01

    目的 运用斑点追踪技术(STI)测量缺血心肌的短轴缩短率和圆周应变值,探讨其在诊断心肌缺血,评价心肌功能中的应用价值.方法 对29例心肌缺血患者(冠状动脉狭窄≥75%)和28例正常对照组(冠状动脉没有狭窄)分别行超声心动图检查,采集并记录左室短轴观(二尖瓣水平)的高帧频动态二维灰阶图像,应用二维应变分析软件进行脱机分析,系统自动将左室短轴分为前间隔、前壁、侧壁、后壁、下壁、后间隔6个节段,并给出应变曲线,分别测量各节段心肌的短轴缩短率和圆周应变值.结果 正常对照组的圆周应变曲线是负向峰值曲线,短轴缩短率曲线是正向峰值曲线,整组曲线排列较整齐;而心肌缺血组的应变曲线形态不规则.心肌缺血组圆周应变和短轴缩短率均低于正常对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 斑点追踪技术能对心肌的二维应变进行定量分析,为临床诊断心肌缺血,评价心肌功能提供了无创性新方法.%Objective To evaluate the clinical value of speckle tracking imaging in the measurement of regional shortening fraction and circumferential strain in patients with myocardial ischemia. Methods Twenty-nine patients with myocardial ischemia and twenty-eight healthy subjects underwent echocardiography,high frame rate two-dimensional images were recorded from the left ventricular short-axis views at the levels of mitral annulus, regional shortening fraction and circumferential strain were measured in the left ventricular short-axis views using two-dimensional strain software. Results Circumferential strain curve, regional shortening fraction curve in healthy group changed regularly, while in myocardial ischemia patients, the curve changed irregularly. Regional shortening fraction and circumferential strain in myocardial ischemia patients showed significant reduction compared with normal myocardium(P<0.05). Conclusion Speckle

  11. Activated Protein C Protects Against Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury via Inhibition of Apoptosis and Inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.T.B.G. Loubele; C.A. Spek; P. Leenders; R. van Oerle; H.L. Aberson; K. Hamulyák; G. Ferrell; C.T. Esmon; H.M.H. Spronk; H. ten Cate

    2009-01-01

    Objective-In spite of major advances in reperfusion therapy for patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome, long-term morbidity is still substantial. A limitation of initial treatment of myocardial ischemia is the lack of prevention of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Activated protein C (AP

  12. Silent myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutterman, David D

    2009-05-01

    Although much progress has been made in reducing mortality from ischemic cardiovascular disease, this condition remains the leading cause of death throughout the world. This might in part be due to the fact that over half of patients have a catastrophic event (heart attack or sudden death) as their initial manifestation of coronary disease. Contributing to this statistic is the observation that the majority of myocardial ischemic episodes are silent, indicating an inability or failure to sense ischemic damage or stress on the heart. This review examines the clinical characteristics of silent myocardial ischemia, and explores mechanisms involved in the generation of angina pectoris. Possible mechanisms for the more common manifestation of injurious reductions in coronary flow; namely, silent ischemia, are also explored. A new theory for the mechanism of silent ischemia is proposed. Finally, the prognostic importance of silent ischemia and potential future directions for research are discussed.

  13. Migraine and ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    van der Wammes-van der Heijden, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    An association between migraine and ischemic events, especially ischemic stroke, has been debated for many years. Whether migraine is a risk factor for ischemic events or ischemia triggers migraine, or both, is still unclear. This thesis explores different relationships between migraine and ischemia: the effect of anticoagulants on migraine, the possible relationship between cardiac right-to-left shunts (RLS) and migraine, and antimigraine drug use in relation to ischemic complications and ca...

  14. Acute Coronary Syndrome and ST Segment Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Mary G

    2016-09-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is caused by a critical obstruction of a coronary artery because of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Three specific conditions are included: ST elevation myocardial infarction, non-ST elevation myocardial infarction, and unstable angina. The ST segment on the electrocardiogram is a sensitive and specific marker of myocardial ischemia and infarction; however, ST segment deviation is regional not global, thus the ECG lead must be placed over the affected region of the myocardium. This article describes ACS and infarction and the use of ST segment monitoring to detect these conditions. PMID:27484662

  15. Overall and regional lung function in dogs exposed acutely to ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional distribution of ventilation and overall function of the lungs were compared in anesthetized, paralyzed, mechanically ventilated dogs exposed to ozone. Three animals were exposed at each concentration (0. 0.13, 0.22, and 0.45 ppm ozone ) for 3 hr. There were no significant changes in pulmonary flow resistance, dynamic compliance, or flow rates derived from maximum forced expiratory maneuvers. The distribution of inspired gas was determined using air containing 13N and a positron camera to follow wash-in in each of 80 or more regions of the lung. The mean wash in time (T) and its standard deviation did not change in sham-treated dogs, but T increased by 40 to 100% in exposed animals. Dogs showing increases in T also had increased frequency dependence of compliance. The changes in 13N wash-in reflected less uniform distribution of ventilation, with the greatest disparity occurring between central and marginal regions. Altered regional mechanical function, in the absence of overall changes, suggested that the initial effect of ozone was on the small airways. The measurement may be a sensitive indicator of acute irritation in the lung periphery

  16. Acute leukemias in Piauí: comparison with features observed in other regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rego M.F.N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in age and sex distribution as well as FAB (French-American-British classification types have been reported for acute leukemias in several countries. We studied the demographics and response to treatment of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL between 1989 and 2000 in Teresina, Piauí, and compared these results with reports from Brazil and other countries. Complete data concerning 345 patients (230 ALL, 115 AML were reviewed. AML occurred predominantly in adults (77%, with a median age of 34 years, similar to that found in the southeast of Brazil but lower than the median age in the United States and Europe (52 years. FAB distribution was similar in children and adults and FAB-M2 was the most common type, as also found in Japan. The high frequency of FAB-M3 described in most Brazilian studies and for Hispanics in the United States was not observed. Overall survival for adults was 40%, similar to other studies in Brazil. A high mortality rate was observed during induction. No clinical or hematological parameter influenced survival in the Cox model. ALL presented the characteristic peak of incidence between 2-8 years. Most of the cases were CD10+ pre-B ALL. In 25%, abnormal expression of myeloid antigens was observed. Only 10% of the patients were older than 30 years. Overall survival was better for children. Age and leukocyte count were independent prognostic factors. These data demonstrate that, although there are regional peculiarities, the application of standardized treatments and good supportive care make it possible to achieve results observed in other countries for the same chemotherapy protocols.

  17. Clinical significance of Ischemia Modified Albumin in the Early Diagnosis of Patients with Acute Chest Pain%缺血修饰蛋白在急性胸痛患者早期诊断中的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余琦; 钮炜西; 唐发宽; 华宁; 林乐健

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨缺血修饰蛋白(IMA)在急性胸痛患者早期诊断中的临床意义.方法 急性胸痛患者125例,分为非冠心病组(UCAD) 32例,不稳定性心绞痛组(UAP)21例,急性心肌梗死组(AMI)72例.于入院时、末次症状后8h、末次症状后24h抽血,测定血清IMA、cTnI、MYO;采用SPSS13统计软件进行分析.结果 结果显示:入院时IMA值在UCAD组、UAP组和AMI组之间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);末次症状后8h,AMI组和IMA值仍与其他两组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);末次症状后24h,三组患者所测IMA值之间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).125例患者中,有92例患者诊断为急性冠脉综合症(ACS).IMA的诊断敏感性最高,为82.6%,ECG仅为29.7%,cTnI为42.8%,MYO为64.3%.不同判断指标的组合在入院后即刻诊断心源性疾病的阳性率为85.2% ~ 93.6%.结论 IMA对急性胸痛患者的早期诊断具有一定的临床意义.%Objective To investigate the clinical significance of ischemia modified albumin (IMA) in the diagnosis of patients with acute chest pain. Methods Among the 125 patients with chest pain who were hospitalized in our department, 32 were grouped into non-coronary heart disease (NCAD) group, 21 into unstable angina (UAP) group and 72 into acute myocardial infarction (AMI) group. Blood sample were drown at entry, 8 hours and 24 hours after last attacking, and the levels of IMA, cTnI and MYO were determined. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS 13.O statistical package. Results The levels of IMA at entry and 8 hour after last attacking in NCAD group were significantly different compared to the other groups (P 0.05). 92 patients in total 125 patients were diagnosed as the acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The diagnostic sensitivity of IMA (82.6% ) was higher than that of electrocardiogram (29. 7) , cTnI (42. 8% ) and MYO (64. 3% ). The heart source disease's immediate diagnosis positive rates of different judgment

  18. Fluorometry of ischemia reperfusion injury in rat lungs in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehr, R.; Staniszewski, K.; Jacobs, E. R.; Audi, S.; Ranji, Mahsa

    2013-02-01

    Previously we demonstrated the utility of optical fluorometry to evaluate lung tissue mitochondrial redox state in isolated perfused rats lungs under various chemically-induced respiratory states. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute ischemia on lung tissue mitochondrial redox state in vivo using optical fluorometry. Under ischemic conditions, insufficient oxygen supply to the mitochondrial chain should reduce the mitochondrial redox state calculated from the ratio of the auto-fluorescent mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) and FAD (Flavoprotein Adenine Dinucleotide). The chest of anesthetized, and mechanically ventilated Sprague-Dawley rat was opened to induce acute ischemia by clamping the left hilum to block both blood flow and ventilation to one lung for approximately 10 minutes. NADH and FAD fluorescent signals were recorded continuously in a dark room via a fluorometer probe placed on the pleural surface of the left lung. Acute ischemia caused a decrease in FAD and an increase in NADH, which resulted in an increase in the mitochondrial redox ratio (RR=NADH/FAD). Restoration of blood flow and ventilation by unclamping the left hilum returned the RR back to its baseline. These results (increase in RR under ischemia) show promise for the fluorometer to be used in a clinical setting for evaluating the effect of pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion on lung tissue mitochondrial redox state in real time.

  19. 抗毒补心胶囊对急性心肌缺血模型大鼠的心肌保护作用%Experimental Study on the Treatment of Kangdu Buxin Capsule on Model Rats with Acute Myocardial Ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贺军; 吕立勋; 马会霞; 许晴; 包巨太

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study protection on myocardium and mechanism of Kangdu Buxin Capsule on model rats with acute myocardial ischemia. Method: Seventy two Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group, positive group, Kangdu Buxin Capsule low, medium and high dose groups, each group orally administered 14 days. Then, model rats with acute myocardial ischemia were prepared by coronary artery ligation. The influences on the content of creatine kinase ( CK) , lactate dehydrogenase ( LDH ) , malonaldehyde (MDA) , superoxide dismutase (SOD) were observed. Result: Kangdu Buxin Capsule significantly reduced the content of CK, MDA, LDH in serum of model rats with acute myocardial ischemia. Kangdu Buxin Capsule significantly improved the content of SOD in serum of model rats. Conclusion: Kangdu Buxin Capsule has a protective effect on model rats with acute myocardial ischemia prepared by coronary artery ligation.%研究抗毒补心胶囊对急性心肌缺血模型大鼠的心肌保护作用并探讨其作用机制.方法 Wistar大鼠72只,随机分成假手术组、模型组、阳性对照组、抗毒补心胶囊低,中,高剂量含生药0.4,0.8,1.6g·kg-1组,连续预防口服给药14d,采用冠状动脉结扎制备急性心肌缺血大鼠模型,观察抗毒补心胶囊对模型大鼠血清中肌酸磷酸激酶(CK)、乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)、丙二醛(MDA)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的影响.结果 抗毒补心胶囊能明显降低心肌缺血模型大鼠血清中CK,LDH活性和MDA含量以及明显提高血清中SOD活性.结论 抗毒补心胶囊对冠状动脉结扎制备的心肌缺血大鼠模型有较好的心肌保护作用.

  20. Interaction of dependent and non-dependent regions of the acutely injured lung during a stepwise recruitment manoeuvre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The benefit of treating acute lung injury with recruitment manoeuvres is controversial. An impediment to settling this debate is the difficulty in visualizing how distinct lung regions respond to the manoeuvre. Here, regional lung mechanics were studied by electrical impedance tomography (EIT) during a stepwise recruitment manoeuvre in a porcine model with acute lung injury. The following interaction between dependent and non-dependent regions consistently occurred: atelectasis in the most dependent region was reversed only after the non-dependent region became overdistended. EIT estimates of overdistension and atelectasis were validated by histological examination of lung tissue, confirming that the dependent region was primarily atelectatic and the non-dependent region was primarily overdistended. The pulmonary pressure–volume equation, originally designed for modelling measurements at the airway opening, was adapted for EIT-based regional estimates of overdistension and atelectasis. The adaptation accurately modelled the regional EIT data from dependent and non-dependent regions (R2 > 0.93, P < 0.0001) and predicted their interaction during recruitment. In conclusion, EIT imaging of regional lung mechanics reveals that overdistension in the non-dependent region precedes atelectasis reversal in the dependent region during a stepwise recruitment manoeuvre. (paper)

  1. Consideration of QRS complex in addition to ST-segment abnormalities in the estimated "risk region" during acute anterior myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hellemond, Irene E. G.; Bouwmeester, Sjoerd; Olson, Charles W.;

    2011-01-01

    The myocardial area at risk (MaR) has been estimated in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by using ST segment-based electrocardiographic (ECG) methods. As the process from ischemia to infarction progresses, the ST-segment deviation is typically replaced by QRS abnormalities causing...... a falsely low estimated total MaR if determined by using ST segment-based methods. The purpose of this study was to investigate if consideration of the abnormalities in the QRS complex, in addition to those in the ST segment, provides a more accurate estimated total MaR during anterior AMI than...

  2. The Protective effects of a slow-releasing hydrogen sulfide donor to mice acute ischemia%缓释硫化氢供体对小鼠脑缺血急性期保护作用实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐英秀; 肖蕴祺; 贾佳

    2016-01-01

    :ADT-OH exerted protective effects to a-cute cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury .The underlying mechanism may be related to the inflammatory reaction which induced by the inhibition of cerebral ischemia .

  3. Exercise preconditioning exhibits neuroprotective effects on hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabi Shamsaei; Mehdi Khaksari; Sohaila Erfani; Hamid Rajabi; Nahid Aboutaleb

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested the neuroprotective effects of physical exercise on cerebral isch-emic injury. However, the role of physical exercise in cerebral ischemia-induced hippocampal damage remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of pre-ischemia treadmill training on hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia. Male adult rats were randomly divided into control, ischemia and exercise + ischemia groups. In the exercise + ischemia group, rats were subjected to running on a treadmill in a designated time schedule (5 days per week for 4 weeks). Then rats underwent cerebral ischemia induction th rough occlusion of common carotids followed by reperfusion. At 4 days after cerebral ischemia, rat learning and memory abilities were evaluated using passive avoidance memory test and rat hippocampal neuronal damage was detected using Nissl and TUNEL staining. Pre-ischemic ex-ercise signiifcantly reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells and necrotic cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region as compared to the ischemia group. Moreover, pre-ischemic exercise significantly prevented ischemia-induced memory dysfunction. Pre-ischemic exercise mighct prevent memory deficits after cerebral ischemia through rescuing hippocampal CA1 neurons from ischemia-induced degeneration.

  4. Acute capsular infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashihara, M.; Matsumoto, K.

    1985-05-01

    Sixty-three patients with lacunar-type of acute capsular infarction were treated in our service during the last 2 years. Their lesions were identified by computed tomography (CT) and classified into six types according to their locations: anterior, lateral, posterior, superior, inferior and multiple. The lesions were thought to be in the watershed areas of the regional arterial supplies, and the areas were considered to be prone to ischemia. The clinical course of each type showed characteristic features of ischemic strokes. In the majority of the patients with the lateral type, reversible ischemic neurological deficit (RIND) was seen as the predominant symptom, transient ischemic attack (TIA) was noted in the patients with the superior type, and major completed stroke was observed in those with posterior type.

  5. 高血糖加重全脑缺血再灌注后缺血不敏感区神经元损伤%Hyperglycemia increases neuron injury in the invulnerable regions under global brain ischemia/reperfusion in rats*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景丽; 张建忠; 马轶; 郭风英; 王一理

    2011-01-01

    and apoptosis of neurons in the rats with ischemia for 15 minutes and reperfusion for 1, 3 and 6 hours were significantly higher than those of sham operated rats (P0. 05). In the cingulate cortex and CA3 of hippocampus, the degeneration and apoptosis of neurons in the rats with hyperglycmia and diabetes were significantly increased compared with those in rats with normoglycemia (P<0. 05). No significant difference was demonstrated between the hyperglycemia group and diabetes group. Conclusion: For acute hyperglycemia or diabetic ones, the hyperglycemia may aggravate the neuronal injury after transient ischemia and reperfusion. An obviously increased neuronal degeneration and apoptosis could be induced by ischemia and reperfusion under hyperglycemia, especially in invulnerable regions of the cingulate cortex and CA3 of hippocampus.

  6. Evaluation the development of focal cerebral ischemia in rats by optical imaging based on the spreading depression signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shangbin; Feng, Zhe; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming; Li, Pengcheng

    2007-02-01

    Spreading depression (SD) has been found involved in focal cerebral ischemia which may result in severe or lethal neurological deficits. Electrical recording of SD has been used for acute and long term monitoring of focal cerebral ischemia but with an inherently low resolution. Here, we presented optical intrinsic signal imaging (OISI) to characterize the spontaneous SD waves following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats with high spatial resolution. During each SD episode, the measured optical reflectance varied regionally: decreased (-12.5+/-2.8%) in the area near the midline, remained flat (3.1+/-2.5%) in the lateral region, and increased (12.1+/-3.6%) in the intermediate cortex. The three types of changes yielded identifications for three biological relevant zones: nonischemic cortex, penumbra and infarct core. Accompanying recurrent SD waves, the suggested penumbral area reduced by about 6.4+/-2.5% of the whole imaged area per SD event, indicating a growth of the infracted area. Staining with 2% 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) 4 h post-occlusion proved the infarct cortex to be consistent with the lateral region where the final SD wave did not invade (r=0.86+/-0.10). The results suggest that OISI based on SD can effectively used to distinguish nonischemic cortex, penumbra and infarct core in the ischemic hemisphere and monitor the development of ischemia with high spatial resolution.

  7. Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Focal cerebral ischemia due to occlusion of a major cerebral artery is the cause of ischemic stroke which is a major reason of mortality, morbidity and disability in the populations of the developed countries. In the seven studies summarized in the thesis focal ischemia in rats induced by occlusion......-PBN on the periinfarct depolarizations and infarct volume was investigated. In study number six, the activity of the mitochondrial electron transport complexes I, II and IV was evaluated histochemically during reperfusion after MCAO in order to assess the possible role of mitochondrial dysfunction in focal ischemic...

  8. 急性下肢缺血130例的临床特点分析和治疗体会%Clinical feature and treatment for 130 cases of acute lower limb ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿卜杜?卡维; 李杰; 赖远辉; 艾文佳; 王深明; 李晓曦

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical features and treatment of acute lower limb ischemia. Methods A retrospective analysis was carried out of patients who were admitted and treated for ALLI from January 2003 to December 2009. Results 82 cases of acute arterial embolism and 48 cases of acute thrombosis were studied. Clinical features:The overall incidence and co-incidence of CHD and AF was higher in the embolization group, and the patients in this group were treated earlier. In the acute thrombosis group:winter incidence was higher;men and smoking history were majority, older in average, and later for treatment. A systemic thrombolysis and anticoagulation therapy was taken in 12 cases and 9 patients undertook catheter thrombolysis. Fogarty catheter embolectomy procedures were performed in 81 cases, and 15 patients received immediate graft by-pass after the removal of thrombosis. An amputation was the first choice in 13 patients, and 8 patients underwent amputation of the second phase. A total of 27 patients underwent open decompression of compartment. Overall amputation rate was 16.15%; hospital mortality rate was 6.9%. Smoking, diabetes and onset time were independent risk factors for limb preservation. Conclusions ALLI should be treated as early as possible. Fogarty catheter embolectomy is effective for the acute arterial embolism. Preoperative assessment is important for acute arterial thrombosis and thrombolysis and/or graft by-pass should be used if necessary.%目的:探讨急性下肢缺血(ALLI)的临床特点及治疗方法。方法回顾性分析2003年1月至2009年12月收治的ALLI患者的临床资料,根据病因将其分为急性动脉栓塞组(AE组)和急性血栓形成组(AT组),比较两组起病特点和治疗方法的异同,分析影响保肢的因素。结果共收治130例ALLI,其中AE组82例,发病率略高,合并冠心病、风湿性心脏病、房颤者多,起病情况急,症状重,就诊时间多

  9. Salvage of critical limb ischemia with the "trellis reserve'' of subintimal superficial femoral-popliteal artery occlusion: a new modality in managing critical limb ischemia--a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sultan, Sherif

    2005-01-01

    Subintimal angioplasty is a safe, effective, but nondurable procedure in treating long superficial femoral artery occlusions in patients with severe lower limb ischemia. The authors report a case of acute thrombosis that presented 16 weeks after subintimal angioplasty. The ;;Trellis\\'\\' percutaneous thrombolytic infusion system permitted a controlled site-specific infusion of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA). The unique design of the ;;Trellis\\'\\' allowed complete aspiration of thrombus and avoiding regional and systemic thrombolytic side effects. The ;;Trellis\\'\\' system is effective in percutaneous management of thrombotic lesions; however, intimal dissection may need to be addressed.

  10. Decreased Regional Homogeneity in Patients With Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jie; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Fuqing; Kuang, Hongmei; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Siyong; He, Laichang; Zeng, Xianjun; Gong, Honghan

    2015-10-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is characterized by structural disconnection and large-scale neural network dysfunction in the resting state. However, little is known concerning the intrinsic changes in local spontaneous brain activity in patients with mTBI. The aim of the current study was to assess regional synchronization in acute mTBI patients. Fifteen acute mTBI patients and 15 sex-, age-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) were studied. We used the regional homogeneity (ReHo) method to map local connectivity across the whole brain and performed a two-sample t-test between the two groups. Compared with HCs, patients with acute mTBI showed significantly decreased ReHo in the left insula, left precentral/postcentral gyrus, and left supramarginal gyrus (p Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores across all acute mTBI patients (p < 0.05, uncorrected). The ReHo method may provide an objective biomarker for evaluating the functional abnormity of mTBI in the acute setting. PMID:26348589

  11. Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis in the Marches region (Italy: 1997–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moroni Vania

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The last case of poliomyelitis due to transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus occurred in Italy in 1982, however, it is important to guarantee a high quality surveillance as there is a risk of importation of cases from areas where polio is endemic. Stopping poliovirus transmission is pursued through a combination of high infant immunization coverage and surveillance for wild poliovirus through reporting and laboratory testing of all cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP among children under fifteen years of age. The aim of this study was to describe and to evaluate 11 years of active surveillance in the Marches (Italy in terms of: incidence, aetiology and clinical manifestation of AFP cases. Methods The active Acute Flaccid Paralysis surveillance has been carried out in the Marches region since February 1997 by the Chair of Hygiene which established a regional hospital network. Active surveillance involves 15 hospital centres. Results In the considered period, 0–15 years population varied between 187,051 in 1997 to 201,625 in 2007, so the number of AFP expected cases is 2 per year. From February 1997 to October 2007, 27 cases were found with rates of 1.0/100,000 in 1997; 2.0/100,000 in 1998; 1.0/100,000 in 1999; 0.5/100,000 in 2000; 2.5/100,000 in 2001; 1.0/100,000 in 2002; 0 in 2003; 0.5/100,000 in 2004; 1.5/100,000 in 2005; 2.0/100,000 in 2006; 1.5/100,000 in 2007. In 29.6% of cases two stool samples were collected in 14 days from the symptoms onset. The 60-days follow-up is available for 23 out of 27 cases reported. In 44.5% of cases the definite diagnosis was Guillain Barrè syndrome. Conclusion In general, the surveillance activity is satisfactory even if in presence of some criticalities in biological samples collection. The continuation of surveillance, in addition to the maintenance of current levels of performance, will tend to a further and more detailed sensitization of all workers involved, in order to obtain

  12. Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia: etiology, diagnosis, and interventional therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trompeter, Markus; Brazda, Thurid; Remy, Christopher T.; Reimer, Peter [Department of Radiology, Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe (Germany); Vestring, Thomas [Department of Radiology, Diakonie-Krankenhaus Rotenburg/Wuemme, Goettingen (Germany)

    2002-05-01

    Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI) compromises all forms of mesenteric ischemia with patent mesenteric arteries. It generally affects patients over 50 years of age suffering from myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, aortic insufficiency, renal or hepatic disease and patients following cardiac surgery. Non-occlusive disease accounts for 20-30% of all cases of acute mesenteric ischemia with a mortality rate of the order of 50%. Acute abdominal pain may be the only early presenting symptom of mesenteric ischemia. Non-invasive imaging modalities, such as CT, MRI, and ultrasound, are able to evaluate the aorta and the origins of splanchnic arteries. Despite the technical evolution of those methods, selective angiography of mesenteric arteries is still the gold standard in diagnosing peripheral splanchnic vessel disease. In early non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia, as opposed to occlusive disease, there is no surgical therapy. It is known that mesenteric vasospasm persists even after correction of the precipitating event. Vasospasm frequently responds to direct intra-arterial vasodilator therapy, which is the only treatment that has been shown to be effective. (orig.)

  13. Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia: etiology, diagnosis, and interventional therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI) compromises all forms of mesenteric ischemia with patent mesenteric arteries. It generally affects patients over 50 years of age suffering from myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, aortic insufficiency, renal or hepatic disease and patients following cardiac surgery. Non-occlusive disease accounts for 20-30% of all cases of acute mesenteric ischemia with a mortality rate of the order of 50%. Acute abdominal pain may be the only early presenting symptom of mesenteric ischemia. Non-invasive imaging modalities, such as CT, MRI, and ultrasound, are able to evaluate the aorta and the origins of splanchnic arteries. Despite the technical evolution of those methods, selective angiography of mesenteric arteries is still the gold standard in diagnosing peripheral splanchnic vessel disease. In early non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia, as opposed to occlusive disease, there is no surgical therapy. It is known that mesenteric vasospasm persists even after correction of the precipitating event. Vasospasm frequently responds to direct intra-arterial vasodilator therapy, which is the only treatment that has been shown to be effective. (orig.)

  14. Metabolic Adaptation to Muscle Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Marco E.; Coon, Jennifer E.; Kalhan, Satish C.; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Saidel, Gerald M.; Stanley, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Although all tissues in the body can adapt to varying physiological/pathological conditions, muscle is the most adaptable. To understand the significance of cellular events and their role in controlling metabolic adaptations in complex physiological systems, it is necessary to link cellular and system levels by means of mechanistic computational models. The main objective of this work is to improve understanding of the regulation of energy metabolism during skeletal/cardiac muscle ischemia by combining in vivo experiments and quantitative models of metabolism. Our main focus is to investigate factors affecting lactate metabolism (e.g., NADH/NAD) and the inter-regulation between carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during a reduction in regional blood flow. A mechanistic mathematical model of energy metabolism has been developed to link cellular metabolic processes and their control mechanisms to tissue (skeletal muscle) and organ (heart) physiological responses. We applied this model to simulate the relationship between tissue oxygenation, redox state, and lactate metabolism in skeletal muscle. The model was validated using human data from published occlusion studies. Currently, we are investigating the difference in the responses to sudden vs. gradual onset ischemia in swine by combining in vivo experimental studies with computational models of myocardial energy metabolism during normal and ischemic conditions.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF HOMIUM: YAG LASER TRANSMYOCARDIAL REVASCULARIZATION IN ACUTE ISCHEMIC SET TINGS WITH MYOCARDIAL CONTRAST ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立清; 胡盛寿; 李澎; 谢峰; 吴清玉; 郭加强

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the mechanism and effects of blood perfusion to the acute ischemic region of myocardium through Ho-YAG laser channels with myocardial contrast echocardiography. Methods. To produce the model of acute myocardial ischemia, we partially ligated the left anterior decending (LAD)coronary artery of canine hearts between lst. and 2nd. diagonal branches and then performed transmyocardial revascularization in this region with Ho- YAG laser. Myocardial contrast echocardiography was made with a new gen eration of ultrasound contrast agent and second harmonic imaging of this region before, after ischemia and after laser revascularization. Pictures were taken with “R” wave trigger skill. Results. Acoustic density derterming in the ischemia region (anterior wall)with MCE (myocardial contrast e chocardiography )was obviously decreased( 5.40 ± 1.81) after the LAD was ligated, as compared with before( 11.69 ± 1.61, P < 0.01 ). It was increased remarkably after transmyocardial laser revascularizatuon (TMLR) ( 11.2 ± 2.01, P < 0. 01 )as compared with that when ischemia and approximated to that before ischemia(P > 0.05). There were no dif ferences in acoustic density in the lateral wall(as control)among these comprehensive three periods(P > 0.05). Con trast in the laser region developed one cardiac cycle ahead of that in the non-ischemic normal region. Conclusion. Acute ischemic myocardium can be peffused by oxygenated blood from the left ventricle through Ho YAG laser channels. Evidence of blood perfusion through laser channels during systolic phase was detected, and my ocardial contrast ultrasonography using intravenous perfluorocarbon-exposed sonicated dextrose albumin may be regard ed as a reliable method in the study of transmyocardial revascularization.

  16. Protective Effect of Trichosanthes Pericarpium on the Hyperlipemia Accompany Model Rat with Acute Myocardial Ischemia%瓜蒌皮对高血脂合并急性心肌缺血大鼠保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李航; 李建峰; 张宇; 赵启韬

    2016-01-01

    .We make high cholesterol accompany with acute myocardial ischemia model by intragastrical administration with high fat emulsion and ligating the coronary artery of the Wistar rats.The control group implement the sham.the Trichosanthes decoction group and the Danshenpian group is to give intragastrical administration with Trichosanthes decoction and Danshenpian solution.The control group and the model group treat with physiological saline solution.We observe the cholesterol-lowering effect by using the biochemical diagnostic kits to detect total cholesterol (TC),triglyceride (TG),low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels in plasma,detect the cardiac function by recording ECG changes with physiological recorder,evaluate the infarction rate by staining the myocardial sections with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) and evaluate the degree of myocardial injury by using biochemical kits to detect levels of creatine kinase (CK),creatine kinase isoenzyme (CKMB),aspertate aminotransferase (AST),alpha hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (α-HBDH)and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).Results:The level of TC/TG/LDL in the serum of the model group increased evidently and that of HDL decreased compared with the control group.The level of TC/TG/LDL of the Trichosanthes decoction group and the danshenpian group is lower compared with model group,but that of HDL is inverse,the positive rate of the ECG and myocardial infarction rate decreased obviously,also the activity of CK/CK-MB/LDH/AST/α-HBDH were remarkably lower (P<0.05).Conclusion:The Trichosanthes decoction can reduce blood lipids,decrease myocardial infarction rate of rat model with high cholesterol accompany with acute myocardial ischemia remarkedly,prevent myocardial necrosis and improve myocardial function.

  17. 当归红芪超滤膜提取物对急性心肌缺血大鼠AST、LDH和LDH1的影响%Effect of Ultra -filtration Extract Mixture from Angelica Sinensis and Radix Hedysari on AST, LDH and LDH1-Acute Myocardial Ischemia Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪娟; 倪志宏; 李应东

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of ultra - filtration extract mixture from Angelica Sinensis and Radix Hedysari on activity of arainotransferase( AST), lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) and lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme(LDHl) in serum of acute myocardial ischemia rats. Methods: Eighty healthy male wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups as Sham group, myocardial ischemia group, myocardial ischemia treated with low - dose, middle - dose and high - dose group; Rat myocardial ischemia model was established by ligation of the left anterior descending of coronary artery; the Angelica Sinensis and Radix Hedysari extract were obtained by ultrafiltration membrane technology; the activity of AST, LDH and LDH1 in serum was detected by using spectrophotometry after treatment for 24h and 72h independently. Results: Compared with the sham group, the myocardial ischemia group showed that the activity of AST, LDH and LDH1 in serum was significantly increased(P<0.05) ; the activity of AST, LDH and LDH1 in serum for each myocardial ischemia group treated with different doses of ultra - filtration extract mixture from Angelica Sinensis and Radix Hedysari was significantly decreased(P<0. 05) compared with the myocardial ischemia group. Conclusion;The result shows that ultra -filtration extract mixture from Angelica Sinensis and Radix Hedysari can reduce the activity of AST, LDH and LDH1 in serum and have significantly protective effect on myocardial ischemia while showing a dose - effect and time - effect relationship.%目的:探讨当归红芪超滤物对急性心肌梗死大鼠天冬氨酸氨基转移酶(aspartate aminotransferase,AST),乳酸脱氢酶(actate dehydrogenase,LDH)和乳酸脱氢酶同工酶(lactate dehydrogenase,LDH1)活性的影响,阐明当归红芪超滤物对缺血心肌的保护作用.方法:结扎左前降支建立大鼠心梗模型.将80只雄性Wistar大鼠随机分成5组,每组16只,分别为造模组(myocardial infarction

  18. Continuous Regional Arterial Infusion Therapy for Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis Due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection in a Child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of acute necrotizing pancreatitis due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection was treated in an 8-year-old girl. She experienced acute pancreatitis during treatment for M. pneumoniae. Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan revealed necrotizing pancreatitis. The computed tomographic severity index was 8 points (grade E). A protease inhibitor, ulinastatin, was provided via intravenous infusion but was ineffective. Continuous regional arterial infusion therapy was provided with gabexate mesilate (FOY-007, a protease inhibitor) and meropenem trihydrate, and the pancreatitis improved. This case suggests that infusion therapy is safe and useful in treating necrotizing pancreatitis in children.

  19. The effect of electro-acupuncture on sodium channel Na (v) 1.1 in rats after acute cerebral ischemia%电针治疗对大鼠缺血脑组织中Na(v)1.1表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任丽; 方燕南; 李宪亮; 王晓娟; 苗佳音; 尹昭

    2010-01-01

    目的 能评分最高、脑梗死体积最大.假手术组大鼠脑组织中Na(v)1.1表达无变化.缺血后Na(v)1.1表达明显上调,缺血后1d表达下调至最低;真穴位电针组下调与缺血对照组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).假穴位电针组下调与缺血对照组相比,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).真穴位电针组与假穴位电针组的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 电针治疗可以调控Na(v)1.1的表达,缩小脑梗死体积,促进神经功能恢复.电针治疗在缺血后的保护作用可能是通过调控Na(v)1.1的表达来实现.%Objective To observe the effect of electro-acupuncture therapy (ET) on the expression of sodium channel Na(v) 1.1 in rats after acute cerebral ischemia and the mechanism of any protective function of ET.Methods A model of focal acute cerebral ischemia was established by occluding the right middle cerebral artery.One hundred and eighty healthy SD rats were randomly divided into a sham operation control (SC) group, an ischemia control (IC) group, a real ET group and a false ET group, with 45 in each group. Immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PGR) methods were used to detect Na(v)1. 1 expression. 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining was used to detect infarct volume. Neurological examination and grading was carried out at 6 hours and then 1, 2, 3 and 7 days after inducing ischemia. Results The gradings and infarction volume ratios of the rats in the IC group were the most serious, while in the real ET group the severity was much less at each time point. Compared with the SC group, the expression of Na(v) 1.1 was significantly up-regulated in the IC group. The expression of Na(v) 1.1 was increased at the 6th hour, then down-regulated to the lowest level at day 1,then from the 2nd to the 7th day was up-regulated again. The expression of Na(v) 1.1 in the real ET group was significantly lower than in the IC group. Although the expression of Na(v)1

  20. Continuous regional arterial infusion for the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis:a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Jiao Yong; Xuan-Yue Mao; Li-Hui Deng; Ming-Ming Zhang; Qing Xia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Continuous regional arterial infusion (CRAI) is a drug delivery system, which dramatically increases the drug concentration in the pancreas. Previous clinical and basic stud-ies have demonstrated the possible therapeutic efficacy of CRAI for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). This meta-analysis of all published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of CRAI for the treatment of SAP. DATA SOURCES: Up to August 10, 2014, RCTs comparing CRAI with intravenous infusion for SAP in PubMed, Embase, EBSCO, MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Cochrane Library, China Academic Journals Full-Text Database, Chinese Biomedi-cal Literature Database, and Chinese Scientific Journals Data-base were selected by two independent reviewers. The relative risk (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for duration of elevated serum amylase and urine amylase, duration of ab-dominal pain, infection rate, incidence of complication, overall mortality, curative rate, hospital stay and details of subgroup analysis were extracted. Meta-analyses were made using the software Review Manager (RevMan version 5.10). RESULTS: Six RCTs with 390 patients meeting the inclusion criteria were included in the final analysis. Compared with intravenous infusion route, CRAI significantly shortened the duration of elevated urine amylase (MD=-2.40, 95%CI=-3.20, -1.60; P CONCLUSION: CRAI is effective for the treatment of SAP, and the combination of drug administration via CRAI did not have a significant effect on the improvement of the outcomes.

