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Sample records for acute rantes production

  1. Role of CC chemokines (macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, RANTES) in acute lung injury in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bless, N M; Huber-Lang, M; Guo, R F

    2000-01-01

    The role of the CC chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1 beta), monocyte chemotactic peptide-1 (MCP-1), and RANTES, in acute lung inflammatory injury induced by intrapulmonary deposition of IgG immune complexes injury in rats was determined. Rat MIP-1 beta, MCP-1, and RANTES w...

  2. RANTES Production from Mononuclear Cells in Response to the Specific Allergen in Asthma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Oyamada

    2006-01-01

    Conclusions: Taken together, these findings may suggest that mononuclear cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis, particular in eosinophil and T lymphocyte recruitment into the inflamed focus of asthma through RANTES production in response to the specific allergen.

  3. Interaction of dengue virus nonstructural protein 5 with Daxx modulates RANTES production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khunchai, Sasiprapa [Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Graduate Program in Immunology, Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Junking, Mutita [Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Suttitheptumrong, Aroonroong; Yasamut, Umpa [Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Graduate Program in Immunology, Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Sawasdee, Nunghathai [Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Netsawang, Janjuree [Faculty of Medical Technology, Rangsit University, Bangkok (Thailand); Morchang, Atthapan [Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Graduate Program in Immunology, Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Chaowalit, Prapaipit [Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Noisakran, Sansanee [Medical Biotechnology Research Unit, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Bangkok (Thailand); Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai, E-mail: grpye@mahidol.ac.th [Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); and others

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For the first time how DENV NS5 increases RANTES production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DENV NS5 physically interacts with human Daxx. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear localization of NS5 is required for Daxx interaction and RANTES production. -- Abstract: Dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS), caused by dengue virus (DENV) infection, are important public health problems in the tropical and subtropical regions. Abnormal hemostasis and plasma leakage are the main patho-physiological changes in DHF/DSS. A remarkably increased production of cytokines, the so called 'cytokine storm', is observed in the patients with DHF/DSS. A complex interaction between DENV proteins and the host immune response contributes to cytokine production. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which DENV nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) mediates these responses has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, yeast two-hybrid assay was performed to identify host proteins interacting with DENV NS5 and a death-domain-associate protein (Daxx) was identified. The in vivo relevance of this interaction was suggested by co-immunoprecipitation and nuclear co-localization of these two proteins in HEK293 cells expressing DENV NS5. HEK293 cells expressing DENV NS5-K/A, which were mutated at the nuclear localization sequences (NLS), were created to assess its functional roles in nuclear translocation, Daxx interaction, and cytokine production. In the absence of NLS, DENV NS5 could neither translocate into the nucleus nor interact with Daxx to increase the DHF-associated cytokine, RANTES (CCL5) production. This work demonstrates the interaction between DENV NS5 and Daxx and the role of the interaction on the modulation of RANTES production.

  4. Interaction of dengue virus nonstructural protein 5 with Daxx modulates RANTES production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khunchai, Sasiprapa; Junking, Mutita; Suttitheptumrong, Aroonroong; Yasamut, Umpa; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Netsawang, Janjuree; Morchang, Atthapan; Chaowalit, Prapaipit; Noisakran, Sansanee; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► For the first time how DENV NS5 increases RANTES production. ► DENV NS5 physically interacts with human Daxx. ► Nuclear localization of NS5 is required for Daxx interaction and RANTES production. -- Abstract: Dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS), caused by dengue virus (DENV) infection, are important public health problems in the tropical and subtropical regions. Abnormal hemostasis and plasma leakage are the main patho-physiological changes in DHF/DSS. A remarkably increased production of cytokines, the so called ‘cytokine storm’, is observed in the patients with DHF/DSS. A complex interaction between DENV proteins and the host immune response contributes to cytokine production. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which DENV nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) mediates these responses has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, yeast two-hybrid assay was performed to identify host proteins interacting with DENV NS5 and a death-domain-associate protein (Daxx) was identified. The in vivo relevance of this interaction was suggested by co-immunoprecipitation and nuclear co-localization of these two proteins in HEK293 cells expressing DENV NS5. HEK293 cells expressing DENV NS5-K/A, which were mutated at the nuclear localization sequences (NLS), were created to assess its functional roles in nuclear translocation, Daxx interaction, and cytokine production. In the absence of NLS, DENV NS5 could neither translocate into the nucleus nor interact with Daxx to increase the DHF-associated cytokine, RANTES (CCL5) production. This work demonstrates the interaction between DENV NS5 and Daxx and the role of the interaction on the modulation of RANTES production.

  5. The TIR-domain containing adaptor TRAM is required for TLR7 mediated RANTES production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enda Shevlin

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7 plays a vital role in the immune response to ssRNA viruses such as human rhinovirus (HRV and Influenza, against which there are currently no treatments or vaccines with long term efficacy available. Clearly, a more comprehensive understanding of the TLR7 signaling axis will contribute to its molecular targeting. TRIF related adaptor molecule (TRAM plays a vital role in TLR4 signaling by recruiting TRIF to TLR4, followed by endosomal trafficking of the complex and initiation of IRF3 dependent type I interferon production as well as NF-κB dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Towards understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate TLR7 functionality, we found that TRAM(-/- murine macrophages exhibited a transcriptional and translational impairment in TLR7 mediated RANTES, but not TNFα, production. Suppression of TRAM expression in human macrophages also resulted in an impairment in TLR7 mediated CCL5 and IFN-β, but not TNFα, gene induction. Furthermore, suppression of endogenous human TRAM expression in human macrophages significantly impaired RV16 induced CCL5 and IFNβ, but not TNFα gene induction. Additionally, TRAM-G2A dose-dependently inhibited TLR7 mediated activation of CCL5, IFNβ and IFNα reporter genes. TLR7-mediated phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3 was impaired in TRAM(-/- cells. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation studies indicated that TRAM physically interacts with MyD88 upon TLR7 stimulation, but not under basal conditions. Our results clearly demonstrate that TRAM plays a, hitherto unappreciated, role in TLR7 signaling through a novel signaling axis containing, but not limited to, MyD88, TRAM and IRF3 towards the activation of anti-viral immunity.

  6. KUALITAS KIMIA ASAP CAIR RANTING CENGKEH

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    Yusnaini Yusnaini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bahan baku produksi asap cair yang terpilih pada penelitian sebelumnya adalah ranting cengkeh. Penelitian tentang penggunaan ranting cengkeh masih sangat kurang sehingga produksi asap cair dari ranting cengkeh ini belum diketahui kualitasnya baik asap cair kasar maupun setelah dimurnikan. Begitupula dengan konsentrasi yang efektif digunakan sebagai bahan pengawet pada pangan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kualitas asap cair kasar dan asap cair yang telah dimurnikan dan mengevaluasi konsentrasi asap cair yang akan diaplikasi pada bahan pangan. Produksi asap cair dilakukan dengan suhu pirolisis 420°C selama 100 menit dan dilakukan pengukuran volume asap cair. Asap cair kasar kemudian didestilasi pada suhu 100°C selama1 jam, kemudian dilakukan pengenceran dengan konsentrasi 5%, 10%, 15% dan 20%. Dilakukan analisis kualitas antara lain kadar fenol, karbonil dan asam. Hasil penelitian yang diperoleh adalah rendemen asap cair kasar yang dihasilkan sekitar 36,44% dan yang setelah pemurnian 19,96%.  Proses pemurnian menyebabkan penurunan kadar fenol, karbonil dan asam yaitu secara berturut-turut sekitar 93-96%; 31-46%; dan 60-64%. Pengenceran asap cair mempengaruhi kadar fenol, karbonil dan asam asap cair. Makin tinggi konsentrasi asap cair maka persentase kadar senyawa fenol, karbonil dan asam makin tinggi pula. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah asap cair yang diproduksi dari ranting cengkeh dapat digunakan sebagai pengawet bahan pangan dan aplikasinya pada pangan dengan konsentrasi 10%.

  7. Pemanfaatan Limbah Ranting Kayu Manis (Cinnamomun Burmanii untuk Penciptaan Seni Kerajinan dengan Teknik Laminasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Eskak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKLimbah ranting kayu manis (Cinnamomum burmanii merupakan sisa kayu yang tidak ikut dikupas untuk diambil kulitnya sebagai bahan rempah-rempah. Limbah ranting ini jumlahnya cukup banyak pada saat panen kulit kayu manis. Pada saat ini limbah tersebut hanya dibuang ataupun dibakar. Penciptaan seni ini bertujuan untuk memanfaatan limbah ranting kayu manis tersebut menjadi aneka produk seni kerajinan. Metode yang digunakan yaitu eksplorasi, perancangan, dan perwujudan karya. Hasilnya berupa prototip produk kerajinan dengan teknik laminasi yaitu berupa: tatakan saji (tatakan gelas, mangkuk, dan piring, pigura foto, dan aneka wadah. Metode dan prototip produknya dapat dijadikan model untuk pemberdayaan industri kreatif masyarakat daerah penghasil kayu manis. Dari penciptaan seni ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa limbah ranting kayu manis bisa ditingkatkan kemanfaatan dan nilai ekonomisnya menjadi lebih tinggi dengan mengreasikannya menjadi aneka produk seni kerajinan dengan aplikasi teknik laminasi. Teknik laminasi dipilih untuk mengolah limbah ranting yang berukuran kecil agar dapat menjadi aneka produk dengan ukuran variatif yang lebih besar. Keunggulan kerajinan limbah ranting kayu manis ini adalah memiliki aroma harum alami kayu manis yang khas. Kata kunci: limbah ranting, kayu manis, seni kerajinan, teknik laminasiABSTRACTWaste of cinnamon twig (Cinnamomum burmanii is the rest of the wood unpeeled for its pelt as a spice. These twigswaste are quite a lot at the time of harvesting cinnamon bark. At this time the waste is simply dumped or burned as trash. The creation of art aims to utilize waste into cinnamon twig art craft products. The method used is the exploration, design, and realization of the work. The result is a prototype craft products with lamination techniques those are: food placemat (coasters, bowls, and plates, picture frames, and various containers. Method and prototype products can be used as a model for community empowerment

  8. [Acute poisoning with industrial products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, R

    2000-02-15

    Poisonings with industrial products represent approximately 7% of the cases reported to the poison centres. Ingestion of petroleum distillates induces irritation of the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system depression and aspiration pneumonitis which may be severe; treatment is mainly supportive. Ethylene and diethylene glycol poisonings produce central nervous system depression, anion gap metabolic acidosis, osmolar gap and acute tubular necrosis; in severe cases, hypocalcaemia, cerebral oedema and heart failure may be observed; treatment often associates supportive measures, haemodialysis and administration of competitive inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase (ethanol or 4-methylpyrazole). Glycol ethers induce central nervous system depression and metabolic acidosis; in addition, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether produces haemolysis; monomethyl and monoethyl ethers are responsible for bone marrow and lymphoid organ toxicity, they adversely affect spermatogenesis and are teratogens.

  9. The Role of RANTES Promoter Polymorphism in Functional Dyspepsia

    OpenAIRE

    Tahara, Tomomitsu; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Yamashita, Hiromi; Hirata, Ichiro; Arisawa, Tomiyasu

    2009-01-01

    Altered inflammatory immune responses have been shown to be associated with functional gastro intestinal disorder. We aimed to clarify the effect of functional promoter polymorphism of RANTES, which is a potent chemoattractant peptide for memory T lymphocytes and eosinophils, on the risk of functional dyspepsia in a Japanese population. RANTES promoter C-28G polymorphism was genotyped in 246 subjects including 134 FD patients according to Roma III criteria and 112 non-symptomatic healthy cont...

  10. Cigarette smoke induces IL-8, but inhibits eotaxin and RANTES release from airway smooth muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Matthias

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoke is the leading risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD an inflammatory condition characterised by neutrophilic inflammation and release of proinflammatory mediators such as interleukin-8 (IL-8. Human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMC are a source of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We investigated whether cigarette smoke could directly induce the release of chemokines from HASMC. Methods HASMC in primary culture were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE with or without TNFα. Chemokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and gene expression by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's t test Results CSE (5, 10 and 15% induced IL-8 release and expression without effect on eotaxin or RANTES release. At 20%, there was less IL-8 release. TNFα enhanced CSE-induced IL-8 release and expression. However, CSE (5–30% inhibited TNFα-induced eotaxin and RANTES production. The effects of CSE on IL-8 release were inhibited by glutathione (GSH and associated with the induction of the oxidant sensing protein, heme oxygenase-1. Conclusion Cigarette smoke may directly cause the release of IL-8 from HASMC, an effect enhanced by TNF-α which is overexpressed in COPD. Inhibition of eotaxin and RANTES by cigarette smoke is consistent with the predominant neutrophilic but not eosinophilic inflammation found in COPD.

  11. RANTES and fibroblast growth factor 2 in jawbone cavitations: triggers for systemic disease?

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    Lechner J

    2013-04-01

    tissue. Conclusion: This study suggests that JC might serve as a fundamental cause of IDs, through RANTES/FGF-2 production. Thus, JC and implicated immune messengers represent an integrative aspect of IDs and serve as a possible cause. Removing JCs may be a key to reversing IDs. There is a need to raise awareness about JC throughout medicine and dentistry. Keywords: RANTES/CCL5, fibroblast growth factor, FGF-2, bead-based Luminex analysis, osteolytic degenerated jaw bone, NICO, systemic signaling pathways

  12. Pemanfaatan Limbah Ranting Kayu Manis (Cinnamomun Burmanii) untuk Penciptaan Seni Kerajinan dengan Teknik Laminasi

    OpenAIRE

    Edi Eskak

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRAKLimbah ranting kayu manis (Cinnamomum burmanii) merupakan sisa kayu yang tidak ikut dikupas untuk diambil kulitnya sebagai bahan rempah-rempah. Limbah ranting ini jumlahnya cukup banyak pada saat panen kulit kayu manis. Pada saat ini limbah tersebut hanya dibuang ataupun dibakar. Penciptaan seni ini bertujuan untuk memanfaatan limbah ranting kayu manis tersebut menjadi aneka produk seni kerajinan. Metode yang digunakan yaitu eksplorasi, perancangan, dan perwujudan karya. Hasilnya berup...

  13. Exhaled RANTES and interleukin 4 levels after exercise challenge in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Ozlem; Keskin, Mehmet; Kucukosmanoglu, Ercan; Ozkars, Mehmet Yasar; Gogebakan, Bulent; Kul, Seval; Bayram, Hasan; Coskun, Yavuz

    2012-11-01

    Despite the universality and clinical significance of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB), the mechanisms responsible for it are incompletely understood. To investigate the role of exhaled RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted) and interleukin (IL) 4 in EIB in children with asthma. Fifty-six children with asthma were evaluated with exercise challenge and exhaled RANTES and IL-4 levels. Exhaled breath condensate was collected before and 30 minutes after exercise challenge. RANTES and IL-4 concentrations were determined using a specific immunoassay kit. A significant increase was found in RANTES levels after exercise challenge in the asthmatic children (Pchildren with EIB (n=25, P=.007) and in the non-EIB asthmatic group (n=31, P=.005). Our study revealed that exhaled RANTES level correlates significantly well with percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), exacerbation frequency, serum IgE, and body mass index. No statistically significant increase was found in IL-4 levels after exercise challenge. The maximal postexercise decrease in FEV1 strongly correlated with total eosinophil count (Pchildren with asthma. In addition, exhaled RANTES levels correlate well with serum IgE, severity of asthma, FEV1/FVC ratio, and body mass index. RANTES and IL-4 may not be independent predictors for EIB. Furthermore, eosinophil count and FEV1/FVC ratio may predict the presence and severity of EIB in asthmatic children. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Peripheral Neuropathic Facial/Trigeminal Pain and RANTES/CCL5 in Jawbone Cavitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Lechner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this study, we elucidate the possible causative role of chronic subclinical inflammation in jawbone of patients with atypical facial pain (AFP and trigeminal neuralgia (TRN in the local overexpression of the chemokine regulated on activation and normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES/C-C motif ligand 5 CCL5. Neurons contain opioid receptors that transmit antipain reactions in the peripheral and central nervous system. Proinflammatory chemokines like RANTES/CCL5 desensitize μ-opioid receptors in the periphery sensory neurons and it has been suggested that RANTES modifies the nociceptive reaction. Materials and Methods. In 15 patients with AFP/TRN, we examined fatty degenerated jawbone (FDOJ samples for the expression of seven cytokines by multiplex analysis and compared these results with healthy jawbones. Results. Each of these medullary jawbone samples exhibited RANTES as the only highly overexpressed cytokine. The FDOJ cohort with AFP/TRN showed a mean 30-fold overexpression of RANTES compared to healthy jawbones. Conclusions. To the best of our knowledge, no other research has identified RANTES overexpression in silent inflamed jawbones as a possible cause for AFP/TRN. Thus, we hypothesize that the surgical clearing of FDOJ might diminish RANTES signaling pathways in neurons and contribute to resolving chronic neurological pain in AFP/TRN patients.

  15. Multifaceted mechanisms of HIV inhibition and resistance to CCR5 inhibitors PSC-RANTES and Maraviroc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobritz, Michael A; Ratcliff, Annette N; Marozsan, Andre J; Dudley, Dawn M; Tilton, John C; Arts, Eric J

    2013-06-01

    Small-molecule CCR5 antagonists, such as maraviroc (MVC), likely block HIV-1 through an allosteric, noncompetitive inhibition mechanism, whereas inhibition by agonists such as PSC-RANTES is less defined and may involve receptor removal by cell surface downregulation, competitive inhibition by occluding the HIV-1 envelope binding, and/or allosteric effects by altering CCR5 conformation. We explored the inhibitory mechanisms of maraviroc and PSC-RANTES by employing pairs of virus clones with differential sensitivities to these inhibitors. Intrinsic PSC-RANTES-resistant virus (YA versus RT) or those selected in PSC-RANTES treated macaques (M584 versus P3-4) only displayed resistance in multiple-cycle assays or with a CCR5 mutant that cannot be downregulated. In single-cycle assays, these HIV-1 clones displayed equal sensitivity to PSC-RANTES inhibition, suggesting effective receptor downregulation. Prolonged PSC-RANTES exposure resulted in desensitization of the receptor to internalization such that increasing virus concentration (substrate) could saturate the receptors and overcome PSC-RANTES inhibition. In contrast, resistance to MVC was observed with the MVC-resistant HIV-1 (R3 versus S2) in both multiple- and single-cycle assays and with altered virus concentrations, which is indicative of allosteric inhibition. MVC could also mediate inhibition and possibly resistance through competitive mechanisms.

  16. RANTES/CCL5 mediated-biological effects depend on the syndecan-4/PKCα signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Maillard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The perpetuation of angiogenesis is involved in certain chronic inflammatory diseases. The accelerated neovascularisation may result from an inflammatory status with a response of both endothelial cells and monocytes to inflammatory mediators such as chemokines. We have previously described in vitro and in vivo the pro-angiogenic effects of the chemokine Regulated on Activation, Normal T Cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES/CCL5. The effects of RANTES/CCL5 may be related to its binding to G protein-coupled receptors and to proteoglycans such as syndecan-1 and -4. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functionality of syndecan-4 as a co-receptor of RANTES/CCL5 by the use of mutated syndecan-4 constructs. Our data demonstrate that site-directed mutations in syndecan-4 modify RANTES/CCL5 biological activities in endothelial cells. The SDC4S179A mutant, associated with an induced protein kinase C (PKCα activation, leads to higher RANTES/CCL5 pro-angiogenic effects, whereas the SDC4L188QQ and the SDC4A198del mutants, leading to lower phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 binding or to lower PDZ protein binding respectively, are associated with reduced RANTES/CCL5 cellular effects. Moreover, our data highlight that the intracellular domain of SDC-4 is involved in RANTES/CCL5-induced activation of the PKCα signaling pathway and biological effect. As RANTES/CCL5 is involved in various physiopathological processes, the development of a new therapeutic strategy may be reliant on the mechanism by which RANTES/CCL5 exerts its biological activities, for example by targeting the binding of the chemokine to its proteoglycan receptor.

  17. Construction and in vitro characterization of a chimeric simian and human immunodeficiency virus with the RANTES gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yuya; Okoba, Masashi; Yamazaki, Nanase; Goto, Yoshitaka; Miura, Tomoyuki; Hayami, Masanori; Hoshino, Hiroo; Haga, Takeshi

    2006-01-01

    Chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) containing the env gene of HIV-1 infects macaque monkeys and provides basic information that is useful for the development of HIV-1 vaccines. Regulated-on-activation-normal-T-cell-expressed-and-secreted (RANTES), a CC-chemokine, enhances antigen-specific T helper type-1 responses against HIV-1. With the final goal of testing the adjuvant effects of RANTES in SHIV-macaque models, we constructed a SHIV having the RANTES gene (SHIV-RANTES) and characterized its properties in vitro. SHIV-RANTES replicated both in human and monkey T cell lines. Along with SHIV-RANTES replication, RANTES was detected in the supernatant of human and monkey cell cultures, at maximal levels of 98.5 and 4.1 ng/ml, respectively. A flow cytometric analysis showed that the expressed RANTES down-modulated CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) on PM1 cells, which was restored by adding anti-RANTES antibody. UV-irradiated culture supernatants from the SHIV-RANTES-infected cells suppressed replication of CCR5-tropic HIV-1 BaL in PM-1 cells. Differentiating real-time RT-PCR showed that pre-infection of SHIV-RANTES in C8166 cells expressing CCR5 suppressed the replication of HIV-1 BaL. Biological activity of the expressed RANTES and the inserted RANTES gene in SHIV-RANTES remained stable after 10 passages. These results suggest that SHIV-RANTES is worth testing in macaque models.

  18. Etiologi Penyebab Malformasi Tunas Ranting Kakao di Kulonprogo, DIY dan Segayung, Jawa Tengah

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    Susamto Somowiyarjo

    2014-12-01

    insektisida hasilnya tunas muda yang tumbuh berikutnya tidak menunjukan adanya gejala malformasi. Diduga bahwa malformasi pada tunas dan ranting tersebut disebabkan oleh racun yang ditularkan oleh serangga. Penelitian lebih lanjut untuk karakterisasi penyebab penyakit secara molekuler saat ini sedang dilakukan.

  19. The functional antagonist Met-RANTES: a modified agonist that induces differential CCR5 trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Debra L; Longden, James; Fechner, Gregory A; Avery, Vicky M

    2009-01-01

    CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a pro-inflammatory chemokine receptor that is expressed on cells of the immune system, and specializes in cell migration in response to inflammation and tissue damage. Due to its key role in cell communication and migration, this receptor is involved in various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, in addition to HIV infection. Met-RANTES is a modified CCR5 ligand that has previously been shown to antagonize CCR5 activation and function in response to its natural ligands in vitro. In vivo, Met-RANTES is able to reduce inflammation in models of induced inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, due to the fact that Met-RANTES is also capable of partial agonist activity regarding receptor signaling and internalization, it is clear that Met-RANTES does not function as a conventional receptor antagonist. To further elucidate the effect of Met-RANTES on CCR5, receptor trafficking was investigated in a CHO-CCR5-GFP cell line using the Opera confocal plate reader. The internalization response of CCR5 was quantified, and showed that Met-RANTES internalized CCR5 in a slower, less potent manner than the agonists CCL3 and CCL5. Fluorescent organelle labeling and live cell imaging showed CCL3 and CCL5 caused CCR5 to traffic through sorting endosomes, recycling endosomes and the Golgi apparatus. In contrast, Met-RANTES caused CCR5 to traffic through sorting endosomes and the Golgi apparatus in a manner that was independent of recycling endosomes. As receptor trafficking impacts on cell surface expression and the ability of the receptor to respond to more ligand, this information may indicate an alternative regulation of CCR5 by Met-RANTES that allows the modified ligand to reduce inflammation through stimulation of a pro-inflammatory receptor.

  20. Enhanced immunogenicity of DNA fusion vaccine encoding secreted hepatitis B surface antigen and chemokine RANTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Jo; Suh, Dongchul; Park, Sang Eun; Park, Jeong-Sook; Byun, Hyang-Min; Lee, Chan; Lee, Sun Young; Kim, Inho; Oh, Yu-Kyoung

    2003-01-01

    To increase the potency of DNA vaccines, we constructed genetic fusion vaccines encoding antigen, secretion signal, and/or chemokine RANTES. The DNA vaccines encoding secreted hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) were constructed by inserting HBsAg gene into an expression vector with an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-targeting secretory signal sequence. The plasmid encoding secretory HBsAg (pER/HBs) was fused to cDNA of RANTES, generating pER/HBs/R. For comparison, HBsAg genes were cloned into pVAX1 vector with no signal sequence (pHBs), and further linked to the N-terminus of RANTES (pHBs/R). Immunofluorescence study showed the cytoplasmic localization of HBsAg protein expressed from pHBs and pHBs/R, but not from pER/HBs and pER/HBs/R at 48 h after transfection. In mice, RANTES-fused DNA vaccines more effectively elicited the levels of HBsAg-specific IgG antibodies than pHBs. All the DNA vaccines induced higher levels of IgG 2a rather than IgG 1 antibodies. Of RANTES-fused vaccines, pER/HBs/R encoding the secreted fusion protein revealed much higher humoral and CD8 + T cell-stimulating responses compared to pHBs/R. These results suggest that the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines could be enhanced by genetic fusion to a secretory signal peptide sequence and RANTES

  1. Evaluation of the acute toxicity of refined petroleum products against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Static and static-renewal evaluation of the acute toxicity of three refined petroleum products — petrol, kerosene and diesel — against two freshwater animals, the mollusc Pila ovata and the fish Poecilia reticulata, was conducted in the laboratory. Petrol, kerosene and diesel were found to be moderately toxic to the test ...

  2. Immunohistological analysis of eotaxin and RANTES in the model animal of eosinophilic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Naomi; Matsubara, Atsushi; Nishizawa, Hisanori; Miura, Tomoya

    2017-05-01

    The most crucial clinical problem of Eosinophilic Otitis Media (EOM) is sensorineural hearing loss. A previous report revealed that repeated antigen stimulation of middle ear causes eosinophilic inflammation not only in the middle ear but also in the inner ear. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism of eosinophil infiltration to the inner ear in the animal model of EOM. Continuous OVA stimulation to the middle ear of guinea pigs was performed for 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days. Histological observation was made for eosinophil infiltration and morphological change of the inner ear. Immunostaining for eotaxin and RANTES was performed to study immunoreactivity of those chemokines. In the 7-day stimulation side, a few eosinophils were found in the scala tympani, without obvious morphological damage of the inner ear. Moreover, immunoreactivity of both eotaxin and RANTES was significantly higher in the OVA stimulation sides than control sides. For both eotaxin and RANTES, the number of immunopositive cells was significantly increased in the 14-day stimulation side over the 7-day stimulation side. Eotaxin and RANTES seem to play some important roles for the eosinophil infiltration in the middle and inner ear of model animal of EOM.

  3. Metastasis-inducing S100A4 and RANTES cooperate in promoting tumor progression in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Forst

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The tumor microenvironment has been described as a critical milieu determining tumor growth and metastases. A pivotal role of metastasis-inducing S100A4 in the development of tumor stroma has been proven in animal models and verified in human breast cancer biopsies. Expression and release of S100A4 has been shown in various types of stroma composing cells, including fibroblasts and immune cells. However, the events implicated in upstream and downstream pathways regulating the activity of the extracellular S100A4 protein in the tumor milieu remain unsolved.We studied the interplay between the tumor cell-derived cytokine regulated-upon-activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES; CCL5 and S100A4 which were shown to be critical factors in tumor progression. We found that RANTES stimulates the externalization of S100A4 via microparticle shedding from the plasma membrane of tumor and stroma cells. Conversely, the released S100A4 protein induces the upregulation of fibronectin (FN in fibroblasts and a number of cytokines, including RANTES in tumor cells as well as stimulates cell motility in a wound healing assay. Importantly, using wild type and S100A4-deficient mouse models, we demonstrated a substantial influence of tumor cell-derived RANTES on S100A4 release into blood circulation which ultimately increases the metastatic burden in mice.Altogether, the data presented strongly validate the pro-metastatic function of S100A4 in the tumor microenvironment and define how the tumor cell-derived cytokine RANTES acts as a critical regulator of S100A4-dependent tumor cell dissemination. Additionally, for the first time we demonstrated the mechanism of S100A4 release associated with plasma membrane microparticle shedding from various cells types.

  4. RANTES Gene Polymorphisms Associated with HIV-1 Infections in Kenyan Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shem P. M. Mutuiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the RANTES gene promoter region, -403G/A and -28C/G, are associated with a slower rate of decline in CD4+ T cell count. In addition, as a ligand of the major HIV coreceptor CCR5, it is known to block HIV-CCR5 interactions in the course of the HIV infection cycle. This study was carried out with the aim of determining the occurrence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs -403G > A and -28C > G in the promoter region of RANTES, in a subset of the Kenyan population. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood monocular cells and used to amplify the RANTES gene region. Restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to determine the genotypes of the RANTES gene. Out of 100 HIV infected individuals, 19% had G1 genotypes (403G/G, 28C/G, 30% (403A/A, 28C/C, and 50% (403G/A, 28C/C, while in healthy blood donors 13% had G4 (403G/A, 28C/C genotypes, 22% (403A/A, 28C/C, and 54% (403G/A, 28C/C. HIV negative blood donors (54% had higher risk of alteration to risk of HIV transmission compared to those who were HIV infected (50%. However, the risk to transmission and distribution differences was not significant (P=0.092. The study showed that RANTES polymorphisms -403 and -28 alleles do exist in the Kenyan population.

  5. PRN 2001-2: Acute Toxicity Data Requirements For Granular Pesticide Products, Including Those With Granular Fertilizers in the Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This PR Notice announces guidance intended to streamline the acute toxicity review and classification process for certain granular pesticide products, including those products that contain granular fertilizers.

  6. Shikonin enhances efficacy of a gene-based cancer vaccine via induction of RANTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hui-Ming

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shikonin, a phytochemical purified from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has been shown to confer diverse pharmacological activities, including accelerating granuloma formation, wound healing, anti-inflammation and others, and is explored for immune-modifier activities for vaccination in this study. Transdermal gene-based vaccine is an attractive approach for delivery of DNA transgenes encoding specific tumor antigens to host skin tissues. Skin dendritic cells (DCs, a potent antigen-presenting cell type, is known to play a critical role in transmitting and orchestrating tumor antigen-specific immunities against cancers. The present study hence employs these various components for experimentation. Method The mRNA and protein expression of RANTES were detected by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. The regional expression of RANTES and tissue damage in test skin were evaluated via immunohistochemistry assay. Fluorescein isothiocyanate sensitization assay was performed to trace the trafficking of DCs from the skin vaccination site to draining lymph nodes. Adjuvantic effect of shikonin on gene gun-delivered human gp100 (hgp100 DNA cancer vaccine was studied in a human gp100-transfected B16 (B16/hgp100 tumor model. Results Among various phytochemicals tested, shikonin induced the highest level of expression of RANTES in normal skin tissues. In comparison, mouse RANTES cDNA gene transfection induced a higher level of mRANTES expression for a longer period, but caused more extensive skin damage. Topical application of shikonin onto the immunization site before gene gun-mediated vaccination augmented the population of skin DCs migrating into the draining lymph nodes. A hgp100 cDNA gene vaccination regimen with shikonin pretreatment as an adjuvant in a B16/hgp100 tumor model increased cytotoxic T lymphocyte activities in splenocytes and lymph node cells on target tumor cells. Conclusion Together, our findings suggest that shikonin can

  7. Expression of RANTES, eotaxin-2, ICAM-1, LFA-1 and CCR-3 in chronic rhinosinusitis patients with nasal polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallari, Fransérgio Emílio; Valera, Fabiana Cardoso Pereira; Gallego, Aline Jorge; Malinsky, Rafael Rossell; Küpper, Daniel Salgado; Milanezi, Cristiane; Silva, João Santana da; Tamashiro, Edwin; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma Terezinha

    2012-09-01

    To compare gene expression of the chemokines RANTES and eotaxin-2, its receptor, CCR-3, adhesion molecule ICAM-1 and its receptor LFA-1 in eosinophilic polyps and in control normal nasal mucosa. Gene expression was quantified by Real Time PCR in polyps (n=35) and in healthy nasal mucosa (n=15). Eosinophilic polyps showed a higher expression of eotaxin-2 and RANTES, but not of CCR-3, ICAM-1 or LFA-1 compared to control nasal mucosa. Eosinophilic polyps present greater expression of eotaxin-2 and RANTES, but not of CCR-3, ICAM-1 or LFA-1 compared to control nasal mucosa.

  8. Evaluation of 5P12-RANTES analogue expression in Nicotiana benthamiana

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mawela, KG

    2012-10-10

    Full Text Available years) ? New infections ( ( ) were reported (in thousands) among adults and children Global view of HIV infection : 2010 3 A lot of progress has been made to manage HIV But?. Arntzen, 2005 Condoms Partner reduction Monogamy Treatment... analogue into a transient expression vector (viral and bacterial) b) Agroinfiltration of 5P12-RANTES constructs into tobacco leaves c) Evaluate protein expression by ELISA and western blot d) Optimise protein expression level by subcellular targeting...

  9. Pharmacokinetics of the Protein Microbicide 5P12-RANTES in Sheep following Single-Dose Vaginal Gel Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, John W; Dias, Nicola; Cameron, David; Offord, Robin E; Hartley, Oliver; Boyd, Peter; Kett, Vicky L; Malcolm, R Karl

    2017-10-01

    5P12-RANTES, a chemokine analogue that potently blocks the HIV CCR5 coreceptor, is being developed as both a vaginal and rectal microbicide for prevention of sexual transmission of HIV. Here, we report the first pharmacokinetic data for 5P12-RANTES following single-dose vaginal gel administration in sheep. Aqueous gel formulations containing low (1.24-mg/ml), intermediate (6.18-mg/ml), and high (32.0-mg/ml; suspension-type gel) concentrations of 5P12-RANTES were assessed via rheology, syringeability, and in vitro release testing. Following vaginal gel administration to sheep, 5P12-RANTES concentrations were measured in vaginal fluid, vaginal tissue, and serum over a 96-h period. All gels showed non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior, with the high-concentration gels exhibiting a greater viscosity and cohesive structure than the intermediate- and low-concentration gels. In in vitro release testing, >90% 5P12-RANTES was released from the low- and intermediate-concentration gels after 72 h. For the high-concentration gel, ∼50% 5P12-RANTES was detected, attributed to protein denaturation during lyophilization and/or subsequent solvation of the protein within the gel matrix. In sheep, 5P12-RANTES concentrations in vaginal fluid, vaginal tissue, and serum increased in a dose-dependent manner. The highest concentrations were measured in vaginal fluid (10 5 to 10 7 ng/ml), followed by vaginal tissue (10 4 to 10 6 ng/ml). Both of these concentration ranges are several orders of magnitude above the reported half-maximal inhibitory concentrations. The lowest concentration was measured in serum (<10 2 ng/ml). The 5P12-RANTES pharmacokinetic data are similar to those reported previously for other candidate microbicides. These data, coupled with 5P12-RANTES's potency at picomolar concentrations, its strong barrier to resistance, and the full protection that it was observed to provide in a rhesus macaque vaginal challenge model, support the continued development of 5P12-RANTES as

  10. Effects of venom immunotherapy on serum level of CCL5/RANTES in patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik, Radoslaw; Glück, Joanna; Jawor, Barbara; Rogala, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Hymenoptera venoms are known to cause life-threatening IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions in allergic individuals. Venom immunotherapy is a recommended treatment of insect allergy with still the mechanism not being completely understood. We decided to assess the serum CCL5/RANTES level in patients who experienced severe anaphylactic reaction to Hymenoptera venom and to find out changes in the course of immunotherapy. Twenty patients (9 men, 11 women, mean age: 31.91 ± 7.63 years) with history of anaphylactic reaction after insect sting were included into the study. Diagnosis was made according to sIgE and skin tests. All of them were enrolled into rush venom immunotherapy with bee or wasp venom extracts (Pharmalgen, ALK-Abello, Horsholm, Denmark). Serum levels of CCL5/RANTES were measured using a commercially available ELISA kit (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN). CCL5/RANTES serum concentration are higher in insect venom allergic patients than in healthy controls (887.5 ± 322.77 versus 387.27 ± 85.11 pg/ml). Serum concentration of CCL5/RANTES in insect venom allergic patient was significantly reduced in the course of allergen immunotherapy already after 6 days of vaccination (887.5 ± 322.77 versus 567.32 ± 92.16 pg/ml). CCL5/RANTES serum doesn't correlate with specific IgE. Chemokine CCL5/RANTES participates in allergic inflammation induced by Hymenoptera venom allergens. Specific immunotherapy reduces chemokine CCL5/RANTES serum level already after initial days of venom immunotherapy.

  11. Colchicine Acutely Suppresses Local Cardiac Production of Inflammatory Cytokines in Patients With an Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Gonzalo J; Robertson, Stacy; Barraclough, Jennifer; Xia, Qiong; Mallat, Ziad; Bursill, Christina; Celermajer, David S; Patel, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, and downstream IL-6 are key inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. Colchicine is believed to block the NLRP3 inflammasome, a cytosolic complex responsible for the production of IL-1β and IL-18. In vivo effects of colchicine on cardiac cytokine release have not been previously studied. This study aimed to (1) assess the local cardiac production of inflammatory cytokines in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), stable coronary artery disease and in controls; and (2) determine whether acute administration of colchicine inhibits their production. Methods and Results Forty ACS patients, 33 with stable coronary artery disease, and 10 controls, were included. ACS and stable coronary artery disease patients were randomized to oral colchicine treatment (1 mg followed by 0.5 mg 1 hour later) or no colchicine, 6 to 24 hours prior to cardiac catheterization. Blood samples from the coronary sinus, aortic root (arterial), and lower right atrium (venous) were collected and tested for IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-6 using ELISA. In ACS patients, coronary sinus levels of IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-6 were significantly higher than arterial and venous levels (P=0.017, Colchicine administration significantly reduced transcoronary gradients of all 3 cytokines in ACS patients by 40% to 88% (P=0.028, 0.032, and 0.032, for IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-6, respectively). Conclusions ACS patients exhibit increased local cardiac production of inflammatory cytokines. Short-term colchicine administration rapidly and significantly reduces levels of these cytokines. PMID:26304941

  12. A genetically engineered live-attenuated simian-human immunodeficiency virus that co-expresses the RANTES gene improves the magnitude of cellular immunity in rhesus macaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yuya; Inaba, Katsuhisa; Kaneyasu, Kentaro; Ibuki, Kentaro; Himeno, Ai; Okoba, Masashi; Goto, Yoshitaka; Hayami, Masanori; Miura, Tomoyuki; Haga, Takeshi

    2007-01-01

    Regulated-on-activation-normal-T-cell-expressed-and-secreted (RANTES), a CC-chemokine, enhances antigen-specific T helper (Th) type-1 responses against HIV-1. To evaluate the adjuvant effects of RANTES against HIV vaccine candidate in SHIV-macaque models, we genetically engineered a live-attenuated SHIV to express the RANTES gene (SHIV-RANTES) and characterized the virus's properties in vivo. After the vaccination, the plasma viral loads were same in the SHIV-RANTES-inoculated monkeys and the parental nef-deleted SHIV (SHIV-NI)-inoculated monkeys. SHIV-RANTES provided some immunity in monkeys by remarkably increasing the antigen-specific CD4 + Th cell-proliferative response and by inducing an antigen-specific IFN-γ ELISpot response. The magnitude of the immunity in SHIV-RANTES-immunized animals, however, failed to afford greater protection against a heterologous pathogenic SHIV (SHIV-C2/1) challenge compared to control SHIV-NI-immunized animals. SHIV-RANTES immunized monkeys, elicited robust cellular CD4 + Th responses and IFN-γ ELISpot responses after SHIV-C2/1 challenge. These findings suggest that the chemokine RANTES can augment vaccine-elicited, HIV-specific CD4 + T cell responses

  13. Differential in situ distribution of interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and Rantes in human chronic periapical granuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, I J; Rot, A; Schwarzinger, E; Szakáll, S; Radics, T; Vályi-Nagy, I; Kiss, C

    2000-02-01

    In situ distribution of three prototype chemokines interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and Rantes was determined in chronic human periapical granulomas by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies. IL-8 was found primarily in the cytoplasm of the Malassez epithelial cells. MCP-1 immunoreactivity was confined to the endothelial cells that lined small venules. Each of the three investigated chemokines, including Rantes, exhibited a characteristic binding pattern to the extracellular matrix of the lesion. The observed chemokines may play a role in establishing the cellular composition of chronic apical periodontitis, thus augmenting the intensity of local inflammation and tissue damage.

  14. PENGGUNAAN PENGHUBUNG GESER DARI RANTING BAMBU SEBAGAI UPAYA UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KEKUATAN DAN KEKAKUAN BALOK BAMBU SUSUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astuti Masdar

    2016-05-01

    pelaksanaannya, ekonomis dan ramah lingkungan. Bambu yang digunakan sebagai balok adalah bambu wulung (Gigantochloa atroviolace dan sebagai konektor geser adalah ranting bambu iri (bambusa arundinacea. Berdasarkan hasil pengujian diketahui bahwa balok bambu susun yang menggunakan konektor geser dari ranting bambu ori mempunyai kekuatan yang baik sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa konektor geser dari ranting bambu ori mempunyai potensi untuk dikembangkan.. Keywords: baut, konektor, bambu, balok bambu susun, konstruksi

  15. Addicted to Democracy: "South Park" and the Salutary Effects of Agitation (Reflections of a Ranting and Raving "South Park" Junkie)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna, Katherine Richardson

    2004-01-01

    This article presents reflections of a ranting and raving "South Park" junkie. The church the author goes to is Unitarian Universalist (UU). UUism is the religion for people who don't believe in religion but somehow feel the need to regularly assemble in a religious tradition and affirm their nontraditional religiosity. From what the author can…

  16. RANTES/CCL5 and risk for coronary events: results from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort, Athero-Express and CARDIoGRAM studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Herder

    Full Text Available The chemokine RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted/CCL5 is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in mice, whereas less is known in humans. We hypothesised that its relevance for atherosclerosis should be reflected by associations between CCL5 gene variants, RANTES serum concentrations and protein levels in atherosclerotic plaques and risk for coronary events.We conducted a case-cohort study within the population-based MONICA/KORA Augsburg studies. Baseline RANTES serum levels were measured in 363 individuals with incident coronary events and 1,908 non-cases (mean follow-up: 10.2±4.8 years. Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, metabolic factors and lifestyle factors revealed no significant association between RANTES and incident coronary events (HR [95% CI] for increasing RANTES tertiles 1.0, 1.03 [0.75-1.42] and 1.11 [0.81-1.54]. None of six CCL5 single nucleotide polymorphisms and no common haplotype showed significant associations with coronary events. Also in the CARDIoGRAM study (>22,000 cases, >60,000 controls, none of these CCL5 SNPs was significantly associated with coronary artery disease. In the prospective Athero-Express biobank study, RANTES plaque levels were measured in 606 atherosclerotic lesions from patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy. RANTES content in atherosclerotic plaques was positively associated with macrophage infiltration and inversely associated with plaque calcification. However, there was no significant association between RANTES content in plaques and risk for coronary events (mean follow-up 2.8±0.8 years.High RANTES plaque levels were associated with an unstable plaque phenotype. However, the absence of associations between (i RANTES serum levels, (ii CCL5 genotypes and (iii RANTES content in carotid plaques and either coronary artery disease or incident coronary events in our cohorts suggests that RANTES may not be a

  17. Dose-response met-RANTES treatment of experimental periodontitis: a narrow edge between the disease severity attenuation and infection control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Repeke

    Full Text Available Chemokines and chemokine receptors have been implicated in the selective migration of leukocyte subsets to periodontal tissues, which consequently influences the disease outcome. Among these chemoattractants, the chemokines CCL3, CCL4 and CCL5 and its receptors, CCR1 and CCR5, have been associated with increased disease severity in mice and humans. Therefore, in this study we investigated the modulation of experimental periodontitis outcome by the treatment with a specific antagonist of CCR1 and 5 receptors, called met-RANTES. C57Bl/6 mice was orally infected with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and treated with 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.5 and 5 mg doses of met-RANTES on alternate days, and evaluated by morphometric, cellular, enzymatic and molecular methods. At 0.5 mg up to 5 mg doses, a strong reduction in the alveolar bone loss and inflammatory cell migration were observed. Interestingly, 5 mg dose treatment resulted in the maximum inhibition of inflammatory cell migration, but resulted in a similar inhibition of bone loss when compared with the lower doses, and also resulted in increased bacterial load and CRP response. When 0.5 and 5 mg therapy regimens were compared it was observed that both therapeutic protocols were able to downregulate the levels of pro-inflammatory, Th1-type and osteoclastogenic cytokines, and CD3+ and F4/80+ cells migration to periodontal tissues, but the high dose modulates host response in a more pronounced and unspecific and excessive way, interfering also with the production of antimicrobial mediators such as MPO, iNOS and IgG, and with GR1+ and CD19+ cells migration. Our results demonstrate a thin line between beneficial immunoregulation and impaired host defense during experimental periodontitis, and the determination of the exact equilibrium point is mandatory for the improvement of immune-targeted therapy of periodontitis.

  18. Gene polymorphisms in CCR5, CCR2, SDF1 and RANTES among Chinese Han population with HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Liu, Ting-Jun; Hong, Ze-Hui

    2014-06-01

    Chemokines and chemokine receptors are crucial for immune response in HIV-1 infection. Although many studies have been done to investigate the relationship between chemokines and chemokine receptor gene polymorphisms and host's susceptibility to HIV-1 infection, the conclusions are under debate. In the present study, a cohort of 287 HIV-1 seropositive patients, 388 ethnically age-matched healthy controls and 49 intravenous drug users (IDUs) HIV-1 exposed seronegative individuals (HESN) from Chinese Han population were enrolled in order to determine the influence of host genetic factors on HIV-1 infection. Seven polymorphisms on four known chemokines/chemokine receptor genes (CCR5Δ32, CCR5 m303, CCR5 59029A/G, CCR2 64I, RANTES -403A/G, RANTES -28C/G and SDF1 3'-A) were screened. CCR5Δ32 and CCR5 m303 were absent or infrequent in Chinese Han population, which may not be hosts' genetic protective factors for HIV-1 infection. Our results showed the CCR5 59029A/G, CCR2 64I and SDF1 3'-A were not associated with host's resistance to HIV-1 infection. The frequency of RANTES -403A allele was significantly lower in HIV-1 patients than in healthy blood donors (p=0.0005) and HESN group (p=0.035), which implied the association between A allele and reduced HIV-1 infection risk. Different genetic models were assessed to investigate this association (AA vs. GG+AG, OR=0.38 95% CI, 0.22-0.65 p=0.0004; A vs. G, OR=0.66 95% CI, 0.52-0.84 p=0.0006), which supported this association, either. The genotype and allele distribution of RANTES -28 between HIV-1 patients and healthy controls (genotype profile: p=0.072; allele profile: p=0.027) or HIV-1 seronegative group (genotype profile: p=0.036; allele profile: p=0.383) were both at the marginal level of significance, which were not observed after Bonferroni correction. All these results suggest the RANTES -403A may be associated with reduced susceptibility to HIV-1 infection, while the RANTES -28 locus not. By lack of the patients

  19. Cerebral lactate production and blood flow in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Gideon, P; Sperling, B

    1992-01-01

    Eight stroke patients were examined serially in the acute phase and 1 week and 2-4 weeks after stroke with water-suppressed proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The time courses of lactate level and regional cerebral blood flow were studied. A high lactate level was found in the acute phase....... The lactate content decreased to barely detectable levels during the following 3 weeks, while regional blood flow increased during this period. The inverse relationship between lactate level and cerebral blood flow suggests that lactate plays no substantial role in the vasodilatation underlying the hyperemia...

  20. Peritoneal administration of Met-RANTES attenuates inflammatory and nociceptive responses in a murine neuropathic pain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Jiin-Tarng; Mao, Chih-Chieh; Ching-Wah Sum, Daniel; Liu, Fu-Chao; Lai, Ying-Shu; Li, Jui-Chin; Day, Yuan-Ji

    2013-01-01

    The C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5; also known as regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted, or RANTES) is a member of the CC family of chemokines that specifically attract and activate leukocytes to sites of inflammation. Although CCL5 has been implicated in the processing of pain, its detailed mechanisms of action are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the potential of the Met-RANTES, a selective CCL5 receptor antagonist, via peritoneal administration to modulate the recruitment of inflammatory cells in injured sites and attenuate nociceptive responses in a neuropathic pain model in mice. Nociceptive sensitization, immune cell infiltration, multiple cytokine secretion, and opioid peptide expression in damaged nerves were studied. Our results indicated that Met-RANTES-treated mice had less behavioral hypersensitivity after partial sciatic nerve ligation. Macrophage infiltration, pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, and IFNγ) protein secretion, and enkephalin, β-endorphin, and dynorphin mRNA expression in damaged nerves following partial sciatic nerve ligation were significantly decreased, and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) protein was significantly increased in Met-RANTES-treated mice. These results suggest that CCL5 is capable of regulating the microenvironment that controls behavioral hypersensitivity at the level of the peripheral injured site in a murine chronic neuropathic pain model. The present study identifies the potent pro-inflammatory potential of CCL5 and verifies the possible role of selective CCL5 receptor inhibitor in a murine neuropathic pain model. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Management of Sub-acute Ruminal Acidosis in Dairy Cattle for Improved Production: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kafil Hussain; Amjad Ul Islam; Surinder Kumar Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a well-recognized digestive disorder that is an increasing health problem in most dairy herds. Feeding diets high in grain and other highly fermentable carbohydrates to dairy cows increases milk production, but also increases the risk of SARA. Sub-acute ruminal acidosis is defined as periods of moderately depressed ruminal pH, from about 5.5 to 5.0. Sub-acute ruminal acidosis may be associated with laminitis and other health problems resulting in decreased...

  2. Mitochondrial complex I deactivation is related to superoxide production in acute hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Hernansanz-Agustín

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria use oxygen as the final acceptor of the respiratory chain, but its incomplete reduction can also produce reactive oxygen species (ROS, especially superoxide. Acute hypoxia produces a superoxide burst in different cell types, but the triggering mechanism is still unknown. Herein, we show that complex I is involved in this superoxide burst under acute hypoxia in endothelial cells. We have also studied the possible mechanisms by which complex I could be involved in this burst, discarding reverse electron transport in complex I and the implication of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1. We show that complex I transition from the active to ‘deactive’ form is enhanced by acute hypoxia in endothelial cells and brain tissue, and we suggest that it can trigger ROS production through its Na+/H+ antiporter activity. These results highlight the role of complex I as a key actor in redox signalling in acute hypoxia.

  3. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1, RANTES and macrophage migration inhibitory factor levels in gingival crevicular fluid of metabolic syndrome patients with gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürkan, Ali; Eren, Gülnihal; Çetinkalp, Şevki; Akçay, Yasemin Delen; Emingil, Gülnur; Atilla, Gül

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted protein (RANTES) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in metabolic syndrome patients with gingivitis. Twenty metabolic syndrome patients with gingivitis (MSG), 20 MetS patients with clinically healthy periodontium (MSH), 20 systemically healthy subjects with gingivitis and 20 subjects who were both systemically and periodontally healthy were included. Periodontal and systemical parameters were recorded. GCF MCP-1, RANTES and MIF levels were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. MSG and MSH groups had elevated blood pressure, triglyceride, waist circumference and fasting glucose values in comparison to gingivitis and healthy groups (Pgingivitis groups when compared to those of the MSH and healthy groups (Pgingivitis group had higher MCP-1, RANTES and MIF levels compared to the healthy group (P=0.011, P=0.0001, P=0.011 respectively). The RANTES level of MSG group was significantly higher than those of the gingivitis group (P=0.01), but MCP-1 and MIF levels were similar in the MSG and gingivitis groups (P>0.05). Elevated levels of GCF RANTES in MetS patients with gingivitis might associate with the presence of increased gingival inflammation by MetS. Low-grade systemic inflammation associated with MetS and adipose tissue-derived RANTES might lead to altered GCF RANTES levels in the presence of gingival inflammation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Genetic polymorphisms of RANTES, IL1-A, MCP-1 and TNF-A genes in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sáenz-López, Pablo; Carretero, Rafael; Cózar, José Manuel; Romero, José Maria; Canton, Julia; Vilchez, José Ramón; Tallada, Miguel; Garrido, Federico; Ruiz-Cabello, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Inflammation has been implicated as an etiological factor in several human cancers, including prostate cancer. Allelic variants of the genes involved in inflammatory pathways are logical candidates as genetic determinants of prostate cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes that lead to increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines are associated with an increased prostate cancer risk. A case-control study design was used to test the association between prostate cancer risk and the polymorphisms TNF-A-308 A/G (rs 1800629), RANTES-403 G/A (rs 2107538), IL1-A-889 C/T (rs 1800587) and MCP-1 2518 G/A (rs 1024611) in 296 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer and in 311 healthy controls from the same area. Diagnosis of prostate cancer was significantly associated with TNF-A GA + AA genotype (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.09–2.64) and RANTES GA + AA genotype (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.09–2.38). A alleles in TNF-A and RANTES influenced prostate cancer susceptibility and acted independently of each other in these subjects. No epistatic effect was found for the combination of different polymorphisms studied. Finally, no overall association was found between prostate cancer risk and IL1-A or MCP-1 polymorphisms. Our results and previously published findings on genes associated with innate immunity support the hypothesis that polymorphisms in proinflammatory genes may be important in prostate cancer development

  5. Acute drug induced hepatitis secondary to a weight loss product purchased over the internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cross Tim JS

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people now seek alternative methods of weight loss. The internet provides a readily available source of weight reduction products, the ingredients of which are often unclear. The authors describe a case of acute hepatitis in a 20 year old woman caused by such a product purchased over the internet. Case Presentation A 20-year old woman presented with a two day history of abdominal pain, vomiting and jaundice. There were no identifiable risk factors for chronic liver disease. Liver function tests demonstrated an acute hepatitis (aminoaspartate transaminase 1230 IU/L. A chronic liver disease screen was negative. The patient had started a weight loss product (Pro-Lean, purchased over the internet two weeks prior to presentation. The patient was treated conservatively, and improved. The sequence of events suggests an acute hepatitis caused by an herbal weight loss product. Conclusion This case report highlights the dangers of weight loss products available to the public over the internet, and the importance of asking specifically about alternative medicines in patients who present with an acute hepatitis.

  6. Progress on macrophage's proinflammatory products as markers of acute endometriosis

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    Alicja Ziętek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To provide the review of the macrophage activity products as pathophysiological markers of endometriosis by literature survey (PubMed, Cochrane. Immunoreactive cells and several of their synthesis products concentrations are elevated in the serum and peritoneal fluid in patients with endometriosis. The enhanced reactive proteins contributed to local inflammation and aggregation of endometriotic lesions. Immune response and immune surveillance of tissue play an important role in pathogenesis of endometriosis. Activated macrophages in peritoneal environment secrete immunoreactive cytokines which are responsible for inflammatory cascade of reactions. The immunoreactive cytokines should be a target not only as a disease marker but also as a part of therapeutic protocol.

  7. Changes in gene expression induced by histamine, fexofenadine and osthole: Expression of histamine H1receptor, COX-2, NF-κB, CCR1, chemokine CCL5/RANTES and interleukin-1β in PBMC allergic and non-allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordulewska, Natalia Karolina; Kostyra, Elżbieta; Cieślińska, Anna; Matysiewicz, Michał; Fiedorowicz, Ewa; Sienkiewicz-Szłapka, Edyta

    2017-03-01

    Fexofenadine (FXF) is a third-generation antihistamine drug and osthole is assumed as a natural antihistamine alternative. This paper compares results of histamine, FXF and osthole impact on HRH-1, COX-2, NF-κB-p50, CCR1 mRNA expression. We also measured mRNA expression of IL-1β and CCL5/RANTES in incubated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to compared how histamine, FXF and osthole had influence on expression level and interacts on product secretion. The purpose was to investigate expression pattern in asthma PBMC. The cultures were treated 72h with FXF and osthole. We measured mRNA expression of histamine HRH-1, COX-2, NF-κB-p50, CCR1, IL-1β and CCL5/RANTES with Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR). The present study suggest that osthole may be a potential inhibitor of histamine H 1 receptor activity. We also demonstrated that cells cultured with histamine increase COX-2 mRNA expression and osthole reduce it. Allergy remains one of the most common chronic diseases in Europe and it is rapidly approaching epidemic proportions; with current predictions estimating that the number of allergy-afflicted will equal the healthy population by 2020. It is therefore paramount to find new pharmaceuticals which successfully combat allergic disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Increased replication of T-cell-tropic HIV strains and CXC-chemokine receptor-4 induction in T cells treated with macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, MIP-1beta and RANTES beta-chemokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolei, A; Biolchini, A; Serra, C; Curreli, S; Gomes, E; Dianzani, F

    1998-01-22

    To study, in T-lymphoid cells, the effects of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, MIP-1beta and RANTES beta-chemokines on the replication of T-cell-tropic HIV-1 strains, since it has been reported that beta-chemokines interfere with the replication of macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strains, but not T-cell-tropic strains. Freshly phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and cultured PHA-activated T cells from healthy volunteers, as well as the C8166 T-cell line, were treated overnight with beta-chemokines before infection with T-cell-tropic HIV-1 isolates, or human T-lymphotropic virus type IIIB. HIV replication was followed by detecting the production of infectious particles, p24 antigen, and viral sequences. CXC-chemokine receptor (CXCR)-4 expression was followed by detection and quantification of specific transcripts. Pretreatment of T cells with MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta and RANTES affected T-cell-tropic strains, increased the replication of HIV-1beta and HIV-1RPdT strains dose-dependently, as well as virus absorption and provirus DNA accumulation. These findings were associated with increased accumulation of CXCR-4 transcripts, and mediated by the protein tyrosine kinase signalling. Moreover, beta-chemokines stimulated PBL proliferation. Beta-chemokines increase the adsorption and replication of at least some T-cell-tropic HIV-1 strains, and this is related to stimulated expression of the CXCR-4 coreceptor.

  9. CodeRAnts: A recommendation method based on collaborative searching and ant colonies, applied to reusing of open source code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Caicedo-Castro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents CodeRAnts, a new recommendation method based on a collaborative searching technique and inspired on the ant colony metaphor. This method aims to fill the gap in the current state of the matter regarding recommender systems for software reuse, for which prior works present two problems. The first is that, recommender systems based on these works cannot learn from the collaboration of programmers and second, outcomes of assessments carried out on these systems present low precision measures and recall and in some of these systems, these metrics have not been evaluated. The work presented in this paper contributes a recommendation method, which solves these problems.

  10. Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Product: A Biomarker for Acute Coronary Syndrome

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    Louise J. N. Jensen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE and its ligands are linked to the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD, and circulating soluble receptor of advanced glycation end products (sRAGE, reflecting the RAGE activity, is suggested as a potential biomarker. Elevated sRAGE levels are reported in relation to acute ischemia and this review focuses on the role of sRAGE as a biomarker for the acute coronary syndrome (ACS. The current studies demonstrated that sRAGE levels are elevated in relation to ACS, however during a very narrow time period, indicating that the time of sampling needs attention. Interestingly, activation of RAGE may influence the pathogenesis and reflection in sRAGE levels in acute and stable CAD differently.

