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Sample records for acute radiation proctitis

  1. Acute radiation proctitis. A clinical, histopathological and histochemical study

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    Hovdenak, Nils

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the study is: 1) A sequential description of the clinical course of acute radiation proctitis during pelvic RT. 2) A sequential description of the rectal mucosal histopathology during pelvic RT as a possible substrate for clinical toxicity. 3) To assess the mucosal protease activity during RT as a possible explanation of the observed tissue changes. 4) To assess the efficacy of prophylactic sucralfate in acute radiation proctitis a randomised study was initiated and carried out together with a meta-analysis of previously available data. 5) Most studies on clinical acute toxicity in pelvic RT use either the RTOG/EORTC score system or focus on diarrhoea/stool frequency. A more differentiated and sensitive recording was developed and tested to pick up symptoms escaping the commonly used scores. 6) Study the relation between histopathological findings and the clinical picture. 4 papers presenting various studies are included. The titles are: 1) Acute radiation proctitis: a sequential clinicopathologic study during pelvic radiotherapy. 2) Clinical significance of increased gelatinolytic activity in the rectal mucosa during external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer. 3) Profiles and time course of acute radiation toxicity symptoms during conformal radiotherapy for cancer of the prostate. 4) Sucralfate does not ameliorate acute radiation proctitis. Some future prospects are discussed.

  2. Successful Treatment of Acute Radiation Proctitis with Aloe Vera: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebnasagh, Adeleh; Ghasemi, Arash; Akbari, Jafar; Alipour, Abbas; Lashkardoost, Hossein; Ala, Shahram; Salehifar, Ebrahim

    2017-11-01

    Acute radiation proctitis (ARP) is a common side-effect that affects up to 50% of patients receiving radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of a topical preparation of Aloe vera in the treatment of ARP induced by radiotherapy of pelvic area. In this double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 20 consecutive patients with ARP after external-beam radiation therapy (46-72 Gy) of pelvic malignancies were randomized to receive either Aloe vera 3% or placebo ointment, 1 g twice daily for 4 weeks. These patients presented with at least two of the following symptoms: rectal bleeding, abdominal/rectal pain, diarrhea, or fecal urgency. These symptoms were rated by the patients in terms of their severity (grade 0-4) for each of the symptoms mentioned earlier at baseline and then weekly for 4 weeks. A symptom index was calculated by the addition of the scores (16 most symptomatic). Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) acute toxicity criteria and psychosocial status of the patients were also recorded weekly. The lifestyle impact of the symptoms was assessed by questionnaire grading from 0 (no effect on daily activity) to 4 (afraid to leave home). There was a significant (p Aloe vera) for diarrhea (median score: 0.67 vs. 0.11), fecal urgency (median score: 0.89 vs. 0.11), clinical presentation total (median score: 4.33 vs. 1.22), RTOG total (median score: 2.89 vs. 0.89), and lifestyle (median score: 1.1 vs. 0.33). Hemorrhage and abdominal/rectal pain did not improve significantly. The odds ratios for advantage of Aloe vera over placebo for "clinical presentation total" and "RTOG total" were 3.97 (1.3-11.9) and 5.9 (1.6-21.6), respectively. A substantial number of patients with radiation proctitis seem to benefit from therapy with Aloe vera 3% ointment.

  3. Evaluation of radiation proctitis

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    Tamura, T.; Kuramoto, M.; Ikawa, K.; Kawasaki, H.; Korematsu, H. (Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1981-05-01

    20 cases of radiation proctitis were treated from Jan. 1970 to Oct. 1980. In all of the cases, primary disease was uterine cancer; cancer of the cervix, 19 cases and cancer of the endometrium, 1 case. The primary cancer was stage I in 5 cases, stage II in 5 cases, stage III in 2 cases, stage IV 4 cases, and not clear in 4 cases. Radiation dose was 5,000 - 6,000 rad in most cases and given for 1 - 2 months. The period from radiotherapy to the onset of the complication was 30 days to 13 years, averaged 42 months. Complications were graded according to Sherman's classification; grade I was 1 case, grade II 6 cases, grade III 2 cases, grade IV 9 cases, and ''unknown'' was 2 cases, showing highest frequency of grade IV with fistula formation. Rectal bleeding was found in 14 cases with highest incidence, and proctovaginal fistula which caused fecal leak was found in 9 cases. Treatment was operative therapy in 15 cases, palliative therapy in 3 cases, and follow-up observation in 2 cases. Of 15 patients of operative therapy, 14 were subjected to proctostomy, and one was fistulectomy. Of 14 patients underwent proctostomy, 11 survived, two died, and one was lost to follow-up, and unknown, 1.

  4. Efficacy of Synbiotics to Reduce Acute Radiation Proctitis Symptoms and Improve Quality of Life: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial

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    Nascimento, Mariana, E-mail: mari1980hemato@yahoo.com.br [Department of Medicine, University Center of Varzea Grande (UNIVAG), Varzea Grande, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo [Department of Medicine, University Center of Varzea Grande (UNIVAG), Varzea Grande, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Caporossi, Cervantes; Castro-Barcellos, Heloisa Michelon; Motta, Rodrigo Teixeira [Department of Medicine, Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiabá, Mato Grosso (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether the daily intake of synbiotics interferes in radiation-induced acute proctitis symptoms and in quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients who underwent 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer were randomized to intake either a synbiotic powder containing Lactobacillus reuteri 10{sup 8} colony-forming units and 4.3 g of soluble fiber (Nestlé) or placebo. The questionnaire EORTC QLQ-PRT23 was applied before the beginning of radiation therapy and in every week for the first 4 weeks of treatment. The sum of both the complete (proctitis symptoms plus quality of life) and partial (proctitis symptoms) scores of the EORTC QLQ-PRT23 (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Module for Proctitis–23 items) questionnaire were the main endpoints. Results: This pilot study showed that the complete questionnaire score (median [range]) was higher in the second (23 [21-30] vs 26.5 [22-34], P<.05) and third (23 [21-32] vs 27.5 [24-33], P<.01) weeks in the placebo group. Proctitis symptoms were highest scored in the placebo group in both the second (19.5 [16-25]) and third (19 [17-24]) weeks than in the synbiotic group (week 2: 16.5 [15-20], P<.05; week 3: 17 [15-23], P<.01). In both scores the placebo group had a significantly higher result (P<.01) than the synbiotic group (repeated-measures analysis of variance). Conclusions: Synbiotics reduce proctitis symptoms and improve quality of life in radiation-induced acute proctitis during radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

  5. [Acute ischemic proctitis following an epileptic attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klintmann, C.K.; Hillingso, J.G.; Glenthøj, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Acute ischemic proctitis is a rare diagnosis mainly because the rectum is supplied by an extensive arterial network. Consequently, in more than 90% of patients with ischemic colitis the rectum is spared. Previously reported cases are related to severe vascular insufficiency of the rectal...... circulation caused by systemic atherosclerosis, usually following aortic or aortoiliac operations. We report one case of acute ischemic proctitis following an epileptic attack Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/29...

  6. Radiation proctitis. Clinical and pathological manifestations, therapy and prophylaxis of acute and late injurious effects of radiation on the rectal mucosa

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    Zimmermann, F.B.; Feldmann, H.J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Background: Often the rectum is the dose-limiting organ in curative radiation therapy of pelvic malignancies. It reacts with serous, mucoid, or more rarely bloody diarrhea. Methods: A research for reports on prophylactic and supportive therapies of radiation-induced proctitis was performed (Medline, Cancerlit, and others). Results: No proven effective prophylactic local or systemic therapies of radiation proctitis exist. Also, no reasonable causal medication is known. In the treatment of late radiation sequelae no clincally tested certain effective therapy exists, too. Antiinflammatory, steroidal or non-steroidal therapeutics as well as sucralfate can be used as topical measures. They will be successful in some patients. Side effects are rare and the therapy is cost-effective. Treatment failures can be treated by hyperbaric oxygen. This will achieve good clinical results in about 50% of the cases. Single or few mucosal telangiectasias with rectal bleeding can be treated sufficienctly by endoscopic cautherization. Conclusion: Besides clinical studies acute proctitis should be treated just symptomatically. Radical surgery should be performed only when all conventional treatments have been uneffective, although no certain effective therapies of radiation-induced late proctitis exist. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: Oft ist der Enddarm das dosislimitierende Organ bei der kurativen Radiotherapie boesartiger Tumoren des Beckens. Er reagiert mit seroesen, mukoesen oder sehr selten blutig tingierten Durchfaellen. Methode: Es wurde eine Literaturrecherche nach prophylaktischen und supportiven Therapien der radiogenen Proktitis durchgefuehrt (Medline, Cancerlit und andere). Ergebnisse: Es existieren keine gesicherten effektiven prophylaktischen Therapie der radiogen Proktitis, weder lokal noch systemisch. Es sind auch keine sinnvollen kausalen Behandlungen bekannt. Auch in der Behandlung spaeter Strahlenfolgen existieren keine klinisch getesteten, sicher wirksamen

  7. Effective treatment of chronic radiation proctitis using radiofrequency ablation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chao Zhou; Adler, Desmond C; Becker, Laren; Yu Chen; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Figueiredo, Marisa; Schmitt, Joseph M; Fujimoto, James G; Mashimo, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    .... Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been successful for mucosal ablation in the esophagus. Here we report the efficacy of RFA with the BarRx Halo90 system in three patients with bleeding from chronic radiation proctitis...

  8. Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated With the Severity of Radiation-Induced Proctitis in Cancer Patients

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    Ghorbanzadeh-Moghaddam, Amir [Medical Student' s Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholamrezaei, Ali, E-mail: Gholamrezaei@med.mui.ac.ir [Medical Student' s Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Poursina Hakim Research Institution, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hemati, Simin [Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced injury to normal tissues is a common complication of radiation therapy in cancer patients. Considering the role of vitamin D in mucosal barrier hemostasis and inflammatory responses, we investigated whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with the severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis in cancer patients. Methods and Materials: This prospective observational study was conducted in cancer patients referred for pelvic radiation therapy. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured before radiation therapy. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of <35 nmol/L and <40 nmol/L in male and female patients, respectively, based on available normative data. Acute proctitis was assessed after 5 weeks of radiation therapy (total received radiation dose of 50 Gy) and graded from 0 to 4 using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria. Results: Ninety-eight patients (57.1% male) with a mean age of 62.8 ± 9.1 years were studied. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 57 patients (58.1%). Symptoms of acute proctitis occurred in 72 patients (73.4%) after radiation therapy. RTOG grade was significantly higher in patients with vitamin D deficiency than in normal cases (median [interquartile range] of 2 [0.5-3] vs 1 [0-2], P=.037). Vitamin D deficiency was associated with RTOG grade of ≥2, independent of possible confounding factors; odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 3.07 (1.27-7.50), P=.013. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis. Investigating the underlying mechanisms of this association and evaluating the effectiveness of vitamin D therapy in preventing radiation-induced acute proctitis is warranted.

  9. Formalin irrigation for hemorrhagic chronic radiation proctitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Teng-Hui; Yuan, Zi-Xu; Zhong, Qing-Hua; Wang, Huai-Ming; Qin, Qi-Yuan; Chen, Xiao-Xia; Wang, Jian-Ping; Wang, Lei

    2015-03-28

    To assess the efficacy and safety of a modified topical formalin irrigation method in refractory hemorrhagic chronic radiation proctitis (CRP). Patients with CRP who did not respond to previous medical treatments and presented with grade II-III rectal bleeding according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events were enrolled. Patients with anorectal strictures, deep ulcerations, and fistulas were excluded. All patients underwent flexible endoscopic evaluation before treatment. Patient demographics and clinical data, including primary tumor, radiotherapy and previous treatment options, were collected. Patients received topical 4% formalin irrigation in a clasp-knife position under spinal epidural anesthesia in the operating room. Remission of rectal bleeding and related complications were recorded. Defecation, remission of bleeding, and other symptoms were investigated at follow-up. Endoscopic findings in patients with rectovaginal fistulas were analyzed. Twenty-four patients (19 female, 5 male) with a mean age of 61.5 ± 9.5 years were enrolled. The mean time from the end of radiotherapy to the onset of bleeding was 11.1 ± 9.0 mo (range: 2-24 mo). Six patients (25.0%) were blood transfusion dependent. The median preoperative Vienna Rectoscopy Score (VRS) was 3 points. Nineteen patients (79.2%) received only one course of topical formalin irrigation, and five (20.8%) required a second course. No side effects were observed. One month after treatment, bleeding cessation was complete in five patients and obvious in 14; the effectiveness rate was 79.1% (19/24). For long-term efficacy, 5/16, 1/9 and 0/6 patients complained of persistent bleeding at 1, 2 and 5 years after treatment, respectively. Three rectovaginal fistulas were found at 1 mo, 3 mo and 2 years after treatment. Univariate analysis showed associations of higher endoscopic VRS and ulceration score with risk of developing rectovaginal fistula. Modified formalin irrigation is an effective and safe

  10. [Radiation proctitis: description of two cases refractory to pharmacological treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolomini, Alessandro; Francioli, Niccolò; Verre, Luigi; Guarnieri, Alfredo; Vuolo, Giuseppe; Di Cosmo, Leonardo; Tirone, Andrea; Chieca, Raffaele; Tucci, Enrico; Carli, Anton Ferdinando

    2009-01-01

    Radiation proctitis, is a relatively frequent complication resulting from the direct or collateral irradiation of the rectum in radiotherapy treatment for genito-urinary or anorectal malignancies. The main symptoms are diarrhoea, tenesmus, proctorrhagia, anal pain, mucorrhoea and faecal incontinence. The evolution of chronic radiation proctitis requires treatment for related anaemia, anal incontinence and micturition disorders. The approach and type of treatment depend on the severity of the symptoms and on the endoscopic aspect, in relation to the response to previous medical therapy performed. In our experience, endoscopic treatment is the best choice in the presence of ongoing bleeding and the possible development of severe anaemia. The surgical option is mandatory in patients at high risk of sepsis, requiring a faecal diversion constructed using the Hartmann technique. We report two cases, observed during the last two years, one treated with endoscopic bipolar coagulation and the other with a double urinary and faecal diversion.

  11. Effect of a prostaglandin - given rectally for prevention of radiation-induced acute proctitis - on late rectal toxicity. Results of phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

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    Kertesz, Tereza; Herrmann, Markus K.A.; Christiansen, Hans; Hermann, Robert M.; Hess, Clemens F.; Hille, Andrea [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Zapf, Antonia [Dept. of Medical Statistics, Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Pradier, Olivier [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Brest (France); Schmidberger, Heinz [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Mainz (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Background and purpose: to assess the late effect of a prostaglandin, given rectally during irradiation, on late rectal toxicity. In the acute treatment setting no significant differences in reducing the incidence of acute proctitis symptoms in patients receiving misoprostol, however, significantly more rectal bleeding had been reported. Patients and methods: a total of 100 patients who had undergone radiotherapy for prostate cancer had been entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. The toxicity was evaluated yearly after cessation of irradiation by the RTOG/LENT-SOMA scale. Results: the median follow-up was 50 months. 20 patients suffered from grade 1, four patients from grade 2 as well, and three patients only from grade 2 toxicity. Frequency, bleeding and urgency were the most commonly reported symptoms. In keeping with other studies and clinical experience, the symptoms peaked within the first 2 years with a median for grade 1 of 13 months and for grade 2 of 15 months. The presence of acute toxicity grade 2 showed a correlation with the development of any late toxicity (p = 0.03). Any acute rectal bleeding was significant correlated with any late rectal bleeding (p = 0.017). Conclusion: misoprostol given as once-daily suppository for prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis does neither influence the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute nor late rectal toxicity. Misoprostol has no negative impact on the incidence and severity of late rectal bleeding, in contrast to acute rectal bleeding. The routine clinical use of misoprostol suppositories cannot be recommended. (orig.)

  12. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Radiation-Induced Cystitis and Proctitis

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    Oliai, Caspian; Fisher, Brandon; Jani, Ashish; Wong, Michael; Poli, Jaganmohan; Brady, Luther W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Komarnicky, Lydia T., E-mail: lydia.komarnicky-kocher@drexelmed.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To provide a retrospective analysis of the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) for treating hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) and proctitis secondary to pelvic- and prostate-only radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Nineteen patients were treated with HBOT for radiation-induced HC and proctitis. The median age at treatment was 66 years (range, 15-84 years). The range of external-beam radiation delivered was 50.0-75.6 Gy. Bleeding must have been refractory to other therapies. Patients received 100% oxygen at 2.0 atmospheres absolute pressure for 90-120 min per treatment in a monoplace chamber. Symptoms were retrospectively scored according to the Late Effects of Normal Tissues-Subjective, Objective, Management, Analytic (LENT-SOMA) scale to evaluate short-term efficacy. Recurrence of hematuria/hematochezia was used to assess long-term efficacy. Results: Four of the 19 patients were lost to follow-up. Fifteen patients were evaluated and received a mean of 29.8 dives: 11 developed HC and 4 proctitis. All patients experienced a reduction in their LENT-SOMA score. After completion of HBOT, the mean LENT-SOMA score was reduced from 0.78 to 0.20 in patients with HC and from 0.66 to 0.26 in patients with proctitis. Median follow-up was 39 months (range, 7-70 months). No cases of hematuria were refractory to HBOT. Complete resolution of hematuria was seen in 81% (n = 9) and partial response in 18% (n = 2). Recurrence of hematuria occurred in 36% (n = 4) after a median of 10 months. Complete resolution of hematochezia was seen in 50% (n = 2), partial response in 25% (n = 1), and refractory bleeding in 25% (n = 1). Conclusions: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is appropriate for radiation-induced HC once less time-consuming therapies have failed to resolve the bleeding. In these conditions, HBOT is efficacious in the short and long term, with minimal side effects.

  13. Endoscopic diode laser therapy for chronic radiation proctitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Lino; Marini, Lucia; Rizzato, Roberto; Picardi, Edgardo; Merigliano, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of endoscopic diode laser therapy in patients presenting rectal bleeding due to chronic radiation proctitis (CRP). A retrospective analysis of CRP patients who underwent diode laser therapy in a single institution between 2010 and 2016 was carried out. The patients were treated by non-contact fibers without sedation in an outpatient setting. Fourteen patients (median age 77, range 73-87 years) diagnosed with CRP who had undergone high-dose radiotherapy for prostatic cancer and who presented with rectal bleeding were included. Six required blood transfusions. Antiplatelet (three patients) and anticoagulant (two patients) therapy was not suspended during the treatments. The patients underwent a median of two sessions; overall, a mean of 1684 J of laser energy per session was used. Bleeding was resolved in 10/14 (71%) patients, and other two patients showed improvement (93%). Only one patient, who did not complete the treatment, required blood transfusions after laser therapy; no complications were noted during or after the procedures. Study findings demonstrated that endoscopic non-contact diode laser treatment is safe and effective in CRP patients, even in those receiving antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant therapy.

  14. Can Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Reduce the Incidence, Severity, and Duration of Radiation Proctitis?

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    Alashkham, Abduelmenem, E-mail: alashkham@yahoo.com [Academic Section of Urology, Division of Cancer Research, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom); Paterson, Catherine [Academic Section of Urology, Division of Cancer Research, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom); Rauchhaus, Petra [Tayside Clinical Trials Unit, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom); Nabi, Ghulam [Academic Section of Urology, Division of Cancer Research, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether participants taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and treated with radical radiation therapy with neoadjuvant/adjuvant hormone therapy have less incidence, severity, and duration of radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: A propensity score analysis of 817 patients who underwent radical radiation therapy with neoadjuvant or adjuvant hormone therapy as primary line management in a cohort study during 2009 to 2013 was conducted. Patients were stratified as follows: group 1, hypertensive patients taking ACEIs (as a study group); group 2, nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs; and group 3, hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (both as control groups). The incidence, severity, and duration of proctitis were the main outcome. χ{sup 2} tests, Mann-Whitney U tests, analysis of variance, risk ratio (RR), confidence interval (CI), Kaplan-Meier plots, and log-rank tests were used. Results: The mean age of the participants was 68.91 years, with a follow-up time of 3.38 years. Based on disease and age-matched comparison, there was a statistically significant difference of proctitis grading between the 3 groups: χ{sup 2} (8, n=308) = 72.52, P<.001. The Mann-Whitney U test indicated that grades of proctitis were significantly lower in hypertensive patients taking ACEIs than in nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs and hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (P<.001). The risk ratio (RR) of proctitis in hypertensive patients taking ACEIs was significantly lower than in hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.30-0.53, P<.001) and in nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.44-0.77, P<.001). Time to event analysis revealed that hypertensive patients taking ACEIs were significantly different from the control groups (P<.0001). Furthermore, hypertensive patients taking ACEIs had significantly faster resolution of proctitis (P<.0001). Conclusion: Patients who were taking ACEIs were

  15. Proctitis 1 Week after Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Implications for Clinical Trial Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paydar, Ima; Cyr, Robyn A; Yung, Thomas M; Lei, Siyuan; Collins, Brian Timothy; Chen, Leonard N; Suy, Simeng; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Lynch, John H; Collins, Sean P

    2016-01-01

    Proctitis following prostate cancer radiation therapy is a primary determinant of quality of life (QOL). While previous studies have assessed acute rectal morbidity at 1 month after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), little data exist on the prevalence and severity of rectal morbidity within the first week following treatment. This study reports the acute bowel morbidity 1 week following prostate SBRT. Between May 2013 and August 2014, 103 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with 35-36.25 Gy in five fractions using robotic SBRT delivered on a prospective clinical trial. Bowel toxicity was graded using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 (CTCAEv.4). Bowel QOL was assessed using the EPIC-26 questionnaire bowel domain at baseline, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months. Time-dependent changes in bowel symptoms were statistically compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Clinically significant change was assessed by the minimally important difference (MID) in EPIC score. This was defined as a change of 1/2 standard deviation (SD) from the baseline score. One-hundred and three patients with a minimum of 3 months of follow-up were analyzed. The cumulative incidence of acute grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity was 23%. There were no acute ≥ grade 3 bowel toxicities. EPIC bowel summary scores maximally declined at 1 week after SBRT (-13.9, p big problem. This increased to 28.4% (p < 0.0001) 1 week after SBRT and returned to baseline at 3 months after SBRT (0.0%, p = 0.66). Only the bowel summary and bowel bother score declines at 1 week met the MID threshold for clinically significant change. The rate and severity of acute proctitis following prostate SBRT peaked at 1 week after treatment and returned to baseline by 3 months. Toxicity assessment at 1 week can therefore minimize recall bias and should aid in the design of future clinical trials focused on accurately capturing

  16. PROCTITIS ONE WEEK AFTER STEREOTACTIC BODY RADIATION THERAPY FOR PROSTATE CANCER: IMPLICATIONS FOR CLINICAL TRIAL DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ima Paydar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proctitis following prostate cancer radiation therapy is a primary determinant of quality of life (QOL. While previous studies have assessed acute rectal morbidity at 1 month after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT, little data exist on the prevalence and severity of rectal morbidity within the first week following treatment. This study reports the acute bowel morbidity one week following prostate SBRT. Materials and methods: Between May 2013 and August 2014, 103 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with 35 to 36.25 Gy in five fractions using robotic SBRT delivered on a prospective clinical trial. Bowel toxicity was graded using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 (CTCAEv.4. Bowel QOL was assessed using EPIC-26 questionnaire bowel domain at baseline, one week, one month, and three months. Time-dependent changes in bowel symptoms were statistically compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Clinically significant change was assessed by the minimally important difference (MID in EPIC score. This was defined as a change of one-half standard deviation (SD from the baseline score. Results: One hundred and three patients with a minimum of three months of follow-up were analyzed. The cumulative incidence of acute grade 2 GI toxicity was 23%. There were no acute ≥ grade 3 bowel toxicities. EPIC bowel summary scores maximally declined at 1 week after SBRT (-13.9, p<0.0001 before returning to baseline at three months after SBRT (+0.03, p=0.94. Prior to treatment, 4.9% of men reported that their bowel bother was a moderate to big problem. This increased to 28.4% (p<0.0001 one week after SBRT and returned to baseline at three months after SBRT (0.0%, p=0.66. Only the bowel summary and bowel bother score declines at 1 week met the MID threshold for clinically significant change. Conclusion: The rate and severity of acute proctitis following prostate SBRT peaked at one week after

  17. Daily Sodium Butyrate Enema for the Prevention of Radiation Proctitis in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Radical Radiation Therapy: Results of a Multicenter Randomized Placebo-Controlled Dose-Finding Phase 2 Study

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    Maggio, Angelo, E-mail: maggio.angelo@gmail.com [Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Magli, Alessandro [Department of Radiotherapy, Ospedale S. Maria della Misericordia, Udine (Italy); Rancati, Tiziana [Prostate Cancer Programme, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Fiorino, Claudio [Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Valvo, Francesca [Division of Radiation Oncology 1, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Fellin, Giovanni [Department of Radiotherapy, Ospedale Santa Chiara, Trento (Italy); Ricardi, Umberto [University of Turin, Department of Oncology, Torino (Italy); Munoz, Fernando [Radiotherapy Unit, AO Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Torino (Italy); Cosentino, Dorian; Cazzaniga, Luigi Franco [Ospedale S. Anna, Como (Italy); Valdagni, Riccardo [Prostate Cancer Programme, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Division of Radiation Oncology 1, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Vavassori, Vittorio [Department of Radiotherapy, Ospedale di Circolo, Varese (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of sodium butyrate enemas (NABUREN) in prostate cancer radiation therapy (RT) in reducing the incidence, severity, and duration of acute RT-induced proctitis. Methods and Materials: 166 patients, randomly allocated to 1 of 4 groups (rectal sodium butyrate 1 g, 2 g, or 4 g daily or placebo), were treated with NABUREN during and 2 weeks after RT. The grade of proctitis was registered in a daily diary. The correlation between NABUREN and proctitis was investigated through χ{sup 2} statistics. The toxicity endpoints considered were as follows: total number of days with grade ≥1 proctitis (≥G1); total number of days with grade ≥2 proctitis (≥G2); ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis lasting at least 3 and 5 consecutive days starting from week 4 (≥G1+3d, ≥G2+3d); damaging effects of RT on rectal mucosa as measured by endoscopy. The relationship between endpoints and pretreatment morbidities, hormonal therapy, presence of diabetes or hypertension, abdominal surgery, or hemorrhoids was investigated by univariate analysis. Results: The patients were randomly allocated to the 4 arms. No difference in the distribution of comorbidities among the arms was observed (P>.09). The mean ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis were 7.8 and 4.9 for placebo and 8.9 and 4.7 for the NABUREN group, respectively. No favorable trend in reduction of incidence, severity, and duration of ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis was observed with NABUREN use. In univariate analysis, ≥G1+3d toxicity was found to be related to hemorrhoids (P=.008), and a slight correlation was found between ≥G2 proctitis and hormonal therapy (P=.06). The RT effects on rectal mucosa as based on endoscopic assessment were mainly related to diabetes (P<.01). Endoscopy data at 6 week showed no significant difference between the placebo and butyrate arms. The other investigated endpoints were not correlated with any of the clinical risk factors analyzed. Conclusion: There was no evidence of efficacy

  18. Intravesical or intrarectal instillation of Maalox for the treatment of radiation cystitis or proctitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawagoe, Koh; Kawana, Takashi (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-08-01

    Intravesical or intrarectal instillation of Maalox, a well-known material for protection of mucous epithelia, was performed in 3 cases of radiation cystitis and one case of radiation proctitis, resulting in successful control of hemorrhage. Four cases of uterine cervical cancer with radiotherapy, including 2 cases of primary and 2 cases of postoperative radiotherapy, were managed by Maalox treatment with intervals of one to nine years between radiotherapy and Maalox instillation. One of the three patients with hemorrhagic cystitis, who had received internal iliac arterial embolization at the another hospital, was to be performed the operation of the urinary tract diversion. 50-100 ml of original or 1/2 diluted Maalox was instilled into urinary bladder or rectum with clump of catheter for 30 min. to 1 hr. after sufficient irrigation with 500 ml of 100 times diluted isodine. Blood transfusion for anemia was done in all cases, and antibiotics, or anticoagulant agents were systematically administered in some cases. Macrohematuria or melena ceased within 2 to 8 days after initiation of Maalox therapy in all cases. In one of the three cases of hemorrhagic cystitis, macroscopic hematuria, which reappeared one year later, was also successfully treated by Maalox therapy. In a case of radiation proctitis, though the melena disappeared in 5 days, diarrhea continued and the patient died of the primary disease two months later with the formation of rectovaginal fistula. No ultimate way of treatment of radiation hemorrhagic cystitis or proctitis has been established, though both of them were clinically important and serious side effects of radiotherapy. Therefore, intravesical or intrarectal instillation of Maalox could become one of the leading ways of treatment of intractable hemorrhagic cystitis, because the technique was simple and the effectiveness was valid without any notable side effects. (author).

  19. Superoxide dismutase mimic, MnTE-2-PyP5+ ameliorates acute and chronic proctitis following focal proton irradiation of the rat rectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O. Archambeau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation proctitis, an inflammation and damage to the lower part of colon, is a common adverse event of the radiotherapy of tumors in the abdominal and pelvic region (colon, prostate, cervical. Several Mn(III porphyrin-based superoxide dismutase mimics have been synthesized and successfully evaluated in preclinical models as radioprotectants. Here we report for the first time the remarkable rectal radioprotection of frequently explored Mn(III meso-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-ylporphyrin, MnTE-2-PyP5+. A batch prepared in compliance with good manufacturing practice (GMP, which has good safety/toxicity profile, was used for this study. MnTE-2-PyP5+ was given subcutaneously at 5 mg/kg, either 1 h before or 1 h after irradiation, with additional drug administered at weekly intervals thereafter. MnTE-2-PyP5+ ameliorated both acute and chronic radiation proctitis in male Sprague-Dawley rats irradiated with 20–30 Gy protons delivered to 2.5 cm span of rectum using spread-out Bragg peak of a proton treatment beam. Focal irradiation of the rectum produced acute proctitis, which healed, followed by chronic rectal dilation and symptomatic proctitis. MnTE-2-PyP5+ protected rectal mucosa from radiation-induced crypt loss measured 10 days post-irradiation. Significant effects were observed with both pre- and post-treatment regimens. However, only MnTE-2-PyP5+ pre-treatment, but not post-treatment, prevented the development of rectal dilation, indicating that proper dosing regimen is critical for radioprotection. The pre-treatment also prevented or delayed the development of chronic proctitis depending on the radiation dose. Further work aimed at developing MnTE-2-PyP5+ and similar drugs as adjunctive agents for radiotherapy of pelvic tumors is warranted. The present study substantiates the prospects of employing this and similar analogs in preserving normal tissue during cancer radiation as well as any other radiation exposure.

  20. Colostomy is a simple and effective procedure for severe chronic radiation proctitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zi-Xu; Ma, Teng-Hui; Wang, Huai-Ming; Zhong, Qing-Hua; Yu, Xi-Hu; Qin, Qi-Yuan; Wang, Jian-Ping; Wang, Lei

    2016-06-28

    To assess the efficacy and safety of diverting colostomy in treating severe hemorrhagic chronic radiation proctitis (CRP). Patients with severe hemorrhagic CRP who were admitted from 2008 to 2014 were enrolled into this study. All CRP patients were diagnosed by a combination of pelvic radiation history, clinical rectal bleeding, and endoscopic findings. Inclusion criteria were CRP patients with refractory bleeding with moderate to severe anemia with a hemoglobin level colostomy, while the control group included patients who received conservative treatment. The remission of bleeding was defined as complete cessation or only occasional bleeding that needed no further treatment. The primary outcome was bleeding remission at 6 mo after treatment. Quality of life before treatment and at follow-up was evaluated according to EORTC QLQ C30. Severe CRP complications were recorded during follow-up. Forty-seven consecutive patients were enrolled, including 22 in the colostomy group and 27 in the conservative treatment group. When compared to conservative treatment, colostomy obtained a higher rate of bleeding remission (94% vs 12%), especially in control of transfusion-dependent bleeding (100% vs 0%), and offered a better control of refractory perianal pain (100% vs 0%), and a lower score of bleeding (P colostomy achieved better remission of both moderate bleeding (100% vs 21.5%, P = 0.002) and severe bleeding (100% vs 0%, P colostomy, which included global health, function, and symptoms, but it was not improved in the control group. Pathological evaluation after colostomy found diffused chronic inflammation cells, and massive fibrosis collagen depositions under the rectal wall, which revealed potential fibrosis formation. Diverting colostomy is a simple, effective and safe procedure for severe hemorrhagic CRP. Colostomy can improve quality of life and reduce serious complications secondary to radiotherapy.

  1. Long-term control of refractory hemorrhagic radiation proctitis with ozone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavo, Bernardino; Ceballos, Daniel; Gutierrez, Dominga; Rovira, Gloria; Suarez, Gerardo; Lopez, Laura; Pinar, Beatriz; Cabezon, Auxiliadora; Morales, Victoria; Oliva, Elena; Fiuza, Dolores; Santana-Rodriguez, Norberto

    2013-07-01

    Persistent or severe hemorrhagic radiation proctitis (HRP) has limited therapeutic options. To describe our experience with ozone therapy (O3T) in the management of refractory HRP. Patients (n=17; median age 69 years [range 42-80 years]) previously irradiated for prostate or uterine cancer and suffering persistent or severe HRP without response to conventional treatment were enrolled to receive an O3/O2 gas mixture via rectal insufflations and topical application of ozonized oil. Most of the patients (83%) had Grade 3 or Grade 4 toxicity. Median follow-up post-O3T was 40 months (range 3-56 months). Endoscopic treatments required were: 43 (median 1; range 0-10) pre-O3T; 17 (median 0; range 0-8; P=0.063) during O3T; and five (median 0; range 0-2; P=0.008) during follow-up. Hemoglobin levels were 10.35g/dL (7-14g/dL) pre-O3T and 13g/dL (9-15g/dL) (P=0.001) post-O3T. Median toxicity grades were 3 (range 2-4) pre-O3T, 1 (range 0-2; P<0.001) at the end of O3T, and 0 (range 0-1; P<0.001) at the last follow-up. Persistent advanced HRP was significantly improved with O3T. The addition of O3T can be useful as a complementary treatment in the long-term management of HRP and, as such, merits further evaluation. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. WE-D-BRE-05: Prediction of Late Radiation-Induced Proctitis in Prostate Cancer Patients Using Chromosome Aberration and Cell Proliferation Rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, J; Deasy, J [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Chromosome damage and cell proliferation rate have been investigated as potential biomarkers for the early prediction of late radiationinduced toxicity. Incorporating these endpoints, we explored the predictive power for late radiation proctitis using a machine learning method. Methods: Recently, Beaton et al. showed that chromosome aberration and cell proliferation rate could be used as biomarkers to predict late radiation proctitis (Beaton et al. (2013) Int J Rad Onc Biol Phys, 85:1346–1352). For the identification of radiosensitive biomarkers, blood samples were collected from 10 patients with grade 3 late proctitis along with 20 control patients with grade 0 proctitis. After irradiation at 6 Gy, statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups, using the number of dicentrics and excess fragments, and the number of cells in metaphase 2 (M2). However, Beaton et al. did not show the usefulness of combining these endpoints. We reanalyzed the dataset to investigate whether incorporating these endpoints can increase the predictive power of radiation proctitis, using a support vector machine (SVM). Results: Using the SVM method with the number of fragments and M2 endpoints, perfect classification was achieved. In addition, to avoid biased estimate of the classification method, leave-one-out cross-validation (LOO-CV) was performed. The best performance was achieved when all three endpoints were used with 87% accuracy, 90% sensitivity, 85% specificity, and 0.85 AUC (the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve). The most significant endpoint was the number of fragments that obtained 83% accuracy, 70% sensitivity, 90% specificity, and 0.82 AUC. Conclusion: We demonstrated that chromosome damage and cell proliferation rate could be significant biomarkers to predict late radiation proctitis. When these endpoints were used together in conjunction with a machine learning method, the better performance was obtained

  3. Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment in Radiation-Induced Cystitis and Proctitis: A Prospective Cohort Study on Patient-Perceived Quality of Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oscarsson, Nicklas, E-mail: nicklas.oscarsson@vgregion.se [Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Arnell, Per [Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Lodding, Pär [Department of Urology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Ricksten, Sven-Erik; Seeman-Lodding, Heléne [Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: In this prospective cohort study, the effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) were evaluated concerning patient-perceived symptoms of late radiation-induced cystitis and proctitis secondary to radiation therapy for pelvic cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-nine patients, 35 men and 4 women with a mean age of 71 (range, 35-84) years were included after informed consent and institutional ethics approval. They had all been treated with radiation therapy for prostate (n=34), cervix (n=2), or rectal (n=3) cancer using external beam radiation at a dose of 25 to 75 Gy. Patients with hematuria requiring blood transfusion were excluded. The HBOT was delivered with 100% oxygen for 90 minutes at 2.0 to 2.4 atmospheres (ATA). Mean number of treatments was 36 (28-40). Symptoms were prospectively assessed using the Expanded Prostate Index Composite score before, during, and 6 to 12 months after HBOT. Results: The HBOT was successfully conducted, and symptoms were alleviated in 76% for patients with radiation cystitis, 89% for patients with radiation proctitis, and 88% of patients with combined cystitis and proctitis. Symptom reduction was demonstrated by an increased Expanded Prostate Index Composite score in the urinary domain from 50 ± 16 to 66 ± 20 after treatment (P<.001) and in the bowel domain from 48 ± 18 to 68 ± 18 after treatment (P<.001). For 31% of the patients with cystitis and 22% with proctitis, there were only trivial symptoms after HBOT. The improvement was sustained at follow-up in both domains 6 to 12 months after HBOT. No severe side effects were observed related to HBOT, and treatment compliance was high. Conclusions: HBOT can be an effective and safe treatment modality for late radiation therapy-induced soft tissue injuries in the pelvic region.

  4. Acute Radiation Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Matters Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS): A Fact Sheet for the Public ... is called the radiation dose. People exposed to radiation will get ARS only if: The radiation dose ...