  1. Regional anesthesia for management of acute pain in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pinto, Mario; Dagal, Armagan; O'Donnell, Brendan; Stogicza, Agnes; Chiu, Sheila; Edwards, William Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Pain is a major problem for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. Despite numerous improvements it is estimated that as many as 70% of the patients experience moderate-to-severe postoperative pain during their stay in the ICU. Effective pain management means not only decreasing pain intensity, but also reducing the opioids' side effects. Minimizing nausea, vomiting, urinary retention, and sedation may indeed facilitate patient recovery and it is likely to shorten the ICU and hospital stay. Adequate postoperative and post-trauma pain management is also crucial for the achievement of effective rehabilitation. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that effective acute pain management may be helpful in reducing the development of chronic pain. When used appropriately, and in combination with other treatment modalities, regional analgesia techniques (neuraxial and peripheral nerve blocks) have the potential to reduce or eliminate the physiological stress response to surgery and trauma, decreasing the possibility of surgical complications and improving the outcomes. Also they may reduce the total amount of opioid analgesics necessary to achieve adequate pain control and the development of potentially dangerous side effects. PMID:26557482

  2. Cocaine-associated lower limb ischemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Chris G

    2011-07-25

    Cocaine-associated thrombosis has been reported in the literature with reports of vascular injuries to cardiac, pulmonary, intestinal, placental, and musculoskeletal vessels; however, injury of the pedal vessels is rare. We report on a 31-year-old man who presented 2 months following a cocaine binge with limb-threatening ischemia without an otherwise identifiable embolic source. Angiography confirmed extensive occlusive disease of the tibioperoneal vessels. The patient improved following therapy with heparin and a prostacyclin analogue. Cocaine-induced thrombosis should be considered in patients presenting with acute arterial insufficiency in the lower limb without any other identifiable cause.

  3. Cerebral Ischemia Due to Traumatic Carotid Artery Dissection: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Kamacı Şener

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Blunt injury to the neck region may lead to carotid artery dissection and cerebral ischemia. Blunt injury to carotid artery is not frequent but determination of the presence of trauma in the history of stroke patients will provide early diagnosis and treatment of them. In this article, a case with cerebral ischemia resulting from traumatic carotid artery dissection is presented and clinical findings, diagnostic procedures and choice of treatment are discussed in the light of the literature.

  4. Nifedipine for angina and acute myocardial ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul); J.W. de Jong (Jan Willem); P.D. Verdouw (Pieter); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractThis paper reviews the mechanisms believed to be responsible for myocardial ischaemia and the mode of action of calcium antagonist drugs. The clinical management of patients with myocardial ischaemia is discussed in the context of current knowledge about patho-physiology and drug action.

  5. Effects of ischemic postconditioning on myocardial apoptosis and infarction in rabbits with acute myocardial ischemia and reperfusion%缺血后处理对缺血再灌注大鼠心肌梗死和心肌细胞凋亡的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李源; 陶凌; 臧益民; 高峰

    2002-01-01

    AIM To observe the effects of ischemic postconditioning (IPC) on cardiomyocyte apoptosis and myocardial infarct size in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion rabbits. METHODS Rabbit acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion model was used and the heart was conditioned either pre-or post-myocardial ischemia followed by reperfusion. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis and myocardial infarct size were determined by in situ TDT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and Evan's blue-TTC dual staining, respectively. RESULTS Compared with those in the control group, both cardiomyocyte apoptotic index and myocardial infarct size were significantly reduced in IPC group [apoptotic index: (15±7)% vs (30±12)% of control, P<0.05; infarction:(13±5)% vs (27±7)% of control, P<0.01, respectively]. No significant difference was found between ischemic preconditioning (IP) and IPC groups. CONCLUSION Ischemic postconditioning, like ischemic preconditioning, exerts an anti-apoptotic effect, which may contribute partly to the ultimate reduction of myocardial infarction in acute myocardial ischemia-reperfusion.%目的观察在体情况下缺血后处理(IPC)对兔心肌梗死范围及缺血心肌细胞凋亡的影响,并与缺血预处理(IP)心脏保护作用比较. 方法采用兔心肌缺血/再灌注模型,在缺血后、再灌注前多次短暂再灌/停灌处理. 以Even's blue-TTC法检测心肌梗死范围,TUNEL方法检测缺血心肌细胞凋亡. 结果与对照组相比,缺血后处理明显减小心肌梗死范围(12.5±5.4% vs对照组26.7±6.7%, P<0.01),缺血区心肌凋亡指数明显下降(14.6±7.4 vs对照组30.4±12.3, P<0.05). 结论对于已缺血心肌,再灌前予多次短暂复灌、停灌处理具有与IP类似缩小心梗范围作用,IPC对缺血心肌的保护效应可能与其抑制缺血心肌细胞凋亡有关.

  6. 定量组织速度成像与应变率成像在急诊心肌缺血中的应用价值%Value of Quantitative Tissue Velocity and Strain Rate Imaging in the Acute Myocardial Ischemia of Emegency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭继红

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe myocardial velocity and strain rate characteristics in patients with acute myocardial ischemia(AMI) of emergency,and to evaluate the clinical value of quantitative tissue velocity imaging(QTVI)and strain rate imaging(SRI)in quanti-tative assessment of left ventricular(LV)region infarction myocardial function.Methods Thirty two patients with AMI of coronary heart disease(CHD),30 control subjects were enrol ed in the study.Longitudinal peak velocity,strain rate of LV anterior wal (AW) and anterior interventricular septum(AS)during systole,early diastole and atrium contraction(VS,VE,VA),(SRS,SRE,SRA) were measured at different levels(basal,middle and apical).QTVI and SRI data were compared with coronary angiography results. Results VS:different levels of LV infarction wal significantly decreased in CHD group.VE:al levels of LV infarction wal ,except for apex levels of AS,were significantly lower than those in control group.VA:different levels of AW and apex level of AS in CHD group were significantly lower than those in control group.SRS and SRE:al levels of LV infarction wal in CHD group were significantly low-er than those in control group.SRA:different levels of AW and base level of AS in CHD group were significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.05,P<0.01 respectively).Conclusion QTVI and SRI are sensitive and feasible in evaluating functions of congestive heart failure of myocardial ischemia of emergency.%目的:探讨定量组织速度成像(QTVI)及应变率成像(SRI)在急诊心肌缺血中的临床应用价值。方法应用QTVI及SRI对32例急诊心肌缺血病人和30例正常人节段纵向收缩期(S)、舒张早期(E)及收缩期(A)的峰值速度(VS、VE、VA)、峰值应变率(SRS、SRE、SRA)进行测定。结果 VS:心肌缺血组室壁的不同水平均较正常对照组显著性减低;VE:除前间隔的心尖水平外,室壁较正常对照组显著性减低;VA:前壁的不同水平及前间隔的心尖

  7. Noninvasive measurement of regional myocardial glucose metabolism by positron emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the results of regional myocardial glucose metabolism measurements using positron emission computed tomography (13N-ammonia) are promising, their utility and value remains to be determined in man. If this technique can be applied to patients with acute myocardial ischemia or infarction it may permit delineation of regional myocardial segments with altered, yet still active metabolism. Further, it may become possible to evaluate the effects of interventions designed to salvage reversibly injured myocardium by this technique

  8. Continuous regional arterial infusion therapy with gabexate mesilate for severe acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshifumi Ino; Jiro Ouchi; Toshihiko Miyahara; Ryoichi Takayanagi; Tetsuhide Ito; Yoshiyuld Adta; Tetsuro Akashi; Toshinari Kimura; Hisato Igarashi; Takamasa Oono; Masayuki Furukawa; Ken Kawabe; Keiichiro Ogoshi

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of continuous regional arterial infusion therapy (CRAI) with gabexate mesilate and antibiotics for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: We conducted a prospective study on patients who developed SAP with or without CRAI. Out of 18 patients fulfilled clinical diagnostic criteria for SAP in Japan, 9 patients underwent CRAI, while 9 patients underwent conventional systemic protease inhibitor and antibiotics therapy (non-CRAI). CRAI was initiated within 72 h of the onset of pancreatitis. Gabexate mesilate (2400 mg/d) was continuously administered for 3 to 5 d. The clinical outcome including serum inflammation-related parameters were examined. RESULTS: The duration of abdominal pain in the CRAI group was 1.9±0.26 d, whereas that in the non-CRAI group was 4.3±0.50. The duration of SIRS in the CRAI group was 2.2±0.22 d, whereas that in the non-CRAI group was 3.2±0.28. Abdominal pain and SIRS disappeared significantly in a short period of time after the initiation of CRAI using gabexate mesilate. The average length of hospitalization significantly differed between the CRAI and non-CRAI groups, 53.3±7.9 d and 87.4±13.9 d, respectively. During the first two weeks, levels of serum CRP and the IL6/IL10 ratio in the CRAI group tended to have a rapid decrease compared to those in the non-CRAI group. CONCLUSION: The present results suggest that CRAI using gabexate mesilate was effective against SAP.

  9. Effects of cerebral perfusion pressure on acute cerebral ischemia after traumatic brain injury%脑灌注压对创伤性脑损伤后急性脑缺血的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘胜; 王诚; 刘远新; 吴涛; 郝建忠; 郭强

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察不同脑灌注压(CPP)对创伤性脑损伤后急性脑缺血的影响.方法 实验家兔60只,随机分为正常对照组(无损伤组)、高CPP组(90~110)mm Hg、中CPP组(70~80)mm Hg、低CPP组(50~60)mm Hg、极低CPP组(35~45)mm Hg.采用Feeney's自由落体撞击法建立急性局灶性脑挫裂伤模型,伤后80 min静脉给予升压和降压药物调控血压使CPP达到设计要求,同步进行脑血流、CPP测定,并进行图像分析,且观察不同CPP下颅脑损伤后急性脑缺血动物脑含水量及神经组织超微结构改变.结果 对照组局部脑血流量(rCBF)为156.18±6.22;高CPP组实验组rCBF为140.03±17.32,中CPP组rCBF为100.46±21.37,低CPP组rCBF为86.46±10.30,极低CPP组rCBF为60.36±8.32.对照组脑含水量为(78.21±0.26)%;高CPP组实验组脑含水量为(80.15±0.52)%,中CPP组脑含水量为(80.27±0.36)%,低CPP组脑含水量为(81.18±0.62)%,极低CPP组脑含水量为(81.34±0.83)%.实验组脑组织含水量高于对照组(P0.05).低CPP组及极低CPP组脑含水量、超微结构较对照组差异有统计学意义(P0.05). The changes in water content in brain and ultra-microstructures in nervous tissue in the low CPP group and the lower group were more significant than the control group (P<0.01). Conclusion To improve cerebral circulation availably is the important link to prevent the acute cerebral ischemia making the irreversible damage of brain after traumatic brain injury.

  10. Murine patellar tendon biomechanical properties and regional strain patterns during natural tendon-to-bone healing after acute injury

    OpenAIRE

    Gilday, Steven D.; Casstevens, E. Chris; Kenter, Keith; Jason T Shearn; David L Butler

    2013-01-01

    Tendon-to-bone healing following acute injury is generally poor and often fails to restore normal tendon biomechanical properties. In recent years, the murine patellar tendon (PT) has become an important model system for studying tendon healing and repair due to its genetic tractability and accessible location within the knee. However, the mechanical properties of native murine PT, specifically the regional differences in tissue strains during loading, and the biomechanical outcomes of natura...

  11. Short and long term prognostic importance of regional dyskinesia versus akinesia in acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, E; Køber, L; Jørgensen, S;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prognostic importance of dyskinesia after acute myocardial infarction is unknown, and recommendations have been made that dyskinesia be included in calculations of wall motion index (WMI). OBJECTIVE: To determine whether it is necessary to distinguish between dyskinesia and akinesia...... when WMI is estimated for prognostic purposes following acute myocardial infarction. DESIGN: Multicentre prospective study. PATIENTS: 6676 consecutive patients, screened one to six days after acute myocardial infarction in 27 Danish hospitals. INTERVENTIONS: WMI was measured in 6232 patients, applying...... importance (relative risk 1.00; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.12). For 30 day mortality dyskinesia had a relative risk of 1.23 (95% CI, 1.00 to 1.53) (p = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS: Echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular systolic function shortly after an acute myocardial infarct gives important prognostic...

  12. Multiple molecular penumbras after focal cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, F R; Lu, A; Tang, Y; Millhorn, D E

    2000-07-01

    Though the ischemic penumbra has been classically described on the basis of blood flow and physiologic parameters, a variety of ischemic penumbras can be described in molecular terms. Apoptosis-related genes induced after focal ischemia may contribute to cell death in the core and the selective cell death adjacent to an infarct. The HSP70 heat shock protein is induced in glia at the edges of an infarct and in neurons often at some distance from the infarct. HSP70 proteins are induced in cells in response to denatured proteins that occur as a result of temporary energy failure. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is also induced after focal ischemia in regions that can extend beyond the HSP70 induction. The region of HIF induction is proposed to represent the areas of decreased cerebral blood flow and decreased oxygen delivery. Immediate early genes are induced in cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and other brain regions. These distant changes in gene expression occur because of ischemia-induced spreading depression or depolarization and could contribute to plastic changes in brain after stroke. PMID:10908035

  13. Alterations in catecholamine turnover in specific regions of the rat brain following acute exposure to nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuri, A R; Kugel, G; Engelking, L R; Kumar, M S

    1998-04-01

    The effects of nitrous oxide (N2O) on steady-state concentrations and turnover rates of catecholamines in the olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, brain stem, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, cerebral cortex, and spinal cord were determined in rats. Animals were exposed for 2 h to either 60% N2O or air. Immediately following exposure, all animals were injected intraperitoneally with alpha-methylparatyrosine (alphaMPT), a competitive inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase, and sacrificed at 0, 30, or 90 min postinjection. Brain catecholamine concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC). Results indicate that N2O exposure significantly elevates steady-state concentrations of norepinephrine (NE) in the hypothalamus and striatum yet decreases amine levels in the brain stem region. Steady-state levels of dopamine (DA) were not significantly altered in any region of the CNS by N2O exposure. Acute exposure to N2O also resulted in significant decreases in the turnover rate of NE in the brain stem, yet it increased turnover of this amine in the olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, and striatum. Acute exposure to N2O resulted in a decreased turnover rate of DA in the hippocampus and striatum. In contrast, N2O appears to increase DA turnover in the olfactory bulb. These results indicate that acute exposure to N2O in rats causes region-specific alterations in steady-state levels and turnover rates of DA and NE within the central nervous system.

  14. Detection of postischemic regional left ventricular delayed outward wall motion or diastolic stunning after exercise-induced ischemia in patients with stable effort angina by using color kinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Katsuhisa; Miwa, Kunihisa; Sakurai, Takahiro; Kataoka, Kazuaki; Imai, Makoto; Kintaka, Aya; Aoyama, Takeshi; Kawanami, Masaki

    2008-04-01

    To determine whether postischemic diastolic stunning could be detected using color kinesis, we evaluated regional left ventricular (LV) diastolic wall motion in 36 patients with stable effort angina and a coronary stenosis (> or = 70% of luminal diameter), and in 30 control subjects. Regional LV filling fraction in the short-axis view during the first 30% of the LV filling time (color kinesis diastolic index) was determined before, 20 minutes, 1 hour, and 24 hours after the treadmill exercise test. In 33 of the 36 patients (92%), new regional LV delayed outward motion during early diastole (color kinesis diastolic index < or = 40%) was detected at 20 minutes after exercise. The regional LV delayed diastolic wall motion showed significant improvement but persisted 1 hour afterward in 20 of 36 patients (56%), and disappeared 24 hours after exercise. Detection of regional stunned myocardium with impaired diastolic function may be a useful tool for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease.

  15. Effect of Salvianolic Acid B on Mitochondrial Function of Cerebral Ischemia in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yufeng; LUO Xuechun; WANG Ximei; FANG Lei; HUANG Qifu

    2009-01-01

    The effects of salvianolic acid B (SalB) on the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), calcium, and apoptosis of neurons with cerebral ischemia in mice were investigated using an acute cerebral ischemia model established by ligating the bilateral common carotid arteries in mica. The MMP, the intracellular cal-cium concentration, and the apoptosis rate of cortical neurons were measured at 6 min, 12 min, 18 min, 24 min, and 30 min after cerebral ischemia by a flow cytometer. The experiments show that SalB increases the MMP and reduces the intracellular calcium and the apoptosis rate at different stages of the cerebral ischemia in mice. The results show that the protective mechanism of SalB on cerebral ischemia enhances the MMP and maintains intracellular calcium homeostasis.

  16. Renoprotective effect of berberine via intonation on apoptosis and mitochondrial-dependent pathway in renal ischemia reperfusion-induced mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visnagri, Asjad; Kandhare, Amit D; Bodhankar, Subhash L

    2015-04-01

    Ischemic acute renal failure is a condition that extends subsequent to sudden and momentary fall in overall or regional blood flow to the kidney. The present investigation was deliberated to scrutinize the renoprotective potential of berberine in animal model of renal ischemia reperfusion (RIR) induced dent via assessment of various biochemical and molecular biomarkers. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized and the right kidney was removed through a small flank incision. Renal ischemia reperfusion was persuaded in uni-nephrectomized rats by occlusion of left renal artery for 45 min and reperfusion for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks of treatment of berberine (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg, p.o.), hemodynamic and left ventricular function were evaluated. Induction of ischemia reperfusion resulted callous mutilation in kidney which was confirmed by alterations in oxidative stress (SOD, GSH, and MDA), membrane bound enzymes, kidney function markers (serum creatinine and BUN), and mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, RIR injury exhibited incredible alterations in mRNA expression of KIM-1, NGAL, Caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, and TNF-α levels. Conversely treatment of berberine (20 and 40 mg/kg) significantly (p intonation of biochemical and molecular biomarkers. To sum up, berberine demonstrated compelling renoprotective effect in RIR injury via caspase-mitochondria-dependent pathway. PMID:25598236

  17. Determination of Urinary Cystatin C in Rats of Ischemia/Reperfusion Acute Kidney Injury%胱抑素C在缺血/再灌注急性肾损伤大鼠尿液中的变化及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戎殳; 李程程; 胡惠民; 蔡彦; 叶朝阳; 梅长林

    2009-01-01

    目的:检测肾缺血/再灌注大鼠尿液胱抑素C含量,探讨其在缺血/再灌注急性肾损伤早期评估中的作用.方法:选取雄性SD大鼠,随机分为4组,建立缺血/再灌注急性肾损伤动物模型,缺血时间4组分别为0、10、20、30 min,测定各组大鼠术前及再灌注24 h后尿液胱抑素C,血清肌酐(Scr)、尿素氮(BUN)浓度,计算24 h肌酐清除率(Ccr),取各组再灌注24 h后肾组织作组织学检查,行肾小管坏死半定量评分.结果:各组大鼠基线肾功能差异无统计学意义,再灌注24 h后与基线值相比,肾缺血0 min组及10 min组BUN、Scr及Ccr无显著改变;肾缺血20 min组BUN、Scr无显著改变,但Ccr显著降低;肾缺血30 min组BUN[(45.3±14.6)vs(13.8±1.6)mmol/L]、Scr[(160.8±22.2)vs(36.9±7.9)μmol/L]显著升高,Ccr显著降低[(1.87±0.3)vs(0.56±0.1)ml/min].20 min组及30 min组肾小管坏死评分与0 rain组相比显著升高.再灌注24 h后与基线值相比,肾缺血0 min组尿液胱抑素C水平无显著改变,肾缺血10 min[(0.79±0.11)、vs(0.25±0.02)μg/L]、20 min[(1.23±0.35)vs,(0.30±0.05)μg/L]及30 min组[(1.33±0.51)vs(0.28±0.03)μg/L]尿液胱抑素C水平显著升高.结论:尿液胱抑素C测定可望成为缺血佴灌注急性肾损伤的早期诊断标记物.%Objective: To determine the urinary cystatin C in rats of ischemia/reperfusion(I/R) acute kidney injury,and to estimate their effects on early diagnosis. Methods: Male SD rats were selected and divided into 4 groups for I/R injury model estab-lishment. The time for bilateral renal artery occlusion were 0,10,20 and 30 rain respectively. The urine cystatin C,serum creatinine (Scr) and BUN of baseline and 24 h after reperfusion were detected.The kidney histological examination 24 h after reperfusion was performed. Results:The basline values of renal function in 4 groups were not different statistically. Compared with those at baseline,at 24 h after reperfusion, BUN, Scr and Ccr did not change

  18. [Effect of phenibut and its composition with nicotinic acid on hemostasis in rats with brain ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiurenkov, I N; Volotova, E V; Kurkin, D V; Litvinov, A A; Tarasov, A S

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that, in rats with global cerebral ischemia modeled by a complete irreversible occlusion of the common carotid artery and forced hypotension, the hemostasis is characterized by a shift toward hypercoagulation. A single preventive introduction of phenibut and, to a greater degree, a composition of phenibut with nicotinic acid, in rats with acute cerebral ischemia reduced the extent of disturbances in the hemostasis system of experimental animals. PMID:22702103

  19. Effect of renal ischemia-reperfusion on lung injury and inflammatory responses in male rat

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi Yousefi; Naser Ahmadiasl; Alireza Alihemmati; Parisa Habibi

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s):Acute kidney injury (AKI), a syndrome characterized by decreased glomerular filtration, occurs in every 1 of 5 hospitalized patients.  Renal ischemia-reperfusion, one of the main causes of AKI, is of particular importance in the setting of kidney transplantation. Materials and Methods: Sixty male rats were divided into four groups including control, nephrectomy, sham surgery and renal ischemia-reperfusion (IRI) group. The rats were anesthetized with intraperitonealketamin and ...

  20. Acute esophagitis for patients with Local-regional Advanced NSCLC treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Y.; Brink, C.; Knap, M.;

    2015-01-01

    and clinical and dosimetric parameters in the patients with local advanced NSCLC receiving IMRT and concomitant chemotherapy (CCT). Materials and Methods: Between 2009 and 2013, 117 patients with stages IIB-IIIB NSCLC enrolled in the multi institution clinical trial NARLAL. All patients were treated with 2......Purpose/Objective: Esophagitis are one of the acute treatment related toxicities to definitive radiotherapy for NSCLC. Most current researches about the risk factors for acute esophagitis are based on 3DCRT. The purpose of this study was to estimate the dose-effect relationship between esophagitis...

  1. Acute and chronic glucocorticoid treatments regulate astrocyte-enriched mRNAs in multiple brain regions in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley S. Carter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have primarily interpreted gene expression regulation by glucocorticoids in the brain in terms of impact on neurons; however, less is known about the corresponding impact of glucocorticoids on glia and specifically astrocytes in vivo. Recent microarray experiments have identified glucocorticoid-sensitive mRNAs in primary astrocyte cell culture, including a number of mRNAs that have reported astrocyte-enriched expression patterns relative to other brain cell types. Here, we have tested whether elevations of glucocorticoids regulate a subset of these mRNAs in vivo following acute and chronic corticosterone exposure in adult mice. Acute corticosterone exposure was achieved by a single injection of 10 mg/kg corticosterone, and tissue samples were harvested two hours post-injection. Chronic corticosterone exposure was achieved by administering 10 mg/mL corticosterone via drinking water for two weeks. Gene expression was then assessed in two brain regions associated with glucocorticoid action (prefrontal cortex and hippocampus by qPCR and by in situ hybridization. The majority of measured mRNAs regulated by glucocorticoids in astrocytes in vitro were similarly regulated by acute and/or chronic glucocorticoid exposure in vivo. In addition, the expression levels for mRNAs regulated in at least one corticosterone exposure condition (acute/chronic demonstrated moderate positive correlation between the two conditions by brain region. In situ hybridization analyses suggest that select mRNAs are regulated by chronic corticosterone exposure specifically in astroctyes based on (1 similar general expression patterns between corticosterone-treated and vehicle-treated animals and (2 similar expression patterns to the pan-astrocyte marker Aldh1l1. Our findings demonstrate that glucocorticoids regulate astrocyte-enriched mRNAs in vivo and suggest that glucocorticoids regulate gene expression in the brain in a cell type-dependent fashion.

  2. Changes of cognition and regional cerebral activity during acute hypoglycemia in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie-Olsen, Lise G; Kjaer, Troels W; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik;

    2009-01-01

    Blurred vision and cognitive difficulties are prominent symptoms during acute insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Our hypothesis was that changes in cerebral activity reflect these symptoms. Positron emission tomography (PET) with oxygen-15-labelled water was used to measure relative changes in regiona...

  3. Acute glomerulonephritis in children of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G I McGil Ugwu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-year retrospective study was conducted to determine the incidence, pattern of presentation and other clinical and biochemical features as well as outcome of treatment of patients admitted with acute glomerulonephritis at the Delta State University Teaching Hospital, Oghara and GN Children′s Clinic, Warri. The case notes of all the children who presented with renal diseases from January 2010 to December 2012 were retrieved and those with acute glomerulonephritis were analyzed. A total of 20 patients (13 male and seven female with acute glomerulonephritis were seen during the three-year period under review. Twelve patients (60% were from the low socioeconomic class, six (30% from the middle class and only two (10% were from the high-income group. The presentation of the illness was most common between October and January. The age range of the patients was three to 13 years, with an average age of eight years. Seventeen (85% of the patients were in the school-going age group (>5 years to 10 years. The most common symptom/sign noted was anemia in 90% of the patients, followed by oliguria/anuria and edema seen in 80% of the patients. Seventy percent of the patients had cola-colored urine, while 55% had hypertension. Some patients gave a history suggestive of previous streptococcal infection. More patients had sore throat (25% than skin infection (10%. All the patients had proteinuria, while 90% had hematuria. The most common complication was acute kidney injury, seen in eight (40% of the patients, followed by hypertensive encephalopathy, which occurred in three (15% patients. Most patients (60% were hospitalized for one to two weeks. The outcome of the management of these patients showed 14 (70% of the patients recovered fully while three (15% had persistent hematuria and two (10% had persistent proteinuria. Ninety-five percent of the patients recovered from the acute illness and one patient (5%, a boy aged nine years old, died.

  4. Acute glomerulonephritis in children of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGil Ugwu, G I

    2015-09-01

    A three-year retrospective study was conducted to determine the incidence, pattern of presentation and other clinical and biochemical features as well as outcome of treatment of patients admitted with acute glomerulonephritis at the Delta State University Teaching Hospital, Oghara and GN Children's Clinic, Warri. The case notes of all the children who presented with renal diseases from January 2010 to December 2012 were retrieved and those with acute glomerulonephritis were analyzed. A total of 20 patients (13 male and seven female) with acute glomerulonephritis were seen during the three-year period under review. Twelve patients (60%) were from the low socioeconomic class, six (30%) from the middle class and only two (10%) were from the high-income group. The presentation of the illness was most common between October and January. The age range of the patients was three to 13 years, with an average age of eight years. Seventeen (85%) of the patients were in the school-going age group (>5 years to 10 years). The most common symptom/sign noted was anemia in 90% of the patients, followed by oliguria/anuria and edema seen in 80% of the patients. Seventy percent of the patients had cola-colored urine, while 55% had hypertension. Some patients gave a history suggestive of previous streptococcal infection. More patients had sore throat (25%) than skin infection (10%). All the patients had proteinuria, while 90% had hematuria. The most common complication was acute kidney injury, seen in eight (40%) of the patients, followed by hypertensive encephalopathy, which occurred in three (15%) patients. Most patients (60%) were hospitalized for one to two weeks. The outcome of the management of these patients showed 14 (70%) of the patients recovered fully while three (15%) had persistent hematuria and two (10%) had persistent proteinuria. Ninety-five percent of the patients recovered from the acute illness and one patient (5%), a boy aged nine years old, died. PMID:26354592

  5. The innate immune response in ischemic acute kidney injury

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Hye Ryoun; Rabb, Hamid

    2008-01-01

    Kidney ischemia reperfusion injury is a major cause of morbidity in both allograft and native kidneys. Ischemia reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury is characterized by early, allo-antigen independent inflammation. Major components of the innate immune system are activated and participate in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury, plus prime the allograft kidney for rejection. Soluble members of innate immunity implicated in acute kidney injury include the complement system, cytokines, an...

  6. Percutaneous isolated limb perfusion with thrombolytics for severe limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ahsan T; Kalapatapu, Venkat R; Bledsoe, Shelly; Moursi, Mohammed M; Eidt, John F

    2005-01-01

    Patients with severe tibioperoneal disease are poor candidates for a distal bypass. Absence of a distal target, lack of conduit, or multiple medical problems can make these patients a prohibitive risk for revascularization. Acute on chronic ischemia in this group poses a greater challenge. Thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemia can be prolonged and carries a significant risk of bleeding if continued beyond 24 hours. However, if the ischemic limbs can be isolated from the systemic circulation, a higher dose of the lytic agent can be given with lower risk. These are the initial results of a series of 10 patients who underwent percutaneous isolated limb perfusion with a high dose of thrombolytics for severe ischemia. Ten patients (lower extremity 8 and upper extremity 2) presented with severe limb-threatening ischemia. Mean ankle/brachial index (ABI) was 0.15 for the lower extremity, and there were no recordable digital pressures in patients with upper extremity ischemia. No distal target was visible on the initial arteriogram. These patients were then taken to the operating room, and under anesthesia, catheters were placed in an antegrade fashion via femoral approach in the popliteal artery and vein percutaneously. For upper extremity, the catheters were placed in the brachial artery and vein. A proximal tourniquet was then applied. This isolated the limb from the systemic circulation. Heparinized saline was infused through the arterial catheter while the venous catheter was left open. A closed loop or an isolated limb perfusion was confirmed when effluent became clear coming out of the venous port. A high dose of thrombolytic agent (urokinase 500,000 to 1,000,000 U) was infused into the isolated limb via the arterial catheter and drained out of the venous catheter. After 45 minutes, arterial flow was reestablished. In 4 patients, Reopro((R)) was used in addition to thrombolytics. Postprocedure angiograms showed minimal changes, but patients exhibited marked

  7. Bumetanide promotes neural precursor cell regeneration and dendritic development in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Wang-shu Xu; Xuan Sun; Cheng-guang Song; Xiao-peng Mu; Wen-ping Ma; Xing-hu Zhang; Chuan-sheng Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Bumetanide has been shown to lessen cerebral edema and reduce the infarct area in the acute stage of cerebral ischemia. Few studies focus on the effects of bumetanide on neuroprotection and neurogenesis in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia. We established a rat model of cerebral ischemia by injecting endothelin-1 in the left cortical motor area and left corpus striatum. Seven days later, bumetanide 200 µg/kg/day was injected into the lateral ventricle for 21 consecutive days with a mini-...

  8. Incidence of acute rheumatic fever and chronic rheumatic heart disease, trends in deaths in the Tula region (1991—2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Nikolayevna Sorotskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the incidence of acute rheumatic fever (ARF and chronic rheumatic heart disease (CRHD and theirs outcomes in the Tula Region in 1991 to 2011. In this period, the incidence of ARF decreased to 0.002, which was much lower than Russia's rates. That of CRHD in 2011 accounted for 1.6 per 1,000 adult population, which was comparable to the values in Russia. CRHD mortality rates showed a 2.5-fold decrease. The main causes of fatal outcomes were cardiovascular disorders.

  9. Incidence of acute rheumatic fever and chronic rheumatic heart disease, trends in deaths in the Tula region (1991—2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Nikolayevna Sorotskaya; D Sh Vaisman; R M Balabanova

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes the incidence of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and chronic rheumatic heart disease (CRHD) and theirs outcomes in the Tula Region in 1991 to 2011. In this period, the incidence of ARF decreased to 0.002, which was much lower than Russia's rates. That of CRHD in 2011 accounted for 1.6 per 1,000 adult population, which was comparable to the values in Russia. CRHD mortality rates showed a 2.5-fold decrease. The main causes of fatal outcomes were cardiovascular disorders.

  10. Outbreak of acute Chagas disease associated with oral transmission in the Rio Negro region, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia de Souza-Lima

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Chagas disease is considered as emerging in the Brazilian Amazon, usually occurring in acute outbreaks. Methods We describe 17 cases of acute Chagas disease in Rio Negro, Amazonas. Results There were 15 males (average age, 31.3 years, all positive for Trypanosoma cruzi in fresh blood smear examination, and 14 positive by xenodiagnosis and PCR. The top clinical manifestations were fever, asthenia, abdominal pain, and palpitations. Electrocardiograms featured low-voltage QRS, anterosuperior divisional block, and right bundle branch block associated with anterosuperior divisional block. Conclusions All patients had consumed açaí products from Monte Alegre in the rural area around Santa Izabel do Rio Negro, Brazil.

  11. Outbreak of acute Chagas disease associated with oral transmission in the Rio Negro region, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia de Souza-Lima

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Chagas disease is considered as emerging in the Brazilian Amazon, usually occurring in acute outbreaks. Methods We describe 17 cases of acute Chagas disease in Rio Negro, Amazonas. Results There were 15 males (average age, 31.3 years, all positive for Trypanosoma cruzi in fresh blood smear examination, and 14 positive by xenodiagnosis and PCR. The top clinical manifestations were fever, asthenia, abdominal pain, and palpitations. Electrocardiograms featured low-voltage QRS, anterosuperior divisional block, and right bundle branch block associated with anterosuperior divisional block. Conclusions All patients had consumed açaí products from Monte Alegre in the rural area around Santa Izabel do Rio Negro, Brazil.

  12. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of the hTERC region in acute myeloid leukemia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Özge Özer; Tuğçe Bulakbaşı Balcı; Zerrin Yılmaz; Feride İffet Şahin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The telomerase RNA component (hTERC) gene is located at 3q26. Increased hTERC gene expression has been frequently observed and amplification was shown using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in different cancers. The aim of this study was to determine whether hTERC gene amplification is detectable by FISH in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Material and Methods: FISH and karyotype results at the time of diagnosis of 23 adult AML patients were retrospectively evaluated. A...

  13. Murine patellar tendon biomechanical properties and regional strain patterns during natural tendon-to-bone healing after acute injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilday, Steven D.; Casstevens, E. Chris; Kenter, Keith; Shearn, Jason T.; Butler, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Tendon-to-bone healing following acute injury is generally poor and often fails to restore normal tendon biomechanical properties. In recent years, the murine patellar tendon (PT) has become an important model system for studying tendon healing and repair due to its genetic tractability and accessible location within the knee. However, the mechanical properties of native murine PT, specifically the regional differences in tissue strains during loading, and the biomechanical outcomes of natural PT-to-bone healing have not been well characterized. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the global biomechanical properties and regional strain patterns of both normal and naturally healing murine PT at three time points (2, 5, and 8 weeks) following acute surgical rupture of the tibial enthesis. Normal murine PT exhibited distinct regional variations in tissue strain, with the insertion region experiencing approximately 2.5 times greater strain than the midsubstance at failure (10.80 ± 2.52% vs. 4.11 ± 1.40%; mean ± SEM). Injured tendons showed reduced structural (ultimate load and linear stiffness) and material (ultimate stress and linear modulus) properties compared to both normal and contralateral sham-operated tendons at all healing time points. Injured tendons also displayed increased local strain in the insertion region compared to contralateral shams at both physiologic and failure load levels. 93.3% of injured tendons failed at the tibial insertion, compared to only 60% and 66.7% of normal and sham tendons, respectively. These results indicate that 8 weeks of natural tendon-to-bone healing does not restore normal biomechanical function to the murine PT following injury. PMID:24210849

  14. Autophagy and Liver Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cursio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver ischemia-reperfusion (I-R injury occurs during liver resection, liver transplantation, and hemorrhagic shock. The main mode of liver cell death after warm and/or cold liver I-R is necrosis, but other modes of cell death, as apoptosis and autophagy, are also involved. Autophagy is an intracellular self-digesting pathway responsible for removal of long-lived proteins, damaged organelles, and malformed proteins during biosynthesis by lysosomes. Autophagy is found in normal and diseased liver. Although depending on the type of ischemia, warm and/or cold, the dynamic process of liver I-R results mainly in adenosine triphosphate depletion and in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, leads to both, a local ischemic insult and an acute inflammatory-mediated reperfusion injury, and results finally in cell death. This process can induce liver dysfunction and can increase patient morbidity and mortality after liver surgery and hemorrhagic shock. Whether autophagy protects from or promotes liver injury following warm and/or cold I-R remains to be elucidated. The present review aims to summarize the current knowledge in liver I-R injury focusing on both the beneficial and the detrimental effects of liver autophagy following warm and/or cold liver I-R.

