Sample records for acute radiation sickness

  1. Bacteriotherapy of acute radiation sickness

    Mal' tsev, V.N.; Korshunov, V.M.; Strel' nikov, V.A.; Ikonnikova, T.B.; Kissina, E.V.; Lyannaya, A.M.; Goncharova, G.I.; Pinegin, B.V.


    Acute sickness is associated with intestinal dysbacteriosis; there is a radical decrease in number of microorganisms of lactic fermentation (bifidobacterium, lactobacillus) and an increase in E. coli proteus, enterococcus, and clostridium. Extensive use is made of live microorganisms in the treatment of various diseases associated with intestinal dysbacteriosis; in the case of acute radiation sickness, yeast, colibacterin, and E. coli have been used. In a number of cases, such therapy increased survival and life expectancy of irradiated animals. In this study, microorganisms of lactic fermentation (lactobacillus, bifidobacterium) and colibacterin were used for treatment of acute radiation sickness.

  2. Multifocal atherosclerosis in patient after acute first degree radiation sickness.

    Metlyaeva N.A.


    Full Text Available Purpose: assessment the heavy psychosomatic and all-somatic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular pathology of patient, transferred an acute I degree radiation sickness, from the general evenly gamma-beta radiation. Conclusions. The subdepressive and disturbing-depressive syndrome of patient, transferred an acute radiation sickness (ARS of I degree, from the general evenly gamma-beta radiation, was independent risk factor of development of multifocal atherosclerosis; Features of development of all-somatic and psychosomatic pathology of patient are based on a combination of genetic prerequisites, environment influences (the stress caused by accident on the ChNPP and social factors, influencing on him during a course of life, especially during early socialization. Thus at development of psychosomatic frustration the combination of feature of the mental reaction connected with the personal characteristic and special relationship between mental (stress and physiological (somatic by aspects of reaction which led to metabolism violation, to aging, decrease in adaptation opportunities of an organism and development age — dependent pathology took place.

  3. Acute mountain sickness

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  4. Radiation sickness

    ... radiation. There are two basic types of radiation: ionizing and nonionizing. Nonionizing radiation comes in the form of light, radio waves, microwaves and radar. This kind of radiation usually ...

  5. Effect of BMPs on hematopoietic injury of acute radiation sickness in mice

    Tian Qiong; Zhang Shaozhang; Pu Qin; Zhang Fake [Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an Shaanxi (China); Hannah, X.H. [Department of Biochemistry, Hong Kong Science and Technology, Hong Kong (China)


    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) on hematopoietic acute radiation sickness in mice. BMP, rhBMP-2m and PBK/hBMP-2-NIH3T3 cells were obtained separately by chemistry, molecule biological method and genetherapy method. In this study, the effect of BMPs on hematopoiesis was detected at postirradiation: some hematological parameters, 30 days the survival ratio and formation of bone marrow CFU-GM colony. The experiments indicate that when phBMP (purified bovine bone morphogenetic protein) can increase the formation of bone narrow CFU-GM colony (p<0.05) at 10th d after irradiation. Irradiation control group's mice died in 30 days, but effect of rhBMP-2m on the survival of mice after 7.5Gy irradiation, was detected whereas there were 10%, 15% and 35% all mice of survived after injection i.p. with 0.5 mg, 1.0 mg and 2.0 mg of rhBMP-2m respectively. All hematological parameters of treated mice were significantly higher than control group (p<0.01). PBK/hBMP-2-NIH3T3 cells were established and transplanted into mice irradiated by 7.0Gy r ray by i.p., the survival ratio of treated mice higher than negative control group (p<0.01), and all hematopoietic parameters were increased statistically significant (p<0.01). These data support the our hypothesis: BMPs can treat the acute radiation sickness. The results indicate that in adult mice, BMPs can recover or treat the hematopoietic injury of acute radiation sickness in mice. (author)

  6. Principles of medical rehabilitation of survivors of acute radiation sickness induced by gamma and beta and gumma and neutron radiation

    Nedejina, N.M.; Galstian, I.A.; Savitsky, A.A.; Sachkov, A.V.; Rtisheva, J.N.; Uvatcheva, I.V.; Filin, S.V. [State Research Center of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biophysics


    The purpose of this study is to reveal the principles of medical rehabilitation different degree acute radiation syndrome (ARS) survivors, who exposed {gamma}{beta}- and {gamma}{eta}-irradiation in different radiation accidents. The main reasons of working disability in the late consequences of ARS period are consequences of local radiation injures (LRI) and joining somatic diseases. Its revealing and treatment considerably improves quality of life of the patients. The heaviest consequence of LRI of a skin at {gamma}{beta}- radiation exposure is the development of late radiation ulcers and radiation fibrosis, which require repeated plastic surgery. LRI at {gamma}{eta}-radiation exposure differ by the greater depth of destruction of a underlying tissues and similar defects require the early amputations. Last 10 years microsurgery methods of plastic surgery allow to save more large segments of extremities and to decrease expression of the late consequences (radiation fibrosis and late radiation ulcers) LRI severe and extremely severe degrees. Medical rehabilitation of radiation cataract (development at doses more than 2.0 Gy) includes its extraction and artificial lens implantation, if acuity of vision is considerably decreased. Changes of peripheral blood, observed at the period of the long consequences, as a rule, different, moderate, transient and not requiring treatment. Only one ARS survivor dead from chronic myeloid leukemia. Thyroid nodes, not requiring operative intervention, are found out in Chernobyl survivors. Within the time course the concurrent somatic disease become the major importance for patients disability growth, which concurrent diseases seem to be unrelated to radiation dose and their structure does not differ from that found in general public of Russia. The rehabilitation of the persons who have transferred ARS as a result of radiating failure, should be directed on restoration of functions critical for ionizing of radiation of bodies and

  7. Cerebral blood flow in acute mountain sickness

    Jensen, J B; Wright, Anne; Lassen, N A


    Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured using the radioactive xenon technique and were related to the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). In 12 subjects, ascending from 150 to 3,475 m, CBF was 24% increased at 24 h [45.1 to 55.9 initial slope index (ISI) units] and 4% increased...

  8. Acute Mountain Sickness and Hemoconcentration in Next Generation Spacecraft

    Conkin, Johnny


    This slide presentation reviews the threat astronauts face from acute mountain sickness (AMS). It includes information about the symptoms of AMS, the potential threat to astronauts, and future efforts to mitigate the AMS threat.

  9. Acute mountain sickness: controversies and advances.

    Bartsch, Peter; Bailey, Damian M; Berger, Marc M; Knauth, Michael; Baumgartner, Ralf W


    This review discusses the impact of recent publications on pathophysiologic concepts and on practical aspects of acute mountain sickness (AMS). Magnetic resonance imaging studies do not provide evidence of total brain volume increase nor edema within the first 6 to 10 h of exposure to hypoxia despite symptoms of AMS. After 16 to 32 h at about 4500 m, brain volume increases by 0.8% to 2.7%, but morphological changes do not clearly correlate with symptoms of AMS, and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid pressure was unchanged from normoxic values in individuals with AMS. These data do not support the prevailing hypothesis that AMS is caused by cerebral edema and increased intracranial pressure. Direct measurement of increased oxygen radicals in hypoxia and a first study reducing AMS when lowering oxygen radicals by antioxidants suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of AMS. Placebo-controlled trials demonstrate that theophylline significantly attenuates periodic breathing without improving arterial oxygen saturation during sleep. Its effects on AMS are marginal and clearly inferior to acetazolamide. A most recent large trial with Ginkgo biloba clearly showed that this drug does not prevent AMS in a low-risk setting in which acetazolamide in a low dose of 2 x 125 mg was effective. Therefore, acetazolamide remains the drug of choice for prevention and the recommended dose remains 2 x 250 mg daily until a lower dose has been tested in a high-risk setting and larger clinical trials with antioxidants have been performed.

  10. Speech motor control and acute mountain sickness

    Cymerman, Allen; Lieberman, Philip; Hochstadt, Jesse; Rock, Paul B.; Butterfield, Gail E.; Moore, Lorna G.


    BACKGROUND: An objective method that accurately quantifies the severity of Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) symptoms is needed to enable more reliable evaluation of altitude acclimatization and testing of potentially beneficial interventions. HYPOTHESIS: Changes in human articulation, as quantified by timed variations in acoustic waveforms of specific spoken words (voice onset time; VOT), are correlated with the severity of AMS. METHODS: Fifteen volunteers were exposed to a simulated altitude of 4300 m (446 mm Hg) in a hypobaric chamber for 48 h. Speech motor control was determined from digitally recorded and analyzed timing patterns of 30 different monosyllabic words characterized as voiced and unvoiced, and as labial, alveolar, or velar. The Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire (ESQ) was used to assess AMS. RESULTS: Significant AMS symptoms occurred after 4 h, peaked at 16 h, and returned toward baseline after 48 h. Labial VOTs were shorter after 4 and 39 h of exposure; velar VOTs were altered only after 4 h; and there were no changes in alveolar VOTs. The duration of vowel sounds was increased after 4 h of exposure and returned to normal thereafter. Only 1 of 15 subjects did not increase vowel time after 4 h of exposure. The 39-h labial (p = 0.009) and velar (p = 0.037) voiced-unvoiced timed separations consonants and the symptoms of AMS were significantly correlated. CONCLUSIONS: Two objective measures of speech production were affected by exposure to 4300 m altitude and correlated with AMS severity. Alterations in speech production may represent an objective measure of AMS and central vulnerability to hypoxia.

  11. Pathophysiology of acute mountain sickness and high altitude pulmonary oedema

    Sutton, J R; Lassen, N


    We review the evidence that acute mountain sickness (AMS) and high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) occur together more often than is realized. We hypothesize that AMS and HAPO have a common pathophysiological basis: both are due to increased pressure and flow in the microcirculation, causing...

  12. Acute Radiation Syndrome

    ... Matters Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS): A Fact Sheet for the Public ... is called the radiation dose. People exposed to radiation will get ARS only if: The radiation dose ...

  13. How can acute mountain sickness be quantified at moderate altitude?

    Roeggla, G; Roeggla, M; Podolsky, A.; Wagner, A; Laggner, A N


    Reports of acute mountain sickness (AMS) at moderate altitude show a wide variability, possibly because of different investigation methods. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of investigation methods on AMS incidence. Hackett's established AMS score (a structured interview and physical examination), the new Lake Louise AMS score (a self-reported questionnaire) and oxygen saturation were determined in 99 alpinists after ascent to 2.94 km altitude. AMS incidence was 8% in Hacket...

  14. Effect of carbon dioxide in acute mountain sickness

    Harvey, T C; Raichle, M E; Winterborn, M H


    The effect of adding CO2 to inhaled air in six subjects with acute mountain sickness was investigated during a medical expedition to 5400 m.3% CO2 in ambient air increased ventilation and resulted in a rise in PaO2 of between 24% and 40%. There was a 9-28% increase in PaCO2 and a reduction of the...

  15. Chronic Radiation Sickness Among Techa Riverside Residents


    9 Acute abdomen 68416 F 1955 0.6031555 5 1960 71 Unknown cause 148220 F 1954 0.3748812 0 1954 40 9 571 4 Hepatitis, achylic gastritis 164125 M 1956...12.5 (7.15-20.25) relation to the dose. The results of the analysis are residents who were adolescents when exposure listed in table 4 and figure 2...composition of this0 group indicates that many were exposed in child- hood or adolescence . Thus, among the 66 verified -500 0I I cases, there were 46

  16. Acute local radiation injuries

    Gongora, R. (Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France)); Jammet, H. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, ISPN, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France))


    Local acute radiation injuries do not occur very often. Their origin is generally accidental. They show specific anatomo-clinical features. The clinical evolution and therapeutic behaviour are dependent on the dose level and topographical distribution. The dosimetric assessment requires physical methods and paraclinical investigations. From a study of 60 cases followed by the International Center of Radiopathology, the clinical symptomatology is described and the problems raised to the radiopathologist physician by local acute radiation injuries are stated.

  17. Network analysis reveals distinct clinical syndromes underlying acute mountain sickness.

    David P Hall

    Full Text Available Acute mountain sickness (AMS is a common problem among visitors at high altitude, and may progress to life-threatening pulmonary and cerebral oedema in a minority of cases. International consensus defines AMS as a constellation of subjective, non-specific symptoms. Specifically, headache, sleep disturbance, fatigue and dizziness are given equal diagnostic weighting. Different pathophysiological mechanisms are now thought to underlie headache and sleep disturbance during acute exposure to high altitude. Hence, these symptoms may not belong together as a single syndrome. Using a novel visual analogue scale (VAS, we sought to undertake a systematic exploration of the symptomatology of AMS using an unbiased, data-driven approach originally designed for analysis of gene expression. Symptom scores were collected from 292 subjects during 1110 subject-days at altitudes between 3650 m and 5200 m on Apex expeditions to Bolivia and Kilimanjaro. Three distinct patterns of symptoms were consistently identified. Although fatigue is a ubiquitous finding, sleep disturbance and headache are each commonly reported without the other. The commonest pattern of symptoms was sleep disturbance and fatigue, with little or no headache. In subjects reporting severe headache, 40% did not report sleep disturbance. Sleep disturbance correlates poorly with other symptoms of AMS (Mean Spearman correlation 0.25. These results challenge the accepted paradigm that AMS is a single disease process and describe at least two distinct syndromes following acute ascent to high altitude. This approach to analysing symptom patterns has potential utility in other clinical syndromes.

  18. Emetic Mechanism in Acute Radiation Sickness


    organ (CVO) system comprising a group 1 of subependymal vascular proliferations that are distributed on the pial- ependymal margin of the brain and which...section of cat hemi-medulla oblongata rostral to the opening of the spinal canal . CTZ is the chemoreceptor trigger zone for vomiting located in the area...of the Vth cranial nerve. In no case was any damage apparent rostrally in the AP. Ventrally, the lesions reached down to the central canal , generally

  19. 重组鼠白细胞介素12对急性放射病小鼠的最佳防护时间%Optimal protection time of interleukin 12 on mice with acute radiation sickness

    王利; 翟瑞仁; 逄朝霞; 张超; 余长林


    Objective To study the optimal protection time of recombinant murine interleukin 12 (rmIL-12) on mice with acute radiation sickness. Methods Fifty-six BALB/c mice were given 6.0Gy 60Co γ-rays total body irradiation and randomly assigned into irradiation control group, rmIL-12 pre-treatment, post-treatment and combined-treatment group. 20 μg/kg of rmIL-12 were administrated intraperitoneally 24 hours before irradiation, 1 hours after irradiation and combination of 24 hours before irradiation and 1 hours after irradiation, respectively. The general condition of mice were observed twice a day, the changes in body weight, peripheral blood cell counts were examined once every three days, bone marrow cells were collected to perform colony cultivation on day 14 and 28 after irradiation. Results The general condition of mice in rmIL-12 treatment group was better than that of irradiation control group. Compared with the irradiation control group, rmIL-12 treatment significantly promoted platelet recovery, resulting in less profound nadirs (16.5% vs. 8.1%,22.4% vs. 8.1%, 18.9% vs. 8.1%,P〈 0.01) and rapid recovery to normal levels (11 days vs. 14 days). The duration of WBC〈50% in rmIL-12 treatment group was shorter than that in the control group(17d vs. 21d). WBC recovery speed in the treatment groups was significantly faster than that in the control group. The nadirs of HGB in rmIL-12 treatment groups were higher than those in the control group (61%~63% vs 50%,P〈 0.01). Semi-solid bone marrow cell culture also demonstrated that rmIL-12 could stimulate bone marrow cells to form more CFU-Mix than those of the irradiation group in vitro on 14th and 28th after irradiation (P〈 0.01), but there was no significant difference between the three dosing schedules of rmIL-12 treatment groups (P 〉 0.05). Conclusion All three different dosing schedules of rmIL-12 can significantly accelerate the recovery of hematopoietic function, especially megakaryocyte lineage, in acute

  20. 白细胞介素12对急性放射病小鼠造血系统的影响%Effect of recombinant murine interleukin 12 on hematopoietic systems in mice of acute radiation sickness

    王利; 王碧薇; 赵红霞; 左洪莉; 赵月莹; 余长林


    Objective To study the effect of recombinant murine interleukin 12(rmIL-12) on the hematopoietic systems in mice of acute radiation sickness. Methods Forty-two BALB/C mice were given 6.0Gy 60Co γrays total body irradiation and randomly assigned into irradiation control group, 5 and 20 μg/kg rmIL-12 treatment groups. Solvent and 5.20 μg/kg of rmIL-12 were administrated intraperitoneally 1 h following irradiation, and was administrated every 3 days after irradiation. The general conditions of mice were observed twice a day, the changes in body weight, peripheral blood cell counts were examined every three days, histopathological sections of femur were prepared to observe the histomorphological changes, and bone marrow cells were collected to perform colony cultivation on day 14 and 28 after irradiation. Results The general conditions of mice in rmIL-12 treatment group were better than those of irradiation control group. Compared with the irradiation control group,rmIL-12 5,20 μg/kg treatment significantly promoted platelet recovery, resulting in less profound nadirs( 15.9% vs 8.1%, 15.1% vs 8.1%, P < 0.05) and rapid recovery to normal levels(11 days vs 14 days). Semi-solid bone marrow cell culture also demonstrated that rmIL-12 could stimulate bone marrow cells to form more CFU-GEMM than those of the irradiation group in vitro. Conclusion RmIL-12 can significantly accelerate the recovery of hematopoietic function in acute radiation sickness mice.%目的 研究重组鼠白细胞介素12(rmIL-12)对急性放射病小鼠造血系统的影响.方法 42只BALB/c小鼠均给予6.0Gy(60)γ射线全身照射,随机分为照射对照组、5和20μg/kg的rmIL-12治疗组,治疗组分别于照后1h及此后每3d一次分别腹腔注射5和20 μg/(kg·d)的rmIL-12,共5次,每日2次观察小鼠一般情况,3d检测1次外周血细胞,分别于照射后14和28 d制备股骨病理切片观察组织形态学改变,收集骨髓细胞进行集落培养.结果 rmIL-12

  1. Survey of acute mountain sickness on Mauna Kea.

    Onopa, Janet; Haley, Amanda; Yeow, Mei Ean


    Although thousands of people ascend 4205 m to visit the summit of Mauna Kea each year, there has been no information on the rate of altitude illness triggered by such visits. Two surveys were used: one for tourists driving up to the summit and the other for summit astronomy workers staying at lodging facilities at intermediate altitude. The surveys included the standardized Lake Louise Self-report Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) Questionnaire that, when scored, gave the Lake Louise Symptoms Score (LLSS). Thirty percent of surveyed day visitors and 69% of surveyed professional astronomy staff had AMS, defined as a LLSS score of 3 or greater, with headache. Nine participants reported "disorientation/confusion" or greater consciousness changes. A majority of astronomy professionals reported fatigue, disturbed sleep, reduced activity, and mental status changes. Few took any AMS medications. The incidence of AMS in visitors to Mauna Kea's summit warrants increased education and increased availability of supplemental oxygen at the summit. The absence of reported serious altitude illness in the community is probably due to the rapid descent available on Mauna Kea, with prompt reversibility of adverse effects.

  2. Relationship between autonomic nervous system function and acute mountain sickness

    Long Min; Huang Lan; Tian Kaixin; Yu Shiyong; Yu Yang; Qin Jun


    Objective: To elucidate the role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in acute mountain sickness (AMS) during the initial phase at acute high-altitude exposure. Methods: Ninety-nine healthy sea-level residents rapidly ascended to Tibet plateau (3 675 m altitude) by airplane from Chengdu plain (560 m altitude). ANS function was tested in plain and day 2-4 in Tibet by heart rate variability (HRV), cold pressor test (CPT). AMS was evaluated by clinic symptomatic scores. All subjects were divided into non-AMS group (57, scores(4). Results: Compared with non-AMS group, AMS group had higher standard deviation of normal to normal intervals (SDNN), root mean square of delta RR (rMSSD), low-frequency (LF) power, and normalized low-frequency (Lfnu) power in plain (P50 ms(PNN50), rMSSD (P<0.01) and SDNN, LF, total power (TP) (P<0.05). Although no significant differences in the increase of SP and DP during CPT were found between 2 groups in plain, the SP increase during CPT of AMS group was less than non-AMS group (P<0.05) at 3 675 m altitude. AMS symptomatic scores was not only positively correlated with SDNN,rMSSD, LF/HF in plain (P<0.05), but also negatively correlated with Hfnu in plain (P<0.05). Conclusion: During the initial high altitude exposure, ANS modulation is generally blunted, but the relatively predominant sympathetic control is enhanced, and this characteristic change of ANS function is positively correlated with the development of AMS.

  3. Ataxia, acute mountain sickness, and high altitude cerebral edema

    Wu Tianyi; Ma Siqing; Bian Huiping; Zhang Minming


    Previous investigations suggest that ataxia is common and often one of the most reliable warning signs of high altitude cerebral edema(HACE).The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic role of ataxia in acute mountain sickness (AMS) and HACE among mountain rescuers on the quake areas,and in approaching the relation between AMS and HACE.After the earthquake on April 14,2010,approximately 24080 lowland rescuers were rapidly transported from sea level or lowlands to the mountainous rescue sites at 3750 ~ 4568 m,and extremely hardly worked for an emergency treatment after arrival.Assessments of acute altitude illness on the quake areas were using the Lake Louise Scoring System.73 % of the rescuers were found to be developed AMS.The incidence of high altitude pulmonary edema(HAPE) and HACE was 0.73 % and 0.26 %,respectively,on the second to third day at altitude.Ataxia sign was measured by simple tests of coordination including a modified Romberg test.The clinical features of 62 patients with HACE were analyzed.It was found that the most frequent,serious neurological symptoms and signs were altered mental status(50/62,80.6 %)and truncal ataxia (47/62,75.8 %).Mental status change was rated slightly higher than ataxia,but ataxia occurred earlier than mental status change and other symptoms.The earliest sign of ataxia was a vague unsteadiness of gait,which may be present alone in association with or without AMS.Advanced ataxia was correlated with the AMS scores,but mild ataxia did not correlate with AMS scores at altitudes of 3750~4568 m.Of them,14 patients were further examined by computerized tomographic scanning of the brain and cerebral magnetic resonance imagines were examined in another 15 cases.These imaging studies indicated that the presence of the cerebral edema was in 97 % of cases who were clinically diagnosed as HACE (28/29).Ataxia seems to be a reliable sign of advanced AMS or HACE,so does altered mental status.

  4. ALMA to Help Solving Acute Mountain Sickness Mystery


    , family and social isolation, commuting, intermittent high altitude exposure and other environmental challenges such as low temperatures. "An adequate acclimatisation to 2500m altitude requires around two weeks, and we can thus speculate that going to 5000m would require more than one month to achieve complete acclimatisation," said Professor Juan Silva Urra, from the University of Antofagasta. However, short and long term effects of regular commuting between sea level and high altitude have scarcely been studied in biomedical terms. Scientifically based guidelines for appropriate preventive handling and care under these conditions are lacking and the new study will help bridging this gap. Among the studies to be done, some involve continuous monitoring of the human body through portable devices, including measurements of hormone levels and application of psychometric tests. All measurements at 5000m will be carried out on a voluntary basis, under strict safety protocols, with the presence of a doctor from the investigation team, paramedic personnel form ALMA and an ambulance. The symptoms of Acute Mountain Sickness are headache, sicknesses, gastrointestinal inconveniences, fatigue and insomnia that, depending on their intensities, decrease the capacity to carry out the most routine activities. The valuable data collected will enhance our knowledge of human physiology in extreme environments, generating recommendations that will improve wellbeing and health not only in high-altitude observatories, but also in mining and Antarctic personnel. "We are pleased that ALMA is contributing to other disciplines, like medicine, even before the antennas begin to explore the universe," said Felix Mirabel, ESO's representative in Chile. "This outstanding long-term research that will provide crucial information of human physiology to experts worldwide, has been made possible thanks to the combined effort of Chilean and European universities, in collaboration with ALMA". The Atacama

  5. Increased cerebral output of free radicals during hypoxia: implications for acute mountain sickness?

    Bailey, Damian M; Taudorf, Sarah; Berg, Ronan M G


    This study examined whether hypoxia causes free radical-mediated disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and impaired cerebral oxidative metabolism and whether this has any bearing on neurological symptoms ascribed to acute mountain sickness (AMS). Ten men provided internal jugular vein...

  6. A clinical study of acute myocardial infarction with non-thyroid sick syndrome



    Objective The prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction(AMI)is related to age,comorbidities and other factors,in which non-thyroid sick syndrome(NTIS)may also be an important factor.In this study,determination of blood free triiodothyronine(FT3)was used to explore the short-term and long-term mortality relationship of NTIS with acute myocardial infarction.Methods A total of 1 019 cases of newly

  7. Influence of Acute Normobaric Hypoxia on Hemostasis in Volunteers with and without Acute Mountain Sickness

    Marc Schaber


    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a 12-hour exposure in a normobaric hypoxic chamber would induce changes in the hemostatic system and a procoagulant state in volunteers suffering from acute mountain sickness (AMS and healthy controls. Materials and Methods. 37 healthy participants were passively exposed to 12.6% FiO2 (simulated altitude hypoxia of 4,500 m. AMS development was investigated by the Lake Louise Score (LLS. Prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, and platelet count were measured and specific methods (i.e., thromboelastometry and a thrombin generation test were used. Results. AMS prevalence was 62.2% (LLS cut off of 3. For the whole group, paired sample t-tests showed significant increase in the maximal concentration of generated thrombin. ROTEM measurements revealed a significant shortening of coagulation time and an increase of maximal clot firmness (InTEM test. A significant increase in maximum clot firmness could be shown (FibTEM test. Conclusions. All significant changes in coagulation parameters after exposure remained within normal reference ranges. No differences with regard to measured parameters of the hemostatic system between AMS-positive and -negative subjects were observed. Therefore, the hypothesis of the acute activation of coagulation by hypoxia can be rejected.

  8. Strategies for the prevention of acute mountain sickness and treatment for large groups making a rapid ascent in China.

    Luo, Yongjun; Yang, Xiaohong; Gao, Yuqi


    Approximately 26.8% of China's land area has an elevation of 3000 m above sea level or higher. Because of recent demands for economic development and new construction in highland areas, many people have relocated from the plains to high plateau regions and have to face the possibility of contracting acute mountain sickness. Therefore, prevention and treatment strategies are necessary to reduce the incidence of acute mountain sickness in people who rapidly ascend to plateau areas. This paper describes the Chinese experience when large numbers of people moved to the plateau and the steps that were taken to deal with this illness. These steps included implementing basic prevention measures, increasing medical awareness among populations ascending to high altitudes, and installing standardized medical management systems to prevent and treat acute mountain sickness before, during, and after ascent. The incidence of acute mountain sickness can be reduced by improving prevention and treatment and by implementing the recommendations described in this manuscript.

  9. Predictive Models of Acute Mountain Sickness after Rapid Ascent to Various Altitudes


    SR, Rock PB , Fulco CS , et al. Women at altitude: ventilatory acclimatization at 4,300 m. J Appl Physiol. 2001;91(14):1791–9. 25. Peoples GE, Gerlinger...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. I3 . SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Purpose: Despite decades of research, no predictive models of...Beidleman BA, Muza SR, Fulco CS , et al. Intermittent altitude exposures reduce acute mountain sickness at 4300 m. Clin Sci. 2004;106(3):321–8. 4. Beidleman

  10. The Effects of Propranolol on Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) and Well- Being at 4300 Meters Altitude


    Company, 1984. 11. Sampson JB , Cymerman A, Burse EL, Maher JT, Rock PB. Procedures for the measurement of acute mountain sickness. Aviat. Space...Environ. Med. 1983;54:1063-73. 12. Sampson JB , Kobrick JL. The environmental symptoms questionnaire: Revisions and new field data. Aviat. Space Environ. Med...0 L LU 0 0 I- . U V- -J X < LULLI fe A 0-0 z LU CL >_ LU Q . m W4-q 0 00 0. _m - n* +HI H+- H 4; . C66c; 6 6 vicie 0 h J02 00~- 0 0 M 0n*o-ir q- 00D DC

  11. Pifithrin-μ Attenuates Acute Sickness Response to Lipopolysaccharide in C57BL/6J Mice.

    Zhang, Rongping; Wang, Jili; Hu, Yanling; Lu, Xu; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Chao


    Sickness behavior is a coordinated set of behavioral changes that happen as a response to acute infectious pathogens. Its well-known benefit is to reorganize the organism's priorities to cope with infection, but the uncontrolled development of sickness behavior may trigger negative feelings or chronic depressive events. This study aims at investigating the potential effect of pifithrin-μ, an inhibitor of heat shock protein 70 substrate binding activity, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sickness response. C57BL/6J mice were submitted to the forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), open field test (OFT) and light-dark box test. Food intake and body weight were also evaluated. The serum corticosterone level was measured using an ELISA kit. Treatment of mice with LPS (0.33 mg/kg, i.p.) markedly increased the floating and immobility time in the FST and TST, respectively, and depressed locomotor activity in the OFT. LPS administration prolonged the latency to first transition and reduced the total number of transitions in the light-dark box test. In addition, LPS induced anorexia and increased serum corticosterone levels. Pretreatment with pifithrin-μ (1 or 5 mg/kg) attenuated behavioral changes induced by LPS in the FST, TST, OFT and light-dark box test. Pifithrin-μ also prevented the formation of anorexia as well as the increase in serum corticosterone levels in LPS-treated mice. Our previous studies showed that pifithrin-μ prevents the production of pro-inflammatory factors in both microglia and macrophages. These findings presented here extend the role of pifithrin-μ beyond an anti-inflammatory molecule to a modulator of sickness behavior.

  12. Medical follow-up of four cases with bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness twelve years after the accident%四例骨髓型急性放射病患者受照后12年医学随访观察

    王优优; 刘玉龙; 赵风玲; 吕玉民; 李元; 卞华慧; 陈炜博; 邱梦悦; 姜梅玲


    Objective To investigate the late effects of ionizing radiation,in order to provide information and gain experience for medical treatments in nuclear accident emergencies,by medical followup of the four cases with bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness who were exposed to 60Co accidentally in 1999.Methods Histories were taken by one or several doctors,who observed and wrote down the clinical symptoms of the patients.The general health situation was evaluated by laboratory and equipment examinations,including blood cells,liver and kidney function,thyroid function,humoral immunity,levels of sex hormones,tumor markers and ophthalmic examination,thyroid ultrasonography,abdominal ultrasound,ECG and chest X-ray examination.The radiation genetics analysis was performed by chromosome aberration and micronucleus assay (CB method).Real-time PCR was used to quantify the expressions of peripheral blood GADD45 and nm23-H1 gene mRNA,which were compared with the control group.The psychological qualities of patients were evaluated by 16PF,SDS,SAS.Results The hematopoietic system and immune function had basically returned to normal 12 years after the accident.HBV markers showed that HBsAg and HBcAb of Tian were positive,which showed that infectivity was weak.All of their eye lenses had varying degrees of turbidity changes,Mei had radiation-incuded cataract 3years after irradiation.The levels of sex hormones of Mei,Tian,Min were abnormal.Translocation could be seen by analysis of peripheral blood lymphocyte chromosome aberration.The expressions of GADD45 and nm23-H1 gene mRNA had no significant difference with the control group.Psychological tests showed that the radiation incident caused different degrees of mental disorder to the exposed individuals.Conclusions The medical follow-up and psychological evaluation of four cases with bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness are successful,which provides information for clinical treatment and medical follow-up of similar

  13. Transcerebral exchange kinetics of nitrite and calcitonin gene-related peptide in acute mountain sickness: evidence against trigeminovascular activation?

    Bailey, Damian M; Taudorf, Sarah; Berg, Ronan M G;


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: High-altitude headache is the primary symptom associated with acute mountain sickness, which may be caused by nitric oxide-mediated activation of the trigeminovascular system. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of inspiratory hypoxia on the transcerebral exc...

  14. Therapeutic effect of rmIL- 12 early administrated on acute radiation sickness produced by γ- rays irradiation in mice%白细胞介素12早期干预对急性放射病小鼠的治疗作用

    王利; 翟瑞仁; 逄朝霞; 张超; 余长林


    subcutaneously half and 24 hours following irradiation in rmTPO treatment group. The general conditions of mice were observed twice a day, the changes in body weight,peripheral blood cell counts were examined once every three days,bone marrow cells were collected to perform colony cultivation on the 14th and 28th day after irradiation. Results: The general conditions of mice in rmIL— 12 treatment group were better than those of irradiation control group. Compared with the irradiation control group,the decline speed of platelet was significantly slower than that of control group. rmIL - 12 treatment significantly promoted platelet recovery, resulting in less profound nadirs (18.9% vs8.1%,P<0.05) and rapid recover-y to normal levels(11 days vs 14 days). The platelet recovery speed in rmIL - 12 treatment group was as fast as that of rmTPO treatment group. Semi — solid bone marrow cell culture also demonstrated that rmIL - 12 could stimulate bone marrow cells to form more CFU - Mix than those of the irradiation control group in vitro on 14th and 28th after ir-radiation( P < 0. 01) , there was no significant difference between rmIL - 12 and rmTPO treatment group. Conclusion; RmIL - 12 can significantly accelerate the recovery of hematopoietic function in acute radiation sickness mice, its radioprotective effect is as good as rmTPO, and it might be chosen as a new therapeutic drug in the treatment of a-cute radiation sickness.

  15. A Signature of Circulating microRNAs Predicts the Susceptibility of Acute Mountain Sickness

    Liu, Bao; Huang, He; Wu, Gang; Xu, Gang; Sun, Bing-Da; Zhang, Er-Long; Chen, Jian; Gao, Yu-Qi


    Background: Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a common disabling condition in individuals experiencing high altitudes, which may progress to life-threatening high altitude cerebral edema. Today, no established biomarkers are available for prediction the susceptibility of AMS. MicroRNAs emerge as promising sensitive and specific biomarkers for a variety of diseases. Thus, we sought to identify circulating microRNAs suitable for prediction the susceptible of AMS before exposure to high altitude. Methods: We enrolled 109 healthy man adults and collected blood samples before their exposure to high altitude. Then we took them to an elevation of 3648 m for 5 days. Circulating microRNAs expression was measured by microarray and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). AMS was defined as Lake Louise score ≥3 and headache using Lake Louise Acute Mountain Sickness Scoring System. Results: A total of 31 microRNAs were differentially expressed between AMS and Non-AMS groups, 15 up-regulated and 16 down-regulated. Up-regulation of miR-369-3p, miR-449b-3p, miR-136-3p, and miR-4791 in patients with AMS compared with Non-AMS individuals were quantitatively confirmed using qRT-PCR (all, P < 0.001). With multiple logistic regression analysis, a unique signature encompassing miR-369-3p, miR-449b-3p, and miR-136-3p discriminate AMS from Non-AMS (area under the curve 0.986, 95%CI 0.970–1.000, P < 0.001, LR+: 14.21, LR–: 0.08). This signature yielded a 92.68% sensitivity and a 93.48% specificity for AMS vs. Non-AMS. Conclusion: The study here, for the first time, describes a signature of three circulating microRNAs as a robust biomarker to predict the susceptibility of AMS before exposure to high altitude. PMID:28228730

  16. Acute electrophysiological effects of dipyridamole on sinus node function in patients with sick sinus syndrome.

    Yeşil, M; Bayata, S; Postaci, N; Aydin, C


    One of the most widely used tests for evaluation of sinus node function is sinus node recovery time (SNRT), which requires right heart catheterization. On the other hand SNRT has high specificity but only moderate sensitivity in the diagnosis of sick sinus syndrome (SSS). The authors studied acute electrophysiologic effects of dipyridamole (0.40 mg/kg IV) in 16 patients with clinical SSS. All of them had normal SNRT and had undergone permanent DDD pacemaker implantation. By the aid of temporary pacing inhibition, the authors noninvasively measured the corrected sinus node recovery time (SNRTc) and sinus cycle length (SCL) before and after dipyridamole administration. SCL was slightly decreased from a mean basal value of 1025 +/-323 to 913+/-213 msec after dipyridamole administration (mean -10%), but this was not statistically significant. SNRTc was increased from a mean basal value of 344+/-91 to 606+/-156 msec after dipyridamole administration (+76% Pnode function. SNRT measurement after intravenous dipyridamole may increase sensitivity of this test in patients with suspected SSS and normal SNRT.

  17. Novel drugs in the management of acute mountain sickness and high altitude pulmonary edema

    Sikri G


    Full Text Available Gaurav Sikri, Anirban Bhattacharya Department of Physiology, Armed Forces Medical College, Wanowarie, Pune, IndiaWe read with great interest the review article titled “Wilderness medicine at high altitude: recent developments in the field” by Shah et al.1 The authors have comprehensively summarized the recent advances in the field of high altitude medicine relevant to sports and travel medicine. However, Shah et al have described potential drugs for management of high-altitude illnesses, such as acute mountain sickness (AMS, high altitude cerebral edema, and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE as one group under the section “Novel drug treatment for AMS”. The pathophysiologies of these two sets of diseases (AMS/high altitude cerebral edema as one and HAPE as another set are different2 and hence it would have been nice to have had the novel drugs described separately to elucidate the therapeutic approach for the two different classes of diseases.View original paper by Shah et al.

  18. MRI evidence: acute mountain sickness is not associated with cerebral edema formation during simulated high altitude.

    Mairer, Klemens; Göbel, Markus; Defrancesco, Michaela; Wille, Maria; Messner, Hubert; Loizides, Alexander; Schocke, Michael; Burtscher, Martin


    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a common condition among non-acclimatized individuals ascending to high altitude. However, the underlying mechanisms causing the symptoms of AMS are still unknown. It has been suggested that AMS is a mild form of high-altitude cerebral edema both sharing a common pathophysiological mechanism. We hypothesized that brain swelling and consequently AMS development is more pronounced when subjects exercise in hypoxia compared to resting conditions. Twenty males were studied before and after an eight hour passive (PHE) and active (plus exercise) hypoxic exposure (AHE) (F(i)O(2) = 11.0%, P(i)O(2)∼80 mmHg). Cerebral edema formation was investigated with a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner and analyzed by voxel based morphometry (VBM), AMS was assessed using the Lake Louise Score. During PHE and AHE AMS was diagnosed in 50% and 70% of participants, respectively (p>0.05). While PHE slightly increased gray and white matter volume and the apparent diffusion coefficient, these changes were clearly more pronounced during AHE but were unrelated to AMS. In conclusion, our findings indicate that rest and especially exercise in normobaric hypoxia are associated with accumulation of water in the extracellular space, however independent of AMS development. Thus, it is suggested that AMS and HACE do not share a common pathophysiological mechanism.

  19. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles

    Dörr Harald


    Full Text Available Abstract Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  20. Relationship between oxygen delivery and its compensatory factors and acute mountain sickness

    Ming LI


    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the changes in oxygen delivery (DO2 to the body and brain and its compensatory factors to acute hypoxia and their relation to acute mountain sickness (AMS. Methods  One hundred and forty-seven participants were recruited from Chinese young men who had lived in plain all along arrived in Tibet by flight. All of them were asked to complete an AMS questionnaire within 48h after arrival. The resting heart rate (HR, blood pressure (BP, cardiac output (CO, oxygen saturation (SaO2, stroke volume (SV and blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAv were measured one week before departure from the plain and within 48h after arrival in Tibet. AMS was diagnosed according to Louis Lake Score System (LLS, and the results were then statistically analyzed. Results  AMS was diagnosed in eighty-six subjects (58.5%. After exposure to hypoxia, SaO2 was decreased by 10% and was negatively correlated with AMS score. Systemic DO2, CO and HR were increased by 19%, 32.5% and 31.7%, respectively, and were positively correlated with AMS, while the SV remained unchanged. MCAv accelerated by 10%, and that of AMS subjects was higher than of non-AMS ones. The cerebral DO2 (DO2C was maintained because the MCAv matched with SaO2 changes. The middle cerebral artery resistance units (RMCA decreased obviously with an increase in MBP, and RMCA in AMS subjects was lower than that in non-AMS ones. HR and MCAv, the key compensation factors of DO2, were used as the objective evaluation indices, in collaboration of HR≥85 beat/min and MCAv≥66cm/s, could be a better means to evaluate AMS, with a positive predictive value of 82.4% and specificity of 90.2%. Conclusions  DO2 and its compensatory factors may play a key role in the regulation response to acclimatize to acute hypoxia. Among them, HR and MCAv may relate to the mechanism of AMS development, and indirectly reflect the compensation level to oxygen debt, implying that HR and MCAv are

  1. Radiation induces acute alterations in neuronal function.

    Peter H Wu

    Full Text Available Every year, nearly 200,000 patients undergo radiation for brain tumors. For both patients and caregivers the most distressing adverse effect is impaired cognition. Efforts to protect against this debilitating effect have suffered from inadequate understanding of the cellular mechanisms of radiation damage. In the past it was accepted that radiation-induced normal tissue injury resulted from a progressive reduction in the survival of clonogenic cells. Moreover, because radiation-induced brain dysfunction is believed to evolve over months to years, most studies have focused on late changes in brain parenchyma. However, clinically, acute changes in cognition are also observed. Because neurons are fully differentiated post-mitotic cells, little information exists on the acute effects of radiation on synaptic function. The purpose of our study was to assess the potential acute effects of radiation on neuronal function utilizing ex vivo hippocampal brain slices. The cellular localization and functional status of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors was identified by immunoblotting. Electrophysiological recordings were obtained both for populations of neuronal cells and individual neurons. In the dentate gyrus region of isolated ex vivo slices, radiation led to early decreases in tyrosine phosphorylation and removal of excitatory N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs from the cell surface while simultaneously increasing the surface expression of inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABA(ARs. These alterations in cellular localization corresponded with altered synaptic responses and inhibition of long-term potentiation. The non-competitive NMDAR antagonist memantine blocked these radiation-induced alterations in cellular distribution. These findings demonstrate acute effects of radiation on neuronal cells within isolated brain slices and open new avenues for study.

  2. Altered free radical metabolism in acute mountain sickness: implications for dynamic cerebral autoregulation and blood-brain barrier function

    Bailey, D M; Evans, K A; James, P E


    (2)) and following 6 h passive exposure to hypoxia (12% O(2)). Blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAv) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were measured for determination of CA following calculation of transfer function analysis and rate of regulation (RoR). Nine subjects......We tested the hypothesis that dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) function would be compromised in acute mountain sickness (AMS) subsequent to a hypoxia-mediated alteration in systemic free radical metabolism. Eighteen male lowlanders were examined in normoxia (21% O...

  3. Follow-up observation on long-term effects of hematopoietic system in patients with bone marrow acute radiation sickness%骨髓型急性放射病患者造血系统远期效应随访观察

    于程程; 吕玉民; 赵凤玲; 刘金星; 邢志伟; 王雯; 姜梅玲; 翟贺争; 姜恩海; 江波; 赵欣然; 王晓光


    Objective To observe the long-term effects of hematopoietic system function in patients with bone marrow type acute radiation sickness ( ARS ) . Methods A 15-year-long follow-up observation on the long-term effects of the hematopoietic system was carried out to patients with severe bone marrow type ARS named Mei, and the patient with moderate bone marrow type ARS named Tian and Wang in the 1999 Co-60 ( 60 Co ) source radiation accident in Henan province.The peripheral blood hemogram, bone marrow smears inspection and bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cell cultivation of these 3 cases were collected and analyzed.Results White blood cells ( WBC) count, neutrophil percentage ( NEUT%) , the percentage of lymphocytes, platelets ( PLT) count, red blood cell count and hemoglobin ( Hb) level of 3 patients were all decreased after the exposure, and WBC and PLT counts reduced to less than 1.00 ×109/L and 20.00 × 109/L within a month;the decrease of these indicators of Mei came earlier with longer duration and had the lower minimum values than those of Tian and Wang.These indicators of 3 patients returned to normal status about two months after irradiation.During the follow-up observation, peripheral blood hemogram of 3 patients were normal, except Mei ’ s following decreased indexes:lower PLT 6 months and 1 year after irradiation, lower Hb level 5 years after irradiation and lower NEUT% 13 years after irradiation.The myeloproliferative of the 3 patients reduced extremely 20 days after irradiation, with the decreasing degree as Mei>Wang>Tian.Bone marrow myelogram of the 3 patients began to recover 37 to 44 days after irradiation.Bone marrow of the 3 patients showed hyperplasia or obvious hyperplasia from 6 months to 7 years after irradiation.Erythrocyte colony-forming units (CFU-E), burst-type red blood cell colony-forming units (BFU-E) and granulocyte-monocyte colony-forming units ( CFU-GM) of the 3 patients dropped sharply 20 to 44 days after irradiation and

  4. 3例骨髓型急性放射病15年远期效应医学随访%A 15-year-long clinical follow-up and long-term effect observation on 3 cases of bone marrow type acute radiation sickness

    邢志伟; 姜恩海; 于程程; 姜梅玲; 江波; 吕玉民; 赵凤玲; 刘金星


    acute radiation sickness ( ARS) . Methods We investigated the long-term effects in 3 cases (“Mei”,“Tian” and“Wang”) with bone marrow type ARS in the 1999 Co-60 ( 60 Co) source radiation accident in Henan province by clinical follow up for 15 years and focused on the alteration of hematopoietic system , immune system , endocrine system , reproductive system and ophthalmology .Results The white blood cell count , blood platelet count and hemoglobin levels of 3 patients were all decreased within one month after the irradiation and returned to normal level 6 months after the irradiation .Down-regulated granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating was found in all 3 patients in 6 months after the irradiation and returned to normal level in 1 to 2 years. The immunoglobulin G ( IgG) level of “Mei” was increased in the 5th, 11th and 13th year while the complement 3 level was decreased compared to the normal value in the 6th month and the 2nd year after the irradiation.Similarly, the enhanced IgG level of “Tian” was indicated in the 5th year after the irradiation .The percentage of CD3 +T cell, CD3 +CD4+T cell, CD3 +CD8 +T cell and the values of CD3+CD4 +/CD3 +CD8 +in 3 patients were observed lower than normal level within 6 months after the irradiation , which recovered in the 2nd year.Amenorrhea happened in “Mei” after the irradiation, while gradually decreased numbers of sperm and dead sperm were found in “Tian” in 3 months after the irradiation, which returned to normal level in 3 to 7 years.Thyroid nodules were found in “Mei” and“Tian” in 15 years after the accident.All these 3 patients had various degree of lens turbidity and “Mei” was treated with cataract extractionin the left eye followed with crystalline lens implantation in the 13th year.Peripheral blood lymphocyte micronuclei rates of“Mei” and “Wang” were 3‰ and 1‰ respectively, while the chromosome aberration examination showed that the numbersof reciprocal

  5. Therapeutic effect of different dosing regimens of rmlL-12 on acute radiation sickness in mice%白介素12不同给药方案对急性放射病小鼠的治疗作用

    王利; 王松雷; 曹务锐; 耿斌; 翟瑞仁; 逄朝霞; 张超; 余长林


    Objective: To study the therapeutic effect of different dosing regimens of recombinant murine interleu-kin 12(rmIL - 12) on the mice irradiated by γ -rays. Methods: Forty -two BALB/c mice were given 6.0Gy 60Co γ - rays total body irradiation and randomly assigned into irradiation control group,rmIL - 12 one dose and five doses treatment group. 20μg/kg of rmIL - 12 was administrated intraperitoneally 1 hour following irradiation in one dose treatment group, and was administrated every 3 days after irradiation for four times additionally in five doses treatment group. The general conditions of mice were observed twice a day, the changes in body weight, peripheral blood cell counts were examined once every three days, bone marrow cells were collected to perform colony cultivation on the 14th and 28th day after irradiation. Results: The general conditions of mice in rmIL - 12 treatment group were better than those of irradiation control group. The decline speed of platelet in rmIL - 12 one and five doses treatment group was significantly slower than that of control group. rmIL - 12 treatment significantly promoted platelet recovery, resulting in less profound nadirs(18.9% vs 8. 1% ,22.5% vs 8. 1% ,P0. 05). The white blood cell recovery speed in two treatment groups was faster than that of the irradiation control group(P<0.05) ,but there was no significant difference between two treatment groups. Semi - solid bone marrow cell culture also demonstrated that rmIL - 12 could stimulate bone marrow cells to form more CFU - Mix than those of the irradiation control group on 14th after irradiation(P <0. 01) ,and there were more CFU - GM and CFU - Mix in two rmIL - 12 treatment group than those of the irradiation control group on 28th after irradiation (P < 0.05, P< 0.01). Conclusion: 1 and 5 dosing regimens of rmIL - 12 can significantly accelerate the recovery of hematopoietic function , especially the recovery of megakaryocyte in acute radiation sickness mice.%目的:

  6. Therapeutic Effect of rmIL-12 Combined with G-CSF on Acute Radiation Sickness Produced by γ-Ray Irradiation in Mice%白介素12与粒细胞集落刺激因子联合应用对急性放射病小鼠的治疗作用

    王利; 翟瑞仁; 逄朝霞; 张超; 余长林


    -CSF can significantly accelerate the recovery of hematopoietic function in mice with acute radiation sickness.%本研究旨在探究重组鼠白介素12(rmIL-12)与粒细胞集落刺激因子(G-CSF)联合应用对γ射线急性放射病小鼠的治疗作用.56只BALB/c小鼠给予60Co γ射线6.0 Gy一次全身照射,然后随机分为照射对照、rmIL-12治疗、G-CSF治疗和rmIL-12+ G-CSF治疗4组.rmIL-12治疗组小鼠于照射后1h及此后每3d1次腹腔注射rmIL-12 20 g/kg,共5次;G-CSF治疗组小鼠于照射后2h开始每天1次皮下注射G-CSF 100 μg/kg,共14 d;联合治疗组给予rmIL-12+ G-CSF治疗,方法同上.每天2次观察小鼠一般情况,3d检测1次外周血细胞数,分别于照射后14 d和28 d收集骨髓细胞进行集落培养.结果表明,联合治疗组小鼠外周血白细胞(WBC)数恢复时间较对照组明显提前(7d vs 11d),恢复速度与G-CSF治疗组相当,血小板(Plt)数开始恢复时间较对照组明显提前(11 d vs 14 d),且Plt最低值明显高于对照组(16.5% vs 8.1%,P<0.01),恢复速度与rmIL-12治疗组相当.照射后14和28 d骨髓有核细胞集落培养结果提示,联合治疗组CFU-GM、CFU-Mix均明显高于对照组(P<0.05).结论:rmIL-12与G-CSF联合应用可明显促进急性放射病小鼠造血功能的恢复.

  7. Population level determinants of acute mountain sickness among young men: a retrospective study

    You Haiyan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many visitors, including military troops, who enter highland regions from low altitude areas may suffer from acute mountain sickness (AMS, which negatively impacts workable man-hours and increases healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the population level risk factors and build a multivariate model, which might be applicable to reduce the effects of AMS on Chinese young men traveling to this region. Methods Chinese highland military medical records were used to obtain data of young men (n = 3727 who entered the Tibet plateau between the years of 2006-2009. The relationship between AMS and travel profile, demographic characteristics, and health behaviors were evaluated by logistic regression. Univariate logistic models estimated the crude odds ratio. The variables that showed significance in the univariate model were included in a multivariate model to derive adjusted odds ratios and build the final model. Data corresponding to odd and even years (2 subsets were analyzed separately and used in a simple cross-validation. Results Univariate analysis indicated that travel profile, prophylactic use, ethnicity, and province of birth were all associated with AMS in both subsets. In multivariate analysis, young men who traveled from lower altitude (600-800 m vs. 1300-1500 m, adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.32-1.44 to higher altitudes (4100-4300 m vs. 2900-3100 m, AOR = 3.94-4.12; 3600-3700 m vs. 2900-3100 m, AOR = 2.71-2.74 by air or rapid land transport for emergency mission deployment (emergency land deployment vs. normal land deployment, AOR = 2.08-2.11; normal air deployment vs. normal land deployment, AOR = 2.00-2.20; emergency air deployment vs. normal land deployment, AOR = 2.40-3.34 during the cold season (cold vs. warm, AOR = 1.25-1.28 are at great risk for developing AMS. Non-Tibetan male soldiers (Tibetan vs. Han, AOR = 0.03-0.08, born and raised in lower provinces (eastern vs. northwestern, AOR = 1

  8. Analysis of variance in acute mountain sickness among young men from different regions of China

    Yu WU


    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS among young men from different regions when arriving in Tibet, and explore the medical geographic differences of high altitude adaptability of people from different regions. Methods Cluster sampling survey of AMS incidence was performed among the young men from different regions when arriving in high altitude area, by using the AMS symptoms scoring method, and the military standards were employed as reference, for classifying and scoring. For distinguishing the differences of geographic environment, the systematic cluster analysis of natural geographical factors of their native places was performed and verified by nonparametric tests. The one-way ANOVA was used to analyze the differences of AMS symptom scores among young men from different regions. Results The native places of the studied subjects were divided into 5 regions by cluster analysis, and the geographic factors among the 5 regions were found to be significantly different (P<0.01. It was found that there were significant differences in the AMS incidence among people came from different regions (P<0.05. Specifically, the AMS incidence was significantly higher (P<0.05 in people from region 2 than in people from region 3, 4 and 5. In terms of main symptoms of AMS, the incidence of headache in people from region 2 was 82.8%, and it was significantly different (P<0.05 from that of those coming from regions 3, 4 and 5; the incidence of nausea and vomiting was 37.9%, and it was significantly different (P<0.05 from that of those coming from region 3; the incidence of fatigue and drowsiness was 724.% and 27.6%, and it was significantly different (P<0.05 from that of those coming from region 5. The incidence of vertigo in people from region 1 and 3 was significantly different (P<0.05 from that of those coming from region 5. Conclusions The significant geographic differences of AMS incidence are found to exist among

  9. Effects of radiation upon gastrointestinal motility

    Mary F Otterson


    Whether due to therapeutic or belligerent exposure, the gastrointestinal effects of irradiation produce symptoms dreaded by a majority of the population. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal cramping are hallmarks of the prodromal phase of radiation sickness, occurring hours to days following radiation exposure. The prodromal phase is distinct from acute radiation sickness in that the absorptive, secretory and anatomic changes associated with radiation damage are not easily identifiable. It is during this phase of radiation sickness that gastrointestinal motility significantly changes. In addition, there is evidence that motor activity of the gut contributes to some of the acute and chronic effects of radiation.

  10. Intravenous iron supplementation may protect against acute mountain sickness: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

    Talbot, Nick P; Smith, Thomas G; Privat, Catherine; Nickol, Annabel H; Rivera-Ch, Maria; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Dorrington, Keith L; Robbins, Peter A


    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a common and disabling condition that occurs in healthy individuals ascending to high altitude. Based on the ability of iron to influence cellular oxygen sensing pathways, we hypothesized that iron supplementation would protect against AMS. To examine this hypothesis, 24 healthy sea-level residents were randomized to receive either intravenous iron(III)-hydroxide sucrose (200 mg) or saline placebo, before ascending rapidly to Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4340 m). The Lake Louise scoring system was used to assess incidence and severity of AMS at sea level and on the first full day at altitude. No significant difference in absolute AMS score was detected between the two groups either at baseline or at high altitude. However, the mean increase in AMS score was 65% smaller in the iron group than in the saline group (pvolunteers.

  11. Carbohydrate-Binding Non-Peptidic Pradimicins for the Treatment of Acute Sleeping Sickness in Murine Models

    Castillo-Acosta, Víctor M.; Ruiz-Pérez, Luis M.; Reichardt, Niels C.; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Liekens, Sandra; Balzarini, Jan


    Current treatments available for African sleeping sickness or human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) are limited, with poor efficacy and unacceptable safety profiles. Here, we report a new approach to address treatment of this disease based on the use of compounds that bind to parasite surface glycans leading to rapid killing of trypanosomes. Pradimicin and its derivatives are non-peptidic carbohydrate-binding agents that adhere to the carbohydrate moiety of the parasite surface glycoproteins inducing parasite lysis in vitro. Notably, pradimicin S has good pharmaceutical properties and enables cure of an acute form of the disease in mice. By inducing resistance in vitro we have established that the composition of the sugars attached to the variant surface glycoproteins are critical to the mode of action of pradimicins and play an important role in infectivity. The compounds identified represent a novel approach to develop drugs to treat HAT. PMID:27662652

  12. Acute effects of solar particle event radiation

    Kennedy, Ann R.; Weissman, Drew; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Wan, X. Steven; Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Lin, L.; Cengel, K.


    A major solar particle event (SPE) may place astronauts at significant risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which may be exacerbated when combined with other space flight stressors, such that the mission or crew health may be compromised. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR) is focused on the assessment of risks of adverse biological effects related to the ARS in animals exposed to space flight stressors combined with the types of radiation expected during an SPE. The CARR studies are focused on the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to the types of radiation, at the appropriate energies, doses and dose-rates, present during an SPE (and standard reference radiations: gamma rays or electrons). All animal studies described have been approved by the University of PA IACUC. Some conclusions from recent CARR investigations are as follows: (i) the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for SPE-like protons compared with standard reference radiations (gammas or electrons) for white blood cells (WBCs) vary greatly between mice, ferrets and pigs, with the RBE values being greater in ferrets than those in mice, and considerably greater in pigs compared with those in ferrets or mice [1, 2]. This trend for the data suggests that the RBE values for WBCs in humans could be considerably greater than those observed in small mammals, and SPE proton radiation may be far more hazardous to humans than previously estimated from small animal studies. (ii) Very low doses of SPE proton radiation (25 cGy) increase blood clotting times in ferrets, and the low SPE-like dose rate has more severe effects than high dose rate radiation [3]. (iii) Results from pig and ferret studies suggest that disseminated intravascular coagulation is a major cause of death at doses near the LD50 level for SPE-like proton and gamma radiation. (iv) Exposure to SPE-like proton or gamma radiation, in combination with

  13. 大鼠脂肪间充质干细胞移植治疗急性放射病的安全性%Safety of rat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in the treatment of acute radiation sickness

    许文黎; 张伟; 秦秀军; 岳娟; 李曙芳; 王永丽; 闻建华


    目的:探讨急性放射性大鼠经静脉输注异体脂肪间充质干细胞(adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells,ADSCs)后的安全性。方法:SPF级雄性SD大鼠45只,随机分为空白对照组,照射对照组和照射移植组,每组15只。体外分离培养大鼠脂肪间充60质干细胞,照射对照组与照射移植组大鼠经 Co治疗机一次性7 Gy剂量全身照射后,照射移植组大鼠按10 mL/kg尾静脉注射脂肪间6充质干细胞,细胞浓度为1×10/mL;空白对照组和照射对照组注射等体积的无菌生理盐水。分别于照射后16和34 d进行血液学、血液生化学和组织病理学检查。结果:移植组大鼠体质量、血常规、血液生化与照射对照组相比差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);移植组大鼠脏器病理学观察与照射组、空白对照组相比无明显差别;未见移植组大鼠出现急慢性移植物抗宿主病反应。结论:急性放射性大鼠异体静脉输注脂肪间充质干细胞是安全可行的,对受者无不良影响。%OBJECTIVE: To investigate the safety of intravenous injection of allogeneic adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells(ADSCs) in rats after acute radiation. METHODS:A total of 45 SPF male SD rats were equally and randomly divided into three groups:blank control group,radiation control group and radiation grafting group. Rat ADSCs were isolated and cultured in vitro. Irradiated control group and irradiated grafting rats were received 7 Gy dose 6total body irradiation once. Rats in each group received injection via tail vein,with 10 mL/kg of 1×10 ADSCs as the irradiated grafting group and the equal volume physiological saline as blank control group and irradiated control group. The rats were observed for 34 days for their general reactions before they were sacrificed. Blood samples were collected for hematological studies at the 16th day and biochemical studies at the 34th day. Visceral organs were inspected and studied

  14. Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure

    Strom, Daniel J.


    Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

  15. Serum-sickness-like disease is a common cause of acute arthritis in children.

    Kunnamo, I; Kallio, P; Pelkonen, P; Viander, M


    Among 283 children in a prospective study of arthritis we found 15 patients with a self-limited serum-sickness-like disease consisting of urticaria or joint erythema and mostly polyarticular arthritis. The mean duration of joint symptoms was 5.9 days. A preceding infection was reported in 12 patients and 12 had received drugs, the therapy starting on average 12.8 days before the onset of joint symptoms. In 9 cases the drug was penicillin. Four patients had recurrent attacks. Circulating immune complexes were detected in the serum of 12 patients, but specific IgE antibodies to penicillin only in 3 patients. The estimated annual incidence of the condition was 4.7/100,000 children under age 16.

  16. Fish oil diet associated with acute reperfusion related haemorrhage, and with reduced stroke-related sickness behaviours and motor impairment

    Michaela Celeste Pascoe


    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is associated with motor impairment and increased incidence of affective disorders such as anxiety/clinical depression. In non-stroke populations, successful management of such disorders and symptoms has been reported following diet supplementation with long chain omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids (PUFA. However, the potential protective effects of PUFA supplementation on affective behaviours after experimentally induced stroke and sham surgery have not been examined previously. This study investigated the behavioural effects of PUFA supplementation over a six-week period following either middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham surgery in the hooded-Wistar rat. The PUFA diet supplied during the acclimation period prior to surgery was found to be associated with an increased risk of acute haemorrhage following the reperfusion component of the surgery. In surviving animals, PUFA supplementation did not influence infarct size as determined six weeks after surgery, but did decrease omega-6-fatty-acid levels, moderate sickness behaviours, acute motor impairment and longer-term locomotor hyperactivity and depression/anxiety-like behaviour.

  17. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events

    Carnell, Lisa; Blattnig, Steve; Hu, Shaowen; Huff, Janice; Kim, Myung-Hee; Norman, Ryan; Patel, Zarana; Simonsen, Lisa; Wu, Honglu


    Crew health and performance may be impacted by a major solar particle event (SPE), multiple SPEs, or the cumulative effect of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and SPEs. Beyond low-Earth orbit, the protection of the Earth's magnetosphere is no longer available, such that increased shielding and protective mechanisms are necessary in order to prevent acute radiation sickness and impacts to mission success or crew survival. While operational monitoring and shielding are expected to minimize radiation exposures, there are EVA scenarios outside of low-Earth orbit where the risk of prodromal effects, including nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and fatigue, as well as skin injury and depletion of the blood-forming organs (BFO), may occur. There is a reasonable concern that a compromised immune system due to high skin doses from a SPE or due to synergistic space flight factors (e.g., microgravity) may lead to increased risk to the BFO. The primary data available at present are derived from analyses of medical patients and persons accidentally exposed to acute, high doses of low-linear energy transfer (LET) (or terrestrial) radiation. Data more specific to the space flight environment must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of increase of this risk and to develop appropriate protection strategies. In particular, information addressing the distinct differences between solar proton exposures and terrestrial exposure scenarios, including radiation quality, dose-rate effects, and non-uniform dose distributions, is required for accurate risk estimation.

  18. Quantification of optic disc edema during exposure to high altitude shows no correlation to acute mountain sickness.

    Gabriel Willmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The study aimed to quantify changes of the optic nerve head (ONH during exposure to high altitude and to assess a correlation with acute mountain sickness (AMS. This work is related to the Tuebingen High Altitude Ophthalmology (THAO study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO, Heidelberg Retina Tomograph, HRT3® was used to quantify changes at the ONH in 18 healthy participants before, during and after rapid ascent to high altitude (4559 m. Slitlamp biomicroscopy was used for clinical optic disc evaluation; AMS was assessed with Lake Louise (LL and AMS-cerebral (AMS-c scores; oxygen saturation (SpO₂ and heart rate (HR were monitored. These parameters were used to correlate with changes at the ONH. After the first night spent at high altitude, incidence of AMS was 55% and presence of clinical optic disc edema (ODE 79%. Key stereometric parameters of the HRT3® used to describe ODE (mean retinal nerve fiber layer [RNFL] thickness, RNFL cross sectional area, optic disc rim volume and maximum contour elevation changed significantly at high altitude compared to baseline (p<0.05 and were consistent with clinically described ODE. All changes were reversible in all participants after descent. There was no significant correlation between parameters of ODE and AMS, SpO₂ or HR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Exposure to high altitude leads to reversible ODE in the majority of healthy subjects. However, these changes did not correlate with AMS or basic physiologic parameters such as SpO₂ and HR. For the first time, a quantitative approach has been used to assess these changes during acute, non-acclimatized high altitude exposure. In conclusion, ODE presents a reaction of the body to high altitude exposure unrelated to AMS.