  5. Effectiveness of argon plasma coagulation in the treatment of chronic actinic proctitis Efectividad de la fulguración con argón plasma en el tratamiento de la proctitis actínica crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tormo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: there are two kinds of actinic proctitis - one is acute and self-limited, and lasts about 3 months; the other is chronic and develops months to years after radiation therapy. The incidence of chronic actinic proctitis is about 5-20% of radiated prostate tumors. Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of argon plasma coagulation in the treatment of chronic actinic proctitis. Material and method: a retrospective search of patients with the diagnosis of actinic proctitis. The number of argon plasma coagulation therapies needed to achieve the symptom resolution was analyzed. Results: we found 22 patients with a diagnosis of actinic proctitis. Nineteen were males (86.7% and three (13.6% were females. Nineteen patients (86.4% had a diagnosis of prostate adenocarcinoma, one had a diagnosis of squamous-cell cervix carcinoma (4.5%, and two had a diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma (9.1%. The mean number of coagulation sessions needed for symptom resolution was 2.58 (absolute range 1-7 with a median of 2 sessions. Conclusion: multiple treatments are described in the literature. None of them have shown promising results. Our results suggest that argon plasma coagulation is effective in the treatment of this condition, and achieves a rapid and sustained response with few sessions and a good safety profile.Introducción: existen 2 tipos de proctitis actínica, una aguda autolimitada, que dura aproximadamente 3 meses y otra crónica que aparece a los meses o años de la radioterapia. La incidencia de proctitis actínica crónica es del 5-20% de los tumores prostáticos irradiados. Objetivo: evaluar la efectividad de la fulguración con argón plasma en el tratamiento de este tipo de proctitis. Material y método: estudio retrospectivo. Realizamos una búsqueda retrospectiva de aquellos pacientes diagnosticados de proctitis actínica entre 2004 y 2007. Analizamos el número de sesiones de fulguración con plasma de argón que fueron necesarias

  6. Bacteriotherapy of acute radiation sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mal' tsev, V.N.; Korshunov, V.M.; Strel' nikov, V.A.; Ikonnikova, T.B.; Kissina, E.V.; Lyannaya, A.M.; Goncharova, G.I.; Pinegin, B.V.

    1979-04-01

    Acute sickness is associated with intestinal dysbacteriosis; there is a radical decrease in number of microorganisms of lactic fermentation (bifidobacterium, lactobacillus) and an increase in E. coli proteus, enterococcus, and clostridium. Extensive use is made of live microorganisms in the treatment of various diseases associated with intestinal dysbacteriosis; in the case of acute radiation sickness, yeast, colibacterin, and E. coli have been used. In a number of cases, such therapy increased survival and life expectancy of irradiated animals. In this study, microorganisms of lactic fermentation (lactobacillus, bifidobacterium) and colibacterin were used for treatment of acute radiation sickness.

  7. Proctitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) in Children Lactose Intolerance Ménétrier’s Disease Microscopic Colitis Ostomy Surgery of the ...

  8. Delayed Microbial Cure of Lymphogranuloma Venereum Proctitis with Doxycycline Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, H.J.C.; Smelov, V.; Middelburg, J.G.; Pleijster, J.; Speksnijder, A.G.; Morré, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Microbial cure of chlamydia proctitis (lymphogranuloma venereum [LGV] and non-LGV) with doxycycline treatment was evaluated by chlamydia DNA and RNA persistence in anal swab specimens. In LGV proctitis, RNA persisted for up to 16 days. In non-LGV chlamydia proctitis, DNA was undetectable after 7

  9. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörr Harald

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  10. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.chapet@chu-lyon.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); EMR3738, Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie [Pole Information Médicale Evaluation Recherche, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); EA SIS, Université de Lyon, Lyon (France); Faix, Antoine [Department of Urology, Clinique Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Ruffion, Alain [Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Department of Urology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Jalade, Patrice [Department of Medical Physics, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  11. Reactivated cytomegalovirus proctitis in an immunocompetent patient presenting as nosocomial diarrhea: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Lu, Po-Liang

    2017-02-01

    Reactivated cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been known to cause significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. However, CMV disease rarely develops in immunocompetent patients, and reported cases often present with a mild, self-limiting course, without severe life-threatening sequelae. While the colon is the most common gastrointestinal site affected by CMV disease in immunocompetent patients, rectal involvement is rarely reported. CMV proctitis can present in two distinct forms, primary and reactivated. However, reactivated CMV proctitis is rarely reported as a causative etiology of nosocomial diarrhea, except in transplant patients. Herein we present a case of reactivated CMV proctitis in an immunocompetent patient, presenting as nosocomial diarrhea. Previously reported cases of reactivated CMV proctitis in immunocompetent patients are also reviewed. A 79-year-old female was admitted because of metabolic encephalopathy caused by dehydration and hypernatremia. The patient's consciousness level returned rapidly after fluid supplementation. However, she subsequently presented with abdominal pain and diarrhea on day 8 of admission. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography on day 10 of admission demonstrated inflammation around the rectum, suggesting proctitis. Colonoscopy on day 16 of admission showed a giant ulcer at the rectum. Pathology of rectal biopsy confirmed CMV infection. The patient recovered without sequelae after 38 days of valganciclovir treatment. Follow-up colonoscopy revealed a healed ulcer over the rectum. Ten cases in the literature, plus our case, with reactivated CMV proctitis in immunocompetent patients were reviewed. We found that most patients were elderly (mean, 72 years) with a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus (54.5%). Cardinal manifestations are often non-specific (diarrhea, hematochezia, tenesmus), and eight (72.7%) developed CMV proctitis following a preceding acute, life-threatening disease, rather

  12. Oral sucralfate in acute radiation oesophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sur, R.K. (Dept. of Radiotherapy, Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India)); Kochhar, R. (Dept. of Gastroenterology, Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India)); Singh, D.P. (Dept. of Radiotherapy, Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India))

    1994-01-01

    Eighty patients with carcinoma in the middle third of oesophagus and with acute radiation oesophagitis following external beam and intracavitary radiotherapy were managed by two different schedules. Group 1 (n = 40) received an antacid containing sodium alginate whereas Group 2 (n = 40) were given a 10% sucralfate suspension during 4 weeks. In Group 2, 32 patients had significant relief of symptoms within 7 days of treatment and most ulcers had healed by 12 days of treatment as seen on endoscopy. Patients in Group 1, on the other hand, showed little improvement of symptoms and had persistent ulcers even after 4 weeks of therapy. We conclude that sucralfate is useful in the management of acute radiation oesophagitis. (orig.).

  13. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Rectum; Dose de tolerance a l'irradiation des tissus sains: le rectum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, P. [Departement de radiotherapie, institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Chapet, O. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, centre hospitalier Lyon-Sud, 69 - Pierre-Benite (France)

    2010-07-15

    Radiation proctitis is among the most frequent radiation-induced toxicities. This is related to the high frequency of pelvic tumours and the key role of radiotherapy in the treatment of these tumours. Late rectal toxicity usually occurs within the first two years after the completion of a radiotherapy course. Rectal bleeding and a rectal syndrome are the main symptoms, and can be associated to fistulas or rectal ulcers. Clinical factors, such as diabetes mellitus, a severe acute radiation toxicity, small rectal volume or radiation hypersensitivity, are associated with late rectal toxicity. Dosimetric factors derived from the analysis of dose-volume histograms can also predict the occurrence of radiation proctitis, and help to adapt the prescribed dose and the ballistic of irradiation. (authors)

  14. Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

  15. MRI assessment of local acute radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber-Donat, G.; Potet, J.; Baccialone, J.; Teriitehau, C. [Military Hospital Percy, Radiology Department, Clamart (France); Amabile, J.C.; Laroche, P. [Military Hospital Percy, Army Institute of Radioprotection, Clamart (France); Lahutte-Auboin, M. [Military Hospital Val-de-Grace, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Bey, E. [Military Hospital Percy, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department, Clamart (France)

    2012-12-15

    To describe local acute radiation syndrome and its radiological imaging characteristics. We performed a retrospective study of patients who had suffered skin and deeper radiation damage who were investigated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We compared the clinical findings, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and MRI results. A total of 22 MRI examinations were performed between 2005 and 2010 in 7 patients; 6 patients had increased CRP levels and MRI abnormalities. They were treated by surgery and local cellular therapy. One patient had no CRP or MRI abnormalities, and had a spontaneous good outcome. Eighteen abnormal MR examinations demonstrated high STIR signal and/or abnormal enhancement in the dermis and muscle tissues. Three MRI examinations demonstrated skeletal abnormalities, consistent with radionecrosis. The four normal MRI examinations were associated only with minor clinical manifestations such as pain and pigmentation disorders. MRI seems to be a useful and promising imaging investigation in radiation burns management i.e. initial lesion evaluation, treatment evaluation and complication diagnosis. MRI findings correlated perfectly with clinical stage and no false negative examinations were obtained. In particular, the association between normal MRI and low CRP level seems to be related to good outcome without specific treatment. (orig.)

  16. Herpes Simplex Proctitis Mimicking Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a Teenaged Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen E. Sandgren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 17-year-old male who was initially assessed for pain with defecation, bloody rectal discharge, and diarrhea, consistent with proctitis. Though proctitis is most commonly due to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, infectious etiologies must also be considered, including sexually transmitted causes of infectious proctitis. In discussion of his sexual history, he identified as homosexual and acknowledged engaging in receptive anal intercourse. Rectal biopsies obtained via colonoscopy were culture-positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV, leading to a diagnosis of HSV proctitis and treatment with an appropriate antiviral medication. HSV proctitis is more common in individuals with high-risk sexual practices, including men who have sex with men. While this may be an uncommon diagnosis for pediatricians to make in practice, a high clinical index of suspicion for sexually transmitted infectious proctitis in those with risk factors must be maintained in order to facilitate appropriate testing, treatment, and counseling of affected individuals.

  17. Acute Cerebrovascular Radiation Syndrome: Radiation Neurotoxicity , mechanisms of CNS radiation injury, advanced countermeasures for Radiation Protection of Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava

    Key words: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (Cv ARS), Radiation Neurotoxins (RNT), Neurotransmitters, Radiation Countermeasures, Antiradiation Vaccine (ArV), Antiradiation Blocking Antibodies, Antiradiation Antidote. Psychoneuroimmunology, Neurotoxicity. ABSTRACT: To review the role of Radiation Neurotoxins in triggering, developing of radiation induced central nervous system injury. Radiation Neurotoxins - rapidly acting blood toxic lethal agent, which activated after irradiation and concentrated, circulated in interstitial fluid, lymph, blood with interactions with cell membranes, receptors and cell compartments. Radiation Neurotoxins - biological molecules with high enzymatic activity and/or specific lipids and activated or modified after irradiation. The Radiation Neurotoxins induce increased permeability of blood vessels, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and developing severe disorder of blood macro- and micro-circulation. Principles of Radiation Psychoneuro-immunology and Psychoneuro-allergology were applied for determination of pathological processes developed after irradiation or selective administration of Radiation Neurotoxins to radiation naïve mammals. Effects of radiation and exposure to radiation can develop severe irreversible abnormalities of Central Nervous System, brain structures and functions. Antiradiation Vaccine - most effective, advanced methods of protection, prevention, mitigation and treatment and was used for of Acute Radiation Syndromes and elaboration of new technology for immune-prophylaxis and immune-protection against ϒ, Heavy Ion, Neutron irradiation. Results of experiments suggested that blocking, antitoxic, antiradiation antibodies can significantly reduce toxicity of Radiation Toxins. New advanced technology include active immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation therapy that included specific blocking antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins

  18. 2013 European Guideline on the management of proctitis, proctocolitis and enteritis caused by sexually transmissible pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Henry J. C.; Zingoni, Adele; White, John A.; Ross, Jonathan D. C.; Kreuter, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Proctitis is defined as an inflammatory syndrome of the distal 10-12 cm of the anal canal, also called the rectum. Infectious proctitis can be sexually transmitted via genital-anal mucosal contact, but some also via mutual masturbation.N. gonorrhoeae,C. trachomatis(including lymphogranuloma

  19. Infectious proctitis: when to suspect it is not inflammatory bowel disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoentjen, F.; Rubin, D.T.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Proctitis is a common problem and is most frequently associated with inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the incidence of infectious proctitis appears to be rising, especially in men who have sex with men. This may be due to the rise of people participating in receptive anal sex as

  20. The cognitive profile of children treated with radiation for acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Cranial radiation is part of a treatment protocol for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in South Africa. Radiation is known to disrupt the myelination and integrity of white matter tracts in the brain. Associated cognitive impairment has been well documented in other countries, but not to the same ...

  1. Acute Toxicity After Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Compared to 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortel, Ruud C.; Incrocci, Luca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pos, Floris J.; Lebesque, Joos V.; Witte, Marnix G.; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Herk, Marcel van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heemsbergen, Wilma D., E-mail: w.heemsbergen@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) allows significant dose reductions to organs at risk in prostate cancer patients. However, clinical data identifying the benefits of IG-IMRT in daily practice are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare dose distributions to organs at risk and acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity levels of patients treated to 78 Gy with either IG-IMRT or 3D-CRT. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with 3D-CRT (n=215) and IG-IMRT (n=260) receiving 78 Gy in 39 fractions within 2 randomized trials were selected. Dose surface histograms of anorectum, anal canal, and bladder were calculated. Identical toxicity questionnaires were distributed at baseline, prior to fraction 20 and 30 and at 90 days after treatment. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 endpoints were derived directly from questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were applied. Results: The median volumes receiving 5 to 75 Gy were significantly lower (all P<.001) with IG-IMRT for anorectum, anal canal, and bladder. The mean dose to the anorectum was 34.4 Gy versus 47.3 Gy (P<.001), 23.6 Gy versus 44.6 Gy for the anal canal (P<.001), and 33.1 Gy versus 43.2 Gy for the bladder (P<.001). Significantly lower grade ≥2 toxicity was observed for proctitis, stool frequency ≥6/day, and urinary frequency ≥12/day. IG-IMRT resulted in significantly lower overall RTOG grade ≥2 GI toxicity (29% vs 49%, respectively, P=.002) and overall GU grade ≥2 toxicity (38% vs 48%, respectively, P=.009). Conclusions: A clinically meaningful reduction in dose to organs at risk and acute toxicity levels was observed in IG-IMRT patients, as a result of improved technique and tighter margins. Therefore reduced late toxicity levels can be expected as well; additional research is needed to quantify such reductions.

  2. Antiradiation Vaccine: Immunological neutralization of Radiation Toxins at Acute Radiation Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: Current medical management of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) does not include immune prophylaxis based on the Antiradiation Vaccine. Existing principles for the treatment of acute radiation syndromes are based on the replacement and supportive therapy. Haemotopoietic cell transplantation is recomended as an important method of treatment of a Haemopoietic form of the ARS. Though in the different hospitals and institutions, 31 pa-tients with a haemopoietic form have previously undergone transplantation with stem cells, in all cases(100%) the transplantants were rejected. Lethality rate was 87%.(N.Daniak et al. 2005). A large amount of biological substances or antigens isolated from bacterias (flagellin and derivates), plants, different types of venom (honeybees, scorpions, snakes) have been studied. This biological active substances can produce a nonspecific stimulation of immune system of mammals and protect against of mild doses of irradiation. But their radioprotection efficacy against high doses of radiation were not sufficient. Relative radioprotection characteristics or adaptive properties of antioxidants were expressed only at mild doses of radiation. However antioxidants demonstrated a very low protective efficacy at high doses of radiation. Some ex-periments demonstrated even a harmful effect of antioxidants administered to animals that had severe forms of the ARS. Only Specific Radiation Toxins roused a specific antigenic stim-ulation of antibody synthesis. An active immunization by non-toxic doses of radiation toxins includes a complex of radiation toxins that we call the Specific Radiation Determinant (SRD). Immunization must be provided not less than 24 days before irradiation and it is effective up to three years and more. Active immunization by radiation toxins significantly reduces the mortality rate (100%) and improves survival rate up to 60% compare with the 0% sur-vival rate among the irradiated animals in control groups

  3. Lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis: A differential diagnose to inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, Sverre; Knudsen, Lene Surland; Gerstoft, Jan

    2011-01-01

    manifestation of LGV is a proctitis, with a clinical presentation and endoscopic findings resembling those of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). LGV is considered new in Scandinavia. This case report focuses on difficulties in differentiating LGV and IBD. Material and methods. This case report used......Abstract Objective. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical areas for many years. After 2003 there have been several outbreaks in western countries, especially among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). An important...... a systematic search in the literature using PubMed and clinical cases from the Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Denmark (Cases 1-3) and the Section of Surgery, Hamar Hospital, Norway (Case 4). Results. Clinical and endoscopic findings in LGV and IBD resemble...

  4. Modification of Acute Radiation Response in Different Demographic Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-25

    differences in radiation sensitivity between male and female mice were observed, but the radiosensitivity among the sexes varied depending on the age of the...et al. 2017) and fatigue (Feng, Wolff et al. 2017) are acute effects of radiation therapy. These effects can be debilitating but are reversible over...our population. 30 Section 8. References Abrams, H. L. (1951). "Influence of Age, Body Weight, and Sex on Susceptibility of Mice to the

  5. Acute radiation syndrones and their management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation syndromes produced by large doses of ionizing radiation are divided into three general groups depending on dose of radiation and time after exposure. The CNS syndrome requires many thousands of rad, appears in minutes to hours, and kills within hours to days. The GIS appears after doses of a few hundred to 2000 rad. It is characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and disturbances of water and electrolyte metabolism. It has a high mortality in the first week after exposure. Survivors will then experience the HS as a result of marrow aplasia. Depending on dose, survival is possible with antibiotic and transfusion therapy. The relationship of granulocyte depression to mortality in dogs and human beings is illustrated. The role of depth dose pattern of mortality of radiation exposure is described and used as an indication of why air exposure doses may be misleading. The therapy of radiation injury is described based on antibiotics, transfusion therapy, and use of molecular regulators. The limited role of matched allogenic bone marrow transplants is discussed. 52 refs., 13 figs.

  6. Emetic Mechanism in Acute Radiation Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-20

    in all of six cats with an average onset time of 27 min. The same radiation treatment evoked vomiting in two of three postremectomized cats with an...Sugihara, and M. Kuru . Microelectrode studies on sensory afferents in the posterior funiuulus of cat. Jap. J. Physiol. 6: 68-85, 1956. Yuhas, J.M. Recovery

  7. The cognitive profile of children treated with radiation for acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    radiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. S-J Whitaker, E Schutte. Department of Psychology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. S-J Whitaker, BA ..... Hypofrontality in unmedicated schizophrenia patients studied with PET during performance of a serial verbal learning task. Schizophr Res 2000;43(1):33-46.

  8. The cognitive profile of children treated with radiation for acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demyelination induced by the radiation used in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) diminishes the white matter in the brain.1 At least one neuropsychological consequence of demyelination is a reduction in processing speed.2 A brain region identified as being particularly sensitive to disruptions.

  9. Mitigation Strategies for Acute Radiation Exposure during Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas R.; Epelman, Slava

    2006-01-01

    While there are many potential risks in a Moon or Mars mission, one of the most important and unpredictable is that of crew radiation exposure. The two forms of radiation that impact a mission far from the protective environment of low-earth orbit, are solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). The effects of GCR occur as a long-term cumulative dose that results increased longer-term medical risks such as malignancy and neurological degeneration. Unfortunately, relatively little has been published on the medical management of an acute SPE that could potentially endanger the mission and harm the crew. Reanalysis of the largest SPE in August 1972 revealed that the dose rate was significantly higher than previously stated in the literature. The peak dose rate was 9 cGy h(sup -1) which exceeds the low dose-rate criteria for 25 hrs (National Council on Radiation Protection) and 16 hrs (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). The bone marrow dose accumulated was 0.8 Gy, which exceeded the 25 and 16 hour criteria and would pose a serious medical risk. Current spacesuits would not provide shielding from the damaging effects for an SPE as large as the 1972 event, as increased shielding from 1-5 grams per square centimeters would do little to shield the bone marrow from exposure. Medical management options for an acute radiation event are discussed based on recommendations from the Department of Homeland Security, Centers for Disease Control and evidence-based scientific literature. The discussion will also consider how to define acute exposure radiation safety limits with respect to exploration-class missions, and to determine the level of care necessary for a crew that may be exposed to an SPE similar to August 1972.

  10. Acute Radiation Disease : Cutaneous Syndrome and Toxic properties of Radiomimetics -Radiation Neurotoxins and Hematotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Cutaneous injury is an important complication of a general or local acute irradiation. A type of a skin and tissues lesions depends on a type, intensity, and period of irradiation. Also, the clinical picture, signs, and manifestations of the cutaneous syndrome depend on a type of the radiation toxins circulated in lymph and blood of irradiated mammals. Radiation Toxins were isolated from lymph of the mammals that were irradiated and developed different forms of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) -Cerebrovascular, Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, and Hematopoietic. Radiation Toxins can be divided into the two important types of toxins (Neu-rotoxins and Hematotoxins) or four groups. The effects of Radiation Neurotoxins include severe damages and cell death of brain, heart, gastrointestinal tissues and endothelial cells of blood and lymphatic vessels. The hematotoxicity of Hematotoxic Radiation Toxins includes lym-phopenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia in the blood circulation and transitory lymphocytosis and leukocytosis in the Central Lymphatic System. In all cases, administration of the Radiomimetics (Radiation Toxins) intramuscularly or intravenously to healthy, radiation naive mammals had induced and developed the typical clinical manifestations of the ARS. In all cases, administration of Radiomimetics by subtoxic doses had demonstrated development of typical clinical signs of the cutaneous syndrome such as hair loss, erythema, swelling, desqua-mation, blistering and skin necrosis. In animal-toxic models, we have activated development of the local skin and tissue injury after injection of Radiation Toxins with cytoxic properties.

  11. Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome : Radiation Neurotoxins, Mechanisms of Toxicity, Neuroimmune Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (CvARS) is an extremely severe in-jury of Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). CvARS can be induced by the high doses of neutron, heavy ions, or gamma radiation. The Syndrome clinical picture depends on a type, timing, and the doses of radiation. Four grades of the CvARS were defined: mild, moderate, severe, and extremely severe. Also, four stages of CvARS were developed: prodromal, latent, manifest, outcome -death. Duration of stages depends on the types, doses, and time of radiation. The CvARS clinical symptoms are: respiratory distress, hypotension, cerebral edema, severe disorder of cerebral blood microcirculation, and acute motor weakness. The radiation toxins, Cerebro-Vascular Radiation Neurotoxins (SvARSn), determine development of the acute radiation syndrome. Mechanism of action of the toxins: Though pathogenesis of radiation injury of CNS remains unknown, our concept describes the Cv ARS as a result of Neurotoxicity and Excitotoxicity, cell death through apoptotic necrosis. Neurotoxicity occurs after the high doses radiation exposure, formation of radiation neuro-toxins, possible bioradicals, or group of specific enzymes. Intracerebral hemorrhage can be a consequence of the damage of endothelial cells caused by radiation and the radiation tox-ins. Disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB)and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCFB)is possibly the most significant effect of microcirculation disorder and metabolic insufficiency. NMDA-receptors excitotoxic injury mediated by cerebral ischemia and cerebral hypoxia. Dam-age of the pyramidal cells in layers 3 and 5 and Purkinje cell layer the cerebral cortex , damage of pyramidal cells in the hippocampus occur as a result of cerebral ischemia and intracerebral bleeding. Methods: Radiation Toxins of CV ARS are defined as glycoproteins with the molec-ular weight of RT toxins ranges from 200-250 kDa and with high enzymatic activity

  12. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (Bone marrow syndrome, Aplastic Anemia): Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri

    Key Words: Aplastic Anemia (AA), Pluripotential Stem Cells (PSC) Introduction: Aplastic Anemia (AA) is a disorder of the pluripotential stem cells involve a decrease in the number of cells of myeloid, erythroid and megakaryotic lineage [Segel et al. 2000 ]. The etiology of AA include idiopathic cases and secondary aplastic anemia after exposure to drugs, toxins, chemicals, viral infections, lympho-proliferative diseases, radiation, genetic causes, myelodisplastic syndromes and hypoplastic anemias, thymomas, lymphomas. [Brodskyet al. 2005.,Modan et al. 1975., Szklo et al. 1975]. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (or Bone marrow syndrome, or Radiation-Acquired Aplastic Anemia) is the acute toxic syndrome which usually occurs with a dose of irradiation between 0.7 and 10 Gy (70- 1000 rads), depending on the species irradiated. [Waselenko et al., 2004]. The etiology of bone morrow damage from high-level radiation exposure results depends on the radiosensitivity of certain bone marrow cell lines. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Aplastic anemia after radiation exposure is a clinical syndrome that results from a marked disorder of bone marrow blood cell production. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Radiation hematotoxicity is mediated via genotoxic and other specific toxic mechanisms, leading to aplasia, cell apoptosis or necrosis, initiation via genetic mechanisms of clonal disorders, in cases such as the acute radiation-acquired form of AA. AA results from radiation injury to pluripotential and multipotential stem cells in the bone marrow. The clinical signs displayed in reticulocytopenia, anemia, granulocytopenia, monocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia. The number of marrow CD34+ cells (multipotential hematopoietic progenitors) and their derivative colony-forming unit{granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) and burst forming unit {erythroid (BFU{E) are reduced markedly in patients with AA. [Guinan 2011, Brodski et al. 2005, Beutler et al.,2000] Cells expressing CD34 (CD34+ cell) are normally

  13. Acute Radiation Effects Resulting from Exposure to Solar Particle Event-Like Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann; Cengel, Keith

    2012-07-01

    A major solar particle event (SPE) may place astronauts at significant risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which may be exacerbated when combined with other space flight stressors, such that the mission or crew health may be compromised. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR) is focused on the assessment of risks of adverse biological effects related to the ARS in animal models exposed to space flight stressors combined with the types of radiation expected during an SPE. As part of this program, FDA-approved drugs that may prevent and/or mitigate ARS symptoms are being evaluated. The CARR studies are focused on the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to the types of radiation, at the appropriate energies, doses and dose-rates, present during an SPE (and standard reference radiations, gamma rays or electrons). The ARS is a phased syndrome which often includes vomiting and fatigue. Other acute adverse biologic effects of concern are the loss of hematopoietic cells, which can result in compromised bone marrow and immune cell functions. There is also concern for skin damage from high SPE radiation doses, including burns, and resulting immune system dysfunction. Using 3 separate animal model systems (ferrets, mice and pigs), the major ARS biologic endpoints being evaluated are: 1) vomiting/retching and fatigue, 2) hematologic changes (with focus on white blood cells) and immune system changes resulting from exposure to SPE radiation with and without reduced weightbearing conditions, and 3) skin injury and related immune system functions. In all of these areas of research, statistically significant adverse health effects have been observed in animals exposed to SPE-like radiation. Countermeasures for the management of ARS symptoms are being evaluated. New research findings from the past grant year will be discussed. Acknowledgements: This research is supported by the NSBRI Center of Acute

  14. 2013 European Guideline on the management of proctitis, proctocolitis and enteritis caused by sexually transmissible pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Henry J C; Zingoni, Adele; White, John A; Ross, Jonathan D C; Kreuter, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    Proctitis is defined as an inflammatory syndrome of the distal 10-12 cm of the anal canal, also called the rectum. Infectious proctitis can be sexually transmitted via genital-anal mucosal contact, but some also via mutual masturbation.N. gonorrhoeae,C. trachomatis(including lymphogranuloma venereum), Herpes Simplex Virus andT. pallidumare the most common sexually transmitted anorectal pathogens. Shigellosis can be transferred via oral-anal contact and may lead to proctocolitis or enteritis. Although most studies on these infections have concentrated on men who have sex with men (MSM), a significant proportion of women have anal intercourse and therefore may also be at risk. A presumptive clinical diagnosis of proctitis can be made when there are symptoms and signs, and a definitive diagnosis when the results of laboratory tests are available. The symptoms of proctitis include anorectal itching, pain, cramps (tenesmus) and discharge in and around the anal canal. Asymptomatic proctitis occurs frequently and can only be detected by laboratory tests. The majority of rectal chlamydia and gonococcal infections are asymptomatic. Therefore when there is a history of receptive anal contact, exclusion of anorectal infections is generally indicated as part of standard screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Condom use does not guarantee protection from bacterial and protozoan STIs, which are often spread without penile penetration. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. Multifocal atherosclerosis in patient after acute first degree radiation sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metlyaeva N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: assessment the heavy psychosomatic and all-somatic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular pathology of patient, transferred an acute I degree radiation sickness, from the general evenly gamma-beta radiation. Conclusions. The subdepressive and disturbing-depressive syndrome of patient, transferred an acute radiation sickness (ARS of I degree, from the general evenly gamma-beta radiation, was independent risk factor of development of multifocal atherosclerosis; Features of development of all-somatic and psychosomatic pathology of patient are based on a combination of genetic prerequisites, environment influences (the stress caused by accident on the ChNPP and social factors, influencing on him during a course of life, especially during early socialization. Thus at development of psychosomatic frustration the combination of feature of the mental reaction connected with the personal characteristic and special relationship between mental (stress and physiological (somatic by aspects of reaction which led to metabolism violation, to aging, decrease in adaptation opportunities of an organism and development age — dependent pathology took place.

  16. Animal models for acute radiation syndrome drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay K; Newman, Victoria L; Berg, Allison N; MacVittie, Thomas J

    2015-05-01

    Although significant scientific advances have been made over the past six decades in developing safe, nontoxic and effective radiation/medical countermeasures (MCMs) for acute radiation syndrome (ARS), no drug has been approved by the US FDA. The availability of adequate animal models is a prime requisite under the criteria established by the FDA 'animal rule' for the development of novel MCMs for ARS and the discovery of biomarkers for radiation exposure. This article reviews the developments of MCMs to combat ARS, with particular reference to the various animal models (rodents: mouse and rat; canine: beagle; minipigs and nonhuman primates [NHPs]) utilized for the in-depth evaluation. The objective, pathways and challenges of the FDA Animal Efficacy Rule are also discussed. There are a number of well-defined animal models, the mouse, canine and NHP, that are being used for the development of MCMs. Additional animal models, such as the minipig, are under development to further assist in the identification, efficacy testing and approval of MCMs under the FDA Animal Efficacy Rule.

  17. Mini-Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Treatment of Clostridium difficile Proctitis Following Total Colectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenstein, Robert; King, Kara; Patron, Roberto L; DiBaise, John K; Etzioni, David

    2018-01-06

    Rarely, in fulminant Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), the rectal stump is persistently infected following total abdominal colectomy. We report cure of a septic patient with proctitis by fecal microbiota transplant via rectal swabs (mini-FMT). This novel procedure offers a management option for recurrent CDI following total abdominal colectomy. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Gastrointestinal symptoms resembling ulcerative proctitis caused by larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Gaillard, Julien; Borée-Moreau, Diane; Bailly, Éric; Andres, Christian R; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of facultative intestinal myiasis due to larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax, also named the rat-tailed maggots. The development of larvae in the lower bowel was responsible for non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that resembled ulcerative proctitis. The diagnosis was established upon the observation of four spontaneously excreted mobile larvae. The definite identification of the E. tenax species was made possible by scanning electron microscopy. The clinical outcome was satisfactory.

  19. Tissue Respiration and Glycolysis in the Development of Acute Radiation Sickness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golubentsev, D

    1960-01-01

    The condition of tissue respiration and glycolysis in the development of acute radiation sickness has been insufficiently studied, and the factual data and opinions of various investigators are frequently contradictory...

  20. Dosimetric coverage of the prostate, normal tissue sparing, and acute toxicity with high-dose-rate brachytherapy for large prostate volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, George; Strom, Tobin J.; Shrinath, Kushagra; Mellon, Eric A.; Fernandez, Daniel C.; Biagioli, Matthew C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL (United States); Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: mcbiagioli@yahoo.com [Cancer Treatment Centers of America, Newnan, GA (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: to evaluate dosimetric coverage of the prostate, normal tissue sparing, and acute toxicity with HDR brachytherapy for large prostate volumes. Materials and methods: one hundred and two prostate cancer patients with prostate volumes >50 mL (range: 5-29 mL) were treated with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy ± intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to 4,500 cGy in 25 daily fractions between 2009 and 2013. HDR brachytherapy monotherapy doses consisted of two 1,350-1,400 cGy fractions separated by 2-3 weeks, and HDR brachytherapy boost doses consisted of two 950-1,150 cGy fractions separated by 4 weeks. Twelve of 32 (38%) unfavorable intermediate risk, high risk, and very high risk patients received androgen deprivation therapy. Acute toxicity was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4. Results: median follow-up was 14 months. Dosimetric goals were achieved in over 90% of cases. Three of 102 (3%) patients developed Grade 2 acute proctitis. No variables were significantly associated with Grade 2 acute proctitis. Seventeen of 102 (17%) patients developed Grade 2 acute urinary retention. American Urological Association (AUA) symptom score was the only variable significantly associated with Grade 2 acute urinary retention (p-0.04). There was no ≥ Grade 3 acute toxicity. Conclusions: dosimetric coverage of the prostate and normal tissue sparing were adequate in patients with prostate volumes >50 mL. Higher pre-treatment AUA symptom scores increased the relative risk of Grade 2 acute urinary retention. However, the overall incidence of acute toxicity was acceptable in patients with large prostate volumes. (author)

  1. Principles of medical rehabilitation of survivors of acute radiation sickness induced by gamma and beta and gumma and neutron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedejina, N.M.; Galstian, I.A.; Savitsky, A.A.; Sachkov, A.V.; Rtisheva, J.N.; Uvatcheva, I.V.; Filin, S.V. [State Research Center of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biophysics

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the principles of medical rehabilitation different degree acute radiation syndrome (ARS) survivors, who exposed {gamma}{beta}- and {gamma}{eta}-irradiation in different radiation accidents. The main reasons of working disability in the late consequences of ARS period are consequences of local radiation injures (LRI) and joining somatic diseases. Its revealing and treatment considerably improves quality of life of the patients. The heaviest consequence of LRI of a skin at {gamma}{beta}- radiation exposure is the development of late radiation ulcers and radiation fibrosis, which require repeated plastic surgery. LRI at {gamma}{eta}-radiation exposure differ by the greater depth of destruction of a underlying tissues and similar defects require the early amputations. Last 10 years microsurgery methods of plastic surgery allow to save more large segments of extremities and to decrease expression of the late consequences (radiation fibrosis and late radiation ulcers) LRI severe and extremely severe degrees. Medical rehabilitation of radiation cataract (development at doses more than 2.0 Gy) includes its extraction and artificial lens implantation, if acuity of vision is considerably decreased. Changes of peripheral blood, observed at the period of the long consequences, as a rule, different, moderate, transient and not requiring treatment. Only one ARS survivor dead from chronic myeloid leukemia. Thyroid nodes, not requiring operative intervention, are found out in Chernobyl survivors. Within the time course the concurrent somatic disease become the major importance for patients disability growth, which concurrent diseases seem to be unrelated to radiation dose and their structure does not differ from that found in general public of Russia. The rehabilitation of the persons who have transferred ARS as a result of radiating failure, should be directed on restoration of functions critical for ionizing of radiation of bodies and

  2. The acute radiation syndrome: A study of ten cases and a review of the problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempelmann, L.H.; Lisco, H.

    1950-03-17

    In this report ten cases of acute radiation syndrome are described resulting from two accidents occurring at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory of unique nature involving fissionable material. These cases are described in considerable detail. The report comprises ten sections. This volume, part II of the report, is comprised of sections entitled: (1) the Biological Basis for the Clinical Response seen in the Acute radiation Syndrome, (2) Clinical Signs and Symptoms, (3) Discussion of Hematological Findings, (4) Chemistry of the Blood and Urine, (5) Discussion of Pathological Findings, and (6) Reconsiderations of the Calculated Radiation Doses in Terms of the Observed Biological Response of the Patients. This report was prepared primarily for the clinician who is interested in radiation injuries and therefore emphasis has been placed on the correlation of clinical and pathological changes with the type of cytogenetic change known to be produced by ionizing radiation.

  3. [Mitigation of mice radiation damage after acute and prolonged γ-irradiation by a laser device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskanyan, K Sh; Vorozhtsova, S V; Abrosimova, A N; Mitsyn, G V; Gaevskiy, V N; Molokanov, A G

    2014-01-01

    Effects of 7 Gy 60Co γ-radiation (acute and prolonged exposure), and combined exposure to 650 nm laser and γ-radiation on survival, peripheral blood, karyocyte count and mitotic index of bone marrow cells were studied in young C57BL/6 mice. All mice died following acute γ-irradiation at the dose rate of 1.14 Gy/min for 5 days or combined exposure for 11 days. Thirty percent survival from prolonged exposure to the dose rate of 0.027 Gy/min was observed after 19-day γ- and 38-day combined irradiation. Peripheral blood parameters did not differ significantly after acute and prolonged exposure; however, hyperchromemia was observed in mice after 24 hours of acute γ-irradiation. The count of mitoses per 1000 nucleus-containing BM cells evidenced that BM was virtually collapsed after 72 hours since the acute γ-exposure. It was demonstrated that laser can manage protection from a broad range of ionizing radiation doses and mitigate the adverse effects of equally acute and prolonged radiation exposure.