  11. Endogenous C1-inhibitor production and expression in the heart after acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmens, Reindert W; Baylan, Umit; Juffermans, Lynda J M; Karia, Rashmi V; Ylstra, Bauke; Wouters, Diana; Zeerleder, Sacha; Simsek, Suat; van Ham, Marieke; Niessen, Hans W M; Krijnen, Paul A J

    2016-01-01

    Complement activation contributes significantly to inflammation-related damage in the heart after acute myocardial infarction. Knowledge on factors that regulate postinfraction complement activation is incomplete however. In this study, we investigated whether endogenous C1-inhibitor, a well-known inhibitor of complement activation, is expressed in the heart after acute myocardial infarction. C1-inhibitor and complement activation products C3d and C4d were analyzed immunohistochemically in the hearts of patients who died at different time intervals after acute myocardial infarction (n=28) and of control patients (n=8). To determine putative local C1-inhibitor production, cardiac transcript levels of the C1-inhibitor-encoding gene serping1 were determined in rats after induction of acute myocardial infarction (microarray). Additionally, C1-inhibitor expression was analyzed (fluorescence microscopy) in human endothelial cells and rat cardiomyoblasts in vitro. C1-inhibitor was found predominantly in and on jeopardized cardiomyocytes in necrotic infarct cores between 12h and 5days old. C1-inhibitor protein expression coincided in time and colocalized with C3d and C4d. In the rat heart, serping1 transcript levels were increased from 2h up until 7days after acute myocardial infarction. Both endothelial cells and cardiomyoblasts showed increased intracellular expression of C1-inhibitor in response to ischemia in vitro (n=4). These observations suggest that endogenous C1-inhibitor is likely involved in the regulation of complement activity in the myocardium following acute myocardial infarction. Observations in rat and in vitro suggest that C1-inhibitor is produced locally in the heart after acute myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Cannabinoid Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol Mediates Inhibition of Macrophage Chemotaxis to RANTES/CCL5 through the CB2 Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raborn, Erinn S.; Marciano-Cabral, Francine; Buckley, Nancy E.; Martin, Billy R.; Cabral, Guy A.

    2009-01-01

    The chemotactic response of murine peritoneal macrophages to RANTES/CCL5 was inhibited significantly following pretreatment with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component in marijuana. Significant inhibition of this chemokine directed migratory response was obtained also when the full cannabinoid agonist CP55940 was used. The CB2 receptor-selective ligand O-2137 exerted a robust inhibition of chemotaxis while the CB1 receptor-selective ligand ACEA had a minimal effect. The THC-mediated inhibition was reversed by the CB2 receptor-specific antagonist SR144528 but not by the CB1 receptor-specific antagonist SR141716A. In addition, THC treatment had a minimal effect on the chemotactic response of peritoneal macrophages from CB2 knockout mice. Collectively, these results suggest that cannabinoids act through the CB2 receptor to trans-deactivate migratory responsiveness to RANTES/CCL5. Furthermore, the results suggest that the CB2 receptor may be a constituent element of a network of G protein-coupled receptor signal transductional systems, inclusive of chemokine receptors, that act coordinately to modulate macrophage migration. PMID:18247131

  13. [Construction of recombinant adenovirus vector expressing extracellular domain of TbetaR-II-RANTES fusion gene and its anti-tumor effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-Dong; Liu, Hong; Cao, Shui; Li, Hui; Ren, Xiu-Bao; Hao, Xi-Shan

    2007-06-01

    To construct a recombinant adenovirus vector expressing TbetaR-II extracellular domain-RANTES fusion gene and evaluate its anti-tumor effects. Mouse origin TbetaR-II extracellular domain and RANTES gene were amplified by RT-PCR. The TbetaR-II extracellular domain-RANTES fusion gene was amplified by overlapping PCR method. TbetaR-II extracellular domain-RANTES fusion gene was cloned into pDC316 vector. The recombinant adenovirus vector expressing the fusion gene was constructed by adMax adenovirus vector creation system. Recombinant adenovirus vector expressing the fusion gene was transfected into LA795 cells. The expression of recombinant adenovirus was checked by Westen blot. The levels of TGF-beta1, RANTES in supernatant were checked by ELISA. The transfected cells were counted and growth curve was obtained. Apoptosis of transfected cells was detected by Annexin V FITC method. The chemotactic activity of supernatant of transfected cells to splenic lymphocytes was assayed. Transfected cells (1 x 10(5)) were inoculated into T739 mice and to observe the tumor growth and survival time. Ad-TbetaR-II extracellular domain, Ad-RANTES and Ad-TbetaR-II extracellular domain-RANTES fusion gene(1 x 10(10) pfu) were injected into the tumor in T739 mice. The tumor size and tumor weight were recorded and tumor growth inhibition rate was counted and statistically analyzed. TbetaR-II extracellular domain and RANTES gene were amplified by RT-PCR and TbetaR-II extracellular domain-RANTES fusion gene amplified by overlapping PCR, were identified by DNA sequence analysis. Restriction enzyme digestion analysis showed that the recombinant vector was constructed correctly. The recombinant adenovirus vector expressing the fusion gene was constructed successfully using the AdMax Adenovirus Vector Creation System. Its titer was 8 x 10(10) pfu/ml. Ad-TbetaR-II extracellular domain-RANTES fusion gene was transfected into LA795 cells and had specific protein fragment proved by Western Blot

  14. Relationship between natriuretic peptides and inflammation: proteomic evidence obtained during acute cellular cardiac allograft rejection in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirovich, Yael F; Veinot, John P; de Bold, Mercedes L Kuroski; Haddad, Haissam; Davies, Ross A; Masters, Roy G; Hendry, Paul J; de Bold, Adolfo J

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NPs) atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) are polypeptide hormones secreted by the heart. Previously, we found that BNP, but not ANF, plasma levels may increase during an acute cellular cardiac allograft rejection episode. In vitro, the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) produced a selective increase of BNP gene expression and secretion. Other pro-inflammatory cytokines had no such effects. We identified cytokines associated with the selective upregulation of BNP during cardiac allograft rejection using a proteomics approach to measure 120 cytokines and related substances in the plasma of 16 transplant patients before, during and after an acute rejection episode. The values obtained were correlated with BNP plasma levels. Cytokines identified as being significantly related to BNP plasma levels were tested in neonatal rat ventricular cardiocytes in culture for their ability to selectively promote BNP secretion. The signaling pathway related to this phenomenon was pharmacologically characterized. Regulated-on-activation, normal T-expressed and secreted (RANTES), neutrophil-activating protein-2 (NAP-2) and insulin growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) had significant correlations with BNP plasma levels during Grade 3A (Grade 2 revised [2R]) or above rejection as diagnosed by endomyocardial biopsy score according to the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) grading system. In rat neonatal ventricular cardiocyte cultures, IGFBP-1 and RANTES were capable of promoting BNP, but not ANF secretion, as observed in rejecting patients. The BNP-promoting secretion activity of the identified cytokines was abolished by SB203580, a specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor. This work shows that cytokines other than pro-inflammatory cytokines correlate with BNP plasma levels observed during acute cardiac allograft rejection, and that

  15. The prevalence of natural health product use in patients with acute cardiovascular disease.

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    Aws Alherbish

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural health products (NHP use may have implications with respect to adverse effects, drug interactions and adherence yet the prevalence of NHP use by patients with acute cardiovascular disease and the best method to ascertain this information is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify the best method to ascertain information on NHP, and the prevalence of use in a population with acute cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of consecutive patients admitted with acute cardiovascular disease to the University of Alberta Hospital during January 2009. NHP use was explored using structured and open-ended questions based on Health Canada's definition of NHP. The medical record was reviewed, and documentation of NHP use by physicians, nurses, and pharmacists, compared against the gold-standard structured interview. RESULTS: 88 patients were interviewed (mean age 62 years, standard deviation [SD 14]; 80% male; 41% admitted for acute coronary syndromes. Common co-morbidities included hypertension (59%, diabetes (26% and renal impairment (19%. NHP use was common (78% of patients and 75% of NHP users reported daily use. The category of NHP most commonly used was vitamins and minerals (73% followed by herbal products (20%, traditional medicines including Chinese medicines (9%, homeopathic preparations (1% and other products including amino acids, essential fatty acids and probiotics (35%. In a multivariable model, only older age was associated with increased NHP use (OR 1.5 per age decile [95%CI 1.03 to 2.2]. When compared to the interview, the highest rate of NHP documentation was the pharmacist history (41%. NHP were documented in 22% of patients by the physician and 19% by the nurse. CONCLUSIONS: NHP use is common in patients admitted with acute cardiovascular disease. However, health professionals do not commonly identify NHP as part of the medication profile despite its potential importance

  16. The transforming power of early career acute care surgery research scholarships on academic productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzaur, Ben L; Valsangkar, Nakul; Feliciano, David F; Koniaris, Leonidas G

    2016-07-01

    More than 75% of respondents to an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma survey felt that barriers to research had increased and that acute care surgeon (ACS) academic productivity had decreased. Recent data confirm this impression and show lower academic productivity of junior ACS faculty compared with peers in other general surgical fields. The purpose of this study was to determine if early career acute care surgery research scholarships are associated with improved ACS academic productivity. Faculty data at the Top 55 National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded departments of surgery (Top 55) were obtained using SCOPUS, NIH, department, and professional society databases. Academic productivity was measured using total publications, citations, and the Hirsch index. Scholarship recipients from the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma and Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma were identified. A total of 4,101 surgical faculty (8.3% ACS) who belong to the Top 55 NIH-funded departments of surgery and 85 scholarship recipients were identified. After merging, 34 scholarship recipients (40%) were current faculty at a Top 55 NIH-funded department of surgery, and 24 of those (71%) were ACS faculty. Scholarship recipients had higher median total publications compared with nonrecipients at assistant and associate ranks but not at full professor rank. For all ranks, scholarship recipients were more likely to have NIH funding compared with nonrecipients (33% vs. 11%, p Research scholarships granted by acute care surgery professional organizations remain largely among ACS faculty in Top 55 NIH-funded departments of surgery. Among junior ACS faculty, recipients are associated with increased academic productivity and NIH funding. To fill the academic productivity gap among junior ACSs, professional organizations should consider increasing research funding scholarships for promising investigators.

  17. RANTES/CCL5 and risk for coronary events: Results from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort, Athero-express and CARDIoGRAM studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kathiresan (Sekar); M.P. Reilly (Muredach); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); H. Schunkert (Heribert); J. Erdmann (Jeanette); F.L. Moll (Frans); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); A. Hall (Anne); C. Hengstenberg (Christian); I.R. König (Inke); R. Laaksonen (Reijo); R. McPherson (Ruth); J.R. Thompson (John); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); A. Ziegler (Andreas); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); L. Chen (Li); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); E. Halperin (Eran); X. Li (Xiaohui); K. Musunuru (Kiran); M. Preuss (Michael); A. Schillert (Arne); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); G.A. Wells (George); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); H. Holm (Hilma); R. Roberts (Robert); A.F.R. Stewart (Alexandre); S.P. Fortmann (Stephen); A. Go (Attie); M.A. Hlatky (Mark); C. Iribarren (Carlos); J.W. Knowles (Joshua); R.H. Myers (Richard); T. Quertermous (Thomas); S. Sidney (Steven); N. Risch; H. Tang (Hui); S. Blankenberg (Stefan); T. Zeller (Tanja); P.S. Wild (Philipp); R.B. Schnabel (Renate); C. Sinning (Christoph); K.J. Lackner (Karl); L. Tiret (Laurence); V. Nicaud; F. Cambien (François); H. Bickel (Horst); H.J. Rupprecht; C. Perret (Claire); C. Proust (Carole); T. Munzel (Thomas); M. Barbalic (maja); J.C. Bis (Joshua); I.Y.-D. Chen (Ida Yii-Der); A. Dehghan (Abbas); S. Demissie-Banjaw (Serkalem); A.R. Folsom (Aaron); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); T.B. Harris (Tamara); S.R. Heckbert (Susan); D. Levy (Daniel); T. Lumley (Thomas); K. Marciante (Kristin); A.C. Morrison (Alanna); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); K. Rice (Kenneth); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); D.S. Siscovick (David); N.L. Smith (Nicholas); G.D. Smith; K.D. Taylor (Kent); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); K.A. Volcik (Kelly); J. Whitteman (Jaqueline); V.S. Ramachandran (Vasan); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S. Gretarsdottir (Solveig); J.R. Gulcher (Jeffrey); A. Kong (Augustine); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); G. Thorgeirsson (Gudmundur); K.K. Andersen (Karl); M. Fischer (Marcus); A. Großhennig (Anika); W. Lieb (Wolfgang); P. Linsel-Nitschke (Patrick); K. Stark (Klaus); S. Schreiber (Stefan); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); Z. Aherrahrou (Zouhair); P. Bruse (Petra); A. Doering (Angela); T. Illig (Thomas); N. Klopp (Norman); C. Loley (Christina); A. Medack (Anja); C. Meisinger (Christa); T. Meitinger (Thomas); J. Nahrstedt (Janja); A. Peters (Annette); A.K. Wagner (Arnika); C. Willenborg (Christina); B. Böhm; H. Dobnig (Harald); T.B. Grammer (Tanja); M.M. Hoffmann (Michael); M. Kleber (Martina); W. März (Winfried); A. Meinitzer (Andreas); B. Winkelmann; D.T. Pilz (Daniela); W. Renner (Wilfried); H. Scharnagl (Hubert); T. Stojakovic (Tatjana); A. Tomaschitz (Andreas); K. Winkler (Karl); C. Guiducci (Candace); N.P. Burtt (Noël); S.B. Gabriel (Stacey); R. Elosua (Roberto); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); V. Salomaa (Veikko); S.M. Schwartz (Stephen); O. Melander (Olle); D. Altshuler (David); S. Dandona (Sonny); O. Jarinova (Olga); L. Qu (Liming); A. Wilensky (Asaf); W. Matthai (William); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); J. Devaney (Joseph); M.S. Burnett; A.D. Pichard; K.M. Kent (Kenneth); L.F. Satler; J.M. Lindsay (Joseph); R. Waksman (Ron); C.W. Knouff (Christopher); D. Waterworth (Dawn); M.C. Walker (Max); V. Mooser (Vincent); S.E. Epstein (Stephen); D.J. Rader (Daniel); P.S. Braund (Peter); C.P. Nelson (Christopher P.); B.J. Wright (Benjamin); A.J. Balmforth (Anthony); S.G. Ball (Stephen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The chemokine RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted)/CCL5 is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in mice, whereas less is known in humans. We hypothesised that its relevance for atherosclerosis should be reflected by

  18. Chemokine MCP1/CCL2 and RANTES/CCL5 gene polymorphisms influence Henoch–Schönlein purpura susceptibility and severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hui Yu

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Our results support the fact that chemokines play important roles in the pathogenesis of HSP. MCP1/CCL2 gene polymorphisms were associated with susceptibility for HSP. RANTES/CCL5 gene polymorphisms may be related to disease severity and HSP nephritis.

  19. Acute phase reactants, challenge in the near future of animal production and veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruys, E; Toussaint, M J M; Upragarin, N; Van, Ederen A M; Adewuyi, A A; Candiani, D; Nguyen, T K A; Sabeckiene, J

    2005-10-01

    The future of acute phase proteins (APPs) in science is discussed in this paper. Many functions and associated pathological processes of APPs are unknown. Extrahepatic formation in local tissues needs attention. Local serum amyloid A (SAA) formation may be involved in deposition of AA-amyloid induced by conformational change of SAA resulting in amyloid formation, having tremendous food safety implications. Amyloidogenesis is enhanced in mouse fed beta pleated sheet-rich proteins. The local amyloid in joints of chicken and mammary corpora amylacea is discussed. Differences in glycosylation of glycoproteins among the APPs, as has been shown for alpha1-acid glycoprotein, have to be considered. More knowledge on the reactivity patterns may lead to implication of APPs in the diagnostics and staging of a disease. Calculation of an index from values of several acute phase variables increases the power of APPs in monitoring unhealthy individuals in animal populations. Vaccinations, just as infections in eliciting acute phase response seem to limit the profitability of vaccines because acute phase reactions are contra-productive in view of muscle anabolism. Interest is focused on amino acid patterns and vitamins in view of dietary nutrition effect on sick and convalescing animals. When inexpensive methodology such as liquid phase methods (nephelometry, turbidimetry) or protein array technology for rapid APP measurement is available, APPs have a future in routine diagnostics. Specific groups of patients may be screened or populations monitored by using APP.

  20. Nuclear NF-κB p65 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells correlates with urinary MCP-1, RANTES and the severity of type 2 diabetic nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yi

    Full Text Available AIMS: To investigate if nuclear NF-κB p65 expression in ex vivo isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells correlates with urinary MCP-1 or RANTES and the severity of type 2 diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: According to their urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR, 107 patients with type 2 diabetes (eGFR >60 ml/min were divided into normal albuminuria group (DN0 group, 38 cases, microalbuminuria group (DN1 group, 38 cases, and macroalbuminuria group (DN2 group, 31 cases, compared with matched healthy normal control group (NC group, 30 cases. Nuclear NF-κB p65 protein expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were detected by western blotting. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect NF-κB p65 mRNA expression and ELISA assay was used to detect the levels of urinary MCP-1 and RANTES. RESULTS: Nuclear NF-κB p65 protein and NF-κB p65 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, urinary MCP-1/Cr and RANTES/Cr were all significantly higher in all diabetes groups as compared with NC group. In particular, the increase of nuclear NF-κB p65 protein and NF-κB p65 mRNA expressions, urinary MCP-1/Cr and RANTES/Cr all correlated with the severity of type 2 diabetic nephropathy as indicated by the increase in uACR. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that both urinary MCP-1/Cr and RANTES/Cr were positively correlated with nuclear NF-κB p65 protein or NF-κB p65 mRNA levels. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that nuclear NF-κB p65 protein or NF-κB p65 mRNA was an independent variable for urinary MCP-1/Cr, and MCP-1/Cr and RANTES/Cr were two independent variables for uACR. CONCLUSION: Our research demonstrates that nuclear NF-κB p65 protein and mRNA expressions in ex vivo isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells well correlate with urinary MCP-1/Cr, RANTES/Cr and the severity of type 2 diabetic nephropathy.

  1. Influence of promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis combined with laparoscopy on serum MCP-1, RANTES, oxidative stress and hormones in infertile patients with endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Sha Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the influence of promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis combined with laparoscopy on serum MCP-1, RANTES, oxidative stress and hormones in infertile patients with endometriosis. Methods: A total of 60 infertile patients with endometriosis were randomly divided into observation group (30 cases and control group (30 cases. Observation group: promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis combined with laparoscopy; control group: patients were treated only by laparoscopy. Recording and comparing the levels of MCP-1, RANTES, oxidative stress and hormones before and after treatment. Results: (1 Before treatment, there was no statistically significant difference in the serum MCP-1, RANTES, AOPP, MDA, SOD, levels between the two groups. After treatment, compared with the same group before treatment, the serum RANTES, AOPP, MDA levels of the two groups were significantly lower, the serum SOD level of the two groups were significantly higher, and those levels of observation group were significantly better than the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups. (2 Before treatment, there was no statistically significant difference in the serum FSH, LH, E2, P, PRL levels between the two groups. After treatment, compared with the same group before treatment, the serum FSH, LH, P, PRL levels of the two groups were significantly higher, the serum E2 level of the two groups were significantly lower, and those levels of observation group were significantly better than the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: Promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis combined with laparoscopy for infertile patients with endometriosis can reduce the levels of serum MCP-1, RANTES, oxidative stress, hormones and be beneficial to protect their uterine function.

  2. Circulating microbial products and acute phase proteins as markers of pathogenesis in lymphatic filarial disease.

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    R Anuradha

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis can be associated with development of serious pathology in the form of lymphedema, hydrocele, and elephantiasis in a subset of infected patients. Dysregulated host inflammatory responses leading to systemic immune activation are thought to play a central role in filarial disease pathogenesis. We measured the plasma levels of microbial translocation markers, acute phase proteins, and inflammatory cytokines in individuals with chronic filarial pathology with (CP Ag+ or without (CP Ag- active infection; with clinically asymptomatic infections (INF; and in those without infection (endemic normal [EN]. Comparisons between the two actively infected groups (CP Ag+ compared to INF and those without active infection (CP Ag- compared to EN were used preliminarily to identify markers of pathogenesis. Thereafter, we tested for group effects among all the four groups using linear models on the log transformed responses of the markers. Our data suggest that circulating levels of microbial translocation products (lipopolysaccharide and LPS-binding protein, acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid protein-A, and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-12, and TNF-α are associated with pathogenesis of disease in lymphatic filarial infection and implicate an important role for circulating microbial products and acute phase proteins.

  3. A Novel Large Animal Model of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Induced by Mitochondrial Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Pablo G; Pasrija, Chetan; Mulligan, Matthew J; Wadhwa, Mandheer; Pratt, Diana L; Li, Tieluo; Gammie, James S; Kon, Zachary N; Pham, Si M; Griffith, Bartley P

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to create a reproducible lung injury model utilizing injection of mitochondrial damage-associated molecular products. Our goal was to characterize the pathophysiologic response to damage-associated molecular pattern mediated organ injury. There remain significant gaps in our understanding of acute respiratory distress syndrome, in part due to the lack of clinically applicable animal models of this disease. Animal models of noninfectious, tissue damage-induced lung injury are needed to understand the signals and responses associated with this injury. Ten pigs (35-45 kg) received an intravenous dose of disrupted mitochondrial products and were followed for 6 hours under general anesthesia. These animals were compared to a control group (n = 5) and a model of lung injury induced by bacterial products (lipopolysaccharide n = 5). Heart rate and temperature were significantly elevated in the mitochondrial product (204 ± 12 and 41 ± 1) and lipopolysaccharide groups (178 ± 18 and 42 ± 0.5) compared with controls (100 ± 13 and 38 ± 0.5) (P products and lipopolysaccharide groups compared with controls (170 ± 39, 196 ± 27, and 564 ± 75 mm Hg respectively, P = 0.001). Lung injury scoring of histological sections was significantly worse in mitochondrial and lipopolysaccharide groups compared with controls (mitochondrial-64 ± 6, lipopolysaccharide-54 ± 8, control-14 ± 1.5, P= 0.002). Our data demonstrated that the presence of mitochondrial products in the circulation leads to systemic inflammatory response and lung injury. In its acute phase lung injury induced by tissue or bacterial products is clinically indistinguishable.

  4. [The modification of nitric oxide production by exogenous substrates of Krebs cycle during acute hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurhaliuk, N M; Kotsiuruba, A V; Sahach, V F

    2005-01-01

    Hypoxia causes the disruption of mitochondria electron respiratory chain, production of active oxygen forms and the unoxidative protection. In experiments on Wistar rats the influence of sodium succinate (50 mg/kg) and 6-ketoglutarate (200 mg/kg) on NO2-, NO3-, urea and polyamines contents in blood and liver under acute hypoxia (7% O2 in N2, 30 min) was investigated. Nitrite and nitrate content decreased in erythrocytes and liver but not in plasma under acute hypoxia. The exogenous succinate (SK) stimulated production of nitric oxide in erythrocytes and liver while 6-ketoglutarate (KG) only in liver. The switch from more intensive SK oxidation that reveals adrenomimetic influence and causes the synthesis and release of NO from erythrocyte, to less intensive KG correlates with well-known decrease of tissue respiration under the activation of the cholinergic system due to urea cycle activation particularly in liver. The activation of the SK oxidation takes place mainly under the different stress conditions and causes NO production in the blood cells. These conditions of the intensive and fast action under acute hypoxia are accompanied on the one hand by the increase of oxygen input ratio and on the other hand by activation of the free radical oxidation. The protective effect of the natural Krebs cycle intermediates--SK and KG in particular, is related to the regulation of NO synthesis and its metabolism in the main organs. These results proved the existence not only metabolite control of NO system by Krebs cycle intermediates, but the existence of the systemic mechanism for the support of the functional state of mitochondria under hypoxia.

  5. Resistance to the CCR5 inhibitor 5P12-RANTES requires a difficult evolution from CCR5 to CXCR4 coreceptor use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Nedellec

    Full Text Available Viral resistance to small molecule allosteric inhibitors of CCR5 is well documented, and involves either selection of preexisting CXCR4-using HIV-1 variants or envelope sequence evolution to use inhibitor-bound CCR5 for entry. Resistance to macromolecular CCR5 inhibitors has been more difficult to demonstrate, although selection of CXCR4-using variants might be expected. We have compared the in vitro selection of HIV-1 CC1/85 variants resistant to either the small molecule inhibitor maraviroc (MVC or the macromolecular inhibitor 5P12-RANTES. High level resistance to MVC was conferred by the same envelope mutations as previously reported after 16-18 weeks of selection by increasing levels of MVC. The MVC-resistant mutants were fully sensitive to inhibition by 5P12-RANTES. By contrast, only transient and low level resistance to 5P12-RANTES was achieved in three sequential selection experiments, and each resulted in a subsequent collapse of virus replication. A fourth round of selection by 5P12-RANTES led, after 36 weeks, to a "resistant" variant that had switched from CCR5 to CXCR4 as a coreceptor. Envelope sequences diverged by 3.8% during selection of the 5P12-RANTES resistant, CXCR4-using variants, with unique and critical substitutions in the V3 region. A subset of viruses recovered from control cultures after 44 weeks of passage in the absence of inhibitors also evolved to use CXCR4, although with fewer and different envelope mutations. Control cultures contained both viruses that evolved to use CXCR4 by deleting four amino acids in V3, and others that maintained entry via CCR5. These results suggest that coreceptor switching may be the only route to resistance for compounds like 5P12-RANTES. This pathway requires more mutations and encounters more fitness obstacles than development of resistance to MVC, confirming the clinical observations that resistance to small molecule CCR5 inhibitors very rarely involves coreceptor switching.

  6. The Acute Inhalation Toxicity in Rats from the Pyrolysis Products of Four Fluoropolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, V. L., Jr.; Bafus, D. A.; Warrington, H. P.; Harris, E. S.

    1974-01-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats (225?250 g) were exposed to the thermal degradation products from four fluoropolymers. The three polymers containing vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropene (VF2/HFP) were pyrolyzed at 550? and 800?C, whereas polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was pyrolyzed at 625 and 800?C. At the lower temperatures, the pyrolysate from the copolymer of vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropene (VF2/HFP) was less toxic than the pyrolysates from either the terpolymer of vinyidene fluoride, hexafluoropropene, and tetrafluoroethylene (VF2/HFP/TFE) or the copolymer of vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropene with ?additives? (VF2/HFP-A). However, the pyrolysates from the VF2/HFP-containing materials produced less toxic products than the pyrolysate from PTFE at 625?C. When the pyrolysis temperature was increased to 800?C, very little difference was noted between the pyrolysis toxicity for any of the VF2/HFP-containing polymers with the most toxic pyrolysate again produced by PTFE. Carbon monoxide levels were all sublethal. No correlation could be established between hydrolyzable fluoride levels and the lethality of the pyrolysates. Death following exposure occurred within 48 hr due to acute pulmonary edema and hemorrhage. Survival of this acute phase was followed by alveolar lymphocytic infiltration and peribronchial tissue proliferation.

  7. Acrolein inhalation suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production but does not affect acute airways neutrophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, David Itiro; Poynter, Matthew E; Othman, Ziryan; Hemenway, David; van der Vliet, Albert

    2008-07-01

    Acrolein is a reactive unsaturated aldehyde that is produced during endogenous oxidative processes and is a major bioactive component of environmental pollutants such as cigarette smoke. Because in vitro studies demonstrate that acrolein can inhibit neutrophil apoptosis, we evaluated the effects of in vivo acrolein exposure on acute lung inflammation induced by LPS. Male C57BL/6J mice received 300 microg/kg intratracheal LPS and were exposed to acrolein (5 parts per million, 6 h/day), either before or after LPS challenge. Exposure to acrolein either before or after LPS challenge did not significantly affect the overall extent of LPS-induced lung inflammation, or the duration of the inflammatory response, as observed from recovered lung lavage leukocytes and histology. However, exposure to acrolein after LPS instillation markedly diminished the LPS-induced production of several inflammatory cytokines, specifically TNF-alpha, IL-12, and the Th1 cytokine IFN-gamma, which was associated with reduction in NF-kappaB activation. Our data demonstrate that acrolein exposure suppresses LPS-induced Th1 cytokine responses without affecting acute neutrophilia. Disruption of cytokine signaling by acrolein may represent a mechanism by which smoking contributes to chronic disease in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma.

  8. Production of free radicals and catalase activity during acute exercise training in young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A.C. de Castro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are constantly produced by cells that promote cellular oxidative damage and are neutralized by an antioxidant system including superoxide dismutase, glutathione, peroxidase and catalase. Male volunteers were exercised for 20 minutes, three days (60, 70 and 80% of maximum heart rate. Catalase activity and plasma malondialdehyde concentration were measured. The mean age of the volunteers was 25±7 years, with body mass index of 24.03 ± 4.32 kg/m2. Acute exercise training produced an increase of malondialdehyde concentration that was exercise intensity-dependent in young volunteers. However, catalase activity shows a great variability at baseline and the percentual of reduction was exercise intensity-independent in this particular population. Therefore, our study shows that acute cycling exercise promotes an increase of oxidative stress that was exercise intensity-dependent in young volunteers. Furthermore, the antioxidant system measured by catalase activity was effective to counterbalance the ROS production showing a saturation behavior at an intensity of 70% of maximum heart rate

  9. Acute effects of Advance: a potential reduced exposure product for smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breland, A B; Evans, S E; Buchhalter, A R; Eissenberg, T

    2002-12-01

    To examine the acute effects of Advance, a potential reduced exposure product (PREP) for smokers marketed as a means to reduce exposure to toxic gases and tobacco specific nitrosamines. Latin square ordered, three condition, laboratory based, crossover design with 20 smokers of light or ultra-light cigarettes (15 or more cigarettes/day). In each 2.5 hour condition, participants completed an 8-puff smoking bout from their own brand, Advance, or an unlit cigarette (that is, sham smoking) every 30 minutes for a total of four bouts. Subject rated measures of tobacco/nicotine withdrawal; carbon monoxide (CO), and heart rate; plasma nicotine concentrations. Relative to own brand, Advance produced similar withdrawal suppression and heart rate increase, lower CO boost, and higher plasma nicotine concentrations. PREPs for smokers need to be evaluated using a comprehensive strategy that includes empirical examination of acute and long term effects. Adequate withdrawal suppression and potentially lower concentrations of CO associated with Advance use are positive factors, although higher nicotine concentrations do not constitute "reduced exposure". Overall, longer exposure periods are necessary to determine carcinogen delivery. PREP evaluation is complex and should be completed objectively.

  10. Direct relation of acute effects of static stretching on isokinetic torque production with initial flexibility level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babault, Nicolas; Bazine, Wacef; Deley, Gaëlle; Paizis, Christos; Lattier, Grégory

    2015-01-01

    To examine the acute effect of a single static-stretching session of hamstring muscles on torque production in relation with individual flexibility. Maximal voluntary concentric torque of hamstring muscles was measured before and after a static-stretching session (6 × 30 s). Torque changes were correlated with the flexibility level determined at the onset of the experimental procedure. The hamstring-stretching intervention significantly reduced maximal concentric torque in participants with low and high hamstring flexibility. Hamstring flexibility and torque decrease, determined immediately after the stretching procedure, were negatively correlated. Torque decrease measured after the static-stretching session is dependent on participant flexibility. Participants with low flexibility are much more likely to demonstrate large torque decreases poststretching.

  11. Effective management of patients with acute ischemic stroke based on lean production on thrombolytic flow optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhuoyuan; Ren, Lijie; Wang, Ting; Hu, Huoyou; Li, Weiping; Wang, Yaping; Liu, Dehong; Lie, Yi

    2016-12-01

    The efficacy of thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) decreases when the administration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is delayed. Derived from Toyota Production System, lean production aims to create top-quality products with high-efficiency procedures, a concept that easily applies to emergency medicine. In this study, we aimed to determine whether applying lean principles to flow optimization could hasten the initiation of thrombolysis. A multidisciplinary team (Stroke Team) was organized to implement an ongoing, continuous loop of lean production that contained the following steps: decomposition, recognition, intervention, reengineering and assessment. The door-to-needle time (DNT) and the percentage of patients with DNT ≤ 60 min before and after the adoption of lean principles were used to evaluate the efficiency of our flow optimization. Thirteen patients with AIS in the pre-lean period and 43 patients with AIS in the lean period (23 in lean period I and 20 patients in lean period II) were consecutively enrolled in our study. After flow optimization, we reduced DNT from 90 to 47 min (p < 0.001 ¤ ). In addition, the percentage of patients treated ≤60 min after hospital arrival increased from 38.46 to 75.0 % (p = 0.015 ¤ ). Adjusted analysis of covariance confirmed a significant influence of optimization on delay of tPA administration (p < 0.001). The patients were more likely to have a good prognosis (mRS ≤ 2 at 90 days) after the flow optimization (30.77-75.00 %, p = 0.012 ¤ ). Our study may offer an effective approach for optimizing the thrombolytic flow in the management of AIS.

  12. Ready-to-use foods for management of moderate acute malnutrition: Considerations for scaling up production and use in programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready-to-use foods are one of the available strategies for the treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM), but challenges remain in the use of these products in programs at scale. This paper focuses on two challenges: the need for cheaper formulations using locally available ingredients that are...

  13. Supplementation of Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product can attenuate the acute phase response following a lipopolysaccharide challenge in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine if feeding a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce stress and acute phase responses (APR) following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n=30; 6.4±0.1 kilograms body weight) were housed individually in pens with ad libi...

  14. Acute supplementation of L-arginine affects neither strength performance nor nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirelles, Claudia M; Matsuura, Cristiane

    2018-03-01

    L-arginine is a semi-essential amino acid involved in nitric oxide production. As nitric oxide is an important vasodilator, L-arginine supplementation would increase blood perfusion and, subsequently, muscle performance during exercises. The aim of this study was to determine the acute effect of L-arginine supplementation on strength performance and nitric oxide levels in healthy trained individuals. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 12 men were randomly assigned to L-arginine or placebo supplementation. Subjects received 6 g of L-arginine or placebo 60 minutes before strength test (maximum number of repetitions, 3 sets at 70% of one repetition maximum on bench press and at 80% of one repetition maximum on knee extensions, 2 minutes of rest between sets and exercises). Blood samples were collected before supplementation and 6 min after exercise. Plasma nitrite levels did not significantly change after L-arginine or placebo supplementation and strength-training exercise (placebo, from 13.01±1.18 to 11.83±2.81 mM; L-arginine, from 10.95±4.09 to 11.99±2.5 mM). There was a significant reduction in the number of repetitions performed from set 1 to set 3 in each set of both bench press and knee extension, but no significant interactions were observed between placebo and L-arginine. These results do not support the use of L-arginine as an ergogenic aid for strength performance, at least in context of acute use immediately before resistance exercise performance.

  15. Evaluating acute effects of potential reduced-exposure products for smokers: clinical laboratory methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breland, Alison B; Buchhalter, August R; Evans, Sarah E; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Harm reduction for tobacco smokers may involve reducing their exposure to lethal smoke constituents. Assessing smoke constituent exposure and any resulting harm reduction from a potential reduced-exposure product (PREP) will involve preclinical, clinical, and epidemiological research. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a clinical laboratory model for assessing the acute effects of PREPs for smokers. Philip Morris' Accord and R.J. Reynolds' Eclipse were used as examples. Twenty overnight-abstinent smokers (> 15 'light' or 'ultra-light' cigarettes/day) participated in 4 Latin-square ordered, 2.5-hr sessions in which they completed an 8-puff smoking bout every 30 minutes. Sessions were separated by at least 24 hours and differed by product used: own brand, denicotinized tobacco cigarettes, Accord, or Eclipse. Tobacco withdrawal and carbon monoxide (CO) were assessed before and after smoking, heart rate was assessed before and during smoking, and puff volume, duration, and interpuff interval were assessed while subjects smoked. Blood was sampled at the beginning and end of each session. Relative to normal cigarettes, Accord was less effective at suppressing withdrawal and produced minimal CO boost despite the fact that, when using Accord, subjects took bigger and longer puffs. Eclipse suppressed withdrawal fully and increased CO boost by approximately 30%. Own brand, Accord, and Eclipse, but not denicotinized cigarettes, increased plasma nicotine concentration. Taken together, these results suggest that neither Accord nor Eclipse is likely to be an effective reduced-exposure product for smokers and that this clinical laboratory model is valuable.

  16. Functional and phenotypic evaluation of eosinophils from patients with the acute form of paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Fernanda Gambogi; Ruas, Luciana Pereira; Pereira, Ricardo Mendes; Lima, Xinaida Taligare; Antunes, Edson; Mamoni, Ronei Luciano; Blotta, Maria Heloisa Souza Lima

    2017-05-01

    Eosinophilia is a typical finding of the acute/juvenile form of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America. This clinical form is characterized by depressed cellular immune response and production of Th2 cytokines. Moreover, it has been shown that the increased number of eosinophils in peripheral blood of patients returns to normal values after antifungal treatment. However, the role of eosinophils in PCM has never been evaluated. This study aimed to assess the phenotypic and functional characteristics of eosinophils in PCM. In 15 patients with the acute form of the disease, we detected expression of MBP, CCL5 (RANTES) and CCL11 (eotaxin) in biopsies of lymph nodes and liver. In addition, there were higher levels of chemokines and granule proteins in the peripheral blood of patients compared to controls. Isolation of eosinophils from blood revealed a higher frequency of CD69+ and TLR2+ eosinophils in patients compared to controls, and a lower population of CD80+ cells. We also evaluated the fungicidal capacity of eosinophils in vitro. Our results revealed that eosinophils from PCM patients and controls exhibit similar ability to kill P. brasiliensis yeast cells, although eosinophils of patients were less responsive to IL-5 stimulation than controls. In conclusion, we suggest that eosinophils might play a role in the host response to fungi and in the pathophysiology of PCM by inducing an intense and systemic inflammatory response in the initial phase of the infection.

  17. Acute L-Arginine supplementation does not increase nitric oxide production in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Dietary supplements containing L-arginine have been marketed with the purpose of increasing vasodilatation, and thus, blood and oxygen supply to the exercising muscle. The present study evaluated the acute effect of L-arginine supplementation on indicators of NO production, nitrite (NO2-) + nitrate (NO3-) (NOx), in healthy subjects. Plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) have also been addressed. Seventeen healthy males participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Blood samples were drawn from a left antecubital vein at baseline (T0). Afterwards, subjects were randomly submittedto 6 g of oral L-arginine supplementation (as L-arginine hydrochloride) or placebo (as corn starch); afterwards, the subjects remained at rest in supine position and blood samples were drawn again at 30 (T1), 60 (T2), 90 (T3) and 120 minutes (T4) after supplementation. To analyze NO production, NO3- was converted to NO2- by nitrate reductase, followed by the derivatization of NO2- with 2,3-diaminonaphthalene. NOx, ADMA and SDMA were analyzed using a high-performance liquid chromatography system and monitored with a fluorescence detector. Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures showed no significant changes in NOx concentrations on the L-arginine group as compared to placebo group at any of the fivetime points (T0: 17.6 ± 3.9 vs 14.6 ± 2.3 μmol/L; T1: 15.8 ± 2.4 vs 14.3 ± 1.7 μmol/L; T2: 16.8 ± 4.9 vs 13.7 ± 2.7 μmol/L; T3: 16.7 ± 3.9 vs 14.6 ± 2.1 μmol/L; T4: 15.1 ± 2.8 vs 13.5 ± 3.5 μmol/L). Furthermore, plasma levels of ADMA and SDMA were not statistically significant between the L-arginine and placebo groups at T0 (0.43 ± 0.19 vs 0.39 ± 0.15 μmol/L and 1.83 ± 1.13 vs 1.70 ± 0.62 μmol/L), respectively. In conclusion, acute L-arginine supplementation does not increase plasma concentration of NOx in healthy

  18. Acute L-Arginine supplementation does not increase nitric oxide production in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvares Thiago

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dietary supplements containing L-arginine have been marketed with the purpose of increasing vasodilatation, and thus, blood and oxygen supply to the exercising muscle. The present study evaluated the acute effect of L-arginine supplementation on indicators of NO production, nitrite (NO2- + nitrate (NO3- (NOx, in healthy subjects. Plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA have also been addressed. Seventeen healthy males participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Blood samples were drawn from a left antecubital vein at baseline (T0. Afterwards, subjects were randomly submittedto 6 g of oral L-arginine supplementation (as L-arginine hydrochloride or placebo (as corn starch; afterwards, the subjects remained at rest in supine position and blood samples were drawn again at 30 (T1, 60 (T2, 90 (T3 and 120 minutes (T4 after supplementation. To analyze NO production, NO3- was converted to NO2- by nitrate reductase, followed by the derivatization of NO2- with 2,3-diaminonaphthalene. NOx, ADMA and SDMA were analyzed using a high-performance liquid chromatography system and monitored with a fluorescence detector. Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures showed no significant changes in NOx concentrations on the L-arginine group as compared to placebo group at any of the fivetime points (T0: 17.6 ± 3.9 vs 14.6 ± 2.3 μmol/L; T1: 15.8 ± 2.4 vs 14.3 ± 1.7 μmol/L; T2: 16.8 ± 4.9 vs 13.7 ± 2.7 μmol/L; T3: 16.7 ± 3.9 vs 14.6 ± 2.1 μmol/L; T4: 15.1 ± 2.8 vs 13.5 ± 3.5 μmol/L. Furthermore, plasma levels of ADMA and SDMA were not statistically significant between the L-arginine and placebo groups at T0 (0.43 ± 0.19 vs 0.39 ± 0.15 μmol/L and 1.83 ± 1.13 vs 1.70 ± 0.62 μmol/L, respectively. In conclusion, acute L-arginine supplementation does not increase plasma concentration of NOx in

  19. Modulation of the acute phase response following a lipopolysaccharide challenge in pigs supplemented with an all-natural saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine if feeding a Saccharamyces cerevisiae fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce the stress and acute phase responses (APR) following an acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n = 20; 6.4 ± 0.2 kg BW) were obtained and transported to an environment...

  20. Differences in the suppression of distortion product otoacoustic emissions by contralateral white noise between patients with acute or chronic tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, Maria; Komis, Agis; Marangoudakis, Pavlos; Naxakis, Stefanos; Ferekidis, Eleftherios; Kandiloros, Dimitrios; Danielides, Vasilios

    2017-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying the shift from acute tinnitus to chronic remain obscure. An association between tinnitus and medial olivocochlear bundle (MOCB) reflex dysfunction has been hypothesised by several studies. The differences between participants with acute and chronic tinnitus have not yet been investigated. Participants were examined with distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) suppression elicited by contralateral white noise. They were compared in terms of frequency regions with non-recordable DPOAEs, suppression amplitudes and the presence of DPOAE enhancement. Eighteen participants with acute tinnitus, 40 age-matched adults with chronic tinnitus and 17 controls were included. All participants (aged 34.7 ± 9.6years; mean ± Standard deviation) had normal hearing. Tinnitus was bilateral in 22 participants and unilateral in 36. Ears with chronic tinnitus presented significantly lower DPOAE suppression amplitudes than ears with acute tinnitus (p tinnitus ears present a high prevalence of enhancement, significantly different from controls (p tinnitus and control groups (p tinnitus becomes chronic, DPOAEs suppression presents changes that might reveal corresponding steps in tinnitus pathophysiology. Treatment implications are discussed.

  1. Effect of thalidomide on chemokine production by human microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokensgard, J R; Hu, S; van Fenema, E M; Sheng, W S; Peterson, P K

    2000-09-01

    Thalidomide, a psychoactive drug that readily crosses the blood-brain barrier, has been shown to possess immunomodulatory attributes, including the inhibition of cytokine production by monocytes and microglia. In this study, we investigated the effect of thalidomide on chemokine production by human microglial cells. Microglial cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, a key cell-wall component of gram-negative bacteria responsible for meningitis, and production of chemokines (regulated upon activation normally T cell expressed and secreted [RANTES], monocyte chemoattractant protein [MCP]-1, macrophage inflammatory protein [MIP]-1beta, and interleukin [IL]-8) was examined by ELISA. Thalidomide treatment was found to cause potent and selective inhibition of IL-8 production in a dose-responsive manner. This inhibition was associated with decreased intracellular IL-8 staining as well as reduced transcription of IL-8 mRNA. In addition, thalidomide treatment of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglia inhibited the activation of protein NF-kappaB, a transcription factor known to be important for IL-8 production. These results suggest thalidomide could have a therapeutic role in acute bacterial meningitis through inhibition of IL-8-mediated neutrophil chemotaxis.

  2. Acute phase reactants, challenge in the near future of animal production and veterinary medicine*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruys, E.; Toussaint, M.J.M.; Upragarin, N.; van Ederen, A.M.; Adewuyi, A.A.; Candiani, D.; Nguyen, T.K.A.; Sabeckiene (Balciute), J.

    2005-01-01

    The future of acute phase proteins (APPs) in science is discussed in this paper. Many functions and associated pathological processes of APPs are unknown. Extrahepatic formation in local tissues needs attention. Local serum amyloid A (SAA) formation may be involved in deposition of AA-amyloid induced by conformational change of SAA resulting in amyloid formation, having tremendous food safety implications. Amyloidogenesis is enhanced in mouse fed beta pleated sheet-rich proteins. The local amyloid in joints of chicken and mammary corpora amylacea is discussed. Differences in glycosylation of glycoproteins among the APPs, as has been shown for α1-acid glycoprotein, have to be considered. More knowledge on the reactivity patterns may lead to implication of APPs in the diagnostics and staging of a disease. Calculation of an index from values of several acute phase variables increases the power of APPs in monitoring unhealthy individuals in animal populations. Vaccinations, just as infections in eliciting acute phase response seem to limit the profitability of vaccines because acute phase reactions are contraproductive in view of muscle anabolism. Interest is focused on amino acid patterns and vitamins in view of dietary nutrition effect on sick and convalescing animals. When inexpensive methodology such as liquid phase methods (nephelometry, turbidimetry) or protein array technology for rapid APP measurement is available, APPs have a future in routine diagnostics. Specific groups of patients may be screened or populations monitored by using APP. PMID:16187407

  3. The use of a measure of acute irritation to predict the outcome of repeated usage of hand soap products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C; Wilkinson, M; McShane, P; Pennington, D; Fernandez, C; Pierce, S

    2011-06-01

    Healthcare-associated infection is an important worldwide problem that could be reduced by better hand hygiene practice. However, an increasing number of healthcare workers are experiencing irritant contact dermatitis of the hands as a result of repeated hand washing. This may lead to a reduced level of compliance with regard to hand hygiene. To assess whether a measure of acute irritation by hand soaps could predict the effects of repeated usage over a 2-week period. In a double-blind, randomized comparison study, the comparative irritation potential of four different hand soaps was assessed over a 24-h treatment period. The effect of repeated hand washing with the hand soap products over a 2-week period in healthy adult volunteers on skin barrier function was then determined by assessment of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), epidermal hydration and a visual assessment using the Hand Eczema Severity Index (HECSI) at days 0, 7 and 14. A total of 121 subjects from the 123 recruited completed phase 1 of the study. All four products were seen to be significantly different from each other in terms of the irritant reaction observed and all products resulted in a significantly higher irritation compared with the no-treatment control. Seventy-nine of the initial 121 subjects were then enrolled into the repeated usage study. A statistically significant worsening of the clinical condition of the skin as measured by HECSI was seen from baseline to day 14 in those subjects repeatedly washing their hands with two of the four soap products (products C and D) with P-values of 0·02 and 0·01, respectively. Subclinical assessment of the skin barrier function by measuring epidermal hydration was significantly increased from baseline to day 7 after repeated hand washing with products A, B and D but overall no significant change was seen in all four products tested by day 14. A statistically significant increase in TEWL at day 14 was seen for product A (P = 0·02) indicating a

  4. Production of Indole Acetic Acid from Salinity tolerant Rhizobium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Your User Name

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... has both drought and arid climate, resulting in high soil salinity leading to tremendous losses in crop production. An essential aspect of the strategy to improve the yield of arid legumes in stressed environments must involve a combination of stress-tolerant cultivars and stress-tole- rant rhizobia (Zahran ...

  5. Bayreuth Productivity Analysis-a method for ascertaining and improving the holistic service productivity of acute care hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannstiel, Mario Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The healthcare sector is lacking a method with which hospitals can measure the extent to which they achieve their goals in terms of aggregate productivity from both patients' and employees' perspectives. The Bayreuth Productivity Analysis (BPA) provides a solution to this problem because it uses two standardized questionnaires-one for patients and one for employees-to ascertain productivity at hospitals. These questionnaires were developed in several steps according to the principles of classical test theory, and they consist of six dimensions (information, organization, climate, methods, infrastructure and equipment) of five items each. One item describes a factual situation relevant to productivity and services so that it makes a contribution to the overall productivity of a hospital. After individualized evaluation of these items, the dimensions are subjectively weighted in the two questionnaires. The productivity index thus ascertained can be considered "holistic" when all patients and employees in a hospital make a differentiated assessment and weigh off each of the dimensions. In conclusion, the BPA constitutes a simple yet practicable method to ascertain and improve the holistic service productivity of hospitals. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Acute and chronic toxicity of produced water from a North Sea oil production platform to the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girling, A.E. (Shell Research Limited, Kent (England))

    1989-08-01

    The routine operation of offshore oil production platforms results in the discharge to the sea of produced water after it has been separated from oil drawn from the reservoir. Discharge of produced water in the UK sector of the North Sea is given an exemption from the provisions of the 1971 Prevention of Oil Pollution Act providing the monthly average oil-in-water content measured twice per day does not exceed 40 mg kg{sup {minus}1}. To assess the toxic hazard to marine organisms of produced water discharged to the North Sea, within this exemption, Shell UK Exploration and Production has implemented a research program. Methods for determining the acute and chronic toxicity of produced water to the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa have been established and applied at Shell's Sittingbourne Research Centre to samples from the Shell/Esso Dunlin A platform. This paper describes the methods used to assess acute and chronic toxicity and the results of tests performed on a sample of produced water collected in February 1986. Tests were performed on subsamples of the bulk sample which: (a) were untreated (b) had been filtered and (c) biodegraded (i.e., organic substances present in the produced water were degraded by micro-organisms) and then filtered. The results of the tests are discussed in relation to the likely patterns of dilution offshore in the North Sea.

  7. Molecular anatomy of CCR5 engagement by physiologic and viral chemokines and HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins: differences in primary structural requirements for RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and vMIP-II Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navenot, J M; Wang, Z X; Trent, J O; Murray, J L; Hu, Q X; DeLeeuw, L; Moore, P S; Chang, Y; Peiper, S C

    2001-11-09

    Molecular analysis of CCR5, the cardinal coreceptor for HIV-1 infection, has implicated the N-terminal extracellular domain (N-ter) and regions vicinal to the second extracellular loop (ECL2) in this activity. It was shown that residues in the N-ter are necessary for binding of the physiologic ligands, RANTES (CCL5) and MIP-1 alpha (CCL3). vMIP-II, encoded by the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, is a high affinity CCR5 antagonist, but lacks efficacy as a coreceptor inhibitor. Therefore, we compared the mechanism for engagement by vMIP-II of CCR5 to its interaction with physiologic ligands. RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and vMIP-II bound CCR5 at high affinity, but demonstrated partial cross-competition. Characterization of 15 CCR5 alanine scanning mutants of charged extracellular amino acids revealed that alteration of acidic residues in the distal N-ter abrogated binding of RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and vMIP-II. Whereas mutation of residues in ECL2 of CCR5 dramatically reduced the binding of RANTES and MIP-1 alpha and their ability to induce signaling, interaction with vMIP-II was not altered by any mutation in the exoloops of the receptor. Paradoxically, monoclonal antibodies to N-ter epitopes did not block chemokine binding, but those mapped to ECL2 were effective inhibitors. A CCR5 chimera with the distal N-ter residues of CXCR2 bound MIP-1 alpha and vMIP-II with an affinity similar to that of the wild-type receptor. Engagement of CCR5 by vMIP-II, but not RANTES or MIP-1 alpha blocked the binding of monoclonal antibodies to the receptor, providing additional evidence for a distinct mechanism for viral chemokine binding. Analysis of the coreceptor activity of randomly generated mouse-human CCR5 chimeras implicated residues in ECL2 between H173 and V197 in this function. RANTES, but not vMIP-II blocked CCR5 M-tropic coreceptor activity in the fusion assay. The insensitivity of vMIP-II binding to mutations in ECL2 provides a potential rationale to its inefficiency as an

  8. Comparison of the effects of acute fluvoxamine and desipramine administration on melatonin and cortisol production in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skene, D J; Bojkowski, C J; Arendt, J

    1994-01-01

    1. Acute administration of the specific serotonin uptake inhibitor, fluvoxamine (100 mg at 16.00 h), markedly increased nocturnal plasma melatonin concentrations, with high levels extending into the morning hours. 2. Acute administration of the noradrenaline uptake inhibitor, desipramine (DMI) (100 mg at 16.00 h), increased evening plasma melatonin concentrations. 3. Both drug treatments increased the duration of melatonin secretion, fluvoxamine significantly delaying the offset time and DMI significantly advancing the onset time. 4. The stimulatory effect of DMI on plasma melatonin was mirrored by increased urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) excretion. 5. On the contrary, there was no correlation between plasma melatonin and urinary aMT6s concentrations following fluvoxamine treatment, suggesting that fluvoxamine may inhibit the metabolism of melatonin. 6. Treatment with DMI increased plasma cortisol concentrations in the evening and early morning, treatment with fluvoxamine increased plasma cortisol at 03.00 h, 10.00 h and 11.00 h. 7. The drug treatments affected different aspects of the nocturnal plasma melatonin profile suggesting that the amplitude of the melatonin rhythm may depend upon serotonin availability and/or melatonin metabolism whilst the onset of melatonin production depends upon noradrenaline availability. PMID:8186063

  9. Chemokines (RANTES and MCP-1) and chemokine-receptors (CCR2 and CCR5) gene polymorphisms in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Cecilia; Alvarez, Victoria; Mata, Ignacio F; Coto, Eliecer; Ribacoba, René; Martínez, Carmen; Blázquez, Marta; Guisasola, Luis M; Salvador, Carlos; Lahoz, Carlos H; Peña, Joaquín

    2004-11-11

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex disorder characterized by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, affecting about 5% of the population older than 65 years. Several works have demonstrated the involvement of inflammation in the pathogenesis of both, PD and LOAD. Genetic susceptibility to develop PD and LOAD has also been widely recognised. Thus, functional polymorphisms at the genes encoding inflammatory proteins could influence the overall risk of developing these neurodegenerative disorders. We examined whether DNA-polymorphisms at the genes encoding chemokines MCP-1 (-2518 A/G) and RANTES (-403 A/G), and chemokine receptors 5 (CCR5, Delta32) and 2 (CCR2,V64I), were associated with the risk and/or the clinical outcome of LOAD and PD. A total of 200 PD, 326 LOAD, and 370 healthy controls were genotyped for the four polymorphisms, and genotype frequencies statistically compared. We did not find significant differences in the frequencies of the different genotypes between both groups of patients and controls. We conclude that the four DNA polymorphisms, which have been associated with several immuno-modulated diseases, did not contribute to the risk of PD or LOAD.

  10. Elucidating a Key Anti-HIV-1 and Cancer-Associated Axis: The Structure of CCL5 (Rantes) in Complex with CCR5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamamis, Phanourios; Floudas, Christodoulos A.

    2014-06-01

    CCL5 (RANTES) is an inflammatory chemokine which binds to chemokine receptor CCR5 and induces signaling. The CCL5:CCR5 associated chemotactic signaling is of critical biological importance and is a potential HIV-1 therapeutic axis. Several studies provided growing evidence for the expression of CCL5 and CCR5 in non-hematological malignancies. Therefore, the delineation of the CCL5:CCR5 complex structure can pave the way for novel CCR5-targeted drugs. We employed a computational protocol which is primarily based on free energy calculations and molecular dynamics simulations, and report, what is to our knowledge, the first computationally derived CCL5:CCR5 complex structure which is in excellent agreement with experimental findings and clarifies the functional role of CCL5 and CCR5 residues which are associated with binding and signaling. A wealth of polar and non-polar interactions contributes to the tight CCL5:CCR5 binding. The structure of an HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop in complex with CCR5 has recently been derived through a similar computational protocol. A comparison between the CCL5 : CCR5 and the HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop : CCR5 complex structures depicts that both the chemokine and the virus primarily interact with the same CCR5 residues. The present work provides insights into the blocking mechanism of HIV-1 by CCL5.

  11. Constitutive, but Not Challenge-Induced, Interleukin-10 Production Is Robust in Acute Pre-Pubescent Protein and Energy Deficits: New Support for the Tolerance Hypothesis of Malnutrition-Associated Immune Depression Based on Cytokine Production in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Monk, Jennifer M.; Steevels, Tessa A.M.; Hillyer, Lyn M.; Woodward, Bill

    2011-01-01

    The tolerance model of acute (i.e., wasting) pre-pubescent protein and energy deficits proposes that the immune depression characteristic of these pathologies reflects an intact anti-inflammatory form of immune competence that reduces the risk of autoimmune reactions to catabolically released self antigens. A cornerstone of this proposition is the finding that constitutive (first-tier) interleukin(IL)-10 production is sustained even into the advanced stages of acute malnutrition. The IL-10 re...

  12. Économie et impact de l'agriculture itinérante Badjoué [sud-Cameroun

    OpenAIRE

    de Wachter, Pauwel

    2009-01-01

    Je remercie le professeur E. Tollens, J.P. Vautherin, M. Dethier et spécialement D.V. Joiris pour leurs commentaires. Enfin, je remercie le MINEF, ECOFAC ainsi que J.M. Froment, P. Seme, le professeur W. Delvingt et le professeur J. Lejoly pour leur soutien et confiance. Introduction Cet article concerne des essarteurs d'Afrique Centrale qui vivent dans un environnement caractérisé par des ressources abondantes et dans lequel la production vivrière est liée étroitement à l'investissement en t...

  13. Early alterations in blood and brain RANTES and MCP-1 expression and the effect of exercise frequency in the 3xTg-AD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Morgan; Jones, Terry E; Lu, Qun; Bareiss, Sonja K

    2016-01-01

    Exercise has been shown to protect against cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression, however the dose of exercise required to protect against AD is unknown. Recent studies show that the pathological processes leading to AD cause characteristic alterations in blood and brain inflammatory proteins that are associated with the progression of AD, suggesting that these markers could be used to diagnosis and monitor disease progression. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of exercise frequency on AD blood chemokine profiles, and correlate these findings with chemokine brain expression changes in the triple transgenic AD (3xTg-AD) mouse model. Three month old 3xTg-AD mice were subjected to 12 weeks of moderate intensity wheel running at a frequency of either 1×/week or 3×/week. Blood and cortical tissue were analyzed for expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and regulated and normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES). Alterations in blood RANTES and MCP-1 expression were evident at 3 and 6 month old animals compared to WT animals. Three times per week exercise but not 1×/week exercise was effective at reversing serum and brain RANTES and MCP-1 expression to the levels of WT controls, revealing a dose dependent response to exercise. Analysis of these chemokines showed a strong negative correlation between blood and brain expression of RANTES. The results indicate that alterations in serum and brain inflammatory chemokines are evident as early signs of Alzheimer's disease pathology and that higher frequency exercise was necessary to restore blood and brain inflammatory expression levels in this AD mouse model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute maternal rehydration increases the urine production rate in the near-term human fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haak, MC; Aarnoudse, JG; Oosterhof, H.