  15. Ischemia detection from morphological QRS angle changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Daniel; Martínez, Juan Pablo; Laguna, Pablo; Pueyo, Esther

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, an ischemia detector is presented based on the analysis of QRS-derived angles. The detector has been developed by modeling ischemic effects on the QRS angles as a gradual change with a certain transition time and assuming a Laplacian additive modeling error contaminating the angle series. Both standard and non-standard leads were used for analysis. Non-standard leads were obtained by applying the PCA technique over specific lead subsets to represent different potential locations of the ischemic zone. The performance of the proposed detector was tested over a population of 79 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in one of the major coronary arteries (LAD (n  =  25), RCA (n  =  16) and LCX (n  =  38)). The best detection performance, obtained for standard ECG leads, was achieved in the LAD group with values of sensitivity and specificity of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], followed by the RCA group with [Formula: see text], Sp  =  94.4 and the LCX group with [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], notably outperforming detection based on the ST series in all cases, with the same detector structure. The timing of the detected ischemic events ranged from 30 s up to 150 s (mean  =  66.8 s) following the start of occlusion. We conclude that changes in the QRS angles can be used to detect acute myocardial ischemia. PMID:27243441

  16. Medullary ventrolateral nitric oxide mediates the cardiac effect of electroacupuncture at “Neiguan” acupoint on acute myocardial ischemia in rats%延髓腹外侧一氧化氮介导电针内关对急性心肌缺血大鼠心功能的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕娟秀; 周培华; 王锦; 李霞; 曹银祥; 周旭; 朱大年

    2004-01-01

    实验在以乌拉坦和氯醛糖混合麻醉的雄性SD大鼠上进行.结扎左冠状动脉前降支以建立急性心肌缺血(AMI)动物模型.病理学检查显示该模型具有典型的心肌缺血改变.功能学改变包括心率(HR)减慢、平均动脉压(MAP)降低,以及心功能减弱,如左室舒张末压(LVEDP)增大,左室收缩压(LVSP)、左室压变化最大速率(±dp/dt)、左室收缩成分缩短速度(VCE)、心力环总面积(L0)等均明显减小.电针AMI大鼠的内关穴位20 min,可使其HR、MAP、LVEDP、LVSP、±dp/dt、VCE和L0等均明显改善.若电针前于延髓头端腹外侧区(RVLM)微量注射一氧化氮合酶(NOS)抑制剂L-NNA(0.1 mmol/L,0.1 μl),除HR和MAP外,电针改善AMI心功能的其余各项指标均减弱或被取消,而以等量的生理盐水取代L-NNA被注入RVLM时,则不能影响EA对AMI各项心功能指标的改善作用.以上结果提示电针内关改善AMI的作用由RVLM的一氧化氮(NO)所介导.%Experiments were performed on male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats anesthetized with a mixture of urethane and chloralose. A rat model of acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) was made by ligation of the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery (LAD).After the LAD ligation, the ischemia area of the left ventricular wall became somewhat pale immediately. Under a light microscope, the pathological examination revealed that all the cells were swollen and in red color when the cardiac section was stained with hematoxylin basic fuchsin picric acid (HBFP), which indicated a typical change in the myocardial ischemia. In the AMI model, it was found that cardiac functions were markedly attenuated, such as decreases in the heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), left ventricular and total area of cardiac force loop (L0), and an increase in the left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP). In such AMI rats,application of electroacupuncture (EA) at "Neiguan" acupoints (Pe 6) for 20 min could obviously

  17. Gender-specific issues in the management of patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Wei-feng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) represents a continuum of acute myocardial ischemia including non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction and unstable angina, synonymous with non-ST-elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS),and ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

  18. ROLE OF OCIMUM CANUM IN PREVENTION OF REPERFUSION-INDUCED RENAL ISCHEMIA IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Behera, Saiprasanna; Babu, S M; Ramani, Y. Roja; Choudhury, Prasanta Kumar; Patra, Sudeep Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Acute renal failure is defined as rapid loss of renal function and has been associated with a high mortality rate. Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury of the kidney is the most prominent cause of intrinsic acute renal failure. Activation of reactive oxygen species is implicated in renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study investigated the anti-ischemic effect of hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum (OC) against renal I/R injury by its effect on reactive oxygen species. Wis...

  19. Categorical course in neuroradiology cerebral ischemia, hemorrhage, and vascular lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic imaging of acute stroke is primarily directed toward identifying the lesion, characterizing it as either intracranial hemorrhage or ischemia, and assessing the anatomic extent of the lesion. The acute medical or surgical management decisions are best aided by a combination of CT and cerebral angiography, the latter used acutely mostly for intracranial hemorrhage, especially subarachnoid hemorrhage. More complex presentations benefit from MR imaging evaluation as well. After the acute phase, the main goal of treatment, especially for patients who have had reasonable recovery from the acute stroke, is the prevention of recurrent, and perhaps more severe, stroke. Treatments such as aneurysm clipping or arteriovenous malformation removal for hemorrhagic lesions, or anticoagulation or carotid endarterectomy for ischemic lesions, require brain and vascular imaging studies for appropriate treatment planning. Angiography to show the anatomic vascular cause for the bleed or ischemia is therefore usually a requirement. The enlarging experience with MR imaging has contributed greatly to the identification of occult vascular lesions of the brain that may be prone to bleeding and to recognizing blood in the brain accurately. For this purpose MR imaging is sometimes more specific than CT

  20. Sirt1 in cerebral ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Koronowski, Kevin B.; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia is among the leading causes of death worldwide. It is characterized by a lack of blood flow to the brain that results in cell death and damage, ultimately causing motor, sensory, and cognitive impairments. Today, clinical treatment of cerebral ischemia, mostly stroke and cardiac arrest, is limited and new neuroprotective therapies are desperately needed. The Sirtuin family of oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacylases has been shown to govern seve...

  1. TLR9 Mediates Remote Liver Injury following Severe Renal Ischemia Reperfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter J Bakker

    Full Text Available Ischemia reperfusion injury is a common cause of acute kidney injury and is characterized by tubular damage. Mitochondrial DNA is released upon severe tissue injury and can act as a damage-associated molecular pattern via the innate immune receptor TLR9. Here, we investigated the role of TLR9 in the context of moderate or severe renal ischemia reperfusion injury using wild-type C57BL/6 mice or TLR9KO mice. Moderate renal ischemia induced renal dysfunction but did not decrease animal well-being and was not regulated by TLR9. In contrast, severe renal ischemia decreased animal well-being and survival in wild-type mice after respectively one or five days of reperfusion. TLR9 deficiency improved animal well-being and survival. TLR9 deficiency did not reduce renal inflammation or tubular necrosis. Rather, severe renal ischemia induced hepatic injury as seen by increased plasma ALAT and ASAT levels and focal hepatic necrosis which was prevented by TLR9 deficiency and correlated with reduced circulating mitochondrial DNA levels and plasma LDH. We conclude that TLR9 does not mediate renal dysfunction following either moderate or severe renal ischemia. In contrast, our data indicates that TLR9 is an important mediator of hepatic injury secondary to ischemic acute kidney injury.

  2. Efficacy of drug treatment for acute mania differs across geographic regions : An individual patient data meta-analysis of placebo-controlled studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welten, Carlijn Cm; Koeter, Mwj; Wohlfarth, T D; Storosum, J G; van den Brink, W; Gispen-de Wied, C C; Leufkens, Hgm; Denys, D.

    2015-01-01

    Given globalization trends in the conduct of clinical trials, the external validity of trial results across geographic regions is questioned. The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of treatment in acute mania in bipolar disorder across regions and to explain potential differences by

  3. Consideration of QRS complex in addition to ST-segment abnormalities in the estimation of the "risk region" during acute anterior or inferior myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervaat, F E; Bouwmeester, S; van Hellemond, I E G; Wagner, G S; Gorgels, A P M

    2014-01-01

    The myocardial area at risk (MaR) is an important aspect in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). It represents the myocardium at the onset of the STEMI that is ischemic and could become infarcted if no reperfusion occurs. The MaR, therefore, has clinical value because it gives an indication of the amount of myocardium that could potentially be salvaged by rapid reperfusion therapy. The most validated method for measuring the MaR is (99m)Tc-sestamibi SPECT, but this technique is not easily applied in the clinical setting. Another method that can be used for measuring the MaR is the standard ECG-based scoring system, Aldrich ST score, which is more easily applied. This ECG-based scoring system can be used to estimate the extent of acute ischemia for anterior or inferior left ventricular locations, by considering quantitative changes in the ST-segment. Deviations in the ST-segment baseline that occur following an acute coronary occlusion represent the ischemic changes in the transmurally ischemic myocardium. In most instances however, the ECG is not available at the very first moments of STEMI and as times passes the ischemic myocardium becomes necrotic with regression of the ST-segment deviation along with progressive changes of the QRS complex. Thus over the time course of the acute event, the Aldrich ST score would be expected to progressively underestimate the MaR, as was seen in studies with SPECT as gold standard; anterior STEMI (r=0.21, p=0.32) and inferior STEMI (r=0.17, p=0.36). Another standard ECG-based scoring system is the Selvester QRS score, which can be used to estimate the final infarct size by considering the quantitative changes in the QRS complex. Therefore, additional consideration of the Selvester QRS score in the acute phase could potentially provide the "component" of infarcted myocardium that is missing when the Aldrich ST score alone is used to determine the MaR in the acute phase, as was seen in studies with SPECT as gold

  4. Regional Variations in Medical Expenditure and Hospitalization Days for Heart Attack Patients in Japan: Evidence from the Tokai Acute Myocardial Study (TAMIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Noguchi, Haruko; Shimizutani, Satoshi; Masuda, Yuichiro

    2007-01-01

    The use of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), a costly high-tech treatment for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), is much more frequent in Japan than in other developed countries, resulting in large medical expenditure. Using chart-based data from the Tokai Acute Myocardial Infarction Study (TAMIS) and exploiting regional variations, we explore what factors explain the intensive use of PTCA in Japan, employing propensity score matching to estimate the average...

  5. 3-N-butylphthalide improves neuronal morphology after chronic cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanhong Zhao; Chao Luo; Jue Wang; Jian Gong; Bin Li; Yingxia Gong; Jun Wang; Hanqin Wang

    2014-01-01

    3-N-butylphthalide is an effective drug for acute ischemic stroke. However, its effects on chronic cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal injury remain poorly understood. Therefore, this study li-gated bilateral carotid arteries in 15-month-old rats to simulate chronic cerebral ischemia in aged humans. Aged rats were then intragastrically administered 3-n-butylphthalide. 3-N-butylphtha-lide administration improved the neuronal morphology in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of rats with chronic cerebral ischemia, increased choline acetyltransferase activity, and decreased malondialdehyde and amyloid beta levels, and greatly improved cognitive function. These findings suggest that 3-n-butylphthalide alleviates oxidative stress caused by chronic cerebral ischemia, improves cholinergic function, and inhibits amyloid beta accumulation, thereby im-proving cerebral neuronal injury and cognitive deifcits.

  6. Detection of renal ischemia by in situ microdialysis - an experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Anna Krarup

    Purpose: Acute vascular thrombosis of the renal artery or vein is a feared and devastating complication after renal operations, especially transplantation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate microdialysis as a possible new tool for fast and reliable detection of renal ischemia...... was placed outside, on the renal capsule. The contra lateral kidney was removed. After two hours of baseline measurements, ischemia was introduced by clamping the renal artery or vein in the first two groups. Microdialysis samples were taken every thirty minutes during baseline and the following five hours...... in a porcine model. Material and methods: Twenty healthy anesthetized pigs were randomized to experiments on left or right kidney and into three groups: arterial ischemia (n=8); venous ischemia (n=8) and controls (n=4). One microdialysis catheter was inserted superficially in the renal cortex and one...

  7. Effect of IL-13 on expression of IL-6 in acute renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats%IL-13对大鼠急性肾缺血再灌注时IL-6表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯振伟; 江黎明; 陈孝文; 杨展; 吴平; 赵家明; 何惠娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective It is to observe the effects of IL - 13 on expression of IL -6 in acute renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Methods Thirty-seven male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: sham group, I/R group, C group, T - S group and T - L group. Models of acute renal ischemic/reperfusion injury were established by blocking up kidneys blood flow in both side for 45 min and reperfusion for 24h in the rats. Rm - IL - 13 was injected into the renal arteries through the abdominal aorta in T - S group and T - L group( T - S 0. 5 μg/kg body weight, T - L 1. 5 μg/kg body weight ),normal saline instead of rm - IL -13 was injected into the renal arteries through the abdominal aorta in control group. The serum level of IL -6 and the renal expression of IL - 6 were determined in each group at 24 h post-ischemia. In addition, BUN, Cr and renal histology were also measured. Results The serum level of IL - 6 gene expression and protein production of IL - 6 in kidney decreased markedly in T - L group. Renal function and histology were significantly improved in T - L group, renal injury scores decreased significantly too. A positive correlation was found between the serum level of IL - 6, gene expression IL - 6 in kidney and BUN, SCr. Conclusion IL - 13 can inhibit the expression of IL - 6 and improve function and histology of kidney in rats with acute renal ischemia/reperfusion injury.%目的 观察白细胞介素13(IL-13)对急性缺血再灌注肾损伤大鼠IL-6表达的影响.方法 将Wistar雄性大鼠37只随机分为假手术组、I/R组、C组、T-S组和T-L组.阻断大鼠双侧肾脏血流45min,再灌注24h建立急性肾缺血再灌注模型;T-S组和T-L组于阻断血流后分别从双侧肾动脉开口注射入鼠重组白细胞介素13 0.5μg/kg和1.5μg/kg;C组以生理盐水代替.检测各组大鼠IL-6血清水平和肾脏表达情况以及肾功能和肾脏病理变化.结果 T-L组肾脏IL-6基因和蛋白表达明显减少,IL-6血清水平也

  8. Effect of ranolazine, an antianginal agent with novel electrophysiological properties, on the incidence of arrhythmias in patients with non ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome: results from the Metabolic Efficiency With Ranolazine for Less Ischemia in Non ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 36 (MERLIN-TIMI 36) randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scirica, B.M.; Morrow, D.A.; Hod, H.; Murphy, S.A.; Belardinelli, L.; Hedgepeth, C.M.; Molhoek, P.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Gersh, B.J.; McCabe, C.H.; Braunwald, E.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ranolazine, a piperazine derivative, reduces ischemia via inhibition of the late phase of the inward sodium current (late I(Na)) during cardiac repolarization, with a consequent reduction in intracellular sodium and calcium overload. Increased intracellular calcium leads to both mechanic

  9. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF HOMIUM: YAG LASER TRANSMYOCARDIAL REVASCULARIZATION IN ACUTE ISCHEMIC SETFINGS WITH MYOCARDIAL CONTRAST ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立清; 胡盛涛; 李澎; 谢峰; 吴清玉; 郭加强

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the mechanism and effects of blood perfusion to the acute ischemic region of myecardium through Ho-YAG laser channels with myocardial contrast echocardiography Methods. To produce the model of acute myocardial ischemia, we partially ligated the left anterior decending (IAD)coromry artery of canine hearts between 1st. and 2nd. diagonal branches and then performed transmyocardial revasmgafizafion in this region with Ho- YAG laser. Myocardial contrast echecardingmphy was made with a new gen-eration of ultrasound contrast agent and second harmonic imaging of this region before,after ischemia and after laser revascalarizafion. Pictures were taken with “R” wave trigger skill. Results. Acoustic demity derterming in the ischemia region (anterior wall)with MCE(myocardial contrast e-checardiography) was obviously decreased(5.40 ± 1.81) after the LAD was ligated,as compared with before( 11.69± 1.61, P 0.05). There were no dif-ferences in acoustic density in the lateral wall(as control)among these comprehensive three periods (P > 0.05). Con-trast in the laser region developed one cardiac cycle ahead of that in the non-iscbemic normal region. Conclusion. Acute ischemic myecardium can be perfused by oxygenated blood from the left ventricle through Ho-YAG laser channels. Evidenee of blood perfusion through laser channels during systolic phase was detected,and my-ocardial cormast ultrasonngtaphy using intravenous perfluorocarbon-exposed sonicated dextrose albumin may be regard-ed as a reliable method in the study of tranmlyecardial revasculariztion.

  10. Subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst in the scapular region presenting as an acute abscess

    OpenAIRE

    L. Zhu; Davies, J.; R.M. Kimble

    2014-01-01

    Subcutaneous bronchogenic cysts in the scapular region are extremely rare entities, with only 17 cases reported so far in the literature. We present a case of a three year old boy who underwent an excision and drainage of what was preoperatively diagnosed as an abscess in the scapular region. Histological examination of the excised lesion showed a cystic space lined by respiratory epithelium with an inflammatory cell infiltrate, consistent with an inflamed bronchogenic cyst.

  11. Ischemic Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis in a Marathon Runner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay J Mast

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Acute pancreatitis due to pancreatic ischemia is a rare condition. Case report In this case report we describe a 57-year-old male who developed an acute necrotizing pancreatitis after running a marathon and visiting a sauna the same evening, with an inadequate fluid and food consumption during both events. Conclusions Pancreatic ischemia imposed by mechanical and physical stress and dehydration can induce the development of acute pancreatitis. Separately, these factors are rare causes of ischemic acute pancreatitis. But when combined, as in this particular case, the risk of an acute necrotizing pancreatitis cannot be neglected

  12. Regional myocardial extraction of a radioiodinated branched chain fatty acid during right ventricular pressure overload due to acute pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether branched chain fatty acid extraction is reduced during right ventricular (RV) dysfunction due to acute pulmonary artery hypertension, studies were done in 6 anesthetized dogs. Regional branched chain fatty acid extraction was measured by comparing the myocardial uptake of I-125 labeled 15-[p-(iodophenyl)]-3-methylpentadecanoic acid (I-PDA) to myocardial blood flow. Acute pulmonary hypertension was induced by incremental intravenous injection of 100 micron diameter glass beads into six pentobarbital anesthetized, mechanically ventilated dogs. Myocardial blood flow was measured by radiolabeled microspheres both under baseline conditions and during pulmonary hypertension. Mean RV pressure rose from 12 +- 2 (mean +- SEM) to 30 +-3mmHg resulting in a 225 +- 16% increase in RV stroke work. RV ejection fraction, as assessed by gated blood pool scans fell from 39 +- 2 to 18 +- 2%. Left ventricular (LV) pressures, stroke work and ejection fraction were unchanged. Myocardial blood flow increased 132 + 59% in the RV free wall and 67 +- 22% in the RV septum. LV blood flow was unchanged. Despite increased RV work and myocardial blood flow, no differences were noted in the branched chain fatty acid extraction ratios among LV or RV free walls or septum. The authors conclude that early RV dysfunction associated with pulmonary artery hypertension is not due to inadequate myocardial blood flow or branched chain fatty acid extraction

  13. Acute hyperglycemia exacerbates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 activity in rats%急性高血糖通过抑制 ALDH2活性加重大鼠心肌缺血/再灌注损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明华; 王甲莉; 徐峰; 袁秋环; 刘宝山; 庞佼佼; 张运; 陈玉国

    2015-01-01

    及心肌细胞凋亡。%Objective To investigate the activity changes and actions of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2)in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury exacerbated by acute hyperglycemia.Methods A total of 48 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups:sham operation (SHAM)group,normal saline control (CON)group,high blood glucose (HG)group,and HG with Alda-1 administration (HG +Alda-1)group,with 12 animals in each group. The left anterior descending artery (LAD)was occluded for 30 minutes followed by 1 hour reperfusion to establish my-ocardial ischemia-reperfusion rat models.Acute hyperglycemia rat models were established via jugular vein injection of 50% glucose (3 g /kg)during the ischemia period.Blood glucose levels were maintained at 20-28 mmol/L throughout the experiment by administration of glucose with trace pumping[4 mL/(kg·h)]during ischemia and reperfusion peri-od.The rats in CON group and HG +Alda-1 group were given normal saline (6 mL/kg).The rats in HG +Alda-1 group were given Alda-1 (8.5 mg /kg)with trace pumping during ischemia and reperfusion.After reperfusion,ALDH2 activity of heart was detected with colorimetric method,changes of myocardial tissue morphology were observed with HE staining,myocardial infarction size was determined with TTC staining,and myocardial cell apoptosis was tested with TUNEL method.Results Blood glucose level was significantly increased in HG group compared with that of CON group [(23.4 ±0.21 )vs (5.8 ±0.21 )mmol/L,P <0.01 ].Compared with CON group,the activity of ALDH2 in HG group was markedly decreased [(69.1 ±5.16)% vs (87.0 ±4.30)%,P <0.05].Myocardial infarct size of HG group was remarkably increased compared with the CON group [(38.2 ±3.30)% vs (26.8 ±2.53)%, P <0.05].Compared with HG group,myocardial infarct size of HG +Alda-1 group was notedly decreased [(27.8 ± 2.50)% vs (38.2 ±3.30)%,P <0.05].Myocardial apoptosis index of HG group was significantly higher than that of CON group [(16.1 ±0.83)% vs (13.1 ±0.39)%,P <0

  14. 急性高血糖通过抑制 ALDH2活性加重大鼠心肌缺血/再灌注损伤%Acute hyperglycemia exacerbates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 activity in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明华; 王甲莉; 徐峰; 袁秋环; 刘宝山; 庞佼佼; 张运; 陈玉国

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the activity changes and actions of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2)in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury exacerbated by acute hyperglycemia.Methods A total of 48 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups:sham operation (SHAM)group,normal saline control (CON)group,high blood glucose (HG)group,and HG with Alda-1 administration (HG +Alda-1)group,with 12 animals in each group. The left anterior descending artery (LAD)was occluded for 30 minutes followed by 1 hour reperfusion to establish my-ocardial ischemia-reperfusion rat models.Acute hyperglycemia rat models were established via jugular vein injection of 50% glucose (3 g /kg)during the ischemia period.Blood glucose levels were maintained at 20-28 mmol/L throughout the experiment by administration of glucose with trace pumping[4 mL/(kg·h)]during ischemia and reperfusion peri-od.The rats in CON group and HG +Alda-1 group were given normal saline (6 mL/kg).The rats in HG +Alda-1 group were given Alda-1 (8.5 mg /kg)with trace pumping during ischemia and reperfusion.After reperfusion,ALDH2 activity of heart was detected with colorimetric method,changes of myocardial tissue morphology were observed with HE staining,myocardial infarction size was determined with TTC staining,and myocardial cell apoptosis was tested with TUNEL method.Results Blood glucose level was significantly increased in HG group compared with that of CON group [(23.4 ±0.21 )vs (5.8 ±0.21 )mmol/L,P <0.01 ].Compared with CON group,the activity of ALDH2 in HG group was markedly decreased [(69.1 ±5.16)% vs (87.0 ±4.30)%,P <0.05].Myocardial infarct size of HG group was remarkably increased compared with the CON group [(38.2 ±3.30)% vs (26.8 ±2.53)%, P <0.05].Compared with HG group,myocardial infarct size of HG +Alda-1 group was notedly decreased [(27.8 ± 2.50)% vs (38.2 ±3.30)%,P <0.05].Myocardial apoptosis index of HG group was significantly higher than that of CON group [(16.1 ±0.83)% vs (13.1 ±0.39)%,P

  15. Intravenous Administration of Lycopene, a Tomato Extract, Protects against Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral uptake of lycopene has been shown to be beneficial for preventing myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury. However, the strong first-pass metabolism of lycopene influences its bioavailability and impedes its clinic application. In this study, we determined an intravenous (IV administration dose of lycopene protects against myocardial infarction (MI in a mouse model, and investigated the effects of acute lycopene administration on reactive oxygen species (ROS production and related signaling pathways during myocardial I/R. Methods: In this study, we established both in vitro hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R cell model and in vivo regional myocardial I/R mouse model by ligating left anterior artery descending. TTC dual staining was used to assess I/R induced MI in the absence and presence of acute lycopene administration via tail vein injection. Results: Lycopene treatment (1 μM before reoxygenation significantly reduced cardiomyocyte death induced by H/R. Intravenous administration of lycopene to achieve 1 μM concentration in circulating blood significantly suppressed MI, ROS production, and JNK phosphorylation in the cardiac tissue of mice during in vivo regional I/R. Conclusion: Elevating circulating lycopene to 1 μM via IV injection protects against myocardial I/R injury through inhibition of ROS accumulation and consequent inflammation in mice.

  16. Correlation between Left Ventricular Global and Regional Longitudinal Systolic Strain and Impaired Microcirculation in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løgstrup, Brian B; Høfsten, Dan Eik; Christophersen, Thomas Brøcher;

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated the correlation between left ventricular global and regional longitudinal systolic strain (GLS and LRS) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) assessed by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in patients with a recent acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Furthermore, we...... investigated if LRS and GLS imaging is superior to conventional measures of left ventricle (LV) function. Methods: In a consecutive population of first time AMI patients, who underwent successful revascularization, we performed comprehensive TTE. GLS and LRS were obtained from the three standard apical views....... Assessment of CFR by TTE was performed in a modified apical view using color Doppler guidance. Results: The study population consisted of 183 patients (51 females) with a median age of 63 [54;70] years. Eighty-nine (49%) patients had a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and 94 (51%) patients had a ST...

  17. Oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers of ischemia and reperfusion injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halladin, Natalie Løvland

    2015-04-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injuries occur when the blood supply to an organ or tissue is temporarily cut-off and then restored. Even though the restoration of blood flow is absolutely essential in preventing tissue death, the reperfusion of oxygenated blood to the oxygen-deprived areas may in itself augment the tissue damage in excess of that produced by the ischemia alone. The process of ischemia-reperfusion is multifactorial and there are several mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis. Ample evidence shows that the injury is in part caused by an excessive generation of reactive oxygen species or free radicals. The free radicals consequently initiate an inflammatory response, which in some cases may affect distant organs, thus causing remote organ injuries. Ischemia-reperfusion injuries are a common complication in many diseases (acute myocardial infarctions, stroke) or surgical settings (transplantations, tourniquet-related surgery) and they have potential detrimental and disabling consequences. The tolerance of ischemia-reperfusion has proven to be time-of-day-dependent and the size of myocardial infarctions has proven to be significantly higher when occurring in the dark-to-light period. This period is characterized by and coincides with a rapid decrease in the plasma levels of the hormone melatonin. Melatonin is the body's most potent antioxidant and is capable of both direct free radical scavenging and indirect optimization of other anti-oxidant enzymes. It also possesses anti-inflammatory properties and is known to inhibit the mitochondrial permeability transition pore during reperfusion. This inhibiting property has been shown to be of great importance in reducing ischemia-reperfusion injuries. Furthermore, melatonin is a relatively non-toxic molecule, which has proven to be safe for use in clinical trials. Thus, there is compelling evidence of melatonin's effect in reducing ischemia-reperfusion injuries in many experimental studies, but the number of human

  18. Dictionary-Driven Ischemia Detection From Cardiac Phase-Resolved Myocardial BOLD MRI at Rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Marco; Dharmakumar, Rohan; Tsaftaris, Sotirios A

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac Phase-resolved Blood-Oxygen-Level Dependent (CP-BOLD) MRI provides a unique opportunity to image an ongoing ischemia at rest. However, it requires post-processing to evaluate the extent of ischemia. To address this, here we propose an unsupervised ischemia detection (UID) method which relies on the inherent spatio-temporal correlation between oxygenation and wall motion to formalize a joint learning and detection problem based on dictionary decomposition. Considering input data of a single subject, it treats ischemia as an anomaly and iteratively learns dictionaries to represent only normal observations (corresponding to myocardial territories remote to ischemia). Anomaly detection is based on a modified version of One-class Support Vector Machines (OCSVM) to regulate directly the margins by incorporating the dictionary-based representation errors. A measure of ischemic extent (IE) is estimated, reflecting the relative portion of the myocardium affected by ischemia. For visualization purposes an ischemia likelihood map is created by estimating posterior probabilities from the OCSVM outputs, thus obtaining how likely the classification is correct. UID is evaluated on synthetic data and in a 2D CP-BOLD data set from a canine experimental model emulating acute coronary syndromes. Comparing early ischemic territories identified with UID against infarct territories (after several hours of ischemia), we find that IE, as measured by UID, is highly correlated (Pearson's r=0.84) with respect to infarct size. When advances in automated registration and segmentation of CP-BOLD images and full coverage 3D acquisitions become available, we hope that this method can enable pixel-level assessment of ischemia with this truly non-invasive imaging technique.

  19. Acute renal failure in leptospirosis in the black-sea region in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Kuddusi; Sahan, Cem; Sünbül, Mustafa; Leblebicioğlu, Hakan; Cüner, Ertugrul

    2002-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an infectious disease caused by pathogenic leptospires and is characterized by a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, varying from inappearent infection to fulminant, fetal disease. Eighty-five to 90% of leptospirosis infections are self-limiting. However, 5-10% of infection by L. interrogans can cause renal tubular damage, microvascular injury, acute renal failure (ARF), and interstitial nephritis. We studied 36 patients with leptospirosis. Twenty-seven (65%) cases of 36 patients had ARF. Fourteen (51%) had nonoliguric ARF. In thirteen (48%) oliguria appeared on the third or fourth days of hospitalization. Serum BUN, creatinine, serum bilirubine, ALT, AST, potassium and thrombocytopenia levels were higher in oliguric than nonoliguric patients (p 0.05). Thirteen patients (48%) needed in renal replacement therapy (RRT). 8 of them were treated by hemodialysis (HD) alone and 5 patients by HD in combination with hemoperfusion. Twenty-five patients (92%) recovered completely after 3-5 weeks. Two patients (7.4%) who had severe hepatorenal and hemorrhagic syndromes, died. We concluded that till now leptospirosis is actual problem for nephrologist in the developing countries because of very high percentage of renal disease, with good prognosis in patients without multiorgan failure and early treatment.

  20. Prone position prevents regional alveolar hyperinflation and mechanical stress and strain in mild experimental acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Maria Cristina E; Garcia, Cristiane S N B; Xisto, Débora G; Nagato, Lilian K S; Lassance, Roberta M; Prota, Luiz Felipe M; Ornellas, Felipe M; Capelozzi, Vera L; Morales, Marcelo M; Zin, Walter A; Pelosi, Paolo; Rocco, Patricia R M

    2009-06-30

    Prone position may delay the development of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), but the mechanisms require better elucidation. In experimental mild acute lung injury (ALI), arterial oxygen partial pressure (Pa O2), lung mechanics and histology, inflammatory markers [interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1 beta], and type III procollagen (PCIII) mRNA expressions were analysed in supine and prone position. Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups. In controls, saline was intraperitoneally injected while ALI was induced by paraquat. After 24-h, the animals were mechanically ventilated for 1-h in supine or prone positions. In ALI, prone position led to a better blood flow/tissue ratio both in ventral and dorsal regions and was associated with a more homogeneous distribution of alveolar aeration/tissue ratio reducing lung static elastance and viscoelastic pressure, and increasing end-expiratory lung volume and Pa O2. PCIII expression was higher in the ventral than dorsal region in supine position, with no regional changes in inflammatory markers. In conclusion, prone position may protect the lungs against VILI, thus reducing pulmonary stress and strain.

  1. Changes of plasma glutathione S-transferase, D-lactate and creatine kinase levels in Wistar rats with acute intestinal ischemia%Wistar大鼠急性小肠缺血时血浆谷胱甘肽S转移酶、D-乳酸盐及肌酸激酶水平变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志伟; 王小艳; 厉建田; 袁琛; 李伟华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of plasma glutathione S-transferase, D-lactate and creatine kinase levels to the diagnosis of acute intestinal ischemia in Wistar rats. Methods Seventy Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups: the sham operation group and six mesentery ischemia groups in 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 1. 5 hours, 2 hours and 3 hours, 10 rats each. The levels of plasma glutathione S-transf erase, D-lactate and creatine kinase were determined in each group in 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 1. 5 hours, 2 hours and 3 hours after isolating superior mesenteric artery and blocking blood flow, and were analyzed their relationship with intestinal injury scores. Results The intestinal injury scores increased with the prolong of ischemia time(P<0. 01). Plasma glutathione S-transferase level was higher in 15 minutes than that in the sham operation group (P<0. 05) and was the highest in 1. 5 hours. Plasma D-lactate level was higher in 1 hour than that in the sham operation group(P<0. 05). Plasma creatine kinase level was higher in 1. 5 hours than that in sham operation group, showed a dramatically increase in 2 hours and kept this tendency from then on. The levels of plasma glutathione S-transferase, D-lactate and creatine kinase were positively correlated with the intestinal injury scores(P<0. 05). Conclusion Plasma glutathione S-transferase and D-lactate may be useful markers of early diagnosis of intestinal ischemia. Increased plasma creatine kinase level indicates an unfavorable prognosis.%目的:探讨血浆谷胱甘肽S转移酶(glutathione S-transferase,GST)、D-乳酸盐(D-lactate,DLA)、肌酸激酶(creatine kinase,CK)在急性小肠缺血性疾病中的诊断价值。方法:70只Wistar大鼠随机分为假手术组以及肠系膜缺血15 min,30 min,1 h,1.5 h,2 h和3 h组,每组10只。分别于游离肠系膜上动脉后即刻以及阻断血流15 min,30 min,1 h,1.5 h,2 h和3 h检测血浆中GST,DLA及CK水

  2. Detection of hypoxic cells with the 2-nitroimidazole, EF5, correlates with early redox changes in rat brain after perinatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, M; Evans, S M; Sharp, F R; Koch, C J; Lord, E M; Ferriero, D M

    1999-01-01

    The hypoxia-dependent activation of nitroheterocyclic drugs by cellular nitroreductases leads to the formation of intracellular adducts between the drugs and cellular macromolecules. Because this covalent binding is maximal in the absence of oxygen, detection of bound adducts provides an assay for estimating the degree of cellular hypoxia in vivo. Using a pentafluorintated derivative of etanidazole called EF5, we studied the distribution of EF5 adducts in seven-day-old rats subjected to different treatments which decrease the level of oxygen in the brain. EF5 solution was administered intraperitoneally 30 min prior to each treatment. The effect of acute and chronic hypoxia on EF5 adduct formation (binding) was studied in the brain of newborn rats exposed to global hypoxia (8% O2 for 30, 90 or 150 min) and in the brain of chronically hypoxic rat pups with congenital cardiac defects (Wistar Kyoto). The effect of combined hypoxia-ischemia was investigated in rat pups subjected to right carotid coagulation and concurrent exposure to 8% O2 for 30, 90 or 150 min. Brains were frozen immediately at the end of each treatment. Using a Cy3-conjugated monoclonal mouse antibody (ELK3-51) raised against EF5 adducts, hypoxic cells within brain regions were visualized by fluorescence immunocytochemistry. Brains from controls or vehicle-injected animals showed no EF5 binding. Notably, brains from animals which were chronically hypoxemic as a result of congenital cardiac defects also showed no EF5 binding. A short exposure (30 min) to hypoxia or to combined hypoxia-ischemia resulted in increased background stain and few scattered cells with low-intensity immunostaining. Acute hypoxia exposure of at least 90-150 min, which in this age animal does not result in frank cellular damage, produced patchy areas of low- to moderate-intensity fluorescence scattered throughout the brain. In contrast, 90-150 min of hypoxia-ischemia was associated with intense immunofluorescence in the

  3. Evaluation of Regional Myocardial Systolic Function in the Early Stage of Acute Myocardial Infarction by Strain Rate Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Esmaeilzadeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We sought to evaluate the impact of different therapeutic strategies on longitudinal regional myocardial systolic function in the early phase of acute myocardial infarction using strain rate imaging.Methods: A total of 38 patients (34 males, with first acute myocardial infarction (AMI were evaluated. Our patients were divided into 3 groups according to the kind of therapy. The mean age of the patients was 55 ± 9.4 years (range: 39- 75 years. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF in the patients was 41 ± 10.7%. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI was performed in 10 patients. Sixteen patients were treated by thrombolytic therapy using streptokinase (SK and 12 were followed-up conservatively. All patients underwent a comprehensive echocardiography study including SR imaging within 3- 5 days after AMI. The parameters measured included peak systolic strain (peakε and strain rate (SRs, end-systolic strain (εes, post systolic shortening (PSS, time to peak systolic strain rate (tSRs, time to end of shortening (teSRs, post systolic strain (PSε, post-systolic strain index (PSI, PSS ratio (PSS/ εMax and peak postsystolic strain rate (SRPSS. Results: There was not any association either between WMSI and tå (P=0.4, or MI location and PSS ratio (P=0.13. But there was an inverse relationship between WMSI and mean SRS, especially when WMSI was more pronounced. A significant relationship was found between tε and teSRs with the kind of therapy (shorter in PCI group (P= 0.04. Using a simple linear regression model, no association was found between PSS ratio and SRs (â=0.056, P =0.70, PSI and teSRs (β= -0.772, P=0.12. Simple linear regression model showed a weak but significant relationship between PSI and Median tε (β = -0.851, P =0.04; r =0.33.Conclusion: Our study showed that PCI resulted in early recovery of regional systolic function of infarcted myocardium during the early stage of acute myocardial infarction.