  4. Acute Radiation Syndrome Severity Score System in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossetrova, Natalia I; Ney, Patrick H; Condliffe, Donald P; Krasnopolsky, Katya; Hieber, Kevin P

    2016-08-01

    Radiation accidents or terrorist attacks can result in serious consequences for the civilian population and for military personnel responding to such emergencies. The early medical management situation requires quantitative indications for early initiation of cytokine therapy in individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and effective triage tools for first responders in mass-casualty radiological incidents. Previously established animal (Mus musculus, Macaca mulatta) total-body irradiation (γ-exposure) models have evaluated a panel of radiation-responsive proteins that, together with peripheral blood cell counts, create a multiparametic dose-predictive algorithm with a threshold for detection of ~1 Gy from 1 to 7 d after exposure as well as demonstrate the acute radiation syndrome severity score systems created similar to the Medical Treatment Protocols for Radiation Accident Victims developed by Fliedner and colleagues. The authors present a further demonstration of the acute radiation sickness severity score system in a mouse (CD2F1, males) TBI model (1-14 Gy, Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min) based on multiple biodosimetric endpoints. This includes the acute radiation sickness severity Observational Grading System, survival rate, weight changes, temperature, peripheral blood cell counts and radiation-responsive protein expression profile: Flt-3 ligand, interleukin 6, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, thrombopoietin, erythropoietin, and serum amyloid A. Results show that use of the multiple-parameter severity score system facilitates identification of animals requiring enhanced monitoring after irradiation and that proteomics are a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposure, enhancing accuracy and discrimination index for acute radiation sickness response categories and early prediction of outcome.

  5. Proctitis as the clinical presentation of lymphogranuloma venereum, a re-emerging disease in developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge López-Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV is a sexually transmitted infectious disease caused by serovars L1, L2 and L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis. The initial presentation is usually a painless ulcerated papule on the genitalia or distal proctitis. The progression of the infection can lead to major complications: rectal strictures, intestinal obstruction or perforation. We present five cases of LGV proctitis as the initial presentation of the disease. All patients were male, mean age 44.6 years, with positive serology to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and promiscuous men who have sex with men (MSM. The initial diagnosis was made by rectosigmoidoscopy indicated for pain and anal discharge. All cases were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction technique in rectal tissue. Endoscopic images obtained showed a great variety of rectal lesions, from mild erythema of the mucosa and ulcers to deep ulcers with elevated borders and purulent exudate. All cases were resolved after treatment with doxycycline for 3 weeks. It emphasizes the importance of suspecting this re-emerging disease in patients with risk factors (HIV and MSM, with the aim of early treatment and to avoid major complications.

  6. Proctitis as the clinical presentation of lymphogranuloma venereum, a re-emerging disease in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Jorge; Rodríguez-Alcalde, Daniel; Hernández-Villalba, Luis; Moreno-Sánchez, Diego; Lumbreras-Cabrera, Mercedes; Barros-Aguado, Carlos; Galán, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infectious disease caused by serovars L1, L2 and L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis. The initial presentation is usually a painless ulcerated papule on the genitalia or distal proctitis. The progression of the infection can lead to major complications: rectal strictures, intestinal obstruction or perforation. We present five cases of LGV proctitis as the initial presentation of the disease. All patients were male, mean age 44.6 years, with positive serology to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and promiscuous men who have sex with men (MSM).The initial diagnosis was made by rectosigmoidoscopy indicated for pain and anal discharge. All cases were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction technique in rectal tissue. Endoscopic images obtained showed a great variety of rectal lesions, from mild erythema of the mucosa and ulcers to deep ulcers with elevated borders and purulent exudate. All cases were resolved after treatment with doxycycline for 3 weeks. It emphasizes the importance of suspecting this re-emerging disease in patients with risk factors (HIV and MSM), with the aim of early treatment and to avoid major complications.

  7. Mometasone Furoate Cream Reduces Acute Radiation Dermatitis in Patients Receiving Breast Radiation Therapy: Results of a Randomized Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindley, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.hindley@lthtr.nhs.uk [Rosemere Cancer Centre, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston (United Kingdom); Zain, Zakiyah [College of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah (Malaysia); Wood, Lisa [Department of Social Sciences, Lancaster Medical School, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Whitehead, Anne [Medical and Pharmaceutical Statistics Research Unit, Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Sanneh, Alison; Barber, David; Hornsby, Ruth [Rosemere Cancer Centre, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: We wanted to confirm the benefit of mometasone furoate (MF) in preventing acute radiation reactions, as shown in a previous study (Boström et al, Radiother Oncol 2001;59:257-265). Methods and Materials: The study was a double-blind comparison of MF with D (Diprobase), administered daily from the start of radiation therapy for 5 weeks in patients receiving breast radiation therapy, 40 Gy in 2.67-Gy fractions daily over 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was mean modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score. Results: Mean RTOG scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.046). Maximum RTOG and mean erythema scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.018 and P=.012, respectively). The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score was significantly less for MF than for D at weeks 4 and 5 when corrected for Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) questionnaire scores. Conclusions: MF cream significantly reduces radiation dermatitis when applied to the breast during and after radiation therapy. For the first time, we have shown a significantly beneficial effect on quality of life using a validated instrument (DLQI), for a topical steroid cream. We believe that application of this cream should be the standard of care where radiation dermatitis is expected.

  8. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The hypothesis being evaluated in this research program is that control of radiation induced oxidative stress will reduce the risk of radiation induced adverse biological effects occurring as a result of exposure to the types of radiation encountered during space travel. As part of this grant work, we have evaluated the protective effects of several antioxidants and dietary supplements and observed that a mixture of antioxidants (AOX), containing L-selenomethionine, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid, vitamin E succinate, and alpha-lipoic acid, is highly effective at reducing space radiation induced oxidative stress in both in vivo and in vitro systems, space radiation induced cytotoxicity and malignant transformation in vitro [1-7]. In studies designed to determine whether the AOX formulation could affect radiation induced mortality [8], it was observed that the AOX dietary supplement increased the 30-day survival of ICR male mice following exposure to a potentially lethal dose (8 Gy) of X-rays when given prior to or after animal irradiation. Pretreatment of animals with antioxidants resulted in significantly higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts in peripheral blood at 4 and 24 hours following exposure to doses of 1 Gy and 8 Gy. Antioxidant treatment also resulted in increased bone marrow cell counts following irradiation, and prevented peripheral lymphopenia following 1 Gy irradiation. Supplementation with antioxidants in irradiated animals resulted in several gene expression changes: the antioxidant treatment was associated with increased Bcl-2, and decreased Bax, caspase-9 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression in the bone marrow following irradiation. These results suggest that modulation of apoptosis may be mechanistically involved in hematopoietic system radioprotection by antioxidants. Maintenance of the antioxidant diet was associated with improved recovery of the bone marrow following sub-lethal or potentially lethal irradiation. Taken together

  9. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor in the Treatment of Acute Radiation Syndrome: A Concise Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Hofer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article concisely summarizes data on the action of one of the principal and best known growth factors, the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, in a mammalian organism exposed to radiation doses inducing acute radiation syndrome. Highlighted are the topics of its real or anticipated use in radiation accident victims, the timing of its administration, the possibilities of combining G-CSF with other drugs, the ability of other agents to stimulate endogenous G-CSF production, as well as of the capability of this growth factor to ameliorate not only the bone marrow radiation syndrome but also the gastrointestinal radiation syndrome. G-CSF is one of the pivotal drugs in the treatment of radiation accident victims and its employment in this indication can be expected to remain or even grow in the future.

  10. Potential for a pluripotent adult stem cell treatment for acute radiation sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgerson, Denis O; Reidenberg, Bruce E; Harris, Alan G; Pecora, Andrew L

    2012-06-20

    Accidental radiation exposure and the threat of deliberate radiation exposure have been in the news and are a public health concern. Experience with acute radiation sickness has been gathered from atomic blast survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and from civilian nuclear accidents as well as experience gained during the development of radiation therapy for cancer. This paper reviews the medical treatment reports relevant to acute radiation sickness among the survivors of atomic weapons at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, among the victims of Chernobyl, and the two cases described so far from the Fukushima Dai-Ichi disaster. The data supporting the use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and the new efforts to expand stem cell populations ex vivo for infusion to treat bone marrow failure are reviewed. Hematopoietic stem cells derived from bone marrow or blood have a broad ability to repair and replace radiation induced damaged blood and immune cell production and may promote blood vessel formation and tissue repair. Additionally, a constituent of bone marrow-derived, adult pluripotent stem cells, very small embryonic like stem cells, are highly resistant to ionizing radiation and appear capable of regenerating radiation damaged tissue including skin, gut and lung.

  11. Multiple abdominal nodules in a patient with ulcerative proctitis: a case of peritoneal splenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Marocchi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year old gardener was referred for ulcerative proctitis treated with topical mesalamine with rapid improvement of symptoms. Eighteen years before he had had a splenectomy for traumatic splenic rupture. At the end of 2010, he was admitted to another hospital because of abdominal pain. Computerized tomography (CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple abdominal nodules but a definite diagnosis was not made. While being examined for the proctitis, the patient was admitted to our unit due to worsening of the abdominal pain. After another CT scan, a laparoscopy was performed: several reddish-blue nodules on the peritoneal wall were observed and biopsies were performed. Histological examination was consistent with splenosis. After the procedure, we observed an improvement in the abdominal pain. Splenosis is an acquired condition defined as autotransplantation of viable splenic tissue throughout different sites of the body. It occurs after splenic rupture via trauma or surgery. Splenosis is a benign condition that is usually found incidentally unless symptomatic. Since on radiographic examination it can mimic a neoplasia, extensive workup is usually needed. The diagnostic method of choice is nuclear scintigraphy. Splenosis usually occurs in the abdominal and pelvic cavities but patients have been described with splenosis in other intrathoracic, hepatic and subcutaneous sites. Splenosis is usually asymptomatic and treatment is not necessary. Most patients who have an exploratory laparotomy or laparoscopy for abdominal pain, such as in our patient, experience no more pain after the procedure, regardless of whether the splenic nodules have been completely removed or not. The reason for this spontaneous improvement is not known.

  12. The Effects of Acute Mobile Phone Radiation on the Anxiety Level of Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Esmaili

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Despite two decades of using mobile phone, the biological effects of electromagnetic radiation remain controversial. The study was conducted to determine the effect of mobile phone waves on anxiety-like behaviors in male rats. Methods A total number of 80 male naive rats were, randomly, divided into eight groups (Control, 900, 1 800, and 2 100 MHz exposure. The acute and chronic effects of mobile phone radiation on the anxiety profile was compared considering a 45-min session and seven sessions of radiation (45 min/day using the elevated plus-maze (EPM in rats. The number of rats entering the open and closed arms and their duration of stay in each of the arms were assessed. To estimate the oxidative stress, Superoxide Dismutase level in the blood serum was evaluated. Results The results obtained in the EPM showed no significant differences among the groups after acute exposure to mobile phone radiation (P > 0.05. No significant differences were observed among the groups in terms of their serum superoxide dismutase level (P > 0.05. Conclusions Short time mobile phone radiation had no effect on anxiety-like behaviors and serum enzyme activity; this may be due to low tissue irritation during acute exposure to mobile phone waves.

  13. The effect of tetrandrine and extracts of centella asiatica on acute radiation dermatitis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Dai, Yu-Shiang; Chen, Be-Fong [Mackay Memorial Hospital, TW (China)] [and others

    1999-07-01

    Radiation injury to the skin is one of the major limiting factors in radiotherapy. We designed this study using Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate the reduction in skin injury achieved using natural products from plant extracts as protection. The acute skin reaction in tetrandrine- and Madecassol-treated animals appeared earlier, but was significantly less severe, than in the control group. The peak skin reactions in the tetrandrine group were less serious than those of the control group at three different radiation doses. At a high dose irradiation, the healing effect of tetrandrine is better than Madecassol and vaseline. The histologic findings indicate that tetrandrine and Madecassol are able to reduce acute radiation reactions by their anti-inflammatory activity. (author)

  14. Multiple parametric approaches to assess acute radiation lung injury of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Soni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of whole body gamma irradiation (WBI in single fraction was studied, as well as its influen­ce on the secretion of various biochemical markers and cellular component that could be used as acute radiation lung injury marker. Sprague dawley rats were treated with WBI (60Co of radiation dose from 1 Gy to 5 Gy (dose rate – 0.95 Gy/min. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was retrieved from all animals in control and radiation treated groups up to 72 h post radiation. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF was analyzed for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, acid phosphatase (AP, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, cell count and total protein. Intragroup and intergroup comparison of BALF parameters at different radiation doses showed significant difference. LDH was significantly increased as the dose increased from 1Gy to 5Gy (P = 0.00 after 2 h with effect size of difference (r > 0.3. ALP was significantly altered after 3Gy and 4Gy (P < 0.05. AP was significantly altered at 2Gy-5Gy (P < 0.05. Total protein level changed significantly from 1Gy to 5Gy (P < 0.00. Cellular content of BALF showed significant changes after radiation exposure. BALF parameters like LDH, AP, ALP, neutrophils, lymphocytes, total leukocyte count and total protein were sensitive to radiation exposure and their levels vary significantly up to 72 h after single whole body radiation exposure in Sprague dawley rats. It can be concluded that the biochemical indices in BALF have more wide application in evaluation of acute radiation induced lung injury.

  15. Gene expression in Catla catla (Hamilton) subjected to acute and protracted doses of gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anbumani, S., E-mail: aquatox1982@gmail.com; Mohankumar, Mary N., E-mail: marynmk@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Gamma radiation induced up- and down- regulation of cell cycle genes. • Protracted dose-rate induced gene up-regulation to facilitate cell survival. • bcl-2 gene facilitates repair at protracted dose and cell death at acute exposures. • gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 genes work in concert to promote ‘repair’ and ‘death’ circuitries in fish blood cells. - Abstract: Studies on transcriptional modulation after gamma radiation exposure in fish are limited. Cell cycle perturbations and expression of apoptotic genes were investigated in the fish, Catla catla after acute and protracted exposures to gamma radiation over a 90 day period. Significant changes in gene expression were observed between day 1 and 90 post-exposure. Gamma radiation induced a significant down-regulation of target genes gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 from day 1 to day 3 after protracted exposure, whereas it persists till day 6 upon acute exposure. From day 12 onwards, Gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 genes were up-regulated following protracted exposure, indicating DNA repair, cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. There exists a linear correlation between these genes (gadd45α – r = 0.85, p = 0.0073; cdk1 – r = 0.86, p = 0.0053; bcl-2 – r = 0.89, p = 0.0026) at protracted exposures. This is the first report on the dual role of bcl-2 gene in fish exposed to acute and protracted radiation and correlation among the aforementioned genes that work in concert to promote ‘repair’ and ‘death’ circuitries in fish blood cells.

  16. Immuno-therapy of Acute Radiation Syndromes : Extracorporeal Immuno-Lympho-Plasmo-Sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Methods Results Summary and conclusions Introduction: Existing Medical Management of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) does not include methods of specific immunotherapy and active detoxication. Though the Acute Radiation Syndromes were defined as an acute toxic poisonous with development of pathological processes: Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), Toxic Multiple Organ Injury (TMOI), Toxic Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome(TMODS), Toxic Multiple Organ Failure (TMOF). Radiation Toxins of SRD Group play an important role as the trigger mechanisms in development of the ARS clinical symptoms. Methods: Immuno-Lympho-Plasmo-Sorption is a type of Immuno-therapy which includes prin-ciples of immunochromato-graphy, plasmopheresis, and hemodialysis. Specific Antiradiation Antitoxic Antibodies are the active pharmacological agents of immunotherapy . Antiradia-tion Antitoxic Antibodies bind selectively to Radiation Neurotoxins, Cytotoxins, Hematotox-ins and neutralize their toxic activity. We have developed the highly sensitive method and system for extracorporeal-immune-lypmh-plasmo-sorption with antigen-specific IgG which is clinically important for treatment of the toxic and immunologic phases of the ARS. The method of extracorporeal-immune-lypmh-plasmo-sorption includes Antiradiation Antitoxic Antibodies (AAA) immobilized on microporous polymeric membranes with a pore size that is capable to provide diffusion of blood-lymph plasma. Plasma of blood or lymph of irradiated mammals contains Radiation Toxins (RT) that have toxic and antigenic properties. Radiation Toxins are Antigen-specific to Antitoxic blocking antibodies (Immunoglobulin G). Plasma diffuses through membranes with immobilized AAA and AA-antibodies bind to the polysaccharide chain of tox-ins molecules and complexes of AAA-RT that are captured on membrane surfaces. RT were removed from plasma. Re-transfusion of plasma of blood and lymph had been provided. We show a statistical significant

  17. High Prevalence of Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Autoantibodies in Infants with Food Protein-Induced Proctitis/Proctocolitis: Autoimmunity Involvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Sekerkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Food protein-induced proctitis/proctocolitis (FPIP is the most common noninfectious colitis in children in the first year of life. Along with the overall clinical symptoms, diarrhoea and rectal bleeding are the main manifestations of the disease. There is no routine noninvasive test that would be specific for this type of colitis. The aim of our study was to find a noninvasive laboratory test or tests that may be helpful in differential diagnosis of food protein-induced proctitis/proctocolitis. Methods. ANA, ANCA, ASCA, a-EMA, a-tTg, specific IgE, total IgE, IgG, IgA, IgM, and concentration of serum calprotectin were measured in a group of 25 patients with colitis and 18 children with other diagnoses. Results. Atypical-pANCA antibodies of IgG isotype were detected in the sera of 24 patients by the method of indirect immunofluorescence, and 5 patients showed also the positivity of IgA isotype. In control samples these autoantibodies were not detected. Other autoantibodies were not demonstrated in either patient or control group. Conclusions. Of the parameters tested in noninfectious colitis, atypical-pANCA on ethanol-fixed granulocytes appears to be a suitable serological marker of food protein-induced proctitis/proctocolitis and suggests a possible involvement of an autoimmune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of this disease.

  18. Topical Calendula and Betamethasone Valerate in the prevention of acute radiation dermatitis: a randomized prospective trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotouhi M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute radiation dermatitis is a very common side effect of radiation therapy for many cancers, including breast cancer. Despite the high prevalence of acute radiation dermatitis as well as wet desquamation, only a few trials studying the prophylaxis of this complication using topical treatment have been conducted. In spite of these studies, some controversy still exists about regarding treatments for acute radiation dermatitis, as does some concern about their long-term complications. For this reason, we conducted a clinical trial for a new treatment with the same effectiveness as corticosteroids, but fewer complications. Methods: This trial included 60 patients with pathologic diagnoses of breast cancer for whom radiotherapy had been planned. Patients were 30-73 years old. Patients with radical mastectomy received 5000 cGy over five weeks, and those with conservative surgery received 6000 cGy over six weeks divided in 200 cGy fractions. Patients were divided randomly into two groups: one group received a moderately-potent glucocorticoid steroid, 0.1% betamethasone ointment (30, and the other received the new treatment, 0.1% calendula ointment (30. All patients applied their respective drugs twice daily within the tangential field from the first day of radiation treatment until one month after treatment was completed. Starting one week after radiation therapy commenced, patients were monitored weekly for symptoms of dermatitis and the degree of severity as well as possible adverse drug effects, in addition to such monitoring on the days of their appointments. Four weeks after termination of therapy, patients were again examined, at which time they completed a questionnaire about dermatologic complications. Results: The mean time to develop dermatitis was 3.7 weeks for the betamethasone group and 3.87 weeks for the calendula group. Maximal dermatitis intensity during treatment in the betamethasone group was: 0, 6.7%; I, 73.3%; II, 16

  19. Development of Graphical User Interface for ARRBOD (Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose Projection)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee; Hu, Shaowen; Nounu, Hatem N.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    The space radiation environment, particularly solar particle events (SPEs), poses the risk of acute radiation sickness (ARS) to humans; and organ doses from SPE exposure may reach critical levels during extra vehicular activities (EVAs) or within lightly shielded spacecraft. NASA has developed an organ dose projection model using the BRYNTRN with SUMDOSE computer codes, and a probabilistic model of Acute Radiation Risk (ARR). The codes BRYNTRN and SUMDOSE, written in FORTRAN, are a Baryon transport code and an output data processing code, respectively. The ARR code is written in C. The risk projection models of organ doses and ARR take the output from BRYNTRN as an input to their calculations. BRYNTRN code operation requires extensive input preparation. With a graphical user interface (GUI) to handle input and output for BRYNTRN, the response models can be connected easily and correctly to BRYNTRN in friendly way. A GUI for the Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose (ARRBOD) projection code provides seamless integration of input and output manipulations, which are required for operations of the ARRBOD modules: BRYNTRN, SUMDOSE, and the ARR probabilistic response model. The ARRBOD GUI is intended for mission planners, radiation shield designers, space operations in the mission operations directorate (MOD), and space biophysics researchers. The ARRBOD GUI will serve as a proof-of-concept example for future integration of other human space applications risk projection models. The current version of the ARRBOD GUI is a new self-contained product and will have follow-on versions, as options are added: 1) human geometries of MAX/FAX in addition to CAM/CAF; 2) shielding distributions for spacecraft, Mars surface and atmosphere; 3) various space environmental and biophysical models; and 4) other response models to be connected to the BRYNTRN. The major components of the overall system, the subsystem interconnections, and external interfaces are described in this

  20. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, Lisa; Blattnig, Steve; Hu, Shaowen; Huff, Janice; Kim, Myung-Hee; Norman, Ryan; Patel, Zarana; Simonsen, Lisa; Wu, Honglu

    2016-01-01

    Crew health and performance may be impacted by a major solar particle event (SPE), multiple SPEs, or the cumulative effect of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and SPEs. Beyond low-Earth orbit, the protection of the Earth's magnetosphere is no longer available, such that increased shielding and protective mechanisms are necessary in order to prevent acute radiation sickness and impacts to mission success or crew survival. While operational monitoring and shielding are expected to minimize radiation exposures, there are EVA scenarios outside of low-Earth orbit where the risk of prodromal effects, including nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and fatigue, as well as skin injury and depletion of the blood-forming organs (BFO), may occur. There is a reasonable concern that a compromised immune system due to high skin doses from a SPE or due to synergistic space flight factors (e.g., microgravity) may lead to increased risk to the BFO. The primary data available at present are derived from analyses of medical patients and persons accidentally exposed to acute, high doses of low-linear energy transfer (LET) (or terrestrial) radiation. Data more specific to the space flight environment must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of increase of this risk and to develop appropriate protection strategies. In particular, information addressing the distinct differences between solar proton exposures and terrestrial exposure scenarios, including radiation quality, dose-rate effects, and non-uniform dose distributions, is required for accurate risk estimation.

  1. Therapeutic requirements in active ulcerative proctitis: A single-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafat, Margalida; Lobatón, Triana; Mañosa, Míriam; Marín, Laura; Caballero, Noemí; Larraín, Macarena; Cabré, Eduard; Domènech, Eugeni

    2017-12-01

    Ulcerative proctitis (UP) presents distinctive clinical characteristics, outcomes and therapeutic approaches as compared to left-sided and extensive ulcerative colitis (UC). To describe the current therapeutic requirements and clinical outcomes in patients with active UP. Retrospective observational study conducted in a referral IBD centre. Patients with UP in follow-up between 1989 and 2014 were included. The clinical characteristics, as well as the different treatments and drug formulations administered to treat flares, were recorded. Out of 687 UC patients, 101 patients (15%) with UP were included. Median follow-up was 8 years (IQR 3-14) and 49% of patients presented disease activity during the study period. Topical mesalazine monotherapy (90%) was the most commonly administered treatment for disease activity (mostly as suppositories), followed by topical steroids (47%) and oral mesalazine (56%) in monotherapy or combination therapy. Only 14% and 16% of patients required oral prednisone and beclomethasone, respectively. In clinical practice, active UP presents mostly favourable outcomes. Mesalazine suppositories are by far the most used treatment for these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U., AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose Projection Graphical User Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Hu, Shaowen; Nounu, Hateni N.; Kim, Myung-Hee

    2011-01-01

    The integration of human space applications risk projection models of organ dose and acute radiation risk has been a key problem. NASA has developed an organ dose projection model using the BRYNTRN with SUM DOSE computer codes, and a probabilistic model of Acute Radiation Risk (ARR). The codes BRYNTRN and SUM DOSE are a Baryon transport code and an output data processing code, respectively. The risk projection models of organ doses and ARR take the output from BRYNTRN as an input to their calculations. With a graphical user interface (GUI) to handle input and output for BRYNTRN, the response models can be connected easily and correctly to BRYNTRN. A GUI for the ARR and BRYNTRN Organ Dose (ARRBOD) projection code provides seamless integration of input and output manipulations, which are required for operations of the ARRBOD modules. The ARRBOD GUI is intended for mission planners, radiation shield designers, space operations in the mission operations directorate (MOD), and space biophysics researchers. BRYNTRN code operation requires extensive input preparation. Only a graphical user interface (GUI) can handle input and output for BRYNTRN to the response models easily and correctly. The purpose of the GUI development for ARRBOD is to provide seamless integration of input and output manipulations for the operations of projection modules (BRYNTRN, SLMDOSE, and the ARR probabilistic response model) in assessing the acute risk and the organ doses of significant Solar Particle Events (SPEs). The assessment of astronauts radiation risk from SPE is in support of mission design and operational planning to manage radiation risks in future space missions. The ARRBOD GUI can identify the proper shielding solutions using the gender-specific organ dose assessments in order to avoid ARR symptoms, and to stay within the current NASA short-term dose limits. The quantified evaluation of ARR severities based on any given shielding configuration and a specified EVA or other mission

  3. Overview of Graphical User Interface for ARRBOD (Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose Projection)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hu, Shaowen; Nounu, Hatem N.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    Solar particle events (SPEs) pose the risk of acute radiation sickness (ARS) to astronauts, because organ doses from large SPEs may reach critical levels during extra vehicular activities (EVAs) or lightly shielded spacecraft. NASA has developed an organ dose projection model of Baryon transport code (BRYNTRN) with an output data processing module of SUMDOSE, and a probabilistic model of acute radiation risk (ARR). BRYNTRN code operation requires extensive input preparation, and the risk projection models of organ doses and ARR take the output from BRYNTRN as an input to their calculations. With a graphical user interface (GUI) to handle input and output for BRYNTRN, these response models can be connected easily and correctly to BRYNTRN in a user friendly way. The GUI for the Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose (ARRBOD) projection code provides seamless integration of input and output manipulations required for operations of the ARRBOD modules: BRYNTRN, SUMDOSE, and the ARR probabilistic response model. The ARRBOD GUI is intended for mission planners, radiation shield designers, space operations in the mission operations directorate (MOD), and space biophysics researchers. Assessment of astronauts organ doses and ARS from the exposure to historically large SPEs is in support of mission design and operation planning to avoid ARS and stay within the current NASA short-term dose limits. The ARRBOD GUI will serve as a proof-of-concept for future integration of other risk projection models for human space applications. We present an overview of the ARRBOD GUI product, which is a new self-contained product, for the major components of the overall system, subsystem interconnections, and external interfaces.

  4. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1991-02-01

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m{sup 3} for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m{sup 3} (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  5. Ecological effects of various toxic agents on the aquatic microcosm in comparison with acute ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuma, S. E-mail: fuma@nirs.go.jp; Ishii, N.; Takeda, H.; Miyamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, K.; Ichimasa, Y.; Saito, M.; Kawabata, Z.; Polikarpov, G.G

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this study was an evaluation of the effect levels of various toxic agents compared with acute doses of ionizing radiation for the experimental model ecosystem, i.e., microcosm mimicking aquatic microbial communities. For this purpose, the authors used the microcosm consisting of populations of the flagellate alga Euglena gracilis as a producer, the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila as a consumer and the bacterium Escherichia coli as a decomposer. Effects of aluminum and copper on the microcosm were investigated in this study, while effects of {gamma}-rays, ultraviolet radiation, acidification, manganese, nickel and gadolinium were reported in previous studies. The microcosm could detect not only the direct effects of these agents but also the community-level effects due to the interspecies interactions or the interactions between organisms and toxic agents. The authors evaluated doses or concentrations of each toxic agent which had the following effects on the microcosm: (1) no effects; (2) recognizable effects, i.e., decrease or increase in the cell densities of at least one species; (3) severe effects, i.e., extinction of one or two species; and (4) destructive effects, i.e., extinction of all species. The resulting effects data will contribute to an ecological risk assessment of the toxic agents compared with acute doses of ionizing radiation.

  6. Low-dose radiation modifies skin response to acute gamma-rays and protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiao Wen; Pecaut, Michael J; Cao, Jeffrey D; Moldovan, Maria; Gridley, Daila S

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to obtain pilot data on the effects of protracted low-dose/low-dose-rate (LDR) γ-rays on the skin, both with and without acute gamma or proton irradiation (IR). Six groups of C57BL/6 mice were examined: a) 0 Gy control, b) LDR, c) Gamma, d) LDR+Gamma, e) Proton, and f) LDR+Proton. LDR radiation was delivered to a total dose of 0.01 Gy (0.03 cGy/h), whereas the Gamma and Proton groups received 2 Gy (0.9 Gy/min and 1.0 Gy/min, respectively). Assays were performed 56 days after exposure. Skin samples from all irradiated groups had activated caspase-3, indicative of apoptosis. The significant (pGamma and Proton groups were not present when LDR pre-exposure was included. However, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay for DNA fragmentation and histological examination of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections revealed no significant differences among groups, regardless of radiation regimen. The data demonstrate that caspase-3 activation initially triggered by both forms of acute radiation was greatly elevated in the skin nearly two months after whole-body exposure. In addition, LDR γ-ray priming ameliorated this response.

  7. Reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine (Prozac) submitted to ionizing radiation to Vibrio fischeri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Dymes R.A.; Garcia, Vanessa S.G.; Vilarrubia, Anna C.S.; Borrely, Sueli I., E-mail: vanessagarcia@usp.br, E-mail: sborrely@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The constant use of pharmaceutical drugs by great part of the population and its continuous input into the environment creates a growing need of investigating its presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat wastewater containing such substances. The fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH) present in the drug Prozac is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Generally, these compounds enter the aquatic environment by sewage collectors systems after undergoing prior treatment in sewage treatment plants (STPs) or without any treatment. This study focused on evaluating the reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical FH, under its manipulated formula, for the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It was also evaluated the acute toxicity of the aqueous solution containing the FH after its exposition to ionizing radiation from industrial electron accelerator. It was performed acute toxicity tests lasting 15 minutes, where the average EC (50) of the non-irradiated CF water solution was approximately 0.68 mg L-1. While the CF water solution irradiated with 1 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy, presented an average EC(50) 1.63 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.34 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.35 mg.L{sup -1} and 1.80 mg.L{sup -1}, respectively, showing a notable reduction of the acute toxicity for this organism. (author)

  8. Diagnostic value of 18F-FDG uptake by spleen in acute radiation disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-jie WU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate whether 18F-FDG uptake can be applied in dosimetry to facilitate a rapid and accurate evaluation of individual radiation dosage after a nuclear accident. Methods Forty-eight Tibetan minipigs were randomly assigned into 6 groups, i.e., 0, 1, 2, 5, 8 and 11Gy groups. Animals in all except 0Gy group received total body irradiation (TBI with a 8MV X centrifugal linear accelerator, and 18F-FDG combined positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT were carried out before TBI, and also at 6, 24 and 72h after receiving TBI in different doses ranging from 1 to 11Gy. Spleen tissues and blood samples were collected for histological examination, apoptosis, and routine blood analysis. Results Mean standardized uptake values (SUVs of the spleen showed significant differences between experimental groups and control group. The spleen SUVs at 6h post-irradiation showed significant correlation with radiation dose; Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.95(P<0.01. Histopathological observations showed that the degree of splenic damage was proportional to the radiation dose. Moreover, flow cytometry revealed that apoptosis was one of the major forms of splenic lymphocyte death. Conclusion In the Tibetan minipig model, it was shown that radiation doses bear a close relationship with the 18F-FDG uptake of spleen. This finding suggests that 18F-FDG PET/CT may be useful for the rapid detection of individual radiation dosage after acute radiation disease (ARD. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.07.08

  9. Comparison of acute and subacute genitourinary and gastrointestinal adverse events of radiotherapy for prostate cancer using intensity-modulated radiation therapy, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, permanent implant brachytherapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morimoto, Masahiro; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Konishi, Koji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Yutaka; Ogata, Toshiyuki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Teshima, Teruki; Bijl, Henk P; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Langendijk, Johannes A; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    AIMS AND BACKGROUND: To examine acute and subacute urinary and rectal toxicity in patients with localized prostate cancer monotherapeutically treated with the following four radiotherapeutic techniques: intensity-modulated radiation therapy, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy,

  10. Radiation-free allogeneic conditioning with fludarabine, carmustine, and thiotepa for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and other hematologic malignancies necessitating enhanced central nervous system activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christopoulos, Petros; Bertz, Hartmut; Ihorst, Gabriele; Marks, Reinhard; Wäsch, Ralph; Finke, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    .... For less-fit patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and other hematologic malignancies frequently affecting the central nervous system, we designed a radiation-free regimen with fludarabine...

  11. Medical Management of Acute Radiation Syndromes : Comparison of Antiradiation Vaccine and Antioxidants radioprotection potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliev, Slava; Popov, Dmitri; Lisenkov, Nikolai

    Introduction: This experimental study of biological effects of the Antiradiation Vaccine and Antioxidants which were used for prophylaxis and treatment of the Acute Radiation Syndromes caused by high doses of the low-LET radiation. An important role of Reactive Oxyden Species (Singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions and bio-radicals)in development of the Acute Radiation Syndromes could be defined as a "central dogma" of radiobiology. Oxida-tion and damages of lipids, proteins, DNA, and RNA are playing active role in development of postradiation apoptosis. However, the therapeutic role of antioxidants in modification of a postradiation injury caused by high doses of radiation remains controversial.Previous stud-ies had revealed that antioxidants did not increase a survival rate of mammals with severe forms of the Acute Radiation Syndromes caused by High Doses of the low-LET radiation. The Antiradiation Vaccine(ARV) contains toxoid forms of the Radiation Toxins(RT) from the Specific Radiation Determinants Group (SRD). The RT SRD has toxic and antigenic prop-erties at the same time and stimulates a specific antibody elaboration and humoral response form activated acquired immune system. The blocking antiradiation antibodies induce an im-munologically specific effect and have inhibiting effects on radiation induced neuro-toxicity, vascular-toxicity, gastrointestinal toxcity, hematopoietic toxicity, and radiation induced cytol-ysis of selected groups of cells that are sensitive to radiation. Methods and materials: Scheme of experiments: 1. Irradiated animals with development of Cerebrovascular ARS (Cv-ARS), Cardiovascular ARS (Cr-ARS) Gastrointestinal ARS(GI-ARS), Hematopoietic ARS (H-ARS) -control -were treated with placebo administration. 2. Irradiated animals were treated with antioxidants prophylaxisis and treatment of Cv-ARS, Cr-SRS, GI-ARS, Hp-ARS forms of the ARS. 3. irradiated animals were treated with radioprotection by Antiradiation Vaccine

  12. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Simonsen, Lisa; Huff, Janice L.

    2016-01-01

    Possible acute and late risks to the central nervous system (CNS) from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are concerns for human exploration of space. Acute CNS risks may include: altered cognitive function, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, all of which may affect performance and human health. Late CNS risks may include neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia and premature aging. Although detrimental CNS changes are observed in humans treated with high-dose radiation (e.g., gamma rays and 9 protons) for cancer and are supported by experimental evidence showing neurocognitive and behavioral effects in animal models, the significance of these results on the morbidity to astronauts has not been elucidated. There is a lack of human epidemiology data on which to base CNS risk estimates; therefore, risk projection based on scaling to human data, as done for cancer risk, is not possible for CNS risks. Research specific to the spaceflight environment using animal and cell models must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of CNS changes in order to estimate this risk and to establish validity of the current permissible exposure limits (PELs). In addition, the impact of radiation exposure in combination with individual sensitivity or other space flight factors, as well as assessment of the need for biological/pharmaceutical countermeasures, will be considered after further definition of CNS risk occurs.

  13. The Impact of Bladder Volume on Acute Urinary Toxicity during Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hae; Suh, Hyun Suk; Lee, Kyung Ja; Lee, Re Na; Kim, Myung Soo [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were found to reduce the incidence of acute and late rectal toxicity compared with conventional radiation therapy (RT), although acute and late urinary toxicities were not reduced significantly. Acute urinary toxicity, even at a low-grade, not only has an impact on a patient's quality of life, but also can be used as a predictor for chronic urinary toxicity. With bladder filling, part of the bladder moves away from the radiation field, resulting in a small irradiated bladder volume; hence, urinary toxicity can be decreased. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of bladder volume on acute urinary toxicity during RT in patients with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Forty two patients diagnosed with prostate cancer were treated by 3DCRT and of these, 21 patients made up a control group treated without any instruction to control the bladder volume. The remaining 21 patients in the experimental group were treated with a full bladder after drinking 450 mL of water an hour before treatment. We measured the bladder volume by CT and ultrasound at simulation to validate the accuracy of ultrasound. During the treatment period, we measured bladder volume weekly by ultrasound, for the experimental group, to evaluate the variation of the bladder volume. Results: A significant correlation between the bladder volume measured by CT and ultrasound was observed. The bladder volume in the experimental group varied with each patient despite drinking the same amount of water. Although weekly variations of the bladder volume were very high, larger initial CT volumes were associated with larger mean weekly bladder volumes. The mean bladder volume was 299{+-}155 mL in the experimental group, as opposed to 187{+-}155 mL in the control group. Patients in experimental group experienced less acute urinary toxicities than in control group, but the difference was not

  14. 2013 Space Radiation Standing Review Panel Status Review for: The Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure, The Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events (SPEs), The Risk Of Degenerative Tissue Or Other Health Effects From Radiation Exposure, and The Risk of Radiation Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) was impressed with the strong research program presented by the scientists and staff associated with NASA's Space Radiation Program Element and National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). The presentations given on-site and the reports of ongoing research that were provided in advance indicated the potential Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure (CNS) and were extensively discussed by the SRP. This new data leads the SRP to recommend that a higher priority should be placed on research designed to identify and understand these risks at the mechanistic level. To support this effort the SRP feels that a shift of emphasis from Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) and carcinogenesis to CNS-related endpoints is justified at this point. However, these research efforts need to focus on mechanisms, should follow pace with advances in the field of CNS in general and should consider the specific comments and suggestions made by the SRP as outlined below. The SRP further recommends that the Space Radiation Program Element continue with its efforts to fill the vacant positions (Element Scientist, CNS Risk Discipline Lead) as soon as possible. The SRP also strongly recommends that NASA should continue the NASA Space Radiation Summer School. In addition to these broad recommendations, there are specific comments/recommendations noted for each risk, described in detail below.