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the effect of a decrease of maternal plasma osmolality produced by hypotonic rehydration on the fetal urine production rate in normal near-term human fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-one healthy pregnant women attending the clinic for antenatal care were studied

  15. Different roles of β-arrestin and the PKA pathway in mitochondrial ROS production induced by acute β-adrenergic receptor stimulation in neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianshu; Xiao, Han; Shen, Jing; Wang, Nanping; Zhang, Youyi

    2017-08-05

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in various physiological and pathological processes mediated by β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) in cardiomyocytes. However, the sources and signaling pathways involved in ROS production induced by acute β-AR activation have not yet been fully defined. In primary neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes (NMCMs), the β-AR agonist isoproterenol (ISO) induced a rapid increase in mitochondrial ROS and total ROS production. Both the expression and activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 2/4 (NOX 2/4) remained unchanged after 2 h of ISO treatment, suggesting that acute ISO stimulation mainly induces mitochondrial ROS production in NMCMs. Knockdown of β-arrestin1, but not β-arrestin2, inhibited ISO-induced mitochondrial ROS production within 1-2 h after ISO treatment. Moreover, forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase (AC) activator, rapidly increased mitochondrial ROS as early as 15 min after ISO treatment. Inhibition of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway abolished the mitochondrial ROS production within 15-60 min after ISO treatment. In conclusion, mitochondria are the major source of ROS production upon acute ISO stimulation. β-arrestin1, but not β-arrestin2, is involved in ISO-induced mitochondrial ROS production. Upon acute β-AR stimulation in NMCMs, the classical cAMP/PKA pathway is responsible for faster mitochondrial ROS production, whereas β-arrestin1 signaling is responsible for slower mitochondrial ROS production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute Central Neuropeptide Y Administration Increases Food Intake but Does Not Affect Hepatic Very Low-Density Lipoprotein (Vldl) Production in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerling, J.J.; Wang, Y.; Havekes, L.M.; Romijn, J.A.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Central neuropeptide Y (NPY) administration stimulates food intake in rodents. In addition, acute modulation of central NPY signaling increases hepatic production of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride (TG) in rats. As hypertriglyceridemia is an important risk factor for

  17. Economic analysis of blood product transfusions according to the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannas, G; Fattoum, J; Boukhit, M; Thomas, X

    2015-01-01

    Blood transfusion requirement represents one of the most significant cost driver associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Low-intensity treatments (low-dose cytarabine, hypomethylating agents) have the potential to reduce transfusion dependence, and improve health-related quality of life. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of treatment types regarding blood product transfusions in a cohort of 214 AML patients aged ≥ 70 years. Analyzes did not indicate any significant overall survival (OS) advantage of intensive chemotherapy comparatively to low-intensity treatment. The difference was significant when compared to best supportive care (BSC) (Ptransfusion cost per patient was 1.3 times lower with low-intensity therapy and 2.7 times lower with BSC than with intensive chemotherapy. Mean transfusion cost per patient according to OS varied from 2.4 to 1.3 times less with low-intensity treatment comparatively to intensive chemotherapy for patients having OS ≤ 13.3 months. Costs varied from 3.5 to 2.6 times less with BSC comparatively to intensive chemotherapy. In contrast, mean transfusion costs were comparable among treatments for patients with OS>13.3 months. Low-intensity treatments represent a cost-effective alternative to BSC and require a reduced number of transfused blood products comparatively to intensive chemotherapy, while OS was not significantly different. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanism of mitochondrial permeability transition pore induction and damage in the pancreas: inhibition prevents acute pancreatitis by protecting production of ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Rajarshi; Mareninova, Olga A; Odinokova, Irina V; Huang, Wei; Murphy, John; Chvanov, Michael; Javed, Muhammad A; Wen, Li; Booth, David M; Cane, Matthew C; Awais, Muhammad; Gavillet, Bruno; Pruss, Rebecca M; Schaller, Sophie; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Tepikin, Alexei V; Petersen, Ole H; Pandol, Stephen J; Gukovsky, Ilya; Criddle, David N; Gukovskaya, Anna S; Sutton, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis is caused by toxins that induce acinar cell calcium overload, zymogen activation, cytokine release and cell death, yet is without specific drug therapy. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated but the mechanism not established. We investigated the mechanism of induction and consequences of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) in the pancreas using cell biological methods including confocal microscopy, patch clamp technology and multiple clinically representative disease models. Effects of genetic and pharmacological inhibition of the MPTP were examined in isolated murine and human pancreatic acinar cells, and in hyperstimulation, bile acid, alcoholic and choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented acute pancreatitis. MPTP opening was mediated by toxin-induced inositol trisphosphate and ryanodine receptor calcium channel release, and resulted in diminished ATP production, leading to impaired calcium clearance, defective autophagy, zymogen activation, cytokine production, phosphoglycerate mutase 5 activation and necrosis, which was prevented by intracellular ATP supplementation. When MPTP opening was inhibited genetically or pharmacologically, all biochemical, immunological and histopathological responses of acute pancreatitis in all four models were reduced or abolished. This work demonstrates the mechanism and consequences of MPTP opening to be fundamental to multiple forms of acute pancreatitis and validates the MPTP as a drug target for this disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. ILC3 GM-CSF production and mobilisation orchestrate acute intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Claire; Thornton, Emily E; McKenzie, Brent; Schaupp, Anna-Lena; Huskens, Nicky; Griseri, Thibault; West, Nathaniel; Tung, Sim; Seddon, Benedict P; Uhlig, Holm H; Powrie, Fiona

    2016-01-18

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) contribute to host defence and tissue repair but can induce immunopathology. Recent work has revealed tissue-specific roles for ILCs; however, the question of how a small population has large effects on immune homeostasis remains unclear. We identify two mechanisms that ILC3s utilise to exert their effects within intestinal tissue. ILC-driven colitis depends on production of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which recruits and maintains intestinal inflammatory monocytes. ILCs present in the intestine also enter and exit cryptopatches in a highly dynamic process. During colitis, ILC3s mobilize from cryptopatches, a process that can be inhibited by blocking GM-CSF, and mobilization precedes inflammatory foci elsewhere in the tissue. Together these data identify the IL-23R/GM-CSF axis within ILC3 as a key control point in the accumulation of innate effector cells in the intestine and in the spatio-temporal dynamics of ILCs in the intestinal inflammatory response.

  20. Ultraviolet-vis degradation of iprodione and estimation of the acute toxicity of its photodegradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassalle, Yannick; Jellouli, Héla; Ballerini, Laurie; Souissi, Yasmine; Nicol, Édith; Bourcier, Sophie; Bouchonnet, Stéphane

    2014-12-05

    The UV-vis photodegradation of iprodione in water was investigated with a high pressure mercury lamp photoreactor. Five photoproducts of iprodione were characterized by LC-HR-MS/MS and isotopic labeling; none of them has been reported in previous studies. Three of them result from the elimination of one or two chlorine atoms followed by hydroxy or hydrogen addition while the two others are cyclic isomers of iprodione. An ICR mass spectrometer was used for by-products identification; concentrations of photoproducts were estimated with a triple quadrupole instrument, using iprodione-D5 as an internal standard. Phototransformation mechanisms were postulated to rationalize photoproducts formation. In silico QSAR toxicity predictions were conducted with the Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (T.E.S.T.) considering oral rat LD50, mutagenicity and developmental toxicity. Low oral rat LD50 values of 350 mg/kg and 759 mg/kg were predicted for cyclic isomers of iprodione, compared to that of the parent molecule (2776 mg/kg). Toxicity estimations exhibited that all the iprodione photoproducts could be mutagenic while the parent compound is not. In vitro assays on Vibrio fischeri were achieved on both irradiated and non-irradiated aqueous solutions of iprodione and on HPLC fractions containing isolated photoproducts. Phenolic photoproducts were shown to be mainly responsible for toxicity enhancement with EC50 values of 0.3 and 0.5 ppm, for the bi- and mono-phenolic compounds issued from chlorine elimination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of solar advanced oxidation processes for wastewater treatment: Follow-up on degradation products, acute toxicity, genotoxicity and estrogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienza, M; Mahdi Ahmed, M; Escande, A; Plantard, G; Scrano, L; Chiron, S; Bufo, S A; Goetz, V

    2016-04-01

    Wastewater tertiary treatment by advanced oxidation processes is thought to produce a treated effluent with lower toxicity than the initial influent. Here we performed tertiary treatment of a secondary effluent collected from a Waste Water Treatment Plant via homogeneous (solar/HSO5(-)/Fe(2+)) and heterogeneous (solar/TiO2) solar advanced oxidation aiming at the assessment of their effectiveness in terms of contaminants' and toxicity abatement in a plain solar reactor. A total of 53 organic contaminants were qualitatively identified by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry after solid phase extraction. Solar advanced oxidation totally or partially removed the major part of contaminants detected within 4.5 h. Standard toxicity tests were performed using Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Brachionus calyciflorus organisms to evaluate acute and chronic toxicity in the secondary or tertiary effluents, and the EC50% was calculated. Estrogenic and genotoxic tests were carried out in an attempt to obtain an even sharper evaluation of potential hazardous effects due to micropollutants or their degradation by-products in wastewater. Genotoxic effects were not detected in effluent before or after treatment. However, we observed relevant estrogenic activity due to the high sensitivity of the HELN ERα cell line. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Potential acute effects of suspended aluminum nitride (AlN) nanoparticles on soluble microbial products (SMP) of activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lijie; Zhuang, Weiqin; Wang, Xin; Yu, Ke; Yang, Shufang; Xia, Siqing

    2017-07-01

    The study aims to identify the potential acute effects of suspended aluminum nitride (AlN) nanoparticles (NPs) on soluble microbial products (SMP) of activated sludge. Cultured activated sludge loaded with 1, 10, 50, 100, 150 and 200mg/L of AlN NPs were carried out in this study. As results showed, AlN NPs had a highly inverse proportionality to bacterial dehydrogenase and OUR, indicating its direct toxicity to the activated sludge viability. The toxicity of AlN NPs was mainly due to the nano-scale of AlN NPs. In SMP, AlN NPs led to the decrease of polysaccharide and humic compounds, but had slight effects on protein. The decrease of tryptophan-like substances in SMP indicated the inhibition of AlN NPs on the bacterial metabolism. Additionally, AlN NPs reduced obviously the molecular weight of SMP, which might be due to the nano-scale of AlN. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Acute Exposure to a Precursor of Advanced Glycation End Products Induces a Dual Effect on the Rat Pancreatic Islet Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Elmhiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Advanced glycation end products, known as AGEs, are a major risk factor for diabetes onset and maintenance. Methylglyoxal (MG, a highly reactive metabolite of glucose, is a precursor for the generation of endogenous AGEs. Methods. In this current study we incubated in vitro pancreatic islets from adult rats in absence or presence of MG (10 μmol/l with different concentrations of glucose and different metabolic components (acetylcholine, epinephrine, potassium, forskolin, and leucine. Results. Different effects of MG on insulin secretion were evidenced. In basal glucose stimulation (5.6 mM, MG induced a significant (P<0.05 increase of insulin secretion. By contrast, in higher glucose concentrations (8.3 mM and 16.7 mM, MG significantly inhibited insulin secretion (P<0.05. In the presence of potassium, forskolin, and epinephrine, MG enhanced insulin secretion (P<0.05, while when it was incubated with acetylcholine and leucine, MG resulted in a decrease of insulin secretion (P<0.05. Conclusion. We suggest that MG modulates the secretion activity of beta-cell depending on its level of stimulation by other metabolic factors. These results provide insights on a dual acute effect of MG on the pancreatic cells.

  4. Possible mechanism of adenosine protection in carbon tetrachloride acute hepatotoxicity. Role of adenosine by-products and glutathione peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagoya de Sánchez, V; Hernández-Muñoz, R; Yáñez, L; Vidrio, S; Díaz-Muñoz, M

    1995-02-01

    Adenosine proved to be an effective hepatoprotector increasing the survival rate of rats receiving lethal doses of CCl4. Searching for the mechanism of action, we found that adenosine transiently prevents the necrotic liver damage associated to an acute CCl4 treatment. The antilipoperoxidative action of the nucleoside was evidenced by a decrease of TBA-reactive products and the diene conjugates elicited by the hepatotoxin. Adenosine's protective effect was demonstrated by reverting the decrease of cytochrome P-450 while preserved intact the activity of the microsomal enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase. CCl4 promoted an increase in the oxidant stress through an enhancement in oxidized glutathione levels. This action was also completely counteracted by the nucleoside. Adenosine was unable to prevent CCl4 activation and, even, increased .CCl3 formation in the presence of PBN in vivo. However, in the presence of the nucleoside, irreversible binding of 14CCl4 to the microsomal lipid fraction of the treated animals was decreased. These results suggest that adenosine protective action might be exerted at the level of the propagation reaction following CCl4 activation. Two possible mechanisms were associated to the nucleoside protection: (1) the peroxide-metabolyzed enzymes, GSH-per, showed a marked increase after 30 minutes of adenosine treatment, which was potentiated by the hepatotoxin, suggesting an important role of this enzyme in the nucleoside's action; (2) the adenosine catabolism induced an increase in uric acid level, and allopurinol, a purine metabolism inhibitor, prevented such elevation as well as the antilipoperoxidative action of adenosine and the increase of GSH-per associated with the nucleoside treatment. These facts strongly suggest that the protective effect elicited by adenosine is not a direct one, but rather is related to its catabolic products, such as uric acid, which has been recognized as a free radical scavenger.

  5. The acute effect of metformin on glucose production in the conscious dog is primarily attributable to inhibition of glycogenolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C A; Wiernsperger, N; Muscato, N; Knauf, M; Neal, D W; Cherrington, A D

    2000-12-01

    Although metformin has been used worldwide to treat type 2 diabetes for several decades, its mechanism of action on glucose homeostasis remains controversial. To further assess the effect of metformin on glucose metabolism, 10 42-hour-fasted conscious dogs were studied in the absence ([Con] n = 5) and presence ([Met] n = 5) of a portal infusion of metformin (0.15 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) over 300 minutes. Hepatic glucose production was measured by both arteriovenous-difference and tracer methods. All dogs were maintained on a pancreatic clamp and in a euglycemic state to ensure that any changes in glucose metabolism would result directly from the effects of metformin. The arterial metformin level was 21 +/- 3 microg/mL during the test period. Net hepatic glucose output (NHGO) decreased in Met dogs from 1.9 +/- 0.2 to 0.7 +/- 0.1 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1) (P dogs (1.7 +/- 0.3 to 1.5 +/- 0.3 mg x kg(-1)min(-1)). Tracer-determined glucose production paralleled NHGO. The net hepatic glycogenolytic rate decreased from 1.0 +/- 0.2 to -0.3 +/- 0.2 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1) (P dogs, but remained unchanged in Con dogs (0.8 +/- 0.2 to 0.8 +/- 0.3 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1)). No significant change in gluconeogenic flux was found in eitherthe Metgroup (1.2 +/- 0.3 to 1.3 +/- 0.3 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) or the Con group (1.3 +/- 0.4 to 1.0 +/- 0.3 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1)). No significant changes were observed in glucose utilization or glucose clearance in either group. In conclusion, in the normal fasted dog, (1) the primary acute effect of metformin on glucose metabolism was an inhibition of hepatic glucose production and not a stimulation of glucose utilization; and (2) the inhibition of glucose production was attributable to a decrease in hepatic glycogenolysis and not to an alteration in gluconeogenic flux.

  6. Stimulation of Alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Attenuates Nicotine-Induced Upregulation of MMP, MCP-1, and RANTES through Modulating ERK1/2/AP-1 Signaling Pathway in RAW264.7 and MOVAS Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vagus nerve stimulation through alpha7 nicotine acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChR signaling had been demonstrated attenuation of inflammation. This study aimed to determine whether PNU-282987, a selective α7-nAChR agonist, affected activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP and inflammatory cytokines in nicotine-treatment RAW264.7 and MOVAS cells and to assess the underlying molecular mechanisms. RAW264.7 and MOVAS cells were treated with nicotine at different concentrations (0, 1, 10, and 100 ng/ml for 0–120 min. Nicotine markedly stimulated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2 and c-Jun in RAW264.7 cells. Pretreatment with U0126 significantly suppressed phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and further attenuated nicotine-induced activation of c-Jun and upregulation of MMP-2, MMP-9, monocyte chemotactic protein- (MCP- 1, and regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES. Similarly, nicotine treatment also increased phosphorylation of c-Jun and expressions of MMP-2, MMP-9, MCP-1, and RANTES in MOVAS cells. When cells were pretreated with PNU-282987, nicotine-induced activations of ERK1/2 and c-Jun in RAW264.7 cells and c-Jun in MOVAS cells were effectively inhibited. Furthermore, nicotine-induced secretions of MMP-2, MMP-9, MCP-1, and RANTES were remarkably downregulated. Treatment with α7-nAChR agonist inhibits nicotine-induced upregulation of MMP and inflammatory cytokines through modulating ERK1/2/AP-1 signaling in RAW264.7 cells and AP-1 in MOVAS cells, providing a new therapeutic for abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  7. Myocardial Production of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 is Associated with Coronary Endothelial and Ventricular Dysfunction after Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takuya; Uematsu, Manabu; Yoshizaki, Toru; Obata, Jun-Ei; Nakamura, Takamitsu; Fujioka, Daisuke; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Yosuke; Kugiyama, Kiyotaka

    2016-05-02

    Although plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is abundantly expressed in infarcted myocardium, the pathogenic role of myocardial PAI-1 remains unknown. This study examined whether PAI-1 in the infarcted lesion contributes to coronary endothelial dysfunction and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Plasma levels of PAI-1 activity and tissue-plasminogen activator (tPA) antigen were measured 2 weeks and 6 months after MI by ELISA in plasma obtained from the aortic root (AO) and anterior interventricular vein (AIV) in 28 patients with a first AMI due to occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Coronary blood flow responses in LAD to intracoronary infusion of acetylcholine (ACh) and left ventriculography were measured at the same time points: 2 weeks and 6 months after MI. The trans-myocardial gradient of PAI-1 from AO to AIV, reflecting production/release of PAI-1 in the infarcted lesion, was inversely correlated with the coronary blood flow response to ACh 6 months after MI (r=-0.43, p=0.02) and with the percentage change in LV regional motion in the LAD territory from 2 weeks to 6 months after MI (r=-0.38, p=0.04). The trans-myocardial gradient of tPA level showed no significant correlations. PAI-1 produced in the infarcted myocardium and released into the coronary circulation is associated with endothelial dysfunction in resistance vessels of the infarct-related coronary arteries and with progressive dysfunction of the infarcted region of the left ventricle in AMI survivors.

  8. Acute reactogenicity after intramuscular immunization with recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus is linked to production of IL-1β.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Athearn

    Full Text Available Vaccines based on live viruses are attractive because they are immunogenic, cost-effective, and can be delivered by multiple routes. However, live virus vaccines also cause reactogenic side effects such as fever, myalgia, and injection site pain that have reduced their acceptance in the clinic. Several recent studies have linked vaccine-induced reactogenic side effects to production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β in humans. Our objective was therefore to determine whether IL-1β contributed to pathology after immunization with recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV vaccine vectors, and if so, to identify strategies by which IL-1β mediated pathology might be reduced without compromising immunogenicity. We found that an rVSV vaccine induced local and systemic production of IL-1β in vivo, and that accumulation of IL-1β correlated with acute pathology after rVSV immunization. rVSV-induced pathology was reduced in mice deficient in the IL-1 receptor Type I, but the IL-1R-/- mice were fully protected from lethal rechallenge with a high dose of VSV. This result demonstrated that IL-1 contributed to reactogenicity of the rVSV, but was dispensable for induction of protective immunity. The amount of IL-1β detected in mice deficient in either caspase-1 or the inflammasome adaptor molecule ASC after rVSV immunization was not significantly different than that produced by wild type animals, and caspase-1-/- and ASC-/- mice were only partially protected from rVSV-induced pathology. Those data support the idea that some of the IL-1β expressed in vivo in response to VSV may be activated by a caspase-1 and ASC-independent mechanism. Together these results suggest that rVSV vectors engineered to suppress the induction of IL-1β, or signaling through the IL-1R would be less reactogenic in vivo, but would retain their immunogenicity and protective capacity. Such rVSV would be highly desirable as either vaccine vectors or

  9. Comparison of the effects of acute fluvoxamine and desipramine administration on melatonin and cortisol production in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Skene, D J; Bojkowski, C J; Arendt, J

    1994-01-01

    1. Acute administration of the specific serotonin uptake inhibitor, fluvoxamine (100 mg at 16.00 h), markedly increased nocturnal plasma melatonin concentrations, with high levels extending into the morning hours. 2. Acute administration of the noradrenaline uptake inhibitor, desipramine (DMI) (100 mg at 16.00 h), increased evening plasma melatonin concentrations. 3. Both drug treatments increased the duration of melatonin secretion, fluvoxamine significantly delaying the offset time and DMI ...

  10. Constitutive, but not challenge-induced, interleukin-10 production is robust in acute pre-pubescent protein and energy deficits: new support for the tolerance hypothesis of malnutrition-associated immune depression based on cytokine production in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Steevels, Tessa A M; Hillyer, Lyn M; Woodward, Bill

    2011-01-01

    The tolerance model of acute (i.e., wasting) pre-pubescent protein and energy deficits proposes that the immune depression characteristic of these pathologies reflects an intact anti-inflammatory form of immune competence that reduces the risk of autoimmune reactions to catabolically released self antigens. A cornerstone of this proposition is the finding that constitutive (first-tier) interleukin(IL)-10 production is sustained even into the advanced stages of acute malnutrition. The IL-10 response to inflammatory challenge constitutes a second tier of anti-inflammatory regulation and was the focus of this investigation. Weanling mice consumed a complete diet ad libitum, a low-protein diet ad libitum (mimicking incipient kwashiorkor), or the complete diet in restricted daily quantities (mimicking marasmus), and their second-tier IL-10 production was determined both in vitro and in vivo using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and anti-CD3 as stimulants of innate and adaptive defences, respectively. Both early (3 days) and advanced (14 days) stages of wasting pathology were examined and three main outcomes emerged. First, classic in vitro systems are unreliable for discerning cytokine production in vivo. Secondly, in diverse forms of acute malnutrition declining challenge-induced IL-10 production may provide an early sign that anti-inflammatory control over immune competence is failing. Thirdly, and most fundamentally, the investigation provides new support for the tolerance model of malnutrition-associated inflammatory immune depression.

  11. Constitutive, but Not Challenge-Induced, Interleukin-10 Production Is Robust in Acute Pre-Pubescent Protein and Energy Deficits: New Support for the Tolerance Hypothesis of Malnutrition-Associated Immune Depression Based on Cytokine Production in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Woodward

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The tolerance model of acute (i.e., wasting pre-pubescent protein and energy deficits proposes that the immune depression characteristic of these pathologies reflects an intact anti-inflammatory form of immune competence that reduces the risk of autoimmune reactions to catabolically released self antigens. A cornerstone of this proposition is the finding that constitutive (first-tier interleukin(IL-10 production is sustained even into the advanced stages of acute malnutrition. The IL-10 response to inflammatory challenge constitutes a second tier of anti-inflammatory regulation and was the focus of this investigation. Weanling mice consumed a complete diet ad libitum, a low-protein diet ad libitum (mimicking incipient kwashiorkor, or the complete diet in restricted daily quantities (mimicking marasmus, and their second-tier IL-10 production was determined both in vitro and in vivo using lipopolysaccharide (LPS and anti-CD3 as stimulants of innate and adaptive defences, respectively. Both early (3 days and advanced (14 days stages of wasting pathology were examined and three main outcomes emerged. First, classic in vitro systems are unreliable for discerning cytokine production in vivo. Secondly, in diverse forms of acute malnutrition declining challenge-induced IL-10 production may provide an early sign that anti-inflammatory control over immune competence is failing. Thirdly, and most fundamentally, the investigation provides new support for the tolerance model of malnutrition-associated inflammatory immune depression.

  12. Acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... its blood vessels. This problem is called acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis affects men more often than women. Certain ... well it can be treated. Complications of acute pancreatitis may include: Acute kidney failure Long-term lung damage (ARDS) Buildup ...

  13. Clinical validation of efficacy and safety of herbal cough formulation "Honitus syrup" for symptomatic relief of acute non-productive cough and throat irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arun; Gaikwad, Vaijayanti; Kumar, Satyendra; Srivastava, Ruchi; Sastry, Jln

    2016-01-01

    Acute cough represents the most common illness evaluated in the outpatient settings. Available remedies for its management are generally allopathic combinations of antihistamines and decongestants that achieve antitussive activity, but often with unpleasant side effects prompting the need to explore safer and effective options. Honitus is an Ayurvedic proprietary herbal cough syrup with benefits of honey, intended to provide relief in acute nonproductive cough and throat irritation without causing drowsiness. This study investigated the safety and efficacy of Honitus in reducing acute nonproductive cough and throat irritation in comparison to a standard marketed allopathic cough syrup intended for use in similar conditions. This was a randomized double-blind study conducted in 105 individuals who received orally 2 tsp (10 ml) of either Honitus or marketed cough syrup (MCS) four times a day for 3 days. Response to treatment was evaluated from baseline to the end of treatment period on the basis of changes in day and night frequencies of cough, throat irritation and development of adverse events (AEs). Honitus was found safe and effective in reducing symptoms of acute nonproductive cough, throat irritation, and comparable to MCS in reducing day and night frequencies of cough, the time to relief from cough and throat irritation and the Physician's Global Assessment of cough. Honitus showed comparably better results than MCS on throat irritation, the duration of relief from cough and throat irritation without causing drowsiness. No AEs related to study or study products were reported. Honitus Syrup is safe and effective in reducing the symptoms of acute nonproductive cough and throat irritation without causing drowsiness.

  14. Close teamwork between Nrf2 and peroxiredoxins 1 and 6 for the regulation of prostaglandin D2 and E2 production in macrophages in acute inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tetsuro

    2015-11-01

    Inflammation is a complex biological self-defense reaction triggered by tissue damage or infection by pathogens. Acute inflammation is regulated by the time- and cell type-dependent production of cytokines and small signaling molecules including reactive oxygen species and prostaglandins. Recent studies have unveiled the important role of the transcription factor Nrf2 in the regulation of prostaglandin production through transcriptional regulation of peroxiredoxins 1 and 6 (Prx1 and Prx6) and lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS). Prx1 and Prx6 are multifunctional proteins important for cell protection against oxidative stress, but also work together to facilitate production of prostaglandins E2 and D2 (PGE2 and PGD2). Prx1 secreted from cells under mild oxidative stress binds Toll-like receptor 4 and induces NF-κB activation, important for the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1) expression. The activated MAPKs p38 and ERK phosphorylate Prx6, leading to NADPH oxidase-2 activation, which contributes to production of PGD2 by hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (H-PGDS). PGD2 and its end product 15-deoxy-∆(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) activate Nrf2 thereby forming a positive feedback loop for further production of PGD2 by L-PGDS. Maintenance of cellular glutathione levels is an important role of Nrf2 not only for cell protection but also for the synthesis of prostaglandins, as mPGES-1 and H-PGDS require glutathione for their activities. This review is aimed at describing the functions of Prx1 and Prx6 in the regulation of PGD2 and PGE2 production in acute inflammation in macrophages and the importance of 15d-PGJ2 as an intrinsic Nrf2 activator. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Captopril pretreatment protects the lung against severe acute pancreatitis induced injury via inhibiting angiotensin II production and suppressing Rho/ROCK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qi-Hong; Guo, Jie-Fang; Chen, Yan; Guo, Xiao-Rong; Du, Yi-Qi; Li, Zhao-Shen

    2016-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) usually causes acute lung injury, which is also known as acute pancreatitis associated lung injury (APALI). This study aimed to investigate whether captopril pretreatment was able to protect lung against APALI via inhibiting angiotensin II (Ang II) production and suppressing Rho/ROCK (Rho kinase) pathway in rats. Severe AP (SAP) was introduced to rats by bile-pancreatic duct retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate. Rats were randomly divided into three groups. In the sham group, sham operation was performed; in the SAP group, SAP was introduced; in the pre-cpl + SAP group, rats were intragastrically injected with 5 mg/kg captopril 1 hour prior to SAP induction. Pathological examination of the lung and pancreas, evaluation of pulmonary vascular permeability by wet/dry ratio and Evans Blue staining, detection of serum amylase, Western blot assay for Ang II receptor type 1 (AT1), RhoA, ROCK (Rho kinase), and MLCK (myosin light chain kinase) were performed after the animals were sacrificed at 24 hours. After the surgery, characteristic findings of pancreatitis were observed, accompanied by lung injury. The serum amylase, Ang II, and lung expression of AT1, RhoA, ROCK, and MLCK increased dramatically in SAP rats. However, captopril pretreatment improved the histological changes, reduced the pathological score of the pancreas and lung, inhibited serum amylase and Ang II production, and decreased expression of AT1, RhoA, ROCK, and MLCK in the lung. These findings suggest that captopril pretreatment is able to protect the lung against APALI, which is, at least partially, related to the inhibition of Ang II production and the suppression of the Rho/ROCK pathway. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  16. Acute Consumption of Bordo Grape Juice and Wine Improves Serum Antioxidant Status in Healthy Individuals and Inhibits Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Human Neuron-Like Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Cristiane; Franco, Fernanda Wouters; Machado, Eduarda da Rosa; Soquetta, Marcela Bromberger; Quatrin, Andréia; Ramos, Vitor de Miranda; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Sautter, Cláudia Kaehler; Penna, Neidi Garcia

    2018-01-01

    Few studies investigated the biological effects of American grape cultivars. We investigated the metabolic response after acute consumption of grape juice or wine from Bordo grapes ( Vitis labrusca ) in a placebo-controlled crossover study with fifteen healthy volunteers. Blood samples were collected 1 hour after the intake of 100 mL of water, juice, or wine to measure TBARS, ABTS, FRAP, glucose, and uric acid levels. To evaluate differences in cellular response, intracellular reactive species production (DCFH-DA) and metabolic mitochondrial viability (MTT) were assessed after exposure of human neuron-like cells (SH-SY5Y) to juice or wine. Glycemia was reduced after juice or wine consumption, whereas blood levels of uric acid were reduced after juice consumption but increased after wine consumption. Juice and wine consumption reduced plasma lipid peroxidation and increased plasma antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays). Furthermore, juice inhibited H 2 O 2 -induced intracellular production of reactive species (RS) and increased the viability of SH-SY5Y cells. In contrast, wine (dealcoholized) exhibited a per se effect by inducing the production of RS and reducing cell viability. These results indicate a positive impact of acute consumption of Bordo juice and wine on human oxidative status, whereas only juice had protective effects against oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity.

  17. Potential contribution of mitochondrial DNA damage associated molecular patterns in transfusion products to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome after multiple transfusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Jon D; Lee, Yann-Leei L; Pastukh, Viktor M; Capley, Gina; Muscat, Cherry A; Muscat, David C; Marshall, Michael L; Brevard, Sidney B; Gillespie, Mark N

    2017-06-01

    Massive transfusions are accompanied by an increased incidence of a particularly aggressive and lethal form of acute lung injury (delayed transfusion-related acute lung injury) which occurs longer than 24 hours after transfusions. In light of recent reports showing that mitochondrial (mt)DNA damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are potent proinflammatory mediators, and that their abundance in the sera of severely injured or septic patients is predictive of clinical outcomes, we explored the idea that mtDNA DAMPs are present in transfusion products and are associated with the occurrence of delayed transfusion-related acute lung injury. We prospectively enrolled fourteen consecutive severely injured patients that received greater than three units of blood transfusion products and determined if the total amount of mtDNA DAMPs delivered during transfusion correlated with serum mtDNA DAMPs measured after the last transfusion, and whether the quantity of mtDNA DAMPs in the serum-predicted development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We found detectable levels of mtDNA DAMPs in packed red blood cells (3 ± 0.4 ng/mL), fresh frozen plasma (213.7 ± 65 ng/mL), and platelets (94.8 ± 69.2), with the latter two transfusion products containing significant amounts of mtDNA fragments. There was a linear relationship between the mtDNA DAMPs given during transfusion and the serum concentration of mtDNA fragments (R = 0.0.74, p DAMPs in serum measured at 24 hours after transfusion predicted the occurrence of ARDS (9.9 ± 1.4 vs. 3.3 ± 0.9, p DAMPs administered during transfusion may be a determinant of serum mtDNA DAMP levels, and that serum levels of mtDNA DAMPs after multiple transfusions may predict the development of ARDS. Collectively, these findings support the idea that mtDNA DAMPs in transfusion products significantly contribute to the incidence of ARDS after massive transfusions. Prognostic study, level II; therapeutic study, level II.

  18. Acrolein Inhalation Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Cytokine Production but Does Not Affect Acute Airways Neutrophilia1

    OpenAIRE

    Kasahara, David Itiro; Poynter, Matthew E.; Othman, Ziryan; Hemenway, David; van der Vliet, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Acrolein is a reactive unsaturated aldehyde that is produced during endogenous oxidative processes and is a major bioactive component of environmental pollutants such as cigarette smoke. Because in vitro studies demonstrate that acrolein can inhibit neutrophil apoptosis, we evaluated the effects of in vivo acrolein exposure on acute lung inflammation induced by LPS. Male C57BL/6J mice received 300 μg/kg intratracheal LPS and were exposed to acrolein (5 parts per million, 6 h/day), either befo...

  19. L’INVASION DU RÉSEAU HYDROGRAPHIQUE FRANÇAIS PAR LES MOLLUSQUES CORBICULA SPP. MODALITÉ DE COLONISATION ET RÔLE PRÉPONDÉRANT DES CANAUX DE NAVIGATION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANCOTTE V.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Originaire d’Asie et d’Afrique, Corbicula a colonisé la plupart des bassins hydrographiques européens depuis 1980. A la faveur de la découverte de nouvelles stations, les auteurs mettent en évidence l’importance du rôle des canaux de navigation dans la propagation du mollusque, par la mise en connexion des bassins versants et l’existence d’un milieu particulièrement favorable à la biologie de l’espèce. Corbicula a pénétré en France par au moins sept axes différents, parmi lesquels le Rhin joue un rôle prépondérant.

  20. Prevention of incontinence-related skin breakdown for acute and critical care patients: comparison of two products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Mary; Droegemueller, Carol; Rivers, Sonja; Deuser, William E

    2012-01-01

    Perineal protection products were compared for their efficacy in preventing skin breakdown in the hospitalized patient with urinary and/or fecal incontinence. Each product was used for the duration of the hospital stay with daily observations for perineal skin condition. Results indicated the spray product and wipe product were comparable in rate of skin breakdown prevention. Findings suggest the wipe product is more cost-effective for use during hospitalization, and the spray product preserves skin integrity over a longer period of time, beyond average hospitalization duration.

  1. A canine-specific probiotic product in treating acute or intermittent diarrhea in dogs: A double-blind placebo-controlled efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gallego, Carlos; Junnila, Jouni; Männikkö, Sofia; Hämeenoja, Pirkko; Valtonen, Elisa; Salminen, Seppo; Beasley, Shea

    2016-12-25

    A double-blind placebo-controlled intervention study on 60 dogs recruited from a pool of canine patients visiting a veterinary practice and diagnosed with acute diarrhea was conducted. The dogs received in randomized manner either a sour-milk product containing three canine-derived Lactobacillus sp. probiotics in combination of Lactobacillus fermentum VET 9A, L. rhamnosus VET 16A, and L. plantarum VET 14A (2×10 9 cfu/ml), or placebo. Stool consistency, general well-being, and the numbers of specific pathogens in stool samples were analyzed. Our results demonstrated that the treatment with the study sour-milk product had a normalizing effect on canine stool consistency. The treatment also enhanced the well-being of the pet by maintaining appetite and may reduce vomiting. In addition, the concentrations of Clostridium perfringens and Enterococcus faecium, which typically increase during diarrhea episodes in dogs, were decreased in probiotic group feces when compared with the placebo group. Taken together, the sour-milk with the specific probiotic combination had a normalizing effect on acute diarrhea in dogs which was associated with decreased numbers of potential pathogens in the feces of probiotic-treated dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breath Acute kidney failure Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  3. Acute central neuropeptide Y administration increases food intake but does not affect hepatic very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL production in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine J Geerling

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Central neuropeptide Y (NPY administration stimulates food intake in rodents. In addition, acute modulation of central NPY signaling increases hepatic production of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-triglyceride (TG in rats. As hypertriglyceridemia is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis, for which well-established mouse models are available, we set out to validate the effect of NPY on hepatic VLDL-TG production in mice, to ultimately investigate whether NPY, by increasing VLDL production, contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Male C57Bl/6J mice received an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. cannula into the lateral (LV or third (3V ventricle of the brain. One week later, after a 4 h fast, the animals received an intravenous (i.v. injection of Tran(35S (100 µCi followed by tyloxapol (500 mg/kg body weight; BW, enabling the study of hepatic VLDL-apoB and VLDL-TG production, respectively. Immediately after the i.v. injection of tyloxapol, the animals received either an i.c.v. injection of NPY (0.2 mg/kg BW in artificial cerebrospinal fluid; aCSF, synthetic Y1 receptor antagonist GR231118 (0.5 mg/kg BW in aCSF or vehicle (aCSF, or an i.v. injection of PYY3-36 (0.5 mg/kg BW in PBS or vehicle (PBS. RESULTS: Administration of NPY into both the LV and 3V increased food intake within one hour after injection (+164%, p<0.001 and +367%, p<0.001, respectively. NPY administration neither in the LV nor in the 3V affected hepatic VLDL-TG or VLDL-apoB production. Likewise, antagonizing central NPY signaling by either PYY3-36 or GR231118 administration did not affect hepatic VLDL production. CONCLUSION: In mice, as opposed to rats, acute central administration of NPY increases food intake without affecting hepatic VLDL production. These results are of great significance when extrapolating findings on the central regulation of hepatic VLDL production between species.

  4. Illness Severity and Work Productivity Loss Among Working Adults With Medically Attended Acute Respiratory Illnesses: US Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Joshua G; Cheng, Caroline; Malosh, Ryan E; VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Flannery, Brendan; Zimmerman, Richard K; Gaglani, Manjusha; Jackson, Michael L; King, Jennifer P; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Benoit, Joyce; Robertson, Anne; Thaker, Swathi N; Monto, Arnold S; Ohmit, Suzanne E

    2016-02-15

    Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality, with considerable economic costs, including lost work productivity. Influenza vaccines may reduce the economic burden through primary prevention of influenza and reduction in illness severity. We examined illness severity and work productivity loss among working adults with medically attended acute respiratory illnesses and compared outcomes for subjects with and without laboratory-confirmed influenza and by influenza vaccination status among subjects with influenza during the 2012-2013 influenza season. Illnesses laboratory-confirmed as influenza (ie, cases) were subjectively assessed as more severe than illnesses not caused by influenza (ie, noncases) based on multiple measures, including current health status at study enrollment (≤7 days from illness onset) and current activity and sleep quality status relative to usual. Influenza cases reported missing 45% more work hours (20.5 vs 15.0; P productivity as impeded to a greater degree (6.0 vs 5.4; P productivity loss were noted for vaccinated subjects. Influenza illnesses were more severe and resulted in more missed work hours and productivity loss than illnesses not confirmed as influenza. Modest reductions in illness severity for vaccinated cases were observed. These findings highlight the burden of influenza illnesses and illustrate the importance of laboratory confirmation of influenza outcomes in evaluations of vaccine effectiveness. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Influence of matrix nature on the functional efficacy of biomedical cell product for the regeneration of damaged liver (experimental model of acute liver failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. A comparative analysis of the functional efficacy of biomedical cell products (BMCP for the regeneration of damaged liver based on biopolymer scaffolded porous and hydrogel matrices was performed on the experimental model of acute liver failure. Materials and methods. Matrices allowed for clinical use were employed for BMCP in the form of a sponge made from biopolymer nanostructured composite material (BNCM based on a highly purified bacterial copolymers of poly (β-hydroxybutyrate-co-β-oxyvalerate and polyethylene glycol and a hydrogel matrix from biopolymer microheterogeneous collagen-containing hydrogel (BMCH. Cellular component of BMCP was represented by liver cells and multipotent mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells. The functional efficacy of BMCP for the regeneration of damaged liver was evaluated on the experimental model of acute liver failure in Wistar rats (n = 40 via biochemical, morphological, and immunohistochemical methods. Results. When BMCP was implanted to regenerate the damaged liver on the basis of the scaffolded BNCM or hydrogel BMCH matrices, the lethality in rats with acute liver failure was absent; while in control it was 66.6%. Restoration of the activity of cytolytic enzyme levels and protein-synthetic liver function began on day 9 after modeling acute liver failure, in contrast to the control group, where recovery occurred only by days 18–21. Both matrices maintained the viability and functional activity of liver cells up to 90 days with the formation of blood vessels in BMCP. The obtained data confirm that scaffolded BNCM matrix and hydrogel BMCH matrix retain for a long time (up to 90 days the vital activity of the adherent cells in the BMCP composition, which allows using them to correct acute liver failure. At the same time, hydrogel matrix due to the presence of bioactive components contributes to the creation of the best conditions for adhesion and cell activity which accelerate the regeneration processes

  6. Mass spectrometric characterisation of a condensation product between porphobilinogen and indolyl-3-acryloylglycine in urine of patients with acute intermittent porphyria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Josep; Ibañez, Maria; Ventura, Rosa; Segura, Jordi; To-Figueras, Jordi; Pozo, Oscar J

    2015-07-01

    We document the presence of a previously unknown species in the urine of patients with acute intermittent porphyria (AIP). The compound was fully characterised by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Interpretation of both full spectrum acquisition and product ion spectra acquired in positive and negative ionisation modes by quadrupole time of flight MS allowed for the identification of a condensation product arising from porphobilinogen (PBG, increased in the urine of AIP patients) and indolyl-3-acryloylglycine (IAG, derived from indolylacrylic acid and present in human urine). The structure was unequivocally confirmed through comparison between the selected reaction monitoring chromatograms obtained from the urinary species and the condensation product qualitatively synthesised in the laboratory. Owing to the large amounts of both PBG and IAG in urine of AIP patients, the possible ex vivo formation of PBG-IAG in urine samples was evaluated. The product was spontaneously formed at room temperature, at 4 °C and even during storage at -20 °C when spiking a control sample with PBG. A positive correlation was found between PBG and PBG-IAG in samples collected from AIP patients. However, no correlation was found between PBG-IAG and IAG. Purified PBG-IAG did not form the characteristic chromogen after application of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde in HCl, thus suggesting that the current techniques used to measure PBG in urine of AIP patients based on Ehlrich's reaction do not detect this newly characterised PBG-IAG fraction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Table of Contents1. Overview2. Symptoms3. Diagnosis4. Prevention5. Treatment6. Everyday Life7. Questions8. Resources What is acute bronchitis? Acute ... heartburn, you can get acute bronchitis when stomach acid gets into the bronchial tree. How is acute ...

  8. Non-polar lipids accumulate during storage of transfusion products and do not contribute to the onset of transfusion-related acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, A L; Vervaart, M A T; van Bruggen, R; de Korte, D; Nieuwland, R; Kulik, W; Vlaar, A P J

    2017-01-01

    The accumulation of non-polar lipids arachidonic acid, 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), 12-HETE and 15-HETE during storage of transfusion products may play a role in the onset of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), a syndrome of respiratory distress after transfusion. We investigated non-polar lipid accumulation in red blood cells (RBCs) stored for 42 days, plasma stored for 7 days at either 4 or 20°C and platelet (PLT) transfusion products stored for 7 days. Furthermore, we investigated whether transfusion of RBCs with increased levels of non-polar lipids induces TRALI in a 'two-hit' human volunteer model. All products were produced following Dutch Blood Bank protocols and are according to European standards. Non-polar lipids were measured with high-performance liquid chromotography followed by mass spectrometry. All non-polar lipids increased in RBCs after 21 days of storage compared to baseline. The non-polar lipid concentration in plasma increased significantly, and the increase was even more pronounced in products stored at 20°C. In platelets, baseline levels of 5-HETE and 15-HETE were higher than in RBCs or plasma. However, the non-polar lipids did not change significantly during storage of PLT products. Infusion of RBCs with increased levels of non-polar lipids did not induce TRALI in LPS-primed human volunteers. We conclude that non-polar lipids accumulate in RBC and plasma transfusion products and that accumulation is temperature dependent. Accumulation of non-polar lipids does not appear to explain the onset of TRALI (Dutch Trial Register - NTR4455). © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  9. Carnosol and Related Substances Modulate Chemokine and Cytokine Production in Macrophages and Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Schwager

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic diterpenes present in Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis have anti-inflammatory and chemoprotective effects. We investigated the in vitro effects of carnosol (CL, carnosic acid (CA, carnosic acid-12-methylether (CAME, 20-deoxocarnosol and abieta-8,11,13-triene-11,12,20-triol (ABTT in murine macrophages (RAW264.7 cells and human chondrocytes. The substances concentration-dependently reduced nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production in LPS-stimulated macrophages (i.e., acute inflammation. They significantly blunted gene expression levels of iNOS, cytokines/interleukins (IL-1α, IL-6 and chemokines including CCL5/RANTES, CXCL10/IP-10. The substances modulated the expression of catabolic and anabolic genes in chondrosarcoma cell line SW1353 and in primary human chondrocytes that were stimulated by IL-1β (i.e., chronic inflammation In SW1353, catabolic genes like MMP-13 and ADAMTS-4 that contribute to cartilage erosion were down-regulated, while expression of anabolic genes including Col2A1 and aggrecan were shifted towards pre-pathophysiological homeostasis. CL had the strongest overall effect on inflammatory mediators, as well as on macrophage and chondrocyte gene expression. Conversely, CAME mainly affected catabolic gene expression, whereas ABTT had a more selectively altered interleukin and chemokine gene exprssion. CL inhibited the IL-1β induced nuclear translocation of NF-κBp65, suggesting that it primarily regulated via the NF-κB signalling pathway. Collectively, CL had the strongest effects on inflammatory mediators and chondrocyte gene expression. The data show that the phenolic diterpenes altered activity pattern of genes that regulate acute and chronic inflammatory processes. Since the substances affected catabolic and anabolic gene expression in cartilage cells in vitro, they may beneficially act on the aetiology of osteoarthritis.

  10. Acute toxicity of isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, a breakdown product of sarin, to eggs and fry of golden shiner and channel catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Chris C; Lochmann, Steve E; Straus, David L

    2005-01-22

    Several countries, including the United States, have agreed to destroy stockpiled chemical warfare agents in accordance with the Chemical Weapons Convention Treaty of 1993. Sarin is one of many chemical warfare agents (CWA) designated for destruction. In the event of an accident during incineration, sarin or its decomposition products have the potential to be expelled into the environment. Sarin hydrolyzes into isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA), a compound detected in groundwater from prior CWA production. This study determined the acute toxicity of IMPA to golden shiner, Notemigonus crysoleucas, and channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, eggs and 15-posthatch (dph) fry. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values at time of hatch for golden shiner and channel catfish eggs were 66.6 mg/L (hatched in 72 hr) and 167.5 mg/L (hatched in 168 h) IMPA, respectively. The 96-h LC50 estimates for 15-dph golden shiner and channel catfish fry were 93.9 and 144.1 mg/L IMPA, respectively. The lowest LC50 value from the most sensitive species in this study is approximately 100 times greater than the human adult lifetime drinking water health advisory value, and is approximately 2500 times greater than the critical reporting limit (> or =0.025 mg/L) for IMPA detection in groundwater from CWA production. These results are critical in understanding the toxicological properties of this potential environmental contaminant.

  11. Acute cocoa Flavanols intake has minimal effects on exercise-induced oxidative stress and nitric oxide production in healthy cyclists: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroix, Lieselot; Tonoli, Cajsa; Soares, Danusa Dias; Descat, Amandine; Drittij-Reijnders, Marie-José; Weseler, Antje R; Bast, Aalt; Stahl, Wilhelm; Heyman, Elsa; Meeusen, Romain

    2017-01-01

    Cocoa flavanols (CF) can stimulate vasodilation by improved nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities. This study aimed to examine whether acute CF intake can affect exercise-induced changes in antioxidant capacity, oxidative stress, inflammation and NO production, as well as exercise performance and recovery in well-trained cyclists . Twelve well-trained male cyclists (mean ± SD age, VO2max: 30 ± 3 years, 63.0 ± 3.5 ml/kg/min) participated in this randomized, double-blind, cross over study. On 2 separate occasions, subjects performed two 30-min time trials 1.5 (TT1) and 3 (TT2) hours after CF (900 mg CF) or placebo (PL, 13 mg CF) intake, interposed by passive rest. Lactate, glucose, heartrate, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and power output were measured during the TTs. Blood was drawn at baseline, before and after each TT and analyzed for epicatechin serum concentrations, trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity (TEAC), uric acid (UA), malonaldehyde (MDA), L-arginine/ADMA, citrulline, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α plasma concentrations. Relative changes in blood markers and pacing strategy during TT were analysed by repeated measured ANOVA. TT performance was compared between PL and CF by paired t-test. Epicatechin concentrations were increased by CF intake. Exercise-induced increase in TEAC/UA was improved by CF intake (F(1) = 5.57; p  = .038) (post-TT1: PL: 113.34 ± 3.9%, CF: 117.64 ± 3.96%, post-TT2: PL: 108.59 ± 3.95%, CF: 123.72 ± 7.4% to baseline), while exercise-induced increases in MDA, IL-1 and IL-6 were not affected by CF intake. TNF-α was unaltered by exercise and by CF. Exercise-induced decreases in L-arginine/ADMA and increases in citrulline were not affected by CF intake. TT1 and TT2 performance and exercise-induced physiological changes were unaffected by CF intake. Acute CF intake increased total antioxidant capacity in rest and during exercise

  12. Increase in IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, and RANTES mRNA levels (in situ hybridization) in the nasal mucosa after nasal allergen provocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, A.; Dijkstra, M. D.; Boks, S. S.; Severijnen, L. A.; Mulder, P. G.; Fokkens, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergic inflammation is regulated by the local production and release of several cytokines. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to assess the changes in mRNA cytokine-positive cells after allergen provocation and to compare these cytokines with tissue eosinophilia as a marker of

  13. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Acute Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is ... of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for ...

  14. Prediction of Acute Mammalian Toxicity Using QSAR Methods: A Case Study of Sulfur Mustard and Its Breakdown Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wheeler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Predicting toxicity quantitatively, using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR, has matured over recent years to the point that the predictions can be used to help identify missing comparison values in a substance’s database. In this manuscript we investigate using the lethal dose that kills fifty percent of a test population (the LD50 for determining relative toxicity of a number of substances. In general, the smaller the LD50 value, the more toxic the chemical, and the larger the LD50 value, the lower the toxicity. When systemic toxicity and other specific toxicity data are unavailable for the chemical(s of interest, during emergency responses, LD50 values may be employed to determine the relative toxicity of a series of chemicals. In the present study, a group of chemical warfare agents and their breakdown products have been evaluated using four available rat oral QSAR LD50 models. The QSAR analysis shows that the breakdown products of Sulfur Mustard (HD are predicted to be less toxic than the parent compound as well as other known breakdown products that have known toxicities. The QSAR estimated break down products LD50 values ranged from 299 mg/kg to 5,764 mg/kg. This evaluation allows for the ranking and toxicity estimation of compounds for which little toxicity information existed; thus leading to better risk decision making in the field.

  15. Postprandial Gastrointestinal Function Differs after Acute Administration of Sourdough Compared with Brewer's Yeast Bakery Products in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Barbara; Nicolai, Emanuele; Genovese, Daniela; Verlezza, Viviana; La Sala, Carmine N; Aiello, Marco; Inglese, Marianna; Incoronato, Mariarosaria; Sarnelli, Giovanni; De Rosa, Tiziana; Schiatti, Alfio; Mondelli, Francesco; Ercolini, Danilo; Cuomo, Rosario

    2018-02-01

    Europeans consume large quantities of bakery products, although these are known as one of the food categories that potentially leads to postprandial symptoms (such as fullness and bloating). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sourdough baked goods on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal fermentation and symptoms in healthy people. In a double-blind, randomized crossover study, 2 sourdough croissants (SCs) or 2 brewer's yeast croissants (BCs) were served as single meals to 17 healthy adults [9 women; age range: 18-40 y; body mass index range (in kg/m2): 18-24]. Gastric volume (GV) was evaluated by magnetic resonance to calculate gastric-emptying rate in the 3-h interval after croissant ingestion. A hydrogen breath test was performed to measure hydrogen production after SC and BC ingestion. Palatability and postprandial gastrointestinal symptoms (discomfort, nausea, fullness, and bloating) over a 4-h period after the meal were evaluated. The area under the curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the overall effects on all variables tested. The total GV AUC was reduced by 11% during the 3 h after the consumption of SCs compared with BCs (P = 0.02). Hydrogen production during the 4-h interval after ingestion of SCs was 30% lower than after BCs (P = 0.03). SCs were rated as being >2 times as palatable as BCs (P bakery products could promote better postprandial gastrointestinal function in healthy adults and be more acceptable than those prepared with brewer's yeast. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03207516.

  16. Impact of health care information technology on hospital productivity growth: a survey in 17 acute university hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rodolphe; Degoulet, Patrice; Omnes, Louis

    2007-01-01

    The quantification of the added value of information technologies (IT) in the health sector is a major issue for decision-makers and health care professionals. This paper relates the application of an economic production function in hospitals with different integration levels of their clinical information systems (CIS). The study concerns 17 university hospitals within the Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris group that were followed from 1998 to 2005. Using an extended Cobb-Douglas production function, yearly incomes (Y) were correlated with three inputs: capital (K), labor (L) and IT expenses (T). The results indicate that incomes are significantly and positively associated with the three input variables with elasticity coefficients: alpha, beta and gamma of 0.81, 0.17, and 0.09 that appear to be in the range of values found in secondary and tertiary sectors. The IT elasticity coefficient (gamma) is higher in the subgroup of 6 hospitals that integrate, or started to integrate, a complete CIS within the study period than in the 11 reference hospitals. In a general production function, hospital costs appear to be positively connected to the level of IT expenses, capital and labor. Calculations in two subgroups of AP-HP hospitals divided according to the importance of the IT integration level seem to indicate that the more the clinical information system is integrated, the more its influence is positive in hospital production. The results of this first survey are sufficiently encouraging to try to refine them (better granularity) and to spread them in time (over a longer period) and space (to other hospital structures).

  17. Acute Blood Loss During Burn and Soft Tissue Excisions: An Observational Study of Blood Product Resuscitation Practices and Focused Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-24

    amalgam sample containing the same ratio of product transfused. Platelet count, rotational thromboelastometry, and impedance aggregometry were measured...Significance was set at p G 0.05. RESULTS: Amalgamated transfusate samples produced abnormally weak clots (p e 0.001) particularly if they did not...contain platelets. Clot strength (48.8 [2.6] mm; reference range, 49Y71 mm) for platelet-containing amalgams was below the lower limit of the reference

  18. Acute Responses of Functional Electrical Stimulation Cycling on the Ventilation-to-CO2 Production Ratio and Substrate Utilization After Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Lawrence, Justin

    2016-03-01

    Ventilation-to-carbon dioxide ratio is comparable with peak oxygen uptake in the prognosis of cardiovascular disorders. Currently, there are no established indices to determine the submaximal effects of functional electrical stimulation on cardiovascular performance in persons with spinal cord injury. To determine the effects of an acute bout of functional electrical stimulation-lower extremity cycling on ventilation, carbon dioxide production, ventilation-to-carbon dioxide ratio, and substrate utilization in people with motor complete spinal cord injury. Observational cross-sectional design. Clinical laboratory setting. Ten individuals with motor complete spinal cord injury. Participants were allowed to cycle until fatigue. The effects of functional electrical stimulation on ventilation, carbon dioxide production, ventilation-to-carbon dioxide ratio, and substrate utilization were measured with a portable metabolic cart (COSMED K4b2). Body composition was determined with bioelectrical impedance. Resting and warm-up ventilation were 8.15 ± 3.5 L/min and 8.15 ± 2.8 L/min, respectively. Functional electrical stimulation increased ventilation significantly (14.5 ± 6.4 L/min), which remained significantly elevated (13.3 ± 4.3 L/min) during the recovery period. During resting and warm-up phases, the ventilation-to-carbon dioxide ratios were 41 ± 4.8 and 38 ± 5.4, respectively. Functional electrical stimulation decreased the ventilation-to-carbon dioxide ratio significantly to 31.5 ± 4, which remained significantly reduced during the recovery period (34.4 ± 3). Functional electrical stimulation relied primarily on carbohydrate utilization (188 ± 160 g/day to 574 ± 324 g/day; P = .001) with no changes in fat utilization (77.5 ± 28 g/day to 93.5 ± 133.6 g/day; P = .7) from resting to exercise periods. Significant relationships were noted between carbohydrate utilization during functional electrical stimulation and carbon dioxide (r = 0.98; P = .00010

  19. Les cultures transgéniques permettent-elles de réduire l’usage des produits phytosanitaires ? Considérations à partir du cas du soja tolérant au glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonny Sylvie

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available L’article s’interroge sur l’impact des cultures transgéniques sur l’emploi des pesticides, objet de nombreux débats. Sont examinés les résultats de plusieurs études portant sur le bilan des premières années d’utilisation à grande échelle des OGM aux États-Unis, plus particulièrement du soja tolérant au glyphosate. Les travaux analysés présentent des résultats variables, surtout pour les années récentes, selon les méthodes choisies et le type d’extrapolations faites. Divers facteurs expliquant l’accroissement de l’emploi global du glyphosate sont passés en revue. Mais l’estimation des quantités d’herbicides utilisées qui dépendent de nombreux facteurs n’est pas un indicateur valide de l’impact des cultures transgéniques sur l’environnement.

  20. Increased serum levels of fibrinogen degradation products due to treatment with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator for acute myocardial infarction are related to bleeding complications, but not to coronary patency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Brower (Ronald); D. Collen; G.A. van Es (Gerrit Anne); J. Lubsen (Jacob); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); M. Verstraete (Marc); A.E.R. Arnold (Alfred)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractThe association of increasing serum levels of fibrinogen degradation products after recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) therapy with bleeding and early coronary patency was assessed in 242 patients with acute myocardial infarction. After administration of 5,000 IU

  1. Effects of acute L-carnitine supplementation on nitric oxide production and oxidative stress after exhaustive exercise in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay Guzel, N; Erikoglu Orer, G; Sezen Bircan, F; Coskun Cevher, S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute L-carnitine supplementation at two different doses on nitric oxide (NO) production and oxidative stress after exhaustive exercise. The subjects were 26 healthy males aged 17-19 years. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups of 13 each and received 3 or 4 g L-carnitine via a glass of fruit juice. After 1 h, the treadmill test was started at a speed of 8 km/h, afterwards increasing the speed 1 km/h every 3 min with a 1 min rest before every speed increase until exhaustion. Venous blood samples were collected again within 5 min following the exercise test. One week later, the test was repeated on the same athletes with placebo fluids. All subjects received a placebo via a glass of fruit juice. 1 h after the same exercise protocol mentioned above was performed and blood samples were drawn immediately. These plasma samples were used for measurement of nitrate-nitrite (NOx), which are known to be the stable end products of NO, TBARs as a lipid peroxidation indicator and an antioxidant glutathione (GSH) levels. The results of this study have shown that L-carnitine applied at a 3 g dose provides strong antioxidant action by increasing the GSH and NOx level and decreasing the TBARs level.