  19. Quantification of Optic Disc Edema during Exposure to High Altitude Shows No Correlation to Acute Mountain Sickness

    Willmann, Gabriel; Fischer, M. Dominik; Schatz, Andreas; Schommer, Kai; Messias, Andre; Zrenner, Eberhart; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U.; Gekeler, Florian


    Background The study aimed to quantify changes of the optic nerve head (ONH) during exposure to high altitude and to assess a correlation with acute mountain sickness (AMS). This work is related to the Tuebingen High Altitude Ophthalmology (THAO) study. Methodology/Principal Findings A confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO, Heidelberg Retina Tomograph, HRT3®) was used to quantify changes at the ONH in 18 healthy participants before, during and after rapid ascent to high altitude (4559 m). Slitlamp biomicroscopy was used for clinical optic disc evaluation; AMS was assessed with Lake Louise (LL) and AMS-cerebral (AMS-c) scores; oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate (HR) were monitored. These parameters were used to correlate with changes at the ONH. After the first night spent at high altitude, incidence of AMS was 55% and presence of clinical optic disc edema (ODE) 79%. Key stereometric parameters of the HRT3® used to describe ODE (mean retinal nerve fiber layer [RNFL] thickness, RNFL cross sectional area, optic disc rim volume and maximum contour elevation) changed significantly at high altitude compared to baseline (p<0.05) and were consistent with clinically described ODE. All changes were reversible in all participants after descent. There was no significant correlation between parameters of ODE and AMS, SpO2 or HR. Conclusions/Significance Exposure to high altitude leads to reversible ODE in the majority of healthy subjects. However, these changes did not correlate with AMS or basic physiologic parameters such as SpO2 and HR. For the first time, a quantitative approach has been used to assess these changes during acute, non-acclimatized high altitude exposure. In conclusion, ODE presents a reaction of the body to high altitude exposure unrelated to AMS. PMID:22069483

  20. Differences Between the "Chinese AMS Score" and the Lake Louise Score in the Diagnosis of Acute Mountain Sickness.

    Wu, Jialin; Gu, Haoran; Luo, Yongjun


    The Chinese AMS score (CAS) is used in clinical medicine and research to diagnosis acute mountain sickness (AMS). However, the Lake Louise Score (LLS) is the well-accepted standard for diagnosing AMS. The difference between the CAS and LLS questionnaires is that the CAS considers more nonspecific symptoms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate differences in AMS prevalence according to the LLS and CAS criteria. We surveyed 58 males who traveled from Chongqing (300 m) to Lhasa (3658 m) via the Qinghai-Tibet train. Cases of AMS were diagnosed using LLS and CAS questionnaires in a few railway stations at different evaluation areas along the road. We subsequently evaluated discrepancies in values related to the prevalence of AMS determined using the 2 types of questionnaires (CAS and LLS). The prevalence of CAS-diagnosed AMS indicated that the percentage of AMS cases among the 58 young men was 29.3% in Golmud, 60.3% in Tanggula, 63.8% in Lhasa, 22.4% on the first day after arrival in Lhasa, 27.6% on the second day, 24.1% on the third day, and 12.1% on the fourth day. The prevalence of LLS-diagnosed AMS in Golmud was 10.3%, 38% in Lhasa, and 6.9% on day 1, the prevalence in each station was lower than that as assessed by the CAS. Our experimental data indicate that AMS diagnoses ascertained using the CAS indicate a higher AMS prevalence than those ascertained using the LLS. Through statistical analysis, the CAS seems capable of effectively diagnosing AMS as validated by LLS (sensitivity 61.8%, specificity 92.7%).

  1. Acute Hematological Effects of Solar Particle Event Proton Radiation in the Porcine Model

    Sanzari, J. K.; Wan, X. S.; Wroe, A. J.; Rightnar, S.; Cengel, K. A.; Diffenderfer, E. S.; Krigsfeld, G. S.; Gridley, D. S.; Kennedy, A. R.


    Acute radiation sickness (ARS) is expected to occur in astronauts during large solar particle events (SPEs). One parameter associated with ARS is the hematopoietic syndrome, which can result from decreased numbers of circulating blood cells in those exposed to radiation. The peripheral blood cells are critical for an adequate immune response, and low blood cell counts can result in an increased susceptibility to infection. In this study, Yucatan minipigs were exposed to proton radiation within a range of skin dose levels expected for an SPE (estimated from previous SPEs). The proton-radiation exposure resulted in significant decreases in total white blood cell count (WBC) within 1 day of exposure, 60% below baseline control value or preirradiation values. At the lowest level of the blood cell counts, lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils were decreased up to 89.5%, 60.4%, 73.2% and 75.5%, respectively, from the preirradiation values. Monocytes and lymphocytes were decreased by an average of 70% (compared to preirradiation values) as early as 4 h after radiation exposure. Skin doses greater than 5 Gy resulted in decreased blood cell counts up to 90 days after exposure. The results reported here are similar to studies of ARS using the nonhuman primate model, supporting the use of the Yucatan minipig as an alternative. In addition, the high prevalence of hematologic abnormalities resulting from exposure to acute, whole-body SPE-like proton radiation warrants the development of appropriate countermeasures to prevent or treat ARS occurring in astronauts during space travel. PMID:23672458

  2. Overview of Graphical User Interface for ARRBOD (Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose Projection)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hu, Shaowen; Nounu, Hatem; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    Solar particle events (SPEs) pose the risk of acute radiation sickness (ARS) to astronauts be-cause organ doses from large SPEs may reach critical levels during extra vehicular activities (EVAs) or lightly shielded spacecraft. NASA has developed an organ dose projection model of Baryon transport code (BRYNTRN) with an output data processing module of SUMDOSE, and a probabilistic model of acute radiation risk (ARR). BRYNTRN code operation requires extensive input preparation, and the risk projection models of organ doses and ARR take the output from BRYNTRN as an input to their calculations. With a graphical user interface (GUI) to handle input and output for BRYNTRN, these response models can be connected easily and correctly to BRYNTRN in a user-friendly way. The GUI for the Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose (ARRBOD) projection code provides seamless integration of input and output manipulations required for operations of the ARRBOD modules: BRYNTRN, SUMDOSE, and the ARR probabilistic response model. The ARRBOD GUI is intended for mission planners, radiation shield designers, space operations in the mission operations direc-torate (MOD), and space biophysics researchers. Assessment of astronauts' organ doses and ARS from the exposure to historically large SPEs is in support of mission design and opera-tion planning to avoid ARS and stay within the current NASA short-term dose limits. The ARRBOD GUI will serve as a proof-of-concept for future integration of other risk projection models for human space applications. We present an overview of the ARRBOD GUI prod-uct, which is a new self-contained product, for the major components of the overall system, subsystem interconnections, and external interfaces.

  3. Acute radiation proctitis. A clinical, histopathological and histochemical study

    Hovdenak, Nils


    The aim of the study is: 1) A sequential description of the clinical course of acute radiation proctitis during pelvic RT. 2) A sequential description of the rectal mucosal histopathology during pelvic RT as a possible substrate for clinical toxicity. 3) To assess the mucosal protease activity during RT as a possible explanation of the observed tissue changes. 4) To assess the efficacy of prophylactic sucralfate in acute radiation proctitis a randomised study was initiated and carried out together with a meta-analysis of previously available data. 5) Most studies on clinical acute toxicity in pelvic RT use either the RTOG/EORTC score system or focus on diarrhoea/stool frequency. A more differentiated and sensitive recording was developed and tested to pick up symptoms escaping the commonly used scores. 6) Study the relation between histopathological findings and the clinical picture. 4 papers presenting various studies are included. The titles are: 1) Acute radiation proctitis: a sequential clinicopathologic study during pelvic radiotherapy. 2) Clinical significance of increased gelatinolytic activity in the rectal mucosa during external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer. 3) Profiles and time course of acute radiation toxicity symptoms during conformal radiotherapy for cancer of the prostate. 4) Sucralfate does not ameliorate acute radiation proctitis. Some future prospects are discussed.

  4. Analysis of Chronic Radiation Sickness Cases in the Population of the Southern Urals


    radiation were conducted as part of this study, which is a detailed retrospective review of the effects of exposures resulting from either accidental or...chronic coronary number of segmented neutrophils. The number of insufficiency and cerebrovascular sclerosis in 1972; reticular cells, plasmatic cells...osteomuscular system 4 Heart diseases of pulmonary origin 25 Osteomyelitis 4 Ischemic heart disease 10 Cerebrovascular diseases 12 Trauma 22

  5. Acute Cerebrovascular Radiation Syndrome: Radiation Neurotoxicity , mechanisms of CNS radiation injury, advanced countermeasures for Radiation Protection of Central Nervous System.

    Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava

    Key words: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (Cv ARS), Radiation Neurotoxins (RNT), Neurotransmitters, Radiation Countermeasures, Antiradiation Vaccine (ArV), Antiradiation Blocking Antibodies, Antiradiation Antidote. Psychoneuroimmunology, Neurotoxicity. ABSTRACT: To review the role of Radiation Neurotoxins in triggering, developing of radiation induced central nervous system injury. Radiation Neurotoxins - rapidly acting blood toxic lethal agent, which activated after irradiation and concentrated, circulated in interstitial fluid, lymph, blood with interactions with cell membranes, receptors and cell compartments. Radiation Neurotoxins - biological molecules with high enzymatic activity and/or specific lipids and activated or modified after irradiation. The Radiation Neurotoxins induce increased permeability of blood vessels, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and developing severe disorder of blood macro- and micro-circulation. Principles of Radiation Psychoneuro-immunology and Psychoneuro-allergology were applied for determination of pathological processes developed after irradiation or selective administration of Radiation Neurotoxins to radiation naïve mammals. Effects of radiation and exposure to radiation can develop severe irreversible abnormalities of Central Nervous System, brain structures and functions. Antiradiation Vaccine - most effective, advanced methods of protection, prevention, mitigation and treatment and was used for of Acute Radiation Syndromes and elaboration of new technology for immune-prophylaxis and immune-protection against ϒ, Heavy Ion, Neutron irradiation. Results of experiments suggested that blocking, antitoxic, antiradiation antibodies can significantly reduce toxicity of Radiation Toxins. New advanced technology include active immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation therapy that included specific blocking antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins

  6. Serum sickness

    ... the problem should be stopped. Avoid using that medicine or antiserum in the future. ... Call your provider if you received medicine or antiserum in the last 4 weeks and have symptoms of serum sickness.

  7. Acute radiation disease and biological dosimetry in 1993.

    Vorobiev, A I


    Mankind is at risk for accidental exposure to ionizing radiation. The experience in evaluating and treating victims of radiation exposure is briefly reviewed based upon accidents occurring over the past 25 years. Individual cases of acute toxicities to the skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver and bone marrow are presented. Biodosimetry (utilizing chromosome analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes and bone marrow and electron spin resonance spectrometry of dental enamel) has been utilized in radiation accidents to assess individual dose. Variability in the dose of ionizing radiation received is typical among the population affected by the Chernobyl accident. Whereas the acute radiation syndrome resulting in a high mortality has been well-documented, little information is available regarding the effects of chronic, low-level exposure from the Chernobyl accident.

  8. Antiradiation Vaccine: Immunological neutralization of Radiation Toxins at Acute Radiation Syndromes.

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: Current medical management of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) does not include immune prophylaxis based on the Antiradiation Vaccine. Existing principles for the treatment of acute radiation syndromes are based on the replacement and supportive therapy. Haemotopoietic cell transplantation is recomended as an important method of treatment of a Haemopoietic form of the ARS. Though in the different hospitals and institutions, 31 pa-tients with a haemopoietic form have previously undergone transplantation with stem cells, in all cases(100%) the transplantants were rejected. Lethality rate was 87%.(N.Daniak et al. 2005). A large amount of biological substances or antigens isolated from bacterias (flagellin and derivates), plants, different types of venom (honeybees, scorpions, snakes) have been studied. This biological active substances can produce a nonspecific stimulation of immune system of mammals and protect against of mild doses of irradiation. But their radioprotection efficacy against high doses of radiation were not sufficient. Relative radioprotection characteristics or adaptive properties of antioxidants were expressed only at mild doses of radiation. However antioxidants demonstrated a very low protective efficacy at high doses of radiation. Some ex-periments demonstrated even a harmful effect of antioxidants administered to animals that had severe forms of the ARS. Only Specific Radiation Toxins roused a specific antigenic stim-ulation of antibody synthesis. An active immunization by non-toxic doses of radiation toxins includes a complex of radiation toxins that we call the Specific Radiation Determinant (SRD). Immunization must be provided not less than 24 days before irradiation and it is effective up to three years and more. Active immunization by radiation toxins significantly reduces the mortality rate (100%) and improves survival rate up to 60% compare with the 0% sur-vival rate among the irradiated animals in control groups

  9. Acute radiation syndrones and their management

    Cronkite, E.P.


    Radiation syndromes produced by large doses of ionizing radiation are divided into three general groups depending on dose of radiation and time after exposure. The CNS syndrome requires many thousands of rad, appears in minutes to hours, and kills within hours to days. The GIS appears after doses of a few hundred to 2000 rad. It is characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and disturbances of water and electrolyte metabolism. It has a high mortality in the first week after exposure. Survivors will then experience the HS as a result of marrow aplasia. Depending on dose, survival is possible with antibiotic and transfusion therapy. The relationship of granulocyte depression to mortality in dogs and human beings is illustrated. The role of depth dose pattern of mortality of radiation exposure is described and used as an indication of why air exposure doses may be misleading. The therapy of radiation injury is described based on antibiotics, transfusion therapy, and use of molecular regulators. The limited role of matched allogenic bone marrow transplants is discussed. 52 refs., 13 figs.

  10. Hyperbaric programs in the United States: Locations and capabilities of treating decompression sickness, arterial gas embolisms, and acute carbon monoxide poisoning: survey results.

    Chin, Walter; Jacoby, Laura; Simon, Olivia; Talati, Nisha; Wegrzyn, Gracelene; Jacoby, Rachelle; Proano, Jacob; Sprau, Susan E; Markovitz, Gerald; Hsu, Rita; Joo, Ellie


    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the primary treatment for arterial gas embolism, decompression sickness and acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Though there has been a proliferation of hyperbaric centers throughout the United States, a scarcity of centers equipped to treat emergency indications makes transport of patients necessary. To locate and characterize hyperbaric chambers capable of treating emergency cases, a survey of centers throughout the entire United States was conducted. Using Google, Yahoo, HyperbaricLink and the UHMS directory, a database for United States chambers was created. Four researchers called clinicians from the database to administer the survey. All centers were contacted for response until four calls went unreturned or a center declined to be included. The survey assessed chamber readiness to respond to high-acuity patients, including staff availability, use of medical equipment such as ventilators and intravenous infusion devices, and responding yes to treating hyperbaric emergencies within a 12-month period. Only 43 (11.9%, N = 361) centers had equipment, intravenous infusion pumps and ventilators, and staff necessary to treat high-acuity patients. Considering that a primary purpose of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the treatment of arterial gas embolism and decompression sickness, more hyperbaric centers nationwide should be able to accommodate these emergency cases quickly and safely.

  11. Physiological Mechanisms of Acute Intestinal Radiation Death


    Radiation Death 18 3 1 A eutron 19 ABSTRACT (Contfnuo on rlvorJ of re.•u•ldy ,d d..nfflfy by blo*,t ftmO,) e overall objective was to claikUTyhe role...neutron kerma rates. These changes are attributable to attenuation of neutrons and the production of gamma rays by thermal neutroncapture by hydrogen in...but also injuries from blast and thermal effects. These non-ionizing radiation traumas can result in sequestering large amounts of fluid and

  12. Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome : Radiation Neurotoxins, Mechanisms of Toxicity, Neuroimmune Interactions.

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (CvARS) is an extremely severe in-jury of Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). CvARS can be induced by the high doses of neutron, heavy ions, or gamma radiation. The Syndrome clinical picture depends on a type, timing, and the doses of radiation. Four grades of the CvARS were defined: mild, moderate, severe, and extremely severe. Also, four stages of CvARS were developed: prodromal, latent, manifest, outcome -death. Duration of stages depends on the types, doses, and time of radiation. The CvARS clinical symptoms are: respiratory distress, hypotension, cerebral edema, severe disorder of cerebral blood microcirculation, and acute motor weakness. The radiation toxins, Cerebro-Vascular Radiation Neurotoxins (SvARSn), determine development of the acute radiation syndrome. Mechanism of action of the toxins: Though pathogenesis of radiation injury of CNS remains unknown, our concept describes the Cv ARS as a result of Neurotoxicity and Excitotoxicity, cell death through apoptotic necrosis. Neurotoxicity occurs after the high doses radiation exposure, formation of radiation neuro-toxins, possible bioradicals, or group of specific enzymes. Intracerebral hemorrhage can be a consequence of the damage of endothelial cells caused by radiation and the radiation tox-ins. Disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB)and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCFB)is possibly the most significant effect of microcirculation disorder and metabolic insufficiency. NMDA-receptors excitotoxic injury mediated by cerebral ischemia and cerebral hypoxia. Dam-age of the pyramidal cells in layers 3 and 5 and Purkinje cell layer the cerebral cortex , damage of pyramidal cells in the hippocampus occur as a result of cerebral ischemia and intracerebral bleeding. Methods: Radiation Toxins of CV ARS are defined as glycoproteins with the molec-ular weight of RT toxins ranges from 200-250 kDa and with high enzymatic activity

  13. Thalidomide effect in endothelial cell of acute radiation proctitis

    Ki-Tae Kim; Hiun-Suk Chae; Jin-Soo Kim; Hyung-Keun Kim; Young-Seok Cho; Whang Choi; Kyu-Yong Choi; Sang-Young Rho; Suk-Jin Kang


    AIM: To determine whether thalidomide prevents microvascular injury in acute radiation proctitis in white rats. METHODS: Fourteen female Wistar rats were used:six in the radiation group,six in the thalidomide group,and two in normal controls.The radiation and thalidomide groups were irradiated at the pelvic area using a single 30 Gy exposure.The thalidomide (150 mg/kg) was injected into the peritoneum for 7 d from the day of irradiation.All animals were sacrificed and the rectums were removed on day 8 after irradiation.The microvessels of resected specimens were immunohistochemically stained with thrombomodulin (TM),yon Willebrand Factor (vWF),and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).RESULTS: The microscopic scores did not differ significantly between the radiation and thalidomide groups,but both were higher than in the control group.Expression of TM was significantly lower in the endothelial cells (EC) of the radiation group than in the control and thalidomide groups (P < 0.001).The number of capillaries expressing vWF in the EC was higher in the radiation group (15.3 ± 6.8) than in the control group (3.7 ± 1.7),and the number of capillaries expressing vWF was attenuated by thalidomide (10.8 ± 3.5,P < 0.001).The intensity of VEGF expression in capillaries was greater in the radiation group than in the control group and was also attenuated by thalidomide (P = 0.003).CONCLUSION: The mechanisms of acute radiationinduced proctitis in the rats are related to endothelial cell injury of microvessel,which may be attenuated with thalidomide.

  14. Acute Radiation Effects Resulting from Exposure to Solar Particle Event-Like Radiation

    Kennedy, Ann; Cengel, Keith


    A major solar particle event (SPE) may place astronauts at significant risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which may be exacerbated when combined with other space flight stressors, such that the mission or crew health may be compromised. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR) is focused on the assessment of risks of adverse biological effects related to the ARS in animal models exposed to space flight stressors combined with the types of radiation expected during an SPE. As part of this program, FDA-approved drugs that may prevent and/or mitigate ARS symptoms are being evaluated. The CARR studies are focused on the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to the types of radiation, at the appropriate energies, doses and dose-rates, present during an SPE (and standard reference radiations, gamma rays or electrons). The ARS is a phased syndrome which often includes vomiting and fatigue. Other acute adverse biologic effects of concern are the loss of hematopoietic cells, which can result in compromised bone marrow and immune cell functions. There is also concern for skin damage from high SPE radiation doses, including burns, and resulting immune system dysfunction. Using 3 separate animal model systems (ferrets, mice and pigs), the major ARS biologic endpoints being evaluated are: 1) vomiting/retching and fatigue, 2) hematologic changes (with focus on white blood cells) and immune system changes resulting from exposure to SPE radiation with and without reduced weightbearing conditions, and 3) skin injury and related immune system functions. In all of these areas of research, statistically significant adverse health effects have been observed in animals exposed to SPE-like radiation. Countermeasures for the management of ARS symptoms are being evaluated. New research findings from the past grant year will be discussed. Acknowledgements: This research is supported by the NSBRI Center of Acute

  15. Acute radiation enteritis caused by dose-dependent radiation exposure in dogs: experimental research.

    Xu, Wenda; Chen, Jiang; Xu, Liu; Li, Hongyu; Guo, Xiaozhong


    Accidental or intended radiation exposure in mass casualty settings presents a serious and on-going threat. The development of mitigating and treating agents requires appropriate animal models. Unfortunately, the majority of research on radiation enteritis in animals has lacked specific assessments and targeted therapy. Our study showed beagle dogs, treated by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for abdominal irradiation, were administered single X-ray doses of 8-30 Gy. The degree of intestinal tract injury for all of the animals after radiation exposure was evaluated with regard to clinical syndrome, endoscopic findings, histological features, and intestinal function. The range of single doses (8 Gy, 10-14 Gy, and 16-30 Gy) represented the degree of injury (mild, moderate, and severe, respectively). Acute radiation enteritis included clinical syndrome with fever, vomiting, diarrhea, hemafecia, and weight loss; typical endoscopic findings included edema, bleeding, mucosal abrasions, and ulcers; and intestinal biopsy results revealed mucosal necrosis, erosion, and loss, inflammatory cell infiltration, hemorrhage, and congestion. Changes in serum diamine oxides (DAOs) and d-xylose represented intestinal barrier function and absorption function, respectively, and correlated with the extent of damage (P enteritis, thus obtaining a relatively objective evaluation of intestinal tract injury based on clinical performance and laboratory examination. The method of assessment of the degree of intestinal tract injury after abdominal irradiation could be beneficial in the development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies for acute radiation enteritis.

  16. [Treatment of extensive acute radiation burn and its complications].

    Li, Ye-yang; Wang, Jin-lun; Li, Gang; Lin, Wei-hua; Liang, Min; Huang, Jun; Sun, Jing-en


    This article reports the treatment of a patient suffered from acute radiation burn covering 41% TBSA, with deep partial-thickness and full-thickness injury, produced by exposure to a large-scale industrial electron accelerator. An open wound began to appear and enlarged gradually 10 weeks after the exposure. Serious wound infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, pneumonia, respiratory failure, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, nephropathy and hypoproteinemia developed successively since 3 weeks after the wound formation. Skin grafts failed to survive, resulting in enlargement of the wound. After being treated with proper measures, including parenteral nutrition, respiratory support with a ventilator, appropriate antibiotics, steroid administration for nephropathy, deep debridement for wounds followed by skin grafting, the patient was cured and discharged after undergoing 15 operations in 500 days. The clinical condition of an extensive acute radiation burn is complicated. We should pay close attention to the changes in functions of organs, and strengthen the therapeutic strategies to support the function of organs to reduce the incidence of systemic complications. The control of the infection and the timely and effective repair of the wound are still the key points of the treatment of an extensive local radiation injury.

  17. Analysis of High-altitude Syndrome and the Underlying Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Acute Mountain Sickness after a Rapid Ascent to High-altitude

    Yu, Jie; Zeng, Ying; Chen, Guozhu; Bian, Shizhu; Qiu, Youzhu; Liu, Xi; Xu, Baida; Song, Pan; Zhang, Jihang; Qin, Jun; Huang, Lan


    To investigated the objective indicators and potential genotypes for acute mountain sickness (AMS). 176 male subjects were evaluated for symptoms scores and physiological parameters at 3700 m. EPAS1 gene polymorphisms were explored and verified effects of potential genotypes on pulmonary function by inhaled budesonide. The incidence of AMS was 53.98% (95/176). The individuals who suffered from headache with anxiety and greater changes in heart rate (HR), the forced vital capacity (FVC), and mean flow velocity of basilar artery (Vm-BA), all of which were likely to develop AMS. The rs4953348 polymorphism of EPAS1 gene had a significant correlation with the SaO2 level and AMS, and a significant difference in the AG and GG genotype distribution between the AMS and non-AMS groups. The spirometric parameters were significantly lower, but HR (P = 0.036) and Vm-BA (P = 0.042) significantly higher in the AMS subjects with the G allele than those with the A allele. In summary, changes in HR (≥82 beats/min), FVC (≤4.2 Lt) and Vm-BA (≥43 cm/s) levels may serve as predictors for diagnosing AMS accompanied by high-altitude syndrome. The A allele of rs4953348 is a protective factor for AMS through HR and Vm-BA compensation, while the G allele may contribute to hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in AMS.

  18. A pilot study on the prevalence of acute mountain sickness at the sikh pilgrimage of hemkund sahib in the Indian Himalayas

    Inderjeet S Sahota


    Full Text Available Background: Hemkund Sahib is a popular pilgrimage located at 4,330 m in the Garhwal range of the Indian Himalayas. Many travelers to the region have observed pilgrims exhibiting Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS-like symptoms. However, no systematic study on its prevalence at Hemkund has been conducted. Materials and Methods: We surveyed 25 adults. AMS rates were determined using a standard Lake Louise Score (LLS. Responses to questions related to awareness of AMS, the perceived difficulty of the trek, and physiological data including arterial oxygen saturation (SpO 2 and pulse rate, amongst others, were collected. Results: Overall prevalence of AMS was 28% (mild AMS 20%, severe AMS 8%. Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE was 3.9/10. Water consumption for the 4-5 hour trek to Hemkund was only 0.9 L and 20% of pilgrims consumed no water at all. Nine pilgrims claimed to be aware of AMS although only one had taken prophylactic medication. SpO 2 was 82.2 ± 1.2% and pulse rate was 106.5 ± 2.9 bpm (mean ± SEM. There were no differences in non-LLS-related parameters when pilgrims were subdivided by presence or absence of AMS. Conclusion: This pilot study has, for the first time, documented the prevalence of AMS amongst pilgrims to Hemkund Sahib in the Indian Himalayas.

  19. Effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on symptoms of acute mountain sickness and basic physiological responses in a group of male adolescents during ascent to Mount Everest Base Camp.

    Hennis, Philip J; Mitchell, Kay; Gilbert-Kawai, Edward; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Wade, Angie; Feelisch, Martin; Grocott, Michael P; Martin, Daniel S


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary nitrate supplementation, in the form of beetroot juice, on acute mountain sickness (AMS) symptoms and physiological responses, in a group of young males trekking to Mount Everest Base Camp (EBC). Forty healthy male students (mean age (SD): 16 (1) yrs) trekked to EBC over 11 days. Following an overnight fast, each morning participants completed the Lake Louise AMS questionnaire and underwent a series of physiological tests: resting blood pressure as well as resting and exercising heart rate, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation. The exercise test consisted of a standardised 2-min stepping protocol and measurements were taken in the last 10 s. Participants in the intervention arm of the study consumed 140 ml of concentrated beetroot juice daily, containing approximately 10 mmol of nitrate, while those in the control arm consumed 140 ml of concentrated blackcurrant cordial with negligible nitrate content. Drinks were taken for the first seven days at high altitude (days 2-8), in two equal doses; one with breakfast, and one with the evening meal. Mixed modelling revealed no significant between-groups difference in the incidence of AMS (Odds Ratio - nitrate vs.

  20. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (Bone marrow syndrome, Aplastic Anemia): Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation Toxicity.

    Popov, Dmitri

    Key Words: Aplastic Anemia (AA), Pluripotential Stem Cells (PSC) Introduction: Aplastic Anemia (AA) is a disorder of the pluripotential stem cells involve a decrease in the number of cells of myeloid, erythroid and megakaryotic lineage [Segel et al. 2000 ]. The etiology of AA include idiopathic cases and secondary aplastic anemia after exposure to drugs, toxins, chemicals, viral infections, lympho-proliferative diseases, radiation, genetic causes, myelodisplastic syndromes and hypoplastic anemias, thymomas, lymphomas. [Brodskyet al. 2005.,Modan et al. 1975., Szklo et al. 1975]. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (or Bone marrow syndrome, or Radiation-Acquired Aplastic Anemia) is the acute toxic syndrome which usually occurs with a dose of irradiation between 0.7 and 10 Gy (70- 1000 rads), depending on the species irradiated. [Waselenko et al., 2004]. The etiology of bone morrow damage from high-level radiation exposure results depends on the radiosensitivity of certain bone marrow cell lines. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Aplastic anemia after radiation exposure is a clinical syndrome that results from a marked disorder of bone marrow blood cell production. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Radiation hematotoxicity is mediated via genotoxic and other specific toxic mechanisms, leading to aplasia, cell apoptosis or necrosis, initiation via genetic mechanisms of clonal disorders, in cases such as the acute radiation-acquired form of AA. AA results from radiation injury to pluripotential and multipotential stem cells in the bone marrow. The clinical signs displayed in reticulocytopenia, anemia, granulocytopenia, monocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia. The number of marrow CD34+ cells (multipotential hematopoietic progenitors) and their derivative colony-forming unit{granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) and burst forming unit {erythroid (BFU{E) are reduced markedly in patients with AA. [Guinan 2011, Brodski et al. 2005, Beutler et al.,2000] Cells expressing CD34 (CD34+ cell) are normally

  1. Antiradiation Antitoxin IgG : Immunological neutralization of Radiation Toxins at Acute Radiation Syndromes.

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: High doses of radiation induce apoptotic necrosis of radio-sensitive cells. Mild doses of radiation induce apoptosis or controlled programmed death of radio-sensitive cells with-out development of inflammation and formation of Radiation Toxins. Cell apoptotic necrosis initiates Radiation Toxins (RT)formation. Radiation Toxins play an important role as a trig-ger mechanism for inflammation development and cell lysis. If an immunotherapy approach to treatment of the acute radiation syndromes (ARS) were to be developed, a consideration could be given to neutralization of radiation toxins (Specific Radiation Determinants-SRD) by specific antiradiation antibodies. Therapeutic neutralization effects of the blocking anti-radiation antibodies on the circulated RT had been studied. Radiation Toxins were isolated from the central lymph of irradiated animals with Cerebrovascular(Cv ARS),Cardiovascular (Cr ARS),Gastrointestinal(Gi ARS) and Haemopoietic (Hp ARS) forms of ARS. To accomplish this objective, irradiated animals were injected with a preparation of anti-radiation immunoglobulin G (IgG) obtained from hyperimmune donors. Radiation-induced toxins that we call Specific Radiation Determinants (SRD) possess toxic (neurotoxic, haemotoxic) characteristics as well as specific antigenic properties. Depending on direct physiochemical radiation damage, they can induce development of many of the pathological processes associated with ARS. We have tested several specific hyperimmune IgG preparations against these radiation toxins and ob-served that their toxic properties were neutralized by the specific antiradiation IgGs. Material and Methods: A scheme of experiments was following: 1.Isolation of radiation toxins (RT) from the central lymph of irradiated animals with different form of ARS. 2.Transformation of a toxic form of the RT to a toxoid form of the RT. 3.Immunization of radiation naive animals. Four groups of rabbits were inoculated with a toxoid form of SRD

  2. Radiation-induced hypopituitarism in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Mehrdad Mirouliaei


    Full Text Available Background: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL is the most common malignancy among children for whom radiotherapy and chemotherapy are used for treatment. When hypothalamus-pituitary axis is exposed to radiotherapy, children′s hormone level and quality of life are influenced. The aim of this study is to determine late effects of radiotherapy on hormonal level in these patients. Materials and Methods: In this study 27 children with ALL, who have been referred to Shahid Ramezanzadeh Radiation Oncology Center in Yazd-Iran and received 18-24 Gy whole brain radiation with Cobalt 60 or 9 MV linear accelerator, were assessed. These patient′s basic weight, height and hormonal levels were measured before radiotherapy and also after different periods of time. Results: GHD (growth hormone deficiency after clonidine stimulation test was observed in 44% ( n=12 and that in 50% of them ( n=6, less than 1 year, had been passed from their radiation therapy. None of these patients demonstrated hormone deficiency in other axes. Conclusions: This study showed that even application of a 18-24 Gy radiation dose might influence growth hormone levels; therefore, we recommend reduction of radiotherapy dose in such patients whenever possible.

  3. A case of acutely developed delayed radiation myelopathy

    Hayashi, Shintaro; Amari, Masakuni [Geriatrics Research Inst., Maebashi (Japan). Hospital; Fukuda, Toshio; Okamoto, Koichi [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine


    A 66-year-old man with a history of hypertension received radiation therapy on his neck at age 61 because of laryngeal cancer (T1bN0M0). Five years after the radiation, he acutely developed dysuria, tetraparesis and dissociated sensory disturbances below bilateral Th4 level. T2 weighted MRI showed a high signal lesion affecting the central area of the spinal cord extending from C1 to C7. On the second clinical day, he developed respiratory arrest and was ventilated. The cerebrospinal fluid contained 20/mm{sup 3} (monocyte 15, neutorophil 5) white cells; protein was 52.5 mg/dl; IgG index 0.54; Q albumin was 9.6; tests for oligoclonal band and myelin basic protein were negative; a culture yielded no microorganism. He was treated with steroids and supportive measures without improvement, and died of a sudden cardiac arrest on the 8th clinical day. postmortem examination confirmed conspicuous focal spongy changes with many axonal swellings, especially in the posterior and lateral columns at cervical and Th1 levels. The pathological findings were considered to be compatible with those of delayed radiation myelopathy (DRM). In the anterior horn of the cervical cord there were lesions of diffuse racification and the proliferation of small vessels. There were no findings of hyaline vascular changes, infarction or metastasis of laryngeal cancer at the spinal cord. It is considered that hyperintensity of signals on T2-weighted may originate from racification and proliferation of small vessels in the gray matter, and these pathological changes would be intimately associated with the severe neurologic morbidity of this patient. Acute development of neurological findings and the pathological changes in the gray matter of the spinal cord are rare manifestations of DRM. (author)

  4. Treatment and prevention of acute radiation dermatitis;Traitement et prevention des radiodermites aigues

    Benomar, S.; Hassam, B. [Service de dermatologie, CHU Ibn-Sina, universite Mohamed-V, Rabat (Morocco); Boutayeb, S.; Errihani, H. [Service de d' oncologie medicale, Institut national d' oncologie, Universite Mohamed-V, Rabat (Morocco); Lalya, I.; El Gueddari, B.K. [Service de radiotherapie, Institut national d' oncologie, universite Mohamed-V, Rabat (Morocco)


    Acute radiation dermatitis is a common side-effect of radiotherapy which often necessitates interruption of the therapy. Currently, there is no general consensus about its prevention or about the treatment of choice. The goal of this work was to focus on optimal methods to prevent and manage acute skin reactions related to radiation therapy and to determine if there are specific topical or oral agents for the prevention of this acute skin reaction. The prevention and the early treatment are the two focus points of the management of the acute radiation dermatitis. (authors)

  5. Dizziness and Motion Sickness

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Dizziness and Motion Sickness Dizziness and Motion Sickness Patient ... vision or speech, or hearing loss. What is dizziness? Dizziness can be described in many ways, such ...

  6. Morning sickness (image)

    Morning sickness usually begins during the first month of pregnancy and continues until the 14th to 16th week. ... have nausea and vomiting through their entire pregnancy. Morning sickness is very common and does not hurt the ...

  7. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A as early-phase and prognostic indicators of acute radiation exposure in nonhuman primate total-body irradiation model

    Ossetrova, N.I., E-mail: [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Sandgren, D.J.; Blakely, W.F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)


    Terrorist radiological attacks or nuclear accidents could expose large numbers of people to ionizing radiation. In mass-casualty radiological incidents early medical-management requires triage tools for first-responders to quantitatively identify individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and for early initiation (i.e., within one day after radiation exposure) of cytokine therapy for treatment of bone marrow acute radiation syndrome. Herein, we present results from 30 rhesus macaques total-body irradiated (TBI) to a broad dose range of 1-8.5 Gy with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays (0.55 Gy min{sup -1}) and demonstrate dose- and time-dependent changes in blood of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CRP and SAA dose-response results are consistent with {approx}1 Gy and {approx}0.2 Gy thresholds for photon-exposure at 24 h after TBI, respectively. Highly significant elevations of CRP and SAA (p = 0.00017 and p = 0.0024, respectively) were found in animal plasma at 6 h after all TBI doses suggesting their potential use as early-phase biodosimeters. Results also show that the dynamics and content of CRP and SAA levels reflect the course and severity of the acute radiation sickness (ARS) and may function as prognostic indicators of ARS outcome. These results demonstrate proof-of-concept that these radiation-responsive proteins show promise as a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposures and may also contribute as diagnostic indices in the medical management of radiation accidents.

  8. Acute myelogenous leukemia following chemotherapy and radiation for rectal cancer

    Aso, Teijiro; Hirota, Yuichi; Kondou, Seiji; Matsumoto, Isao; Matsuzaka, Toshimitsu; Iwashita, Akinori


    In August 1982, a 44-year-old man was diagnosed as having rectal cancer, histologically diagnosed as well differentiated adenocarcinoma, and abdominoperineal resection and colostomy were performed. Postoperatively, he received chemotherapy with mitomycin C up to a total dose of 100 mg. In September 1986, lung metastasis occurred and he was treated with a combination chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin, pirarubicin and 5-fluorouracil. In the following year, radiation treatment (total: 6900 rad) was given for a recurrent pelvic lesion. Peripheral blood on April 30, 1988, showed anemia, thrombocytopenia and appearance of myeloblasts, and a diagnosis of acute myelogenous leukemia (FAB: M1) was made. Combination chemotherapy (including aclarubicin, vincristine, behenoyl ara-C, daunorubicin, 6-mercaptopurine, cytarabine, etoposide and prednisolone) failed to induce remission and the patient died in June 1988. This case was thought to be one of secondary leukemia occurring after chemotherapy and radiation treatment for rectal cancer. This case clearly indicates the need for a careful follow-up of long-term survivors who have received cancer therapy. (author).

  9. The role of MRI in the diagnosis of acute radiation reaction in breast cancer patient

    Startseva, Zh A.; Musabaeva, L. I.; Usova, AV; Frolova, I. G.; Simonov, K. A.; Velikaya, V. V.


    A clinical case with acute radiation reaction of the left breast after organ-preserving surgery with 10 Gy IORT (24.8 Gy) conventional radiation therapy has been presented. Comprehensive MRI examination showed signs of radiation- induced damage to skin, soft tissues and vessels of the residual breast.

  10. Who are more at risk for acute mountain sickness: a prospective study in Qinghai-Tibet railroad construction workers on Mt.Tanggula

    WU Tian-yi; DING Shou-quan; LIU Jin-liang; JIA Jian-hou; CHAI Zuo-chun; DAI Rui-chen


    Background It is important to determine the incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) among workers at altitudes between 3500 m and 5000 m on Mt.Tanggula during the construction of the Qinghai-Tibet railroad.This study explored the risk factors predisposing workers to developing AMS and attempted to develop more effective ways of preventing and treating AMS.Methods A total of 11 182 workers were surveyed by completing twice daily a Lake Louise questionnaire,and a score ≥3 indicated AMS.The contributing risk factors were assessed for at least 2 months for the duration of the study in the years from 2001 to 2003.A risk model was developed by multiple Logistic regression.Standard statistical methods were used to analyze data.Results AMS occurred in 56% of workers working at high altitudes on Mt.Tanggula.The incidence of AMS increased with increasing altitude.Rapid ascent to an altitude above 3500 m,sea-level or lowland newcomers,young people under 25 years of age,heavy physical exertion,obese person,and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) below 80% were independent AMS risk factors.No significant association was found between AMS and sex or taking Rhodiola.Medical education contributed to an early diagnosis of AMS.Conclusions This study used the Lake Louise scoring system suggesting that it is a well-validated standard for field evaluation of AMS and for making an early diagnosis.These studies have described many variables regarding risk factors for the development of AMS.Risk factors which can be modified should be attended to,and the physicians should carry out check-ups and tests to identify subjects who are more at risk.Prevention consists in continuous gradual ascent,medical education,and prompt descent to avoid progression in patients with serious AMS.It is most important to effectively control the risk factors of AMS.

  11. 构建急性高原病易感者预测模型的方法学研究%Methodological research on building prediction model of susceptible population of acute mountain sickness

    郑然; 周世伟


    OBJECTIVE: There are some people in population susceptible to acute mountain sickness. Therefore, it is important to analyse, assess and integrate certain research results to build prediction system and mathematics model in order to predict those susceptible people when army goes to tableland.DATA SOURCES: Computer was used to search databases such as Medline, PubMed and PML to find articles regarding prediction of people susceptible to acute mountain sickness from January 1970 to December 2002 with the search words "acute mountain sickness, susceptible population,prediction" . The language was limited to English. At the same time, Chinese Journal Full-text Database, Chinainfo and CBMdisc were searched to find articles from January 1970 to August 2004 by the Chinese language of "acute mountain sickness, susceptible population and prediction". The research targets are susceptible people to acute mountain sickness. At last,trace-back method was used to supplement some literature and monographs.DATA SELECTION: After systematically analyzed and concluded the literature information and screened researches without conducting experiment, full text of the rest literature was searched and used as selective criteria if it could be used as prediction indicator of susceptible people to acute mountain sickness.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally there were 19 prediction indicators generalized. After conducting systemic analysis, Delphi method and analytic hierarchy process(AHP) to the indicators, 13 were selected while the other 6 were excluded.DATA SYNTHESIS: The indicators were classified according to nervous-humoral regulation ability, oxygen capture ability of respiratory system,anti-anoxia ability of central nervous system, mental health and health service ability. Based on these, system analysis, Delphi method and AHP method were used to screen prediction indicators, establish indictor system, confirm the weighted indicators and weighted indicator system as well as standardize the

  12. Predictors of stable return-to-work in non-acute, non-specific spinal pain: low total prior sick-listing, high self prediction and young age. A two-year prospective cohort study

    Strender Lars-Erik


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-specific spinal pain (NSP, comprising back and/or neck pain, is one of the leading disorders in long-term sick-listing. During 2000-2004, 125 Swedish primary-care patients with non-acute NSP, full-time sick-listed 6 weeks-2 years, were included in a randomized controlled trial to compare a cognitive-behavioural programme with traditional primary care. This prospective cohort study is a re-assessment of the data from the randomized trial with the 2 treatment groups considered as a single cohort. The aim was to investigate which baseline variables predict a stable return-to-work during a 2-year period after baseline: objective variables from function tests, socioeconomic, subjective and/or treatment variables. Stable return-to-work was a return-to-work lasting for at least 1 month from the start of follow-up. Methods Stable return-to-work was the outcome variable, the above-mentioned factors were the predictive variables in multiple-logistic regression models, one per follow-up at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after baseline. The factors from univariate analyzes with a p-value of at most .10 were included. The non-significant variables were excluded stepwise to yield models comprising only significant factors (p Results Three variables qualified, all of them represented in 3 follow-ups: Low total prior sick-listing (including all diagnoses was the strongest predictor in 2 follow-ups, 18 and 24 months, OR 4.8 [1.9-12.3] and 3.8 [1.6-8.7] respectively, High self prediction (the patients' own belief in return-to-work was the strongest at 12 months, OR 5.2 [1.5-17.5] and Young age (max 44 years the second strongest at 18 months, OR 3.5 [1.3-9.1]. Conclusions In primary-care patients with non-acute NSP, the strong predictors of stable return-to-work were 2 socioeconomic variables, Low total prior sick-listing and Young age, and 1 subjective variable, High self-prediction. Objective variables from function tests and treatment variables

  13. Anti-radiation vaccine: Immunologically-based Prophylaxis of Acute Toxic Radiation Syndromes Associated with Long-term Space Flight

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Vecheslav; Jones, Jeffrey; Casey, Rachael C.


    Protecting crew from ionizing radiation is a key life sciences problem for long-duration space missions. The three major sources/types of radiation are found in space: galactic cosmic rays, trapped Van Allen belt radiation, and solar particle events. All present varying degrees of hazard to crews; however, exposure to high doses of any of these types of radiation ultimately induce both acute and long-term biological effects. High doses of space radiation can lead to the development of toxicity associated with the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) which could have significant mission impact, and even render the crew incapable of performing flight duties. The creation of efficient radiation protection technologies is considered an important target in space radiobiology, immunology, biochemistry and pharmacology. Two major mechanisms of cellular, organelle, and molecular destruction as a result of radiation exposure have been identified: 1) damage induced directly by incident radiation on the macromolecules they encounter and 2) radiolysis of water and generation of secondary free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induce chemical bond breakage, molecular substitutions, and damage to biological molecules and membranes. Free-radical scavengers and antioxidants, which neutralize the damaging activities of ROS, are effective in reducing the impact of small to moderate doses of radiation. In the case of high doses of radiation, antioxidants alone may be inadequate as a radioprotective therapy. However, it remains a valuable component of a more holistic strategy of prophylaxis and therapy. High doses of radiation directly damage biological molecules and modify chemical bond, resulting in the main pathological processes that drive the development of acute radiation syndromes (ARS). Which of two types of radiation-induced cellular lethality that ultimately develops, apoptosis or necrosis, depends on the spectrum of incident radiation, dose, dose rate, and

  14. Effect of baicalin capsules on acute mountain sickness in healthy young males at acute high altitude exposure%黄芩苷与红景天胶囊对急性高原病预防作用比较

    段炜; 孙书红; 惠增骞; 高钊; 胡建库; 金峰; 陈虹


    目的:探讨黄芩苷胶囊对急性高原病( acute mountain sickness ,AMS)的预防作用。方法采用随机对照的研究方法,80名急进高原健康男性青年随机分为3组,黄芩苷组(n=32)、红景天组(n=24)和安慰剂组(n=24)。3组在进入高原前2 d、进入高原后连续3 d分别服用黄芩苷胶囊(0.5 g,2次/d)、红景天胶囊(0.76 g,2次/d)和安慰剂(2粒,2次/d)。检测急进高原前(海拔397 m)和急进高原后(3658 m)受试者氧饱和度、心率、收缩压、舒张压,彩色多普勒超声测量肺动脉收缩压(pulmonary artery systolic pressure,PASP)和平均肺动脉压(mean pulmonary arterial pressure,MPAP),统计急进高原后各组的AMS发病率。结果急进高原后安慰剂组、黄芩苷组和红景天组的AMS发病率分别为58.3%(14/24)、25.0%(8/32)和29.2%(7/24),与安慰剂组比较,黄芩苷组及红景天组AMS发病率明显降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。与急进高原前比较,各组受试者急进高原后心率、血压及肺动脉压均升高,氧饱和度降低(P<0.05);与安慰剂组比较,黄芩苷组血压及心率明显降低(P<0.05),红景天组急进高原后氧饱和度升高、肺动脉压降低(P<0.05)。结论黄芩苷组可能通过降低血压及心率预防AMS的发生,红景天胶囊可能通过升高氧饱和度,降低PASP、MPAP预防AMS的发生。%Objective To investigate the effect of baicalin capsules for acute mountain sickness ( AMS) prevention with rapid airlift ascent to high altitude .Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 80 healthy young men with baicalin capsules (0.5 g bid, n=32), rhodiola capsules (0.76 g bid, n=24), or placebo (n=24), for 2 days prior to airlift ascent (397 m) and for the first 3 days at high altitude (3658 m).AMS, oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart rate (HR

  15. Ejercicio y la detección del mal agudo de montaña grave Exercise and the detection of severe acute mountain sickness

    Adrián Garófoli


    Full Text Available El mal agudo de montaña (MAM es un conjunto de síntomas inespecíficos padecidos por sujetos que ascienden rápidamente desde baja a alta altura sin adecuada aclimatación. Usualmente es autolimitado, pero las formas graves (edema pulmonar y cerebral pueden causar la muerte. La hipoxemia exagerada en reposo está relacionada con el desarrollo de MAM pero su valor predictivo es limitado. Dado que el ejercicio en altura se acompaña de mayor hipoxemia y síntomas, postulamos el valor predictivo de un simple test de ejercicio para pronosticar MAM grave. Se estudió el valor predictivo de la saturación de oxígeno en reposo y ejercicio submáximo a 2.700 m y 4 300 m en 63 sujetos que ascendían al cerro Aconcagua (6 962 m. Se consideró desaturación de oxígeno con ejercicio a una disminución = 5% respecto al reposo. Se utilizó la escala de Lake-Louise para establecer la presencia de MAM grave. Seis sujetos presentaron MAM grave (9.5% y requirieron evacuación. La saturación de oxígeno en reposo a 2.700 m no fue significativa para clasificar sujetos que luego desarrollaron MAM grave. Por el contrario, la asociación de desaturación durante el ejercicio a 2.700 m más la saturación inapropiada en reposo a 4.300 m fue significativa para clasificar a los sujetos que desarrollaron MAM grave con un valor predictivo positivo de 80% y un valor predictivo negativo del 97%. Nuestros resultados son relevantes para el montañismo y sugieren la adición de un simple test de ejercicio en la predicción del MAM grave.Acute mountain sickness (AMS is a group of non-specific symptoms, seen in subjects that ascend from low to high altitude too quickly, without allowing sufficient time to acclimatize. Usually it is self-limiting, but the severe forms (pulmonary and cerebral edema can be fatal. Exaggerated hypoxemia at rest is related to later development of AMS but its predictive value is limited. Since exercise at altitude induces greater hypoxemia and

  16. Radiation-induced apoptosis in relation to acute impairment of rat salivary gland function

    Paardekooper, GMRM; Cammelli, S; Zeilstra, LJW; Coppes, RP; Konings, AWT


    Purpose: To find an answer to the question: Are the acute radiation effects on salivary gland function, as seen in earlier studies, causally related to radiation-induced apoptosis? Materials and methods: Rat parotid and submandibular glands were X-irradiated with doses up to 25 Gy and morphological

  17. Establishment of An Animal Model for Acute Mountain Sickness with A Decompression Chamber%低压氧舱模拟急性高原缺氧动物模型建立的初探

    马慧萍; 吴金华; 高荣敏; 李琳; 樊鹏程; 景临林; 贾正平


    目的 模拟高原低压低氧环境建立小鼠急性缺氧模型,探讨不同缺氧时间对小鼠缺氧损伤程度的影响.方法 采用国产低压低氧动物实验舱模拟海拔6000m高原缺氧环境,观察6h、12 h、24h、36 h、2d、3d、5d、7d不同缺氧时间小鼠组织病理学变化情况,并测定血浆LD、LDH和4种ATP酶的变化规律.结果 LD、LDH、T-AOC和ATP酶随缺氧时间的延长而呈波浪式变化,6h后可见组织形态发生明显改变,LD显著升高,T-AOC显著下降,12 h后LDH显著升高,ATP酶显著下降,说明在此条件下缺氧6~12h即可复制出急性高原病动物模型.结论 该模型为下一步研究急性高原病发病机制提供了有利条件,在高原病防治研究中具有重要意义.%Objective To establish an animal model of acute mountain sickness using a decompression chamber and to investigate the effect of different hypoxic durations on the injury degree of experimental mice.Methods Rats were housed in a decompression chamber and exposed to simulated high altitude of 6000 m for 6 h,12 h,24 h,36 h,2 d,3 d,5 d and 7 d respectively.Pathological changes,the serum LD content,LDH activity and ATPase activity were examined respectively.Results The serum LD content,LDH activity and ATPase activity changed with time in a wave-like manner.Pathological changes of heart tissues were observed after 6 h.The LD content was increased while T-AOC was decreased significantly.After 12 h,the LDH activity was increased while AT-Pase activity was decreased.Conclusion An animal model of acute mountain sickness can be established within 6 to 12 h,which facilitates the mechanism study and prevention and treatment of acute mountain sickness.

  18. Motion sickness, stress and the endocannabinoid system.

    Alexander Choukèr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A substantial number of individuals are at risk for the development of motion sickness induced nausea and vomiting (N&V during road, air or sea travel. Motion sickness can be extremely stressful but the neurobiologic mechanisms leading to motion sickness are not clear. The endocannabinoid system (ECS represents an important neuromodulator of stress and N&V. Inhibitory effects of the ECS on N&V are mediated by endocannabinoid-receptor activation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the activity of the ECS in human volunteers (n = 21 during parabolic flight maneuvers (PFs. During PFs, microgravity conditions (<10(-2 g are generated for approximately 22 s which results in a profound kinetic stimulus. Blood endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, 2-AG were measured from blood samples taken in-flight before start of the parabolic maneuvers, after 10, 20, and 30 parabolas, in-flight after termination of PFs and 24 h later. Volunteers who developed acute motion sickness (n = 7 showed significantly higher stress scores but lower endocannabinoid levels during PFs. After 20 parabolas, blood anandamide levels had dropped significantly in volunteers with motion sickness (from 0.39+/-0.40 to 0.22+/-0.25 ng/ml but increased in participants without the condition (from 0.43+/-0.23 to 0.60+/-0.38 ng/ml resulting in significantly higher anandamide levels in participants without motion sickness (p = 0.02. 2-AG levels in individuals with motion sickness were low and almost unchanged throughout the experiment but showed a robust increase in participants without motion sickness. Cannabinoid-receptor 1 (CB1 but not cannabinoid-receptor 2 (CB2 mRNA expression in leucocytes 4 h after the experiment was significantly lower in volunteers with motion sickness than in participants without N&V. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that stress and motion sickness in humans are associated with impaired endocannabinoid

  19. 非甾体类抗炎药物对急性高原病的预防效果%Observation of the effect of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug to prevent acute mountain sickness

    张俊才; 王引虎; 冯英凯; 刘友生; 崔建华; 李丽; 高江峰; 王琰


    目的 验证非甾体类抗炎药物盐酸苄达明对急性高原病的预防效果.方法 将急进5 200 m高原的118例健康青年官兵随机分为安慰剂组(n=20)、复方红景天组(n=33)、复方党参组(n=33)、盐酸苄达明组(n=33),自海拔1 400 m,历时5 d进入5 200 m高原.从出发前5 d开始分别服用盐酸苄达明片、复方红景天胶囊、复方党参胶囊和安慰剂胶囊,定期测试其血氧饱和度(SaO2)和心率(HR),并以军用卫生标准GJB1098-91随访记录受试者急性高原反应症状,然后分度评分;进入高原后第7天进行高原习服基础生理指标测定,进行药效评价.结果 盐酸苄达明对全程试验期内受试者高原缺氧所致头痛和呕吐的预防效果显著优于安慰剂,且对头痛症状的预防效果优于复方红景天与复方党参.盐酸苄达明组受试者急性高原反应GJB评分,进入海拔5 200 m高原第3、5天SaO2、心率,高原习服基础生理指标等均显著优于安慰剂组.结论 非甾体类抗炎药物盐酸苄达明防治急性高原病效果显著.%Objective To test and verify the effects of benzyamine hydrochloride, a non steroid anti inflammatory drug, to prevent acute mountain sickness. Methods Totally 118 cases of healthy young soldiers were randomly divided into four groups respectively treated by placebo(n=20) ,compound rhodiola(n=33) ,compound codonopsis capsules(n=33) ,benzyamine hydrochloride(n=33) starting 5 days before departure and quickly approached into the altitude 5 200 m from 1 400 m in 5 days. Blood oxygen saturation(SaO2 ) and heart rate(HR) were regularly tested and acute mountain sickness symptoms of subjects were follow up recorded and scored according to the military standard GJB1098 91;Basic high altitude acclimatization physiological parameters were determined and evaluated from seventh day after reaching the plateau. Results The effect of benzyamine hydrochloride to prevent head ache and vomiting due to high altitude was

  20. The acute radiation syndrome: A study of ten cases and a review of the problem

    Hempelmann, L.H.; Lisco, H.


    In this report ten cases of acute radiation syndrome are described resulting from two accidents occurring at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory of unique nature involving fissionable material. These cases are described in considerable detail. The report comprises ten sections. This volume, part II of the report, is comprised of sections entitled: (1) the Biological Basis for the Clinical Response seen in the Acute radiation Syndrome, (2) Clinical Signs and Symptoms, (3) Discussion of Hematological Findings, (4) Chemistry of the Blood and Urine, (5) Discussion of Pathological Findings, and (6) Reconsiderations of the Calculated Radiation Doses in Terms of the Observed Biological Response of the Patients. This report was prepared primarily for the clinician who is interested in radiation injuries and therefore emphasis has been placed on the correlation of clinical and pathological changes with the type of cytogenetic change known to be produced by ionizing radiation.

  1. 心理行为因素对急进高原救灾官兵急性高原反应状况的影响%Study on acute mountain sickness and the psychological factors in the relief force during the initial phase of acute plateau exposure

    高存友; 甘景梨; 赵兰民; 王丽杰


    目的 了解急进高原抗震救灾官兵的急性高原反应状况,并探讨其心理行为相关影响因素,为进一步研究预防措施提供参考依据.方法 整群随机抽取玉树抗震救灾某部162名官兵为研究对象,根据军标GJB1098-9急性高原反应的诊断和处理原则判断官兵的急性高原反应状况,采用一般情况调查表、症状自评量表(SCL-90)和生活事件量表(LES)调查相关因素.结果 救灾官兵急性高原反应的检出率为65.4%,其中轻度17.3%、中度31.5%、重度16.7%.临床表现中以气短、心慌、头昏、口唇发绀和头痛等症状最为多见,在救灾官兵中出现比率分别为83.6%、79.1%、73.1%、61.2%和58.2%.急性高原反应总计分与年龄、婚姻、心理创伤史,LES负性事件,SCL-90总分及其躯体化、强迫、抑郁、焦虑、敌对、恐怖、偏执、食欲睡眠等因子呈显著正相关(r值为0.188~0.619,P<0.01或0.05),与兴趣爱好、社会支持呈显著负相关(r值分别为-0.254,-0.285,P<0.01).多元逐步回归分析显示SCL-90的躯体化因子,兴趣爱好、婚姻、社会支持和年龄等因素进入回归方程.结论 大部分救灾官兵存在明显的急性高原反应,躯体化症状、兴趣爱好、婚姻、社会支持和年龄等因素对官兵的急性高原反应状况影响较大.%Objective To investigate the acute mountain sickness of servicemen during"4.14"Yushu earhquake relief work,and analyze the related factors of the sickness at the initial phase of acute plateau exposure.Methods 162 servicemen were sampled randomly and clusteringly from Yushu relief force during.the inidal phase of acute plateau exposure.According to the"Diagnosis and treatment principles of the acute mountain sickness",the prevalence of the acute mountain sickness was judged among the servicemen.The scales of general status invested score(GSIS),the self-rating symptom scale(SCL-90)and the life event scale(LES)were used to investigate the


    N. A. Abramova


    Full Text Available 143 children and 376 of their family members were examined for the study of intrafamilial infection. The study revealed that in the families of the studied sickly children (SC 100% of mothers, 83,3% of fathers, 100% of siblings and 100% of nannies were infected. Herpes viruses: EBV (55,8%, CMV (50,8%, HHV VI (21,7% in combination with intracellular pathogens (Chlamydia and Mycoplasma were prevalent in the sickly children. Examination of the family members revealed presence of the same pathogens. Control group differed significantly and reliably from the group of sickly children. There were not many infected children, no acute forms of diseases; monoinfection predominated. 

  3. 乙醇治疗急性减压病的实验研究%Empirical study of alcohol therapy for acute decompression sickness

    傅敏; 张陆弟; 康建飞


    Objective To investigate the etiology of alcohol therapy for acute decompression sickness (ADCS)and its mechanism of action.Methods Thirty-two experimental rabbits were reproduced into model of ADCS,and randomly divided into two groups:alcohol therapy group and control group,16 rabbits for each group.All rabbits were put into animal capsule,whose pressure was risen to 0.6 MPa within 5 min,and had stayed for 30 min,then the capsule's pressure was evenly decompressed to 0.1 MPa within 10 min.After decompression,air bubble was determined by Doppler ultrasound every 5 min.After intravenous anesthesia with sodium pentobarbital(20 mg/kg)through ear vein,vena cava posterior was exposed 10 cm as observation section by operation.The model rabbits of ADCS in therapy group were injected 25% alcoholic solution(3 ml/kg)through ear vein after air bubble determined by Doppler ultrasound,whereas in the control group,10 ml normal saline were instead of.The growth and decline of air bubble were observed through observation section,and integer anatomy was observed fractionally.Results Half of rabbits in control group died one after another within 30 min after out of from capsule.Among the rest rabbits,Ⅰ-Ⅲ grade sound of air bubble was still determined by Doppler ultrasound within 60-100 min and a great quantity of air bubble were observed in many sites,for example,vena cava posterior,subcutaneously,muscle,internal organ,recireulating system and so on.But no rabbits occured death in therapy group,Doppler sound of air bubble disappeared within 30-60 min after out of from capsule.The blood vessel diameter of vena cava posterior,subcutaneously,muscle,internal organ increased one time and blood flow rate significantly increased.There were no or a few of air bubble in recireulating system.Conclusions Alcohol therapy is a quick,effect,economy and pragmatic new method for the etiology of ADCS.%目的 探讨乙醇治疗急性减压病的病因学及其作用机制.方法 将实验兔32

  4. Serial Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Optic Radiations after Acute Optic Neuritis

    Scott C. Kolbe


    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported diffusion tensor imaging (DTI changes within the optic radiations of patients after optic neuritis (ON. We aimed to study optic radiation DTI changes over 12 months following acute ON and to study correlations between DTI parameters and damage to the optic nerve and primary visual cortex (V1. We measured DTI parameters [fractional anisotropy (FA, axial diffusivity (AD, radial diffusivity (RD, and mean diffusivity (MD] from the optic radiations of 38 acute ON patients at presentation and 6 and 12 months after acute ON. In addition, we measured retinal nerve fibre layer thickness, visual evoked potential amplitude, optic radiation lesion load, and V1 thickness. At baseline, FA was reduced and RD and MD were increased compared to control. Over 12 months, FA reduced in patients at an average rate of −2.6% per annum (control = −0.51%; p=0.006. Change in FA, RD, and MD correlated with V1 thinning over 12 months (FA: R=0.450, p=0.006; RD: R=-0.428, p=0.009; MD: R=-0.365, p=0.029. In patients with no optic radiation lesions, AD significantly correlated with RNFL thinning at 12 months (R=0.489, p=0.039. In conclusion, DTI can detect optic radiation changes over 12 months following acute ON that correlate with optic nerve and V1 damage.

  5. Statistical Prediction of Solar Particle Event Frequency Based on the Measurements of Recent Solar Cycles for Acute Radiation Risk Analysis

    Myung-Hee, Y. Kim; Shaowen, Hu; Cucinotta, Francis A.


    Large solar particle events (SPEs) present significant acute radiation risks to the crew members during extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) or in lightly shielded space vehicles for space missions beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field. Acute radiation sickness (ARS) can impair performance and result in failure of the mission. Improved forecasting capability and/or early-warning systems and proper shielding solutions are required to stay within NASA's short-term dose limits. Exactly how to make use of observations of SPEs for predicting occurrence and size is a great challenge, because SPE occurrences themselves are random in nature even though the expected frequency of SPEs is strongly influenced by the time position within the solar activity cycle. Therefore, we developed a probabilistic model approach, where a cumulative expected occurrence curve of SPEs for a typical solar cycle was formed from a non-homogeneous Poisson process model fitted to a database of proton fluence measurements of SPEs that occurred during the past 5 solar cycles (19 - 23) and those of large SPEs identified from impulsive nitrate enhancements in polar ice. From the fitted model, the expected frequency of SPEs was estimated at any given proton fluence threshold (Phi(sub E)) with energy (E) >30 MeV during a defined space mission period. Corresponding Phi(sub E) (E=30, 60, and 100 MeV) fluence distributions were simulated with a random draw from a gamma distribution, and applied for SPE ARS risk analysis for a specific mission period. It has been found that the accurate prediction of deep-seated organ doses was more precisely predicted at high energies, Phi(sub 100), than at lower energies such as Phi(sub 30) or Phi(sub 60), because of the high penetration depth of high energy protons. Estimates of ARS are then described for 90th and 95th percentile events for several mission lengths and for several likely organ dose-rates. The ability to accurately measure high energy protons

  6. Rays Sting: The Acute Cellular Effects of Ionizing Radiation Exposure.

    Franco, A; Ciccarelli, M; Sorriento, D; Napolitano, L; Fiordelisi, A; Trimarco, B; Durante, M; Iaccarino, G


    High-precision radiation therapy is a clinical approach that uses the targeted delivery of ionizing radiation, and the subsequent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in high proliferative, radiation sensitive cancers. In particular, in thoracic cancer ratdiation treatments, can not avoid a certain amount of cardiac toxicity. Given the low proliferative rate of cardiac myocytes, research has looked at the effect of radiation on endothelial cells and consequent coronary heart disease as the mechanism of ratdiation induced cardiotoxicity. In fact, little is known concerning the direct effect of radiation on mitochondria dynamis in cardiomyocyte. The main effect of ionizing radiation is the production of ROS and recent works have uncovered that they directly participates to pivotal cell function like mitochondrial quality control. In particular ROS seems to act as check point within the cell to promote either mitochondrial biogenesis and survival or mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. Thus, it appears evident that the functional state of the cell, as well as the expression patterns of molecules involved in mitochondrial metabolism may differently modulate mitochondrial fate in response to radiation induced ROS responses. Different molecules have been described to localize to mitochondria and regulate ROS production in response to stress, in particular GRK2. In this review we will discuss the evidences on the cardiac toxicity induced by X ray radiation on cardiomyocytes with emphasis on the role played by mitochondria dynamism.

  7. Acute Radiation Hypotension in the Rabbit: a Model for the Human Radiation Shock Syndrome.

    Makale, Milan Theodore

    This study has shown that total body irradiation (TBI) of immature (40 to 100 day old) rabbits leads to an acute fall in mean arterial pressure (MAP) 30 to 90 minutes after exposure, which takes no more than about three minutes, and often results in pressures which are less than 50% of the lowest pre-exposure MAP. This is termed acute cardiovascular collapse (ACC). ACC is often accompanied by ECG T-wave elevation, a sharp rise in ear temperature, labored breathing, pupillary constriction, bladder emptying, and loss of abdominal muscle tone. About 73% of 40 to 100 day rabbits exhibit ACC; the others and most older rabbits display gradual pressure reductions (deliberate hypotension) which may be profound, and which may be accompanied by the same changes associated with ACC. ACC and deliberate hypotension occurred in rabbits cannulated in the dorsal aorta, and in non-operated animals. The decline in MAP for all 40 to 100 day cannulated rabbits (deliberate and ACC responders) is 55.4%. The experiments described below only involved 40 to 100 day cannulated TBI rabbits. Heart region irradiation resulted in an average MAP decline of 29.1%, with 1/15 rabbits showing ACC. Heart shielding during TBI reduced the decline in MAP to 19%, with 1/10 rabbits experiencing ACC. These results imply that the heart region, which includes the heart, part of the lungs, neural receptors, roots of the systemic vessels, and the blood, is a sensitive target. Bilateral vagotomy reduced the decline in MAP to 24.9%, and abolished ACC. Atropine (6 mg/kg) reduced the frequency of ACC to 26%, and the decline in MAP to 41.4%. In 11/13 rabbits the voltage generated by left vagal transmission rose after TBI. The vagi appear to participate in radiation hypotension. Heart shielding together with bilateral vagotomy reduced the decline in MAP to only 9.9%, with no ACC responders. The mean right ventricular pressure (MRVP) rose after TBI in 8/10 rabbits. In animals which displayed either ACC or steep

  8. Sick of Taxes?

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    I estimate a price elasticity of sickness absence. Sick leave is an intensive margin of labor supply where individuals are free to adjust. I exploit variation in tax rates over two decades, which provide thousands of differential incentives across time and space, to estimate the price...... responsiveness. High taxes provide an incentive to take more sick leave, as less after tax income is lost when taxes are high. The panel data, which is representative of the Swedish population, allow for extensive controls including unobserved individual characteristics. I find a substantial price elasticity...... of sick leave, -0.7, with respect to the net of tax rate. Though large relative to traditional labor supply elasticities, Swedes are half as price elastic as bike messengers, and just as elastic as stadium vendors on the margin which they can adjust freely....