  15. Single-centre experience of radiation exposure in acute surgical patients: assessment of therapeutic impact and future recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzmaurice, Gerard J; Brown, Robin; Cranley, Brian; Conlon, Enda F; Todd, R Alan J; O'Donnell, Mark E

    2010-09-01

    Radiological investigations have become a key adjunct in patient management and consequently radiation exposure to patients is increasing. The study objectives were to examine the use of radiological investigations in the management of acute surgical patients and to assess whether a guideline-based radiation exposure risk/benefit analysis can aid in the choice of radiological investigation used. A prospective observational study was completed over a 12-week period from April to July 2008 for all acute surgical admissions. Data recorded included demographics, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, investigations, surgical interventions, and final clinical outcome. The use of radiological investigative modalities as an adjunct to clinical assessment was then evaluated against The Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) guidelines. A total of 380 acute surgical admissions (M = 174, F = 185, children = 21) were assessed during the study period. Seven hundred thirty-four radiological investigations were performed with a mean of 1.93 investigations per patient. Based on the RCR guidelines, 680 (92.6%) radiological investigations were warranted and included 142 CT scans (19.3%), 129 chest X-rays (17.6%), and 85 abdominal X-rays (11.6%). Clinically, radiological imaging complemented surgical management in 326 patients (85.8%) and the management plan remained unchanged for the remaining 54 patients (14.2%). This accounted for an average radiation dose of 4.18 millisievert (mSv) per patient or 626 days of background radiation exposure. CT imaging was responsible for the majority of the radiation exposure, with a total of 1310 mSv (82.6%) of the total radiation exposure being attributed to CT imaging in 20.8% of acute admissions. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that 92.8% of the CT scans performed were appropriate. Radiation exposure was generally low for the majority of acute surgical admissions. However, it is recommended that CT imaging requests be evaluated carefully

  16. Modification of radiation-induced acute oral mucositis in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani, M; Ross, G A

    2004-02-01

    A new non-toxic drug (compound A) consisting of curcumin, alpha-tocopherol and sunflower oil was developed and its efficacy tested in the treatment of radiation-induced oral mucositis in the rat. Mature (12 weeks old, 200-225 g) female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. While under general anaesthesia, the tongues of the animals were slightly extended outside and a region of the underside of the tongue was irradiated in-situ with single doses of 2.27 MeV beta-rays from a 5-mm diameter 90Sr/90Y plaque. The dose-rate of the source was about 10 Gy min(-1) at the surface of the mucus membrane. Irradiations and subsequent assessment of the lesion were carried out under general anaesthesia maintained by a 1.5% halothane/oxygen mixture. Six groups of animals were irradiated with single doses of 13.5, 15.0, 16.5 or 18Gy. One subgroup (radiation only) received no further treatment, while the other five groups received 0.5 ml day(-1) of either compound A, sunflower oil, alpha-tocopherol, curcumin or water containing 10% ethanol by oral gavage until the end of experiments. Mucosal ulceration (erosion of mucosal epithelium) was considered as an end-point. From the day after irradiation until any acute radiation-induced oral mucosal lesion had healed, the tongues of the animals were assessed daily for the presence of radiation-induced mucositis (mucosal ulceration). Quantal data for the incidence of radiation-induced mucositis were analysed using logit analysis and a dose-modification factor was obtained. There was a modest increase in ED50, the dose expected to cause mucositis in 50% of the animals after both alpha-tocopherol and sunflower oil were administered. This resulted in dose-modification factors of 1.05. While curcumin treatment resulted in a dose-modification factor of 1.09. Compound A significantly reduced the incidence of radiation-induced mucositis with a statistically significant dose-modification factor of 1.2 +/- 0.1. Curcumin and other components of compound A

  17. Acoustic radiation force impulse shear wave elastography (ARFI) of acute and chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, Ruediger S; Schuderer, Johanna; Strobel, Deike; Pfeifer, Lukas; Neurath, Markus F; Wildner, Dane

    2016-12-01

    Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography evaluates tissue stiffness non-invasively and has rarely been applied to pancreas examinations so far. In a prospective and retrospective analysis, ARFI shear wave velocities of healthy parenchyma, pancreatic lipomatosis, acute and chronic pancreatitis, adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of the pancreas were evaluated and compared. In 95 patients ARFI elastography of the pancreatic head, and also of the tail for a specific group, was analysed retrospectively. Additionally, prospectively in 100 patients ARFI was performed in the head and tail of the pancreas. A total of 195 patients were included in the study. Healthy parenchyma (n=21) and lipomatosis (n=30) showed similar shear wave velocities of about 1.3m/s. Acute pancreatitis (n=35), chronic pancreatitis (n=53) and adenocarcinoma (n=52) showed consecutively increasing ARFI values, respectively. NET (n=4) revealed the highest shear wave velocities amounting to 3.62m/s. ARFI elastography showed relevant differences between acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis or adenocarcinoma. With a cut-off value of 1.74m/s for the diagnosis of a malignant disease the sensitivity was 91.1% whereas the specificity amounted to 60.4%. ARFI shear wave velocities present differences in various pathologies of the pancreas. Acute and chronic pancreatitis as well as neoplastic lesions show high ARFI values. Very high elasticity values may indicate malignant disease of the pancreas. However, there is a considerable overlap between the entities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Th Cell Gene Expression and Function in Response to Low Dose and Acute Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daila S. Gridley, PhD

    2012-03-30

    FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Supported by the Low Dose Radiation Research Program, Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64345 Project ID: 0012965 Award Register#: ER64345 Project Manager: Noelle F. Metting, Sc.D. Phone: 301-903-8309 Division SC-23.2 noelle.metting@science.doe.gov Submitted March 2012 To: https://www.osti.gov/elink/241.3.jsp Title: Th Cell Gene Expression and Function in Response to Low Dose and Acute Radiation PI: Daila S. Gridley, Ph.D. Human low dose radiation data have been derived primarily from studies of space and airline flight personnel, nuclear plant workers and others exposed occupationally, as well as victims in the vicinity of atomic bomb explosions. The findings remain inconclusive due to population inconsistencies and complex interactions among total dose, dose rate, radiation quality and age at exposure. Thus, safe limits for low dose occupational irradiation are currently based on data obtained with doses far exceeding the levels expected for the general population and health risks have been largely extrapolated using the linear-nonthreshold dose-response model. The overall working hypothesis of the present study is that priming with low dose, low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation can ameliorate the response to acute high-dose radiation exposure. We also propose that the efficacy of low-dose induced protection will be dependent upon the form and regimen of the high-dose exposure: photons versus protons versus simulated solar particle event protons (sSPE). The emphasis has been on gene expression and function of CD4+ T helper (Th) lymphocytes harvested from spleens of whole-body irradiated C57BL/6 mice, a strain that provides the genetic background for many genetically engineered strains. Evaluations of the responses of other selected cells, tissues such as skin, and organs such as lung, liver and brain were also initiated (partially funded by other sources). The long-term goal is to provide information

  19. γ-Tocotrienol as a Promising Countermeasure for Acute Radiation Syndrome: Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K. Singh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The hazard of ionizing radiation exposure due to nuclear accidents or terrorist attacks is ever increasing. Despite decades of research, still, there is a shortage of non-toxic, safe and effective medical countermeasures for radiological and nuclear emergency. To date, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA has approved only two growth factors, Neupogen (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, filgrastim and Neulasta (PEGylated G-CSF, pegfilgrastim for the treatment of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS following the Animal Efficacy Rule. Promising radioprotective efficacy results of γ-tocotrienol (GT3; a member of the vitamin E family in the mouse model encouraged its further evaluation in the nonhuman primate (NHP model. These studies demonstrated that GT3 significantly aided the recovery of radiation-induced neutropenia and thrombocytopenia compared to the vehicle controls; these results particularly significant after exposure to 5.8 or 6.5 Gray (Gy whole body γ-irradiation. The stimulatory effect of GT3 on neutrophils and thrombocytes (platelets was directly and positively correlated with dose; a 75 mg/kg dose was more effective compared to 37.5 mg/kg. GT3 was also effective against 6.5 Gy whole body γ-irradiation for improving neutrophils and thrombocytes. Moreover, a single administration of GT3 without any supportive care was equivalent, in terms of improving hematopoietic recovery, to multiple doses of Neupogen and two doses of Neulasta with full supportive care (including blood products in the NHP model. GT3 may serve as an ultimate radioprotector for use in humans, particularly for military personnel and first responders. In brief, GT3 is a promising radiation countermeasure that ought to be further developed for U.S. FDA approval for the ARS indication.

  20. Acute Exposure to High Dose γ-Radiation Results in Transient Activation of Bone Lining Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Russell T.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Wong, Carmen P.; Lindenmaier, Laurence B.; Wagner, Lindsay A.; Branscum, Adam J.; Menn, Scott A.; Taylor, James; Zhang, Ye; Wu, Honglu; Sibonga, Jean D.

    2014-01-01

    The present studies investigated the cellular mechanisms for the detrimental effects of high dose whole body γ-irradiation on bone. In addition, radioadaptation and bone marrow transplantation were assessed as interventions to mitigate the skeletal complications of irradiation. Increased trabecular thickness and separation and reduced fractional cancellous bone volume, connectivity density, and trabecular number were detected in proximal tibia and lumbar vertebra 14 days following γ-irradiation with 6 Gy. To establish the cellular mechanism for the architectural changes, vertebrae were analyzed by histomorphometry 1, 3, and 14 days following irradiation. Marrow cell density decreased within 1 day (67% reduction, pbone perimeter was increased by 290% (1 day, p=0.04), 1230% (3 days, pmarrow cell death and activation of bone lining cells to express the osteoblast phenotype (Pearson correlation −0.85, pbone perimeter was also detected with irradiation. A priming dose of γ-radiation (0.5 mGy), previously shown to reduce mortality, had minimal effect on the cellular responses to radiation and did not prevent detrimental changes in bone architecture. Bone marrow transplantation normalized marrow cell density, bone turnover, and most indices of bone architecture following irradiation. In summary, radiation-induced death of marrow cells is associated with 1) a transient increase in bone formation due, at least in part, to activation of bone lining cells, and 2) an increase in bone resorption due to increased osteoclast perimeter. Bone marrow transplantation is effective in mitigating the detrimental effects of acute exposure to high dose whole body γ-radiation on bone turnover. PMID:23954507

  1. The effects of pprI gene of Deinococcus radiodurans R1 on acute radiation injury of mice exposed to 60Co γ-ray radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting-Ting; Hua, Wei; Zhang, Xi-Zhi; Wang, Bu-Hai; Yang, Zhan-Shan

    2017-01-10

    The role of the pprI gene from Deinococcus radiodurans R1 in therapy of acute radiation injury of a mammalian host was investigated. We injected a plasmid containing the pprI gene into the muscle of mice exposed to total 6Gy of 60Co γ-ray radiation. After injection, we used in vivo gene electroporation technology to transfer the pprI gene into the cell. We found the PprI protein was expressed significantly at 1 d after irradiation, but there was no expression of pprI gene 7 d post-irradiation. The expression of pprI gene evidently decreased the death rate of mice exposed to lethal dose radiation, significantly relieved effects on blood cells in the acute stage, shortened the persistence time of the decrease of lymphocytes, and decreased the apoptotic rates of spleen cells, thymocytes and bone marrow cells. The expression of Rad51 protein in the lungs, livers, and kidneys was significantly higher in the mice treated with the pprI plasmid after irradiation. However, there were no obvious differences for Rad52 protein expression. We conclude that the prokaryotic pprI gene of D. radiodurans R1 first was expressed in mammalian cells. The expressed prokaryotic PprI protein has distinct effects of the prevention and treatment on acute radiation injury of mammal. The effects of radio-resistance may relate to expression of Rad51 protein which is homologous with RecA from D. radiodurans.

  2. Late Side Effects After Image Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Compared to 3D-Conformal Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Results From 2 Prospective Cohorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortel, Ruud C.; Incrocci, Luca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pos, Floris J.; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Lebesque, Joos V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Aluwini, Shafak [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Witte, Marnix G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heemsbergen, Wilma D., E-mail: w.heemsbergen@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: Technical developments in the field of external beam radiation therapy (RT) enabled the clinical introduction of image guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT), which improved target conformity and allowed reduction of safety margins. Whether this had an impact on late toxicity levels compared to previously applied three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) is currently unknown. We analyzed late side effects after treatment with IG-IMRT or 3D-CRT, evaluating 2 prospective cohorts of men treated for localized prostate cancer to investigate the hypothesized reductions in toxicity. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with 3D-CRT (n=189) or IG-IMRT (n=242) to 78 Gy in 39 fractions were recruited from 2 Dutch randomized trials with identical toxicity scoring protocols. Late toxicity (>90 days after treatment) was derived from self-assessment questionnaires and case report forms, according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG-EORTC) scoring criteria. Grade ≥2 endpoints included gastrointestinal (GI) rectal bleeding, increased stool frequency, discomfort, rectal incontinence, proctitis, and genitourinary (GU) obstruction, increased urinary frequency, nocturia, urinary incontinence, and dysuria. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to compare grade ≥2 toxicities between both techniques, adjusting for other modifying factors. Results: The 5-year cumulative incidence of grade ≥2 GI toxicity was 24.9% for IG-IMRT and 37.6% following 3D-CRT (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.59, P=.005), with significant reductions in proctitis (HR: 0.37, P=.047) and increased stool frequency (HR: 0.23, P<.001). GU grade ≥2 toxicity levels at 5 years were comparable with 46.2% and 36.4% following IG-IMRT and 3D-CRT, respectively (adjusted HR: 1.19, P=.33). Other strong predictors (P<.01) of grade ≥2 late toxicity were baseline complaints, acute toxicity, and age

  3. Literature Review and Global Consensus on Management of Acute Radiation Syndrome Affecting Nonhematopoietic Organ Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainiak, Nicholas; Gent, Robert Nicolas; Carr, Zhanat; Schneider, Rita; Bader, Judith; Buglova, Elena; Chao, Nelson; Coleman, C. Norman; Ganser, Arnold; Gorin, Claude; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Huff, L. Andrew; Lillis-Hearne, Patricia; Maekawa, Kazuhiko; Nemhauser, Jeffrey; Powles, Ray; Schünemann, Holger; Shapiro, Alla; Stenke, Leif; Valverde, Nelson; Weinstock, David; White, Douglas; Albanese, Joseph; Meineke, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The World Health Organization convened a panel of experts to rank the evidence for medical countermeasures for management of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in a hypothetical scenario involving the hospitalization of 100 to 200 victims. The goal of this panel was to achieve consensus on optimal management of ARS affecting nonhematopoietic organ systems based upon evidence in the published literature. Methods English-language articles were identified in MEDLINE and PubMed. Reference lists of retrieved articles were distributed to conferees in advance of and updated during the meeting. Published case series and case reports of ARS, publications of randomized controlled trials of relevant interventions used to treat nonirradiated individuals, reports of studies in irradiated animals, and prior recommendations of subject matter experts were selected. Studies were extracted using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation system. In cases in which data were limited or incomplete, a narrative review of the observations was made. Results No randomized controlled trials of medical countermeasures have been completed for individuals with ARS. Reports of countermeasures were often incompletely described, making it necessary to rely on data generated in nonirradiated humans and in experimental animals. A strong recommendation is made for the administration of a serotonin-receptor antagonist prophylactically when the suspected exposure is >2 Gy and topical steroids, antibiotics, and antihistamines for radiation burns, ulcers, or blisters; excision and grafting of radiation ulcers or necrosis with intractable pain; provision of supportive care to individuals with neurovascular syndrome; and administration of electrolyte replacement therapy and sedatives to individuals with significant burns, hypovolemia, and/ orshock. A strong recommendation is made against the use of systemic steroids in the absence of a specific indication. A weak

  4. Benign Post-Radiation Rectal Stricture Treated with Endoscopic Balloon Dilation and Intralesional Triamcinolone Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Karanikas; Panagiotis Touzopoulos; Alexandros Mitrakas; Petros Zezos; Paul Zarogoulidis; Nikolaos Machairiotis; Eleni Efremidou; Nikolaos Liratzopoulos; Alexandros Polychronidis; George Kouklakis

    2012-01-01

    Post-radiation stricture is a rare complication after pelvis irradiation, but must be in the mind of the clinician evaluating a lower gastrointestinal obstruction. Endoscopy has gained an important role in chronic radiation proctitis with several therapeutic options for management of intestinal strictures. The treatment of rectal strictures has been limited to surgery with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, a less invasive therapeutic approach for benign rectal strictures, endoscopic ba...

  5. A randomized, double-blind trial on the use of 1% hydrocortisone cream for the prevention of acute radiation dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghrajani, Chandra F; Co, Henri S; Arcillas, Jon G; Maaño, Clarita C; Cupino, Nonette A

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether the application of 1% hydrocortisone cream during radiation therapy can prevent the occurrence of moist desquamation. Fifty adult female breast carcinoma patients were randomized after modified radical mastectomy and chemotherapy to receive prophylactic placebo cream (n = 27) or 1% hydrocortisone cream (n = 23) during radiation therapy. The patients, caregiver and assessor were all blinded to the treatment received. Occurrence of moist desquamation, severity of acute radiation dermatitis (ARD) and hyperpigmentation were evaluated weekly until the end of radiotherapy. Five patients in each group developed moist desquamation; however, its extent and severity were milder in the steroid group. Mean ARD scores were also lower in the steroid group (0.713 vs. 0.874, p = 0.024). A lower incidence of Grades 1 and 2 radiation dermatitis was also noted in the steroid group at weeks 2 and 4, respectively, indicating prophylactic use of steroids delayed the onset of radiodermatitis.

  6. Predictors of Severe Acute and Late Toxicities in Patients With Localized Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Francois, E-mail: francois.meyer@chuq.qc.ca [Laval University Cancer Research Center, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Fortin, Andre; Wang, Chang Shu [Radiation Therapy Department, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Liu, Geoffrey [Applied Molecular Oncology, Ontario Cancer Institute/Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Bairati, Isabelle [Laval University Cancer Research Center, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) causes acute and late toxicities that affect various organs and functions. In a large cohort of patients treated with RT for localized head and neck cancer (HNC), we prospectively assessed the occurrence of RT-induced acute and late toxicities and identified characteristics that predicted these toxicities. Methods and Materials: We conducted a randomized trial among 540 patients treated with RT for localized HNC to assess whether vitamin E supplementation could improve disease outcomes. Adverse effects of RT were assessed using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Acute Radiation Morbidity Criteria during RT and one month after RT, and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Scheme at six and 12 months after RT. The most severe adverse effect among the organs/tissues was selected as an overall measure of either acute or late toxicity. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were considered as severe. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify all independent predictors (p < 0.05) of acute or late toxicity and to estimate odds ratios (OR) for severe toxicity with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Grade 3 or 4 toxicity was observed in 23% and 4% of patients, respectively, for acute and late toxicity. Four independent predictors of severe acute toxicity were identified: sex (female vs. male: OR = 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-2.80), Karnofsky Performance Status (OR = 0.67 for a 10-point increment, 95% CI: 0.52-0.88), body mass index (above 25 vs. below: OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.22-2.90), TNM stage (Stage II vs. I: OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.25-2.92). Two independent predictors were found for severe late toxicity: female sex (OR = 3.96, 95% CI: 1.41-11.08) and weight loss during RT (OR = 1.26 for a 1 kg increment, 95% CI: 1.12-1.41). Conclusions: Knowledge of these predictors easily collected in a clinical setting could help

  7. Preliminary clinical findings on NEUMUNE as a potential treatment for acute radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stickney, Dwight R; Groothuis, Jessie R; Ahlem, Clarence; Kennedy, Mike; Miller, Barry S; Onizuka-Handa, Nanette; Schlangen, Karen M; Destiche, Daniel; Reading, Chris; Garsd, Armando; Frincke, James M [Harbor Biosciences, 9171 Towne Centre Drive, Suite 180, San Diego, CA 92122 (United States)

    2010-12-01

    5-androstenediol (5-AED) has been advanced as a possible countermeasure for treating the haematological component of acute radiation syndrome (ARS). It has been used in animal models to stimulate both innate and adaptive immunity and treat infection and radiation-induced immune suppression. We here report on the safety, tolerability and haematologic activity of 5-AED in four double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled studies on healthy adults including elderly subjects. A 5-AED injectable suspension formulation (NEUMUNE) or placebo was administered intramuscularly as either a single injection, or once daily for five consecutive days at doses of 50, 100, 200 or 400 mg. Subjects (n = 129) were randomized to receive NEUMUNE (n = 95) or the placebo (n = 34). NEUMUNE was generally well-tolerated; the most frequent adverse events were local injection site reactions (n = 104, 81%) that were transient, dose-volume dependent, mild to moderate in severity, and that resolved over the course of the study. Blood chemistries revealed a transient increase (up to 28%) in creatine phosphokinase and C-reactive protein levels consistent with intramuscular injection and injection site irritation. The blood concentration profile of 5-AED is consistent with a depot formulation that increases in disproportionate increments following each dose. NEUMUNE significantly increased circulating neutrophils (p < 0.001) and platelets (p < 0.001) in the peripheral blood of adult and elderly subjects. A dose-response relationship was identified. Findings suggest that parenteral administration of 5-AED in aqueous suspension may be a safe and effective means to stimulate innate immunity and alleviate neutropenia and thrombocytopenia associated with ARS.

  8. Acute Esophagus Toxicity in Lung Cancer Patients After Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwint, Margriet [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Uyterlinde, Wilma [Department of Thoracic Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nijkamp, Jasper; Chen, Chun; Bois, Josien de; Sonke, Jan-Jakob [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heuvel, Michel van den [Department of Thoracic Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Knegjens, Joost; Herk, Marcel van [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Belderbos, Jose, E-mail: j.belderbos@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose-effect relation between acute esophageal toxicity (AET) and the dose-volume parameters of the esophagus after intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods: One hundred thirty-nine patients with inoperable NSCLC treated with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy were prospectively analyzed. The fractionation scheme was 66 Gy in 24 fractions. All patients received concurrently a daily dose of cisplatin (6 mg/m Superscript-Two ). Maximum AET was scored according to Common Toxicity Criteria 3.0. Dose-volume parameters V5 to V70, D{sub mean} and D{sub max} of the esophagus were calculated. A logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the dose-effect relation between these parameters and grade {>=}2 and grade {>=}3 AET. The outcome was compared with the clinically used esophagus V35 prediction model for grade {>=}2 after radical 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) treatment. Results: In our patient group, 9% did not experience AET, and 31% experienced grade 1 AET, 38% grade 2 AET, and 22% grade 3 AET. The incidence of grade 2 and grade 3 AET was not different from that in patients treated with CCRT using 3DCRT. The V50 turned out to be the most significant dosimetric predictor for grade {>=}3 AET (P=.012). The derived V50 model was shown to predict grade {>=}2 AET significantly better than the clinical V35 model (P<.001). Conclusions: For NSCLC patients treated with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy, the V50 was identified as most accurate predictor of grade {>=}3 AET. There was no difference in the incidence of grade {>=}2 AET between 3DCRT and IMRT in patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy.

  9. Studies of adaptive response and mutation induction in MCF-10A cells following exposure to chronic or acute ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manesh, Sara Shakeri; Sangsuwan, Traimate; Wojcik, Andrzej; Haghdoost, Siamak, E-mail: Siamak.haghdoost@su.se

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • 50 mGy at 1.4 mGy/h induces adaptive response in MCF-10A at mutation level. • Low dose rate γ-radiation does not induce adaptive response at survival level. • Overall, a dose rate effect is absent at the level of mutation in MCF-10A cells. - Abstract: A phenomenon in which exposure to a low adapting dose of radiation makes cells more resistant to the effects of a subsequent high dose exposure is termed radio-adaptive response. Adaptive response could hypothetically reduce the risk of late adverse effects of chronic or acute radiation exposures in humans. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of such responses is of relevance for radiation protection as well as for the clinical applications of radiation in medicine. However, due to the variability of responses depending on the model system and radiation condition, there is a need to further study under what conditions adaptive response can be induced. In this study, we analyzed if there is a dose rate dependence for the adapting dose, assuming that the adapting dose induces DNA response/repair pathways that are dose rate dependent. MCF-10A cells were exposed to a 50 mGy adapting dose administered acutely (0.40 Gy/min) or chronically (1.4 mGy/h or 4.1 mGy/h) and then irradiated by high acute challenging doses. The endpoints of study include clonogenic cell survival and mutation frequency at X-linked hprt locus. In another series of experiment, cells were exposed to 100 mGy and 1 Gy at different dose rates (acutely and chronically) and then the mutation frequencies were studied. Adaptive response was absent at the level of clonogenic survival. The mutation frequencies were significantly decreased in the cells pre-exposed to 50 mGy at 1.4 mGy/h followed by 1 Gy acute exposure as challenging dose. Importantly, at single dose exposures (1 Gy or 100 mGy), no differences at the level of mutation were found comparing different dose rates.

  10. Prophylactic Treatment with Adlay Bran Extract Reduces the Risk of Severe Acute Radiation Dermatitis: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Jen Huang; Ming-Feng Hou; Jung-Yu Kan; Chiung-Hui Juan; Shyng-Shiou F Yuan; Kuei-Hau Luo; Hung-Yi Chuang; Stephen Chu-Sung Hu

    2015-01-01

    Acute radiation dermatitis is a frequent adverse effect in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy, but there are only a small number of studies providing evidence-based interventions for this clinical condition. Adlay is a cereal crop that has been previously shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this study, we seek to evaluate the effectiveness of oral prophylactic treatment with adlay bran extract in reducing the risk of severe acute radiation dermatiti...

  11. Long-term follow-up of the genital organs and eye lenses in three cases of acute radiation sickness from a 60Co radiation accident in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhi Wei; Jiang, En Hai; Du, Jian Ying; Zhao, Feng Ling; Fu, Bao Hua; Jiang, Li Ping; Wang, Xiao Guang; Zhao, Xin Ran; Liu, Qiang; Jiang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    A follow-up study aimed primarily at investigating late radiation effects on the genital organs and eye lenses was performed between 1999 and 2010 on three individuals who suffered from acute radiation sickness in China. The examination included a medical history, a physical examination, ultrasonography, laboratory analysis, and an ophthalmologic examination. In Case 1, amenorrhea occurred after exposure to a Co source. The uterus and ovaries were significantly narrowed in the second year following exposure. The estradiol level decreased significantly during the first 3 y; progesterone was lowest in the second year; and levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone increased, especially in the first year. The lenses in both eyes appeared opaque 6 mo after the exposure, resulting in a gradual deterioration in visual acuity. In Case 2 (8 y old), the levels of testosterone and estradiol were normal. In Case 3, the levels of testosterone and estradiol were also normal, but the sperm count was 0 from 6 mo to 1 y, and the proportion of abnormal sperm was increased from 3-5 y after the accident. The lenses in Case 3 also began to turn opaque in the ninth year after the accident. In Case 1, the ovarian function was reduced, leading to amenorrhea and early menopause. In Case 3, the sperm count was reduced and the number of abnormal sperm was increased due to testicular damage by radiation. Radiation-induced cataracts occurred in both Case 1 and Case 3.

  12. Effect of Film Dressing on Acute Radiation Dermatitis Secondary to Proton Beam Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arimura, Takeshi, E-mail: arimura-takeshi@medipolis.org [Medipolis Proton Therapy and Research Center, Ibusuki (Japan); Department of Radiology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Ogino, Takashi [Medipolis Proton Therapy and Research Center, Ibusuki (Japan); Yoshiura, Takashi [Department of Radiology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Toi, Yuya; Kawabata, Michiko; Chuman, Ikuko; Wada, Kiyotaka; Kondo, Naoaki; Nagayama, Shinichi; Hishikawa, Yoshio [Medipolis Proton Therapy and Research Center, Ibusuki (Japan)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: Acute radiation dermatitis (ARD) is one of the most common adverse events of proton beam therapy (PBT), and there is currently no effective method to manage ARD. The purpose of this study was to examine the prophylactic effect of a film dressing using Airwall on PBT-induced ARD compared with standard skin managements. Methods and Materials: A total of 271 patients with prostate cancer who were scheduled for PBT at our center were divided into 2 groups based on their own requests: 145 patients (53%) chose Airwall (group A) and 126 patients (47%) received standard treatments (group B). We evaluated irradiated skin every other day during PBT and followed up once a week for a month after completion of PBT. Results: Grade 0, 1, 2, and 3 dermatitis were seen in 2, 122, 21, and 0 and 0, 65, 57, and 4 patients in groups A and B, respectively (P<.001). Numbers of days to grades 1 and 2 ARD development were 34.9 ± 14.3 and 54.7 ± 10.3 and 31.8 ± 11.3 and 54.4 ± 11.6 in groups A and B, respectively. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups. Eighteen patients (12%) in group A who experienced problems in the region covered with Airwall switched to standard skin care after peeling the film off. Conclusions: Film dressing using Airwall reduced the severity of ARD without delaying the response time of the skin to proton beam irradiation compared with standard skin management. Hence, film dressing is considered a promising measure for preventing ARD secondary to PBT.

  13. BiodosEPR-2006 Meeting: Acute dosimetry consensus committee recommendations on biodosimetry applications in events involving uses of radiation by terrorists and radiation accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, George A. [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Preparedness and Emergency Operations, 200 Independence Avenue, SW, Room 403B-1, Washington, DC 20201 (United States); Swartz, Harold M. [Dept. of Radiology and Physiology Dept., Dartmouth Medical School, HB 7785, Vail 702, Rubin 601, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Amundson, Sally A. [Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 W. 168th Street, VC11-215, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Blakely, William F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)], E-mail: blakely@afrri.usuhs.mil; Buddemeier, Brooke [Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528 (United States); Gallez, Bernard [Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Unit and Lab. of Medicinal Chemistry and Radiopharmacy, Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Dainiak, Nicholas [Dept. of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, 267 Grant Street, Bridgeport, CT 06610 (United States); Goans, Ronald E. [MJW Corporation, 1422 Eagle Bend Drive, Clinton, TN 37716-4029 (United States); Hayes, Robert B. [Remote Sensing Lab., MS RSL-47, P.O. Box 98421, Las Vegas, NV 89193 (United States); Lowry, Patrick C. [Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS), Oak Ridge Associated Universities, P.O. Box 117, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117 (United States); Noska, Michael A. [Food and Drug Administration, FDA/CDRH, 1350 Piccard Drive, HFZ-240, Rockville, MD 20850 (United States); Okunieff, Paul [Dept. of Radiation Oncology (Box 647), Univ. of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Salner, Andrew L. [Helen and Harry Gray Cancer Center, Hartford Hospital, 80 Seymour Street, Hartford, CT 06102 (United States); Schauer, David A. [National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 400, Bethesda, MD 20814-3095 (United States)] (and others)

    2007-07-15

    In the aftermath of a radiological terrorism incident or mass-casualty radiation accident, first responders and receivers require prior guidance and pre-positioned resources for assessment, triage and medical management of affected individuals [NCRP, 2005. Key elements of preparing emergency responders for nuclear and radiological terrorism. NCRP Commentary No. 19, Bethesda, Maryland, USA]. Several recent articles [Dainiak, N., Waselenko, J.K., Armitage, J.O., MacVittie, T.J., Farese, A.M., 2003. The hematologist and radiation casualties. Hematology (Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program) 473-496; Waselenko, J.K., MacVittie, T.J., Blakely, W.F., Pesik, N., Wiley, A.L., Dickerson, W.E., Tsu, H., Confer, D.L., Coleman, C.N., Seed, T., Lowry, P., Armitage, J.O., Dainiak, N., Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group, 2004. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 140(12), 1037-1051; Blakely, W.F., Salter, C.A., Prasanna, P.G., 2005. Early-response biological dosimetry-recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Phys. 89(5), 494-504; Goans, R.E., Waselenko, J.K., 2005. Medical management of radiation casualties. Health Phys. 89(5), 505-512; Swartz, H.M., Iwasaki, A., Walczak, T., Demidenko, E., Salikhov, I., Lesniewski, P., Starewicz, P., Schauer, D., Romanyukha, A., 2005. Measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using non-invasive in vivo EPR spectroscopy of teeth in situ. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 62, 293-299; . Acute radiation injury: contingency planning for triage, supportive care, and transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 12(6), 672-682], national [. Management of persons accidentally contaminated with radionuclides. NCRP Report No. 65, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; . Management of terrorist events involving radioactive material. NCRP Report No. 138, Bethesda, Maryland

  14. Accuracy and Radiation Dose Reduction of Limited-Range CT in the Evaluation of Acute Appendicitis in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Michael; Sanchez, Thomas R; Lamba, Ramit; Fananapazir, Ghaneh; Corwin, Michael T

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to determine the accuracy and radiation dose reduction of limited-range CT prescribed from the top of L2 to the top of the pubic symphysis in children with suspected acute appendicitis. We performed a retrospective study of 210 consecutive pediatric patients from December 11, 2012, through December 11, 2014, who underwent abdominopelvic CT for suspected acute appendicitis. Two radiologists independently reviewed the theoretic limited scans from the superior L2 vertebral body to the top of the pubic symphysis, to assess for visualization of the appendix, acute appendicitis, alternative diagnoses, and incidental findings. Separately, the same parameters were assessed on the full scan by the same two reviewers. Whole-body effective doses were determined for the full- and limited-range scans and were compared using the paired t test. The appendix or entire cecum was visualized on the limited scan in all cases, and no cases of acute appendicitis were missed on the simulated limited scan compared with the full scan. Two alternative diagnoses were missed with the limited scan: one case of hydronephrosis and one of acute acalculous cholecystitis. The mean effective dose for the original scan was 5.6 mSv and that for the simulated limited scan was 3.0 mSv, resulting in a dose reduction of 46.4% (p appendicitis and reduces the dose by approximately 46%.

  15. Residential Exposure to Natural Background Radiation and Risk of Childhood Acute Leukemia in France, 1990-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoury, Claire; Marquant, Fabienne; Ielsch, Géraldine; Goujon, Stéphanie; Debayle, Christophe; Faure, Laure; Coste, Astrid; Laurent, Olivier; Guillevic, Jérôme; Laurier, Dominique; Hémon, Denis; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2017-04-01

    Exposures to high-dose ionizing radiation and high-dose rate ionizing radiation are established risk factors for childhood acute leukemia (AL). The risk of AL following exposure to lower doses due to natural background radiation (NBR) has yet to be conclusively determined. AL cases diagnosed over 1990-2009 (9,056 cases) were identified and their municipality of residence at diagnosis collected by the National Registry of Childhood Cancers. The Geocap study, which included the 2,763 cases in 2002-2007 and 30,000 population controls, was used for complementary analyses. NBR exposures were modeled on a fine scale (36,326 municipalities) based on measurement campaigns and geological data. The power to detect an association between AL and dose to the red bone marrow (RBM) fitting UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation) predictions was 92%, 45% and 99% for exposure to natural gamma radiation, radon and total radiation, respectively. AL risk, irrespective of subtype and age group, was not associated with the exposure of municipalities to radon or gamma radiation in terms of yearly exposure at age reached, cumulative exposure or RBM dose. There was no confounding effect of census-based socio-demographic indicators, or environmental factors (road traffic, high voltage power lines, vicinity of nuclear plants) related to AL in the Geocap study. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that residential exposure to NBR increases the risk of AL, despite the large size of the study, fine scale exposure estimates and wide range of exposures over France. However, our results at the time of diagnosis do not rule out a slight association with gamma radiation at the time of birth, which would be more in line with the recent findings in the UK and Switzerland.

  16. Ozone Therapy in the Management of Persistent Radiation-Induced Rectal Bleeding in Prostate Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardino Clavo; Norberto Santana-Rodriguez; Pedro Llontop; Dominga Gutierrez; Daniel Ceballos; Charlin Méndez; Gloria Rovira; Gerardo Suarez; Dolores Rey-Baltar; Laura Garcia-Cabrera; Gregorio Martínez-Sánchez; Dolores Fiuza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Persistent radiation-induced proctitis and rectal bleeding are debilitating complications with limited therapeutic options. We present our experience with ozone therapy in the management of such refractory rectal bleeding. Methods. Patients (n = 12) previously irradiated for prostate cancer with persistent or severe rectal bleeding without response to conventional treatment were enrolled to receive ozone therapy via rectal insufflations and/or topical application of ozonized-oil...

  17. Radiation injury of the rectum: Evaluation of surgical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anseline, P.F.; Lavery, I.C.; Fazio, V.W.; Jagelman, D.G.; Weakley, F.L.

    1981-12-01

    One hundred four patients, 80 women and 24 men, with radiation injury of the rectum following treatment for gynecologic and urologic malignancy were studied. In 50 patients, the rectal injury was treated surgically; 54 patients were treated conservatively. The age and sex distributions were the same in each group. In 63 patients, symptoms developed one month to one year after radiotherapy. The longest latent interval was 17 years. Of the 50 surgical patients, 23 had associated small bowel injury. The indications for surgery for the rectal injury were 1) proctitis unresponsive to conservative measures in 14 patients, 2) rectal stricture or fistula or both in 32, and 3) rectosigmoid perforation in four. Forty-one patients had external diversions. Eleven had intestinal continuity restored; six of the 11 had required the stoma for proctitis unresponsive to medical measures. Nineteen patients did not undergo colostomy closure, although symptoms were greatly improved. Diversion alone was insufficient treatment in the remaining 11 patients. Twenty-six patients died. The 12 deaths in the surgical group comprised four due to residual malignancy, four from post-operative complications, and four from unrelated causes. Of the 14 deaths in the nonsurgical group, 11 died of the primary malignancy and three of unrelated causes. Diversion is considered the safest form of treatment for rectovaginal fistulae, rectal strictures, and proctitis unresponsive to medical measures. Intestinal resection resulted in a sharp rise in the morbidity and mortality rates.

  18. Radiation injury of the rectum: evaluation of surgical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anseline, P.F.; Lavery, I.C.; Fazio, V.W.; Jagelman, D.G.; Weakley, F.L.