  2. Blood transfusion products contain mitochondrial DNA damage-associated molecular patterns: a potential effector of transfusion-related acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yann-Leei; King, Madelyn B; Gonzalez, Richard P; Brevard, Sidney B; Frotan, M Amin; Gillespie, Mark N; Simmons, Jon D

    2014-10-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the most frequent and severe complication in patients receiving multiple blood transfusions. Current pathogenic concepts hold that proinflammatory mediators present in transfused blood products are responsible for the initiation of TRALI, but the identity of the critical effector molecules is yet to be determined. We hypothesize that mtDNA damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are present in blood transfusion products, which may be important in the initiation of TRALI. DNA was extracted from consecutive samples of packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma (FFP), and platelets procured from the local blood bank. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify ≈200 bp sequences from the COX1, ND1, ND6, and D-loop regions of the mitochondrial genome. A range of mtDNA DAMPs were detected in all blood components measured, with FFP displaying the largest variation. We conclude that mtDNA DAMPs are present in packed red blood cells, FFP, and platelets. These observations provide proof of the concept that mtDNA DAMPs may be mediators of TRALI. Further studies are needed to test this hypothesis and to determine the origin of mtDNA DAMPs in transfused blood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Receptor for advanced glycation end-products and World Trade Center particulate induced lung function loss: A case-cohort study and murine model of acute particulate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraher, Erin J; Kwon, Sophia; Haider, Syed H; Crowley, George; Lee, Audrey; Ebrahim, Minah; Zhang, Liqun; Chen, Lung-Chi; Gordon, Terry; Liu, Mengling; Prezant, David J; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Nolan, Anna

    2017-01-01

    World Trade Center-particulate matter(WTC-PM) exposure and metabolic-risk are associated with WTC-Lung Injury(WTC-LI). The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is most highly expressed in the lung, mediates metabolic risk, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms at the AGER-locus predict forced expiratory volume(FEV). Our objectives were to test the hypotheses that RAGE is a biomarker of WTC-LI in the FDNY-cohort and that loss of RAGE in a murine model would protect against acute PM-induced lung disease. We know from previous work that early intense exposure at the time of the WTC collapse was most predictive of WTC-LI therefore we utilized a murine model of intense acute PM-exposure to determine if loss of RAGE is protective and to identify signaling/cytokine intermediates. This study builds on a continuing effort to identify serum biomarkers that predict the development of WTC-LI. A case-cohort design was used to analyze a focused cohort of male never-smokers with normal pre-9/11 lung function. Odds of developing WTC-LI increased by 1.2, 1.8 and 1.0 in firefighters with soluble RAGE (sRAGE)≥97pg/mL, CRP≥2.4mg/L, and MMP-9≤397ng/mL, respectively, assessed in a multivariate logistic regression model (ROCAUC of 0.72). Wild type(WT) and RAGE-deficient(Ager-/-) mice were exposed to PM or PBS-control by oropharyngeal aspiration. Lung function, airway hyperreactivity, bronchoalveolar lavage, histology, transcription factors and plasma/BAL cytokines were quantified. WT-PM mice had decreased FEV and compliance, and increased airway resistance and methacholine reactivity after 24-hours. Decreased IFN-γ and increased LPA were observed in WT-PM mice; similar findings have been reported for firefighters who eventually develop WTC-LI. In the murine model, lack of RAGE was protective from loss of lung function and airway hyperreactivity and was associated with modulation of MAP kinases. We conclude that in a multivariate adjusted model increased sRAGE is

  4. Receptor for advanced glycation end-products and World Trade Center particulate induced lung function loss: A case-cohort study and murine model of acute particulate exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin J Caraher

    Full Text Available World Trade Center-particulate matter(WTC-PM exposure and metabolic-risk are associated with WTC-Lung Injury(WTC-LI. The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE is most highly expressed in the lung, mediates metabolic risk, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms at the AGER-locus predict forced expiratory volume(FEV. Our objectives were to test the hypotheses that RAGE is a biomarker of WTC-LI in the FDNY-cohort and that loss of RAGE in a murine model would protect against acute PM-induced lung disease. We know from previous work that early intense exposure at the time of the WTC collapse was most predictive of WTC-LI therefore we utilized a murine model of intense acute PM-exposure to determine if loss of RAGE is protective and to identify signaling/cytokine intermediates. This study builds on a continuing effort to identify serum biomarkers that predict the development of WTC-LI. A case-cohort design was used to analyze a focused cohort of male never-smokers with normal pre-9/11 lung function. Odds of developing WTC-LI increased by 1.2, 1.8 and 1.0 in firefighters with soluble RAGE (sRAGE≥97pg/mL, CRP≥2.4mg/L, and MMP-9≤397ng/mL, respectively, assessed in a multivariate logistic regression model (ROCAUC of 0.72. Wild type(WT and RAGE-deficient(Ager-/- mice were exposed to PM or PBS-control by oropharyngeal aspiration. Lung function, airway hyperreactivity, bronchoalveolar lavage, histology, transcription factors and plasma/BAL cytokines were quantified. WT-PM mice had decreased FEV and compliance, and increased airway resistance and methacholine reactivity after 24-hours. Decreased IFN-γ and increased LPA were observed in WT-PM mice; similar findings have been reported for firefighters who eventually develop WTC-LI. In the murine model, lack of RAGE was protective from loss of lung function and airway hyperreactivity and was associated with modulation of MAP kinases. We conclude that in a multivariate adjusted model increased s

  5. Role of toll-like receptor 4 in acute neutrophilic lung inflammation induced by intratracheal bacterial products in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakako Yamada

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Wakako Yamada1, Sadatomo Tasaka1, Hidefumi Koh1, Mie Shimizu1, Yuko Ogawa1, Naoki Hasegawa1, Taku Miyasho2, Kazuhiro Yamaguchi1, Akitoshi Ishizaka11Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 2Laboratory of Veterinary Biochemistry, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, JapanBackground: Toll-like receptors (TLRs represent a conserved family of innate immune recognition receptors. Among TLRs, TLR4 is important for the recognition of Gram-negative bacteria, whereas TLR2 recognizes cell wall constituents of Gram-positive microorganisms, such as peptidoglycan (PGN.Methods: To evaluate the role of TLR4 in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury induced by Escherichia coli endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS or PGN, we compared inflammatory cell accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid and lung pathology between C3H/HeJ (TLR4 mutant and wild-type C3H/HeN mice. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in plasma and BAL fluid and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB translocation in the lung were also evaluated.Results: In C3H/HeJ mice, LPS-induced neutrophil emigration was significantly decreased compared with C3H/HeN mice, whereas PGN-induced neutrophil emigration did not differ. Differential cell count in BAL fluid revealed comparable neutrophil recruitment in the alveolar space. In TLR4 mutant mice, LPS-induced upregulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, KC, and CXCL10 in plasma and BAL fluid was attenuate, which was not different after PGN. NF-κB translocation in the lung was significantly decreased in C3H/HeJ compared with C3H/HeN mice, whereas PGN-induced NF-κB translocation was not different.Conclusion: These results suggest that TLR4 mediates inflammatory cascade induced by Gram-negative bacteria that is locally administered.Keywords: rodent, TLR4, endotoxin, neutrophils, NF-κB

  6. Acute effectiveness of a "fat-loss" product on substrate utilization, perception of hunger, mood state and rate of perceived exertion at rest and during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Ahmad; Seijo, Marcos; Larumbe, Eneko; Naclerio, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Achieving fat-loss outcomes by ingesting multi-ingredient mixtures may be further enhanced during exercise. This study tested the acute thermogenic effectiveness of a commercially available multi-ingredient product (Shred-Matrix®), containing Green Tea Extract, Yerba Maté, Guarana Seed Extract, Anhydrous caffeine, Saw palmetto, Fo-Ti, Eleuthero root, Cayenne Pepper, and Yohimbine HCI, on fatty acid oxidation (FAO), perception of hunger, mood state and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) at rest and during 30 min of submaximal exercise. Following institutional ethical approval, twelve healthy recreationally active participants, five females and seven males, were randomized to perform two separate experimental ergometry cycling trials, and to ingest 1.5 g (3 × capsules) of either a multi-ingredient supplement (SHRED) or placebo (PL). Participants rested for 3 h, before performing a 30-min cycling exercise corresponding to their individually-determined intensity based on their maximal fat oxidation (Fatmax). Fatty acid oxidation (FAO) was determined at rest, 3 h before exercise (Pre1), immediately before exercise (Pre2) and during exercise (Post), using expired gasses and indirect calorimetry. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured every 3 min during the 30-min exercise. Additionally both mood state and perception of hunger were assessed at Pre1, Pre2 and Post exercise. A repeated measures ANOVA design and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to analyze potential differences between times and treatment conditions. FAO increased in SHRED from Pre1 to Pre2 [0.56 ± 0.26 to 0.96 ± 0.37, (p = 0.003, d =1.34)] but not in PL [0.67 ± 0.25 to 0.74 ± 0.19, (p = 0.334) d = 0.49], with no differences were found between conditions (p = 0.12, d = 0.49). However, Cohen's d = 0.77 revealed moderate effect size in favor of SHRED from Pre to Post exercise. RPE values were lower in SHRED compared to Pl (phunger were not different between conditions, with no interaction effects

  7. Vinpocetine reduces diclofenac-induced acute kidney injury through inhibition of oxidative stress, apoptosis, cytokine production, and NF-κB activation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattori, Victor; Borghi, Sergio M; Guazelli, Carla F S; Giroldo, Andressa C; Crespigio, Jefferson; Bussmann, Allan J C; Coelho-Silva, Letícia; Ludwig, Natasha G; Mazzuco, Tânia L; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2017-06-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) represents a complex clinical condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Approximately, 19-33% AKI episodes in hospitalized patients are related to drug-induced nephrotoxicity. Although, considered safe, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as diclofenac have received special attention in the past years due to the potential risk of renal damage. Vinpocetine is a nootropic drug known to have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanisms of vinpocetine in a model of diclofenac-induced AKI. We observed that diclofenac increased proteinuria and blood urea, creatinine, and oxidative stress levels 24h after its administration. In renal tissue, diclofenac also increased oxidative stress and induced morphological changes consistent with renal damage. Moreover, diclofenac induced kidney cells apoptosis, up-regulated proinflammatory cytokines, and induced the activation of NF-κB in renal tissue. On the other hand, vinpocetine reduced diclofenac-induced blood urea and creatinine. In the kidneys, vinpocetine inhibited diclofenac-induced oxidative stress, morphological changes, apoptosis, cytokine production, and NF-κB activation. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that diclofenac-induced AKI increases NF-κB activation, and that vinpocetine reduces the nephrotoxic effects of diclofenac. Therefore, vinpocetine is a promising molecule for the treatment of diclofenac-induced AKI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Soluble Forms and Ligands of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Products in Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: An Observational Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Jabaudon

    Full Text Available The main soluble form of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE is elevated during acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. However other RAGE isoforms and multiple ligands have been poorly reported in the clinical setting, and their respective contribution to RAGE activation during ARDS remains unclear. Our goal was therefore to describe main RAGE isoforms and ligands levels during ARDS.30 ARDS patients and 30 mechanically ventilated controls were prospectively included in this monocenter observational study. Arterial, superior vena cava and alveolar fluid levels of sRAGE, endogenous-secretory RAGE (esRAGE, high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1, S100A12 and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs were measured in duplicate ELISA on day 0, day 3 and day 6. In patients with ARDS, baseline lung morphology was assessed with computed tomography.ARDS patients had higher arterial, central venous and alveolar levels of sRAGE, HMGB1 and S100A12, but lower levels of esRAGE and AGEs, than controls. Baseline arterial sRAGE, HMGB1 and S100A12 were correlated with nonfocal ARDS (AUC 0.79, 0.65 and 0.63, respectively. Baseline arterial sRAGE, esRAGE, S100A12 and AGEs were associated with severity as assessed by PaO2/FiO2.This is the first kinetics study of levels of RAGE main isoforms and ligands during ARDS. Elevated sRAGE, HMGB1 and S100A12, with decreased esRAGE and AGEs, were found to distinguish patients with ARDS from those without. Our findings should prompt future studies aimed at elucidating RAGE/HMGB1/S100A12 axis involvement in ARDS.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01270295.

  9. Agriculture itinérante sur brûlis (AIB et plantes cultivées sur le haut Maroni: étude comparée chez les Aluku et les Wayana en Guyane française

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Fleury

    Full Text Available Résumé Vers la fin du 18e siècle, les Noirs marrons Aluku, descendants d’esclaves rebelles fuyant les plantations hollandaises et les Amérindiens Wayana, arrivant du Brésil, où ils fuyaient les chasseurs d’esclaves, se sont rencontrés sur le haut Maroni, en Guyane française. Ce partage d’un même lieu de vie a été l’occasion d’échanger un grand nombre de techniques, notamment en ce qui concerne l’agriculture itinérante sur brûlis, et les plantes cultivées. Toutefois notre étude montre que le culte des ancêtres chez les Noirs marrons a modifié leur cycle cultural (via la culture du riz, influençant ainsi leur gestion de l’environnement. De même la nature et la diversité des plantes cultivées diffèrent sensiblement en fonction des usages traditionnels et habitudes culinaires des deux sociétés. Les Aluku ont sélectionné de nombreuses espèces et variétés de plantes qui leur sont propres et sont liées à leurs racines africaines. Les Amérindiens cultivent des plantes spécifiques utiles au chamanisme (tabac et à leur artisanat traditionnel. De plus, leur perception de la nature implique des pratiques cultuelles différentes notamment avant le défrichage. Cette étude illustre l’influence de la diversité culturelle sur la gestion de l’agrobiodiversité et, de manière plus générale, sur l’adaptation de l’homme à son environnement.

  10. Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spring, Martin; Johnes, Geraint; Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    Productivity is increasingly critical for developed economies. It has always been important: as Paul Krugman puts it, “Productivity isn’t everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability...... to raise its output per worker”(Krugman, 1994). Analyses of productivity have, by and large, been the preserve of economists. Operations Management (OM) is rooted in a similar concern for the efficient use of scarce resources; Management Accounting (MA) is concerned with the institutionalised measurement...... and management of productivity. Yet the three perspectives are rarely connected. This paper is a sketch of a literature review seeking to identify, contrast and reconcile these three perspectives. In so doing, it aims to strengthen the connections between policy and managerial analyses of productivity....

  11. Production and application of HMGB1 derived recombinant RAGE-antagonist peptide for anti-inflammatory therapy in acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seonyeong; Piao, Chunxian; Kim, Gyeungyun; Kim, Ji Yeon; Choi, Eunji; Lee, Minhyung

    2018-03-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is an inflammatory lung disease caused by sepsis, infection, or ischemia-reperfusion. The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) signaling pathway plays an important role in ALI. In this study, a novel RAGE-antagonist peptide (RAP) was produced as an inhibitor of the RAGE signaling pathway based on the RAGE-binding domain of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1). Recombinant RAP was over-expressed and purified using nickel-affinity chromatography. In lipopolysaccharide- or HMGB1-activated RAW264.7 macrophage cells, RAP reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). RAP decreased the levels of cell surface RAGE and inhibited the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). These results imply that RAP decreases RAGE-mediated NF-κB activation and subsequent inflammatory reaction. For in vivo evaluation, RAP was delivered to the lungs of ALI-model animals via intratracheal administration. As a result, RAGE was down-regulated in the lung tissues by pulmonary delivery of RAP. Consequently, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β were also reduced in broncoalveolar lavage fluid and the lung tissues of RAP-treated animals. Hematoxylin and eosin staining indicated that inflammation was decreased in RAP-treated animals. Collectively, these results suggest that RAP may be a useful treatment for ALI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Intestinal TSH production is localized in crypt enterocytes and in villus 'hotblocks' and is coupled to IL-7 production: evidence for involvement of TSH during acute enteric virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Virginia L; Montufar-Solis, Dina; Cheng, Elly; Estes, Mary K; Klein, John R

    2005-06-15

    The immune and neuroendocrine systems have been shown to work conjointly in a number of ways. One aspect of this has to do with a potential role for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the regulation of the mucosal immune system, although the mechanisms by which this occurs remain vague. To more thoroughly understand how TSH participates in intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) development and immunity, experiments have been conducted to define local sites of intestinal TSH production, and to characterize changes that occur in the synthesis of TSH during acute enteric virus infection. Here, we demonstrate that TSH in the small intestine is specifically localized to regions below villus crypts as seen by immunocytochemical staining, which revealed high-level TSH staining in lower crypts in the absence of IL-7 staining, and TSH and IL-7 co-staining in upper crypt regions. Additionally, prominent TSH staining was evident in TSH 'hotblocks' sparsely dispersed throughout the epithelial layer. In rotavirus-infected mice, the TSH staining pattern differed significantly from that of non-infected animals. Notably, at 2 and 3 days post-infection, TSH expression was high in and near apical villi where virus infection was greatest. These findings lend credence to the notion that TSH plays a role both in the development of intestinal T cells, and in the process of local immunity during enteric virus infection.

  13. RANT Building Upgrade Pre-Proposal Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Melinda Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Meadows, Darren W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rodriguez, Roger R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); MacFarlane, Eric Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ortega, Adan Eduardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lopez Escobedo, Gabriela Maria [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-31

    This presentation is designed to provide an overview of the project scope and RFP; discuss interfaces for the construction project; highlight key expectations and deliverables from the subcontractor; and address questions and provide clarification of the project scope.

  14. production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    answered satisfactorily. An additional important factor in discouraging collaborative work in animal and grassland production is, without doubt, the complexity of work in this field compared with much of that in the individual discipline and, in particular, the com- plexity of work on forage as a source of nutrients for live- stock.

  15. Acute dyspnea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhter, A.I.

    1991-01-01

    Radiodiagnosis is applied to determine the causes of acute dyspnea. Acute dyspnea is shown to aggravate the course of pulmonary diseases (bronchial asthma, obstructive bronchitis, pulmonary edema, throboembolism of pulmonary arteries etc) and cardiovascular diseases (desiseas of myocardium). The main tasks of radiodiagnosis are to determine volume and state of the lungs, localization and type of pulmonary injuries, to verify heart disease and to reveal concomitant complications

  16. Activation by 9-(.I.R./I.)-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine of chemokine (RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein 1ŕ) and cytokine (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-10 [IL-10], IL-1á) production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zídek, Zdeněk; Franková, Daniela; Holý, Antonín

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 12 (2001), s. 3381-3386 ISSN 0066-4804 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/00/0048; GA ČR GV203/96/K001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : antiviral agents Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.562, year: 2001

  17. Efficacy and tolerability of a fluid extract combination of thyme herb and ivy leaves and matched placebo in adults suffering from acute bronchitis with productive cough. A prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerich, Bernd; Eberhardt, Reinhild; Stammer, Holger

    2006-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and tolerability of a fixed fluid extract combination of thyme and ivy leaves (thyme-ivy combination) and matched placebo in patients suffering from acute bronchitis with productive cough. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre Phase IV study 361 outpatients with acute bronchitis and > or =10 coughing fits during the day, onset of bronchial mucus production with impaired ability to cough up at a maximum of 2 days prior to recruitment, and a Bronchitis Severity Score (BSS) > or =5 score points were randomly assigned to an 11-day treatment (5.4 ml three times daily) with either thyme-ivy combination syrup (Bronchipret Saft; N=182) or placebo syrup (N=179). After the baseline examination (Visit 1 = Day 0), 2 control examinations were scheduled (Visit 2 = Day 4; Visit 3 = Day 10/end of treatment). The efficacy of study treatment on acute bronchitis was evaluated by the patient's daily counting of coughing fits during the daytime (manual counter), assessment of acute bronchitis related symptoms and by the investigator's assessment of the most important symptoms of acute bronchitis using the BSS. Evaluation of tolerability was based upon adverse event (AE) monitoring, measurement of vital signs as well as the Primary outcome was the change in frequency of coughing fits during daytime on days 7-9 according to patient's accurate daily recording with a manual counter and documentation in the diary. Treatment effects were analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) adjusted for centre effects. Due to significant deviation from the "preconditions" of the ANOVA, the Wilcoxon test (stratified by centre) was carried out additionally. The mean reduction in coughing fits on days 7 to 9 relative to baseline was 68.7% under thyme-ivy combination compared to 47.6 % under placebo (p frequency or severity of AEs between thyme-ivy combination and placebo groups. Severe or serious AEs were not reported. Oral treatment of acute bronchitis with thyme

  18. La production des huiles essentielles en France

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Xavier; Monge, Romain; Chailan, Claude

    2012-01-01

    National audience; The essential oil production in France : species, economy, enhancing.; L'huile essentielle ou essence végétale se définit comme étant un liquide hydrophobe des composés odoriférants volatils secrété par une plante. Ce mélange complexe de diverses molécules (alcools, terpènes, cétones, etc...) est obtenu par distillation à la vapeur d'eau ; en France, ces productions originales sont partie prenante d'une filière dont l'aval est constitué par l'industrie du parfum, de la cosm...

  19. Acute respiratory distress after transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Jožef Gradišek

    2012-12-01

    Conclusions: Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO are clinical syndromes with predominant pulmonary injury and respiratory distress. Anaphylactic reaction, hemolytic transfusion reaction and transfusion of contaminated blood products also impair lung function but are less frequent. Transfusion in critically ill and injured patient is an independent risk factor for acute lung injury. It remains to be determined whether transfusion is the cause of increased mortality or only an indicator of disease severity

  20. Acute pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.S.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown, that in the detailed study of various types of acute pneumonia s the roentgenologic method plays a great role. The most characteristic roentge nological signs of primary (bacterial, viral, rickettsial, parasitogenic and fun gous) and secondary pneumonias (in the case of lessions in lesser circulation, changes in bronchi, aspirational and other diseases of organism) are presented

  1. Delayed myelosuppression with acute exposure to hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and environmental degradation product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaligama, Sridhar; Kale, Vijay M.; Wilbanks, Mitchell S. [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA 71209 (United States); Perkins, Edward J. [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Meyer, Sharon A., E-mail: meyer@ulm.edu [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA 71209 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a widely used munitions compound, and hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), its N-nitroso product of anaerobic microbial nitroreduction, are contaminants of military sites. Previous studies have shown MNX to be the most acutely toxic among the nitroreduced degradation products of RDX and to cause mild anemia at high dose. The present study compares hematotoxicity with acute oral exposure to MNX with parent RDX. Both RDX and MNX caused a modest decrease in blood hemoglobin and ∼ 50% loss of granulocytes (NOAELs = 47 mg/kg) in female Sprague–Dawley rats observed 14 days post-exposure. We explored the possibility that blood cell loss observed after 14 days was delayed in onset because of toxicity to bone marrow (BM) progenitors. RDX and MNX decreased granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) at 14, but not 7, days (NOAELs = 24 mg/kg). The earliest observed time at which MNX decreased GM-CFCs was 10 days post-exposure. RDX and MNX likewise decreased BM burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-Es) at 14, but not 7, days. Granulocyte–erythrocyte–monocyte–megakaryocyte (GEMM)-CFCs were unaffected by RDX and MNX at 7 days suggesting precursor depletion did not account for GM-CFC and BFU-E loss. MNX added to the culture media was without effect on GM-CFC formation indicating no direct inhibition. Flow cytometry showed no differential loss of BM multilineage progenitors (Thy1.1{sup +}) or erythroid (CD71{sup +}) precursors with MNX suggesting myeloid and erythroid lineages were comparably affected. Collectively, these data indicate that acute exposure to both RDX and MNX caused delayed suppression of myelo- and erythropoiesis with subsequent decrease of peripheral granulocytes and erythrocytes. Highlights: ► Acute oral exposure to munitions RDX causes myelosuppression. ► Environmental degradation product MNX is comparable in effect. ► RDX and MNX are cytotoxic to both myeloid and erythroid

  2. Dogs infected with the blood trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi display an increase expression of cytokines and chemokines plus an intense cardiac parasitism during acute infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Sheler Martins; Vieira, Paula Melo de Abreu; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; da Silva Fonseca, Kátia; Nogueira, Nívia Carolina; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins

    2014-03-01

    The recent increase in immigration of people from areas endemic for Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi) to the United States and Europe has raised concerns about the transmission via blood transfusion and organ transplants in these countries. Infection by these pathways occurs through blood trypomastigotes (BT), and these forms of T. cruzi are completely distinct of metacyclic trypomastigotes (MT), released by triatomine vector, in relation to parasite-host interaction. Thus, research comparing infection with these different infective forms is important for explaining the potential impacts on the disease course. Here, we investigated tissue parasitism and relative mRNA expression of cytokines, chemokines, and chemokine receptors in the heart during acute infection by MT or BT forms in dogs. BT-infected dogs presented a higher cardiac parasitism, increased relative mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokines and of the chemokines CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL5/RANTES, and the chemokine receptor CCR5 during the acute phase of infection, as compared to MT-infected dogs. These results suggest that infection with BT forms may lead to an increased immune response, as revealed by the cytokines ratio, but this kind of immune response was not able to control the cardiac parasitism. Infection with the MT form presented an increase in the relative mRNA expression of IL-12p40 as compared to that of IL-10 or TGF-β1. Correlation analysis showed increased relative mRNA expression of IFN-γ as well as IL-10, which may be an immunomodulatory response, as well as an increase in the correlation of CCL5/RANTES and its CCR5 receptor. Our findings revealed a difference between inoculum sources of T. cruzi, as vectorial or transfusional routes of T. cruzi infection may trigger distinct parasite-host interactions during the acute phase, which may influence immunopathological aspects of Chagas disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wig J

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available 550 cases of acute abdomen have been analysed in detail includ-ing their clinical presentation and operative findings. Males are more frequently affected than females in a ratio of 3: 1. More than 45% of patients presented after 48 hours of onset of symptoms. Intestinal obstruction was the commonest cause of acute abdomen (47.6%. External hernia was responsible for 26% of cases of intestinal obstruction. Perforated peptic ulcer was the commonest cause of peritonitis in the present series (31.7% while incidence of biliary peritonitis was only 2.4%.. The clinical accuracy rate was 87%. The mortality in operated cases was high (10% while the over-all mortality rate was 7.5%.

  4. Acute ileus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhter, A.I.

    1991-01-01

    Acute ileus backgrounds are multiple. Dynamic ileus may take place during peritonitis, some nervous diseases, parathyroid diseases, hysteria. Mechanical ileus is connected with some obstacle in intestines. Small intestines ileus is rarely seen and may be caused by a tumor gall stones, invagination, swallowed foreign bodies. For exclusion of abdominal organs injury and gall stone ileus, if the roentgenological picture isn't clear enough, ultrasonography or computerized tomography of the abdomen are carried out

  5. Acute epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, Aijaz; Joyner-Triplett, Nedra

    1996-05-01

    Preview Acute anterior nosebleeds are frightening because bleeding is often so copious and seemingly unstoppable. But, ironically, this type is usually less severe than posterior epistaxis, in which blood may run briskly but unseen down the throat. The choice among the many treatment methods available depends on the source and cause of epistaxis. The authors present a methodical approach to patient evaluation and describe the best therapy for various situations.

  6. Acute-phase reactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Singh Grover

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute-phase response (APR is a prominent systemic reaction of the organism to local or systemic disturbances in its homeostasis caused by infection, tissue injury, trauma or surgery, or immunological disorders. The tissue macrophage is most commonly regarded as initiating the APR through direct stimulation and secretion of various cell communicating factors. Proinflammatory cytokines and mediators are significantly elevated with gingival inflammation and during the destructive phase of periodontitis. Cytokines appear to play a major role in the clinical symptoms and tissue destruction associated with progressing periodontitis. Many of these cytokines are derived from activated macrophages and can act both locally and distally to amplify cytokine production from other cell types. The host responses to periodontal disease and cardiovascular diseases were reflected by an increase in the acute-phase proteins (serum amyloid A and C-reactive protein.

  7. Acute-phase proteins: As diagnostic tool

    OpenAIRE

    Sachin Jain; Vidhi Gautam; Sania Naseem

    2011-01-01

    The varied reactions of the host to infection, inflammation, or trauma are collectively known as the acute-phase response and encompass a wide range of pathophysiological responses such as pyrexia, leukocytosis, hormone alterations, and muscle protein depletion combining to minimize tissue damage while enhancing the repair process. The mechanism for stimulation of hepatic production of acute-phase proteins is by proinflammatory cytokines. The functions of positive acute-phase proteins (APP) a...

  8. Optimal Method to Stimulate Cytokine Production and Its Use in Immunotoxicity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiming Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Activation of lymphocytes can effectively produce a large amount of cytokines. The types of cytokines produced may depend on stimulating reagents and treatments. To find an optimal method to stimulate cytokine production and evaluate its effect on immunotoxicity assessments, the authors analyzed production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-γ, TNF-α, GM-CSF, RANTES and TGF-β in undiluted rat whole blood culture (incubation for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 h with different concentrations of PMA/ionomycin, PHA, Con A, LPS and PWM. We also evaluated the effects of cyclosporin A and azathioprine on cytokine production. The results revealed a rapid increase of IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, RANTES and TGF-β secretion within 6 h after stimulation with 25 ng/mL PMA and 1 μg/mL ionomycin. The inhibition of these cytokine profiles reflected the effects of immunosuppressants on the immune system. Therefore, the results of this is study recommend the detection of cytokine profiles in undiluted whole blood stimulated 6 h with 25 ng/mL PMA and 1 μg/mL ionomycin as a powerful immunotoxicity assessment method.

  9. Pharmacological approach to acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ulrich-Christian; Semb, Synne; Nojgaard, Camilla

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding pharmacological prevention and treatment of acute pancreatitis (AP) based on experimental animal models and clinical trials. Somatostatin (SS) and octreotide inhibit the exocrine production of pancreatic enzymes and may...

  10. Acute kidney failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... Symptoms of acute kidney failure may include any of the following: Bloody stools Breath odor and metallic taste in the mouth Bruising easily Changes in ...

  11. Acute cerebellar ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerebellar ataxia; Ataxia - acute cerebellar; Cerebellitis; Post-varicella acute cerebellar ataxia; PVACA ... Acute cerebellar ataxia in children, particularly younger than age 3, may occur several weeks after an illness caused by a virus. ...

  12. Acute Appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tind, Sofie; Qvist, Niels

    2017-01-01

    and treatment of AA it is important that the classifications are consistent. Furthermore, in the clinical settings, incorrect classification might lead to over diagnosing and a prolonged antibiotic treatment. The aim of our study was to investigate the concordance between perioperative diagnosis made......BACKGROUND: The classification of acute appendicitis (AA) into various grades is not consistent, partly because it is not clear whether the perioperative or the histological findings should be the foundation of the classification. When comparing results from the literature on the frequency...... patients were included. In 116 (89 %) of these cases, appendicitis was confirmed histological. There was low concordance between the perioperative and histological diagnoses, varying from 16 to 76 % depending on grade of AA. Only 44 % of the patients receiving antibiotics postoperatively had a positive...

  13. CD1d-restricted IFN-γ-secreting NKT cells promote immune complex-induced acute lung injury by regulating macrophage-inflammatory protein-1α production and activation of macrophages and dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hyung; Chung, Doo Hyun

    2011-02-01

    Immune complex-induced acute lung injury (IC-ALI) has been implicated in various pulmonary disease states. However, the role of NKT cells in IC-ALI remains unknown. Therefore, we explored NKT cell functions in IC-ALI using chicken egg albumin and anti-chicken egg albumin IgG. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of CD1d(-/-) and Jα18(-/-) mice contained few Ly6G(+)CD11b(+) granulocytes, whereas levels in B6 mice were greater and were increased further by α-galactosyl ceramide. IFN-γ and MIP-1α production in the lungs was greater in B6 than CD1d(-/-) mice. Adoptive transfer of wild type (WT) but not IFN-γ-, MIP-1α-, or FcγR-deficient NKT cells into CD1d(-/-) mice caused recruitment of inflammatory cells to the lungs. Moreover, adoptive transfer of IFN-γR-deficient NKT cells enhanced MIP-1α production and cell recruitment in the lungs of CD1d(-/-) or CD1d(-/-)IFN-γ(-/-) mice, but to a lesser extent than WT NKT cells. This suggests that IFN-γ-producing NKT cells enhance MIP-1α production in both an autocrine and a paracrine manner. IFN-γ-deficient NKT cells induced less IL-1β and TNF-α production by alveolar macrophages and dendritic cells in CD1d(-/-) mice than did WT NKT cells. Taken together, these data suggest that CD1d-restricted IFN-γ-producing NKT cells promote IC-ALI by producing MIP-1α and enhancing proinflammatory cytokine production by alveolar macrophages and dendritic cells.

  14. A hot water extract of turmeric (Curcuma longa) suppresses acute ethanol-induced liver injury in mice by inhibiting hepatic oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchio, Ryusei; Higashi, Yohei; Kohama, Yusuke; Kawasaki, Kengo; Hirao, Takashi; Muroyama, Koutarou; Murosaki, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    Turmeric ( Curcuma longa ) is a widely used spice that has various biological effects, and aqueous extracts of turmeric exhibit potent antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity. Bisacurone, a component of turmeric extract, is known to have similar effects. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines play an important role in ethanol-induced liver injury. This study was performed to evaluate the influence of a hot water extract of C. longa (WEC) or bisacurone on acute ethanol-induced liver injury. C57BL/6 mice were orally administered WEC (20 mg/kg body weight; BW) or bisacurone (60 µg/kg BW) at 30 min before a single dose of ethanol was given by oral administration (3·0 g/kg BW). Plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were markedly increased in ethanol-treated mice, while the increase of these enzymes was significantly suppressed by prior administration of WEC. The increase of alanine aminotransferase was also significantly suppressed by pretreatment with bisacurone. Compared with control mice, animals given WEC had higher hepatic tissue levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione, as well as lower hepatic tissue levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TNF-α protein and IL-6 mRNA. These results suggest that oral administration of WEC may have a protective effect against ethanol-induced liver injury by suppressing hepatic oxidation and inflammation, at least partly through the effects of bisacurone.

  15. Multiple effects of TRAIL in human carcinoma cells: Induction of apoptosis, senescence, proliferation, and cytokine production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levina, Vera; Marrangoni, Adele M.; DeMarco, Richard; Gorelik, Elieser; Lokshin, Anna E.

    2008-01-01

    TRAIL is a death ligand that induces apoptosis in malignant but not normal cells. Recently the ability of TRAIL to induce proliferation in apoptosis-resistant normal and malignant cells was reported. In this study, we analyzed TRAIL effects in apoptosis sensitive MCF7, OVCAR3 and H460 human tumor cell lines. TRAIL at low concentrations preferentially induced cell proliferation. At 100 ng/ml, apoptotic death was readily observed, however surviving cells acquired higher proliferative capacity. TRAIL-stimulated production of several cytokines, IL-8, RANTES, MCP-1 and bFGF, and activation of caspases 1 and 8 was essential for this effect. Antibodies to IL-8, RANTES, and bFGF blocked TRAIL-induced cell proliferation and further stimulated apoptosis. For the first time, we report that high TRAIL concentrations induced cell senescence as determined by the altered morphology and expression of several senescence markers: SA-β-gal, p21 Waf1/Cip1 , p16 INK4a , and HMGA. Caspase 9 inhibition protected TRAIL-treated cells from senescence, whereas inhibition of caspases 1 and 8 increased the yield of SLP cells. In conclusion, in cultured human carcinoma cells, TRAIL therapy results in three functional outcomes, apoptosis, proliferation and senescence. TRAIL-induced proapoptotic and prosurvival responses correlate with the strength of signaling. TRAIL-induced cytokine production is responsible for its proliferative and prosurvival effects

  16. Natural product HTP screening for antibacterial (E.coli 0157:H7) and anti-inflammatory agents in (LPS from E. coli O111:B4) activated macrophages and microglial cells; focus on sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Li, Nan; Bauer, David; Mendonca, Patricia; Taka, Equar; Darb, Mohammed; Thomas, Leeshawn; Williams, Henry; Soliman, Karam F A

    2016-11-15

    Acute systemic inflammatory response syndrome arising from infection can lead to multiple organ failure and death, with greater susceptibility occurring in immunocompromised individuals. Moreover, sub-acute chronic inflammation is a contributor to the pathology of diverse degenerative diseases (Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and arthritis). Given the known limitations in Western medicine to treat a broad range of inflammatory related illness as well as the emergence of antibiotic resistance, there is a renewed interest in complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) to achieve these means. A high throughput (HTP) screening of >1400 commonly sold natural products (bulk herbs, cooking spices, teas, leaves, supplement components, nutraceutical food components, fruit and vegetables, rinds, seeds, polyphenolics etc.) was conducted to elucidate anti-inflammatory substances in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (E. coli serotype O111:B4) monocytes: RAW 264.7 macrophages [peripheral], BV-2 microglia [brain]) relative to hydrocortisone, dexamethasone and L-N6-(1Iminoethyl)lysine (L-NIL). HTP evaluation was also carried out for lethal kill curves against E.coli 0157:H7 1x10 6 CFU/mL relative to penicillin. Validation studies were performed to assess cytokine profiling using antibody arrays. Findings were corroborated by independent ELISAs and NO2-/iNOS expression quantified using the Griess Reagent and immunocytochemistry, respectively. For robust screening, we developed an in-vitro efficacy paradigm to ensure anti-inflammatory parameters were observed independent of cytotoxicity. This caution was taken given that many plants exert tumoricidal and anti-inflammatory effects at close range through similar signaling pathways, which could lead to false positives. The data show that activated BV-2 microglia cells (+ LPS 1μg/ml) release >10-fold greater IL-6, MIP1/2, RANTES and nitric oxide (NO2-), where RAW 264.7 macrophages (+ LPS 1μg/ml) produced > 10-fold rise in sTNFR2

  17. Acute Pancreatitis in acute viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K.C.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The association of acute viral hepatitis and acute pancreatitis is well described. This study was conducted to find out the frequency of pancreatic involvement in acute viral hepatitis in the Nepalese population. Methods: Consecutive patients of acute viral hepatitis presenting with severe abdominal pain between January 2005 and April 2010 were studied. Patients with history of significant alcohol consumption and gall stones were excluded. Acute viral hepatitis was diagnosed by clinical examination, liver function test, ultrasound examination and confirmed by viral serology. Pancreatitis was diagnosed by clinical presentation, biochemistry, ultrasound examination and CT scan. Results: Severe abdominal pain was present in 38 of 382 serologically-confirmed acute viral hepatitis patients. Twenty five patients were diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. The pancreatitis was mild in 14 and severe in 11 patients. The etiology of pancreatitis was hepatitis E virus in 18 and hepatitis A virus in 7 patients. Two patients died of complications secondary to shock. The remaining patients recovered from both pancreatitis and hepatitis on conservative treatment. Conclusions: Acute pancreatitis occurred in 6.5 % of patients with acute viral hepatitis. Cholelithiasis and gastric ulcers are the other causes of severe abdominal pain. The majority of the patients recover with conservative management. Keywords: acute viral hepatitis, acute pancreatitis, pain abdomen, hepatitis E, hepatitis A, endemic zone

  18. Higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with reduced glucocorticoid inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production following acute psychosocial stress in men

    OpenAIRE

    Wirtz, Petra H.; Ehlert, Ulrike; Emini, Luljeta; Suter, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) and mental stress seem to exert part of their cardiovascular risk by eliciting inflammation. However, the adverse effects of stress on inflammatory activity with BMI are not fully understood. We investigated whether higher BMI is associated with reduced glucocorticoid inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production following stress in men while controlling for age and blood pressure. We measured glucocorticoid inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated ...

  19. Acute otitis externa

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Charles PS

    2013-01-01

    Acute otitis externa, also known as ‘swimmer’s ear’, is a common disease of children, adolescents and adults. While chronic suppurative otitis media or acute otitis media with tympanostomy tubes or a perforation can cause acute otitis externa, both the infecting organisms and management protocol are different. This practice point focuses solely on managing acute otitis externa, without acute otitis media, tympanostomy tubes or a perforation being present.

  20. The Impact of Policies to Restrict the Use of Plasma Containing Products and Apheresis Platelets from Female Donors to Mitigate Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI) in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatyta, Paula Fraiman; Custer, Brian; Liu, Jing; Mendrone-Junior, Alfredo; Wright, David J.; Leão, Silvana Carneiro; Lopes, Maria Inês; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Bárbara; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Although the incidence of TRALI is unknown in Brazil, some blood centers have adopted strategies to prevent TRALI. We evaluated the impact of three policies to mitigate TRALI on the supply of blood products: to divert the production of whole blood-derived plasma from female donors; to defer all female donors from apheresis platelet collections, and to defer only multiparous female donors from apheresis platelet collections. Materials and Methods Data from allogeneic whole blood and apheresis platelet donations from April 2008 to December 2009 were collected in three Brazilian blood centers and the impact of the aforementioned strategies was evaluated. Results Of 544,814 allogeneic blood donations, 30.8% of whole blood plasma and 24.1% of apheresis platelet donations would be reduced if only male donor plasma was issued for transfusion and all female donors were deferred from apheresis donation, respectively. If only multiparous donors were deferred from apheresis donation, there would be a 5% decrease of all apheresis platelet collections. Conclusion Restricting the use of whole blood derived plasma to male-only donors and deferring all female apheresis platelet donors would impact two out of three Brazilian blood centers. A deferral policy on multiparous apheresis platelet donors may be acceptable as a temporary measure, but may cause more stress on a system that is already working at its limit. PMID:22985535

  1. Inulae Flos and Its Compounds Inhibit TNF-α- and IFN-γ-Induced Chemokine Production in HaCaT Human Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hoon Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is to investigate which kinds of solvent extracts of Inulae Flos inhibit the chemokine productions in HaCaT cell and whether the inhibitory capacity of Inulae Flos is related with constitutional compounds. The 70% methanol extract showed comparatively higher inhibition of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17 in HaCaT cells, therefore this extract was further partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water. The ethyl acetate fraction inhibited TARC, macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22, and regulated on activation of normal T-cell-expressed and -secreted (RANTES/CCL5 production in HaCaT cells better than the other fractions. The compounds of Inulae Flos, such as 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and luteolin, inhibited TARC, MDC, and RANTES production in HaCaT cells. 1,5-Dicaffeoylquinic acid was contained at the highest concentrations both in the 70% methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction and inhibited the secretion of chemokines dose-dependently more than the other compounds. Luteolin also represented dose-dependent inhibition on chemokine productions although it was contained at lower levels in 70% methanol extract and solvent fractions. These results suggest that the inhibitory effects of Inulae Flos on chemokine production in HaCaT cell could be related with constituent compounds contained, especially 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and luteolin.

  2. Acute Pericarditis Following Acute Pulmonary Thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akio; Aburadani, Isao; Kontani, Koichirou; Hirota, Satoshi

    2017-12-12

    We describe the case of a 45-year-old Japanese man who developed acute pericarditis following an acute pulmonary thromboembolism. He had developed shortness of breath 7 days prior to hospitalization and was admitted with severe dyspnea. Echocardiography and laboratory results were compatible with acute pulmonary thromboembolism, which was confirmed by contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography. On the third hospital day, he experienced chest pain exacerbated by inspiration. On the fourth hospital day, his body temperature increased to 39°C and echocardiography revealed circumferential pericardial effusion. A diagnosis of acute pericarditis was made and the patient was treated with colchicine and aspirin. On the fifth hospital day, his symptoms largely subsided. Auscultation revealed pericardial friction rub. Electrocardiography demonstrated diffuse ST-segment elevations. Twenty-four days later, computed tomography revealed the disappearance of both the pericardial effusion and pulmonary arterial emboli. This case was thought to be one of acute pericarditis following acute pulmonary thromboembolism.

  3. [Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldivar-Rodríguez, D; Treviño-Montemayor, O R; Guzmán-López, A; Treviño-Martínez, G; Flores-Acosta, C C

    2016-02-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease that affects the pancreatic tissue, which have been proposed numerous causes, with unpredictable results, it appears as a complication of rare occurrence, so the information on maternal and fetal complications is limited. Objective: Exposing obstetric and perinatal outcomes of patients diagnosed with pancreatitis complicating pregnancy. A retrospective, observational, transverse and descriptive study; data were obtained and analyzed by reviewing medical records of patients diagnosed with pancreatitis and pregnancy. A total of 9 cases were included, corresponding to an incidence of 39/100,000 live births in the time period analyzed. The median age was 22, the mean gestational age at diagnosis was 31 weeks. 4 patients had cesarean delivery and 2 patients natural delivery. 3 patients had Ranson 3, a 2 and other Ranson Ranson 1 the remaining 4 Ranson 0. All products had adequate evolution. A case of maternal death as a complication of the disease was presented, because of metabolic acidosis and ARDS. Acute pancreatitis is an entity of variable incidence, which increases their appearance with advancing pregnancy, and can lead to serious complications for pregnant women. It is extremely important to pay attention to early symptoms of the disease, and achieve an accurate diagnosis and provide adequate multidisciplinary management for a better prognosis for maternal-fetal binomial.

  4. Acute-phase proteins: As diagnostic tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The varied reactions of the host to infection, inflammation, or trauma are collectively known as the acute-phase response and encompass a wide range of pathophysiological responses such as pyrexia, leukocytosis, hormone alterations, and muscle protein depletion combining to minimize tissue damage while enhancing the repair process. The mechanism for stimulation of hepatic production of acute-phase proteins is by proinflammatory cytokines. The functions of positive acute-phase proteins (APP are regarded as important in optimization and trapping of microorganism and their products, in activating the complement system, in binding cellular remnants like nuclear fractions, in neutralizing enzymes, scavenging free hemoglobin and radicals, and in modulating the host′s immune response. APP can be used as diagnostic tool in many diseases like bovine respiratory syncytial virus, prostate cancer, bronchopneumonia, multiple myeloma, mastitis, Streptococcus suis infection, starvation, or lymphatic neoplasia. Thus, acute-phase proteins may provide an alternative means of monitoring animal health.

  5. A Comparison of the Effect of Kettlebell Swings and Isolated Lumbar Extension Training on Acute Torque Production of the Lumbar Extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinborough, Luke; Fisher, James P; Steele, James

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to use a fatigue response test to measure the muscular fatigue (defined as a reduction in torque production) sustained by the lumbar extensors after a single set of kettlebell swings (KBS) in comparison with isolated lumbar extensions (ILEX) and a control condition (CON). The purpose of which is to measure the physiological response of KBS against an already established modality. Subsequent data provide insight of the efficacy of kettlebells swings in strengthening the lumbar muscles and lower back pain treatment. Eight physically active males participated in a repeated measures design where participants completed all conditions. There were statistically significant reductions in maximal torque, reported as strength index (SI), after both KBS and ILEX exercise. A statistically significant difference was found for reductions in maximal torque between CON and both KBS (p = 0.005) and ILEX (p = 0.001) and between KBS and ILEX (p = 0.039). Mean reduction and effect sizes were -1824 ± 1127.12 (SI) and -1.62 for KBS and -4775.6 ± 1593.41 (SI) and -3.00 for ILEX. In addition, a statistically significant difference was found between KBS and ILEX for rate of perceived exertion (p = 0.012). Data suggest that both KBS and ILEX were able to fatigue the lumbar extensors. Isolated lumbar extension was able to generate a greater level of fatigue. However, contrary to previous research, the KBS was able to elicit a physiological response, despite the lack of pelvic restraint supporting the potential to strengthen the lumbar extensors.

  6. Acute hematologic emergencies in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristof, L.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant disease and its treatment are often being complicated by development of serious and at times life-threatening emergencies. Early recognition and treatment of these acute events are important to reduce morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. The following article provides an overview of several hematologic emergencies, which occur due abnormal hemopoiesis (e.g. hyperleukocytosis, anemia, thrombocytopenia), abnormal hemo stasis (e.g. hemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, disseminated intravascular coagulation), or are related to blood products transfusions (transfuse reactions). (author)

  7. Pentoxifylline Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis (AP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-21

    Acute Pancreatitis (AP); Gallstone Pancreatitis; Alcoholic Pancreatitis; Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis; Trauma Acute Pancreatitis; Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis; Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis; Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis; Cancer Acute Pancreatitis; Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis)

  8. Role of a proprietary propolis-based product on the wait-and-see approach in acute otitis media and in preventing evolution to tracheitis, bronchitis, or rhinosinusitis from nonstreptococcal pharyngitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pierro F

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Alberto Zanvit,2 Maria Colombo3 1Scientific Department, Velleja Research, 2Biological Dentistry Department, Italian Stomatology Institute, 3ATS, District 5, Milan, Italy Abstract: Antipyretics and/or anti-inflammatory drugs along with a wait-and-see approach are the only treatments recommended in early acute otitis media (AOM or viral pharyngitis. Propolis has been widely investigated for its antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory properties and could perhaps be administered as an add-on therapy during watchful waiting in AOM or for better control of symptoms in nonstreptococcal pharyngitis. However, propolis has well-known problems of poor solubility and low oral bioavailability. We therefore analyzed a proprietary propolis-based product (Propolisina® developed to overcome these limitations, in a retrospective, open-label, controlled study of Streptococcus pyogenes-negative children with a diagnosis of AOM or pharyngitis. Our results show that the use of propolis supplement for 72 hours lessens the severity of AOM and viral pharyngitis, reduces the use of antipyretics and anti-inflammatory drugs, and decreases the rate of evolution to tracheitis, bronchitis, and rhinosinusitis. Our study shows that propolis could be used as a safe add-on therapy in case of AOM and/or viral pharyngitis. Keywords: pediatric infections, cogrinding, bioavailability, propolis

  9. Respiratory syncytial virus-induced acute and chronic airway disease is independent of genetic background: An experimental murine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramilo Octavio

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the leading respiratory viral pathogen in young children worldwide. RSV disease is associated with acute airway obstruction (AO, long-term airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR, and chronic lung inflammation. Using two different mouse strains, this study was designed to determine whether RSV disease patterns are host-dependent. C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice were inoculated with RSV and followed for 77 days. RSV loads were measured by plaque assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and whole lung samples; cytokines were measured in BAL samples. Lung inflammation was evaluated with a histopathologic score (HPS, and AO and AHR were determined by plethysmography. Results Viral load dynamics, histopathologic score (HPS, cytokine concentrations, AO and long-term AHR were similar in both strains of RSV-infected mice, although RSV-infected C57BL/6 mice developed significantly greater AO compared with RSV-infected BALB/c mice on day 5. PCR detected RSV RNA in BAL samples of RSV infected mice until day 42, and in whole lung samples through day 77. BAL concentrations of cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, and chemokines MIG, RANTES and MIP-1α were significantly elevated in both strains of RSV-infected mice compared with their respective controls. Viral load measured by PCR significantly correlated with disease severity on days 14 and 21. Conclusion RSV-induced acute and chronic airway disease is independent of genetic background.

  10. Lung Neutrophilia in Myeloperoxidase Deficient Mice during the Course of Acute Pulmonary Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremserova, Silvie; Perecko, Tomas; Soucek, Karel; Klinke, Anna; Baldus, Stephan; Eiserich, Jason P; Kubala, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammation accompanying diseases such as sepsis affects primarily lungs and induces their failure. This remains the most common cause of sepsis induced mortality. While neutrophils play a key role in pulmonary failure, the mechanisms remain incompletely characterized. We report that myeloperoxidase (MPO), abundant enzyme in neutrophil granules, modulates the course of acute pulmonary inflammatory responses induced by intranasal application of lipopolysaccharide. MPO deficient mice had significantly increased numbers of airway infiltrated neutrophils compared to wild-type mice during the whole course of lung inflammation. This was accompanied by higher levels of RANTES in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the MPO deficient mice. Other markers of lung injury and inflammation, which contribute to recruitment of neutrophils into the inflamed lungs, including total protein and other selected proinflammatory cytokines did not significantly differ in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the wild-type and the MPO deficient mice. Interestingly, MPO deficient neutrophils revealed a decreased rate of cell death characterized by phosphatidylserine surface expression. Collectively, the importance of MPO in regulation of pulmonary inflammation, independent of its putative microbicidal functions, can be potentially linked to MPO ability to modulate the life span of neutrophils and to affect accumulation of chemotactic factors at the inflammatory site.

  11. Lung Neutrophilia in Myeloperoxidase Deficient Mice during the Course of Acute Pulmonary Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvie Kremserova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammation accompanying diseases such as sepsis affects primarily lungs and induces their failure. This remains the most common cause of sepsis induced mortality. While neutrophils play a key role in pulmonary failure, the mechanisms remain incompletely characterized. We report that myeloperoxidase (MPO, abundant enzyme in neutrophil granules, modulates the course of acute pulmonary inflammatory responses induced by intranasal application of lipopolysaccharide. MPO deficient mice had significantly increased numbers of airway infiltrated neutrophils compared to wild-type mice during the whole course of lung inflammation. This was accompanied by higher levels of RANTES in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the MPO deficient mice. Other markers of lung injury and inflammation, which contribute to recruitment of neutrophils into the inflamed lungs, including total protein and other selected proinflammatory cytokines did not significantly differ in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the wild-type and the MPO deficient mice. Interestingly, MPO deficient neutrophils revealed a decreased rate of cell death characterized by phosphatidylserine surface expression. Collectively, the importance of MPO in regulation of pulmonary inflammation, independent of its putative microbicidal functions, can be potentially linked to MPO ability to modulate the life span of neutrophils and to affect accumulation of chemotactic factors at the inflammatory site.

  12. Acute mastoiditis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthonsen, Kristian; Høstmark, Karianne; Hansen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Conservative treatment of acute otitis media may lead to more complications. This study evaluates changes in incidence, the clinical and microbiological findings, the complications and the outcome of acute mastoiditis in children in a country employing conservative guidelines in treating acute...

  13. AcuTable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dibbern, Simon; Rasmussen, Kasper Vestergaard; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we describe AcuTable, a new tangible user interface. AcuTable is a shapeable surface that employs capacitive touch sensors. The goal of AcuTable was to enable the exploration of the capabilities of such haptic interface and its applications. We describe its design and implementation...

  14. Inhibition of dengue virus production and cytokine/chemokine expression by ribavirin and compound A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaburee, Thidarath; Junking, Mutita; Panya, Aussara; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Songprakhon, Pucharee; Suttitheptumrong, Aroonroong; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Haegeman, Guy; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2015-12-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection is a worldwide public health problem with an increasing magnitude. The severity of disease in the patients with DENV infection correlates with high viral load and massive cytokine production - the condition referred to as "cytokine storm". Thus, concurrent inhibition of DENV and cytokine production should be more effective for treatment of DENV infection. In this study, we investigated the effects of the antiviral agent - ribavirin (RV), and the anti-inflammatory compound - compound A (CpdA), individually or in combination, on DENV production and cytokine/chemokine transcription in human lung epithelial carcinoma (A549) cells infected with DENV. Initially, the cells infected with DENV serotype 2 (DENV2) was studied. The results showed that treatment of DENV-infected cells with RV could significantly reduce both DENV production and cytokine (IL-6 and TNF-α) and chemokine (IP-10 and RANTES) transcription while treatment of DENV-infected cells with CpdA could significantly reduce cytokine (IL-6 and TNF-α) and chemokine (RANTES) transcription. Combined RV and CpdA treatment of the infected cells showed greater reduction of DENV production and cytokine/chemokine transcription. Similar results of this combined treatment were observed for infection with any one of the four DENV (DENV1, 2, 3, and 4) serotypes. These results indicate that combination of the antiviral agent and the anti-inflammatory compound offers a greater efficiency in reduction of DENV and cytokine/chemokine production, providing a new therapeutic approach for DENV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Transfusion related acute lung injury presenting with acute dyspnoea: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haji Altaf

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Transfusion-related acute lung injury is emerging as a common cause of transfusion-related adverse events. However, awareness about this entity in the medical fraternity is low and it, consequently, remains a very under-reported and often an under-diagnosed complication of transfusion therapy. Case presentation We report a case of a 46-year old woman who developed acute respiratory and hemodynamic instability following a single unit blood transfusion in the postoperative period. Investigation results were non-specific and a diagnosis of transfusion-related acute lung injury was made after excluding other possible causes of acute lung injury. She responded to symptomatic management with ventilatory and vasopressor support and recovered completely over the next 72 hours. Conclusion The diagnosis of transfusion-related acute lung injury relies on excluding other causes of acute pulmonary edema following transfusion, such as sepsis, volume overload, and cardiogenic pulmonary edema. All plasma containing blood products have been implicated in transfusion-related acute lung injury, with the majority being linked to whole blood, packed red blood cells, platelets, and fresh-frozen plasma. The pathogenesis of transfusion-related acute lung injury may be explained by a "two-hit" hypothesis, involving priming of the inflammatory machinery and then activation of this primed mechanism. Treatment is supportive, with prognosis being substantially better than for most other causes of acute lung injury.

  16. Acute rhabdomyolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale de Lonlay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyolysis results from the rapid breakdown of skeletal muscle fibers, which leads to leakage of potentially toxic cellular contents into the systemic circulation. Acquired causes by direct injury to the sarcolemma are the most frequent. The inherited causes are: metabolic with failure of energy production, including mitochondrial fatty acid ß-oxidation defects, LPIN1 mutations, inborn errors of glycogenolysis and glycolysis, more rarely mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency, purine defects and peroxysomalα-Methylacyl-CoA-racemase defect (AMACR; dystrophinopathies and myopathies; calcic causes with RYR1 mutations; inflammatory with myositis. Irrespective of the cause of rhabdomyolysis, the pathophysiologic events follow a common pathway, the ATP depletion leading to an increased intracellular calcium concentration and necrosis. Most episodes of rhabdomyolysis are triggered by an environmental stress, mostly fever. This condition is associated with two events, elevated temperature and high circulating levels of pro-inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and chemokines. We describe here an example of rhabdomyolysis related to high temperature, aldolase deficiency, in 3 siblings with episodic rhabdomyolysis without hemolytic anemia. Myoglobinuria was always triggered by febrile illnesses. We show that the underlying mechanism involves an exacerbation of aldolase A deficiency at high temperatures that affected myoblasts but not erythrocytes. Thermolability was enhanced in patient myoblasts compared to control. The aldolase A deficiency was rescued by arginine supplementation in vitro. Lipid droplets accumulated in patient myoblasts relative to control and this was increased by cytokines. Lipotoxicity may participate to myolysis. Our results expand the clinical spectrum of aldolase A deficiency to isolated temperature-dependent rhabdomyolysis, and suggest that thermolability may be tissue specific. We also propose a

  17. Imaging of Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoeni, Ruedi F

    2015-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammation of the pancreas. Several classification systems have been used in the past but were considered unsatisfactory. A revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was published that assessed the clinical course and severity of disease; divided acute pancreatitis into interstitial edematous pancreatitis and necrotizing pancreatitis; discerned an early phase (first week) from a late phase (after the first week); and focused on systemic inflammatory response syndrome and organ failure. This article focuses on the revised classification of acute pancreatitis, with emphasis on imaging features, particularly on newly-termed fluid collections and implications for the radiologist. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute cor pulmonale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, François; Vieillard-Baron, Antoine

    2009-02-01

    Acute cor pulmonale is a form of acute right heart failure produced by a sudden increase in resistance to blood flow in the pulmonary circulation, which is now rapidly recognized by bedside echocardiography. In the clinical setting, acute cor pulmonale is mainly observed as a complication of massive pulmonary embolism or acute respiratory distress syndrome. In acute respiratory distress syndrome, the worsening effect of mechanical ventilation has been recently emphasized. As a general rule, the treatment consists in rapidly reducing resistance to blood flow in the pulmonary circulation, obtained by a specific strategy according to etiology.

  19. The Acute Red Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Boysen Osborn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This modified team-based learning (mTBL exercise is appropriate for junior or senior emergency medicine learners. Introduction: The acute red eye is a common chief complaint in the emergency department. It is essential that the emergency physician be knowledgeable about the differential diagnosis for the acute red eye and be able to distinguish between benign and sinister causes of the acute red eye. Objectives: By the end of this educational session, the learner will: 1 list 10 major causes for an acute red eye; 2 describe historical features that help distinguish between benign and serious causes of the acute red eye; 3 describe physical examination features that help distinguish between benign and serious causes of the acute red eye; and 4 use historical and physical examination features to distinguish between the 10 different causes of the acute red eye. Method: This is an mTBL session.