  9. Got a Sick Fish?

    ... Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Got a sick fish? Fish with disease can show a variety of signs. If you notice your pet fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian ...

  10. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    Kennedy, Ann

    The hypothesis being evaluated in this research program is that control of radiation induced oxidative stress will reduce the risk of radiation induced adverse biological effects occurring as a result of exposure to the types of radiation encountered during space travel. As part of this grant work, we have evaluated the protective effects of several antioxidants and dietary supplements and observed that a mixture of antioxidants (AOX), containing L-selenomethionine, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid, vitamin E succinate, and alpha-lipoic acid, is highly effective at reducing space radiation induced oxidative stress in both in vivo and in vitro systems, space radiation induced cytotoxicity and malignant transformation in vitro [1-7]. In studies designed to determine whether the AOX formulation could affect radiation induced mortality [8], it was observed that the AOX dietary supplement increased the 30-day survival of ICR male mice following exposure to a potentially lethal dose (8 Gy) of X-rays when given prior to or after animal irradiation. Pretreatment of animals with antioxidants resulted in significantly higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts in peripheral blood at 4 and 24 hours following exposure to doses of 1 Gy and 8 Gy. Antioxidant treatment also resulted in increased bone marrow cell counts following irradiation, and prevented peripheral lymphopenia following 1 Gy irradiation. Supplementation with antioxidants in irradiated animals resulted in several gene expression changes: the antioxidant treatment was associated with increased Bcl-2, and decreased Bax, caspase-9 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression in the bone marrow following irradiation. These results suggest that modulation of apoptosis may be mechanistically involved in hematopoietic system radioprotection by antioxidants. Maintenance of the antioxidant diet was associated with improved recovery of the bone marrow following sub-lethal or potentially lethal irradiation. Taken together

  11. Mometasone Furoate Cream Reduces Acute Radiation Dermatitis in Patients Receiving Breast Radiation Therapy: Results of a Randomized Trial

    Hindley, Andrew, E-mail: [Rosemere Cancer Centre, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston (United Kingdom); Zain, Zakiyah [College of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah (Malaysia); Wood, Lisa [Department of Social Sciences, Lancaster Medical School, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Whitehead, Anne [Medical and Pharmaceutical Statistics Research Unit, Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Sanneh, Alison; Barber, David; Hornsby, Ruth [Rosemere Cancer Centre, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston (United Kingdom)


    Purpose: We wanted to confirm the benefit of mometasone furoate (MF) in preventing acute radiation reactions, as shown in a previous study (Boström et al, Radiother Oncol 2001;59:257-265). Methods and Materials: The study was a double-blind comparison of MF with D (Diprobase), administered daily from the start of radiation therapy for 5 weeks in patients receiving breast radiation therapy, 40 Gy in 2.67-Gy fractions daily over 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was mean modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score. Results: Mean RTOG scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.046). Maximum RTOG and mean erythema scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.018 and P=.012, respectively). The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score was significantly less for MF than for D at weeks 4 and 5 when corrected for Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) questionnaire scores. Conclusions: MF cream significantly reduces radiation dermatitis when applied to the breast during and after radiation therapy. For the first time, we have shown a significantly beneficial effect on quality of life using a validated instrument (DLQI), for a topical steroid cream. We believe that application of this cream should be the standard of care where radiation dermatitis is expected.

  12. Supplemental vitamin A prevents the acute radiation-induced defect in wound healing

    Levenson, S.M.; Gruber, C.A.; Rettura, G.; Gruber, D.K.; Demetriou, A.A.; Seifter, E.


    Acute radiation injury leads to thymic involution, adrenal enlargement, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, gastrointestinal ulceration, and impaired wound healing. The authors hypothesized that supplemental vitamin A would mitigate these adverse effects in rats exposed to acute whole-body radiation. To test their hypothesis, dorsal skin incisions and subcutaneous implantation of polyvinyl alcohol sponges were performed in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats at varying times following sham radiation or varying doses of whole-body radiation (175-850 rad). In each experiment, the control diet (which contains about 18,000 IU vit. A/kg chow (3 X the NRC RDA for normal rats)) was supplemented with 150,000 IU vit. A/kg diet beginning at, before, or after sham radiation and wounding or radiation and wounding. The supplemental vitamin A prevented the impaired wound healing and lessened the weight loss, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, thymic involution, adrenal enlargement, decrease in splenic weight, and gastric ulceration of the radiated (750-850 rad) wounded rats. This was true whether the supplemental vitamin A was begun before (2 or 4 days) or after (1-2 hours to 4 days) radiation and wounding; the supplemental vitamin A was more effective when started before or up to 2 days after radiation and wounding. The authors believe that prevention of the impaired wound healing following radiation by supplemental vitamin A is due to its enhancing the early inflammatory reaction to wounding, including increasing the number of monocytes and macrophages at the wound site; possible effect on modulating collagenase activity; effect on epithelial cell (and possible mesenchymal cell) differentiation; stimulation of immune responsiveness; and lessening of the adverse effects of radiation.

  13. Sick building syndrome

    Tjandra Y. Aditama


    Full Text Available Sick building syndrome describes a number of mostly unspesific complaints of some occupants of the building. The exact pathophysiological mechanism remains elusive. It is a multi factorial event which may include physical, chemical, biological as well as psycological factors. In many cases it is due to insufficient maintenance of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, air conditioning system in the building. Sign and symptoms can be uncomfortable and even disabling, which may include mucus membrane irritation, neurotoxic symptoms, asthma like symptoms, skin complaints, gastrointestinal symptoms and other related symptoms. There are various investigation methods to diagnose sick building syndrome, and on site assessment of the building is extremely useful. Prevention through a proactive air quality monitoring program is far more desirable than dealing with an actual sick building. Indoor air and the sick building symdrome serves as a paradigm of modern occupational and environmental medicine. (Med J Indones 2002; 11:124-31Keywords: indoor air pollution, sick building syndrome, building related illness

  14. [Combined radiation exposures and their immediate and late sequelae].

    Gogin, E E


    The author reviews correlations between the general and local processes and criteria for the diagnosis of acute radiation sickness (acute radiation syndrome) /ARS/ as well as other clinical sequels of radiation injury (radiation burns, abnormalities of critical organ function, stochastic sequels) induced by total even and uneven radiation and concomitant radiation effects. Based on the own observations the coefficients were defined of private correlations of the doses of the total gamma- and high-absorbable ("soft") components of concomitant radiation effects on the content of neutrophil leukocytes in peripheral blood seen during successive transformations of the development of ARS and the subclinical forms of radiation injury. The main characteristic features of ARS induced by concomitant radiation injury as a result of nuclear reactor break down have been formulated.

  15. [Serum sickness in diphtheria].

    Vozianova, Zh I; Chepilko, K I


    As many as 2247 patients with different clinical forms of diphtheria were examined. Antidiphtheric serum (ADS) was administered in 1556 children, the dosage being determined by condition of the patient. Serum sickness developed at day 7 to 9 in 24 (1.5%); 10 patients were found to run a mild course, 14--moderately severe. 6 patients had allergic reactions: 3--to antibiotic (penicillin), urticaria type, 1--to pertussoid-tetanic anatoxin, 2 had pollinosis-type reaction. Thus, serum sickness has practical value, which fact requires a detailed allergic history together with skin tests to be performed before the administration of ADS.

  16. Social inequalities in "sickness"

    van der Wel, Kjetil A; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten


    -employment were particularly high in the Anglo-Saxon and Eastern welfare regimes, and lowest in the Scandinavian regime. For men, absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness were lowest in the Southern regime; for women, inequalities were lowest in the Scandinavian regime. The authors conclude......In comparative studies of health inequalities, public health researchers have usually studied only disease and illness. Recent studies have also examined the sickness dimension of health, that is, the extent to which ill health is accompanied by joblessness, and how this association varies...

  17. Chanqes of osseous tissue following radiation therapy and in acute radiation trauma

    Krylov, V.M.


    The studies on ionizing radiation effect with harmful doses on man skeleton are analyzed. Pathomorphological and roentgenological changes in bones of patients, who underwent radiotherapy course are studied; the pointed out changes were observed as radiation complications. It is noted that pathological process in the bone develops comparatively slowly following therapeutic fractionated irradiation.

  18. Evaluation and redesign of radiation shielding in a radionuclide production facility at a particle accelerator / Onalenna Kegopotsemang

    Kegopotsemang, Onalenna


    iThemba LABS is a particle accelerator facility housing a radionuclide production facility that uses a 66 MeV proton beam to produce radionuclides for medical and industrial use. Ionising radiation is produced by a variety of sources at Themba LABS. Ionising is a health hazard. High doses can cause acute radiation syndrome, i.e. "radiation sickness". Lower doses cannot cause acute symptom, but carry a risk of radiation-related cancer. Ionising radiation is also detrimental to materials, and c...

  19. Sickness and love: an introduction

    S. van der Geest; S. Vandamme


    Love is a neglected topic in anthropology, for good reasons: it has always resisted scientific definition and analysis. By associating love with sickness seven authors attempt to capture various meanings and experiences of love. Two broad concepts arise: love as sickness and love in response to sick

  20. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    Fabrikant, J.I.


    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer-induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy.

  1. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    Fabrikant, J.I.


    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures. (ACR)

  2. 高原脐贴软膏贴脐预防急性高原反应的效果观察%Umbilical therapy with altiplano navel balm in prevention of acute mountain sickness

    江晓霁; 朱丹平; 万萍; 方勇飞; 王志中; 潘柏良; 王勇; 王福领; 王海; 张晓霞; 戚旬伟; 侯晓军


    目的 观察高原脐贴软膏贴脐对急性高原反应(acute mountain sickness,AMS)的预防效果.方法 将62例健康青年男性汽车兵按随机数字表法分为观察组和对照组(n=31).自海拔1 392 m,历时5d急进到海拔4 617 m的高原.出发前1d开始,分别予受试者高原脐贴软膏、安慰剂软膏贴脐,膏药每天一换,连续5d.在出发后定期测定受试者心率(HR)、血压(BP)和血氧饱和度(SaO2),并以军用卫生标准GJB1098-91《急性高原反应的诊断和处理原则》制订的《高原临床症状自测问卷表》及《高原急性胃肠应激反应自测评分表》随访记录受试者AMS症状和胃肠道症状;用《不良事件报告表》随访记录受试者的不良反应.结果 急进高原后,观察组胃肠应激反应症状评分和发生率均低于对照组(P<0.01);观察组第1天的AMS发生率低于对照组(P<0.05),第3、5天的AMS症状评分和发生率均低于对照组(P<0.01);观察组第1天的血压和第5天的心率低于对照组(P<0.05),第5天的SaO2高于对照组(P<0.05);试验期间无不良反应发生.结论 高原脐贴软膏贴脐对急性高原反应有明显的预防效果.%Objective To observe the effect of umbilical therapy with altiplano navel balm, an ointment based on a traditional Chinese prescription "Xiaochaihu Decoction" , against acute mountain sickness (AMS). Methods Sixty-two young fit male automotive soldiers, were randomly divided into 2 groups, who were respectively treated by altiplano navel balm (treatment group, n = 31) and placebo ( control group, n = 31). The altiplano navel balm or placebo (one piece per day, for 5 consecutive days) was given to stick umbilical region in the 2 groups respectively in 1 d before departure. Then, they began to move from the altitude 1 392 m and arrived at the altitude 4 617 m on the fifth day. Since departure, their heart rate (HR) , blood pressure (BP) and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) were

  3. Topical Calendula and Betamethasone Valerate in the prevention of acute radiation dermatitis: a randomized prospective trial

    Fotouhi M


    Full Text Available Background: Acute radiation dermatitis is a very common side effect of radiation therapy for many cancers, including breast cancer. Despite the high prevalence of acute radiation dermatitis as well as wet desquamation, only a few trials studying the prophylaxis of this complication using topical treatment have been conducted. In spite of these studies, some controversy still exists about regarding treatments for acute radiation dermatitis, as does some concern about their long-term complications. For this reason, we conducted a clinical trial for a new treatment with the same effectiveness as corticosteroids, but fewer complications. Methods: This trial included 60 patients with pathologic diagnoses of breast cancer for whom radiotherapy had been planned. Patients were 30-73 years old. Patients with radical mastectomy received 5000 cGy over five weeks, and those with conservative surgery received 6000 cGy over six weeks divided in 200 cGy fractions. Patients were divided randomly into two groups: one group received a moderately-potent glucocorticoid steroid, 0.1% betamethasone ointment (30, and the other received the new treatment, 0.1% calendula ointment (30. All patients applied their respective drugs twice daily within the tangential field from the first day of radiation treatment until one month after treatment was completed. Starting one week after radiation therapy commenced, patients were monitored weekly for symptoms of dermatitis and the degree of severity as well as possible adverse drug effects, in addition to such monitoring on the days of their appointments. Four weeks after termination of therapy, patients were again examined, at which time they completed a questionnaire about dermatologic complications. Results: The mean time to develop dermatitis was 3.7 weeks for the betamethasone group and 3.87 weeks for the calendula group. Maximal dermatitis intensity during treatment in the betamethasone group was: 0, 6.7%; I, 73.3%; II, 16

  4. Pathogenesis of acute radiation effects in the urinary bladder. Experimental results

    Doerr, W.; Eckhardt, M.; Ehme, A.; Koi, S. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany)


    Purpose: The present review summarizes experimental studies of the pathogenesis of acute radiation-induced changes in urinary bladder function. Material and methods: Transurethral cystometry was used for longitudinal assessment of bladder function in mice. With this technique, radition-induced changes in storage capacity can be quantified. In histological studies, changes in urothelial cell density and in urothelial protein expression during the acute radiation response were determined. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was used for the treatment of acute functional changes. Results: The histological studies did not reveal any systematic fluctuations in urothelial cell density during the time of the acute radiation response. However, characteristic changes in the expression of proteins associated with urothelial cell function, differentiation and cell contact were observed, which correlated with the functional impairment. By local or systemical application of ASA, a significant restoration of bladder function compared to placebo treatment could be achieved. Conclusion: Acute functional radiation effects in the urinary bladder are not based on urothelial denudation. However, changes in protein expression indicate an impairment of the urothelial barrier function. The results of ASA treatment demonstrate that prostaglandins are involved in the response. Alterations in urothelial or endothelial prostaglandin metabolism may be primarily radiation-induced or secondary because of the impaired urothelial barrier. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Die vorliegende Arbeit soll tierexperimentelle Ergebnisse zur Pathogenese akuter Funktionsstoerungen der Harnblase nach Bestrahlung zusammenfassen. Material und Methoden: Transurethrale zystometrische Messungen dienen zur longitudinalen Erfassung der Harnblasenfunktion bei der Maus. Mit dieser Methode koennen strahlenbedingte Stoerungen der Speicherkapazitaet quantifiziert werden. In histologischen Untersuchungen wurden Veraenderungen in der

  5. Female sickness absenteeism in Poland.

    Indulski, J A; Szubert, Z


    It is observed that the working activity period has recently been decreasing in Poland; this applies to both the male and female populations. Since women constitute 48% of all workers employed in the national economy, this tendency may pose an important problem for the community and public health. The main information source for the absenteeism analysis are medical certificates which in Poland obligatorily document every instance of a sick-leave from work, irrespective of the length of sickness. A 15% random sample of all sickness certificates constitutes a database for the monitoring system of sickness absence. The lost time rate is the main parameter analysed by the system. In 1994 the rate of female sickness absence in Poland amounted to 25.1 days per one employee. In Poland the main causes of female sickness absence are: respiratory diseases--18% of all sickness absence (in the 16-19 age group--49%), and disorders of female genital tract and complications of pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium (17% of all sickness absence and 48% in the 20-29 age group). The most important chronic diseases that substantially contribute to the level of sickness absence include: musculoskeletal diseases (15%), diseases of the circulatory system (15%) and the nervous system and sense organs (11%). Over the period of 1990-1994 the highest rate of the female sickness absence related to gynecological diseases and pregnancy complications (mean annual increase--22%), and the musculoskeletal diseases (mean annual increase--10%).

  6. European consensus on the medical management of acute radiation syndrome and analysis of the radiation accidents in Belgium and Senegal.

    Gourmelon, Patrick; Benderitter, Marc; Bertho, Jean Marc; Huet, Christelle; Gorin, Norbert Claude; De Revel, Patrick


    A European consensus concerning the medical management of mass radiation exposure was obtained in 2005 during a conference held by the European Group for Blood and Bone Marrow Transplantation, the Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, and the University of Ulm. At the conference, a two-step triage strategy to deal with large masses of radiation-exposed patients was designed. The first step of this strategy concerns the first 48 h and involves scoring the patients exclusively on the basis of their clinical symptoms and biological data. This allows the non-irradiated bystanders and outpatient candidates to be identified. The remaining patients are hospitalized and diagnosis is confirmed after the first 48-h period according to the METREPOL (Medical Treatment Protocols for radiation accident victims) scale. This grades the patients according to the severity of their symptoms. It was also agreed that in the case of acute radiation syndrome (ARS), emergency hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is not necessary. Instead, cytokines that promote hematological reconstruction should be administered as early as possible for 14-21 d. Crucial tests for determining whether the patient has residual hematopoiesis are physical dose reconstructions combined with daily blood count analyses. It was agreed that HSC transplantation should only be considered if severe aplasia persists after cytokine treatment. Two recent cases of accidental radiation exposure that were managed successfully by following the European consensus with modification are reviewed here. Thus, a European standard for the evaluation and treatment of ARS victims is now available. This standard may be suitable for application around the world.

  7. 民族地区旅游县241例急性高原病回顾性分析%A retrospective study of 241 cases with acute mountain sickness in a tourism County of minority region

    徐平; 曹灵红; 章成


    Objective To study the epidemiologic features of acute mountain sickness in a tourism County of minority region at an average altitude above 3000 meters. Methods A retrospective study was performed on a total of 241 patients with acute mountain sickness seen in the emergency department of Songpan County’s people's hospital of in the year of 2013, and the following information were collected for the study: gender composition, age structure, predisposing, clinical manifestations, time distribution, and the outcome. Results Among the 241 patients, the following factors were observed:agenda:119 male and 122 female, age:40.62±17.77 years old;the predisposing factors of AMS included upper respiratory symptoms (14.11%), diarrhea (4.98%), smoking (18.67%), asthma (1.66%), mental factors (5.81%) and migraine (0.82%);and accompanying symptoms included dizziness (24.90%), difficulty sleeping (37.34%), fatigue (42.32%) and gastrointestinal symptoms (14.12%). No peak time was found in a weekly distribution (P>0.05). In accordance with circadian distribution, the occurrence of AMS peaked at 17:21 (P<0.05). In terms of the monthly distribution, the occurrence of AMS was peaked at June 25th (P<0.05). The outcome of AMS was mainly under the observation, with 0%of mortality. Conclusion Understanding epidemiological characteristics of AMS, the measures of the prevention combining with treatment, enhancing education of AMS for the floating population of all ages, and improving the capability of the hospital in the region are considered being effective in reducing acute mountain sickness.%目的:研究一个平均海拔约3000米的民族地区旅游县的急性高原病的流行病学特征。方法回顾性分析2013年所有流动人口到松潘县人民医院急诊科就诊的急性高原病患者,描述性别年龄构成,分析急性高原病的诱因、临床表现及时间分布特点并描述转归。结果急性高原病患者共241例,其中男性119例,女性122

  8. EPAS1基因多态性与急性高原病关联性研究%Relationships between EPAS1 gene polymorphisms and acute mountain sickness

    曾颖; 覃军; 高旭滨; 余洁; 陈国柱; 董俊清; 郑双锦; 黄岚


    目的 探讨中国平原汉族人群中EPAS1基因多态性同急性高原病(acute mountain sickness,AMS)易感性的关系.方法 采取病例对照研究方法,根据AMS路易斯湖评分系统(LLS)对受试者进行AMS的判定.采用聚合酶链反应-连接酶检测反应方法(PCR-LDR)测定80例AMS患者和86例健康对照组人群EPAS1基因位点rs2044456、rs4953348的基因多态性.结果 AMS组及对照组中基因位点rs2044456、rs4953348均检测出AA、AG、GG基因型,rs2044456位点基因型及等位基因频率组间差异无统计学意义;rs4953348位点AG基因型频率与GG基因型频率相比,组间差异具有统计学意义(OR=0.453,95%CI 0.226~0.908,P=0.026);AMS组A等位基因频数显著低于对照组(25.0%vs 35.5%,OR=0.607,95%CI 0.377~0.975,P=0.039).分别比较各位点不同基因型心率及血氧饱和度水平,发现该两个位点不同基因型携带者高原血氧饱和度具有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论 位点rs4953348基因多态性与mAMS易感性相关,携带AG基因型的人群患AMS的风险性可能较携带GG基因型人群低,而A等位基因则可能是mAMS的保护性因素;各位点不同基因型均同血氧饱和度有较强关联性(P<0.05).%Objective To investigate the relationships between single nucleotide polymorphism ( SNP) of the EPAS1 gene and the susceptibility of acute mountain sickness (AMS) among Han population in China. Methods A case-control association study was conducted. Eighty male Chinese patients with AMS , defined according to the Lake Louise acute moun -tain sickness scoring system (LLS) ,were compared with 86 Chinese men free of symptoms of AMS. The polymerase chain reaction4igase detection reaction (PCR4DR) technique was used to detect the SNPs of rs 2044456 and rs4953348 in EP-AS1 gene. Results Genotypes of the SNP rs2044456 ,rs4953348 AA,AG and GG were detected in both AMS and control groups. The genotype and allele frequencies of the rs 2044456 showed no significant

  9. Mechanism of Action for Anti-Radiation Vaccine in Reducing the Biological Impact of High-Dose Irradiation

    Maliev, Vladislav; Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Casey, Rachael C.


    Ionizing radiation is a major health risk of long-term space travel, the biological consequences of which include genetic and oxidative damage. In this study, we propose an original mechanism by which high doses of ionizing radiation induce acute toxicity. We identified biological components that appear in the lymphatic vessels shortly after gamma irradiation. These radiation-induced toxins, which we have named specific radiation determinants (SRD), were generated in the irradiated tissues and then collected and circulated throughout the body via the lymph circulation and bloodstream. Depending on the type of SRD elicited, different syndromes of acute radiation sickness (ARS) were expressed. The SRDs were developed into a vaccine used to confer active immunity against acute radiation toxicity in immunologically naive animals. Animals that were pretreated with SRDs exhibited resistance to lethal doses of gamma radiation, as measured by increased survival times and survival rates. In comparison, untreated animals that were exposed to similar large doses of gamma radiation developed acute radiation sickness and died within days. This phenomenon was observed in a number of mammalian species. We partially analyzed the biochemical characteristics of the SRDs. The SRDs were large molecular weight (200-250 kDa) molecules that were comprised of a mixture of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and mineral. Further analysis is required to further identify the SRD molecules and the biological mechanism by which the mediate the toxicity associated with acute radiation sickness. By doing so, we may develop an effective specific immunoprophylaxis as a countermeasure against the acute effects of ionizing radiation.

  10. Mechanism of action for anti-radiation vaccine in reducing the biological impact of high-dose gamma irradiation

    Maliev, Vladislav; Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Casey, Rachael C.

    Ionizing radiation is a major health risk of long-term space travel, the biological consequences of which include genetic and oxidative damage. In this study, we propose an original mechanism by which high doses of ionizing radiation induce acute toxicity. We identified biological components that appear in the lymphatic vessels shortly after high-dose gamma irradiation. These radiation-induced toxins, which we have named specific radiation determinants (SRD), were generated in the irradiated tissues and then circulated throughout the body via the lymph circulation and bloodstream. Depending on the type of SRD elicited, different syndromes of acute radiation sickness (ARS) were expressed. The SRDs were developed into a vaccine used to confer active immunity against acute radiation toxicity in immunologically naïve animals. Animals that were pretreated with SRDs exhibited resistance to lethal doses of gamma radiation, as measured by increased survival times and survival rates. In comparison, untreated animals that were exposed to similar large doses of gamma radiation developed acute radiation sickness and died within days. This phenomenon was observed in a number of mammalian species. Initial analysis of the biochemical characteristics indicated that the SRDs were large molecular weight (200-250 kDa) molecules that were comprised of a mixture of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and mineral. Further analysis is required to further identify the SRD molecules and the biological mechanism by which they mediate the toxicity associated with acute radiation sickness. By doing so, we may develop an effective specific immunoprophylaxis as a countermeasure against the acute effects of ionizing radiation.

  11. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    McGuire, S.A.


    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m{sup 3} for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m{sup 3} (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  12. Dosimetric Predictors of Radiation-induced Acute Nausea and Vomiting in IMRT for Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    Lee, Victor H.F., E-mail: [Department of Clinical Oncology, University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong); Ng, Sherry C.Y.; Leung, T.W.; Au, Gordon K.H.; Kwong, Dora L.W. [Department of Clinical Oncology, University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong)


    Purpose: We wanted to investigate dosimetric parameters that would predict radiation-induced acute nausea and vomiting in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for undifferentiated carcinoma of the nasopharynx (NPC). Methods and Materials: Forty-nine consecutive patients with newly diagnosed NPC were treated with IMRT alone in this prospective study. Patients receiving any form of chemotherapy were excluded. The dorsal vagal complex (DVC) as well as the left and right vestibules (VB-L and VB-R, respectively) were contoured on planning computed tomography images. A structure combining both the VB-L and the VB-R, named VB-T, was also generated. All structures were labeled organs at risk (OAR). A 3-mm three-dimensional margin was added to these structures and labeled DVC+3 mm, VB-L+3 mm, VB-R+3 mm, and VB-T+3 mm to account for physiological body motion and setup error. No weightings were given to these structures during optimization in treatment planning. Dosimetric parameters were recorded from dose-volume histograms. Statistical analysis of parameters' association with nausea and vomiting was performed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results: Six patients (12.2%) reported Grade 1 nausea, and 8 patients (16.3%) reported Grade 2 nausea. Also, 4 patients (8.2%) complained of Grade 1 vomiting, and 4 patients (8.2%) experienced Grade 2 vomiting. No patients developed protracted nausea and vomiting after completion of IMRT. For radiation-induced acute nausea, V40 (percentage volume receiving at least 40Gy) to the VB-T and V40>=80% to the VB-T were predictors, using univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, V40>=80% to the VB-T was the only predictor. There were no predictors of radiation-induced acute vomiting, as the number of events was too small for analysis. Conclusions: This is the first study demonstrating that a V40 to the VB-T is predictive of radiation-induced acute nausea. The vestibules should be labeled as sensitive OARs

  13. Childhood serum sickness: a case report.

    Chao, Y K; Shyur, S D; Wu, C Y; Wang, C Y


    Childhood serum sickness is a rare allergic disease that follows the administration of a foreign antigenic material, most commonly caused by injecting a protein or haptenic drug. The disease is a type III hypersensitivity reaction mediated by deposits of circulating immune complexes in small vessels, which leads to complement activation and subsequent inflammation. The clinical features are fever, cutaneous eruptions, lymphadenopathy, arthralgias, albuminuria, and nephritis. Serum sickness is an acute self-limited disease. We report a 3-year-old child who presented with fever and a rash; an invasive bacterial infection was strongly suspected. He was therefore given penicillin and gentamicin and responded well. At day 4 after admission, he developed a serum sickness reaction and showed symptoms of arthralgias, generalized edema, purpura, and gross hematuria. The white blood cell count was 12 190/mm3 with 7% eosinophils. Urinalysis revealed red blood cell above 100 per high power field, white blood cell 10 to 15 per high power field, and proteinuria. The antibiotics were discontinued and hydrocortisone (20 mg/kg/d), diphenhydramine HCl (4 mg/kg/d), aspirin (66 mg/kg/d) was administered, plus 1 dose of epinephrine (0.01 mL/kg) administered intramuscularly. On day 7, the 3rd day after withholding antibiotics, his condition dramatically improved. The clinical symptoms resolved progressively and his urinalysis returned to normal.

  14. Acute toxicity effects of Prunus avium fruit extract and selection of optimum dose against radiation exposure.

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Sharma, K; Singh, Smita


    The objective of the study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of different doses of the methanolic extract of the fruit pulp of Prunus avium (family Rosaceae), which is used ethno-medicinally for the treatment of various diseases, and to find out the optimal dose of Prunus avium extract against 10 Gy gamma-radiation exposure. To test acute toxicity in mice, different doses of PAE (Prunus avium fruit extract) were given orally for 15 consecutive days, after which the animals were observed for another 15 days; the LD50/15 of the methanolic extract was calculated to be 4.947 gm/kg body weight (b.wt). In optimum dose selection against radiation exposure, oral administration of 450 mg/kg b.wt/d of PAE for 15 consecutive days before exposure to 10 Gy of gamma-radiation was found to afford maximum protection in terms of body weight and survivability of the mice in comparison to other doses.

  15. Ecological effects of various toxic agents on the aquatic microcosm in comparison with acute ionizing radiation

    Fuma, S. E-mail:; Ishii, N.; Takeda, H.; Miyamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, K.; Ichimasa, Y.; Saito, M.; Kawabata, Z.; Polikarpov, G.G


    The purpose of this study was an evaluation of the effect levels of various toxic agents compared with acute doses of ionizing radiation for the experimental model ecosystem, i.e., microcosm mimicking aquatic microbial communities. For this purpose, the authors used the microcosm consisting of populations of the flagellate alga Euglena gracilis as a producer, the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila as a consumer and the bacterium Escherichia coli as a decomposer. Effects of aluminum and copper on the microcosm were investigated in this study, while effects of {gamma}-rays, ultraviolet radiation, acidification, manganese, nickel and gadolinium were reported in previous studies. The microcosm could detect not only the direct effects of these agents but also the community-level effects due to the interspecies interactions or the interactions between organisms and toxic agents. The authors evaluated doses or concentrations of each toxic agent which had the following effects on the microcosm: (1) no effects; (2) recognizable effects, i.e., decrease or increase in the cell densities of at least one species; (3) severe effects, i.e., extinction of one or two species; and (4) destructive effects, i.e., extinction of all species. The resulting effects data will contribute to an ecological risk assessment of the toxic agents compared with acute doses of ionizing radiation.

  16. Low-dose radiation modifies skin response to acute gamma-rays and protons.

    Mao, Xiao Wen; Pecaut, Michael J; Cao, Jeffrey D; Moldovan, Maria; Gridley, Daila S


    The goal of the present study was to obtain pilot data on the effects of protracted low-dose/low-dose-rate (LDR) γ-rays on the skin, both with and without acute gamma or proton irradiation (IR). Six groups of C57BL/6 mice were examined: a) 0 Gy control, b) LDR, c) Gamma, d) LDR+Gamma, e) Proton, and f) LDR+Proton. LDR radiation was delivered to a total dose of 0.01 Gy (0.03 cGy/h), whereas the Gamma and Proton groups received 2 Gy (0.9 Gy/min and 1.0 Gy/min, respectively). Assays were performed 56 days after exposure. Skin samples from all irradiated groups had activated caspase-3, indicative of apoptosis. The significant (pGamma and Proton groups were not present when LDR pre-exposure was included. However, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay for DNA fragmentation and histological examination of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections revealed no significant differences among groups, regardless of radiation regimen. The data demonstrate that caspase-3 activation initially triggered by both forms of acute radiation was greatly elevated in the skin nearly two months after whole-body exposure. In addition, LDR γ-ray priming ameliorated this response.

  17. Reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine (Prozac) submitted to ionizing radiation to Vibrio fischeri

    Santos, Dymes R.A.; Garcia, Vanessa S.G.; Vilarrubia, Anna C.S.; Borrely, Sueli I., E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The constant use of pharmaceutical drugs by great part of the population and its continuous input into the environment creates a growing need of investigating its presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat wastewater containing such substances. The fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH) present in the drug Prozac is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Generally, these compounds enter the aquatic environment by sewage collectors systems after undergoing prior treatment in sewage treatment plants (STPs) or without any treatment. This study focused on evaluating the reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical FH, under its manipulated formula, for the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It was also evaluated the acute toxicity of the aqueous solution containing the FH after its exposition to ionizing radiation from industrial electron accelerator. It was performed acute toxicity tests lasting 15 minutes, where the average EC (50) of the non-irradiated CF water solution was approximately 0.68 mg L-1. While the CF water solution irradiated with 1 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy, presented an average EC(50) 1.63 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.34 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.35 mg.L{sup -1} and 1.80 mg.L{sup -1}, respectively, showing a notable reduction of the acute toxicity for this organism. (author)

  18. Sick as a Dog


    当形容一个人病得很重时,英语中有这样的说法:Sick as a dog,为什么人们会用"狗"来表示"生病"的意思呢?原来,英语中dog一词有时含有贬义,比如:俚语going to the dogs,表示"糟糕透顶";dog in the manger,表示"犬占马槽、自私自利"的意思。

  19. Acute limb ischemia secondary to radiation-induced arteritis: case report

    Jose Emerson dos Santos Souza


    Full Text Available Radiation-induced arteritis is a rare but well-known complication of radiotherapy. This report describes the case of a 34-year-old woman with uterine cervical cancer who was diagnosed with left iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis (DVT 2 years after radiotherapy, and 2 months later, during the treatment of DVT with effective anticoagulation, developed an episode of acute arterial ischemia of the left lower limb secondary to a long subocclusive lesion of the external iliac artery. The patient was treated with angioplasty and stenting of the lesion and recovered uneventfully after the endovascular procedure.

  20. Cinerama sickness and postural instability

    Bos, J.E.; Ledegang, W.D.; Lubeck, A.J.A.; Stins, J.F.


    Motion sickness symptoms and increased postural instability induced by motion pictures have been reported in a laboratory, but not in a real cinema. We, therefore, carried out an observational study recording sickness severity and postural instability in 19 subjects before, immediately and 45 min af

  1. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); EMR3738, Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie [Pole Information Médicale Evaluation Recherche, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); EA SIS, Université de Lyon, Lyon (France); Faix, Antoine [Department of Urology, Clinique Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Ruffion, Alain [Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Department of Urology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Jalade, Patrice [Department of Medical Physics, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France)


    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  2. General introduction to altitude adaptation and mountain sickness

    Bartsch, P.; Saltin, B.


    . The alteration at the muscle level at altitude is minor and so is the effect on the metabolism, although it is debated whether a possible reduction in blood lactate accumulation occurs during exercise at altitude. Transient acute mountain sickness (headache, anorexia, and nausea) is present in 10-30% of subjects...... ascent (average ascent rate 300 m/day above 2000 m a.s.l.), primarily in order to sleep and feel well, and minimize the risk of mountain sickness. A new classification of altitude levels based on the effects on performance and well-being is proposed and an overview given over the various modalities using...

  3. Initial symptoms of acute radiation syndrome in the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura.

    Akashi, M; Hirama, T; Tanosaki, S; Kuroiwa, N; Nakagawa, K; Tsuji, H; Kato, H; Yamada, S; Kamata, T; Kinugasa, T; Ariga, H; Maekawa, K; Suzuki, G; Tsujii, H


    A criticality accident occurred on September 30, 1999, at the uranium conversion plant in Tokai-mura (Tokai-village), Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. When the criticality occurred, three workers saw a "blue-white glow," and a radiation monitor alarm was sounded. They were severely exposed to neutron and gamma-ray irradiation, and subsequently developed acute radiation syndrome (ARS). One worker reported vomiting within minutes and loss of consciousness for 10-20 seconds. This worker also had diarrhea an hour after the exposure. The other worker started to vomit almost an hour after the exposure. The three workers, including their supervisor, who had no symptoms at the time, were brought to the National Mito Hospital by ambulance. Because of the detection of gamma-rays from their body surface by preliminary surveys and decreased numbers of lymphocytes in peripheral blood, they were transferred to the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), which has been designated as a hospital responsible for radiation emergencies. Dose estimations for the three workers were performed by prodromal symptoms, serial changes of lymphocyte numbers, chromosomal analysis, and 24Na activity. The results obtained from these methods were fairly consistent. Most of the data, such as the dose rate of radiation, its distribution, and the quality needed to evaluate the average dose, were not available when the decision for hematopoitic stem cell transplantation had to be made. Therefore, prodromal symptoms may be important in making decisions for therapeutic strategies, such as stem-cell transplantation in heavily exposed victims.

  4. Acutely exacerbated hypertension and increased inflammatory signs due to radiation treatment for metastatic pheochromocytoma

    Teno, Shinichi; Tanabe, Akiyo; Nomura, Kaoru; Demura, Hiroshi [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)


    Hypertension and norepinephrine hypersecretion in a 59-year-old woman suffering from malignant pheochromocytoma with multiple metastases were appropriately controlled with {alpha}- and {beta}- blockers, and {alpha}-methyltyrosine ({alpha}-MT), a catecholamine-synthesis inhibitor. Metastasized vertebrae were treated with external radiation to relieve pain, but this treatment had to be interrupted at a total dose of 20 Gy because the patient suffered acutely exacerbated hypertension (200/110 mmHg), tachycardia (160 beats/min) and a low-grade fever. Simultaneously her serum levels of LDH, potassium, urea nitrogen, creatinine, white blood cell count, CRP and norepinephrine were significantly increased, suggesting that this episode was due to radiation-induced tissue destruction and the leakage of catecholamines and possibly interleukin-6, a cytokine mediating inflammation which is reportedly present in pheochromocytoma. The marked hypertension was controlled by continuous iv administration of phentolamine and propranolol. Although radiation therapy effectively relieves pain due to neoplasmic metastasis to the bone, physicians should be aware that life-threatening complications such as the above occur in malignant pheochromocytoma. Sufficient pretreatment with adrenergic blocking agents and/or {alpha}-MT and careful monitoring of the patient`s general condition during radiation therapy, even at a low dose, are highly recommended. (author)

  5. Protective effect of vitamin A on acute radiation injury in the small intestine

    Beyzadeoglu, Murat; Balkan, Mujdat; Demiriz, Murat; Dirican, Bahar; Oner, Koksal; Pak, Yucel [Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara (Turkey); Tibet, Hasan


    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of vitamin A on the development of early radiation-induced reactions in the rat small intestine. The early effects of intraoperative gamma-radiation on the small bowel utilizing the terminal ileum of Sprague-Dawley rats and the protective effect of supplemental vitamin A on acute radiation injury were investigated. Three groups were included in the study: group I (10 rats) was the surgical control group; group II (13 rats) underwent only intraoperative irradiation; and group III (10 rats) was the vitamin A plus irradiation group. Exteriorized terminal ileal segments of groups II and III were exposed to a single fraction of 20 Gy of intraoperative gamma-irradiation. On the seventh postoperative day, terminal ileal segments of all rats were resected and histopathologically evaluated for ulceration, enteritis cystica profunda, atypical epithelial regeneration, fibrosis, vascular sclerosis, and inflammatory process. Although none of the above findings were present in the surgical control group, group III rats experienced less severe effects than group II rats. The results suggest the early side effects of radiation may be prevented by vitamin A supplementation. (author)

  6. Diagnostic value of 18F-FDG uptake by spleen in acute radiation disease

    Shao-jie WU


    Full Text Available Objective To investigate whether 18F-FDG uptake can be applied in dosimetry to facilitate a rapid and accurate evaluation of individual radiation dosage after a nuclear accident. Methods Forty-eight Tibetan minipigs were randomly assigned into 6 groups, i.e., 0, 1, 2, 5, 8 and 11Gy groups. Animals in all except 0Gy group received total body irradiation (TBI with a 8MV X centrifugal linear accelerator, and 18F-FDG combined positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT were carried out before TBI, and also at 6, 24 and 72h after receiving TBI in different doses ranging from 1 to 11Gy. Spleen tissues and blood samples were collected for histological examination, apoptosis, and routine blood analysis. Results Mean standardized uptake values (SUVs of the spleen showed significant differences between experimental groups and control group. The spleen SUVs at 6h post-irradiation showed significant correlation with radiation dose; Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.95(P<0.01. Histopathological observations showed that the degree of splenic damage was proportional to the radiation dose. Moreover, flow cytometry revealed that apoptosis was one of the major forms of splenic lymphocyte death. Conclusion In the Tibetan minipig model, it was shown that radiation doses bear a close relationship with the 18F-FDG uptake of spleen. This finding suggests that 18F-FDG PET/CT may be useful for the rapid detection of individual radiation dosage after acute radiation disease (ARD. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.07.08

  7. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Simonsen, Lisa; Huff, Janice L.


    Possible acute and late risks to the central nervous system (CNS) from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are concerns for human exploration of space. Acute CNS risks may include: altered cognitive function, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, all of which may affect performance and human health. Late CNS risks may include neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia and premature aging. Although detrimental CNS changes are observed in humans treated with high-dose radiation (e.g., gamma rays and 9 protons) for cancer and are supported by experimental evidence showing neurocognitive and behavioral effects in animal models, the significance of these results on the morbidity to astronauts has not been elucidated. There is a lack of human epidemiology data on which to base CNS risk estimates; therefore, risk projection based on scaling to human data, as done for cancer risk, is not possible for CNS risks. Research specific to the spaceflight environment using animal and cell models must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of CNS changes in order to estimate this risk and to establish validity of the current permissible exposure limits (PELs). In addition, the impact of radiation exposure in combination with individual sensitivity or other space flight factors, as well as assessment of the need for biological/pharmaceutical countermeasures, will be considered after further definition of CNS risk occurs.

  8. 非甲状腺病态综合征和急性心肌梗死的临床研究%A clinical study of acute myocardial infarction with non-thyroid sick syndrome

    高婧; 任颖; 魏盟; 王俊薇; 赵催春; 杜冬梅


    Objective The prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is related to age,comorbidities,and other factors,in which non-thyroid sick syndrome (NTIS) may also be an important factor.In this study,determination of blood free triiodothyronine (FT3) was used to explore the short-term and long-term mortality relationship of NTIS with acute myocardial infarction.Methods A total of 1 019 cases of newly diagnosed patients with acute myocardial infarction were enrolled.According to FT3 levels,the enlisted subjects were divided into Quartile 1-4 groups; survival group and non-survival group; normal thyroid function and NTIS group.The enrolled subjects were followed-up for 6-90 months,with the median follow-up time of 44.5 months.Using logistic regression and Cox hazards model,the relationships of short-term and long-term mortality in AMI with NTIS or FT3 were compared.Results The incidence of NTIS in patients with AMI was 27.78%.With the progressively decreasing FT3 and FT3/FT4 ratio,the mortality rates were progressively increased (Quartile 1 group 9.4%,Quartile 2 group 13.8%,Quartile 3 group 14.3%,Quartile 4 group 34.0%,P<0.01).After being adjusted,FT3 was the strongest influencing factor of mortality within 30 days (RR =0.212,95% CI 0.125-0.359).Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that FT3 was independently associated with long-term mortality (RR =0.674,95% CI 0.514-0.885).Kaplan-Meier showed significant difference in mortality between quartile 1-3 groups and the Quartile 4 group.Even FT3 level was within the low normal range,it was related with the mortality in AMI.Conclusions NTIS is common in patients with AMI.After being adjusted,FT3 was the strongest predictor of mortality within 30 days,and low FT3level in AMI patients was an independent risk factor for long-term all-cause mortality.Even FT3 level was within the normal range,it was still related with mortality in myocardial infarction.%目的 本研究通过检测急性心

  9. Medical Management of Acute Radiation Syndromes : Comparison of Antiradiation Vaccine and Antioxidants radioprotection potency.

    Maliev, Slava; Popov, Dmitri; Lisenkov, Nikolai

    Introduction: This experimental study of biological effects of the Antiradiation Vaccine and Antioxidants which were used for prophylaxis and treatment of the Acute Radiation Syndromes caused by high doses of the low-LET radiation. An important role of Reactive Oxyden Species (Singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions and bio-radicals)in development of the Acute Radiation Syndromes could be defined as a "central dogma" of radiobiology. Oxida-tion and damages of lipids, proteins, DNA, and RNA are playing active role in development of postradiation apoptosis. However, the therapeutic role of antioxidants in modification of a postradiation injury caused by high doses of radiation remains controversial.Previous stud-ies had revealed that antioxidants did not increase a survival rate of mammals with severe forms of the Acute Radiation Syndromes caused by High Doses of the low-LET radiation. The Antiradiation Vaccine(ARV) contains toxoid forms of the Radiation Toxins(RT) from the Specific Radiation Determinants Group (SRD). The RT SRD has toxic and antigenic prop-erties at the same time and stimulates a specific antibody elaboration and humoral response form activated acquired immune system. The blocking antiradiation antibodies induce an im-munologically specific effect and have inhibiting effects on radiation induced neuro-toxicity, vascular-toxicity, gastrointestinal toxcity, hematopoietic toxicity, and radiation induced cytol-ysis of selected groups of cells that are sensitive to radiation. Methods and materials: Scheme of experiments: 1. Irradiated animals with development of Cerebrovascular ARS (Cv-ARS), Cardiovascular ARS (Cr-ARS) Gastrointestinal ARS(GI-ARS), Hematopoietic ARS (H-ARS) -control -were treated with placebo administration. 2. Irradiated animals were treated with antioxidants prophylaxisis and treatment of Cv-ARS, Cr-SRS, GI-ARS, Hp-ARS forms of the ARS. 3. irradiated animals were treated with radioprotection by Antiradiation Vaccine


    S. Y. Nikulina


    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate changes in hereditary burden of sick sinus syndrome (SSS in families of patients with SSS and assess heart rate variability (HRV in patients with SSS.Results. 33 families of patients with SSS were examined. Clinical study, ECG-Holter monitoring, atropine test, transesophageal left atrial stimulation, echocardiography, veloergometry were fulfilled in all probands and their relatives in 1990 and 2005-2006. Cardiorhythmography was done in patients with SSS only in 2005-2006.Results. Increase in hereditary burden with SSS from 31 to 35% is registered during 15 years. Significant growth of patients with SSS was observed among daughters (from 50 to 71%, nephews (from 33 to 50% and nieces (from 0 to 20%. HRV analysis shows prevalence of sympathetic system activity in patients with SSS.Conclusion. Growth of hereditary burden with SSS especially among female relatives is shown. HRV analysis can be used for SSS diagnostics.

  11. Social inequalities in 'sickness'

    Wel, Kjetil A. van der; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten


    The aim of this paper is to examine educational inequalities in the risk of non-employment among people with illnesses and how they vary between European countries with different welfare state characteristics. In doing so, the paper adds to the growing literature on welfare states and social...... from Eurostat and OECD that include spending on active labour market policies, benefit generosity, income inequality, and employment protection. Using multilevel techniques we find that comprehensive welfare states have lower absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness, as well as more...... inequalities in health by studying the often overlooked ‘sickness’-dimension of health, namely employment behaviour among people with illnesses. We use European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data from 2005 covering 26 European countries linked to country characteristics derived...

  12. Thyroid disorders in acute period after radiation therapy on neck region

    E I Bobrova


    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of our study was to analyze thyroid status in adult patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma in acute period after radiotherapy on neck region. Material and methods. Thyroid function (TSH, free T 4, anti-TPO and thyroid ultrasound were evaluated in 22 adults (10 women, 12 men, mean age 30.2 yrs with a history of Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL before radiotherapy on neck region, 7-14 days, 6 month, 1 year after treatment. Results. Incidence of subclinical hyperthyroidism was 13.6% in acute period (7-14 days after radiotherapy on neck region. There was correlation between dose of radiation and incidence of acute thyroiditis ( r = 0.67, p = 0.03. TSH level fall directly after treatment (1.08 vs 1.88 mkMEd/l р = 0.03, but 6 month after this difference disappeared. T 4 free level decreased 1 yr after treatment (1.18 vs 0.99 ng/ml in compare with measurement before treatment ( p = 0,01. Thyroid volume decreased (9.8 ml vs 5.7 ml 6 month after radiotherapy in compare with measurement before treatment ( p = 0.03, and keep on decreasing 1 yr after treatment (5.35 vs 9.7 ml p = 0.003. Conclusions. These data indicate that some patients with HL receiving high dose of radiotherapy on neck region can develop acute thyroiditis, but this abnormalities are transitory and do not reviewed treatment.

  13. Therapy and prophylaxis of acute and late radiation-induced sequelae of the esophagus

    Zimmermann, F.B.; Geinitz, H.; Feldmann, H.J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany)


    Background: Radiation-induced esophagitis is a frequent acute side effect in curative and palliative radiotherapy of thoracal and cervical tumors. Late reactions are rare but might be severe. Methods: A resarch for reports on prophylactic and supportive therapies of radiation-induced esophagitis was performed (Medline, Cancerlit, and others). Results: Nutrition must be ensured and symptomatic relief of sequelae is important, especially in the case of dysphagia. The latter can be improved by topic or systemic analgetics. If esophageal spasm occurs, calcium antagonists might help. In case of gastro-esophageal reflux proton pump inhibitors should be used. There is no effective prophylactic measure for radiation esophagitis. Late side effects with clinical relevance are rare in conventional radiotherapy. Chronic ulcera, fistula or stenosis may develop. Before any treatment, a tumor infiltration of the esophagus should be excluded by biopsy. This can lead more often to late complications than radiation therapy itself. Nutrition should be ensured by endoscopic dilation, stent-implantation, or endoscopic percutaneous gastrostomy. Local injection of steroids might be used to avoid an early restenosis. Conclusions: An intensive symptomatic therapy of acute esophagitis is reasonable. Effective prophylaxis do not exist. Late radiation induced sequelae is rare. Therefore, a tumor recurrenc e should be excluded in cases of dysphagia. Securing nutrition by PEG, stent, or port is well in the fore. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: Die radiogene Oesophagitis ist eine haeufige akute Nebenwirkung bei kurativen wie palliativen Bestrahlungen thorakaler und zervikaler Tumoren. Spaete Gewebereaktionen sind selten, koennen aber schwerwiegend sein. Methode: Es wurde eine Literaturrecherche nach prophylaktischen und supportiven Therapien der radiogen verursachten Oesophagitis durchgefuehrt (Medline, Cancerlit und andere). Ergebnisse: Therapeutisch stehen die Sicherung der Ernaehrung und die

  14. Protective effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester against acute radiation-induced hepatic injury in rats.

    Chu, JianJun; Zhang, Xiaojun; Jin, Liugen; Chen, Junliang; Du, Bin; Pang, Qingfeng


    Caffeic acid phenyl ester (CAPE) is a potent anti-inflammatory agent and it can eliminate the free radicals. The current study was intended to evaluate the protective effect of CAPE against the acute radiation-induced liver damage in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally administered with CAPE (30 mg/kg) for 3 consecutive days before exposing them to a single dose of 30 Gy of β-ray irradiation to upper abdomen. We found that pretreatment with CAPE significantly decreased the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione. Histological evaluation further confirmed the protection of CAPE against radiation-induced hepatotoxicity. TUNEL assay showed that CAPE pretreatment inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis. Moreover, CAPE inhibited the nuclear transport of NF-κB p65 subunit, decreased the level of tumor necrosis factor-α, nitric oxide and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Taken together, these results suggest that pretreatment with CAPE offers protection against radiation-induced hepatic injury.

  15. Feasibility and Acute Toxicity of Hypofractionated Radiation in Large-breasted Patients

    Dorn, Paige L., E-mail: [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States); Corbin, Kimberly S.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Hasan, Yasmin; Chmura, Steven J. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States)


    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of and acute toxicity associated with hypofractionated whole breast radiation (HypoRT) after breast-conserving surgery in patients excluded from or underrepresented in randomized trials comparing HypoRT with conventional fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: A review was conducted of all patients consecutively treated with HypoRT at University of Chicago. All patients were treated to 42.56 Gy in 2.66 Gy daily fractions in either the prone or supine position. Planning was performed in most cases using wedges and large segments or a 'field-in-field' technique. Breast volume was estimated using volumetric measurements of the planning target volume (PTV). Dosimetric parameters of heterogeneity (V105, V107, V110, and maximum dose) were recorded for each treatment plan. Acute toxicity was scored for each treated breast. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 78 patients were treated to 80 breasts using HypoRT. Most women were overweight or obese (78.7%), with a median body mass index of 29.2 kg/m{sup 2}. Median breast volume was 1,351 mL. Of the 80 treated breasts, the maximum acute skin toxicity was mild erythema or hyperpigmentation in 70.0% (56/80), dry desquamation in 21.25% (17/80), and focal moist desquamation in 8.75% (7/80). Maximum acute toxicity occurred after the completion of radiation in 31.9% of patients. Separation >25 cm was not associated with increased toxicity. Breast volume was the only patient factor significantly associated with moist desquamation on multivariable analysis (p = 0.01). Patients with breast volume >2,500 mL experienced focal moist desquamation in 27.2% of cases compared with 6.34% in patients with breast volume <2,500 mL (p = 0.03). Conclusions: HypoRT is feasible and safe in patients with separation >25 cm and in patients with large breast volume when employing modern planning and positioning techniques. We recommend counseling regarding expected increases in skin toxicity in women

  16. Autologous bone marrow stromal cell transplantation as a treatment for acute radiation enteritis induced by a moderate dose of radiation in dogs.

    Xu, Wenda; Chen, Jiang; Liu, Xu; Li, Hongyu; Qi, Xingshun; Guo, Xiaozhong


    Radiation enteritis is one of the most common complications of cancer radiotherapy, and the development of new and effective measures for its prevention and treatment is of great importance. Adult bone marrow stromal stem cells (ABMSCs) are capable of self-renewal and exhibit low immunogenicity. In this study, we investigated ABMSC transplantation as a treatment for acute radiation enteritis. We developed a dog model of acute radiation enteritis using abdominal intensity-modulated radiation therapy in a single X-ray dose of 14 Gy. ABMSCs were cultured in vitro, identified via immunofluorescence and flow cytometry, and double labeled with CM-Dil and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) before transplantation, which took place 48 hours after abdominal irradiation in a single fraction. The dog model of acute radiation enteritis was transplanted with cultured ABMSCs labeled with CM-Dil and SPIO into the mesenteric artery through the femoral artery. Compared with untreated control groups, dogs treated with ABMSCs exhibited substantially longer survival time and improved relief of clinical symptoms. ABMSC transplantation induced the regeneration of the intestinal epithelium and the recovery of intestinal function. Furthermore, ABMSC transplantation resulted in elevated serum levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-11 (IL10) and intestinal radioprotective factors, such as keratinocyte growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor-2, and platelet-derived growth factor-B while reducing the serum level of the inflammatory cytokine IL17. ABMSCs induced the regeneration of the intestinal epithelium and regulated the secretion of serum cytokines and the expression of radioprotective proteins and thus could be beneficial in the development of novel and effective mitigators of and protectors against acute radiation enteritis.

  17. 2013 Space Radiation Standing Review Panel Status Review for: The Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure, The Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events (SPEs), The Risk Of Degenerative Tissue Or Other Health Effects From Radiation Exposure, and The Risk of Radiation Carcinogenesis


    The Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) was impressed with the strong research program presented by the scientists and staff associated with NASA's Space Radiation Program Element and National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). The presentations given on-site and the reports of ongoing research that were provided in advance indicated the potential Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure (CNS) and were extensively discussed by the SRP. This new data leads the SRP to recommend that a higher priority should be placed on research designed to identify and understand these risks at the mechanistic level. To support this effort the SRP feels that a shift of emphasis from Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) and carcinogenesis to CNS-related endpoints is justified at this point. However, these research efforts need to focus on mechanisms, should follow pace with advances in the field of CNS in general and should consider the specific comments and suggestions made by the SRP as outlined below. The SRP further recommends that the Space Radiation Program Element continue with its efforts to fill the vacant positions (Element Scientist, CNS Risk Discipline Lead) as soon as possible. The SRP also strongly recommends that NASA should continue the NASA Space Radiation Summer School. In addition to these broad recommendations, there are specific comments/recommendations noted for each risk, described in detail below.

  18. Th Cell Gene Expression and Function in Response to Low Dose and Acute Radiation

    Daila S. Gridley, PhD


    FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Supported by the Low Dose Radiation Research Program, Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64345 Project ID: 0012965 Award Register#: ER64345 Project Manager: Noelle F. Metting, Sc.D. Phone: 301-903-8309 Division SC-23.2 Submitted March 2012 To: Title: Th Cell Gene Expression and Function in Response to Low Dose and Acute Radiation PI: Daila S. Gridley, Ph.D. Human low dose radiation data have been derived primarily from studies of space and airline flight personnel, nuclear plant workers and others exposed occupationally, as well as victims in the vicinity of atomic bomb explosions. The findings remain inconclusive due to population inconsistencies and complex interactions among total dose, dose rate, radiation quality and age at exposure. Thus, safe limits for low dose occupational irradiation are currently based on data obtained with doses far exceeding the levels expected for the general population and health risks have been largely extrapolated using the linear-nonthreshold dose-response model. The overall working hypothesis of the present study is that priming with low dose, low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation can ameliorate the response to acute high-dose radiation exposure. We also propose that the efficacy of low-dose induced protection will be dependent upon the form and regimen of the high-dose exposure: photons versus protons versus simulated solar particle event protons (sSPE). The emphasis has been on gene expression and function of CD4+ T helper (Th) lymphocytes harvested from spleens of whole-body irradiated C57BL/6 mice, a strain that provides the genetic background for many genetically engineered strains. Evaluations of the responses of other selected cells, tissues such as skin, and organs such as lung, liver and brain were also initiated (partially funded by other sources). The long-term goal is to provide information

  19. γ-Tocotrienol as a Promising Countermeasure for Acute Radiation Syndrome: Current Status

    Vijay K. Singh


    Full Text Available The hazard of ionizing radiation exposure due to nuclear accidents or terrorist attacks is ever increasing. Despite decades of research, still, there is a shortage of non-toxic, safe and effective medical countermeasures for radiological and nuclear emergency. To date, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA has approved only two growth factors, Neupogen (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, filgrastim and Neulasta (PEGylated G-CSF, pegfilgrastim for the treatment of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS following the Animal Efficacy Rule. Promising radioprotective efficacy results of γ-tocotrienol (GT3; a member of the vitamin E family in the mouse model encouraged its further evaluation in the nonhuman primate (NHP model. These studies demonstrated that GT3 significantly aided the recovery of radiation-induced neutropenia and thrombocytopenia compared to the vehicle controls; these results particularly significant after exposure to 5.8 or 6.5 Gray (Gy whole body γ-irradiation. The stimulatory effect of GT3 on neutrophils and thrombocytes (platelets was directly and positively correlated with dose; a 75 mg/kg dose was more effective compared to 37.5 mg/kg. GT3 was also effective against 6.5 Gy whole body γ-irradiation for improving neutrophils and thrombocytes. Moreover, a single administration of GT3 without any supportive care was equivalent, in terms of improving hematopoietic recovery, to multiple doses of Neupogen and two doses of Neulasta with full supportive care (including blood products in the NHP model. GT3 may serve as an ultimate radioprotector for use in humans, particularly for military personnel and first responders. In brief, GT3 is a promising radiation countermeasure that ought to be further developed for U.S. FDA approval for the ARS indication.

  20. [Solcoseryl--dental adherent paste in the treatment of acute radiation-induced inflammation of oral mucosa, gingivae and tongue].

    Kryst, L; Kowalik, S; Bartkowski, S; Henning, G


    On the basis of a study carried out in three teaching departments of maxillofacial surgery the effect was analysed of Solcoseryl dental adherent paste and Linomag in the treatment of acute radiation-induced stomatitis. Both drugs were effective but Solcoseryl was superior to the other drug since it accelerated healing by about 50% and formed a protecting dressing on the inflamed mucosa.

  1. The cost of sickness: on the effect of the duration of sick leave on post-sick leave earnings.

    Andersen, Signe Hald


    Studies analysing the effect of the duration of sick leave on subsequent labour market outcomes do not consider the potential endogenous relationship between duration and labour market outcomes. This paper deals with this shortcoming by using a consistent estimator attained through Instrumental Variables methods for estimating the effect of the duration of a sick leave spell on post-sick leave earnings. I use Danish administrative data and a major 2001 reform of the sick leave system as the instrument for duration. I find that the duration of a sick leave spell has both short and long term effects on post-sick leave earnings.

  2. Histopathological comparison of topical therapy modalities for acute radiation proctitis in an experimental rat model

    Cagatay Korkut; Oktar Asoglu; Murat Aksoy; Yersu Kapran; Hatice Bilge; Nese Kiremit-Korkut; Mesut Parlak


    AIM: To evaluate the prevalent topical therapeutic modalities available for the treatment of acute radiation proctitis compared to formalin. METHODS: A total of 120 rats were used. Four groups (n = 30) were analyzed with one group for each of the following applied therapy modalities: control, mesalazine, formalin, betamethasone, and misoprostol. A single fraction of 17.5 Gy was delivered to each rat. The rats in control group rats were given saline, and the rats in the other three groups received appropriate enemas twice a day beginning on the first day after the irradiation until the day of euthanasia. On d 5, 10, and 15, ten rats from each group were euthanized and a pathologist who was unaware of treatment assignment examined the rectums using a scoring system. RESULTS: The histopathologic scores for surface epithelium, glands (crypts) and lamina propria stroma of the rectums reached their maximum level on d 10. The control and formalin groups had the highest and mesalazine had the lowest, respectively on d 10. On the 15th d, mesalazine, betamethasone, and misoprostol had the lowest scores of betamethasone. CONCLUSION: Mesalazine, betamethasone, and misoprostol are the best topical agents for radiation proctitis and formalin has an inflammatory effect and should not be used.

  3. Studies of adaptive response and mutation induction in MCF-10A cells following exposure to chronic or acute ionizing radiation.

    Manesh, Sara Shakeri; Sangsuwan, Traimate; Wojcik, Andrzej; Haghdoost, Siamak


    A phenomenon in which exposure to a low adapting dose of radiation makes cells more resistant to the effects of a subsequent high dose exposure is termed radio-adaptive response. Adaptive response could hypothetically reduce the risk of late adverse effects of chronic or acute radiation exposures in humans. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of such responses is of relevance for radiation protection as well as for the clinical applications of radiation in medicine. However, due to the variability of responses depending on the model system and radiation condition, there is a need to further study under what conditions adaptive response can be induced. In this study, we analyzed if there is a dose rate dependence for the adapting dose, assuming that the adapting dose induces DNA response/repair pathways that are dose rate dependent. MCF-10A cells were exposed to a 50mGy adapting dose administered acutely (0.40Gy/min) or chronically (1.4mGy/h or 4.1mGy/h) and then irradiated by high acute challenging doses. The endpoints of study include clonogenic cell survival and mutation frequency at X-linked hprt locus. In another series of experiment, cells were exposed to 100mGy and 1Gy at different dose rates (acutely and chronically) and then the mutation frequencies were studied. Adaptive response was absent at the level of clonogenic survival. The mutation frequencies were significantly decreased in the cells pre-exposed to 50mGy at 1.4mGy/h followed by 1Gy acute exposure as challenging dose. Importantly, at single dose exposures (1 Gy or 100mGy), no differences at the level of mutation were found comparing different dose rates.

  4. Sick Leave and Subjective Health Complaints

    Tveito, Torill Helene


    The aims of this thesis were to identify risk factors for high levels of sick leave and investigate what – if anything – can be done to reduce sick leave. What is the role of “subjective health complaints”, coping, and psychosocial work factors in relation to sick leave, and to what extent do these factors and the sick leave relate to quality of life? Are there any interventions with a documented effect on sick leave in the literature? Is it possible to influence sick leave thr...

  5. African horse sickness.

    Mellor, Philip Scott; Hamblin, Christopher


    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a non-contagious, infectious insect-borne disease of equids and is endemic in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa and possibly Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula. However, periodically the virus makes excursions beyond its endemic areas and has at times extended as far as India and Pakistan in the east and Spain and Portugal in the west. The vectors are certain species of Culicoides biting midge the most important of which is the Afro-Asiatic species C. imicola. This paper describes the effects that AHSV has on its equid hosts, aspects of its epidemiology, and present and future prospects for control. The distribution of AHSV seems to be governed by a number of factors including the efficiency of control measures, the presence or absence of a long term vertebrate reservoir and, most importantly, the prevalence and seasonal incidence of the major vector which is controlled by climate. However, with the advent of climate-change the major vector, C. imicola, has now significantly extended its range northwards to include much of Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece and has even been recorded from southern Switzerland. Furthermore, in many of these new locations the insect is present and active throughout the entire year. With the related bluetongue virus, which utilises the same vector species of Culicoides this has, since 1998, precipitated the worst outbreaks of bluetongue disease ever recorded with the virus extending further north in Europe than ever before and apparently becoming endemic in that continent. The prospects for similar changes in the epidemiology and distribution of AHSV are discussed.

  6. Sick sinus syndrome: a review.

    Semelka, Michael; Gera, Jerome; Usman, Saif


    Sick sinus syndrome refers to a collection of disorders marked by the heart's inability to perform its pacemaking function. Predominantly affecting older adults, sick sinus syndrome comprises various arrhythmias, including bradyarrhythmias with or without accompanying tachyarrhythmias. At least 50 percent of patients with sick sinus syndrome develop alternating bradycardia and tachycardia, also known as tachy-brady syndrome. Sick sinus syndrome results from intrinsic causes, or may be exacerbated or mimicked by extrinsic factors. Intrinsic causes include degenerative fibrosis, ion channel dysfunction, and remodeling of the sinoatrial node. Extrinsic factors can be pharmacologic, metabolic, or autonomic. Signs and symptoms are often subtle early on and become more obvious as the disease progresses. They are commonly related to end-organ hypoperfusion. Cerebral hypoperfusion is most common, with syncope or near-fainting occurring in about one-half of patients. Diagnosis may be challenging, and is ultimately made by electrocardiographic identification of the arrhythmia in conjunction with the presence of symptoms. If electrocardiography does not yield a diagnosis, inpatient telemetry monitoring, outpatient Holter monitoring, event monitoring, or loop monitoring may be used. Electrophysiologic studies also may be used but are not routinely needed. Treatment of sick sinus syndrome includes removing extrinsic factors, when possible, and pacemaker placement. Pacemakers do not reduce mortality, but they can decrease symptoms and improve quality of life.