    1981-12-01

    One hundred four patients, 80 women and 24 men, with radiation injury of the rectum following treatment for gynecologic and urologic malignancy were studied. In 50 patients, the rectal injury was treated surgically; 54 patients were treated conservatively. The age and sex distributions were the same in each group. In 63 patients, symptoms developed one month to one year after radiotherapy. The longest latent interval was 17 years. Of the 50 surgical patients, 23 had associated small bowel injury. The indications for surgery for the rectal injury were 1) proctitis unresponsive to conservative measures in 14 patients, 2) rectal stricture or fistula or both in 32, and 3) rectosigmoid perforation in four. Forty-one patients had external diversions. Eleven had intestinal continuity restored; six of the 11 had required the stoma for proctitis unresponsive to medical measures. Nineteen patients did not undergo colostomy closure, although symptoms wer greatly improved. Diversion alone was insufficient treatment in the remaining 11 patients. Twenty-six patients died. The 12 deaths in the surgical group comprised four due to residual malignancy, four from postoperative complications, and four from unrelated causes. Of the 14 deaths in the nonsurgical group, 11 died of the primary malignancy and three of unrelated causes. Diversion is considered the safest form of treatment for rectovaginal fistulae, rectal strictures, and proctitis unresponsive to medical measures. Intestinal resection resulted in sharp rise in the morbidity and mortality rates.

  19. Comparison of effective radiation doses in patients undergoing unenhanced MDCT and excretory urography for acute flank pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikefjord, Eli N; Thorsen, Frits; Rørvik, Jarle

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the effective radiation dose in patients undergoing unenhanced MDCT and excretory urography for acute flank pain, and to explore technical and practical factors affecting the effective dose. One hundred nineteen patients with acute flank pain were included. All patients were examined using both MDCT and excretory urography. CT involved one acquisition from the upper kidney margin to the symphysis pubis. The only protocol variation was in the tube current (mAs), which was made according to patient body mass. The excretory urography protocol consisted of three images, with more when supplementary images were needed. Effective radiation doses were computer-simulated using dosimetry programs for CT and conventional radiography, based on Norwegian Radiological Protection Board dose data sets. Mean and SDs of measured patient doses were calculated and compared. Further analyses of dose variations in body mass categories (body mass index) were conducted, as were analyses concerning the number of images taken. The mean effective doses were 7.7 mSv with MDCT and 3.63 mSv with excretory urography. The effective dose varied both in and between techniques but could be predicted. Radiation risk decreased significantly with increased patient weight. The average effective dose with MDCT was more than double that with excretory urography. However, the appropriate dose could be strongly predicted by the patient's body mass index and by procedure. An optimum low-dose protocol should be considered before initiating unenhanced MDCT for ureteral colic in order to minimize the radiation-induced cancer risk and to secure adequate image quality.

  20. Comparison of effective radiation doses in patients undergoing unenhanced MDCT and excretory urography for acute flank pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikefjord, E.N.; Thorsen, F.; Rorvik, J. [Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Radiology

    2007-07-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the effective radiation dose in patients undergoing unenhanced MDCT and excretory urography for acute flank pain, and to explore technical and practical factors affecting the effective dose. Subjects and methods: One hundred nineteen patients with acute flank pain were included. All patients were examined using both MDCT and excretory urography. CT involved one acquisition from the upper kidney margin to the symphysis pubis. The only protocol variation was in the tube current (mAs), which was made according to patient body mass. The excretory urography protocol consisted of three images, with more when supplementary images were needed. Effective radiation doses were computer-simulated using dosimetry programs for CT and conventional radiography, based on Norwegian Radiological Protection Board dose data sets. Mean and SDs of measured patient doses were calculated and compared. Further analyses of dose variations in body mass categories (body mass index) were conducted, as were analyses concerning the number of images taken. Results: The mean effective doses were 7.7 mSv with MDCT and 3.63 mSv with excretory urography. The effective dose varied both in and between techniques but could be predicted. Radiation risk decreased significantly with increased patient weight. Conclusion: The average effective dose with MDCT was more than double that with excretory urography. However, the appropriate dose could be strongly predicted by the patient's body mass index and by procedure. An optimum low-dose protocol should be considered before initiating unenhanced MDCT for ureteral colic in order to minimize the radiation-induced cancer risk and to secure adequate image quality. (author)

  1. Coronary CT angiography for acute chest pain triage: Techniques for radiation exposure reduction; 128 vs. 64 multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goitein, Orly; Eshet, Yael; Konen, Eli (Diagnostic Imaging, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv Univ., Tel Aviv (Israel)), email: orly.goitein@sheba.health.gov.il; Matetzky, Shlomi (Heart Inst., Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv Univ., Tel Aviv (Israel)); Goitein, David (Surgery C, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv Univ., Tel Aviv (Israel)); Hamdan, Ashraf; Di Segni, Elio (Diagnostic Imaging, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv Univ., Tel Aviv (Israel); Heart Inst., Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv Univ., Tel Aviv (Israel))

    2011-10-15

    Background. Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is used daily in acute chest pain triage, although exposing patients to significant radiation dosage. CCTA using prospective ECG gating (PG CCTA) enables significant radiation reduction Purpose. To determine whether the routine use of 128 vs. 64 multidetector CT (MDCT) can increase the proportion of patients scanned using PG CCTA technique, lowering radiation exposure, without decreasing image quality. Material and Methods. The study comprised 232 patients, 116 consecutive patients scanned using 128 MDCT (mean age 49 years, 79 men, BMI 28) and 116 consecutive patients (mean age 50 years, 75 men, BMI 28) which were scanned using 64 MDCT. PG CCTA was performed whenever technically permissible by each type of scanner: 64 MDCT = stable heart rate (HR) <60/min and weight <110 kg; 128 MDCT = stable HR < 70/min and weight <140 kg. All coronary segments were evaluated for image quality using a visual scale of 1-5. An estimated radiation dose was recorded. Results. PC CCTA was performed in 84% and 49% of the 128 and 64 MDCT groups, respectively (P < 0.0001). Average image quality score were 4.6 +- 0.3 and 4.7 +- 0.1 for the 128 and 64 MDCT, respectively (P = 0.08). The mean radiation dose exposure was 6.2 +- 4.8 mSv and 10.4 +- 7.5 mSv for the 128 and 64 MDCT, respectively (P = 0.008). Conclusion. The 128 MDCT scanner enables utilization of PG CCTA technique in a greater proportion of patients, thereby decreasing the related radiation significantly, without hampering image quality

  2. Acute Hematological Effects in Mice Exposed to the Expected Doses, Dose-rates, and Energies of Solar Particle Event-like Proton Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Cengel, Keith A.; Wan, X. Steven; Rusek, Adam; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA has funded several projects that have provided evidence for the radiation risk in space. One radiation concern arises from solar particle event (SPE) radiation, which is composed of energetic electrons, protons, alpha particles and heavier particles. SPEs are unpredictable and the accompanying SPE radiation can place astronauts at risk of blood cell death, contributing to a weakened immune system and increased susceptibility to infection. The doses, dose rates, and energies of the proton radiation expected to occur during a SPE have been simulated at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, delivering total body doses to mice. Hematological values were evaluated at acute time points, up to 24 hrs. post-radiation exposure. PMID:25202654

  3. Prophylactic Treatment with Adlay Bran Extract Reduces the Risk of Severe Acute Radiation Dermatitis: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jen Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute radiation dermatitis is a frequent adverse effect in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy, but there are only a small number of studies providing evidence-based interventions for this clinical condition. Adlay is a cereal crop that has been previously shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this study, we seek to evaluate the effectiveness of oral prophylactic treatment with adlay bran extract in reducing the risk of severe acute radiation dermatitis. A total of 110 patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy were analyzed. Using a prospective, randomized, double-blind design, 73 patients received oral treatment with adlay bran extract and 37 patients received olive oil (placebo. Treatment was started at the beginning of radiation therapy and continued until the termination of radiation treatment. Our results showed that the occurrence of severe acute radiation dermatitis (RTOG grade 2 or higher was significantly lower in patients treated with oral adlay bran extract compared to placebo (45.2% versus 75.7%, adjusted odds ratio 0.24. No serious adverse effects from adlay bran treatment were noted. In conclusion, prophylactic oral treatment with adlay bran extract reduces the risk of severe acute radiation dermatitis and may have potential use in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy.

  4. Prophylactic Treatment with Adlay Bran Extract Reduces the Risk of Severe Acute Radiation Dermatitis: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Jen; Hou, Ming-Feng; Kan, Jung-Yu; Juan, Chiung-Hui; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou F; Luo, Kuei-Hau; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Hu, Stephen Chu-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Acute radiation dermatitis is a frequent adverse effect in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy, but there are only a small number of studies providing evidence-based interventions for this clinical condition. Adlay is a cereal crop that has been previously shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this study, we seek to evaluate the effectiveness of oral prophylactic treatment with adlay bran extract in reducing the risk of severe acute radiation dermatitis. A total of 110 patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy were analyzed. Using a prospective, randomized, double-blind design, 73 patients received oral treatment with adlay bran extract and 37 patients received olive oil (placebo). Treatment was started at the beginning of radiation therapy and continued until the termination of radiation treatment. Our results showed that the occurrence of severe acute radiation dermatitis (RTOG grade 2 or higher) was significantly lower in patients treated with oral adlay bran extract compared to placebo (45.2% versus 75.7%, adjusted odds ratio 0.24). No serious adverse effects from adlay bran treatment were noted. In conclusion, prophylactic oral treatment with adlay bran extract reduces the risk of severe acute radiation dermatitis and may have potential use in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy.

  5. Comparative proteomic profiling and possible toxicological mechanism of acute injury induced by carbon ion radiation in pubertal mice testes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong

    2016-07-01

    We investigated potential mechanisms of acute injury in pubertal mice testes after exposure to carbon ion radiation (CIR). Serum testosterone was measured following whole-body irradiation with a 2Gy carbon ion beam. Comparative proteomic profiling and Western blotting were applied to identify potential biomarkers and measure protein expression, and terminal dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) was performed to detect apoptotic cells. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to investigate protein localization. Serum testosterone was lowest at 24h after CIR, and 10 differentially expressed proteins were identified at this time point that included eIF4E, an important regulator of initiation that combines with mTOR and 4EBP1 to control protein synthesis via the mTOR signalling pathway during proliferation and apoptosis. Protein expression and localization studies confirmed their association with acute injury following exposure to CIR. These three proteins may be useful molecular markers for detecting abnormal spermatogenesis following exposure to environmental and cosmic radiation

  6. Ataxia Telangiectasia–Mutated Gene Polymorphisms and Acute Normal Tissue Injuries in Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Lihua [Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China); Cui, Jingkun [Department of Internal Medicine, Nanling School District Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China); Tang, Fengjiao; Cong, Xiaofeng [Cancer Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China); Han, Fujun, E-mail: fujun_han@aliyun.com [Cancer Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: Studies of the association between ataxia telangiectasia–mutated (ATM) gene polymorphisms and acute radiation injuries are often small in sample size, and the results are inconsistent. We conducted the first meta-analysis to provide a systematic review of published findings. Methods and Materials: Publications were identified by searching PubMed up to April 25, 2014. Primary meta-analysis was performed for all acute radiation injuries, and subgroup meta-analyses were based on clinical endpoint. The influence of sample size and radiation injury incidence on genetic effects was estimated in sensitivity analyses. Power calculations were also conducted. Results: The meta-analysis was conducted on the ATM polymorphism rs1801516, including 5 studies with 1588 participants. For all studies, the cut-off for differentiating cases from controls was grade 2 acute radiation injuries. The primary meta-analysis showed a significant association with overall acute radiation injuries (allelic model: odds ratio = 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.71). Subgroup analyses detected an association between the rs1801516 polymorphism and a significant increase in urinary and lower gastrointestinal injuries and an increase in skin injury that was not statistically significant. There was no between-study heterogeneity in any meta-analyses. In the sensitivity analyses, small studies did not show larger effects than large studies. In addition, studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries showed larger effects than studies with low incidence. Power calculations revealed that the statistical power of the primary meta-analysis was borderline, whereas there was adequate power for the subgroup analysis of studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis showed a consistency of the results from the overall and subgroup analyses. We also showed that the genetic effect of the rs1801516 polymorphism on acute radiation injuries was

  7. Association of elevated radiation dose with mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, Puja B.; Prakash, Sheena; Tahir, Usman; Kort, Smadar; Gruberg, Luis; Jeremias, Allen, E-mail: allen.jeremias@stonybrook.edu

    2014-09-15

    Objectives: This study sought to identify clinical and procedural predictors of elevated radiation dose received by patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and to determine if elevated radiation dose was predictive of mortality in this population. Background: Little data exist regarding the impact of excessive radiation burden on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing PCI. Methods: The study population included 1,039 patients who underwent PCI for an AMI between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2008 at an academic tertiary care teaching hospital. Cumulative skin dose (measured in milligray [mGy]) was selected as a measurement of patient radiation burden. Clinical and procedural variables were analyzed in multiple logistic and linear regression models to determine predictors of higher skin dose, and its impact was evaluated on all-cause intermediate-term mortality at two years. Results: Median skin dose was 2120 mGy (IQR 1379–3190 mGy) in the overall population, of which 153 (20.8%) patients received an elevated skin dose (defined as a skin dose > 4,000 mGy). Independent predictors of elevated skin dose included male gender, obesity, multivessel intervention, and presentation with a non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI) versus an ST-elevation MI (STEMI). Increased skin dose was not predictive of intermediate-term mortality by multivariate analysis in the overall population or in either subgroup of STEMI and NSTEMI. Conclusions: In this contemporary observational study examining patients with AMI undergoing PCI, male gender, obesity, multivessel intervention, and presentation with a NSTEMI were associated with increased radiation exposure.

  8. Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics, Quinolones, and General Gnotobiological Isolation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Korschunov, V

    1998-01-01

    ...) on intestinal microflora, translocation, and mortality was studied in mice treated with 7.0 Gy radiation. Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, selected by in vitro and in vivo methods, increased survival parameters of the mice...

  9. Oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer during postoperative irradiation. An alleviating effect on acute radiation mucositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsura, Kouji; Masuko, Noriko; Hayashi, Takafumi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry; Sugita, Tadashi; Sakai, Kunio; Tsuchida, Emiko; Matsumoto, Yasuo; Sasamoto, Ryuta

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer on alleviating acute radiation mucositis. Eighteen patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy for tongue and oral floor cancer were evaluated. Radiotherapy was given in 2 Gy per fraction, 5 times a week for a total dose of 50 Gy in most patients. Radiation field included the tongue and oral floor. During radiotherapy, 8 patients were treated by dento-maxillofacial radiologists with special concern on oral hygiene (oral hygiene group) and the remaining 10 patients were treated with routine dental care (standard medication group). Mucositis were evaluated using JCOG grade and EORTC/RTOG score by radiotherapists or dento-maxillofacial radiologists at 10 Gy intervals. Oral hygiene plans comprised motivation to maintain oral hygiene and establishing the habits of oral self care 4 times per day. Once a week, oral hygiene and oral cleaning of patients were checked by dento-maxillofacial radiologists. Oral self care included mechanical tooth brushing and a chemical mouthwash. No patients with grade 3 and score 4 mucositis were noted in the oral hygiene group. Severe mucositis occurred less frequently in the oral hygiene group than in the standard medication group. Interruption of radiotherapy due to severe mucositis did not occur in the oral hygiene group. On the other hand, interruption of radiotherapy occurred in four patients in the standard medication group, and in three it was due to severe oral pain. Our results suggested that our method of oral hygiene was more effective for alleviating acute radiation mucositis than other methods so far reported. In addition, our method is considered to be useful in preventing rampant dental caries and severe periodontitis due to the xerostomia induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  10. Prospectively gated coronary computed tomography angiography: uncompromised quality with markedly reduced radiation exposure in acute chest pain evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goitein, Orly; Beigel, Roy; Matetzky, Shlomi; Kuperstein, Rafael; Brosh, Sella; Eshet, Yael; Di Segni, Elio; Konen, Eli

    2011-08-01

    Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is an established modality for ruling out coronary artery disease. However, it has been suggested that CCTA may be a source of non-negligible radiation exposure. To evaluate the potential degradation in coronary image quality when using prospective gated (PG) CCTA as compared with retrospective gated (RG) CCTA in chest pain evaluation. The study cohort comprised 216 patients: 108 consecutive patients in the PG CCTA arm and 108 patients matched for age, gender and heart rate in the RG CCTA arm. Scans were performed using a 64-slice multidetector CT scanner. All 15 coronary segments were evaluated subjectively for image quality using a 5-point visual scale. Dose-length product was recorded for each patient and the effective radiation dose was calculated The PG CCTA technique demonstrated a significantly higher incidence of step artifacts in the middle and distal right coronary artery, the distal left anterior descending artery, the second diagonal, the distal left circumflex artery, and the second marginal branches. Nevertheless, the diagnostic performance of these scans was not adversely affected. The mean effective radiation doses were 3.8 +/- 0.9 mSv vs.17.2 +/- 3 mSv for PG CCTA and RG CCTA, respectively (P acute chest pain "fast track" evaluation targeted at relatively young subjects in a chest pain unit.

  11. Treatment of acute pancreatitis with mexidol and low-intensity laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzyan, G. R.; Geinits, A. V.

    2001-04-01

    This article presents the results of treatment of 54 patients with acute pancreatitis. The patients were divided into two groups according to the method of treatment. The control group (26 patients) received a conventional therapy, whereas the experimental group (28 patients) received mexidol in combination with the intravenous laser irradiation of blood. Clinical and laboratory tests confirmed a high efficiency of the combined therapy based on the administration of mexidol antioxidant and low-intensity (lambda) equals 0.63 micrometers diode laser irradiation of blood. This therapeutic technique produced an influence on the basic pathogenetic mechanisms of acute pancreatitis. The application of this method of treatment improved the course and prognosis of acute pancreatitis.

  12. Transient Impairment of Hippocampus-dependent Learning and Memory in Relatively Low-Dose of Acute Radiation Syndrome is Associated with Inhibition of Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Joong-Sun, KIM; Hae-June, LEE; Jong Choon, KIM; Seong Soo, KANG; Chun-Sik, BAE; Taekyun, SHIN; Jae-Kwang, JIN; SUNG HO, KIM; Hongbing, WANG; Changjong, MOON; Department of Veterinary Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Veterinary Medical Research Center, Chonnam National University; Department of Veterinary Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine and Veterinary Medical Research Center, Chonnam National University; Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine and Research Institute for Subtropical Agriculture and Biotechnology, Cheju National University; Ilsong Institute of Life Science, Hallym University; Department of Physiology and Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University

    2008-01-01

    Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, which occurs constitutively, is vulnerable to ionizing radiation. In the relatively low-dose exposure of acute radiation syndrome (ARS), the change in the adult hippocampal function is poorly understood. This study analyzed the changes in apoptotic cell death and neurogenesis in the DGs of hippocampi from adult ICR mice with single whole-body gamma-irradiation using the TUNEL method and immunohistochemical markers of neurogenesis, Ki-67 and doublecortin ...

  13. The histopathological comparison of L-carnitine with amifostine for protective efficacy on radiation-induced acute small intestinal toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Caloglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to compare the protective efficacy of l-carnitine (LC to amifostine on radiation-induced acute small intestine damage. Materials and Methods: Thirty, 4-week-old Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to four groups - Group 1: control (CONT, n = 6, Group 2: irradiation alone (RT, n = 8, Group 3: amifostine plus irradiation (AMI+RT, n = 8, and Group 4: l-Carnitine plus irradiation (LC+RT, n = 8. The rats in all groups were irradiated individually with a single dose of 20 Gy to the total abdomen, except those in CONT. LC (300 mg/kg or amifostine (200 mg/kg was used 30 min before irradiation. Histopathological analysis of small intestine was carried out after euthanasia. Results: Pretreatment with amifostine reduced the radiation-induced acute degenerative damage (P = 0.009 compared to the RT group. Pretreatment with LC did not obtain any significant difference compared to the RT group. The vascular damage significantly reduced in both of the AMI+RT (P = 0.003 and LC+RT group (P = 0.029 compared to the RT group. The overall damage score was significantly lower in the AMI+RT group than the RT group (P = 0.009. There was not any significant difference between the LC+RT and RT group. Conclusions: Amifostine has a marked radioprotective effect against all histopathological changes on small intestinal tissue while LC has limited effects which are mainly on vascular structure.

  14. Timed Get Up and Go Test and Geriatric 8 Scores and the Association With (Chemo-) Radiation Therapy Noncompliance and Acute Toxicity in Elderly Cancer Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, Judith G.; Mast, Mirjam E.; de Kroon, Maaike; Jobsen, Jan J.; Rozema, Tom; Maas, Huub A. A. M.; Baartman, Elizabet A.; Geijsen, Debby; van der Leest, Annija H.; van den Bongard, Desiree J.; van Loon, Judith; Budiharto, Tom; Coebergh, Jan-Willem; Aarts, Mieke J; Struikmans, Henk

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the Geriatric 8 (G8) and the Timed Get Up and Go Test (TGUGT) and clinical and demographic patient characteristics were associated with acute toxicity of radiation therapy and noncompliance in elderly cancer patients being irradiated with curative intent. Methods and

  15. An adult patient who developed malignant fibrous histiocytoma 9 years after radiation therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Yasuhiro [National Hiroshima Hospital, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Ohno, Norioki; Horikawa, Yoko; Nishimura, Shin-ichiro; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Shimose, Shoji [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-12-01

    A 24-year-old Japanese man with a history of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, which occurred during childhood, developed malignant fibrous histiocytoma of his left knee. His past history revealed that he had undergone leukemic blast cell invasion of the left knee and subsequent radiation therapy 9 years ago. The total radiation doses for the upper part of the left tibia and the lower part of the left femur were 60 Gy and 40 Gy, respectively. Neither distant metastasis nor a relapse of leukemia occurred. A curative resection of the left femur with a noninvasive margin was performed. Adjuvant chemotherapy including high-dose methotrexate was given successfully before and after surgery; this was followed by relapse-free survival for 3 years. The nature of postirradiation malignant fibrous histiocytoma is highly aggressive. When a patient complains of persistent symptoms in a previously irradiated field, the possibility of this tumor must be taken into account. The importance of early diagnosis cannot be over-emphasized. (author)

  16. DELAYED EFFECTS OF ACUTE RADIATION EXPOSURE IN A MURINE MODEL OF THE H-ARS: MULTIPLE-ORGAN INJURY CONSEQUENT TO <10 GY TOTAL BODY IRRADIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unthank, Joseph L.; Miller, Steven J.; Quickery, Ariel K.; Ferguson, Ethan L.; Wang, Meijing; Sampson, Carol H.; Chua, Hui Lin; DiStasi, Matthew R.; Feng, Hailin; Fisher, Alexa; Katz, Barry P.; Plett, P. Artur; Sandusky, George E.; Sellamuthu, Rajendran; Vemula, Sasidhar; Cohen, Eric P.; MacVittie, Thomas J.; Orschell, Christie M.

    2015-01-01

    The threat of radiation exposure from warfare or radiation accidents raises the need for appropriate animal models to study the acute and chronic effects of high dose rate radiation exposure. The goal of this study was to assess the late development of fibrosis in multiple organs (kidney, heart, and lung) in survivors of the C57BL/6 mouse model of the hematopoietic-acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS). Separate groups of mice for histological and functional studies were exposed to a single uniform total body dose between 8.53 and 8.72 Gy of gamma radiation from a 137Cs radiation source and studied 1–21 months later. Blood urea nitrogen levels were elevated significantly in the irradiated mice at 9 and 21 mo (from ~22 to 34 ± 3.8 and 69±6.0 mg/dl, p<0.01 vs non-irradiated controls) and correlated with glomerosclerosis (29±1.8% vs 64±9.7% of total glomeruli, p<0.01 vs non-irradiated controls). Glomerular tubularization and hypertrophy and tubular atrophy were also observed at 21 mo post-total body irradiation (TBI). An increase in interstitial, perivascular, pericardial and peri-bronchial fibrosis/collagen deposition was observed from ~9–21 mo post-TBI in kidney, heart and lung of irradiated mice relative to age-matched controls. Echocardiography suggested decreased ventricular volumes with a compensatory increase in left ventricular ejection fraction. The results indicate that significant delayed effects of acute radiation exposure occur in kidney, heart, and lung in survivors of the murine H-ARS TBI model which mirrors pathology detected in larger species and humans at higher radiation doses focused on specific organs. PMID:26425910

  17. Response to and recovery from acute sublethal gamma radiation in the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.

    1979-05-01

    Acute irradiation of the Amazon molly with a sublethal dose of 1,000 rad caused some damage to the intestinal tract and to the haematopoietic system. Histologically, the intestine appeared to have regenerated by the end of a week; damage to the haematopoietic tissue appeared more slowly, but repair was almost complete some two months later. Nevertheless, recovery to the intestine cannot have been entirely completed in seven days, since the fish did not feed well for the following two weeks. After this, there were no obvious deleterious effects upon the survival and viability of the fish, although irradiated fish weighed less at the termination of the experiment.

  18. Effects of radiation dose reduction in Volume Perfusion CT imaging of acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ahmed E; Brockmann, Carolin; Yang, Zepa; Kim, Changwon; Afat, Saif; Pjontek, Rastislav; Nikobashman, Omid; Brockmann, Marc A; Kim, Jong Hyo; Wiesmann, Martin

    2015-12-01

    To examine the influence of radiation dose reduction on image quality and sensitivity of Volume Perfusion CT (VPCT) maps regarding the detection of ischemic brain lesions. VPCT data of 20 patients with suspected ischemic stroke acquired at 80 kV and 180 mAs were included. Using realistic reduced-dose simulation, low-dose VPCT datasets with 144 mAs, 108 mAs, 72 mAs and 36 mAs (80 %, 60 %, 40 % and 20 % of the original levels) were generated, resulting in a total of 100 datasets. Perfusion maps were created and signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) measurements were performed. Qualitative analyses were conducted by two blinded readers, who also assessed the presence/absence of ischemic lesions and scored CBV and CBF maps using a modified ASPECTS-score. SNR of all low-dose datasets were significantly lower than those of the original datasets (p < .05). All datasets down to 72 mAs (40 %) yielded sufficient image quality and high sensitivity with excellent inter-observer-agreements, whereas 36 mAs datasets (20 %) yielded poor image quality in 15 % of the cases with lower sensitivity and inter-observer-agreements. Low-dose VPCT using decreased tube currents down to 72 mAs (40 % of original radiation dose) produces sufficient perfusion maps for the detection of ischemic brain lesions. • Perfusion CT is highly accurate for the detection of ischemic brain lesions • Perfusion CT results in high radiation exposure, therefore low-dose protocols are required • Reduction of tube current down to 72 mAs produces sufficient perfusion maps.

  19. Evaluation of acute radiation effects on mandibular movements of patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragante, Karoline C; Nascimento, Daniela M; Motta, Neiro W

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate radiotherapy effects (RT) on mandibular movements of patients with head and neck cancer (H&NC) and associate them to the variables: functional capacity, radiation field, disease staging, type of feeding, concomitant chemotherapy and total dose of RT. Twenty-six patients with H&NC were followed up at the RT service. Physical examination was performed in 3 follow up time points: before the beginning of RT (T0), between 14th and 17th session of RT (T1) and after the last session of RT (T2). The physical examination consisted of the assessment of the following variables: mouth opening without pain (MO), maximum mouth opening (MMO), right lateral excursion (RLE), left lateral excursion (LLE) and protrusion (PR) of the jaw. The feeding type and the Karnofsky Performance Status Scale (KPS) were evaluated in each follow up time point. Data with regards to the tumor lesion and the RT were collected from the patient's clinical notes. There was a statistical significant reduction in the values of MO (p=0.006), MMO (p=0.001), LLE (p=0.006) and KPS (p=0.001). There was significant a statistical association among the reduction in KPS and decreased measure of MO (r=0.390, p=0.048) and MMO (r=0.435, p=0.026). The mouth and oropharynx radiation fields when combined showed a significant reduction for both the measure of MO (p=0.005) and for MMO (p=0.004). Patients who used nasoenteric tube feeding (NTF) had greater reduction in the measurement of MMO (p=0.031). The remaining variables showed no statistically significant difference. Patients with H&NC present reduction of the measures of MO and MMO during the RT, especially if they present reduced functional capacity, have radiation in the mouth and oropharynx fields and used NTF.

  20. Ultrasonic analysis of acute thermal and radiation injury - A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goans, R.E. [MJW Corporation, Amherst, NY 14228 (United States); Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States)], E-mail: ronald.goans@comcast.net; Goans, R.H. [Department of Mathematics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Goans, R.E. [Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Christensen, D.M. [Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS), Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Medical injury from a terrorist event (IND, RDD) is likely to involve both radiation damage and thermal trauma (combined injury). A high-frequency ultrasound technique has previously been developed to function as a clinical tool to distinguish partial-thickness from full-thickness thermal burns in a porcine model and the method was later extended for use in clinical burn units. In a traditional clinical setting, the technique has shown sufficient sensitivity to quantitate extension of a partial-thickness burn to a full-thickness burn through cutaneous infection. The ultrasound method has been extended in a pilot study to analyze radiation-induced cutaneous injury. Analysis of radiation-induced skin injury is more difficult than for thermal injury. However, further development of the method has shown a time-dependent response curve for the scattered ultrasound signal after irradiation of Wistar rat tails to 40 Gy with a 120 KeV X-ray spectrum. Statistically significant changes (p<0.05) in the magnitude of the reflected ultrasound spectrum have been noted less than 6 h-post-irradiation. The scattered intensity response curve peaks near the appearance of the first clinical sign (erythema) at 12 days post-irradiation. The mechanism of ultrasound sensitivity appears to involve changes in the tissue acoustic impedance post-irradiation possibly due to hyperemia, vascular damage and leakage. Because of the penetrating power and resolution of recent ultrasound equipment, this technique is expected to be extendable to analysis of irradiated deep organs, of large- and medium-size blood vessels, and to possible analysis of combined injury.

  1. Study on radioprotection effects of clinoptilolite on sub-acute radiation-injured mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na LI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study the protection effect of clinoptilolite (Cp against radiation injury. Methods  Fortyeight male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 6 groups, namely normal control group (distilled water + sham irradiation, radiation control group (distilled water + irradiation, 300mg/kg 523 group (200mg/kg nilestriol 24h before irradiation and 100mg/ kg nilestriol 4h after irradiation, 56mg/kg Cp group (56mg/kg Cp + irradiation, 167mg/kg Cp group (167mg/kg Cp + irradiation and 500mg/kg Cp group (500mg/kg Cp + irradiation. Seven days after the administration of the drug, all the mice but those from the normal control group were irradiated with γ-ray irradiation of 137Cs in the dose of 4.0Gy, at the rate of 0.75Gy/min. All the mice were given the drug for 14 days after irradiation. RBC, WBC and PLT counts in peripheral blood, superoxide dismutases (SOD activity, malondialdehyde (MDA level, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px level in blood serum, the content of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA and hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow were determined. Results  Compared with radiation control group, on 10th day after irradiation, RBC counts in peripheral blood of 56mg/kg Cp group and 167mg/kg Cp group were significantly higher (P<0.05, P<0.01, and WBC counts in peripheral blood of 56mg/kg Cp group and 500mg/kg Cp group were significantly higher (P<0.01. On 14th day after irradiation, compared with radiation control group, the SOD activities in blood serum of three Cp groups were elevated (P<0.05, P<0.01, the GSH-Px levels were elevated in blood serum of 167mg/kg Cp group and 500mg/kg Cp group (P<0.01, the DNA contents were significantly higher in 56mg/kg Cp group and 500mg/kg Cp group (P<0.05, P<0.01, the hematopoietic stem cells were significantly increased in number in bone marrow of three Cp groups (P<0.01. Conclusion  The clinoptilolite possesses protective effect against injury induced by 137Cs γ-irradiation in mice. DOI: 10.11855/j

  2. Effects of radiation dose reduction in Volume Perfusion CT imaging of acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Ahmed E. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, University Hospital Tuebingen, Department for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Brockmann, Carolin; Afat, Saif; Pjontek, Rastislav; Nikobashman, Omid; Brockmann, Marc A.; Wiesmann, Martin [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Yang, Zepa; Kim, Changwon [Seoul National University, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hyo [Seoul National University, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Center for Medical-IT Convergence Technology Research, Advanced Institute of Convergence Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To examine the influence of radiation dose reduction on image quality and sensitivity of Volume Perfusion CT (VPCT) maps regarding the detection of ischemic brain lesions. VPCT data of 20 patients with suspected ischemic stroke acquired at 80 kV and 180 mAs were included. Using realistic reduced-dose simulation, low-dose VPCT datasets with 144 mAs, 108 mAs, 72 mAs and 36 mAs (80 %, 60 %, 40 % and 20 % of the original levels) were generated, resulting in a total of 100 datasets. Perfusion maps were created and signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) measurements were performed. Qualitative analyses were conducted by two blinded readers, who also assessed the presence/absence of ischemic lesions and scored CBV and CBF maps using a modified ASPECTS-score. SNR of all low-dose datasets were significantly lower than those of the original datasets (p <.05). All datasets down to 72 mAs (40 %) yielded sufficient image quality and high sensitivity with excellent inter-observer-agreements, whereas 36 mAs datasets (20 %) yielded poor image quality in 15 % of the cases with lower sensitivity and inter-observer-agreements. Low-dose VPCT using decreased tube currents down to 72 mAs (40 % of original radiation dose) produces sufficient perfusion maps for the detection of ischemic brain lesions. (orig.)

  3. Acute Ultraviolet Radiation Perturbs Epithelialization but not the Biomechanical Strength of Full-thickness Cutaneous Wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Patricia L; Lerche, Catharina M; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that priming of the skin with ultraviolet radiation (UVR) before being injured would enhance wound healing. Four groups, each comprising 20 immunocompetent hairless mice, were exposed to simulated solar irradiation in escalating UVR doses; 0 standard erythema dose (SED) = control, 1...... SED, 3 SED and 5 SED. Twenty-four hours after UV irradiation, inflammation was quantified by skin reflectance (erythema) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) tissue levels, and two 6 mm full-thickness excisional wounds and one 3 cm incisional wound were inflicted. Epidermal hyperplasia was assessed...... by quantitative histology. Five days after wounding, wound coverage by neoepithelium and wound width of the excisional wounds was quantified in hematoxylin-eosin sections, and breaking strength was measured in strips from incisional wounds. Erythema (P

  4. Statistical Prediction of Solar Particle Event Frequency Based on the Measurements of Recent Solar Cycles for Acute Radiation Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung-Hee, Y. Kim; Shaowen, Hu; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2009-01-01

    Large solar particle events (SPEs) present significant acute radiation risks to the crew members during extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) or in lightly shielded space vehicles for space missions beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field. Acute radiation sickness (ARS) can impair performance and result in failure of the mission. Improved forecasting capability and/or early-warning systems and proper shielding solutions are required to stay within NASA's short-term dose limits. Exactly how to make use of observations of SPEs for predicting occurrence and size is a great challenge, because SPE occurrences themselves are random in nature even though the expected frequency of SPEs is strongly influenced by the time position within the solar activity cycle. Therefore, we developed a probabilistic model approach, where a cumulative expected occurrence curve of SPEs for a typical solar cycle was formed from a non-homogeneous Poisson process model fitted to a database of proton fluence measurements of SPEs that occurred during the past 5 solar cycles (19 - 23) and those of large SPEs identified from impulsive nitrate enhancements in polar ice. From the fitted model, the expected frequency of SPEs was estimated at any given proton fluence threshold (Phi(sub E)) with energy (E) >30 MeV during a defined space mission period. Corresponding Phi(sub E) (E=30, 60, and 100 MeV) fluence distributions were simulated with a random draw from a gamma distribution, and applied for SPE ARS risk analysis for a specific mission period. It has been found that the accurate prediction of deep-seated organ doses was more precisely predicted at high energies, Phi(sub 100), than at lower energies such as Phi(sub 30) or Phi(sub 60), because of the high penetration depth of high energy protons. Estimates of ARS are then described for 90th and 95th percentile events for several mission lengths and for several likely organ dose-rates. The ability to accurately measure high energy protons

  5. Clinical and Dosimetric Predictors of Acute Severe Lymphopenia During Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Temozolomide for High-Grade Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jiayi, E-mail: jhuang@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); DeWees, Todd A.; Badiyan, Shahed N.; Speirs, Christina K.; Mullen, Daniel F.; Fergus, Sandra [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Tran, David D.; Linette, Gerry; Campian, Jian L. [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Chicoine, Michael R.; Kim, Albert H.; Dunn, Gavin [Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Simpson, Joseph R.; Robinson, Clifford G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Acute severe lymphopenia (ASL) frequently develops during radiation therapy (RT) and concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) for high-grade glioma (HGG) and is associated with decreased survival. The current study was designed to identify potential predictors of ASL, with a focus on actionable RT-specific dosimetric parameters. Methods and Materials: From January 2007 to December 2012, 183 patients with HGG were treated with RT+TMZ and had available data including total lymphocyte count (TLC) and radiation dose-volume histogram parameters. ASL was defined as TLC of <500/μL within the first 3 months from the start of RT. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to determine the most important predictors of ASL. Results: Fifty-three patients (29%) developed ASL. Patients with ASL had significantly worse overall survival than those without (median: 12.5 vs 20.2 months, respectively, P<.001). Stepwise logistic regression analysis identified female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 5.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.46-11.41), older age (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.02-1.09), lower baseline TLC (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87-0.98), and higher brain volume receiving 25 Gy (V{sub 25Gy}) (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.003-1.05) as the most significant predictors for ASL. Brain V{sub 25Gy} <56% appeared to be the optimal threshold (OR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.11-5.01), with an ASL rate of 38% versus 20% above and below this threshold, respectively (P=.006). Conclusions: Female sex, older age, lower baseline TLC, and higher brain V{sub 25Gy} are significant predictors of ASL during RT+TMZ therapy for HGG. Maintaining the V{sub 25Gy} of brain below 56% may reduce the risk of ASL.