  4. 无创远程肢体缺血联合处理对大鼠肾脏急性缺血再灌注损伤的保护作用%The protective effect of noninvasive remote ischemic limb perconditioning and postconditioning combined on acute renal ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江海波; 陈仁富; 朱海涛; 薛松; 孙晓磊; 孙晓青

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the noninvasive remote ischemic limb perconditioning and postconditioning combined on acute renal ischemia-reperfusion injury and its mechanism in rats.Results 30 healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups (n =10):A is sham operation group (Sham group),B is ischemia -reperfusion group (IR),C is noninvasive remote ischemic limb perconditioning and postconditioning combined treatment group (RIperC + RIpostC group).After 24h reperfusion,serum creatinine (Cr) and urea nitrogen (BUN) levels,kidney tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity,malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured and the light microscopy observed renal histological changes.Methods These indicators in group B Cr(429.52 ±29.08) μmol/L、BUN(39.05 ±2.23) mmol/L、MPO(7.31 ± 1.48) U/g、MDA (3.94± 0.48) nmol/mgprot were higher than group A Cr(103.91 ± 21.45) μ mol/L (P < 0.001)、BUN (12.20 ± 1.86) mmol/L(p <0.001)、MPO(2.25 ±0.89) U/g(P =0.009)、MDA(1.95 ±0.29) nmol/mgprot (p =0.003) while SOD(4.03 ±0.38) U/mgprut lower in group A SOD(6.819 ±0.68) U/mgprot(P =0.003) ; group C Cr(244.85 ± 40.30) μmol/L(p =0.002) 、BUN(23.48 ± 1.80) mmol/L(p <0.001) 、MPO(3.65 ±0.73) U/g(P =0.045)、MDA(2.19 ±0.31) nmol/mgprot(p =0.006) were lower than group B(P <0.05),while SOD SOD(5.71 ±0.30) U/mgprot(P =0.003) higher than in group B.Group A is normal morphology,group C is more significantly reduced than group B in morphological changes.Conclusions The noninvasive remote ischemic limb perconditioning and postconditioning combined on acute renal ischemia-reperfusion injury have significant protective effect.Through its protective effect may be transient limb ischemia-reperfusion stimulate e-ndogenous antioxidant capacity,so as to alleviate acute renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.%目的 探讨无创远程肢体缺血联合处理对大鼠肾脏急性缺血再灌注损伤的保护及作用机制.方法 30只健

  5. Progressive multicystic encephalopathy: is there more than hypoxia-ischemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garten, Lars; Hueseman, Dieter; Stoltenburg-Didinger, Gisela; Felderhoff-Mueser, Ursula; Weizsaecker, Katharina; Scheer, Ianina; Boltshauser, Eugen; Obladen, Michael

    2007-05-01

    Progressive multicystic encephalopathy following prenatal or perinatal hypoxia-ischemia is a well-described phenomenon in the literature. The authors report on a term infant with a devastating encephalopathy and severe neuronal dysfunction immediately after delivery without a known antecedent of prenatal or perinatal hypoxia or distress. Clinical and paraclinical findings in the patient are compared with those described in the literature. The authors focus on the specific results guiding to the final diagnosis of progressive multicystic encephalopathy and the timing of morphologic changes. As in this case, if the criteria of an acute hypoxic event sufficient to cause neonatal encephalopathy are not met, then factors other than hypoxia-ischemia may be leading to progressive multicystic encephalopathy.

  6. Effect of thrombolytic therapy on postinfarction myocardial ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Junker, A; Møller, M

    1994-01-01

    In patients with acute myocardial infarction a substantial reduction in mortality can be achieved by early intravenous thrombolytic therapy. The beneficial effect of thrombolysis on left ventricular function is relatively small, and it seems unlikely that this minor improvement alone can be...... responsible for the reduction in cardiac death. So far it has not been clearly established how thrombolytic therapy affects postinfarction myocardial ischemia. From studies evaluating ST segment changes on exercise testing or ambulatory monitoring it is concluded that thrombolysis probably results in a...... reduction of residual ischemia. The reduced ischemic burden is proposed to be one important pathophysiological mechanism underlying the frequently observed improvement in hemodynamic stress test variables following thrombolytic treatment....

  7. Early markers for myocardial ischemia and sudden cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatasso, Sara; Mangin, Patrice; Fracasso, Tony; Moretti, Milena; Docquier, Mylène; Djonov, Valentin

    2016-09-01

    The post-mortem diagnosis of acute myocardial ischemia remains a challenge for both clinical and forensic pathologists. We performed an experimental study (ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery in rats) in order to identify early markers of myocardial ischemia, to further apply to forensic and clinical pathology in cases of sudden cardiac death. Using immunohistochemistry, Western blots, and gene expression analyses, we investigated a number of markers, selected among those which are currently used in emergency departments to diagnose myocardial infarction and those which are under investigation in basic research and autopsy pathology studies on cardiovascular diseases. The study was performed on 44 adult male Lewis rats, assigned to three experimental groups: control, sham-operated, and operated. The durations of ischemia ranged between 5 min and 24 h. The investigated markers were troponins I and T, myoglobin, fibronectin, C5b-9, connexin 43 (dephosphorylated), JunB, cytochrome c, and TUNEL staining. The earliest expressions (≤30 min) were observed for connexin 43, JunB, and cytochrome c, followed by fibronectin (≤1 h), myoglobin (≤1 h), troponins I and T (≤1 h), TUNEL (≤1 h), and C5b-9 (≤2 h). By this investigation, we identified a panel of true early markers of myocardial ischemia and delineated their temporal evolution in expression by employing new technologies for gene expression analysis, in addition to traditional and routine methods (such as histology and immunohistochemistry). Moreover, for the first time in the autopsy pathology field, we identified, by immunohistochemistry, two very early markers of myocardial ischemia: dephosphorylated connexin 43 and JunB. PMID:27392959

  8. Acute ischemic cerebral attack

    OpenAIRE

    Franco-Garcia Samir; Barreiro-Pinto Belis

    2010-01-01

    The decrease of the cerebral blood flow below the threshold of autoregulation led to changes of cerebral ischemia and necrosis that traduce in signs and symtoms of focal neurologic dysfunction called acute cerebrovascular symdrome (ACS) or stroke. Two big groups according to its etiology are included in this category the hemorragic that constitue a 20% and the ischemic a 80% of cases. Great interest has wom the ischemic ACS because of its high social burden, being the third cause of no violen...

  9. Regional blood flow in brain and peripheral tissues during acute experimental arterial subdural bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlin, J R; Zwetnow, N N; Hall, C

    1993-01-01

    The effects of a large intracranial arterial subdural bleeding on regional blood flow in the brain (rCBF) and in other body organs were studied, using a porcine model. The bleeding was produced by leading blood through a catheter from the abdominal aorta via an electronic drop recorder into the subdural compartment (SDC) over the left cerebral hemisphere. Pressures in the right lateral cerebral ventricle and in the cisterna magna were recorded along with 15 other vital parameters. Measurements of rCBF were carried out using radioactive microspheres 1) before the start of bleeding, 2) during the early bleeding phase, and 3) during the late bleeding phase. When the bleeding was initiated, the intracranial pressures rose within one minute to a level approximately 40 mmHg below the systemic arterial pressure, whilst the latter usually decreased 30-40 mmHg. In the subsequent early bleeding phase the cerebral perfusion pressure and the bleeding pressure fluctuated at a level of approximately 40 mmHg for several minutes. In the late bleeding phase, the perfusion pressure decreased maximally, even when a Cushing reaction was activated. During the early bleeding phase the changes in rCBF varied between the cerebral regions. However, the mean flow remained largely constant in the presence of a decreasing cerebrovascular resistance, indicating that autoregulation of CBF was intact. Concomitantly, cardiac output and heart rate decreased, whilst regional blood flow in extracerebral organs tended to increase, possibly due to an intracranial effect on the autonomic nervous system. In the late bleeding phase, rCBF was critically reduced in all regions, in spite of a marked rise in systemic arterial pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8372718

  10. Aetiology of acute gastroenteritis in children in Najran region, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Saeed Zayed AlAyed; Ahmed Morad Asaad; Abdulrab Ahmed Mahdi; Mohamed Ansar Qureshi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Gastroenteritis is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of bacterial, viral and parasitic aetiology of gastroenteritis in children aged < 5 years in the Najran region, south-western Saudi Arabia, to determine the contribution of these enteropathogens in childhood diarrhoeal diseases and to put forward effective preventive measures for controlling the disease in the future. Design and Setting: A d...

  11. Animal models of cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.; Kisel, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral ischemia remains one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide. Animal models are necessary to understand complex molecular mechanisms of brain damage as well as for the development of new therapies for stroke. This review considers a certain range of animal models of cerebral ischemia, including several types of focal and global ischemia. Since animal models vary in specificity for the human disease which they reproduce, the complexity of surgery, infarct size, reliability of reproduction for statistical analysis, and adequate models need to be chosen according to the aim of a study. The reproduction of a particular animal model needs to be evaluated using appropriate tools, including the behavioral assessment of injury and non-invasive and post-mortem control of brain damage. These problems also have been summarized in the review.

  12. Análise da remodelação vascular na isquemia pulmonar experimental, nas fases aguda e crônica Analysis of acute and chronic vascular remodeling in an experimental model of pulmonary ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderley M. Bernardo

    2005-02-01

    pulmonary circulation characterize the vascular remodeling process and are likely correlated with local variations in flow and ischemia. OBJECTIVE: To define the histological alterations to the pulmonary circulation seen after experimentally-induced ischemia of the pulmonary artery and to correlate those alterations with known patterns of blood redistribution and vascular remodeling. METHOD: Wistar rats (n = 48 were randomized into two groups with ligation of the pulmonary artery and without (controls and were sacrificed on post-ischemia days 1, 7, 30 and 60. Lungs were removed and inspected for signs of parenchymal injury. External diameters, as well as wall thicknesses in the pulmonary, alveolar and bronchial end arterioles, were measured. Internal diameter and wall thickness percentage were calculated. RESULTS: Infarction, necrosis and hemorrhage occurred only in ischemic lungs. In nonischemic lungs, there was a sustained increase in the internal and external arteriolar diameters, with an initial reduction in wall thickness on day 1, and day-60 values were similar to those seen in controls. In ischemic lungs, there was a transitory reduction in the internal and external diameters of the pulmonary and bronchial end arterioles, together with an initial, equally transitory, increase in their wall thickness. The alveolar arterioles presented sustained and progressive increases in external diameter and wall thickness, with concomitant reductions in internal diameter. CONCLUSION: This model mimics distal arterial disease in patients with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism. The vascular response in nonischemic lungs was consistent with a pattern of flow remodeling, whereas that seen in ischemic lungs was more consistent with flow and ischemia. In the pulmonary and bronchial end arterioles, the response was transitory, in contrast to the sustained and progressive response seen in the alveolar arterioles, which was probably caused by delayed local flow.

  13. Clinical use of the combined Sclarovsky Birnbaum Severity and Anderson Wilkins Acuteness scores from the pre-hospital ECG in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Yama; Schoos, Mikkel M; Clemmensen, Peter; Sejersten, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes the electrocardiographic changes during an evolving ST segment elevation myocardial infarction and discusses associated electrocardiographic scores and the potential use of these indices in clinical practice, in particular the ECG scores developed by Anderson and Wilkins estimating the acuteness of myocardial ischemia and Sclarovsky-Birnbaum's grades of ischemia evaluating the severity of ongoing ischemia. PMID:24792905

  14. Role of IgM and C-reactive protein in ischemia reperfusion injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz Padilla, Niubel

    2007-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a pathophysiological event that occurs in many clinical conditions, ranging from surgery, acute artery occlusion to transplantation. Complement activation is thought to be a crucial step in IRI, because complement inhibition and complement deficiency considerably

  15. Therapeutic angiogenesis induced by human hepatocyte growth factor gene in rat hindlimb of ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晋津

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of plasmid pEGFP-hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-Cl on rat acute ischemia of hindlimb. Methods The eukaryotic expressed plasmid pEGFP-HGF-Cl carrving human HGF cDNA was constructed. The transfection efficiency and the expression level of HGF were evaluated

  16. Systemic gene therapy with interleukin-13 attenuates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandovici, M.; Henning, R. H.; van Goor, H.; Helfrich, W.; de Zeeuw, D.; Deelman, L. E.

    2008-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a leading cause of acute renal failure and a major determinant in the outcome of kidney transplantation. Here we explored systemic gene therapy with a modified adenovirus expressing Interleukin (IL)-13, a cytokine with strong anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective proper

  17. Significance of lead aVR in acute coronary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akira; Tamura

    2014-01-01

    The 12-lead electrocardiogram(ECG)is a crucial tool in the diagnosis and risk stratification of acute coronary syndrome(ACS).Unlike other 11 leads,lead aVR has been long neglected until recent years.However,recent investigations have shown that an analysis of ST-segment shift in lead aVR provides useful information on the coronary angiographic anatomy and risk stratification in ACS.ST-segment elevation in lead aVR can be caused by(1)transmural ischemia in the basal part of the interventricular septum caused by impaired coronary blood flow of the first major branch originating from the left anterior descending coronary artery;(2)transmural ischemia in the right ventricular outflow tract caused by impaired coronary blood flow of the large conal branch originating from the right coronary artery;and(3)reciprocal changes opposite to ischemic or non-ischemic ST-segment depression in the lateral limb and precordial leads.On the other hand,ST-segment depression in lead aVR can be caused by transmural ischemia in the inferolateral and apical regions.It has been recently shown that an analysis of T wave in lead aVR also provides useful prognostic information in the general population and patients with prior myocardial infarction.Cardiologists should pay more attention to the tracing of lead aVR when interpreting the12-lead ECG in clinical practice.

  18. Contrasting regional Fos expression in adolescent and young adult rats following acute administration of the antidepressant paroxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanges, Emily A; Ramos, Linnet; Dampney, Bruno; Suraev, Anastasia S; Li, Kong M; McGregor, Iain S; Hunt, Glenn E

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents and adults may respond differently to antidepressants, with poorer efficacy and greater probability of adverse effects in adolescents. The mechanisms underlying this differential response are largely unknown, but likely relate to an interaction between the neural effects of antidepressants and brain development. We used Fos immunohistochemistry to examine regional differences in adolescent (postnatal day (PND) 28) and young adult (PND 56) male, Wistar rats given a single injection of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine (10mg/kg). Paroxetine induced widespread Fos expression in both adolescent and young adult rats. Commonly affected areas include the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dorsolateral), medial preoptic area, paraventricular hypothalamic and thalamic nuclei and central nucleus of the amygdala. Fos expression was generally lower in adolescents with significantly greater Fos expression observed in young adults in the prelimbic cortex, supraoptic nucleus, basolateral amygdala, lateral parabrachial and Kölliker-Fuse nuclei. However, a small subset of regions showed greater adolescent Fos expression including the nucleus accumbens shell, lateral habenula and dorsal raphe. Paroxetine increased plasma corticosterone concentrations in young adults, but not adolescents. Plasma paroxetine levels were not significantly different between the age groups. These results indicate a different c-Fos signature of acute paroxetine in adolescent rats, with greater activation in key mesolimbic and serotonergic regions, but a more subdued cortical, brainstem and hypothalamic response. This suggests that the atypical response of adolescents to paroxetine may be related to a blunted neuroendocrine response, combined with insufficient top-down regulation of limbic regions involved in reward and impulsivity. PMID:26876759

  19. Crucial role of the CB3-region of collagen IV in PARF-induced acute rheumatic fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Dinkla

    Full Text Available Acute rheumatic fever (ARF and rheumatic heart disease are serious autoimmune sequelae to infections with Streptococcus pyogenes. Streptococcal M-proteins have been implicated in ARF pathogenesis. Their interaction with collagen type IV (CIV is a triggering step that induces generation of collagen-specific auto-antibodies. Electron microscopy of the protein complex between M-protein type 3 (M3-protein and CIV identified two prominent binding sites of which one is situated in the CB3-region of CIV. In a radioactive binding assay, M3-protein expressing S. pyogenes and S. gordonii bound the CB3-fragment. Detailed analysis of the interactions by surface plasmon resonance measurements and site directed mutagenesis revealed high affinity interactions with dissociation constants in the nanomolar range that depend on the recently described collagen binding motif of streptococcal M-proteins. Because of its role in the induction of disease-related collagen autoimmunity the motif is referred to as "peptide associated with rheumatic fever" (PARF. Both, sera of mice immunized with M3-protein as well as sera from patients with ARF contained anti-CB3 auto-antibodies, indicating their contribution to ARF pathogenesis. The identification of the CB3-region as a binding partner for PARF directs the further approaches to understand the unusual autoimmune pathogenesis of PARF-dependent ARF and forms a molecular basis for a diagnostic test that detects rheumatogenic streptococci.

  20. Protective Effects of Memantine Induced by Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Hüseyin Özdemir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The severity of apoptosis developing after hypoxia-ischemia and reperfusion is an indicator of cerebral injury. In cerebral ischemia, there are many factors initiating the events progressing to cell death. The most common leading cause is excessive increase in intracellular calcium concentration. Ion channels in NMDA receptors cause cell death by increasing Ca+2 entries into the cell. Memantine is non-competitive excitatory amino acid blocker of NMDA receptor. Studies suggesting administration of memantine before and after ischemia decreasing the neural injury have been published. In this study we aimed to examine the memantine could have decreasing effect on neuronal injury resulting with apoptosis especially in penumbra region after ischemia and its effects on antioxidants and oxidants in brain tissues. METHODS: Experimental study was performed in three groups each of them including 7 rats. No procedure was performed in control group and it was used for evaluation of the normal brain tissue. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was performed by clipping the right common carotid arteries of the rats in ischemia and ischemia-drug groups. Ten mg/kg intraperitoneal memantine was administered in ischemia-drug group 30 minutes after ischemia and for 5 days. All of the rats were sacrificed after the experiment. Antioxidant and oxidant levels of the cerebral tissues were measured. Apoptotic cells were determined by immunohistochemically with TUNEL method. RESULTS: When the group administered memantine was compared with ischemia group, it was observed that memantine decreased apoptotic cells in the brain tissue and provided improvement in oxidant levels (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, memantine may be effective in prevention of apopitozis and neuronal injury in cerebral ischemic tissue via decreasing cerebral oxidant formations.

  1. Knowledge translation lessons from an audit of Aboriginal Australians with acute coronary syndrome presenting to a regional hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Haynes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Translation of evidence into practice by health systems can be slow and incomplete and may disproportionately impact disadvantaged populations. Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death among Aboriginal Australians. Timely access to effective medical care for acute coronary syndrome substantially improves survival. A quality-of-care audit conducted at a regional Western Australian hospital in 2011–2012 compared the Emergency Department management of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal acute coronary syndrome patients. This audit is used as a case study of translating knowledge processes in order to identify the factors that support equity-oriented knowledge translation. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of the audit team and further key stakeholders with interest/experience in knowledge translation in the context of Aboriginal health. Interviews were analysed for alignment of the knowledge translation process with the thematic steps outlined in Tugwell’s cascade for equity-oriented knowledge translation framework. Results: In preparing the audit, groundwork helped shape management support to ensure receptivity to targeting Aboriginal cardiovascular outcomes. Reporting of audit findings and resulting advocacy were undertaken by the audit team with awareness of the institutional hierarchy, appropriate timing, personal relationships and recognising the importance of tailoring messages to specific audiences. These strategies were also acknowledged as important in the key stakeholder interviews. A follow-up audit documented a general improvement in treatment guideline adherence and a reduction in treatment inequalities for Aboriginal presentations. Conclusion: As well as identifying outcomes such as practice changes, a useful evaluation increases understanding of why and how an intervention worked. Case studies such as this enrich our understanding of the complex human factors, including

  2. Acute regional improvement of myocardial function after interventional transfemoral aortic valve replacement in aortic stenosis: A speckle tracking echocardiography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schattke Sebastian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI is a promising therapy for patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS and high perioperative risk. New echocardiographic methods, including 2D Strain analysis, allow the more accurate measurement of left ventricular (LV systolic function. The goal of this study was to describe the course of LV reverse remodelling immediately after TAVI in a broad spectrum of patients with symptomatic severe aortic valve stenosis. Methods Thirty consecutive patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis and preserved LVEF underwent transfemoral aortic valve implantation. We performed echocardiography at baseline and one week after TAVI. Echocardiography included standard 2D and Doppler analysis of global systolic and diastolic function as well as 2D Strain measurements of longitudinal, radial and circumferential LV motion and Tissue Doppler echocardiography. Results The baseline biplane LVEF was 57 ± 8.2%, the mean pressure gradient was 46.8 ± 17.2 mmHg and the mean valve area was 0.73 ± 0.27 cm2. The average global longitudinal 2D strain of the left ventricle improved significantly from -15.1 (± 3.0 to -17.5 (± 2.4 % (p Conclusion There is an acute improvement of myocardial longitudinal systolic function of the basal and medial segments measured by 2D Strain analysis immediately after TAVI. The radial, circumferential strain and LVEF does not change significantly in all patients acutely after TAVI. These data suggest that sensitive new echo methods can reliably detect early regional changes of myocardial function after TAVI before benefits in LVEF are detectable.

  3. 不同意识状态下大白兔单侧睾丸急性缺血对健侧睾丸影响的实验研究%Impact of unilateral acute testicular ischemia on the contralateral testis of rabbits in anesthetic and conscious states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丽君; 薛恩生; 林礼务; 梁荣喜; 陈舜; 何以敉; 林晓东; 俞丽云

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较麻醉态与清醒态兔单侧睾丸急性缺血对健侧睾丸血流动力学和病理的影响.方法:42只雄性健康大白兔,随机均分为麻醉组(A)和清醒组(B),各组内再设对照组5只( Ao/Bo)、不全缺血组8只( A1/B1)、完全缺血组8只(A2/B2).超声监测下制成单侧睾丸急性缺血模型.缺血组于精索结扎前、后及松解前后相应时间行睾丸超声造影;对照组于相应时间行睾丸超声造影并监测心率、血压.分析两种意识状态下健侧睾丸造影及组织结构变化情况.结果:戊巴比妥钠麻醉后,A组兔心率、血压明显受抑制.单侧睾丸急性缺血后,A组健侧睾丸各造影参数无显著变化;B组健侧睾丸短时间内造影参数峰值基础强度差( PBD)减少,显影时间(AT)、峰值减半时间(HT)延长.精索松解后,A1组、B1组、B2组短时间内PBD增高、HT延长.缺血组健侧睾丸均存在局灶性病理损伤和超微结构变化,但Johnsen's评分各组无显著差异;A1组、B1组、B2组健侧睾丸凋亡细胞显著增多.结论:急性睾丸血运障碍可对健侧睾丸造成一定程度的损伤.清醒状态下一侧睾丸急性缺血可引起健侧睾丸血流动力学短期内的变化,神经血管反射可能是一重要原因.麻醉剂对兔神经及心血管的抑制作用可使健侧睾丸血流灌注变化不显著.%Objective: To compare the impact of unilateral acute testicular ischemia on the hemodynamics and histology of the contralateral testis of the rabbits under consistent anesthesia with that of the rabbits in the conscious state. Methods: Forty-two healthy male white rabbits were randomly divided into an anesthetic group ( Group A) to receive injection of sodium pentobarbital (PS) and a non-anesthetic group (Group B) , each including a control group of 5 animals (A0 and B0), an incomplete testicular ischemia group of 8 (A1 and B1 ) , and a complete testicular ischemia group of 8 ( A2 and B2 ) . Testicular

  4. Regional odontodysplasia: management of an acute case with a scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Camila de Barros; Alves, Fabio Abreu; Junior, Decio dos Santos Pinto; Marques, Marcia Martins; Sugaya, Norberto Nobuo

    2011-01-01

    Regional odontodysplasia (RO) is an uncommon, nonhereditary, odontogenic developmental disturbance characterized by hypoplasia and hypocalcification of the dental tissues that produce so-called "ghost teeth." This report describes a case of a 2.5-year-old girl who came to the clinic with RO affecting her right maxillary arch. The distinguishing characteristics of this case were the involvement of both the primary and permanent dentitions and the early occurrence of odontogenic abscesses that required the patient's hospitalization. Ultrastructural analysis revealed dental tissue failures that compromised the integrity of the involved teeth, justifying the high susceptibility to caries that was clinically observed. Follow-up was characterized by periodic prosthetic adjustments to maintain the patient's ability to masticate and for social interaction, beyond allowing normal development of her maxillofacial complex. Patients with RO require individualized treatment planning and close follow-up with a multidisciplinary approach.

  5. Role of morphine preconditioning and nitric oxide following brain ischemia reperfusion injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maedeh Arabian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Morphine dependence (MD potently protects heart against ischemia reperfusion (IR injury through specific signaling mechanisms, which are different from the pathways involved in acute morphine treatment or classical preconditioning. Since opioid receptor density changes post cerebral ischemia strongly correlated with brain histological damage, in the present study, we tried to elucidate the possible role of opioid receptors in IR injury among morphine-dependent mice. Materials and Methods: Accordingly, incremental doses (10 mg/kg/day to 30 mg/kg/day of morphine sulphate were subcutaneously administered for 5 days before global brain ischemia induction through bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. Animals were received naloxone (5 mg/kg or L-NAME (20 mg/kg 30 min after the last morphine dose. Twenty four hr after the ischemia induction, Retention trial of passive avoidance test and western blot analysis were done. histological analysis (TUNEL and NISSL staining performed 72 hr after ischemia. Results: MD improved post ischemia memory performance (P

  6. 交感神经刺激对大鼠缺血性室性心律失常的影响及其机制的探讨%Effect of sympathetic nerve stimulation on ventricular arrhythmias during acute myocardial ischemia in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡笑容; 江洪; 温华知; 鲁志兵; 崔博; 赵冬冬; 黄从新

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨大鼠急性心肌缺血时交感神经刺激对室性心律失常的影响及其潜在的机制.方法 结扎大鼠冠状动脉前降支制备急性心肌缺血模型后随机分组作为心肌缺血组(MI组,n=25)、缺血+交感神经刺激组(MI-SS组,n=25)、交感神经刺激+酚妥拉明+缺血组(MI-SS-Phen组,n=15)、交感神经刺激+普萘洛尔+缺血组(MI-SS-Prop组,n=15)和假手术组(SO组,n=20).心电图监测室性心律失常的发生.蛋白免疫印记法(Western blot)检测缝隙连接蛋白43(Cx43)的磷酸化蛋白及总量表达变化.逆转录聚合酶链反应(PCR)分析Cx43 mRNA的表达变化.免疫荧光观察Cx43表达分布情况.结果 结扎冠状动脉30 min内MI、MI-SS和MI-SS-Phen组分别有1、3和2只大鼠死于心室颤动(室颤);MI-SS组室性心动过速(室速)/室颤发生率(80.0%,20/25)较MI组(52.0%,13/25)明显增加(P<0.05);与MI-SS组相比,普萘洛尔明显阻断了交感神经刺激促室速/室颤发生的作用(13.3%,2/15,P<0.05).冠状动脉结扎30 min后,MI组磷酸化Cx43的比例较SO组显著降低(P<0.05),但其总量并未减少(P>0.05).与MI组相比,MI-SS组磷酸化Cx43的比例明显增加(P<0.05),同时其蛋白总量的表达显著降低(P<0.05);普萘洛尔显著抑制了交感神经刺激导致的Cx43蛋白降解的作用,同时抑制了缺血引起的Cx43脱磷酸化(P<0.05).MI和MI-SS组Cx43mRNA表达均较SO组显著减少(P<0.05).免疫荧光结果 显示,与SO组相比,MI组Cx43由端-端连接转化为侧-侧连接,而MI-SS组Cx43分布明显紊乱,不能分辨出Cx43的分布模式.结论 交感神经刺激能够促进室性心律失常的发生,可能主要与β肾上腺素受体的激活从而促进了Cx43的降解有关.%Objective To investigate the effect and mechanism of sympathetic nerve stimulation on ventricular arrhythmias during acute myocardial ischemia (MI) in rats. Methods One hundred rats were randomly assigned into five groups

  7. Glucose metabolism and neurogenesis in the gerbil hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dae Young; Lee, Kwon Young; Park, Joon Ha; Jung, Hyo Young; Kim, Jong Whi; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Won, Moo-Ho; Choi, Jung Hoon; Hwang, In Koo

    2016-08-01

    Recent evidence exists that glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) plays an important role in the energy metabolism in the brain. Most previous studies have been conducted using focal or hypoxic ischemia models and have focused on changes in GLUT3 expression based on protein and mRNA levels rather than tissue levels. In the present study, we observed change in GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the adult gerbil hippocampus at various time points after 5 minutes of transient forebrain ischemia. In the sham-operated group, GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 region was weak, in the pyramidal cells of the CA1 region increased in a time-dependent fashion 24 hours after ischemia, and in the hippocampal CA1 region decreased significantly between 2 and 5 days after ischemia, with high level of GLUT3 immunoreactivity observed in the CA1 region 10 days after ischemia. In a double immunofluorescence study using GLUT3 and glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), we observed strong GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the astrocytes. GLUT3 immunoreactivity increased after ischemia and peaked 7 days in the dentate gyrus after ischemia/reperfusion. In a double immunofluorescence study using GLUT3 and doublecortin (DCX), we observed low level of GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the differentiated neuroblasts of the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus after ischemia. GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the sham-operated group was mainly detected in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. These results suggest that the increase in GLUT3 immunoreactivity may be a compensatory mechanism to modulate glucose level in the hippocampal CA1 region and to promote adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. PMID:27651772

  8. Evaluation of regional left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with infarct and ischemia myocardial by speckle tracking imaging%斑点追踪成像技术评价梗死心肌和缺血心肌对左心室局部收缩功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃琴; 周青; 邓倾; 朱丽敏; 郭瑞强

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the longitudinal, radial and circumferential systolic strain ( LS , RS , CS ) and strain rate ( LSR, RSR, CSR ) from regional myocardial in patients with myocardial infarction and ischemia by speckle tracking imaging STI ) and to evaluate regional left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Methods The high frame rate two-dimensional echocardiography were performed in the 30 patients of the myocardial infarction and 25 patients of the ischemia myocardial group and 25healthy subjects. The longitudinal and radial and circumferential systolic strain ( LS,RS , CS ) and strain rate ( LSR , RSR , CSR ) from 18 regional myocardial were measured in the apical 2-chamber view.apical 4-chamber view and three level of short-axis views mitral valve, papillary muscle and cardial apex ) by STI. Results Compared with normal segments , the LS , RS, CS and LSR, RSR, CSR of ischemia segments were decreased. LS and LSR were significantly decreased from control group ( P<0.05 ),while there were no significant differences in CS, CSR and RS, RSR ( P> 0.05 ).Compared with normal segments , LS , RS, CS and LSR, RSR, CSR of infarct segments were significantly decreased ( P<0.01 ). Conclusions Regional left ventricular systolic dysfunction could be accurately analyzed by LS, RS, CS and LSR , RSR, CSR from regional myocardial in patients with infarction and ischemia myocardial by STI. LS and LSR are more sensitive than other indices in myocardial ischemia.%目的 应用超声斑点追踪成像(STI)技术分析梗死心肌及缺血心肌节段心肌纵向、径向及周向的收缩期峰值应变及应变率,评价其对左心室局部心肌收缩功能的影响.方法 35例心肌梗死患者(梗死组)、25例心肌缺血患者(缺血组)和25例正常体检者(正常组),接受超声检查,采集左心室长轴观、心尖四腔观,心尖二腔观及左心室短轴观(二尖瓣环水平、乳头肌水平和心尖水平)二维灰阶图像,按左心室18节段划分法,

  9. Diagnostic Efficiency and Prognostic Value of Troponin T Measurement in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Merije Elezi; Anila Mitre

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis and prognosis of patients hospitalized with acute myocardial ischemia is quite variable. We examined the value of serum levels of cardiac Troponin T, serum CK-MB levels for detection of ischemic myocardial injury and risk stratification within 40 days in patients with acute myocardial ischemia with one specimen taken 2-8 hours of the onset of symptoms. Methods We studied 141 patients with a diagnosis of acute ischemic myocardial injury. The concentration of Tn...

  10. An acute dose of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid alters gene expression in multiple mouse brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnackenberg, B J; Saini, U T; Robinson, B L; Ali, S F; Patterson, T A

    2010-10-13

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is normally found in the brain in low concentrations and may function as a neurotransmitter, although the mechanism of action has not been completely elucidated. GHB has been used as a general anesthetic and is currently used to treat narcolepsy and alcoholism. Recreational use of GHB is primarily as a "club drug" and a "date rape drug," due to its amnesic effects. For this study, the hypothesis was that behavioral and neurochemical alterations may parallel gene expression changes in the brain after GHB administration. Adult male C57/B6N mice (n=5/group) were administered a single dose of 500 mg/kg GHB (i.p.) and were sacrificed 1, 2 and 4 h after treatment. Control mice were administered saline. Brains were removed and regionally dissected on ice. Total RNA from the hippocampus, cortex and striatum was extracted, amplified and labeled. Gene expression was evaluated using Agilent whole mouse genome 4x44K oligonucleotide microarrays. Microarray data were analyzed by ArrayTrack and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using P or = 1.7 as the criteria for significance. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) showed that samples from each time point clustered into distinct treatment groups with respect to sacrifice time. Ingenuity pathways analysis (IPA) was used to identify involved pathways. The results show that GHB induces gene expression alterations in hundreds of genes in the hippocampus, cortex and striatum, and the number of affected genes increases throughout a 4-h time course. Many of these DEGs are involved in neurological disease, apoptosis, and oxidative stress.

  11. Patterns of cellular injury in myocardial ischemia determined by monoclonal antimyosin.

    OpenAIRE

    Nolan, A. C.; Clark, W. A.; Karwoski, T; Zak, R

    1983-01-01

    The development of cellular injury in the rat left ventricle resulting from left coronary artery occlusion was examined by immunofluorescence after intravenous injection of monoclonal antimyosin. Cardiac muscle cells that bound antimyosin during ischemia were localized by staining sections with fluorescein-conjugated anti-mouse IgG. Fluorescent staining was detectable within the ischemic region of the left ventricle 3 hr after occlusion and injection of antimyosin. After 6 hr of ischemia, the...

  12. Protection of Puerarin on Oxidative Stress Induced by Acute Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats in Cardiopulmonary Bypass%葛根素对大鼠体外循环后心肌缺血再灌注损伤的保护作用及抗氧化应激机制的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩红岩; 秦元旭; 王更富; 王庆志

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨葛根素对大鼠体外循环后心肌缺血再灌注损伤(myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury,MIRI)的保护作用及抗氧化应激机制.方法:取健康雄性SD大鼠75只,随机分为5组:即假手术组(给予等体积的生理盐水)、MIRI模型组(给予等体积的生理盐水)、葛根素低、中、高剂量组(2,5,10 mg·kg-13个剂量).于再灌注开始时在储血槽内加入稀释葛根素10mL.在全麻手术下制造大鼠体外循环模型后,随即阻断大鼠升主动脉造成心肌缺血30 min然后开放升主动脉后再灌注180 min造成大鼠心肌缺血再灌注损伤模型(灌注24 h,用于测定心肌梗死面积).实验组和对照组分别给予葛根素和生理盐水.实验完成后留取大鼠心脏标本,观察大鼠心肌缺血区的心肌细胞凋亡情况;收集血清测定其抗氧化应激的指标:超氧化物歧化酶(SOD),丙二醛(MDA),谷胱甘肽(GSH),谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px).结果:与模型组相比,葛根素的应用减少了MIRI大鼠的心肌细胞凋亡、心梗面积和血清中丙二醛的含量,增加了血清中超氧化物歧化酶、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶的活性和谷胱甘肽的含量,并且随着剂量的增加保护效果尤为明显.结论:葛根素对MIRI大鼠具有抗氧化应激的作用,它能够剂量依赖性的减少心肌细胞凋亡,最终减少心肌梗死面积.%Objective: To investigate the protective mechanism of puerarin on acute myocardial ischemia -reperfusion injury( MIRI) in rats, and to explain the antioxidative mechanism involved. Method: Rat MIRI model was induced by ischemia for 30 min and reperfusion for 180 min. At the end of the 3 h reperfusion period (or 24 h for infarct. Size ), myocardial infarct size, myocardial apoptosis and the activity of antioxidative enzymes were measured. Result: Puerarin reduced infarct size, myocardial apoptosisand the serum level of malondialdehyde, increased the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione

  13. Effect of minocycline on cerebral ischemia- reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanyin Zheng; Lijuan Xu; Jinbao Yin; Zhichao Zhong; Hongling Fan; Xi Li; Quanzhong Chang

    2013-01-01

    Minocylcine, a tetracycline derivate, has been shown to cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the central nervous system. In this study, cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury models were established using the suture method, and minocycline was immediately injected intraperitoneally after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (22.5 mg/kg, initially 45 mg/kg) at a 12-hour interval. Results showed that after minocycline treatment, the volume of cerebral infarction was significantly reduced, the number of surviving cell in the hippocampal CA1 region increased, the number of apoptotic cells decreased, the expression of caspase-3 and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase-1 protein was down-regulated, and the escape latency in the water maze test was significantly shortened compared with the ischemia-reperfusion group. Our experimental findings indicate that minocycline can protect against neuronal injury induced by focal ischemia-reperfusion, which may be mediated by the inhibition of caspase-3 and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase-1 protein expression.