  7. Transplantation of Endothelial Cells to Mitigate Acute and Chronic Radiation Injury to Vital Organs.

    Rafii, Shahin; Ginsberg, Michael; Scandura, Joseph; Butler, Jason M; Ding, Bi-Sen


    Current therapeutic approaches for treatment of exposure to radiation involve the use of antioxidants, chelating agents, recombinant growth factors and transplantation of stem cells (e.g., hematopoietic stem cell transplantation). However, exposure to high-dose radiation is associated with severe damage to the vasculature of vital organs, often leading to impaired healing, tissue necrosis, thrombosis and defective regeneration caused by aberrant fibrosis. It is very unlikely that infusion of protective chemicals will reverse severe damage to the vascular endothelial cells (ECs). The role of irradiated vasculature in mediating acute and chronic radiation syndromes has not been fully appreciated or well studied. New approaches are necessary to replace and reconstitute ECs in organs that are irreversibly damaged by radiation. We have set forth the novel concept that ECs provide paracrine signals, also known as angiocrine signals, which not only promote healing of irradiated tissue but also direct organ regeneration without provoking fibrosis. We have developed innovative technologies that enable manufacturing and banking of human GMP-grade ECs. These ECs can be transplanted intravenously to home to and engraft to injured tissues where they augment organ repair, while preventing maladaptive fibrosis. In the past, therapeutic transplantation of ECs was not possible due to a shortage of availability of suitable donor cell sources and preclinical models, a lack of understanding of the immune privilege of ECs, and inadequate methodologies for expansion and banking of engraftable ECs. Recent advances made by our group as well as other laboratories have breached the most significant of these obstacles with the development of technologies to manufacture clinical-scale quantities of GMP-grade and human ECs in culture, including genetically diverse reprogrammed human amniotic cells into vascular ECs (rAC-VECs) or human pluripotent stem cells into vascular ECs (iVECs). This

  8. Separate and combined associations of pain and emotional exhaustion with sickness absence.

    Saastamoinen, Peppiina; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero


    Pain and emotional exhaustion are prevalent conditions with consequences for sickness absence. Although they often co-occur, their combined associations with sickness absence are poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the separate and combined associations of pain and emotional exhaustion with subsequent sickness absence. The data were derived from a cross-sectional questionnaire survey sent to 40 to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki in 2000 to 2002 (n = 6457) linked with the City of Helsinki personnel register information on sickness absence (3 years on from the survey). Self-certified (1-3 days) and medically certified sickness absence spells (4-14 days, more than 14 days) were used as outcomes. Acute and chronic pain and emotional exhaustion were measured in a questionnaire survey. For the purposes of this study, sickness absence and pain variables were merged to form a new variable with 6 mutually exclusive categories. The main statistical method was negative binomial regression analysis. The synergy index was used to estimate the interaction. Among women, acute and chronic pain with and without emotional exhaustion predicted sickness absence, particularly absence lasting for more than 2 weeks, whereas emotional exhaustion alone did not. The associations persisted when further adjusted for socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviors, and somatic and mental health. A synergistic interaction effect was found for co-occurring pain and emotional exhaustion on medically certified sickness absence. The results for men were mainly similar, but less stable. In order to tackle sickness absence, special attention should be paid to the prevention and treatment of employees with co-occurring pain and emotional exhaustion.

  9. Derivation of hazardous doses for amphibians acutely exposed to ionising radiation.

    Fuma, Shoichi; Watanabe, Yoshito; Kawaguchi, Isao; Takata, Toshitaro; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Ban-Nai, Tadaaki; Yoshida, Satoshi


    Derivation of effect benchmark values for each taxonomic group, which has been difficult due to lack of experimental effects data, is required for more adequate protection of the environment from ionising radiation. Estimation of effects doses from nuclear DNA mass and subsequent species sensitivity distribution (SSD) analysis were proposed as a method for such a derivation in acute irradiation situations for assumed nuclear accident scenarios. As a case study, 5% hazardous doses (HD₅s), at which only 5% of species are acutely affected at 50% or higher lethality, were estimated on a global scale. After nuclear DNA mass data were obtained from a database, 50% lethal doses (LD₅₀s) for 4.8 and 36% of the global Anura and Caudata species, respectively, were estimated by correlative equations between nuclear DNA mass and LD₅₀s. Differences between estimated and experimental LD₅₀s were within a factor of three. The HD₅s obtained by the SSD analysis of these estimated LD₅₀s data were 5.0 and 3.1 Gy for Anura and Caudata, respectively. This approach was also applied to the derivation of regional HD₅s. The respective HD₅s were 6.5 and 3.2 Gy for Anura and Caudata inhabiting Japan. This HD₅ value for the Japanese Anura was significantly higher than the global value, while Caudata had no significant difference in global and Japanese HD₅s. These results suggest that this approach is also useful for derivation of regional benchmark values, some of which are likely different from the global values.

  10. Predictors of Severe Acute and Late Toxicities in Patients With Localized Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation Therapy

    Meyer, Francois, E-mail: [Laval University Cancer Research Center, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Fortin, Andre; Wang, Chang Shu [Radiation Therapy Department, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Liu, Geoffrey [Applied Molecular Oncology, Ontario Cancer Institute/Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Bairati, Isabelle [Laval University Cancer Research Center, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada)


    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) causes acute and late toxicities that affect various organs and functions. In a large cohort of patients treated with RT for localized head and neck cancer (HNC), we prospectively assessed the occurrence of RT-induced acute and late toxicities and identified characteristics that predicted these toxicities. Methods and Materials: We conducted a randomized trial among 540 patients treated with RT for localized HNC to assess whether vitamin E supplementation could improve disease outcomes. Adverse effects of RT were assessed using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Acute Radiation Morbidity Criteria during RT and one month after RT, and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Scheme at six and 12 months after RT. The most severe adverse effect among the organs/tissues was selected as an overall measure of either acute or late toxicity. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were considered as severe. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify all independent predictors (p < 0.05) of acute or late toxicity and to estimate odds ratios (OR) for severe toxicity with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Grade 3 or 4 toxicity was observed in 23% and 4% of patients, respectively, for acute and late toxicity. Four independent predictors of severe acute toxicity were identified: sex (female vs. male: OR = 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-2.80), Karnofsky Performance Status (OR = 0.67 for a 10-point increment, 95% CI: 0.52-0.88), body mass index (above 25 vs. below: OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.22-2.90), TNM stage (Stage II vs. I: OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.25-2.92). Two independent predictors were found for severe late toxicity: female sex (OR = 3.96, 95% CI: 1.41-11.08) and weight loss during RT (OR = 1.26 for a 1 kg increment, 95% CI: 1.12-1.41). Conclusions: Knowledge of these predictors easily collected in a clinical setting could help

  11. Hyperventilation in a motion sickness desensitization program

    Mert, A.; Bles, W.; Nooij, S.A.E.


    Introduction: In motion sickness desensitization programs, the motion sickness provocative stimulus is often a forward bending of the trunk on a rotating chair, inducing Coriolis effects. Since respiratory relaxation techniques are applied successfully in these courses, we investigated whether these

  12. Acute Esophagus Toxicity in Lung Cancer Patients After Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy

    Kwint, Margriet [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Uyterlinde, Wilma [Department of Thoracic Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nijkamp, Jasper; Chen, Chun; Bois, Josien de; Sonke, Jan-Jakob [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heuvel, Michel van den [Department of Thoracic Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Knegjens, Joost; Herk, Marcel van [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Belderbos, Jose, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose-effect relation between acute esophageal toxicity (AET) and the dose-volume parameters of the esophagus after intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods: One hundred thirty-nine patients with inoperable NSCLC treated with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy were prospectively analyzed. The fractionation scheme was 66 Gy in 24 fractions. All patients received concurrently a daily dose of cisplatin (6 mg/m Superscript-Two ). Maximum AET was scored according to Common Toxicity Criteria 3.0. Dose-volume parameters V5 to V70, D{sub mean} and D{sub max} of the esophagus were calculated. A logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the dose-effect relation between these parameters and grade {>=}2 and grade {>=}3 AET. The outcome was compared with the clinically used esophagus V35 prediction model for grade {>=}2 after radical 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) treatment. Results: In our patient group, 9% did not experience AET, and 31% experienced grade 1 AET, 38% grade 2 AET, and 22% grade 3 AET. The incidence of grade 2 and grade 3 AET was not different from that in patients treated with CCRT using 3DCRT. The V50 turned out to be the most significant dosimetric predictor for grade {>=}3 AET (P=.012). The derived V50 model was shown to predict grade {>=}2 AET significantly better than the clinical V35 model (P<.001). Conclusions: For NSCLC patients treated with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy, the V50 was identified as most accurate predictor of grade {>=}3 AET. There was no difference in the incidence of grade {>=}2 AET between 3DCRT and IMRT in patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy.

  13. Establishing a murine model of the Hematopoietic Syndrome of the Acute Radiation Syndrome

    Plett, P. Artur; Sampson, Carol H.; Chua, Hui Lin; Joshi, Mandar; Booth, Catherine; Gough, Alec; Johnson, Cynthia S.; Katz, Barry P.; Farese, Ann M.; Parker, Jeffrey; MacVittie, Thomas J.; Orschell, Christie M.


    We have developed a murine model of the Hematopoietic Syndrome of the Acute Radiation Syndrome (H-ARS) for efficacy testing of medical countermeasures (MCM) against radiation according to the FDA Animal Rule. Ten to 12 week old male and female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to the LD50/30-LD70/30 dose of total body irradiation (TBI, 137Cs, 0.62-0.67 Gy min-1) in the morning hours when mice were determined to be most radiosensitive, and assessed for 30 day survival and mean survival time (MST). Antibiotics were delivered in the drinking water on days 4-30 post-TBI at a concentration based on the amount of water that lethally-irradiated mice were found to consume. The fluoroquinolones, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, and the tetracycline doxycycline and aminoglycoside neomycin, all significantly increased MST of decedent mice, while ciprofloxacin (p=0.061) and doxycycline + neomycin (p=0.005) showed at least some efficacy to increase 30 day survival. Blood sampling (30uL/mouse every 5th day) was found to negatively impact 30 day survival. Histopathology of tissues harvested from non-moribund mice showed expected effects of lethal irradiation, while moribund mice were largely septicemic with a preponderance of enteric organisms. Kinetics of loss and recovery of peripheral blood cells in untreated mice and those treated with two MCM, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and Amifostine, further characterized and validated our model for use in screening studies and pivotal efficacy studies of candidate MCM for licensure to treat irradiated individuals suffering from H-ARS. PMID:22929467

  14. Preliminary clinical findings on NEUMUNE as a potential treatment for acute radiation syndrome

    Stickney, Dwight R; Groothuis, Jessie R; Ahlem, Clarence; Kennedy, Mike; Miller, Barry S; Onizuka-Handa, Nanette; Schlangen, Karen M; Destiche, Daniel; Reading, Chris; Garsd, Armando; Frincke, James M [Harbor Biosciences, 9171 Towne Centre Drive, Suite 180, San Diego, CA 92122 (United States)


    5-androstenediol (5-AED) has been advanced as a possible countermeasure for treating the haematological component of acute radiation syndrome (ARS). It has been used in animal models to stimulate both innate and adaptive immunity and treat infection and radiation-induced immune suppression. We here report on the safety, tolerability and haematologic activity of 5-AED in four double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled studies on healthy adults including elderly subjects. A 5-AED injectable suspension formulation (NEUMUNE) or placebo was administered intramuscularly as either a single injection, or once daily for five consecutive days at doses of 50, 100, 200 or 400 mg. Subjects (n = 129) were randomized to receive NEUMUNE (n = 95) or the placebo (n = 34). NEUMUNE was generally well-tolerated; the most frequent adverse events were local injection site reactions (n = 104, 81%) that were transient, dose-volume dependent, mild to moderate in severity, and that resolved over the course of the study. Blood chemistries revealed a transient increase (up to 28%) in creatine phosphokinase and C-reactive protein levels consistent with intramuscular injection and injection site irritation. The blood concentration profile of 5-AED is consistent with a depot formulation that increases in disproportionate increments following each dose. NEUMUNE significantly increased circulating neutrophils (p < 0.001) and platelets (p < 0.001) in the peripheral blood of adult and elderly subjects. A dose-response relationship was identified. Findings suggest that parenteral administration of 5-AED in aqueous suspension may be a safe and effective means to stimulate innate immunity and alleviate neutropenia and thrombocytopenia associated with ARS.

  15. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for acute radiation syndrome:Innovative medical approaches in military medicine

    Erik B.Eaton Jr.; Timothy R.Varney


    After a radiological or nuclear event, acute radiation syndrome (ARS) will present complex medical challenges that could involve the treatment of hundreds to thousands of patients. Current medical doctrine is based on limited clinical data and remains inadequate. Efforts to develop medical innovations that address ARS complications are unlikely to be generated by the industry because of market uncertainties specific to this type of injury. A prospective strategy could be the integration of cellular therapy to meet the medical demands of ARS. The most clinically advanced cellular therapy to date is the administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Results of currently published investigations describing MSC safety and efficacy in a variety of injury and disease models demonstrate the unique qualities of this reparative cell population in adapting to the specific requirements of the damaged tissue in which the cells integrate. This report puts forward a rationale for the further evaluation of MSC therapy to address the current unmet medical needs of ARS. We propose that the exploration of this novel therapy for the treatment of the multivariate complications of ARS could be of invaluable benefit to military medicine.

  16. Cranial Radiation for Pediatric T-Lineage Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Kelly, Michael J.; Thomas A. Trikalinos; Dahabreh, Issa J.; Gianferante, Matthew; Parsons, Susan K.


    There are heterogeneous approaches to cranial irradiation therapy (CRT) for T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). We performed a systematic review of studies that specified a radiation strategy and reported survival for pediatric T-ALL. Our analysis included 62 publications reporting 78 treatment groups (patient n=5844). The average event-free survival (EFS) was higher by 6% per 5 years (p

  17. 红景天治疗急性高原反应的临床观察%Clinical Observation of Rhodiola rosea in the Treatment of Acute Moutain Sickness

    龚嘎蓝孜; 次仁旺姆; 索朗央宗; 白玛多吉; 多吉卓玛


    目的:观察红景天治疗急性高原反应(AMS)的疗效及安全性。方法:将首次从内地进藏的西藏大学新生中发生AMS的患者200例,按随机数字表法分为红景天组(67例)、银杏叶片组(65例)、乙酰唑胺组(68例)。每组受试者从进藏第1天开始服用对应药物,早晚各1次,连续服用7d。观察并比较3组受试者在第1、3、5、7天的临床疗效以及不良反应发生情况。结果:3种药物治疗均对AMS有效。第1、3、5、7天红景天组的AMS症状评分均比银杏叶片组和乙酰唑胺组低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);第1、3天银杏叶片组的AMS症状评分比乙酰唑胺组低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),但第5、7天银杏叶片组的AMS症状评分与乙酰唑胺组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。第3、5、7天红景天组的血氧饱和度(SaO2)高于银杏叶片组和乙酰唑胺组,第1、3、5、7天红景天组的心率(HR)低于银杏叶片组和乙酰唑胺组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);但银杏叶片组和乙酰唑胺组的SaO2及HR比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。红景天组未发生任何不良反应。结论:红景天可以减轻缺氧症状的严重程度,用于治疗AMS临床疗效确切、治愈时间短、安全性好。%OBJECTIVE:To observe therapeutic efficacy and safety of Rhodiola rosea in the treatment of acute mountain sick-ness(AMS). METHODS:200 students with AMS in Tibet university from main land China,who had never been at high altitude before,were randomly divided into 3 groups by humber:R. rosea group(67 patients),Ginkgo biloba group(65 patients)and ac-etazolamide group(68 patients). Each group was given relevant medicine on the first day of inbound Tibet,morning and night,for consecutive 7 days. Clinical efficacy and ADR of 3 groups were observed and compared on first,third,fifth and seventh day. RE-SULTS:3 kinds of drugs were

  18. Absence and leave; sick leave. Final rule.


    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management is issuing final regulations on the use of sick leave and advanced sick leave for serious communicable diseases, including pandemic influenza when appropriate. We are also permitting employees to substitute up to 26 weeks of accrued or accumulated sick leave for unpaid Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) leave to care for a seriously injured or ill covered servicemember, as authorized under the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008, including up to 30 days of advanced sick leave for this purpose. Finally, we are reorganizing the existing sick leave regulations to enhance reader understanding and administration of the program.

  19. Parenthood, gender and sickness absence.

    Mastekaasa, A


    It is well documented that women have generally higher morbidity rates than men. In line with this women are also more absent from work due to sickness. This paper considers one popular explanation of the morbidity difference in general and of the difference in sickness absence in particular, viz. that women to a greater extent than men are exposed to the 'double burden' of combining paid work with family obligations. We discuss theories of role overload and role conflict, which both assume that the combination of multiple roles may have negative health effects, as well theories of role enhancement, which assume positive health effects of multiple roles. Using two large Norwegian data sets, the relationship between the number of and the age of children on the one hand and sickness absence on the other is examined separately for men and women and for a number of theoretically interesting subpopulations of women defined in terms of marital status (also taking account of unmarried cohabitation), level of education, and working hours. Generally speaking the association between children and sickness absence is weak, particularly for married people of both genders. To the extent that married persons with children are more absent than married persons without children, this is largely due to respiratory conditions. The relationship between children and sickness absence is somewhat stronger for single, never married mothers, but not for single mothers who have been previously married or for women living in unmarried cohabitation. The findings thus provide little support for either role overload/conflict or role enhancement theories. The possibility that these effects are both present and counterbalancing each other or that they are confounded with uncontrolled selection effects can not, however, be ruled out.

  20. Acute and late toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated by dose escalated intensity modulated radiation therapy and organ tracking

    Behrensmeier Frank


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report acute and late toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated by dose escalated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT and organ tracking. Methods From 06/2004 to 12/2005 39 men were treated by 80 Gy IMRT along with organ tracking. Median age was 69 years, risk of recurrence was low 18%, intermediate 21% and high in 61% patients. Hormone therapy (HT was received by 74% of patients. Toxicity was scored according to the CTC scale version 3.0. Median follow-up (FU was 29 months. Results Acute and maximal late grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI toxicity was 3% and 8%, late grade 2 GI toxicity dropped to 0% at the end of FU. No acute or late grade 3 GI toxicity was observed. Grade 2 and 3 pre-treatment genitourinary (GU morbidity (PGUM was 20% and 5%. Acute and maximal late grade 2 GU toxicity was 56% and 28% and late grade 2 GU toxicity decreased to 15% of patients at the end of FU. Acute and maximal late grade 3 GU toxicity was 8% and 3%, respectively. Decreased late ≥ grade 2 GU toxicity free survival was associated with higher age (P = .025, absence of HT (P = .016 and higher PGUM (P Discussion GI toxicity rates after IMRT and organ tracking are excellent, GU toxicity rates are strongly related to PGUM.

  1. Simulator sickness and its measurement with Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ

    Marcin P. Biernacki


    Full Text Available One of the most common methods for studying the simulator sickness issue is the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ (Kennedy et al., 1993. Despite the undoubted popularity of the SSQ, this questionnaire has not as yet been standardized and translated, which could allow us to use it in Poland for research purposes. The aim of our article is to introduce the SSQ to Polish readers, both researchers and practitioners. In the first part of this paper, the studies using the SSQ are discussed, whereas the second part consists of the description of the SSQ test procedure and the calculation method of sample results. Med Pr 2016;67(4:545–555

  2. BiodosEPR-2006 Meeting: Acute dosimetry consensus committee recommendations on biodosimetry applications in events involving uses of radiation by terrorists and radiation accidents

    Alexander, George A. [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Preparedness and Emergency Operations, 200 Independence Avenue, SW, Room 403B-1, Washington, DC 20201 (United States); Swartz, Harold M. [Dept. of Radiology and Physiology Dept., Dartmouth Medical School, HB 7785, Vail 702, Rubin 601, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Amundson, Sally A. [Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 W. 168th Street, VC11-215, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Blakely, William F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)], E-mail:; Buddemeier, Brooke [Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528 (United States); Gallez, Bernard [Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Unit and Lab. of Medicinal Chemistry and Radiopharmacy, Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Dainiak, Nicholas [Dept. of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, 267 Grant Street, Bridgeport, CT 06610 (United States); Goans, Ronald E. [MJW Corporation, 1422 Eagle Bend Drive, Clinton, TN 37716-4029 (United States); Hayes, Robert B. [Remote Sensing Lab., MS RSL-47, P.O. Box 98421, Las Vegas, NV 89193 (United States); Lowry, Patrick C. [Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS), Oak Ridge Associated Universities, P.O. Box 117, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117 (United States); Noska, Michael A. [Food and Drug Administration, FDA/CDRH, 1350 Piccard Drive, HFZ-240, Rockville, MD 20850 (United States); Okunieff, Paul [Dept. of Radiation Oncology (Box 647), Univ. of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Salner, Andrew L. [Helen and Harry Gray Cancer Center, Hartford Hospital, 80 Seymour Street, Hartford, CT 06102 (United States); Schauer, David A. [National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 400, Bethesda, MD 20814-3095 (United States)] (and others)


    In the aftermath of a radiological terrorism incident or mass-casualty radiation accident, first responders and receivers require prior guidance and pre-positioned resources for assessment, triage and medical management of affected individuals [NCRP, 2005. Key elements of preparing emergency responders for nuclear and radiological terrorism. NCRP Commentary No. 19, Bethesda, Maryland, USA]. Several recent articles [Dainiak, N., Waselenko, J.K., Armitage, J.O., MacVittie, T.J., Farese, A.M., 2003. The hematologist and radiation casualties. Hematology (Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program) 473-496; Waselenko, J.K., MacVittie, T.J., Blakely, W.F., Pesik, N., Wiley, A.L., Dickerson, W.E., Tsu, H., Confer, D.L., Coleman, C.N., Seed, T., Lowry, P., Armitage, J.O., Dainiak, N., Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group, 2004. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 140(12), 1037-1051; Blakely, W.F., Salter, C.A., Prasanna, P.G., 2005. Early-response biological dosimetry-recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Phys. 89(5), 494-504; Goans, R.E., Waselenko, J.K., 2005. Medical management of radiation casualties. Health Phys. 89(5), 505-512; Swartz, H.M., Iwasaki, A., Walczak, T., Demidenko, E., Salikhov, I., Lesniewski, P., Starewicz, P., Schauer, D., Romanyukha, A., 2005. Measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using non-invasive in vivo EPR spectroscopy of teeth in situ. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 62, 293-299; . Acute radiation injury: contingency planning for triage, supportive care, and transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 12(6), 672-682], national [. Management of persons accidentally contaminated with radionuclides. NCRP Report No. 65, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; . Management of terrorist events involving radioactive material. NCRP Report No. 138, Bethesda, Maryland

  3. Sick, the spectroscopic inference crank

    Casey, Andrew R


    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives which remain severely under-utilised. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analysing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this Article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbour estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimised point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalise on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-di...

  4. Comparison of acute and subacute genitourinary and gastrointestinal adverse events of radiotherapy for prostate cancer using intensity-modulated radiation therapy, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, permanent implant brachytherapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    Morimoto, Masahiro; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Konishi, Koji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Yutaka; Ogata, Toshiyuki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Teshima, Teruki; Bijl, Henk P; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Langendijk, Johannes A; Ogawa, Kazuhiko


    AIMS AND BACKGROUND: To examine acute and subacute urinary and rectal toxicity in patients with localized prostate cancer monotherapeutically treated with the following four radiotherapeutic techniques: intensity-modulated radiation therapy, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, low-dose-ra

  5. Sickness Behavior in Honey Bees

    Kazlauskas, Nadia; Klappenbach, Martín; Depino, Amaicha M.; Locatelli, Fernando F.


    During an infection, animals suffer several changes in their normal physiology and behavior which may include lethargy, appetite loss, and reduction in grooming and general movements. This set of alterations is known as sickness behavior and although it has been extensively believed to be orchestrated primarily by the immune system, a relevant role for the central nervous system has also been established. The aim of the present work is to develop a simple animal model to allow studying how the immune and the nervous systems interact coordinately during an infection. We administered a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the thorax of honey bees to mimic a bacterial infection, and then we evaluated a set of stereotyped behaviors of the animals that might be indicative of sickness behavior. First, we show that this immune challenge reduces the locomotor activity of the animals in a narrow time window after LPS injection. Furthermore, bees exhibit a loss of appetite 60 and 90 min after injection, but not 15 h later. We also demonstrate that LPS injection reduces spontaneous antennal movements in harnessed animals, which suggests a reduction in the motivational state of the bees. Finally, we show that the LPS injection diminishes the interaction between animals, a crucial behavior in social insects. To our knowledge these results represent the first systematic description of sickness behavior in honey bees and provide important groundwork for the study of the interaction between the immune and the neural systems in an insect model. PMID:27445851

  6. Radiation carcinogenesis and acute radiation mortality in the rat as produced by 2.2 GeV protons

    Shellabarger, C. J.; Straub, R. F.; Jesseph, J. E.; Montour, J. L.


    Biological studies, proton carcinogenesis, the interaction of protons and gamma-rays on carcinogenesis, proton-induced acute mortality, and chemical protection against proton-induced acute mortality were studied in the rat and these proton-produced responses were compared to similar responses produced by gamma-rays or X-rays. Litter-mate mice were assigned to each experimental and control group so that approximately equal numbers of litter mates were placed in each group. Animals to be studied for mammary neoplasia were handled for 365 days post-exposure when all animals alive were killed. All animals were examined frequently for mammary tumors and as these were found, they were removed, sectioned and given a pathologic classification.

  7. Biological implications of radiation

    Bond, V.P.


    Some topics discussed are as follows: effects of diagnostic and therapeutic radiation on dividing cells, DNA, and blood cells; radiation sickness in relation to dose; early and late effects of radiation; effects of low dose irradiation; dose-effect curves; radioinduction of tumors in animals; and incidence of cancer in children following in utero exposure to diagnostic x rays. (HLW)

  8. The impact of microbial immune enteral nutrition on the patients with acute radiation enteritis in bowel function and immune status.

    Shao, Feng; Xin, Fu-Ze; Yang, Cheng-Gang; Yang, Dao-Gui; Mi, Yue-Tang; Yu, Jun-Xiu; Li, Guo-Yong


    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of microbial immune enteral nutrition by microecopharmaceutics and deep sea fish oil and glutamine and Peptisorb on the patients with acute radiation enteritis in bowel function and immune status. From June 2010 to January 2013, 46 acute radiation enteritis patients in Liaocheng People's Hospital were randomized into the microbial immune enteral nutrition group and the control group: 24 patients in treatment group and 22 patients in control group. The immune microbial nutrition was given to the study group, but not to the control group. The concentration of serum albumin and prealbumin and the number of CD3 (+) T cell, CD4 (+) T cell, CD8 (+) T cell, CD4 (+)/CD8 (+) and natural killer cell of the two groups were detected on the 1, 7 and 14 days after treatment. The arm muscle circumference and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) were recorded, and the tolerance of the two groups for enteral nutrition and intestinal symptoms was collected and then comparing the two indicators and get results. The tolerance of microbial immune enteral nutrition group about abdominal pain, bloating and diarrhea was better than the control group (P values were 0.018, 0.04 and 0.008 after 7 days; P values were 0.018, 0.015 and 0.002 after 14 days); and the cellular immune parameters were better than the control group((△) P = 0.008,([Symbol: see text]) P = 0.039, (☆) P = 0.032); No difference was found in nutrition indicators. To the patients with acute radiation enteritis, microbial immune enteral nutrition could improve the patient's immune status, and the tolerance of enteral nutrition could be better for the bowel function and the patients' rehabilitation.

  9. Self-reported sick leave and long-term health symptoms of Q-fever patients.

    Morroy, G.; Bor, H.; Polder, J.J.; Hautvast, J.L.; Hoek, W. van der; Schneeberger, P.M.; Wijkmans, C.J.


    BACKGROUND: In The Netherlands, 1168 Q-fever patients were notified in 2007 and 2008. Patients and general practitioners (GPs) regularly reported persisting symptoms after acute Q-fever, especially fatigue and long periods of sick leave, to the public health authorities. International studies on sma

  10. 高海拔地区多脏器低氧损伤与重症急性高原病患者死亡的关系分析%The relationship analysis between the multi-organ hypoxic damage and the death in acute high altitude sickness severe sase

    李素芝; 郑必海; 黄跃; 闫春城; 李珣; 郑建保; 何袆; 周晓波


    目的 探讨高海拔地区多脏器低氧损伤与重症急性高原病患者死亡的关系.方法 应用调查表对本院收治的3220例HACE与HAPE病例进行回顾,检出其中多器官功能障碍(MODS)及其死亡病例,分析其临床症状、体征、辅助检查等资料等对高海拔地区重症急性高原病患者临床死亡原因及其特点.结果 8.7%急性高原病患者并发MODS(281/3220),其中治愈3185例,死亡35例,病死率为1.1%,死亡患者的各临床症状、阳性体征及辅助检查阳性发生率分别为2.86%~65.71%、2.86%~100%、14.29%~100%,死亡患者的MODS发生率为100%.281例并发MODS的患者(死亡35例,治愈246例)中死亡组MODS数、心脏功能障碍、脑功能障碍及肾功能障碍方面均显著高于治愈组(P<0.05).重症急性高原病患者死亡与MODS数呈正相关(r=0.3473,P<0.01).结论 高海拔地区重症急性高原病患者的死亡与低氧对各脏器功能的损伤密切相关,心、脑、肾等重要脏器功能障碍是导致患者死亡的重要原因.%Objectives To analyze the relationship between the multi-organ hypoxia damage and the death of acute high altitude sickness severe case. Methods 3220 cases from 1956. 06 to 2005.06 in the hospital were reviewed by questionnaire and the cases in MODS or death were screened out. The cause of death and feature were analyzed by the data as clinical symptom, physical signs and auxiliary examination. Results 281 cases complicated by MODS (include 35 dead cases) were found out by review. The incidence with MODS is 8.73% , and the death rate was 1.09%. The masculine incidence rate of the clinical symptom, physical signs and auxiliary examination in death were 2. 86% ~65. 71% , 2. 86% ~ 100% and 14. 29% ~ 100% , respectively. The MODS incidence in dead cases was 100%. Compared with the curing group, the MODS number, cardiac functional disturbance, brain disorder and renal functional disturbance in the death group had a significantly high

  11. Animal models in motion sickness research

    Daunton, Nancy G.


    Practical information on candidate animal models for motion sickness research and on methods used to elicit and detect motion sickness in these models is provided. Four good potential models for use in motion sickness experiments include the dog, cat, squirrel monkey, and rat. It is concluded that the appropriate use of the animal models, combined with exploitation of state-of-the-art biomedical techniques, should generate a great step forward in the understanding of motion sickness mechanisms and in the development of efficient and effective approaches to its prevention and treatment in humans.

  12. The sick role and the role of the physician reconsidered.

    Parsons, T


    The main substance of this paper was presented orally at a meeting of the Sick Role, organized and chaired by Andrew Twaddle. It was a commentary on four papers and the oral discussion of them. In response to these the paper first discusses the relation of the sick role to deviant behavior and the motivation to become and remain ill. The position was taken that the author never had meant to confine the category of illness to deviant behavior, though its negative valuation should not be forgotten. Nor had he confined it to cases of acute illness, omitting consideration of chronic and other types. The most important issue, however, concerned the structure of the relation between physician and patient. Though insisting that interaction between them is two-way, not one-way, the author insisted that the relation is basically asymmetrical because of the physician's expertise in health matters, gained through training and experience, and his special fiduciary responsibility for the care of the sick. In this respect the relationship is different from others such as the competitive market or the democratic association, but is comparable to the relation of teacher and student in higher education.

  13. Physiological mechanisms of acute intestinal radiation death. Technical report, 1 June 1983-1 June 1986

    Jackson, K.L.; Geraci, J.P.


    The overall objective was to clarify the role of fluid and electrolyte loss, bile-duct ligation, radiation-damaged intestinal mucosa, bacterial toxemia and their interrelationships on radiation-induced gastrointestinal death. Using specific pathogen-free CD-1 male rats, this study found that endogenous enteric bacteria did not play a significant role in pure intestinal radiation death. Bile acids, per se, were shown to play little role in intestinal radiation death, but the inability of the denuded mucosa to absorb fluid and electrolytes, thereby producing hypovolemic shock, was the major mechanism.

  14. Coronary CT angiography for acute chest pain triage: Techniques for radiation exposure reduction; 128 vs. 64 multidetector CT

    Goitein, Orly; Eshet, Yael; Konen, Eli (Diagnostic Imaging, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv Univ., Tel Aviv (Israel)), email:; Matetzky, Shlomi (Heart Inst., Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv Univ., Tel Aviv (Israel)); Goitein, David (Surgery C, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv Univ., Tel Aviv (Israel)); Hamdan, Ashraf; Di Segni, Elio (Diagnostic Imaging, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv Univ., Tel Aviv (Israel); Heart Inst., Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv Univ., Tel Aviv (Israel))


    Background. Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is used daily in acute chest pain triage, although exposing patients to significant radiation dosage. CCTA using prospective ECG gating (PG CCTA) enables significant radiation reduction Purpose. To determine whether the routine use of 128 vs. 64 multidetector CT (MDCT) can increase the proportion of patients scanned using PG CCTA technique, lowering radiation exposure, without decreasing image quality. Material and Methods. The study comprised 232 patients, 116 consecutive patients scanned using 128 MDCT (mean age 49 years, 79 men, BMI 28) and 116 consecutive patients (mean age 50 years, 75 men, BMI 28) which were scanned using 64 MDCT. PG CCTA was performed whenever technically permissible by each type of scanner: 64 MDCT = stable heart rate (HR) <60/min and weight <110 kg; 128 MDCT = stable HR < 70/min and weight <140 kg. All coronary segments were evaluated for image quality using a visual scale of 1-5. An estimated radiation dose was recorded. Results. PC CCTA was performed in 84% and 49% of the 128 and 64 MDCT groups, respectively (P < 0.0001). Average image quality score were 4.6 +- 0.3 and 4.7 +- 0.1 for the 128 and 64 MDCT, respectively (P = 0.08). The mean radiation dose exposure was 6.2 +- 4.8 mSv and 10.4 +- 7.5 mSv for the 128 and 64 MDCT, respectively (P = 0.008). Conclusion. The 128 MDCT scanner enables utilization of PG CCTA technique in a greater proportion of patients, thereby decreasing the related radiation significantly, without hampering image quality


    Casey, Andrew R., E-mail: [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambdridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)


    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  16. Comparative proteomic profiling and possible toxicological mechanism of acute injury induced by carbon ion radiation in pubertal mice testes

    Zhang, Hong


    We investigated potential mechanisms of acute injury in pubertal mice testes after exposure to carbon ion radiation (CIR). Serum testosterone was measured following whole-body irradiation with a 2Gy carbon ion beam. Comparative proteomic profiling and Western blotting were applied to identify potential biomarkers and measure protein expression, and terminal dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) was performed to detect apoptotic cells. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to investigate protein localization. Serum testosterone was lowest at 24h after CIR, and 10 differentially expressed proteins were identified at this time point that included eIF4E, an important regulator of initiation that combines with mTOR and 4EBP1 to control protein synthesis via the mTOR signalling pathway during proliferation and apoptosis. Protein expression and localization studies confirmed their association with acute injury following exposure to CIR. These three proteins may be useful molecular markers for detecting abnormal spermatogenesis following exposure to environmental and cosmic radiation

  17. Ataxia Telangiectasia–Mutated Gene Polymorphisms and Acute Normal Tissue Injuries in Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Dong, Lihua [Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China); Cui, Jingkun [Department of Internal Medicine, Nanling School District Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China); Tang, Fengjiao; Cong, Xiaofeng [Cancer Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China); Han, Fujun, E-mail: [Cancer Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China)


    Purpose: Studies of the association between ataxia telangiectasia–mutated (ATM) gene polymorphisms and acute radiation injuries are often small in sample size, and the results are inconsistent. We conducted the first meta-analysis to provide a systematic review of published findings. Methods and Materials: Publications were identified by searching PubMed up to April 25, 2014. Primary meta-analysis was performed for all acute radiation injuries, and subgroup meta-analyses were based on clinical endpoint. The influence of sample size and radiation injury incidence on genetic effects was estimated in sensitivity analyses. Power calculations were also conducted. Results: The meta-analysis was conducted on the ATM polymorphism rs1801516, including 5 studies with 1588 participants. For all studies, the cut-off for differentiating cases from controls was grade 2 acute radiation injuries. The primary meta-analysis showed a significant association with overall acute radiation injuries (allelic model: odds ratio = 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.71). Subgroup analyses detected an association between the rs1801516 polymorphism and a significant increase in urinary and lower gastrointestinal injuries and an increase in skin injury that was not statistically significant. There was no between-study heterogeneity in any meta-analyses. In the sensitivity analyses, small studies did not show larger effects than large studies. In addition, studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries showed larger effects than studies with low incidence. Power calculations revealed that the statistical power of the primary meta-analysis was borderline, whereas there was adequate power for the subgroup analysis of studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis showed a consistency of the results from the overall and subgroup analyses. We also showed that the genetic effect of the rs1801516 polymorphism on acute radiation injuries was

  18. Acute Hematological Effects in Mice Exposed to the Expected Doses, Dose-rates, and Energies of Solar Particle Event-like Proton Radiation

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Cengel, Keith A.; Wan, X. Steven; Rusek, Adam; Kennedy, Ann R.


    NASA has funded several projects that have provided evidence for the radiation risk in space. One radiation concern arises from solar particle event (SPE) radiation, which is composed of energetic electrons, protons, alpha particles and heavier particles. SPEs are unpredictable and the accompanying SPE radiation can place astronauts at risk of blood cell death, contributing to a weakened immune system and increased susceptibility to infection. The doses, dose rates, and energies of the proton radiation expected to occur during a SPE have been simulated at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, delivering total body doses to mice. Hematological values were evaluated at acute time points, up to 24 hrs. post-radiation exposure. PMID:25202654

  19. Work-related psychosocial events as triggers of sick leave - results from a Swedish case-crossover study

    Lindholm Christina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although illness is an important cause of sick leave, it has also been suggested that non-medical risk factors may influence this association. If such factors impact on the period of decision making, they should be considered as triggers. Yet, there is no empirical support available. The aim was to investigate whether recent exposure to work-related psychosocial events can trigger the decision to report sick when ill. Methods A case-crossover design was applied to 546 sick-leave spells, extracted from a Swedish cohort of 1 430 employees with a 3-12 month follow-up of new sick-leave spells. Exposure in a case period corresponding to an induction period of one or two days was compared with exposure during control periods sampled from workdays during a two-week period prior to sick leave for the same individual. This was done according to the matched-pair interval and the usual frequency approaches. Results are presented as odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results Most sick-leave spells happened in relation to acute, minor illnesses that substantially reduced work ability. The risk of taking sick leave was increased when individuals had recently been exposed to problems in their relationship with a superior (OR 3.63; CI 1.44-9.14 or colleagues (OR 4.68; CI 1.43-15.29. Individuals were also more inclined to report sick on days when they expected a very stressful work situation than on a day when they were not under such stress (OR 2.27; CI 1.40-3.70. Conclusions Exposure to problems in workplace relationships or a stressful work situation seems to be able to trigger reporting sick. Psychosocial work-environmental factors appear to have a short-term effect on individuals when deciding to report sick.


    A. A. Chernova


    Full Text Available Published data demonstrating genetic determination of sick sinus syndrome is presented. The definition of this pathology is presented; the main symptoms are described, as well as genes that influence the development of idiopathic sick sinus syndrome, their polymorphisms and role in disorders of the cardiovascular system.

  1. Job demands, health perception and sickness absence

    Roelen, C.A.; Koopmans, P.C.; de Graaf, J.H.; van Zandbergen, J.W.; Groothoff, J.W.


    Background Investigation of the relations between job demands, health and sickness absence is required to design a strategy for the prevention of absence and disability. Aim To study the relationships between (physical and psychological) job demands, health perception and sickness absence. Methods P

  2. Predicting motion sickness during parabolic flight

    Harm, Deborah L.; Schlegel, Todd T.


    BACKGROUND: There are large individual differences in susceptibility to motion sickness. Attempts to predict who will become motion sick have had limited success. In the present study, we examined gender differences in resting levels of salivary amylase and total protein, cardiac interbeat intervals (R-R intervals), and a sympathovagal index and evaluated their potential to correctly classify individuals into two motion sickness severity groups. METHODS: Sixteen subjects (10 men and 6 women) flew four sets of 10 parabolas aboard NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Saliva samples for amylase and total protein were collected preflight on the day of the flight and motion sickness symptoms were recorded during each parabola. Cardiovascular parameters were collected in the supine position 1-5 days before the flight. RESULTS: There were no significant gender differences in sickness severity or any of the other variables mentioned above. Discriminant analysis using salivary amylase, R-R intervals and the sympathovagal index produced a significant Wilks' lambda coefficient of 0.36, p=0.006. The analysis correctly classified 87% of the subjects into the none-mild sickness or the moderate-severe sickness group. CONCLUSIONS: The linear combination of resting levels of salivary amylase, high-frequency R-R interval levels, and a sympathovagal index may be useful in predicting motion sickness severity.

  3. Motion Sickness Induced by Optokinetic Drums

    Bos, J.E.; Bles, W.


    Motion sickness is not only elicited by certain kinds of self-motion, but also by motion of a visual scene. In case of the latter, optokinetic drums are often used and a visual-vestibular conflict is assumed to cause the sickness. When the rotation axis is Earth vertical however, different studies s

  4. Girl Babies Make Mothers Sick



    已经或是将要做母亲的女性阅读此文一定兴味盎然。本文告诉我们: …women suffering from extreme morning sickness during the first three months of pregnancy are more likely to be carrying a daughter than a son. 这个结论不是凭空想象出来的,其调查的对象人数多达百万,令人吃惊: Askling and his team compared more than a million births in Sweden with records of women admitted to hospital for extreme morning sickness. 更令人吃惊的是,除了现代的调查之外,研究人员还引用了古希腊名医希波克拉底的观点: …female fetuses gave the mother a pale face, whereas a mother carrying a male fetus has a healthier tone(气色)to her skin.】

  5. Genetic aspects of sick sinus syndrome

    Chernova A.A.


    consistent with that of the genotypes of the above genes in the general population of primary sick sinus syndrome patients. The allelic variants of the above genes were not found to be associated with ompensated sick sinus syndrome. Conclusion. The genetic predictors of idiopathic sick sinus syndrome are heterozygous genotypes 44 GA and 4a/4b genes Cx 40 and NOS3 as well as homozygous genotypes in rare allele DD and GG genes ADRA2B and SCN5A. Polymorphic allelic variant 2161C > T (Arg721Trp of MYH6 gene was not revealed in the examined cohort of Krasnoyarsk population. The distribution of the genotypes of the investigated genes in latent sick sinus syndrome patients was found to be consistent with that of the genotypes in the general population of primary sick sinus syndrome patients.

  6. Oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer during postoperative irradiation. An alleviating effect on acute radiation mucositis

    Katsura, Kouji; Masuko, Noriko; Hayashi, Takafumi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry; Sugita, Tadashi; Sakai, Kunio; Tsuchida, Emiko; Matsumoto, Yasuo; Sasamoto, Ryuta


    To evaluate the effect of oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer on alleviating acute radiation mucositis. Eighteen patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy for tongue and oral floor cancer were evaluated. Radiotherapy was given in 2 Gy per fraction, 5 times a week for a total dose of 50 Gy in most patients. Radiation field included the tongue and oral floor. During radiotherapy, 8 patients were treated by dento-maxillofacial radiologists with special concern on oral hygiene (oral hygiene group) and the remaining 10 patients were treated with routine dental care (standard medication group). Mucositis were evaluated using JCOG grade and EORTC/RTOG score by radiotherapists or dento-maxillofacial radiologists at 10 Gy intervals. Oral hygiene plans comprised motivation to maintain oral hygiene and establishing the habits of oral self care 4 times per day. Once a week, oral hygiene and oral cleaning of patients were checked by dento-maxillofacial radiologists. Oral self care included mechanical tooth brushing and a chemical mouthwash. No patients with grade 3 and score 4 mucositis were noted in the oral hygiene group. Severe mucositis occurred less frequently in the oral hygiene group than in the standard medication group. Interruption of radiotherapy due to severe mucositis did not occur in the oral hygiene group. On the other hand, interruption of radiotherapy occurred in four patients in the standard medication group, and in three it was due to severe oral pain. Our results suggested that our method of oral hygiene was more effective for alleviating acute radiation mucositis than other methods so far reported. In addition, our method is considered to be useful in preventing rampant dental caries and severe periodontitis due to the xerostomia induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  7. Association of elevated radiation dose with mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    Parikh, Puja B.; Prakash, Sheena; Tahir, Usman; Kort, Smadar; Gruberg, Luis; Jeremias, Allen, E-mail:


    Objectives: This study sought to identify clinical and procedural predictors of elevated radiation dose received by patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and to determine if elevated radiation dose was predictive of mortality in this population. Background: Little data exist regarding the impact of excessive radiation burden on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing PCI. Methods: The study population included 1,039 patients who underwent PCI for an AMI between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2008 at an academic tertiary care teaching hospital. Cumulative skin dose (measured in milligray [mGy]) was selected as a measurement of patient radiation burden. Clinical and procedural variables were analyzed in multiple logistic and linear regression models to determine predictors of higher skin dose, and its impact was evaluated on all-cause intermediate-term mortality at two years. Results: Median skin dose was 2120 mGy (IQR 1379–3190 mGy) in the overall population, of which 153 (20.8%) patients received an elevated skin dose (defined as a skin dose > 4,000 mGy). Independent predictors of elevated skin dose included male gender, obesity, multivessel intervention, and presentation with a non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI) versus an ST-elevation MI (STEMI). Increased skin dose was not predictive of intermediate-term mortality by multivariate analysis in the overall population or in either subgroup of STEMI and NSTEMI. Conclusions: In this contemporary observational study examining patients with AMI undergoing PCI, male gender, obesity, multivessel intervention, and presentation with a NSTEMI were associated with increased radiation exposure.

  8. Rectal planning risk volume correlation with acute and late toxicity in 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    Dias, R S; Giordani, A J; Souhami, L; Segreto, R A; Segreto, H R C


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate rectum motion during 3-Dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in prostate cancer patients, to derive a planning volume at risk (PRV) and to correlate the PRV dose-volume histograms (DVH) with treatment complications.This study was conducted in two phases. Initially, the PRV was defined prospectively in 50 consecutive prostate cancer patients (Group 1) who received a radical course of 3-D CRT. Then, the obtained PRV was used in the radiotherapy planning of these same 50 patients plus another 59 prostate cancer patients (Group 2) previously treated between 2004 and 2008. All these patients' data, including the rectum and PRV DVHs, were correlated to acute and late complications, according to the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) v4.0.The largest displacement occurred in the anterior axis. Long-term gastrointestinal (GI) complications grade ≥ 2 were seen in 9.2% of the cases. Factors that influenced acute GI reactions were: doses at 25% (p 5 0.011) and 40% (p 5 0.005) of the rectum volume and at 40% of the PRV (p 5 0.012). The dose at 25% of the rectum volume (p 5 0.033) and acute complications ≥ grade 2 (p 5 0.018) were prognostic factors for long-term complications. The PRV DVH did not correlate with late toxicity. The rectum showed a significant inter-fraction motion during 3D-CRT for prostate cancer. PRV dose correlated with acute gastrointestinal complications and may be a useful tool to predict and reduce their occurrence.

  9. Therapeutics interventions with anti-inflammatory creams in post radiation acute skin reactions: a systematic review of most important clinical trials.

    Koukourakis, Georgios V; Kelekis, Nikolaos; Kouvaris, John; Beli, Ivelina K; Kouloulias, Vassilios E


    The majority of cancer patients will receive radiation therapy treatment at some stage during their malignancy. An acute skin reaction represents a common post radiation side effect with different grade of severity. In order to investigate the optimal methods to prevent and manage acute skin reactions related to radiation therapy we have conducted a systematic review on this topic. It seems that skin washing, including gentle washing with water alone with or without mild soap, should be permitted in patients receiving radiation therapy, to prevent acute skin reaction. In addition, a low dose (i.e., 1%) corticosteroid cream may be beneficial in the reduction of itching and irritation. We have concluded that there is insufficient evidence to support or refute specific topical or oral agents for the prevention or management of acute skin reaction. There is a need for further research to review treatments that have produced promising results in the reviewed research studies and to evaluate other commonly recommended topical treatments. The purpose of this patent and literature review is to advocate the current management of acute skin reaction.

  10. Acute Radiation-Induced Nocturia in Prostate Cancer Patients Is Associated With Pretreatment Symptoms, Radical Prostatectomy, and Genetic Markers in the TGF{beta}1 Gene

    De Langhe, Sofie, E-mail: [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent University, Gent (Belgium); De Ruyck, Kim [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent University, Gent (Belgium); Ost, Piet; Fonteyne, Valerie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Gent (Belgium); Werbrouck, Joke [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent University, Gent (Belgium); De Meerleer, Gert; De Neve, Wilfried [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Gent (Belgium); Thierens, Hubert [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent University, Gent (Belgium)


    Purpose: After radiation therapy for prostate cancer, approximately 50% of the patients experience acute genitourinary symptoms, mostly nocturia. This may be highly bothersome with a major impact on the patient's quality of life. In the past, nocturia is seldom reported as a single, physiologically distinct endpoint, and little is known about its etiology. It is assumed that in addition to dose-volume parameters and patient- and therapy-related factors, a genetic component contributes to the development of radiation-induced damage. In this study, we investigated the association among dosimetric, clinical, and TGF{beta}1 polymorphisms and the development of acute radiation-induced nocturia in prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Data were available for 322 prostate cancer patients treated with primary or postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Five genetic markers in the TGF{beta}1 gene (-800 G>A, -509 C>T, codon 10 T>C, codon 25 G>C, g.10780 T>G), and a high number of clinical and dosimetric parameters were considered. Toxicity was scored using an symptom scale developed in-house. Results: Radical prostatectomy (P<.001) and the presence of pretreatment nocturia (P<.001) are significantly associated with the occurrence of radiation-induced acute toxicity. The -509 CT/TT (P=.010) and codon 10 TC/CC (P=.005) genotypes are significantly associated with an increased risk for radiation-induced acute nocturia. Conclusions: Radical prostatectomy, the presence of pretreatment nocturia symptoms, and the variant alleles of TGF{beta}1 -509 C>T and codon 10 T>C are identified as factors involved in the development of acute radiation-induced nocturia. These findings may contribute to the research on prediction of late nocturia after IMRT for prostate cancer.

  11. Archives, libraries and museums: containers often sick, sometimes seriously sick

    Roberto Nicolucci


    Full Text Available As far as the feeling of quietness and peace that they often convey, archives, museums and libraries also hide dangers that you may not imagine, either for visitors or especially for the members of the staff. Indeed the poor microclimatic conditions – often the consequences of materials and construction or building technologies that appear definitely obsolete – often arouse suspicion and worry among the staff. Wrong Thermo hygrometric parameters, the presence of volatile organic elements, mineral fibers, biocides, radon gas, aerial dispersive molecules, are among others some of the chemical physical polluters of major influence that may contribute to giving life to the so-called Sick Building Syndrome. But such spaces also bear biological polluters that can provoke pathologies of various types and importance, among which the feared Illness of Legionnaire. The presence of electromagnetic fields, but above all wrong lighting and wrong ergonomic working positions represent some risk factors for members of staff and visitors.

  12. Biological dosimetry by the triage dicentric chromosome assay: potential implications for treatment of acute radiation syndrome in radiological mass casualties.

    Romm, Horst; Wilkins, Ruth C; Coleman, C Norman; Lillis-Hearne, Patricia K; Pellmar, Terry C; Livingston, Gordon K; Awa, Akio A; Jenkins, Mark S; Yoshida, Mitsuaki A; Oestreicher, Ursula; Prasanna, Pataje G S


    Biological dosimetry is an essential tool for estimating radiation dose. The dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) is currently the tool of choice. Because the assay is labor-intensive and time-consuming, strategies are needed to increase throughput for use in radiation mass casualty incidents. One such strategy is to truncate metaphase spread analysis for triage dose estimates by scoring 50 or fewer metaphases, compared to a routine analysis of 500 to 1000 metaphases, and to increase throughput using a large group of scorers in a biodosimetry network. Previously, the National Institutes for Allergies and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) sponsored a double-blinded interlaboratory comparison among five established international cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratories to determine the variability in calibration curves and in dose measurements in unknown, irradiated samples. In the present study, we further analyzed the published data from this previous study to investigate how the number of metaphase spreads influences dose prediction accuracy and how this information could be of value in the triage and management of people at risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS). Although, as expected, accuracy decreased with lower numbers of metaphase spreads analyzed, predicted doses by the laboratories were in good agreement and were judged to be adequate to guide diagnosis and treatment of ARS. These results demonstrate that for rapid triage, a network of cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratories can accurately assess doses even with a lower number of scored metaphases.

  13. Motion sickness: a negative reinforcement model.

    Bowins, Brad


    Theories pertaining to the "why" of motion sickness are in short supply relative to those detailing the "how." Considering the profoundly disturbing and dysfunctional symptoms of motion sickness, it is difficult to conceive of why this condition is so strongly biologically based in humans and most other mammalian and primate species. It is posited that motion sickness evolved as a potent negative reinforcement system designed to terminate motion involving sensory conflict or postural instability. During our evolution and that of many other species, motion of this type would have impaired evolutionary fitness via injury and/or signaling weakness and vulnerability to predators. The symptoms of motion sickness strongly motivate the individual to terminate the offending motion by early avoidance, cessation of movement, or removal of oneself from the source. The motion sickness negative reinforcement mechanism functions much like pain to strongly motivate evolutionary fitness preserving behavior. Alternative why theories focusing on the elimination of neurotoxins and the discouragement of motion programs yielding vestibular conflict suffer from several problems, foremost that neither can account for the rarity of motion sickness in infants and toddlers. The negative reinforcement model proposed here readily accounts for the absence of motion sickness in infants and toddlers, in that providing strong motivation to terminate aberrant motion does not make sense until a child is old enough to act on this motivation.

  14. Workplace bullying and sickness presenteeism

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Clausen, Thomas; Hansen, Åse Marie


    Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate exposure to workplace bullying as a potential risk factor for sickness presenteeism (SP), i.e., working while ill. Methods: This study is based on data collected through self-reported questionnaires in a 2-year prospective study on employees...... with missing values, the final samples were composed of 2,865 and 1,331participants in the cross-sectional and prospective analyses, respectively. Results: Modified poisson regression analyses showed that frequent (i.e., daily or weekly) exposure to workplace bullying was associated with reporting 8 or more...... indications of a significant relationship between exposure to frequent workplace bullying and SP, although causal connections could not be established. Methodological and theoretical considerations about study findings are provided, which could be of benefit to future studies examining the impact of being...

  15. Waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis: effects on sick leaves and cost of lost workdays.

    Jaana I Halonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2007, part of a drinking water distribution system was accidentally contaminated with waste water effluent causing a gastroenteritis outbreak in a Finnish town. We examined the acute and cumulative effects of this incidence on sick leaves among public sector employees residing in the clean and contaminated areas, and the additional costs of lost workdays due to the incidence. METHODS: Daily information on sick leaves of 1789 Finnish Public Sector Study participants was obtained from employers' registers. Global Positioning System-coordinates were used for linking participants to the clean and contaminated areas. Prevalence ratios (PR for weekly sickness absences were calculated using binomial regression analysis. Calculations for the costs were based on prior studies. RESULTS: Among those living in the contaminated areas, the prevalence of participants on sick leave was 3.54 (95% confidence interval (CI 2.97-4.22 times higher on the week following the incidence compared to the reference period. Those living and working in the clean area were basically not affected, the corresponding PR for sick leaves was 1.12, 95% CI 0.73-1.73. No cumulative effects on sick leaves were observed among the exposed. The estimated additional costs of lost workdays due to the incidence were 1.8-2.1 million euros. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of sickness absences among public sector employees residing in affected areas increased shortly after drinking water distribution system was contaminated, but no long-term effects were observed. The estimated costs of lost workdays were remarkable, thus, the cost-benefits of better monitoring systems for the water distribution systems should be evaluated.

  16. Expression of ICAM-1 and acute inflammatory cell infiltration in the early phase of radiation colitis in rats

    Ikeda, Yuji; Ito, Masahiro; Matsuu, Mutsumi; Shichijo, Kazuko; Fukuda, Eiichiro; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Nakashima, Masahiro; Naito, Shinji; Sekine, Ichiro [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). Atomic Bomb Disease Inst.


    Inflammatory cell infiltration of the colon is observed at an early stage of radiation-induced colitis. The emigration of inflammatory cells from the circulation requires interactions between cell adhesion molecules on the vascular endothelium and molecules on the surface of leukocytes. To elucidate this process, the present work analyzes the kinetics of the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and the accumulation of inflammatory myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive cells in relation to the appearance of acute radiation colitis prior to an overt radiation-induced ulcer. Colon tissues were obtained from Wistar Kyoto rats at various times after 22.5 Gy irradiation to the rectum. Histologically, crypt depletion and numerous inflammatory cells were observed 4 days after irradiation, and mucosal ulcer 6 days after irradiation. ICAM-1 immunopositivity was present in the endothelial cells of small vessels in the mucosa of both control and irradiated rats. ICAM-1 mRNA expression was detected in normal colon and irradiated colon by reverse transcription-PCR. In Northern blotting, ICAM-1 mRNA levels were found to increase markedly in the irradiated colon compared to the normal colon. In Western blotting, ICAM-1 protein expression also increased with a peak one day after irradiation, and remained elevated up to 6 days thereafter. The number of MPO-positive cells in lamina propria mucosa increased in a time-dependent fashion from 6 h to 6 days after irradiation. These data suggest that up-regulation of ICAM-1 in endothelial cells and accumulation of MPO positive cells play important roles in the development of radiation-induced colonic ulcer. (author)

  17. Preventive central nervous system irradiation in children with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. [Complications of. gamma. radiation

    Dahl, G.V.; Simone, J.V.; Hustu, H.O.; Mason, C.


    In this study of children with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia an attempt was made to prevent central nervous system relapse and to determine whether this therapy, coupled with multiagent chemotherapy, would be successful in prolonging durations of complete remission. Central nervous system relapses were prevented by irradiation, although patients who received this therapy did no better than those who did not receive irradiation. A small group of patients received irradiation to the liver and spleen, but this modality also failed to improve the duration of remission. Control of extramedullary leukemia, in this study, failed to improve remission duration because bone marrow relapse was not prevented or delayed. It is unlikely that focal therapy will have a significant impact in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia until longer marrow remissions are achieved.

  18. A Mathematical Model of the Human Small Intestine Following Acute Radiation and Burn Exposures


    a portion of the proliferative cells in this model using the one-target-one-hit theory of cell damage (Lea, 1955) Another powerful model of small...71.5, pp. 786–792. Sato F et al. (1972). “Radiation effects on cell populations in the intestinal epithelium of mice and its theory ”. Cell and Tissue...DTRA-TR-16-059 DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution is unlimited. Exposure to burn and radiation elicit epithelial cell death in

  19. Controlled progressive innate immune stimulation regimen prevents the induction of sickness behavior in the open field test.

    Chen, Qun; Tarr, Andrew J; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yufen; Reed, Nathaniel S; Demarsh, Cameron P; Sheridan, John F; Quan, Ning


    Peripheral immune activation by bacterial mimics or live replicating pathogens is well known to induce central nervous system activation. Sickness behavior alterations are often associated with inflammation-induced increases in peripheral proinflammatory cytokines (eg, interleukin [IL]-1β and IL-6). However, most researchers have used acute high dose endotoxin/bacterial challenges to observe these outcomes. Using this methodology may pose inherent risks in the translational interpretation of the experimental data in these studies. Studies using Escherichia coli have yet to establish the full kinetics of repeated E. coli peripheral injections. Therefore, we sought to examine the effects of repeated low dose E. coli on sickness behavior and local peripheral inflammation in the open field test. Results from the current experiments showed a behavioral dose response, where increased amounts of E. coli resulted in correspondingly increased sickness behavior. Furthermore, animals that received a subthreshold dose (ie, one that did not cause sickness behavior) of E. coli 24 hours prior were able to withstand a larger dose of E. coli on the second day (a dose that would normally cause sickness behavior in mice without prior exposure) without inducing sickness behavior. In addition, animals that received escalating subthreshold doses of E. coli on days 1 and 2 behaviorally tolerated a dose of E. coli 25 times higher than what would normally cause sickness behavior if given acutely. Lastly, increased levels of E. coli caused increased IL-6 and IL-1β protein expression in the peritoneal cavity, and this increase was blocked by administering a subthreshold dose of E. coli 24 hours prior. These data show that progressive challenges with subthreshold levels of E. coli may obviate the induction of sickness behavior and proinflammatory cytokine expression.

  20. Risks and management of radiation exposure.

    Yamamoto, Loren G


    High-energy ionizing radiation is harmful. Low-level exposure sources include background, occupational, and medical diagnostics. Radiation disaster incidents include radioactive substance accidents and nuclear power plant accidents. Terrorism and international conflict could trigger intentional radiation disasters that include radiation dispersion devices (RDD) (a radioactive dirty bomb), deliberate exposure to industrial radioactive substances, nuclear power plant sabotage, and nuclear weapon detonation. Nuclear fissioning events such as nuclear power plant incidents and nuclear weapon detonation release radioactive fallout that include radioactive iodine 131, cesium 137, strontium 90, uranium, plutonium, and many other radioactive isotopes. An RDD dirty bomb is likely to spread only one radioactive substance, with the most likely substance being cesium 137. Cobalt 60 and strontium 90 are other RDD dirty bomb possibilities. In a radiation disaster, stable patients should be decontaminated to minimize further radiation exposure. Potassium iodide (KI) is useful for iodine 131 exposure. Prussian blue (ferric hexacyanoferrate) enhances the fecal excretion of cesium via ion exchange. Ca-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) and Zn-DTPA form stable ionic complexes with plutonium, americium, and curium, which are excreted in the urine. Amifostine enhances chemical and enzymatic repair of damaged DNA. Acute radiation sickness ranges in severity from mild to lethal, which can be assessed by the nausea/vomiting onset/duration, complete blood cell count findings, and neurologic symptoms.

  1. Correlated Uncertainties in Radiation Shielding Effectiveness

    Werneth, Charles M.; Maung, Khin Maung; Blattnig, Steve R.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Townsend, Lawrence W.


    The space radiation environment is composed of energetic particles which can deliver harmful doses of radiation that may lead to acute radiation sickness, cancer, and even death for insufficiently shielded crew members. Spacecraft shielding must provide structural integrity and minimize the risk associated with radiation exposure. The risk of radiation exposure induced death (REID) is a measure of the risk of dying from cancer induced by radiation exposure. Uncertainties in the risk projection model, quality factor, and spectral fluence are folded into the calculation of the REID by sampling from probability distribution functions. Consequently, determining optimal shielding materials that reduce the REID in a statistically significant manner has been found to be difficult. In this work, the difference of the REID distributions for different materials is used to study the effect of composition on shielding effectiveness. It is shown that the use of correlated uncertainties allows for the determination of statistically significant differences between materials despite the large uncertainties in the quality factor. This is in contrast to previous methods where uncertainties have been generally treated as uncorrelated. It is concluded that the use of correlated quality factor uncertainties greatly reduces the uncertainty in the assessment of shielding effectiveness for the mitigation of radiation exposure.


    Khoja, Leila; Kurtz, Goldie; Zadeh, Gelareh; Laperriere, Normand; Menard, Cynthia; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Bernstein, Mark; Kongkham, Paul; Joshua, Anthony; Hogg, David; Butler, Marcus; Chung, Caroline


    BACKGROUND: Ipilumumab (Ipi), an antibody that enhances T-cell activation, has been shown to improve survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. Ipilumumab may have synergistic effects with radiotherapy but this may result in increased toxicity. This study investigated the incidence of acute radiation effect (ARE) in patients with melanoma brain metastases treated with Ipi and radiosurgery (SRS) or whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). METHODOLOGY: This retrospective study included metastatic melanoma patients treated at our institution from 2008-2013 who received SRS or WBRT for brain metastases within 4 months of Ipi treatment. We evaluated the incidence, timing and factors associated with acute radiation effect (ARE). RESULTS: From 159 patients treated with Ipi, 22 patients also received brain RT within 4 months of treatment. Three patients were excluded for lack of follow-up brain imaging, thus 19 were analysed: 14 males and 5 females, with median age 58 years (range 24-82). Ten were treated with SRS, 7 with WBRT, and 2 with SRS plus WBRT. Median dose for SRS was 21 Gy (range: 15-24 Gy). Five of 13 patients treated with SRS (38%) experienced symptomatic edema requiring steroids within 1 month of starting Ipi, and within 4 months of RT. One patient had a haemorrhage and 1 required surgical resection, which demonstrated viable disease. Therefore 3 patients (23%) treated with SRS developed isolated ARE. These metastases had volumes less than 4.2 cm3 and were treated within 4 months of Ipi to a median dose of 19.5 Gy (range 15-21 Gy). No patients with WBRT alone developed ARE. CONCLUSIONS: Following SRS for brain mets and Ipi, ARE was seen in 23% of patients within 4 months of starting Ipi treatment. This is greater than the commonly reported 10% risk of ARE after SRS alone for brain metastasis. No increased toxicity was seen with WBRT and Ipi.