  6. Influence of Double-Strand Break Repair on Radiation Therapy-Induced Acute Skin Reactions in Breast Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumbrekar, Kamalesh Dattaram [Division of Radiobiology and Toxicology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Fernandes, Donald Jerard [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Shirdi Sai Baba Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Goutham, Hassan Venkatesh [Division of Radiobiology and Toxicology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Sharan, Krishna [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Shirdi Sai Baba Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Vadhiraja, Bejadi Manjunath [Manipal Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu [Division of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Bola Sadashiva, Satish Rao, E-mail: satishraomlsc@gmail.com [Division of Radiobiology and Toxicology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Curative radiation therapy (RT)-induced toxicity poses strong limitations for efficient RT and worsens the quality of life. The parameter that explains when and to what extent normal tissue toxicity in RT evolves would be of clinical relevance because of its predictive value and may provide an opportunity for personalized treatment approach. Methods and Materials: DNA double-strand breaks and repair were analyzed by microscopic γ-H2AX foci analysis in peripheral lymphocytes from 38 healthy donors and 80 breast cancer patients before RT, a 2 Gy challenge dose of x-ray exposed in vitro. Results: The actual damage (AD) at 0.25, 3, and 6 hours and percentage residual damage (PRD) at 3 and 6 hours were used as parameters to measure cellular radiosensitivity and correlated with RT-induced acute skin reactions in patients stratified as non-overresponders (NOR) (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] grade <2) and overresponders (OR) (RTOG grade ≥2). The results indicated that the basal and induced (at 0.25 and 3 hours) γ-H2AX foci numbers were nonsignificant (P>.05) between healthy control donors and the NOR and OR groups, whereas it was significant between ORs and healthy donors at 6 hours (P<.001). There was a significantly higher PRD in OR versus NOR (P<.05), OR versus healthy donors (P<.001) and NOR versus healthy donors (P<.01), supported further by the trend analysis (r=.2392; P=.0326 at 6 hours). Conclusions: Our findings strongly suggest that the measurement of PRD by performing γ-H2AX foci analysis has the potential to be developed into a clinically useful predictive assay.

  7. Clinical and Dosimetric Predictors of Acute Severe Lymphopenia During Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Temozolomide for High-Grade Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiayi; DeWees, Todd A; Badiyan, Shahed N; Speirs, Christina K; Mullen, Daniel F; Fergus, Sandra; Tran, David D; Linette, Gerry; Campian, Jian L; Chicoine, Michael R; Kim, Albert H; Dunn, Gavin; Simpson, Joseph R; Robinson, Clifford G

    2015-08-01

    Acute severe lymphopenia (ASL) frequently develops during radiation therapy (RT) and concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) for high-grade glioma (HGG) and is associated with decreased survival. The current study was designed to identify potential predictors of ASL, with a focus on actionable RT-specific dosimetric parameters. From January 2007 to December 2012, 183 patients with HGG were treated with RT+TMZ and had available data including total lymphocyte count (TLC) and radiation dose-volume histogram parameters. ASL was defined as TLC of <500/μL within the first 3 months from the start of RT. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to determine the most important predictors of ASL. Fifty-three patients (29%) developed ASL. Patients with ASL had significantly worse overall survival than those without (median: 12.5 vs 20.2 months, respectively, P<.001). Stepwise logistic regression analysis identified female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 5.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.46-11.41), older age (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.02-1.09), lower baseline TLC (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87-0.98), and higher brain volume receiving 25 Gy (V25Gy) (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.003-1.05) as the most significant predictors for ASL. Brain V25Gy <56% appeared to be the optimal threshold (OR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.11-5.01), with an ASL rate of 38% versus 20% above and below this threshold, respectively (P=.006). Female sex, older age, lower baseline TLC, and higher brain V25Gy are significant predictors of ASL during RT+TMZ therapy for HGG. Maintaining the V25Gy of brain below 56% may reduce the risk of ASL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficacy of glutamine in the prevention of oral mucositis and acute radiation-induced esophagitis: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Calleja-Fernández, Alicia; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D; Cano-Rodríguez, Isidoro

    2013-01-01

    Glutamine is a nutraceutic with antioxidant and immune functions that can protect from adverse effects associated with radiation therapy (RT). The aim of this study was to test whether oral glutamine prevents oral mucositis (OM) or acute radiation-induced esophagitis (ARIE) and favors nutritional status. This retrospective, cohort study included patients treated with RT for cancer on head and neck (HN) or chest areas during the 2008-2010 period. Data on glutamine treatment (initiated before RT, during RT, or no glutamine), appearance of mucositis (according to World Health Organization criteria), weight loss (WL) during RT, moderate [body mass index (BMI) 5%) or severe (BMI 10%) malnutrition, and nutritional support were collected. Quantitative data were compared using Student's t-test and analysis of variance, and qualitative data using the chi-square test. The risk difference was calculated with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The sample included 117 patients. Overall, glutamine was associated with a significant reduction of mucositis, WL, and enteral nutrition. The risk difference for developing OM in patients receiving glutamine when compared with controls was -9.0% (95% CI = -18.0% to -1.0%), and for ARIE it was -14.0% (95% CI = -26.0% to -1.0%). More of the patients not receiving glutamine developed severe malnutrition when compared with those receiving this supplement, but there were no differences in other outcomes such as interruption of RT, hospitalization, use of opioid analgesics, or death during RT. Glutamine may have a protective effect during RT, reducing the risk and severity of OM and ARIE, preventing weight loss, and reducing the need for nutritional support. Prospective trials are required.

  9. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A as early-phase and prognostic indicators of acute radiation exposure in nonhuman primate total-body irradiation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossetrova, N.I., E-mail: ossetrova@afrri.usuhs.mil [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Sandgren, D.J.; Blakely, W.F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Terrorist radiological attacks or nuclear accidents could expose large numbers of people to ionizing radiation. In mass-casualty radiological incidents early medical-management requires triage tools for first-responders to quantitatively identify individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and for early initiation (i.e., within one day after radiation exposure) of cytokine therapy for treatment of bone marrow acute radiation syndrome. Herein, we present results from 30 rhesus macaques total-body irradiated (TBI) to a broad dose range of 1-8.5 Gy with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays (0.55 Gy min{sup -1}) and demonstrate dose- and time-dependent changes in blood of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CRP and SAA dose-response results are consistent with {approx}1 Gy and {approx}0.2 Gy thresholds for photon-exposure at 24 h after TBI, respectively. Highly significant elevations of CRP and SAA (p = 0.00017 and p = 0.0024, respectively) were found in animal plasma at 6 h after all TBI doses suggesting their potential use as early-phase biodosimeters. Results also show that the dynamics and content of CRP and SAA levels reflect the course and severity of the acute radiation sickness (ARS) and may function as prognostic indicators of ARS outcome. These results demonstrate proof-of-concept that these radiation-responsive proteins show promise as a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposures and may also contribute as diagnostic indices in the medical management of radiation accidents.

  10. Protection from acute exposure to ultraviolet radiation by ultraviolet-absorbing RGP contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbleton, K A; Cullen, A P; Doughty, M J

    1991-07-01

    One eye in each of 12 female pigmented rabbits was irradiated with UVB while wearing an EqualensR I rigid gas-permeable contact lens. The other eye served as a control. The irradiance level was 625 microW cm-2 (285-315 nm total bandpass) with exposure times up to 2364 s. Eyes were evaluated 24 h and 48 h after exposure by biomicroscopy and pachometry, and later by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The contact lens was found to protect the central cornea from radiant exposures up to 60 times threshold. The exposed areas of cornea showed characteristic ultraviolet damage with an arc of demarcation indicating the position of the lens. With time the area formed a ridge of damaged cells (confirmed by SEM). At radiant exposure over 0.75 J cm-2 some oedema was seen in the 'protected' region, apparently by extension rather than as a direct effect. These findings suggest that in the human being exposed to ultraviolet radiation this ultraviolet-absorbing RGP lens would permit nasal and temporal photoketatitis with sparing of the central cornea and provide some protection of more posterior ocular structures.

  11. Triple intrathecal therapy alone with omission of cranial radiation in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsi-Che; Yeh, Ting-Chi; Hou, Jen-Yin; Chen, Kuan-Hao; Huang, Ting-Huan; Chang, Ching-Yi; Liang, Der-Cherng

    2014-06-10

    To eliminate the toxicities and sequelae of cranial irradiation (CrRT) and to minimize the adverse impact of traumatic lumbar puncture (TLP) with blasts, a prospective study of a modified CNS-directed therapy was conducted in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Since June 1999, children with newly diagnosed ALL have been treated with triple intrathecal therapy (TIT) alone without CrRT. The first TIT was delayed until the disappearance of blasts from peripheral blood (PB) for up to 10 days of multidrug induction, and CrRT was omitted in all patients. If PB blasts persisted on treatment day 10 (d10), the TIT was then performed. Of a total of 156 patients, 152 were eligible. Seventeen patients did not have PB blasts at diagnosis. Three fourths of the remaining patients achieved complete clearance of PB blasts by d10. Only hyperleukocytosis at diagnosis showed a significantly lower clearance rate. Six standard-risk patients were upgraded to high risk because of detectable PB blasts on d10. TLPs were encountered in four patients (2.6%), but none were contaminated with lymphoblasts. Neither CNS-2 (less than 5 WBCs/μL with blasts in a nontraumatic sample) nor CNS-3 (≥5 WBCs/μL with blasts in a nontraumatic sample or the presence of cranial nerve palsy) was present. The 5-year event-free survival and overall survival rates±SE were 84.2%±3.0% and 90.6%±2.4%, respectively. No isolated CNS relapse occurred, but two patients experienced combined CNS relapses. The 7-year cumulative risk of any CNS relapse was 1.4%±1.0%. Delaying first TIT until circulating blasts have cleared may improve CNS control in children with newly diagnosed ALL and preclude the need for CrRT. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  12. Combination therapeutics of Nilotinib and radiation in acute lymphoblastic leukemia as an effective method against drug-resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Kaveh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is characterized by a very poor prognosis and a high likelihood of acquired chemo-resistance. Although tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI therapy has improved clinical outcome, most ALL patients relapse following treatment with TKI due to the development of resistance. We developed an in vitro model of Nilotinib-resistant Ph+ leukemia cells to investigate whether low dose radiation (LDR in combination with TKI therapy overcome chemo-resistance. Additionally, we developed a mathematical model, parameterized by cell viability experiments under Nilotinib treatment and LDR, to explain the cellular response to combination therapy. The addition of LDR significantly reduced drug resistance both in vitro and in computational model. Decreased expression level of phosphorylated AKT suggests that the combination treatment plays an important role in overcoming resistance through the AKT pathway. Model-predicted cellular responses to the combined therapy provide good agreement with experimental results. Augmentation of LDR and Nilotinib therapy seems to be beneficial to control Ph+ leukemia resistance and the quantitative model can determine optimal dosing schedule to enhance the effectiveness of the combination therapy.

  13. Psychophysiological adaptation of the patient with the remote effect of the III degree acute radiation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metlyaeva N.A.

    2013-12-01

    putation of both shins at level in top / 3, late beam buttock, right hip ulcers, a beam cataract of the III degree of both eyes, stabilized. The assessment of the efficiency of psychophysiological adaptation in dynamics with 2009 indicates emergence of prevalence of hypochondriac tendencies over a demonstration with accession of high uneasiness and autistic lines at preservation of the leading role of an hypochondriac somatization of alarm with considerable decrease in an emotionality, an integration, a freedom of behavior. The changes revealed in dynamics correspond to the specific increase weight of violations of mental adaptation, characteristic for the period of adaptation exhaustion. The high intelligence, good figurative and logical thinking, well-mannered forms of behavior, high control over the emotional sphere, restraint of emotions, independence, self-sufficiency, organization, behavior taking into account environment requirements provided the patient M. firmness before a heavy illness, promoted good adaptation to an environment with confidence in myself, high social adaptability, opportunity successfully to carry out duties, hold the work account (worked 39 years after accident. Comparative assessment of operator ability of the patient M. showed good average time of common and difficult sensorimotor reactions with 2 mistakes, high time of reaction for moving object, however decrease in accuracy of reaction from 10-13% to 2% testifies to manifestation in dynamics of insufficiency of real functional reserves of nervous system. Conclusions. Efficiency of psychophysiological adaptation depends not only on a dose of radiation and weight of the transferred disease, but, mostly, on premorbid properties of the identity of the victim and his social and labor installation.

  14. Management of late radiation-induced rectal injury after treatment of carcinoma of the uterus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen-Mersh, T.G.; Wilson, E.J.; Hope-Stone, H.F.; Mann, C.V.

    1987-06-01

    Sixty-one of 1418 (4.3 per cent) patients treated with radiation for carcinoma of the uterus from 1963 to 1983 had significant radiation-induced complications of the intestine develop which required a surgical opinion considering further management. Ninety-three per cent of these complications involved the rectum. Florid proctitis resolved within two years of onset in 33 per cent of the patients who were managed conservatively while 22 per cent of the patients died of disseminated disease within the same time period. Surgical treatment was eventually necessary in 39 per cent of the patients who were initially treated conservatively for radiation induced proctitis. Rectal excision with coloanal sleeve anastomosis produced a satisfactory result in eight of 11 patients with severe radiation injury involving the rectum. The incidence of radiation-induced and malignant rectovaginal fistula were similar (1 per cent), but disease-induced symptoms tended to occur earlier after primary treatment (a median of eight months) compared with radiation-induced symptoms (a median of 16 months).

  15. A study of neurotoxic biomarkers, c-fos and GFAP after acute exposure to GSM radiation at 900 MHz in the picrotoxin model of rat brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo-Quintás, M; Martínez-Silva, I; Cadarso-Suárez, C; Alvarez-Figueiras, M; Ares-Pena, F J; López-Martín, E

    2011-08-01

    The acute effects of microwave exposure from the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) were studied in rats, using 900MHz radiation at an intensity similar to mobile phone emissions. Acute subconvulsive doses of picrotoxin were then administered to the rats and an experimental model of seizure-proneness was created from the data. Seventy-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent immunochemical testing of relevant anatomical areas to measure induction of the c-fos neuronal marker after 90min and 24h, and of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) 72h after acute exposure to a 900MHz electromagnetic field (EMF). The experimental set-up facilitated measurement of absorbed power, from which the average specific absorption rate was calculated using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) 2h after exposure to EMF radiation at 1.45W/kg in picrotoxin-treated rats and 1.38W/kg in untreated rats. Ninety minutes after radiation high levels of c-fos expression were recorded in the neocortex and paleocortex along with low hippocampus activation in picrotoxin treated animals. Most brain areas, except the limbic cortical region, showed important increases in neuronal activation 24h after picrotoxin and radiation. Three days after picrotoxin treatment, radiation effects were still apparent in the neocortex, dentate gyrus and CA3, but a significant decrease in activity was noted in the piriform and entorhinal cortex. During this time, glial reactivity increased with every seizure in irradiated, picrotoxin-treated brain regions. Our results reveal that c-fos and glial markers were triggered by the combined stress of non-thermal irradiation and the toxic effect of picrotoxin on cerebral tissues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional Data Analysis Applied to Modeling of Severe Acute Mucositis and Dysphagia Resulting From Head and Neck Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Jamie A., E-mail: jamie.dean@icr.ac.uk [Joint Department of Physics, The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Wong, Kee H. [Head and Neck Unit, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Gay, Hiram [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Welsh, Liam C.; Jones, Ann-Britt; Schick, Ulrike [Head and Neck Unit, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Oh, Jung Hun; Apte, Aditya [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Newbold, Kate L.; Bhide, Shreerang A.; Harrington, Kevin J. [Head and Neck Unit, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Nutting, Christopher M. [Head and Neck Unit, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Gulliford, Sarah L. [Joint Department of Physics, The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: Current normal tissue complication probability modeling using logistic regression suffers from bias and high uncertainty in the presence of highly correlated radiation therapy (RT) dose data. This hinders robust estimates of dose-response associations and, hence, optimal normal tissue–sparing strategies from being elucidated. Using functional data analysis (FDA) to reduce the dimensionality of the dose data could overcome this limitation. Methods and Materials: FDA was applied to modeling of severe acute mucositis and dysphagia resulting from head and neck RT. Functional partial least squares regression (FPLS) and functional principal component analysis were used for dimensionality reduction of the dose-volume histogram data. The reduced dose data were input into functional logistic regression models (functional partial least squares–logistic regression [FPLS-LR] and functional principal component–logistic regression [FPC-LR]) along with clinical data. This approach was compared with penalized logistic regression (PLR) in terms of predictive performance and the significance of treatment covariate–response associations, assessed using bootstrapping. Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the PLR, FPC-LR, and FPLS-LR models was 0.65, 0.69, and 0.67, respectively, for mucositis (internal validation) and 0.81, 0.83, and 0.83, respectively, for dysphagia (external validation). The calibration slopes/intercepts for the PLR, FPC-LR, and FPLS-LR models were 1.6/−0.67, 0.45/0.47, and 0.40/0.49, respectively, for mucositis (internal validation) and 2.5/−0.96, 0.79/−0.04, and 0.79/0.00, respectively, for dysphagia (external validation). The bootstrapped odds ratios indicated significant associations between RT dose and severe toxicity in the mucositis and dysphagia FDA models. Cisplatin was significantly associated with severe dysphagia in the FDA models. None of the covariates was significantly associated with severe

  17. The effect of Mepitel Film on acute radiation-induced skin reactions in head and neck cancer patients: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, Hayley; Yan, Jing; Yuan, Ling; Chyou, Te-Yu; Gao, Shanbao; Ward, Iain; Herst, Patries M

    2018-01-01

    Mepitel Film significantly decreases acute radiation-induced skin reactions in breast cancer patients. Here we investigated the feasibility of using Mepitel Film in head and neck cancer patients (ACTRN12614000932662). Out of a total of 36 head and neck cancer patients from New Zealand (NZ) (n = 24) and China (n = 12) recruited between June 2015 and December 2016, 33 patients complied with protocol. Of these, 11 NZ patients followed a management protocol; 11 NZ patients and 11 Chinese patients followed a prophylactic protocol. An area of the neck receiving a homogenous radiation dose of > 35 Gy was divided into two equal halves; one half was randomized to Film and the other to either Sorbolene cream (NZ) or Biafine cream (China). Skin reaction severity was measured by Radiation Induced Skin Reaction Assessment Scale and expanded Radiation Therapy Oncology Group toxicity criteria. Skin dose was measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters or gafchromic film. Film decreased overall skin reaction severity (combined Radiation Induced Skin Reaction Assessment Scale score) by 29% and moist desquamation rates by 37% in the Chinese cohort and by 27 and 28%, respectively in the NZ cohort. Mepitel Film did not affect head movements but did not adhere well to the skin, particularly in males with heavy beard stubble, and caused itchiness, particularly in Chinese patients. Mepitel Film reduced acute radiation-induced skin reactions in our head and neck cancer patients, particularly in patients without heavy stubble. Advances in knowledge: This is the first study to confirm the feasibility of using Mepitel Film in head and neck cancer patients.

  18. Comparison of Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect in QU-DB Cells after Acute and Fractionated Irradiation: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Bahreyni Toossi, Mohammad Taghi; Kamran Samani, Roghayeh; Mohebbi, Shokoufeh

    2016-01-01

    Radiation effects induced in non-irradiated cells are termed radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE). The present study intends to examine the RIBE response of QU-DB bystander cells to first, second and third radiation fractions and compare their cumulative outcome with an equal, single acute dose. This experimental study irradiated three groups of target cells for one, two and three times with(60)Co gamma rays. One hour after irradiation, we transferred their culture media to non-irradiated (bystander) cells. We used the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay to evaluate RIBE response in the bystander cells. The numbers of micronuclei generated in bystander cells were determined. RIBE response to single acute doses increased up to 4 Gy, then decreased, and finally at the 8 Gy dose disappeared. The second and third fractions induced RIBE in bystander cells, except when RIBE reached to the maximum level at the first fraction. We split the 4 Gy acute dose into two fractions, which decreased the RIBE response. However, fractionation of 6 Gy (into two fractions of 3 Gy or three fractions of 2 Gy) had no effect on RIBE response. When we split the 8 Gy acute dose into two fractions we observed RIBE, which had disappeared following the single 8 Gy dose. The impact of dose fractionation on RIBE induced in QU-DB cells de- pended on the RIBE dose-response relationship. Where RIBE increased proportion- ally with the dose, fractionation reduced the RIBE response. In contrast, at high dos- es where RIBE decreased proportionally with the dose, fractionation either did not change RIBE (at 6 Gy) or increased it (at 8 Gy).

  19. Regulatory T Cells Contribute to the Inhibition of Radiation-Induced Acute Lung Inflammation via Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasom Shin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bee venom has long been used to treat various inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Previously, we reported that bee venom phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2 has an anti-inflammatory effect through the induction of regulatory T cells. Radiotherapy is a common anti-cancer method, but often causes adverse effects, such as inflammation. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of bvPLA2 in radiation-induced acute lung inflammation. Mice were focally irradiated with 75 Gy of X-rays in the lung and administered bvPLA2 six times after radiation. To evaluate the level of inflammation, the number of immune cells, mRNA level of inflammatory cytokine, and histological changes in the lung were measured. BvPLA2 treatment reduced the accumulation of immune cells, such as macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. In addition, bvPLA2 treatment decreased inflammasome-, chemokine-, cytokine- and fibrosis-related genes’ mRNA expression. The histological results also demonstrated the attenuating effect of bvPLA2 on radiation-induced lung inflammation. Furthermore, regulatory T cell depletion abolished the therapeutic effects of bvPLA2 in radiation-induced pneumonitis, implicating the anti-inflammatory effects of bvPLA2 are dependent upon regulatory T cells. These results support the therapeutic potential of bvPLA2 in radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis treatments.

  20. An experimental study on acute brain radiation injury: Dynamic changes in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the correlation with histopathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui, E-mail: lihui@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Li, Jian-peng, E-mail: lijp@sysucc.org.cn [Department of Radiology, Dongguan People' s Hospital, Dongguan City (China); Lin, Cheng-guang, E-mail: linchg@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Xue-wen, E-mail: liuxw@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Geng, Zhi-jun, E-mail: gengzhj@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Mo, Yun-xian, E-mail: moyx@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Rong, E-mail: zhangr@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Xie, Chuan-miao, E-mail: xchuanm@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation between the alterations of single-voxel {sup 1}H MRS and the histopathological characteristics of radiation brain injury following radiation. Materials and methods: Twenty-seven rabbits were randomized into nine groups to receive radiation with a single dose of 25 Gy. The observation time points included a pre-radiation and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 wk following radiation. Each treatment group underwent conventional MRI and single-voxel {sup 1}H MRS, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr) were observed over the region of interest, and the presence or absence of lactate (Lac) and lipid (Lip) was detected. Histological specimens of each group were obtained after image acquisition. Results: The values of Cho were significantly increased in the first 3 wk, and decreased over the following 5 wk after radiation. Levels of NAA showed a trend toward a decrease 5 wk after radiation. The levels of Cr were not changed between before and after radiation. The Cho/NAA metabolic ratio was significantly increased in weeks 6, 7, and 8 following irradiation, compared to pre-radiation values. Vascular and glial injury appeared on 2 wk after RT in the histology samples, until 4 wk after RT, necrosis of the oligodendrocytes, neuronal degeneration and demyelination could be observed. Conclusions: MRS is sensitive to detect metabolic changes following radiation, and can be used in the early diagnosis of radiation brain injury.

  1. Comparison of the protective roles of L-carnitine and amifostine against radiation-induced acute ovarian damage by histopathological and biochemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuslat Yurut-Caloglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the radioprotective efficacies of L-carnitine (LC and amifostine against radiation-induced acute ovarian damage. Materials and Methods: Forty-five, 3-month-old Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to six groups. Control (CONT, n = 7; irradiation alone RT: radiation therapy (RT, n = 8; amifostine plus irradiation (AMI + RT, n = 8; LC plus irradiation (LC + RT, n = 8; LC and sham irradiation (LC, n = 7; and amifostine and sham irradiation (AMI, n = 7. The rats in the AMI + RT, LC + RT and RT groups were irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy to the whole abdomen. LC (300 mg/kg and amifostine (200 mg/kg was given intraperitoneally 30 min before irradiation. Five days after irradiation, both antral follicles and corpus luteum in the right ovaries were counted, and tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP were measured. Results: Irradiation significantly decreased antral follicles and corpus luteum (P: 0.005 and P 0.05. The level of MDA and AOPP significantly increased after irradiation (P = 0.001 and P 0.005. The levels of both MDA and AOPP were also similar when LC + RT is compared with AMI + RT group (P > 0.005. Conclusions: L-carnitine and amifostine have a noteworthy and similar radioprotective effect against radiation-induced acute ovarian toxicity.

  2. TU-G-BRA-08: BEST IN PHYSICS (JOINT IMAGING-THERAPY): Hybrid PET-MRI Imaging of Acute Radiation Induced Cardiac Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sherif, O; Xhaferllari, I; Gaede, S [Western Univeristy, London, ON (United Kingdom); London Regional Cancer Program, London, ON (United Kingdom); Sykes, J; Butler, J [Lawson Health Research Institute, London, ON (United Kingdom); Wisenberg, G; Prato, F [Western Univeristy, London, ON (United Kingdom); Lawson Health Research Institute, London, ON (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To identify the presence of low-dose radiation induced cardiac toxicity in a canine model using hybrid positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Research ethics board approval was obtained for a longitudinal imaging study of 5 canines after cardiac irradiation. Animals were imaged at baseline, 1 week post cardiac irradiation, and 1 month post cardiac irradiation using a hybrid PET- MRI system (Biograph mMR, Siemens Healthcare). The imaging protocol was designed to assess acute changes in myocardial perfusion and inflammation. Myocardial perfusion imaging was performed using N13-ammonia tracer followed by a dynamic PET acquisition scan. A compartmental tracer kinetic model was used for absolute perfusion quantification. Myocardial inflammation imaging was performed using F18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tracer. The standard uptake value (SUV) over a region encompassing the whole heart was used to compare FDG scans. All animals received a simulation CT scan (GE Medical Systems) for radiation treatment planning. Radiation treatment plans were created using the Pinncale3 treatment planning system (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems) and designed to resemble the typical cardiac exposure during left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy. Cardiac irradiations were performed in a single fraction using a TrueBeam linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems). Results: The delivered dose (mean ± standard deviation) to heart was 1.8±0.2 Gy. Reductions in myocardial stress perfusion relative to baseline were observed in 2 of the 5 animals 1 month post radiation. A global inflammatory response 1 month post radiation was observed in 4 of the 5 animals. The calculated SUV at 1 month post radiation was significantly higher (p=0.05) than the baseline SUV. Conclusion: Low doses of cardiac irradiation (< 2 Gy) may lead to myocardial perfusion defects and a global inflammatory response that can be detectable as early as 1 month post irradiation

  3. Relative biological effectiveness of simulated solar particle event proton radiation to induce acute hematological change in the porcine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wan, Steven X.; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Cengel, Keith A.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for simulated solar particle event (SPE) radiation on peripheral blood cells using Yucatan minipigs and electron-simulated SPE as the reference radiation. The results demonstrated a generally downward trend in the RBE values with increasing doses of simulated SPE radiation for leukocytes in the irradiated animals. The fitted RBE values for white blood cells (WBCs), lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils were above 1.0 in all three radiation dose groups at all time-points evaluated, and the lower limits of the 95% confidence intervals were > 1.0 in the majority of the dose groups at different time-points, which together suggest that proton-simulated SPE radiation is more effective than electron-simulated SPE radiation in reducing the number of peripheral WBCs, lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils, especially at the low end of the 5–10 Gy dose range evaluated. Other than the RBE values, the responses of leukocytes to electron-simulated SPE radiation and proton-simulated SPE radiation exposure are highly similar with respect to the time-course, the most radiosensitive cell type (the lymphocytes), and the shape of the dose–response curves, which is generally log-linear. These findings provide additional evidence that electron-simulated SPE radiation is an appropriate reference radiation for determination of RBE values for the simulated SPE radiations, and the RBE estimations using electron-simulated SPE radiation as the reference radiation are not complicated by other characteristics of the leukocyte response to radiation exposure. PMID:24027300

  4. Effects of acute and chronic exposure to both 900 MHz and 2100 MHz electromagnetic radiation on glutamate receptor signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçek-Saraç, Çiğdem; Er, Hakan; Kencebay Manas, Ceren; Kantar Gok, Deniz; Özen, Şükrü; Derin, Narin

    2017-09-01

    To demonstrate the molecular effects of acute and chronic exposure to both 900 and 2100 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on the hippocampal level/activity of some of the enzymes - including PKA, CaMKIIα, CREB, and p44/42 MAPK - from N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-related signaling pathways. Rats were divided into the following groups: sham rats, and rats exposed to 900 and 2100 MHz RF-EMR for 2 h/day for acute (1 week) or chronic (10 weeks), respectively. Western blotting and activity measurement assays were used to assess the level/activity of the selected enzymes. The obtained results revealed that the hippocampal level/activity of selected enzymes was significantly higher in the chronic groups as compared to the acute groups at both 900 and 2100 MHz RF-EMR exposure. In addition, hippocampal level/activity of selected enzymes was significantly higher at 2100 MHz RF-EMR than 900 MHz RF-EMR in both acute and chronic groups. The present study provides experimental evidence that both exposure duration (1 week versus 10 weeks) and different carrier frequencies (900 vs. 2100 MHz) had different effects on the protein expression of hippocampus in Wistar rats, which might encourage further research on protection against RF-EMR exposure.

  5. Chromosome Damage and Cell Proliferation Rates in In Vitro Irradiated Whole Blood as Markers of Late Radiation Toxicity After Radiation Therapy to the Prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, Lindsay A., E-mail: Lindsay.Beaton@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Ferrarotto, Catherine; Marro, Leonora [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Samiee, Sara; Malone, Shawn; Grimes, Scott; Malone, Kyle [The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, 501 Smyth Rd, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Wilkins, Ruth C. [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: In vitro irradiated blood samples from prostate cancer patients showing late normal tissue damage were examined for lymphocyte response by measuring chromosomal aberrations and proliferation rate. Methods and Materials: Patients were selected from a randomized trial evaluating the optimal timing of dose-escalated radiation and short-course androgen deprivation therapy. Of 438 patients, 3% experienced grade 3 late radiation proctitis and were considered to be radiosensitive. Blood samples were taken from 10 of these patients along with 20 matched samples from patients with grade 0 proctitis. The samples were irradiated at 6 Gy and, along with control samples, were analyzed for dicentric chromosomes and excess fragments per cell. Cells in first and second metaphase were also enumerated to determine the lymphocyte proliferation rate. Results: At 6 Gy, there were statistically significant differences between the radiosensitive and control cohorts for 3 endpoints: the mean number of dicentric chromosomes per cell (3.26 ± 0.31, 2.91 ± 0.32; P=.0258), the mean number of excess fragments per cell (2.27 ± 0.23, 1.43 ± 0.37; P<.0001), and the proportion of cells in second metaphase (0.27 ± 0.10, 0.46 ± 0.09; P=.0007). Conclusions: These results may be a valuable indicator for identifying radiosensitive patients and for tailoring radiation therapy.

  6. Chromosome damage and cell proliferation rates in in vitro irradiated whole blood as markers of late radiation toxicity after radiation therapy to the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Lindsay A; Ferrarotto, Catherine; Marro, Leonora; Samiee, Sara; Malone, Shawn; Grimes, Scott; Malone, Kyle; Wilkins, Ruth C

    2013-04-01

    In vitro irradiated blood samples from prostate cancer patients showing late normal tissue damage were examined for lymphocyte response by measuring chromosomal aberrations and proliferation rate. Patients were selected from a randomized trial evaluating the optimal timing of dose-escalated radiation and short-course androgen deprivation therapy. Of 438 patients, 3% experienced grade 3 late radiation proctitis and were considered to be radiosensitive. Blood samples were taken from 10 of these patients along with 20 matched samples from patients with grade 0 proctitis. The samples were irradiated at 6 Gy and, along with control samples, were analyzed for dicentric chromosomes and excess fragments per cell. Cells in first and second metaphase were also enumerated to determine the lymphocyte proliferation rate. At 6 Gy, there were statistically significant differences between the radiosensitive and control cohorts for 3 endpoints: the mean number of dicentric chromosomes per cell (3.26 ± 0.31, 2.91 ± 0.32; P=.0258), the mean number of excess fragments per cell (2.27 ± 0.23, 1.43 ± 0.37; P<.0001), and the proportion of cells in second metaphase (0.27 ± 0.10, 0.46 ± 0.09; P=.0007). These results may be a valuable indicator for identifying radiosensitive patients and for tailoring radiation therapy. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reconstruction of the Radiation Emergency Medical System From the Acute to the Sub-acute Phases After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojino, Mayo; Ishii, Masami

    2014-02-01

    The radiation emergency medical system in Japan ceased to function as a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, which has commonly become known as the "Fukushima Accident." In this paper, we review the reconstruction processes of the radiation emergency medical system in order of events and examine the ongoing challenges to overcoming deficiencies and reinforcing the system by reviewing relevant literature, including the official documents of the investigation committees of the National Diet of Japan, the Japanese government, and the Tokyo Electric Power Company, as well as technical papers written by the doctors involved in radiation emergency medical activities in Fukushima. Our review has revealed that the reconstruction was achieved in 6 stages from March 11 to July 1, 2011: (1) Re-establishment of an off-site center (March 13), (2) Re-establishment of a secondary radiation emergency hospital (March 14), (3) Reconstruction of the initial response system for radiation emergency care (April 2), (4) Reinforcement of the off-site center and stationing of disaster medical advisors at the off-site center (April 4), (5) Reinforcement of the medical care system and an increase in the number of hospitals for non-contaminated patients (From April 2 to June 23), and (6) Enhancement of the medical care system in the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant and the construction of a new medical care system, involving both industrial medicine and emergency medicine (July 1). Medical resources such as voluntary efforts, academic societies, a local community medical system and university hospitals involved in medical care activities on 6 stages originally had not planned. In the future, radiation emergency medical systems should be evaluated with these 6 stages as a basis, in order to reinforce and enrich both the existing and backup systems so that minimal harm will come to nuclear power plant workers or evacuees and that they will receive proper care. This

  8. Effective formalin treatment of two cases of radiation-induced hemorrhagic colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ietsugu, Kenichi; Kosugi, Mitsuyo; Nakashima, Hisayuki; Sakatoku, Mitsuaki; Bando, Hiroyuki; Sunohara, Tetsuyuki [Tonami General Hospital, Toyama (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    Radiation colitis sometimes shows uncontrollable bleeding. The treatment by 4 percent formalin solution was effective for two cases of radiation-induced hemorrhagic colitis. Case 1 was an 80-year-old female who had cloacogenic carcinoma, poorly-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma type. This was complicated by hemorrhagic proctitis 16 months after radiation therapy. Bleeding could not be controlled by steroid enema and endoscopic laser therapy. Formalin treatment was very effective for hemostasis. Case 2 was 47-year-old female who had breast cancer with multiple bone metastases. This was complicated by hemorrhagic colitis 15 months after radiation therapy of bone metastases of the lumbar spine and the sacrum. Three formalin treatments were needed for hemostasis, however, they were effective. The formalin treatment is a simple, effective and minimally invasive therapy for radiation-induced hemorrhagic colitis of the lower sigmoid colon and the rectum. (author)

  9. Acute Urinary Morbidity Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer with Prophylactic Alpha-Adrenergic Antagonist and Urethral Dose Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repka, Michael C; Guleria, Shan; Cyr, Robyn A; Yung, Thomas M; Koneru, Harsha; Chen, Leonard N; Lei, Siyuan; Collins, Brian T; Krishnan, Pranay; Suy, Simeng; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Lynch, John; Collins, Sean P

    2016-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) delivers high doses of radiation to the prostate while minimizing radiation to the adjacent critical organs. Large fraction sizes may increase urinary morbidity due to unavoidable treatment of the prostatic urethra. This study reports rates of acute urinary morbidity following SBRT for localized prostate cancer with prophylactic alpha-adrenergic antagonist utilization and urethral dose reduction (UDR). From April 2013 to September 2014, 102 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with robotic SBRT to a total dose of 35-36.25 Gy in five fractions. UDR was employed to limit the maximum point dose of the prostatic urethra to 40 Gy. Prophylactic alpha-adrenergic antagonists were initiated 5 days prior to SBRT and continued until resolution of urinary symptoms. Quality of life (QoL) was assessed before and after treatment using the American Urological Association Symptom Score (AUA) and the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite-26 (EPIC-26). Clinical significance was assessed using a minimally important difference (MID) of one half SD change from baseline. One hundred two patients underwent definitive prostate SBRT with UDR and were followed for 3 months. No patient experienced acute urinary retention requiring catheterization. A mean baseline AUA symptom score of 9.06 significantly increased to 11.83 1-week post-SBRT (p = 0.0024) and 11.84 1-month post-SBRT (p = 0.0023) but returned to baseline by 3 months. A mean baseline EPIC-26 irritative/obstructive score of 87.7 decreased to 74.1 1-week post-SBRT (p big problem, and that proportion increased to 37.6% 1 week following completion of SBRT before returning to baseline by 3 months. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer with utilization of prophylactic alpha-adrenergic antagonist and UDR was well tolerated as determined by acute urinary function and bother, and symptoms were comparable to those

  10. Evaluation of genotoxicity of the acute gamma radiation on earthworm Eisenia fetida using single cell gel electrophoresis technique (Comet assay).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmithra, K; Shetty, N J; Jha, S K; Chaubey, R C

    2015-12-01

    Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) most suitable biological indicators of radioactive pollution. Radiation-induced lesions in DNA can be considered to be molecular markers for early effects of ionizing radiation. Gamma radiation produces a wide spectrum of DNA. Some of these lesions, i.e., DNA strand breaks and alkali labile sites can be detected by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or comet assay by measuring the migration of DNA from immobilized nuclear DNA. E. fetida were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation, i.e., 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50Gy, and comet assay was performed for all the doses along with control at 1, 3 and 5h post irradiation to evaluate the genotoxicity of gamma radiation in this organism. The DNA damage was measured as percentage of comet tail DNA. A significant increase in DNA damage was observed in samples exposed to 5Gy and above, and the increase in DNA damage was dose dependent i.e., DNA damage was increased with increased doses of radiation. The highest DNA damage was noticed at 1h post irradiation and gradually decreased with time, i.e., at 3 and 5h post irradiation. The present study reveals that gamma radiation induces DNA damage in E. fetida and the comet assay is a sensitive and rapid method for its detection to detect genotoxicity of gamma radiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ionizing radiation-induced expression of the genes associated with the acute response to injury in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magic, Z.; Matic-Ivanovic, S.; Savic, J. [Institute for Biologica Research, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Total-body irradiation of rats with doses ranging from an LD{sub 10/30} to an LD{sub 100/30} induced a dose-dependent increase in the concentration of serum protein associated with the acute response to the irradiation. However, this increase was reached at a later time and was not as pronounced as described previously during the typical acute phase of the response found experimentally. The greatest increase in the serum concentrations of acute-phase proteins was found from the third to the seventh days postirradiation. At these times, the serum concentrations of {alpha}{sub 2}-macroglobulin, haptoglobin, fibrinogen and cysteine protease inhibitor were raised from two- to fivefold, whereas {alpha}{sub 1}-acid glycoprotein was increased sixfold. Incorporation of [{sup 35}S]methionine into total serum and acute-phase proteins indicated that the increase in the concentration of the acute-phase proteins was preceded by their de novo synthesis in the liver. The results that were obtained by dot-blot analysis showed that the basic course of change in the relative m RNA concentrations of a{alpha}{sub 1}-acid glycoprotein had an extrahepatic origin. On the basis of these results we concluded that total-body irradiation increased the expression of acute-phase protein genes. 50 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Exposure to low level chronic radiation leads to adaptation to a subsequent acute X-ray dose and communication of modified acute X-ray induced bystander signals in medaka (Japanese rice fish, Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard W; Mothersill, Carmel; Hinton, Thomas; Seymour, Colin B

    2011-10-01

    To determine the effect of acute high dose X-rays on the direct and bystander response of chronically exposed medaka in vivo using the fish communication model. Medaka were obtained from the Low Dose Rate Irradiation Facility (LoDIF) located at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL), University of Georgia, Aiken, South Carolina, USA where they had been exposed over 264 days to cumulative total doses of 0, 0.03, 0.66 and 5.88 Gy. They were exposed to the acute dose at McMaster University and then allowed to swim with unexposed medaka. All groups were sacrificed and fins were cultured as explants and assayed using an established technique and reporter assay. Directly irradiated medaka with no chronic exposure showed a classic in vivo bystander response. Chronic pre-exposure resulted in a chronic dose-dependent increase in reporter cell survival in directly exposed fish. A 'pro-survival' response was also seen in the bystander fish. The proteins bcl-2 (b cell lymphoma 2) and c-Myc (myelocytomatosis oncogene cellular) in tissue explants were good predictors of pro-life or pro-death signals. Environmentally relevant chronic exposure to medaka in vivo results in adaptive responses in fish subsequently irradiated with high acute doses and in communication of protective signals to fish swimming with exposed fish. The data have implications for interpretation of radiation effects in biota.