  20. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in a neonate due to possible transfusion-related acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Maria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI is a potentially life-threatening complication of blood component transfusion. It is relatively underdiagnosed entity in neonates with scant literature. We report a case of TRALI in a preterm neonate developing acute respiratory distress within 6 h of blood product transfusion in the absence of preexisting lung disease. Prompt ventilator and supportive management were instituted. The baby showed clinical and radiological improvement within 12 h; however, he succumbed to death due to acute massive pulmonary hemorrhage 36 h later. Possibility of TRALI should be kept if there is sudden deterioration of lung function after blood transfusion.

  1. Acute Idiopathic Scrotal Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheál Breen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of acute idiopathic scrotal edema (AISE in a 4-year-old boy who presented with acute scrotal pain and erythema. The clinical features, ultrasound appearance, and natural history of this rare diagnosis are reviewed. In this report, we highlight the importance of good ultrasound technique in differentiating the etiology of the acute scrotum and demonstrate the color Doppler “Fountain Sign” that is highly suggestive of AISE.

  2. Imaging of acute pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkle, Elmar M.; Goerich, Johannes [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Ulm, Steinhoevel Strasse 9, 89075 Ulm (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis is defined as an acute inflammatory process of the pancreas with variable involvement of peripancreatic tissues or remote organ systems. This article reports the current classification, definition and terminology, epidemiology and etiology, pathogenesis and pathological findings, clinical and laboratory findings, and finally imaging findings of acute pancreatitis with emphasis on cross-sectional imaging modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. (orig.)

  3. Surgery for Acute Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Navadgi, Suresh; Pandanaboyana, Sanjay; Windsor, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Surgery for acute pancreatitis has undergone significant changes over the last 3 decades. A better understanding of the pathophysiology has contributed to this, but the greatest driver for change has been the rise of less invasive interventions in the fields of laparoscopy, endoscopy and radiology. Surgery has a very limited role in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. The most common indication for intervention in acute pancreatitis is for the treatment of complications and most notably the ...

  4. Acute phase reaction and acute phase proteins*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruys, E.; Toussaint, M.J.M.; Niewold, T.A.; Koopmans, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the systemic acute phase reaction with major cytokines involved, and the hepatic metabolic changes, negative and positive acute phase proteins (APPs) with function and associated pathology is given. It appears that APPs represent appropriate analytes for assessment of animal health. Whereas they represent non-specific markers as biological effect reactants, they can be used for assessing nutritional deficits and reactive processes, especially when positive and negative acute phase variables are combined in an index. When such acute phase index is applied to separate healthy animals from animals with some disease, much better results are obtained than with single analytes and statistically acceptable results for culling individual animals may be reached. Unfortunately at present no cheap, comprehensive and easy to use system is available for assessing various acute phase proteins in serum or blood samples at the same time. Protein microarray or fluid phase microchip technology may satisfy this need; and permit simultaneous analysis of numerous analytes in the same small volume sample and enable integration of information derived from systemic reactivity and nutrition with disease specific variables. Applying such technology may help to solve health problems in various countries not only in animal husbandry but also in human populations. PMID:16252337

  5. A comparison of Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison of Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III scoring system in predicting mortality and length of stay at surgical intensive care unit.

  6. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sílvia Valente Barbas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, based on relevant literature articles and the authors' clinical experience, presents a goal-oriented respiratory management for critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS that can help improve clinicians' ability to care for these patients. Early recognition of ARDS modified risk factors and avoidance of aggravating factors during hospital stay such as nonprotective mechanical ventilation, multiple blood products transfusions, positive fluid balance, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and gastric aspiration can help decrease its incidence. An early extensive clinical, laboratory, and imaging evaluation of “at risk patients” allows a correct diagnosis of ARDS, assessment of comorbidities, and calculation of prognostic indices, so that a careful treatment can be planned. Rapid administration of antibiotics and resuscitative measures in case of sepsis and septic shock associated with protective ventilatory strategies and early short-term paralysis associated with differential ventilatory techniques (recruitment maneuvers with adequate positive end-expiratory pressure titration, prone position, and new extracorporeal membrane oxygenation techniques in severe ARDS can help improve its prognosis. Revaluation of ARDS patients on the third day of evolution (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA, biomarkers and response to infection therapy allows changes in the initial treatment plans and can help decrease ARDS mortality.

  7. Acute pain transfusion reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, Jody; Osswald, Michael; Walker, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    A 34-year-old woman with a diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis (HLH) received a double umbilical cord blood transplantation following a myeloablative chemotherapy preparative regimen with busulfan and cyclophosphamide. HLH is a rare, potentially fatal hematologic disorder characterized by the overactivation of histocytes and T lymphocytes, leading to organ infiltration and acute illness. On day 25 post-transplantation, the patient required a platelet transfusion for a platelet count of 6,000 per ml (normal range = 150,000-450,000 per ml). The patient's blood type prior to the cord blood transplantation was B positive and, although both umbilical cord blood donors were O positive, the patient was still B positive per blood bank testing on that day. Although the recipient of an allogenic stem cell transplantation will eventually become the blood type of the donor, the time for this process to occur varies for each person. That process must be monitored by the blood bank for the purpose of cross-matching blood products to decrease hemolysis as much as possible. The patient was premedicated with the facility's standard for platelet transfusions: acetaminophen 650 mg and diphenhydramine 25 mg about 30 minutes prior to the platelet transfusion.

  8. Pharmacological approach to acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ulrich-Christian; Semb, Synne; Nojgaard, Camilla

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding pharmacological prevention and treatment of acute pancreatitis (AP) based on experimental animal models and clinical trials. Somatostatin (SS) and octreotide inhibit the exocrine production of pancreatic enzymes and may...... be useful as prophylaxis against post endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP). The protease inhibitor gabexate mesilate (GM) is used routinely as treatment to AP in some countries, but randomized clinical trials and a meta-analysis do not support this practice. Nitroglycerin (NGL...

  9. Poznan acute Astronomical Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    This Poznan acute Astronomical Observatory is a unit of the Adam Mickiewicz University, located in Poznan acute, Poland. From its foundation in 1919, it has specialized in astrometry and celestial mechanics (reference frames, dynamics of satellites and small solar system bodies). Recently, research activities have also included planetary and stellar astrophysics (asteroid photometry, catalysmic b...

  10. Pediatric acute lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahlem, P.; van Aalderen, W. M. C.; Bos, A. P.

    2007-01-01

    Among ventilated children, the incidence of acute lung injury (ALI) was 9%; of that latter group 80% developed the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The population-based prevalence of pediatric ARDS was 5.5 cases/100.000 inhabitants. Underlying diseases in children were septic shock (34%),

  11. ACUTE COMPARTMENT SYNDROME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    muscle destruction, muscle fibrosis, contractures and permanent disability and at worst case scenario of amputation (3,4). As reported by Frink et al (3) on their study on acute compartment syndrome it can occur even when there is no fracture. Also general surgeons have reported acute compartment syndrome.

  12. Leukocytosis in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Nakayama, H

    1999-01-01

    Leukocytosis is a common finding in the acute phase of stroke. A detrimental effect of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has been suggested, and trials aiming at reducing the leukocyte response in acute stroke are currently being conducted. However, the influence of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has...

  13. Acute recurrent polyhydramnios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Bundgaard, Anne; Skibsted, Lillian

    2007-01-01

    Acute recurrent polyhydramnios is a rare occurrence characterized by a poor fetal outcome. This is a case report describing a 34-year-old woman presenting with acute recurrent polyhydramnios. Treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and therapeutic amniocenteses was initiated ...

  14. Intracoronary and systemic melatonin to patients with acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvland Halladin, Natalie; Busch, Sarah Ekeløf; Jensen, Svend Eggert

    2014-01-01

    Ischaemia-reperfusion injury following acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) is an unavoidable consequence of the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) procedure. A pivotal mechanism in ischaemia-reperfusion injury is the production of reactive oxygen species following reperfusion...

  15. Alimentation du porc pour la production de viande maigre : évolutions récentes et perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Y.

    1993-01-01

    La production porcine a bénéficié, au cours des dernières décennies, de progrès importants et continus réalisés par la sélection pour une croissance sans cesse plus forte de tissus maigres et un dépôt décroissant de gras, en réponse à la demande des consommateurs. Cet article examine les changements intervenus dans l’alimentation en considérant les évolutions récentes et les perspectives, compte tenu de l’évolution prévisible des performances de production et de l’apport des nouvelles technol...

  16. Effect of the Premalignant and Tumor Microenvironment on Immune Cell Cytokine Production in Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Sara D. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); De Costa, Anna-Maria A. [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Young, M. Rita I., E-mail: rita.young@va.gov [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Medical Research Service (151), Ralph H. Johnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 109 Bee Street, Charleston, SC 29401 (United States)

    2014-04-02

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is marked by immunosuppression, a state in which the established tumor escapes immune attack. However, the impact of the premalignant and tumor microenvironments on immune reactivity has yet to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to determine how soluble mediators from cells established from carcinogen-induced oral premalignant lesions and HNSCC modulate immune cell cytokine production. It was found that premalignant cells secrete significantly increased levels of G-CSF, RANTES, MCP-1, and PGE{sub 2} compared to HNSCC cells. Splenocytes incubated with premalignant supernatant secreted significantly increased levels of Th1-, Th2-, and Th17-associated cytokines compared to splenocytes incubated with HNSCC supernatant. These studies demonstrate that whereas the premalignant microenvironment elicits proinflammatory cytokine production, the tumor microenvironment is significantly less immune stimulatory and may contribute to immunosuppression in established HNSCC.

  17. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liqun; Li, Weiqin; Geng, Yanxia; Shen, Bo; Li, Jieshou

    2011-06-01

    The highest maternal-fetal risk from pancreatitis in pregnancy is likely to be posed by the most severe cases, which we have compared with mild cases. Retrospective observational study. A general surgery department of a university referral hospital in Nanjing, China. Eighteen pregnancies complicated with severe acute pancreatitis and 51 pregnancies complicated with mild acute pancreatitis. Medical records were reviewed for every pregnant woman with mild or severe acute pancreatitis during January 1999 to December 2009. Information on demographics, clinical and laboratory data, maternal and fetal outcomes. Gestational age of onset was significantly higher in the severe acute pancreatitis group than in the mild acute pancreatitis group. Severe hypertriglyceridemia was considered the main cause of severe acute pancreatitis (OR 20.7; 95% CI 4.6-92.4, ppancreatitis (OR 7.3; 95% CI 1.8-30.1, ppancreatitis and biliary pancreatitis are the main causes of severe and mild disease, respectively. Severe acute pancreatitis in pregnancy usually occurs in the third trimester, and the affected severe patients are more liable to develop a critical condition that results in higher risk of intrauterine fetal death. © 2011 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2011 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Acute oncological emergencies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gabriel, J

    2012-01-01

    The number of people receiving systemic anti-cancer treatment and presenting at emergency departments with treatment-related problems is rising. Nurses will be the first point of contact for most patients and need to be able to recognise oncological emergencies to initiate urgent assessment of patients and referral to the acute oncology team so that the most appropriate care can be delivered promptly. This article discusses the role of acute oncology services, and provides an overview of the most common acute oncological emergencies.

  19. Biodiesel exhaust-induced cytotoxicity and proinflammatory mediator production in human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Benjamin J; Kicic, Anthony; Ling, Kak-Ming; Mead-Hunter, Ryan; Larcombe, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Increasing use of biodiesel has prompted research into the potential health effects of biodiesel exhaust exposure. Few studies directly compare the health consequences of mineral diesel, biodiesel, or blend exhaust exposures. Here, we exposed human epithelial cell cultures to diluted exhaust generated by the combustion of Australian ultralow-sulfur-diesel (ULSD), unprocessed canola oil, 100% canola biodiesel (B100), and a blend of 20% canola biodiesel mixed with 80% ULSD. The physicochemical characteristics of the exhaust were assessed and we compared cellular viability, apoptosis, and levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) in exposed cultured cells. Different fuel types produced significantly different amounts of exhaust gases and different particle characteristics. All exposures resulted in significant apoptosis and loss of viability when compared with control, with an increasing proportion of biodiesel being correlated with a decrease in viability. In most cases, exposure to exhaust resulted in an increase in mediator production, with the greatest increases most often in response to B100. Exposure to pure canola oil (PCO) exhaust did not increase mediator production, but resulted in a significant decrease in IL-8 and RANTES in some cases. Our results show that canola biodiesel exhaust exposure elicits inflammation and reduces viability of human epithelial cell cultures in vitro when compared with ULSD exhaust exposure. This may be related to an increase in particle surface area and number in B100 exhaust when compared with ULSD exhaust. Exposure to PCO exhaust elicited the greatest loss of cellular viability, but virtually no inflammatory response, likely due to an overall increase in average particle size. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Acute acalculous cholecystitis complicating chemotherapy for acute myeloblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Kassar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute acalculous cholecystitis is a rare complication in the treatment of acute myeloblastic leukemia. Diagnosis of acute acalculous cholecystitis remains difficult during neutropenic period. We present two acute myeloblastic leukemia patients that developed acute acalculous cholecystitis during chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. They suffered from fever, vomiting and acute pain in the epigastrium. Ultrasound demonstrated an acalculous gallbladder. Surgical management was required in one patient and conservative treatment was attempted in the other patient. None treatment measures were effective and two patients died. Acute acalculous cholecystitis is a serious complication in neutropenic patients. Earlier diagnosis could have expedited the management of these patients.

  1. Acute interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuervo M, Francisco; Carrillo Bayona, Jorge; Ojeda, Paulina

    2004-01-01

    The paper refers to a 71 year-old patient, to who is diagnosed acute interstitial pneumonia; with square of 20 days of evolution of cough dry emetizant, fever, general uneasiness, migraine, progressive dyspnoea and lost of weight

  2. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... APF You are here Home Diet and Nutrition Weight loss & acute Porphyria Being overweight is a particular problem ... one of these diseases before they enter a weight-loss program. Also, they should not participate in a ...

  3. Acute coagulopathy of trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, P I; Ostrowski, S R

    2010-01-01

    Acute coagulopathy of trauma predicts a poor clinical outcome. Tissue trauma activates the sympathoadrenal system resulting in high circulating levels of catecholamines that influence hemostasis dose-dependently through immediate effects on the two major compartments of hemostasis, i...

  4. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... edema; Increased-permeability pulmonary edema; ARDS; Acute lung injury ... RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  5. Acute mountain sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Acute mountain sickness URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  6. Acute nutritional axonal neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Johanna; Logigian, Eric L

    2018-01-01

    This study describes clinical, laboratory, and electrodiagnostic features of a severe acute axonal polyneuropathy common to patients with acute nutritional deficiency in the setting of alcoholism, bariatric surgery (BS), or anorexia. Retrospective analysis of clinical, electrodiagnostic, and laboratory data of patients with acute axonal neuropathy. Thirteen patients were identified with a severe, painful, sensory or sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy that developed over 2-12 weeks with sensory ataxia, areflexia, variable muscle weakness, poor nutritional status, and weight loss, often with prolonged vomiting and normal cerebrospinal fluid protein. Vitamin B6 was low in half and thiamine was low in all patients when obtained before supplementation. Patients improved with weight gain and vitamin supplementation, with motor greater than sensory recovery. We suggest that acute or subacute axonal neuropathy in patients with weight loss or vomiting associated with alcohol abuse, BS, or dietary deficiency is one syndrome, caused by micronutrient deficiencies. Muscle Nerve 57: 33-39, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. ACR Appropriateness Criteria on acute respiratory illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Lacey; Khan, Arfa; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien; Batra, Poonam V; Gurney, Jud W; Haramati, Linda B; Jeudy, Jean; Macmahon, Heber; Rozenshtein, Anna; Vydareny, Kay H; Kaiser, Larry; Raoof, Suhail

    2009-10-01

    In a patient with acute respiratory illness (cough, sputum production, chest pain, and/or dyspnea), the need for chest imaging depends on the severity of illness, age of the patient, clinical history, physical and laboratory findings, and other risk factors. Chest radiographs seem warranted when one or more of the following are present: age > or = 40; dementia; a positive physical examination; hemoptysis; associated abnormalities (leukocytosis, hypoxemia); or other risk factors, including coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, or drug-induced acute respiratory failure. Chest CT may be warranted in complicated cases of severe pneumonia and in febrile neutropenic patients with normal or nonspecific chest radiographic findings. Literature on the indications and usefulness of radiologic studies for acute respiratory illness in different clinical settings is reviewed.

  8. Acute management of stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene; Osther, Palle J S

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stone management is often conservative due to a high spontaneous stone passage rate or non-symptomatic calyceal stones that do not necessarily require active treatment. However, stone disease may cause symptoms and complications requiring urgent intervention. MATERIAL AND METHODS......: In this review, we update latest research and current recommendations regarding acute management of stones, with particular focus on imaging, pain management, active stone interventions, medical expulsive therapy, and urolithiasis in pregnancy and childhood. RESULTS: Acute stone management should be planned...

  9. Acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Fin Stolze; Bjerring, Peter Nissen

    2011-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) results in a multitude of serious complications that often lead to multi-organ failure. This brief review focuses on the pathophysiological processes in ALF and how to manage these.......Acute liver failure (ALF) results in a multitude of serious complications that often lead to multi-organ failure. This brief review focuses on the pathophysiological processes in ALF and how to manage these....

  10. [Acute agitation conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogiorgou, P; Juckel, G

    2015-09-01

    Acute agitation psychiatric emergencies as frequently occur in psychiatric as well as in non-psychiatric settings, such as general hospitals, specialized clinics, emergency services and private practices. Psychiatric emergencies can be life-threatening and necessitate immediate treatment. This article presents the core symptomatology, differential diagnoses and treatment options of acute agitation emergencies. Case control studies and reliable data regarding prevalence and treatment of acute agitation in psychiatric and general hospitals or private practices are sparse. Existing evidence suggests that optimization of diagnosis and therapy of psychiatric emergencies, such as acute agitation is warranted. Treatment of acute agitation, psychological distress and other psychiatric emergencies are highly demanding regarding psychiatric expertise and concerning the personality and behavior of the therapist. The basis of therapy comprises the ability to form a stable and trustworthy relationship with the patient as well as to patiently calm down agitated patients. Unambiguous and rapid decision-making that takes effective pharmacological treatment options into account usually leads to swift amelioration of the acute symptomatology.

  11. Thrombosis in adult patients with acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Principe, Maria Ilaria; Del Principe, Domenico; Venditti, Adriano

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies indicate that the risk of thrombosis in hematologic patients may be similar or even higher than that found in patients with solid tumors. However, available information about pathogenesis and incidence of thrombosis in acute leukemia is limited. This review focuses on mechanisms underlying thrombosis in acute leukemia and discusses recent literature data. In the last few years, proofs have been provided that leukemic cells release free prothrombotic products, such as micro-vesicles, tissue factors, circulating free DNA and RNA. Furthermore, leukemic blasts can activate the procoagulant population of platelets, which initiate and amplify coagulation, causing thrombosis. In addition to factors produced by acute leukemia itself, others concur to trigger thrombosis. Some drugs, infections and insertion of central venous catheter have been described to increase risk of thrombosis in patients with acute leukemia. Thrombosis represents a serious complication in patients affected by myeloid and lymphoid acute leukemia. A proper knowledge of its pathophysiology and of the predisposing risk factors may allow to implement strategies of prevention. Improving prevention of thrombosis appears a major goal in patients whose frequent conditions of thrombocytopenia impede an adequate delivery of anticoagulant therapy.

  12. Differentiating Acute Otitis Media and Acute Mastoiditis in Hospitalized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Jero, Jussi

    2016-10-01

    Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered. Since the treatment of complicated acute otitis media and complicated acute mastoiditis differs, it is important to differentiate these two conditions. This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children.

  13. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of Brazilian red propolis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rafaela Oliveira; Andrade, Valléria Matos; Bullé Rêgo, Ester Seixas; Azevedo Dória, Grace Anne; Santos Lima, Bruno Dos; da Silva, Francilene Amaral; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes; de Albuquerque Júnior, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti; Cordeiro Cardoso, Juliana; Zanardo Gomes, Margarete

    2015-07-21

    Propolis is a bee product widely used in folk medicine due to its numerous pharmacological properties. However, samples from different regions can differ in chemical composition, effectiveness, and side effects. Despite the widespread use of Brazilian red propolis, which is an isoflavone-rich variety, its toxicity has not been carefully studied. To assess the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the hydroethanolic extract of red propolis (HERP) administered orally to rats. HERP for the acute (300mg/kg) and sub-acute (10, 100 and 200mg/kg) toxicity studies was administered orally to rats according to OECD Guidelines 420 and 407, respectively. Clinical signs were identified, and hematological and biochemical analyses were performed. Water and food uptake as well as body and organ weights of animals were recorded. The acute study revealed no lethal effects at 300mg/kg of HERP, but toxic signs were observed, as HERP had an LD50 of more than 300mg/kg, indicating a warning. The most toxic signals in sub-acute studies were observed in males at a dose of 200mg/kg HERP. These results suggest estrogen-like activity, possibly from the isoflavones in HERP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [ACUTE PANCREATITIS OF PREGNANCY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvorostukhina, N F; Salov, L A; Novichkov, D A

    2015-01-01

    The study included 78 pregnant women with acute pancreatiis. Group 1 contained 43 4-37 weeks pregnant women and group 2 35 non-pregnant women. Control group was comprised of 30 women with physiological pregnancy. Comparative analysis of peculiarities of the clinical course of acute pancreatitis showed its similar manifestations in all three groups. However pregnancy itself variability of pancreatitis symptoms and their similarity to those of other acute surgical and obstetric pathologies, high (25.6) percent ofpainlessforms, late detection and inadequate treatment pose difficultiesfor diagnostics and delay the onset of pathogenetic therapy. The study of endogenous intoxication markers (leukocytic index, medium molecular weight molecules, circulating immune complexes, total endotoxins) revealed endotoxicosis in the pregnant women with acute pancreatitis that has negative effect on the fetoplacental complex and the development of pregnancy; moreover pancreatitis increases the risk of premature delivery up to 79.21%. The results of the study dictate the necessity of the searchfor new safe treatment and rehabilitation modalities for ptregnant women with acute pancreatitis.

  15. Acute reperfusion without recanalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makris, Nikolaos; Chamard, Leila; Mikkelsen, Irene K

    2017-01-01

    Acute reperfusion despite persistent arterial occlusion may occur in up to 30% of ischemic stroke patients. Recruitment of leptomeningeal collaterals may explain this phenomenon. Using dynamic susceptibility-contrast perfusion imaging (DSC-PI), we assessed acute changes in collateral flow among...... patients without recanalization. From a multicenter prospective database (I-KNOW), 46 patients with magnetic resonance angiography visible occlusion in whom both reperfusion and recanalization were assessed within 6 h of onset were identified. Maps of collateral flow at arterial, capillary and late venous...... phases were generated from DSC-PI through inter-frame registration, baseline signal subtraction and temporal summation, and graded blind to all other relevant clinical and radiological data using the Higashida scale. Flow direction and the acute evolution of collaterals were evaluated against...

  16. Acute dental pain II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Peter; Kirkevang, Lise-Lotte; Rosen, Annika

    2016-01-01

    information, and a systematic approach is necessary. This paper will focus on diagnosis and treatment of pulpitis, pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis, periodontal abscess and endodontic-periodontal lesions, pericoronitis and post-operative problems. When the patient seeks the dentist suffering from acute...... dental pain, they expect that the dentist starts treatment at once and that the treatment should provide pain relief. In this situation many patients are fragile, anxious and nervous. If the dentist is able to manage emergency treatment of acute dental pain this will build confidence and trust between......Acute dental pain most often occurs in relation to inflammatory conditions in the dental pulp or in the periradicular tissues surrounding a tooth, but it is not always easy to reach a diagnose and determine what treatment to perform. The anamnesis and the clinical examination provide valuable...

  17. Acute pancreatitis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimac, Davor; Stimac, Tea

    2011-10-01

    Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is a rare condition estimated to occur in 1 per 1000 to 1 per 12,000 pregnancies. The most frequent etiology in pregnancy is biliary, followed by hyperlipidemia and/or alcohol abuse. Abdominal ultrasound and endoscopic ultrasound are ideal imaging techniques for diagnosing disease because they have no radiation risk. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography should be used with caution. Treatment could be conservative or surgical, and standard algorithms are slightly modified in pregnant women. In the last decades the outcome of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is much better, and perinatal mortality is less than 5%.

  18. Acute abdomen in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlman, J.E.; Fishman, E.K.

    1989-01-01

    The CT scans of 80 patients with both AIDS and acute abdominal pain were reviewed. CT identifiable causes of pain included perforation (four); colitides (15); septic infarctions (six); abscesses (10); bowel obstruction due to tumor (four); ascending cholangitis (two); enterovesical fistula (one); and sacral osteomyelitis (one). CT affected management in 40% of patients by narrowing diagnostic possibilities, triaging between surgical versus nonsurgical emergencies, and directing diagnostic procedures. CT was an expeditious triage modality for evaluating the critically ill patient with AIDS and acute abdominal pain

  19. Acute calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, I.; Mendoza, M.; Aperribay, M.; Recondo, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Acute calcific tendinitis results from the deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals in peri articular muscular attachments. It usually develops in extremities, most often in shoulders and hips. Although the incidence is much lower, it has been reported to occur in the neck region, where it involves the tendons insertion of the longs colli muscle. We present a case of acute neck pain caused by a calcareous deposition in the tendon of the longs colli muscle, producing inflammation. We describe the clinical and radiologic features (plain radiography, CT,MRI) associated with this entire. (Author) 7 refs

  20. [Acute hemorrhagic viral conjunctivitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haicl, P; Vanista, J; Danes, L

    1992-10-01

    Two cases of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis are described, in which the enterovirus Coxsackie 24 was found by serological examination to be the etiological agent. The virus was important from Nigeria. The patients suffered by the acute hemorrhagic keratoconjuntivitis with transient iritic irritation without the systemic symptoms. Since now this disease with serological verification was not diagnosed in our country. The question of the viral hemorrhagic conjunctivitis and their treatment is discussed. The necessity of virological investigation in inflammations of the anterior segment is stressed.

  1. Acute Liver Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Catherine D

    2016-12-01

    Pediatric acute liver failure (ALF) is a complex and rapidly progressive syndrome that results from a variety of age-dependent etiologies. It is defined by the acute onset of liver disease with no evidence of chronic liver disease. There must be biochemical or clinical evidence of severe liver dysfunction as defined by an international normalized ratio (INR) ≥2. If hepatic encephalopathy is present, INR should be ≥1.5. Unfortunately, due to the rarity of ALF in pediatric patients, there is a paucity of diagnostic and management algorithms and each patient must have an individualized approach. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(12):e433-e438.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Gastric lavage in patients with acute poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat Amigó Tadín

    2012-01-01

    Acute poisonings are a frequent complaint in emergency departments and therapy which prevents the absorption of toxic products taken orally is often indicated: one such option is gastric lavage. Gastric lavage is a digestive decontamination technique whose goal is to remove the maximum amount of poison from the stomach and prevent its absorption. The procedure involves inserting a gastric tube into the stomach through the mouth or nose; firstly to aspirate all the stomach contents and then to...

  3. The clinical usefulness of ESR, CRP, and disease duration in ankylosing spondylitis: the product of these acute-phase reactants and disease duration is associated with patient's poor physical mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Hsiung; Chen, Hung-An; Liao, Hsien-Tzung; Liu, Chin-Hsiu; Tsai, Chang-Youh; Chou, Chung-Tei

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the clinical usefulness of ESR, CRP, and disease duration in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) disease severity. There were 156 Chinese AS patients included in Taiwan. Patients completed the questionnaires, containing demographic data, disease activity (BASDAI), functional status (BASFI), and patient's global assessment (BASG). Meanwhile, patient's physical mobility (BASMI) and acute-phase reactants, including ESR and CRP levels were measured. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) plot analysis was used to evaluate the performance of ESR, CRP, and disease duration in the AS patients. ESR mildly correlated with BASFI (r = 0.176, p = 0.028) and disease duration (r = 0.214, p = 0.008), and moderately correlated with BASMI (r = 0.427, p acute-phase reactants and disease duration, the values of ESR × disease duration and CRP × disease duration demonstrate better association with poor physical mobility in AS patients.

  4. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, ameliorates Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced acute lung inflammation by regulation of PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yuanyuan; Nie, Yan; Cheng, Binfeng; Tao, Jin; Ma, Xiaoyao; Jiang, Min; Gao, Jie; Bai, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Gram-negative pathogen–induced nosocomial infections and resistance are a most serious menace to global public health. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan (QF), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been used clinically in China for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections, acute or chronic bronchitis and pulmonary infection. In this study, the effects of QF on Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced acute pneumonia in mice were evaluated. The mechanisms by which four typical anti-inflammatory ingredients from QF, arctigenin (ATG), cholic acid (CLA), chlorogenic acid (CGA) and sinapic acid (SPA), regulate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways and related targets were investigated using molecular biology and molecular docking techniques. The results showed that pretreatment with QF significantly inhibits the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and chemokines (IL-8 and RANTES), reduces leukocytes recruitment into inflamed tissues and ameliorates pulmonary edema and necrosis. In addition, ATG was identified as the primary anti-inflammatory agent with action on the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways. CLA and CGA enhanced the actions of ATG and exhibited synergistic NF-κB inactivation effects possibly via the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, CLA is speculated to target FGFR and MEK firstly. Overall, QF regulated the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways to inhibit pathogenic bacterial infections effectively. PMID:27175332

  5. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, ameliorates Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced acute lung inflammation by regulation of PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Hou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gram-negative pathogen–induced nosocomial infections and resistance are a most serious menace to global public health. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan (QF, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM formula, has been used clinically in China for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections, acute or chronic bronchitis and pulmonary infection. In this study, the effects of QF on Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced acute pneumonia in mice were evaluated. The mechanisms by which four typical anti-inflammatory ingredients from QF, arctigenin (ATG, cholic acid (CLA, chlorogenic acid (CGA and sinapic acid (SPA, regulate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways and related targets were investigated using molecular biology and molecular docking techniques. The results showed that pretreatment with QF significantly inhibits the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6 and chemokines (IL-8 and RANTES, reduces leukocytes recruitment into inflamed tissues and ameliorates pulmonary edema and necrosis. In addition, ATG was identified as the primary anti-inflammatory agent with action on the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways. CLA and CGA enhanced the actions of ATG and exhibited synergistic NF-κB inactivation effects possibly via the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, CLA is speculated to target FGFR and MEK firstly. Overall, QF regulated the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways to inhibit pathogenic bacterial infections effectively.

  6. Validation of ‘Moderately Severe Acute Pancreatitis’ in patients with Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paleswan Joshi Lakhey

    2013-12-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that moderately severe acute pancreatitis exists as a separate group different from mild acute pancreatitis and severe acute pancreatitis with no mortality as in mild acute pancreatitis. Keywords: moderately severe acute pancreatitis; Atlanta classification; outcome.

  7. Experimental Models of Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI)

    OpenAIRE

    Gilliss, Brian M.; Looney, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is defined clinically as acute lung injury occurring within six hours of the transfusion of any blood product. It is the leading cause of transfusion-related death in the United States, but under-recognition and diagnostic uncertainty have limited clinical research to smaller case control studies. In this review we will discuss the contribution of experimental models to the understanding of TRALI pathophysiology and potential therapeutic approache...

  8. Influence of Acute Coffee Consumption on Postprandial Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Bloomer, Richard J.; Trepanowski, John F.; Farney, Tyler M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Coffee has been reported to be rich in antioxidants, with both acute and chronic consumption leading to enhanced blood antioxidant capacity. High-fat feeding is known to result in excess production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, promoting a condition of postprandial oxidative stress. Methods We tested the hypothesis that coffee intake following a high-fat meal would attenuate the typical increase in blood oxidative stress during the acute postprandial period. On 3 differe...

  9. Acute vs. chronic conditions (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... describe anything from a broken bone to an asthma attack. A chronic condition, by contrast is a long- ... a broken bone, an acute condition. An acute asthma attack occurs in the midst of the chronic disease ...

  10. Acute incidents during anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidents can occur during induction, maintenance and emergence from anaesthesia. The following acute critical incidents are discussed in this article: • Anaphylaxis. • Aspiration ..... Already used in South Africa and Malawi, a scale-up of the technique is under way in Tanzania, Rwanda and Ghana. The report found that.

  11. Analgesia for acute pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ailment known to man, and acute pain is an experience familiar to all. Pain is defined as an unpleasant sensation associated with ... of the pathways involved in pain perception, and how these pathways can be targeted with various modalities is required to obtain adequate analgesia. This article provides an overview of the ...

  12. Acute heart failure syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heart failure can be defined as a clinical syndrome in which a structural or functional cardiac abnormality impairs the capacity of the ventricle to fill or eject enough blood for the requirements of the body. Acute heart failure syndrome represents a complex, heterogeneous set of clinical conditions, all with the common.

  13. Secondary acute pneumonias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.C.; Rybakova, N.I.; Vinner, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Pathological changes, promoting the development of secondary pneumonias, are investigated. To this group belong: blood circulation disturbance in small circle, bronchial passability disturbance, aspiration of liquids, gases and vapors, infections and purulent processes, intoxications, injuries, operative interference. Roetgenologic symptomatics of each secondary acute pneumonia form is presented in detail

  14. Acute Liver Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... begins in or spreads to your liver can cause your liver to fail. Shock. Overwhelming infection (sepsis) and shock can severely impair blood flow to the liver, causing liver failure. Many cases of acute liver failure have no apparent ... liver failure often causes complications, including: ...

  15. Acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal, William; Lee, William M; Wendon, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Over the last three decades acute liver failure (ALF) has been transformed from a rare and poorly understood condition with a near universally fatal outcome, to one with a well characterized phenotype and disease course. Complex critical care protocols are now applied and emergency liver...

  16. Acute hemiplegia in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Takehiko; Takao, Tatsuo; Itoh, Masatoshi; Konishi, Yukuo; Nakano, Shozo

    1983-01-01

    The results of CT in 100 patients with acute hemiplegia in childhood are reported here. The etiology was various: 2 patients had infratentorial brain tumors, 56 had cerebral vascular diseases, 3 had head injuries, 16 had intracranial infectious diseases, one had postinfectious encephalomyelitis, one had multiple sclerosis, 2 had epilepsy, and the diagnosis of 19 were unknown. Eleven patients had a normal CT and a good prognosis. As for the type of onset, there were patients of type 1 with fever and 42 with convulsions and unconsciousness; those of type 2 with convulsions and unconsciousness were 12, and those of type 3 without fever and convulsions were 46. This classification is assumed to be useful, as the type of onset is characteristic of the etiology. Six patients were diagnosed correctly by repeated examinations, although the first CT did not reveal any remarkable findings. Capsular infarction, occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery in acute hemiplegia in childhood, abnormal findings of the internal capsule, thalamus, and midbrain in a patient with postinfectious encephalomyelitis, and a diffuse low density in the CT of the unilateral hemisphere in the patients with acute encephalopathy and acute hemiplegia of an obscure origin have been found after the introduction of computerized tomography. (author)

  17. Acute intoxications during work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kort, W L; Sangster, B

    1988-02-01

    Information on acute intoxications during work in the Netherlands has been gathered from 4 sources during a 1-year period: 1. The registration of occupational accidents of the Directorate-General of Labour, by reviewing reports on accidents involving chemicals; 2. The Netherlands Poison Control Centre of the National Institute for Public Health and Environmental Hygiene, by tracing back consulting physicians; 3. The Dutch Centre for Health Care Information, by searching their data base for hospital admissions with relevant admission diagnoses and 4. A large Occupational Health Service, which for this purpose recorded incident cases in the population under care. During the period of investigation 5 deaths were reported: 1 case of hydrogen cyanide intoxication, 1 case of carbon dioxide intoxication, and 3 cases of hydrogen sulfide intoxication in combination with oxygen deficiency (nearby a liquid manure tank). At least 690 (supposed) acute intoxications during work occurred, which in 84 cases resulted in hospital admission. The total number of hospital admissions for supposed unintentional acute intoxications by chemicals, usually encountered in workplaces, in the Netherlands in 1984 was at least 477. Substances most often involved belonged to the groups of pesticides, lung and/or skin irritant liquids/vapors/gases and asphyxiants. The working branches most often involved were agriculture and market gardening sectors, (chemical) industries, repair and retail trade and some governmental services (police, fire brigade, defense personnel). The results show considerable underreporting in official statistics on acute intoxications during work.

  18. Severe Acute Pancreatitis in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Bahiyah; Kathiresan Pillai, Thanikasalam; Cheen, Lim Huay; Ryan, Ray Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This is a case of a pregnant lady at 8 weeks of gestation, who presented with acute abdomen. She was initially diagnosed with ruptured ectopic pregnancy and ruptured corpus luteal cyst as the differential diagnosis. However she then, was finally diagnosed as acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis with spontaneous complete miscarriage. This is followed by review of literature on this topic. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is not uncommon. The emphasis on high index of suspicion of acute pancreatitis i...

  19. Nutrition, Inflammation, and Acute Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Max

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:24490104

  20. Genetics Home Reference: acute promyelocytic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Acute promyelocytic leukemia Acute promyelocytic leukemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Acute promyelocytic leukemia is a form of acute myeloid leukemia, a ...

  1. Acute periodontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, David; Alonso, Bettina; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Santa Cruz, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz, Mariano

    2014-06-01

    This review provides updates on acute conditions affecting the periodontal tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious processes not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, mucocutaneous disorders and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important because it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodontal prognosis of the affected tooth and bacteria within the abscess can spread and cause infections in other body sites. Different types of abscesses have been identified, mainly classified by their etiology, and there are clear differences between those affecting a pre-existing periodontal pocket and those affecting healthy sites. Therapy for this acute condition consists of drainage and tissue debridement, while an evaluation of the need for systemic antimicrobial therapy will be made for each case, based on local and systemic factors. The definitive treatment of the pre-existing condition should be accomplished after the acute phase is controlled. Necrotizing periodontal diseases present three typical clinical features: papilla necrosis, gingival bleeding and pain. Although the prevalence of these diseases is not high, their importance is clear because they represent the most severe conditions associated with the dental biofilm, with very rapid tissue destruction. In addition to bacteria, the etiology of necrotizing periodontal disease includes numerous factors that alter the host response and predispose to these diseases, namely HIV infection, malnutrition, stress or tobacco smoking. The treatment consists of superficial debridement, careful mechanical oral hygiene, rinsing with chlorhexidine and daily re-evaluation. Systemic antimicrobials may be used adjunctively in severe cases or in nonresponding conditions, being the first option metronidazole. Once the acute

  2. Drug-induced acute pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A. Eland (Ingo)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAcute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas with sudden onset. The severity of acute pancreatitis may vary from mild to life threatening. There are many risk factors for acute pancreatitis, among which gallstones and alcohol abuse are most widely known. Drugs are

  3. Acute pyelonephritis in ER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Volpicelli

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms and signs of acute pyelonephritis sometimes are subtle and emergency physicians attending overcrowded and busy institutions could easily miss the right diagnosis. The presence of a renal damage is decisive in the therapeutic choice. Aims of our study are: 1 to assess prevalence of renal damage in patients presenting to our ED with symptoms and signs of primary urinary tract infection (UTI; 2 to evaluate the reliability of such symptoms and signs in predicting a renal damage; 3 to assess accuracy of the contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS in the ED diagnosis of renal damage due to acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis. We studied 54 patients with suspected UTI. Each patient underwent clinical examination, routine blood and urine sampling and conventional renal ultrasound (US. 23 patients had confirmation of acute primary UTI, and performed renal magnetic resonance (MR to rule out renal parenchymal involvement. In 16 patients (69,6% one or more parenchymal lesions were visualized at MR, and diagnosis of acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis was confirmed (group A. The other 7 patients had a diagnosis of UTI without renal involvement (group B. Some of 23 patients presented with few atypical symptoms. Lumbar pain was the most frequent symptom (n = 21, without a statistically significant difference between group A and B (P 0,958; p = 0,328. No other symptom or sign has demonstrated statistically valid in predicting the renal involvement. Renal US was positive in only 3 patients of group A (18,7%. During this first part of our study, CEUS was performed in a limited number of patients (n = 8, and in 7 examinations data were concordant with MR. In conclusion, analysis of our preliminary data confirms that a distinction between patients with different extension of the UTI is not possible through the simple clinical examination and routine tests. CEUS is very promising and its routine employment in the ED could simplify the diagnostic practice in

  4. Viral Dynamics of Acute HIV-1 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Susan J.; McLean, Angela R.; Spina, Celsa A.; Richman, Douglas D.; Havlir, Diane V.

    1999-01-01

    Viral dynamics were intensively investigated in eight patients with acute HIV infection to define the earliest rates of change in plasma HIV RNA before and after the start of antiretroviral therapy. We report the first estimates of the basic reproductive number (R 0), the number of cells infected by the progeny of an infected cell during its lifetime when target cells are not depleted. The mean initial viral doubling time was 10 h, and the peak of viremia occurred 21 d after reported HIV exposure. The spontaneous rate of decline (α) was highly variable among individuals. The phase 1 viral decay rate (δI = 0.3/day) in subjects initiating potent antiretroviral therapy during acute HIV infection was similar to estimates from treated subjects with chronic HIV infection. The doubling time in two subjects who discontinued antiretroviral therapy was almost five times slower than during acute infection. The mean basic reproductive number (R 0) of 19.3 during the logarithmic growth phase of primary HIV infection suggested that a vaccine or postexposure prophylaxis of at least 95% efficacy would be needed to extinguish productive viral infection in the absence of drug resistance or viral latency. These measurements provide a basis for comparison of vaccine and other strategies and support the validity of the simian immunodeficiency virus macaque model of acute HIV infection. PMID:10499922

  5. New biomarkers of acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruya Ozelsancak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury is a clinical syndrome which is generally defined as an abrupt decline in glomerular filtration rate causing accumulation of nitrogenous products and rapid development of fluid, electrolyte and acid-base disorders. It is an important clinical problem increasing mortality in patient with several co-morbid conditions. The frequency of acute kidney injury occurrence varies from 5% on the inpatients wards to 30-50% in patients from intensive care units. Serial measurement of creatinine and urine volume do not make it possible to diagnose acute kidney injury at early stages. Serum creatinine may be influenced by age, weight, hydration status and become apparent only when the kidneys have lost 50% of their function. For that reasons we need new markers. Here, we are reviewing the most promising new acute kidney injury markers, neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin, cystatin-C, kidney injury molecule-1, liver fatty acid binding proteins and IL-18. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 221-229

  6. Severe Acute Pancreatitis in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Bahiyah; Kathiresan Pillai, Thanikasalam; Cheen, Lim Huay; Ryan, Ray Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This is a case of a pregnant lady at 8 weeks of gestation, who presented with acute abdomen. She was initially diagnosed with ruptured ectopic pregnancy and ruptured corpus luteal cyst as the differential diagnosis. However she then, was finally diagnosed as acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis with spontaneous complete miscarriage. This is followed by review of literature on this topic. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is not uncommon. The emphasis on high index of suspicion of acute pancreatitis in women who presented with acute abdomen in pregnancy is highlighted. Early diagnosis and good supportive care by multidisciplinary team are crucial to ensure good maternal and fetal outcomes. PMID:25628906

  7. Severe Acute Pancreatitis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahiyah Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case of a pregnant lady at 8 weeks of gestation, who presented with acute abdomen. She was initially diagnosed with ruptured ectopic pregnancy and ruptured corpus luteal cyst as the differential diagnosis. However she then, was finally diagnosed as acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis with spontaneous complete miscarriage. This is followed by review of literature on this topic. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is not uncommon. The emphasis on high index of suspicion of acute pancreatitis in women who presented with acute abdomen in pregnancy is highlighted. Early diagnosis and good supportive care by multidisciplinary team are crucial to ensure good maternal and fetal outcomes.

  8. Acupuncture for acute hordeolum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ke; Law, Andrew; Guo, Menghu; Wieland, L. Susan; Shen, Xueyong; Lao, Lixing

    2017-01-01

    Background Hordeolum is an acute, purulent inflammation of the eyelid margin usually caused by obstructed orifices of the sebaceous glands of the eyelid. The condition, which affects sebaceous glands internally or externally, is common. When the meibomian gland in the tarsal plate is affected, internal hordeolum occurs, while when the glands of Zeis or Moll associated with eyelash follicles are affected, external hordeolum, or stye occurs. The onset of hordeolum is usually self limited, and may resolve in about a week with spontaneous drainage of the abscess. When the condition is severe, it can spread to adjacent glands and tissues. Recurrences are very common. As long as an internal hordeolum remains unresolved, it can develop into a chalazion or generalized eyelid cellulitis. Acupuncture is a traditional Chinese medical therapy aimed to treat disease by using fine needles to stimulate specific points on the body. However, it is unclear if acupuncture is an effective and safe treatment for acute hordeolum. Objectives The objective of this review was to investigate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture to treat acute hordeolum compared with no treatment, sham acupuncture, or other active treatment. We also compared the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture plus another treatment with that treatment alone. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS), three major Chinese databases, as well as clinical trial registers all through 7 June 2016. We reviewed the reference lists from potentially eligible studies to identify additional randomised clinical trials (RCTs). Selection criteria We included RCTs of people diagnosed with acute internal or external hordeola. We included RCTs comparing acupuncture with sham acupuncture or no treatment, other active treatments, or

  9. [Clinical and pathogenetic features of recurrent and acute peptic ulcer in acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, V V; Osadchiĭ, V A

    2003-01-01

    Clinico-pathogenetic characteristics of recurrent ulcer disease and acute ulcers were studied in 84 patients with unstable coronary heart disease (CHD). It was found that a relapse of ulcer disease (UD) in CHD presents with moderate abdominal pain without a typical circadian rhythm and with dyspepsia registered, as a rule, for 2 weeks. Acute ulcers often manifested with weak epigastric pain and symptoms of gastric dyspepsia observed usually for several days of hospital treatment. Gastroduodenal bleeding had obscure clinical picture but complicated recurrent UD and acute ulcers in 29.4 and 50% cases, respectively. The recurrence of UD in CHD developed in the presence of focal thrombohemorrhagic disorders of microcirculation in the tissues of gastroduodenal zone, high activity of the acid-peptic factor, low mucus production, hypomotor gastric dyskinesia, detection of Helicobacter pylori (HP). Acute ulcers are most frequently associated with focal thromboischemic disorders of end blood flow, minor changes in pepsin and mucoprotein production, prominent hypomotor gastric dyskinesia and, in 10% cases, HP.

  10. Prevention of acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Pee, Saskia; Grais, Rebecca; Fenn, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    Acute malnutrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality risk. When episodes are prolonged or frequent, acute malnutrition is also associated with poor growth and development, which contributes to stunting Nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive strategies to prevent...... seasons or emergencies, or increased incidence of illness, such as diarrhea or measles, additional efforts are required to prevent and treat wasting. Special nutritious foods directly meet the increased nutrient requirements of children at risk for wasting; assistance to vulnerable households, in the form...... of cash or food, enables households to better meet the food, health, and other needs of household members and may increase resilience; water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and health interventions help prevent and address illness and hence reduce wasting risk. The contributions of specific interventions...

  11. Acute disseminated cutaneous candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, P H; Chan, H L; Lee, Y S; Wong, H B

    1988-10-01

    Acute disseminated candidiasis is a serious and difficult problem often seen in immunocompromised states. Appearance of a characteristic skin eruption is helpful in the diagnostic. We report below a case report of an eight year old girl with aplastic anemia who had received multiple courses of antibiotics. A profuse monomorphic papular nodular eruption subsequently appeared on the face, palms and soles. Candida tropicalis was identified from the skin biopsy taken from one such lesion.

  12. Streptococcal acute pharyngitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lais Martins Moreira Anjos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute pharyngitis/tonsillitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the posterior pharynx and tonsils, is a common disease. Several viruses and bacteria can cause acute pharyngitis; however, Streptococcus pyogenes (also known as Lancefield group A β-hemolytic streptococci is the only agent that requires an etiologic diagnosis and specific treatment. S. pyogenes is of major clinical importance because it can trigger post-infection systemic complications, acute rheumatic fever, and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Symptom onset in streptococcal infection is usually abrupt and includes intense sore throat, fever, chills, malaise, headache, tender enlarged anterior cervical lymph nodes, and pharyngeal or tonsillar exudate. Cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, and diarrhea are uncommon, and their presence suggests a viral cause. A diagnosis of pharyngitis is supported by the patient's history and by the physical examination. Throat culture is the gold standard for diagnosing streptococcus pharyngitis. However, it has been underused in public health services because of its low availability and because of the 1- to 2-day delay in obtaining results. Rapid antigen detection tests have been used to detect S. pyogenes directly from throat swabs within minutes. Clinical scoring systems have been developed to predict the risk of S. pyogenes infection. The most commonly used scoring system is the modified Centor score. Acute S. pyogenes pharyngitis is often a self-limiting disease. Penicillins are the first-choice treatment. For patients with penicillin allergy, cephalosporins can be an acceptable alternative, although primary hypersensitivity to cephalosporins can occur. Another drug option is the macrolides. Future perspectives to prevent streptococcal pharyngitis and post-infection systemic complications include the development of an anti-Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine.

  13. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Confalonieri, Marco; Salton, Francesco; Fabiano, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Since its first description, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been acknowledged to be a major clinical problem in respiratory medicine. From July 2015 to July 2016 almost 300 indexed articles were published on ARDS. This review summarises only eight of them as an arbitrary overview of clinical relevance: definition and epidemiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment. A strict application of definition criteria is crucial, but the diverse resource-setting scenarios foste...

  14. Acute ischemic cerebral attack

    OpenAIRE

    Franco-Garcia Samir; Barreiro-Pinto Belis

    2010-01-01

    The decrease of the cerebral blood flow below the threshold of autoregulation led to changes of cerebral ischemia and necrosis that traduce in signs and symtoms of focal neurologic dysfunction called acute cerebrovascular symdrome (ACS) or stroke. Two big groups according to its etiology are included in this category the hemorragic that constitue a 20% and the ischemic a 80% of cases. Great interest has wom the ischemic ACS because of its high social burden, being the third cause of no violen...

  15. Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Yang, Jun J; Hunger, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review the impact of collaborative studies on advances in the biology and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children and adolescents. METHODS: A review of English literature on childhood ALL focusing on collaborative studies was performed. The resulting article was re...... from collaborative studies has helped decipher the heterogeneity of ALL to help improve personalized treatment, which will further advance the current high cure rate and the quality of life for children and adolescents with ALL....

  16. Acute Infectious Disease,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-23

    intracelLular proteins such as metallothionine, hemosiderin , and ferritin.3 𔃻 6𔃼 1𔃽 5 A large variety of proteins must be produced during infection for...acute infections.50 On the other hand, iron is sequestered through its incorporation into hemosiderin .6,7,16 and ferritin in various tissue storage... hemosiderin and ferritin during infectious or inflammatory states. Concomitantly, plas1a ir. • - concentrations decline, sometimes to almost nondectable

  17. Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    support hospital. J Trauma 2007; 63:805 813. 16. Pidcoke HF, Aden JK, Mora AG, et al. Ten year analysis of transfusion in Operation Iraqi Freedom and...107:378 387. 47. Ostrowski SR , Sørensen AM, Larsen CF, Johansson PI. Thrombelastography and biomarker profiles in acute coagulopathy of trauma: a...preoperative coagulation screening assays. Curr Hematol Rep 2004; 3:324 330. 93. Johansson PI, Stissing T, Bochsen L, Ostrowski SR . Thrombelastography and

  18. Benign acute childhood myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajajee, Sarala; Ezhilarasi, S; Rajarajan, K

    2005-05-01

    To describe the clinical and laboratory features of benign acute childhood myositis. 40 children of BACM were seen during October 2001 to February 2002, 22 (52%) were male with mean age of 5.3 years. Duration of illness was 3.97 days. Preceding symptoms included fever, leg pain, vomiting and inability to walk. A provisional diagnosis of viral myositis was made in 26 (66%). Guillian Barre Syndrome was the most common referral diagnosis. 11 (27.5%) children had leucopenia with lymphocytic response and 16 (40%) had thrombocytopenia. CRP was negative in 32 (80%). CPK was markedly elevated (more than 1000 IU/l) in 18 (45%) and more than 500 IU/l in 11 (27.5%) remaining between 200 to 500 IU/l. Associated features were hepatitis (elevated SGOT & SGPT) in 28 (70%) and shock in 5 (12.5%). Serological test were indicative of dengue virus (Elisa PAN BIO) in 20 (50%) of which 8 (25%) were primary dengue and 12 (30%) were secondary dengue. The outcome of therapy mainly supportive were excellent. Benign acute myositis occurs often in association with viral infection. In the present study, Dengue virus was positive in 20 (50%) children. Benign acute myositis can be differentiated from more serious causes of walking difficulty by presence of calf and thigh muscle tenderness on stretching, normal power and deep tendon reflex and elevated CPK.

  19. Perioperative acute renal failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mahon, Padraig

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent biochemical evidence increasingly implicates inflammatory mechanisms as precipitants of acute renal failure. In this review, we detail some of these pathways together with potential new therapeutic targets. RECENT FINDINGS: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin appears to be a sensitive, specific and reliable biomarker of renal injury, which may be predictive of renal outcome in the perioperative setting. For estimation of glomerular filtration rate, cystatin C is superior to creatinine. No drug is definitively effective at preventing postoperative renal failure. Clinical trials of fenoldopam and atrial natriuretic peptide are, at best, equivocal. As with pharmacological preconditioning of the heart, volatile anaesthetic agents appear to offer a protective effect to the subsequently ischaemic kidney. SUMMARY: Although a greatly improved understanding of the pathophysiology of acute renal failure has offered even more therapeutic targets, the maintenance of intravascular euvolaemia and perfusion pressure is most effective at preventing new postoperative acute renal failure. In the future, strategies targeting renal regeneration after injury will use bone marrow-derived stem cells and growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor-1.

  20. Alpha-mangostin inhibits both dengue virus production and cytokine/chemokine expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasuk, Mayuri; Songprakhon, Pucharee; Chimma, Pattamawan; Sratongno, Panudda; Na-Bangchang, Kesara; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-Thai

    2017-08-15

    Since severe dengue virus (DENV) infection in humans associates with both high viral load and massive cytokine production - referred to as "cytokine storm", an ideal drug for treatment of DENV infection should efficiently inhibit both virus production and cytokine expression. In searching for such an ideal drug, we discovered that α-mangostin (α-MG), a major bioactive compound purified from the pericarp of the mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana Linn), which has been used in traditional medicine for several conditions including trauma, diarrhea, wound infection, pain, fever, and convulsion, inhibits both DENV production in cultured hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 and Huh-7 cells, and cytokine/chemokine expression in HepG2 cells. α-MG could also efficiently inhibit all four serotypes of DENV. Treatment of DENV-infected cells with α-MG (20μM) significantly reduced the infection rates of four DENV serotypes by 47-55%. α-MG completely inhibited production of DENV-1 and DENV-3, and markedly reduced production of DENV-2 and DENV-4 by 100 folds. Furthermore, it could markedly reduce cytokine (IL-6 and TNF-α) and chemokine (RANTES, MIP-1β, and IP-10) transcription. These actions of α-MG are more potent than those of antiviral agent (ribavirin) and anti-inflammatory drug (dexamethasone). Thus, α-MG is potential to be further developed as therapeutic agent for DENV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Metabolomic Signature of Acute Caloric Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Tinh-Hai; Sonoyama, Takuhiro; Henning, Elana; Keogh, Julia M; Ingram, Brian; Kelway, Sarah; Guo, Lining; Farooqi, I Sadaf

    2017-12-01

    The experimental paradigm of acute caloric restriction (CR) followed by refeeding (RF) can be used to study the homeostatic mechanisms that regulate energy homeostasis, which are relevant to understanding the adaptive response to weight loss. Metabolomics, the measurement of hundreds of small molecule metabolites, their precursors, derivatives, and degradation products, has emerged as a useful tool for the study of physiology and disease and was used here to study the metabolic response to acute CR. We used four ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods to characterize changes in carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and steroids in eight normal weight men at baseline, after 48 hours of CR (10% of energy requirements) and after 48 hours of ad libitum RF in a tightly controlled environment. We identified a distinct metabolomic signature associated with acute CR characterized by the expected switch from carbohydrate to fat utilization with increased lipolysis and β-fatty acid oxidation. We found an increase in ω-fatty acid oxidation and levels of endocannabinoids, which are known to promote food intake. These changes were reversed with RF. Several plasmalogen phosphatidylethanolamines (endogenous antioxidants) significantly decreased with CR (all P ≤ 0.0007). Additionally, acute CR was associated with an increase in the branched chain amino acids (all P ≤ 1.4 × 10-7) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (P = 0.0006). We identified a distinct metabolomic signature associated with acute CR. Further studies are needed to characterize the mechanisms that mediate these changes and their potential contribution to the adaptive response to dietary restriction. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  2. Clearance of HCV RNA following acute hepatitis A superinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacopardo, B; Nunnari, G; Nigro, L

    2009-05-01

    A transient reduction of hepatitis C virus replication during the course of acute hepatitis A virus infection has already been reported in the literature. The present study reports the case study of a subject with chronic hepatitis due to hepatitis C virus who went on to develop an acute hepatitis A. From the early onset of acute disease, hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid became undetectable. Following recovery from acute hepatitis, alanine amino-transferase levels became persistently normal and liver biopsy revealed a reduction in the Knodell histological activity index score. Hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid clearance was maintained up to 4 years after the onset of acute hepatitis A. During the course of the acute disease, a sharp increase in interferon gamma levels was detected in serum and in the supernatant of both unstimulated and phytoemagglutinin/lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Interferon gamma levels were still high 3 months later. We hypothesize that acute hepatitis A virus superinfection during the course of chronic hepatitis C may lead to hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid clearance through an immunological mechanism related to interferon gamma production.

  3. Influence of dexamethasone and gamithromycin on the acute phase response in LPS-challenged calves

    OpenAIRE

    Plessers, Elke; Watteyn, Anneleen; Wyns, Heidi; Pardon, Bart; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2012-01-01

    Introduction : Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a potent inducer of the bovine acute phase response and has been widely used in research to provoke acute inflammation. An intravenous challenge with LPS elicits the endogenous synthesis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). These cytokines initiate fever and stimulate the hepatic production of acute phase proteins, such as Serum Amyloid A (SAA). Regarding the fact that immuno...

  4. Acute gamma-secretase inhibition of nonhuman primate CNS shifts amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism from amyloid-beta production to alternative APP fragments without amyloid-beta rebound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jacquelynn J; Wildsmith, Kristin R; Gilberto, David B; Holahan, Marie A; Kinney, Gene G; Mathers, Parker D; Michener, Maria S; Price, Eric A; Shearman, Mark S; Simon, Adam J; Wang, Jennifer X; Wu, Guoxin; Yarasheski, Kevin E; Bateman, Randall J

    2010-05-12

    The accumulation of amyloid beta (Abeta) in Alzheimer's disease is caused by an imbalance of production and clearance, which leads to increased soluble Abeta species and extracellular plaque formation in the brain. Multiple Abeta-lowering therapies are currently in development: an important goal is to characterize the molecular mechanisms of action and effects on physiological processing of Abeta, as well as other amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolites, in models which approximate human Abeta physiology. To this end, we report the translation of the human in vivo stable-isotope-labeling kinetics (SILK) method to a rhesus monkey cisterna magna ported (CMP) nonhuman primate model, and use the model to test the mechanisms of action of a gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI). A major concern of inhibiting the enzymes which produce Abeta (beta- and gamma-secretase) is that precursors of Abeta may accumulate and cause a rapid increase in Abeta production when enzyme inhibition discontinues. In this study, the GSI MK-0752 was administered to conscious CMP rhesus monkeys in conjunction with in vivo stable-isotope-labeling, and dose-dependently reduced newly generated CNS Abeta. In contrast to systemic Abeta metabolism, CNS Abeta production was not increased after the GSI was cleared. These results indicate that most of the CNS APP was metabolized to products other than Abeta, including C-terminal truncated forms of Abeta: 1-14, 1-15 and 1-16; this demonstrates an alternative degradation pathway for CNS amyloid precursor protein during gamma-secretase inhibition.