  14. Feasibility of quantitative diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for targeted measurement of renal ischemia during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Utsav O.; Maddox, Michael M.; Elfer, Katherine N.; Dorsey, Philip J.; Wang, Mei; McCaslin, Ian Ross; Brown, J. Quincy; Lee, Benjamin R.

    2014-10-01

    Reduction of warm ischemia time during partial nephrectomy (PN) is critical to minimizing ischemic damage and improving postoperative kidney function, while maintaining tumor resection efficacy. Recently, methods for localizing the effects of warm ischemia to the region of the tumor via selective clamping of higher-order segmental artery branches have been shown to have superior outcomes compared with clamping the main renal artery. However, artery identification can prolong operative time and increase the blood loss and reduce the positive effects of selective ischemia. Quantitative diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) can provide a convenient, real-time means to aid in artery identification during laparoscopic PN. The feasibility of quantitative DRS for real-time longitudinal measurement of tissue perfusion and vascular oxygenation in laparoscopic nephrectomy was investigated in vivo in six Yorkshire swine kidneys (n=three animals). DRS allowed for rapid identification of ischemic areas after selective vessel occlusion. In addition, the rates of ischemia induction and recovery were compared for main renal artery versus tertiary segmental artery occlusion, and it was found that the tertiary segmental artery occlusion trends toward faster recovery after ischemia, which suggests a potential benefit of selective ischemia. Quantitative DRS could provide a convenient and fast tool for artery identification and evaluation of the depth, spatial extent, and duration of selective tissue ischemia in laparoscopic PN.

  15. Animal models of cerebral ischemia for evaluation of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Y K; Briyal, Seema

    2004-10-01

    Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. The resulting burden on the society continues to grow, with increase in the incidence of stroke. Brain attack is a term introduced to describe the acute presentation of stroke, which emphasizes the need for urgent action to remedy the situation. Though a large number of therapeutic agents like thrombolytics, NMDA receptor antagonists, calcium channel blockers and antioxidants, have been used or being evaluated, there remains a large gap between the benefits by these agents and properties an ideal drug for stroke should offer. In recent years much attention is being paid towards the exploration of herbal preparation, antioxidant agents and combination therapies including COX-2 inhibitors in experimental model of stroke. For better evaluation of the drugs and enhancement of their predictability from animal experimentation to clinical settings, it has been realized that the selection of animal models, the parameters to be evaluated should be critically assessed. Focal and global cerebral ischemia represents diseases that are common in the human population. Understanding the mechanisms of injury and neuroprotection in these diseases is important to learn new target sites to treat ischemia. There are many animal models available to investigate injury mechanisms and neuroprotective strategies. In this article we attempted to summarize commonly explored animal models of focal and global cerebral ischemia and evaluate their advantages and limitations. PMID:15907047

  16. Celiac axis stenosis and lethal liver ischemia after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipska, Ludmila; Visokai, Vladimir; Levy, Miroslav; Koznar, Boris; Zaruba, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Celiac axis stenosis can lead to a fatal hepatic ischemia after pancreaticoduodenectomy unless a simultaneous revascularisation of the celiac circulation is performed. In the present study are reported three cases of celiac axis stenosis, all of which had histologically confirmed periampullary cancer. Case 1: a 50-year-old male with a history of myocardial infarction and liver steatosis; visceral arteriography prior to the surgery demonstrated a celiac axis stenosis. Whipple operation was performed. After removing the specimen, no signs of liver ischemia were found (liver was cholestatic) and pulsation of the hepatic artery was strong. The patient died on the second postoperative day after an abrupt irreversible cardiac arrest. Autopsy proved acute severe hepatic ischemia. Case 2: a 64-year-old female. Preoperative visceral angiography showed significant celiac axis stenosis. As a first step of surgery the root of the celiac trunk was exposed, a fibrotic ring around it was divided. Standard D1 pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Case 3: a 58-year-old female without preoperative angiography, indicated for surgery. After an occlusion test of the gastroduodenal artery the liver became ischemic. Division of the fibrotic ring around celiac axis was performed together with a standard D1 pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. No postoperative complications were reported in both case 2 and 3. PMID:19760970

  17. The Role of Erythropoietin as an Inhibitor of Tissue Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios G. Lykissas, Alexandros E. Beris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin is a hypoxia-induced cytokine that stimulates erythropoiesis through the promotion of erythroid precursor cell proliferation and differentiation. Recent evidence supports that erythropoietin has a broad spectrum of tissue protecting actions affecting other systems than hemopoietic. Lately, research has focused on the nonhemopoietic effects of erythropoietin against tissue ischemia due to the unexpected observations of erythropoietin receptor expression by various cells, such as endothelial cells, neuronal cells, cardiac myocytes, and vascular smooth muscle cells. It has been shown that erythropoietin exerts its cardioprotective action during cardiac ischemic injury through reducing the infract size and enhancing new vessel formation over a longer time frame. Erythropoietin plays a crucial role in neuroprotection in many types of ischemic injury in the central and the peripheral nervous system. It is also strongly believed that erythropoietin exhibits a critical role in many other disorders that are pathogenetically related to acute tissue ischemia. This article reviews the proposed implications of erythropoietin in tissue ischemia and discusses the possible mechanisms for this action along with its potential therapeutic applications.

  18. Regional heterogeneity in cardiac sympathetic innervation in acute myocardial infarction: relationship with myocardial oedema on magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimelli, Alessia; Masci, Pier Giorgio; Pasanisi, Emilio Maria; Lombardi, Massimo [Fondazione CNR/Regione Toscana, Pisa (Italy); Liga, Riccardo; Grigoratos, Chrysanthos [University Hospital of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Marzullo, Paolo [Fondazione CNR/Regione Toscana, Pisa (Italy); Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR, Pisa (Italy)

    2014-09-15

    To assess the relationships between myocardial structure and function on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and sympathetic tone on {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ({sup 123}I-MIBG) scintigraphy early after myocardial infarction (MI). Ten patients underwent {sup 123}I-MIBG and {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin rest cadmium zinc telluride scintigraphy 4 ± 1 days after MI. The segmental left ventricular (LV) relative radiotracer uptake of both {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and early {sup 123}I-MIBG was calculated. The day after scintigraphy, on CMR imaging, the extent of ischaemia-related oedema and of myocardial fibrosis (late gadolinium enhancement, LGE) was assessed. Accordingly, the extent of oedema and LGE was evaluated for each segment and segmental wall thickening determined. Based on LGE distribution, LV segments were categorized as ''infarcted'' (56 segments), ''adjacent'' (66 segments) or ''remote'' (48 segments). Infarcted segments showed a more depressed systolic wall thickening and greater extent of oedema than adjacent segments (p < 0.001) and remote segments (p < 0.001). Interestingly, while uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin was significantly depressed only in infarcted segments (p < 0.001 vs. both adjacent and remote segments), uptake of {sup 123}I-MIBG was impaired not only in infarcted segments (p < 0.001 vs. remote) but also in adjacent segments (p = 0.024 vs. remote segments). At the regional level, after correction for {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and LGE distribution, segmental {sup 123}I-MIBG uptake (p < 0.001) remained an independent predictor of ischaemia-related oedema. After acute MI the regional impairment of sympathetic tone extends beyond the area of altered myocardial perfusion and is associated with myocardial oedema. (orig.)

  19. Risk factors and prognosis of 46 persistent delirium patients with acute cerebral ischemia%46例急性脑梗死患者谵妄状态持续存在的危险因素及预后分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华杰; 吴坚; 朱林凤; 周建忠; 毛可适

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk factors and prognosis of acute cerebral ischemia patients suffered from persistent delirium. Methods A total of 127 patients suffered from acute cerebral ischemia with delirium were included. To make note each patient’s age, gender, comorbid diseases, previous cognitive function, the type of delirium, scores of NIHSS, MMSE and GCS, length of stay in hospital, scores of modified Barthel index and death, etc. Then analyzed the risk factors and prognosis of the patients with persistent delirium by SPSS17.0. Results 1. There were 46 patients suffered from persistent delirium who account for 36.2 percent of 127 acute cerebral ischemic patients with delirium. 81 patients suffered from non-persistent delirium who account for 63.8 percent. There were no statistical difference in age, gender, previous cognitive function, and scores of NIHSS and GCS between persistent delirium patients and non-persistent delirium patients. 2. The risk factors of acute cerebral ischemic patients who developed persistent delirium are more than three comorbid diseases, pulmonary infection, hypoactive delirium and low MMSE score. 3. The acute cerebral ischemic patients who developed persistent delirium stayed in hospital longer than non-persistent patients. The scores of modified Barthel index of persistent delirium patients were lower than that of non-persistent patients in three months. The death rates of persistent delirium patients were higher than that of non-persistent patients. Conclusion The risk factors of acute cerebral ischemic patients who developed persistent delirium are more than three comorbid diseases, pulmonary infection, hypoactive delirium and low MMSE score. The acute cerebral ischemic patients who developed persistent delirium will stay longer in hospital. Their daily living capability will decrease and their death rates will increase.%目的:观察急性脑梗死患者谵妄状态持续存在的危险因

  20. Non-Specific Inhibition of Ischemia- and Acidosis-Induced Intracellular Calcium Elevations and Membrane Currents by α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, Butylated Hydroxytoluene and Trolox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Katnik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia, and subsequent acidosis, induces neuronal death following brain injury. Oxidative stress is believed to be a key component of this neuronal degeneration. Acute chemical ischemia (azide in the absence of external glucose and acidosis (external media buffered to pH 6.0 produce increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i and inward membrane currents in cultured rat cortical neurons. Two α-tocopherol analogues, trolox and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, and the spin trapping molecule α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN were used to determine the role of free radicals in these responses. PBN and BHT inhibited the initial transient increases in [Ca2+]i, produced by ischemia, acidosis and acidic ischemia and increased steady state levels in response to acidosis and the acidic ischemia. BHT and PBN also potentiated the rate at which [Ca2+]i increased after the initial transients during acidic ischemia. Trolox inhibited peak and sustained increases in [Ca2+]i during ischemia. BHT inhibited ischemia induced initial inward currents and trolox inhibited initial inward currents activated by acidosis and acidic ischemia. Given the inconsistent results obtained using these antioxidants, it is unlikely their effects were due to elimination of free radicals. Instead, it appears these compounds have non-specific effects on the ion channels and exchangers responsible for these responses.

  1. 重组人促红细胞生成素对急性脑缺血大鼠Nrf2及HO-1表达的影响%Effect of recombinant human erythropoietin on expressions of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase-1 in rats after acute cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟华星; 郭军红; 严澎

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the influence of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHEPO) in expressions of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in rats after acute cerebral ischemia, explore the anti-oxidant mechanism of rhEPO. Methods Thirty-six healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into sham-operated group,model group,rhEPO treatment group.The rat models of left middle cerebral artery occlusion in the later 2 groups were induced by suture method.rhEPO (5000 IU/kg) was injected intraperitoneally into the rats ofrhEPO treatment group 2 hafter the success of ischemia model making, while those of the sham-operated group and model groupwere given equal volume of saline.Rats were sacrificed 24 h after ischemia; and the levels of Nrf2 andHO-1 in the brain tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Results The immunohistochemistry showed that,as compared with those in the sham-operated group,the Nrf2- and HO-1- positive cells obviously increased in rats of the model group and rhEPO treatment group (P<0.05),and rats of the rhEPO treatment group had significantly larger numbers of Nrf2- and HO-1- positive cells than rats of the model group (P<0.05); these positive cells were mainly neurons and astrocytes located in ischemic areas.Western blotting also indicated that the expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 were enhanced in the order of sham-operated group, model group and rhEPO treatment group; statistically significant difference was noted between each 2 groups (P<0.05). Conclusion The rhEPO may exert a neuroprotective effect by activating Keap1-Nrf2/ARE pathway after acute cerebral ischemia.%目的 研究重组人促红细胞生成素(rhEPO)对急性脑缺血大鼠脑组织中核因子E2相关性因子2(Nrf2)及血红素加氧酶1(HO-1)表达的影响,探讨rhEPO的抗氧化作用机制. 方法 将36只雄性SD大鼠按随机数字表法分为假手术组、模型组、rhEPO组,后两组采用线栓法制备大

  2. Glial expression of the {beta}-Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) in global ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banati, R.B.; Gehrmann, J.; Kreutzberg, G.W. [Max Planck Institute of Psychiarty, Martinsried (Germany)]|[Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research, Koeln (Germany)]|[Univ. Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1995-07-01

    The {beta}-amyloid precursor protein (APP) bears characteristics of an acute-phase protein and therefore is likely to be involved in the glial response to brain injury. In the brain, APP is rapidly synthesized by activated glial cells in response to comparatively mild neuronal lesions, e.g., a remote peripheral nerve injury. Perfusion deficits in the brain result largely in neuronal necrosis and are a common condition in elderly patients. This neuronal necrosis is accompanied by a pronounced reaction of astrocytes and microglia, which can also be observed in animal models. We have therefore studied in the rat, immunocytochemically, the induction of APP after 30 min of global ischemia caused by four-vessel occlusion. The postischemic brain injuries were examined at survival times from 12 h to 7 days. From day 3 onward, APP immunoreactivity was strongly induced in the CA{sub 1} and CA{sub 4} regions of the rat dorsal hippocampus as well as in the dorsolateral striatum. In these areas, the majority of APP-immunoreactive cells were reactive glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes, as shown by double-immunofluorescence labeling for GFAP and APP. Additionally, small ramified cells, most likely activated microglia, expressed APP immunoreactivity. In contrast, in the parietal cortex, APP immunoreactivity occurred focally in clusters of activated microglia rather than in astrocytes, as demonstrated by double-immunofluorescence labeling for APP and the microglia-binding lectin Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B{sub 4}. In conclusion, following global ischemia, APP is induced in reactive glial cells with spatial differences in the distribution pattern of APP induction in actrocytes and microglia. 51 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgios K Georgiou; Haralampos Harissis; Michalis Mitsis; Haralampos Batsis; Michalis Fatouros

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse.The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy,trauma or surgery,and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention.However,when accumulation of "chyle" occurs rapidly,the patient may present with signs of peritonitis.Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation,appendicitis or visceral ischemia.Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported.Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis.This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis,and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis.The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer,since,due to hypertriglyceridemia,serum amylase values appeared within the normal range.Moreover,abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis.Following abdominal lavage and drainage,the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide.

  4. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

    2012-04-28

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of "chyle" occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide.

  5. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

    2012-04-28

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of "chyle" occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide. PMID:22563182

  6. Efficacy of drug treatment for acute mania differs across geographic regions: An individual patient data meta-analysis of placebo-controlled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welten, Carlijn C M; Koeter, M W J; Wohlfarth, T D; Storosum, J G; van den Brink, W; Gispen-de Wied, C C; Leufkens, H G M; Denys, D A J P

    2015-08-01

    Given globalization trends in the conduct of clinical trials, the external validity of trial results across geographic regions is questioned. The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of treatment in acute mania in bipolar disorder across regions and to explain potential differences by differences in patient characteristics. We performed a meta-analysis of individual patient data from 12 registration studies for the indication acute manic episode of bipolar disorder. Patients (n = 3207) were classified into one of three geographic regions: Europe (n = 981), USA (n = 1270), and other regions (n = 956). Primary outcome measures were mean symptom change score on the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) from baseline to endpoint and responder status (50% improvement form baseline). Effect sizes were significantly smaller in the USA (g = 0.203, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.062-0.344; odds ratio (OR) 1.406, 95% CI 0.998-1.980) than in Europe (g = 0.476, 95% CI 0.200-0.672; OR 2.380, 95% CI 1.682-3.368) or other regions (g = 0.533, 95% CI 0.399-0.667; OR 2.300, 95% CI 1.800-2.941). Regional differences in age, gender, initial severity, body mass index, placebo response, discontinuation rate, and type of compound could not explain the geographic differences in effect. Less severe symptoms at baseline in the US patients did explain some of the difference in responder status between patients in Europe and the USA. These findings suggest that the results of studies involving patients with acute mania cannot be extrapolated across geographic regions. Similar findings have been identified in schizophrenia, contraceptive, and in cardiovascular trials. Therefore, this finding may indicate a more general problem regarding the generalizability of pharmacological trials over geographic regions. PMID:26038109

  7. Experimental myocardial ischemia. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparative effects of meglumine sodium diatrizoate (MSD), sodium meglumine calcium metrizoate (SMCM), and metrizamide (M) were studied in an isolated canine heart preparation. The parameters observed were coronary blood flow (CBF), myocardial contractile force (MCF), positive and negative dF/dt, and perfusion pressure during normal and ischemic perfusion conditions. MSD had an initial negative inotropic effect but baseline MCF returned in 1 min during normal perfusion and 2 min under ischemic conditions. SMCM and M had only a positive inotropic effect under normal perfusion. However, during ischemia, the positive effect of SMCM was followed by a decrease in contractile force. M showed only a positive effect on force during ischemia. Our results indicate that calcium additive may increase the risk of coronary arteriography in patients with severe coronary artery disease. (orig.)

  8. Transplantation of human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells alleviates ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute lung injury after cardiopulmonary bypass%人羊膜间充质干细胞移植减轻体外循环再灌注肺损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强勇; 梁贵友; 余丽梅; 齐斌; 高振宇

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:In recent years, mesenchymal stem cels exhibit a good prospect in organ or tissue repair and therefore, and therefore, cel transplantation based on mesenchymal stem cel plasticity can promote cel regeneration and functional recovery from lung injury after cardiopulmonary bypass. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effects of human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cels (hAMSCs) transplantation on ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute lung injury in dogs after cardiopulmonary bypassand its mechanism for regulating inflammatory cytokines. METHODS:Eighteen adult healthy mongrel dogs were randomly divided into three groups (n=6 per group): black group (cardiopulmonary bypass with 1 mL physiological saline injectionvia the femoral vein without blocking the aorta), control group (cardiopulmonary bypass with blocking the aorta for 1 hour and then opening the aorta for 15 minutes plus 1 mL physiological saline injectionvia the femoral vein), experiment group (cardiopulmonary bypass with blocking the aorta for 1 hour and then opening the aorta for 15 minutes plus femoral vein injection of 1 mL physiological saline containing 2×107 hAMSCs). Arterial blood samples of 2 mL were taken to calculate oxygenation index and respiratory index before cardiopulmonary bypass (T1), 15 minutes (T2), 1 hour (T3), 2 hours (T4), 3 hours (T5) after opening the aorta. 8 mL intravenous blood samples were taken to detect the serum tumor necrosis factor α, matrix metaloproteinase-9, interleukin-8 and interleukin-10 by ELISA. Meanwhile, western blot assay was used to detect the expression of nuclear factor-κB in lung tissues, and histopathological changes of lung tissues observed under optical microscope. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Compared with the control group, the oxygenation index was significantly increased in the experimental group at 2 and 3 hours after transplantation, and the respiratory index was remarkably decreased at 1, 2, 3 hours after transplantation. Compared with the control group

  9. Thrombolysis and neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, M; Díez Tejedor, E; Alonso de Leciñana, M; Fuentes, B; Carceller, F; Roda, J M

    2006-01-01

    Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. The resulting burden on society grows with the increase in the incidence of stroke. The term brain attack was introduced to describe the acute presentation of stroke and emphasize the need for urgent action to remedy the situation. Though a large number of therapeutic agents, like thrombolytics, NMDA receptor antagonists, calcium channel blockers and antioxidants, have been used or are being evaluated, there is still a large gap between the benefits of these agents and the properties of an ideal drug for stroke. So far, only thrombolysis with rtPA within a 3-hour time window has been shown to improve the outcome of patients with ischemic stroke. Understanding the mechanisms of injury and neuroprotection in these diseases is important to target news sites for treating ischemia. Better evaluation of the drugs and increased similarity between the results of animal experimentation and in the clinical setting requires critical assessment of the selection of animal models and the parameters to be evaluated. Our laboratory has employed a rat embolic stroke model to investigate the combination of rtPA with citicoline as compared to monotherapy alone and investigated whether neuroprotection should be provided before or after thrombolysis in order to achieve a greater reduction of ischemic brain damage. PMID:16651822

  10. Calpain system and its involvement in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christiane; Neuhof; Heinz; Neuhof

    2014-01-01

    Calpains are ubiquitous non-lysosomal Ca2+-dependent cysteine proteases also present in myocardial cytosol and mitochondria.Numerous experimental studies reveal an essential role of the calpain system in myocardial injury during ischemia,reperfusion and postischemic structural remodelling.The increasing Ca2+-content and Ca2+-overload in myocardial cytosol and mitochondria during ischemia and reperfusion causes an activation of calpains.Upon activation they are able to injure the contractile apparatus and impair the energy production by cleaving structural and functional proteins of myocytes and mitochondria.Besides their causal involvement in acute myocardial dysfunction they are also involved in structural remodelling after myocardial infarction by the generation and release of proapoptotic factors from mitochondria.Calpain inhibition can prevent or attenuate myocardial injury during ischemia,reperfusion,and in later stages of myocardial infarction.

  11. Hepatocyte growth factor gene therapy reduces ventricular arrhythmia in animal models of myocardial ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumoto,Akihisa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available

    It was recently reported that gene therapy using hepatocyte growth factor (HGF has the potential to preserve cardiac function after myocardial ischemia. We speculated that this HGF gene therapy could also prevent ventricular arrhythmia. To investigate this possibility, we examined the antiarrhythmic effect of HGF gene therapy in rat acute and old myocardial infarction models. Myocardial ischemia was induced by ligation of the left descending coronary artery. Hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ-coated liposome containing HGF genes were injected directly into the myocardium fourteen days before programmed pacing. Ventricular fibrillation (VFwas induced by programmed pacing. The VF duration was reduced and the VF threshold increased after HGF gene therapy ( p< 0.01. Histological analyses revealed that the number of vessels in the ischemic border zone was greatly increased after HGF gene injection. These findings revealed that HGF gene therapy has an anti-arrhythmic effect after myocardial ischemia.

  12. Pure midbrain ischemia and hypoplastic vertebrobasilar circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberti, Nicola; Gamba, Massimo; Costa, Angelo; Vergani, Veronica; Spezi, Raffaella; Pezzini, Alessandro; Volonghi, Irene; Mardighian, Dikran; Gasparotti, Roberto; Padovani, Alessandro; Magoni, Mauro

    2014-02-01

    Isolated midbrain infarction is rare and little is known about etiology and patient's long-term follow up. We aimed to describe the clinical features, the causative diseases and the outcome of patients with isolated midbrain infarction who were admitted to our center, focusing on vascular abnormalities of posterior circulation. All patients with first acute ischemic stroke limited to the midbrain were included and their demographic features, neurological symptoms, neuroimaging data, and cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. Functional outcome, using modified Rankin scale, was assessed at discharge and at the 3 month follow up evaluation. We found nine patients with acute isolated midbrain infarction, representing 0.61 % of all ischemic stroke admitted to our center. The most common cause of stroke was small-vessel disease (88.8 %). At stroke onset, none of the patients had consciousness disturbances, and four patients (44.4 %) had gait impairment, five patients (55.5 %) presented with diplopia due to involvement of the third nerve or fascicular type of third-nerve palsy, seven patients (77.7 %) had vascular anomalies of vertebrobasilar circulation: the most frequent was vertebral artery hypoplasia [four patients (44.4 %)]. At follow up evaluation, seven patients (77.7 %) had a good functional outcome and no patients experienced recurrence of cerebrovascular events. As isolated midbrain infarction is uncommon, specific ocular motor signs, mainly third-nerve palsy, may help to identify and localize the mesencephalic infarct. Abnormalities in vertebrobasilar circulation, such as hypoplastic basilar or vertebral artery, are frequently associated with isolated midbrain ischemia. The hypoplastic vertebrobasilar system may predispose to posterior ischemic stroke.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Ischemia Viability Thresholds and the Neurovascular Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Barber

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging has improved our understanding of the evolution of stroke at discreet time points helping to identify irreversibly damaged and potentially reversible ischemic brain. Neuroimaging has also contributed considerably to the basic premise of acute stroke therapy which is to salvage some portion of the ischemic region from evolving into infarction, and by doing so, maintaining brain function and improving outcome. The term neurovascular unit (NVU broadens the concept of the ischemic penumbra by linking the microcirculation with neuronal-glial interactions during ischemia reperfusion. Strategies that attempt to preserve the individual components (endothelium, glia and neurons of the NVU are unlikely to be helpful if blood flow is not fully restored to the microcirculation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is the foremost imaging technology able to bridge both basic science and the clinic via non-invasive real time high-resolution anatomical delineation of disease manifestations at the molecular and ionic level. Current MRI based technologies have focused on the mismatch between perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI signals to estimate the tissue that could be saved if reperfusion was achieved. Future directions of MRI may focus on the discordance of recanalization and reperfusion, providing complimentary pathophysiological information to current compartmental paradigms of infarct core (DWI and penumbra (PWI with imaging information related to cerebral blood flow, BBB permeability, inflammation, and oedema formation in the early acute phase. In this review we outline advances in our understanding of stroke pathophysiology with imaging, transcending animal stroke models to human stroke, and describing the potential translation of MRI to image important interactions relevant to acute stroke at the interface of the neurovascular unit.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of ischemia viability thresholds and the neurovascular unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Philip A

    2013-05-27

    Neuroimaging has improved our understanding of the evolution of stroke at discreet time points helping to identify irreversibly damaged and potentially reversible ischemic brain. Neuroimaging has also contributed considerably to the basic premise of acute stroke therapy which is to salvage some portion of the ischemic region from evolving into infarction, and by doing so, maintaining brain function and improving outcome. The term neurovascular unit (NVU) broadens the concept of the ischemic penumbra by linking the microcirculation with neuronal-glial interactions during ischemia reperfusion. Strategies that attempt to preserve the individual components (endothelium, glia and neurons) of the NVU are unlikely to be helpful if blood flow is not fully restored to the microcirculation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the foremost imaging technology able to bridge both basic science and the clinic via non-invasive real time high-resolution anatomical delineation of disease manifestations at the molecular and ionic level. Current MRI based technologies have focused on the mismatch between perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) signals to estimate the tissue that could be saved if reperfusion was achieved. Future directions of MRI may focus on the discordance of recanalization and reperfusion, providing complimentary pathophysiological information to current compartmental paradigms of infarct core (DWI) and penumbra (PWI) with imaging information related to cerebral blood flow, BBB permeability, inflammation, and oedema formation in the early acute phase. In this review we outline advances in our understanding of stroke pathophysiology with imaging, transcending animal stroke models to human stroke, and describing the potential translation of MRI to image important interactions relevant to acute stroke at the interface of the neurovascular unit.

  15. Bumetanide promotes neural precursor cell regeneration and dendritic development in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-shu Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bumetanide has been shown to lessen cerebral edema and reduce the infarct area in the acute stage of cerebral ischemia. Few studies focus on the effects of bumetanide on neuroprotection and neurogenesis in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia. We established a rat model of cerebral ischemia by injecting endothelin-1 in the left cortical motor area and left corpus striatum. Seven days later, bumetanide 200 µg/kg/day was injected into the lateral ventricle for 21 consecutive days with a mini-osmotic pump. Results demonstrated that the number of neuroblasts cells and the total length of dendrites increased, escape latency reduced, and the number of platform crossings increased in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia. These findings suggest that bumetanide promoted neural precursor cell regeneration, dendritic development and the recovery of cognitive function, and protected brain tissue in the chronic stage of ischemia.

  16. Bumetanide promotes neural precursor cell regeneration and dendritic development in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang-shu Xu; Xuan Sun; Cheng-guang Song; Xiao-peng Mu; Wen-ping Ma; Xing-hu Zhang; Chuan-sheng Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Bumetanide has been shown to lessen cerebral edema and reduce the infarct area in the acute stage of cerebral ischemia. Few studies focus on the effects of bumetanide on neuroprotection and neurogenesis in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia. We established a rat model of cerebral ischemia by injecting endothelin-1 in the left cortical motor area and left corpus striatum. Seven days later, bumeta-nide 200 µg/kg/day was injected into the lateral ventricle for 21 consecutive days with a mini-osmotic pump. Results demonstrated that the number of neuroblasts cells and the total length of dendrites increased, escape latency reduced, and the number of platform crossings increased in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia. These ifndings suggest that bumetanide promoted neural precursor cell regeneration, dendritic development and the recovery of cognitive function, and protected brain tissue in the chronic stage of ischemia.

  17. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in spinal cord ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal cord infarction is a rare clinical diagnosis characterized by a sudden onset of paralysis, bowel and bladder dysfunction, and loss of pain and temperature perception, with preservation of proprioception and vibration sense. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) usually demonstrates intramedullary hyperintensity on T2-weighted MR images with cord enlargement. However, in approximately 45% of patients, MR shows no abnormality. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) has been widely used for the evaluation of a variety of brain disorders, especially for acute stroke. Preliminary data suggest that DWI has the potential to be useful in the early detection of spinal infarction. We performed DWI, using navigated, interleaved, multishot echo planar imaging (IEPI), in a series of six patients with a clinical suspicion of acute spinal cord ischemia. In all patients, high signal was observed on isotropic DWI images with low ADC values (0.23 and 0.86 x 10-3 cm2/s), indicative of restricted diffusion. We analyzed the imaging findings from conventional MR sequences and diffusion-weighted MR sequences in six patients with spinal cord infarction, compared the findings with those in published series, and discuss the value of DWI in spinal cord ischemia based on current experience. Although the number of patients with described DWI findings totals only 23, the results of previously published studies and those of our study suggest that DWI has the potential to be a useful and feasible technique for the detection of spinal infarction. (orig.)

  18. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in spinal cord ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurnher, Majda M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, Vienna (Austria); Bammer, Roland [Stanford University, Lucas MRS/I Center, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2006-11-15

    Spinal cord infarction is a rare clinical diagnosis characterized by a sudden onset of paralysis, bowel and bladder dysfunction, and loss of pain and temperature perception, with preservation of proprioception and vibration sense. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) usually demonstrates intramedullary hyperintensity on T2-weighted MR images with cord enlargement. However, in approximately 45% of patients, MR shows no abnormality. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) has been widely used for the evaluation of a variety of brain disorders, especially for acute stroke. Preliminary data suggest that DWI has the potential to be useful in the early detection of spinal infarction. We performed DWI, using navigated, interleaved, multishot echo planar imaging (IEPI), in a series of six patients with a clinical suspicion of acute spinal cord ischemia. In all patients, high signal was observed on isotropic DWI images with low ADC values (0.23 and 0.86 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2}/s), indicative of restricted diffusion. We analyzed the imaging findings from conventional MR sequences and diffusion-weighted MR sequences in six patients with spinal cord infarction, compared the findings with those in published series, and discuss the value of DWI in spinal cord ischemia based on current experience. Although the number of patients with described DWI findings totals only 23, the results of previously published studies and those of our study suggest that DWI has the potential to be a useful and feasible technique for the detection of spinal infarction. (orig.)

  19. Immediate treatment effects of high-dose methotrexate and cranial irradiation on neuropsychological functions of children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia at a regional cancer center

    OpenAIRE

    Sundaramoorthy Chidambaram; Arun Seshachalam; Vidhubala Elangovan; Rejiv Rajendranath

    2014-01-01

    Context: Overall cure rates for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have improved; however, the neuropsychological sequelae of ALL treatment have not been adequately documented in India. Aims: The present study assesses the immediate effects of ALL treatment on neuropsychological functioning, at the Regional Cancer Center in Chennai, South India. Materials and Methods: Newly diagnosed with ALL patients (n = 24) (aged 6-15 years; 13M:11F) registered between March 2008 and February 200...

  20. INFLUENCE OF SEASON PATTERN ON PREVALENCE AND SEVERITY OF ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION, FUNCTION OF HEMOSTASIS IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DESEASE OF CLIMATE AREA OF MIDDLE VOLGA REGION

    OpenAIRE

    O.K. Rybak; A.N. Burlaka; N.P. Ivannikova; Burlaka, A. P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate season pattern, severity and outcome of acute myocardial infarction in dependence of yearly patterns of function of hemostasis in middle Volga Region. Season pattern of prevalence myocardial infarction with winter peak was discovered, be accompanied of increase platelet aggregation, deterioration of blood viscosity, fibrinolysis depression. Most serious clinical course of summer myocardial infarction was observed with prosperity of hemostasis.

  1. INFLUENCE OF SEASON PATTERN ON PREVALENCE AND SEVERITY OF ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION, FUNCTION OF HEMOSTASIS IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DESEASE OF CLIMATE AREA OF MIDDLE VOLGA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.K. Rybak

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate season pattern, severity and outcome of acute myocardial infarction in dependence of yearly patterns of function of hemostasis in middle Volga Region. Season pattern of prevalence myocardial infarction with winter peak was discovered, be accompanied of increase platelet aggregation, deterioration of blood viscosity, fibrinolysis depression. Most serious clinical course of summer myocardial infarction was observed with prosperity of hemostasis.

  2. Transplantation of human neural stem/progenitor cells overexpressing galectin-1 improves functional recovery from focal brain ischemia in the mongolian gerbil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamane Junichi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transplantation of human neural stem/progenitor cells (hNSPCs is a promising method to regenerate tissue from damage and recover function in various neurological diseases including brain ischemia. Galectin-1(Gal1 is a lectin that is expressed in damaged brain areas after ischemia. Here, we characterized the detailed Gal1 expression pattern in an animal model of brain ischemia. After brain ischemia, Gal1 was expressed in reactive astrocytes within and around the infarcted region, and its expression diminished over time. Previously, we showed that infusion of human Gal1 protein (hGal1 resulted in functional recovery after brain ischemia but failed to reduce the volume of the ischemic region. This prompted us to examine whether the combination of hNSPCs-transplantation and stable delivery of hGal1 around the ischemic region could reduce the ischemic volume and promote better functional recovery after brain ischemia. In this study, we transplanted hNSPCs that stably overexpressed hGal1 (hGal1-hNSPCs in a model of unilateral focal brain ischemia using Mongolian gerbils. Indeed, we found that transplantation of hGal1-hNSPCs both reduced the ischemic volume and improved deficits in motor function after brain ischemia to a greater extent than the transplantation of hNSPCs alone. This study provides evidence for a potential application of hGal1 with hNSPCs-transplantation in the treatment of brain ischemia.

  3. Characteristics of global cerebral ischemia models constructed by modified four-vessel occlusion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinbao Li; Lai Jiang; Hua Xu; Yuanchang Xiong; Xiaoming Deng

    2006-01-01

    (n =15): ischemia 15 minutes and reperfusion 180 minutes. ② Preparation of the model of global cerebral ischemia: Four-vessel occlusion- induced global cerebral ischemia rat models were modified, I.e. Bilateral vertebral arteries could be electrocauterized and blocked, and bilateral common carotid arteries were enclosed with 10-0 suture loosely. On the second day, keeping the animal awake, the suture was tightened and kept tense to block the blood flow of bilateral common carotid artery. After certain duration of ischemia, the suture was cut off and drawn out, thus the reperfusion of bilateral common carotid artery was resumed. ③Observation of physiological indexes: VSM hemodynamic monitor and temperature monitor (Thermal ert TH-5,U.S.A) were used to record and measure the changes of blood pressure, rectal temperature, brain temperature ,arterial blood gas and other physiological indexes of the rats in the control group before, 5 and 15 minutes after ischemia and 10,30,60,120 and 180 minutes after reperfusion. ④Preparation of brain tissue pathological samples: Except for ischemia control group, rats of other groups were anesthetized and their brain tissues were harvested and subjected to haematoxylin and eosin staining at 72 hours after reperfusion. ⑤ Evaluation of pathological change of brain tissue: The coronal plane of anterior commissure of cerebrum was used to evaluate corpora striatum, and the coronal plane of anterior hippocampus was used to evaluate hippocampal CA1/2 region, CA3 region and CA4 region, subiculum, superior pyramidal lobe and inferior pyramidal lobe of dentate gyrus as well as neocortex. Irreversible neuronal damage included pyknotic cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and trachychromatic nucleus, homogenous cytoplasm and naked nucleus. Neurons without the above changes were considered to be normal. The number of normal neurons in the above-mentioned brain regions was counted under the microscope. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① The changes of

  4. Ischemic preconditioning reduces the severity of ischemia-reperfusion injury of peripheral nerve in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurutas Ergul

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim Allow for protection of briefly ischemic tissues against the harmful effects of subsequent prolonged ischemia is a phenomennon called as Ischemic Preconditioning (IP. IP has not been studied in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R model of peripheral nerve before. We aimed to study the effects of acute IP on I/R injury of peripheral nerve in rats. Method 70 adult male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups in part 1 experimentation and 3 groups in part 2 experimentation. A rat model of severe nerve ischemia which was produced by tying iliac arteries and all idenfiable anastomotic vessels with a silk suture (6-0 was used to study the effects of I/R and IP on nerve biochemistry. The suture technique used was a slip-knot technique for rapid release at time of reperfusion in the study. Cytoplasmic vacuolar degeneration was also histopathologically evaluated by light microscopic examination in sciatic nerves of rats at 7th day in part 2 study. Results 3 hours of Reperfusion resulted in an increase in nerve malondialdehyde levels when compared with ischemia and non-ischemia groups (p 0.05. There was also a significant decrease in vacoular degeneration of sciatic nerves in IP group than I/R group (p Conclusion IP reduces the severity of I/R injury in peripheral nerve as shown by reduced tissue MDA levels at 3 th hour of reperfusion and axonal vacoulization at 7 th postischemic day.