  3. Sodium butyrate enemas in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer and the impact on late proctitis. A prospective evaluation

    Hille, Andrea; Herrmann, Markus K.A.; Kertesz, Tereza; Christiansen, Hans; Hermann, Robert M.; Hess, Clemens F. [University Hospital, Goettingen (Germany). Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology; Pradier, Olivier [University Hospital, Brest (France). Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology; Schmidberger, Heinz [University Hospital, Mainz (Germany). Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology


    To evaluate prospectively the effect of sodium butyrate enemas on the treatment of acute and the potential influence on late radiation-induced proctitis. 31 patients had been treated with sodium butyrate enemas for radiation-induced acute grade II proctitis which had developed after 40 Gy in median. During irradiation the toxicity was evaluated weekly by the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) and subsequently yearly by the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) and LENT-SOMA scale. 23 of 31 patients (74%) experienced a decrease of CTC grade within 8 days on median. A statistical significant difference between the incidence and the severity of proctitis before start of treatment with sodium butyrate enemas compared to 14 days later and compared to the end of irradiation treatment course, respectively, was found. The median follow-up was 50 months. Twenty patients were recorded as suffering from no late proctitis symptom. Eleven patients suffered from grade I and 2 of these patients from grade II toxicity, too. No correlation was seen between the efficacy of butyrate enemas on acute proctitis and prevention or development of late toxicity, respectively. Sodium butyrate enemas are effective in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer but have no impact on the incidence and severity of late proctitis. (orig.)

  4. Acute Toxicity After Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Compared to 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer Patients

    Wortel, Ruud C.; Incrocci, Luca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pos, Floris J.; Lebesque, Joos V.; Witte, Marnix G.; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Herk, Marcel van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heemsbergen, Wilma D., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    Purpose: Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) allows significant dose reductions to organs at risk in prostate cancer patients. However, clinical data identifying the benefits of IG-IMRT in daily practice are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare dose distributions to organs at risk and acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity levels of patients treated to 78 Gy with either IG-IMRT or 3D-CRT. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with 3D-CRT (n=215) and IG-IMRT (n=260) receiving 78 Gy in 39 fractions within 2 randomized trials were selected. Dose surface histograms of anorectum, anal canal, and bladder were calculated. Identical toxicity questionnaires were distributed at baseline, prior to fraction 20 and 30 and at 90 days after treatment. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 endpoints were derived directly from questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were applied. Results: The median volumes receiving 5 to 75 Gy were significantly lower (all P<.001) with IG-IMRT for anorectum, anal canal, and bladder. The mean dose to the anorectum was 34.4 Gy versus 47.3 Gy (P<.001), 23.6 Gy versus 44.6 Gy for the anal canal (P<.001), and 33.1 Gy versus 43.2 Gy for the bladder (P<.001). Significantly lower grade ≥2 toxicity was observed for proctitis, stool frequency ≥6/day, and urinary frequency ≥12/day. IG-IMRT resulted in significantly lower overall RTOG grade ≥2 GI toxicity (29% vs 49%, respectively, P=.002) and overall GU grade ≥2 toxicity (38% vs 48%, respectively, P=.009). Conclusions: A clinically meaningful reduction in dose to organs at risk and acute toxicity levels was observed in IG-IMRT patients, as a result of improved technique and tighter margins. Therefore reduced late toxicity levels can be expected as well; additional research is needed to quantify such reductions.

  5. Metals: In Sickness and in Health

    ... All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Metals: In Sickness and in Health By Stephanie Dutchen Posted February 1, 2012 ... only strengthens bones but also plays a role in muscle, nerve function and blood clotting. Sodium and ...

  6. Evidence Report: Risk of Decompression Sickness (DCS)

    Conkin, Johnny; Norcross, Jason R.; Wessel, James H., III; Klein, Jill S.; Dervay, Joseph P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.


    Given that tissue inert gas partial pressure is often greater than ambient pressure during phases of a mission, primarily during extravehicular activity (EVA), there is a possibility of decompression sickness (DCS).

  7. P6 acupressure reduces morning sickness.

    Dundee, J W; Sourial, F B; Ghaly, R G; Bell, P F


    A prospective study was designed to test the efficacy of pressure at the P6 (Neiguan) acupuncture point, in preventing morning sickness. Three groups of patients in early pregnancy recorded the severity and frequency of sickness over a period of 4 consecutive days following daily pressure at P6 point, pressure at a point near the right elbow and with no treatment. Troublesome sickness was significantly less in both the genuine (23/119) and dummy (41/112) pressure groups as compared with the control series (67/119). When the data are adversely 'weighted' to compensate for the lower incidence of fully completed returns in the active treatment groups, only the P6 group show a significant reduction in sickness. No side effects occurred in either group and while anticipation of benefit may offer a partial explanation for the findings, pressure at the Neiguan point appears to have a specific therapeutic effect.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: sick sinus syndrome

    ... the structure of myosin, which can affect cardiac muscle contraction and increase the likelihood of developing an abnormal heartbeat. More commonly, sick sinus syndrome is caused by other ... such as muscular dystrophy, abnormal inflammation, or a shortage of oxygen ( ...

  9. Response to and recovery from acute sublethal gamma radiation in the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa

    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.


    Acute irradiation of the Amazon molly with a sublethal dose of 1,000 rad caused some damage to the intestinal tract and to the haematopoietic system. Histologically, the intestine appeared to have regenerated by the end of a week; damage to the haematopoietic tissue appeared more slowly, but repair was almost complete some two months later. Nevertheless, recovery to the intestine cannot have been entirely completed in seven days, since the fish did not feed well for the following two weeks. After this, there were no obvious deleterious effects upon the survival and viability of the fish, although irradiated fish weighed less at the termination of the experiment.

  10. Cranial radiation for pediatric T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Kelly, Michael J; Trikalinos, Thomas A; Dahabreh, Issa J; Gianferante, Matthew; Parsons, Susan K


    There are heterogeneous approaches to cranial radiation therapy (CRT) for T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). We performed a systematic review of studies that specified a radiation strategy and reported survival for pediatric T-ALL. Our analysis included 62 publications reporting 78 treatment groups (patient n = 5844). The average event-free survival (EFS) was higher by 6% per 5 years (P reference group (CRT for all) which had a year-adjusted EFS of 65% (95% confidence interval, CI: 61-69%) the adjusted EFS was significantly worse (rate difference (RD) = -9%, 95% CI: -15 to -2%) among studies that used a risk-directed approach to CRT (P = 0.004). The adjusted EFS for the other strategies were not significantly different compared to the reference group: CRT for central nervous system positive patients only (RD = -3%, 95% CI: -14 to 7%, P = 0.49); CRT omitted for all patients (RD = 5%, 95% CI: -4 to 15%, P = 0.33). CRT may not be necessary with current chemotherapy for T-ALL. These findings, however, are susceptible to bias and caution should be applied in drawing conclusions on the comparative effectiveness of alternative CRT strategies.

  11. An adult patient who developed malignant fibrous histiocytoma 9 years after radiation therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Kato, Yasuhiro [National Hiroshima Hospital, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Ohno, Norioki; Horikawa, Yoko; Nishimura, Shin-ichiro; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Shimose, Shoji [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine


    A 24-year-old Japanese man with a history of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, which occurred during childhood, developed malignant fibrous histiocytoma of his left knee. His past history revealed that he had undergone leukemic blast cell invasion of the left knee and subsequent radiation therapy 9 years ago. The total radiation doses for the upper part of the left tibia and the lower part of the left femur were 60 Gy and 40 Gy, respectively. Neither distant metastasis nor a relapse of leukemia occurred. A curative resection of the left femur with a noninvasive margin was performed. Adjuvant chemotherapy including high-dose methotrexate was given successfully before and after surgery; this was followed by relapse-free survival for 3 years. The nature of postirradiation malignant fibrous histiocytoma is highly aggressive. When a patient complains of persistent symptoms in a previously irradiated field, the possibility of this tumor must be taken into account. The importance of early diagnosis cannot be over-emphasized. (author)

  12. Delayed Effects of Acute Radiation Exposure in a Murine Model of the H-ARS: Multiple-Organ Injury Consequent to Total Body Irradiation.

    Unthank, Joseph L; Miller, Steven J; Quickery, Ariel K; Ferguson, Ethan L; Wang, Meijing; Sampson, Carol H; Chua, Hui Lin; DiStasi, Matthew R; Feng, Hailin; Fisher, Alexa; Katz, Barry P; Plett, P Artur; Sandusky, George E; Sellamuthu, Rajendran; Vemula, Sasidhar; Cohen, Eric P; MacVittie, Thomas J; Orschell, Christie M


    The threat of radiation exposure from warfare or radiation accidents raises the need for appropriate animal models to study the acute and chronic effects of high dose rate radiation exposure. The goal of this study was to assess the late development of fibrosis in multiple organs (kidney, heart, and lung) in survivors of the C57BL/6 mouse model of the hematopoietic-acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS). Separate groups of mice for histological and functional studies were exposed to a single uniform total body dose between 8.53 and 8.72 Gy of gamma radiation from a Cs radiation source and studied 1-21 mo later. Blood urea nitrogen levels were elevated significantly in the irradiated mice at 9 and 21 mo (from ∼22 to 34 ± 3.8 and 69 ± 6.0 mg dL, p irradiated controls) and correlated with glomerosclerosis (29 ± 1.8% vs. 64 ± 9.7% of total glomeruli, p irradiated controls). Glomerular tubularization and hypertrophy and tubular atrophy were also observed at 21 mo post-total body irradiation (TBI). An increase in interstitial, perivascular, pericardial and peribronchial fibrosis/collagen deposition was observed from ∼9-21 mo post-TBI in kidney, heart, and lung of irradiated mice relative to age-matched controls. Echocardiography suggested decreased ventricular volumes with a compensatory increase in the left ventricular ejection fraction. The results indicate that significant delayed effects of acute radiation exposure occur in kidney, heart, and lung in survivors of the murine H-ARS TBI model, which mirrors pathology detected in larger species and humans at higher radiation doses focused on specific organs.

  13. European EVA decompression sickness risks

    Vogt, Lorenz; Wenzel, Jürgen; Skoog, A. I.; Luck, S.; Svensson, Bengt

    For the first manned flight of Hermes there will be a capability of performing EVA. The European EVA Space Suit will be an anthropomorphic system with an internal pressure of 500 hPa of pure oxygen. The pressure reduction from the Hermes cabin pressure of 1013 hPa will induce a risk for Decompression Sickness (DCS) for the EVA crewmember if no adequate protective procedures are implemented. Specific decompression procedures have to be developed. From a critical review of the literature and by using knowledge gained from research conducted in the past in the fields of diving and aerospace medicine safe protective procedures are proposed for the European EVA scenario. An R factor of 1.2 and a tissue half-time ( t1/2) of 360 minutes in a single-tissue model have been identified as appropriate operational values. On the basis of an acceptable risk level of approximately 1%, oxygen prebreathing times are proposed for (a) direct pressure reduction from 1013 hPa to a suit pressure of 500 hPa, and (b) staged decompression using a 700 hPa intermediate stage in the spacecraft cabin. In addition, factors which influence individual susceptibility to DCS are identified. Recommendations are also given in the areas of crew selection and medical monitoring requirements together with therapeutic measures that can be implemented in the Hermes scenario. A method for demonstration of the validity of proposed risks and procedures is proposed.

  14. Successful Pregnancy and Delivery After Radiation With Ovarian Shielding for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Before Menarche.

    Ishibashi, Naoya; Maebayashi, Toshiya; Aizawa, Takuya; Sakaguchi, Masakuni; Abe, Osamu; Saito, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Chin, Motoaki; Mugishima, Hideo


    Total body irradiation is performed as a preconditioning regimen to inhibit graft-versus-host disease after bone marrow transplantation and to eradicate remaining tumor cells. However, these regimens result in delayed secondary sex characteristics and failure of ovarian function recovery, leading to amenorrhea and infertility. Herein, we report a case of an 11-year-old girl diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia who received induction chemotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation. For bone marrow transplantation, she received total body irradiation of 12 Gy with uterine and ovarian shielding at 13 years of age. The patient remained in remission and menarche began at 14 years of age. At 23, she became pregnant and delivered a baby naturally with no abnormalities.

  15. Acute radiation effects on cutaneous microvasculature: evaluation with a laser Doppler perfusion monitor

    Amols, H.I.; Goffman, T.E.; Komaki, R.; Cox, J.D.


    Laser Doppler perfusion monitoring is a noninvasive technique for measuring blood flow in epidermal microvasculature that makes use of the frequency shift of light reflected from red blood cells. Measurements in patients undergoing radiation therapy show increases in blood flow of ten to 25 times baseline at doses above 50 Gy, and increases are observed with doses as low as 2 Gy. Follow-up measurements show rapid decreases in flow levels after completion of therapy, but levels remain elevated even at 1 year.

  16. Study on radioprotection effects of clinoptilolite on sub-acute radiation-injured mice

    Na LI


    Full Text Available Objective  To study the protection effect of clinoptilolite (Cp against radiation injury. Methods  Fortyeight male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 6 groups, namely normal control group (distilled water + sham irradiation, radiation control group (distilled water + irradiation, 300mg/kg 523 group (200mg/kg nilestriol 24h before irradiation and 100mg/ kg nilestriol 4h after irradiation, 56mg/kg Cp group (56mg/kg Cp + irradiation, 167mg/kg Cp group (167mg/kg Cp + irradiation and 500mg/kg Cp group (500mg/kg Cp + irradiation. Seven days after the administration of the drug, all the mice but those from the normal control group were irradiated with γ-ray irradiation of 137Cs in the dose of 4.0Gy, at the rate of 0.75Gy/min. All the mice were given the drug for 14 days after irradiation. RBC, WBC and PLT counts in peripheral blood, superoxide dismutases (SOD activity, malondialdehyde (MDA level, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px level in blood serum, the content of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA and hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow were determined. Results  Compared with radiation control group, on 10th day after irradiation, RBC counts in peripheral blood of 56mg/kg Cp group and 167mg/kg Cp group were significantly higher (P<0.05, P<0.01, and WBC counts in peripheral blood of 56mg/kg Cp group and 500mg/kg Cp group were significantly higher (P<0.01. On 14th day after irradiation, compared with radiation control group, the SOD activities in blood serum of three Cp groups were elevated (P<0.05, P<0.01, the GSH-Px levels were elevated in blood serum of 167mg/kg Cp group and 500mg/kg Cp group (P<0.01, the DNA contents were significantly higher in 56mg/kg Cp group and 500mg/kg Cp group (P<0.05, P<0.01, the hematopoietic stem cells were significantly increased in number in bone marrow of three Cp groups (P<0.01. Conclusion  The clinoptilolite possesses protective effect against injury induced by 137Cs γ-irradiation in mice. DOI: 10.11855/j

  17. Acute Ultraviolet Radiation Perturbs Epithelialization but not the Biomechanical Strength of Full-thickness Cutaneous Wounds

    Danielsen, Patricia L; Lerche, Catharina M; Wulf, Hans Christian;


    We hypothesized that priming of the skin with ultraviolet radiation (UVR) before being injured would enhance wound healing. Four groups, each comprising 20 immunocompetent hairless mice, were exposed to simulated solar irradiation in escalating UVR doses; 0 standard erythema dose (SED) = control, 1...... (P exposure of dorsal skin. In the excisional wounds, epithelial coverage decreased (P = 0.024) by increasing the UVR dose, whereas there was no significant difference (P = 0.765) in wound MPO levels. Neither wound width (P = 0.850) nor breaking strength (P...

  18. Acute skin lesions following psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation investigated by optical coherence tomography

    Liu, Z. M.; Zhong, H. Q.; Zhai, J.; Wang, C. X.; Xiong, H. L.; Guo, Z. Y.


    Psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA) therapy is a very important clinical treatment of skin diseases such as vitiligo and psoriasis, but associated with an increased risk of skin photodamage, especially photoaging. In this work, optical coherence tomography (OCT), a novel non-invasive imaging technology, was introduced to investigate in vivo the photodamage induced by PUVA qualitatively and quantitatively. Balb/c mouse dorsal skin was treated with 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and then exposed to UVA radiation. OCT images of the tissues were obtained by an OCT system with a 1310 nm central wavelength. Skin thickness and the attenuation coefficient were extracted from the OCT images to analyze the degree of injury to mouse skin. The results demonstrated that PUVA-treated skin showed an increase in skin thickness, and a reduction of attenuation coefficient in the OCT signal compared with the control groups. The data also showed good correlation with the results observed in histological sections using hematoxylin and eosin staining. In conclusion, OCT is a promising tool for photobiological studies aimed at assessing the effect of PUVA therapy in vivo.

  19. Effects of radiation dose reduction in Volume Perfusion CT imaging of acute ischemic stroke

    Othman, Ahmed E. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, University Hospital Tuebingen, Department for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Brockmann, Carolin; Afat, Saif; Pjontek, Rastislav; Nikobashman, Omid; Brockmann, Marc A.; Wiesmann, Martin [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Yang, Zepa; Kim, Changwon [Seoul National University, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hyo [Seoul National University, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Center for Medical-IT Convergence Technology Research, Advanced Institute of Convergence Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)


    To examine the influence of radiation dose reduction on image quality and sensitivity of Volume Perfusion CT (VPCT) maps regarding the detection of ischemic brain lesions. VPCT data of 20 patients with suspected ischemic stroke acquired at 80 kV and 180 mAs were included. Using realistic reduced-dose simulation, low-dose VPCT datasets with 144 mAs, 108 mAs, 72 mAs and 36 mAs (80 %, 60 %, 40 % and 20 % of the original levels) were generated, resulting in a total of 100 datasets. Perfusion maps were created and signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) measurements were performed. Qualitative analyses were conducted by two blinded readers, who also assessed the presence/absence of ischemic lesions and scored CBV and CBF maps using a modified ASPECTS-score. SNR of all low-dose datasets were significantly lower than those of the original datasets (p <.05). All datasets down to 72 mAs (40 %) yielded sufficient image quality and high sensitivity with excellent inter-observer-agreements, whereas 36 mAs datasets (20 %) yielded poor image quality in 15 % of the cases with lower sensitivity and inter-observer-agreements. Low-dose VPCT using decreased tube currents down to 72 mAs (40 % of original radiation dose) produces sufficient perfusion maps for the detection of ischemic brain lesions. (orig.)

  20. Management of acute skin toxicity with Hypericum perforatum and neem oil during platinum-based concurrent chemo-radiation in head and neck cancer patients.

    Franco, Pierfrancesco; Rampino, Monica; Ostellino, Oliviero; Schena, Marina; Pecorari, Giancarlo; Garzino Demo, Paolo; Fasolis, Massimo; Arcadipane, Francesca; Martini, Stefania; Cavallin, Chiara; Airoldi, Mario; Ricardi, Umberto


    Acute skin toxicity is a frequent finding during combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy in head and neck cancer patients. Its timely and appropriate management is crucial for both oncological results and patient's global quality of life. We herein report clinical data on the use of Hypericum perforatum and neem oil in the treatment of acute skin toxicity during concurrent chemo-radiation for head and neck cancer. A consecutive series of 50 head and neck cancer patients undergoing concomitant radio-chemotherapy with weekly cisplatin was analyzed. Treatment with Hypericum perforatum and neem oil was started in case of G2 acute skin toxicity according to the RTOG/EORTC scoring scale and continued during the whole treatment course and thereafter until complete recovery. The maximum detected acute skin toxicity included Grade 2 events in 62% of cases and G3 in 32% during treatment and G2 and G3 scores in 52 and 8%, respectively, at the end of chemo-radiation. Grade 2 toxicity was mainly observed during weeks 4-5, while G3 during weeks 5-6. Median times spent with G2 or G3 toxicity were 23.5 and 14 days. Patients with G3 toxicity were reconverted to a G2 profile in 80% of cases, while those with a G2 score had a decrease to G1 in 58% of cases. Time between maximum acute skin toxicity and complete skin recovery was 30 days. Mean worst pain score evaluated with the Numerical Rating Scale-11 was 6.9 during treatment and 4.5 at the end of chemo-radiotherapy. Hypericum perforatum and neem oil proved to be a safe and effective option in the management of acute skin toxicity in head and neck cancer patients submitted to chemo-radiation with weekly cisplatin. Further studies with a control group and patient-reported outcomes are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  1. Predictors of differences in the perception of antimicrobial resistance risk in the treatment of sick, at-risk, and high-risk feedlot cattle.

    Jan, Jie-Sheng; McIntosh, Wm Alex; Dean, Wesley; Scott, H Morgan


    Concerns exist that some uses of antimicrobials in cattle may lead to the emergence, proliferation, dissemination and persistence of resistant pathogenic bacteria in animal agriculture, which in turn can infect humans via the food supply. The degree of perceived risk varies with the clinical indication for which the antimicrobial in question is used. In this study, four uses of antimicrobials are considered, including in acutely sick, chronically sick, at-risk, and high-risk cattle, contrasting the degree of risk among these uses. Using a random sample of 103 feedlot cattle veterinarians and variables drawn from the theory of planned behavior, we predict differences in risk perception by clinical indication with differences in perceived efficacy of antimicrobials, social pressures to use antimicrobials, and moral obligations to use antimicrobials. In most models, veterinarians who perceived that others in the feedlot industry (i.e., other feedlot veterinarians, nutritionists, feedlot clients, and retained owners of cattle) were more likely to expect them to use antimicrobials in one situation versus another, the less likely those veterinarians perceived the risk of antimicrobial risk to be greater in the former versus the latter situation. Only two of these contrasts contained influences outside the immediate feedlot relationships. This exception involves the 'downstream' public: meat packers, retailers, and consumers. Veterinarians who believe that using antimicrobials for acutely sick cattle is more beneficial than using antimicrobials for chronically sick cattle were more likely to believe that antimicrobial resistance was a less probable outcome in acutely sick cattle than in chronically sick cattle.

  2. Comparison of Acute and Late Toxicities for Three Modern High-Dose Radiation Treatment Techniques for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Mohammed, Nasiruddin [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Kestin, Larry, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Ghilezan, Mihai; Krauss, Daniel; Vicini, Frank; Brabbins, Donald; Gustafson, Gary; Ye Hong; Martinez, Alavaro [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)


    Purpose: We compared acute and late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities in prostate cancer patients treated with three different high-dose radiation techniques. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,903 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with definitive RT at William Beaumont Hospital from 1992 to 2006: 22% with brachytherapy alone (BT), 55% with image-guided external beam (EB-IGRT), and 23% external beam with high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost (EBRT+HDR). Median dose with BT was 120 Gy for LDR and 38 Gy for HDR (9.5 Gy Multiplication-Sign 4). Median dose with EB-IGRT was 75.6 Gy (PTV) to prostate with or without seminal vesicles. For EBRT+HDR, the pelvis was treated to 46 Gy with an additional 19 Gy (9.5 Gy Multiplication-Sign 2) delivered via HDR. GI and GU toxicity was evaluated utilizing the NCI-CTC criteria (v.3.0). Median follow-up was 4.8 years. Results: The incidences of any acute {>=} Grade 2 GI or GU toxicities were 35%, 49%, and 55% for BT, EB-IGRT, and EBRT+HDR (p < 0.001). Any late GU toxicities {>=} Grade 2 were present in 22%, 21%, and 28% for BT, EB-IGRT, and EBRT+HDR (p = 0.01), respectively. Patients receiving EBRT+HDR had a higher incidence of urethral stricture and retention, whereas dysuria was most common in patients receiving BT. Any Grade {>=}2 late GI toxicities were 2%, 20%, and 9% for BT, EB-IGRT, and EBRT+HDR (p < 0.001). Differences were most pronounced for rectal bleeding, with 3-year rates of 0.9%, 20%, and 6% (p < 0.001) for BT, EB-IGRT, and EBRT+HDR respectively. Conclusions: Each of the three modern high-dose radiation techniques for localized prostate cancer offers a different toxicity profile. These data can help patients and physicians to make informed decisions regarding radiotherapy for prostate andenocarcinoma.

  3. Clinical and Dosimetric Predictors of Acute Severe Lymphopenia During Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Temozolomide for High-Grade Glioma

    Huang, Jiayi, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); DeWees, Todd A.; Badiyan, Shahed N.; Speirs, Christina K.; Mullen, Daniel F.; Fergus, Sandra [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Tran, David D.; Linette, Gerry; Campian, Jian L. [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Chicoine, Michael R.; Kim, Albert H.; Dunn, Gavin [Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Simpson, Joseph R.; Robinson, Clifford G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States)


    Purpose: Acute severe lymphopenia (ASL) frequently develops during radiation therapy (RT) and concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) for high-grade glioma (HGG) and is associated with decreased survival. The current study was designed to identify potential predictors of ASL, with a focus on actionable RT-specific dosimetric parameters. Methods and Materials: From January 2007 to December 2012, 183 patients with HGG were treated with RT+TMZ and had available data including total lymphocyte count (TLC) and radiation dose-volume histogram parameters. ASL was defined as TLC of <500/μL within the first 3 months from the start of RT. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to determine the most important predictors of ASL. Results: Fifty-three patients (29%) developed ASL. Patients with ASL had significantly worse overall survival than those without (median: 12.5 vs 20.2 months, respectively, P<.001). Stepwise logistic regression analysis identified female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 5.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.46-11.41), older age (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.02-1.09), lower baseline TLC (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87-0.98), and higher brain volume receiving 25 Gy (V{sub 25Gy}) (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.003-1.05) as the most significant predictors for ASL. Brain V{sub 25Gy} <56% appeared to be the optimal threshold (OR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.11-5.01), with an ASL rate of 38% versus 20% above and below this threshold, respectively (P=.006). Conclusions: Female sex, older age, lower baseline TLC, and higher brain V{sub 25Gy} are significant predictors of ASL during RT+TMZ therapy for HGG. Maintaining the V{sub 25Gy} of brain below 56% may reduce the risk of ASL.

  4. Using electron beam radiation to simulate the dose distribution for whole body solar particle event proton exposure.

    Cengel, Keith A; Diffenderfer, Eric S; Avery, Stephen; Kennedy, Ann R; McDonough, James


    As a part of the near solar system exploration program, astronauts may receive significant total body proton radiation exposures during a solar particle event (SPE). In the Center for Acute Radiation Research (CARR), symptoms of the acute radiation sickness syndrome induced by conventional radiation are being compared to those induced by SPE-like proton radiation, to determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of SPE protons. In an SPE, the astronaut's whole body will be exposed to radiation consisting mainly of protons with energies below 50 MeV. In addition to providing for a potentially higher RBE than conventional radiation, the energy distribution for an SPE will produce a relatively inhomogeneous total body dose distribution, with a significantly higher dose delivered to the skin and subcutaneous tissues than to the internal organs. These factors make it difficult to use a (60)Co standard for RBE comparisons in our experiments. Here, the novel concept of using megavoltage electron beam radiation to more accurately reproduce both the total dose and the dose distribution of SPE protons and make meaningful RBE comparisons between protons and conventional radiation is described. In these studies, Monte Carlo simulation was used to determine the dose distribution of electron beam radiation in small mammals such as mice and ferrets as well as large mammals such as pigs. These studies will help to better define the topography of the time-dose-fractionation versus biological response landscape for astronaut exposure to an SPE.

  5. Use of the adaptive classifier for determination of LD50 in the acute radiation disease.

    Vodicka, I; Hanus, J; Hradil, J


    In experiments on female Wistar rats a new method for the determination of LD50 is demonstrated and compared with the classical probit method using the same experimental animals. The method is applicable for the computation of LD50 and analogical quantities in man, too. The method is based on the application of an adaptive logical circuit (ADALINE) trained for the dichotomous prognostic classification of irradiated individuals quod vitam according to a set of clinical and laboratory indicators registered on the third day after irradiation. After the training procedure has been finished, the classifier makes possible an individual prognosis of survival or death. The analogue output signal according to which the classification is performed changes continually from negative to positive values and exhibits S-shaped relation to the radiation dose. Its zero value corresponds to the position of LD50 on the abscissa. For the construction of the searched function, i.e. for the optimum approximation of experimentally obtained values of the output signal, the method of the changeable polyhedron was applied belonging to the optimalization numerical methods used in the regulation technics. The computed value of LD50 was 7.80 Gy in rats very closely corresponding with the value 7.61 Gy determined by means of the classical probit method.

  6. Coriolis effects and motion sickness modelling.

    Bles, W


    Coriolis effects are notorious in relation to disorientation and motion sickness in aircrew. A review is provided of experimental data on these Coriolis effects, including the modulatory effects of adding visual or somatosensory rotatory motion information. A vector analysis of the consequences of head movements during somatosensory, visual and/or vestibular rotatory motion stimulation revealed that the more the sensed angular velocity vector after the head movements is aligned with the gravitoinertial force vector, the less nauseating effects are experienced. It is demonstrated that this is a special case of the subjective vertical conflict theory on motion sickness that assumes that motion sickness may be provoked if a discrepancy is detected between the subjective vertical and the sensed vertical as determined on the basis of incoming sensory information.

  7. Psychophysiological adaptation of the patient with the remote effect of the III degree acute radiation syndrome

    Metlyaeva N.A.


    putation of both shins at level in top / 3, late beam buttock, right hip ulcers, a beam cataract of the III degree of both eyes, stabilized. The assessment of the efficiency of psychophysiological adaptation in dynamics with 2009 indicates emergence of prevalence of hypochondriac tendencies over a demonstration with accession of high uneasiness and autistic lines at preservation of the leading role of an hypochondriac somatization of alarm with considerable decrease in an emotionality, an integration, a freedom of behavior. The changes revealed in dynamics correspond to the specific increase weight of violations of mental adaptation, characteristic for the period of adaptation exhaustion. The high intelligence, good figurative and logical thinking, well-mannered forms of behavior, high control over the emotional sphere, restraint of emotions, independence, self-sufficiency, organization, behavior taking into account environment requirements provided the patient M. firmness before a heavy illness, promoted good adaptation to an environment with confidence in myself, high social adaptability, opportunity successfully to carry out duties, hold the work account (worked 39 years after accident. Comparative assessment of operator ability of the patient M. showed good average time of common and difficult sensorimotor reactions with 2 mistakes, high time of reaction for moving object, however decrease in accuracy of reaction from 10-13% to 2% testifies to manifestation in dynamics of insufficiency of real functional reserves of nervous system. Conclusions. Efficiency of psychophysiological adaptation depends not only on a dose of radiation and weight of the transferred disease, but, mostly, on premorbid properties of the identity of the victim and his social and labor installation.

  8. Genetic aspects of sick sinus syndrome

    Chernova A.A.; Nikulina S.Yu.; Tret’yakova S.S.; Voyevoda M.I.; Maksimov V.N.; Chernov V.N.


    Aim. To study the association between polymorphic allelic variants of the alpha-2В-adrenoreceptor gene (ADRA2B), endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3), connexin protein gene 40 (Cx40), cardiac myosin heavy chain gene (MYH6), and voltage-gated sodium channels gene (SCN5A) and development of the idiopathic sick sinus syndrome. Methods. 14 probands with primary symptoms of sick sinus syndrome and their 110 relatives of the I–III degree kinship were examined. At the Berzon City Clinical H...

  9. Trends in sickness absence in Denmark

    Johansen, Kristina; Bihrmann, Kristine; Mikkelsen, Sigurd


    a linear regression analysis to analyze time trends in sickness absence based on datasets from the Danish Employers Confederation, the State Employer's Authority, the Labour Force Survey, and Statistics Denmark. RESULTS: The findings from the Confederation of Danish Employers, the State Employer......'s Authority, and the Labor Force Survey indicated a stable and largely unaltered pattern of sickness absence during the last 20 years. Findings from Statistics Denmark showed an increase in the cumulative incidence proportion from 6.6 to 7.5% among employed people between 2000 and 2007. CONCLUSION: Our data...

  10. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals

  11. The effects on sick leave of changes in the sickness insurance system

    Henrekson, Magnus; Persson, Mats


    In order to get a more complete picture of how labor supply is affected by economic incentives, the effects on absenteeism and not just on contracted hours should be taken into account. In particular, the effects on absenteeism due to sick leave can be considerable. In this paper we examine whether the level of sick leave compensation affects sick leave behavior. Using time-series data for Sweden spanning a long period (1955-99) with numerous changes of the compensation level, we generally fi...

  12. Job satisfaction and sickness absence : a questionnaire survey

    Roelen, C.A.; Koopmans, P.C.; Notenbomer, A.; Groothoff, J.W.


    Background When dissatisfaction with work precedes sickness absence, screening for satisfaction levels might usefully detect workers at risk of sickness absence. Aim To investigate whether job satisfaction was associated with subsequent sickness absence days or episodes. Methods A sample of workers

  13. 5 CFR 630.401 - Granting sick leave.


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Granting sick leave. 630.401 Section 630.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.401 Granting sick leave. (a) Subject to paragraphs (b) through (e) of...

  14. 5 CFR 630.402 - Requesting sick leave.


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requesting sick leave. 630.402 Section 630.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.402 Requesting sick leave. An employee must file an application—written, oral,...

  15. An experimental study of preventing and treating acute radioactive enteritis with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells

    Rui Wang; Wei Yuan; Qiang Zhao; Peng Song; Ji Yue; Shi-De Lin; Ting-Bao Zhao


    Objective:To test the curative effect of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells on rat acute radioactive enteritis and thus to provide clinical therapeutic basis for radiation sickness.Methods:Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells were cultivatedin vitro and the model of acute radioactive enteritis of rats was established.Then, the umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells were injected into the rats via tail vein.Visual and histopathological changes of the experimental rats were observed.Results:After the injection, the rats in the prevention group and treatment group had remarkably better survival status than those in the control group.The histological observations revealed that the former also had better intestinal mucosa structure, more regenerative cells and stronger proliferation activity than the latter.Conclusions:Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells have a definite therapeutic effect on acute radioactive enteritis in rats.

  16. Controlling sickness absence: a study of changes in the Danish sickness absence legislation since 1973

    Johansen, Kristina; Andersen, John Sahl; Mikkelsen, Sigurd


    OBJECTIVES: To outline the principles underlying changes overtime in entitlement to sickness absence benefit in Denmark. METHODS: The Danish sickness benefit scheme during the past 30 years has been studied based on a comprehensive review of the Sickness Benefit Act from 1973, and all later...... amendments to the act. RESULTS: Entitlement to sickness benefit in Denmark has undergone considerable changes during the past 30 years. The guiding principles of the reforms have been financial savings in combination with an assumption that human behaviour can be controlled through bureaucratic......'s policy is to some extent a return to the biopsychosocial approach in the sense that the citizen is not regarded a passive victim of disease but an active player in influencing own working capacity. Added to this is, however, a new element of much tighter control leaving less room for autonomy....

  17. Serum sickness-like reaction with clarithromycin.

    Sohail, Muhammad Adnan; Nasir, Junaid; Ikram, Umaira; Genese, Thomas


    Serum sickness-like reaction is a rare immunological condition which may develop following exposure to certain drugs such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, among many others. It is described classically as a type III hypersensitivity response to heterologous proteins. Its true mechanism is still unclear. We present a case of serum sickness-like reaction to clarithromycin, a commonly prescribed drug for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. The patient had been taking this drug for 3 days when she experienced generalized body aches, rash, arthralgia, and shortness of breath, prompting presentation to the emergency department. Laboratory studies showed decreased C4 and total complement with a slightly elevated sedimentation rate. After exclusion of other possible causes, the diagnosis of serum sickness-like reaction was made. The patient responded well to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medication, antihistamines, and a short, tapering dose of steroids. To our knowledge, serum sickness-like reaction to clarithromycin has never been reported previously. This case emphasizes the need for increased clinical awareness of such an adverse outcome to clarithromycin use.

  18. Do junior doctors take sick leave?

    Perkin, M R; Higton, A; Witcomb, M


    Nosocomial infections place a heavy burden on overstretched health services. An audit of junior doctors' sick leave behaviour was undertaken in 1993 and again in 2001. The object was to ascertain the level of common infectious illness and to investigate whether junior doctors were remaining at work inappropriately. The doctors were asked if any factors had influenced their decision to take sick leave or not. Between the two audits several initiatives have been introduced to improve the working conditions of junior doctors, including the New Deal to reduce hours of work. Eighty one junior doctors in a large teaching hospital participated in 1993 and 110 in 2001. The number reporting an infectious illness in the previous six months was similar (61.7% in 1993, 68.2% in 2001). There had been a significant increase in the percentage of infectious illness episodes for which the doctors took sick leave (15.1% in 1993, 36.8% in 2001, p work (72% in 1993, 68% in 2001). Consultant pressure was cited by 26% (1993) and 20% (2001). Use of the staff occupational health unit was minimal, with none of the ill doctors contacting the department in 1993 and only three in 2001. Overall, despite the reduction in the number of infectious doctors not taking sick leave, the majority remained at work. Fundamental changes are needed if potentially infected doctors are not to present a risk of iatrogenic infection.

  19. The Negotiation of the Sick Role

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Roelsgaard Obling, Anne


    In encounters between general practitioners (GPs) and patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS), the negotiation of the sick role is a social process. In this process, GPs not only use traditional biomedical diagnostic tools but also rely on their own opinions and evaluations of a patient...

  20. Controlled progressive innate immune stimulation regimen prevents the induction of sickness behavior in the open field test

    Chen Q


    Full Text Available Qun Chen, Andrew J Tarr, Xiaoyu Liu, Yufen Wang, Nathaniel S Reed, Cameron P DeMarsh, John F Sheridan, Ning QuanDivision of Oral Biology, Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Peripheral immune activation by bacterial mimics or live replicating pathogens is well known to induce central nervous system activation. Sickness behavior alterations are often associated with inflammation-induced increases in peripheral proinflammatory cytokines (eg, interleukin [IL]-1β and IL-6. However, most researchers have used acute high dose endotoxin/bacterial challenges to observe these outcomes. Using this methodology may pose inherent risks in the translational interpretation of the experimental data in these studies. Studies using Escherichia coli have yet to establish the full kinetics of repeated E. coli peripheral injections. Therefore, we sought to examine the effects of repeated low dose E. coli on sickness behavior and local peripheral inflammation in the open field test. Results from the current experiments showed a behavioral dose response, where increased amounts of E. coli resulted in correspondingly increased sickness behavior. Furthermore, animals that received a subthreshold dose (ie, one that did not cause sickness behavior of E. coli 24 hours prior were able to withstand a larger dose of E. coli on the second day (a dose that would normally cause sickness behavior in mice without prior exposure without inducing sickness behavior. In addition, animals that received escalating subthreshold doses of E. coli on days 1 and 2 behaviorally tolerated a dose of E. coli 25 times higher than what would normally cause sickness behavior if given acutely. Lastly, increased levels of E. coli caused increased IL-6 and IL-1β protein expression in the peritoneal cavity, and this increase was blocked by administering a subthreshold dose of E. coli 24 hours prior. These data show that progressive

  1. GPs' negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints

    Nilsen, Stein Tore; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L.


    Objectives: To explore general practitioners ’(GPs’) specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patientssuffering from subjective health complaints. Design: Focus-group study. Setting: Nine focus-group interviews in three citiesin different regions of Norway. Participants: 48...... to sick leave. Conclusions and implications: GPs seem to have a conscious approach to negotiations of sickness certification, as they report applying specific strategies to limit the duration of sick leave due to subjective health complaints. This give-and-take way of handling sick leave negotiations has...

  2. Acute heart failure: too sick for discharge teaching?

    Hill, Catherine A


    Most patients with heart failure (HF) respond within a matter of hours to days to available medical treatments. Nursing's current challenge in HF inpatient care is their short length of stay and content dense patient education needs. Only 54% of US hospitalized HF patients received all HF-1 mandated discharge education components. By using nursing evidence and adult learning principles, we can transform HF-1 topic descriptions into a "workable" plan for our newly stable HF patients. Pragmatically viewed, we need to turn the 5 key areas upside down to meet our HF patient's needs during early hospitalization: (1) recognizing symptoms, (2) pacing rest and exercise, (3) daily weights, (4) restricting sodium and fluids, and (5) managing medications. This "organizing" issue is important to our success and costly to all those who accepted the published order as prescriptive for their video, audio, and printed discharge education materials.

  3. Changes in sickness absenteeism following the introduction of a qualifying day for sickness benefit--findings from Sweden Post

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F


    AIMS: In 1993, a qualifying day without sickness benefit was introduced to the Swedish sickness benefit system. The aim of the present study is to investigate sickness absenteeism before and after the introduction of the qualifying day, in the light of conditions inside and outside working life....... METHODS: The study was based on 1,952 female and 2,229 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by sickness incidence one year before and one year after the introduction of the qualifying day (sick-leave events/person days at risk). Information about explanatory factors was collected...... lifting at work more often showed an increase in incidence compared to men without heavy lifting, and the same tendency was found for women. CONCLUSION: The reduction in sickness incidence following the introduction of the qualifying day was fairly independent of different work-related and non-work...

  4. Efficacy of Synbiotics to Reduce Acute Radiation Proctitis Symptoms and Improve Quality of Life: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial

    Nascimento, Mariana, E-mail: [Department of Medicine, University Center of Varzea Grande (UNIVAG), Varzea Grande, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo [Department of Medicine, University Center of Varzea Grande (UNIVAG), Varzea Grande, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Caporossi, Cervantes; Castro-Barcellos, Heloisa Michelon; Motta, Rodrigo Teixeira [Department of Medicine, Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiabá, Mato Grosso (Brazil)


    Purpose: To evaluate whether the daily intake of synbiotics interferes in radiation-induced acute proctitis symptoms and in quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients who underwent 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer were randomized to intake either a synbiotic powder containing Lactobacillus reuteri 10{sup 8} colony-forming units and 4.3 g of soluble fiber (Nestlé) or placebo. The questionnaire EORTC QLQ-PRT23 was applied before the beginning of radiation therapy and in every week for the first 4 weeks of treatment. The sum of both the complete (proctitis symptoms plus quality of life) and partial (proctitis symptoms) scores of the EORTC QLQ-PRT23 (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Module for Proctitis–23 items) questionnaire were the main endpoints. Results: This pilot study showed that the complete questionnaire score (median [range]) was higher in the second (23 [21-30] vs 26.5 [22-34], P<.05) and third (23 [21-32] vs 27.5 [24-33], P<.01) weeks in the placebo group. Proctitis symptoms were highest scored in the placebo group in both the second (19.5 [16-25]) and third (19 [17-24]) weeks than in the synbiotic group (week 2: 16.5 [15-20], P<.05; week 3: 17 [15-23], P<.01). In both scores the placebo group had a significantly higher result (P<.01) than the synbiotic group (repeated-measures analysis of variance). Conclusions: Synbiotics reduce proctitis symptoms and improve quality of life in radiation-induced acute proctitis during radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

  5. 急性大面积放射线烧伤及其并发症的救治%Treatment of extensive acute radiation burn and its complications

    李叶扬; 汪锦伦; 李罡; 林伟华; 梁岷; 黄峻; 孙敬恩


    This article reports the treatment of a patient suffered from acute radiation burn covering 41% TBSA,with deep partial-thickness and full-thickness injury,produced by exposure to a large-scale industrial electron accelerator.An open wound began to appear and enlarged gradually 10 weeks after the exposure.Serious wound infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa,pneumonia,respiratory failure,systemic inflammatory response syndrome,nephropathy and hypoproteinemia developed successively since 3 weeks after the wound formation.Skin grafts failed to survive,resulting in enlargement of the wound.After being treated with proper measures,including parenteral nutrition,respiratory support with a ventilator,appropriate antibiotics,steroid administration for nephropathy,deep debridement for wounds followed by skin grafting,the patient was cured and discharged after undergoing 15 operations in 500 days.The clinical condition of an extensive acute radiation burn is complicated.We should pay close attention to the changes in functions of organs,and strengthen the therapeutic strategies to support the function of organs to reduce the incidence of systemic complications.The control of the infection and the timely and effective repair of the wound are stiil the key points of the treatment of an extensive local radiation injury.

  6. Comparison of the protective roles of L-carnitine and amifostine against radiation-induced acute ovarian damage by histopathological and biochemical methods

    Vuslat Yurut-Caloglu


    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the radioprotective efficacies of L-carnitine (LC and amifostine against radiation-induced acute ovarian damage. Materials and Methods: Forty-five, 3-month-old Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to six groups. Control (CONT, n = 7; irradiation alone RT: radiation therapy (RT, n = 8; amifostine plus irradiation (AMI + RT, n = 8; LC plus irradiation (LC + RT, n = 8; LC and sham irradiation (LC, n = 7; and amifostine and sham irradiation (AMI, n = 7. The rats in the AMI + RT, LC + RT and RT groups were irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy to the whole abdomen. LC (300 mg/kg and amifostine (200 mg/kg was given intraperitoneally 30 min before irradiation. Five days after irradiation, both antral follicles and corpus luteum in the right ovaries were counted, and tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP were measured. Results: Irradiation significantly decreased antral follicles and corpus luteum (P: 0.005 and P 0.05. The level of MDA and AOPP significantly increased after irradiation (P = 0.001 and P 0.005. The levels of both MDA and AOPP were also similar when LC + RT is compared with AMI + RT group (P > 0.005. Conclusions: L-carnitine and amifostine have a noteworthy and similar radioprotective effect against radiation-induced acute ovarian toxicity.

  7. TU-G-BRA-08: BEST IN PHYSICS (JOINT IMAGING-THERAPY): Hybrid PET-MRI Imaging of Acute Radiation Induced Cardiac Toxicity

    El-Sherif, O; Xhaferllari, I; Gaede, S [Western Univeristy, London, ON (United Kingdom); London Regional Cancer Program, London, ON (United Kingdom); Sykes, J; Butler, J [Lawson Health Research Institute, London, ON (United Kingdom); Wisenberg, G; Prato, F [Western Univeristy, London, ON (United Kingdom); Lawson Health Research Institute, London, ON (United Kingdom)


    Purpose: To identify the presence of low-dose radiation induced cardiac toxicity in a canine model using hybrid positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Research ethics board approval was obtained for a longitudinal imaging study of 5 canines after cardiac irradiation. Animals were imaged at baseline, 1 week post cardiac irradiation, and 1 month post cardiac irradiation using a hybrid PET- MRI system (Biograph mMR, Siemens Healthcare). The imaging protocol was designed to assess acute changes in myocardial perfusion and inflammation. Myocardial perfusion imaging was performed using N13-ammonia tracer followed by a dynamic PET acquisition scan. A compartmental tracer kinetic model was used for absolute perfusion quantification. Myocardial inflammation imaging was performed using F18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tracer. The standard uptake value (SUV) over a region encompassing the whole heart was used to compare FDG scans. All animals received a simulation CT scan (GE Medical Systems) for radiation treatment planning. Radiation treatment plans were created using the Pinncale3 treatment planning system (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems) and designed to resemble the typical cardiac exposure during left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy. Cardiac irradiations were performed in a single fraction using a TrueBeam linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems). Results: The delivered dose (mean ± standard deviation) to heart was 1.8±0.2 Gy. Reductions in myocardial stress perfusion relative to baseline were observed in 2 of the 5 animals 1 month post radiation. A global inflammatory response 1 month post radiation was observed in 4 of the 5 animals. The calculated SUV at 1 month post radiation was significantly higher (p=0.05) than the baseline SUV. Conclusion: Low doses of cardiac irradiation (< 2 Gy) may lead to myocardial perfusion defects and a global inflammatory response that can be detectable as early as 1 month post irradiation

  8. Study on experimental motion sickness in children.

    Takahashi, M; Toriyabe, I; Takei, Y; Kanzaki, J


    To clarify the characteristics of motion sickness in children we investigated autonomic nervous symptoms and instability evoked by walking while wearing horizontally reversing goggles in 90 children aged 4 to 15 years. Kindergarten children had hardly any autonomic nervous symptoms except headache; however, they often fell, could not stand up or move, and exhibited a to-and-fro deviation gait. Although the frequency and severity of sickness gradually increased during growth, the severity of gait disorder became milder as age increased. On the basis of these findings it seems likely that functions which perceive disorder of spatial orientation and action are immature in young children, and once spatial orientation is impaired, instability becomes very severe, since inadequate control is not stopped by an alarm function against disorientation.

  9. [Genetic predictors of sick sinus node syndrome].

    Chernova, A A; Nikulina, S Iu; Tret'iakova, S S


    The article is devoted to the role of heredity in development of the sick sinus node syndrome (SSNS). We have examined 14 probands and 110 their relatives from families with idiopathic SSNS and established the role in development of hereditary SSNS of polymorphisms of the following genes: -2-adrenoreceptor, enzyme endothelial NO synthase, protein connexin 40, voltage dependent cardiac sodium channels, cardiac myosin heavy chains. We also revealed associations of clinical variants of idiopathic SSNS with genotypes of the studied genes.

  10. Sick sinus syndrome: a family study.

    Rogińska, Natalia; Bieganowska, Katarzyna


    A case of related individuals affected by sick sinus syndrome is presented in this study. The clinical and electrocardiographic signs of sinus node dysfunction and the most common causes of this disease are presented. Subsequently, the article includes descriptions of sinus node disease in three related children as well as details of the disease in their relatives. A literature review of the genetics of familial sinus node dysfunction concludes the study.

  11. Relative biological effectiveness of simulated solar particle event proton radiation to induce acute hematological change in the porcine model

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wan, Steven X.; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Cengel, Keith A.; Kennedy, Ann R.


    The present study was undertaken to determine relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for simulated solar particle event (SPE) radiation on peripheral blood cells using Yucatan minipigs and electron-simulated SPE as the reference radiation. The results demonstrated a generally downward trend in the RBE values with increasing doses of simulated SPE radiation for leukocytes in the irradiated animals. The fitted RBE values for white blood cells (WBCs), lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils were above 1.0 in all three radiation dose groups at all time-points evaluated, and the lower limits of the 95% confidence intervals were > 1.0 in the majority of the dose groups at different time-points, which together suggest that proton-simulated SPE radiation is more effective than electron-simulated SPE radiation in reducing the number of peripheral WBCs, lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils, especially at the low end of the 5–10 Gy dose range evaluated. Other than the RBE values, the responses of leukocytes to electron-simulated SPE radiation and proton-simulated SPE radiation exposure are highly similar with respect to the time-course, the most radiosensitive cell type (the lymphocytes), and the shape of the dose–response curves, which is generally log-linear. These findings provide additional evidence that electron-simulated SPE radiation is an appropriate reference radiation for determination of RBE values for the simulated SPE radiations, and the RBE estimations using electron-simulated SPE radiation as the reference radiation are not complicated by other characteristics of the leukocyte response to radiation exposure. PMID:24027300

  12. Relative biological effectiveness of simulated solar particle event proton radiation to induce acute hematological change in the porcine model.

    Sanzari, Jenine K; Wan, Steven X; Diffenderfer, Eric S; Cengel, Keith A; Kennedy, Ann R


    The present study was undertaken to determine relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for simulated solar particle event (SPE) radiation on peripheral blood cells using Yucatan minipigs and electron-simulated SPE as the reference radiation. The results demonstrated a generally downward trend in the RBE values with increasing doses of simulated SPE radiation for leukocytes in the irradiated animals. The fitted RBE values for white blood cells (WBCs), lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils were above 1.0 in all three radiation dose groups at all time-points evaluated, and the lower limits of the 95% confidence intervals were > 1.0 in the majority of the dose groups at different time-points, which together suggest that proton-simulated SPE radiation is more effective than electron-simulated SPE radiation in reducing the number of peripheral WBCs, lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils, especially at the low end of the 5-10 Gy dose range evaluated. Other than the RBE values, the responses of leukocytes to electron-simulated SPE radiation and proton-simulated SPE radiation exposure are highly similar with respect to the time-course, the most radiosensitive cell type (the lymphocytes), and the shape of the dose-response curves, which is generally log-linear. These findings provide additional evidence that electron-simulated SPE radiation is an appropriate reference radiation for determination of RBE values for the simulated SPE radiations, and the RBE estimations using electron-simulated SPE radiation as the reference radiation are not complicated by other characteristics of the leukocyte response to radiation exposure.

  13. Reconstruction of the Radiation Emergency Medical System From the Acute to the Sub-acute Phases After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Crisis.

    Ojino, Mayo; Ishii, Masami


    The radiation emergency medical system in Japan ceased to function as a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, which has commonly become known as the "Fukushima Accident." In this paper, we review the reconstruction processes of the radiation emergency medical system in order of events and examine the ongoing challenges to overcoming deficiencies and reinforcing the system by reviewing relevant literature, including the official documents of the investigation committees of the National Diet of Japan, the Japanese government, and the Tokyo Electric Power Company, as well as technical papers written by the doctors involved in radiation emergency medical activities in Fukushima. Our review has revealed that the reconstruction was achieved in 6 stages from March 11 to July 1, 2011: (1) Re-establishment of an off-site center (March 13), (2) Re-establishment of a secondary radiation emergency hospital (March 14), (3) Reconstruction of the initial response system for radiation emergency care (April 2), (4) Reinforcement of the off-site center and stationing of disaster medical advisors at the off-site center (April 4), (5) Reinforcement of the medical care system and an increase in the number of hospitals for non-contaminated patients (From April 2 to June 23), and (6) Enhancement of the medical care system in the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant and the construction of a new medical care system, involving both industrial medicine and emergency medicine (July 1). Medical resources such as voluntary efforts, academic societies, a local community medical system and university hospitals involved in medical care activities on 6 stages originally had not planned. In the future, radiation emergency medical systems should be evaluated with these 6 stages as a basis, in order to reinforce and enrich both the existing and backup systems so that minimal harm will come to nuclear power plant workers or evacuees and that they will receive proper care. This

  14. Correlative Study of Acute Mountain Sickness,Cognition and Mental Health of Military Personnel in Highland Training%高原外训军人心理健康、认知因素与急性高山病的相关性

    乔昆; 张鹏


    目的:探讨高原外训军人心理健康、认知因素与急性高山病的相关性。方法:采用基本信息问卷、Lake Louise急性高山病评分量表(AMS)、症状自评量表(SCL-90)、焦虑自评量表(SAS)和抑郁自评量表(SDS)对191名急进高原进行高原适应性训练的军人施以团体测验。结果:研究样本SCL-90的躯体化因子显著高于全国正常成人常模(t=5.019,P<0.001)。 AMS症状阳性组与阴性两组样本在文化程度(t=2.385,P<0.05)、社会支持中的倾诉方式(t=2.542,P<0.05)、求助方式(t=2.133,P<0.05)、对AMS的认知(t=2.423,P<0.05)、SCL-90总分(t=-4.936,P<0.001)及各因子分均有显著差异。 SCL-90总分、对AMS应对策略的认知对预测AMS症状总分有一定的预测作用。结论:高原外训军人心理健康水平、认知因素对AMS有显著的影响,运用合理的心理干预技术,可降低AMS的发生率,增强高原作战部队的战斗力。%Objective:To investigate the relationship between acute mountain sickness,cognition and mental health of military personnel in highland training.Methods:191 military personnel in high altitude area were assessed with the Lake Louise score,SCL-90,SAS,SDS and cognitive assessment to environ-ment and service.Results:Somatization score of military personnel in highland training was higher than the norm(t=5.019,P<0.001).Between the positive symptom group and the negative symptom group, the total score and every factor scores of scl-90,scores of social support,cognition of AMS,cultural level were statistically significant difference(P<0.05).SCL-90 score,cognition about how to cope with AMS had significant influences on the total score of AMS.Conclusion:Cognition and mental health have signif-icant influences on AMS of military personnel in highland training.In the highland training period, it is very necessary to


    田开新; 覃军; 黄岚; 隆敏; 喻杨; 于世勇


    目的 研究急进高原前、后心血管自主神经(autonomic nervous system,ANS)功能变化及其与急性高原反应(acute mountain sickness,AMS)之间关系, 揭示ANS在AMS发病中的作用,探求预防AMS的可能途径.方法 对99名健康男性青年在海拔450 m平原和空运急进3 700 m高原后2~4 d内进行心率变异性(heart rate variability,HRV)和冷加压试验(cold pressor test,CPT)检测; 在急进高原后1~ 5 d接受AMS发病情况调查.结果 急进高原后第1天AMS发病率92%,其中, 中重度AMS占10%、轻度占36%、基本无反应占54%.LF/HFn随AMS程度减轻而减少,HFn随AMS 程度加重而增加.中重度、轻度、基本无AMS反应组平原时收缩压(SBP)分别为(123.42± 7.14) mmHg、 (120.6±11.22) mmHg、 (122.58±10.92) mmHg, 均显著高于无反应组( 111.31±9.48) mmHg, (P<0.05); 中重度AMS组在平原CPT后心率(H R)变化幅度[(7.57±8.22)b/min]显著低于基本无反应组[(25.47±19.26)b/min,(P<0.05)].急进高原后,中重度、轻度、基本无AMS反应组CPT后SBP变化幅度分别为(8.14±4.95)mmHg、(9.56±7.77)mmHg、(9.97±6.80)mmHg,均显著低于无反应组[(17.00±12.75)mmHg,(P<0.05)];HR变化幅度分别为 (11.13±6.08)b/min、 (10±7.5)b/min、 (12.25±8.14)b/min, 均显著低于无反应组([19.71±9.35)b/min,P<0.05].AMS症状积分与平原时LF/HF正相关(r=0.437,P<0.01),与平原时CPT后HR变化幅度呈负相关(r=-0.35,P=0.01).结论 平原交感神经活动较高者其A NS的应激调节能力相对较小,对AMS易感性较高.改善ANS功能可能有助于预防AMS.

  16. Severe serum sickness reaction to oral and intramuscular penicillin.

    Clark, Brychan M; Kotti, George H; Shah, Anand D; Conger, Nicholas G


    Serum sickness is a type III hypersensitivity reaction mediated by immune complex deposition with subsequent complement activation, small-vessel vasculitis, and tissue inflammation. Although the overall incidence of serum sickness is declining because of decreased use of heterologous sera and improved vaccinations, rare sporadic cases of serum sickness from nonprotein drugs such as penicillins continue to occur. Drug-induced serum sickness is usually self-limited, with symptoms lasting only 1-2 weeks before resolving. We report an unusual case of a severe and prolonged serum sickness reaction that occurred after exposure to an intramuscular penicillin depot injection (probable relationship by Naranjo score) and discuss how pharmacokinetics may have played a role. Clinicians should be familiar with serum sickness reactions particularly as they relate to long-acting penicillin preparations. Accurate diagnosis in conjunction with cessation of drug exposure and prompt initiation of antiinflammatory treatment with corticosteroids can produce complete recovery

  17. Rizatriptan reduces vestibular-induced motion sickness in migraineurs.

    Furman, Joseph M; Marcus, Dawn A; Balaban, Carey D


    A previous pilot study suggested that rizatriptan reduces motion sickness induced by complex vestibular stimulation. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study we measured motion sickness in response to a complex vestibular stimulus following pretreatment with either rizatriptan or a placebo. Subjects included 25 migraineurs with or without migraine-related dizziness (23 females) aged 21-45 years (31.0 ± 7.8 years). Motion sickness was induced by off-vertical axis rotation in darkness, which stimulates both the semicircular canals and otolith organs of the vestibular apparatus. Results indicated that of the 15 subjects who experienced vestibular-induced motion sickness when pretreated with placebo, 13 showed a decrease in motion sickness following pretreatment with rizatriptan as compared to pretreatment with placebo (P rizatriptan, reduces vestibular-induced motion sickness by influencing serotonergic vestibular-autonomic projections.

  18. Morning sickness and vitamin B6 status of pregnant women.

    Schuster, K; Bailey, L B; Dimperio, D; Mahan, C S


    The relationship between the vitamin B6 status of 180 pregnant women and the incidence and degree of morning sickness experienced during the first trimester was investigated. There were no significant differences in plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), erythrocyte aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) activity, and stimulation of erythrocyte AspAT activity by exogenous PLP between subjects who experienced morning sickness and those who did not. No relationship was found between these indicators of vitamin B6 status and the degree of morning sickness experienced by this group during early pregnancy. There were no differences in the number of women who experienced morning sickness or in the number with different degrees of sickness when plasma levels of PLP, erythrocyte AspAT activity or stimulation by PLP were divided into upper and lower 50th percentile groups and compared. Therefore these data show no relationship between vitamin B6 status and the incidence or degree of morning sickness.

  19. Serum levels of eleven steroid hormones following motion sickness.

    Stalla, G K; Doerr, H G; Bidlingmaier, F; Sippel, W G; von Restorff, W


    In order to grade motion sickness objectively, the following 11 adrenal hormones were investigated in subjects with different motion sickness susceptibility: Aldosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, progesterone, 17-OH-progesterone, 11-deoxycortisol, cortisol, cortisone, testosterone, androstendione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Motion sickness was induced by the coriolis effect on a rotary chair. Both severe kinetosis after short rotation time and mild motion sickness after 30 min of rotation occurred together with small hormonal changes. Androstendione and 11-deoxycortisol appear to be sensitive indicators of motion sickness if the rotation time is taken into consideration. A significant increase of all hormones except progesterone, cortisone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate was observed when pronounced malaise had come after a long rotation stress (24.6 min). The changes in plasma aldosterone concentration appeared to correlate with time only. The present study demonstrates that hormonal analysis can be helpful in estimating the degree of motion sickness.

  20. Evaluation of Reproductive Function for Patients with Chronic Radiation Sickness


    diseases: diseases of the respiratory organs (bronchoectasis), diabetes , hepatic and renal insufficiency. The method of choice used to identify the causes...of the patients was infantilism , i.e., retarded and insufficient sexual development. As is indicated in publication [29], in 4 cases out of 940 the...both legs and left forearm after a railway disaster. The two remaining women, twins born in 1944, were diagnosed with infantilism which is

  1. Serum sickness-like illness associated with ciprofloxacin.

    Slama, T G


    Serum sickness is a systemic hypersensitivity reaction initially reported in children receiving horse serum. Drugs such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and sulfonamides are now noted to be the most common etiologic agents of serum sickness-like reactions. This case report describes a serum sickness-like reaction temporally related to ciprofloxacin, a previously unreported adverse effect of this drug or any of the other quinolones.

  2. Evaluation of genotoxicity of the acute gamma radiation on earthworm Eisenia fetida using single cell gel electrophoresis technique (Comet assay).

    Sowmithra, K; Shetty, N J; Jha, S K; Chaubey, R C


    Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) most suitable biological indicators of radioactive pollution. Radiation-induced lesions in DNA can be considered to be molecular markers for early effects of ionizing radiation. Gamma radiation produces a wide spectrum of DNA. Some of these lesions, i.e., DNA strand breaks and alkali labile sites can be detected by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or comet assay by measuring the migration of DNA from immobilized nuclear DNA. E. fetida were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation, i.e., 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50Gy, and comet assay was performed for all the doses along with control at 1, 3 and 5h post irradiation to evaluate the genotoxicity of gamma radiation in this organism. The DNA damage was measured as percentage of comet tail DNA. A significant increase in DNA damage was observed in samples exposed to 5Gy and above, and the increase in DNA damage was dose dependent i.e., DNA damage was increased with increased doses of radiation. The highest DNA damage was noticed at 1h post irradiation and gradually decreased with time, i.e., at 3 and 5h post irradiation. The present study reveals that gamma radiation induces DNA damage in E. fetida and the comet assay is a sensitive and rapid method for its detection to detect genotoxicity of gamma radiation.

  3. Trends of Sickness Certifications in Primary Health Care in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

    Faiz A’Rashdy


    Full Text Available Objectives: Sickness certification (SC is common practice in primary health care with proven implications on the health system. To assess the rate of sickness certifications in the Bowsher province and describe related demographic, occupational and medical factors. Methods: Our retrospective, cross-sectional study retrieved data for all consultations, with patients aged six to 65 years old, which ended with SC. The data from four primary health care centers in the Bowsher provice were collected during 2011 using the electronic medical record system. Collected data included patient demographics, occupation, date issued, duration of sickness certification, recorded vital signs, and clinical diagnosis. Suitable rates were calculated as percentages and important differences were compared using the chi-square test. Results: The total number of consultation visits for the targeted population was 189,275. Of these 26,096 consultations resulted in SC to a total of 15,758 patients. The overall rate of SC was 13.8 per 100 consultation-years (confidence interval (CI: 13.6–14. SC rates in males were significantly higher than females (17 and 11 per 100 consultations/year, respectively. Patients aged 19–29 years old had the highest rate of SC (18.6/100 consultations/year. School students aged six to 18 years made up 28% of patients, and 24% and 22% of patients were working in the private and public sectors, respectively. No vital signs record was found for 30% of SC visits. The highest rate of SC was in October (17% and the lowest was in August (9%. Acute respiratory infections were the most frequent diagnoses (31% resulting in certifications. The rate of SC issued for Omanis and non-Omanis was 14 and 9 per 100 consultations per year, respectively. Conclusion: Sickness certification is a burden on primary health care in the studied health centers with approximately one in seven consultations ending with SC issued. More investigations are needed to

  4. Acute Urinary Morbidity Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer with Prophylactic Alpha-Adrenergic Antagonist and Urethral Dose Reduction

    Michael Charles Repka


    Full Text Available Background: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT delivers high doses of radiation to the prostate while minimizing radiation to adjacent critical organs. Large fraction sizes may increase urinary morbidity due to unavoidable treatment of the prostatic urethra. This study reports rates of acute urinary morbidity following SBRT for localized prostate cancer with prophylactic alpha-adrenergic antagonist utilization and urethral dose reduction (UDR.Methods: From April 2013 to September 2014, 102 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with robotic SBRT to a total dose of 35-36.25 Gy in 5 fractions. UDR was employed to limit the maximum point dose of the prostatic urethra to 40 Gy. Prophylactic alpha-adrenergic antagonists were initiated five days prior to SBRT and continued until resolution of urinary symptoms. Quality of life (QoL was assessed before and after treatment using the American Urological Association Symptom Score (AUA and the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite-26 (EPIC-26. Clinical significance was assessed using a minimally important difference (MID of one half standard deviation change from baseline.Results: 102 patients underwent definitive prostate SBRT with UDR and were followed for 3 months. No patient experienced acute urinary retention requiring catheterization. A mean baseline AUA symptom score of 9.06 significantly increased to 11.83 one-week post-SBRT (p = 0.0024 and 11.84 one-month post-SBRT (p = 0.0023 but returned to baseline by 3 months. A mean baseline EPIC-26 irritative/obstructive score of 87.7 decreased to 74.1 one-week post-SBRT (p < 0.0001 and 77.8 one-month post-SBRT (p < 0.0001 but returned to baseline at 3 months. EPIC-26 irritative/obstructive score changes were clinically significant, exceeding the MID of 6.0. At baseline, 8.9% of men described their urinary function as a moderate to big problem, and that proportion increased to 37.6% one week following completion of SBRT

  5. Sick sinus syndrome secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism

    Osman Beton


    Full Text Available The effects of hypercalcemia on the heart and the resulting alternations of the electrocardiogram have been well established. However, there are only limited number of reports in the literature on primary hyperparathyroidism leading to clinically significant arrhythmias. We present a patient who was diagnosed with symptomatic sick sinus syndrome in the setting of moderate hyper-calcemia secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism in this case report. After the surgical opera-tion for primary hyperparathyroidism, serum calcium level returned to normal range and patient’s complaints and arrhytmic findings recovered. The patient was asymptomatic for the following 13 years.