  5. Phagocytosis and production of reactive oxygen species by peripheral blood phagocytes in patients with different stages of alcohol-induced liver disease: effect of acute exposure to low ethanol concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Schäfer, C.; Paulus, S. B.

    2003-01-01

    produced significantly more ROS than those of healthy controls. Basal values of ROS production from neutrophils correlated closely to markers of the severity of ALD. ROS formation was depressed dose-dependently by ethanol in the healthy controls but not in alcohol abusers. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the ROS...

  6. Icam-1 and acute pancreatitis complicated by acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, XiPing; Wu, Dijiong; Jiang, Xinge

    2009-01-08

    One of the most common complications of acute pancreatitis is acute lung injury, during which intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) plays an important role by participating in leukocyte adhesion and activation as well as by inducing the "cascade effect" of inflammatory mediators, pulmonary microcirculation dysfunction and even acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiple organ failure or death. Although it is generally believed that the modulatory mechanism of ICAM-1 during this process is associated with the activation of nuclear transcription factor kappa B which is mediated by IL-1, IL-6, IL-18 and oxygen free radical, etc., further studies are still required to clarify it. Since the upregulation of ICAM-1 expression in the lung during acute lung injury is one of main pathogeneses, the early detection of the ICAM-1 expression level may contribute to the prevention and treatment of acute lung injury. Moreover, reducing pulmonary ICAM-1 expression levels through treatment with anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibody (aICAM-1) and antagonists of the neurokinin 1 receptor, etc., should have a positive effect on protecting the lungs during acute pancreatitis. This review aims to further clarify the relationship between ICAM-1 and acute pancreatitis complicated by acute lung injury, and therefore provides a theoretical basis for the formulation of corresponding therapeutic measures in clinical practice for acute pancreatitis.

  7. Melatonin treatment further improves adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell therapy for acute interstitial cystitis in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Ta; Chiang, Hsin-Ju; Chen, Chih-Hung; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Lee, Fan-Yen; Tsai, Tzu-Hsien; Chang, Chia-Lo; Chen, Hong-Hwa; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Leu, Steve; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Yang, Chih-Chao; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2014-10-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that combined melatonin and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC, 1.2 × 10(6) given intravenously) treatment offer superior protection against cyclophosphamide (CYP 150 mg/kg)-induced acute interstitial cystitis (AIC) in rats. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were treated as follows: sham controls, AIC alone, AIC + melatonin, AIC + ADMSC, and AIC + melatonin +ADMSC. When melatonin was used, it was given as follows: 20 mg/kg at 30 min after CYP and 50 mg/kg at 6 and 18 hr after CYP. Twenty-four-hour urine volume, urine albumin level, and severity of hematuria were highest in AIC rats and lowest in the controls; likewise urine volume was higher in AIC + melatonin rats than in AIC + ADMSC and AIC + melatonin + ADMSC treated rats; in all cases, P < 0.001. The numbers of CD14+, CD74+, CD68+, MIP+, Cox-2+, substance P+, cells and protein expression of IL-6, IL-12, RANTES, TNF-α, NF-κB, MMP-9, iNOS (i.e. inflammatory biomarkers), glycosaminoglycan level, expression of oxidized protein, and protein expression of reactive oxygen species (NOX-1, NOX-2, NOX-4) in the bladder tissue exhibited an identical pattern compared with that of hematuria among the five groups (all P < 0.0001). The integrity of epithelial layer and area of collagen deposition displayed an opposite pattern compared to that of hematuria among all groups (P < 0.0001). The cellular expressions of antioxidants (GR, GPx, HO-1, NQO 1) showed a significant progressive increase form controls to AIC + melatonin + ADMSC (all P < 0.0001). Combined regimen of melatonin and ADMSC was superior to either alone in protecting against CYP-induced AIC. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Probiotics and Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Raffaele Pezzilli; Lorenzo Fantini

    2006-01-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis is frequently associated with necrosis of the gland, and the principal late complication is infection of the necrosis. The gut barrier plays an important role in severe acute pancreatitis; in fact, gut barrier integrity prevents bacteria translocation resulting from an atrophic and leaky gut, and reduces the systemic inflammatory syndrome of the pancreatitis from gut atrophy. The maintenance of gut barrier integrity is one of the goals in the treatment of severe acut...

  9. Acute aortic syndromes: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Carole A; Litmanovich, Diana E

    2015-05-01

    The term acute aortic syndrome comprises aortic dissection, intramural hematoma, and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer. The most recent developments in acute aortic syndromes include (1) a change in the mindset that each entity is pathologically distinct, with a shift toward considering the acute aortic syndromes as points along a spectrum of aortic disease, (2) the optimization of aortic imaging quality and radiation dose, and (3) surgical or endovascular management. This review article focuses on how these developments pertain to thoracic radiologists.

  10. Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Yöntem, Ahmet; Bayram, İbrahim

    2018-01-01

    Acute leukemia is basically divided intoacute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia. About 15-20% ofchildhood leukemia is caused by acute myeloid leukemia.AML is classified according to morphological, cytochemical and immunophenotypiccharacteristics. AML patients may present with various clinical signsand symptoms due to leukemic cell infiltration. Age, gender, race, structuralfeatures of the patient and cytogenetic abnormalities are important factorsaffecting prognosis in AML. Th...

  11. Acute otitis media in children

    OpenAIRE

    Cherpillod, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Jacques CherpillodEar, Nose and Throat Department, Childrens’ University Hospital, Lausanne, SwitzerlandDate of preparation: 6th March 2011Conflict of interest: None declaredClinical question: What is the best treatment for acute otitis media in children?Results: Watchful waiting, followed by amoxicillin treatment, if necessary, is the best first-line treatment for acute otitis media in children aged six months or older.Keywords: acute otitis media, antibiotics, watchful waitin

  12. Acute otitis media in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherpillod J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jacques CherpillodEar, Nose and Throat Department, Childrens’ University Hospital, Lausanne, SwitzerlandDate of preparation: 6th March 2011Conflict of interest: None declaredClinical question: What is the best treatment for acute otitis media in children?Results: Watchful waiting, followed by amoxicillin treatment, if necessary, is the best first-line treatment for acute otitis media in children aged six months or older.Keywords: acute otitis media, antibiotics, watchful waitin

  13. Treatment of Acute Viral Bronchiolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Eber, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis represents the most common lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Respiratory syncytial virus is the most frequently identified virus, but many other viruses may also cause acute bronchiolitis. There is no common definition of acute viral bronchiolitis used internationally, and this may explain part of the confusion in the literature. Most children with bronchiolitis have a self limi...

  14. Acute exacerbation of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Fanny W; Chan, Ka Pang; Hui, David S; Goddard, John R; Shaw, Janet G; Reid, David W; Yang, Ian A

    2016-10-01

    The literature of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is fast expanding. This review focuses on several aspects of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) including epidemiology, diagnosis and management. COPD poses a major health and economic burden in the Asia-Pacific region, as it does worldwide. Triggering factors of AECOPD include infectious (bacteria and viruses) and environmental (air pollution and meteorological effect) factors. Disruption in the dynamic balance between the 'pathogens' (viral and bacterial) and the normal bacterial communities that constitute the lung microbiome likely contributes to the risk of exacerbations. The diagnostic approach to AECOPD varies based on the clinical setting and severity of the exacerbation. After history and examination, a number of investigations may be useful, including oximetry, sputum culture, chest X-ray and blood tests for inflammatory markers. Arterial blood gases should be considered in severe exacerbations, to characterize respiratory failure. Depending on the severity, the acute management of AECOPD involves use of bronchodilators, steroids, antibiotics, oxygen and noninvasive ventilation. Hospitalization may be required, for severe exacerbations. Nonpharmacological interventions including disease-specific self-management, pulmonary rehabilitation, early medical follow-up, home visits by respiratory health workers, integrated programmes and telehealth-assisted hospital at home have been studied during hospitalization and shortly after discharge in patients who have had a recent AECOPD. Pharmacological approaches to reducing risk of future exacerbations include long-acting bronchodilators, inhaled steroids, mucolytics, vaccinations and long-term macrolides. Further studies are needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of these interventions in preventing COPD exacerbations. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  15. Alantolactone from Saussurea lappa Exerts Antiinflammatory Effects by Inhibiting Chemokine Production and STAT1 Phosphorylation in TNF-α and IFN-γ-induced in HaCaT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hye-Sun; Jin, Sung-Eun; Kim, Ohn-Soon; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Jeong, Soo-Jin

    2015-07-01

    Skin inflammation is the most common condition seen in dermatology practice and can be caused by various allergic reactions and certain toxins or chemicals. In the present study, we investigated the antiinflammatory effects of Saussurea lappa, a medicinal herb, and its marker compounds alantolactone, caryophyllene, costic acid, costunolide, and dehydrocostuslactone in the HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. HaCaT cells were stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and treated with S. lappa or each of five marker compounds. Chemokine production and expression were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 was determined by immunoblotting. Stimulation with TNF-α and IFN-γ significantly increased the production of the following chemokines: thymus-regulated and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC): regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES): macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC): and interleukin-8 (IL-8). By contrast, S. lappa and the five marker compounds significantly reduced the production of these chemokines by TNF-α and IFN-γ-treated cells. S. lappa and alantolactone suppressed the TNF-α and IFN-γ-stimulated increase in the phosphorylation of STAT1. Our results demonstrate that alantolactone from S. lappa suppresses TNF-α and IFN-γ-induced production of RANTES and IL-8 by blocking STAT1 phosphorylation in HaCaT cells. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Acute ischemic stroke update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Kathleen; Orr, Sean; Briand, Mary; Piazza, Carolyn; Veydt, Annita; McCoy, Stacey

    2010-05-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of death in the United States and is the number one cause of long-term disability. Legislative mandates, largely the result of the American Heart Association, American Stroke Association, and Brain Attack Coalition working cooperatively, have resulted in nationwide standardization of care for patients who experience a stroke. Transport to a skilled facility that can provide optimal care, including immediate treatment to halt or reverse the damage caused by stroke, must occur swiftly. Admission to a certified stroke center is recommended for improving outcomes. Most strokes are ischemic in nature. Acute ischemic stroke is a heterogeneous group of vascular diseases, which makes targeted treatment challenging. To provide a thorough review of the literature since the 2007 acute ischemic stroke guidelines were developed, we performed a search of the MEDLINE database (January 1, 2004-July 1, 2009) for relevant English-language studies. Results (through July 1, 2009) from clinical trials included in the Internet Stroke Center registry were also accessed. Results from several pivotal studies have contributed to our knowledge of stroke. Additional data support the efficacy and safety of intravenous alteplase, the standard of care for acute ischemic stroke since 1995. Due to these study results, the American Stroke Association changed its recommendation to extend the time window for administration of intravenous alteplase from within 3 hours to 4.5 hours of symptom onset; this recommendation enables many more patients to receive the drug. Other findings included clinically useful biomarkers, the role of inflammation and infection, an expanded role for placement of intracranial stents, a reduced role for urgent carotid endarterectomy, alternative treatments for large-vessel disease, identification of nontraditional risk factors, including risk factors for women, and newly published pediatric stroke guidelines. In addition, new devices for

  17. Acute Diverticulitis Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Deborah L

    2018-03-01

    Diverticular disease accounts for approximately 300,000 hospitalizations per year in the United States, resulting in 1.5 million days of inpatient care. Diverticulitis is defined as an inflammation of the diverticulum, which can be asymptomatic or symptomatic. This disease is the third most common gastrointestinal illness that requires hospitalization and the leading indication for elective colon resection. Abdominal pain is the most common complaint in patients with acute diverticulitis. The pain can be described as cramping, constant, and persistent for several days. Medical management is most often provided with antibiotics and clear liquid diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. ACUTE APPENDICITIS COMPLICATING PREGNANCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprong, David H.; Pollock, William F.

    1959-01-01

    Acute appendicitis occurs as a complication of pregnancy in about 0.1 per cent of cases. Diagnosis may be somewhat more difficult during the second and third trimesters dur to the displacement of viscera and the increased incidence of pyelitis and constipation. It is based on the same symptoms and signs as in nonpregnant patients. The treatment is immediate operation regardless of the stage of pregnancy. A McBurney incision is preferred and it is placed somewhat higher than usual in the later stages of pregnancy. When operation is done promptly there is little danger to either mother or fetus. PMID:13833485

  19. Acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Gretchen

    2014-03-01

    One in 4 children will have at least 1 episode of acute otitis media (AOM) by age 10 years. AOM results from infection of fluid that has become trapped in the middle ear. The bacteria that most often cause AOM are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Differentiating AOM from otitis media with effusion (OME) is a critical skill for physicians, as accurate diagnosis will guide appropriate treatment of these conditions. Although fluid is present in the middle ear in both conditions, the fluid is not infected in OME as is seen in AOM patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute Subdural Hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Lester

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 21-year-old female with no past medical history presented to the ED after multiple tonic-clonic seizures over the previous 12 hours, the longest lasting 20 seconds. She returned to baseline after each seizure, had no obvious signs of trauma, and did not exhibit any focal neurologic deficits. She denied illicit drugs or new medications. A family member noted that she had fallen from her bed (approximately 3 feet high 2 days ago. Significant findings: Non-contrast Computed Tomography (CT of the Head showed a dense extra-axial collection along the left frontal and parietal regions, extending superior to the vertex with mild mass effect, but no midline shift. Discussion: Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH is a term to describe any abnormal bleeding within the bony confines of the skull. Most commonly, subdural hemorrhages (SDH result from injury to the bridging veins that lead to bleeding between the dura and arachnoid maters. However, in 20%-30% of cases an arterial source of bleeding can be found.1 For adults, motor vehicle collisions and other unintentional head trauma are typically the provoking factors in developing SDH. Falls in the elderly are a common cause of SDH since diffuse cerebral atrophy leads to increased shear forces upon vasculature structures during the fall. The risk of SDH increases with the use of anti-thrombotic agents.2 Clinical presentation varies from asymptomatic to coma (in 50 percent of acute SDH. Chronic SDH may present with headaches, light-headedness, cognitive impairment, and seizures.1 The risk of posttraumatic epileptic seizures (PTS is higher in acute SDH. Risk factors for acute SDH PTS include low Glasgow Coma Score and craniotomy, whereas risk factors for PTS in chronic SDH include alcohol abuse, change in mental status, previous stroke, and hematoma density on CT.3 CT is the most widely used imaging modality for identifying ICH. Acute SDH (within 1-2 days are visualized as hyperdense

  1. Rational management of acute keratoconus

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. B. Slonimskiy; A. Yu. Slonimskiy; E. A. Korchuganova

    2015-01-01

    Acute keratoconus is a common and severe complication of advanced progressive keratoconus that occurs in more than 30 % of cases. Acute corneal edema in advanced progressive keratectasia is reffered to as acute corneal hydrops (hydrops corneae). It has been also reported in other ectatic disorders such as pellucid marginal degeneration. The most common misdiagnosis in hydrops is HSV disciform keratitis or acute bacterial keratitis. 126 corneal hydrops patients (79 men, 47 women) aged 16‑63 (1...

  2. Acute Paraplegia After General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossein Ghaedi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute paraplegia is a rare but catastrophic complication of surgeries performed on aorta and corrective operations of vertebral column. Trauma to spinal cord after spinal anesthesia and ischemia of spinal cord also may lead to acute paraplegia. Acute paraplegia as a complication of general anesthesia in surgeries performed on sites other than aorta and vertebral column is very rare. Here we present a 56 year old woman with acute paraplegia due to spinal cord infarction after laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia probably caused by atherosclerosis of feeding spinal arteries and ischemia of spinal cord after reduction of blood flow possibly due to hypotension during general anesthesia.

  3. Acute Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Children : Do not squeeze the kidneys!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.M. Zwiers (Alexandra)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Acute kidney injury (AKI) (previously called acute renal failure) is characterized by the abrupt inability of the kidneys to adequately excrete waste products and regulate fl uid and electrolyte homeostasis appropriately. This results in an at least partially

  4. Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome : Consensus Recommendations From the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jouvet, Philippe; Thomas, Neal J.; Willson, Douglas F.; Erickson, Simon; Khemani, Robinder; Smith, Lincoln; Zimmerman, Jerry; Dahmer, Mary; Flori, Heidi; Quasney, Michael; Sapru, Anil; Cheifetz, Ira M.; Rimensberger, Peter C.; Kneyber, Martin; Tamburro, Robert F.; Curley, Martha A. Q.; Nadkarni, Vinay; Valentine, Stacey; Emeriaud, Guillaume; Newth, Christopher; Carroll, Christopher L.; Essouri, Sandrine; Dalton, Heidi; Macrae, Duncan; Lopez-Cruces, Yolanda; Quasney, Michael; Santschi, Miriam; Watson, R. Scott; Bembea, Melania

    Objective: To describe the final recommendations of the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference. Design: Consensus conference of experts in pediatric acute lung injury. Setting: Not applicable. Subjects: PICU patients with evidence of acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress

  5. Acute unilateral isolated ptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, Jennifer Helen; Janicek, David

    2015-01-05

    A 64-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of acute onset painless left ptosis. He had no other symptoms; importantly pupils were equal and reactive and eye movements were full. There was no palpable mass or swelling. He was systemically well with no headache, other focal neurological signs, or symptoms of fatigue. CT imaging showed swelling of the levator palpebrae superioris suggestive of myositis. After showing no improvement over 5 days the patient started oral prednisolone 30 mg reducing over 12 weeks. The ptosis resolved quickly and the patient remains symptom free at 6 months follow-up. Acute ptosis may indicate serious pathology. Differential diagnoses include a posterior communicating artery aneurysm causing a partial or complete third nerve palsy, Horner's syndrome, and myasthenia gravis. A careful history and examination must be taken. Orbital myositis typically involves the extraocular muscles causing pain and diplopia. Isolated levator myositis is rare. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  6. Acute and Chronic Paronychia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggit, Jeff C

    2017-07-01

    Paronychia is inflammation of the fingers or toes in one or more of the three nail folds. Acute paronychia is caused by polymicrobial infections after the protective nail barrier has been breached. Treatment consists of warm soaks with or without Burow solution or 1% acetic acid. Topical antibiotics should be used with or without topical steroids when simple soaks do not relieve the inflammation. The presence of an abscess should be determined, which mandates drainage. There are a variety of options for drainage, ranging from instrumentation with a hypodermic needle to a wide incision with a scalpel. Oral antibiotics are usually not needed if adequate drainage is achieved unless the patient is immunocompromised or a severe infection is present. Therapy is based on the most likely pathogens and local resistance patterns. Chronic paronychia is characterized by symptoms of at least six weeks' duration and represents an irritant dermatitis to the breached nail barrier. Common irritants include acids, alkalis, and other chemicals used by housekeepers, dishwashers, bartenders, florists, bakers, and swimmers. Treatment is aimed at stopping the source of irritation while treating the inflammation with topical steroids or calcineurin inhibitors. More aggressive techniques may be required to restore the protective nail barrier. Treatment may take weeks to months. Patient education is paramount to reduce the recurrence of acute and chronic paronychia.

  7. Acute decompensated pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Savale

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute right heart failure in chronic precapillary pulmonary hypertension is characterised by a rapidly progressive syndrome with systemic congestion resulting from impaired right ventricular filling and/or reduced right ventricular flow output. This clinical picture results from an imbalance between the afterload imposed on the right ventricle and its adaptation capacity. Acute decompensated pulmonary hypertension is associated with a very poor prognosis in the short term. Despite its major impact on survival, its optimal management remains very challenging for specialised centres, without specific recommendations. Identification of trigger factors, optimisation of fluid volume and pharmacological support to improve right ventricular function and perfusion pressure are the main therapeutic areas to consider in order to improve clinical condition. At the same time, specific management of pulmonary hypertension according to the aetiology is mandatory to reduce right ventricular afterload. Over the past decade, the development of extracorporeal life support in refractory right heart failure combined with urgent transplantation has probably contributed to a significant improvement in survival for selected patients. However, there remains a considerable need for further research in this field.

  8. Acute syringomyelia: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhorat, Thomas H; Bolognese, Paolo A; Black, Karen S; Woldenberg, Rona F

    2003-11-01

    Syringomyelia is generally regarded as a chronic, slowly progressive disorder. We describe a case of acute dilation of the central canal of the spinal cord that presented with rapidly progressive segmental signs. A 29-year-old female patient who had previously undergone surgical treatment for a Chiari I malformation, syringomyelia, and hydrocephalus presented with an 8-day history of headaches, progressive paraparesis, and urinary retention. Magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrated panventricular hydrocephalus in association with a holocord syrinx that extended to the obex. Magnetic resonance imaging scans that had been coincidentally obtained just 3 days before the onset of symptoms had revealed no evidence of hydrocephalus or syringomyelia. The patient underwent emergency revision of a failed ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Postoperatively, there was prompt resolution of the syringomyelia, hydrocephalus, and associated neurological deficits. Among patients with communicating syringomyelia, the central canal of the spinal cord participates as a "fifth ventricle" and can undergo rapid dilation in association with acute hydrocephalus. Appropriate treatment in such cases involves placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

  9. Acute liver failure and self-medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, André Vitorio Câmara; Rocha, Frederico Theobaldo Ramos; Abreu, Sílvio Romero de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Not responsible self-medication refers to drug use in high doses without rational indication and often associated with alcohol abuse. It can lead to liver damage and drug interactions, and may cause liver failure. To warn about how the practice of self-medication can be responsible for acute liver failure. Were used the Medline via PubMed, Cochrane Library, SciELO and Lilacs, and additional information on institutional sites of interest crossing the headings acute liver failure [tiab] AND acetaminophen [tiab]; self-medication [tiab] AND acetaminophen [tiab]; acute liver failure [tiab] AND dietary supplements [tiab]; self-medication [tiab] AND liver failure [tiab] and self-medication [tiab] AND green tea [tiab]. In Lilacs and SciELO used the descriptor self medication in Portuguese and Spanish. From total surveyed were selected 27 articles and five sites specifically related to the purpose of this review. Legislation and supervision disabled and information inaccessible to people, favors the emergence of cases of liver failure drug in many countries. In the list of released drugs that deserve more attention and care, are some herbal medicines used for the purpose of weight loss, and acetaminophen. It is recommended that institutes of health intensify supervision and better orient their populations on drug seemingly harmless, limiting the sale of products or requiring a prescription for release them.

  10. Acute and Developmental Behavioral Effects of Flame ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As polybrominated diphenyl ethers are phased out, numerous compounds are emerging as potential replacement flame retardants for use in consumer and electronic products. Little is known, however, about the neurobehavioral toxicity of these replacements. This study evaluated the neurobehavioral effects of acute or developmental exposure to t-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (BPDP), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDP), isodecyl diphenyl phosphate (IDDP), isopropylated phenyl phosphate (IPP), tricresyl phosphate (TMPP; also abbreviated TCP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP; also abbreviated TPP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP; also abbreviated TDCPP), tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP), and 2,2-,4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Larvae (n≈24 per dose per compound) were exposed to test compounds (0.4 - 120 µM) at sub-teratogenic concentrations either developmentally or acutely, and locomotor activity was assessed at 6 days post fertilization. When given developmentally, all chemicals except BPDP, IDDP and TBBPA produced behavioral effects. When given acutely, all chemicals produced behavioral effects, with TPHP, TBBPA, EHDP, IPP, and BPDP eliciting the most effects at the most concentrations. The results indicate that these replacement flame retardants may have developmental or pharmacological effects on the vertebrate nervous system. This study

  11. Acute inhalation toxicity of carbonyl sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Hahn, F.F.; Barr, E.B. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS), a colorless gas, is a side product of industrial procedures sure as coal hydrogenation and gasification. It is structurally related to and is a metabolite of carbon disulfide. COS is metabolized in the body by carbonic anhydrase to hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), which is thought to be responsible for COS toxicity. No threshold limit value for COS has been established. Results of these studies indicate COS (with an LC{sub 50} of 590 ppm) is slightly less acutely toxic than H{sub 2}S (LC{sub 50} of 440 ppm).

  12. A case of life-threatening acute kidney injury with toxic encephalopathy caused by Dioscorea quinqueloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Sik; Heo, Sang Taek

    2015-01-01

    Some herbal medications induce acute kidney injury. The acute kidney injuries caused by herbal medications are mild and commonly treated by palliative care. A 51-years-old man who drank the juice squeezed from the raw tubers of Dioscorea quinqueloba (D. quinqueloba) was admitted with nausea, vomiting and chilling. He developed a seizure with decreased level of consciousness. He was diagnosed with acute kidney injury, which was cured by continuous venovenous hemodialfiltration. Non-detoxified D. quinqueloba can cause severe acute kidney injury with toxic encephalopathy. It is critical to inform possible adverse effects of the medicinal herbs and to implement more strict regulation of these products.

  13. Far-infrared radiation acutely increases nitric oxide production by increasing Ca{sup 2+} mobilization and Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase at serine 1179

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Sangmi [Department of Molecular Medicine and Ewha Medical Research Institute, Ewha Womans University Medical School, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Du-Hyong [Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Mi [Department of Molecular Medicine and Ewha Medical Research Institute, Ewha Womans University Medical School, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Duk-Hee [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Womans University Medical School, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Inho, E-mail: inhojo@ewha.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Medicine and Ewha Medical Research Institute, Ewha Womans University Medical School, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •Far-infrared (FIR) radiation increases eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation and NO production in BAEC. •CaMKII and PKA mediate FIR-stimulated increases in eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation. •FIR increases intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels. •Thermo-sensitive TRPV Ca{sup 2+} channels are unlikely to be involved in the FIR-mediated eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation pathway. -- Abstract: Repeated thermal therapy manifested by far-infrared (FIR) radiation improves vascular function in both patients and mouse model with coronary heart disease, but its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Using FIR as a thermal therapy agent, we investigate the molecular mechanism of its effect on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and NO production. FIR increased the phosphorylation of eNOS at serine 1179 (eNOS-Ser{sup 1179}) in a time-dependent manner (up to 40 min of FIR radiation) in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) without alterations in eNOS expression. This increase was accompanied by increases in NO production and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels. Treatment with KN-93, a selective inhibitor of Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and H-89, a protein kinase A inhibitor, inhibited FIR radiation-stimulated eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation. FIR radiation itself also increased the temperature of culture medium. As transient receptors potential vanilloid (TRPV) ion channels are known to be temperature-sensitive calcium channels, we explore whether TRPV channels mediate these observed effects. Reverse transcription-PCR assay revealed two TRPV isoforms in BAEC, TRPV2 and TRPV4. Although ruthenium red, a pan-TRPV inhibitor, completely reversed the observed effect of FIR radiation, a partial attenuation (∼20%) was found in cells treated with Tranilast, TRPV2 inhibitor. However, ectopic expression of siRNA of TRPV2 showed no significant alteration in FIR radiation-stimulated eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation. This

  14. Acute Effect of Caffeine on Amplitude of Accommodation and Near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caffeine is widely consumed in kola nuts and in other products in Sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the acute effect of caffeine on the amplitude of accommodation and near point of convergence of healthy Nigerians. Forty volunteers between ages of 20 and 27 years with refractive power± 0.50 DS were employed.

  15. Translational Studies in Elderly Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van der Holt (Bronno)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe production of blood cells (hematopoiesis) takes place in the bone marrow. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a clonal disease, which is characterized by an increase in the number of myeloid cells in the bone marrow and an arrest in their maturation. This frequently results in a severe

  16. Acute effects of active isolated stretching on vertical jump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to determine the acute effects of active isolated stretching on muscular peak power production. Sixty healthy, physically active volunteers (aged 18-28) participated as subjects in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups; the control group and the experimental group. Subjects ...

  17. Treatment options for acute pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Olaf J.; Issa, Yama; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.; Besselink, Marc G.; Schepers, Nicolien J.; Bruno, Marco J.; Boermeester, Marja A.; Gooszen, Hein G.

    2014-01-01

    This Review covers the latest developments in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. The Atlanta Classification of acute pancreatitis has been revised, proposing several new terms and abandoning some of the old and confusing terminology. The 2012 Revised Atlanta Classification and the

  18. Neck Pain and Acute Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, João; Romão, José; Cunha, Anita; Paiva, Sofia; Miguéis, António

    2017-02-01

    The acute tendinitis of the longus colli muscle is an unusual diagnosis in the cases of acute dysphagia with cervical pain. Is a self-limiting condition caused by abnormal calcium hydroxyapatite deposition in the prevertebral space and can cause pharyngeal swelling with impaired swallow. It is absolutely critical to make the differential diagnosis with deep cervical infections in order to avoid invasive treatments.

  19. Optimal treatment of acute cholecystitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loozen, C.S.

    2017-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis focus on two main issues: treatment strategies for acute calculous cholecystitis (Part I), and the management of acute calculous cholecystitis in high-risk patients in particular (Part II). The last chapter focuses on the surgical treatment of common bile duct

  20. Acute pulmonary histoplasmosis from Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, P. J.; Koolen, M. G. J.; Mulder, M. M. S.; Kortbeek, L. M.

    2006-01-01

    A male patient developed acute pulmonary histoplasmosis 2 weeks after bathing in the water falls of Wli, Ghana. Exposure to Histoplasma capsulatum was probably mediated through inhalation of an aerosol of water and guano from the large colony of fruit bats of the falls. More cases of acute pulmonary

  1. Early management of acute pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Nicolien J.; Besselink, Marc G. H.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.; Bakker, Olaf J.; Bruno, Marco J.

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is the most common gastro-intestinal indication for acute hospitalization and its incidence continues to rise. In severe pancreatitis, morbidity and mortality remains high and is mainly driven by organ failure and infectious complications. Early management strategies should aim to

  2. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Ooijen (Baan)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThe specific aim of the present study was to investigate whether eicosanoids play a role in acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Because of the limited number of patients with acute pancreatitis admitted to the hospital each year, as well as the practical difficulties encountered in

  3. Circumferential Acute Localized Exanthematous Pustulosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-15

    Acute localized exanthematcus pustulosis ( ALEP ) is a rare localized variant of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis ( AGEP ), first described by...Prange et al . in 3005. It is clinically and histologically consistent with AGEP with the exception of its limited distribution on the body.

  4. Acute hyperammonemia and systemic inflammation is associated with increased extracellular brain adenosine in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Peter Nissen; Dale, Nicholas; Larsen, Fin Stolze

    2015-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) can lead to brain edema, cerebral hyperperfusion and intracranial hypertension. These complications are thought to be mediated by hyperammonemia and inflammation leading to altered brain metabolism. As increased levels of adenosine degradation products have been found...

  5. Swinging heart in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamparter, Steffen; Sundermann, Henrike

    2013-08-01

    Pleural effusions and ascites are not uncommon in acute pancreatitis; however, pericardial effusions complicated by cardiac tamponade are extremely rare and definite treatment has yet to be established. This case report illustrates the findings in a 57-year-old patient, who was diagnosed of an acute alcoholic pancreatitis. The clinical course was complicated by recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis, and eventually, the patient developed acute circulatory failure that was caused by cardiac tamponade. The patient was successfully treated by an emergency pericardiocentesis; however, although the patient was treated with intrapericardial triamcinolone and octreotide, pericardial effusion reoccurred. Eventually, a pancreaticopericardial fistula was diagnosed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography, and after successful stent placement in a disrupted pancreatic duct, the clinical recovery was uneventful. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of a successful endoscopic treatment of a pancreaticopericardial fistula complicated by cardiac tamponade in a patient with acute pancreatitis.

  6. Sirtuin inhibition attenuates the production of inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Claudia A. [Universite catholique de Louvain, Louvain Drug Research Institute (LDRI), Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery Research Group, Brussels B-1200 (Belgium); Fievez, Laurence [University of Liege, GIGA-Research, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Liege B-4000 (Belgium); Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Delzenne, Nathalie M. [Universite catholique de Louvain, LDRI, Metabolism and Nutrition Research Group, Brussels B-1200 (Belgium); Bureau, Fabrice [University of Liege, GIGA-Research, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Liege B-4000 (Belgium); Vanbever, Rita, E-mail: rita.vanbever@uclouvain.be [Universite catholique de Louvain, Louvain Drug Research Institute (LDRI), Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery Research Group, Brussels B-1200 (Belgium)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages were treated with cambinol and sirtinol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cambinol and sirtinol decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cambinol decreased NF-{kappa}B activity but had no impact on p38 MAPK activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sirtuins are an interesting target for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. -- Abstract: In several inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or sepsis, the regulatory mechanisms of inflammation are inefficient and the excessive inflammatory response leads to damage to the host. Sirtuins are class III histone deacetylases that modulate the activity of several transcription factors that are implicated in immune responses. In this study, we evaluated the impact of sirtuin inhibition on the activation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated J774 macrophages by assessing the production of inflammatory cytokines. The pharmacologic inhibition of sirtuins decreased the production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Rantes. The reduction of cytokine production was associated with decreased nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activity and inhibitor kappa B alpha (I{kappa}B{alpha}) phosphorylation while no impact was observed on the phosphorylation status of p38 mitogen-activated kinase (p38 MAPK). This work shows that sirtuin pharmacologic inhibitors are a promising tool for the treatment of inflammatory conditions.

  7. Diagnosis of acute leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, Takao; Ohnishi, Makoto; Koizumi, Nobuo

    2011-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a globally important zoonotic disease and an important public health problem in developing countries. Early diagnosis is essential because antibiotic treatment is most effective when initiated early in the course of the disease. Culture and the microscopic agglutination test are gold standard methods for leptospirosis diagnosis; however, they are not useful for early diagnosis. Current whole cell-based rapid serological tests have low sensitivity for early phase leptospirosis and may have low specificity in highly endemic areas. PCR is demonstrably useful for early diagnosis, but it is unavailable in most developing countries. Thus, diagnostic methods that not only have higher sensitivity and accuracy for early phase leptospirosis but are also widely applicable in developing countries remain to be developed. The availability of genome sequences and genetic tools of Leptospira spp. will accelerate our understanding of Leptospira pathogenesis and provide insights into the development of more efficient and accurate diagnostic tests for acute-phase leptospirosis.

  8. Acute spinal cord injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.; Izunaga, H.; Sato, R.; Shinzato, I.; Korogi, Y.; Yamashita, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on sequential MR images and neurologic findings that were correlated in 40 acute spinal cord injuries. Within 1 week after injury, frequent initial MR changes appeared isointense on both T1- and T2-weighted images and isointense on T1- and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. After 2 months, hypointensity appeared on T1-weighted images and hyperintensity persisted or appeared on T2-weighted images. Clinical improvements were observed in patients with isointensity on both T1- and T2-weighted images at the initial examination. A larger area of hyperintensity on subsequent T2-weighted images was correlated with no neurologic improvement. MR findings were good indicators of the spinal cord injury

  9. Perioperative acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvert Stacey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI is a serious complication in the perioperative period, and is consistently associated with increased rates of mortality and morbidity. Two major consensus definitions have been developed in the last decade that allow for easier comparison of trial evidence. Risk factors have been identified in both cardiac and general surgery and there is an evolving role for novel biomarkers. Despite this, there has been no real change in outcomes and the mainstay of treatment remains preventive with no clear evidence supporting any therapeutic intervention as yet. This review focuses on definition, risk factors, the emerging role of biomarkers and subsequent management of AKI in the perioperative period, taking into account new and emerging strategies.

  10. [Acute hallucinatory psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Raphaël; Smadja, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    The concept of acute delirious puff refers to a transient psychotic state characterized by the sudden outbreak of a polymorphic delusional state in its themes and mecha- nisms. Magnan, in the late of nineteenth century, insti- gated the initial description of this concept. Rediscovered by Henri EY, it's current presence in the French psychiatry despite various attempts to dismantle it results from a singularity based on five cardinal points: it affects young adults, its onset is sudden, delusions are polymorphic and not systematic, there is a marked emotional lability and access is rapidly cured. This entity reveals vulnerability and must be understood carefully by the general practitioner, the issue being the prevention of progression to chronic psychosis.

  11. Glucose Effect in the Acute Porphyrias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Porphyria attacks The glucose effect in acute porphyrias Eating behavior and Porphyria A ... porphyrias The disorders Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP), Hereditary Coproporphyria (HCP), Variegate ...

  12. Acute appendicitis mistaken as acute rejection in renal transplant recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talwalkar N

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Case histories of 2 renal transplant recipients are reported who had presenting features of fever, leukocytosis and pain/tenderness over right iliac fossa and were diagnosed to be due to acute appendicitis rather than more commonly suspected acute rejection episode which has very similar features. Diagnosis of acute appendicitis was suspected on the basis of rectal examination and later confirmed by laparotomy. The purpose of this communication is to emphasize the need for proper diagnosis in patient with such presentation; otherwise wrong treatment may be received.

  13. Acute pancreatitis and acute renal failure following multiple hornet stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sharma

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera is a class of insects that sting in order to subdue their prey. Humans coming into accidental contact with these insects results in stings that may cause from mild local reaction like weal formation around the sting site to severe systemic reactions such as intravascular hemolysis, acute renal failure, pulmonary edema, cerebral edema, and rarely pancreatitis. We report here the clinical course of a patient who developed concurrent acute pancreatitis and pigment-induced acute renal failure after multiple hornet stings.

  14. Prediction of acute inhalation toxicity using in vitro lung surfactant inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørli, Jorid Birkelund; Huang, Yishi; Da Silva, Emilie

    2018-01-01

    Private consumers and professionals may experience acute inhalation toxicity after inhaling aerosolized impregnation products. The distinction between toxic and non-toxic products is difficult to make for producers and product users alike, as there is no clearly described relationship between the...

  15. Acute Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when your kidneys suddenly become unable to filter waste products from your blood. When your kidneys lose their filtering ability, dangerous levels of wastes may accumulate, and your blood's chemical makeup may ...

  16. Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of these triggers are believed to stimulate increased heme production (synthesis) in the liver and include certain drugs, excessive ... to manage symptoms, prevent complications and to suppress heme creation (synthesis) in the liver with hematin, which reduces the ...

  17. [Latest advances in acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Madaria, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    The present article analyses the main presentations on acute pancreatitis at Digestive Disease Week 2015. Arterial pseudoaneurysm is an uncommon complication of acute pancreatitis (incidence 0.7%) and mortality from this cause is currently anecdotal. Diabetes mellitus has little impact on the clinical course of acute pancreatitis, unlike cirrhosis, which doubles the risk of mortality. Intake of unsaturated fat could be associated with an increased severity of acute pancreatitis and is a confounding factor in studies evaluating the relationship between obesity and morbidity and mortality. PET-CT (positron emission tomography-computed tomography) could be a non-invasive tool to detect infection of collections in acute pancreatitis. Peripancreatic fat necrosis is less frequent than pancreatic fat necrosis and is associated with a better clinical course. If the clinical course is poor, increasing the calibre of the percutaneous drains used in the treatment of infected necrosis can avoid surgery in 20% of patients. The use of low molecular-weight heparin in moderate or severe pancreatitis could be associated with a better clinical course, specifically with a lower incidence of necrosis. In acute recurrent pancreatitis, simvastatin is a promising drug for prophylaxis of new episodes of acute pancreatitis. Nutritional support through a nasogastric tube does not improve clinical course compared with oral nutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Biomarkers in acute heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Aditi; Januzzi, James L

    2015-06-01

    The care of patients with acutely decompensated heart failure is being reshaped by the availability and understanding of several novel and emerging heart failure biomarkers. The gold standard biomarkers in heart failure are B-type natriuretic peptide and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, which play an important role in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of acute decompensated heart failure. Novel biomarkers that are increasingly involved in the processes of myocardial injury, neurohormonal activation, and ventricular remodeling are showing promise in improving diagnosis and prognosis among patients with acute decompensated heart failure. These include midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide, soluble ST2, galectin-3, highly-sensitive troponin, and midregional proadrenomedullin. There has also been an emergence of biomarkers for evaluation of acute decompensated heart failure that assist in the differential diagnosis of dyspnea, such as procalcitonin (for identification of acute pneumonia), as well as markers that predict complications of acute decompensated heart failure, such as renal injury markers. In this article, we will review the pathophysiology and usefulness of established and emerging biomarkers for the clinical diagnosis, prognosis, and management of acute decompensated heart failure. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary phosphorus acutely impairs endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuto, Emi; Taketani, Yutaka; Tanaka, Rieko; Harada, Nagakatsu; Isshiki, Masashi; Sato, Minako; Nashiki, Kunitaka; Amo, Kikuko; Yamamoto, Hironori; Higashi, Yukihito; Nakaya, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji

    2009-07-01

    Excessive dietary phosphorus may increase cardiovascular risk in healthy individuals as well as in patients with chronic kidney disease, but the mechanisms underlying this risk are not completely understood. To determine whether postprandial hyperphosphatemia may promote endothelial dysfunction, we investigated the acute effect of phosphorus loading on endothelial function in vitro and in vivo. Exposing bovine aortic endothelial cells to a phosphorus load increased production of reactive oxygen species, which depended on phosphorus influx via sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, and decreased nitric oxide production via inhibitory phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Phosphorus loading inhibited endothelium-dependent vasodilation of rat aortic rings. In 11 healthy men, we alternately served meals containing 400 mg or 1200 mg of phosphorus in a double-blind crossover study and measured flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery before and 2 h after the meals. The high dietary phosphorus load increased serum phosphorus at 2 h and significantly decreased flow-mediated dilation. Flow-mediated dilation correlated inversely with serum phosphorus. Taken together, these findings suggest that endothelial dysfunction mediated by acute postprandial hyperphosphatemia may contribute to the relationship between serum phosphorus level and the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  20. Acute Pulmonary Embolism Mimics Acute Coronary Syndrome in Older Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chieh Liu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary embolism is a fatal disease and an often missed diagnosis. There are no specific symptoms or signs. Accurate diagnosis followed by effective therapy can reduce mortality. We report on a 67-year-old man who underwent lumbar laminectomy and developed an acute anterior compressive-like chest pain and jaw numbness rather than dyspnea on the fifth postoperative day. Owing to refractory chest pain with suspicious posterior myocardial infarction or unstable angina on surface electrocardiogram, the patient received emergency coronary catheterization, which demonstrated normal coronary arteries. Further investigation provided a final diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism. Acute pulmonary embolism with simultaneous recent neuro-surgery was a therapeutic dilemma because of the risk of postoperative hemorrhage threatening neurologic function. After treatment with enoxaparin and close monitoring of his neurologic condition, his symptoms were eliminated. Clinicians must keep in mind a differential diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in a postoperative high-risk patient.

  1. [Diagnostic laparoscopy in acute abdomen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, R; Kleemann, M; Hildebrand, P; Roblick, U J; Bruch, H-P

    2006-11-01

    Acute abdomen is not a disease in itself but a description of a complex of symptoms combined with severe abdominal pain developed within a time frame of less than 24 h. All strategies for the management of acute abdomen underline the need for an interdisciplinary approach to diagnosis and therapy. This requires focused and intelligent use of efficient diagnostic procedures. Diagnostic laparoscopy may be a key to solving the diagnostic dilemma of unspecific acute abdomen. Furthermore, it allows not only direct inspection of the abdominal cavity but also surgical intervention, if needed. In particular the rate of negative laparotomies can be reduced.

  2. Early management of acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Nicolien J; Besselink, Marc G H; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Bakker, Olaf J; Bruno, Marco J

    2013-10-01

    Acute pancreatitis is the most common gastro-intestinal indication for acute hospitalization and its incidence continues to rise. In severe pancreatitis, morbidity and mortality remains high and is mainly driven by organ failure and infectious complications. Early management strategies should aim to prevent or treat organ failure and to reduce infectious complications. This review addresses the management of acute pancreatitis in the first hours to days after onset of symptoms, including fluid therapy, nutrition and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. This review also discusses the recently revised Atlanta classification which provides new uniform terminology, thereby facilitating communication regarding severity and complications of pancreatitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute pancreatitis: a rare cause of acute abdomen in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Smiti; Gupta, Anjali; Dora, Anjali; Gupta, Anshu

    2009-04-01

    Pancreatitis in pregnancy is rare and occurs in approximately 1 in 1,000 to 1 in 10,000 births. Acute pancreatitis rarely complicates pregnancy, can occur during any trimester but over half (52%) occur during the third trimester and rarely during post-partum period. A case of idiopathic pancreatitis in pregnancy has been reported. Pancreatitis often presents as an acute abdomen and can have lethal effect on the mother and the fetus.

  4. [Acute myeloid Leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braess, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been genetically characterized extensively and can now be subdivided into 9 to 11 pathogenetically different subtypes according to their profile of driver mutations. In clinical practice karyotyping and molecular analysis of NPM1, cEBPa and FLT3-ITD are required for treatment stratification and potentially genotype specific treatment. Some markers such as NPM1 not only offer prognostic information but can also serve as markers of minimal residual disease and thus have the potential to guide therapy in the future.The basis of curative treatment is intensive combination chemotherapy comprizing cytarabine and an anthracycline ("7 + 3" regimen). The prolonged duration of aplasia can be reduced significantly by accelerated therapy ("S-HAM" regimen). Following achievement of a complete remission patients with a low risk of relapse - based on genetic and clinical features - receive chemotherapy based consolidation therapy whereas high risk patients - and potentially also those with an intermediate risk - receive an allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Whereas adding the rather unspecific tyrosinekinase inhibitor sorafenib to standard treatment in unselected AML patients has not improved overall survival (OS), the addition of midostaurin to standard therapy in the selected group FLT3 mutated patients has resulted in a moderate but significant OS benefit.Real world data show that in patients below 50 years a cure rate of ca. 50 % can be achieved. However less than 10 % of patients above the age of 70 will be alive after five years even after intensive treatment. Therefore when curative and intensive treatment is deemed impossible the therapeutic standard in elderly and unfit patients used to be low-dose cytarabine with an average OS of 4 months. This has now been replaced by a new standard of care of hypomethylating agents - azacytidine and decitabine - which both achieve higher remission rates and show strong trends towards a prolonged OS

  5. Fucoidan Extracts Ameliorate Acute Colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Ying Lean

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex sulphated, fucose-rich polysaccharides, found in edible brown algae and are described as having multiple bioactivities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of two different fucoidan preparations, fucoidan-polyphenol complex (Maritech Synergy and depyrogenated fucoidan (DPF was evaluated in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS mouse model of acute colitis. Mice were treated once daily over 7 days with fucoidans via oral (Synergy or DPF or intraperitoneal administration (DPF. Signs and severity of colitis were monitored daily before colons and spleens were collected for macroscopic evaluation, cytokine measurements and histology. Orally administered Synergy and DPF, but not intraperitoneal DPF treatment, significantly ameliorated symptoms of colitis based on retention of body weight, as well as reduced diarrhoea and faecal blood loss, compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon and spleen weight in mice treated with oral fucoidan was also significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and oedema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice confirmed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and oedema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral fucoidan. Importantly, in this model, the macroscopic changes induced by oral fucoidan correlated significantly with substantially decreased production of at least 15 pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon tissue. Overall, oral fucoidan preparations significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis and could

  6. [Acute heart failure: acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Marteles, Marta; Urrutia, Agustín

    2014-03-01

    Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock are two of the main forms of presentation of acute heart failure. Both entities are serious, with high mortality, and require early diagnosis and prompt and aggressive management. Acute pulmonary edema is due to the passage of fluid through the alveolarcapillary membrane and is usually the result of an acute cardiac episode. Correct evaluation and clinical identification of the process is essential in the management of acute pulmonary edema. The initial aim of treatment is to ensure hemodynamic stability and to correct hypoxemia. Other measures that can be used are vasodilators such as nitroglycerin, loop diuretics and, in specific instances, opioids. Cardiogenic shock is characterized by sustained hypoperfusion, pulmonary wedge pressure > 18 mmHg and a cardiac index 30 mmHg) and absent or reduced diuresis (acute myocardial infarction. Treatment consists of general measures to reverse acidosis and hypoxemia, as well as the use of vasopressors and inotropic drugs. Early coronary revascularization has been demonstrated to improve survival in shock associated with ischaemic heart disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Confalonieri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since its first description, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS has been acknowledged to be a major clinical problem in respiratory medicine. From July 2015 to July 2016 almost 300 indexed articles were published on ARDS. This review summarises only eight of them as an arbitrary overview of clinical relevance: definition and epidemiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment. A strict application of definition criteria is crucial, but the diverse resource-setting scenarios foster geographic variability and contrasting outcome data. A large international multicentre prospective cohort study including 50 countries across five continents reported that ARDS is underdiagnosed, and there is potential for improvement in its management. Furthermore, epidemiological data from low-income countries suggest that a revision of the current definition of ARDS is needed in order to improve its recognition and global clinical outcome. In addition to the well-known risk-factors for ARDS, exposure to high ozone levels and low vitamin D plasma concentrations were found to be predisposing circumstances. Drug-based preventive strategies remain a major challenge, since two recent trials on aspirin and statins failed to reduce the incidence in at-risk patients. A new disease-modifying therapy is awaited: some recent studies promised to improve the prognosis of ARDS, but mortality and disabling complications are still high in survivors in intensive care.

  8. Acupuncture for acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mangmang; Li, Dan; Zhang, Shihong

    2018-03-30

    Sensory stimulation via acupuncture has been reported to alter activities of numerous neural systems by activating multiple efferent pathways. Acupuncture, one of the main physical therapies in Traditional Chinese Medicine, has been widely used to treat patients with stroke for over hundreds of years. This is the first update of the Cochrane Review originally published in 2005. To assess whether acupuncture could reduce the proportion of people with death or dependency, while improving quality of life, after acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group trials register (last searched on February 2, 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials Ovid (CENTRAL Ovid; 2017, Issue 2) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to February 2017), Embase Ovid (1974 to February 2017), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) EBSCO (1982 to February 2017), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED; 1985 to February 2017), China Academic Journal Network Publishing Database (1998 to February 2017), and the VIP database (VIP Chinese Science Journal Evaluation Reports; 1989 to February 2017). We also identified relevant trials in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (last searched on Feburuary 20, 2017), the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (last searched on April 30, 2017), and Clinicaltrials.gov (last searched on April 30, 2017). In addition, we handsearched the reference lists of systematic reviews and relevant clinical trials. We sought randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of acupuncture started within 30 days from stroke onset compared with placebo or sham acupuncture or open control (no placebo) in people with acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, or both. Needling into the skin was required for acupuncture. Comparisons were made versus (1) all controls (open control or sham acupuncture), and (2) sham acupuncture controls. Two review authors applied

  9. Nutrition and acute schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eridan M. Coutinho

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In northeast Brazil, nutritional deficiency diseases and schistosomiasis mansoni overlap. An experimental model, wich reproduces the marasmatic clinical form of protein-energy malnutrition, was developed in this laboratory to study these interactions. Albino Swiss mice were fed with a food association ingested usually by human populations in northeast Brazil. This diet (Regional Basic Diet - RBD has negative effects on the growth, food intake and protein utilization in infected mice (acute phase of murine schistosomiasis. Nitrogen balance studies have also shown that infection with Schistosoma mansoni has apparently no effect on protein intestinal absorption in well nourished mice. However, the lowest absorption ratios have been detected among RBD - fed infected animals, suggesting that suprerimposed schistosome infection aggravated the nutritional status of the undernourished host. The serum proteins electrophoretic pattern, as far as albumins are concerned, is quite similar for non-infected undernourished and infected well-fed animals. So, the significance of albumins as a biochemical indicator of the nutritional status of human populations residing in endemic foci of Manson's schistosomiasis, is discussable.

  10. Generalized acute mucocutaneous herpes simplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal R

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of generalized acute mucocutaneous herpes simplex is reported in a 15 years old boy. There was neither underlying disease nor any evidence of genetic or acquired immune deficiency.

  11. Acute stroke imaging research roadmap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wintermark, Max; Albers, Gregory W.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Bammer, Roland; Baron, Jean-Claude; Davis, Stephen; Demaerschalk, Bart M.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Eastwood, James D.; Fiebach, Jochen B.; Fisher, Marc; Furie, Karen L.; Goldmakher, Gregory V.; Hacke, Werner; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Kloska, Stephan P.; Koehrmann, Martin; Koroshetz, Walter; Lee, Ting-Yim; Lees, Kennedy R.; Lev, Michael H.; Liebeskind, David S.; Ostergaard, Leif; Powers, William J.; Provenzale, James; Schellinger, Peter; Silbergleit, Robert; Sorensen, Alma Gregory; Wardlaw, Joanna; Warach, Steven

    The recent "Advanced Neuroimaging for Acute Stroke Treatment" meeting on September 7 and 8, 2007 in Washington DC, brought together stroke neurologists, neuroradiologists, emergency physicians, neuroimaging research scientists, members of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

  12. Acute Diacetylmorphine (Heroin Intoxication (Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Loladze

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents current data on the mechanism of action, selective toxicity, toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of diacetylmorphine (heroin. Acute diacetylmorphine poisoning is considered under taking into account the developing a critical state, in which the poisoning severity is determined by severe metabolic disorders associated with the progression of hypoxia. The main lifethreatening complications of acute diacetyl morphine poisoning are described including those associated with the nervous system, respiratory, circulatory and urinary systems. Since hypoxia is the principal damaging factor, the the mechanisms of oxygen transport disorders and the pathogenesis of activation of free radical oxidation in acute diacetylmorphine poisoning are discussed. The improvement of intensive care strategy for severe forms of acute diacetylmorphine poisoning by the inclusion of a substrate antihypoxant Reamberin into the list of routine critical care prescriptions is emphesized.

  13. Depression following acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Terese Sara Hoej; Maartensson, Solvej; Ibfelt, Else Helene

    2016-01-01

    .8 % developed a recurrent depression. Most patient characteristics (demographic factors, socioeconomic status, psychosocial factors, health-related behavioural factors, somatic comorbidities, and severity of acute coronary syndrome) were significantly associated with increased HRs for both early and later......PURPOSE: Depression is common following acute coronary syndrome, and thus, it is important to provide knowledge to improve prevention and detection of depression in this patient group. The objectives of this study were to examine: (1) whether indicators of stressors and coping resources were risk...... factors for developing depression early and later after an acute coronary syndrome and (2) whether prior depression modified these associations. METHODS: The study was a register-based cohort study, which includes 87,118 patients with a first time diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome during the period...

  14. Rhabdomyolysis following acute alcohol intoxication.

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitt, S M; Winter, R J

    1995-01-01

    The case of a fit young man who developed rhabdomyolysis after a short period of immobilization following acute alcohol intoxication is described. Rhabdomyolysis should be considered in an intoxicated patient presenting with muscle tenderness, particularly after immobilization.

  15. Polyhydramnios and acute renal failure

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, D. V.; Kelly, Moira B.; Pryor, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Acute renal failure secondary to ureteric obstruction is described in a primigravida with twin gestation and polyhydramnios. Relief of the obstruction occurred on drainage of the liquor and return to normal renal function following delivery.

  16. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their fever and other symptoms are gone. Hand hygiene is the most important part of SARS prevention. ... Coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). In: Bennett JE, Dolin ...

  17. Rational management of acute keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. B. Slonimskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute keratoconus is a common and severe complication of advanced progressive keratoconus that occurs in more than 30 % of cases. Acute corneal edema in advanced progressive keratectasia is reffered to as acute corneal hydrops (hydrops corneae. It has been also reported in other ectatic disorders such as pellucid marginal degeneration. The most common misdiagnosis in hydrops is HSV disciform keratitis or acute bacterial keratitis. 126 corneal hydrops patients (79 men, 47 women aged 16‑63 (129 eyes were observed and treated over the last five years. 124 patients were diagnosed with acute keratoconus and 2 patients were diagnosed with pellucid marginal degeneration. Acute kereatoconus patientsrepresented a special and compromised cohort with systemic allergic diseases (neurodermatitis and various atopic disorders, n = 48, Down’s syndrome (n = 16 or mental disorders (n = 19. In many of these patients who vigorously rubbed their eyes, keratectasia progressed more rapidly. In 7 cases, acute keratoconus developed during pregnancy. 3 cases of recurrent keratoconus were reported — in a woman with Down’s syndrome (recurrence in 3 years, in a man with severe neurodermatitis (recurrence in 5 years, and in a man with anamnestic acute keratoconus (recurrence in 20 years. 3 patients experienced bilateral acute keratoconus. Acute keratoconus can be subdivided by the area of corneal edema into three categories, i.e., partial (6 mm or less, 52 eyes, subtotal (7‑10 mm, 56 eyes, and total (more than 10 mm, 21 eyes. Corneal edema ultimately disappeared, however, acute keratoconus resulted in a deep local scarring through the corneal layers. Slit lamp exam revealed Descemet’s membrane ruptures (so-called fish mouth. 73 eyes were referred to refractive penetrating keratoplasty (PKP. Corneal perforation was unusual even in severe corneal thinning (4 cases. In one case, descemetocele with a high risk of perforation was observed. 4 eyes

  18. Rational management of acute keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. B. Slonimskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute keratoconus is a common and severe complication of advanced progressive keratoconus that occurs in more than 30 % of cases. Acute corneal edema in advanced progressive keratectasia is reffered to as acute corneal hydrops (hydrops corneae. It has been also reported in other ectatic disorders such as pellucid marginal degeneration. The most common misdiagnosis in hydrops is HSV disciform keratitis or acute bacterial keratitis. 126 corneal hydrops patients (79 men, 47 women aged 16‑63 (129 eyes were observed and treated over the last five years. 124 patients were diagnosed with acute keratoconus and 2 patients were diagnosed with pellucid marginal degeneration. Acute kereatoconus patientsrepresented a special and compromised cohort with systemic allergic diseases (neurodermatitis and various atopic disorders, n = 48, Down’s syndrome (n = 16 or mental disorders (n = 19. In many of these patients who vigorously rubbed their eyes, keratectasia progressed more rapidly. In 7 cases, acute keratoconus developed during pregnancy. 3 cases of recurrent keratoconus were reported — in a woman with Down’s syndrome (recurrence in 3 years, in a man with severe neurodermatitis (recurrence in 5 years, and in a man with anamnestic acute keratoconus (recurrence in 20 years. 3 patients experienced bilateral acute keratoconus. Acute keratoconus can be subdivided by the area of corneal edema into three categories, i.e., partial (6 mm or less, 52 eyes, subtotal (7‑10 mm, 56 eyes, and total (more than 10 mm, 21 eyes. Corneal edema ultimately disappeared, however, acute keratoconus resulted in a deep local scarring through the corneal layers. Slit lamp exam revealed Descemet’s membrane ruptures (so-called fish mouth. 73 eyes were referred to refractive penetrating keratoplasty (PKP. Corneal perforation was unusual even in severe corneal thinning (4 cases. In one case, descemetocele with a high risk of perforation was observed. 4 eyes

  19. Blood glucose in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2009-01-01

    Blood glucose is often elevated in acute stroke, and higher admission glucose levels are associated with larger lesions, greater mortality and poorer functional outcome. In patients treated with thrombolysis, hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation...... to the risk of inducing potentially harmful hypoglycemia has been raised. Still, basic and observational research is overwhelmingly in support of a causal relationship between blood glucose and stroke outcome and further research on glucose-lowering therapy in acute stroke is highly warranted....