  5. Spreading Depolarizations: A Therapeutic Target Against Delayed Cerebral Ischemia After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, David Y; Oka, Fumiaki; Ayata, Cenk

    2016-06-01

    Delayed cerebral ischemia is the most feared cause of secondary injury progression after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Initially thought to be a direct consequence of large artery spasm and territorial ischemia, recent data suggests that delayed cerebral ischemia represents multiple concurrent and synergistic mechanisms, including microcirculatory dysfunction, inflammation, and microthrombosis. Among these mechanisms, spreading depolarizations (SDs) are arguably the most elusive and underappreciated in the clinical setting. Although SDs have been experimentally detected and examined since the late 1970s, their widespread occurrence in human brain was not unequivocally demonstrated until relatively recently. We now know that SDs occur with very high incidence in human brain after ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke and trauma, and worsen outcomes by increasing metabolic demand, decreasing blood supply, predisposing to seizure activity, and possibly worsening brain edema. In this review, we discuss the causes and consequences of SDs in injured brain. Although much of our mechanistic knowledge comes from experimental models of focal cerebral ischemia, clinical data suggest that the same principles apply regardless of the mode of injury (i.e., ischemia, hemorrhage, or trauma). The hope is that a better fundamental understanding of SDs will lead to novel therapeutic interventions to prevent SD occurrence and its adverse consequences contributing to injury progression in subarachnoid hemorrhage and other forms of acute brain injury. PMID:27258442

  6. Valeriana officinalis Extracts Ameliorate Neuronal Damage by Suppressing Lipid Peroxidation in the Gerbil Hippocampus Following Transient Cerebral Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dae Young; Jung, Hyo Young; Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Jong Whi; Choi, Jung Hoon; Kwak, Youn-Gil; Yoo, Miyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Hwang, In Koo

    2015-06-01

    As a medicinal plant, the roots of Valeriana officinalis have been used as a sedative and tranquilizer. In the present study, we evaluated the neuroprotective effects of valerian root extracts (VE) on the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils after 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia. Gerbils were administered VE orally once a day for 3 weeks, subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury, and continued on VE for 3 weeks. The administration of 100 mg/kg VE (VE100 group) significantly reduced the ischemia-induced spontaneous motor hyperactivity 1 day after ischemia/reperfusion. Four days after ischemia/reperfusion, animals treated with VE showed abundant cresyl violet-positive neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region when compared to the vehicle or 25 mg/kg VE-treated groups. In addition, the VE treatment markedly decreased microglial activation in the hippocampal CA1 region 4 days after ischemia. Compared to the other groups, the VE100 group showed the lowest level of lipid peroxidation during the first 24 h after ischemia/reperfusion. In summary, the findings in this study suggest that pretreatment with VE has protective effects against ischemic injury in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons by decreasing microglial activation and lipid peroxidation. PMID:25785762

  7. Flow heterogeneity following global no-flow ischemia in isolated rabbit heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate flow heterogeneity and impaired reflow during reperfusion following 60 min global no-flow ischemia in the isolated rabbit heart. Radiolabeled microspheres were used to measure relative flow in small left ventricular (LV) segments in five ischemia + reperfused hearts and in five non-ischemic controls. Although variable in the post-ischemic hearts, flow heterogeneity was increased relative to pre-ischemia for the whole LV (0.92 plus or minus 0.41 vs. 0.37 plus or minus 0.07, P < 0.05) as well as the subendocardium (Endo) and subepicardium (Epi) considered separately (endo: 1.28 plus or minus 0.74 vs. 0.30 plus or minus 0.09; epi: 0.69 plus or minus 0.22 vs. 0.38 plus or minus 0.08; P < 0.05 for both comparisons) during early reperfusion. There were also segments with abnormally reduced reflow. The number of segments with abnormally reduced reflow increased as flow heterogeneity increased. Abnormally reduced reflow indicates that regional ischemia can persist despite restoration of normal global flow. In addition, the relationship between regional and global flow is altered and venous outflow is derived from regions with continued perfusion and not the whole LV. These observations emphasize the need to quantify regional reflow during reperfusion following sustained no-flow ischemia in the isolated rabbit heart

  8. Flow heterogeneity following global no-flow ischemia in isolated rabbit heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Robert C.; Powers-Risius, Patricia; Reutter, Bryan W.; Schustz, Amy M.; Kuo, Chaincy; Huesman, Michelle K.; Huesman, Ronald H.

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate flow heterogeneity and impaired reflow during reperfusion following 60 min global no-flow ischemia in the isolated rabbit heart. Radiolabeled microspheres were used to measure relative flow in small left ventricular (LV) segments in five ischemia + reperfused hearts and in five non-ischemic controls. Although variable in the post-ischemic hearts, flow heterogeneity was increased relative to pre-ischemia for the whole LV (0.92 plus or minus 0.41 vs. 0.37 plus or minus 0.07, P < 0.05) as well as the subendocardium (Endo) and subepicardium (Epi) considered separately (endo: 1.28 plus or minus 0.74 vs. 0.30 plus or minus 0.09; epi: 0.69 plus or minus 0.22 vs. 0.38 plus or minus 0.08; P < 0.05 for both comparisons) during early reperfusion. There were also segments with abnormally reduced reflow. The number of segments with abnormally reduced reflow increased as flow heterogeneity increased. Abnormally reduced reflow indicates that regional ischemia can persist despite restoration of normal global flow. In addition, the relationship between regional and global flow is altered and venous outflow is derived from regions with continued perfusion and not the whole LV. These observations emphasize the need to quantify regional reflow during reperfusion following sustained no-flow ischemia in the isolated rabbit heart.

  9. Reconsideration of Hemodynamic Cerebral Ischemia Using Recent PET/SPECT Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawara, Jyoji

    2016-01-01

    Hemodynamic cerebral ischemia has been conceptually confirmed by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, and misery perfusion could be compensated with both vascular and metabolic reserve; however, these compensatory reserve capacities do not always respond in the same manner from short-term to long-term compromise of hemodynamic cerebral ischemia.In patients with acute misery perfusion, CMRO2 is immediately compensated by a marked increase of OEF combined with a limited increase of CBV. In patients with chronic misery perfusion, a moderate increase of OEF is compatible with a moderate increase of CBV, which could correlate with a moderate decrease of vascular reserve (VR). In moyamoya disease with long-standing misery perfusion, hemodynamic cerebral ischemia is initially compensated with a great deal of vasodilation, and can then be followed with an increased OEF in response to the degree of progression.The stage of hemodynamic cerebral ischemia has been defined by an increase of OEF, but could be reconsidered from different patterns of the engagement of compensatory reserve capacities, and misery perfusion could be classified into three subtypes, such as acute, chronic, and long-standing misery perfusion. PMID:27637635

  10. AG490 suppresses EPO-mediated activation of JAK2-STAT but enhances blood flow recovery in rats with critical limb ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Han-Tan; Yip, Hon-Kan; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Hsu, Shu-Yuan; Leu, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Background Erythropoietin (EPO) has been demonstrated to enhance recovery in ischemic organs through enhancing angiogenesis. In this study, we used an experimental critical limb ischemia (CLI) rat model to reveal the underlying mechanisms and directly examine the benefits of the anti-apoptotic capacity of EPO in the acute phase of limb ischemia and following blood flow recovery. Methods To determine the role of the JAK2/STAT pathway in EPO-enhanced recovery after CLI, male Sprague-Dawley rats...

  11. Non-Specific Inhibition of Ischemia- and Acidosis-Induced Intracellular Calcium Elevations and Membrane Currents by α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, Butylated Hydroxytoluene and Trolox

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Katnik; Javier Cuevas

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia, and subsequent acidosis, induces neuronal death following brain injury. Oxidative stress is believed to be a key component of this neuronal degeneration. Acute chemical ischemia (azide in the absence of external glucose) and acidosis (external media buffered to pH 6.0) produce increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+] i ) and inward membrane currents in cultured rat cortical neurons. Two α-tocopherol analogues, trolox and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and the spin t...

  12. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 and pancreatic trypsin in the intestinal wall:a contribution to the understanding of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Rosário, Henrique Baptista Colaço Sobral do, 1971-

    2009-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Medicina (Bioquímica), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Medicina, 2009 Ischemia reperfusion of the intestine produces a set of inflammatory mediators, the origin of which has recently been shown to involve pancreatic digestive enzymes. Matrix metalloproteinase‐9 (MMP‐9) participates in a variety of inflammatory processes including myocardial, hepatic, and pancreatic ischemia reperfusion. In the present study, we explore the role of neutrophil‐derived MMP‐9 in acut...

  13. Retinal ischemia and embolism. Causes and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijman, C.A.C.

    2007-01-01

    The ocular fundus allows direct visualization of the retinal vasculature, blood vessels that are part of the cerebral circulation. Unraveling the causes of retinal ischemia may provide further insight in the pathophysiological processes that underlie cerebral ischemia. The primary aim of the studies

  14. Preconditioning with L-alanyl-L-glutamine in a Mongolian Gerbil model of acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury Pré-condicionamento com L-alanil-L-glutamina em modelo de isquemia/reperfusão cerebral aguda em Gerbils da Mongólia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Leite de Sousa Pires

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of L-alanyl-L-glutamine (L-Ala-Gln preconditioning in an acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R model in gerbils. METHODS: Thirty-six Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus, (60-100g, were randomized in 2 groups (n=18 and preconditioned with saline 2.0 ml (Group-S or 0.75g/Kg of L-Ala-Gln, (Group-G administered into the femoral vein 30 minutes prior to I/R. Each group was divided into three subgroups (n=6. Anesthetized animals (urethane, 1.5g/Kg, i.p. were submitted to bilateral occlusion of common carotid arteries during 15 minutes. Samples (brain tissue and arterial blood were collected at the end of ischemia (T0 and after 30 (T30 and 60 minutes (T60 for glucose, lactate, myeloperoxidase (MPO, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, glutathione (GSH assays and histopathological evaluation. RESULTS: Glucose and lactate levels were not different in studied groups. However glycemia increased significantly in saline groups at the end of the reperfusion period. TBARS levels were significantly different, comparing treated (Group-G and control group after 30 minutes of reperfusion (pOBJETIVO: Investigar o efeito do pré-condicionamento com L-alanil-L-glutamina (L-Ala-Gln em gerbils submetidos à isquemia/reperfusão (I/R cerebral aguda. MÉTODOS: Trinta e seis gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus (60-100g foram divididos em dois grupos (n=18 e pré-condicionados com 2,0 ml de soro fisiológico (Grupo-S ou 0.75g/kg de L-Ala-Gln, (Grupo-G, administrados na veia femoral 30 minutos antes da I / R. Cada grupo foi dividido em três subgrupos (n=6.Animais anestesiados com uretano, 1.5g/kg, ip, foram submetidos à oclusão bilateral das artérias carótidas comuns, durante 15 minutos. Amostras (tecido cerebral e sangue arterial foram coletadas no final da isquemia (T0 e após 30 (T30 e 60 minutos (T60 para a aferição das concentrações de glicose, lactato, mieloperoxidase (MPO, substâncias reagentes ao

  15. Local lysis with Alteplase for the treatment of acute embolic leg ischemia following the use of the Duett {sup trademark} closure device: preliminary results; Lokale Alteplase-Lyse zur Therapie der akuten embolischen Beinischaemie nach Einsatz des Duett {sup trademark} -Verschluss-Systems: vorlaeufige Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuermann, K.; Buecker, A.; Wingen, M.; Tacke, J.; Wein, B.; Guenther, R.W. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik des Universitaetsklinikums der RWTH Aachen (Germany); Janssens, U. [Medizinische Klinik I (Kardiologie) des Universitaetsklinikums der RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    Purpose: To analyze retrospectively the result of the alteplase lysis therapy of embolic complications following the use of the Duett closure device. Methods and Materials: For 3.5 years, the Duett closure device was used in 1,398 angiographies to close the femoral puncture site. The Duett device consists of a balloon and a liquid procoagulant containing collagen and thrombin, which is injected into the puncture tract under endovascular balloon protection of the arterial puncture site. In 9 patients (0.64%), the procoagulant was incidentally injected into the femoral artery causing acute leg ischemia. Eight patients received local lysis therapy with alteplase via a contralateral femoral access. One patient underwent surgery. On average, 21 mg alteplase (4-35 mg) were administered within 14 h (4-21 h). The course of the lysis was followed angiographyically and clinically. All patients were inteerviewed by telephone 23 months (4-35 months) later.Results: In 3 patients, lysis was complete. In 5 patients, only little thrombotic material remained. In all patients, symptoms of ischemia resolved completely within the first hours after initiation of lysis. In 5 cases, bleeding occurred at the puncture site closed with the Duett device during lysis, including development of a false aneurysm in 2 cases. Complications led to premature termination (n=2) or interruption of the lysis (n=3). All complications were treated conservatively. Clinically, long-term sequelae were paresthesia and hypoesthesia in the lower leg and foot in 2 patients treated with lysis, and in the patient who underwent surgery. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Das Ergebnis der Alteplase-Lysetherapie von Embolien nach Einsatz des Duett-Verschluss-Systems wurde retrospektiv untersucht. Methoden: Innerhalb von 3,5 Jahren wurde nach 1398 Angiographien das Duett-System zum Verschluss der femoralen Punktionsstelle eingesetzt. Das System besteht aus einem Ballon und einem fluessigen Prokoagulans (Kollagen, Thrombin), das

  16. Effect of scalp-acupuncture on expression of PSA-NCAM in acute cerebral ischemia rats%头针对脑缺血大鼠唾液酸-神经细胞黏附分子表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓艳; 张红星; 邹燃; 黄国付; 王琼; 刘银妮

    2011-01-01

    Objective It is to research the effect of scalp-acupuncture ( SA ) on expression of ( polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule , PSA - NCAM ) in acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury rats, and to explore the mechanisms of SA in treating for cerebral ischemia. Methods Models of middle cerebral artery occlusion( MCAO ) were established hy line ligation method, and the models were divided into 3sets respectively according to ischemic time( 7 d, 14 d, 28 d ), and each set was 10. SA rats were treated after MCAO experimenls( 1 time each day until death ). Each set rats were injected hromodeoxyuridine( BrdU )solution into abdomen. Neurological severity scores ( NSS ) was applied for each phase point rats. BrdU/PSANCAM positive cells of each set were observed with immunofluorescence assay( IFA ). Results On NSS at each phase point:SA group demonstrated obviously declined at 28d comparing with that of model group( P < 0. 05 ). On observation of positive cells at each group, model group and SA group significantly increased in contrast to sham group. A clearly difference could be seen on positive cells of SA group comparing with that of model group at each phase point. Conclusion SA can promote the expression of PSA - NCAM and the migration of ( neural stem cells , NSCs ),which will be benefit for the neurologic impairmentand protect the brain tissue to some extent.%目的 研究头针对脑缺血再灌注大鼠唾液酸-神经细胞黏附分子(PSA-NCAM)表达的影响,探讨头针治疗脑缺血病的作用机制.方法 采用线栓法制作成大脑中动脉闭阻(MCAO)模型,各组大鼠又按照缺血时间(7d、14d、28d)分为3个亚组,每个时相点10只.头针组动物于栓塞再灌注成功后即行头针治疗,每日1次,直至处死前.各组大鼠处死前1d腹腔注射5-溴脱氧尿核苷(BrdU)液.对各亚组大鼠行神经功能缺损评分(NSS),免疫荧光法计数各组大鼠海马区(DG)BrdU/ PSA-NCAM阳性双标细胞.结果 第28天头针

  17. An optimal dose of tea polyphenols protects against global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianrui Lv; Junbin Tian; Rongliang Xue; Jing Zhao; Xin Wei; Hui Gao; Rongguo Fu; Gang Wu; Wei Li; Xiaoming Lei

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies addressing the protection of tea polyphenols against cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion injury often use focal cerebral ischemia models, and the optimal dose is not unified. In this experiment, a cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury rat model was established using a modified four-vessel occlusion method. Rats were treated with different doses of tea polyphenols (25, 50, 100, 150, 200 mg/kg) via intraperitoneal injection. Results showed that after 2, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of reperfusion, peroxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant capacity in brain tissue gradually increased, while malondialdehyde content gradually decreased after tea polyphenol intervention. Tea polyphenols at 200 mg/kg resulted in the most apparent changes. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling and flow cytometry showed that 200 mg/kg tea polyphenols significantly reduced the number and percentage of apoptotic cells in the hippocampal CA1 region of rats after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. The open field test and elevated plus maze experiments showed that tea polyphenols at 200 mg/kg strengthened exploratory behavior and reduced anxiety of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injured rats. Experimental findings indicate that tea polyphenols protected rats against cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion injury and 200 mg/kg is regarded as the optimal dose.

  18. Exogenous alpha-1-acid glycoprotein protects against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibition of inflammation and apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, B; Walter, SJ; Wolfs, TGAM; Hochepied, T; Rabina, J; Heeringa, P; Parkkinen, J; Libert, C; Buurman, WA

    2004-01-01

    Background. Although ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury represents a major problem in posttransplant organ failure, effective treatment is not available. The acute phase protein a-l-acid glycoprotein (AGP) has been shown to be protective against experimental I/R injury. The effects of AGP are thought

  19. Delayed hippocampal neuronal death in young gerbil following transient global cerebral ischemia is related to higher and longer-term expression of p63 in the ischemic hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Joo Bae

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The tumor suppressor p63 is one of p53 family members and plays a vital role as a regulator of neuronal apoptosis in the development of the nervous system. However, the role of p63 in mature neuronal death has not been addressed yet. In this study, we first compared ischemia-induced effects on p63 expression in the hippocampal regions (CA1- 3 between the young and adult gerbils subjected to 5 minutes of transient global cerebral ischemia. Neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region of young gerbils was significantly slow compared with that in the adult gerbils after transient global cerebral ischemia. p63 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in the sham-operated young group was significantly low compared with that in the sham-operated adult group. p63 immunoreactivity was apparently changed in ischemic hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in both ischemia-operated young and adult groups. In the ischemia-operated adult groups, p63 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was significantly decreased at 4 days post-ischemia; however, p63 immunoreactivity in the ischemia-operated young group was significantly higher than that in the ischemia-operated adult group. At 7 days post-ischemia, p63 immunoreactivity was decreased in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in both ischemia-operated young and adult groups. Change patterns of p63 level in the hippocampal CA1 region of adult and young gerbils after ischemic damage were similar to those observed in the immunohistochemical results. These findings indicate that higher and longer-term expression of p63 in the hippocampal CA1 region of the young gerbils after ischemia/reperfusion may be related to more delayed neuronal death compared to that in the adults.

  20. Delayed hippocampal neuronal death in young gerbil following transient global cerebral ischemia is related to higher and longer-term expression of p63 in the ischemic hippocampus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eun Joo Bae; Seongkweon Hong; Dong Won Kim; Jun Hwi Cho; Yun Lyul Lee; Moo-Ho Won; Joon Ha Park; Bai Hui Chen; Bing Chun Yan; Bich Na Shin; Jeong Hwi Cho; In Hye Kim; Ji Hyeon Ahn; Jae Chul Lee; Hyun-Jin Tae

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p63 is one of p53 family members and plays a vital role as a regulator of neuronal apoptosis in the development of the nervous system. However, the role of p63 in mature neuronal death has not been addressed yet. In this study, we ifrst compared ischemia-in-duced effects on p63 expression in the hippocampal regions (CA1–3) between the young and adult gerbils subjected to 5 minutes of transient global cerebral ischemia. Neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region of young gerbils was signiifcantly slow compared with that in the adult gerbils after transient global cerebral ischemia. p63 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in the sham-operated young group was signiifcantly low compared with that in the sham-operated adult group. p63 immunoreactivity was apparently changed in ischemic hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in both ischemia-operated young and adult groups. In the ischemia-operated adult groups, p63 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was signiifcantly decreased at 4 days post-ischemia;however, p63 immunoreactivity in the ischemia-operated young group was signiifcantly higher than that in the ischemia-operated adult group. At 7 days post-ischemia, p63 immunoreactivity was decreased in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in both ischemia-operated young and adult groups. Change patterns of p63 level in the hippocampal CA1 region of adult and young gerbils after ischemic damage were similar to those observed in the immunohistochemical results. These ifndings indicate that higher and longer-term expression of p63 in the hippocampal CA1 region of the young gerbils after ischemia/reperfusion may be related to more delayed neuronal death compared to that in the adults.

  1. Acute Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on ST Segment Height: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The mechanisms for the relationship between particulate air pollution and cardiac disease are not fully understood. Air pollution-induced myocardial ischemia is one of the potentially important mechanisms. Methods: We investigate the acute effects and the time cours...

  2. Hypothermia protects somatostatinergic neurons in rat dentate hilus from zinc accumulation and cell death after cerebral ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Flemming Fryd; Tønder, N.; Berg, Michael;

    1993-01-01

    Neuropathology, dentate hilus, cerebral ischemia, ischemia, rat, hippocampus, somatostatin, zinc, hyperthermia......Neuropathology, dentate hilus, cerebral ischemia, ischemia, rat, hippocampus, somatostatin, zinc, hyperthermia...

  3. Effect of the Discharging Rate on Ischemia-Reperfusion Inj ury in Bladder of Patients with Acute Urinary Retention%放尿速度对急性尿潴留患者膀胱缺血再灌注损伤的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桂君; 刘忆菁; 曹凤; 益雯艳

    2015-01-01

    Obj ective To observe the effect of the discharging rate on ischemia-reperfusion inj ury in bladder of patients with acute urinary retention.Methods By Convenience sampling,90 cases were randomly divided into ob-servation group A,observation group B and control group,with 30 cases in each group.Three different rates were set when discharging,and the urinary sample on before urination (T1),during urination (T2),600ml (T3),800 ml (T4)and 0.5h after urination (T5)were collected.According to the rate of discharging on acute urinary reten-tion.Clinical efficacies of 3 groups were observed,RBC、WBC in urine were observed before(T1)and after voiding (T2,T3,T4,T5).The isomorphic red blood cell,white blood cell,number of epithelial cells,heart rate and blood pressure were measured and compared among three groups of patients.Results The isomorphic red blood cell, white blood cell,number of epithelial cells at T2,T3 and T4 in observation group were less than which in control group(P0.05). Conclusion It is better to keep the discharge rate at 150ml/min,and the initial urination volume of 400 ml after acute urinary retention which can reduce the damage of bladder histocyte.%目的:了解放尿速度对急性尿潴留(actue urinary retention,AUR)患者膀胱缺血再灌注损伤的影响。方法便利抽样法选择,2014年6-12月在上海市第七人民医院泌尿外科门诊就诊的突发 AUR患者90例为研究对象,按就诊先后将其分为对照组、观察组 A、观察组 B 各30例,放尿时设置3种不同的流速,并在放尿前(T1),放尿400 ml(T2)、600 ml(T3)、800 ml(T4)时和停止放尿后0.5 h(T5)五个时间点留取尿标本,测量并比较3组患者的尿检镜下均一红细胞、白细胞及上皮细胞数、心率、血压。结果除T5时间点的上皮细胞数外,观察组患者5个时间点尿标本的镜下均一红细胞、白细胞及上皮细胞数及患者的均低于对照组(均P<0.05),差异有统计

  4. Microevolution of the chromosomal region of acute disease antigen A (adaA in the query (Q fever agent Coxiella burnetii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Frangoulidis

    Full Text Available The acute disease antigen A (adaA gene is believed to be associated with Coxiella burnetii strains causing acute Q fever. The detailed analysis of the adaA genomic region of 23 human- and 86 animal-derived C. burnetii isolates presented in this study reveals a much more polymorphic appearance and distribution of the adaA gene, resulting in a classification of C. burnetii strains of better differentiation than previously anticipated. Three different genomic variants of the adaA gene were identified which could be detected in isolates from acute and chronic patients, rendering the association of adaA positive strains with acute Q fever disease disputable. In addition, all adaA positive strains in humans and animals showed the occurrence of the QpH1 plasmid. All adaA positive isolates of acute human patients except one showed a distinct SNP variation at position 431, also predominant in sheep strains, which correlates well with the observation that sheep are a major source of human infection. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analysis of the adaA gene revealed three deletion events and supported the hypothesis that strain Dugway 5J108-111 might be the ancestor of all known C. burnetii strains. Based on our findings, we could confirm the QpDV group and we were able to define a new genotypic cluster. The adaA gene polymorphisms shown here improve molecular typing of Q fever, and give new insights into microevolutionary adaption processes in C. burnetii.

  5. CT underestimation of ileo-colic ischemia: a case report with pathologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, C; Sempoux, C; Danse, E

    2009-01-01

    Cross sectional imaging can help for the prompt diagnosis of acute intestinal ischemia. However, suggestive radiological signs have to be interpreted with correlation with the clinical and biological status of the patient. We present a case of acute intestinal ischemia of the distal ileum and the right colon observed in an adult patient. Due to his poor clinical status combined to the fact that the lesions seen on CT were considered as restricted, the patient was treated by supportive medication. Unfortunately, this was followed by a fatal outcome.The time delay between the inital CT and the surgery can be a cause of the discrepancy between the CT signs and the pathological findings. PMID:19803101

  6. Neuroprotective effects of tadalafil on gerbil dopaminergic neurons following cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwang Taek Kim; Kyung Jin Chung; Han Sae Lee; Il Gyu Ko; Chang Ju Kim; Yong Gil Na; Khae Hawn Kim

    2013-01-01

    Impairment of dopamine function, which is known to have major effects on behaviors and cognition, is one of the main problems associated with cerebral ischemia. Tadalafil, a long-acting phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor, is known to ameliorate neurologic impairment induced by brain injury, but not in dopaminergic regions. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of treatment with tadalafil on cyclic guanosine monophosphate level and dopamine function following cerebral ischemia. Forty adult Mongolian gerbils were randomly and evenly divided into five groups (n = 8 in each group): Sham-operation group, cerebral ischemia-induced and 0, 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg tadalafil-treated groups, respectively. Tadalafil dissolved in distilled water was administered orally for 7 consecutive days, starting 1 day after surgery. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate assay and immunohistochemistry were performed for thyrosine hydroxylase expression and western blot analysis for dopamine D2 receptor expression. A decrease in cyclic guanosine monophosphate level following cerebral ischemia was found with an increase in thyrosine hydroxylase activity and a decrease in dopamine D2 receptor expression in the striatum and substantia nigra region. However, treatment with tadalafil increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate expression, suppressed thyrosine hydroxylase expression and increased dopamine D2 receptor expression in the striatum and substantia nigra region in a dose-dependent manner. Tadalafil might ameliorate cerebral ischemia-induced dopaminergic neuron injury. Therefore, tadalafil has the potential as a new neuroprotective treatment strategy for cerebral ischemic injury.

  7. Neuroprotective effects of tadalafil on gerbil dopaminergic neurons following cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Taek; Chung, Kyung Jin; Lee, Han Sae; Ko, Il Gyu; Kim, Chang Ju; Na, Yong Gil; Kim, Khae Hawn

    2013-03-15

    Impairment of dopamine function, which is known to have major effects on behaviors and cognition, is one of the main problems associated with cerebral ischemia. Tadalafil, a long-acting phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor, is known to ameliorate neurologic impairment induced by brain injury, but not in dopaminergic regions. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of treatment with tadalafil on cyclic guanosine monophosphate level and dopamine function following cerebral ischemia. Forty adult Mongolian gerbils were randomly and evenly divided into five groups (n = 8 in each group): Sham-operation group, cerebral ischemia-induced and 0, 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg tadalafil-treated groups, respectively. Tadalafil dissolved in distilled water was administered orally for 7 consecutive days, starting 1 day after surgery. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate assay and immunohistochemistry were performed for thyrosine hydroxylase expression and western blot analysis for dopamine D2 receptor expression. A decrease in cyclic guanosine monophosphate level following cerebral ischemia was found with an increase in thyrosine hydroxylase activity and a decrease in dopamine D2 receptor expression in the striatum and substantia nigra region. However, treatment with tadalafil increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate expression, suppressed thyrosine hydroxylase expression and increased dopamine D2 receptor expression in the striatum and substantia nigra region in a dose-dependent manner. Tadalafil might ameliorate cerebral ischemia-induced dopaminergic neuron injury. Therefore, tadalafil has the potential as a new neuroprotective treatment strategy for cerebral ischemic injury. PMID:25206715

  8. Hyperlipidemia affects neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in brains of focal cerebral ischemia rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianji Pei; Liqiang Liu; Jinping Pang; Xiaohong Tian

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyperlipidemia, a risk factor for ischemic cerebrovascular disease, may mediate production of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) to induce increased nitric oxide levels, resulting in brain neuronal injury. OBJECTIVE: To investigate effects of hyperlipidemia on brain nNOS expression, and to verify changes in infarct volume and pathology during reperfusion, as well as neuronal injury following ischemia/reperfusion in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Complete, randomized grouping experiment was performed at the Laboratory of Physiology, Shanxi Medical University from March 2005 to March 2006. MATERIALS: A total of 144 eight-week-old, male, Wistar rats, weighing 160-180 g, were selected. A rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion was established by suture method after 4 weeks of formulated diet. Nitric oxide kit and rabbit anti-rat nNOS kit were respectively purchased from Nanjing Jiancheng Bioengineering Institute, China and Wuhan Boster Biological Technology, Ltd., China. METHODS: The rats were equally and randomly divided into high-fat diet and a normal diet groups. Rats in the high-fat diet group were fed a high-fat diet, consisting of 10% egg yolk powder, 5% pork fat, and 0.5% pig bile salt combined with standard chow to create hyperlipidemia. Rats in the normal diet group were fed a standard rat chow. A total of 72 rats in both groups were randomly divided into 6 subgroups: sham-operated, 4-hour ischemia, 4-hour ischemia/2-hour reperfusion, 4-hour ischemia/4-hour reperfusion, 4-hour ischemia/6-hour reperfusion, and 4-hour ischemia/12-hour reperfusion, with 12 rats in each subgroup. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: nNOS expression was measured by immunohistochemistry, and pathomorphology changes were detected by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Infarct volume and nitric oxide levels were respectively measured using 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: In the ischemic region, pathology

  9. Strain rate imaging in assessing the size of acute ischemic myocardium in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Yu-ming; GUAN Li-na; WANG Chun-mei; TANG Qi; CHEN Xiao-feng; HAN Wei

    2009-01-01

    Background Since the size of ischemic myocardium is closely related with both global and regional function of the myocardium, it is of great significance to measure the size of ischemic myocardium with non-invasive methods. Methods Eleven mongrel dogs were subjected to occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for acute ischemia. Strain rate imaging had M-mode of strain-rate (CAMM) curve pointed from the basal segment of the anterior wall to the basal segment of the inferior wall to detect the border of ischemia size. The strain rate (SR) defined the cut-off value of ischemic myocardium in a two-chamber apical view, and marked by the anterior and inferior wall on two-dimensional images respectively. Along the endocardium and epicardium, the ischemic size was curved on two-dimensional images by the trackball method and then compared with the pathologically ischemic size. And then longitudinal strain rates were compared in the cut-off value, adjacent non-ischemic and ischemic segments at which the cut-off point was defined by changing the curve M-mode of strain rate after ischemia. Results Linear correlation existed between pathology and strain rate ischemic size (r=0.884, P <0.001). The SR parameters were lower in ischemia and cut-off point than in non-ischemic segments. The peak SRs of systole (SSR), early diastole (ESR), late diastole (ASR), strain during ejection time (εSR), and the maximum length change during the entire heart cycle (εmax) in ischemic segments lowered (P<0.05). Time to onset of regional relaxation (TR) was prolonged (P=0.012). Conclusion SR imaging can accurately assess the size of is, chemic myocardium.

  10. Acute myocardial infarction in mice: assessment of transmurality by strain rate imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Hélène; Gomez, Ludovic; Donal, Erwan; Pontier, Gerard; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Ovize, Michel; Derumeaux, Geneviève

    2007-07-01

    In vivo evaluation of the transmural extension of myocardial infarction (TEI) is crucial to prediction of viability and prognosis. With the rise of transgenic technology, murine myocardial infarction (MI) models are increasingly used. Our study aimed to evaluate systolic strain rate (SR), a new parameter of regional function, to quantify TEI in a murine model of acute MI induced by various durations of ischemia followed by 24 h of reperfusion. Global and regional left ventricular (LV) function were assessed by echocardiography (13 MHz, Vivid 7, GE) in 4 groups of wild-type mice (C57BL/6, 2 mo old): a sham-treated group (n = 10) and three MI groups [30 (n = 11), 60 (n = 10), and 90 (n = 9) min of left coronary artery occlusion]. Conventional LV dimensions, anterior wall (AW) thickening, and peak systolic SR were measured before and 24 h after reperfusion. Area at risk (AR) was measured by blue dye and infarct size (area of necrosis, AN) and TEI by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. AN increased with ischemia duration (25 +/- 2%, 56 +/- 5%, 71 +/- 6% of AR for 30, 60, and 90 min, respectively; P AW thickening decrease was not influenced by ischemia duration. Conversely, systolic SR decreased with ischemia duration (13 +/- 5, 4 +/- 3, -2 +/- 6 s(-1); P < 0.05) and was significantly correlated with TEI (r = 0.89, P < 0.01). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves identified systolic SR as the most accurate parameter to predict TEI. In conclusion, in a murine model of MI, SR imaging is superior to conventional echocardiography to predict TEI early after MI. PMID:17384134

  11. DIFFERENTIAL FOS-PROTEIN INDUCTION IN RAT FOREBRAIN REGIONS AFTER ACUTE AND LONG-TERM HALOPERIDOL AND CLOZAPINE TREATMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SEBENS, JB; KOCH, T; TERHORST, GJ; KORF, J

    1995-01-01

    Both acute and long-term effects of haloperidol and clozapine on Fos-like immunoreactive nuclei in several rat forebrain areas were quantified. Rats were treated with saline (1 ml/kg.day, control), haloperidol (1 mg/kg.day) and clozapine (20 mg/kg.day) i.p. for 21 days. Two hours before perfusion fi

  12. Radiotracer transit measurements as an index of regional cerebral blood flow. Pt. 2. Results in acute alcohol withdrawal syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data obtained in 72 male chronic alcoholics with acute alcohol withdrawal syndroms give evidence that there is a significant correlation between the numerical value of the cerebral radiorheographic index and the severity of the psychopathological syndrome (especially of the clouding of sensorium) in these patients. (author)

  13. Outcome of treatment in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with rearrangements of the 11q23 chromosomal region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pui, CH; Gaynon, PS; Boyett, JM; Chessells, JM; Baruchel, A; Kamps, W; Silverman, LB; Biondi, A; Harms, DO; Vilmer, E; Schrappe, M; Camitta, B

    2002-01-01

    Background The prognosis and optimum treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) with abnormalities of chromosomal band 11q23 are controversial. We aimed to identify prognostic factors that might help in planning future therapy, and to assess the effectiveness of haemopoietic stem-cel

  14. Modeling Spread of KPC-Producing Bacteria in Long-Term Acute Care Hospitals in the Chicago Region, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkate, Manon R.; Bootsma, Martin C. J.; Weiner, Shayna; Blom, Donald; Lin, Michael Y.; Lolans, Karen; Moore, Nicholas M.; Lyles, Rosie D.; Weinstein, Robert A.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Hayden, Mary K.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Prevalence of bla(KPC)-encoding Enterobacteriaceae (KPC) in Chicago long-term acute care hospitals (LTACHs) rose rapidly after the first recognition in 2007. We studied the epidemiology and transmission capacity of KPC in LTACHs and the effect of patient cohorting. METHODS. Data were avai

  15. Modeling spread of KPC-producing bacteria in long-term acute care hospitals in the Chicago region, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkate, Manon R; Bootsma, Martin C J; Weiner, Shayna; Blom, Donald; Lin, Michael Y; Lolans, Karen; Moore, Nicholas M; Lyles, Rosie D; Weinstein, Robert A; Bonten, Marc J M; Hayden, Mary K

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prevalence of bla KPC-encoding Enterobacteriaceae (KPC) in Chicago long-term acute care hospitals (LTACHs) rose rapidly after the first recognition in 2007. We studied the epidemiology and transmission capacity of KPC in LTACHs and the effect of patient cohorting. METHODS: Data were avail

  16. Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion is a Sterile Inflammatory Process Influenced by Commensal Microbiota in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash, A; Sundar, SV; Zhu, YG; A. Tran; Lee, JW; Lowell, C; Hellman, J.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by the Shock Society. Lung ischemia-reperfusion (IR) complicates numerous clinical processes, such as cardiac arrest, transplantation, and major trauma. These conditions generate sterile inflammation, which can cause or worsen acute lung injury. We previously reported that lung and systemic inflammation in a mouse model of ventilated lung IR depends on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) signaling and the presence of alveolar macrophages. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the intestinal mic...