  6. A prospective dosimetric and clinical comparison of acute hematological toxicities in three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy in carcinoma cervix

    H U Avinash


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Acute hematological toxicities are an important cause of morbidity in patients receiving concurrent chemoradiation to pelvis in carcinoma cervix. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT in reducing the dose to the bone marrow as compared with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT and hence its impact on reducing the acute hematological toxicities. Materials and Methods: Eleven consecutive patients treated with IMRT and 12 patients treated with 3DCRT to the whole pelvis along with concurrent chemotherapy were selected. Bone marrow was delineated. V10 Gy, V20 Gy, V95%, and Dmean of bone marrow were recorded. Weekly blood counts were recorded and graded as per Common Terminology Criteria version 4.0 for all the patients. Results: The dose to the bone marrow V20 Gy was 206.78 ± 57.10 cc (75% and 251.70 ± 40.45 cc (91% for IMRT and 3DCRT, respectively (P = 0.04 and V95% was 23.30 ± 8.34% and 46.76 ± 6.71% for IMRT and 3DCRT, respectively (P = 0.001. The grade of toxicities during each week did not show the difference in either arm. However, the total count and Neutrophil counts during the 2nd week showed statistical significance between IMRT and 3DCRT. Conclusion: IMRT significantly reduces the dose to the bone marrow as compared to 3DCRT. The reduction of the dose did not translate into a decrease in acute hematological toxicities. Concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy is the probable cause for the hematological toxicities.

  7. Live cell detection of chromosome 2 deletion and Sfpi1/PU1 loss in radiation-induced mouse acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Olme, C-H; Finnon, R; Brown, N; Kabacik, S; Bouffler, S D; Badie, C


    The CBA/H mouse model of radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia (rAML) has been studied for decades to bring to light the molecular mechanisms associated with multistage carcinogenesis. A specific interstitial deletion of chromosome 2 found in a high proportion of rAML is recognised as the initiating event. The deletion leads to the loss of Sfpi, a gene essential for haematopoietic development. Its product, the transcription factor PU.1 acts as a tumour suppressor in this model. Although the deletion can be detected early following ionising radiation exposure by cytogenetic techniques, precise characterisation of the haematopoietic cells carrying the deletion and the study of their fate in vivo cannot be achieved. Here, using a genetically engineered C57BL/6 mouse model expressing the GFP fluorescent molecule under the control of the Sfpi1 promoter, which we have bred onto the rAML-susceptible CBA/H strain, we demonstrate that GFP expression did not interfere with X-ray induced leukaemia incidence and that GFP fluorescence in live leukaemic cells is a surrogate marker of radiation-induced chromosome 2 deletions with or without point mutations on the remaining allele of the Sfpi1 gene. This study presents the first experimental evidence for the detection of this leukaemia initiating event in live leukemic cells.

  8. Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia following chemotherapy (paclitaxel and carboplatin) and radiation therapy in ovarian cancer: a case report.

    Ishikawa, M; Nakayama, K; Rahman, M T; Rahman, M; Katagiri, H; Katagiri, A; Ishibashi, T; Iida, K; Nakayama, N; Miyazaki, K


    In recent years, the incidence of therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS) and therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) that occur during chemotherapy for ovarian cancer has increased. While alkylating agents and topoisomerase II inhibitors are particularly mutagenic and have strong leukemogenic potential, paclitaxel and combination chemotherapy/radiation therapy also appear to induce t-MDS. The present authors report a case of t-MDS that developed during chemotherapy and radiation therapy for ovarian cancer. The patient was a 75-year-old woman who received six courses of cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin/cisplatin (CAP) therapy after initial surgery for Stage IIIc grade ovarian cancer in 1995. Beginning in February 2005, the patient experienced multiple recurrences due to sternal metastasis. Chemotherapy, including paclitaxel and carboplatin (TC), was administered intermittently and was combined with radiation therapy to a sternal metastatic lesion. Pancytopenia was observed in December 2008, and she was diagnosed with t-MDS (WHO subtype, refractory cytopenias with multilineage dysplasia [RCMD]): the time from first chemotherapy to t-MDS onset was 106 months. Without evidence of blast crisis, the recurrent lesions continued to grow and caused multiple cerebral infarctions, from which she eventually died. The cumulative doses of paclitaxel and carboplatin administered to this patient were 1,968 mg and 6,480 mg, respectively.

  9. Short-term sick leave and future risk of sickness absence and unemployment - the impact of health status

    Hultin Hanna


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In previous studies the authors have found sick leave to be a predictor of future sick leave, unemployment and disability pension. Although sick leave reflects underlying health problems, some studies have suggested that sick leave may have consequences beyond the consequences of the underlying illness. However, few studies have aimed at studying consequences of sick leave while adjusting for ill health. This study aims to explore whether short-term sick leave increases the risk of future long-term sick leave, disability pension, and unemployment. Furthermore, we aim to control for the potentially confounding effects of physical and mental health status. Methods Data were gathered from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort (SPHC, restricted to 11,156 employed individuals (48.6% men aged 18–59, without long-term sick leave, disability pension or in-patient care the year before inclusion (2002. These were followed-up with regard to unemployment, long-term sick leave, and disability pension in 2006 and 2007. Odds ratios (OR with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated by logistic regression, controlling for six different measures of health status (limiting long-standing illness, self-rated health, mental health, somatic disease, musculoskeletal pain and in-patient care and socio-demographic factors. Results Results from the unadjusted analyses indicated increased risks of long-term sick leave (OR 2.00; CI 1.62-2.46 and short-term unemployment (OR 1.76; CI 1.35-2.29 for individuals exposed to more than one short-term sick-leave spell. There were no increased odds of long-term unemployment (OR 0.54; CI 0.28-1.04 or disability pension (OR 0.72; CI 0.42-1.24. After adjusting for the different measures of health status the odds ratio for short-term unemployment was not statistically significant (OR 1.29; CI 0.97-1.74. The odds ratios for the other outcomes slightly increased after adjustment for the used measures of

  10. Nuancing the relationship between motion sickness and postural stability

    Bos, J.E.


    The most cited theory on motion sickness is the conflict theory by Reason and Brand (1975) [1], stating that motion sickness occurs due to a conflict between the senses and stored patterns of motion. In addition, there seems to be evidence for another theory stating that postural instability is a ne

  11. Recurrence of sickness absence due to common mental disorders

    Koopmans, P.C.; Bultmann, U.; Roelen, C.A.; Hoedeman, R.; van der Klink, J.J.; Groothoff, J.W.


    PURPOSE: Common mental disorders (CMDs) are an important cause of work disability. Although CMDs are known to have high recurrence rates, little is known about the recurrence of sickness absence due to CMDs. This study examines the recurrence risk of sickness absence due to CMDs. METHODS: A cohort o

  12. Parametric hazard rate models for long-term sickness absence

    Koopmans, Petra C.; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Groothoff, Johan W.


    In research on the time to onset of sickness absence and the duration of sickness absence episodes, Cox proportional hazard models are in common use. However, parametric models are to be preferred when time in itself is considered as independent variable. This study compares parametric hazard rate m

  13. Identifying workers at risk of sickness absence by questionnaire

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; van der Pol, Tjepke R.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Groothoff, Johan W.


    Background Sickness absence is an important economic problem, because of high costs and lost productivity. Determining factors associated with increased risk of sickness absence may lead to the development of preventive measures. Aims To determine whether self-report questionnaires can identify thos

  14. 5 CFR 630.502 - Sick leave recredit.


    ... different leave systems under section 6308 of title 5, United States Code, 7 calendar days of sick leave are... leave system to which he or she can transfer only a part of his or her sick leave is entitled to a... employee returns to the leave system under which it was earned on or after December 2, 1994. (f)...

  15. 5 CFR 831.302 - Unused sick leave.


    ... annuity is increased by the days of unused sick leave to his credit under a formal leave system. (b) An...) A formal leave system is one which is provided by law or regulation or operates under written rules... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unused sick leave. 831.302 Section...

  16. Sick leave analysis among self-employed Dutch farmers

    Hartman, E.; Oude Vrielink, H.H.E.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.


    Background Agriculture is one of the most physically demanding and risky industries. Aim The objective of this study was to provide baseline data on the diagnoses, occurrence and duration of sick leave of self-employed Dutch farmers. Method A database of 22807 sick leave claims of 12627 farmers duri

  17. Identifying employees at risk for job loss during sick leave

    Flach, Peter A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Bultmann, Ute


    Purpose: To examine the associations between medical, work-related, organizational and sociodemographic factors and job loss during sick leave in a Dutch population of 4132 employees on sick leave. Methods: Data were assessed by occupational health physicians (OHPs) on sociodemographic, medical, wor

  18. Does muscle strength predict future musculoskeletal disorders and sickness absence?

    Faber, A; Sell, L; Hansen, J V;


    High muscle strength is considered relevant for preventing musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence. However, prospective studies on the association between muscle strength and future musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence are few and show contrasting results....

  19. Return to work following sickness absence due to infectious mononucleosis

    Koopmans, P.C.; Bakhtali, R.; Katan, A.A.; Groothoff, J.W.; Roelen, C.A.


    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis among adults is notorious because of the prolonged incapacitating fatigue it causes. AIMS: To investigate the duration of sickness absence and return to work following infectious mononucleosis. METHODS: Episodes of sickness absence due to infec

  20. Less sickness with more motion and/or mental distraction

    Bos, J.E.


    BACKGROUND: Motion sickness may reduce passenger comfort and crew performance. Countermeasures are dominated by medication with specific and often undesirable side effects. OBJECTIVE: To shown that sickness due to motion can be reduced by adding an inherent non-sickening vibration and by mental dist

  1. Low Dose Radiation Response Curves, Networks and Pathways in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells Exposed from 1 to 10 cGy of Acute Gamma Radiation

    Wyrobek, A. J.; Manohar, C. F.; Nelson, D. O.; Furtado, M. R.; Bhattacharya, M. S.; Marchetti, F.; Coleman, M.A.


    We investigated the low dose dependency of the transcriptional response of human cells to characterize the shape and biological functions associated with the dose response curve and to identify common and conserved functions of low dose expressed genes across cells and tissues. Human lymphoblastoid (HL) cells from two unrelated individuals were exposed to graded doses of radiation spanning the range of 1-10 cGy were analyzed by transcriptome profiling, qPCR and bioinformatics, in comparison to sham irradiated samples. A set of {approx}80 genes showed consistent responses in both cell lines; these genes were associated with homeostasis mechanisms (e.g., membrane signaling, molecule transport), subcellular locations (e.g., Golgi, and endoplasmic reticulum), and involved diverse signal transduction pathways. The majority of radiation-modulated genes had plateau-like responses across 1-10 cGy, some with suggestive evidence that transcription was modulated at doses below 1 cGy. MYC, FOS and TP53 were the major network nodes of the low-dose response in HL cells. Comparison our low dose expression findings in HL cells with those of prior studies in mouse brain after whole body exposure, in human keratinocyte cultures, and in endothelial cells cultures, indicates that certain components of the low dose radiation response are broadly conserved across cell types and tissues, independent of proliferation status.

  2. Late stage infection in sleeping sickness.

    Hartwig Wolburg

    Full Text Available At the turn of the 19(th century, trypanosomes were identified as the causative agent of sleeping sickness and their presence within the cerebrospinal fluid of late stage sleeping sickness patients was described. However, no definitive proof of how the parasites reach the brain has been presented so far. Analyzing electron micrographs prepared from rodent brains more than 20 days after infection, we present here conclusive evidence that the parasites first enter the brain via the choroid plexus from where they penetrate the epithelial cell layer to reach the ventricular system. Adversely, no trypanosomes were observed within the parenchyma outside blood vessels. We also show that brain infection depends on the formation of long slender trypanosomes and that the cerebrospinal fluid as well as the stroma of the choroid plexus is a hostile environment for the survival of trypanosomes, which enter the pial space including the Virchow-Robin space via the subarachnoid space to escape degradation. Our data suggest that trypanosomes do not intend to colonize the brain but reside near or within the glia limitans, from where they can re-populate blood vessels and disrupt the sleep wake cycles.

  3. Morning sickness: impact on offspring salt preference.

    Crystal, S R; Bernstein, I L


    These studies examined the relationship between salt preference of adult offspring and their mothers' symptoms of morning sickness during pregnancy. College students who could provide information about their mothers' symptoms of morning sickness completed a survey about their dietary salt intake (study 1; n = 169) or rated and consumed ten snack foods (study 2; n = 66). In study 1 a salt-use score was calculated based on responses to the Salt Intake Questionnaire; offspring of women with moderate or severe vomiting reported a significantly higher level of salt use (p < 0.01) than those whose mothers report little or no symptoms. In study 2 saltiness and pleasantness ratings of high-salt foods, intake of those foods and total sodium intake were the focus of analysis. Offspring of women reporting moderate or severe vomiting showed a significantly greater preference for the snack food subjects rated as saltiest than those whose mothers reported no or mild vomiting. They also ate more of that food and consumed more total sodium during the test session. Effects were stronger in Caucasian than Asian subjects. These studies suggest that moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy can be associated with significantly higher salt intake in offspring. Thus, a gestational event may be an important determinant of salt intake and preference in adulthood.

  4. Predictors of sickness absence in pregnancy

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cohort study was to investigate associations between parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), assisted reproductive therapy (ART), time to pregnancy (TTP), and engagement in physical exercise and the risk of sickness absence in pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy...... weeks. METHODS: Data from 51 874 pregnancies in the Danish National Birth Cohort collected from 1996 until 2002 were linked to the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization. Exposure information was based on questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were...... calculated by Cox regression, using time of first episode of sickness absence as the primary outcome. RESULTS: Multiparity 1.26 (95% CI 1.10-1.45), overweight 1.13 (95% CI 1.08-1.18), obesity 1.23 (95% CI 1.15-1.31), ART 1.10 (95% CI 1.01-1.20), and TTP >12 months 1.06 (95% CI 0.99-1.13) were associated...

  5. The impact of downsizing on remaining workers' sickness absence.

    Østhus, Ståle; Mastekaasa, Arne


    It is generally assumed that organizational downsizing has considerable negative consequences, not only for workers that are laid off, but also for those who remain employed. The empirical evidence with regard to effects on sickness absence is, however, inconsistent. This study employs register data covering a major part of the total workforce in Norway over the period 2000-2003. The number of sickness absence episodes and the number of sickness absence days are analysed by means of Poisson regression. To control for both observed and unobserved stable individual characteristics, we use conditional (fixed effects) estimation. The analyses provide some weak indications that downsizing may lead to slightly less sickness absence, but the overall impression is that downsizing has few if any effects on the sickness absence of the remaining employees.

  6. Undetected common mental disorders in long-term sickness absence

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen


    Background. Undetected Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) amongst people on sick leave complicate rehabilitation and return to work because appropriate treatments are not initiated. Aims. The aim of this study is to estimate (1) the frequencies of CMD, (2) the predictors of undetected CMD, and (3......) the rate of return to work among sick listed individuals without a psychiatric disorder, who are registered on long-term sickness absence (LSA). Methods. A total of 2,414 incident individuals on LSA with a response rate of 46.4%, were identified for a two-phase study. The subsample of this study involved...... individuals registered on LSA who were sick-listed without a psychiatric sick leave diagnosis. In this respect, Phase 1 included 831 individuals, who were screened for mental disorders. In Phase 2, following the screening of Phase 1, 227 individuals were thoroughly examined by a psychiatrist applying Present...

  7. Normal Tissue Complication Probability Analysis of Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Cervical Cancer Patients Undergoing Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Cisplatin

    Simpson, Daniel R.; Song, William Y. [Center for Advanced Radiotherapy Technologies, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Moiseenko, Vitali [Department of Medical Physics, Vancouver Cancer Centre, BC (Canada); Rose, Brent S.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Mundt, Arno J. [Center for Advanced Radiotherapy Technologies, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Mell, Loren K., E-mail: [Center for Advanced Radiotherapy Technologies, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)


    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that increased bowel radiation dose is associated with acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in cervical cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), using a previously derived normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model. Methods: Fifty patients with Stage I-III cervical cancer undergoing IMRT and concurrent weekly cisplatin were analyzed. Acute GI toxicity was graded using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale, excluding upper GI events. A logistic model was used to test correlations between acute GI toxicity and bowel dosimetric parameters. The primary objective was to test the association between Grade {>=}2 GI toxicity and the volume of bowel receiving {>=}45 Gy (V{sub 45}) using the logistic model. Results: Twenty-three patients (46%) had Grade {>=}2 GI toxicity. The mean (SD) V{sub 45} was 143 mL (99). The mean V{sub 45} values for patients with and without Grade {>=}2 GI toxicity were 176 vs. 115 mL, respectively. Twenty patients (40%) had V{sub 45} >150 mL. The proportion of patients with Grade {>=}2 GI toxicity with and without V{sub 45} >150 mL was 65% vs. 33% (p = 0.03). Logistic model parameter estimates V50 and {gamma} were 161 mL (95% confidence interval [CI] 60-399) and 0.31 (95% CI 0.04-0.63), respectively. On multivariable logistic regression, increased V{sub 45} was associated with an increased odds of Grade {>=}2 GI toxicity (odds ratio 2.19 per 100 mL, 95% CI 1.04-4.63, p = 0.04). Conclusions: Our results support the hypothesis that increasing bowel V{sub 45} is correlated with increased GI toxicity in cervical cancer patients undergoing IMRT and concurrent cisplatin. Reducing bowel V{sub 45} could reduce the risk of Grade {>=}2 GI toxicity by approximately 50% per 100 mL of bowel spared.


    Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold L.; Weinstock, Robert M.


    Annual internal radiation doses resulting from both acute and chronic intakes of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in fallout from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak from 1946 through 1958 have been estimated for the residents living on all atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Internal radiation absorbed doses to the tissues most at risk to cancer induction (red bone marrow, thyroid, stomach, and colon) have been estimated for representative persons of all population communities for all birth years from 1929 through 1968, and for all years of exposure from 1948 through 1970. The acute intake estimates rely on a model using, as its basis, historical urine bioassay data, for members of the Rongelap Island and Ailinginae communities as well as for Rongerik residents. The model also utilizes fallout times of arrival and radionuclide deposition densities estimated for all tests and all atolls. Acute intakes of 63 radionuclides were estimated for the populations of the 20 inhabited atolls and for the communities that were relocated during the testing years for reasons of safety and decontamination. The model used for chronic intake estimates is based on reported whole-body, urine, and blood counting data for residents of Utrik and Rongelap. Dose conversion coefficients relating intake to organ absorbed dose were developed using internationally accepted models but specifically tailored for intakes of particulate fallout by consideration of literature-based evidence to choose the most appropriate alimentary tract absorption fraction (f1) values. Dose estimates were much higher for the thyroid gland than for red marrow, stomach wall, or colon. The highest thyroid doses to adults were about 7,600 mGy for the people exposed on Rongelap; thyroid doses to adults were much lower, by a factor of 100 or more, for the people exposed on the populated atolls of Kwajalein and Majuro. The estimates of radionuclide intake and

  9. Neurobehavioural Changes and Brain Oxidative Stress Induced by Acute Exposure to GSM900 Mobile Phone Radiations in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Nirwane, Abhijit; Sridhar, Vinay; Majumdar, Anuradha


    The impact of mobile phone (MP) radiation on the brain is of specific interest to the scientific community and warrants investigations, as MP is held close to the head. Studies on humans and rodents revealed hazards MP radiation associated such as brain tumors, impairment in cognition, hearing etc. Melatonin (MT) is an important modulator of CNS functioning and is a neural antioxidant hormone. Zebrafish has emerged as a popular model organism for CNS studies. Herein, we evaluated the impact of GSM900MP (GSM900MP) radiation exposure daily for 1 hr for 14 days with the SAR of 1.34W/Kg on neurobehavioral and oxidative stress parameters in zebrafish. Our study revealed that, GSM900MP radiation exposure, significantly decreased time spent near social stimulus zone and increased total distance travelled, in social interaction test. In the novel tank dive test, the GSM900MP radiation exposure elicited anxiety as revealed by significantly increased time spent in bottom half; freezing bouts and duration and decreased distance travelled, average velocity, and number of entries to upper half of the tank. Exposed zebrafish spent less time in the novel arm of the Y-Maze, corroborating significant impairment in learning as compared to the control group. Exposure decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities whereas, increased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) was encountered showing compromised antioxidant defense. Treatment with MT significantly reversed the above neurobehavioral and oxidative derangements induced by GSM900MP radiation exposure. This study traced GSM900MP radiation exposure induced neurobehavioral aberrations and alterations in brain oxidative status. Furthermore, MT proved to be a promising therapeutic candidate in ameliorating such outcomes in zebrafish. PMID:27123163


    Abdul Latif


    Full Text Available Small industrial units are the seedbed on industrial development in underdeveloped economy for its less capital involvement and more employment generation capability. But this sector cannot contribute expectedly for infection to sickness that ultimately prevents the entrepreneurial bases of economy. Sickness can be occurred in the inception period, in operation and /or in macro environment.There are various techniques to prevent sickness and to make the treatment of occurred sickness. In this study, the researchers selected 13 sick units of BSCIC industrial units and collected the information regarding the causes, stages and measures to prevent sickness. It is found that 07 are born to sick due to improper capital budgeting, 06 are made sick for managerial problems and no units are bound to be sick for environmental problems.

  11. Anthocyanin-rich blueberry diets enhance protection of critical brain regions exposed to acute levels of 56Fe cosmic radiation

    The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress which can lead to “accelerated aging”. One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, which consists of high-energy and -charge parti...

  12. Motion sickness history, food neophobia, and sensation seeking.

    Alley, Thomas R; Willet, Kathleen A; Muth, Eric R


    Motion sickness is believed to be caused by conflicting sensory signals, a situation that mimics the effects of ingesting certain toxins. Thus, one might suspect that individuals who have experienced a relatively high frequency of motion sickness may be particularly vigilant about avoiding anything that produces nausea, induding potentially nauseating toxins. Consequently, they may be more resistant to trying new foods, i.e., be more food neophobic, since unfamiliar foods can have unexpected adverse effects due to toxins or allergens. Likewise, many highly stimulating experiences can trigger motion sickness, so individuals who are more susceptible may be more prone to avoid such experiences, i.e., be less sensation seeking. Finally, it was expected that food neophobia would be more frequent in individuals low on sensation seeking tendencies. Self-reported motion sickness history in 308 adults (M= 18.8 yr.; SD = 1.6) was correlated with scores on the Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking and the Food Neophobia Scale. As predicted, greater history of motion sickness was associated with lower Sensation Seeking scores. Food Neophobia was not correlated with motion sickness history but, as expected, was negatively correlated (r = -.42) with scores on Sensation Seeking. Further research is recommended that measures actual sensitivity to motion sickness.

  13. "Children get sick all the time"

    Østergaard, Lise Rosendal; Bjertrup, Pia Juul; Samuelsen, Helle


    Background: In Burkina Faso, the government has implemented various health sector reforms in order to overcome financial and geographical barriers to citizens' access to primary healthcare throughout the country. Despite these efforts, morbidity and mortality rates among children remain high...... facilities. Focusing on mothers as the primary caregivers, we follow their pathways from the onset of symptoms through their various attempts of providing treatment for their sick children. The overall objective is to discuss the interconnectedness of various factors, inside and outside of the primary health...... care services. Due to their accumulated vulnerabilities, mothers shift pragmatically from one treatment to another. However, the sporadic nature of their treatment-seeking hinders them in obtaining long-term solutions and the result is recurrent child illnesses and relapses over long periods of time...

  14. The Person in a State of Sickness.

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur; Hjörleifsson, Stefán


    In this article, we discuss the ideas of Eric J. Cassell about the patient-professional relationship. We argue that his approach combines in an interesting way features from the literature on patient autonomy and paternalistic practices. We suggest that these seemingly paternalistic features of practicing medicine, which are widely either ignored or condemned in bioethical discussion, are of vital significance in medical practice. In the first sections of the article, we describe the main features of Cassell's understanding of the sick person and his version of personalized medicine. We pay particular attention to his notion of information control and compare his ideas about conversation with patients to Hans-Georg Gadamer's analysis of patient-professional dialogue. In the latter part of the article, we explore through a couple of examples the implications these ideas have for medical practice.

  15. Sickness absence in Poland after socio-economic transformation

    Zuzanna Szubert


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the analysis was to determine the magnitude and causes of the sickness-related temporary incapacity for work in Poland, and to identify changes in sickness absence and its differences by the type of economic activity and region. Material and Methods: This analysis is based on the 2006-2012 data on sickness absence compiled from medical certificates of temporary incapacity for work and published by the Social Insurance Institution (Zakład Ubezpieczeń Społecznych. The sickness absence is described in terms of the number of sick leave days relative to the number of the employed or insured people. Results: In 2012, the number of days of disability per one employed was 14.5 (12.1 men, 17.4 women, representing 3.98% of the time lost due to illness. The main causes of absence were: complications of pregnancy and mother's diseases during pregnancy (33% of the sick leave days in women, injury and poisoning (men: 24%; women: 8%, diseases of the musculoskeletal system (men: 17%; woman: 11%. The highest level of sickness absence was noted in the łódzkie, śląskie and warmińsko-mazurskie provinces (38-19% higher than nationwide and in the administrative and support sectors (22.2 days per 1 employee, when analyzed by sectors of the national economy. Conclusions: The high increase in sickness absence over the recent 7 years due to cancer, mental and muscloskeletal disorders may be an important risk factor for early assessment of permanent incapacity for work. Another major problem is female sickness absence due to pregnancy complications and mother's diseases during pregnancy. Med Pr 2014;65(1:73–84

  16. Cytokine profile of conditioned medium from human tumor cell lines after acute and fractionated doses of gamma radiation and its effect on survival of bystander tumor cells.

    Desai, Sejal; Kumar, Amit; Laskar, S; Pandey, B N


    Cytokines are known to play pivotal roles in cancer initiation, progression and pathogenesis. Accumulating evidences suggest differences in basal and stress-induced cytokine profiles of cancers with diverse origin. However, a comprehensive investigation characterising the cytokine profile of various tumor types after acute and fractionated doses of gamma-irradiation, and its effect on survival of bystander cells is not well known in literature. In the present study, we have evaluated the cytokine secretion profile of human tumor cell lines (HT1080, U373MG, HT29, A549 and MCF-7) either before (basal) or after acute (2, 6 Gy) and fractionated doses (3×2 Gy) of gamma-irradiation in culture medium obtained from these cells by multiplex bead array/ELISA. Moreover, clonogenic assays were performed to evaluate the effect of conditioned medium (CM) on the survival and growth of respective cells. Based on the screening of 28 analytes, our results showed that the basal profiles of these cell lines varied considerably in terms of the number and magnitude of secreted factors, which was minimum in MCF-7. Interestingly, TNF-α, IL-1β, PDGF-AA, TGF-β1, fractalkine, IL-8, VEGF and GCSF were found in CM of all the cell lines. However, secretion of certain cytokines was cell line-specific. Moreover, CM caused increase in clonogenic survival of respective tumor cells (in the order HT1080>U373MG>HT29>A549>MCF-7), which was correlated with the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, GMCSF and VEGF in their CM. After irradiation, the levels of most of the cytokines increased markedly in a dose dependent manner. The fold change in cytokine levels was lower in irradiated conditioned medium (ICM) of tumor cells collected after fractionated than respective acute dose, except in MCF-7. Interestingly, amongst these cell lines, the radiation-induced fold increase in cytokine levels was maximum in ICM of A549 cells. Moreover, bystander A549 cells treated with respective ICM showed dose dependent

  17. Prediction of Acute Radiation Mucositis using an Oral Mucosal Dose Surface Model in Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Tumors.

    Atsushi Musha

    Full Text Available To evaluate the dose-response relationship for development of acute radiation mucositis (ARM using an oral mucosal dose surface model (OMDS-model in carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT for head and neck tumors.Thirty-nine patients receiving C-ion RT for head and neck cancer were evaluated for ARM (once per week for 6 weeks according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE, version 4.0, and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG scoring systems. The irradiation schedule typically used was 64 Gy [relative biological effectiveness (RBE] in 16 fractions for 4 weeks. Maximum point doses in the palate and tongue were compared with ARM in each patient.The location of the ARM coincided with the high-dose area in the OMDS-model. There was a clear dose-response relationship between maximum point dose and ARM grade assessed using the RTOG criteria but not the CTCAE. The threshold doses for grade 2-3 ARM in the palate and tongue were 43.0 Gy(RBE and 54.3 Gy(RBE, respectively.The OMDS-model was useful for predicting the location and severity of ARM. Maximum point doses in the model correlated well with grade 2-3 ARM.

  18. Acute exposure to 930 MHz CW electromagnetic radiation in vitro affects reactive oxygen species level in rat lymphocytes treated by iron ions.

    Zmyślony, Marek; Politanski, Piotr; Rajkowska, Elzbieta; Szymczak, Wieslaw; Jajte, Jolanta


    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the 930 MHz continuous wave (CW) electromagnetic field, which is the carrier of signals emitted by cellular phones, affects the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in living cells. Rat lymphocytes were used in the experiments. A portion of the lymphocytes was treated with iron ions to induce oxidative processes. Exposures to electromagnetic radiation (power density 5 W/m2, theoretical calculated SAR = 1.5 W/kg) were performed within a GTEM cell. Intracellular ROS were measured by the fluorescent probe dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCF-DA). The results show that acute (5 and 15 min) exposure does not affect the number of produced ROS. If, however, FeCl2 with final concentration 10 microg/ml was added to the lymphocyte suspensions to stimulate ROS production, after both durations of exposure, the magnitude of fluorescence (ROS level during the experiment) was significantly greater in the exposed lymphocytes. The character of the changes in the number of free radicals observed in our experiments was qualitatively compatible with the theoretical prediction from the model of electromagnetic radiation effect on radical pairs.

  19. 5 CFR 630.403 - Supporting evidence for the use of sick leave.


    ... leave. 630.403 Section 630.403 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.403 Supporting evidence for the use of sick leave. (a) An agency may grant sick leave only when the need for sick leave is supported by administratively...

  20. DNA Double-Strand Break Analysis by {gamma}-H2AX Foci: A Useful Method for Determining the Overreactors to Radiation-Induced Acute Reactions Among Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients

    Goutham, Hassan Venkatesh; Mumbrekar, Kamalesh Dattaram [Division of Radiobiology and Toxicology, Manipal Life Sciences Centre, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Vadhiraja, Bejadi Manjunath [Manipal Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Fernandes, Donald Jerard; Sharan, Krishna [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Shiridi Sai Baba Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Kanive Parashiva, Guruprasad; Kapaettu, Satyamoorthy [Division of Biotechnology, Manipal Life Sciences Centre, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Bola Sadashiva, Satish Rao, E-mail: [Division of Radiobiology and Toxicology, Manipal Life Sciences Centre, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India)


    Purpose: Interindividual variability in normal tissue toxicity during radiation therapy is a limiting factor for successful treatment. Predicting the risk of developing acute reactions before initiation of radiation therapy may have the benefit of opting for altered radiation therapy regimens to achieve minimal adverse effects with improved tumor cure. Methods and Materials: DNA double-strand break (DSB) induction and its repair kinetics in lymphocytes of head-and-neck cancer patients undergoing chemoradiation therapy was analyzed by counting {gamma}-H2AX foci, neutral comet assay, and a modified version of neutral filter elution assay. Acute normal tissue reactions were assessed by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: The correlation between residual DSBs and the severity of acute reactions demonstrated that residual {gamma}-H2AX foci in head-and-neck cancer patients increased with the severity of oral mucositis and skin reaction. Conclusions: Our results suggest that {gamma}-H2AX analysis may have predictive implications for identifying the overreactors to mucositis and skin reactions among head-and-neck cancer patients prior to initiation of radiation therapy.

  1. Pharmacological and neurophysiological aspects of space/motion sickness

    Lucot, James B.; Crampton, George H.


    A motorized motion testing device modeled after a Ferris wheel was constructed to perform motion sickness tests on cats. Details of the testing are presented, and some of the topics covered include the following: xylazine-induced emesis; analysis of the constituents of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during motion sickness; evaluation of serotonin-1A (5-HT sub 1A) agonists; other 5HT receptors; antimuscarinic mechanisms; and antihistaminergic mechanisms. The ability of the following drugs to reduce motion sickness in the cats was examined: amphetamines, adenosinergic drugs, opioid antagonists, peptides, cannabinoids, cognitive enhancers (nootropics), dextromethorphan/sigma ligands, scopolamine, and diphenhydramine.

  2. Motion Sickness: A Study of Its Effects on Human Physiology.


    SICKNESS: A STUDY OF ITS EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY THESIS Pierre J. Gaudreault Captain, USAF AFIT/GE/ENG/87D- 2 0 TO STEC TEo VN;FB 1 0 1988...ENG/87D-20 MOTION SICKNESS: A STUDY OF ITS EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY THESIS Pierre J. Gaudreault Captain, USAF AFIT/GE/ENG/87D-20 Approved for public...SICKNESS: A STUDY OF ITS EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology

  3. Heart failure accompanied by sick euthyroid syndrome and exercise training.

    Psirropoulos, D; Lefkos, N; Boudonas, G; Efthimiadis, A; Vogas, V; Keskilidis, C; Tsapas, G


    Sick euthyroid syndrome is defined as the decrease of serum free triiodothyronine with normal free L-thyroxin and thyrotropin. Its appearance in patients with chronic heart failure is an indicator of severity. Exercise training through a wide variety of mechanisms reverses sick euthyroid syndrome (normalization of free triiodothyronine levels) and improves the ability to exercise. There is a connection during exercise among dyspnea, hyperventilation, fatigue, catecholamines, a decrease in the number and function of beta-blocker receptors, and elevation of serum free triiodothyronine. It is not known whether sick euthyroid syndrome contributes to the development of heart failure or is only an attendant syndrome.

  4. The Problem of the Mechanism of Action of Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) in Acute Radiation Injury USSR.


    eantradietory. Sossa autho?» «ässiday pyridoxin ® th« bait tharapauiie agast ie radiation «ie&nag« (27, 30); othare assert that thi« pffep&rstioa... pyridoxin « an« dlssadrel <ha?« aoute period of radiation •iQletM«» i»r«**«l th* aurrt val «ta öf tha rat« to 71 .3 par««* (*f tha 80 rate 57...IB the irradiated rabbit« which ha* ba«ss givan pyridoxine or bistamin« for a vaak befer® tha irradiation tha’■ eastajst of Mstasisa*« iß the bleed

  5. The Toll-Like Receptor 5 Agonist Entolimod Mitigates Lethal Acute Radiation Syndrome in Non-Human Primates.

    Vadim I Krivokrysenko

    Full Text Available There are currently no approved medical radiation countermeasures (MRC to reduce the lethality of high-dose total body ionizing irradiation expected in nuclear emergencies. An ideal MRC would be effective even when administered well after radiation exposure and would counteract the effects of irradiation on the hematopoietic system and gastrointestinal tract that contribute to its lethality. Entolimod is a Toll-like receptor 5 agonist with demonstrated radioprotective/mitigative activity in rodents and radioprotective activity in non-human primates. Here, we report data from several exploratory studies conducted in lethally irradiated non-human primates (rhesus macaques treated with a single intramuscular injection of entolimod (in the absence of intensive individualized supportive care administered in a mitigative regimen, 1-48 hours after irradiation. Following exposure to LD50-70/40 of radiation, injection of efficacious doses of entolimod administered as late as 25 hours thereafter reduced the risk of mortality 2-3-fold, providing a statistically significant (P<0.01 absolute survival advantage of 40-60% compared to vehicle treatment. Similar magnitude of survival improvement was also achieved with drug delivered 48 hours after irradiation. Improved survival was accompanied by predominantly significant (P<0.05 effects of entolimod administration on accelerated morphological recovery of hematopoietic and immune system organs, decreased severity and duration of thrombocytopenia, anemia and neutropenia, and increased clonogenic potential of the bone marrow compared to control irradiated animals. Entolimod treatment also led to reduced apoptosis and accelerated crypt regeneration in the gastrointestinal tract. Together, these data indicate that entolimod is a highly promising potential life-saving treatment for victims of radiation disasters.

  6. 0144 Sick leave patterns as predictors of disability pension or long-term sick leave

    Stapelfeldt, Christina; Vinther Nielsen, Claus; Trolle Andersen, Niels;


    OBJECTIVES: The public health care sector is challenged by high sick leave rates among home-care personnel. This group also has a high probability of being granted a disability pension. We studied whether a workplace-registered frequent short-term sick leave spell pattern was an early indicator...... of future disability pension or future long-term sick leave among eldercare workers. METHOD: 2774 employees' sick leave days were categorised: 0-2 and 3-17 short (1-7 days) spells, 2-13 mixed short and long (8+ days) spells, and long spells only. Disability pension and long-term sick leave were subsequently...... the pseudo values method adjusted for age, occupation and unfavourable work factors. RESULTS: A frequent short-term and a mixed sick leave pattern increased the RR of being granted a disability pension; the RR was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.00-4.35) and 2.61 (95% CI: 1.33-5.12). Inversely, the long-term sick leave...

  7. Sick Leave within 5 Years of Whiplash Trauma Predicts Recovery: A Prospective Cohort and Register-Based Study.

    Tina Birgitte Wisbech Carstensen

    Full Text Available 10-22% of individuals sustaining whiplash trauma develop persistent symptoms resulting in reduced working ability and decreased quality of life, but it is poorly understood why some people do not recover. Various collision and post-collision risk factors have been studied, but little is known about pre-collision risk factors. In particular, the impact of sickness and socioeconomic factors before the collision on recovery is sparsely explored. The aim of this study was to examine if welfare payments received within five years pre-collision predict neck pain and negative change in provisional situation one year post-collision.719 individuals with acute whiplash trauma consecutively recruited from emergency departments or primary care after car accidents in Denmark completed questionnaires on socio-demographic and health factors immediately after the collision. After 12 months, a visual analogue scale on neck pain intensity was completed. 3595 matched controls in the general population were sampled, and national public register data on social benefits and any other welfare payments were obtained for participants with acute whiplash trauma and controls from five years pre-collision to 15 months after. Participants with acute whiplash trauma who had received sickness benefit for more than 12 weeks pre-collision had increased odds for negative change in future provisional situation (Odds Ratio (OR (95% Confidence Interval (CI = 3.8 (2.1;7.1 and future neck pain (OR (95%CI = 3.3 (1.8;6.3, controlling for other known risk factors. Participants with acute whiplash trauma had weaker attachment to labour market (more weeks of sick leave (χ2(2 = 36.7, p < 0.001 and unemployment (χ2(2 = 12.5, p = 0.002 pre-collision compared with controls. Experiencing a whiplash trauma raised the odds for future negative change in provisional situation (OR (95%CI = 3.1 (2.3;4.4 compared with controls.Sick leave before the collision strongly predicted prolonged recovery

  8. Sickness absence and psychosocial work conditions : a multilevel study

    Roelen, C.A.; Weites, S.H.; Koopmans, P.C.; van der Klink, J.J.; Groothoff, J.W.


    Background Psychosocial work conditions, particularly psychological job demands, are inconsistently associated with sickness absence rates. This might be the result of investigating the psychosocial work environment at the individual level, reflecting personal perceptions rather than actual demands.

  9. Psychosocial work conditions associated with sickness absence among hospital employees

    Suadicani, P; Olesen, K; Bonde, J P;


    BACKGROUND: Meaningfulness of the job, collaboration among colleagues, trustworthiness of the closest superior and bullying have previously been shown to be major covariates of intention to quit the job. AIMS: To test if these elements of the psychosocial work environment are also the most...... essential covariates of sickness absence. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study of hospital employees which sought information on elements of the psychosocial work environment, general health status, life style, age, gender and profession. Data on sickness absence were obtained from the employer...... high sickness absence and 29 psychosocial work elements were analysed, adjusting for relevant confounders. Following multiple logistic regression analysis, three elements had an independent statistically significant association with high sickness absence: no exposure to bullying (odds ratio (95...

  10. Diclectin for morning sickness: Long-term neurodevelopment.

    Nulman, Irena; Koren, Gideon


    Question A pregnant patient recently asked me whether using Diclectin for morning sickness might affect the development of her child. Answer Our recent large study does show such a trend, although the differences are not necessarily clinically significant.

  11. Profiles and Time Course of Acute Radiation Toxicity Symptoms during Conformal Radiotherapy for Cancer of the Prostate

    Hovdenak, Nils; Karlsdottir, Aasa; Soerbye, Halfdan; Dahl, Olav [Univ. of Bergen (Norway). Div. of Gastroenterology


    Symptoms of gastrointestinal toxicity are dose-limiting for pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Existing toxicity registrations (RTOG/EORTC) are helpful in defining maximal tolerated doses, but tend to underestimate the total toxicity burden by excluding several minor complaints. We have applied a more detailed and quantitative recording of symptoms and related these scores to RT-induced endoscopic and histopathologic changes. Prevalence and severity of specific toxicity symptoms were recorded before, during (weeks 2 and 6) and 2 and 8 weeks after RT in 96 patients undergoing external beam RT for localized prostate cancer. RTOG/EORTC acute toxicity and ad hoc total toxicity scores (TTS) were recorded. TTS scores were calculated by adding scores based on visual analog scale (VAS) grading of individual symptoms. Fifty of the patients also underwent sequential proctoscopy with mucosal biopsy. Individual symptoms increased, but differed in prevalence and intensity during and after RT. TTS increased during the entire treatment course in spite of normalizing histopathologic and endoscopic changes from week 2 onwards. Twenty-seven patients had no RTOG/EORTC toxicity, four had grade 3 and none had grade 4 toxicity. All patients with grade 0 had increased TTS. Thus, TTS appeared more sensitive than RTOG/EORTC scoring. The study demonstrates that multiple toxicity symptoms contribute to total toxicity in response to pelvic RT. TTS is a feasible and sensitive method for detecting and quantifying acute toxicity and unveils morbidity which remains hidden with the RTOG/EORTC score system. The development and timing of symptoms may give clues to pathogenesis, treatment, and prophylaxis.

  12. microRNA Alterations Driving Acute and Late Stages of Radiation-Induced Fibrosis in a Murine Skin Model

    Simone, Brittany A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ly, David; Savage, Jason E. [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Hewitt, Stephen M. [Department of Pathology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Dan, Tu D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ylaya, Kris [Department of Pathology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Shankavaram, Uma [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Lim, Meng; Jin, Lianjin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Camphausen, Kevin [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Mitchell, James B. [Radiation Biology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Simone, Nicole L., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)


    Purpose: Although ionizing radiation is critical in treating cancer, radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) can have a devastating impact on patients' quality of life. The molecular changes leading to radiation-induced fibrosis must be elucidated so that novel treatments can be designed. Methods and Materials: To determine whether microRNAs (miRs) could be responsible for RIF, the fibrotic process was induced in the right hind legs of 9-week old CH3 mice by a single-fraction dose of irradiation to 35 Gy, and the left leg served as an unirradiated control. Fibrosis was quantified by measurements of leg length compared with control leg length. By 120 days after irradiation, the irradiated legs were 20% (P=.013) shorter on average than were the control legs. Results: Tissue analysis was done on muscle, skin, and subcutaneous tissue from irradiated and control legs. Fibrosis was noted on both gross and histologic examination by use of a pentachrome stain. Microarrays were performed at various times after irradiation, including 7 days, 14 days, 50 days, 90 days, and 120 days after irradiation. miR-15a, miR-21, miR-30a, and miR-34a were the miRs with the most significant alteration by array with miR-34a, proving most significant on confirmation by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, c-Met, a known effector of fibrosis and downstream molecule of miR-34a, was evaluated by use of 2 cell lines: HCT116 and 1522. The cell lines were exposed to various stressors to induce miR changes, specifically ionizing radiation. Additionally, in vitro transfections with pre-miRs and anti-miRs confirmed the relationship of miR-34a and c-Met. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate an inverse relationship with miR-34a and c-Met; the upregulation of miR-34a in RIF causes inhibition of c-Met production. miRs may play a role in RIF; in particular, miR-34a should be investigated as a potential target to prevent or treat this devastating side effect of irradiation.

  13. A Study of Motion Sickness: Mathematical Modeling and Data Analysis


    levels of motion sick- ness experienced by a test subject during the course of an experiment (21:97; 25:59; 27:84). In 1987, Drylie, Fix, and Gaudreault cedures. Drylie and Gaudreault reported additional conclusions concerning motion sickness trends (11; 17). Fix developed a new equation for...and Gaudreault also noted low frequency EEG signals in the 0.1 Hz range (17:28). However, only one of their subjects had EEG signals with an amplitude

  14. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence.

    Annette Notenbomer

    Full Text Available Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves.We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD-R model as theoretical framework.Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence.The JD-R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance.

  15. A Model for the Analysis of Sick Leave in Sweden

    David Edgerton; Curt Wells


    This paper addresses the question of how to model individual behavior in the face of changes in the set of rules that govern the social welfare system in Sweden. To this end, the Swedish sickness insurance provides an excellent study object, since the system has often been changed during the past decade. The question of employee compensation for sick leave is one the more widely discussed aspects of Swedish social welfare legislation, and it is therefore of interest to examine how individuals...

  16. Is Physics Sick? [In Praise of Classical Physics

    Ghassib, Hisham


    In this paper, it is argued that theoretical physics is more akin to an organism than to a rigid structure.It is in this sense that the epithet, "sick", applies to it. It is argued that classical physics is a model of a healthy science, and the degree of sickness of modern physics is measured accordingly. The malady is located in the relationship between mathematics and physical meaning in physical theory.

  17. A New Measure of Decompression Sickness in the Rat

    Peter Buzzacott


    Full Text Available In this study we assessed the reliability of a tilting-board grip score as a measure of decompression sickness in rats. In experiments using a hyperbaric compression/decompression protocol, rats were observed for signs of decompression sickness and their grip strength measured on a tilting particle board hinged to a metal frame. Angles at which rats lost grip were converted to gravitational vectors. Decreased mean grip scores following decompression were fitted to a logistic regression model with strain, age, and weight. Decrease in grip score was significantly associated with observed decompression sickness (P=0.0036. The log odds ratio for decompression sickness = 1.40 (decrease in grip score. In rats with no decrease in mean grip score there was a 50% probability of decompression sickness (pDCS. This increased steadily with decreases in mean grip score. A decrease of 0.3 had a 60% pDCS, a decrease of 0.6 had a 70% pDCS, and a decrease of 2.1 had a 95% pDCS. The tilting board grip score is a reliable measure of the probability of decompression sickness.

  18. Diagnosis and treatment for sick building; Diagnostico y tratamiento para edificios saludables

    Perez, Maria M; Salomon, Jorge A; Lazcano, Alejandro S [Facultad de Ingenieria UADY, Merida Yucatan (Mexico)


    In recent years, the indoor air quality (IAQ) in work spaces have acquired special importance. Health symptoms refer to a productivity and economic loss. IAQ health symptoms associated with acute discomfort that improve while away from work. More common, however, are apparent outbreaks of illness within work spaces in which neither environmental causes non recognized diseases can be identified. Usually reported within the last years, these events are often called sick building syndrome. To determine a sick building diagnosis and treatment, it is necessary to plan methodology based on environment comfort, habitability, energy efficiency use and nature preservation. Hereby it is presented a methodology to determine a sick building diagnosis and treatment which was applied in Superior Court of Justice building (Tribunales Primero y Segundo del Decimocuarto Circuito del Poder Judicial de la Federacion), where employees have expressed diseases as sleepiness, cold and difficulty breathing. [Spanish] En los ultimos anos, la calidad del aire en el ambiente de trabajo ha adquirido especial interes debido a la importancia que representa para el bienestar, eficiencia y productividad de los empleados. Los edificios carentes de esa calidad del aire ocasionan trastornos de salud relacionados con la falta de confort que prevalece en el ambiente de trabajo, es comun encontrar en los empleados que alli laboran, brotes de sintomas como dolores de cabeza, letargo y resfriados, entre otros. Usualmente encontrados en los ultimos anos en ambientes de oficinas a estos sintomas se les llama sindrome del edificio enfermo. Para lograr el diagnostico y tratamiento de un edificio enfermo es necesario plantear una metodologia basada en criterios de confort ambiental, habitabilidad, uso eficiente de la energia y preservacion del medio ambiente. En este trabajo presentamos una metodologia para el diagnostico y tratamiento de edificios con ese sindrome y presentamos un estudio de casos de los

  19. Brief note and evaluation of acute-radiation syndrome and treatment of a Tokai-mura criticality accident patient

    Ishii, Takeshi; Futami, Satoru; Nishida, Masamichi; Suzuki, Toru; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Norio; Maekawa, Kazuhiko [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine


    Patient A who was exposed to a critical dose of radiation developed skin lesions throughout the body surface, gastrointestinal disorder with massive diarrhea and prominent bleeding, which caused severe loss in body fluids. Gastrointestinal bleeding due to the deteriorated intestinal mucosa was considered to be one of the major causes of death, although infection did not develop, possibly because of SDD and aseptic intensive care, until terminal stages. Patient A ultimately developed respiratory and renal failure in addition to skin exudate and gastrointestinal bleeding, and died of multiple organ failure on the 83rd day after exposure. The extreme unevenness of the dose distribution and the neutron versus {gamma}-ray component made the clinical manifestation very complicated. Initially, the mean absorbed dose was calculated as 16-20 GyEq for Patient A, mainly based on neutron-activated {sup 24}Na in the blood. However, a very recent calculation showed that the absorbed skin dose was highest at the upper-right abdomen reaching 61.8 Gy (27.0 as neutron plus 34.8 Gy as {gamma}-ray). The dorsal side was calculated to have received one eighth of the value of the abdominal side, and much smaller neutron component. His absorbed-dose distribution throughout the body was very inhomogeneous because of the closeness of the standing point to the mixing tank. Despite prolonged survival because of intensive care with massive fluids and blood transfusion, peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation, cultured skin-cell grafts, and the administration of cytokines for marrow, the patient was not saved. Restoration of the bone marrow function, prevention of skin fibrosis, radiation lung damage, and repair of gastrointestinal mucosa, and final recovery of the patient were elusive. Abundant personnel and resources were also a prerequisite to allow for the comprehensive and collective intensive care. A further understanding of the effects of high-dose radiation as well as the basic and

  20. Does self-efficacy predict return-to-work after sickness absence? A prospective study among 930 employees with sickness absence for three weeks or more

    Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas; Christensen, Karl B;


    AIM: To compare levels of self-efficacy among the general working population and employees with sickness absence from work, and to examine if general self-efficacy measured before occurrence of sickness absence predicted subsequent onset of sickness absence and Return-to-Work. METHODS: The study...

  1. Infant salt preference and mother's morning sickness.

    Crystal, S R; Bernstein, I L


    Evidence for an association between early pregnancy sickness and offspring salt (NaCl) preference has been obtained from studying offspring as young adults. To determine whether effects on NaCl preference are expressed in infancy, the present study examined 16-week-old infants whose mothers reported either little or no vomiting (N = 15) or frequent moderate to severe vomiting (N = 14) during the first 14 weeks of their pregnancy. The infants' oral-motor facial reactions to each solution and their relative intakes of distilled water and 0.1m and 0.2m NaCl were used as measures of preference. Infants of mothers who reported no or mild symptoms had a significantly lower relative intake of salt solutions than infants whose mothers reported moderate to severe symptoms (p < 0.01). The former infants also showed a greater number of aversive facial responses when given 0.2m NaCl (p < 0.05). Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that maternal dehydration, induced by moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy, can lead to enhanced salt preference in offspring. They also provide a potential explanation for some of the variability encountered when human infants are tested for their salt preference.

  2. Occupational exposures and sick leave during pregnancy

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette


    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women. METHODS: Data from 51 874 pregnancies...... in the Danish National Birth Cohort collected between 1996-2002 were linked to the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization. Exposure information was based on telephone interviews. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by Cox regression analysis, using time of first.......73-2.09, HRnight 1.52, 95% CI 1.15-2.01), monthly night shifts HRtrend 1.12, 95% CI 1.11-1.14, increasing weekly work hours HRtrend 0.93, 95% CI 0.91-0.95 and high job strain HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.42-1.63. Some exposures influenced HR in either a positive or negative time-dependent way. CONCLUSION: Our results support...

  3. Chronic Mountain Sickness-Phobrang Type

    C. S. Nath


    Full Text Available Clinical0 features of 27 cases of Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS from the Himalayas are reported. They are compared with 75 native highlanders (NH. All CMS patients were immigrants to high altitude. Mean duration of stay at high altitude was seven years. Mean values for haematocrit and haemoglobin were 80% and 23 G% respectively for the CMS group and 40% and 17.9 G% respectively for the native highlande group. Mean QRS axis in the former was +118 and in the latter +76. Incidence and quantum of protienuria were significantly higher in the CMS group. Cardiac catheteri -sation studies done in eight CMS cases showed elevated Pulmonary Artery (PA pressures even after a mean of 14.2 days at sea level. The disease which has four diagnostic elements-hypoxemia and polycythemia, pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular enlargement and nephropathy with dense proteinuria-is a variant of 'Monge's Disease' and a name CMS Phobrang Type is suggested, along with a new approach to clinical classification which may help in diagnosis before cor pulmonale sets in. Limited therapeutic trials conducted at highaltitude seem to indicate that yogic deep breathing exercises, low-dose aspirin and diamox may be beneficial in the prevention and therapy of CMS Phobrang Type at high  altitude.

  4. Effect of a prostaglandin - given rectally for prevention of radiation-induced acute proctitis - on late rectal toxicity. Results of phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

    Kertesz, Tereza; Herrmann, Markus K.A.; Christiansen, Hans; Hermann, Robert M.; Hess, Clemens F.; Hille, Andrea [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Zapf, Antonia [Dept. of Medical Statistics, Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Pradier, Olivier [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Brest (France); Schmidberger, Heinz [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Mainz (Germany)


    Background and purpose: to assess the late effect of a prostaglandin, given rectally during irradiation, on late rectal toxicity. In the acute treatment setting no significant differences in reducing the incidence of acute proctitis symptoms in patients receiving misoprostol, however, significantly more rectal bleeding had been reported. Patients and methods: a total of 100 patients who had undergone radiotherapy for prostate cancer had been entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. The toxicity was evaluated yearly after cessation of irradiation by the RTOG/LENT-SOMA scale. Results: the median follow-up was 50 months. 20 patients suffered from grade 1, four patients from grade 2 as well, and three patients only from grade 2 toxicity. Frequency, bleeding and urgency were the most commonly reported symptoms. In keeping with other studies and clinical experience, the symptoms peaked within the first 2 years with a median for grade 1 of 13 months and for grade 2 of 15 months. The presence of acute toxicity grade 2 showed a correlation with the development of any late toxicity (p = 0.03). Any acute rectal bleeding was significant correlated with any late rectal bleeding (p = 0.017). Conclusion: misoprostol given as once-daily suppository for prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis does neither influence the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute nor late rectal toxicity. Misoprostol has no negative impact on the incidence and severity of late rectal bleeding, in contrast to acute rectal bleeding. The routine clinical use of misoprostol suppositories cannot be recommended. (orig.)

  5. Modeling the Risk of Radiation-Induced Acute Esophagitis for Combined Washington University and RTOG Trial 93-11 Lung Cancer Patients

    Huang, Ellen X.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; El Naqa, Issam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Hope, Andrew J.; Lindsay, Patricia E. [Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bosch, Walter R.; Matthews, John W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Sause, William T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, LDS Hospital, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Graham, Mary V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Phelps County Regional Hospital, Rolla, MO (United States); Deasy, Joseph O., E-mail: [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)


    Purpose: To construct a maximally predictive model of the risk of severe acute esophagitis (AE) for patients who receive definitive radiation therapy (RT) for non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: The dataset includes Washington University and RTOG 93-11 clinical trial data (events/patients: 120/374, WUSTL = 101/237, RTOG9311 = 19/137). Statistical model building was performed based on dosimetric and clinical parameters (patient age, sex, weight loss, pretreatment chemotherapy, concurrent chemotherapy, fraction size). A wide range of dose-volume parameters were extracted from dearchived treatment plans, including Dx, Vx, MOHx (mean of hottest x% volume), MOCx (mean of coldest x% volume), and gEUD (generalized equivalent uniform dose) values. Results: The most significant single parameters for predicting acute esophagitis (RTOG Grade 2 or greater) were MOH85, mean esophagus dose (MED), and V30. A superior-inferior weighted dose-center position was derived but not found to be significant. Fraction size was found to be significant on univariate logistic analysis (Spearman R = 0.421, p < 0.00001) but not multivariate logistic modeling. Cross-validation model building was used to determine that an optimal model size needed only two parameters (MOH85 and concurrent chemotherapy, robustly selected on bootstrap model-rebuilding). Mean esophagus dose (MED) is preferred instead of MOH85, as it gives nearly the same statistical performance and is easier to compute. AE risk is given as a logistic function of (0.0688 Asterisk-Operator MED+1.50 Asterisk-Operator ConChemo-3.13), where MED is in Gy and ConChemo is either 1 (yes) if concurrent chemotherapy was given, or 0 (no). This model correlates to the observed risk of AE with a Spearman coefficient of 0.629 (p < 0.000001). Conclusions: Multivariate statistical model building with cross-validation suggests that a two-variable logistic model based on mean dose and the use of concurrent chemotherapy robustly predicts

  6. The effect of part-time sick leave for employees with mental disorders

    Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders

    Previous studies find that part-time sick-listing it is an effective instrument for reducing sick leave durations for employees with musculoskeletal disorders and for sick-listed employees in general. This paper provides new evidence by studying whether the Danish part-time sick leave programme...... hours for employees with physical disorders. In contrast, we find that part-time sick-listing does not reduce durations for employees with mental disorders. The analyses also illustrate the importance of adjusting for unobserved differences between part-time sick-listed and full-time sick...... the employee is able to work regular hours. We use combined survey and register data about 226 long-term sick-listed employees with mental disorders and 638 employees with physical disorders. Our analyses show that part-time sick-listing significantly reduces the duration until returning to regular working...

  7. Testosterone treatment diminishes sickness behavior in male songbirds.

    Ashley, Noah T; Hays, Quentin R; Bentley, George E; Wingfield, John C


    Males of many vertebrate species are typically more prone to disease and infection than female conspecifics, and this sexual difference is partially influenced by the immunosuppressive properties of testosterone (T) in males. T-induced immunosuppression has traditionally been viewed as a pleiotropic handicap, rather than an adaptation. Recently, it has been hypothesized that suppression of sickness behavior, or the symptoms of infection, may have adaptive value if sickness interferes with the expression of T-mediated behaviors important for male reproductive success. We conduct a classic hormone replacement experiment to examine if T suppresses sickness behavior in a seasonally-breeding songbird, Gambel's white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii). Triggered experimentally by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), sickness behavior includes decreased activity, anorexia, and weight loss. Gonadectomized (GDX) males that were treated with silastic implants filled with T exhibited suppression of behavioral and physiological responses to LPS compared to GDX and sham-GDX controls given empty implants. Sickness responses of control groups were statistically indistinguishable. T-implanted birds had significantly higher plasma T than control groups and levels were within the range associated with aggressive interactions during male-to-male contests. These findings imply that suppression of sickness behavior could occur when T is elevated to socially-modulated levels. Alternatively, it is possible that this suppressive effect is mediated through a stress-induced mechanism, as corticosterone levels were elevated in T-implanted subjects compared to controls. We propose that males wounded and infected during contests may gain a brief selective advantage by suppressing sickness responses that would otherwise impair competitive performance. The cost of immunosuppression would be manifested in males through an increased susceptibility to disease, which is presumably

  8. Apoptotic resistance to ionizing radiation in pediatric B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia frequently involves increased NF-kappaB survival pathway signaling.

    Weston, Victoria J; Austen, Belinda; Wei, Wenbin; Marston, Eliot; Alvi, Azra; Lawson, Sarah; Darbyshire, Philip J; Griffiths, Mike; Hill, Frank; Mann, Jill R; Moss, Paul A H; Taylor, A Malcolm R; Stankovic, Tatjana


    To investigate possible causes of the variable response to treatment in pediatric B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and to establish potential novel therapeutic targets, we used ionizing radiation (IR) exposure as a model of DNA damage formation to identify tumors with resistance to p53-dependent apoptosis. Twenty-one of 40 ALL tumors responded normally to IR, exhibiting accumulation of p53 and p21 proteins and cleavage of caspases 3, 7, and 9 and of PARP1. Nineteen tumors exhibited apoptotic resistance and lacked PARP1 and caspase cleavage; although 15 of these tumors had normal accumulation of p53 and p21 proteins, examples exhibited abnormal expression of TRAF5, TRAF6, and cIAP1 after IR, suggesting increased NF-kappaB prosurvival signaling as the mechanism of apoptotic resistance. The presence of a hyperactive PARP1 mutation in one tumor was consistent with such increased NF-kappaB activity. PARP1 inhibition restored p53-dependent apoptosis after IR in these leukemias by reducing NF-kappaB DNA binding and transcriptional activity. In the remaining 4 ALL tumors, apoptotic resistance was associated with a TP53 mutation or with defective activation of p53. We conclude that increased NF-kappaB prosurvival signaling is a frequent mechanism by which B-precursor ALL tumors develop apoptotic resistance to IR and that PARP1 inhibition may improve the DNA damage response of these leukemias.

  9. HemaMax™, a recombinant human interleukin-12, is a potent mitigator of acute radiation injury in mice and non-human primates.

    Lena A Basile

    Full Text Available HemaMax, a recombinant human interleukin-12 (IL-12, is under development to address an unmet medical need for effective treatments against acute radiation syndrome due to radiological terrorism or accident when administered at least 24 hours after radiation exposure. This study investigated pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy of m-HemaMax (recombinant murine IL-12, and HemaMax to increase survival after total body irradiation (TBI in mice and rhesus monkeys, respectively, with no supportive care. In mice, m-HemaMax at an optimal 20 ng/mouse dose significantly increased percent survival and survival time when administered 24 hours after TBI between 8-9 Gy (p<0.05 Pearson's chi-square test. This survival benefit was accompanied by increases in plasma interferon-γ (IFN-γ and erythropoietin levels, recovery of femoral bone hematopoiesis characterized with the presence of IL-12 receptor β2 subunit-expressing myeloid progenitors, megakaryocytes, and osteoblasts. Mitigation of jejunal radiation damage was also examined. At allometrically equivalent doses, HemaMax showed similar pharmacokinetics in rhesus monkeys compared to m-HemaMax in mice, but more robustly increased plasma IFN-γ levels. HemaMax also increased plasma erythropoietin, IL-15, IL-18, and neopterin levels. At non-human primate doses pharmacologically equivalent to murine doses, HemaMax (100 ng/Kg and 250 ng/Kg administered at 24 hours after TBI (6.7 Gy/LD(50/30 significantly increased percent survival of HemaMax groups compared to vehicle (p<0.05 Pearson's chi-square test. This survival benefit was accompanied by a significantly higher leukocyte (neutrophils and lymphocytes, thrombocyte, and reticulocyte counts during nadir (days 12-14 and significantly less weight loss at day 12 compared to vehicle. These findings indicate successful interspecies dose conversion and provide proof of concept that HemaMax increases survival in irradiated rhesus monkeys by promoting

  10. The Relationship between Disease, Work and Sickness Absence among Psoriasis Patients

    Parvin MANSOURI


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of absenteeism in patients with psoriasis and determine the factors influencing the incidence of absenteeism in these patients.Methods: A cross-sectional study from December 2012 to November of 2013 was conducted on 192 psoriasis patients referred to the Dermatology Clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The number day of absence from work due to psoriasis in the last year was asked from the patients; the absence of 7 days has been considered as short-term and more than 7 days as long-term. Logistic regression was used to data analysis.Results: Sickness absence in 21.4% of patients was positive. The average numbers of days of absence were 10.25 and the duration of absence from work in 48.7% were long-term ≥7 days. 51.3% had short-term absence (<7 days. Among disease factors: moderate to severe disease (SAPASI score >10, palms and soles involvement, joint problems and radiation therapy and among job factors: hazardous physical and chemical exposures in the workplace, non-office work, disability, exacerbations of disease on work days and problem on employment were associated with high incidence of sickness absence.Conclusion: Psoriasis with its chronic and recurrent nature especially in higher severities causes disabilities that deeply affect Work performance and can decrease the efficiency. In better management of psoriasis patients, physicians should pay special attention to occupational factors. Keywords: Sickness absence, Occupational stress, Psoriasis patients, SAPASI

  11. Decompression sickness following breath-hold diving.

    Schipke, J D; Gams, E; Kallweit, Oliver


    Despite convincing evidence of a relationship between breath-hold diving and decompression sickness (DCS), the causal connection is only slowly being accepted. Only the more recent textbooks have acknowledged the risks of repetitive breath-hold diving. We compare four groups of breath-hold divers: (1) Japanese and Korean amas and other divers from the Pacific area, (2) instructors at naval training facilities, (3) spear fishers, and (4) free-dive athletes. While the number of amas is likely decreasing, and Scandinavian Navy training facilities recorded only a few accidents, the number of spear fishers suffering accidents is on the rise, in particular during championships or using scooters. Finally, national and international associations (e.g., International Association of Free Drives [IAFD] or Association Internationale pour Le Developpment De L'Apnee [AIDA]) promote free-diving championships including deep diving categories such as constant weight, variable weight, and no limit. A number of free-diving athletes, training for or participating in competitions, are increasingly accident prone as the world record is presently set at a depth of 171 m. This review presents data found after searching Medline and ISI Web of Science and using appropriate Internet search engines (e.g., Google). We report some 90 cases in which DCS occurred after repetitive breath-hold dives. Even today, the risk of suffering from DCS after repetitive breath-hold diving is often not acknowledged. We strongly suggest that breath-hold divers and their advisors and physicians be made aware of the possibility of DCS and of the appropriate therapeutic measures to be taken when DCS is suspected. Because the risk of suffering from DCS increases depending on depth, bottom time, rate of ascent, and duration of surface intervals, some approaches to assess the risks are presented. Regrettably, none of these approaches is widely accepted. We propose therefore the development of easily manageable

  12. Delayed recompression for decompression sickness: retrospective analysis.

    Amir Hadanny

    Full Text Available Most cases of decompression sickness (DCS occur soon after surfacing, with 98% within 24 hours. Recompression using hyperbaric chamber should be administrated as soon as feasible in order to decrease bubble size and avoid further tissue injury. Unfortunately, there may be a significant time delay from surfacing to recompression. The time beyond which hyperbaric treatment is non effective is unclear. The aims of the study were first to evaluate the effect of delayed hyperbaric treatment, initiated more than 48 h after surfacing for DCS and second, to evaluate the different treatment protocols.From January 2000 to February 2014, 76 divers had delayed hyperbaric treatment (≥48 h for DCS in the Sagol center for Hyperbaric medicine and Research, Assaf-Harofeh Medical Center, Israel. Data were collected from their medical records and compared to data of 128 patients treated earlier than 48 h after surfacing at the same hyperbaric institute.There was no significant difference, as to any of the baseline characteristics, between the delayed and early treatment groups. With respect to treatment results, at the delayed treatment divers, complete recovery was achieved in 76% of the divers, partial recovery in 17.1% and no improvement in 6.6%. Similar results were achieved when treatment started early, where 78% of the divers had complete recovery, 15.6% partial recovery and 6.2% no recovery. Delayed hyperbaric treatment using US Navy Table 6 protocol trended toward a better clinical outcome yet not statistically significant (OR=2.786, CI95%[0.896-8.66], p=0.07 compared to standard hyperbaric oxygen therapy of 90 minutes at 2 ATA, irrespective of the symptoms severity at presentation.Late recompression for DCS, 48 hours or more after surfacing, has clinical value and when applied can achieve complete recovery in 76% of the divers. It seems that the preferred hyperbaric treatment protocol should be based on US Navy Table 6.