  20. Zonography in acute respiratory diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druzhinina, V.S.; Fetisova, V.M.; Kozorez, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radiography was performed in 94 patients whose initial condition was assessed as acute respiratory disease. Radioscopy with x-ray image amplifier, roentgenography and zonography were used. Pulmonary changes were found in 61 persons. In 45 of them acute pneumonia was revealed, in 16 changes in the pulmonary pattern assessed as residual manifestations of pneumonia. Changes in 30 patients with pneumonia and 16 patients with residual manifestations were detected by zonography only

  1. Apnea in Acute Bilirubin Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Sanjiv B.; Bhutani, Vinod K.; Watchko, Jon F.

    2014-01-01

    Central apnea, defined as cessation of breathing for ≥ 20 seconds, is frequent in premature infants born apnea in neonates. This paper explores the reported association between acute bilirubin encephalopathy and symptomatic apneic events in newborns and the possible mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this phenomenon. The prevalence of symptomatic apneic events in reports of acute bilirubin encephalopathy suggests this clinical finding should be considered a sign of bilirubin neurotoxicity. PMID:25239473

  2. Acute Otitis Media in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Alexander K C; Wong, Alex H C

    2017-01-01

    Acute otitis media is a common childhood infection. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are very important. To review in depth the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, complications and particularly treatment of acute otitis media in children. A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key term "acute otitis media". Patents were searched using the key term "acute otitis media" from www.google.com/patents, http://espacenet.com, and www.freepatentsonline.com. Acute otitis media affects over 80% of children before their third birthday and 30 to 45% of these children have suffered two or more episodes. Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypable Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most frequently isolated middle-ear pathogens. The diagnosis is based on acute onset of symptoms such as otalgia and fever, middle ear inflammation such as erythema of the tympanic membrane, and middle ear effusion. The choice of treatment method depends on the age of the child, laterality, and the severity of the disease. Recent patents related to the management of acute otitis media are also retrieved and discussed. Antimicrobial treatment is recommended for all children less than two years of age, as well as in children ≥ two years of age who have a temperature ≥ 39oC; are toxic looking; have otalgia > 48 hours; have bilateral otitis media or otorrhea; have craniofacial abnormalities; are immunocompromised; or have uncertain access to follow-up. Amoxicillin is the drug of choice. Observation without antibiotic is an option in immunocompetent children ≥ two years of age who have an acute uncomplicated otitis media and non-severe illness if appropriate follow-up can be arranged. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Immune function in acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, A B; Bruno, S; Forte, W C N

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate immune function in acute stress in medical students before academic examinations. Twenty-five medical students were selected because they presented intense acute stress, evaluated by the presence of the following classic signs: cold hands, intense sudoresis in the extremities, generalized sudoresis, paleness, tachycardia, confused reasoning, nervous irritability, diarrhea, and sleep disorders in the hours preceding the examination (agitated sleep, insomnia). Immediately before the examination, peripheral blood was collected from the 25 students presenting acute stress to analyze T and B cells, CD4+ and CD8+ cells, immunoglobulins, and C3 and C4 complement components, as well as phagocytic activity in neutrophils and monocytes. These investigations were repeated in the same students in situations free of acute stress. The results of the two samples collected from each student were compared. The means and standard deviations showed no significant differences for any of the parameters analyzed (p> or =0.01). We conclude that acute stress did not cause changes in the lymphocyte subpopulations, phagocytic activity of neutrophils and monocytes, serum immunoglobulins, or C3 and C4 complement components in students participating in the present study. In conditions of basal chronic stress, acute stress may cause alterations in immune function.

  4. Pizotifen relieves acute migraine symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.M. Kamrul Huda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To The Editor: Various pharmacological agents are used for the treatment of migraine. In the last five years, various drug companies in Bangladesh have been marketing pizotifen as a preventive treatment of all types of migraine. Pizotifen is a serotonin antagonist acting mainly at the 5-HT1, 5-HT2A and 5HT2C receptors. It also has some activity as an antihistamine (1. Pizotifen is a well-established preventative therapy of migraine. I would like to report my own experience in using pizotifen in treating the acute attacks of migraine. Pizotifen was prescribed as acute therapy in 11 patients, 6 females (4 had migraine without aura and 2 had migraine with aura and 5 males (all had migraine without aura. Three female and 5 male patients, who had migraine without aura, reported no beneficial effect of pizotifen as treatment for the acute attacks. Three female patients (two with migraine with aura and one with migraine without aura had their headache relieved by use of pizotifen as treatment for the acute attacks. This is an initial observation about the effectiveness of pizotifen as acute therapy in migraine. However, this could be simply a placebo affect. Nevertheless, it will be worth exploring the role of pizotifen as a therapeutic agent for acute attacks of migraine by conducting well-designed randomized, controlled studies.

  5. Metabolic syndrome and acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolasevic, I; Milic, S; Orlic, L; Poropat, G; Jakopcic, I; Franjic, N; Klanac, A; Kristo, N; Stimac, D

    2016-07-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of metabolic syndrome on the course of acute pancreatitis determined by disease severity, the presence of local and systemic complications and survival rate. 609 patients admitted to our hospital in the period from January 1, 2008 up to June 31, 2015 with the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis were analyzed. The diagnosis and the severity of acute pancreatitis were made according to the revised Atlanta classification criteria from 2012. Of 609 patients with acute pancreatitis, 110 fulfilled the criteria for metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome had statistically significantly higher incidence of moderately severe (38.2% vs. 28.5%; p=0.05) and severe (22.7% vs. 12.8%; p=0.01) acute pancreatitis in comparison to those without metabolic syndrome, while patients without metabolic syndrome had higher incidence of mild acute pancreatitis in comparison to those patients with metabolic syndrome (58.7% vs. 39.1%; pacute pancreatitis. Comparing survival rates, patients suffering from metabolic syndrome had a higher death rate compared to patients without metabolic syndrome (16% vs. 4.5%; pacute pancreatitis, as well as higher mortality rate. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute pericarditis: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Matthew J; Bepko, Jennifer; White, Merima

    2014-04-01

    Acute pericarditis, inflammation of the pericardium, is found in approximately 5% of patients admitted to the emergency department for chest pain unrelated to acute myocardial infarction. It occurs most often in men 20 to 50 years of age. Acute pericarditis has a number of potential etiologies including infection, acute myocardial infarction, medication use, trauma to the thoracic cavity, and systemic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. However, most etiologic evaluations are inconclusive. Patients with acute pericarditis commonly present with acute, sharp, retrosternal chest pain that is relieved by sitting or leaning forward. A pericardial friction rub is found in up to 85% of patients. Classic electrocardiographic changes include widespread concave upward ST-segment elevation without reciprocal T-wave inversions or Q waves. First-line treatment includes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and colchicine. Glucocorticoids are traditionally reserved for severe or refractory cases, or in cases when the cause of pericarditis is likely connective tissue disease, autoreactivity, or uremia. Cardiology consultation is recommended for patients with severe disease, those with pericarditis refractory to empiric treatment, and those with unclear etiologies.

  7. Selected CC and CXC chemokines in children with atopic asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Machura

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : There are only limited data on CC and CXC chemokines regulation in children with asthma. Aim: We compared the serum profile of selected CC and CXC chemokines in patients with atopic asthma and healthy children. Material and methods : Serum concentration of CC chemokines RANTES, MCP-1, and CXC chemokines IP-10, MIG, IL-8, RANTES was measured using cytometric bead array in 44 children with atopic asthma and 17 healthy subjects. Results: The concentration of RANTES was significantly higher and the MIG level was lower in all children with asthma as compared to their control counterparts. We observed increased RANTES and decreased MIG levels also in patients with stable asthma when compared with children in the control group. The IP-10 concentration was similar between the whole asthma group and healthy controls, while significantly increased levels of this chemokine in acute asthma have been observed when compared to stable asthma. For MCP-1 and IL-8, the serum concentration was similar in all compared groups. The MIG concentration correlated positively with IP-10, IL-8, and CRP levels and negatively with the eosinophil count. A negative correlation between the IP-10 and eosinophil count and a negative correlation between FEV1 and IP-10 were found. Conclusions : An increased serum RANTES level in children with asthma may result in enhancement of Th2 lymphocyte recruitment into the airway. A decreased expression of Th1 chemokine MIG in children with stable asthma may contribute to a diminished antagonizing effect on Th2 cytokine production and hence intensify Th2 predominance. An increased IP-10 level in children during an asthma attack suggest that this chemokine is a serological marker of disease exacerbation.

  8. Acute Central Nervous System Complications in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytan, Birol; Evim, Melike Sezgin; Güler, Salih; Güneş, Adalet Meral; Okan, Mehmet

    2015-10-01

    The outcome of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia has improved because of intensive chemotherapy and supportive care. The frequency of adverse events has also increased, but the data related to acute central nervous system complications during acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment are sparse. The purpose of this study is to evaluate these complications and to determine their long term outcome. We retrospectively analyzed the hospital reports of 323 children with de novo acute lymphoblastic leukemia from a 13-year period for acute neurological complications. The central nervous system complications of leukemic involvement, peripheral neuropathy, and post-treatment late-onset encephalopathy, and neurocognitive defects were excluded. Twenty-three of 323 children (7.1%) suffered from central nervous system complications during acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. The majority of these complications (n = 13/23; 56.5%) developed during the induction period. The complications included posterior reversible encephalopathy (n = 6), fungal abscess (n = 5), cerebrovascular lesions (n = 5), syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (n = 4), and methotrexate encephalopathy (n = 3). Three of these 23 children (13%) died of central nervous system complications, one from an intracranial fungal abscess and the others from intracranial thrombosis. Seven of the survivors (n = 7/20; 35%) became epileptic and three of them had also developed mental and motor retardation. Acute central neurological complications are varied and require an urgent approach for proper diagnosis and treatment. Collaboration among the hematologist, radiologist, neurologist, microbiologist, and neurosurgeon is essential to prevent fatal outcome and serious morbidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Correlation between hyperamylasemia and acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, R; Durante, E; Pampolini, M; Tioli, P

    1981-05-31

    It is often difficult to differentiate acute pancreatitis (A.P.) from some other acute abdominal diseases, when there is an elevated serum amylase. In contrast, the renal clearance of amylase, expressed as a percentage of creatinine clearance, can separate patients with A.P. from patients with acute colecistitis, common duct stone without pancreatitis, hyperamylasemia after biliary surgery, acute peptic ulcer and acute salivary diseases.

  10. Acute pancreatitis: Etiology and common pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guo-Jun; Gao, Chun-Fang; Wei, Dong; Wang, Cun; Ding, Si-Qin

    2009-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas. The etiology and pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis have been intensively investigated for centuries worldwide. Many causes of acute pancreatitis have been discovered, but the pathogenetic theories are controversial. The most common cause of acute pancreatitis is gallstone impacting the distal common bile-pancreatic duct. The majority of investigators accept that the main factors for acute billiary pancreatitis are pancreatic hype...

  11. Anemia and thrombocytopenia in acute and chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgalaleh, Akbar; Mahmudi, Mohammad; Tabibian, Shadi; Khatib, Zahra Kashani; Tamaddon, Gholam Hossein; Moghaddam, Esmaeil Sanei; Bamedi, Taregh; Alizadeh, Shaban; Moradi, Eshagh

    2013-01-01

    Acute renal failure describes as a syndrome by rapid decline in the ability of the kidney to eliminate waste products, regulate acid-base balance, and manage water homeostasis. When this impairment is prolonged and entered chronic phase, erythropoietin secretion by this organ is decreasing and toxic metabolic accumulates and causes hematological changes include decrease of HCT, MCV and RBC and platelet counts. This study evaluates present of anemia and thrombocytopenia in patients with acute and chronic renal failure. This study conducted on 132 patients with renal impairment and also 179 healthy individuals as two separated control groups. Initially patients with renal problem were tested and after confirmation of impairment, patients were divided in two groups, acute with less than 3 months and chronic with more than 3 months renal failure, based on duration of the disease. Then complete blood count performed for each patient and finally obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software. Comparison between 96 patients with acute and 36 patients with chronic renal failure revealed that severity of anemia (HCT, Hb and MCV) between these two groups were statistically high in comparison with control groups (P > 0.05) but thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic renal failure was statistically different from control and the acute ones (P renal failure, to prevent the risk of bleeding, platelet count should be checked periodically.

  12. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced rat acute interstitial cystitis though inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress-in vitro and in vivo experiment studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Ta; Yang, Chih-Chao; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Chiang, Hsin-Ju; Chen, Yi-Ling; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Zhen, Yen-Yi; Huang, Tein-Hung; Chang, Chia-Lo; Chen, Hong-Hwa; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2014-01-01

    Background: We investigated whether extracorporeal shock wave (ECSW) therapy can attenuate cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced acute interstitial cystitis (AIC) in rats. Methods and Results: Eighteen male-adult Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into group 1 (sham control), group 2 (AIC induced by 150 mg/kg CYP by intra-peritoneal injection) and group 3 (AIC + ECSW 200 impulses at 0.11 mJ/mm2 to the urinary bladder at 3 and 24 h after CYP treatment). Smooth-muscle cells co-culture with menadione (25 µM) with and without ECSW treatment was performed. Western-blot results demonstrated that ECSW significant attenuated oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions in this in-vitro studies (all p < 0.001). 24-hour urine amount and microscopic findings of red-blood-cell count (i.e., hematuria) were higher in group 2 than in groups 1 and 3, and significantly higher in group 3 than in group 1 (all p < 0.001). The urine levels of albumin and interleukin-6 showed an identical pattern of hematuria among all three groups (all p < 0.001). The cellular and mRNA expressions of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)+, CD74+, CD68+, substance p+, and Cox-2+ cells in the bladder tissue exhibited an identical pattern of hematuria among all groups (all p < 0.0001). The integrity of epithelial layer and collagen-deposition area as stained by Sirius red displayed an opposite pattern of hematuria among the three groups (p < 0.0001). The protein expression of IL-12, iNOS, TNF-α, NF-κB, MMP-9, NOX-1, NOX-2, RANTES, and Oxyblot displayed an identical pattern of hematuria among all groups (all p < 0.01). Conclusion: ECSW therapy markedly attenuated CYP-induced AIC through inhibitions of the inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:25628776

  13. Acute liver failure and acute kidney injury: Definitions, prognosis, and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Włodzimirow, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to investigate definitions, prognostic indicators and their association with adverse events, mainly mortality for acute liver failure (ALF), acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) and acute kidney injury (AKI).

  14. Activation and Regulation of Hemostasis in Acute Liver Failure and Acute Pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisman, Ton; Porte, Robert J.

    Acute liver failure and acute pancreatitis are accompanied by substantial changes in the hemostatic system. In acute liver failure, defective synthesis of coagulation factors and intravascular activation of coagulation results in thrombocytopenia and reduced levels of proteins involved in

  15. CCR5 and CXCR4 chemokine receptor expression and β-chemokine production during early T cell repopulation induced by highly active anti-retroviral therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannetti, A; Ensoli, F; Mazzetta, F; De Cristofaro, M; Pierdominici, M; Muratori, D S; Fiorelli, V; Aiuti, F

    1999-01-01

    Expression of chemokine receptors and β-chemokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were determined in HIV-1-infected individuals before and after highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) and their relationship to viral load, T cell phenotype and the expression of immunological activation markers was examined. We found that the expression of CCR5 is up-regulated in HIV-1-infected individuals while CXCR4 appears down-regulated on both CD4 and CD8 T cells compared with normal controls. These alterations are associated with the high levels of viral load. In addition, a relationship was observed between the degree of immune activation and chemokine receptor expression on T cells. However, after 3 months of combined anti-retroviral regimen, expression of CXCR4 significantly increased while CCR5 decreased when compared with pretherapy determinations. This was seen in strict association with a dramatic decrease of viral load and an increase of both CD45RA+/CD62L+ (naive) and CD45RA−/CD62L+ or CD45RA+/CD62L− (memory) T cells accompanied by a significant decrease of the expression of immune activation markers such as HLA-DR and CD38. At enrolment, both spontaneous and lectin-induced RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) and MIP-1β production by PBMC were higher in HIV-1-infected individuals compared with normal controls, although differences for MIP-1β were not statistically significant. However, RANTES and MIP-1α production decreased during HAART at levels closer to that determined with normal controls, while MIP-1β production was less consistently modified. These data indicate that the expression of chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 and the production of β-chemokines are altered in HIV-infected individuals, and suggest that their early modifications during HAART reflect both the peripheral redistribution of naive/memory T cell compartments and the decrease in levels of T cell activation. Such modifications in the

  16. [Acute poisoning with levothyroxine in own experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sułek, Monika; Groszek, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to thyroid products is common, but acute poisonings in adults are rare. Most cases of severe toxicity are related to prolonged, repeated exposure (either inadvertent or deliberate abuse). There are a few reports of toxicity in children following large (greater than 10 mg) single ingestions. Expect significant toxicity in children and adults who have ingested more than 2 to 4 mg of levothyroxine. However, in comorbid elderly patients, the threshold may be lower. In this paper we present acute overdose of levothyroxine in nine adult patients (aged 21-44 years; mean--30.5 years); ingested doses were from 1.2 mg to 15 mg (mean--6.5 mg). Only in three cases (ingested doses were 5.6; 8.0 and 15 mg) minor and mild clinical symptoms were observed and pharmacological treatment was necessary. No severe symptoms were observed in our group. Asymptomatic clinical course in patients who ingested more than 3 mg of levothyroxine probably was related to coingestion of benzodiazepins, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors and ethanol. Serum free triiodothyronine (T3) level of 20 pg/ml (normal, 4.1 pg/ml) was reported following an overdose of 15 mg levothyroxine in day five. Normalization was observed in day eleven.

  17. Gastric lavage in patients with acute poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Amigó Tadín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisonings are a frequent complaint in emergency departments and therapy which prevents the absorption of toxic products taken orally is often indicated: one such option is gastric lavage. Gastric lavage is a digestive decontamination technique whose goal is to remove the maximum amount of poison from the stomach and prevent its absorption. The procedure involves inserting a gastric tube into the stomach through the mouth or nose; firstly to aspirate all the stomach contents and then to perform gastric washing manoeuvres. The effectiveness of gastric lavage is limited and involves a risk of iatrogenesis, and therefore the indications and contraindications should be carefully considered and the technique carried out meticulously to increase its effectiveness and reduce complications, primarily bronchoaspiration. Gastric lavage may be used in conjunction with other digestive decontamination techniques such as administration of activated charcoal. This gastric lavage protocol is based on a review of the literature on this procedure and is supported by the expertise of our research group in gastrointestinal decontamination techniques in patients with acute poisoning.

  18. Acute Respiratory Failure in Acute Poisoning by Neutrotropic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Lodyagin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of methods for diagnosing and treating critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF in acute poisoning by neurotropic substances. Subjects and methods. Two hundred and thirty-three patients with acute severe intoxication with neurotropic poisons were examined. All the patients were admitted for toxic-hypoxic coma and ARF; in this connection all the patients underwent artificial ventilation (AV. The patients were divided into 3 groups: 1 those in whom the traditional treatments (AV, detoxifying therapy, and infusional and cardiotropic support could restore the basic parameters of vital functions, as judged from the recovered oxygenation index; these patients had no metabolic shifts; 2 those who had signs of pulmonary hyperhydration, low cardiac output and moderate metabolic disorders, as suggested by elevated lactate levels; 3 seriously ill patients in whom the interval between the time of poisoning to care delivery was more than 20 hours; the patients of this group had the most significant metabolic disorders. Results. Correction of ARF in critically ill patients with acute poisoning should include, in addition to the rational parameters of AV and detoxifying therapy, agents for targeted therapy for sequels of hypoxia and energy deficiency states. For maximally rapid and effective oxygen transport recovery, the addition of perfluorane to the complex therapy cardinally improves the results of treatment and reduces mortality rates. Conclusion. The complexity of the pathogenesis of ARF and its sequels is a ground for diagnosing and correcting not only ventilation disturbances, but also pulmonary microcirculatory disorders and metabolic disturbances. Key words: acute intoxication with neu-rotropic poisons, acute respiratory failure, pulmonary hyperhydration, hypoxia, metabolic disturbances.

  19. Duration of Acute and Chronic Toxicity Testing in Animals (ICH S4A and S4B)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Per; Van Cauteren, Herman

    2013-01-01

    To support approval of pharmaceuticals for long term use in humans it is required that product safety is supported by acute and chronic toxicity studies in rodents and non-rodents. The duration of acute toxicity studies (S4A) and chronic rodent studies (S4B) were harmonised between the three ICH ...

  20. Trimetazidine protects retinal ganglion cells from acute glaucoma via the Nrf2/Ho-1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Peixing; Su, Wenru; Zhang, Yingying; Li, Zhidong; Deng, Caibin; Zhuo, Yehong

    2017-09-15

    Acute glaucoma is one of the leading causes of irreversible vision impairment characterized by the rapid elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) and consequent retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation have been considered critical for the pathogenesis of RGC death in acute glaucoma. Trimetazidine (TMZ), an anti-ischemic drug, possesses antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, contributing to its therapeutic potential in tissue damage. However, the role of TMZ in acute glaucoma and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report that treatment with TMZ significantly attenuated retinal damage and RGC death in mice with acute glaucoma, with a significant decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokine production in the retina. Furthermore, TMZ treatment directly decreased ROS production and rebalanced the intracellular redox state, thus contributing to the survival of RGCs in vitro TMZ treatment also reduced the production of inflammatory cytokines in vitro Mechanistically, the TMZ-mediated inhibition of apoptosis and inflammatory cytokine production in RGCs occurred via the regulation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/heme oxygenase 1/caspase-8 pathway. Moreover, the TMZ-mediated neuroprotection in acute glaucoma was abrogated when an HO-1 inhibitor, SnPP, was used. Our findings identify potential mechanisms of RGC apoptosis and propose a novel therapeutic agent, TMZ, which exerts a precise neuroprotective effect against acute glaucoma. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. B lymphocytes trigger monocyte mobilization and impair heart function after acute myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouggari, Yasmine; Ait-Oufella, Hafid; Bonnin, Philippe; Simon, Tabassome; Sage, Andrew P; Guérin, Coralie; Vilar, José; Caligiuri, Giuseppina; Tsiantoulas, Dimitrios; Laurans, Ludivine; Dumeau, Edouard; Kotti, Salma; Bruneval, Patrick; Charo, Israel F; Binder, Christoph J; Danchin, Nicolas; Tedgui, Alain; Tedder, Thomas F; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Mallat, Ziad

    2014-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is a severe ischemic disease responsible for heart failure and sudden death. Here, we show that after acute myocardial infarction in mice, mature B lymphocytes selectively produce Ccl7 and induce Ly6Chi monocyte mobilization and recruitment to the heart, leading to enhanced tissue injury and deterioration of myocardial function. Genetic (Baff receptor deficiency) or antibody-mediated (CD20- or Baff-specific antibody) depletion of mature B lymphocytes impeded Ccl7 production and monocyte mobilization, limited myocardial injury and improved heart function. These effects were recapitulated in mice with B cell–selective Ccl7 deficiency. We also show that high circulating concentrations of CCL7 and BAFF in patients with acute myocardial infarction predict increased risk of death or recurrent myocardial infarction. This work identifies a crucial interaction between mature B lymphocytes and monocytes after acute myocardial ischemia and identifies new therapeutic targets for acute myocardial infarction. PMID:24037091

  2. [Identifying the severe acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo Tizón, Anais; Targarona Modena, Javier; Málaga Rodríguez, Germán; Barreda Cevasco, Luis

    2011-01-01

    To compare patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis without any additional complications during their hospital stay (Group A) versus patients with Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis with additional complications during their hospital stay (Group B). Data obtained from a pre-existing base from hospitalized patients with diagnosis of acute necrotizing pancreatitis in the specialized unit of "Unidad de Pancreatitis Aguda Grave del Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins" between 2000 and 2010. Data included patients with diagnosis of acute necrotizing pancreatitis, of ages 18 and over. Data from 215 patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis was included. Patients from Group A represented 32% (68) and from Group B 68% (147). Group A had a average of 39 hospitalized days and Group B had an average of 56 days (p=0.01). From Group A 22% had more than 50% of necrosis while 43% of Group B had this extension of necrosis (p pancreatitis, based on the presence of necrosis, behave likewise. It is an extended necrosis, described as more than 50% of pancreatic necrosis, and not the presence itself which will determine additional complications during the course of disease and a greater mortality.

  3. Acute leukemias of ambiguous origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porwit, Anna; Béné, Marie C

    2015-09-01

    This session of the Society for Hematopathology/European Association for Haematopathology Workshop focused on acute leukemias of ambiguous origin. We provide an overview of mixed-phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) as recognized in the current World Health Organization classification and summarize diagnostic criteria for major categories of MPAL: B/myeloid, T/myeloid, B/T, and B/T/myeloid. Most MPAL cases submitted were B/myeloid and T/myeloid MPAL, the most frequent types, but three cases of B/T MPAL were also submitted, and examples of all categories are illustrated. We emphasize that a comprehensive approach to immunophenotyping is required to accurately establish the diagnosis of MPAL. Flow cytometry immunophenotyping using a large panel of antibodies is needed as well as confirmatory immunohistochemical analysis and cytochemistry studies for myeloperoxidase and nonspecific esterase. We discuss technical issues in determining blast lineage and possible pitfalls in MPAL diagnosis. In particular, rare cases of B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) can express myeloperoxidase but are otherwise consistent with B-ALL and should be treated as such. Last, we review the differential diagnosis between acute undifferentiated leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia with minimal differentiation. There was an agreement that diagnosis of MPAL can be challenging, especially if applied flow cytometry panels are not comprehensive enough. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  4. Endoscopic Treatment of Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis and Smoldering Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rohit; Yadav, Dhiraj; Papachristou, Georgios I

    2015-10-01

    Recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) is a challenging condition that can lead to chronic pancreatitis and long-term morbidity. Etiology-based treatment can potentially have an impact on the natural history of RAP and its progression to chronic pancreatitis. In cases of divisum-associated RAP and idiopathic RAP, several studies have been performed to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic therapy in alleviation of symptoms and frequency of AP events. This review discusses the literature available on these topic as well as touching on the role of endoscopic therapy in smoldering acute pancreatitis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Successful nonsurgical treatment for synchronous acute cholecystitis and acute appendicitis: A case report and review of the literatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ying Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute appendicitis and acute cholecystitis are commonly seen in acute abdominal disease. However, it is rarely described that synchronous acute cholecystitis and acute appendicitis presented. Here, we present a case of 78-year-old male suffered from cholelithiasis with acute cholecystitis synchronized with acute appendicitis treated with nonsurgical management successfully.

  6. Prevention of Acute Exacerbations of COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbeau, Jean; Diekemper, Rebecca L.; Ouellette, Daniel R.; Goodridge, Donna; Hernandez, Paul; Curren, Kristen; Balter, Meyer S.; Bhutani, Mohit; Camp, Pat G.; Celli, Bartolome R.; Dechman, Gail; Dransfield, Mark T.; Fiel, Stanley B.; Foreman, Marilyn G.; Hanania, Nicola A.; Ireland, Belinda K.; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Marciniuk, Darcy D.; Mularski, Richard A.; Ornelas, Joseph; Stickland, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: COPD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States as well as throughout the rest of the world. An exacerbation of COPD (periodic escalations of symptoms of cough, dyspnea, and sputum production) is a major contributor to worsening lung function, impairment in quality of life, need for urgent care or hospitalization, and cost of care in COPD. Research conducted over the past decade has contributed much to our current understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of COPD. Additionally, an evolving literature has accumulated about the prevention of acute exacerbations. METHODS: In recognition of the importance of preventing exacerbations in patients with COPD, the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) and Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) joint evidence-based guideline (AECOPD Guideline) was developed to provide a practical, clinically useful document to describe the current state of knowledge regarding the prevention of acute exacerbations according to major categories of prevention therapies. Three key clinical questions developed using the PICO (population, intervention, comparator, and outcome) format addressed the prevention of acute exacerbations of COPD: nonpharmacologic therapies, inhaled therapies, and oral therapies. We used recognized document evaluation tools to assess and choose the most appropriate studies and to extract meaningful data and grade the level of evidence to support the recommendations in each PICO question in a balanced and unbiased fashion. RESULTS: The AECOPD Guideline is unique not only for its topic, the prevention of acute exacerbations of COPD, but also for the first-in-kind partnership between two of the largest thoracic societies in North America. The CHEST Guidelines Oversight Committee in partnership with the CTS COPD Clinical Assembly launched this project with the objective that a systematic review and critical evaluation of the published literature by clinical experts and researchers in

  7. Policy Mitigating Acute Risk to Bees from Pesticide Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide risk management must be based on sound science, consistent with the laws under which pesticides are regulated in the United States. EPA has been working aggressively to protect bees and other pollinators from pesticide exposures.

  8. Antibiotics for acute maxillary sinusitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli; Borisenko, Oleg V; Kovanen, Niina

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Expert opinions vary on the appropriate role of antibiotics for sinusitis, one of the most commonly diagnosed conditions among adults in ambulatory care. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether antibiotics are effective in treating acute sinusitis, and if so, which antibiotic classes...... are the most effective. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2007, Issue 3); MEDLINE (1950 to May 2007) and EMBASE (1974 to June 2007). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing antibiotics with placebo...... or antibiotics from different classes for acute maxillary sinusitis in adults. We included trials with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis, whether or not confirmed by radiography or bacterial culture. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two review authors independently screened search results, extracted...

  9. Laparoscopy in the acute abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navez, Benoit; Navez, Julie

    2014-02-01

    Laparoscopy has become a routine procedure in the management of acute abdominal disease and can be considered both an excellent therapeutic and additional diagnostic tool in selected cases. However, a high level of expertise in laparoscopic and emergency surgery is required. Hemodynamic instability, huge abdominal distension, fecal peritonitis and perforated cancer are relative contraindications for the laparoscopic approach. In recent years, abdominal emergencies have increasingly been managed successfully by laparoscopy. In acute appendicitis, acute cholecystitis and perforated peptic ulcer, randomized controlled trials have proven that the laparoscopic approach is as safe and as effective as open surgery, with fewer complications and a quicker postoperative recovery. Other indications such as blunt and penetrating trauma to the abdomen, small bowel occlusion and perforated diverticular disease are under debate, indicating that more randomized controlled trials comparing laparoscopic and open surgery are still necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Acute Stroke Imaging Research Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintermark, Max; Albers, Gregory W.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Bammer, Roland; Baron, Jean-Claude; Davis, Stephen; Demaerschalk, Bart M.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Eastwood, James D.; Fiebach, Jochen B.; Fisher, Marc; Furie, Karen L.; Goldmakher, Gregory V.; Hacke, Werner; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Kloska, Stephan P.; Köhrmann, Martin; Koroshetz, Walter; Lee, Ting-Yim; Lees, Kennedy R.; Lev, Michael H.; Liebeskind, David S.; Ostergaard, Leif; Powers, William J.; Provenzale, James; Schellinger, Peter; Silbergleit, Robert; Sorensen, Alma Gregory; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wu, Ona; Warach, Steven

    2009-01-01

    The recent “Advanced Neuroimaging for Acute Stroke Treatment” meeting on September 7 and 8, 2007 in Washington DC, brought together stroke neurologists, neuroradiologists, emergency physicians, neuroimaging research scientists, members of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), industry representatives, and members of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to discuss the role of advanced neuroimaging in acute stroke treatment. The goals of the meeting were to assess state-of-the-art practice in terms of acute stroke imaging research and to propose specific recommendations regarding: (1) the standardization of perfusion and penumbral imaging techniques, (2) the validation of the accuracy and clinical utility of imaging markers of the ischemic penumbra, (3) the validation of imaging biomarkers relevant to clinical outcomes, and (4) the creation of a central repository to achieve these goals. The present article summarizes these recommendations and examines practical steps to achieve them. PMID:18477656

  11. [The treatment of acute diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemans, L

    2013-09-01

    Racecadotril has sufficient proven efficacy in the treatment of acute diarrhea in children. Treatment outcomes in adults are less convincing. The place of gelatin tannate is unclear. Some sources point to potential hepatotoxicity and diminished iron absorption, with a concomitant risk of anemia, at least in case of excessive or prolonged use. Loperamide still has a prominent place in the treatment of acute and chronic diarrhea. Attention should be payed to correct dosing and some well-known contra-indications. Probiotics are indicated in children, as well as in the prevention of antibiotics-induced diarrhea. There is no evidence to support their use in the treatment of acute diarrhea in adults. Up till now publications disagree on the efficacy in the prevention of travelers' diarrhea. Astringents and absorbents are no longer supported in guidelines. Oral rehydration systems have a part to play in pediatric treatment.

  12. Antibiotic prescribing for acute bronchitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Acute bronchitis is a self-limiting infectious disease characterized by acute cough with or without sputum but without signs of pneumonia. About 90% of cases are caused by viruses. AREAS COVERED: Antibiotics for acute bronchitis have been associated with an approximately half......-day reduction in duration of cough. However, at follow-up there are no significant differences in overall clinical improvement inpatients treated with antibiotics compared with those receiving placebo. Despite this, antibiotics are administered to approximately two thirds of these patients. This review...... discusses the reason for this antibiotic overprescription. Other therapies targeted to control symptoms have also demonstrated a marginal or no effect. EXPERT COMMENTARY: Clinicians should be aware of the marginal effectiveness of antibiotic therapy. Some strategies like the use of rapid tests, delayed...

  13. MR of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spickler, E.; Lufkin, R.; Frazee, J.; Lylyk, P.; Vinuela, F.; Bentson, J.; Dion, J.

    1987-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage was produced in four Macaca nemestrina monkeys using the technique of Frazee. CT and MR imaging was performed immediately after the procedure and at frequent intervals up to 2 weeks after hemorrhage. The imaging studies were compared with clinical evaluations and pathologic specimens of all animals. Additional human clinical CT/MR studies of subarachnoid hemorrhage were also studied. Acute hemorrhage was recognized on MR images as an increase in signal in the region of clot compared with surrounding cerebrospinal fluid. This most likely reflects T1 shortening due to proton binding rather than a pure paramagnetic effect. While CT is sensitive to the hemoglobin protein in acute hemorrhage, the superior resolution of MR of the basal cisterns results in equal or better definition of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage on MR studies in many cases

  14. Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    Adult Acute Erythroid Leukemia (M6); Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  15. Acute pancreatitis: staging with CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gialeli, E.; Petrocheilou, G.; Georgaki, S.; Tzemailas, I.; Adraktas, A.; Charilas, G.; Patsiogiannis, V.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Computed Tomography (CT) is the imaging modality of choice for the diagnosis and staging of acute pancreatitis and its complications. Objectives and tasks: The purpose of this presentation is to demonstrate the findings in CT images which are useful for staging acute pancreatitis according to Balthazar, their significance and restrictions. Materials and methods: CT images from patients who were referred to our Department for an abdominal CT scan for the diagnosis or/and staging of acute pancreatitis were retrospectively studied. Results: In acute pancreatitis, CT helps to stage the severity of inflammatory process, to detect pancreatic necrosis and to depict local complications. CT severity index (CTSI), which was proposed by Balthazar et al, combines the grade of pancreatitis with the extent of pancreatic necrosis assigning points to the patients in order to find the severity index which scales from 0-10. More points are given for a higher grade of pancreatitis and for more extensive necrosis. Types of pancreatitis according to CTSI are: interstitial (Balthazar grade A-C), exudative (Balthazar grade D or E), necrotising (Balthazar grade E, CTSI:10) and central gland necrotising. Patients with pancreatitis but no collections or necrosis have an interstitial (mild) pancreatitis. In exudative pancreatitis there is normal enhancement of the entire pancreas associated with extensive peripancreatic collections. Necrotizing (severe) pancreatitis is characterized by protacted clinical course, high incidence of local complications and high mortality rate. Central gland necrosis is a subtype of necrotizing pancreatitis. Conclusions: The combination of CT imaging and clinical and laboratory evaluation allows the early diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis may vary from a mild uneventful disease to a severe life-threatening illness with multisystemic organ failure. Thus, it is crucial to identify patients who are at high risk of severe

  16. Acute graft versus host disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogelsang Georgia B

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant and is a reaction of donor immune cells against host tissues. Activated donor T cells damage host epithelial cells after an inflammatory cascade that begins with the preparative regimen. About 35%–50% of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT recipients will develop acute GVHD. The exact risk is dependent on the stem cell source, age of the patient, conditioning, and GVHD prophylaxis used. Given the number of transplants performed, we can expect about 5500 patients/year to develop acute GVHD. Patients can have involvement of three organs: skin (rash/dermatitis, liver (hepatitis/jaundice, and gastrointestinal tract (abdominal pain/diarrhea. One or more organs may be involved. GVHD is a clinical diagnosis that may be supported with appropriate biopsies. The reason to pursue a tissue biopsy is to help differentiate from other diagnoses which may mimic GVHD, such as viral infection (hepatitis, colitis or drug reaction (causing skin rash. Acute GVHD is staged and graded (grade 0-IV by the number and extent of organ involvement. Patients with grade III/IV acute GVHD tend to have a poor outcome. Generally the patient is treated by optimizing their immunosuppression and adding methylprednisolone. About 50% of patients will have a solid response to methylprednisolone. If patients progress after 3 days or are not improved after 7 days, they will get salvage (second-line immunosuppressive therapy for which there is currently no standard-of-care. Well-organized clinical trials are imperative to better define second-line therapies for this disease. Additional management issues are attention to wound infections in skin GVHD and fluid/nutrition management in gastrointestinal GVHD. About 50% of patients with acute GVHD will eventually have manifestations of chronic GVHD.

  17. Treatment of acute viral bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eber, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis represents the most common lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Respiratory syncytial virus is the most frequently identified virus, but many other viruses may also cause acute bronchiolitis. There is no common definition of acute viral bronchiolitis used internationally, and this may explain part of the confusion in the literature. Most children with bronchiolitis have a self limiting mild disease and can be safely managed at home with careful attention to feeding and respiratory status. Criteria for referral and admission vary between hospitals as do clinical practice in the management of acute viral bronchiolitis, and there is confusion and lack of evidence over the best treatment for this condition. Supportive care, including administration of oxygen and fluids, is the cornerstone of current treatment. The majority of infants and children with bronchiolitis do not require specific measures. Bronchodilators should not be routinely used in the management of acute viral bronchiolitis, but may be effective in some patients. Most of the commonly used management modalities have not been shown to have a clear beneficial effect on the course of the disease. For example, inhaled and systemic corticosteroids, leukotriene receptor antagonists, immunoglobulins and monoclonal antibodies, antibiotics, antiviral therapy, and chest physiotherapy should not be used routinely in the management of bronchiolitis. The potential effect of hypertonic saline on the course of the acute disease is promising, but further studies are required. In critically ill children with bronchiolitis, today there is little justification for the use of surfactant and heliox. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure may be beneficial in children with severe bronchiolitis but a large trial is needed to determine its value. Finally, very little is known on the effect of the various

  18. Acute hyperlipidemic pancreatitis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisan, Luminita S; Steidl, Erin T; Rivera-Alsina, Manuel E

    2008-05-01

    Pancreatitis in pregnancy remains a rare event and is most often associated with gallstone disease. Hyperlipidemic gestational pancreatitis usually occurs in women with a preexisting abnormality of the lipid metabolism and poses particular problems in diagnosis and clinical management. We describe 5 patients with acute episodes of pancreatitis during pregnancy caused by hyperlipidemia. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy causes significant morbidity. Even though it is often associated with gallstones, we describe 5 cases in which the etiology of the pancreatitis was maternal hyperlipidemia. Etiology, diagnosis, and management will be discussed.

  19. Rim Sign in Acute Cholecystitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Eun Mi; Lee, Kyung Han; Yang, Seoung Oh; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon

    1989-01-01

    The 'rim sign' is a rim of increased hepatic activity adjacent to the gall bladder fossa and known as an useful indicator of acute cholecystitis. Also, many reports suggested that if rim sign is positive there is an increased risk for complications such as perforation and gangrene. To evaluate the usefulness of this rim sign, we reviewed 32 cases that were pathologically confirmed. The incidence of rim sign was 47% similar to other reports but with our results, the rim sign was not specific to acute cholecystitis nor indicator of increased risk for complications.

  20. Plasma cytokines in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Krarup; Boysen, Gudrun; Christensen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    GOALS: The aim of this study was to test the relations between plasma cytokines and the clinical characteristics, course, and risk factors in acute stroke. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The analysis was based on 179 patients with acute stroke included within 24 hours of stroke onset. On inclusion and 3...... months later plasma levels of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF-R1), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNF-R2) were...

  1. Acute exercise improves motor memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Kasper Christen; Roig, Marc; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We have recently shown that a single bout of acute cardiovascular exercise improves motor skill learning through an optimization of long-term motor memory. Here we expand this previous finding, to explore potential exercise-related biomarkers and their association with measures of motor memory...... practice whereas lactate correlated with better retention 1 hour as well as 24 hours and 7 days after practice. Thus, improvements in motor skill acquisition and retention induced by acute cardiovascular exercise are associated with increased concentrations of biomarkers involved in memory and learning...... processes. More mechanistic studies are required to elucidate the specific role of each biomarker in the formation of motor memory....

  2. [Acute abdomen in elderly patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, M A; Pereira, E A; Lourenção, J L; Branco, P D

    1990-01-01

    Seventy nine elderly patients with acute abdominal conditions were operated on in the Emergency Service of the Hospital das Clinicas of the University of São Paulo from 1981 to 1985. Total mortality rate was 58.23%. In patients with acute vascular abdominal conditions it was 100%, in inflammatory conditions 55.17% and in intestinal obstruction 47.83%. The lowest mortality was observed in traumatic conditions (27.27%). Procrastination of operations was followed by higher mortality. In operations lasting more than three hours the mortality was significantly higher than in those lasting less than three hours. Associated diseases as well as reoperations increased the postoperative mortality.

  3. Amoebiasis Presenting as Acute Appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hitoshi; Imai, Jin; Mizukami, Hajime; Uda, Shuji; Yamamoto, Soichiro; Nomura, Eiji; Tajiri, Takuma; Watanabe, Norihito; Makuuchi, Hiroyasu

    2016-12-20

    We report a case of amoebic appendicitis without colitis symptoms. Acute appendicitis is commonly encountered by gastroenterologists in their daily practice. The number of cases of amoebiasis increases annually in Japan, and is thought to be associated with an increase in sexually transmitted disease or travel to endemic areas. However, acute amoebic appendicitis is rare and the prognosis is very poor compared to nonamoebic appendicitis. In our case, appendectomy was performed immediately after onset, and the patient was discharged without complications. It is difficult to differentiate between amoebic and nonamoebic appendicitis preoperatively, and the possibility of amoebic appendicitis should be kept in mind.

  4. [Uncaria tomentosa and acute ischemic kidney injury in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fátima Fernandes Vattimo, Maria; da Silva, Natalia Oliveira

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the renoprotective effects of Uncaria Tomentosa (cat's claw) on ischemic acute kidney injury induced by renal clamping in rats. The hypoxia and hypoperfusion increase the production of reactive species already present in the inflammatory process. Results showed that the renal function evaluated by creatinine clearance, the urinary excretion of peroxides and malondealdehyde indexes demonstrated that UT induced renoprotection, probably related to its antioxidant activities.

  5. Aloe vera for treating acute and chronic wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Dat,Anthony D.; Poon,Flora; Pham,Kim B. T.; Doust,Jenny

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aloe vera is a cactus-like perennial succulent belonging to the Liliaceae Family that is commonly grown in tropical climates. Animal studies have suggested that Aloe vera may help accelerate the wound healing process.OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of Aloe vera-derived products (for example dressings and topical gels) on the healing of acute wounds (for example lacerations, surgical incisions and burns) and chronic wounds (for example infected wounds, arterial and venous ulcer...

  6. Melatonin modulates the fetal cardiovascular defense response to acute hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakor, Avnesh S; Allison, Beth J; Niu, Youguo; Botting, Kimberley J; Serón-Ferré, Maria; Herrera, Emilio A; Giussani, Dino A

    2015-08-01

    Experimental studies in animal models supporting protective effects on the fetus of melatonin in adverse pregnancy have prompted clinical trials in human pregnancy complicated by fetal growth restriction. However, the effects of melatonin on the fetal defense to acute hypoxia, such as that which may occur during labor, remain unknown. This translational study tested the hypothesis, in vivo, that melatonin modulates the fetal cardiometabolic defense responses to acute hypoxia in chronically instrumented late gestation fetal sheep via alterations in fetal nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Under anesthesia, 6 fetal sheep at 0.85 gestation were instrumented with vascular catheters and a Transonic flow probe around a femoral artery. Five days later, fetuses were exposed to acute hypoxia with or without melatonin treatment. Fetal blood was taken to determine blood gas and metabolic status and plasma catecholamine concentrations. Hypoxia during melatonin treatment was repeated during in vivo NO blockade with the NO clamp. This technique permits blockade of de novo synthesis of NO while compensating for the tonic production of the gas, thereby maintaining basal cardiovascular function. Melatonin suppressed the redistribution of blood flow away from peripheral circulations and the glycemic and plasma catecholamine responses to acute hypoxia. These are important components of the fetal brain sparing response to acute hypoxia. The effects of melatonin involved NO-dependent mechanisms as the responses were reverted by fetal treatment with the NO clamp. Melatonin modulates the in vivo fetal cardiometabolic responses to acute hypoxia by increasing NO bioavailability. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Acute rhabdomyolysis and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Yamina; Mamoune, Asmaa; Mauvais, François-Xavier; Habarou, Florence; Lallement, Laetitia; Romero, Norma Beatriz; Ottolenghi, Chris; de Lonlay, Pascale

    2015-07-01

    Rhabdomyolysis results from the rapid breakdown of skeletal muscle fibers, which leads to leakage of potentially toxic cellular content into the systemic circulation. Acquired causes by direct injury to the sarcolemma are most frequent. The inherited causes are: i) metabolic with failure of energy production, including mitochondrial fatty acid ß-oxidation defects, LPIN1 mutations, inborn errors of glycogenolysis and glycolysis, more rarely mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency, purine defects and peroxysomal α-methyl-acyl-CoA-racemase defect (AMACR), ii) structural causes with muscle dystrophies and myopathies, iii) calcium pump disorder with RYR1 gene mutations, iv) inflammatory causes with myositis. Irrespective of the cause of rhabdomyolysis, the pathology follows a common pathway, either by the direct injury to sarcolemma by increased intracellular calcium concentration (acquired causes) or by the failure of energy production (inherited causes), which leads to fiber necrosis. Rhabdomyolysis are frequently precipitated by febrile illness or exercise. These conditions are associated with two events, elevated temperature and high circulating levels of pro-inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and chemokines. To illustrate these points in the context of energy metabolism, protein thermolability and the potential benefits of arginine therapy, we focus on a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis, aldolase A deficiency. In addition, our studies on lipin-1 (LPIN1) deficiency raise the possibility that several diseases involved in rhabdomyolysis implicate pro-inflammatory cytokines and may even represent primarily pro-inflammatory diseases. Thus, not only thermolability of mutant proteins critical for muscle function, but also pro-inflammatory cytokines per se, may lead to metabolic decompensation and rhabdomyolysis.

  8. Local and disseminated acute phase response during bacterial respiratory infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2010-01-01

    The acute phase response is playing an important role, aiming to restore the healthy state after tissue injury, inflammation and infection. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other parts of innate defense reactions remain somewhat elusive. Expression of acute phase pr......-types in the organism are involved in production of APP and further supports that extrahepatic APP might be important players of the innate defence system....

  9. Oral Administration of Escin Inhibits Acute Inflammation and Reduces Intestinal Mucosal Injury in Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Minmin; Lu, Chengwen; Zhang, Leiming; Zhang, Jianqiao; Du, Yuan; Duan, Sijin; Wang, Tian; Fu, Fenghua

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of oral administration of escin on acute inflammation and intestinal mucosal injury in animal models. The effects of escin on carrageenan-induced paw edema in a rat model of acute inflammation, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) induced intestinal mucosal injury in a mouse model, were observed. It was shown that oral administration of escin inhibits carrageenan-induced paw edema and decreases the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cyclo...

  10. P2X7R: a potential key regulator of acute gouty arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jin-Hui; Zhang, Yong; Li, Xiang-Pei

    2013-12-01

    Acute gouty arthritis is an inflammatory disease resulting from the precipitation of long-term hyperuricemia-induced monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in joints, which stimulates the production of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and initiates an inflammatory reaction. However, some patients having MSU crystals in the joints never develop acute gouty arthritis, indicating that other predisposing factors are required for the disease onset. This review described the mechanism of production of IL-1β by MSU crystals and other possible factors during a gout attack. The relevant English literature on IL-1β secretion stimulated by MSU crystals and other possible factors during acute gouty arthritis flares was searched and carefully reviewed. MSU crystals lead to the onset of acute gouty arthritis mainly through the activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NACHT-LRR-PYD-containing protein 3 (NALP3) inflammasome signaling and downstream IL-1β production. The predisposing factors of acute gouty arthritis, such as strenuous exercise, cold, alcolholism, and overeating have a common characteristic inducing dramatic changes of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the body. The ATP changes can activate the purinergic receptor P2X ligand-gated ion channel 7 (P2X7R) signaling system to regulate IL-1β secretion. We hypothesize that acute gouty arthritis is induced by two synergistic effects; one is the stimulation of MSU crystals and the other is the activation of P2X7R signaling pathways by extracellular ATP changes, which together lead to the production of IL-1β and the initiation of acute gouty arthritis. This hypothesis will provide a new avenue for the prevention and treatment of acute gouty arthritis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. MicroRNA profiling can classify acute leukemias of ambiguous lineage as either acute myeloid leukemia or acute lymphoid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, David C; van den Ancker, Willemijn; Denkers, Fedor; de Menezes, Renée X; Westers, Theresia M; Ossenkoppele, Gert J; van de Loosdrecht, Arjan A; Smit, Linda

    2013-04-15

    Classification of acute leukemia is based on the commitment of leukemic cells to the myeloid or the lymphoid lineage. However, a small percentage of acute leukemia cases lack straightforward immunophenotypical lineage commitment. These leukemias of ambiguous lineage represent a heterogeneous category of acute leukemia that cannot be classified as either acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL). The lack of clear classification of acute leukemias of ambiguous lineage as either AML or ALL is a hurdle in treatment choice for these patients. Here, we compared the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of 17 cases with acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage and 16 cases of AML, B-cell acute lymphoid leukemia (B-ALL), and T-cell acute lymphoid leukemia (T-ALL). We show that leukemias of ambiguous lineage do not segregate as a separate entity but exhibit miRNA expression profiles similar to AML, B-ALL, or T-ALL. We show that by using only 5 of the most lineage-discriminative miRNAs, we are able to define acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage as either AML or ALL. Our results indicate the presence of a myeloid or lymphoid lineage-specific genotype, as reflected by miRNA expression, in these acute leukemias despite their ambiguous immunophenotype. miRNA-based classification of acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage might be of additional value in therapeutic decision making.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging for acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Ming

    2010-08-28

    Acute pancreatitis is characterized by acute chemical injury of the pancreatic parenchyma and peripancreatic tissue. The increased frequency of death in acute pancreatitis is directly correlated with the degree and progress of pancreatic necrosis. Moreover, the occurrence of some local complications in acute pancreatitis, such as pancreatic hemorrhage, peripancreatic abscess or large pseudocyst, and pseudoaneurysm, could influence the choice of treatment for these patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to help evaluate the presence and degree of pancreatic necrosis, and is crucial for identifying complications of acute pancreatitis and predicting prognosis. The purpose of this article is to describe MRI techniques for acute pancreatitis, to review the spectrum of pancreatic and peripancreatic patterns, as well as to survey various complications secondary to acute pancreatitis on MRI. The role of MRI in the initial evaluation and staging of acute pancreatitis is emphasized.

  13. Acute Pancreatitis: Surgery, Pathophysiology and Probiotic Prophylaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnen, L.P. van

    2006-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a challenging disease with a clinical course that is often difficult to predict. In severe acute pancreatitis, mortality increases significantly if intestinal bacteria translocate from the intestine and infect pancreatic necrosis. Surgical and prophylactic treatment strategies

  14. Acute pancreatitis complicating excessive intake of phenolphthalein.

    OpenAIRE

    Lambrianides, A. L.; Rosin, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    A case is described in which a patient presented with acute pancreatitis following inadvertent ingestion of large quantities of phenolphthalein for the treatment of his chronic constipation. There was complete recovery and no sequelae from the acute attack of pancreatitis.

  15. Acute treatment of migraine headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frederick R

    2010-04-01

    Optimum acute treatment of migraine requires prevention of headache as a top priority. Recognition of the multitude of migraine presentations, the frequency of total headache attacks, and number of days of headache disability are critical. Successful treatment requires excellent patient-clinician communication enhancing confidence and mutual trust based on patient needs and preferences. Optimum management of acute migraine nearly always requires pharmacologic treatment for rapid resolution. Migraine-specific triptans, dihydroergotamine, and several antiinflammatories have substantial empirical clinical efficacy. Older nonspecific drugs, particularly butalbital and opioids, contribute to medication overuse headache and are to be avoided. Clinicians should utilize evidence-based acute migraine-specific therapy stressing the imperative acute treatment goal of early intervention, but not too often with the correct drug, formulation, and dose. This therapy needs to provide cost-effective fast results, meaningful to the patient while minimizing the need for additional drugs. Migraine-ACT evaluates 2-hour pain freedom with return to normal function, comfort with treatment, and consistency of response. Employ a thoroughly educated patient, formulary, testimonials, stratification, and rational cotherapy against the race to central sensitization for optimum outcomes. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  16. Plasma volume in acute hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, T D; Klausen, T; Richalet, J P

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to acute hypoxia is associated with changes in body fluid homeostasis and plasma volume (PV). This study compared a dye dilution technique using Evans' blue (PV[Evans']) with a carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method (PV[CO]) for measurements of PV in ten normal subjects at sea level...

  17. Acute rheumatic fever ID adults

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, unlike other series, cardiac involvement was a prominent feature. Two patients died and a further 4 required valve replacements as a resuH of the disease. This suggests that local factors are of importance in determining the morbidity of the disease and that physicians should consider acute rheumatic disease in ...

  18. Redox signaling in acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Salvador; Pereda, Javier; Sabater, Luis; Sastre, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of the pancreatic gland that eventually may lead to a severe systemic inflammatory response. A key event in pancreatic damage is the intracellular activation of NF-κB and zymogens, involving also calcium, cathepsins, pH disorders, autophagy, and cell death, particularly necrosis. This review focuses on the new role of redox signaling in acute pancreatitis. Oxidative stress and redox status are involved in the onset of acute pancreatitis and also in the development of the systemic inflammatory response, being glutathione depletion, xanthine oxidase activation, and thiol oxidation in proteins critical features of the disease in the pancreas. On the other hand, the release of extracellular hemoglobin into the circulation from the ascitic fluid in severe necrotizing pancreatitis enhances lipid peroxidation in plasma and the inflammatory infiltrate into the lung and up-regulates the HIF–VEGF pathway, contributing to the systemic inflammatory response. Therefore, redox signaling and oxidative stress contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory response during acute pancreatitis. PMID:25778551

  19. Pharmacologic therapy for acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambhampati, Swetha; Park, Walter; Habtezion, Aida

    2014-01-01

    While conservative management such as fluid, bowel rest, and antibiotics is the mainstay of current acute pancreatitis management, there is a lot of promise in pharmacologic therapies that target various aspects of the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. Extensive review of preclinical studies, which include assessment of therapies such as anti-secretory agents, protease inhibitors, anti-inflammatory agents, and anti-oxidants are discussed. Many of these studies have shown therapeutic benefit and improved survival in experimental models. Based on available preclinical studies, we discuss potential novel targeted pharmacologic approaches that may offer promise in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. To date a variety of clinical studies have assessed the translational potential of animal model effective experimental therapies and have shown either failure or mixed results in human studies. Despite these discouraging clinical studies, there is a great clinical need and there exist several preclinical effective therapies that await investigation in patients. Better understanding of acute pancreatitis pathophysiology and lessons learned from past clinical studies are likely to offer a great foundation upon which to expand future therapies in acute pancreatitis. PMID:25493000

  20. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome- SARS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome- SARS · PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 3 · Global pattern of SARS epidemic · Slide 5 · SARS – clinical features · Radiological features of lungs-showing progression of disease · cT Scan of SARS lungs · Imaging type,cost,therapy · SARS – Lung Pathology.

  1. Acute and dramatic saxophone penis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota Gutiérrez García-Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of intense genital swelling because of a hereditary angioedema. This rare disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute and asymptomatic genital edema, because it may prevent future potentially life-threatening episodes of visceral angioedema.

  2. Diagnosing and Treating Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acute bronchitis, he or she might then prescribe antibiotics. « Previous Next » Managing and Preventing » This content was developed in partnership with the CHEST Foundation , the philanthropic arm of the American College of Chest Physicians. News & Events Blog: I Hope One Person Quits Smoking ...

  3. [Acute pancreatitis associated with hypercalcaemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun-Abraham, Mauro Enrique; Obregón-Guerrero, Gabriela; Romero-Espinoza, Larry; Valencia-Jiménez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Hypercalcaemia due to primary hyperparathyroidism is a rare cause of acute pancreatitis, with a reported prevalence of 1.5 to 8%. There is no clear pathophysiological basis, but elevated parathyroid hormone and high serum calcium levels could be responsible for calcium deposit in the pancreatic ducts and activation of pancreatic enzymes, which may be the main risk factor for developing acute pancreatitis. The aim of this report is to describe four cases. Four cases are reported of severe pancreatitis associated with hypercalcaemia secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism; three of them with complications (two pseudocysts and one pancreatic necrosis). Cervical ultrasound, computed tomography, and scintigraphy using 99mTc-Sestambi, studies showed the parathyroid adenoma. Surgical resection was the definitive treatment in all four cases. None of the patients had recurrent acute pancreatitis events during follow-up. Acute pancreatitis secondary to hypercalcaemia of primary hyperparathyroidism is rare; however, when it occurs it is associated with severe pancreatitis. It is suspected in patients with elevated serum calcium and high parathyroid hormone levels. Imaging techniques such as cervical ultrasound, computed tomography, and scintigraphy using 99mTc-Sestambi, should be performed, to confirm clinical suspicion. Surgical resection is the definitive treatment with excellent results. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. Diagnosis of Acute Groin Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serner, Andreas; Tol, Johannes L; Jomaah, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    ; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: A total of 110 male athletes (mean age, 25.6 ± 4.7 years) with sports-related acute groin pain were prospectively included within 7 days of injury from August 2012 to April 2014. Standardized history taking, a clinical examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and...

  5. Acute muscular weakness in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pablo Javier Erazo Torricelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acute muscle weakness in children is a pediatric emergency. During the diagnostic approach, it is crucial to obtain a detailed case history, including: onset of weakness, history of associated febrile states, ingestion of toxic substances/toxins, immunizations, and family history. Neurological examination must be meticulous as well. In this review, we describe the most common diseases related to acute muscle weakness, grouped into the site of origin (from the upper motor neuron to the motor unit. Early detection of hyperCKemia may lead to a myositis diagnosis, and hypokalemia points to the diagnosis of periodic paralysis. Ophthalmoparesis, ptosis and bulbar signs are suggestive of myasthenia gravis or botulism. Distal weakness and hyporeflexia are clinical features of Guillain-Barré syndrome, the most frequent cause of acute muscle weakness. If all studies are normal, a psychogenic cause should be considered. Finding the etiology of acute muscle weakness is essential to execute treatment in a timely manner, improving the prognosis of affected children.