  17. HIF-1 mediates pathogenic inflammatory responses to intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury

    OpenAIRE

    Feinman, Rena; Deitch, Edwin A.; Watkins, Anthony C.; Abungu, Billy; Colorado, Iriana; Kannan, Kolenkode B.; Sheth, Sharvil U.; Caputo, Francis J.; Lu, Qi; Ramanathan, Madhuri; Attan, Shirhan; Badami, Chirag D.; Doucet, Danielle; Barlos, Dimitrios; Bosch-Marce, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and the development of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) are major causes of death in trauma patients. Gut inflammation and loss of gut barrier function as a consequence of splanchnic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) have been implicated as the initial triggering events that contribute to the development of the systemic inflammatory response, ALI, and MODS. Since hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is a key regulator of the physiological and pathophysiological resp...

  18. Nanoparticle-Based Induced Cre Recombination for Tissue-Specific Ischemia Targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Cheng-Han

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant improvements in cardiac care over the past 50 years, ischemic heart disease continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. While therapies such as percutaneous coronary intervention have greatly improved reperfusion rates in acute myocardial infarction, effective therapies for the prevention and treatment of ischemia-reperfusion injury remain lacking. Some of the causes for this may include certain technical limitations of drug therapy, such as poo...

  19. Aging might increase myocardial ischemia / reperfusion-induced apoptosis in humans and rats

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Miaobing; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Mulei; Zhang, Wuning; Yu, Liping; Yang, Xin-Chun; Fan, Qian

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies indicated aging results in the significant cardiac function decreasing and myocardial apoptosis increasing in normal humans or rats. Additionally, animal experiments demonstrated aging increased myocardial ischemia / reperfusion (MI/R)-induced apoptosis. However, whether more myocardial apoptosis happen in the old acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients is unclear. Reperfusion injury-induced apoptosis is an important cause of heart failure. This study determined the effect...

  20. Formoterol Restores Mitochondrial and Renal Function after Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Jesinkey, Sean R.; Funk, Jason A.; Stallons, L. Jay; Wills, Lauren P.; Megyesi, Judit K.; Beeson, Craig C.; Schnellmann, Rick G.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis may be an adaptive response necessary for meeting the increased metabolic and energy demands during organ recovery after acute injury, and renal mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of AKI. We proposed that stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis 24 hours after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)–induced AKI, when renal dysfunction is maximal, would accelerate recovery of mitochondrial and renal function in mice. We recently showed that formoterol,...

  1. Transmural Intestinal Wall Permeability in Severe Ischemia after Enteral Protease Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Altshuler, Angelina E.; Itze Lamadrid; Diana Li; Ma, Stephanie R.; Leena Kurre; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W; Penn, Alexander H.

    2014-01-01

    In intestinal ischemia, inflammatory mediators in the small intestine's lumen such as food byproducts, bacteria, and digestive enzymes leak into the peritoneal space, lymph, and circulation, but the mechanisms by which the intestinal wall permeability initially increases are not well defined. We hypothesize that wall protease activity (independent of luminal proteases) and apoptosis contribute to the increased transmural permeability of the intestine's wall in an acutely ischemic small intest...

  2. Effects of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) on a Model of Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Solé, Oriol; Rodó, Joan; García-Aparicio, Lluís; Blanch, Josep; Cusí, Victoria; Albert, Asteria

    2016-01-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury is a major cause of acute renal failure, causing renal cell death, a permanent decrease of renal blood flow, organ dysfunction and chronic kidney disease. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous product rich in growth factors, and therefore able to promote tissue regeneration and angiogenesis. This product has proven its efficacy in multiple studies, but has not yet been tested on kidney tissue. The aim of this work is to evaluate whether the application of PRP to rat kidneys undergoing ischemia-reperfusion reduces mid-term kidney damage. A total of 30 monorrenal Sprague-Dawley male rats underwent renal ischemia-reperfusion for 45 minutes. During ischemia, PRP (PRP Group, n = 15) or saline solution (SALINE Group, n = 15) was administered by subcapsular renal injection. Control kidneys were the contralateral organs removed immediately before the start of ischemia in the remaining kidneys. Survival, body weight, renal blood flow on Doppler ultrasound, kidney weight, kidney volume, blood biochemistry and histopathology were determined for all subjects and kidneys, as applicable. Correlations between these variables were searched for. The PRP Group showed significantly worse kidney blood flow (p = 0.045) and more histopathological damage (pkidney volume, kidney weight, renal blood flow, histology, and serum levels of creatinine and urea. Our study provides the first evidence that treatment with PRP results in the deterioration of the kidney's response to ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:27551718

  3. Delineation of a 6 cM commonly deleted region in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia on the 6q chromosomal arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, B; Cavé, H; Guidal, C; Dastugue, N; Vilmer, E; Grandchamp, B

    1997-02-01

    Deletion of the long arm of human chromosome 6 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been shown by cytogenetic studies in 4-11% of cases. To characterize further the region of deletion and to precisely establish its frequency, we studied loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in 120 children with ALL using polymorphic markers located from the 6q14-15 chromosomal band to the telomere. LOH was detected in eight patients. A single region of LOH, flanked distally by D6S1594 and proximally by D6S301 was detected. These DNA markers are separated by 6 cM and are approximately located at the 6q21-22 band. Our present results delineate a region that is likely to contain a tumor-suppressor gene involved in a subset of childhood ALLs.

  4. Pre-hospital electrocardiographic severity and acuteness scores predict left ventricular function in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fakhri, Yama; Ersbøll, Mads; Køber, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: System delay (time from first medical contact to primary percutaneous coronary intervention) is associated with heart failure and mortality in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We evaluated the impact of system delay on left ventricular function (LVF....... Patients were assessed with respect to 4 classifications which were not mutually exclusive: severe ischemia (+SI) or non-severe ischemia (-SI) and acute ischemia (+AI) or non-acute ischemia (-AI). LVF was assessed by global longitudinal strain (GLS) within 48hours of admission. Adjusted linear regression......, system delay predicted impaired GLS only in the (+SI, +AI) group (β=0.578, p=0.002). CONCLUSION: Pre-hospital risk stratification by ECG identifies patients with acute and severe ischemia who are at increased risk for reduced ventricular function (assessed by GLS) after STEMI. Optimizing reperfusion...

  5. 重组人促红细胞生成素对脑缺血大鼠脑组织肿瘤坏死因子及白细胞介素6表达的影响%Effects of recombinant human erythropoietin on expressions of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inter ieukin-6 in rats with acute cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金; 郭军红; 严澎; 王慧芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of recombinant human erythropoietin(rhEPO)on expressions of tumon necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α) and inter leukin-6(IL-6) in rats after focal cerebral ischemia and to explore its neuroprotective mechanism.Methods A total of 36 healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into sham-operated group (n=12),model group (n=12) and rhEPO treatment group (n=12).The suture method to make permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model was adopted.rhEPO treatment group was injected with rhEPO 5000 U/kg intraperitoneally after 2 h of ischemia,whereas model group and sham-operated group were given identical saline at the same time.All rats were decapitated after 24 h of ischemia.6 rats were randomly selected in each group and the infarct volume of groups were measured by Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC)staining method.The expressions of TNF-α,IL-6 in other rats were detected by immunohistochemistry.Results No infarction was found in sham-operated group.Percentage of infarct volume in model group and rhEPO group were (36.672.40)% and (27.49± 1.47)%,respectively.Compared with the model group,the volume of infarction in rhEPO group was significantly reduced.Cells stained by immunohistochemistry showed that The numbers of TNF-α-positive cells in the 3 groups were 9.001.41,27.83±2.48,17.50±1.87 and IL 6 positive cells were 8.94±2.31,20.33±3.53,14.83±1.70,respectively.Compared with sham operated group,the expressions of TNF-α and IL 6 in model group were significantly increased (q=16.1,19.6,P<0.01).Compared with the model group,the expressions of TNF α and IL-6 in rhEPO group were significantly decreased (q=8.19,3.44,all P<0.01).Conclusions rhEPO can decrease the infarct volume in SD rats after acute focal cerebral ischemic injure.rhEPO might exert its neuroprotective effect by reducing the expressions of TNF α and IL-6.%目的 观察重组人促红细胞生成素(rhEPO)对大鼠永久性脑缺血脑组织中肿瘤坏死因

  6. Clematichinenoside attenuates myocardial infarction in ischemia/reperfusion injury both in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Fang, Weirong; Han, Dan; Sha, Lan; Wei, Jie; Liu, Lifang; Li, Yunman

    2013-09-01

    Clematichinenoside is a triterpenoid saponin isolated from the roots of Clematis chinensis. Oxidative stress and excessive nitric oxide production are thought to play considerable roles in ischemia/reperfusion injury that impairs cardiac function. The present study investigated the protective effect of clematichinenoside on regional and global ischemia/reperfusion injury and ventricular myocytes. In vivo, regional myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury of rats was induced by the occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery, and isolated guinea pigs heart using Langendorff apparatus served as a global ischemia/reperfusion injury model ex vivo. Primary cultured neonatal ventricular myocytes were further applied to explore the anti-ischemia/reperfusion injury property in vitro. Infarct size was measured with TTC stain; enzyme activities such as lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide were analyzed with assay kits; inducible nitric oxide synthase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expressions were determined by Western blot. Clematichinenoside attenuated infarct size, decreased lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and malondialdehyde levels and enhanced superoxide dismutase activity. Clematichinenoside improved hemodynamics indexes, such as left ventricular developed pressure, maximum left ventricular developed pressure, and increase/decrease rate (± dp/dtmax) in the isolated guinea pig heart after reperfusion. Clematichinenoside also inhibited excessive production of nitric oxide through downregulating inducible nitric oxide synthase as well as upregulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase during ischemia/reperfusion injury. Clematichinenoside attenuates ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro via an antioxidant effect and by restoring the balance between inducible nitric oxide synthase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. PMID:23929248

  7. Changes of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 signaling and the effect of cilostazol in chronic cerebral ischemia*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Chen; Aixuan Wei; Jinting He; Ming Yu; Jing Mang; Zhongxin Xu

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and its specific target gene heme oxygenase-1, are involved in acute cerebral ischemia. However, very few studies have examined in detail the changes in the hypox-ia-inducible factor-1/heme oxygenase-1 signaling pathway in chronic cerebral ischemia. In this study, a rat model of chronic cerebral ischemia was established by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, and these rats were treated with intragastric cilostazol (30 mg/kg) for 9 weeks. Morris water maze results showed that cognitive impairment gradual y worsened as the cerebral ischemia proceeded. Immunohistochemistry, semi-quantitative PCR and western blot analysis showed that hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and heme oxygenase-1 expression levels in-creased after chronic cerebral ischemia, with hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression peaking at 3 weeks and heme oxygenase-1 expression peaking at 6 weeks. These results suggest that the elevated levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α may upregulate heme oxygenase-1 expression fol-lowing chronic cerebral ischemia and that the hypoxia-inducible factor-1/heme oxygenase-1 sig-naling pathway is involved in the development of cognitive impairment induced by chronic cerebral ischemia. Cilostazol treatment al eviated the cognitive impairment in rats with chronic cerebral is-chemia, decreased hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and heme oxygenase-1 expression levels, and re-duced apoptosis in the frontal cortex. These findings demonstrate that cilostazol can protect against cognitive impairment induced by chronic cerebral ischemic injury through an anti-apoptotic mecha-nism.

  8. CLINICAL CASE OF RUSSIAN THROMBOLYTIC AGENT FORTELYZIN® USE IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Kireev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the three clinical examples of hospital thrombolysis using Russian thrombolytic agent recombinant protein comprising an amino acid sequence of staphylokinase is described. The trial was held in Chelyabinsk Regional Vascular Centre of specialized medical care for patients with acute coronary syndromes. Each of the three patients had similar reasons for systemic intravenous thrombolysis: hospitalization with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, unavailability of coronary interventions due to the X-ray operating room occupancy, high need for the reperfusion therapy in the setting of significant acute myocardial ischemia. In all the cases the pharmacologic reperfusion with recombinant protein comprising an amino acid sequence of staphylokinase was successful, hereafter percutaneous coronary interventions were performed. There were no complications registered.

  9. Alterations in gene expression and steroidogenesis in the testes of transient cerebral ischemia in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Bing-hai; GUO Yan-qin; LI Hong-zhi; LIU Jie-ting; WU Dan; YUAN Xiao-huan; LI Rong-wen; GUAN Li-xin

    2012-01-01

    Background Serum testosterone levels have been found lower in acute ischemic stroke male patients.However,the exact mechanism remains unclear.In the present study,we measured serum testosterone levels,steroidogenesisrelated genes and Leydig cells number in experimental transient cerebral ischemia male rats to elucidate the mechanism.Methods The middle cerebral arteries of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were sutured for 120 minutes and then sacrificed after 24 hours.Blood was collected for measurement of serum testosterone,follicular stimulating hormone and estradiol levels,and testes were collected for measurement of steroidogenesis-retated gene mRNA levels and number of Leydig cells.Results Serum testosterone levels in rats after cerebral ischemia were significantly lower (0.53±0.16) ng/ml,n=7,mean±SE) compared with control ((2.33±0.60) ng/ml,n=7),while serum estradiol and follicular stimulating hormone levels did not change.The mRNA levels for luteinizing hormone receptor (Lhcgr),scavenger receptor class B member 1 (Scarb1),steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR),cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (Cyp11a1),3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD311),17α-hydroxylese/20-lyase (Cyp17a1) and membrane receptor c-kit (kit) were significantly downregulated by cerebral ischemia,while luteinizing hormone,Kit ligand (KitL),17β-hydrosteroid dehydrogenase 3 (HSD17β3) and 5α-reductase (Srd5a1) were not affected.We also observed that,relative to control,the Leydig cell number did not change.Conclusions These results indicate that transient cerebral ischemia in the brain results in lower expression levels of steroidogenesis-related genes and thus lower serum testosterone level.Transient cerebral ischemia did not lower the number of Leydig cells.

  10. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition and gene deletion are protective against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Motoki, Atsuko; Merkel, Matthias J.; Packwood, William H.; Cao, Zhiping; Liu, Lijuan; Iliff, Jeffrey; Alkayed, Nabil J.; Van Winkle, Donna M.

    2008-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) metabolizes epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids. EETs are formed from arachidonic acid during myocardial ischemia and play a protective role against ischemic cell death. Deletion of sEH has been shown to be protective against myocardial ischemia in the isolated heart preparation. We tested the hypothesis that sEH inactivation by targeted gene deletion or pharmacological inhibition reduces infarct size (I) after regional myocardial ...

  11. Effect of combined Antioxidants on Acute Myocardial infarction size

    OpenAIRE

    B.Farahani; K.Hadiyan; A.Mohseni

    2001-01-01

    SummaryBackground and purpose : The role of oxygen-derived free radicals in destruction of myocardial cells during acute ischemia or reperfusion has been proved. This phenomenon made the workers to study and find the inhibitory therapeutic methods in order to reduce the myocardial cell destruction during acute myocardial infarction. This study evaluates the role of combined antioxidants on acute myocardial infarction sige in patients referring to vali asr hospital of Arak.Materials and Method...

  12. Blockade of Death Ligand TRAIL Inhibits Renal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). Many investigators have reported that cell death via apoptosis significantly contributed to the pathophysiology of renal IRI. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, and induces apoptosis and inflammation. However, the role of TRAIL in renal IRI is unclear. Here, we investigated whether TRAIL contributes to renal IRI and whether TRAIL blockade could attenuate renal IRI. AKI was induced by unilateral clamping of the renal pedicle for 60 min in male FVB/N mice. We found that the expression of TRAIL and its receptors were highly upregulated in renal tubular cells in renal IRI. Neutralizing anti-TRAIL antibody or its control IgG was given 24 hr before ischemia and a half-dose booster injection was administered into the peritoneal cavity immediately after reperfusion. We found that TRAIL blockade inhibited tubular apoptosis and reduced the accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages. Furthermore, TRAIL blockade attenuated renal fibrosis and atrophy after IRI. In conclusion, our study suggests that TRAIL is a critical pathogenic factor in renal IRI, and that TRAIL could be a new therapeutic target for the prevention of renal IRI

  13. Blood biomarkers in the early stage of cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestrini, I; Ducroquet, A; Moulin, S; Leys, D; Cordonnier, C; Bordet, R

    2016-03-01

    In ischemic stroke patients, blood-based biomarkers may be applied for the diagnosis of ischemic origin and subtype, prediction of outcomes and targeted treatment in selected patients. Knowledge of the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia has led to the evaluation of proteins, neurotransmitters, nucleic acids and lipids as potential biomarkers. The present report focuses on the role of blood-based biomarkers in the early stage of ischemic stroke-within 72h of its onset-as gleaned from studies published in English in such patients. Despite growing interest in their potential role in clinical practice, the application of biomarkers for the management of cerebral ischemia is not currently recommended by guidelines. However, there are some promising clinical biomarkers, as well as the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) peptide and NMDA-receptor (R) autoantibodies that appear to identify the ischemic nature of stroke, and the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) that might be able to discriminate between acute ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. Moreover, genomics and proteomics allow the characterization of differences in gene expression, and protein and metabolite production, in ischemic stroke patients compared with controls and, thus, may help to identify novel markers with sufficient sensitivity and specificity. Additional studies to validate promising biomarkers and to identify novel biomarkers are needed. PMID:26988891

  14. Effects of acute and chronic administration of MK-801 on c-Fos protein expression in mice brain regions implicated in schizophrenia and antagonistic action of clozapine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Dai-ying; CAO Yue; ZHANG Lan; WANG Hai-feng; WU Ying-liang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of acute and chronic administration of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists MK-801 on c-Fos protein expression in different brain regions of mice and antagonistic action of clozapine. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of c-Fos protein. Results MK-801 (0.6 mg·kg-1) acute administration produced a significant increase in the expression of c-Fos protein in the layers Ⅲ-Ⅳ of posterior cingulate and retrosplenial (PC/RS) cortex, which was consistent with the previous reports. Moreover, we presented a new finding that MK-801 (0.6 mg·kg-1) chronic administration for 8 days produced a significant increase of c-Fos protein expression in the PC/RS cortex, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hypothalamus of mice. Among that, c-Fos protein expression in the PC/ RS cortex of mice was most significant. Compared acute administration with chronic administration, we found that MK-801 chronic administration significantly increased the expression of c-Fos protein in the PC/ RS cortex, PFC and hypothalamus. Furthermore, pretreatment of mice with clozapine significantly decreased the expression of c-Fos protein induced by MK-801 acute and chronic administration. Conclusions Marked expression of c-Fos protein induced by MK-801 is associated with neurotransmitters' change noted in our previous studies, and c-Fos protein, the marker of neuronal activation, might play an important role in the chronic pathophysiological process of schizophrenic model induced by NMDA receptor antagonist.

  15. Research on Inflammatory Response after Acute Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats by USPIO Enhanced MRI%大鼠急性期局灶性脑缺血后炎性反应的超微超顺磁性氧化铁增强MRI研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨烁慧; 陆方; 杨赛; 范德生; 龚志刚; 程瑞新; 朱琼; 詹松华

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To observe the inflammation response after acute focal cerebral ischemia by Ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) in rats. Methods: Forty-eight rats were divided into the model group and the sham operation group randomly, and each group contained 24 rats. After right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) models and sham MCAO models established, USPIO was injected into the tail vein of the rats. Then the rats of each group were divided into 6 subgroups, and each of them was scanned on a Philips 1.5T Achieva MR machine with a special animal coil at the time points of 6h, 12h, 24h, 36h, 48h and 72h respectivly. Brain tissue section was acquired after scanning. Cell necrosis, iron particles, activated phagocytes were observed by HE dying, Prussian Blue dying and immunochemistry straining, respectively. Results: The ischemic lesions were negatively enhanced on T2WI and T2W fast field echo (T2W-FFE) sequences and positively enhanced on T1WI sequence. Except the relative signal values of subgroup of 72h on T2W-FFE sequence (t=0.728, P=0.478) , significant differences of relative signal values were found on the every sequence in subgroup of 12h, 24h, 36h, 48h and 72h between the MACO group and the sham-operative group (P<0.01). The iron particles were found in the ischemic lesions in the subgroups of 24h~72h. Activated phagocytes were manifested with immunochemistry staining (CD68). Conclusion: USPIO can be used as a new MR contrast material to monitor the inflammation response after acute focal cerebral ischemia in rats in vivo.%目的:通过超微超顺磁性氧化铁微粒(USPIO)观察大鼠急性期局灶性脑缺血后炎症反应.方法:48只大鼠随机分成假手术组及模型组,每组各24只,进行右侧大脑中动脉栓塞造模.造模成功后,立即于大鼠尾静脉注射USPIO对比剂.两组均按造模后MR扫描时间点(6h、12h、24h、36h、48h、72h)平均分成6亚组行MR扫描,结束后即刻取脑行HE染色

  16. Activation of the lectin pathway by natural IgM in a model of ischemia/reperfusion injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, M.; Takahashi, K.; Alicot, E.M.;

    2006-01-01

    Reperfusion of ischemic tissues elicits an acute inflammatory response involving serum complement, which is activated by circulating natural IgM specific to self-Ags exposed by ischemia. Recent reports demonstrating a role for the lectin pathway raise a question regarding the initial events in...... complement activation. To dissect the individual roles of natural IgM and lectin in activation of complement, mice bearing genetic deficiency in early complement, IgM, or mannan-binding lectin were characterized in a mesenteric model of ischemia reperfusion injury. The results reveal that IgM binds initially...

  17. By Improving Regional Cortical Blood Flow, Attenuating Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Sequential Apoptosis Galangin Acts as a Potential Neuroprotective Agent after Acute Ischemic Stroke

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    Ming Cheng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is a devastating disease with a complex pathophysiology. Galangin is a natural flavonoid isolated from the rhizome of Alpina officinarum Hance, which has been widely used as an antioxidant agent. However, its effects against ischemic stroke have not been reported and its related neuroprotective mechanism has not really been explored. In this study, neurological behavior, cerebral infarct volumes and the improvement of the regional cortical blood flow (rCBF were used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of galangin in rats impaired by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO-induced focal cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, the determination of mitochondrial function and Western blot of apoptosis-related proteins were performed to interpret the neuroprotective mechanism of galangin. The results showed that galangin alleviated the neurologic impairments, reduced cerebral infarct at 24 h after MCAO and exerted a protective effect on the mitochondria with decreased production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS. These effects were consistent with improvements in the membrane potential level (Dym, membrane fluidity, and degree of mitochondrial swelling in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, galangin significantly improved the reduced rCBF after MCAO. Western blot analysis revealed that galangin also inhibited apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner concomitant with the up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression, down-regulation of Bax expression and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, a reduction in cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol, the reduced expression of activated caspase-3 and the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP. All these data in this study demonstrated that galangin might have therapeutic potential for ischemic stroke and play its protective role through the improvement in rCBF, mitochondrial protection and inhibiting caspase-dependent mitochondrial cell death pathway for the first time.

  18. Temporary intestinal ischemia for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important determinant of cellular radiosensivity is the tissue oxygen content at the time of irradiation. The purpose of the present experimental work was to assess a new iscemia-inducing method in order to reduce normal tissue radiation damage during radiotherapy. Temporary ischemia was induced in a cat small intestine by degraded starch microspheres. Regional arterial and tissue blod flow immediately fell by 85% with subsequent normalization within 26 minutes after microsphere injection. No tendency of small vessel thrombosis caused by starch sphere embolization in combination with previous or current intestinal irradiation was detected. Starch sphere remenants were rapidly engulfed by, and persisted within tissue macrophages for 14 days without causing intestinal inflammatory reactions. In vitro studies showed that human platelets neither adhered to nor were aggregated by starch microspheres. The new method, wich occlude arteriolar vessels distal to the mesentric arterial arcades and thus largely excludes collateral blood flow, seems suited to provide effictive and selective feline small intestinal hypoxic radiation protection. This conclusion may also be valid in man

  19. Fulminant Nonocclusive Mesenteric Ischemia Just after Hip Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxiliadora-Martins, Maria; Alkmin-Teixeira, Gil Cezar; Feres, Omar; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Basile-Filho, Anibal

    2010-01-01

    Nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI) is not a rare clinical entity in intensive medicine, and it can be a consequence of several clinical or surgical situations. This pathology results from reduced intestinal microvascular blood supply associated with an acute inflammatory process, culminating with bowel necrosis. This is a case on a female patient who developed immediate postsurgical NOMI following hip arthroplasty and died. Since diagnosis of this potentially fatal condition remains a dilemma, NOMI should always be considered an eventual postoperative complication in high-risk surgical patients such as elderly individuals with previous history of nicotine abuse, congestive heart failure, and essential hypertension. The present paper highlights the importance of early diagnosis and prompt adequate treatment of NOMI in subjects with diminished cardiac output and severe abdominal pain. PMID:20300426

  20. Acute citalopram has different effects on regional 5-HT synthesis in FSL, FRL, and SDP rats; an autoradiographic evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Kanemaru, Kazuya; Hasegawa, Shu; Nishi, Kyoko; Diksic, Mirko

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we measured the effect of an acute treatment of citalopram on 5-HT synthesis in a genetic rat model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, their counterparts, the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) rats, and outbred Sprague-Dawley (SPD) rats, using the α-[14C]methyl-L-tryptophan (α-MTrp) autoradiographic method. A comparison of 5-HT synthesis in the FSL rats treated with citalopram (FSL-CTP) and those treated with saline (FSL-SAL) indicate that citalopram reduces glo...

  1. Acute mesenteric ischemia: a sequela of abdominal aortography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiksha Kedia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of abdominal angiography and transcatheter embolization has increased rapidly in the last few decades. Although improvement in angiographic techniques has made the procedure safe, ischemic colitis is a rare but potentially dreadful complication. We report a case of a 51-year-old woman who developed ischemic colitis following aortography, demonstrating that such angiographic studies may produce substantial morbidity.

  2. Effects of rhEPO on expression of TNF-α,MMP-9 and Ang-2 in brain tissues of rats with acute cerebral ischemia%重组人促红细胞生成素对大鼠急性脑缺血脑组织中肿瘤坏死因子-α基质金属蛋白酶-9和血管生成素-2表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严澎; 郭军红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the neuroprotective effects and mechanism of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) on acute focal cerebral ischemic injury in Sprague-Dawley rats.Methods Fifty-four healthy male SD rats were randomized into sham-operated group, model group and rhEPO treatment group.Suture method was used to establish permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) model.rhEPO treatment group underwent intraperitoneal injection of 4000 U/kg rhEPO after ischemia for 2 hours, whereas model group and sham-operated group were given equivalent saline at the same time.All rats were decapitated after ischemia for 24 hours, and water contents in the brain tissues were measured by dry-wet weight method.The size of infarction was measured by TTC staining (2,3,5- triphenyl tetrazolium chloride), and the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and angiopoietin-2 (Aug-2) were detected by immunohistochemistry.Results Compared with the model group, rhEPO treatment group showed diminished brain tissue water contents, smaller infarction size and lowered expressions of TNF-α and MMP-9 but elevated expression of Ang-2 (P<O.05).Conclusion Recombinant human EPO may be neuroprotective against acute cerebral ischemia in rats, probably by inhibiting the activities of TNF-α and MMP-9 and enhancing expression of Aug-2.%目的 探讨重组人促红细胞生成素(rhEPO)对大鼠急性局灶性脑缺血损伤的神经保护作用及其机制.方法 健康雄性SD大鼠54只随机分为假手术组、模型组和rhEPO治疗组.采用线栓法制作大鼠永久性局灶性脑缺血(pMCAO)模型.rhEPO治疗组在缺血2 h后腹腔注射rhEPO 4000 U/kg,模型组和假手术组在等时间点给予等量的生理盐水.缺血24 h后断头取脑分别用干湿质量法计算脑组织含水量,2,3,5-氯化二苯基四氮唑(TTC)法测量脑梗死体积,免疫组织化学方法测定肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)、基质金属蛋白酶-9(MMP-9)

  3. Immunohistochemical Detection of Apoptosis-Related Proteins in Gerbil Hippocampus Transient Cerebral Ischemia: Neuroprotective Effect of Pitavastatin

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    Toshiki Himeda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Delayed and selective neuronal damage was caused in the CA1 sector of hippocampus following 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils. We investigated the immunohistochemical alterations of apoptosis-related proteins such as bcl-2α, bcl-xs/l, bax, cytochrome c, and active caspase 3 and TUNEL staining in the hippocampus at 1 and 5 hr and 1, 2, 5 and 14 days after transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils. We also examined the effect of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor pitavastatin against the alterations of apoptosis-related proteins and TUNEL staining in the hippocampus after cerebral ischemia. The alterations of apoptosis-related proteins in the hippocampal CA1 sector were more pronounced than the changes of hippocampal CA3 sector and dentate gyrus after cerebral ischemia. The alterations of apoptosis-related proteins in the hippocampal CA1 sector after cerebral ischemia preceded the neuronal damage in this region. Furthermore, the study with TUNEL staining showed that a marked increase of TUNEL-positive nuclei was evident only in the hippocampal CA1 sector 5 days after cerebral ischemia. Our immunohistochemical study also showed that pitavastatin prevented the alterations of apoptosis-related proteins and the increase of TUNEL-positive nuclei in the hippocampal CA1 sector 5 days after cerebral ischemia. The present study indicates that transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils causes the mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 sector. Furthermore, our present study demonstrates that pitavastatin can prevent the alterations of apoptosis-related proteins and the increase of TUNEL-positive nuclei in the hippocampal CA1 sector after cerebral ischemia. Thus our study provides novel therapeutic strategies in clinical stroke.

  4. Mismatch of Low Perfusion and High Permeability Predicts Hemorrhagic Transformation Region in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Treated with Intra-arterial Thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Liu, Nan; Li, Ying; Wintermark, Max; Jackson, Alan; Wu, Bing; Su, Zihua; Chen, Fei; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yongwei; Zhu, Guangming

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether the permeability related parameter K(trans), derived from computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging, can predict hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke who receive intra-arterial thrombolysis. Data from patients meeting the criterion were examined. CTP was performed and K(trans) maps were used to assess the permeability values in HT and non-HT regions. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated, showing the sensitivity and specificity of K(trans) for predicting HT risk. Composite images were produced to illustrate the spatial correlations among perfusion, permeability changes and HT. This study examined 41 patients. Twenty-six patients had hemorrhagic infarction and 15 had parenchymal hemorrhage. The mean K(trans) value in HT regions was significantly lower than that in the non-HT regions (0.26 ± 0.21/min vs. 0.78 ± 0.64/min; P < 0.001). The ROC curve analysis identified an optimal cutoff value of 0.334/min for K(trans) to predict HT risk. Composite images suggested ischemic regions with low permeability, or the mismatch area of low perfusion and high permeability, more likely have HT. HT regions after intra-arterial thrombolysis had lower permeability values on K(trans) maps. The mismatch area of lower perfusion and higher permeability are more likely to develop HT. PMID:27302077

  5. Cortisol in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with brain ischemia

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    Selaković Vesna M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the reactions to ischemia is increased release of glucocorticoid hormones, included in regulation of effects of numerous mediators/modulators that could be released in the acute phase of brain ischemia. The aim of our investigation was to define temporal dynamics of cortisol concentrations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with different types of ischemic brain disease. Material and methods The study included 263 patients of both sexes, aged 55-68 years. History, clinical examination and cerebral computerized tomography were performed to establish the diagnosis. 97 patients had brain infarction, 66 had a reversible ischemic attack, 66 had a transient ischemic attack, and 34 patients had chronic encephalopathy. The control group included 22 age- and sex- matched patients, subjected to diagnostic lumbar radiculography, without disturbances in the cerebrospinal fluid passage. Cortisol concentrations were measured by direct radioimmunoassay. Results and discussion Results obtained in this research showed that in acute brain ischemic period there was a significant increase of cortisol concentration in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. The increase was highest in patients with brain infarction, somewhat lower in reversible ischemic attack, and the lowest in transient ischemic attack compared to controls (331.7±92.8 pmol/ml of plasma and 2.5±1.1 pmol/ml of cerebrospinal fluid. Maximum concentrations were found during the first two days after insult. The main potentially protective effects of increased cortisol concentrations in patients with acute stroke could be the decrease of effects of deleterious reactions induced by ischemia. This mechanism might be an attempt of organism to compensate for disturbed homeostasis. Conclusion Measurement of cortisol in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in patients with acute stroke is significant for monitoring the intensity of response of an organism to acute brain damage.

  6. Epilepsy-induced electrocardiographic alterations following cardiac ischemia and reperfusion in rats

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    J.G.P. Tavares

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated electrocardiographic alterations in rats with epilepsy submitted to an acute myocardial infarction (AMI model induced by cardiac ischemia and reperfusion. Rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (n=12 and epilepsy (n=14. It was found that rats with epilepsy presented a significant reduction in atrioventricular block incidence following the ischemia and reperfusion procedure. In addition, significant alterations were observed in electrocardiogram intervals during the stabilization, ischemia, and reperfusion periods of rats with epilepsy compared to control rats. It was noted that rats with epilepsy presented a significant increase in the QRS interval during the stabilization period in relation to control rats (P<0.01. During the ischemia period, there was an increase in the QRS interval (P<0.05 and a reduction in the P wave and QT intervals (P<0.05 for both in rats with epilepsy compared to control rats. During the reperfusion period, a significant reduction in the QT interval (P<0.01 was verified in the epilepsy group in relation to the control group. Our results indicate that rats submitted to an epilepsy model induced by pilocarpine presented electrical conductivity alterations of cardiac tissue, mainly during an AMI episode.

  7. Epilepsy-induced electrocardiographic alterations following cardiac ischemia and reperfusion in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, J.G.P. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade Iguaçu, Campos V, Itaperuna, RJ (Brazil); Faculdade de Minas, Muriaé, MG (Brazil); Vasques, E.R. [Departamento de Gastroenterologia, LIM 37, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arida, R.M. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cavalheiro, E.A. [Departamento de Neurologia e Neurocirurgia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cabral, F.R.; Torres, L.B. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Menezes-Rodrigues, F.S.; Jurkiewicz, A.; Caricati-Neto, A. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Godoy, C.M.G. [Departamento de Ciência e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Gomes da Silva, S. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Núcleo de Pesquisas Tecnológicas, Programa Integrado em Engenharia Biomédica, Universidade de Mogi das Cruzes, Mogi das Cruzes, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-13

    The present study evaluated electrocardiographic alterations in rats with epilepsy submitted to an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model induced by cardiac ischemia and reperfusion. Rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (n=12) and epilepsy (n=14). It was found that rats with epilepsy presented a significant reduction in atrioventricular block incidence following the ischemia and reperfusion procedure. In addition, significant alterations were observed in electrocardiogram intervals during the stabilization, ischemia, and reperfusion periods of rats with epilepsy compared to control rats. It was noted that rats with epilepsy presented a significant increase in the QRS interval during the stabilization period in relation to control rats (P<0.01). During the ischemia period, there was an increase in the QRS interval (P<0.05) and a reduction in the P wave and QT intervals (P<0.05 for both) in rats with epilepsy compared to control rats. During the reperfusion period, a significant reduction in the QT interval (P<0.01) was verified in the epilepsy group in relation to the control group. Our results indicate that rats submitted to an epilepsy model induced by pilocarpine presented electrical conductivity alterations of cardiac tissue, mainly during an AMI episode.

  8. Thymoquinone protects end organs from abdominal aorta ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Salih Aydin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previous studies have demonstrated that thymoquinone has protective effects against ischemia reperfusion injury to various organs like lungs, kidneys and liver in different experimental models. Objective: We aimed to determine whether thymoquinone has favorable effects on lung, renal, heart tissues and oxidative stress in abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: Thirty rats were divided into three groups as sham (n=10, control (n=10 and thymoquinone (TQ treatment group (n=10. Control and TQ-treatment groups underwent abdominal aorta ischemia for 45 minutes followed by a 120-min period of reperfusion. In the TQ-treatment group, thymoquinone was given 5 minutes. before reperfusion at a dose of 20 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal route. Total antioxidant capacity, total oxidative status (TOS, and oxidative stress index (OSI in blood serum were measured and lung, kidney, and heart tissue histopathology were evaluated with light microscopy. Results: Total oxidative status and oxidative stress index activity in blood samples were statistically higher in the control group compared to the sham and TQ-treatment groups (P<0.001 for TOS and OSI. Control group injury scores were statistically higher compared to sham and TQ-treatment groups (P<0.001 for all comparisons. Conclusion: Thymoquinone administered intraperitoneally was effective in reducing oxidative stress and histopathologic injury in an acute abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion rat model.