  13. Decompression sickness ('the bends') in sea turtles.

    García-Párraga, D; Crespo-Picazo, J L; de Quirós, Y Bernaldo; Cervera, V; Martí-Bonmati, L; Díaz-Delgado, J; Arbelo, M; Moore, M J; Jepson, P D; Fernández, Antonio


    Decompression sickness (DCS), as clinically diagnosed by reversal of symptoms with recompression, has never been reported in aquatic breath-hold diving vertebrates despite the occurrence of tissue gas tensions sufficient for bubble formation and injury in terrestrial animals. Similarly to diving mammals, sea turtles manage gas exchange and decompression through anatomical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations. In the former group, DCS-like lesions have been observed on necropsies following behavioral disturbance such as high-powered acoustic sources (e.g. active sonar) and in bycaught animals. In sea turtles, in spite of abundant literature on diving physiology and bycatch interference, this is the first report of DCS-like symptoms and lesions. We diagnosed a clinico-pathological condition consistent with DCS in 29 gas-embolized loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta from a sample of 67. Fifty-nine were recovered alive and 8 had recently died following bycatch in trawls and gillnets of local fisheries from the east coast of Spain. Gas embolization and distribution in vital organs were evaluated through conventional radiography, computed tomography, and ultrasound. Additionally, positive response following repressurization was clinically observed in 2 live affected turtles. Gas embolism was also observed postmortem in carcasses and tissues as described in cetaceans and human divers. Compositional gas analysis of intravascular bubbles was consistent with DCS. Definitive diagnosis of DCS in sea turtles opens a new era for research in sea turtle diving physiology, conservation, and bycatch impact mitigation, as well as for comparative studies in other air-breathing marine vertebrates and human divers.

  14. The influence of the combined effects of acute gamma-radiation, sodium bromate and sodium nitrate on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedling root growth

    Pryakhin, E.; Osipov, D. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine - URCRM (Russian Federation)


    Among special industrial reservoirs used for the storage of liquid radioactive waste of Mayak PA, Russia, one of the most radioactively contaminated is the R-17 reservoir, so-called 'Staroye Boloto' (the total β-activity of water ranged in the observation period from 0.4 MBq/l to 4.5 MBq/l, the total a-activity ranged from 43 to 420 Bq/l). Also this reservoir is characterized by high level of chemical contamination, in particular, the concentration of nitrates in water is 2.5-4,4 g/l, sodium bromate - up to 35 mg/l. One of the interesting questions is interaction of radiation and chemical contamination in their effect on living organisms in this reservoir. In laboratory experiments seeds of Lactuca sativa were used; the effect of the studied factor on the length of the sprout's root was estimated. To assess the effect of chemical toxicants the solutions of each salt in 7 different concentrations were used, distilled water was used as a control. For evaluation of acute effects of external gamma irradiation the seeds after exposure for 24 hours in distilled water, were irradiated at 7 different doses using gamma-unit on the basis of Cs-137 with the dose rate of 0.62 Gy/min. To assess the combined effects of acute external gamma irradiation, of nitrates and bromates, seeds after 24 hour exposure at each test concentration of the salts solutions were irradiated using gamma-unit. To calculate the effective concentrations or doses was used drc package for R software. To calculate the dose rate to aquatic organisms in the R-17 was used ERICA Assessment Tool 2012. It was found out that the EC50 of sodium nitrate for lettuce was 2.69 g/l, which is comparable to the concentration of nitrates in the 'Staroye Boloto'. This indicates that nitrate can have significant toxic effect on aquatic higher plants of the reservoir. The EC50 of sodium bromate was 14.6 mg/l. This is less than the maximum concentration of the substance in the R-17, which suggests

  15. The menstrual cycle and susceptibility to coriolis-induced sickness.

    Cheung, B; Heskin, R; Hofer, K; Gagnon, M


    Survey studies on motion sickness susceptibility suggest that females tend to report greater severity in illness and higher incidence of vomiting than males. Menstruation is said to be a contributing factor. A recent study suggested that females were least susceptible to seasickness during ovulation in a "round the world" yacht race. Sixteen subjects (18-36 years old) were exposed to Coriolis cross-coupling stimulation in the laboratory. They were tested once during permenstruation (Day 1-5), ovulation (Day 12-15) and premenstruation (Day 24-28), based on a normalized 28-day cycle, in a randomised design. Physiological measurements of motion sickness included forearm and calf cutaneous blood flow. Subjective evaluation of sickness symptoms was based on Graybiel's diagnostic criteria and Golding's rating method. Our results indicated that under controlled laboratory conditions, different phases of the menstrual cycle appear to have no influence on subjective symptoms of motion sickness or on cutaneous blood flow increase in the forearm and calf. The lack of commonality between the types and levels of hormones that are released during motion sickness and those that are involved in different menstrual phases appears to support our findings.

  16. Pleasant music as a countermeasure against visually induced motion sickness.

    Keshavarz, Behrang; Hecht, Heiko


    Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a well-known side-effect in virtual environments or simulators. However, effective behavioral countermeasures against VIMS are still sparse. In this study, we tested whether music can reduce the severity of VIMS. Ninety-three volunteers were immersed in an approximately 14-minute-long video taken during a bicycle ride. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups, either including relaxing music, neutral music, stressful music, or no music. Sickness scores were collected using the Fast Motion Sickness Scale and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. Results showed an overall trend for relaxing music to reduce the severity of VIMS. When factoring in the subjective pleasantness of the music, a significant reduction of VIMS occurred only when the presented music was perceived as pleasant, regardless of the music type. In addition, we found a gender effect with women reporting more sickness than men. We assume that the presentation of pleasant music can be an effective, low-cost, and easy-to-administer method to reduce VIMS.

  17. Molecular hydrogen reduces LPS-induced neuroinflammation and promotes recovery from sickness behaviour in mice.

    Stefan Spulber

    Full Text Available Molecular hydrogen has been shown to have neuroprotective effects in mouse models of acute neurodegeneration. The effect was suggested to be mediated by its free-radical scavenger properties. However, it has been shown recently that molecular hydrogen alters gene expression and protein phosphorylation. The aim of this study was to test whether chronic ad libitum consumption of molecular hydrogen-enriched electrochemically reduced water (H-ERW improves the outcome of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Seven days after the initiation of H-ERW treatment, C57Bl/6 mice received a single injection of LPS (0.33 mg/kg i.p. or an equivalent volume of vehicle. The LPS-induced sickness behaviour was assessed 2 h after the injection, and recovery was assessed by monitoring the spontaneous locomotor activity in the homecage for 72 h after the administration of LPS. The mice were killed in the acute or recovery phase, and the expression of pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus was assessed by real-time PCR. We found that molecular hydrogen reduces the LPS-induced sickness behaviour and promotes recovery. These effects are associated with a shift towards anti-inflammatory gene expression profile at baseline (downregulation of TNF- α and upregulation of IL-10. In addition, molecular hydrogen increases the amplitude, but shortens the duration and promotes the extinction of neuroinflammation. Consistently, molecular hydrogen modulates the activation and gene expression in a similar fashion in immortalized murine microglia (BV-2 cell line, suggesting that the effects observed in vivo may involve the modulation of microglial activation. Taken together, our data point to the regulation of cytokine expression being an additional critical mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of molecular hydrogen.

  18. QAP collaborates in development of the sick child algorithm.


    Algorithms which specify procedures for proper diagnosis and treatment of common diseases have been available to primary health care services in less developed countries for the past decade. Whereas each algorithm has usually been limited to a single ailment, children often present with the need for more comprehensive assessment and treatment. Treating just one illness in these children leads to incomplete treatment or missed opportunities for preventive services. To address this problem, the World Health Organization has recently developed a Sick Child Algorithm (SCA) for children aged 2 months-5 years. In addition to specifying case management procedures for acute respiratory illness, diarrhea/dehydration, fever, otitis, and malnutrition, the SCA prompts a check of the child's immunization status. The specificity and sensitivity of this SCA were field-tested in Kenya and the Gambia. In Kenya, the Malaria Branch of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention tested the SCA under typical conditions in Siaya District. The Quality Assurance Project of the Center for Human Services carried out a parallel facility-based systems analysis at the request of the Malaria Branch. The assessment which took place in September-October 1993, took the form of observations of provider/patient interactions, provider interviews, and verification of supplies and equipment in 19 rural health facilities to determine how current practices compare to actions prescribed by the SCA. This will reveal the type and amount of technical support needed to achieve conformity to the SCA's clinical practice recommendations. The data will allow officials to devise the proper training programs and will predict quality improvements likely to be achieved through adoption of the SCA in terms of effective case treatment and fewer missed immunization opportunities. Preliminary analysis indicates that the primary health care delivery in Siya deviates in several significant respects from performance

  19. Multidimensional intervention and sickness absence in assistant nursing students

    Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Strøyer, Jesper; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik;


    if a multidimensional prevention programme combining physical training, patient transfer technique and stress management prevents sickness absence and LBP in NA students. METHODS: The study was a 14-month cluster randomized controlled study. The participants were NA students from 37 randomly selected classes located...... at two schools of health and social care in Copenhagen, Denmark. The participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire regarding sickness absence, LBP and psychosocial factors on commencement and after completion of the study. RESULTS: Of 766 female NA students, 668 (87%) completed the baseline......BACKGROUND: When handling patients, nursing assistant (NA) students and nurse students are frequently exposed to risk factors for low back pain (LBP) including sudden loads and twisting and bending of the spine. Furthermore, LBP is a major cause of sickness absence. AIMS: To ascertain...

  20. Analyzing sickness absence with statistical models for survival data

    Christensen, Karl Bang; Andersen, Per Kragh; Smith-Hansen, Lars;


    absence data deal with events occurring over time, the use of statistical models for survival data has been reviewed, and the use of frailty models has been proposed for the analysis of such data. METHODS: Three methods for analyzing data on sickness absences were compared using a simulation study...... involving the following: (i) Poisson regression using a single outcome variable (number of sickness absences), (ii) analysis of time to first event using the Cox proportional hazards model, and (iii) frailty models, which are random effects proportional hazards models. Data from a study of the relation...... between the psychosocial work environment and sickness absence were used to illustrate the results. RESULTS: Standard methods were found to underestimate true effect sizes by approximately one-tenth [method i] and one-third [method ii] and to have lower statistical power than frailty models. CONCLUSIONS...

  1. Acupressure therapy for morning sickness. A controlled clinical trial.

    Hyde, E


    A prospective, controlled clinical trial examined the efficacy of acupressure therapy for morning sickness, using a two group, random assignment, crossover design. Subjects in Group 1 (N = 8) used acupressure wristbands for five days, followed by five days without therapy. Subjects in Group 2 (N = 8) had no therapy for five days, followed by five days use of wristbands. The Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist and Sickness Impact Profile were used, and extent of nausea was assessed at baseline, day five, and day ten. Use of acupressure wristbands relieved morning sickness for 12 of 16 subjects (chi 2 = 5.31 with Yates' correction factor, df = 1, p less than .025). Acupressure therapy resulted in statistically significant (p less than .05) reductions in anxiety, depression, behavioral dysfunction, and nausea. Limitations of the study and suggestions for future research are presented.

  2. Psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per


    AIMS: The study estimates the incidence of psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence (LSA; more than eight weeks of continuous sickness absence) over one year. The study is the first accounting for everybody on LSA by linking a psychiatric assessment for all persons on LSA to public...... registers. METHODS: In a Danish population of 120,000 inhabitants all 2,414 incident persons on LSA within one year were posted a questionnaire, of whom 1,121 (46.4%) responded. In a two phase design the 1,121 sick-listed persons were screened for psychiatric disorders. Phase 2 consisted of 844 people...... examined persons in Phase 2 showed by binomial tests the following frequencies: any psychiatric disorder 57%, any depression 42%, and any anxiety 18%. In Phase 1, representative for everyone on LSA, the frequencies were 48% for any psychiatric disorder, 35% for any depression, 15% for any anxiety, and 7...

  3. Infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool to indicate sick-house-syndrome: a case-study

    Ljungberg, Sven-Ake


    Every third child and many adults in Sweden have allergic reactions caused by indoor environmental problems. A lot of buildings constructed during the building-boom period of 1950 - 1990 expose the sick-house-syndrome, due to built-in moisture problems and poor ventilation performance of the building. Leaky building construction, transport of humid air condensing on thermal bridges within the construction gives rise to a humid environment, and forms a base for a microbial deterioration process of organic materials, with emissions hazardous for human health. So far there are no universal and cost efficient techniques or methods developed which could be used to reveal the sick-house-syndrome. In this paper we present the results of a case-study of the sick-house-syndrome, and an investigation concept with a combination of different techniques and methods to detect and to map underlying factors that form the base for microbial activities. The concept includes mobile and indoor thermography, functional control of ventilation systems, tracer gas techniques for measurement of air flow exchange rate in different rooms, microbial investigation of emissions, field inspections within the building construction and the building envelope, and medical investigation of the health status of the people working in the building. Mobile thermography of the exterior facades has been performed with a longwave AGEMA THV 900, respectively THV 1000 infrared system, during the period December 1994 - June 1995, at different and similar weather and radiation conditions, and with the building pressurized at one accession. Indoor thermography has been performed with a shortwave AGEMA THV 470 system, for a selection of objects/surfaces with thermal deviations, indicated in thermograms from the different mobile thermographic surveys. Functional control was performed for the ventilation systems, and air flow rates were measured using tracer gas technique for a selection of rooms with different

  4. Impacts on Cardiac Electrophysiology and Na+-K+-ATP in the Rabbits with Acute Sick Sinus Syndrome Treated with Modified Shengxian Decoction%升陷汤加味方对急性病态窦房结综合征兔心肌电生理和Na+-K+-ATP酶的影响

    许成; 芦志娟; 管建存; 张军; 刘玉洁


    Objective To observe the impacts of modified shengxian decoction on heart rate, sinus node function and myocardial Na +- K +- ATP in the rabbit model of myocardial sick sinus syndrome.Methods 30 big ear white rabbits were randomized into six groups: blank group, model group, xinbao group, and high - dose, medium - dose and low - dose groups of shengxian decoction.Medication with gastric lavage was done continuously for 3 days in each group, then, the model was settled.Finally, heart rate, sinus node function and myocardial Na +- K +- ATP activity were measured and observed.Results The changes in heart rate, sinus node function and myocardial Na +- K +- ATP activity in every medication group were superior to model group( P < 0.05 ).Of them, the levels of the above indexes in high - dose group of modified shengjiang decoction were not different significantly as compared with xinbao group in statistics ( P > 0.05 ).The improvements in the indexes of medium - dose and low - dose groups of modified shengjiang decoction were not superior to xinbao group,indicating significant difference in statistical comparison of the groups( P < 0.05 ).Conclusion Modified shengxian decoction may improve heart rate of sick sinus syndrome of rabbit model,protect sinus node function, enhance myocardial Na +- K +- ATP activity and strengthen the ability of sinus cell to conquer damage.%目的 观察升陷汤加味方对兔病态窦房结综合征模型心率、窦房结功能和心肌Na+ -K+ -ATP酶的影响.方法 将30只大耳白兔随机分成六组:空白组、模型组、心宝组、升陷汤加味方高、中、低剂量组,各组先连续灌胃给药7 d,再行造模,测量并观察心率、窦房结功能和心肌Na+ -K+ -ATP酶活力的变化.结果 各用药组心率、窦房结功能和心肌Na+ -K+ -ATP酶活力变化均优于模型组(P<0.05),其中升陷汤加味方高剂量组以上各指标与心宝组比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);升陷汤加味方中

  5. Physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors relative to sickness absence: a study based on Sweden Post

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F


    OBJECTIVE: To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work-physical, psychosocial, and organisational. METHODS: The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sicknes......: Certain physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors were important determinants of incidence of sickness, independently of each other. Some of the associations were sex specific.......OBJECTIVE: To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work-physical, psychosocial, and organisational. METHODS: The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sickness...... (sick leave events and person-days at risk). Information on explanatory factors was obtained by a postal questionnaire, and incidence of sickness was based on administrative files of the company. RESULTS: Complaints about heavy lifting and monotonous movements were associated with increased risk of high...

  6. Certificated sickness absence in industrial employees threatened with redundancy.

    Beale, N; Nethercott, S


    The proposition that workers take less sick leave when threatened by redundancy was examined in a longitudinal, controlled study using information from case records in a general practice. The hypothesis was only partly supported--certificated sickness absence dropped only in employees under the age of 40. Workers fearing job loss reported more illness, and their periods of absence were significantly longer, especially for men and for workers who had previously consulted their general practitioner infrequently. This study provides further evidence that the fear of mass redundancy is stressful to workers so threatened and costly to a society experiencing rising unemployment.

  7. Morning sickness: a mechanism for protecting mother and embryo.

    Flaxman, S M; Sherman, P W


    Approximately two-thirds of women experience nausea or vomiting during the first trimester of pregnancy. These symptoms are commonly known as morning sickness. Hook (1976) and Profet (1988) hypothesized that morning sickness protects the embryo by causing pregnant women to physically expel and subsequently avoid foods that contain teratogenic and abortifacient chemicals, especially toxic chemicals in strong-tasting vegetables, caffeinated beverages and alcohol. We examined this hypothesis by comprehensively reviewing the relevant medical, psychological and anthropological literature. In its support, (i) symptoms peak when embryonic organogenesis is most susceptible to chemical disruption (weeks 6-18), (ii) women who experience morning sickness are significantly less likely to miscarry than women who do not (9 of 9 studies), (iii) women who vomit suffer fewer miscarriages than those who experience nausea alone, and (iv) many pregnant women have aversions to alcoholic and nonalcoholic (mostly caffeinated) beverages and strong-tasting vegetables, especially during the first trimester. Surprisingly, however, the greatest aversions are to meats, fish, poultry, and eggs. A cross-cultural analysis using the Human Relations Area Files revealed 20 traditional societies in which morning sickness has been observed and seven in which it has never been observed. The latter were significantly less likely to have animal products as dietary staples and significantly more likely to have only plants (primarily corn) as staples than the 20 societies in which morning sickness occurred. Animal products may be dangerous to pregnant women and their embryos because they often contain parasites and pathogens, especially when stored at room temperatures in warm climates. Avoiding foodborne microorganisms is particularly important to pregnant women because they are immunosuppressed, presumably to reduce the chances of rejecting tissues of their own offspring (Haig 1993). As a result

  8. Impact of Chemotherapy on Normal Tissue Complication Probability Models of Acute Hematologic Toxicity in Patients Receiving Pelvic Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Bazan, Jose G.; Luxton, Gary; Kozak, Margaret M.; Anderson, Eric M.; Hancock, Steven L.; Kapp, Daniel S.; Kidd, Elizabeth A.; Koong, Albert C.; Chang, Daniel T., E-mail:


    Purpose: To determine how chemotherapy agents affect radiation dose parameters that correlate with acute hematologic toxicity (HT) in patients treated with pelvic intensity modulated radiation therapy (P-IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: We assessed HT in 141 patients who received P-IMRT for anal, gynecologic, rectal, or prostate cancers, 95 of whom received concurrent chemotherapy. Patients were separated into 4 groups: mitomycin (MMC) + 5-fluorouracil (5FU, 37 of 141), platinum ± 5FU (Cis, 32 of 141), 5FU (26 of 141), and P-IMRT alone (46 of 141). The pelvic bone was contoured as a surrogate for pelvic bone marrow (PBM) and divided into subsites: ilium, lower pelvis, and lumbosacral spine (LSS). The volumes of each region receiving 5-40 Gy were calculated. The endpoint for HT was grade ≥3 (HT3+) leukopenia, neutropenia or thrombocytopenia. Normal tissue complication probability was calculated using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model. Logistic regression was used to analyze association between HT3+ and dosimetric parameters. Results: Twenty-six patients experienced HT3+: 10 of 37 (27%) MMC, 14 of 32 (44%) Cis, 2 of 26 (8%) 5FU, and 0 of 46 P-IMRT. PBM dosimetric parameters were correlated with HT3+ in the MMC group but not in the Cis group. LSS dosimetric parameters were well correlated with HT3+ in both the MMC and Cis groups. Constrained optimization (0

  9. RTOG 0529: A Phase 2 Evaluation of Dose-Painted Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Combination With 5-Fluorouracil and Mitomycin-C for the Reduction of Acute Morbidity in Carcinoma of the Anal Canal

    Kachnic, Lisa A., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Winter, Kathryn [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Myerson, Robert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Goodyear, Michael D. [Department of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax (Canada); Willins, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Esthappan, Jacqueline [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Haddock, Michael G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Rotman, Marvin [Department of Radiation Oncology, State University of New York—Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York (United States); Parikh, Parag J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Safran, Howard [Department of Medicine, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Willett, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States)


    Purpose: A multi-institutional phase 2 trial assessed the utility of dose-painted intensity modulated radiation therapy (DP-IMRT) in reducing grade 2+ combined acute gastrointestinal and genitourinary adverse events (AEs) of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and mitomycin-C (MMC) chemoradiation for anal cancer by at least 15% compared with the conventional radiation/5FU/MMC arm from RTOG 9811. Methods and Materials: T2-4N0-3M0 anal cancer patients received 5FU and MMC on days 1 and 29 of DP-IMRT, prescribed per stage: T2N0, 42 Gy elective nodal and 50.4 Gy anal tumor planning target volumes (PTVs) in 28 fractions; T3-4N0-3, 45 Gy elective nodal, 50.4 Gy ≤3 cm or 54 Gy >3 cm metastatic nodal and 54 Gy anal tumor PTVs in 30 fractions. The primary endpoint is described above. Planned secondary endpoints assessed all AEs and the investigator’s ability to perform DP-IMRT. Results: Of 63 accrued patients, 52 were evaluable. Tumor stage included 54% II, 25% IIIA, and 21% IIIB. In primary endpoint analysis, 77% experienced grade 2+ gastrointestinal/genitourinary acute AEs (9811 77%). There was, however, a significant reduction in acute grade 2+ hematologic, 73% (9811 85%, P=.032), grade 3+ gastrointestinal, 21% (9811 36%, P=.0082), and grade 3+ dermatologic AEs 23% (9811 49%, P<.0001) with DP-IMRT. On initial pretreatment review, 81% required DP-IMRT replanning, and final review revealed only 3 cases with normal tissue major deviations. Conclusions: Although the primary endpoint was not met, DP-IMRT was associated with significant sparing of acute grade 2+ hematologic and grade 3+ dermatologic and gastrointestinal toxicity. Although DP-IMRT proved feasible, the high pretreatment planning revision rate emphasizes the importance of real-time radiation quality assurance for IMRT trials.

  10. Phase 3 Trial of Domiciliary Humidification to Mitigate Acute Mucosal Toxicity During Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: First Report of Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 07.03 RadioHUM Study

    Macann, Andrew, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Fua, Tsien [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Milross, Chris G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, New South Wales (Australia); Porceddu, Sandro V. [Oncology Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Queensland (Australia); Penniment, Michael [Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Wratten, Chris [Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Waratah, New South Wales (Australia); Krawitz, Hedley [Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Poulsen, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radiation Oncology Mater Centre, South Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Tang, Colin I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia (Australia); Morton, Randall P. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Middlemore Hospital, Otahuhu, Auckland (New Zealand); Hay, K. David [Department of Oral Health, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Thomson, Vicki [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Bell, Melanie L.; King, Madeleine T. [Psycho-oncology Cooperative Research Group, Univerity of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Fraser-Browne, Carol L. [Adult Oncology Research Centre, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Hockey, Hans-Ulrich P. [Biometrics Matters Ltd, Hamilton (New Zealand)


    Purpose: To assess the impact of domicile-based humidification on symptom burden during radiation therapy (RT) for head-and-neck (H and N) cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2007 through June 2011, 210 patients with H and N cancer receiving RT were randomized to either a control arm or to receive humidification using the Fisher and Paykel Healthcare MR880 humidifier. Humidification commenced on day 1 of RT and continued until Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0, clinical mucositis (CMuc) grade ≤1 occurred. Forty-three patients (42%) met a defined benchmark for humidification compliance and contributed to per protocol (PP) analysis. Acute toxicities, hospitalizations, and feeding tube events were recorded prospectively. The McMaster University Head and Neck Radiotherapy Questionnaire (HNRQ) was used for patient-reported outcomes. The primary endpoint was area under the curve (AUC) for CMuc grade ≥2. Results: There were no significant differences in AUC for CMuc ≥2 between the 2 arms. Humidification patients had significantly fewer days in hospital (P=.017). In compliant PP patients, the AUC for CTCAE functional mucositis score (FMuc) ≥2 was significantly reduced (P=.009), and the proportion who never required a feeding tube was significantly greater (P=.04). HNRQ PP analysis estimates also in the direction favoring humidification with less symptom severity, although differences at most time points did not reach significance. Conclusions: TROG 07.03 has provided efficacy signals consistent with a role for humidification in reducing symptom burden from mucositis, but the influence of humidification compliance on the results moderates recommendations regarding its practical utility.

  11. The determinants of sick leave durations of Dutch self-employed

    Spierdijk, Laura; van Lomwel, Gijsbert; Peppelman, Wilko


    This paper analyzes sickness absenteeism among self-employed in the Netherlands. Using a unique data set provided by a large Dutch private insurance company, we assess the determinants of sick leave durations. Our study suggests that several risk factors affect the sick leave durations of self-emplo

  12. 5 CFR 630.405 - Sick leave used in the computation of an annuity.


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sick leave used in the computation of an annuity. 630.405 Section 630.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.405 Sick leave used in the computation of an annuity....

  13. 5 CFR 630.406 - Records on the use of sick leave.


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records on the use of sick leave. 630.406 Section 630.406 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.406 Records on the use of sick leave. An agency must maintain records...

  14. 5 CFR 630.404 - Use of sick leave during annual leave.


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of sick leave during annual leave. 630.404 Section 630.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.404 Use of sick leave during annual leave. Subject to §...

  15. Heart and radiation

    Lauro Martins Júnior


    Full Text Available ABSTRATC The heart exposition to ionizing radiation may produce lesions in cardiac structures, acute (in most of cases benign and reversible, or months and even years later. There is a direct relationship of severity of lesions with radiation doses. The clinical picture receives a new denomination: radiation induced cardiopathy. The more frequent use of radiation in diagnosis and therapeutics increases the importance of their knowledge and especially their prevention.

  16. Radiation nephritis causing nephrotic syndrome

    Jennette, J.C.; Ordonez, N.G.


    Clinical symptoms of acute radiation nephritis with nephrotic syndrome developed in a fifty-six-year-old woman after abdominal radiation therapy for an astrocytoma of the spinal cord. The diagnosis of radiation nephritis was confirmed by renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of radiation nephritis associated with nephrotic syndrome.

  17. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia)

    ... Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute ... bleeding and forming blood clots. Smoking, previous chemotherapy treatment, and exposure to radiation may affect the risk ...

  18. Clinical and Experimental Study on Prevention and Treatment of Acute Radiation Injury in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients by Yiqi Huoxue Yangyin Recipe(益气活血养阴方)

    王炳胜; 刘秀芳; 丁瑞亮; 李成云; 赵增虎


    Objective: To observe the effect of Chinese herbal medicine in alleviating acute toxic-adverse effect of radiotherapy and on growth of stromal cells in bone marrow. Methods: Seventy-two patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were randomly divided into two groups. Radical radiotherapy was applied to both groups. In the radiotherapeutic period, to the 36 patients in the treated group, Yiqi Huoxue Yangyin Recipe (YHYR) was given additionally by oral taking and compressing on radiation area, and to the 36 patients in the control group, vitamin B12 solution was given for gargling or compressing. Experimental study was carried out in rats of two groups, irradiated with 5.0 Gy X-ray and treated with YHYR or normal saline intraperitoneally, to observe the colony forming unit-fibroblastoid (CFU-F) in cultured bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC), taken from the rats at different time.Results: The oral mucomembranous radiation damage occurred in 47.2% of the treated group when the dose of radiation reached to 41.4±9.4 Gy, while in the control group, it was 91.7% when the dose reached to 30.9±8.9 Gy. The skin radiation damage occurrence rate in the two groups was 13.9% and 33.3% respectively when the dose of radiation reached to 50.2±5.6 Gy and 43.2±6.3 Gy respectively. Comparison of the two groups showed significant difference (P<0.01), the radiation damage was significantly slighter in the treated group. Experimental study showed that the rats in the two groups were significantly different in occurrence and degree of bone marrow function inhibition, P<0.01. The numbers of CFU-F in cultured BMSC of radiation damaged rats taken at respective different culture time were also significantly different between the two groups, P<0.01.Conclusion: YHYR could significantly reduce acute radiation damage of mucomembrane and skin, alleviate the inhibition on bone marrow function, and eliminate the injury of radiation on BMSC.

  19. Development of a neural net paradigm that predicts simulator sickness

    Allgood, G.O.


    A disease exists that affects pilots and aircrew members who use Navy Operational Flight Training Systems. This malady, commonly referred to as simulator sickness and whose symptomatology closely aligns with that of motion sickness, can compromise the use of these systems because of a reduced utilization factor, negative transfer of training, and reduction in combat readiness. A report is submitted that develops an artificial neural network (ANN) and behavioral model that predicts the onset and level of simulator sickness in the pilots and aircrews who sue these systems. It is proposed that the paradigm could be implemented in real time as a biofeedback monitor to reduce the risk to users of these systems. The model captures the neurophysiological impact of use (human-machine interaction) by developing a structure that maps the associative and nonassociative behavioral patterns (learned expectations) and vestibular (otolith and semicircular canals of the inner ear) and tactile interaction, derived from system acceleration profiles, onto an abstract space that predicts simulator sickness for a given training flight.

  20. Occupational rewards relate to sickness absence frequency but not duration

    Roelen, C. A. M.; Koopmans, P. C.; Groothoff, J. W.


    Work stress is an important problem that shifted sickness absence research to the psychosocial work environment at the expense of physical or chemical hazards. Most studies investigated the psychosocial work environment using the Demand-Control model. However, this model does not consider coping sty

  1. Respiratory impact on motion sickness induced by linear motion

    Mert, A.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.; Bles, W.


    Motion sickness incidence (MSI) for vertical sinusoidal motion reaches a maximum at 0.167 Hz. Normal breathing frequency is close to this frequency. There is some evidence for synchronization of breathing with this stimulus frequency. If this enforced breathing takes place over a larger frequency ra

  2. The role of work group in individual sickness absence behavior.

    Väänänen, Ari; Tordera, Nuria; Kivimäki, Mika; Kouvonen, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Linna, Anne; Vahtera, Jussi


    The purpose of our two-year follow-up study was to examine the effect of the social components of the work group, such as group absence norms and cohesion, on sickness absence behavior among individuals with varying attitudes toward work attendance. The social components were measured using a questionnaire survey and data on sickness absence behavior were collected from the employers' records. The study population consisted of 19,306 Finnish municipal employees working in 1,847 groups (78% women). Multilevel Poisson regression modeling was applied. The direct effects of work group characteristics on sickness absence were mostly insignificant. In contrast, both of the social components of a work group had an indirect impact: The more tolerant the group absence norms (at both individual- and cross-level) and the lower the group cohesion (at the individual level), the more the absence behavior of an individual was influenced by his or her attitude toward work attendance. We conclude that work group moderates the extent to which individuals with a liberal attitude toward work attendance actually engage in sickness absence behavior.

  3. The association between commuter cycling and sickness absence

    Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Simons, M.; Garre, F.G.; Hildebrandt, V.H.


    Objective: To study the association between commuter cycling and all-cause sickness absence, and the possible dose-response relationship between absenteeism and the distance, frequency and speed of commuter cycling. Method: Cross-sectional data about cycling in 1236 Dutch employees were collected us

  4. Management of Sick Leave due to Musculoskeletal Disorders

    E. Faber (Elske)


    textabstractMusculoskeletal disorders are a common problem that may lead to func-Ational limitations and (work) disability. It is not clear yet how improvement in Apain or functional limitations is related to return to work after an episode of sick Aleave. Furthermore, several physicians are involve

  5. What bothers the sick-listed employee with severe MUPS?

    Hoedeman, R.; Blankenstein, A. H.; Koopmans, P. C.; Groothoff, J. W.


    Aims: The aim of this study was to explore what employees with severe medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) experience as causes of distress with regard to employees with mild or no MUPS. Methods: This study is an additional analysis of a cross-sectional study in which 486 sick-listed emplo

  6. 76 FR 72952 - Guidance for Industry on Nonclinical Evaluation of Late Radiation Toxicity of Therapeutic...


    ... differs from early or acute radiation toxicity. Acute radiation toxicity (e.g., bone marrow failure, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and oral mucositis) occurs within days to weeks of an acute dose of...

  7. General practitioners' management of the long-term sick role.

    Higgins, Angela; Porter, Sam; O'Halloran, Peter


    In this paper, we use qualitative research techniques to examine the role of general practitioners in the management of the long-term sickness absence. In order to uncover the perspectives of all the main agents affected by the actions of general practitioners, a case study approach focussing on one particular employment sector, the public health service, is adopted. The role of family physicians is viewed from the perspectives of health service managers, occupational health physicians, employees/patients, and general practitioners. Our argument is theoretically framed by Talcott Parsons's model of the medical contribution to the sick role, along with subsequent conceptualisations of the social role and position of physicians. Sixty one semi-structured interviews and three focus group interviews were conducted in three Health and Social Care Trusts in Northern Ireland between 2010 and 2012. There was a consensus among respondents that general practitioners put far more weight on the preferences and needs of their patients than they did on the requirements of employing organisations. This was explained by respondents in terms of the propinquity and longevity of relationships between doctors and their patients, and by the ideology of holistic care and patient advocacy that general practitioners viewed as providing the foundations of their approach to patients. The approach of general practitioners was viewed negatively by managers and occupational health physicians, and more positively by general practitioners and patients. However, there is some evidence that general practitioners would be prepared to forfeit their role as validators of sick leave. Given the imperatives of both state and capital to reduce the financial burden of long-term sickness, this preparedness puts into doubt the continued role of general practitioners as gatekeepers to legitimate long-term sickness absence.

  8. Predictors of recurrent sickness absence among workers having returned to work after sickness absence due to common mental disorders

    Arends, Iris; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; van Rhenen, Willem; de Boer, Michiel R.; Bultmann, Ute


    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether sociodemographic, disease-related, personal, and work-related factors - measured at baseline - are predictors of recurrent sickness absence (SA) at 6 and 12 months follow-up among workers who returned to work after SA due to common mental di

  9. Allometric scaling of decompression sickness risk in terrestrial mammals; cardiac output explains risk of decompression sickness

    Fahlman, Andreas


    A probabilistic model was used to predict decompression sickness (DCS) outcome in pig (70 and 20 kg), hamster (100 g), rat (220 g) and mouse (20 g) following air saturation dives. The data set included 179 pig, 200 hamster, 360 rat, and 224 mouse exposures to saturation pressures ranging from 1.9–15.2 ATA and with varying decompression rates (0.9–156 ATA • min‑1). Single exponential kinetics described the tissue partial pressures (Ptiss) of N2: Ptiss =  ∫(Pamb – Ptiss) • τ‑1 dt, where Pamb is ambient N2 pressure and τ is a time constant. The probability of DCS [P(DCS)] was predicted from the risk function: P(DCS) = 1‑e‑r, where r = ∫(PtissN2 ‑ Thr ‑ Pamb) • Pamb–1 dt, and Thr is a threshold parameter. An equation that scaled τ with body mass included a constant (c) and an allometric scaling parameter (n), and the best model included n, Thr, and two c. The final model provided accurate predictions for 58 out of 61 dive profiles for pig, hamster, rat, and mouse. Thus, body mass helped improve the prediction of DCS risk in four mammalian species over a body mass range covering 3 orders of magnitude.

  10. DNA damage focus analysis in blood samples of minipigs reveals acute partial body irradiation.

    Andreas Lamkowski

    Full Text Available Radiation accidents frequently involve acute high dose partial body irradiation leading to victims with radiation sickness and cutaneous radiation syndrome that implements radiation-induced cell death. Cells that are not lethally hit seek to repair ionizing radiation (IR induced damage, albeit at the expense of an increased risk of mutation and tumor formation due to misrepair of IR-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs. The response to DNA damage includes phosphorylation of histone H2AX in the vicinity of DSBs, creating foci in the nucleus whose enumeration can serve as a radiation biodosimeter. Here, we investigated γH2AX and DNA repair foci in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Göttingen minipigs that experienced acute partial body irradiation (PBI with 49 Gy (± 6% Co-60 γ-rays of the upper lumbar region. Blood samples taken 4, 24 and 168 hours post PBI were subjected to γ-H2AX, 53BP1 and MRE11 focus enumeration. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of 49 Gy partial body irradiated minipigs were found to display 1-8 DNA damage foci/cell. These PBL values significantly deceed the high foci numbers observed in keratinocyte nuclei of the directly γ-irradiated minipig skin regions, indicating a limited resident time of PBL in the exposed tissue volume. Nonetheless, PBL samples obtained 4 h post IR in average contained 2.2% of cells displaying a pan-γH2AX signal, suggesting that these received a higher IR dose. Moreover, dispersion analysis indicated partial body irradiation for all 13 minipigs at 4 h post IR. While dose reconstruction using γH2AX DNA repair foci in lymphocytes after in vivo PBI represents a challenge, the DNA damage focus assay may serve as a rapid, first line indicator of radiation exposure. The occurrence of PBLs with pan-γH2AX staining and of cells with relatively high foci numbers that skew a Poisson distribution may be taken as indicator of acute high dose partial body irradiation, particularly when samples are available

  11. RTOG 0529: A Phase II Evaluation of Dose-Painted Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Combination with 5-Fluorouracil and Mitomycin-C for the Reduction of Acute Morbidity in Carcinoma of the Anal Canal

    Kachnic, Lisa A.; Winter, Kathryn; Myerson, Robert J.; Goodyear, Michael D.; Willins, John; Esthappan, Jacqueline; Haddock, Michael G.; Rotman, Marvin; Parikh, Parag J.; Safran, Howard; Willett, Christopher G.


    Purpose A multi-institutional phase II trial assessed the utility of dose-painted IMRT (DP-IMRT) in reducing grade 2+ combined acute gastrointestinal and genitourinary adverse events (AEs) of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and mitomycin-C (MMC) chemoradiation for anal cancer by at least 15% as compared to the conventional radiation/5FU/MMC arm from RTOG 9811. Methods and Materials T2-4N0-3M0 anal cancer patients received 5FU and MMC days 1 and 29 of DP-IMRT, prescribed per stage - T2N0: 42Gy elective nodal and 50.4Gy anal tumor planning target volumes (PTVs) in 28 fractions; T3-4N0-3: 45Gy elective nodal, 50.4Gy ≤ 3cm or 54Gy > 3cm metastatic nodal and 54Gy anal tumor PTVs in 30 fractions. The primary endpoint is described above. Planned secondary endpoints assessed all AEs and the investigator’s ability to perform DP-IMRT. Results Of 63 accrued patients, 52 were evaluable. Tumor stage included: 54% II, 25% IIIA, 21% IIIB. In primary endpoint analysis, 77% experienced grade 2+ gastrointestinal/genitourinary acute AEs (9811 77%). There was, however, a significant reduction in acute grade 2+ hematologic, 73% (9811 85%, P=0.032), grade 3+ gastrointestinal, 21% (9811 36%, P=0.0082), and grade 3+ dermatologic AEs 23% (9811 49%, P<0.0001) with DP-IMRT. On initial pre-treatment review, 81% required DP-IMRT re-planning, while final review revealed only three cases with normal tissue major deviations. Conclusions Although the primary endpoint was not met, DP-IMRT was associated with significant sparing of acute grade 2+ hematologic, and grade 3+ dermatologic and gastrointestinal toxicity. While DP-IMRT proved feasible, the high pre-treatment planning revision rate emphasizes the importance of real-time radiation quality assurance for IMRT trials. PMID:23154075

  12. Exercise and nitric oxide prevent bubble formation: a novel approach to the prevention of decompression sickness?

    Wisløff, Ulrik; Richardson, Russell S; Brubakk, Alf O


    Nitrogen dissolves in the blood during dives, but comes out of solution if divers return to normal pressure too rapidly. Nitrogen bubbles cause a range of effects from skin rashes to seizures, coma and death. It is believed that these bubbles form from bubble precursors (gas nuclei). Recently we have shown that a single bout of exercise 20 h, but not 48 h, before a simulated dive prevents bubble formation and protects rats from severe decompression sickness (DCS) and death. Furthermore, we demonstrated that administration of N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, a non-selective inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS), turns a dive from safe to unsafe in sedentary but not exercised rats. Therefore based upon previous data an attractive hypothesis is that it may be possible to use either exercise or NO-releasing agents before a dive to inhibit bubble formation and thus protect against DCS. Consequently, the aims of the present study were to determine whether protection against bubble formation in 'diving' rats was provided by (1) chronic and acute administration of a NO-releasing agent and (2) exercise less than 20 h prior to the dive. NO given for 5 days and then 20 h prior to a dive to 700 kPa lasting 45 min breathing air significantly reduced bubble formation and prevented death. The same effect was seen if NO was given only 30 min before the dive. Exercise 20 h before a dive suppressed bubble formation and prevented death, with no effect at any other time (48, 10, 5 and 0.5 h prior to the dive). Pre-dive activities have not been considered to influence the growth of bubbles and thus the risk of serious DCS. The present novel findings of a protective effect against bubble formation and death by appropriately timed exercise and an NO-releasing agent may form the basis of a new approach to preventing serious decompression sickness.

  13. Effects of fluid extracts of Calendula on acute radiation dermatitis in rats%金盏花流浸膏对大鼠急性放射性皮肤损伤的影响

    白雪; 刘美莲


    目的 观察金盏花流浸膏对大鼠急性放射性皮肤损伤的作用.方法 将36只Wistar雄性大鼠随机分为金盏花组、三乙醇胺组、对照组,每组12只.采用直线加速器6 MeV电子线照射,总照射剂量为5000cGy/20F,造成大白鼠臀部放射性皮肤损伤,每日于损伤部位涂药2次,评价损伤程度进行比较.结果 金盏花组和三乙醇胺组射野内皮肤不良反应均明显低于对照组(P均0.05).结论 金盏花流浸膏可明显减轻大鼠的急性放射性皮肤损伤,并促进其早期愈合.%Objective It is to observe the effects of fluid extracts of Calendula on acute radiation dermatitis in rats. Methods Thirty six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: Calendula group, trolamine group and control group, with 12 rats in each group. An electron beam with 6 MeV energy produced by a linear accelerator was used. The total irradiate dose was 5 000 cGy/20F. This caused acute radiation skin lesions to the gluteal area of rats. Calendula, trolamine were applied topically to the irradiated area twice a day after radiation. Acute skin reactions were evaluated and compared. Results The skin reactions in the Calendula and trolamine groups tended to be less marked than those in the control group ( P < 0.05 ). the Calendula group exhibited greater skin reaction than the trolamine group in early treatment stage, but they did not differ significantly at the end of the study ( P >0. 05 ). Conclusion Fluid extracts of Calendula can effectively reduce the acute radiation dermatitis damage and promote early healing.

  14. Safety and Efficacy of Qingre Buyi Decoction(清热补益煎剂)in the Treatment of Acute Radiation Proctitis:A Prospective,Randomized and Controlled Trial

    王烈; 张再重; 涂小煌; 邹忠东; 刘建华; 王瑜


    Objective:To investigate the efficiency,safety,and possible mechanisms of Qingre Buyi Decoction(清热补益煎剂,QBD)in the treatment of acute radiation proctitis(ARP).Methods:This study was a single center,prospective,single blind,randomized,and placebo-controlled clinical trial.A total of 60 patients with ARP was equally and randomly distributed into the control group(conventional treatment)and the combination group(conventional treatment plus QBD).The changes of main Chinese medicine clinical symptoms and signs...

  15. Acute biological effects of simulating the whole-body radiation dose distribution from a solar particle event using a porcine model.

    Wilson, Jolaine M; Sanzari, Jenine K; Diffenderfer, Eric S; Yee, Stephanie S; Seykora, John T; Maks, Casey; Ware, Jeffrey H; Litt, Harold I; Reetz, Jennifer A; McDonough, James; Weissman, Drew; Kennedy, Ann R; Cengel, Keith A


    In a solar particle event (SPE), an unshielded astronaut would receive proton radiation with an energy profile that produces a highly inhomogeneous dose distribution (skin receiving a greater dose than internal organs). The novel concept of using megavoltage electron-beam radiation to more accurately reproduce both the total dose and the dose distribution of SPE protons and make meaningful RBE comparisons between protons and conventional radiation has been described previously. Here, Yucatan minipigs were used to determine the effects of a superficial, SPE-like proton dose distribution using megavoltage electrons. In these experiments, dose-dependent increases in skin pigmentation, ulceration, keratinocyte necrosis and pigment incontinence were observed. Five of 18 animals (one each exposed to 7.5 Gy and 12.5 Gy radiation and three exposed to 25 Gy radiation) developed symptomatic, radiation-associated pneumonopathy approximately 90 days postirradiation. The three animals from the highest dose group showed evidence of mycoplasmal pneumonia along with radiation pneumonitis. Moreover, delayed-type hypersensitivity was found to be altered, suggesting that superficial irradiation of the skin with ionizing radiation might cause immune dysfunction or dysregulation. In conclusion, using total doses, patterns of dose distribution, and dose rates that are compatible with potential astronaut exposure to SPE radiation, animals experienced significant toxicities that were qualitatively different from toxicities previously reported in pigs for homogeneously delivered radiation at similar doses.

  16. Survival Fraction at 2 Gy and γH2AX Expression Kinetics in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes From Cancer Patients: Relationship With Acute Radiation-Induced Toxicities

    Pouliliou, Stamatia E. [Department of Radiotherapy/Oncology, Radiobiology and Radiopathology Unit, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Lialiaris, Theodoros S. [Department of Medical Genetics, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Dimitriou, Thespis [Department of Anatomy, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Giatromanolaki, Alexandra [Department of Pathology, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Papazoglou, Dimitrios [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Pappa, Aglaia [Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Pistevou, Kyriaki [Department of Radiotherapy/Oncology, Aristotle University of Thessalonica, Thessalonica (Greece); Kalamida, Dimitra [Department of Radiotherapy/Oncology, Radiobiology and Radiopathology Unit, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Koukourakis, Michael I., E-mail: [Department of Radiotherapy/Oncology, Radiobiology and Radiopathology Unit, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece)


    Purpose: Predictive assays for acute radiation toxicities would be clinically relevant in radiation oncology. We prospectively examined the predictive role of the survival fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) and of γH2AX (double-strand break [DSB] DNA marker) expression kinetics in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cancer patients before radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: SF2 was measured with Trypan Blue assay in the PBMCs from 89 cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy at 4 hours (SF2{sub [4h]}) and 24 hours (SF2{sub [24h]}) after ex vivo irradiation. Using Western blot analysis and band densitometry, we further assessed the expression of γH2AX in PBMC DNA at 0 hours, 30 minutes, and 4 hours (33 patients) and 0 hour, 4 hours, and 24 hours (56 patients), following ex vivo irradiation with 2 Gy. Appropriate ratios were used to characterize each patient, and these were retrospectively correlated with early radiation therapy toxicity grade. Results: The SF2{sub (4h)} was inversely correlated with the toxicity grade (P=.006). The γH2AX-ratio{sub (30min)} (band density of irradiated/non-irradiated cells at 30 minutes) revealed, similarly, a significant inverse association (P=.0001). The DSB DNA repair rate from 30 minutes to 4 hours, calculated as the relative RγH2AX-ratio (γH2AX-ratio{sub (4h)}/γH2AX-ratio{sub (30min)}) showed a significant direct association with high toxicity grade (P=.01). Conclusions: Our results suggest that SF2 is a significant radiation sensitivity index for patients undergoing radiation therapy. γH2AX Western blot densitometry analysis provided 2 important markers of normal tissue radiation sensitivity. Low γH2AX expression at 30 minutes was linked with high toxicity grade, suggesting that poor γH2AX repair activity within a time frame of 30 minutes after irradiation predicts for poor radiation tolerance. On the other hand, rapid γH2AX content restoration at 4 hours after irradiation, compatible with

  17. Differences in predictors of return to work among long-term sick-listed employees with different self-reported reasons for sick leave

    Huijs, J.J.J.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Taris, T.W.; Blonk, R.W.B.


    Introduction The present study aimed to gain insight in the predictors of full return to work (RTW) among employees on long-term sick leave due to three different self-reported reasons for sick leave: physical, mental or comorbid physical and mental problems. This knowledge can be used to develop di

  18. Exposure to exhaled air from a sick occupant in a two-bed hospital room with mixing ventilation: effect of distance from sick occupant and air change rate

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Georgiev, Emanuil


    an exposed patient lying in the second bed. The doctor stood 0.55 m or 1.1 m facing the sick patient. The breathing mode of the “sick patient” was: exhalation mouth/inhalation nose. Tracer gas (R-134a) was mixed with the exhaled air. Important finding of this study is that airflow distribution...

  19. The Gottingen Minipig Is a Model of the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome: G-Colony Stimulating Factor Stimulates Hematopoiesis and Enhances Survival From Lethal Total-Body γ-Irradiation

    Moroni, Maria, E-mail: [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Ngudiankama, Barbara F. [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Christensen, Christine [Division of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Olsen, Cara H. [Biostatistics Consulting Center, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Owens, Rossitsa [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Lombardini, Eric D. [Veterinary Medicine Department, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok (Thailand); Holt, Rebecca K. [Veterinary Science Department, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Whitnall, Mark H. [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)


    Purpose: We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Methods and Materials: Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. Results: The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. Conclusions: These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes.

  20. Bayesian approach to decompression sickness model parameter estimation.

    Howle, L E; Weber, P W; Nichols, J M


    We examine both maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches for estimating probabilistic decompression sickness model parameters. Maximum likelihood estimation treats parameters as fixed values and determines the best estimate through repeated trials, whereas the Bayesian approach treats parameters as random variables and determines the parameter probability distributions. We would ultimately like to know the probability that a parameter lies in a certain range rather than simply make statements about the repeatability of our estimator. Although both represent powerful methods of inference, for models with complex or multi-peaked likelihoods, maximum likelihood parameter estimates can prove more difficult to interpret than the estimates of the parameter distributions provided by the Bayesian approach. For models of decompression sickness, we show that while these two estimation methods are complementary, the credible intervals generated by the Bayesian approach are more naturally suited to quantifying uncertainty in the model parameters.

  1. Pregnancy in sick sinus syndrome with pacemaker - two cases.

    Parveen, T; Begum, F; Akhter, N; Sharmin, F


    Sick sinus syndrome is a generalized abnormality of cardiac impulse formation that may be caused by extrinsic causes or by intrinsic disease of the sinus node making it unable to perform pace making function. It can be manifested for the first time in pregnancy. First case was diagnosed as sick sinus syndrome at 8 weeks of gestation having Mobitz type I heart block (Wenckebach block), and needed temporary pacemaker during caesarean section. Second case was diagnosed at 24 weeks of gestation having complete heart block and needed permanent pacemaker at 38 weeks of gestation due to exaggeration of the symptoms. Both the cases were dealt successfully by caesarean section under general anesthesia in close collaboration with cardiologists and anesthesiologists.

  2. Mechanisms of selective attention and space motion sickness

    Kohl, R. L.


    The neural mismatch theory of space motion sickness asserts that the central and peripheral autonomic sequelae of discordant sensory input arise from central integrative processes falling to reconcile patterns of incoming sensory information with existing memory. Stated differently, perceived novelty reaches a stress level as integrative mechanisms fail to return a sense of control to the individual in the new environment. Based on evidence summarized here, the severity of the neural mismatch may be dependent upon the relative amount of attention selectively afforded to each sensory input competing for control of behavior. Components of the limbic system may play important roles in match-mismatch operations, be therapeutically modulated by antimotion sickness drugs, and be optimally positioned to control autonomic output.

  3. African horse sickness in naturally infected, immunised horses.

    Weyer, C T; Quan, M; Joone, C; Lourens, C W; MacLachlan, N J; Guthrie, A J


    To determine whether subclinical cases, together with clinical cases, of African horse sickness (AHS) occur in immunised horses in field conditions, whole blood samples were collected and rectal temperatures recorded weekly from 50 Nooitgedacht ponies resident in open camps at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, during 2008-2010. The samples were tested for the presence of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) RNA by a recently developed real-time RT-PCR. It was shown that 16% of immunised horses in an AHS endemic area were infected with AHSV over a 2 year period, with half of these (8%) being subclinically infected. The potential impact of such cases on the epidemiology of AHS warrants further investigation.

  4. Doppler bubble detection and decompression sickness: a prospective clinical trial.

    Bayne, C G; Hunt, W S; Johanson, D C; Flynn, E T; Weathersby, P K


    Decompression sickness in human beings exposed to high ambient pressure is thought to follow from gas bubble formation and growth in the body during return to low pressure. Detection of Doppler-shifted ultrasonic reflections in major blood vessels has been promoted as a noninvasive and sensitive indicator of the imminence of decompression sickness. We have conducted a double-blind, prospective clinical trial of Doppler ultrasonic bubble detection in simulated diving using 83 men, of whom 8 were stricken and treated for the clinical disease. Diagnosis based only on the Doppler signals had no correlation with clinical diagnosis. Bubble scores were only slightly higher in the stricken group. The Doppler technique does not appear to be of diagnostic value in the absence of other clinical information.

  5. Low Dose Total Body Irradiation Combined With Recombinant CD19-Ligand × Soluble TRAIL Fusion Protein is Highly Effective Against Radiation-resistant B-precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Mice

    Fatih M. Uckun


    Full Text Available In high-risk remission B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BPL patients, relapse rates have remained high post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT even after the use of very intensive total body irradiation (TBI-based conditioning regimens, especially in patients with a high “minimal residual disease” (MRD burden. New agents capable of killing radiation-resistant BPL cells and selectively augmenting their radiation sensitivity are therefore urgently needed. We report preclinical proof-of-principle that the potency of radiation therapy against BPL can be augmented by combining radiation with recombinant human CD19-Ligand × soluble TRAIL (“CD19L–sTRAIL” fusion protein. CD19L–sTRAIL consistently killed radiation-resistant primary leukemia cells from BPL patients as well as BPL xenograft cells and their leukemia-initiating in vivo clonogenic fraction. Low dose total body irradiation (TBI combined with CD19L–sTRAIL was highly effective against (1 xenografted CD19+ radiochemotherapy-resistant human BPL in NOD/SCID (NS mice challenged with an otherwise invariably fatal dose of xenograft cells derived from relapsed BPL patients as well as (2 radiation-resistant advanced stage CD19+ murine BPL with lymphomatous features in CD22ΔE12xBCR-ABL double transgenic mice. We hypothesize that the incorporation of CD19L–sTRAIL into the pre-transplant TBI regimens of patients with very high-risk BPL will improve their survival outcome after HSCT.

  6. EEG-based learning system for online motion sickness level estimation in a dynamic vehicle environment.

    Lin, Chin-Teng; Tsai, Shu-Fang; Ko, Li-Wei


    Motion sickness is a common experience for many people. Several previous researches indicated that motion sickness has a negative effect on driving performance and sometimes leads to serious traffic accidents because of a decline in a person's ability to maintain self-control. This safety issue has motivated us to find a way to prevent vehicle accidents. Our target was to determine a set of valid motion sickness indicators that would predict the occurrence of a person's motion sickness as soon as possible. A successful method for the early detection of motion sickness will help us to construct a cognitive monitoring system. Such a monitoring system can alert people before they become sick and prevent them from being distracted by various motion sickness symptoms while driving or riding in a car. In our past researches, we investigated the physiological changes that occur during the transition of a passenger's cognitive state using electroencephalography (EEG) power spectrum analysis, and we found that the EEG power responses in the left and right motors, parietal, lateral occipital, and occipital midline brain areas were more highly correlated to subjective sickness levels than other brain areas. In this paper, we propose the use of a self-organizing neural fuzzy inference network (SONFIN) to estimate a driver's/passenger's sickness level based on EEG features that have been extracted online from five motion sickness-related brain areas, while either in real or virtual vehicle environments. The results show that our proposed learning system is capable of extracting a set of valid motion sickness indicators that originated from EEG dynamics, and through SONFIN, a neuro-fuzzy prediction model, we successfully translated the set of motion sickness indicators into motion sickness levels. The overall performance of this proposed EEG-based learning system can achieve an average prediction accuracy of ~82%.

  7. Returning long-term Sick-Listed to Work

    Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders

    The Danish policy towards work-disabled persons seems to comprise contradictory forces. On the one hand, the state seeks to enhance labour market integration of work-disabled persons through vocational rehabilitation. On the other hand, lax job protection legislation makes it easy for employers...... facilitates a flexible labour market, but an important drawback seems to be that many sick-listed employees loose their labour market attachment....

  8. Motion Sickness Prevention by Stroboscopic Environment during Simulated Military Transport


    known, most of these drugs fall into three classes: antidopaminergics, anticholinergics, and antihistamines ( Drug Facts and Comparisons, 1999...vomiting 2 center also is directly stimulated by motion and by high levels of acetylcholine. Therefore, most drugs that are used to prevent or...Brendley, K. W., Marti, J., & DiZio, P. 2003. Motion Coupled Visual Environment (MOCOVE): Drug -Free Alleviations of Motion Sickness. U.S

  9. Role of orientation reference selection in motion sickness

    Peterka, Robert J.; Black, F. Owen


    Previous experiments with moving platform posturography have shown that different people have varying abilities to resolve conflicts among vestibular, visual, and proprioceptive sensory signals used to control upright posture. In particular, there is one class of subjects with a vestibular disorder known as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) who often are particularly sensitive to inaccurate visual information. That is, they will use visual sensory information for the control of their posture even when that visual information is inaccurate and is in conflict with accurate proprioceptive and vestibular sensory signals. BPPV has been associated with disorders of both posterior semicircular canal function and possibly otolith function. The present proposal hopes to take advantage of the similarities between the space motion sickness problem and the sensory orientation reference selection problems associated with the BPPV syndrome. These similarities include both etiology related to abnormal vertical canal-otolith function, and motion sickness initiating events provoked by pitch and roll head movements. The objectives of this proposal are to explore and quantify the orientation reference selection abilities of subjects and the relation of this selection to motion sickness in humans.

  10. Absence from work and the medical sickness certificate.

    Massoni, F; Salesi, M; Sarra, M V; Ricci, S


    Internet and dematerialization have greatly facilitated the medical profession. Contractual physicians and national health service doctors now have efficient tools for the electronic management of their routine administrative workload. A recent innovation is the medical sickness certificate issued by primary care providers and national health service physicians. Following postponements and uncertainties, procedures for the electronic completion and online transmission of the sickness certificate are now complete. The changes introduced by the so-called "Brunetta decree", however, have made its application difficult and continuous improvement to the system is needed, considering also the severe penalties imposed for violations. In the light of serious legal repercussions for health care professionals, this article examines various critical issues, highlighting the pitfalls and the network's enormous potential for ascertaining evidence of irregularities. The overheated debate on absenteeism due to illness, the diverse roles of national health physicians and self-employed doctors responsible for issuing a sickness certificate, and problems related to circumstances in which a doctor operates, are the key topics in this discussion. Computerization is an effective tool for optimizing public resources; however, it also seeks to ferret out, through the traceability of certification, abuse of medical certification, with severe penalties applied if certificates are discovered to contain misleading or untrue information.

  11. The significance of motion sickness in the vestibular system.

    Takahashi, M; Ogata, M; Miura, M


    In order to clarify the significance of motion sickness in the vestibular system, we compared the findings of experimental motion sickness between different kinds of subjects, some of which were already reported. Subjects were healthy adults, healthy children between the ages of 4 and 15 years, and patients with congenital and acquired labyrinthine loss. They were asked to walk while wearing horizontally and vertically reversing goggles. Equilibrium ataxia as well as motion sickness were evoked by horizontal reversal, but not by vertical reversal in healthy subjects. Kindergarten children exhibited severe ataxia, but little nausea. The frequency of severe ataxia decreased during growth, inversely as the frequency of nausea syndrome increased. Although a patient with acquired loss became severely ataxic, a patient with congenital loss did not show any ataxia at all. The present study suggests that vestibular cues are indispensable to the ego-spatial relationship in the brain, and once the ego-spatial relationship becomes inadequate, discomfort acts as a safety device to brake uncontrollable actions. Then, perception of the outer world may automatically adjust voluntary actions by affecting motor commands. The importance of visual cues for representing an alternative framework may differ between congenital and acquired labyrinthine loss.


    Oguz OZYARAL


    Full Text Available In this study, several mycological analyses made in the houses of the sick people whose sensitivity against allergens was examined in line with the people and their histories who applied to Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty Department of Pulmonery Disease. Clinically, in the blood serums of three housewives, who have complaints about respiration difficulties, specific lgG antibody against several mold, thermophylic actinomycetes and bird antigens were examined. As a result of the analysis it is found out that there is a 75% direct relation between in-house molds flora and the molds that the sick person gained sensitivity. Findings appeared in housewives who are living in houses surrounded by molds are regarded as “sick building syndrome”. In this particular work, knowledge is given about real agents that are hidden behind some general symptoms of anemnesia and examination of patients with chronic complaints. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(5.000: 352-363

  13. Sick leave among home-care personnel: a longitudinal study of risk factors

    Holmström Eva B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sick leave due to neck, shoulder and back disorders (NSBD is higher among health-care workers, especially nursing aides/assistant nurses, compared with employees in other occupations. More information is needed about predictors of sick leave among health care workers. The aim of the study was to assess whether self-reported factors related to health, work and leisure time could predict: 1 future certified sick leave due to any cause, in nursing aides/assistant nurses (Study group I and 2 future self-reported sick leave due to NSBD in nursing aides/assistant nurses (Study group II. Methods Study group I, comprised 443 female nursing aides/assistant nurses, not on sick leave at baseline when a questionnaire was completed. Data on certified sick leave were collected after 18 months. Study group II comprised 274 of the women, who at baseline reported no sick leave during the preceding year due to NSBD and who participated at the 18 month follow-up. Data on sick leave due to NSBD were collected from the questionnaire at 18 months. The associations between future sick leave and factors related to health, work and leisure time were tested by logistic regression analyses. Results Health-related factors such as previous low back disorders (OR: 1.89; 95% CI 1.20–2.97 and previous sick leave (OR 6.40; 95%CI 3.97–10.31, were associated with a higher risk of future sick leave due to any cause. Factors related to health, work and leisure time, i.e. previous low back disorders (OR: 4.45; 95% CI 1.27–15.77 previous sick leave, not due to NSBD (OR 3.30; 95%CI 1.33–8.17, high strain work (OR 2.34; 95%CI 1.05–5.23 and high perceived physical exertion in domestic work (OR 2.56; 95%CI 1.12–5.86 were associated with a higher risk of future sick leave due to NSBD. In the final analyses, previous low back disorders and previous sick leave remained significant in both study groups. Conclusion The results suggest a focus on previous low

  14. Unusual Presentation of Acute Annular Urticaria: A Case Report

    Gilles Guerrier


    Full Text Available Acute urticarial lesions may display central clearing with ecchymotic or haemorrhagic hue, often misdiagnosed as erythema multiforme, serum-sickness-like reactions, or urticarial vasculitis. We report a case of acute annular urticaria with unusual presentation occurring in a 20-month-old child to emphasize the distinctive morphologic manifestations in a single disease. Clinicians who care for children should be able to differentiate acute urticaria from its clinical mimics. A directed history and physical examination can reliably orientate necessary diagnostic testing and allow for appropriate treatment.