  6. [Coffee enema induced acute colitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Jung; Song, Seung Kyun; Jeon, Jin Ho; Sung, Mi Kyung; Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Jin Il; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Youn Soo

    2008-10-01

    Rectal enema used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes infrequently causes colitis. In medical practice, enemas are known to incidentally bring about colitis by mechanical, thermal, or direct chemical injuries. Coffee enema is told to ameliorate the constipation in alternative medicine. We hereby report a case of acute colitis resulting from coffee enema, which was presented with severe abdominal pain and hematochezia.

  7. Studies on acute hepatic insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H. de Groot (Gerrit Harmen)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractAcute hepatic failure (AHF) is one of the most dramatic situations that a clinical physician can encounter. It is also one of the most frustating since death is the result in a large majority of the cases, despite all efforts of the medical and nursing staffs. Although a wide variety of

  8. [Acute cardiac failure in pheochromocytoma.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønler, Morten; Munk, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma (P) is an endocrine catecholamine-secreting tumor. Classical symptoms like hypertension, attacks of sweating, palpitations, headache and palor are related to catecholamine discharge. We provide a case of P in a 71 year-old man presenting with acute cardiac failure, severe reduction...

  9. Polyhydramnios and acute renal failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D. V.; Kelly, Moira B.; Pryor, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Acute renal failure secondary to ureteric obstruction is described in a primigravida with twin gestation and polyhydramnios. Relief of the obstruction occurred on drainage of the liquor and return to normal renal function following delivery. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:7022419

  10. Acute glomerulonephritis mimicking nephrotic syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-04

    Jan 4, 2016 ... Abstract: Background: Acute post infectious glomerulonephritis. (APIGN) describes a wide range of glomerulonephritis character- ized by an immunologic response of the kidney to varieties of infec- tious agent commonly bacteria. It is characterized by an abrupt on- set of haematuria, moderate oedema ...

  11. MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE MUSCULOSKELETAL PAIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of multimodal and multi-agent approach to acute pain management for better patient care. ... injuries and surgical operations leave a huge burden .... Pain under treatment. There are multiple reasons for pain under treatment which include medical personnel lacking formal education on pain management; inadequate pain.

  12. Epidemiology of acute wrist trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Lauritsen, Jens

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiological data on wrist injuries in a population can be used for planning by applying them to criteria for care and thus deriving estimates of provisions for care according to currently desirable standards. In a 1-year study all patients > or = 15 years with acute wrist trauma and treated...

  13. Acute fatty liver in pregnancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, A.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Peters, W.H.M.; Steegers, E.A.P.

    2002-01-01

    When confronted with liver abnormalities during the third trimester of pregnancy, one should consider acute fatty liver of pregnancy. The differential diagnosis with (pre-)eclampsia and HELLP syndrome is sometimes difficult. In these cases a liver biopsy is helpful though rarely performed during

  14. Chest physiotherapy in acute bronchiolitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, M S; Martin, J A; Cartlidge, P H; Ng, Y K; Wright, N A

    1985-01-01

    Forty four children with acute bronchiolitis were given twice daily chest physiotherapy in addition to standard supportive measures and were compared with 46 controls who were not given physiotherapy. There was no clinically discernable benefit on the course of their illness.

  15. Chest physiotherapy in acute bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, M S; Martin, J A; Cartlidge, P H; Ng, Y K; Wright, N A

    1985-11-01

    Forty four children with acute bronchiolitis were given twice daily chest physiotherapy in addition to standard supportive measures and were compared with 46 controls who were not given physiotherapy. There was no clinically discernable benefit on the course of their illness.

  16. Thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Vermeer (Frank)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of thrombolytic therapy with intracoronary streptokinase in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Five centres participated in the study, the Thorax center in Rotterdam (237 patients), the Academic Hospital of the Free

  17. Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis Complicating Uteroplacental Apoplexy

    OpenAIRE

    Cheang, Chong-U; Ho, Sai-Wai; Tee, Yi-Torng; Su, Chi-Feng; Chen, Gin-Den

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Abruptio placentae induced by acute pancreatitis during pregnancy is very rare. We present a pregnant woman with a series of complications due to acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Case Report: Presented herein is a 21-year-old, nulliparous woman at 33 weeks' gestation. The initial episode of abdominal pain was thought to be acute appendicitis (which in actuality was identified to be acute pancreatitis) and was complicated with abruptio placentae, uteroplacental apoplexy, and intra...

  18. Spontaneous cecal perforation secondary to acute fulminant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute gastroenteritis and food poisoning are suspected when two or more family members present with vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Acute gastroenteritis com- monly occurs because of viral, bacterial, and protozoan organisms. Acute gastroenteritis runs a fulminant course in the immunocompromised patients ...

  19. Acute pancreatitis: recent advances through randomised trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Sven M.; Hallensleben, Nora D. L.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.; Fockens, Paul; van Goor, Harry; Bruno, Marco J.; Besselink, Marc G.

    2017-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common GI conditions requiring acute hospitalisation and has a rising incidence. In recent years, important insights on the management of acute pancreatitis have been obtained through numerous randomised controlled trials. Based on this evidence, the treatment

  20. Acute leukemia in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emerenciano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute leukemia in early childhood is biologically and clinically distinct. The particular characteristics of this malignancy diagnosed during the first months of life have provided remarkable insights into the etiology of the disease. The pro-B, CD10 negative immunophenotype is typically found in infant acute leukemia, and the most common genetic alterations are the rearrangements of the MLL gene. In addition, the TEL/AML1 fusion gene is most frequently found in children older than 24 months. A molecular study on a Brazilian cohort (age range 0-23 months has detected TEL/AML1+ve (N = 9, E2A/PBX1+ve (N = 4, PML/RARA+ve (N = 4, and AML1/ETO+ve (N = 2 cases. Undoubtedly, the great majority of genetic events occurring in these patients arise prenatally. The environmental exposure to damaging agents that give rise to genetic changes prenatally may be accurately determined in infants since the window of exposure is limited and known. Several studies have shown maternal exposures that may give rise to leukemogenic changes. The Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia has found that mothers exposed to dipyrone, pesticides and hormones had an increased chance to give birth to babies with infant acute leukemia [OR = 1.48 (95%CI = 1.05-2.07, OR = 2.27 (95%CI = 1.56-3.31 and OR = 9.08 (95%CI = 2.95-27.96], respectively. This review aims to summarize recent clues that have facilitated the elucidation of the biology of early childhood leukemias, with emphasis on infant acute leukemia in the Brazilian population.

  1. Treatment of severe acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praznik Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory process of the pancreas with variable involvement of other regional tissues or other organ systems. The severe form of the disease occurs in 10-20% of cases, and usually requires prolonged hospitalization due to a frequent local and systemic complications. Additionally, considerable mortality despite diagnostic and therapeutic advances, makes this disease a serious health problem nowadays. The aim of this study was to conduct a review of randomized controlled trials to determine differences in the efficiency between standard methods of treatment for severe acute pancreatitis and new treatment ways in terms of decreased mortality. Search of the 'Medline' database of original scientific papers and systematic review articles was made, using a combination of the following keywords: acute pancreatitis, treatment, mortality. In total 914 papers were found, published in the last 13 years; 14 of 64 randomized controlled clinical trials met the selection criteria and were eligible for inclusion. From a total of 16 papers, the conservative treatment was related to 11, which includes some of the new treatment methods, while the effects of new methods of treatment have been the subject of research in the four studies. Combined endoscopic and surgical treatment was applied in only one study. The largest sample of 290 patients was included in the study with platelet activation factor antagonist, while the smallest sample of 22 patients was used in the study that compared total parenteral with enteral nutrition. Continuous regional arterial infusion of protease inhibitors in combination with antibiotics, intravenous supplementation of alanyl-glutamine dipeptide and the early, high-volume continuous veno-venous hemofiltration showed the best results in the treatment of patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Also, the use of low molecular weight heparin and enteral nutrition significantly reduced mortality.

  2. Acute Renal Failure Induced by Chinese Herbal Medication in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Effiong Ekong; Ekrikpo, Udeme E.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional herbal medicine is a global phenomenon especially in the resource poor economy where only the very rich can access orthodox care. These herbal products are associated with complications such as acute renal failure and liver damage with a high incidence of mortalities and morbidities. Acute renal failure from the use of herbal remedies is said to account for about 30–35% of all cases of acute renal failure in Africa. Most of the herbal medications are not usually identified, but some common preparation often used in Nigeria includes “holy water” green water leaves, bark of Mangifera indica (mango), shoot of Anacardium occidentale (cashew), Carica papaya (paw-paw) leaves, lime water, Solanum erianthum (Potato tree), and Azadirachta indica (Neem) trees. We report a rare case of a young man who developed acute renal failure two days after ingestion of Chinese herb for “body cleansing” and general wellbeing. He had 4 sessions of haemodialysis and recovered kidney function fully after 18 days of admission. PMID:26199625

  3. Systemic inflammatory response following acute traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jia; Goh, Samantha Jianli; Tng, Priscilla Ying Lei; Deng, Yi Yu; Ling, Eng-Ang; Moochhala, Shabbir

    2009-01-01

    The early, delayed, and systemic effects of acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) are the result of inflammatory mediators which initiate systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), subsequent complement deficits and coagulopathy. Once SIRS is triggered by acute inflammation, it can detrimentally self-propagate. Systemic inflammation causes tissue damage leading to further inflammation and damage, leaving the body in a vicious cycle of hyperinflammation. Therefore, important inflammatory mediators like interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, are targeted in compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS) in an attempt to control the development of SIRS. The hypothalamus-pituitary (HPA)-axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) efferent limbs in CARS provide negative feedback for the production of inflammatory mediators. However, in the case of acute TBI, the activation of CARS often leads to the complication of immunosuppression which may result in multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and mortality. In light of this, the activation of the SIRS following acute TBI does not bode well. If left uncontrolled, multiple systems will be implicated making it difficult to remedy.

  4. Acute Renal Failure Induced by Chinese Herbal Medication in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effiong Ekong Akpan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional herbal medicine is a global phenomenon especially in the resource poor economy where only the very rich can access orthodox care. These herbal products are associated with complications such as acute renal failure and liver damage with a high incidence of mortalities and morbidities. Acute renal failure from the use of herbal remedies is said to account for about 30–35% of all cases of acute renal failure in Africa. Most of the herbal medications are not usually identified, but some common preparation often used in Nigeria includes “holy water” green water leaves, bark of Mangifera indica (mango, shoot of Anacardium occidentale (cashew, Carica papaya (paw-paw leaves, lime water, Solanum erianthum (Potato tree, and Azadirachta indica (Neem trees. We report a rare case of a young man who developed acute renal failure two days after ingestion of Chinese herb for “body cleansing” and general wellbeing. He had 4 sessions of haemodialysis and recovered kidney function fully after 18 days of admission.

  5. Acute aortic dissection mimics acute inferoposterior wall myocardial infarction in a Marfan syndrome patient

    OpenAIRE

    Phowthongkum, Prasit

    2010-01-01

    A 30-year old man with acute chest pain was diagnosed with acute inferoposterior wall myocardial infarction following electrocardiography. After a failed coronary angiography, an echocardiogram revealed an aortic intimal flap after which acute aortic dissection was diagnosed. The patient received a successful Bentall operation without immediate complication. Retrospective examination then confirmed the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome. This case demonstrates acute aortic dissection may mimic acut...

  6. Acute aortic dissection mimics acute inferoposterior wall myocardial infarction in a Marfan syndrome patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phowthongkum, Prasit

    2010-01-01

    A 30-year old man with acute chest pain was diagnosed with acute inferoposterior wall myocardial infarction following electrocardiography. After a failed coronary angiography, an echocardiogram revealed an aortic intimal flap after which acute aortic dissection was diagnosed. The patient received a successful Bentall operation without immediate complication. Retrospective examination then confirmed the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome. This case demonstrates acute aortic dissection may mimic acute myocardial infarction.

  7. Microbial Safety of Fishery Products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karunasagar, Indrani; Karunasagar, Iddya; Parvathi, A.

    polymorphism (RFLP) of NAG-ST genes among V. cholerae O serogroups from a major shrimp production in Thailand. J. Med. Microbiol. 43, 216-220. Dalsgaard, A. (1998) The occurrence of human pathogenic Vibrio spp and Salmonella in aquaculture. International J... taxonomic group (Lees, 2000). A number of genotypes linked to geographical regions can be differentiated (Tsarevo et al., 1999). The virus causes an acute, self- limiting liver disease, but in contrast to hepatitis A, there could be high mortality rate...

  8. Nutritional management in acute illness and acute kidney insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverve, Xavier M; Cano, Noël J M

    2007-01-01

    There are now powerful compensatory therapies to counteract kidney deficiency and the prognosis of patients with acute renal failure is mainly related to the severity of the initial disease. Renal failure is accompanied by an increase in both severity and duration of the catabolic phase leading to stronger catabolic consequences. The specificity of the metabolic and nutritional disorders in the most severely ill patients is the consequence of three additive phenomena: (1) the metabolic response to stress and to organ dysfunction, (2) the lack of normal kidney function and (3) the interference with the renal treatment (hemodialysis, hemofiltration or both, continuous or intermittent, lactate or bicarbonate buffer, etc.). As in many other diseases of similar severity, adequate nutritional support in acutely ill patients with ARF is of great interest in clinical practice, although the real improvement as a result of this support is still difficult to assess in terms of morbidity or mortality.

  9. [Acute cor pulmonale in acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Cao, Quan; Zuo, Xiangrong

    2017-03-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe respiratory condition that is characterized by rapidly progressive hypoxemia with noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. Despite the improvement of therapeutic methods, the mortality of ARDS is in the range of 40%-50% all over the world. Some studies have shown that a significant number of patients with ARDS had acute cor pulmonale (ACP), and ACP is independently associated with the mortality of patients with ARDS, which has attracted wide attention in recent years. This paper reviewed recent related studies, summarized the prevalence, pathogenesis and diagnostic approaches of ACP in ARDS, especially echocardiography which was considered as a cornerstone for ACP diagnosis, and elucidated the beneficial effects of right ventricular protective ventilatory strategy and prone-positioning on the pulmonary vasculature and right heart, in order to provide a novel idea for the therapy of ACP in ARDS.

  10. [Synchronous acute cholecystolithiasis and perforated acute appendicitis. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrón-Arredondo, Guillermo; de Atocha Rosado-Montero, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Acute appendicitis and acute cholecystitis are among the most common diagnoses that general surgeons operate on. However, it is rarely described in its synchronous form. A 43 year-old woman attending the clinic for right upper quadrant pain of 11 days duration. The patient refers to intermittent radiating pain in the right side, with positive Murphy, tachycardia, and fever. The laboratory results showed white cells 16,200/mm(3), glucose 345 mg/dl, abnormal liver function tests. Acute cholecystitis was reported with ultrasound. A Masson-type incision was made, noting an enlarged pyogenic gallbladder with thickened walls, sub-hepatic abscess of approximately 300 ml, greenish-yellow colour, and foetid. An anterograde subtotal cholecystectomy is performed due to difficulty in identifying elements of Calot triangle due to the inflammatory process, opening it and extracting stones. The right iliac fossa is reviewed, finding a plastron and a sub-serous retrocaecal appendix perforated in its middle third with free fecalith and an abscess in the pelvic cavity. An anterograde appendectomy was performed and the patient progressed satisfactorily, later being discharged due to improvement. In this patient, with a history of recurrent episodes of gallbladder pain and disseminated acute abdominal pain without peritoneal irritation, clinical suspicion was exacerbated cholecystitis with probable empyema of the gallbladder. Open surgery approach for this patient allowed access to both the appendix and gallbladder in order to perform a complete exploration of the abdominal cavity. The synchronous presentation of cholecystolithiasis and complicated appendicitis has not been reported in the literature. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. T4 phage and its head surface proteins do not stimulate inflammatory mediator production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Miernikiewicz

    Full Text Available Viruses are potent activators of the signal pathways leading to increased cytokine or ROS production. The effects exerted on the immune system are usually mediated by viral proteins. Complementary to the progress in phage therapy practice, advancement of knowledge about the influence of bacteriophages on mammalian immunity is necessary. Particularly, the potential ability of phage proteins to act like other viral stimulators of the immune system may have strong practical implications for the safety and efficacy of bacteriophage therapy. Here we present studies on the effect of T4 phage and its head proteins on production of inflammatory mediators and inflammation-related factors: IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 p40/p70, IFN-γ, TNF-α, MCP-1, MIG, RANTES, GCSF, GM-CSF and reactive oxygen species (ROS. Plasma cytokine profiles in an in vivo mouse model and in human blood cells treated with gp23*, gp24*, Hoc and Soc were evaluated by cytokine antibody arrays. Cytokine production and expression of CD40, CD80, CD86 and MHC class II molecules were also investigated in mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells treated with whole T4 phage particle or the same capsid proteins. The influence of T4 and gp23*, gp24*, Hoc and Soc on reactive oxygen species generation was examined in blood cells using luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay. In all performed assays, the T4 bacteriophage and its capsid proteins gp23*, gp24*, Hoc and Soc did not affect production of inflammatory-related cytokines or ROS. These observations are of importance for any medical or veterinary application of bacteriophages.

  12. Isolation and characterization of acutely toxic fractions in oil sands wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeek, A. [Chemex Labs Alberta Inc., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Mackay, W. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); MacKinnon, M. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Extraction of oil from oil sand using the hot water flotation method results in the production of large volumes of wastewater that are acutely toxic to aquatic organisms. At Syncrude Canada Ltd. and Suncor Oil Sands Group Inc., this wastewater is stored in large tailings ponds that must eventually be reclaimed. The acute toxicity of these wastewaters was assessed and the acutely toxic fractions were identified. Samples were collected from the surface and fine tails zones of the Syncrude and Suncor tailings ponds during the summers of 1991 and 1992. The Microtox bioassay was used to assess the acute toxicity before and after various treatments. Where significant reductions in acute toxicity were found, further acute toxicity tests were carried out using Daphnia magna and rainbow trout. The Microtox IC{sub 50} of all centrifuged tailings pond water samples varied between 26.5 and 46%. Daphnia LC{sub 50}s varied between 76 and 98% and a rainbow trout LC{sub 50} was 12.5 %. Organic compounds that have a non-polar component, as removed by solid phase extraction with C{sub 18} sorbent, accounted for all the acute toxicity (100%) of all samples. Organic ``acids``, as removed by precipitation at pH 2.5, also accounted for all the acute toxicity (100%) of all samples except those from pond 1A of Suncor. In pond 1A, organic ``acids`` accounted for approximately 55--60% of the acute toxicity, nonpolar organic volatile compounds accounted for approximately 20--35% and the balance of the acute toxicity was due to non-polar organic compounds that were neither volatile nor organic ``acids``, as removed by precipitation at pH 2.5.

  13. Product Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources and guidelines to develop and get approved communications products at EPA; including print items, Web content standards, video production and submission, interactive maps, and social media policies.

  14. Chemical Looping Pilot Plant Results Using a Nickel-Based Oxygen Carrier Résultats de l’expérimentation sur un pilote opérant en boucle chimique avec un matériau transporteur d’oxygène à base de nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pröll T.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A chemical looping pilot plant was designed, built and operated with a design fuel power of 120 kW (lower heating value, natural gas. The system consists of two Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB reactors. Operating results are presented and evaluated for a highly reactive nickel-based oxygen carrier, total system inventory 65 kg. The performance in fuel conversion achieved is in the range of 99.8% (CH4 conversion and 92% (CO2 yield. In chemical looping reforming operation, it can be reported that thermodynamic equilibrium is reached in the fuel reactor and that all oxygen is absorbed in the air reactor as soon as the global stoichiometric air/fuel ratio is below 1 and the air reactor temperature is 900°C or more. Even though pure natural gas (98.6 vol.% CH4 without steam addition was fed to the fuel reactor, no carbon formation has been found as long as the global stoichiometric air/fuel ratio was larger than 0.4. Based on the experimental findings and on the general state of the art, it is concluded that niche applications such as industrial steam generation from natural gas or CO2-ready coupled production of H2 and N2 can be interesting pathways for immediate scale-up of the technology. Un pilote d’étude de la combustion en boucle chimique d’une puissance thermique de 120 kW a été dimensionné, construit et opéré. Il est constitué de deux lits circulants interconnectés. Les résultats d’opération qui sont présentés ont été obtenus avec un matériau transporteur d’oxygène très réactif à base de nickel. L’inventaire total du matériau est de 65 kg dans le pilote. La conversion du méthane atteinte est voisine de 99,8 % et le rendement en CO2 est de 92 %. Lorsqu’on opère en mode de reformage, l’équilibre thermodynamique est atteint dans le réacteur fioul. Tout l’oxygène est capté dans le réacteur air dès que le rapport stoechiométrique entre l’air et le méthane est inférieur à 1 et que la temp

  15. High Throughput Drug Sensitivity Assay and Genomics- Guided Treatment of Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-28

    Acute Leukemia of Ambiguous Lineage; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Refractory Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  16. Acute pyelonephritis can have serious complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Joanne; Maxwell, Alexander P

    2010-04-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) may predominantly involve the lower urinary tract, i.e. acute cystitis, or upper urinary tract consisting of the renal pelvis and kidney,, i.e. acute pyelonephritis The incidence of acute pyelonephritis is higher in young women than in men but the incidence in men over 65 is similar to that in older women. Women have up to a 10% risk of recurrent acute pyelonephritis in the year following a first acute episode. The equivalent risk in men is 6%. Acute pyelonephritis may be uncomplicated and resolve without serious sequelae. A minority of episodes may be complicated by acute kidney injury, papillary necrosis, renal or perinephric abscess or the development of emphysematous pyelonephritis. Acute pyelonephritis is generally caused by microorganisms ascending from the urethra via the bladder into the upper urinary tract. Rarely the kidney may be seeded by blood-borne infection. Ecoli is the most common uropathogen causing pyelonephritis accounting for 70-90% of infections. Species of Enterococci, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Proteus and Staphylococci are responsible for the remaining infections. There is a rising incidence in the community of UTI with bacteria that produce extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes. These ESBL bacteria have developed resistance to antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporins and increasingly to quinolones. Risk factors for uncomplicated acute pyelonephritis include recent sexual intercourse, acute cystitis, stress incontinence and diabetes and for complicated acute pyelonephritis include pregnancy, diabetes, anatomical abnormalities of the urinary tract and renal calculi.

  17. Nonacetaminophen Drug-Induced Acute Liver Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Arul M; Lewis, James H

    2018-05-01

    Acute liver failure of all causes is diagnosed in between 2000 and 2500 patients annually in the United States. Drug-induced acute liver failure is the leading cause of acute liver failure, accounting for more than 50% of cases. Nonacetaminophen drug injury represents 11% of all cases in the latest registry from the US Acute Liver Failure Study Group. Although rare, acute liver failure is clinically dramatic when it occurs, and requires a multidisciplinary approach to management. In contrast with acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure, non-acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure has a more ominous prognosis with a lower liver transplant-free survival. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The pathophysiology of the acute compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollens, T; Janzing, H; Broos, P

    1998-08-01

    The acute compartment syndrome is a condition in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the circulation and function of the tissues therein, resulting in tissue ischaemia, necrosis and nerve damage. This rise in tissue pressure originates in a decrease of the compartment size or increase of the intracompartmental volume by oedema and/or haemorrhage. Following the arterio-venous gradient theory, capillary blood flow may be impaired through increased venous pressure, decreased arterial pressure and increased peripheral vascular resistance. Often, compartment syndromes develop during reperfusion following a period of ischaemia. During ischaemia, there is a gradual depletion of intracellular stores of high energy phosphate bonds and glycogen stores. There is a buildup of products of glycolysis, particularly lactic acid, with accompanying hydrogen ion accumulation as well as an increase in intracellular reducing agents. Reperfusion may, instead of restoring normal muscle metabolic activity, cause harmful effects by washing out necessary precursors for adenine nucleotide resynthesis. Production of oxygen free radicals occurs with ensuing lipid peroxidation, and calcium influx occurs upon reoxygenation with resultant disruption of oxidative rephosphorylation in the mitochondria. Furthermore, several lines of evidence suggest that white blood cells are important in the pathogenesis of reperfusion injury. Upregulation of both neutrophil receptors and endothelial leucocyte adhesion molecules leads to the sequestration of white blood cells in the muscle with prolongation of the reperfusion injury. This subsequently results in damage to remote organs such as lungs, liver, heart and kidneys.

  19. Acute renal failure in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergesslich, K.A.; Balzar, E.; Weninger, M.; Ponhold, W.; Sommer, G.; Wittich, G.R.; Vienna Univ.

    1987-01-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) may be due to obstructive uropathy or renal parenchymal disease. Twenty-five children with acute renal failure secondary to renal parenchymal disease underwent ultrasonographic examination of the kidneys. Changes of renal size and cortical echogenicity were correlated with renal function. All patients presented with bilaterally enlarged kidneys with the exception in renal function resulted in normalization of renal size. With regard to cortical echogenicity two groups were formed. Group A comprised 11 patients whose kidneys had the same echogenicity as the liver, while in group B the kidneys were more echogenic (14 patients). Cortical echogenicity was always increased. Determination of creatinine levels showed a statistically significant difference between group A (3.32 mg% ± 1.40 S.D.) and group B (5.95 mg% ± 1.96 S.D.), p < 0.001. Changes in renal function were paralleled by rapid changes in renal size and cortical echogenicity. (orig.)

  20. Acute high-altitude sickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Luks

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available At any point 1–5 days following ascent to altitudes ≥2500 m, individuals are at risk of developing one of three forms of acute altitude illness: acute mountain sickness, a syndrome of nonspecific symptoms including headache, lassitude, dizziness and nausea; high-altitude cerebral oedema, a potentially fatal illness characterised by ataxia, decreased consciousness and characteristic changes on magnetic resonance imaging; and high-altitude pulmonary oedema, a noncardiogenic form of pulmonary oedema resulting from excessive hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction which can be fatal if not recognised and treated promptly. This review provides detailed information about each of these important clinical entities. After reviewing the clinical features, epidemiology and current understanding of the pathophysiology of each disorder, we describe the current pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches to the prevention and treatment of these diseases.

  1. Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ecer Menteş

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy is a rare form of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Mostly it appears under three years of age and is characterized by purpuric skin lesions, fever and edema. A three years-old boy, who has cough and coryzea was admitted to our clinic for fever and red spots on legs and arms. In physical examination; ecimotic skin lesions on right ear, face, arms, dorsal of the hands, buttocks, legs and dorsal of the feet were found. In the laboratory tests acute phase reactants were elevated and blood coagulation tests were in normal range. Hepatit A,B,C and TORCH markers were negative. Punch biopsy obtained from gluteal area showed leukositoclastic vasculity. Focal fibrinogen accumulation was detected by immun fluorescent microscopy. Regression on lesions was not observed despite supportive therapy, so prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day therapy was started. On the third day of the steroid therapy, complete recovery was achived.

  2. [Acute benign ataxia in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, J; Arroyo, H A; Rocco, R D; Iraola, J

    1979-01-01

    The patogenesis and etiology of acute ataxia in childhood is not well known. It may occur without previous symptoms or may be the expression of specific infectious diseases. Forty patients hospitalized at the Hospital de Niños de Buenos Aires en 1972-1978, were studied. The neurological manifestations showed an acute onset, being ataxia the main sign, associate to tremor, nystagmus, dysartria, oculo-motor paresia, muscular weakness, and hyporeflexia. Most of the patients (82%) became cured within the first four weeks. It is advisable to establish a follow-up with periodic controls, mainly in those patients in whom an association with previous infectious diseases did not exist to be able to detect an association with degenerative or desmyelinizing diseases.

  3. Rim sign in acute cholecystitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachman, M.B.; Goodman, M.D.; Waxman, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines the cause for the rim sign and to compare the sensitivity of hepatobiliary scintigraphy and US for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis (AC). The authors compared 15 patients with a definite rim sign to 15 patients without a rim sign. Images of 750,000 counts were taken up to 4 hours after administration of 148 MBq of Tc-99m disofenin. A pathologist evaluated gallbladder (GB) specimens for polymorphonuclear lymphocyte (PMN) infiltration, transmural reaction (TR), and gangrene or other complication (GAN). Liver tissue was attached to the GB specimen in three cases; acute hepatic inflammation was present in the one case with a rim sign but was absent in the two specimens without a rim sign

  4. Acute mesenteric ischemia: angiographic spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.A.; Gallant, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Fifty-six patients, selected by clinical criteria, underwent angiography for suspected acute mesenteric ischemia. Twenty-nine patients subsequently did not have mesenteric ischemia and had negative arteriograms. Twenty-seven patients had mesenteric ischemia: arterial thrombosis (three), arterial embolus (seven), venous thrombosis (five), vasculitis with thrombosis (one), and nonocclusive ischemia (11). Of these 27 patients, 12 (44%) received intraarterial vasodilator infusions. Overall, 13 (48%) of the 27 patients survived their hospitalization, including five (45%) of 11 with nonocclusive ischemia. This experience confirms that nonocclusive ischemia is the most common form of the disorder diagnosed by angiography. Most patients with mesenteric ischemia are candidates for intraarterial vasodilator therapy. Early angiography in patients with suspected acute mesenteric ischemia permits early diagnosis and differentiation between occlusive and nonocclusive types. Interventional infusion therapy may improve survival

  5. Acute mesenteric ischemia: angiographic spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R.A.; Gallant, T.E.

    1984-03-01

    Fifty-six patients, selected by clinical criteria, underwent angiography for suspected acute mesenteric ischemia. Twenty-nine patients subsequently did not have mesenteric ischemia and had negative arteriograms. Twenty-seven patients had mesenteric ischemia: arterial thrombosis (three), arterial embolus (seven), venous thrombosis (five), vasculitis with thrombosis (one), and nonocclusive ischemia (11). Of these 27 patients, 12 (44%) received intraarterial vasodilator infusions. Overall, 13 (48%) of the 27 patients survived their hospitalization, including five (45%) of 11 with nonocclusive ischemia. This experience confirms that nonocclusive ischemia is the most common form of the disorder diagnosed by angiography. Most patients with mesenteric ischemia are candidates for intraarterial vasodilator therapy. Early angiography in patients with suspected acute mesenteric ischemia permits early diagnosis and differentiation between occlusive and nonocclusive types. Interventional infusion therapy may improve survival.

  6. Blood glucose in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2009-01-01

    Blood glucose is often elevated in acute stroke, and higher admission glucose levels are associated with larger lesions, greater mortality and poorer functional outcome. In patients treated with thrombolysis, hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation...... of infarcts. For a number of years, tight glycemic control has been regarded as beneficial in critically illness, but recent research has been unable to support this notion. The only completed randomized study on glucose-lowering therapy in stroke has failed to demonstrate effect, and concerns relating...... to the risk of inducing potentially harmful hypoglycemia has been raised. Still, basic and observational research is overwhelmingly in support of a causal relationship between blood glucose and stroke outcome and further research on glucose-lowering therapy in acute stroke is highly warranted....

  7. Genomic Characterization of Acute Leukemias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaretti, Sabina; Gianfelici, Valentina; Ceglie, Giulia; Foà, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, hematologic malignancies have been extensively evaluated due to the introduction of powerful technologies, such as conventional karyotyping, FISH analysis, gene and microRNA expression profiling, array comparative genomic hybridization and SNP arrays, and next-generation sequencing (including whole-exome sequencing and RNA-seq). These analyses have allowed for the refinement of the mechanisms underlying the leukemic transformation in several oncohematologic disorders and, more importantly, they have permitted the definition of novel prognostic algorithms aimed at stratifying patients at the onset of disease and, consequently, treating them in the most appropriate manner. Furthermore, the identification of specific molecular markers is opening the door to targeted and personalized medicine. The most important findings on novel acquisitions in the context of acute lymphoblastic leukemia of both B and T lineage and de novo acute myeloid leukemia are described in this review. PMID:24968698

  8. Amphetamine Containing Dietary Supplements and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Perez-Downes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight loss is one of the most researched and marketed topics in American society. Dietary regimens, medications that claim to boost the metabolism, and the constant pressure to fit into society all play a role in our patient’s choices regarding new dietary products. One of the products that are well known to suppress appetite and cause weight loss is amphetamines. While these medications suppress appetite, most people are not aware of the detrimental side effects of amphetamines, including hypertension, tachycardia, arrhythmias, and in certain instances acute myocardial infarction. Here we present the uncommon entity of an acute myocardial infarction due to chronic use of an amphetamine containing dietary supplement in conjunction with an exercise regimen. Our case brings to light further awareness regarding use of amphetamines. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion of use of these substances when young patients with no risk factors for coronary artery disease present with acute arrhythmias, heart failure, and myocardial infarctions.

  9. Lessons from acute HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Robb, Merlin L.; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Understanding the characteristics of transmission during acute HIV infection (AHI) may inform targets for vaccine-induced immune interdiction. Individuals treated in AHI with a small HIV reservoir size may be ideal candidates for therapeutic HIV vaccines aiming for HIV remission (i.e. viremic control after treatment interruption). Recent findings The AHI period is brief and peak viremia predicts a viral set point that occurs 4–5 weeks following infection. Robust HIV-specific...

  10. Acute Stroke Imaging Research Roadmap

    OpenAIRE

    Wintermark, Max; Albers, Gregory W.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Bammer, Roland; Baron, Jean-Claude; Davis, Stephen; Demaerschalk, Bart M.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Eastwood, James D.; Fiebach, Jochen B.; Fisher, Marc; Furie, Karen L.; Goldmakher, Gregory V.

    2008-01-01

    The recent “Advanced Neuroimaging for Acute Stroke Treatment” meeting on September 7 and 8, 2007 in Washington DC, brought together stroke neurologists, neuroradiologists, emergency physicians, neuroimaging research scientists, members of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), industry representatives, and members of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to discuss the role of advanced n...

  11. [Bonsai induced acute myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, Hüseyin; Aslan, Abdullah Nabi; Süygün, Hakan; Durmaz, Tahir

    2014-09-01

    Incidences of drug abuse and cannabis have increased in young adults, recently. Cannabis induced myocardial infarction has rarely been reported in these people. There is no any literature about a synthetic cannabinoid, being recently most popular Bonsai, to cause myocardial infarction. In this case report we presented a 33-year-old male patient who developed acute myocardial infarction after taking high doses of Bonsai.

  12. MRI in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldemeyer, K.S. (Div. of Neuroradiology, Dept. of Radiology, Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)); Smith, R.R. (Div. of Neuroradiology, Dept. of Radiology, Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)); Harris, T.M. (Div. of Neuroradiology, Dept. of Radiology, Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)); Edwards, M.K. (Div. of Neuroradiology, Dept. of Radiology, Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States))

    1994-04-01

    A retrospective analysis of CT and MRI studies in 12 patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) was performed. MRI was the definitive modality for the assessment of the lesions of ADEM: all patients had abnormalities consistent with the clinical diagnosis. Ten had abnormalities in the brain, three spinal cord lesions, and three showed evidence of optic neuritis. CT was normal in 6 of the 7 patients in which it was performed. (orig.)

  13. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xue-Fei; Liu, Jia-Lin

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surg...

  14. Acute neurobehavioural effects of toluene.

    OpenAIRE

    Echeverria, D; Fine, L; Langolf, G; Schork, A; Sampaio, C

    1989-01-01

    An acute inhalation chamber study of 42 college students was performed to investigate the relation between exposure to 0, 75, and 150 ppm of toluene and changes in central nervous system function and symptoms. Paid subjects were exposed for seven hours over three days. Verbal and visual short term memory (Sternberg, digit span, Benton, pattern memory); perception (pattern recognition); psychomotor skill (simple reaction time, continuous performance, digit symbol, hand-eye coordination, finger...

  15. Ultrasonography for the acute appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Hyoung Sim; Chung, Myung Hee; Kim, Kwang Tae [Dae Rim Saint Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-12-15

    The authors analysed ultrasonography (US) findings in patients with clinical signs of acute appendicitis during a recent 7-months period. The comparative analysis between US findings and surgical-pathologic findings was performed in 193 cases who underwent surgery. There were 52 cases with a sonographically non-visible appendix whose symptoms spontaneously resolved. The inflamed appendix was visualized by high-resolution, real-time US according to the graded-compression method described by Puylaert. The following results noted: 1. Sonographically visualized 136 cases were the target-appearance appendix in 47 cases, the fluid-filled appendix in 66 cases and the irregular marginated mixed echogenic mass-like density with surrounding fluid collection in 23 cases. The appendix was not visualized by US in 109 cases. 2. Appendicitis perforation was predictable in 21 cases of 24 cases. 3. Acute appendicitis was 24 cases (59%) among 41 cases who were sonographically visualized with appendiceal wall thickening less than 3mm and 77 cases (81%) among 95 cases with wall thickening more than 3mm. 4. When the results in women were analyzed separately (n=176), the sensitivity was 86%, the specificity was 76% and the accuracy was 80%. In women, US was helpful for the differential diagnosis between acute appendicitis and other gynecologic disease. 5. In men (n=69), the sensitivity was 88%, the specificity was 67% and the accuracy was 81%. 6. The overall sensitivity was 87%, the specificity was 75% and accuracy was 80% (n=245). Graded-compression US is the examination of choice in the patients with clinical signs of acute appendicitis, particularly in women.

  16. Acute Pancreatitis Associated with Ifosfamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-Chiu Hung

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is a rare complication during chemotherapy for pediatric patients with solid tumors. We report a 9-year-old boy with osteosarcoma who experienced 2 episodes of pancreatitis 1 day and 48 days after infusion of ifosfamide (IFOS, respectively. From a MEDLINE search, this is the 3rd reported case and 2nd reported pediatric case of IFOS-induced pancreatitis, and only this case experienced late-onset pancreatitis.

  17. Oral manifestations of acute leukaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute leukaemia is the most common form of chilhood cancer. The aim of this paper was to underline the importance of oral manifestations in children with acute leukaemia. The disease and its treatment can directly or indirectly affect oral health. Oral manifestations are gingival inflammation and enlargement. Leukaemic cells are capable of infiltrating the gingiva and the deeper periodontal tissues which leads to ulceration and infection of oral tissues. Gingival bleeding is a common sign in patients with leukaemia. Symptoms include local lymphadenopathy, mucous membrane Petechiae and ecchymoses. Cytotoxic drugs have direct effects like mucositis, involving atrophy, desquamation and ulceration of the mucosa, with increasing the risk for local and systemic infections. Leukaemia can directly influence dental care and dental treatment, while oral lesions may have life-threatening consequences. Knowledge and skills among dentists may also not be adequate to treat children with acute leukaemia. It is therefore imperative that all stomatologists be aware of dental problems that occur in leukaemia in order to be able to effectively carry out appropriate measures to mitigate these problems.

  18. Statins in acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposito, Alexandre Russo; Aguiar Filho, Gentil Barreira de; Aarão, Amanda Rezende; Sousa, Francisco Thiago Tomaz de; Bertolami, Marcelo Chiara

    2011-10-01

    Statins are the main resource available to reduce LDL-cholesterol levels. Their continuous use decreases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to atherosclerosis. The administration of these medications demonstrated to be effective in primary and secondary prevention clinical trials in low and high risk patients. Specialists believe that a possible benefit of hypolipidemic therapy in preventing complications of atherosclerotic diseases is in the reduction of deposition of atherogenic lipoproteins in vulnerable areas of the vasculature. Experimental studies with statins have shown an enormous variety of other effects that could extend the clinical benefit beyond the lipid profile modification itself. Statin-based therapies benefit other important components of the atherothrombotic process: inflammation, oxidation, coagulation, fibrinolysis, endothelial function, vasoreactivity and platelet function. The demonstration of the effects that do not depend on cholesterol lowering or the pleiotropic effects of statins provides the theoretical basis for their potential role as adjunctive therapy in acute coronary syndromes. Retrospective analyses of a variety of studies indicate the potential benefit of statins during acute coronary events. Recent clinical studies have addressed this important issue in prospective controlled trials showing strong evidence for the administration of statins as adjunctive therapy in acute coronary syndromes.

  19. Gerbil model of acute neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, Sheela; Sriranganathan, N; Lindsay, David S

    2005-01-20

    Experimental infections with the NC-1 strain of Neospora caninum were conducted in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) to determine their acute responses to experimental intraperitoneal infection. Five groups of five female gerbils were used and they were intraperitoneally infected with 1x10(6), 2x10(6), 3x10(6), 4x10(6) or 5x10(6) tachyzoites. Gerbils in all groups developed clinical signs of neosporosis which consisted of inactivity 4-5 days post-inoculation. Morbidity and mortality were observed in all groups. Grossly there was a clear fibrinous exudate in the abdominal cavity and adhesions of the spleen and pancreas to the stomach in gerbils suffering from acute neosporosis. The LD50 was calculated as 9.3x10(5) tachyzoites per gerbil. The results indicate that gerbils can be used as a suitable model of acute neosporosis. This model can be used to screen candidate treatments and to test the efficacy of vaccines for neosporosis without the need to use histology or PCR to demonstrate treatment efficacy.

  20. Relationship of granulocyte colony stimulating factor with other acute phase reactants in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noursadeghi, M; Pepys, M B; Gallimore, R; Cohen, J

    2005-04-01

    The non-specific acute phase response in mice is associated with increased resistance to bacterial infection, which is critically mediated by granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), but the behaviour of G-CSF in the human acute phase response is not known. Cardiothoracic surgery is a powerful acute phase stimulus and we show here that this procedure caused increased production of G-CSF, in addition to increases in the circulating concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 and the acute phase plasma proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A protein (SAA). Values of G-CSF correlated positively with IL-6 concentrations and circulating neutrophil counts, but not with CRP values. These results confirm that G-CSF is a physiological component of the acute phase response in humans that shares some of the same regulatory controls as IL-6, but its downstream effects are on neutrophils, not hepatic acute phase protein synthesis. Our observations are compatible with a protective role against bacterial infection for G-CSF in the human acute phase response, and support investigation of the prophylactic use of G-CSF in at-risk patients.

  1. Dihydro-Resveratrol Ameliorates Lung Injury in Rats with Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ze-Si; Ku, Chuen Fai; Guan, Yi-Fu; Xiao, Hai-Tao; Shi, Xiao-Ke; Wang, Hong-Qi; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Tsang, Siu Wai; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2016-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process originated in the pancreas; however, it often leads to systemic complications that affect distant organs. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is indeed the predominant cause of death in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. In this study, we aimed to delineate the ameliorative effect of dihydro-resveratrol, a prominent analog of trans-resveratrol, against acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury and the underlying molecular actions. Acute pancreatitis was induced in rats with repetitive injections of cerulein (50 µg/kg/h) and a shot of lipopolysaccharide (7.5 mg/kg). By means of histological examination and biochemical assays, the severity of lung injury was assessed in the aspects of tissue damages, myeloperoxidase activity, and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. When treated with dihydro-resveratrol, pulmonary architectural distortion, hemorrhage, interstitial edema, and alveolar thickening were significantly reduced in rats with acute pancreatitis. In addition, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the activity of myeloperoxidase in pulmonary tissues were notably repressed. Importantly, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation was attenuated. This study is the first to report the oral administration of dihydro-resveratrol ameliorated acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury via an inhibitory modulation of pro-inflammatory response, which was associated with a suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Experimental models of transfusion-related acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliss, Brian M; Looney, Mark R

    2011-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is defined clinically as acute lung injury occurring within six hours of the transfusion of any blood product. It is the leading cause of transfusion-related death in the United States, but under-recognition and diagnostic uncertainty have limited clinical research to smaller case control studies. In this review we discuss the contribution of experimental models to the understanding of TRALI pathophysiology and potential therapeutic approaches. Experimental models suggest that TRALI occurs when a host, with a primed immune system, is exposed to an activating agent such as anti-leukocyte antibody or a biologic response modifier such as lysophosphatidylcholines. Recent work has suggested a critical role for platelets in antibody-based experimental models and identified potential therapeutic strategies for TRALI. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental Models of Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliss, Brian M.; Looney, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is defined clinically as acute lung injury occurring within six hours of the transfusion of any blood product. It is the leading cause of transfusion-related death in the United States, but under-recognition and diagnostic uncertainty have limited clinical research to smaller case control studies. In this review we will discuss the contribution of experimental models to the understanding of TRALI pathophysiology and potential therapeutic approaches. Experimental models suggest that TRALI occurs when a host, with a primed immune system, is exposed to an activating agent such as anti-leukocyte antibody or a biologic response modifier such as lysophosphatidylcholines. Recent work has suggested a critical role for platelets in antibody-based experimental models and identified potential therapeutic strategies for TRALI. PMID:21134622

  4. TNF suppresses acute intestinal inflammation by inducing local glucocorticoid synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noti, Mario; Corazza, Nadia; Mueller, Christoph; Berger, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Although tumor necrosis factor (α) (TNF) exerts proinflammatory activities in a variety of diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, there is increasing evidence for antiinflammatory actions of TNF. In contrast, glucocorticoids (GCs) are steroid hormones that suppress inflammation, at least in part by regulating the expression and action of TNF. We report that TNF induces extraadrenal production of immunoregulatory GCs in the intestinal mucosa during acute intestinal inflammation. The absence of TNF results in a lack of colonic GC synthesis and exacerbation of dextran sodium sulfate–induced colitis. TNF seems to promote local steroidogenesis by directly inducing steroidogenic enzymes in intestinal epithelial cells. Therapeutic administration of TNF induces GC synthesis in oxazolone-induced colitis and ameliorates intestinal inflammation, whereas inhibition of intestinal GC synthesis abrogates the therapeutic effect of TNF. These data show that TNF suppresses the pathogenesis of acute intestinal inflammation by promoting local steroidogenesis. PMID:20439544

  5. Acute Hepatic Allograft Rejection in Pediatric Recipients: Effective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, S M; Shahramian, I; Afshari, M; Bahmanyar, M; Ataollahi, M; Sargazi, A

    2018-01-01

    Acute cellular rejection (ACR), a reversible process, can affect the graft survival. To evaluate the relation between ACR and clinical factors in recipients of allograft liver transplantation. 47 recipients of liver were consecutively enrolled in a retrospective study. Their information were retrieved from their medical records and analyzed. Of the 47 recipients, 38 (81%) experienced acute rejection during 24 months of the transplantation. None of the studied factors for occurring transplant rejection, i.e ., blood groups, sex, age, familial history of disease, receiving drugs and blood products, type of donor, Child score, and Child class, was not found to be significant. During a limited follow-up period, we did not find any association between ACR and suspected risk factors.

  6. Acute Illness Protocol for Maple Syrup Urine Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodan, Lance H; Aldubayan, Saud H; Berry, Gerard T; Levy, Harvey L

    2018-01-01

    Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are genetic disorders that disrupt enzyme activity, cellular transport, or energy production. They are individually rare but collectively have an incidence of 1:1000. Most patients with IEMs are followed up by a physician with expertise in biochemical genetics (metabolism), but may present outside this setting. Because IEMs can present acutely with life-threatening crises that require specific interventions, it is critical for the emergency medicine physician, pediatrician, internist, and critical care physician as well as the biochemical geneticist to have information on the initial assessment and management of patients with these disorders. Appropriate early care can be lifesaving. This protocol is not designed to replace the expert consultation of a biochemical geneticist, but rather to improve early care and increase the level of comfort of the acute care physician with initial management of maple syrup urine disease until specialty consultation is obtained.

  7. Hydrogen-Rich Saline Attenuates Acute Renal Injury in Sodium Taurocholate-Induced Severe Acute Pancreatitis by Inhibiting ROS and NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen (H2, a new antioxidant, was reported to reduce •OH and ONOO− selectively and inhibit certain proinflammatory mediators to product, without disturbing metabolic redox reactions or ROS involved in cell signaling. We herein aim to explore its protective effects on acute renal injury in sodium taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis and its possible mechanisms. Rats were injected with hydrogen-rich saline (HRS group or normal saline (SO and SAP group through tail intravenously (6 mL/kg and compensated subcutaneously (20 mL/kg after successful modeling. Results showed that hydrogen-rich saline attenuated the following: (1 serum Cr and BUN, (2 pancreatic and renal pathological injuries, (3 renal MDA, (4 renal MPO, (5 serum IL-1β, IL-6, and renal TNF-α, HMGB1, and (6 tyrosine nitration, IκB degradation, and NF-κB activation in renal tissues. In addition, it increased the level of IL-10 and SOD activity in renal tissues. These results proved that hydrogen-rich saline attenuates acute renal injury in sodium taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis, presumably because of its detoxification activity against excessive ROS, and inhibits the activation of NF-κB by affecting IκB nitration and degradation. Our findings highlight the potential value of hydrogen-rich saline as a new therapeutic method on acute renal injury in severe acute pancreatitis clinically.

  8. A rare disease in the differential diagnosis of acute pancreatitis: acute brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Ilhami; Erkurt, Mehmet Ali; Yetkin, Funda; Unlu, Serkan; Yilmaz, Sami; Bentli, Recep; Bazna, Sezai

    2014-01-01

    Some infectious organisms may give rise to acute pancreatitis; brucellosis, however, extremely rarely leads to acute pancreatitis. A 40-year-old man was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis, the etiology of which was determined to be acute brucellosis. The patient was discharged without complications approximately 15 days after the initiation of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and doxycycline treatment. Brucella infections may rarely be complicated by acute pancreatitis. Thus, brucellosis should be remembered in the etiology of acute pancreatitis in regions such as Turkey, where Brucella infections are endemic.

  9. Acute toxicity of selected crude and refined shale oil derived and petroleum-derived substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, L.H.; Haschek, W.M.; Witschi, H.

    1980-01-01

    General information was obtained on the toxicity of selected samples of crude Paraho shale oil and some of its derivatives, some crude petroleums, and 3 refined petroleum products. Five tests were used to determine the acute toxicity of these substances: acute lethality in mice following oral or intraperitoneal administration of a single dose; acute dermal toxicity of a single dose in rats; delayed-type allergic contact hypersensitivity in guinea pigs; primary eye irritation and primary skin irritation of a single dose in rabbits. Histopathologic changes induced in mice following intraperitoneal injection of a single large dose of crude shale oil and two of its hydrotreated derivatives were examined. Studies also have been initiated to examine the tumor inducing potential of selected samples. The test system used was the mouse lung adenoma bioassay. The present report describes our findings and shows that all compounds tested have very low or no acute toxic effects in laboratory animals.

  10. REINFORCEMENT ENHANCING EFFECTS OF ACUTE NICOTINE VIA ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A.; Karelitz, Joshua L.; Michael, Valerie C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent human studies confirm animal research showing that nicotine enhances reinforcement from rewards unrelated to nicotine. These effects of acute nicotine via tobacco smoking may also occur when consumed from non-tobacco products. Methods We assessed acute effects of nicotine via electronic cigarettes (“e-cigarettes”) on responding reinforced by music, video, or monetary rewards, or for no reward (control). In a fully within-subjects design, adult dependent smokers (N=28) participated in three similar experimental sessions, each following overnight abstinence (verified by CO≤10 ppm). Varying only in e-cigarette condition, sessions involved controlled exposure to a nicotine (labeled “36 mg/ml”) or placebo (“0”) e-cigarette, or no e-cigarette use. A fourth session involved smoking one’s own tobacco cigarette brand after no abstinence, specifically to compare responses under typical nicotine satiation with these acute e-cigarette conditions after abstinence. Results Reinforced responding for video reward, but not the other rewards, was greater due to use of the nicotine versus placebo e-cigarette (i.e., nicotine per se), while no differences were found between the placebo e-cigarette and no e-cigarette conditions (i.e., e-cigarette use per se). For nicotine via tobacco smoking, responding compared to the nicotine e-cigarette was similar for video but greater for music, while both video and music reward were enhanced relative to the non-nicotine conditions (placebo and no e-cigarette). Conclusions Acute nicotine from a non-tobacco product has some reinforcement enhancing effects in humans, in a manner partly consistent with nicotine via tobacco smoking and perhaps contributing to the rising popularity of nicotine e-cigarette use. PMID:26070455

  11. Acute and subacute toxicity of 18F-FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Danielle Maia

    2013-01-01

    Before starting clinical trials of a new drug, it is necessary to perform a battery of safety tests for assessing human risk. Radiopharmaceuticals like any new drug must be tested taking into account its specificity, duration of treatment and especially the toxicity of both parties, the unlabeled molecule and its radionuclide, apart from impurities emanating from radiolysis. Regulatory agencies like the Food and Drug Administration - USA (FDA) and the European Medicine Agency (EMEA), establish guidelines for the regulation of production and research of radiopharmaceuticals. In Brazil the production of radiopharmaceuticals was not regulated until the end of 2009, when were established by the National Agency for Sanitary Surveillance (ANVISA) resolutions No. 63, which refers to the Good Manufacturing Practices of Radiopharmaceuticals and No. 64 which seeks the registration of record radiopharmaceuticals. To obtain registration of radiopharmaceuticals are necessary to prove the quality, safety, efficacy and specificity of the drug . For the safety of radiopharmaceuticals must be presented studies of acute toxicity, subacute and chronic toxicity as well as reproductive, mutagenic and carcinogenic. Nowadays IPEN-CNEN/SP produces one of the most important radiopharmaceutical of nuclear medicine, the 18 F-FDG, which is used in many clinical applications, particularly in the diagnosis and staging of tumors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the systemic toxicity (acute/ subacute) radiopharmaceutical 18 F-FDG in an in vivo test system, as recommended by the RDC No. 64, which will serve as a model for protocols toxicity of radiopharmaceuticals produced at IPEN. The following tests were performed: tests of acute and subacute toxicity, biodistribution studies of 18 F-FDG, comet assay and reproductive toxicity. In acute toxicity, healthy rats were injected . (author)

  12. Risk-Based Classification System of Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-22

    Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Adult T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  13. Production of Modularised Product Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to fulfil the Lean and Agile manufacturing philosophies the production is often carried out in networks. Here...

  14. Differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain – acute intermittent porphyria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mislav Klobučić

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of heme biosynthesis in liver due to deficiency of porphobilinogen deaminase enzyme. Clinically, AIP is dominatedby a colicky type pain, which does not subside after taking usual analgesics. Additional frequent symptoms are vomiting, hypertension, peripheral neuropathy, seizures, depression, delirium and coma. This paper reported a case of a twenty-fi- ve-year-old female patient, who had undergone a period of six days between the first presentationto the medical department and the diagnosis confirmation. It has accentuated possible mistakes in symptomatic therapy administration as well as dangers of a delayed diagnosis.

  15. Pharmacological interventions for acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggia, Elisabetta; Koti, Rahul; Belgaumkar, Ajay P; Fazio, Federico; Pereira, Stephen P; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan

    2017-04-21

    In people with acute pancreatitis, it is unclear what the role should be for medical treatment as an addition to supportive care such as fluid and electrolyte balance and organ support in people with organ failure. To assess the effects of different pharmacological interventions in people with acute pancreatitis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2016, Issue 9), MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, and trial registers to October 2016 to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We also searched the references of included trials to identify further trials. We considered only RCTs performed in people with acute pancreatitis, irrespective of aetiology, severity, presence of infection, language, blinding, or publication status for inclusion in the review. Two review authors independently identified trials and extracted data. We did not perform a network meta-analysis as planned because of the lack of information on potential effect modifiers and differences of type of participants included in the different comparisons, when information was available. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the binary outcomes and rate ratios with 95% CIs for count outcomes using a fixed-effect model and random-effects model. We included 84 RCTs with 8234 participants in this review. Six trials (N = 658) did not report any of the outcomes of interest for this review. The remaining 78 trials excluded 210 participants after randomisation. Thus, a total of 7366 participants in 78 trials contributed to one or more outcomes for this review. The treatments assessed in these 78 trials included antibiotics, antioxidants, aprotinin, atropine, calcitonin, cimetidine, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), gabexate, glucagon, iniprol, lexipafant, NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), octreotide, oxyphenonium, probiotics, activated protein C, somatostatin, somatostatin plus omeprazole, somatostatin

  16. Product Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Riis, Jesper

    For the majority of industrial companies, customizing products and services is among the most critical means to deliver true customer value and achieve superior competitive advantage. The challenge is not to customize products and services in itself – but to do it in a profitable way...... from more than 40 product configuration projects in companies providing customer tailored products and services........ The implementation of a product configuration system is among the most powerful ways of achieving this in practice, offering a reduction of the lead time for products and quotations, faster and more qualified responses to customer inquiries, fewer transfers of responsibility and fewer specification mistakes...

  17. Acute pancreatitis: clinical vs. CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.C.; Barkin, J.; Isikoff, M.B.; Silver stein, W.; Kalser, M.

    1982-01-01

    In a prospective study of 91 patients with acute pancreatitis, computed tomographic (CT) findings were correlated with the clinical type of acute pancreatitis. In acute edematous pancreatitis (63 patients; 16 with repeat CT), CT was normal (28%) or showed inflammation limited to the pancreas (61%). Phlegmonous changes were present in 11%, including one patient with focal pancreatic hemorrhage, indicating that clinically unsuspected hemorrhagic pancreatitis can occur. In acute necrotizing (hemorrhagic, suppurative) pancreatitis (nine patients; eight with repeat CT), no patient had a normal CT scan and 89% had phlegmonous changes. One patient had hemorrhagic pancreatitis and three had abscesses. In acute exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis (10 patients; three with repeat CT), there were pancreatic calcifications (70%), a focal mass (40%), and pancreatic ductal dilation (30%). On follow-up CT, the findings of acute pancreatitis did not always disappear with resolution of the clinical symptons. This was especialy true of phlegmonous pancreatitis, where the CT findings could persist for months

  18. Acute epiploic appendigitis: Diagnostic and laparoscopic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toufik A. Tabbara

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute epiploic appendagitis is a relatively rare disease that mimics a varied number of diseases. Presentation of case: In this paper we report a 24-year-old male who presented with epiploic appendagitis that might have been misdiagnosed by physicians due to its equivocal presentation imitating more common acute abdominal conditions like acute appendicitis or acute diverticulitis depending on the site of the inflamed appendage. Discussion: The clinical presentation, investigations findings and both conservative and surgical interventions of the patient are mentioned within the report. Conclusion: Radiological imaging like enhanced CT scan of the abdomen has an important role in differentiating acute epiploic appendigitis from other acute abdominal conditions along with the proper physical examination, thus promoting conservative management and avoiding surgery. However, failure of conservative management might lead to the surgical intervention. Keywords: Epiploic appendagitis, Laparoscopy, CT scan, Conservative, Surgery

  19. Sonography in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ryazi

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Graded compressive sonography may be useful as an adjuvant in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. To determine the role of sonography in the differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis, preappendectomy sonographic data of 164 consecutive cases in Fatemeh-Zahra Teaching Hospital were evaluated. Of 113 (68.9% patients who had acute appendicitis in histopathology, 64 (56.6% cases had preoperative sonographic diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Of 51 patients who had normal appendices, 40 (78.4% cases had normal appendices in sonographic evaluations. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of sonography for acute appendicitis were 56.7%, 78.4% and 0.63, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 85.3% and 44.49% respectively. As a result, sonographic evaluation is an additional diagnostic tool in acute appendicitis.

  20. Acute epiploic appendigitis: Diagnostic and laparoscopic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Toufik A; Alassaf, Omar Y; Kaouas, Mujtaba C

    2018-01-01

    Acute epiploic appendagitis is a relatively rare disease that mimics a varied number of diseases. In this paper we report a 24-year-old male who presented with epiploic appendagitis that might have been misdiagnosed by physicians due to its equivocal presentation imitating more common acute abdominal conditions like acute appendicitis or acute diverticulitis depending on the site of the inflamed appendage. The clinical presentation, investigations findings and both conservative and surgical interventions of the patient are mentioned within the report. Radiological imaging like enhanced CT scan of the abdomen has an important role in differentiating acute epiploic appendigitis from other acute abdominal conditions along with the proper physical examination, thus promoting conservative management and avoiding surgery. However, failure of conservative management might lead to the surgical intervention. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.