  13. Acute Urinary Morbidity Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer with Prophylactic Alpha-Adrenergic Antagonist and Urethral Dose Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Charles Repka

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT delivers high doses of radiation to the prostate while minimizing radiation to adjacent critical organs. Large fraction sizes may increase urinary morbidity due to unavoidable treatment of the prostatic urethra. This study reports rates of acute urinary morbidity following SBRT for localized prostate cancer with prophylactic alpha-adrenergic antagonist utilization and urethral dose reduction (UDR.Methods: From April 2013 to September 2014, 102 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with robotic SBRT to a total dose of 35-36.25 Gy in 5 fractions. UDR was employed to limit the maximum point dose of the prostatic urethra to 40 Gy. Prophylactic alpha-adrenergic antagonists were initiated five days prior to SBRT and continued until resolution of urinary symptoms. Quality of life (QoL was assessed before and after treatment using the American Urological Association Symptom Score (AUA and the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite-26 (EPIC-26. Clinical significance was assessed using a minimally important difference (MID of one half standard deviation change from baseline.Results: 102 patients underwent definitive prostate SBRT with UDR and were followed for 3 months. No patient experienced acute urinary retention requiring catheterization. A mean baseline AUA symptom score of 9.06 significantly increased to 11.83 one-week post-SBRT (p = 0.0024 and 11.84 one-month post-SBRT (p = 0.0023 but returned to baseline by 3 months. A mean baseline EPIC-26 irritative/obstructive score of 87.7 decreased to 74.1 one-week post-SBRT (p < 0.0001 and 77.8 one-month post-SBRT (p < 0.0001 but returned to baseline at 3 months. EPIC-26 irritative/obstructive score changes were clinically significant, exceeding the MID of 6.0. At baseline, 8.9% of men described their urinary function as a moderate to big problem, and that proportion increased to 37.6% one week following completion of SBRT

  14. Tissue-specific effects of acute aluminium exposure on the radiation-induced bystander effect in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard W; Seymour, Colin B; Moccia, Richard D; Mothersill, Carmel E

    2015-01-01

    To investigate if aluminium (Al) modifies the rainbow trout response to radiation exposure and/or the induction of a radiation-induced bystander effect. Rainbow trout were exposed to 100 or 200 μg l(-1) Al (for 3 h), a 0.5 Gy X-ray dose or Al followed immediately by irradiation. The exposed fish were then swum with completely untreated bystander fish. A human reporter cell clonogenic assay was used to determine whether Al exposure modified the effects of irradiation on the skin and gills from directly exposed fish and also the radiation-induced bystander effect in untreated fish. Al exposure did not modify the response to direct irradiation by the skin, or the gill. Al did not modify the bystander effect in the skin. However Al did modify the bystander effect in the gill. Gills of bystander fish swum with fish exposed to 200 μg l(-1) Al, followed by irradiation, caused a greater reduction in HPV-G cell survival than was caused by irradiation only. Interestingly Al exposure only also caused a bystander effect (reduced HPV-G survival) in the gill. This study shows that, in a multiple stressor scenario, the communication of radiation-induced stress signals is modified on a tissue-specific basis by acute Al exposure. Aside from the implications this has for radiological protection this response may also have potential for environmental monitoring where detection of the bystander effect could act as an indicator of radiation exposure when direct exposure responses are not evident.

  15. Relative biological effectiveness of carbon ions for tumor control, acute skin damage and late radiation-induced fibrosis in a mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Brita Singers; Horsman, Michael Robert; Alsner, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of the present study was to compare the biological effectiveness of carbon ions relative to x-rays between tumor control, acute skin reaction and late RIF of CDF1 mice. Material and methods. CDF1 mice with a C3H mouse mammary carcinoma implanted subcutaneously on the foot...... of the right hind limb were irradiated with single fractions of either photons, or 12 C ions using a 30-mm spread-out Bragg peak. The endpoint of the study was local control (no tumor recurrence within 90 days). For the acute skin reaction, non-tumor bearing CDF1 mice were irradiated with a comparable...... radiation scheme, and monitored for acute skin damage between Day 7 and 40. Late RIF was assessed in the irradiated mice. Results. The TCD 50 (dose producing tumor control in 50% of mice) values with 95% confi dence interval were 29.7 (25.4 – 34.8) Gy for C ions and 43.9 (39.2 – 49.2) Gy for photons...

  16. Low Dose Radiation Response Curves, Networks and Pathways in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells Exposed from 1 to 10 cGy of Acute Gamma Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrobek, A. J.; Manohar, C. F.; Nelson, D. O.; Furtado, M. R.; Bhattacharya, M. S.; Marchetti, F.; Coleman, M.A.

    2011-04-18

    We investigated the low dose dependency of the transcriptional response of human cells to characterize the shape and biological functions associated with the dose response curve and to identify common and conserved functions of low dose expressed genes across cells and tissues. Human lymphoblastoid (HL) cells from two unrelated individuals were exposed to graded doses of radiation spanning the range of 1-10 cGy were analyzed by transcriptome profiling, qPCR and bioinformatics, in comparison to sham irradiated samples. A set of {approx}80 genes showed consistent responses in both cell lines; these genes were associated with homeostasis mechanisms (e.g., membrane signaling, molecule transport), subcellular locations (e.g., Golgi, and endoplasmic reticulum), and involved diverse signal transduction pathways. The majority of radiation-modulated genes had plateau-like responses across 1-10 cGy, some with suggestive evidence that transcription was modulated at doses below 1 cGy. MYC, FOS and TP53 were the major network nodes of the low-dose response in HL cells. Comparison our low dose expression findings in HL cells with those of prior studies in mouse brain after whole body exposure, in human keratinocyte cultures, and in endothelial cells cultures, indicates that certain components of the low dose radiation response are broadly conserved across cell types and tissues, independent of proliferation status.

  17. Computed tomography versus intravenous urography in diagnosis of acute flank pain from urolithiasis: a randomized study comparing imaging costs and radiation dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, J M; Glocer, J; Abbott, C; Maling, T M; Mark, S

    2001-08-01

    The equivalent sensitivity of non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) and intravenous urography (IVU) in the diagnosis of suspected ureteric colic has been established. Approximately 50% of patients with suspected ureteric colic do not have a nephro-urological cause for pain. Because many such patients require further imaging studies, NCCT may obviate the need for these studies and, in so doing, be more cost effective and involve less overall radiation exposure. The present study compares the total imaging cost and radiation dose of NCCT versus IVU in the diagnosis of acute flank pain. Two hundred and twenty-four patients (157 men; mean age 45 years; age range 19-79 years) with suspected renal colic were randomized either to NCCT or IVU. The number of additional diagnostic imaging studies, cost (IVU A$136; CTU A$173), radiation exposure and imaging times were compared. Of 119 (53%) patients with renal obstruction, 105 had no nephro-urological causes of pain. For 21 (20%) of these patients an alternative diagnosis was made at the initial imaging, 10 of which were significant. Of 118 IVU patients, 28 (24%) required 32 additional imaging tests to reach a diagnosis, whereas seven of 106 (6%) NCCT patients required seven additional imaging studies. The average total diagnostic imaging cost for the NCCT group was A$181.94 and A$175.46 for the IVU group (P IVU) (P IVU) (P IVU, its advantages of faster diagnosis, the avoidance of additional diagnostic imaging tests and its ability to diagnose other causes makes it the study of choice for acute flank pain at Christchurch Hospital.

  18. Neurobehavioural Changes and Brain Oxidative Stress Induced by Acute Exposure to GSM900 Mobile Phone Radiations in Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirwane, Abhijit; Sridhar, Vinay; Majumdar, Anuradha

    2016-04-01

    The impact of mobile phone (MP) radiation on the brain is of specific interest to the scientific community and warrants investigations, as MP is held close to the head. Studies on humans and rodents revealed hazards MP radiation associated such as brain tumors, impairment in cognition, hearing etc. Melatonin (MT) is an important modulator of CNS functioning and is a neural antioxidant hormone. Zebrafish has emerged as a popular model organism for CNS studies. Herein, we evaluated the impact of GSM900MP (GSM900MP) radiation exposure daily for 1 hr for 14 days with the SAR of 1.34W/Kg on neurobehavioral and oxidative stress parameters in zebrafish. Our study revealed that, GSM900MP radiation exposure, significantly decreased time spent near social stimulus zone and increased total distance travelled, in social interaction test. In the novel tank dive test, the GSM900MP radiation exposure elicited anxiety as revealed by significantly increased time spent in bottom half; freezing bouts and duration and decreased distance travelled, average velocity, and number of entries to upper half of the tank. Exposed zebrafish spent less time in the novel arm of the Y-Maze, corroborating significant impairment in learning as compared to the control group. Exposure decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities whereas, increased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) was encountered showing compromised antioxidant defense. Treatment with MT significantly reversed the above neurobehavioral and oxidative derangements induced by GSM900MP radiation exposure. This study traced GSM900MP radiation exposure induced neurobehavioral aberrations and alterations in brain oxidative status. Furthermore, MT proved to be a promising therapeutic candidate in ameliorating such outcomes in zebrafish.

  19. Acute and chronic intakes of fallout radionuclides by Marshallese from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak and related internal radiation doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold L; Weinstock, Robert M

    2010-08-01

    Annual internal radiation doses resulting from both acute and chronic intakes of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in fallout from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak from 1946 through 1958 have been estimated for the residents living on all atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Internal radiation absorbed doses to the tissues most at risk to cancer induction (red bone marrow, thyroid, stomach, and colon) have been estimated for representative persons of all population communities for all birth years from 1929 through 1968, and for all years of exposure from 1948 through 1970. The acute intake estimates rely on a model using, as its basis, historical urine bioassay data, for members of the Rongelap Island and Ailinginae communities as well as for Rongerik residents. The model also utilizes fallout times of arrival and radionuclide deposition densities estimated for all tests and all atolls. Acute intakes of 63 radionuclides were estimated for the populations of the 20 inhabited atolls and for the communities that were relocated during the testing years for reasons of safety and decontamination. The model used for chronic intake estimates is based on reported whole-body, urine, and blood counting data for residents of Utrik and Rongelap. Dose conversion coefficients relating intake to organ absorbed dose were developed using internationally accepted models but specifically tailored for intakes of particulate fallout by consideration of literature-based evidence to choose the most appropriate alimentary tract absorption fraction (f1) values. Dose estimates were much higher for the thyroid gland than for red marrow, stomach wall, or colon. The highest thyroid doses to adults were about 7,600 mGy for the people exposed on Rongelap; thyroid doses to adults were much lower, by a factor of 100 or more, for the people exposed on the populated atolls of Kwajalein and Majuro. The estimates of radionuclide intake and

  20. Clinical Indicators of Psychosocial Distress Predict for Acute Radiation-Induced Fatigue in Patients Receiving Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer: An Analysis of Patient-Reported Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishan, Amar U.; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Sharif, Jamal; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Steinberg, Michael L.; McCloskey, Susan A., E-mail: smccloskey@mednet.ucla.edu

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the magnitude and predictors of patient-reported fatigue among breast cancer patients receiving radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Patients receiving breast RT completed a survey querying fatigue at each weekly on-treatment visit. Patient-reported fatigue severity and interference was assessed on an ordinal scale of 0 to 4, using a validated scoring system. Baseline anxiety and depression scores were also obtained. The kinetics of mean fatigue scores per week and the maximum fatigue scores over the course of the entire treatment were assessed, and clinical predictors were identified by univariate and multivariate regression. Results: The average fatigue severity and interference scores were 0.6 and 0.46. The average fatigue scores increased to an equivalent extent from week to week, with expected increases of 0.99 in fatigue severity and 0.85 in interference over 7 weeks. Patients treated with hypofractionated RT (HF-RT) versus conventionally fractionated RT (CF-RT) had significantly fewer maximum fatigue severity or interference scores that were >2 (ie, severe or very severe; 29% vs 10% for severity, and 26% vs 8% for interference, P<.01). Age ≤45 years, presence of psychiatric/pain-related comorbidities, and baseline sadness and anxiety severity were predictive of average and maximum fatigue scores (P<.05), but variables related to treatment intensity (eg, mastectomy vs lumpectomy, chemotherapy use, radiation target volumes) and other host factors (working, children, marital status, proximity to RT facility) were not. Conclusion: Patient-reported fatigue modestly increases over RT courses, with less maximum fatigue reported with HF-RT. Younger age and baseline sadness, anxiety, and psychiatric/pain-related comorbidities are powerful predictors of fatigue, whereas other factors, such as treatment intensity, are not. Future studies will investigate interventions for patients at high risk for fatigue.

  1. Anthocyanin-rich blueberry diets enhance protection of critical brain regions exposed to acute levels of 56Fe cosmic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress which can lead to “accelerated aging”. One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, which consists of high-energy and -charge parti...

  2. Prediction of Acute Radiation Mucositis using an Oral Mucosal Dose Surface Model in Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Musha

    Full Text Available To evaluate the dose-response relationship for development of acute radiation mucositis (ARM using an oral mucosal dose surface model (OMDS-model in carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT for head and neck tumors.Thirty-nine patients receiving C-ion RT for head and neck cancer were evaluated for ARM (once per week for 6 weeks according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE, version 4.0, and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG scoring systems. The irradiation schedule typically used was 64 Gy [relative biological effectiveness (RBE] in 16 fractions for 4 weeks. Maximum point doses in the palate and tongue were compared with ARM in each patient.The location of the ARM coincided with the high-dose area in the OMDS-model. There was a clear dose-response relationship between maximum point dose and ARM grade assessed using the RTOG criteria but not the CTCAE. The threshold doses for grade 2-3 ARM in the palate and tongue were 43.0 Gy(RBE and 54.3 Gy(RBE, respectively.The OMDS-model was useful for predicting the location and severity of ARM. Maximum point doses in the model correlated well with grade 2-3 ARM.

  3. Multiwavelength UV-IR laser system based on a-cut Nd : YVO{sub 4} - YVO{sub 4} composite vanadate crystals with {sigma}-polarised radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirotkin, A A [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-30

    Lasing properties of a-cut Nd : YVO{sub 4} - YVO{sub 4} composite vanadate crystals are experimentally studied for the {pi} and {sigma} polarisations of radiation at the {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} - {sup 4}I{sub 11/2} transition. Polarisation dependences of the lasing characteristics of passively Q-switched Nd : YVO{sub 4} - YVO{sub 4} lasers with Cr{sup 4+} : YAG Q-switches are investigated. It is shown that the laser operates with the highest efficiency in the case of the {sigma}-polarised radiation (minimum pulse duration shorter than 1.5 ns, maximum peak power up to 25 kW, maximum peak energy about 35 {mu}J at a slope efficiency up to 32 %). Frequency conversion to the second and fourth harmonics is demonstrated. Based on this study, a multiwavelength laser with bactericidal and therapeutic effects is developed for treatment of a wide spectrum of diseases.

  4. [Selective decontamination of the intestine and total gnotobiologic isolation in treatment of mice with acute radiation sickness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchuk, L A; Bush, V; Korshunov, V M

    1992-01-01

    Comparative study of ciprofloxacin, pefloxacin and amikacin showed that ciprofloxacin and pefloxacin had a selective action on the intestinal microflora of conventional mice. Amikacin induced inhibition not only of the opportunistic bacteria but also of the representatives of the indigenous microflora. The use of the drugs in combination with total gnotobiological isolation in treatment of experimental radiation sickness provided an increase in survival of the irradiated animals, the more so as ciprofloxacin was used.

  5. Radiation recall dermatitis with azithromycin

    OpenAIRE

    Vujovic, O.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation recall is a well-known phenomenon that involves the “recall” of an acute inflammatory reaction in a previously irradiated region after administration of certain drugs. The most common type of radiation recall is radiation recall dermatitis, which involves the reoccurrence of an acute inflammatory skin reaction in previously irradiated skin. Most radiation recall reactions are attributable to chemotherapeutic agents. One previously reported case of radiation recall dermatitis occurre...

  6. Prevention and mitigation of acute radiation syndrome in mice by synthetic lipopeptide agonists of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N Shakhov

    Full Text Available Bacterial lipoproteins (BLP induce innate immune responses in mammals by activating heterodimeric receptor complexes containing Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2. TLR2 signaling results in nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB-dependent upregulation of anti-apoptotic factors, anti-oxidants and cytokines, all of which have been implicated in radiation protection. Here we demonstrate that synthetic lipopeptides (sLP that mimic the structure of naturally occurring mycoplasmal BLP significantly increase mouse survival following lethal total body irradiation (TBI when administered between 48 hours before and 24 hours after irradiation. The TBI dose ranges against which sLP are effective indicate that sLP primarily impact the hematopoietic (HP component of acute radiation syndrome. Indeed, sLP treatment accelerated recovery of bone marrow (BM and spleen cellularity and ameliorated thrombocytopenia of irradiated mice. sLP did not improve survival of irradiated TLR2-knockout mice, confirming that sLP-mediated radioprotection requires TLR2. However, sLP was radioprotective in chimeric mice containing TLR2-null BM on a wild type background, indicating that radioprotection of the HP system by sLP is, at least in part, indirect and initiated in non-BM cells. sLP injection resulted in strong transient induction of multiple cytokines with known roles in hematopoiesis, including granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC and interleukin-6 (IL-6. sLP-induced cytokines, particularly G-CSF, are likely mediators of the radioprotective/mitigative activity of sLP. This study illustrates the strong potential of LP-based TLR2 agonists for anti-radiation prophylaxis and therapy in defense and medical scenarios.

  7. Prevention and Mitigation of Acute Radiation Syndrome in Mice by Synthetic Lipopeptide Agonists of Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhov, Alexander N.; Singh, Vijay K.; Bone, Frederick; Cheney, Alec; Kononov, Yevgeniy; Krasnov, Peter; Bratanova-Toshkova, Troitza K.; Shakhova, Vera V.; Young, Jason; Weil, Michael M.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Orschell, Christie M.; Baker, Patricia S.; Gudkov, Andrei; Feinstein, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins (BLP) induce innate immune responses in mammals by activating heterodimeric receptor complexes containing Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). TLR2 signaling results in nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB)-dependent upregulation of anti-apoptotic factors, anti-oxidants and cytokines, all of which have been implicated in radiation protection. Here we demonstrate that synthetic lipopeptides (sLP) that mimic the structure of naturally occurring mycoplasmal BLP significantly increase mouse survival following lethal total body irradiation (TBI) when administered between 48 hours before and 24 hours after irradiation. The TBI dose ranges against which sLP are effective indicate that sLP primarily impact the hematopoietic (HP) component of acute radiation syndrome. Indeed, sLP treatment accelerated recovery of bone marrow (BM) and spleen cellularity and ameliorated thrombocytopenia of irradiated mice. sLP did not improve survival of irradiated TLR2-knockout mice, confirming that sLP-mediated radioprotection requires TLR2. However, sLP was radioprotective in chimeric mice containing TLR2-null BM on a wild type background, indicating that radioprotection of the HP system by sLP is, at least in part, indirect and initiated in non-BM cells. sLP injection resulted in strong transient induction of multiple cytokines with known roles in hematopoiesis, including granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). sLP-induced cytokines, particularly G-CSF, are likely mediators of the radioprotective/mitigative activity of sLP. This study illustrates the strong potential of LP-based TLR2 agonists for anti-radiation prophylaxis and therapy in defense and medical scenarios. PMID:22479357

  8. Genetic Variants in CD44 and MAT1A Confer Susceptibility to Acute Skin Reaction in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumbrekar, Kamalesh Dattaram; Bola Sadashiva, Satish Rao [Department of Radiation Biology and Toxicology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Kabekkodu, Shama Prasada [Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Fernandes, Donald Jerard [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Shirdi Saibaba Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Vadhiraja, Bejadi Manjunath [Department of Radiation Oncology, Manipal Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka (India); Suga, Tomo; Shoji, Yoshimi; Nakayama, Fumiaki; Imai, Takashi [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu, E-mail: ksatyamoorthy@yahoo.com [Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Heterogeneity in radiation therapy (RT)-induced normal tissue toxicity is observed in 10% of cancer patients, limiting the therapeutic outcomes. In addition to treatment-related factors, normal tissue adverse reactions also manifest from genetic alterations in distinct pathways majorly involving DNA damage–repair genes, inflammatory cytokine genes, cell cycle regulation, and antioxidant response. Therefore, the common sequence variants in these radioresponsive genes might modify the severity of normal tissue toxicity, and the identification of the same could have clinical relevance as a predictive biomarker. Methods and Materials: The present study was conducted in a cohort of patients with breast cancer to evaluate the possible associations between genetic variants in radioresponsive genes described previously and the risk of developing RT-induced acute skin adverse reactions. We tested 22 genetic variants reported in 18 genes (ie, NFE2L2, OGG1, NEIL3, RAD17, PTTG1, REV3L, ALAD, CD44, RAD9A, TGFβR3, MAD2L2, MAP3K7, MAT1A, RPS6KB2, ZNF830, SH3GL1, BAX, and XRCC1) using TaqMan assay-based real-time polymerase chain reaction. At the end of RT, the severity of skin damage was scored, and the subjects were dichotomized as nonoverresponders (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade <2) and overresponders (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade ≥2) for analysis. Results: Of the 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms studied, the rs8193 polymorphism lying in the micro-RNA binding site of 3′-UTR of CD44 was significantly (P=.0270) associated with RT-induced adverse skin reactions. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis showed significant (P=.0107) gene–gene interactions between MAT1A and CD44. Furthermore, an increase in the total number of risk alleles was associated with increasing occurrence of overresponses (P=.0302). Conclusions: The genetic polymorphisms in radioresponsive genes act as genetic modifiers of acute normal tissue toxicity

  9. Changes in acute response to radiation after implementation of new national guidelines for head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. R.; Bertelsen, Anders; Zukauskaite, R.

    2015-01-01

    of volume of CTV1 for most institutions which previously used different margins. Change in CTV1 volume definition could influence the risk and time evolution of adverse effects e.g. mucositis. This study investigates change in acute response during RT in a centre where GTV to CTV1 margin was increased from...... endpoints were dichotomized, grade 0- 1 vs 2+ or 0-2 vs 3+. Potential change in actuarial cumulative incidence (One minus the Kaplan Meier estimator) of mucositis was tested using the log-rank test. To stratify for the potential effect between non-accelerated (5 fx/w) and accelerated (6/10 fx/w) treatments...

  10. Phase II Study of Long-Term Androgen Suppression With Bevacizumab and Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) in High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuky, Jacqueline, E-mail: vukyja@ohsu.edu [Section of Community Hematology/Oncology, Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, OR (United States); Pham, Huong T. [Section of Hematology/Oncology and Radiation Oncology, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Warren, Sarah; Douglass, Erika [Benaroya Research Institute, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Badiozamani, Kasra [Section of Hematology/Oncology and Radiation Oncology, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Madsen, Berit; Hsi, Alex [Peninsula Cancer Center, Poulsbo, WA (United States); Song Guobin [Section of Hematology/Oncology and Radiation Oncology, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: We report a Phase II trial assessing the acute and late toxicities of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), long-term androgen suppression (LTAS), and bevacizumab in patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We treated 18 patients with LTAS with bicalutamide and goserelin in combination with bevacizumab and IMRT. Bevacizumab (10 mg/kg every 2 weeks) was administered for the first 16 weeks, and 15 mg/kg was then given every 3 weeks for 12 additional weeks, with an IMRT dose of 77.9 Gy to the prostate, 64.6 Gy to the seminal vesicles, and 57 Gy to the pelvic lymph nodes. Patients were eligible if they had clinical stage T2b to T4, a Gleason sum score of 8 to 10, or a prostate- specific antigen level of 20ng/mL or greater. The primary endpoint of the study was evaluation of acute and late toxicities. Results: The median age was 69 years, with a median pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level of 12.5 ng/mL and Gleason score of 8. The pretreatment clinical stage was T1c in 4 patients, T2 in 11, and T3 in 3. All patients completed IMRT with median follow-up of 34 months (range, 28-40 months) The most common Grade 2 or higher toxicities were hypertension (61% of patients with Grade 2 and 11% with Grade 3), proteinuria (28% with Grade 2 and 6% with Grade 3), and leucopenia (28% with Grade 2). No Grade 4 or higher acute toxicities were reported. Late toxicities included proctitis (6% of patients with Grade 2 and 11% with Grade 3), rectal bleeding (6% with Grade 2 and 11% with Grade 3), hematuria (6% with Grade 2), proteinuria (17% with Grade 2), hyponatremia (6% with Grade 3), cystitis (6% with Grade 3), and urinary retention (6% with Grade 2 and 11% with Grade 3). Grade 4 prostatitis occurred in 1 patient (6%). Conclusions: Bevacizumab does not appear to exacerbate the acute effects of IMRT. Late toxicities may have been worsened with this regimen. Further investigations of bevacizumab with LTAS and IMRT should be

  11. The Problem of the Mechanism of Action of Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) in Acute Radiation Injury USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-06-29

    Is the translation of an article by 2. I. Kalmyk©va In Patolog . Fisiol. i. Bk> sper. Terapiya (Pathological Physiology ana Experimental Therapy...pyridoxina on the coursa and outoo»© of aeut© radiation injury w«r* P* «■ parforaad cm 1<$6 rabbits , 860 rat» and 80 guinea pigs. Th« rabbit « and...Blood far th® pisrpos® of obtaining plaima «a« taken ffo* tbo «m-iMadiatad rabbit * on tba 10th and 18th days a«*? beginning ’tho administration of th

  12. Modeling the Risk of Radiation-Induced Acute Esophagitis for Combined Washington University and RTOG Trial 93-11 Lung Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Ellen X.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; El Naqa, Issam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Hope, Andrew J.; Lindsay, Patricia E. [Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bosch, Walter R.; Matthews, John W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Sause, William T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, LDS Hospital, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Graham, Mary V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Phelps County Regional Hospital, Rolla, MO (United States); Deasy, Joseph O., E-mail: deasyj@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To construct a maximally predictive model of the risk of severe acute esophagitis (AE) for patients who receive definitive radiation therapy (RT) for non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: The dataset includes Washington University and RTOG 93-11 clinical trial data (events/patients: 120/374, WUSTL = 101/237, RTOG9311 = 19/137). Statistical model building was performed based on dosimetric and clinical parameters (patient age, sex, weight loss, pretreatment chemotherapy, concurrent chemotherapy, fraction size). A wide range of dose-volume parameters were extracted from dearchived treatment plans, including Dx, Vx, MOHx (mean of hottest x% volume), MOCx (mean of coldest x% volume), and gEUD (generalized equivalent uniform dose) values. Results: The most significant single parameters for predicting acute esophagitis (RTOG Grade 2 or greater) were MOH85, mean esophagus dose (MED), and V30. A superior-inferior weighted dose-center position was derived but not found to be significant. Fraction size was found to be significant on univariate logistic analysis (Spearman R = 0.421, p < 0.00001) but not multivariate logistic modeling. Cross-validation model building was used to determine that an optimal model size needed only two parameters (MOH85 and concurrent chemotherapy, robustly selected on bootstrap model-rebuilding). Mean esophagus dose (MED) is preferred instead of MOH85, as it gives nearly the same statistical performance and is easier to compute. AE risk is given as a logistic function of (0.0688 Asterisk-Operator MED+1.50 Asterisk-Operator ConChemo-3.13), where MED is in Gy and ConChemo is either 1 (yes) if concurrent chemotherapy was given, or 0 (no). This model correlates to the observed risk of AE with a Spearman coefficient of 0.629 (p < 0.000001). Conclusions: Multivariate statistical model building with cross-validation suggests that a two-variable logistic model based on mean dose and the use of concurrent chemotherapy robustly predicts

  13. Acute exposure to low-dose radiation disrupts reproduction and shortens survival of Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) queens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcaterra, Luis A; Coulin, Carolina; Briano, Juan A; Follett, Peter A

    2012-06-01

    Irradiation is a postharvest quarantine treatment option to control ants and other hitchhiker pests on fresh horticultural products exported from Hawaii. The radiotolerance of the invasive little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae), was studied to determine a dose sufficient for its control. Queens from each of five laboratory microcolonies started from five geographic locations in Argentina were irradiated at 20, 50, 70, or 100 Gy or left untreated as controls and then followed for 13 wk to observe colony growth. In general, queen survivorship, and the number of eggs, larvae, and pupae observed in the microcolonies decreased with increasing irradiation dose. In the 50-, 70-, and 100-Gy treatments, the number of eggs observed was reduced by 68, 66, and 76%, respectively, compared with untreated control microcolonies. The number of larvae in the 50-, 70-, and, 100-Gy treatments was reduced by 99.6%, and only one pupa was observed in the 50-Gy treatment and none in the 70- and 100-Gy treatments during the 13-wk experiment. Queens in the 100-Gy treatment had significantly reduced longevity compared with queens in the other treatments. Radiation doses > or = 70 Gy stopped reproduction in W. auropunctata queens and should be sufficient as a phytosanitary treatment. Information from additional invasive ants in Myrmicinae and other subfamilies is needed before recommending a generic irradiation treatment for ants.

  14. Heart and radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Martins Júnior

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRATC The heart exposition to ionizing radiation may produce lesions in cardiac structures, acute (in most of cases benign and reversible, or months and even years later. There is a direct relationship of severity of lesions with radiation doses. The clinical picture receives a new denomination: radiation induced cardiopathy. The more frequent use of radiation in diagnosis and therapeutics increases the importance of their knowledge and especially their prevention.

  15. The influence of the combined effects of acute gamma-radiation, sodium bromate and sodium nitrate on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedling root growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryakhin, E.; Osipov, D. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine - URCRM (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Among special industrial reservoirs used for the storage of liquid radioactive waste of Mayak PA, Russia, one of the most radioactively contaminated is the R-17 reservoir, so-called 'Staroye Boloto' (the total β-activity of water ranged in the observation period from 0.4 MBq/l to 4.5 MBq/l, the total a-activity ranged from 43 to 420 Bq/l). Also this reservoir is characterized by high level of chemical contamination, in particular, the concentration of nitrates in water is 2.5-4,4 g/l, sodium bromate - up to 35 mg/l. One of the interesting questions is interaction of radiation and chemical contamination in their effect on living organisms in this reservoir. In laboratory experiments seeds of Lactuca sativa were used; the effect of the studied factor on the length of the sprout's root was estimated. To assess the effect of chemical toxicants the solutions of each salt in 7 different concentrations were used, distilled water was used as a control. For evaluation of acute effects of external gamma irradiation the seeds after exposure for 24 hours in distilled water, were irradiated at 7 different doses using gamma-unit on the basis of Cs-137 with the dose rate of 0.62 Gy/min. To assess the combined effects of acute external gamma irradiation, of nitrates and bromates, seeds after 24 hour exposure at each test concentration of the salts solutions were irradiated using gamma-unit. To calculate the effective concentrations or doses was used drc package for R software. To calculate the dose rate to aquatic organisms in the R-17 was used ERICA Assessment Tool 2012. It was found out that the EC50 of sodium nitrate for lettuce was 2.69 g/l, which is comparable to the concentration of nitrates in the 'Staroye Boloto'. This indicates that nitrate can have significant toxic effect on aquatic higher plants of the reservoir. The EC50 of sodium bromate was 14.6 mg/l. This is less than the maximum concentration of the substance in the R-17, which suggests

  16. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of radiation, such as survivors of a nuclear reactor accident, have an increased risk of developing acute ... 18, 2015. Mesa RA (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Phoenix/Scottsdale, Ariz. May 30, 2015. Cook AJ. Decision ...

  17. Reduced Radiation Dose with Model-based Iterative Reconstruction versus Standard Dose with Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction in Abdominal CT for Diagnosis of Acute Renal Colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontarensky, Mikael; Alfidja, Agaïcha; Perignon, Renan; Schoenig, Arnaud; Perrier, Christophe; Mulliez, Aurélien; Guy, Laurent; Boyer, Louis

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of reduced-dose abdominal computed tomographic (CT) imaging by using a new generation model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) to diagnose acute renal colic compared with a standard-dose abdominal CT with 50% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). This institutional review board-approved prospective study included 118 patients with symptoms of acute renal colic who underwent the following two successive CT examinations: standard-dose ASIR 50% and reduced-dose MBIR. Two radiologists independently reviewed both CT examinations for presence or absence of renal calculi, differential diagnoses, and associated abnormalities. The imaging findings, radiation dose estimates, and image quality of the two CT reconstruction methods were compared. Concordance was evaluated by κ coefficient, and descriptive statistics and t test were used for statistical analysis. Intraobserver correlation was 100% for the diagnosis of renal calculi (κ = 1). Renal calculus (τ = 98.7%; κ = 0.97) and obstructive upper urinary tract disease (τ = 98.16%; κ = 0.95) were detected, and differential or alternative diagnosis was performed (τ = 98.87% κ = 0.95). MBIR allowed a dose reduction of 84% versus standard-dose ASIR 50% (mean volume CT dose index, 1.7 mGy ± 0.8 [standard deviation] vs 10.9 mGy ± 4.6; mean size-specific dose estimate, 2.2 mGy ± 0.7 vs 13.7 mGy ± 3.9; P < .001) without a conspicuous deterioration in image quality (reduced-dose MBIR vs ASIR 50% mean scores, 3.83 ± 0.49 vs 3.92 ± 0.27, respectively; P = .32) or increase in noise (reduced-dose MBIR vs ASIR 50% mean, respectively, 18.36 HU ± 2.53 vs 17.40 HU ± 3.42). Its main drawback remains the long time required for reconstruction (mean, 40 minutes). A reduced-dose protocol with MBIR allowed a dose reduction of 84% without increasing noise and without an conspicuous deterioration in image quality in patients suspected of having renal colic.