  9. Epilepsy-induced electrocardiographic alterations following cardiac ischemia and reperfusion in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study evaluated electrocardiographic alterations in rats with epilepsy submitted to an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model induced by cardiac ischemia and reperfusion. Rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (n=12) and epilepsy (n=14). It was found that rats with epilepsy presented a significant reduction in atrioventricular block incidence following the ischemia and reperfusion procedure. In addition, significant alterations were observed in electrocardiogram intervals during the stabilization, ischemia, and reperfusion periods of rats with epilepsy compared to control rats. It was noted that rats with epilepsy presented a significant increase in the QRS interval during the stabilization period in relation to control rats (P<0.01). During the ischemia period, there was an increase in the QRS interval (P<0.05) and a reduction in the P wave and QT intervals (P<0.05 for both) in rats with epilepsy compared to control rats. During the reperfusion period, a significant reduction in the QT interval (P<0.01) was verified in the epilepsy group in relation to the control group. Our results indicate that rats submitted to an epilepsy model induced by pilocarpine presented electrical conductivity alterations of cardiac tissue, mainly during an AMI episode

  10. GLIMEPIRIDE REDUCES ON EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ISCHEMIA/REPERFUSION IN DIABETIC RATS

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    Jagdish Kakadiya

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycaemia is most probably a contributing factor in the development of ischaemic acute renal failure (ARF in many patients. Both clinical and experimental data suggest that hyperglycaemia increases the risk of ARF. Present study was designed to evaluate in Glimepiride reduced on experimentally induced ischemia/reperfusion in diabetic rats. Type 2 Diabetes was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal (i.p injection of Streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, STZ in overnight fasting rats followed by the i.p administration of Nicotinamide (110 mg/kg, NIC after 15 minutes. After right nephrectomy, Glimepiride (0.5 mg/kg/day, p.o was administered for 15 days. On the 16th day, ischemia was induced in contra lateral kidney for 45 min, followed by reperfusion for 24 hr. Renal function marker and oxidative parameter were estimated at the end of 24 hr reperfusion. At the end of experimental period the level of malondialdehyde formation/ lipid peroxidation (LPO in kidney tissue and serum marker Creatinine, Urea and Uric acids were significantly increased. Whereas, the activity of biomarkers of oxidative stress such as reduced glutathione (GSH, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD were found to be decreased significantly compared to control rats. Glimepiride improved the Serum Uric acid and tissues parameter LPO after renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in diabetic rats. In conclusion, Glimepiride shows low may improve experimentally induced ischemia/reperfusion in type 2 diabetic rats.

  11. The protective mechanism of Yisheng Injection against hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Cheng; You-Ping Li; Jing-Qiu Cheng; Li Feng; Sheng-Fu Li

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury may cause acute inflammatory, significant organ damage or dysfunction, and remains an important problem for liver transplantation.Our previous in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that Yisheng injection (YS), a traditional Chinese medicine, had protective effect on ischemia/reperfusion injury. In this study, we examined whether YS had protective effect for hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury and explored its protective mechanism.METHODS: Hepatic warm ischemia/reperfusion was induced in mice. YS at different doses (5, 10, 20 mg/kg)was injected intraperitoneally 24 h and 1 h before ischemia and a third dose was injected intravenously just before reperfusion. The hepatocellular injury, oxidative stress,neutrophil recruitment, proinflammatory mediators and adhesion molecules associated with hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunohistochemical assay and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).RESULTS: Undergoing 90 min of ischemia and 6 h of reperfusion caused dramatical injuries in mouse livers.Administration of YS at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg effectively reduced serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), from 3 670±463 U/L, 2 362±323 U/L and 12 752±1 455 U/L in I/R group to 1 172±257 U/L,845±193 U/L and 2 866±427 U/L in YS (20 mg/kg) treated group, respectively (P<0.01). The liver myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were decreased from 1.1±0.2 (U/mg protein) and 9.1±0.7 (nmol/mg protein) in I/R group to 0.4±0.1 (U/mg protein) and 5.5±0.9 (nmol/mg protein) in YS (20 mg/kg) treated group, respectively (P<0.01). Moreover, the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were reduced from 55±9.9 (pg/mL) in I/R group to 16±4.2 (pg/mL) (P<0.01).Furthermore, the over-expressions of TNF-α and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1

  12. Effects of melatonin in experimental stroke models in acute, sub-acute, and chronic stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Wen Lin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Hsiao-Wen Lin, E-Jian LeeNeurophysiology Laboratory, Neurosurgical Service, Department of Surgery, National Cheng Kung University Medical Center and Medical School, Tainan, TaiwanAbstract: Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxy-tryptamine, a naturally occurring indole produced mainly by the pineal gland, is a well known antioxidant. Stroke (cerebral ischemia is the second leading cause of death worldwide. To date, however, effective and safe treatment for stroke remains unavailable. Melatonin is both lipid- and water-soluble and readily crosses the blood–brain barrier (BBB. Increasing evidence has shown that, in animal stroke models, administering melatonin significantly reduces infarct volume, edema, and oxidative damage and improves electrophysiological and behavioral performance. Here, we reviewed studies that assess effects of melatonin on cerebral ischemia in acute, sub-acute, and chronic stages. In addition to its potent antioxidant properties, melatonin exerts antiapoptotic, antiexcitotoxic, anti-inflammatory effects and promotes mitochondrial functions in animals with cerebral ischemia. Given that melatonin shows almost no toxicity to humans and possesses multifaceted protective capacity against cerebral ischemia, it is valuable to consider using melatonin in clinical trials on patients suffering from stroke.Keywords: cerebral ischemia, melatonin, stroke, neuroprotection

  13. Localization and spatiotemporal expression of IDO following transient forebrain ischemia in gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Ayako; Hara, Akira; Saito, Kuniaki; Hoshi, Masato; Niwa, Masayuki; Seishima, Mitsuru; Mori, Hideki

    2008-06-27

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the kynurenine pathway that converts L-tryptophan to L-kynurenine. Transient forebrain ischemia initiates a series of cellular events that lead to the delayed neuronal degeneration of several brain regions. The goal of this study was to determine the localization of IDO in gerbil brain, and analyze the spatiotemporal expression of IDO in a transient forebrain ischemic model. Expression of IDO in the normal gerbil brain was observed by using immunohistochemistry. Time-course of the expression of IDO following transient forebrain ischemic gerbils was examined by immunohistochemistry, combined with hematoxylin and eosin staining for morphological analysis, and in situ terminal dUTP-biotin nick end labeling of DNA fragments (TUNEL) method. In normal gerbils, IDO immunostaining was observed in thalamus, hypothalamus and amygdaloid nucleus. IDO expression was negative in the cingulate cortex, hippocampal CA1 region and parietal cortex. Following transient ischemia, we observed a time-dependent increase of IDO expression in CA1, cingulate cortex and hypothalamus. The peak of IDO expression in CA1 and cingulate cortex occurred at 48 h after ischemic insult and diminished by 2 weeks. TUNEL staining was observed only in the CA1 region at 72 and 96 h after transient ischemia. Thus, IDO protein is present in specific regions in gerbil brain, and dynamic changes of IDO expression was observed in some neurons following transient ischemia. PMID:18501338

  14. Determinants of C-peptide levels and acute insulin resistance/sensitivity in nondiabetic STEMI role of Killip class

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    Chiara Lazzeri

    2014-03-01

    According to our data, the development of acute insulin resistance in the early phase of STEMI can be viewed as an adaptive mechanism to stress (represented by acute myocardial ischemia, similar to other acute critical conditions, related to the severity of stress (that is to the hemodynamic impairment.

  15. Modulation of NADPH oxidase activation in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Tiziana; Mazzon, Emanuela; Paterniti, Irene; Esposito, Emanuela; Bramanti, Placido; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2011-02-01

    NADPH oxidase is a major complex that produces reactive oxygen species (ROSs) during the ischemic period and aggravates brain damage and cell death after ischemic injury. Although many approaches have been tested for preventing production of ROSs by NADPH oxidase in ischemic brain injury, the regulatory mechanisms of NADPH oxidase activity after cerebral ischemia are still unclear. The aim of this study is identifying apocynin as a critical modulator of NADPH oxidase and elucidating its role as a neuroprotectant in an experimental model of brain ischemia in rat. Treatment of apocynin 5min before of reperfusion attenuated cerebral ischemia in rats. Administration of apocynin showed marked reduction in infarct size compared with that of control rats. Medial carotid artery occlusion (MCAo)-induced cerebral ischemia was also associated with an increase in, nitrotyrosine formation, as well as IL-1β expression, IκB degradation and ICAM expression in ischemic regions. These expressions were markedly inhibited by the treatment of apocynin. We also demonstrated that apocynin reduces levels of apoptosis (TUNEL, Bax and Bcl-2 expression) resulting in a reduction in the infarct volume in ischemia-reperfusion brain injury. This new understanding of apocynin induced adaptation to ischemic stress and inflammation could suggest novel avenues for clinical intervention during ischemic and inflammatory diseases. PMID:21138737

  16. Expression of somatostatin mRNA and peptide in rat hippocampus after cerebral ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bering, Robert; Johansen, Flemming Fryd

    1993-01-01

    Somatostatin, ischemia, hippocampus, rat, in situ hybridisation, immunocytochemistry, neuropathology......Somatostatin, ischemia, hippocampus, rat, in situ hybridisation, immunocytochemistry, neuropathology...

  17. Studies for transitional changes of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and mRNA distribution by focal ischemia using nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessing stress-induced brain receptor responses is important in understanding clinical brain receptor images for nuclear medicine. It is known that cholinergic neurons are decreased by Alzheimer's disease and that there is a close relationship between cholinergic neurons and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAchR). Thus, this study assessed the response of mAchR to focal ischemia using infarction model rats (prepared by middle cerebral artery occlusion) and sham-operated rats. In the same rats, three kinds of images -- ex vivo regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) images with 99mTc-hexametyl-propyleneamine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO), in vitro mAchR binding images with [3H] quinuclidinyl benzilate (3H-QNB), and mAchR-mRNA images by in situ hybridization method using 35S-labeled-oligonucleotide probes specific for mAchR gene subtypes of m1 to m5 -- were obtained in acute and chronic phases. Each image datum was digitalized and assessed semi-quantitatively. There were significant changes in global distribution among rCBF, mAchR and mAchR-mRNAs. In the acute phase, there was no significant change in mAchR in the infarcted area, although rCBF markedly decreased. In the chronic phase, there was a significant decrease in mAchR in the infarct-sided thalamus, although there was no change in rCBF; and there was a significant decrease in mAchR of the infarct-sided substantia nigra in spite of increase in rCBF. In the acute phase, mAchR-mRNAs of the infarct-sided caudate-putamen was decreased, suggesting that the ability of cholinergic neuron to synthesize receptor protein had decreased in the acute phase. Because mAchR was not decreased in the acute phase, some viable neurons with no normal function may be preserved in the acute phase. These results were encouraging in understanding mAchR brain images of patients with memory disturbances such as cerebrovascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. (N.K.)

  18. Sodium-23 magnetic resonance imaging during and after transient cerebral ischemia: multinuclear stroke protocols for double-tuned 23Na/1H resonator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterling, Friedrich; Ansar, Saema; Handwerker, Eva

    2012-11-01

    A double-tuned 23Na/1H resonator system was developed to record multinuclear MR image data during and after transient cerebral ischemia. 1H-diffusion-, 1H perfusion, 1H T2-, 1H arterial blood flow- and 23Na spin density-weighted images were then acquired at three time points in a rodent stroke model: (I) during 90 min artery occlusion, (II) directly after arterial reperfusion and (III) one day after arterial reperfusion. Normal 23Na was detected in hypoperfused stroke tissue which exhibited a low 1H apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and no changes in 1H T2 relaxation time during transient ischemia, while 23Na increased and ADC values recovered to normal values directly after arterial reperfusion. For the first time, a similar imaging protocol was set-up on a clinical 3T MRI site in conjunction with a commercial double-tuned 1H/23Na birdcage resonator avoiding a time-consuming exchange of resonators or MRI systems. Multinuclear 23Na/1H MRI data sets were obtained from one stroke patient during both the acute and non-acute stroke phases with an aquisition time of 22 min. The lesion exhibiting low ADC was found to be larger compared to the lesion with high 23Na at 9 h after symptom onset. It is hoped that the presented pilot data demonstrate that fast multinuclear 23Na/1H MRI preclinical and clinical protocols can enable a better understanding of how temporal and regional MRI parameter changes link to pathophysiological variations in ischemic stroke tissue.

  19. Lateral intracerebroventricular injection of Apelin-13 inhibits apoptosis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ge Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apelin-13 inhibits neuronal apoptosis caused by hydrogen peroxide, yet apoptosis following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury has rarely been studied. In this study, Apelin-13 (0.1 µg/g was injected into the lateral ventricle of middle cerebral artery occlusion model rats. TTC, TUNEL, and immunohistochemical staining showed that compared with the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion group, infarct volume and apoptotic cell number at the ischemic penumbra region were decreased in the Apelin-13 treatment group. Additionally, Apelin-13 treatment increased Bcl-2 immunoreactivity and decreased caspase-3 immunoreactivity. Our findings suggest that Apelin-13 is neuroprotective against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through inhibition of neuronal apoptosis.

  20. Hydrogen sulfide intervention in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-juan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to explore the mechanism underlying the protective effects of hydrogen sulfide against neuronal damage caused by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. We established the middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats via the suture method. Ten minutes after middle cerebral artery occlusion, the animals were intraperitoneally injected with hydrogen sulfide donor compound sodium hydrosulfide. Immunofluorescence revealed that the immunoreactivity of P2X 7 in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1 region in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury decreased with hydrogen sulfide treatment. Furthermore, treatment of these rats with hydrogen sulfide significantly lowered mortality, the Longa neurological deficit scores, and infarct volume. These results indicate that hydrogen sulfide may be protective in rats with local cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by down-regulating the expression of P2X 7 receptors.

  1. Hydrogen sulfide intervention in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Juan; Li, Chao-Kun; Wei, Lin-Yu; Lu, Na; Wang, Guo-Hong; Zhao, Hong-Gang; Li, Dong-Liang

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to explore the mechanism underlying the protective effects of hydrogen sulfide against neuronal damage caused by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. We established the middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats via the suture method. Ten minutes after middle cerebral artery occlusion, the animals were intraperitoneally injected with hydrogen sulfide donor compound sodium hydrosulfide. Immunofluorescence revealed that the immunoreactivity of P2X7 in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1 region in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury decreased with hydrogen sulfide treatment. Furthermore, treatment of these rats with hydrogen sulfide significantly lowered mortality, the Longa neurological deficit scores, and infarct volume. These results indicate that hydrogen sulfide may be protective in rats with local cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by down-regulating the expression of P2X7 receptors.

  2. NMR studies of myocardial energy metabolism and ionic homeostasis during ischemia and reperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study several aspects of myocardial energy metabolism and ionic homeostasis during ischemia and reperfusion were investigated in isolated perfused rat hearts, regionally ischemic rabbit hearts, and ex vivo human donor hearts during long term hypothermic cardioplegia. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) spectroscopy was used as a powerful tool to non-destructively follow the time course in changes in intracellular high-energy phosphates, (creatine phosphate and ATP), inorganic phosphate, and pH. In addition, changes in intracellular free magnesium were followed during ischemia and reperfusion. Sodium-23 (23Na) NMR spectroscopy was used to study intracellular sodium during ischemia and reperfusion and during calcium-free perfusion. (author). 495 refs.; 33 figs.; 11 tabs

  3. Hydrogen sulifde intervention in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injur y in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-juan Li; Chao-kun Li; Lin-yu Wei; Na Lu; Guo-hong Wang; Hong-gang Zhao; Dong-liang Li

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the mechanism underlying the protective effects of hydro-gen sulifde against neuronal damage caused by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. We established the middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats via the suture method. Ten minutes after middle cerebral artery occlusion, the animals were intraperitoneally injected with hydrogen sulifde donor compound sodium hydrosulifde. Immunolfuorescence revealed that the immu-noreactivity of P2X7 in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1 region in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury decreased with hydrogen sulfide treatment. Furthermore, treat-ment of these rats with hydrogen sulifde signiifcantly lowered mortality, the Longa neurological deifcit scores, and infarct volume. These results indicate that hydrogen sulifde may be protec-tive in rats with local cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by down-regulating the expression of P2X7 receptors.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of ligustrazine ethosome patch in rats and anti-myocardial ischemia and anti-ischemic reperfusion injury effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu X

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Xingyan Liu1, Hong Liu1, Zhaowu Zeng2, Weihua Zhou3, Jianqiang Liu2, Zhiwei He11China-America Cancer Research Institute, Guangdong Medical College, 2Guangdong Key Laboratory for Research and Development of Natural Drugs, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan, Guangdong, 3Yichun University, Yichun, Jiangxi, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the ligustrazine ethosome patch and antimyocardial ischemia and anti-ischemic reperfusion injury effect. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided randomly into 3 groups: Group A (intragastric ligustrazine, Group B (transdermal ligustrazine ethosome patch, and Group C (conventional transdermal ligustrazine patch. After treatment, samples of blood and of various tissues such as heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, brain, and muscle samples were taken at different time points. Drug concentration was measured with HPLC, and the drug concentration–time curve was plotted. Pharmacokinetic software 3p97 was applied to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters and the area under the drug concentration–time curve (AUC in various tissues. The rat model of acute myocardial ischemia was constructed with intravenous injection of pituitrin and the model of myocardial ischemia-perfusion injury was constructed by tying off the left anterior descending coronary artery of rats to observe the effect of ligustrazine ethosome patches on ischemic myocardium and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Results showed that AUC was highest in the transdermal drug delivery group of ligustrazine ethosome patch. There were significant differences in whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, hematocrit, red blood cell aggregation index, and deformation index between ligustrazine the ethosome patch group and ischemic control group (P < 0.01. Moreover, ligustrazine ethosome patches could reduce the scope of myocardial infarction induced by long-term ischemia. Ligustrazine ethosome patches

  5. 自体骨髓内皮祖细胞移植治疗动脉粥样硬化大鼠急性脑缺血的实验研究%Treatment of acute cerebral ischemia in atherosclerotic rats with autologous transplantation with bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱江; 刘煜敏; 孔朝红; 道文欣

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the effeteness of autologous transplantation of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells in promoting the neovascularization and improving the neurological functional recovery in atherosclerotic rats with acute cerebral infarction. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rat models of atherosclerosis were established by fat-rich diet feeding. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were obtained from bone marrow of all rats; the cells were cultured in vitro in Ml99 with VEGF, bFGF and EGF in it Assays were used to detect the expression of FLK-1 and CD34. on the 7th d, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat models were established by the method of thread thrombus. Three h after MCAO, all of the animals were randomized into experimental group (the autologous endothelial progenitor cells labeled with BrdU were injected into the carotid vein) and control group (same volume of PBS were injected into the carotid vein). Behavioral tests (modified neurological severity scale, mNSS) were performed 6 h and 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 d after MCAO. Besides, immunohistochemical examinations were employed to observe the distribution of EPCs (labeled by BrdU) in the brain tissue and to measure the microvessel density. Results EPCs from bone marrow were isolated, induced and cultured successfully in vitro, which positively stained for FLK-1 by immunocytochemistry and partly positively expressed CD34 by immunofluorescence. The cells of FITC labeled UEA adsorption and DiL-acLDL internalization were positive under fluorescence confocal microscopy. These cells possessed robust proliferative potential and their number reached 5×106. On the 14th d, the neurological function recovery in the experimental group (mNSS scores: 6.13±0.30) was significantly improved as compared with that in the control group (mNSS scores: 8.50±0.46, P<0.05). On the 28th, some positive EPCs stained by BrdU were found in the experimental group and the numbers of blood vessels in the experimental

  6. Delivery of Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorates Ischemia Induced Limb Injury by Immunomodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peripheral artery disease (PAD is a major health burden in the world. Stem cell-based therapy has emerged as an attractive treatment option in regenerative medicine. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that stem cell-based therapy can ameliorate ischemia induced limb injury. Methods: We isolated mesenchymal stem cells derived from human placentas (PMSCs and intramuscularly transplanted them into injured hind limbs. Treatment with PMSCs reduced acute muscle fibers apoptosis induced by ischemia. Results: PMSC treatment significantly enhanced regeneration of the injured hind limb by reducing fibrosis and enhancing running capacity when the animals were subjected to treadmill training. Mechanistically, injected PMSCs can modulate acute inflammatory responses by reducing neutrophil and macrophage infiltration following limb ischemia. ELISA assays further confirmed that PMSC treatment can also reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6, and enhance anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 at the injury sites. Conclusion: Taken together, our results demonstrated that PMSCs can be a potential effective therapy for treatment of PAD via immunomodulation.

  7. Titin is a Target of MMP-2: Implications in Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad A.M.; Cho, Woo Jung; Hudson, Bryan; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Granzier, Henk; Schulz, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Background Titin is the largest mammalian (∼3000-4000 kDa) and myofilament protein which acts as a molecular spring in the cardiac sarcomere and determines systolic and diastolic function. Loss of titin in ischemic hearts has been reported, but the mechanism of titin degradation is not well understood. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is localized to the cardiac sarcomere and upon activation in ischemia/reperfusion injury proteolyzes specific myofilament proteins. Here we determine whether titin is an intracellular substrate for MMP-2 and if its degradation during ischemia/reperfusion contributes to cardiac contractile dysfunction. Methods and Results Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy in rat and human hearts showed discrete co-localization between MMP-2 and titin in the Z-disc region of titin and that MMP-2 is mainly localized to titin near the Z-disc of the cardiac sarcomere. Both purified titin or titin in skinned cardiomyocytes were proteolyzed when incubated with MMP-2 in a concentration-dependent manner and this was prevented by MMP inhibitors. Isolated rat hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury showed cleavage of titin in ventricular extracts by gel electrophoresis which was confirmed by reduced titin immunostaining in tissue sections. Inhibition of MMP activity with ONO-4817 prevented ischemia/reperfusion-induced titin degradation and improved the recovery of myocardial contractile function. Titin degradation was also reduced in hearts from MMP-2 knockout mice subjected to ischemia/reperfusion in vivo, compared to wild type controls. Conclusions MMP-2 localizes to titin at the Z-disc region of the cardiac sarcomere and contributes to titin degradation in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:21041693

  8. Serial MR analysis of early permancent and transient Ischemia in rats: Diffusion tensor imaging and high b value diffusion weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hoon; Na, Dong Gyu; Chang, Kee Hyun; Song, In Chan; Choi, Seung Hong; Son, Kyu Ri; KIm, Kyung Won; Sohn, Chul Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    To evaluate the temporal evolution and diagnostic values of the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the high b value diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in the early permanent and transient cerebral ischemia. For permanent or 30-minute transient-ischemia induced 30 rats, DTI and DWIs at both high b (b = 3000 s/mm2) and standard b value (b = 1000 s/mm2) were obtained at the following conditions: at 15, 30, 45, 60 minutes after the occlusion of what for hyperacute permanent ischemia; at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 hours after the occlusion for acute permanent ischemia; and at 15 minutes before reperfusion, 0.5, 2.5, and 24 hours after reperfusion for transient ischemia. The diffusion parameters and their ratios were obtained and compared between different b values, and among different time points and groups, respectively. For both b values, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) ratio decreased for first three hours, and then slightly increased until 9 hours after the occlusion during a gradual continuous increase of DWI signal intensity (SI) ratio, with excellent correlation between ADC ratios and DWI SI ratios. The DWI showed a higher contrast ratio, but the ADC map showed a lower contrast ratio for permanent ischemia at high b value than at standard b value. Fractional anisotropy (FA) increased for 1 hour, then gradually decreased until 9 hours after the occlusion in permanent ischemia and showed transient normalization and secondary decay along with change in ADC in transient ischemia. This study presents characteristic initial elevation and secondary decay of FA, higher contrast ratio of DWI, and lower contrast ratio of ADC map at high b value, in addition to the time evolutions of diffusion parameters in early permanent and transient ischemia.

  9. Ischemic preconditioning attenuates remote pulmonary inflammatory infiltration of diabetic rats with an intestinal and hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid José Thomaz Neto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess ischemic preconditioning (IPC effects in pulmonary lesion in intestinal and hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury models using diabetic rats. METHODS: Diabetes (DM was induced in 28 male Wistar rats by alloxan (42 mg/kg, IV. After 28 days, severe DM rats were submitted to intestinal or hepatic IR injury with or without IPC. Intestinal IR (30 min of mesenteric artery occlusion and 30 min of reperfusion; n=6 and IPC groups (10 min ischemia, 10 min reperfusion, followed by intestinal IR; n=6, and Hepatic IR (30 min of hepatic pedicle occlusion and 30 min of reperfusion; n=5 and IPC groups (10 min ischemia, 10 min reperfusion, followed by hepatic IR; n=5, were compared to DM rats group (n=6. Plasmatic lactate, glycemia were measured before and after IR injury. Histomorphology of lung was performed counting inflammatory cells. Data was expressed in mean± SE. P<0.05. RESULTS: Glycemia and lactate were similar among groups. IPC did not interfere in these parameters. On histological evaluation, IR increased inflammatory cells infiltration in pulmonary parenchyma compared to control in both IR injury models. IPC attenuated inflammatory infiltration in lungs. CONCLUSION: Ischemic preconditioning protects against remote ischemia-reperfusion injury in lung on intestinal or hepatic ischemia-reperfusion model with acute diabetes.

  10. Evaluation of cerebral ischemia using near-infrared spectroscopy with oxygen inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Akira; Tanaka, Yuichi; Konno, Takehiko; Kawasaki, Shingo; Fujiwara, Michiyuki; Watanabe, Eiju

    2012-09-01

    Conventional methods presently used to evaluate cerebral hemodynamics are invasive, require physical restraint, and employ equipment that is not easily transportable. Therefore, it is difficult to take repeated measurements at the patient's bedside. An alternative method to evaluate cerebral hemodynamics was developed using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with oxygen inhalation. The bilateral fronto-temporal areas of 30 normal volunteers and 33 patients with cerebral ischemia were evaluated with the NIRS system. The subjects inhaled oxygen through a mask for 2 min at a flow rate of 8 L/min. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the data, and a topogram was drawn using the calculated weights. NIRS findings were compared with those of single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT). In normal volunteers, no laterality of the PCA weights was observed in 25 of 30 cases (83%). In patients with cerebral ischemia, PCA weights in ischemic regions were lower than in normal regions. In 28 of 33 patients (85%) with cerebral ischemia, NIRS findings agreed with those of SPECT. The results suggest that transmission of the changes in systemic SpO2 were attenuated in ischemic regions. The method discussed here should be clinically useful because it can be used to measure cerebral ischemia easily, repeatedly, and noninvasively.

  11. Effects of antiarrhythmic peptide 10 on acute ventricular arrhythmia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Sun; Jin-Fa Jiang; Cui-Mei Zhao; Chao-Hui Hu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effects antiarrhythmic peptide 10 (AAP10) aon acute ventricular arrhythmia and the phosphorylation state of ischemic myocardium connexin.Methods:Acute total ischemia and partial ischemia models were established by ceasing perfusion and ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery in SD rats. The effects of AAP10 (1 mg/L) on the incidence rate of ischemia-induced ventricular arrhythmia were observed. The ischemic myocardium was sampled to detect total-Cx43 and NP-Cx43 by immunofluorescent staining and western blotting. the total-Cx43 expression was detected through image analysis system by semi-quantitative analysis.Results: AAP10 could significantly decrease the incidence of ischemia-induced ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. During ischemic stage, total ischemia (TI) and AAP10 total ischemia (ATI) groups were compared with partial ischemia (PI) and AAP10 partial ischemia (API) groups. The rates of incidence for arrhythmia in the ATI and API groups (10% and 0%) were lower than those in the TI and PI groups (60% and 45%). The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P=0.019, P=0.020). The semi-quantitative analysis results of the ischemic myocardium showed that the total-Cx43 protein expression distribution areas for TI, ATI, PI and API groups were significantly decreased compared with the control group. On the other hand, the NP-Cx43 distribution areas of TI, ATI, PI and API groups were significantly increased compared with the control group (P>0.05). AAP10 could increase the total-Cx43 expression in the ischemic area and decrease the NP-Cx43 expression. Western blot results were consistent with the results of immunofluorescence staining.Conclusions:AAP10 can significantly decrease the rate of incidence of acute ischemia-induced ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Acute ischemic ventricular arrhythmias may have a relationship with the decreased phosphorylation of Cx43

  12. Preservation of canine myocardial high-energy phosphates during low-flow ischemia with modification of hemoglobin-oxygen affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, R G; Mejia, M A; Kass, D A; DiPaula, A F; Becker, L C; Gerstenblith, G; Chacko, V P

    1999-03-01

    Conventional approaches for the treatment of myocardial ischemia increase coronary blood flow or reduce myocardial demand. To determine whether a rightward shift in the hemoglobin-oxygen saturation curve would reduce the metabolic and contractile effects of a myocardial oxygen-supply imbalance, we studied the impact of a potent synthetic allosteric modifier of hemoglobin-oxygen affinity, a 2-[4-[[(3,5-disubstituted anilino)carbonyl]methyl] phenoxy] -2-methylproprionic acid derivative (RSR13), during low-flow ischemia. Changes in myocardial high-energy phosphate levels and pH were studied by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in 12 open-chest dogs randomized to receive RSR13 or vehicle control during a reversible reduction of left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery blood flow. Changes in cardiac metabolites and regional ventricular function studied by pressure segment-length relations were also investigated in additional animals before and after RSR13 administration during low-flow LAD ischemia. The intravenous administration of RSR13 before ischemia resulted in a substantial increase in the mean hemoglobin p50 and attenuated the decline in cardiac creatine phosphate/adenosine triphosphate (PCr/ATP), percent PCr, and pH during ischemia without a change in regional myocardial blood flow, heart rate, or systolic blood pressure. RSR13 given after the onset of low-flow ischemia also improved cardiac PCr/ATP ratios and regional function as measured by fractional shortening and regional work. Thus, synthetic allosteric reduction in hemoglobin-oxygen affinity may be a new and important therapeutic strategy to ameliorate the metabolic and functional consequences of cardiac ischemia. PMID:10074492

  13. Assessment of Renal Ischemia By Optical Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, J T; Demos, S; Michalopoulou, A; Pierce, J L; Troppmann, C

    2004-01-07

    Introduction: No reliable method currently exists for quantifying the degree of warm ischemia in kidney grafts prior to transplantation. We describe a method for evaluating pretransplant warm ischemia time using optical spectroscopic methods. Methods: Lewis rat kidney vascular pedicles were clamped unilaterally in vivo for 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 60, 90 or 120 minutes; 8 animals were studied at each time point. Injured and contra-lateral control kidneys were then flushed with Euro-Collins solution, resected and placed on ice. 335 nm excitation autofluorescence as well as cross polarized light scattering images were taken of each injured and control kidney using filters of various wavelengths. The intensity ratio of the injured to normal kidneys was compared to ischemia time. Results: Autofluorescence intensity ratios through a 450 nm filter and light scattering intensity ratios through an 800 nm filter both decreased significantly with increasing ischemia time (p < 0.0001 for each method, one-way ANOVA). All adjacent and non-adjacent time points between 0 and 90 minutes were distinguishable using one of these two modalities by Fisher's PLSD. Conclusions: Optical spectroscopic methods can accurately quantify warm ischemia time in kidneys that have been subsequently hypothermically preserved. Further studies are needed to correlate results with physiological damage and posttransplant performance.

  14. In vivo study of myocardial elastography under graded ischemia conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei-Ning; Provost, Jean; Fujikura, Kana; Wang, Jie; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2011-02-01

    The capability of currently available echocardiography-based strain estimation techniques to fully map myocardial abnormality at early stages of myocardial ischemia is yet to be investigated. In this study, myocardial elastography (ME), a radio-frequency (RF)-based strain imaging technique that maps the full 2D transmural angle-independent strain tensor in standard echocardiographic views at both high spatial and temporal resolution is presented. The objectives were to (1) evaluate the performance of ME on mapping the onset, extent and progression of myocardial ischemia at graded coronary constriction levels (from partial to complete coronary flow reduction), and (2) validate the accuracy of the strain estimates against sonomicrometry (SM) measurements. A non-survival canine ischemic model (n = 5) was performed by gradually constricting the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary blood flow from 0% (baseline blood flow) to 100% (zero blood flow) at 20% increments. An open-architecture ultrasound system was used to acquire RF echocardiograms in a standard full short-axis view at the frame rate of 211 fps, at least twice higher than what is typically used in conventional echocardiographic systems, using a previously developed, fully automated composite technique. Myocardial deformation was estimated by ME and validated against sonomicrometry. ME estimates and maps transmural (1) 2D displacements using RF cross-correlation and recorrelation; and (2) 2D polar (radial and circumferential) strains, derived from 2D (i.e. both lateral and axial) displacement components, at high accuracy. Full-view strain images were shown and found to reliably depict decreased myocardial function in the region at risk at increased levels of coronary flow reduction. The ME radial strain was deemed to be a more sensitive, quantitative, regional measure of myocardial ischemia as a result of coronary flow reduction when compared to the conventional wall motion score index and ejection fraction

  15. In vivo study of myocardial elastography under graded ischemia conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wei-Ning; Provost, Jean; Konofagou, Elisa E [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Fujikura, Kana [Department of Radiology, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Wang Jie, E-mail: ek2191@columbia.edu [Department of Medicine, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2011-02-21

    The capability of currently available echocardiography-based strain estimation techniques to fully map myocardial abnormality at early stages of myocardial ischemia is yet to be investigated. In this study, myocardial elastography (ME), a radio-frequency (RF)-based strain imaging technique that maps the full 2D transmural angle-independent strain tensor in standard echocardiographic views at both high spatial and temporal resolution is presented. The objectives were to (1) evaluate the performance of ME on mapping the onset, extent and progression of myocardial ischemia at graded coronary constriction levels (from partial to complete coronary flow reduction), and (2) validate the accuracy of the strain estimates against sonomicrometry (SM) measurements. A non-survival canine ischemic model (n = 5) was performed by gradually constricting the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary blood flow from 0% (baseline blood flow) to 100% (zero blood flow) at 20% increments. An open-architecture ultrasound system was used to acquire RF echocardiograms in a standard full short-axis view at the frame rate of 211 fps, at least twice higher than what is typically used in conventional echocardiographic systems, using a previously developed, fully automated composite technique. Myocardial deformation was estimated by ME and validated against sonomicrometry. ME estimates and maps transmural (1) 2D displacements using RF cross-correlation and recorrelation; and (2) 2D polar (radial and circumferential) strains, derived from 2D (i.e. both lateral and axial) displacement components, at high accuracy. Full-view strain images were shown and found to reliably depict decreased myocardial function in the region at risk at increased levels of coronary flow reduction. The ME radial strain was deemed to be a more sensitive, quantitative, regional measure of myocardial ischemia as a result of coronary flow reduction when compared to the conventional wall motion score index and ejection fraction

  16. Delayed ischemic electrocortical suppression during rapid repeated cerebral ischemia and kainate-induced seizures in rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilie, Andrei; Spulber, Stefan; Avramescu, Sinziana;

    2006-01-01

    Global cerebral ischemia induces, within seconds, suppression of spontaneous electrocortical activity, partly due to alterations in synaptic transmission. In vitro studies have found that repeated brief hypoxic episodes prolong the persistence of synaptic transmission due to weakened adenosine...... hydrate anaesthesia. Repeated episodes of 1 min of ischemia were induced by transiently clamping the carotid arteries in a 'four-vessel occlusion' model. We devised an automatic method of T(ES) estimation based on the decay of the root mean square of two-channel electrocorticographic recordings...... conditions of acute metabolic stress in vivo, the ischemic suppression of spontaneous electrocortical activity may be delayed up to a plateau value. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis of a depletable adenosine pool; however, the restoration of synaptic transmission may be faster in vivo than...

  17. Effects of intracoronary melatonin on ischemia-reperfusion injury in ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekeløf, Sarah V; Halladin, Natalie L; Jensen, Svend E;

    2016-01-01

    Acute coronary occlusion is effectively treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention. However, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury is at the moment an unavoidable consequence of the procedure. Oxidative stress is central in the development of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Melatonin, an...... endogenous hormone, acts through antioxidant mechanisms and could potentially minimize the myocardial injury. The aim of the experimental study was to examine the cardioprotective effects of melatonin in a porcine closed-chest reperfused infarction model. A total of 20 landrace pigs were randomized to a...... dosage of 200 mg (0.4 mg/mL) melatonin or placebo (saline). The intervention was administered intracoronary and intravenous. Infarct size, area at risk and microvascular obstruction were determined ex vivo by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Myocardial salvage index was calculated. The plasma...