  15. Single-portal-phase low-tube-voltage dual-energy CT for short-term follow-up of acute pancreatitis: evaluation of CT severity index, interobserver agreement and radiation dose

    Wichmann, Julian L. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Frankfurt, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Majenka, Pawel; Beeres, Martin; Kromen, Wolfgang; Schulz, Boris; Bauer, Ralf W.; Kerl, J.M.; Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Hammerstingl, Renate; Vogl, Thomas J.; Lehnert, Thomas [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Wesarg, Stefan [Fraunhofer IGD, Cognitive Computing and Medical Imaging, Darmstadt (Germany)


    To intra-individually compare single-portal-phase low-tube-voltage (100-kVp) computed tomography (CT) with 120-kVp images for short-term follow-up assessment of CT severity index (CTSI) of acute pancreatitis, interobserver agreement and radiation dose. We retrospectively analysed 66 patients with acute pancreatitis who underwent initial dual-contrast-phase CT (unenhanced, arterial, portal phase) at admission and short-term (mean interval 11.4 days) follow-up dual-contrast-phase dual-energy CT. The 100-kVp and linearly blended images representing 120-kVp acquisition follow-up CT images were independently evaluated by three radiologists using a modified CTSI assessing pancreatic inflammation, necrosis and extrapancreatic complications. Scores were compared with paired t test and interobserver agreement was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Mean CTSI scores on unenhanced, portal- and dual-contrast-phase images were 4.9, 6.1 and 6.2 (120 kVp) and 5.0, 6.0 and 6.1 (100 kVp), respectively. Contrast-enhanced series showed a higher CTSI compared to unenhanced images (P < 0.05) but no significant differences between single- and dual-contrast-phase series (P > 0.7). CTSI scores were comparable for 100-kVp and 120-kVp images (P > 0.05). Interobserver agreement was substantial for all evaluated series and subcategories (ICC 0.67-0.93). DLP of single-portal-phase 100-kVp images was reduced by 41 % compared to 120-kVp images (363.8 versus 615.9 mGy cm). Low-tube-voltage single-phase 100-kVp CT provides sufficient information for follow-up evaluation of acute pancreatitis and significantly reduces radiation exposure. (orig.)

  16. Does Perceived Stress Mediate the Association Between Workplace Bullying and Long-Term Sickness Absence?

    Grynderup, Matias Brdsgaard; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Lange, Theis


    OBJECTIVE: To examine if perceived stress mediated the association between workplace bullying and subsequent long-term sickness absence. METHODS: The PRISME cohort was established in 2007 and re-examined in 2009. Questionnaire data about workplace bullying and perceived stress were obtained from...... 4114 individuals. Participants were followed in registers on long-term sickness absence (≥30 consecutive days of sickness absence). RESULTS: Workplace bullying was associated with subsequent sickness absence (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.57 to 2.65) and concurrent high...... perceived stress levels (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.86 to 2.96). A high perceived stress level was also associated with subsequent sickness absence (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.56). Perceived stress explained 13% (95% CI: 6 to 23%) of the total association between bullying and sickness absence. CONCLUSIONS...

  17. 肺癌超分割同步放化疗致急性放射性食管炎的研究%Research on Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radiotherapy-induced Acute Radiation Esophagitis in Lung Cancer

    蓝柳; 杨春旭; 莫玉珍; 苏毅; 宁四海


    目的 观察超分割同步放化疗治疗局部晚期非小细胞肺癌(NSCLC)患者放射性食管炎的发生情况,评价其安全性,探讨超分割放疗导致放射性食管炎损伤的有效预测指标.方法 初治NSCLC 48例,采用超分割同步放化疗24例,放疗剂量:56.0~64.4 Gy/40~46次,1.4 Gy/次,2次/d;常规分割同步放化疗24例,放疗剂量:60.0~66 Gy/30~33次,2.0 Gy/次,1次/d.两组均接受依托泊苷+顺铂(EP)方案同步化疗.采用RTOG标准评价急性放射性食管炎发生情况,分析急性放射性食管炎的相关临床及物理因素.结果 48例患者均完成治疗计划.超分割组≥2级和≥3急性放射性食管炎发生率高于对照组(P<0.05).急性放射性食管炎最早在第10天发生,累计剂量为22.4 Gy,在疗程的第17天后其发生率明显上升.超分割组中食管LETT30、LETT35、V35与≥2级急性放射性食管炎显著相关(P<0.01).结论 超分割同步放化疗治疗NSCLC急性放射性食管炎的发生率及严重程度较常规分割同步放化疗明显增加,并且发生时间早;食管LETT30、LETT35、V35和周累计剂量是预测超分割同步放化疗致急性放射性食管炎的可靠指标.%Objective To observed the incidence of acute radiation esophagitis and analyze the factors as predictors of acute radiotherapy-induced acute radiation esophagitis for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer( LA-NSCLC )patients treated with 3DCRT were reviewed. To analyze the efficacy and safety of hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy for the treatment of lung cancer and assess effective indexes in those patient. Methods Forty eight patients with LA-NSCLC were allocated to treatment group( 24 cases ), treated with hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy.Radiotherapy was delivered at 1. 4 Gy/fraction ,56. 0 - 64. 4 Gy/40 - 45 fractions , twice a day. The control group( 24 cases )treated with conventional fractionation , with delivered at 2 Gy fraction , 60. 0

  18. Sick sinus syndrome associated with hypopituitarism: a case report and literature review

    Zhao, Dongsheng; Zhang, Qing; Lu, Jingping; Zhang, Gang; Lu, Huihe; Huang, Jianfei; Shan, Qijun


    Abstract Though an association between autoimmune diseases and sick sinus syndrome has been reported, there has been no report on the association of hypopituitarism and sick sinus syndrome. Herein, we provide the first case report of hypopituitarism accompanying sick sinus syndrome in a 51-year-old woman presented to our hospital with syncope due to cardiac arrest. The patient was successfully managed by pacemaker installation and hormone replacement therapy. PMID:25332716


    S K Forouzannia; M h Abdollahi; Mirhosseini, S. J.; S H Moshtaghion; HOSSEINI, H; Jorat, M. V.; M Moeeni; M A Karimi-Zarchi


    "nReports which describe sick sinus syndrome due to malignant lymphoma have been rare and only eight cases have been reported until now. This is a case of sick sinus syndrome and superior vena cava syndrome secondary to invasion of occult malignant lymphoma of the lung in a 60 years old male. There were no symptoms or signs of malignancy before the first presentation with sick sinus syndrome. Patient was treated with implantation of a permanent pacemaker. SA node involvement by lymphoma ...

  20. A pilot study of rizatriptan and visually-induced motion sickness in migraineurs

    Furman, Joseph M.; Marcus, Dawn A.


    Background: Limited evidence suggests that rizatriptan given before vestibular stimulation reduces motion sickness in persons with migraine-related dizziness. The present study was designed to test whether rizatriptan is also effective in protecting against visually-induced motion sickness and to test whether rizatriptan blocks the augmentation of motion sickness by head pain. Material and Methods: Using randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled methodology, 10 females, 6 with migrainous ve...

  1. Does computer use pose a hazard for future long-term sickness absence?

    Andersen, Johan Hviid; Mikkelsen, Sigurd


    . The hazard ratio for sickness absence with weekly increase of one hour in computer use was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.99 to 1.00). Low satisfaction with work place arrangements and female gender both doubled the risk of sickness absence.We have earlier found that computer use did not predict persistent pain in the neck...... and upper limb, and it seems that computer use neither predicts future long-term sickness absence of all causes....

  2. Acute pancreatitis

    ... its blood vessels. This problem is called acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis affects men more often than women. Certain ... pancreatitis; Pancreas - inflammation Images Digestive system Endocrine glands Pancreatitis, acute - CT scan Pancreatitis - series References Forsmark CE. Pancreatitis. ...

  3. Cystitis - acute

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute cystitis; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... cause. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. The following also increase your chances of having ...

  4. Experiences of sickness absence, marginality and Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms - A focus group study

    E.L., Werner; A, Aamland; Malterud, Kirsti


    with a purposive sample of 12 participants, six men and six women, aged 24-59 years. Their average duration of sickness absence was 10.5 months. Participants were invited to share stories about experiences from the process leading to the ongoing sickness absence, with a focus on the causes being medically......PURPOSE: Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) form a major cause of sickness absence. The purpose of this study was to explore factors which may influence further marginalization among patients with MUPS on long-term sickness absence. METHODS: Two focus-group discussions were conducted...

  5. Employers' Importance for the Return to Work of Sick-Listed Workers

    Holm, Sociologisk Institut, Københavns Universitet, Anders; V Benn, Nis; Høgelund, Jan

    Using matched survey-register panel data about 419 long-term sick-listed workers and their sick leave employer, this paper assesses how sick-listed workers react to employers’ threat of dismissal. We simultaneously estimate the duration until the sick-listed worker either separate from the pre-si...... for Applied Microeconomics, University of Copenhagen, senior researcher, Jan Høgelund, the Danish National Institute of Social Research, and research assistant Nis Vilhelm Benn, the Danish National Institute of Social Research....


    S K Forouzannia


    Full Text Available "nReports which describe sick sinus syndrome due to malignant lymphoma have been rare and only eight cases have been reported until now. This is a case of sick sinus syndrome and superior vena cava syndrome secondary to invasion of occult malignant lymphoma of the lung in a 60 years old male. There were no symptoms or signs of malignancy before the first presentation with sick sinus syndrome. Patient was treated with implantation of a permanent pacemaker. SA node involvement by lymphoma should be considered as an etiological factor when sick sinus syndrome of unknown cause is encountered.

  7. Standing body sway in women with and without morning sickness in pregnancy.

    Yu, Yawen; Chung, Hyun Chae; Hemingway, Lauren; Stoffregen, Thomas A


    Morning sickness typically is attributed to hormonal changes in pregnancy. We asked whether morning sickness is associated with changes in standing postural equilibrium, as occurs in research on visually induced motion sickness. Twenty-one pregnant women (mean age=30 years, mean height=163cm; mean weight=63kg) were tested during the first trimester. Laboratory-based balance measures were collected, along with perceived postural stability, the presence of morning sickness, and the severity of subjective symptoms. We varied the distance between the feet and the visual task performed during stance. Participants were classified as either experiencing (Sick, n=12) or not experiencing (Well, n=9) morning sickness. Perceived balance stability was lower for Sick than for Well women. The positional variability of sway was reduced for the Sick group, relative to the Well group. Positional variability decreased with wider stance width, and was reduced during performance of a more demanding visual task. Stance width and visual task also influenced the temporal dynamics of sway. Effects of stance width and visual task on postural sway were similar to effects in non-pregnant adults, suggesting that sensitive tuning of posture is maintained during the first trimester. The findings suggest that women with morning sickness may attempt to stabilize their bodies by reducing overall body sway. It may be useful to recommend that women adopt wider stance early in pregnancy.

  8. Predictors of return to work in employees sick-listed with mental health problems

    D.Nielsen, Maj Britt; Madsen, Ida E.H.; Bültmann, Ute;


    Sickness absence due to mental health problems (MHPs) is increasing in several European countries. However, little is known about return to work (RTW) for employees with MHPs. This prospective study aimed to identify predictors for RTW in employees sick-listed with MHPs.......Sickness absence due to mental health problems (MHPs) is increasing in several European countries. However, little is known about return to work (RTW) for employees with MHPs. This prospective study aimed to identify predictors for RTW in employees sick-listed with MHPs....

  9. Does evening work predict sickness absence among female carers of the elderly?

    Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten;


    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to predict the risk ratio of sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks due to shift work among Danish workers caring for the elderly during the evening and at night. METHODS: A sample of Danish carers of the elderly were interviewed in 2005. The response......) of sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks was 1.29 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.10-1.52). The rate ratio for sickness absence lasting > or = 8 weeks was 1.24 (95% CI 0.99-1.56). CONCLUSIONS: Evening work may cause long-term sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks....


    K. I. Chuikova; T. N. Zaripova; V. I. Mukhina


    This paper describes study of larynx microflora in patients with acute laryngtis and exacerbations of chronic laryngitis. Therapeutic algorithm based on bacteriologic examination data was developed reduce. New algorithm helps reduce sickness terms and to decrease prevalence of desease.123 patients of age from 18 to 60 were under observation: 43 patients with acute laryngitis and 80 patients with exacerbation of chronic laryngitis. 22 patients with acute laryngitis and 58 patients with exacerb...

  11. Orally administered fructose increases the numbers of peripheral lymphocytes reduced by exposure of mice to gamma or SPE-like proton radiation

    Romero-Weaver, A. L.; Ni, J.; Lin, L.; Kennedy, A. R.


    Exposure of the whole body or a major portion of the body to ionizing radiation can result in Acute Radiation Sickness (ARS), which can cause symptoms that range from mild to severe, and include death. One of the syndromes that can occur during ARS is the hematopoietic syndrome, which is characterized by a reduction in bone marrow cells as well as the number of circulating blood cells. Doses capable of causing this syndrome can result from conventional radiation therapy and accidental exposure to ionizing radiation. It is of concern that this syndrome could also occur during space exploration class missions in which astronauts could be exposed to significant doses of solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Of particular concern is the reduction of lymphocytes and granulocytes, which are major components of the immune system. A significant reduction in their numbers can compromise the immune system, causing a higher risk for the development of infections which could jeopardize the success of the mission. Although there are no specific countermeasures utilized for the ARS resulting from exposure to space radiation(s), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been proposed as a countermeasure for the low number of neutrophils caused by SPE radiation, but so far no countermeasure exists for a reduced number of circulating lymphocytes. The present study demonstrates that orally administered fructose significantly increases the number of peripheral lymphocytes reduced by exposure of mice to 2 Gy of gamma- or SPE-like proton radiation, making it a potential countermeasure for this biological end-point.

  12. Relative biological effectiveness of carbon ions for tumor control, acute skin damage and late radiation-induced fibrosis in a mouse model

    Sørensen, Brita Singers; Horsman, Michael Robert; Alsner, Jan;


    Background. The aim of the present study was to compare the biological effectiveness of carbon ions relative to x-rays between tumor control, acute skin reaction and late RIF of CDF1 mice. Material and methods. CDF1 mice with a C3H mouse mammary carcinoma implanted subcutaneously on the foot of t...

  13. Physiological adaptability of members of Chinese National Earthquake Disaster Emergency Rescue Team (CNEDERT) in altitude of Yushu area of Qinghai province and prevention of acute mountain sickness%急进高原救援队员血氧饱和度、心率、血红蛋白动态监测与防范高原反应风险的研究

    焦小杰; 方涛; 樊毫军; 侯世科


    Objective As members of CNEDERT, we were trusted to take the mission of medical rescue in April of this year in Yushu area of Qinghai province. As soon as we heard of the news of earthquake with shock of 7.1 on Richter scale happened on 14th April 2010, our team of 32 members from the General Hospital of Armed Police Force rapidly rushed to get there at 19 o'clock on 14th April. It is a cold plateau with 4000 meters in average above sea level. Of course, they would face many difficult problems and some of them could not be figured out in advance. It was really a new and big challenge. First of all, we had to bear the very low barometric pressure,threatening lives of team members. In order to fulfill the mission of medical rescue, and to prevent the acute mountain sickness (AMS) ,we monitored the physiological changes of every member. Method A total of 32 members aged from 27 - 42 years old with average age of (33.26 + 12.54) years, 6 male and 6 female, gathered at Peking, 50 meters above sea level, 6 hours ahead of getting to Yushu and received physical examination with measurements of SaO2, HR, Hb and breath holding test. The team worked in Yushu area for 13 days and returned back to Peking on 27th April at 13 o'clock. The measurements of SaO2, HR and He were kept on from 14th April to 4th May, 21 days in total. The occurrence of AMS was surveyed by questionnaire from 18 to 48 hours after arrival,and the AMSA was diagnosed and scored according to the Lake Louise consensus on the definition and quantification of altitude illness. When the score was equal or above 3, it was considered to be AMS. Our work activities included searching the victims under the collapsed building, carrying out treatment and operation as soon as possible in the mobile hospital, doing medical round visiting, public health and disease prevention, work of joint rescue of multiple professions and psychological counseling. Results Of them 26 (81.25%) members suffered from AMS of various

  14. Motion sickness susceptibility related to ACTH, ADH and TSH

    Kohl, R. L.; Leach, C.; Homick, J. L.; Larochelle, F. T.


    The hypothesis that endogenous levels of certain hormones might be indicative of an individual's susceptibility to stressful motion is tested in a comparison of subjects classified as less prone to motion sickness with those of higher susceptibility. The levels of ACTH and vasopressin measured before exposure to stressful motion were twice as high in the less-suceptible group. No significant differences were noted in the levels of angiotensin, aldosterone, or TSH. The differences between the two groups were greater for a given hormone than for any of the changes induced by exposure to stressful motion.

  15. Excessive erythrocytosis, chronic mountain sickness, and serum cobalt levels.

    Jefferson, J Ashley; Escudero, Elizabeth; Hurtado, Maria-Elena; Pando, Jacqueline; Tapia, Rosario; Swenson, Erik R; Prchal, Josef; Schreiner, George F; Schoene, Robert B; Hurtado, Abdias; Johnson, Richard J


    In a subset of high-altitude dwellers, the appropriate erythrocytotic response becomes excessive and can result in chronic mountain sickness. We studied men with (study group) and without excessive erythrocytosis (packed-cell volume >65%) living in Cerro de Pasco, Peru (altitude 4300 m), and compared them with controls living in Lima, Peru (at sea-level). Toxic serum cobalt concentrations were detected in 11 of 21 (52%) study participants with excessive erythrocytosis, but were undetectable in high altitude or sea-level controls. In the mining community of Cerro de Pasco, cobalt toxicity might be an important contributor to excessive erythrocytosis.

  16. Common Mental Disorders in Longterm-Sickness Absence

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen

    Common Mental Disorders (CMD) such as depression, anxiety, and somatoform disorders impose heavy burdens on individuals and on society in the form of sickness absence. CMD are frequently undetected in primary care which postpone the initiation of proper treatment. This seriously worsens return...... to work (RTW). Comorbidity with somatic disorders also worsens RTW. CMD are, controlled for lifestyle, independent causes for the development of chronic and disabling somatic disorders. Collaborative care seems to be most effective intervention with regard to RTW. In this dissertation, the intervention...

  17. Acute Bronchitis

    ... Smoking also slows down the healing process. Acute bronchitis treatment Most cases of acute bronchitis can be treated at home.Drink fluids, but ... bronchial tree. Your doctor will decide if this treatment is right for you. Living with acute bronchitis Most cases of acute bronchitis go away on ...

  18. The effect of antiemetics and reduced radiation fields on acute gastrointestinal morbidity of adjuvant radiotherapy in Stage I seminoma of the testis: a randomized pilot study

    Khoo, V.S.; Rainford, K.; Horwich, A.; Dearnaley, D.P. [Royal Marsden NHS Trust, Sutton (United Kingdom)


    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the acute gastrointestinal morbidity of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for Stage I seminoma of the testis. Ten Stage I patients receiving para-aortic and ipsilateral pelvic nodal (dog-leg) RT provided a toxicity baseline (group A). Twenty Stage I patients randomized to dog-let RT or para-aortic RT (10 per group) were further randomized to received prophylactic ondansetron or expectant therapy with metoclopramide (group B). Daily patient-completed questionnaires evaluated acute toxicity. Dog-leg RT for Stage I seminomas is associated with readily demonstrable gastrointestinal tract (GIT) toxicity. The number of patients in this study is too small to produce definitive results, but there appears to be reduced GIT toxicity with prophylactic antiemetics. The effect of reduced RT fields has been assessed further in the MRC randomized tiral of field sizes (TE10). (Author).

  19. Sickness presenteeism predicts suboptimal self-rated health and sickness absence: a nationally representative study of the Swedish working population.

    Marina Taloyan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have suggested that sickness presenteeism (SP may be a risk factor for future health problems. The purpose of the present study was to test this in a nationally representative prospective study of Swedish workers. METHODS: Prospective cohort with a representative sample of the Swedish working population surveyed in 2008 and 2010. Odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Those who reported more than 7 days of SP had higher risk of suboptimal SRH compared to those who reported no SP (OR = 5.95; 95% CI 4.98-7.12, also after adjustment for confounders (OR = 1.64; 95% CI 1.30-2.06. Those who reported 1-7 days of SP also had an increased risk before and after adjustments. Inclusion of self-rated physical and psychological work capacity did not attenuate the associations, whereas of emotional exhaustion attenuated the ORs to non-significance for both outcomes, indicating that the health consequences associated with SP are largely related to mental health. CONCLUSION: The results strengthen earlier findings suggesting that SP can be a risk factor for future suboptimal general health and sickness absence, particularly through mental health problems. This indicates that asking about SP could yield important information for employers, occupational health practitioners and GPs, possibly leading to more timely intervention that could decrease the risk of future sickness absence and more serious health problems, especially in the mental domain. Further studies of the possible causal pathways between SP and future health development are also warranted, especially since going to work is often seen as desirable also for those with poor health.

  20. A prospective cohort study on musculoskeletal risk factors for long-term sickness absence among healthcare workers in eldercare

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Thomas; Mortensen, Ole S;


    The socioeconomic burden of sickness absence from musculoskeletal disorders is considerable. However, knowledge about the risk of sickness absence from pain in different body regions among specific job groups is needed to more efficiently target preventative strategies. This study estimates...

  1. Motion sickness and tilts of the inertial force environment: active suspension systems vs. active passengers

    Golding, J.F.; Bles, W.; Bos, J.E.; Haynes, T.; Gresty, M.A.


    Maneuvering in vehicles exposes occupants to low frequency forces (<1 Hz) which can provoke motion sickness. Hypothesis: Aligning with the tilting inertial resultant (gravity + imposed horizontal acceleration: gravito-inertial force (GIF)) may reduce motion sickness when tilting is either 'active' (

  2. 75 FR 63810 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; SICK, Inc. (Photo-Electronic Industrial Sensors...


    ... Sensors); Bloomington, MN Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as... industrial sensor manufacturing and distribution facility of SICK, Inc., located in Bloomington, Minnesota... sensors at the SICK, Inc., facility located in Bloomington, Minnesota (Subzone 119G), as described in...

  3. Predicting long-term sickness absence and early retirement pension from self-reported work ability

    Sell, Lea; Bültmann, Ute; Rugulies, Reiner Ernst


    The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between self-reported work ability and long-term term of sickness absence or early retirement from the labour market.......The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between self-reported work ability and long-term term of sickness absence or early retirement from the labour market....

  4. [Polymorphism of connexin 40 gene-- a novel genetic marker of the sick sinus node syndrome].

    Chernova, A A; Nikulina, S Iu; Shul'man, V A; Kukushkina, T S; Voevoda, M I; Maksimov, V N


    In this work we have demonstrated for the first time on the clinico-genetic material association between hereditary sick sinus node syndrome and connexin 40 gene polymorphism. We have revealed that heterozygous variant of connexin 40 gene variant is more frequent among patients with sick sinus node syndrome and their healthy relatives than in persons of control group.

  5. Predictors of outcome in fatigued employees on sick leave: results from a randomised trial.

    Huibers, M.J.H.; Bleijenberg, G.; Amelsvoort, L.G. van; Beurskens, A.J.H.M.; Schayck, C.P. van; Bazelmans, E.; Knottnerus, J.A.


    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to identify predictors of fatigue caseness, work resumption and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)-like caseness in a sample of fatigued employees on sick leave. METHODS: For 12 months, 151 fatigued employees on sick leave, 44% of whom met research criteri

  6. The impact of effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation on teachers' sickness absence.

    Derycke, Hanne; Vlerick, Peter; Van de Ven, Bart; Rots, Isabel; Clays, Els


    The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of the effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation on sickness absence duration and sickness absence frequency among beginning teachers in Flanders (Belgium). A total of 603 teachers, who recently graduated, participated in this study. Effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation were assessed by means of self-administered questionnaires. Prospective data of registered sickness absence during 12 months follow-up were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. An imbalance between high efforts and low rewards (extrinsic hypothesis) was associated with longer sickness absence duration and more frequent absences. A low level of learning motivation (intrinsic hypothesis) was not associated with longer sickness absence duration but was significantly positively associated with sickness absence frequency. No significant results were obtained for the interaction hypothesis between imbalance and learning motivation. Further research is needed to deepen our understanding of the impact of psychosocial work conditions and personal resources on both sickness absence duration and frequency. Specifically, attention could be given to optimizing or reducing efforts spent at work, increasing rewards and stimulating learning motivation to influence sickness absence.

  7. Does hospital discharge policy influence sick-leave patterns in the case of female breast cancer?

    Lindqvist, Rikard; Stenbeck, Magnus; Diderichsen, Finn


    . The effect of the hospital median length of stay (LOS) was U-shaped, suggesting that hospitals with a median LOS that is either short or long are associated with longer sick-leave. In the intermediate range, women treated in hospitals with a median LOS of 2 days had 22 days longer sick-leave than those...

  8. The effect of part-time sick leave for employees with mental disorders

    Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders; Falgaard Eplov, Lene


    Background: Part-time sick leave (PTSL) allows employees on full-time sick leave (FTSL) to resume work at reduced hours. When the partly absent employee’s health improves, working hours are increased until the employee is able to work regular hours. Studies have found that PTSL is an effective...

  9. Eye movements to yaw, pitch, and roll about vertical and horizontal axes : Adaptation, and motion sickness

    Bos, J.E.; Bles, W.; Graaf, B. de


    Background: In the search for parameters to predict motion sickness that can be measured in the laboratory, we performed a longitudinal investigation in aviators. Since the vestibular system is involved in the generation of motion sickness as well as eye movements, vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) para

  10. Leadership styles of nurse managers and registered sickness absence among their nursing staff

    Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Roelen, Corne A. M.; van Zweeden, Nely F.; Jongsma, Dianne; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.


    Background: Sickness absence leads to understaffing and interferes with nursing efficiency and quality. It has been reported in literature that managerial leadership is associated with self-reported sickness absence in the working population. Purposes: This study investigated the relationship betwee

  11. A pilot study of rizatriptan and visually-induced motion sickness in migraineurs

    Joseph M. Furman, Dawn A. Marcus


    Full Text Available Background: Limited evidence suggests that rizatriptan given before vestibular stimulation reduces motion sickness in persons with migraine-related dizziness. The present study was designed to test whether rizatriptan is also effective in protecting against visually-induced motion sickness and to test whether rizatriptan blocks the augmentation of motion sickness by head pain. Material and Methods: Using randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled methodology, 10 females, 6 with migrainous vertigo (V+ and four without vertigo (V- received 10 mg rizatriptan or placebo two hours prior to being stimulated by optokinetic stripes. Visual stimulation was coupled with three pain conditions: no pain (N, thermally-induced hand pain (H and temple pain (T. Motion sickness and subjective discomfort were measured. Results: Motion sickness was less after pre-treatment with rizatriptan for 4 of 10 subjects and more for 5 of 10 subjects. Augmentation of motion sickness by head pain was seen in 6 of 10 subjects; this effect was blunted by rizatriptan in 4 of these 6 subjects. Subjective discomfort was significantly more noticeable in V+ subjects as compared with V- subjects. Conclusions: These pilot data suggest that rizatriptan does not consistently reduce visually-induced motion sickness in migraineurs. Rizatriptan may diminish motion sickness potentiation by cranial pain.

  12. What makes men and women with musculoskeletal complaints decide they are too sick to work?

    Hooftman, W.E.; Westerman, M.J.; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.; Mechelen, W. van


    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine what makes men and women with musculoskeletal complaints decide to call in sick for work. Methods: Qualitative, face-to-face interviews were used with employees (16 men and 14 women) who had called in sick due to a musculoskeletal complaint and

  13. Stress-related mental disorders with sick leave: a minimal intervention in general practice

    Bakker, I.M.


    1. Introduction As stated in chapter 1, this study is carried out because patients and their care-givers have much to gain by the development and implementation of effective care for patients on sick leave having stress-related mental disorders (SMDs). Most people having SMDs with sick leave consult

  14. Work ability assessment of employees on long term sick leave in insurance medicine

    Sánchez Mendoza, P.M.


    Long-term sick leave generates high financial costs for society and causes personal suffering to patients and their families; however, crucial knowledge about the factors associated with long-term sick leave is still missing. This thesis is focused on factors relevant to the work ability assessment

  15. Predictors of changes in sick leave in workers with asthma: a follow-up study.

    Boot, C.R.L.; Vercoulen, J.H.M.M.; Gulden, J.W.J. van der; Orbon, K.H.; Rooijackers, J.; Weel, C. van; Folgering, H.T.M.


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective study was to investigate predictors of 1-year changes in sick leave in workers with asthma. METHODS: The initial cohort consisted of 111 workers with asthma. One-hundred and one participants completed the follow-up after 1 year. Self-reported sick leave over th

  16. Impact of alignment to gravito-inertial force on motion sickness and cardiopulmonary variables

    Mert, A.; Bles, W.


    Introduction: In tilting trains partial alignment to the gravito-inertial force (GIF) in the curves seems to be the best tilt compensation to reduce the incidence of motion sickness. We investigated the effect of alignment to the GIF on the development of motion sickness during low-frequency horizon

  17. Transitions between sickness absence, work, unemployment, and disability in Denmark 2004-2008

    Pedersen, Jacob; Bjørner, Jakob; Burr, Hermann;


    Studies of labor market outcomes like sickness absence are usually restricted to a single outcome. This paper investigates the use of multi-state models for studying multiple transitions between sick-listing, work, unemployment, and disability pension by analyzing longitudinal register data. Every...

  18. 5 CFR 630.1008 - Accrual of annual and sick leave.


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accrual of annual and sick leave. 630.1008 Section 630.1008 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1008 Accrual of annual and sick leave. (a) Except...

  19. 5 CFR 630.907 - Accrual of annual and sick leave.


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accrual of annual and sick leave. 630.907 Section 630.907 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.907 Accrual of annual and sick leave. (a) Except...

  20. Employees sick-listed with mental disorders : Who returns to work and when?

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Norder, G.; Koopmans, P.C.; Rhenen, van W.; et al.,


    To investigate return to work (RTW) in employees sick-listed with mental disorders classified according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Methods: Sickness absences (SA) medically certified as emotional disturbance (ICD-10 R45) or mental and behavioral disorders (ICD-10 F00–F99)

  1. Employees Sick-Listed with Mental Disorders : Who Returns to Work and When?

    Roelen, C. A. M.; Norder, G.; Koopmans, P. C.; van Rhenen, W.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; Bultmann, U.


    Purpose To investigate return to work (RTW) in employees sick-listed with mental disorders classified according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Methods Sickness absences (SA) medically certified as emotional disturbance (ICD-10 R45) or mental and behavioral disorders (ICD-10 F

  2. Longitudinal relationships between organizational justice, productivity, loss and sickness absence older employees

    Ybema, J.F.; Meer, L. van der; Leijten, F.R.M.


    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess whether organizational justice lowers productivity loss and sickness absence, and whether there are reverse effects of productivity loss and sickness absence on organizational justice.Method A longitudinal study with 2 years of follow-up was conducted amon

  3. [Study on medicinal plant allelopathy and soil sickness based on ecological niche].

    Sun, Hao; Huang, Lu-ming; Huang, Lu-qi; Guo, Lan-ping; Zhou, Jie; Lv, Dong-mei; Zeng, Yan


    Based on the conception and theory of ecological niche, authors analyzed the cause of the allelopathy and soil sickness of medicinal plants and the relationship between them. Methods to resolve problems in the cultivating medicinal plant was found, that is to construct the ecological niche based on allelopathy theory and avoid the soil sickness.

  4. Predictors of recurrent sickness absence due to depressive disorders : A delphi approach involving scientists and physicians

    Norder, G.; Roelen, C.A.M.; Rhenen, van W.; Buitenhuis, J.; Bültmann, U.


    Depression is a common and highly recurrent mental disorder that is accompanied by poor functioning at home and at work. Not all depressed employees report sick and little is known about variables associated with sickness absence (SA) due to depression. Recurrent SA due to depression tends to margin

  5. Leadership effectiveness and recorded sickness absence among nursing staff : a cross-sectional pilot study

    Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Van Zweeden, Nely F.; Jongsma, Dianne; Van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.


    Aim To investigate nurse managers' leadership behaviour in relation to the sickness absence records of nursing staff. Background Sickness absence is high in healthcare and interferes with nursing efficiency and quality. Nurse managers' leadership behaviour may be associated with nursing staff sickne

  6. Exposure to physical risk factors in Dutch agriculture : Effect on sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders

    Hartman, E; Vrielink, HHEO; Metz, JHM; Huirne, RBM


    A case-control study examined the association between Dutch farmers' exposure to single physical risk factors or combinations of them and sick leave due to back disorders and neck, shoulder or upper extremity disorders. The sick leave claims of an insurance company in the years 1998-2001 for back (S

  7. Exposure to physical risk factors in Dutch agriculture: Effect on sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders

    Hartman, E.; Oude Vrielink, H.H.E.; Metz, J.H.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.


    A case-control study examined the association between Dutch farmers¿ exposure to single physical risk factors or combinations of them and sick leave due to back disorders and neck, shoulder or upper extremity disorders. The sick leave claims of an insurance company in the years 1998¿2001 for back (S

  8. Predictors of Recurrent Sickness Absence Due to Depressive Disorders - A Delphi Approach Involving Scientists and Physicians

    Norder, Giny; Roelen, Corne A. M.; van Rhenen, Willem; Buitenhuis, Jan; Bultmann, Ute; Anema, Johannes R.


    Background: Depression is a common and highly recurrent mental disorder that is accompanied by poor functioning at home and at work. Not all depressed employees report sick and little is known about variables associated with sickness absence (SA) due to depression. Recurrent SA due to depression ten

  9. Comparison of efficacy of ginger with various antimotion sickness drugs

    Wood, C. D.; Manno, J. E.; Wood, M. J.; Manno, B. R.; Mims, M. E.


    Ginger and several other medications were compared with scopolamine and d-amphetamine for effectiveness in prevention of motion sickness. Methods: Double-blind techniques were used. The subjects were given the medications two hours before they were rotated in a chair making head movements until a symptom total short of vomiting was reached. Standardized N.A.S.A. techniques were used for speed of rotation and end-point of motion sickness. Results: The three doses of ginger were all at the placebo level of efficacy. Amitriptyline, ethopropazine and trihexyphenidyl increased the tolerated head movements but the increase was not statistically significant. Significant levels of protection were produced by dimenhydrinate, promethazine, scopolamine and d-amphetamine. Protection was further increased by combination of these latter drugs with d-amphetamine. Efficacy was greatest as the dose was increased. Conclusions: The medication of choice in this study was scopolamine 0.6 mg with d-amphetamine 10 mg. This combination provided good protection with acceptable side effects.

  10. [The construction of the "sick-subject" in RSI].

    Verthein, M A; Minayo-Gomez, C


    There is a running debate over the relationship between work and disease, namely the disease known as repetitive strain injury (RSI), or else work-related osteomuscular disturbances (in Portuguese DORT), as it was renamed in 1997 by the Instituto Nacional de Seguridade Social (INSS) in accordance with the Disability Assessment Norms. Standing out among the signs brought about by this new infirmity process is its restricted focus on the subjective aspects in the analysis of the disease. Underlying the INSS stance is the view of a sickness-prone subject and the notion of health as capacity for work. This paper analyzes the historical context which characterizes these health/work and body/disease notions. It also discusses the construction of the 'sick-subject' and the way in which such a subjectivizing process entraps the subject itself. Finally, we show the way in which the INSS in Rio de Janeiro has managed to stop this disease of its work-related characteristics, fighting and reducing the occurrences of RSI as well as the costs with work compensation claims.

  11. Morning sickness and salt intake, food cravings, and food aversions.

    Crystal, S R; Bowen, D J; Bernstein, I L


    Evidence for an association between early pregnancy sickness and offspring salt (NaCl) preference has been obtained from studying offspring as young adults and as infants. To determine whether the association between early pregnancy sickness and salt preference of offspring is secondary to familiar similarity in salt preference, the present study examined the self-reported salt intake and dietary cravings and aversions of pregnant women. Women who reported little or no vomiting (n = 108) were compared to women who reported moderate to severe vomiting (n = 21) during pregnancy. The women's self-reported salt use and reported cravings and aversions for common food were measured via survey for time periods prior to and during their current pregnancy. Women did not differ in reported salt use prior to pregnancy as a function of their pregnancy symptoms. Women reported more aversions during, than prior to, pregnancy (p < 0.05). Women with more severe vomiting reported a greater number of aversions (p < 0.05) both prior to and during pregnancy. There was a significant association between experiencing cravings and aversions prior to pregnancy and experiencing craving and aversions during pregnancy (p < 0.05). These findings do not provide evidence for an association between dietary levels of sodium and the likelihood of experiencing severe pregnancy symptoms. Therefore, these data do not support the suggestion that reported elevations in salt preference in offspring of women with moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy are mediated by familial dietary practices.

  12. A Systematic Review of Carrion Eaters' Adaptations to Avoid Sickness.

    Blumstein, Daniel T; Rangchi, Tiana N; Briggs, Tiandra; De Andrade, Fabrine Souza; Natterson-Horowtiz, Barbara


    Species that scavenge on dead animals are exposed to enhanced disease risks. Eight hypotheses have been suggested to explain how scavengers avoid becoming sick from their diet. We conducted a systematic review of the literature and found correlative support for four of the eight hypotheses but limited evidence of systematic studies of the hypotheses. We found no support that using urine to sterilize carcasses, having bald heads, eating rapidly, or food-washing behavior reduced disease risk in carrion eaters. With the exception of food washing, none of these hypotheses have been properly evaluated as an adaptation to avoid sickness from carrion. There is some support for having a specialized microbiome, having enhanced immunologic defenses, avoiding rotten food, and maintaining a low gastric pH to eliminate pathogens. Specialized immunologic defenses and having a low pH have the most support, but the diversity of mechanisms suggests that there is a great opportunity for even more detailed study. Increased knowledge in these mechanisms may provide biomimetic insights to help combat foodborne illnesses and enhance health.

  13. Decompression sickness among Moroami diving fishermen in Jakarta

    Chichi Wahab


    Full Text Available Indonesia is an archipelago with many traditional divers, however research on decompression sickness (DCS has not yet elaborated. The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence of DCS and factors related to it. The study was conducted on October-November 2007 among fisherman moroami divers in Seribu Island Jakarta. Anamnesis and physical examination was taken before and three times after diving. Subject was diagnosed as having DCS if experienced one of these symptom or sign: myalgia, muscle pain, skin rash, ankle weakness, bowel movement & bladder dysfunction, visual disturbances, headache, vertigo, dyspnoe, chest pain, convulsion, unconsciousness, nausea and vomiting. Among 123 potential divers, five were having upper respiratory infection, so only 117 divers participated in this study. Final model analysis showed that regulator, valsava when having ear pain, ascending speed to surface, and lack of training were risk factors to obtain DCS. Divers whose ascending speed more than 9 m per minutes had two times risk to get DCS [adjusted ratio = 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI= 1.11 – 3.56]. Having DCS before diving, increased risk 20% (RRa = 1.20; 95% CI = 0.86-1.68; P=0,285. Beside knowledge to use regulator correctly and valsava, fisherman Moroami divers need to be trained to ascend speed to sea level surface less than 9 m per minute. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 197-202Keywords: decompression sickness, ascending speed, regulator, valsava

  14. Sickness Absence in the Private Sector of Greece: Comparing Shipyard Industry and National Insurance Data

    Alexopoulos, Evangelos C.; Merekoulias, Georgios; Tanagra, Dimitra; Konstantinou, Eleni C.; Mikelatou, Efi; Jelastopulu, Eleni


    Approximately 3% of employees are absent from work due to illness daily in Europe, while in some countries sickness absence exceeds 20 days per year. Based on a limited body of reliable studies, Greek employees in the private sector seem to be absent far less frequently (<5 days/year) compared to most of the industrialized world. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece, using shipyard and national insurance data. Detailed data on absenteeism of employees in a large shipyard company during the period 1999–2006 were utilized. National data on compensated days due to sickness absence concerning all employees (around 2 million) insured by the Social Insurance Institute (IKA, the largest insurance scheme in Greece) were retrieved from the Institute’s annual statistical reports for the period 1987–2006. Sick-leave days per employee and sick-leave rate (%) were calculated, among other indicators. In the shipyard cohort, the employment time loss due to sick leave was 1%. The mean number of sick-leave days per employee in shipyards ranged between 4.6 and 8.7 and sick-leave rate (sickness absenteeism rate) varied among 2% and 3.7%. The corresponding indicators for IKA were estimated between 5 and 6.3 sick-leave days per insured employee (median 5.8), and 2.14–2.72% (median 2.49%), respectively. Short sick-leave spells (<4 days) may account at least for the 25% of the total number of sick-leave days, currently not recorded in national statistics. The level of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece was found to be higher than the suggested by previous reports and international comparative studies, but still remains one of the lowest in the industrialized world. In the 20-years national data, the results also showed a 7-year wave in sickness absence indexes (a decrease during the period 1991–1997 and an increase in 1998–2004) combined with a small yet significant decline as a general trend. These

  15. Sickness Absence in the Private Sector of Greece: Comparing Shipyard Industry and National Insurance Data

    Eleni Jelastopulu


    Full Text Available Approximately 3% of employees are absent from work due to illness daily in Europe, while in some countries sickness absence exceeds 20 days per year. Based on a limited body of reliable studies, Greek employees in the private sector seem to be absent far less frequently ( < 5 days/year compared to most of the industrialized world. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece, using shipyard and national insurance data. Detailed data on absenteeism of employees in a large shipyard company during the period 1999–2006 were utilized. National data on compensated days due to sickness absence concerning all employees (around 2 million insured by the Social Insurance Institute (IKA, the largest insurance scheme in Greece were retrieved from the Institute’s annual statistical reports for the period 1987–2006. Sick-leave days per employee and sick-leave rate (% were calculated, among other indicators. In the shipyard cohort, the employment time loss due to sick leave was 1%. The mean number of sick-leave days per employee in shipyards ranged between 4.6 and 8.7 and sick-leave rate (sickness absenteeism rate varied among 2% and 3.7%. The corresponding indicators for IKA were estimated between 5 and 6.3 sick-leave days per insured employee (median 5.8, and 2.14–2.72% (median 2.49%, respectively. Short sick-leave spells ( < 4 days may account at least for the 25% of the total number of sick-leave days, currently not recorded in national statistics. The level of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece was found to be higher than the suggested by previous reports and international comparative studies, but still remains one of the lowest in the industrialized world. In the 20-years national data, the results also showed a 7-year wave in sickness absence indexes (a decrease during the period 1991–1997 and an increase in 1998–2004 combined with a small yet significant decline as a

  16. Genetic variants associated with motion sickness point to roles for inner ear development, neurological processes and glucose homeostasis

    Hromatka, Bethann S.; Joyce Y Tung; Kiefer, Amy K.; Do, Chuong B.; Hinds, David A.; Eriksson, Nicholas


    Roughly one in three individuals is highly susceptible to motion sickness and yet the underlying causes of this condition are not well understood. Despite high heritability, no associated genetic factors have been discovered. Here, we conducted the first genome-wide association study on motion sickness in 80 494 individuals from the 23andMe database who were surveyed about car sickness. Thirty-five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with motion sickness at a genome-wide-si...

  17. Sickness: From the focus on cytokines, prostaglandins, and complement factors to the perspectives of neurons.

    Poon, David Chun-Hei; Ho, Yuen-Shan; Chiu, Kin; Wong, Hoi-Lam; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung


    Systemic inflammation leads to a variety of physiological (e.g. fever) and behavioral (e.g. anorexia, immobility, social withdrawal, depressed mood, disturbed sleep) responses that are collectively known as sickness. While these phenomena have been studied for the past few decades, the neurobiological mechanisms by which sickness occurs remain unclear. In this review, we first revisit how the body senses and responds to infections and injuries by eliciting systemic inflammation. Next, we focus on how peripheral inflammatory molecules such as cytokines, prostaglandins, and activated complement factors communicate with the brain to trigger neuroinflammation and sickness. Since depression also involves inflammation, we further elaborate on the interrelationship between sickness and depression. Finally, we discuss how immune activation can modulate neurons in the brain, and suggest future perspectives to help unravel how changes in neuronal functions relate to sickness responses.

  18. [Duration of sick-leave and the moment of recovery in the hotel industry].

    Folgerø, I S; Larsen, S


    The paper addresses the problem of sick leave in the hotel industry. It was hypothesized that there would be a tendency for granted sick leaves to include weekends, thus imposing an additional financial burden on the hotel in question. A total of 401 medical certificates from a large city hotel were reviewed. According to these certificates one third of the patients regained their health between Sunday and Monday. Of the patients with "short" sick leaves (less than a fortnight), 40% recovered between Sunday and Monday. The average duration of the sick leave for this group was 1.3 days longer than that of the patients whose sick leaves ended on other days of the week. The results are discussed in terms of the ambiguous position of the medical practitioner.

  19. Leptin, a neuroendocrine mediator of immune responses, inflammation, and sickness behaviors.

    Carlton, Elizabeth D; Demas, Gregory E; French, Susannah S


    Effective immune responses are coordinated by interactions among the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. Mounting immune, inflammatory, and sickness responses requires substantial energetic investments, and as such, an organism may need to balance energy allocation to these processes with the energetic demands of other competing physiological systems. The metabolic hormone leptin appears to be mediating trade-offs between the immune system and other physiological systems through its actions on immune cells and the brain. Here we review the evidence in both mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrates that suggests leptin is involved in regulating immune responses, inflammation, and sickness behaviors. Leptin has also been implicated in the regulation of seasonal immune responses, including sickness; however, the precise physiological mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, we discuss recent data in support of leptin as a mediator of seasonal sickness responses and provide a theoretical model that outlines how seasonal cues, leptin, and proinflammatory cytokines may interact to coordinate seasonal immune and sickness responses.

  20. Ventilation in day care centers and sick leave among nursery children

    Kolarik, Barbara; Andersen, Z. Jovanovic; Ibfelt, T.;


    ventilation in DCCs and sick leave among nursery children. Data on child sick leave within an 11 week period was obtained for 635 children attending 20 DCCs. Ventilation measurements included three proxies of ventilation: air exchange rate (ACR) measured with the decay method, ACR measured...... by the perfluorocarbon tracer gas (PFT) method, and CO2 concentration measured over a 1-week period. All but two DCCs had balanced mechanical ventilation system, which could explain the low CO2 levels measured. The mean concentration of CO2 was 643 ppm, exceeding 1000 ppm in only one DCC. A statistically significant...... inverse relationship between the number of sick days and ACR measured with the decay method was found for crude and adjusted analysis, with a 12% decrease in number of sick days per 1 h(-1) increase in ACR measured with the decay method. This study suggests a relationship between sick leave among nursery...

  1. Differences in sickness absence in Sweden and Denmark: the cross national HAKNAK study

    Lund, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Vaez, Marjan


    AIM: To investigate potential differences in sickness absence among public sector employees in Sweden and Denmark, and to what extent a difference was associated with age, gender, physical and psychosocial work environment exposures, lifestyle factors, self-rated health or work ability. METHODS......: More subjects from the Swedish study population reported more than 7 days of sickness absence. Factors associated with sickness absence were largely similar in the two countries. The difference in absence level between Sweden and Denmark was not associated with differences in age, gender, skill level...... compared with the Danish labour market. A possible explanation for the differences in sickness absence ascertained in this study could be due to differences in the sickness insurance legislation....

  2. Effects of organizational justice on depressive symptoms and sickness absence: a longitudinal perspective.

    Ybema, Jan F; van den Bos, Kees


    A longitudinal three-wave study among a large representative sample of 1519 employees of various companies in The Netherlands examined how organizational justice (as measured by distributive and procedural justice) was related to depressive symptoms and sickness absence. It was predicted that perceived justice would contribute to lower depressive symptoms and sickness absence, whereas depressive symptoms and absenteeism in turn would contribute to lower perceptions of organizational justice. In line with the predictions, we found that both distributive and procedural justice contributed to lower depressive symptoms, and distributive justice contributed to lower sickness absence in the following year. With regard to reversed effects, sickness absence contributed to lower perceptions of distributive justice to some extent. Moreover, sickness absence was related to higher depressive symptoms a year later. This research shows the importance of justice in organizations as a means to enhance the wellbeing of people at work and to prevent absenteeism.

  3. Physical and mental fatigue as predictors of sickness absence among Norwegian nurses.

    Roelen, Corné A M; Bültmann, Ute; Groothoff, Johan; van Rhenen, Willem; Magerøy, Nils; Moen, Bente E; Pallesen, Ståle; Bjorvatn, Bjørn


    We investigated whether fatigue can be used to screen nursing populations for risk of sickness absence. Data were available from a prospective cohort study of 2,059 Norwegian nurses working in hospital care, psychiatric care, and nursing home/home care settings. Physical and mental fatigue were measured at baseline with Chalder's Fatigue Questionnaire (FQ). Self-rated sickness absence at 1-year follow-up was considered high if nurses reported >30 sick days in the past year. Physical fatigue accurately predicted high sickness absence and adequately discriminated between high- and low-risk nurses in nursing home/home care settings. Mental fatigue was not predictive in any setting. The FQ is suitable for screening specific nursing populations for the risk of high sickness absence.

  4. Identification of Differential Gene Expression Patterns after Acute Exposure to High and Low Doses of Low-LET Ionizing Radiation in a Reconstituted Human Skin Tissue

    Tilton, Susan C.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Hays, Spencer; Taylor, Ronald C.; Stenoien, David L.


    Our goal here was to identify dose and temporal dependent radiation responses in a complex tissue, reconstituted human skin. Direct sequencing of RNA (RNA-seq) was used to quantify altered transcripts following exposure to 0.1, 2 and 10 Gy of ionizing radiation at 3 and 8 hours. These doses include a low dose in the range of some medical diagnostic procedures (0.1 Gy), a dose typically received during radiotherapy (2.0 Gy) and a lethal dose (10 Gy). These doses could be received after an intentional or accidental radiation exposure and biomarkers are needed to rapidly and accurately triage exposed individuals. A total of 1701 genes were deemed to be significantly affected by high dose radiation exposure with the majority of genes affected at 10 Gy. A group of 29 genes including GDF15, BBC3, PPM1D, FDXR, GADD45A, MDM2, CDKN1A, TP53INP1, CYCSP27, SESN1, SESN2, PCNA, and AEN were similarly altered at both 2 and 10 Gy, but not 0.1 Gy, at multiple time points. A much larger group of up regulated genes, including those involved in inflammatory responses, was significantly altered only after a 10 Gy exposure. At high doses, down regulated genes were associated with cell cycle regulation and exhibited an apparent linear response between 2 and 10 Gy. While only a handful of genes were significantly affected by 0.1 Gy exposure using stringent statistical filters, groups of related genes regulating cell cycle progression and inflammatory responses consistently exhibited opposite trends in their regulation compared to the high dose exposures. Differential regulation of PLK1 signaling at low and high doses was confirmed using qRT-PCR. These results indicate that some alterations in gene expression are qualitatively different at low and high doses of radiation in this model system.

  5. Portable Sensor for Detecting Microbubbles in Real Time to Prevent Decompression Sickness for Safe Diving During Subaquatic Navy Activities


    Contains Proprietary information Final Report: Portable Sensor for Detecting Microbubbles in Real Time to Prevent Decompression Sickness for Safe Diving ...Portable Sensor for Detecting Microbubbles in Real Time to Prevent Decompression Sickness for Safe Diving During Subaquatic Navy Activities Report Title The...Portable Sensor for Detecting Microbubbles in Real Time to Prevent Decompression Sickness for Safe Diving During Subaquatic Navy Activities Final

  6. Factors associated with first return to work and sick leave durations in workers with common mental disorders

    Flach, Peter A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Krol, Boudien; Bultmann, Ute


    Background: Associations are examined between socio-demographic, medical, work-related and organizational factors and the moment of first return to work (RTW) (within or after 6 weeks of sick leave) and total sick leave duration in sick leave spells due to common mental disorders. Methods: Data are

  7. Determinants for return to work among sickness certified patients in general practice

    von Celsing Anna-Sophia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term sickness absence is one of the main risk factors for permanent exit out of the labour market. Early identification of the condition is essential to facilitate return to work. The aim of this study was to analyse possible determinants of return to work and their relative impact. Methods All 943 subjects aged 18 to 63 years, sickness certified at a Primary Health Care Centre in Sweden from 1 January until 31 August 2004, were followed up for three years. Baseline information on sex, age, sick leave diagnosis, employment status, extent of sick leave, and sickness absence during the year before baseline was obtained, as was information on all compensated days of sick leave, disability pension and death during follow-up. Results Slightly more than half the subjects were women, mean age was 39 years. Half of the study population returned to work within 14 days after baseline, and after three years only 15 subjects were still on sick leave. In multivariate proportional hazards regression analysis the extent of previous sick leave, age, being on part-time sick leave, and having a psychiatric, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, nervous disease, digestive system, or injury or poisoning diagnosis decreased the return to work rate, while being employed increased it. Marital status, sex, being born in Sweden, citizenship, and annual salary had no influence. In logistic regression analyses across follow-up time these variables altogether explained 88-90% of return to work variation. Conclusions Return to work was positively or negatively associated by a number of variables easily accessible in the GP’s office. Track record data in the form of previous sick leave was the most influential variable.

  8. How primary health care physicians make sick listing decisions: The impact of medical factors and functioning

    Svärdsudd Kurt


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The decision to issue sickness certification in Sweden for a patient should be based on the physician's assessment of the reduction of the patient's work capacity due to a disease or injury, not on psychosocial factors, in spite of the fact that they are known as risk factors for sickness absence. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of medical factors and functioning on sick listing probability. Methods Four hundred and seventy-four patient-physician consultations, where sick listing could be an option, in general practice in Örebro county, central Sweden, were documented using physician and patient questionnaires. Information sought was the physicians' assessments of causes and consequences of the patients' complaints, potential to recover, diagnoses and prescriptions on sick leave, and the patients' view of their family and work situation and functioning as well as data on the patients' former and present health situation. The outcome measure was whether or not a sickness certificate was issued. Multivariate analyses were performed. Results Complaints entirely or mainly somatic as assessed by the physician decreased the risk of sick listing, and complaints resulting in severe limitation of occupational work capacity, as assessed by the patient as well as the physician, increased the risk of sick listing, as did appointments for locomotor complaints. The results for patients with infectious diseases or musculoskeletal diseases were partly similar to those for all diseases. Conclusion The strongest predictors for sickness certification were patient's and GP's assessment of reduced work capacity, with a striking concordance between physician and patient on this assessment. When patient's complaints were judged to be non-somatic the risk of sickness certification was enhanced.

  9. Dose-Painted Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Anal Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Report of Acute Toxicity and Response to Therapy

    Kachnic, Lisa A., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Tsai, Henry K. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Coen, John J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Hartshorn, Kevan [Department of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Kwak, Eunice L. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Willins, John D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Ryan, David P. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Hong, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)


    Purpose: Chemoradiation for anal cancer yields effective tumor control, but is associated with significant acute toxicity. We report our multi-institutional experience using dose-painted IMRT (DP-IMRT). Patients and Methods: Between August 2005 and May 2009, 43 patients were treated with DP-IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy for biopsy-proven, squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal at two academic medical centers. DP-IMRT was prescribed as follows: T2N0: 42 Gy, 1.5 Gy/fraction (fx) to elective nodal planning target volume (PTV) and 50.4 Gy, 1.8 Gy/fx to anal tumor PTV; T3-4N0-3: 45 Gy, 1.5 Gy/fx to elective nodal PTV, and 54 Gy, 1.8 Gy/fx to the anal tumor and metastatic nodal PTV >3 cm with 50.4 Gy, 1.68 Gy/fx to nodal PTVs {<=}3 cm in size. Acute and late toxicity was reported by the treating physician. Actuarial analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Median age was 58 years; 67% female; 16% Stage I, 37% II; 42% III; 5% IV. Fourteen patients were immunocompromised: 21% HIV-positive and 12% on chronic immunosuppression. Median follow-up was 24 months (range, 0.6-43.5 months). Sixty percent completed chemoradiation without treatment interruption; median duration of treatment interruption was 2 days (range, 2-24 days). Acute Grade 3+ toxicity included: hematologic 51%, dermatologic 10%, gastrointestinal 7%, and genitourinary 7%. Two-year local control, overall survival, colostomy-free survival, and metastasis-free survival were 95%, 94%, 90%, and 92%, respectively. Conclusions: Dose-painted IMRT appears effective and well-tolerated as part of a chemoradiation therapy regimen for the treatment of anal canal cancer.

  10. [Clinical-microbiological evaluation of the efficacy of combined use of chitosan, low intensity laser radiation and photosensitizer in treatment of patients with acute suppurative maxillofacial periostitis].

    Shomina, S A; Bogatov, V V; Chervinets, V M


    Results are presented on treatment of 68 patients with acute suppurative periostitis of maxillofacial region. After surgical interventions in patients of the study group (48 patients) the wounds were cleansed by 1% chitosan on 0.2% HC1 in combination with methylene blue and irradiated by IR laser beam. The wounds healed in 2-3 days. In the control group (20 patients) for wound dressing chlorhexidine as a standard procedure was used, length of the healing process was 5-6 days. After combined treatment the number of microflora in the wound was reduced and microflora did not show the signs of pathogenicity.

  11. Effectiveness of early part-time sick leave in musculoskeletal disorders

    Karppinen Jaro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of staying active instead of bed rest has been acknowledged in the management of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs. This emphasizes the potential benefits of adjusting work to fit the employee's remaining work ability. Despite part-time sick leave being an official option in many countries, its effectiveness has not been studied yet. We have designed a randomized controlled study to assess the health effects of early part-time sick leave compared to conventional full-day sick leave. Our hypothesis is that if work time is temporarily reduced and work load adjusted at the early stages of disability, employees with MSDs will have less disability days and faster return to regular work duties than employees on a conventional sick leave. Methods/Design The study population will consist of 600 employees, who seek medical advice from an occupational physician due to musculoskeletal pain. The inclusion requires that they have not been on a sick leave for longer than 14 days prior to the visit. Based on the physician's judgement, the severity of the symptoms must indicate a need for conventional sick leave, but the employee is considered to be able to work part-time without any additional risk. Half of the employees are randomly allocated to part-time sick leave group and their work time is reduced by 40–60%, whereas in the control group work load is totally eliminated with conventional sick leave. The main outcomes are the number of days from the initial visit to return to regular work activities, and the total number of sick leave days during 12 and 24 months of follow-up. The costs and benefits as well as the feasibility of early part-time sick leave will also be evaluated. Conclusion This is the first randomised trial to our knowledge on the effectiveness of early part-time sick leave compared to conventional full-time sick leave in the management of MSDs. The data collection continues until 2011, but preliminary

  12. Effect of electrosleep therapy on the course and outcome of radiation injuries in animals

    Dzhavadyan, N.S.; Abgaryan, D.V.; Neifets, Yu.B.


    Experimental data are presented with regard to the effect of electrosleep therapy on the course of severe radiation sickness and the survival of animals (rabbits and dogs). The results of the studies showed that the use of a number of electrosleep seances before irradiation, and especially, in the first two weeks after irradiation had a favorable effect on the course of the severe radiation sickness, as expressed in the slow and relatively weak development of leucopenia and in the high percentage of animal survivals. 13 refs. (SJR)

  13. Effect of Hypohydration and Altitude Exposure on Aerobic Exercise Performance and Acute Mountain Sickness


    diagnostic of AMS. At the completion of the PDA-based questionnaire, the volunteer’s resting arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) was measured ( Dolphin ...ventral forearm (opposite arm of the blood pressure cuff, forearm kept at heart level) using laser -Doppler flowmetry. The flow probe (sam- pling at 780 nm

  14. Prediction of Acute Mountain Sickness using a Blood-Based Test


    reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of...who was AMS resistant. In Phase II, results suggest a completely independent sample was equally effective in predicting AMS susceptibility and...origin, altitude of final study, and gender . QTR 20 Accomplishments (Sep-Dec 2015): As planned we are now addressing specific questions about

  15. Motion sickness: an evolutionary and genetic basis for the negative reinforcement model.

    Knox, Glenn W


    It has been theorized that motion sickness evolved as a negative reinforcement system which terminates motion involving postural instability and/or sensory conflict. A hypothetical example is provided by a "thought experiment" whereby protohominids are in a tree looking for food. Selection pressure results when the organisms that have an aversion to motion-producing sensory conflict do not venture out too far on the tree limbs and therefore tend to survive. In order to support an evolutionary model for motion sickness there must be evidence for genetic and/or heritable predisposition. The present study involves a retrospective literature review which reveals abundant evidence for genetic/heritable factors in motion sickness. Examples include genetic polymorphism of the alpha-2-adrenergic receptor, which has been shown to increase susceptibility to motion sickness, examination of family trees revealing heritable motion sickness susceptibility, evidence indicating that Asians are hyper-susceptible to motion sickness, and twin studies, just to mention a few. Thus, the theory of heritable negative reinforcement as a basis for motion sickness is supported by extensive evidence in the medical literature. This theory is compared and contrasted with other theories. Further areas for research are suggested.

  16. Does computer use pose a hazard for future long-term sickness absence?

    Mikkelsen Sigurd


    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate if weekly duration of computer use predicted sickness absence for more than two weeks at a later time. A cohort of 2146 frequent computer users filled in a questionnaire at baseline and was followed for one year with continuously recording of the duration of computer use and furthermore followed for 300 weeks in a central register of sickness absence for more than 2 weeks. 147 participants of the 2,146 (6.9% became first time sick listed in the follow-up period. Overall, mean weekly computer use did not turn out to be a risk factor for later sickness absence. The hazard ratio for sickness absence with weekly increase of one hour in computer use was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.99 to 1.00. Low satisfaction with work place arrangements and female gender both doubled the risk of sickness absence. We have earlier found that computer use did not predict persistent pain in the neck and upper limb, and it seems that computer use neither predicts future long-term sickness absence of all causes.

  17. Glutamine Supplementation in Sick Children: Is It Beneficial?

    Elise Mok


    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to provide a critical appraisal of the literature on Glutamine (Gln supplementation in various conditions or illnesses that affect children, from neonates to adolescents. First, a general overview of the proposed mechanisms for the beneficial effects of Gln is provided, and subsequently clinical studies are discussed. Despite safety, studies are conflicting, partly due to different effects of enteral and parenteral Gln supplementation. Further insufficient evidence is available on the benefits of Gln supplementation in pediatric patients. This includes premature infants, infants with gastrointestinal disease, children with Crohn's disease, short bowel syndrome, malnutrition/diarrhea, cancer, severe burns/trauma, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and type 1 diabetes. Moreover, methodological issues have been noted in some studies. Further mechanistic data is needed along with large randomized controlled trials in select populations of sick children, who may eventually benefit from supplemental Gln.

  18. Agrochemicals against malaria, sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis and Chagas disease.

    Matthias Witschel

    Full Text Available In tropical regions, protozoan parasites can cause severe diseases with malaria, leishmaniasis, sleeping sickness, and Chagas disease standing in the forefront. Many of the drugs currently being used to treat these diseases have been developed more than 50 years ago and can cause severe adverse effects. Above all, resistance to existing drugs is widespread and has become a serious problem threatening the success of control measures. In order to identify new antiprotozoal agents, more than 600 commercial agrochemicals have been tested on the pathogens causing the above mentioned diseases. For all of the pathogens, compounds were identified with similar or even higher activities than the currently used drugs in applied in vitro assays. Furthermore, in vivo activity was observed for the fungicide/oomyceticide azoxystrobin, and the insecticide hydramethylnon in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model, and for the oomyceticide zoxamide in the Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB900 mouse model, respectively.

  19. Vection-induced gastric dysrhythmias and motion sickness

    Koch, K. L.; Stern, R. M.


    Gastric electrical and mechanical activity during vection-induced motion sickness was investigated. The contractile events of the antrum and gastric myoelectric activity in healthy subjects exposed to vection were measured simultaneously. Symptomatic and myoelectric responses of subjects with vagotomy and gastric resections during vection stimuli were determined. And laboratory based computer systems for analysis of the myoelectric signal were developed. Gastric myoelectric activity was recorded from cutaneous electrodes, i.e., electrogastrograms (EGGs), and antral contractions were measured with intraluminal pressure transducers. Vection was induced by a rotating drum. gastric electromechanical activity was recorded during three periods: 15 min baseline, 15 min drum rotation (vection), and 15 to 30 min recovery. Preliminary results showed that catecholamine responses in nauseated versus symptom-free subjects were divergent and pretreatment with metoclopramide HC1 (Reglan) prevented vection-induced nausea and reduced tachygastrias in two previously symptomatic subjects.

  20. [Congenital sick sinus syndrome in a healthy heart: case report].

    Ben Ameur, Youssef; Hmam, Mohamed; Battikh, Kaïes; Mlika, Azmi; Terras, Mouna; Longo, Salma; Kraïem, Sondes; Slimane, Mohamed L


    Isolated congenital sick sinusal syndrome on non harmed heart is a rare affection. Its association with an atrio-ventricular block is exceptional. The authors report a case of a 19 year-old patient, with an early history of bradycardia, hospitalised for effort intolerance. His electrocardiogram reveals a high degree sino-atrial block replaced by a junctional rhythm at 30/mn. During Treadmill test, the sinusal acceleration is satisfactory and an effort atrio-ventricular block was present. He later had a definitive stimulation under DDDR. This report shows that the sinusal node, in the same way as the atrio-ventricular node may be injured by congenital dysimmunitary process. The coexistence of these two conductive troubles worsen the prognosis and should lead more often to the practice of definitive stimulation by the only mode DDDR.