  18. Impact of Chemotherapy on Normal Tissue Complication Probability Models of Acute Hematologic Toxicity in Patients Receiving Pelvic Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan, Jose G.; Luxton, Gary; Kozak, Margaret M.; Anderson, Eric M.; Hancock, Steven L.; Kapp, Daniel S.; Kidd, Elizabeth A.; Koong, Albert C.; Chang, Daniel T., E-mail: dtchang@stanford.edu

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To determine how chemotherapy agents affect radiation dose parameters that correlate with acute hematologic toxicity (HT) in patients treated with pelvic intensity modulated radiation therapy (P-IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: We assessed HT in 141 patients who received P-IMRT for anal, gynecologic, rectal, or prostate cancers, 95 of whom received concurrent chemotherapy. Patients were separated into 4 groups: mitomycin (MMC) + 5-fluorouracil (5FU, 37 of 141), platinum ± 5FU (Cis, 32 of 141), 5FU (26 of 141), and P-IMRT alone (46 of 141). The pelvic bone was contoured as a surrogate for pelvic bone marrow (PBM) and divided into subsites: ilium, lower pelvis, and lumbosacral spine (LSS). The volumes of each region receiving 5-40 Gy were calculated. The endpoint for HT was grade ≥3 (HT3+) leukopenia, neutropenia or thrombocytopenia. Normal tissue complication probability was calculated using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model. Logistic regression was used to analyze association between HT3+ and dosimetric parameters. Results: Twenty-six patients experienced HT3+: 10 of 37 (27%) MMC, 14 of 32 (44%) Cis, 2 of 26 (8%) 5FU, and 0 of 46 P-IMRT. PBM dosimetric parameters were correlated with HT3+ in the MMC group but not in the Cis group. LSS dosimetric parameters were well correlated with HT3+ in both the MMC and Cis groups. Constrained optimization (0

  19. Phase 3 Trial of Domiciliary Humidification to Mitigate Acute Mucosal Toxicity During Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: First Report of Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 07.03 RadioHUM Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macann, Andrew, E-mail: amacann@adhb.govt.nz [Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Fua, Tsien [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Milross, Chris G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, New South Wales (Australia); Porceddu, Sandro V. [Oncology Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Queensland (Australia); Penniment, Michael [Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Wratten, Chris [Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Waratah, New South Wales (Australia); Krawitz, Hedley [Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Poulsen, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radiation Oncology Mater Centre, South Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Tang, Colin I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia (Australia); Morton, Randall P. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Middlemore Hospital, Otahuhu, Auckland (New Zealand); Hay, K. David [Department of Oral Health, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Thomson, Vicki [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Bell, Melanie L.; King, Madeleine T. [Psycho-oncology Cooperative Research Group, Univerity of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Fraser-Browne, Carol L. [Adult Oncology Research Centre, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Hockey, Hans-Ulrich P. [Biometrics Matters Ltd, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of domicile-based humidification on symptom burden during radiation therapy (RT) for head-and-neck (H and N) cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2007 through June 2011, 210 patients with H and N cancer receiving RT were randomized to either a control arm or to receive humidification using the Fisher and Paykel Healthcare MR880 humidifier. Humidification commenced on day 1 of RT and continued until Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0, clinical mucositis (CMuc) grade ≤1 occurred. Forty-three patients (42%) met a defined benchmark for humidification compliance and contributed to per protocol (PP) analysis. Acute toxicities, hospitalizations, and feeding tube events were recorded prospectively. The McMaster University Head and Neck Radiotherapy Questionnaire (HNRQ) was used for patient-reported outcomes. The primary endpoint was area under the curve (AUC) for CMuc grade ≥2. Results: There were no significant differences in AUC for CMuc ≥2 between the 2 arms. Humidification patients had significantly fewer days in hospital (P=.017). In compliant PP patients, the AUC for CTCAE functional mucositis score (FMuc) ≥2 was significantly reduced (P=.009), and the proportion who never required a feeding tube was significantly greater (P=.04). HNRQ PP analysis estimates also in the direction favoring humidification with less symptom severity, although differences at most time points did not reach significance. Conclusions: TROG 07.03 has provided efficacy signals consistent with a role for humidification in reducing symptom burden from mucositis, but the influence of humidification compliance on the results moderates recommendations regarding its practical utility.

  20. Acute mucosal radiation reactions in patients with head and neck cancer. Patterns of mucosal healing on the basis of daily examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wygoda, A.; Skladowski, K.; Rutkowski, T.; Hutnik, M.; Golen, M.; Pilecki, B.; Przeorek, W.; Lukaszczyk-Widel, B. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice (Poland). 1st Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The goal of this research was to evaluate the healing processes of acute mucosal radiation reactions (AMRR) in patients with head and neck cancer. Materials and methods: In 46 patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer patients irradiated with conventional (n = 25) and accelerated (n = 21) dose fractionation AMRR was evaluated daily during and after radiotherapy. Complex of morphological and functional symptoms according to the Dische score were collected daily until complete healing. Results: Duration of healing after the end of radiotherapy ranged widely (12-70 days). It was on the average 8 days longer for accelerated than for conventional radiotherapy (p = 0.016). Duration of dysphagia was also longer for accelerated irradiation (11 days, p = 0.027). Three types of morphological symptoms were observed as the last symptom at the end of AMRR healing: spotted and confluent mucositis, erythema, and edema. Only a slight correlation between healing duration and area of irradiation fields (r = 0.23) was noted. In patients with confluent mucositis, two morphological forms of mucosal healing were observed, i.e., marginal and spotted. The spotted form was noted in 71% of patients undergoing conventional radiotherapy and in 38% of patients undergoing accelerated radiotherapy. The symptoms of mucosal healing were observed in 40% patients during radiotherapy. Conclusion: The wide range of AMRR healing reflects individual potential of mucosa recovery with longer duration for accelerated radiotherapy. Two morphological forms of confluent mucositis healing were present: marginal and spotted. Healing of AMRR during radiotherapy can be observed in a significant proportion of patients. (orig.)

  1. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) in the treatment of radiation side effects; Hyperbare Oxygenierung (HBO) zur Behandlung radiogener Nebenwirkungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, A. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie; Almeling, M. [Druckkammerzentrum Arolsen/Kassel (Germany); Carl, U.M. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie

    1996-12-01

    Aim: Many reports show that late complications of radiotherapy can be successfully treated by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). This synopsis attempts to review the literature to identify areas of clinical use and further research. Patients and Methods: Clinical and experimental data about HBO treatment of radiation late effects are analysed. Mechanisms of hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of late radiation side effects are discussed. Results: There is evidence in the literature that HBO is beneficial in the treatment of radiation cystitis, osteoradionecrosis of the mandible, hemorrhagic proctitis, soft tissue necrosis and neurologic deficits. The prophylactic use of HBO has shown to prevent the development of osteoradionecrosis after tooth removal and the loss of titanium implants in irradiated facial bones. The physiologic basis of HBO can be referred to induction of neoangiogenesis and revascularisation. Conclusions: Clinicians can be encouraged to use hyperbaric oxygen for the treatment of radiation cystitis, osteonecrosis of the mandible, hemorrhagic proctitis, soft tissue necrosis and neurologic deficits following radiation therapy. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Nach zahlreichen Literaturberichten sind Spaetkomplikationen der Strahlentherapie durch hyperbaren Sauerstoff guenstig zu beeinflussen. Ziel dieses Uebersichtsartikels ist es, das vorliegende Datenmaterial ueber hyperbare Oxygenierung (HBO) zur Behandlung spaeter radiogener Nebenwirkungen zusammenzufassen, um eine Grundlage fuer den klinischen Einsatz und weitere experimentelle Untersuchungen zu schaffen. Patienten und Methode: Ergebnisse klinischer und experimenteller Untersuchungen sowie Wirkmechanismen, ueber die hyperbaren Sauerstoff in die pathophysiologischen Ablaeufe radiogener Nebenwirkungen eingreift, werden diskutiert. Ergebnisse: Durch die hyperbare Oxygenierungstherapie koennen klinische Besserungen bei haemorrhagischer Zystitis, Osteoradionekrose der Mandibula, Proktosigmoiditis, Weichteilnekrosen und

  2. Electromagnetic radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jay L.; Hansen, Gordon J.

    1976-01-01

    An electromagnetic radiation detector including a collimating window, a cathode member having a photoelectric emissive material surface angularly disposed to said window whereby radiation is impinged thereon at acute angles, an anode, separated from the cathode member by an evacuated space, for collecting photoelectrons emitted from the emissive cathode surface, and a negatively biased, high transmissive grid disposed between the cathode member and anode.

  3. Acute biological effects of simulating the whole-body radiation dose distribution from a solar particle event using a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jolaine M; Sanzari, Jenine K; Diffenderfer, Eric S; Yee, Stephanie S; Seykora, John T; Maks, Casey; Ware, Jeffrey H; Litt, Harold I; Reetz, Jennifer A; McDonough, James; Weissman, Drew; Kennedy, Ann R; Cengel, Keith A

    2011-11-01

    In a solar particle event (SPE), an unshielded astronaut would receive proton radiation with an energy profile that produces a highly inhomogeneous dose distribution (skin receiving a greater dose than internal organs). The novel concept of using megavoltage electron-beam radiation to more accurately reproduce both the total dose and the dose distribution of SPE protons and make meaningful RBE comparisons between protons and conventional radiation has been described previously. Here, Yucatan minipigs were used to determine the effects of a superficial, SPE-like proton dose distribution using megavoltage electrons. In these experiments, dose-dependent increases in skin pigmentation, ulceration, keratinocyte necrosis and pigment incontinence were observed. Five of 18 animals (one each exposed to 7.5 Gy and 12.5 Gy radiation and three exposed to 25 Gy radiation) developed symptomatic, radiation-associated pneumonopathy approximately 90 days postirradiation. The three animals from the highest dose group showed evidence of mycoplasmal pneumonia along with radiation pneumonitis. Moreover, delayed-type hypersensitivity was found to be altered, suggesting that superficial irradiation of the skin with ionizing radiation might cause immune dysfunction or dysregulation. In conclusion, using total doses, patterns of dose distribution, and dose rates that are compatible with potential astronaut exposure to SPE radiation, animals experienced significant toxicities that were qualitatively different from toxicities previously reported in pigs for homogeneously delivered radiation at similar doses.

  4. Acute Biological Effects of Simulating the Whole-Body Radiation Dose Distribution from a Solar Particle Event Using a Porcine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jolaine M.; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Yee, Stephanie S.; Seykora, John T.; Maks, Casey; Ware, Jeffrey H.; Litt, Harold I.; Reetz, Jennifer A.; McDonough, James; Weissman, Drew; Kennedy, Ann R.; Cengel, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    In a solar particle event (SPE), an unshielded astronaut would receive proton radiation with an energy profile that produces a highly inhomogeneous dose distribution (skin receiving a greater dose than internal organs). The novel concept of using megavoltage electron-beam radiation to more accurately reproduce both the total dose and the dose distribution of SPE protons and make meaningful RBE comparisons between protons and conventional radiation has been described previously. Here, Yucatan minipigs were used to determine the effects of a superficial, SPE-like proton dose distribution using megavoltage electrons. In these experiments, dose-dependent increases in skin pigmentation, ulceration, keratinocyte necrosis and pigment incontinence were observed. Five of 18 animals (one each exposed to 7.5 Gy and 12.5 Gy radiation and three exposed to 25 Gy radiation) developed symptomatic, radiation-associated pneumonopathy approximately 90 days postirradiation. The three animals from the highest dose group showed evidence of mycoplasmal pneumonia along with radiation pneumonitis. Moreover, delayed-type hypersensitivity was found to be altered, suggesting that superficial irradiation of the skin with ionizing radiation might cause immune dysfunction or dysregulation. In conclusion, using total doses, patterns of dose distribution, and dose rates that are compatible with potential astronaut exposure to SPE radiation, animals experienced significant toxicities that were qualitatively different from toxicities previously reported in pigs for homogeneously delivered radiation at similar doses. PMID:21859326

  5. Pathophysiology and surgical treatment for radiation enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onodera, Hisashi; Park, Tae Bun; Hasegawa, Masato (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine) (and others)

    1993-12-01

    We analyzed 23 patients (5 males and 18 females, mean age 60) who had been operated on in our department for radiation enteritis. (1) These patients were divided into two types according to the time of surgery. Sixteen of 23 (79%) patients were operated on a median of 12 months after radiotherapy, while 7 (30%) underwent surgery more than 10 years later. (2) They were also divided according to the dominant symptoms. Fourteen of 23 (60%) complained of nausea and abdominal distension suggestive of small bowel injury, whereas 7 (30%) had tenesmus and anal bleeding indicating proctitis. Two patients developed perforative peritonitis. (3) The operations performed were as follows: extensive intestinal resection and anastomosis (13), pull-through procedure (3), rectal excision (2), ileostomy (3), by-pass operation (2). Two patients with peritonitis died despite open drainage. Nineteen intestinal anastomoses were all successfully performed. Patients who underwent extensive small bowel resection could resume ordinary daily life without symptoms. Our analysis showed that small bowel injury should be treated by generous resection of the affected bowels followed by anastomosis of the disease-free ends, while rectal lesions are best dealt with by restorative proctectomy. This may provide a good quality of life and minimize major postoperative complications such as leakage. (author).

  6. Survival Fraction at 2 Gy and γH2AX Expression Kinetics in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes From Cancer Patients: Relationship With Acute Radiation-Induced Toxicities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouliliou, Stamatia E. [Department of Radiotherapy/Oncology, Radiobiology and Radiopathology Unit, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Lialiaris, Theodoros S. [Department of Medical Genetics, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Dimitriou, Thespis [Department of Anatomy, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Giatromanolaki, Alexandra [Department of Pathology, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Papazoglou, Dimitrios [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Pappa, Aglaia [Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Pistevou, Kyriaki [Department of Radiotherapy/Oncology, Aristotle University of Thessalonica, Thessalonica (Greece); Kalamida, Dimitra [Department of Radiotherapy/Oncology, Radiobiology and Radiopathology Unit, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Koukourakis, Michael I., E-mail: targ@her.forthnet.gr [Department of Radiotherapy/Oncology, Radiobiology and Radiopathology Unit, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Predictive assays for acute radiation toxicities would be clinically relevant in radiation oncology. We prospectively examined the predictive role of the survival fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) and of γH2AX (double-strand break [DSB] DNA marker) expression kinetics in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cancer patients before radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: SF2 was measured with Trypan Blue assay in the PBMCs from 89 cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy at 4 hours (SF2{sub [4h]}) and 24 hours (SF2{sub [24h]}) after ex vivo irradiation. Using Western blot analysis and band densitometry, we further assessed the expression of γH2AX in PBMC DNA at 0 hours, 30 minutes, and 4 hours (33 patients) and 0 hour, 4 hours, and 24 hours (56 patients), following ex vivo irradiation with 2 Gy. Appropriate ratios were used to characterize each patient, and these were retrospectively correlated with early radiation therapy toxicity grade. Results: The SF2{sub (4h)} was inversely correlated with the toxicity grade (P=.006). The γH2AX-ratio{sub (30min)} (band density of irradiated/non-irradiated cells at 30 minutes) revealed, similarly, a significant inverse association (P=.0001). The DSB DNA repair rate from 30 minutes to 4 hours, calculated as the relative RγH2AX-ratio (γH2AX-ratio{sub (4h)}/γH2AX-ratio{sub (30min)}) showed a significant direct association with high toxicity grade (P=.01). Conclusions: Our results suggest that SF2 is a significant radiation sensitivity index for patients undergoing radiation therapy. γH2AX Western blot densitometry analysis provided 2 important markers of normal tissue radiation sensitivity. Low γH2AX expression at 30 minutes was linked with high toxicity grade, suggesting that poor γH2AX repair activity within a time frame of 30 minutes after irradiation predicts for poor radiation tolerance. On the other hand, rapid γH2AX content restoration at 4 hours after irradiation, compatible with

  7. Influence Of Terahertz Range Electromagnetic Radiation At Molecular Spectrum Frequency Of 150+0,75 Ghz Nitric Oxide On Microcirculation Morphofunctional Disturbances In White Rats In Condition Of Acute And Prolonged Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Kurtukova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of electromagnetic radiation of terahertz range at frequency of emission and absorption molecular spectrum of 150+0,75GHz nitric oxide on morphofunctional changes of microcirculation and tissue structure in animals in condition of acute and prolonged immobilization stress has been studied. It has shown that the influence of electromagnetic waves at these frequencies causes activity decrease of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and tireoyd axis of stress reaction. It has been determined that terahertz range waves at frequency of nitric oxide are liable to restore disturbances of intravascular, vascular and extravascular components of microcirculation and also have histoprotective effect

  8. Single-portal-phase low-tube-voltage dual-energy CT for short-term follow-up of acute pancreatitis: evaluation of CT severity index, interobserver agreement and radiation dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Julian L; Majenka, Pawel; Beeres, Martin; Kromen, Wolfgang; Schulz, Boris; Wesarg, Stefan; Bauer, Ralf W; Kerl, J Matthias; Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Hammerstingl, Renate; Vogl, Thomas J; Lehnert, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    To intra-individually compare single-portal-phase low-tube-voltage (100-kVp) computed tomography (CT) with 120-kVp images for short-term follow-up assessment of CT severity index (CTSI) of acute pancreatitis, interobserver agreement and radiation dose. We retrospectively analysed 66 patients with acute pancreatitis who underwent initial dual-contrast-phase CT (unenhanced, arterial, portal phase) at admission and short-term (mean interval 11.4 days) follow-up dual-contrast-phase dual-energy CT. The 100-kVp and linearly blended images representing 120-kVp acquisition follow-up CT images were independently evaluated by three radiologists using a modified CTSI assessing pancreatic inflammation, necrosis and extrapancreatic complications. Scores were compared with paired t test and interobserver agreement was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Mean CTSI scores on unenhanced, portal- and dual-contrast-phase images were 4.9, 6.1 and 6.2 (120 kVp) and 5.0, 6.0 and 6.1 (100 kVp), respectively. Contrast-enhanced series showed a higher CTSI compared to unenhanced images (P  0.7). CTSI scores were comparable for 100-kVp and 120-kVp images (P > 0.05). Interobserver agreement was substantial for all evaluated series and subcategories (ICC 0.67-0.93). DLP of single-portal-phase 100-kVp images was reduced by 41 % compared to 120-kVp images (363.8 versus 615.9 mGy cm). Low-tube-voltage single-phase 100-kVp CT provides sufficient information for follow-up evaluation of acute pancreatitis and significantly reduces radiation exposure. • Single-portal-phase CT provides sufficient evaluation for follow-up of acute pancreatitis. • Follow-up CT does not benefit from unenhanced or arterial-phase acquisition. • CT severity index scores are equal for dual-contrast-phase 100-/120-kVp acquisition (P > 0.05). • 100-kVp single-portal-phase follow-up CT of acute pancreatitis significantly reduces radiation exposure.

  9. Low Dose Total Body Irradiation Combined With Recombinant CD19-Ligand × Soluble TRAIL Fusion Protein is Highly Effective Against Radiation-resistant B-precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih M. Uckun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In high-risk remission B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BPL patients, relapse rates have remained high post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT even after the use of very intensive total body irradiation (TBI-based conditioning regimens, especially in patients with a high “minimal residual disease” (MRD burden. New agents capable of killing radiation-resistant BPL cells and selectively augmenting their radiation sensitivity are therefore urgently needed. We report preclinical proof-of-principle that the potency of radiation therapy against BPL can be augmented by combining radiation with recombinant human CD19-Ligand × soluble TRAIL (“CD19L–sTRAIL” fusion protein. CD19L–sTRAIL consistently killed radiation-resistant primary leukemia cells from BPL patients as well as BPL xenograft cells and their leukemia-initiating in vivo clonogenic fraction. Low dose total body irradiation (TBI combined with CD19L–sTRAIL was highly effective against (1 xenografted CD19+ radiochemotherapy-resistant human BPL in NOD/SCID (NS mice challenged with an otherwise invariably fatal dose of xenograft cells derived from relapsed BPL patients as well as (2 radiation-resistant advanced stage CD19+ murine BPL with lymphomatous features in CD22ΔE12xBCR-ABL double transgenic mice. We hypothesize that the incorporation of CD19L–sTRAIL into the pre-transplant TBI regimens of patients with very high-risk BPL will improve their survival outcome after HSCT.

  10. The Gottingen Minipig Is a Model of the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome: G-Colony Stimulating Factor Stimulates Hematopoiesis and Enhances Survival From Lethal Total-Body γ-Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroni, Maria, E-mail: maria.moroni@usuhs.edu [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Ngudiankama, Barbara F. [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Christensen, Christine [Division of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Olsen, Cara H. [Biostatistics Consulting Center, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Owens, Rossitsa [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Lombardini, Eric D. [Veterinary Medicine Department, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok (Thailand); Holt, Rebecca K. [Veterinary Science Department, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Whitnall, Mark H. [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Methods and Materials: Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. Results: The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. Conclusions: These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes.

  11. Predictors of radiation-induced acute skin toxicity in breast cancer at a single institution: Role of fractionation and treatment volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Parekh, MD

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: We identified multiple risk factors for acute skin toxicity, including the use of PMRT and conventionally fractionated regimens. Elevated BMI, regional nodal irradiation, and chemotherapy use were associated with an increased risk of MD. Our findings highlight the need to explore the use of less toxic hypofractionated regimens in patients who are at the highest risk of acute skin toxicity, including those with a higher BMI and those receiving PMRT.

  12. Oral Mucosa Dose Parameters Predicting Grade ≥3 Acute Toxicity in Locally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients Treated With Concurrent Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy: An Independent Validation Study Comparing Oral Cavity versus Mucosal Surface Contouring Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaixin; Yang, Ling; Hu, Qiang-Ying; Chen, Xiao-Zhong; Chen, Ming; Chen, Yuanyuan

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether volumes based on the contours of the mucosal surface instead of the oral cavity can be used to predict grade ≥3 acute oral mucosa toxicity in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LANPC) treated with concurrent intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and chemotherapy. A standardized method for the oral cavity (oral cavity contours, OCC) and a novel method for the mucosal surface (mucosal surface contours, MSC) were developed for the oral mucosa and prospectively applied to the radiation treatment plans of 92 patients treated with concurrent IMRT and chemotherapy for LANPC. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) data were extracted and then toxicity was analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and logistic regression were carried out for both contouring methods. Grade ≥3 acute oral mucosa toxicity occurred to 20.7% (19/92) of patients in the study. A highly significant dose-volume relationship between oral mucosa irradiation and acute oral mucosa toxicity was supported by using both oral cavity and mucosal surface contouring techniques. In logistic regression, body weight loss was an independent factor related to grade ≥3 acute toxicity for OCC and MSC (P=.017 and 0.005, respectively), and the independent factor of dosimetric parameters for OCC and MSC were V30Gy (P=.003) and V50Gy (P=.003) respectively. In the receiver operating characteristics curve, the areas under V30Gy of the OCC curves was 0.753 (P=.001), while the areas under V50Gy of MSC curves was 0.714 (P=.004); the cut-off value was 73.155% (sensitivity, 0.842; specificity, 0.671) and 14.32% (sensitivity, 0.842; specificity, 0.575), respectively. DVH analysis of mucosal surface volumes accurately predicts grade ≥3 acute oral mucosa toxicity in patients with LANPC receiving concurrent IMRT and chemotherapy, but in clinical practice the MSC method appears no better than the OCC one. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  13. Oral Mucosa Dose Parameters Predicting Grade ≥3 Acute Toxicity in Locally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients Treated With Concurrent Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy: An Independent Validation Study Comparing Oral Cavity versus Mucosal Surface Contouring Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaixin Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine whether volumes based on the contours of the mucosal surface instead of the oral cavity can be used to predict grade ≥3 acute oral mucosa toxicity in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LANPC treated with concurrent intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT and chemotherapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A standardized method for the oral cavity (oral cavity contours, OCC and a novel method for the mucosal surface (mucosal surface contours, MSC were developed for the oral mucosa and prospectively applied to the radiation treatment plans of 92 patients treated with concurrent IMRT and chemotherapy for LANPC. Dose–volume histogram (DVH data were extracted and then toxicity was analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and logistic regression were carried out for both contouring methods. RESULTS: Grade ≥3 acute oral mucosa toxicity occurred to 20.7% (19/92 of patients in the study. A highly significant dose–volume relationship between oral mucosa irradiation and acute oral mucosa toxicity was supported by using both oral cavity and mucosal surface contouring techniques. In logistic regression, body weight loss was an independent factor related to grade ≥3 acute toxicity for OCC and MSC (P = .017 and 0.005, respectively, and the independent factor of dosimetric parameters for OCC and MSC were V30Gy (P = .003 and V50Gy (P = .003 respectively. In the receiver operating characteristics curve, the areas under V30Gy of the OCC curves was 0.753 (P = .001, while the areas under V50Gy of MSC curves was 0.714 (P = .004; the cut-off value was 73.155% (sensitivity, 0.842; specificity, 0.671 and 14.32% (sensitivity, 0.842; specificity, 0.575, respectively. CONCLUSION: DVH analysis of mucosal surface volumes accurately predicts grade ≥3 acute oral mucosa toxicity in patients with LANPC receiving concurrent IMRT and chemotherapy, but in clinical practice the MSC method appears no better than

  14. SU-D-204-03: Comparison of Patient Positioning Methods Through Modeling of Acute Rectal Toxicity in Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer. Does Quality of Data Matter More Than the Quantity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X; Fatyga, M; Vora, S; Wong, W; Schild, S; Schild, M [Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Herman, M [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Li, J; Wu, T [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To determine if differences in patient positioning methods have an impact on the incidence and modeling of grade >=2 acute rectal toxicity in prostate cancer patients who were treated with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT). Methods: We compared two databases of patients treated with radiation therapy for prostate cancer: a database of 79 patients who were treated with 7 field IMRT and daily image guided positioning based on implanted gold markers (IGRTdb), and a database of 302 patients who were treated with 5 field IMRT and daily positioning using a trans-abdominal ultrasound system (USdb). Complete planning dosimetry was available for IGRTdb patients while limited planning dosimetry, recorded at the time of planning, was available for USdb patients. We fit Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model to IGRTdb only, and Univariate Logistic Regression (ULR) NTCP model to both databases. We perform Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis to determine the predictive power of NTCP models. Results: The incidence of grade >= 2 acute rectal toxicity in IGRTdb was 20%, while the incidence in USdb was 54%. Fits of both LKB and ULR models yielded predictive NTCP models for IGRTdb patients with Area Under the Curve (AUC) in the 0.63 – 0.67 range. Extrapolation of the ULR model from IGRTdb to planning dosimetry in USdb predicts that the incidence of acute rectal toxicity in USdb should not exceed 40%. Fits of the ULR model to the USdb do not yield predictive NTCP models and their AUC is consistent with AUC = 0.5. Conclusion: Accuracy of a patient positioning system affects clinically observed toxicity rates and the quality of NTCP models that can be derived from toxicity data. Poor correlation between planned and clinically delivered dosimetry may lead to erroneous or poorly performing NTCP models, even if the number of patients in a database is large.

  15. Single-portal-phase low-tube-voltage dual-energy CT for short-term follow-up of acute pancreatitis: evaluation of CT severity index, interobserver agreement and radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichmann, Julian L. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Frankfurt, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Majenka, Pawel; Beeres, Martin; Kromen, Wolfgang; Schulz, Boris; Bauer, Ralf W.; Kerl, J.M.; Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Hammerstingl, Renate; Vogl, Thomas J.; Lehnert, Thomas [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Wesarg, Stefan [Fraunhofer IGD, Cognitive Computing and Medical Imaging, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    To intra-individually compare single-portal-phase low-tube-voltage (100-kVp) computed tomography (CT) with 120-kVp images for short-term follow-up assessment of CT severity index (CTSI) of acute pancreatitis, interobserver agreement and radiation dose. We retrospectively analysed 66 patients with acute pancreatitis who underwent initial dual-contrast-phase CT (unenhanced, arterial, portal phase) at admission and short-term (mean interval 11.4 days) follow-up dual-contrast-phase dual-energy CT. The 100-kVp and linearly blended images representing 120-kVp acquisition follow-up CT images were independently evaluated by three radiologists using a modified CTSI assessing pancreatic inflammation, necrosis and extrapancreatic complications. Scores were compared with paired t test and interobserver agreement was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Mean CTSI scores on unenhanced, portal- and dual-contrast-phase images were 4.9, 6.1 and 6.2 (120 kVp) and 5.0, 6.0 and 6.1 (100 kVp), respectively. Contrast-enhanced series showed a higher CTSI compared to unenhanced images (P < 0.05) but no significant differences between single- and dual-contrast-phase series (P > 0.7). CTSI scores were comparable for 100-kVp and 120-kVp images (P > 0.05). Interobserver agreement was substantial for all evaluated series and subcategories (ICC 0.67-0.93). DLP of single-portal-phase 100-kVp images was reduced by 41 % compared to 120-kVp images (363.8 versus 615.9 mGy cm). Low-tube-voltage single-phase 100-kVp CT provides sufficient information for follow-up evaluation of acute pancreatitis and significantly reduces radiation exposure. (orig.)

  16. Gel of chamomile vs. urea cream to prevent acute radiation dermatitis in patients with head and neck cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Elaine Barros; Ciol, Marcia A; Vasques, Christiane Inocêncio; Bontempo, Priscila de Souza Maggi; Vieira, Nayara Narley Pires; Silva, Luis Felipe Oliveira E; Avelino, Samuel Ramalho; Dos Santos, Marcos Antônio; Dos Reis, Paula Elaine Diniz

    2016-08-01

    To compare a gel made with chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) with a cream of urea as an intervention to delay the time to occurrence of radiation dermatitis. Radiation dermatitis is one of the most common adverse effects of radiotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer. It is characterized by erythema, itching, pain, skin breakage and burning sensation, and there is no consensus on how to prevent it. The study is a randomized controlled clinical trial. We will recruit 48 individuals with head and neck cancer who will be starting their radiotherapy and randomize them to receive either gel of chamomile or cream of urea, as an intervention for prevention of radiation dermatitis. Social-demographic data will be collected at baseline, and clinical data will be collected before the initiation of radiotherapy. Participants will be followed weekly to assess development of radiation dermatitis. The protocol is funded by Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Científico (Brazil). The study was approved by a research ethics committee. Given the clinical relevance of preventing radiation dermatitis and the lack of evidence supporting specific preventive interventions, it is important to study new products that might be efficacious to prevent this complication. This article presents the protocol of a randomized controlled trial comparing a gel made with chamomile (intervention) with a cream of urea (control) to prevent radiation dermatitis in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Endoscopic findings of rectal mucosal damage after pelvic radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma: correlation of rectal mucosal damage with radiation dose and clinical symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Gyu; Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Won [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    To describe chronic rectal mucosal damage after pelvic radiotherapy (RT) for cervical cancer and correlate these findings with clinical symptoms and radiation dose. Thirty-two patients who underwent pelvic RT were diagnosed with radiation-induced proctitis based on endoscopy findings. The median follow-up period was 35 months after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and intracavitary radiotherapy (ICR). The Vienna Rectoscopy Score (VRS) was used to describe the endoscopic findings and compared to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) morbidity score and the dosimetric parameters of RT (the ratio of rectal dose calculated at the rectal point [RP] to the prescribed dose, biologically effective dose [BED] at the RP in the ICR and EBRT plans, {alpha}/{beta} = 3). Rectal symptoms were noted in 28 patients (rectal bleeding in 21 patients, bowel habit changes in 6, mucosal stools in 1), and 4 patients had no symptoms. Endoscopic findings included telangiectasia in 18 patients, congested mucosa in 20, ulceration in 5, and stricture in 1. The RP ratio, BEDICR, BEDICR+EBRT was significantly associated with the VRS (RP ratio, median 76.5%; BEDICR, median 37.1 Gy3; BEDICR+EBRT, median 102.5 Gy3; p < 0.001). The VRS was significantly associated with the EORTC/RTOG score (p = 0.038). The most prevalent endoscopic findings of RT-induced proctitis were telangiectasia and congested mucosa. The VRS was significantly associated with the EORTC/RTOG score and RP radiation dose.

  18. Benign post-radiation rectal stricture treated with endoscopic balloon dilation and intralesional triamcinolone injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikas, Michael; Touzopoulos, Panagiotis; Mitrakas, Alexandros; Zezos, Petros; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Efremidou, Eleni; Liratzopoulos, Nikolaos; Polychronidis, Alexandros; Kouklakis, George

    2012-09-01

    Post-radiation stricture is a rare complication after pelvis irradiation, but must be in the mind of the clinician evaluating a lower gastrointestinal obstruction. Endoscopy has gained an important role in chronic radiation proctitis with several therapeutic options for management of intestinal strictures. The treatment of rectal strictures has been limited to surgery with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, a less invasive therapeutic approach for benign rectal strictures, endoscopic balloon dilation with or without intralesional steroid injection, has become a common treatment modality. We present a case of benign post-radiation rectal stricture treated successfully with balloon dilation and adjuvant intralesional triamcinolone injection. A 70-year-old woman presented to the emergency room complaining for 2 weeks of diarrhea and meteorism, 11 years after radiation of the pelvis due to adenocarcinoma of the uterus. Colonoscopy revealed a stricture at the rectum and multiple endoscopic biopsies were obtained from the stricture. The stricture was treated with endoscopic balloon dilation and intralesional triamcinolone injection. The procedure appears to have a high success rate and a very low complication rate. Histologic examination of the biopsies revealed non-specific inflammatory changes of the rectal mucosa and no specific changes of the mucosa due to radiation. All biopsies were negative for malignancy. The patient is stricture-free 12 months post-treatment.

  19. Benign Post-Radiation Rectal Stricture Treated with Endoscopic Balloon Dilation and Intralesional Triamcinolone Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Karanikas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Post-radiation stricture is a rare complication after pelvis irradiation, but must be in the mind of the clinician evaluating a lower gastrointestinal obstruction. Endoscopy has gained an important role in chronic radiation proctitis with several therapeutic options for management of intestinal strictures. The treatment of rectal strictures has been limited to surgery with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, a less invasive therapeutic approach for benign rectal strictures, endoscopic balloon dilation with or without intralesional steroid injection, has become a common treatment modality. We present a case of benign post-radiation rectal stricture treated successfully with balloon dilation and adjuvant intralesional triamcinolone injection. A 70-year-old woman presented to the emergency room complaining for 2 weeks of diarrhea and meteorism, 11 years after radiation of the pelvis due to adenocarcinoma of the uterus. Colonoscopy revealed a stricture at the rectum and multiple endoscopic biopsies were obtained from the stricture. The stricture was treated with endoscopic balloon dilation and intralesional triamcinolone injection. The procedure appears to have a high success rate and a very low complication rate. Histologic examination of the biopsies revealed non-specific inflammatory changes of the rectal mucosa and no specific changes of the mucosa due to radiation. All biopsies were negative for malignancy. The patient is stricture-free 12 months post-treatment.

  20. Triple-tandem high-dose-rate brachytherapy for early-stage medically inoperable endometrial cancer: Initial report on acute toxicity and dosimetric comparison to stereotactic body radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, Greg; Wu, Tianming; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Hasan, Yasmin

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) may be appealing in medically inoperable endometrial cancer to avoid procedural risks. We performed a dosimetric comparison to triple-tandem, high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Six consecutive clinical stage I, grade 1-2, medically inoperable endometrial cancer patients were treated with triple-tandem HDR brachytherapy. We report patient factors and acute toxicity. Also, we performed dosimetric comparison to SBRT using both 3D conformal arc (3DArc) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy. D2cc values for normal tissues were calculated and compared to the HDR plans. Median age was 57 years. Patient comorbidities included morbid obesity, congestive heart failure, diabetes, and pulmonary emboli. In three patients who received prior external beam radiation (EBRT), median EBRT and HDR doses were 46 Gy and 20 Gy, respectively. The median dose with HDR brachytherapy monotherapy was 35 Gy. Acute toxicities during EBRT included gastrointestinal (3/3 with grade 1-2) and genitourinary (3/3 with grade 1-2). Acute toxicities during HDR brachytherapy were gastrointestinal (2/6 total with grade 1-2) and genitourinary (2/6 total with grade 1). The mean D2cc/Gy of prescription dose for rectum, sigmoid, and bladder were 0.58, 0.40, and 0.47 respectively. Overall, doses to normal tissues were higher for SBRT plans as compared to HDR. Also, the R50 (ratio of the 50% prescription isodose volume to the PTV) was lowest with HDR brachytherapy. In medically inoperable, clinical stage I endometrial cancer patients with multiple comorbidities, definitive triple-tandem, HDR brachytherapy results in mild acute toxicity. In addition, HDR brachytherapy achieves relatively lower doses to surrounding normal tissues as compared to SBRT. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Studies of the ionizing radiation effects on the effluents acute toxicity due to anionic surfactants; Estudos dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante na toxicidade de efluentes que apresentam surfactantes anionicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Maria Cristina Franco de

    2004-07-01

    Several studies have shown the negative effects of surfactants, as detergents active substance, when discharged on biological sewage wastewater treatment plants. High toxicity may represent a lower efficiency for biological treatment. When surfactants are in aquatic environment they may induce a loss of grease revetment on birds (feather). Depending on the surfactant concentration, several damages to all biotic systems can happen. Looking for an alternative technology for wastewater treatment, efficient for surfactant removal, the present work applied ionizing radiation as an advanced oxidation process for affluents and effluents from Suzano Treatment Station. Such wastewater samples were submitted to radiation using an electron beam from a Dynamic Electron Beam Accelerator from Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. In order to assess this proposed treatment efficacy, it was performed acute toxicity evaluation with two test-organisms, the crustacean Daphnia similis and the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The studied effluents were: one from a chemical industry (IND), three from sewage plant (affluents - GG, GM and Guaio) and the last biologically treated secondary effluent (EfF), discharged at Tiete river. The applied radiation doses varied from 3 kGy to 50 kGy, being 50 kGy enough for surfactant degradation contained at industrial effluent. For GG, GM and Guaio samples, doses of 6 kGy and 10 kGy were efficient for surfactant and toxicity reduction, representing an average removal that varied from 71.80% to 82.76% and toxicity from 30% to 91% for most the effluents. The final effluent was less toxic than the others and the radiation induced an average 11% removal for anionic surfactant. The industrial effluents were also submitted to an aeration process in order to quantify the contribution of surfactant to the whole sample toxicity, once it was partially removed as foam and several fractions were evaluated for toxicity. (author)

  2. Identification of Differential Gene Expression Patterns after Acute Exposure to High and Low Doses of Low-LET Ionizing Radiation in a Reconstituted Human Skin Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilton, Susan C.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Hays, Spencer; Taylor, Ronald C.; Stenoien, David L.

    2016-11-01

    Our goal here was to identify dose and temporal dependent radiation responses in a complex tissue, reconstituted human skin. Direct sequencing of RNA (RNA-seq) was used to quantify altered transcripts following exposure to 0.1, 2 and 10 Gy of ionizing radiation at 3 and 8 hours. These doses include a low dose in the range of some medical diagnostic procedures (0.1 Gy), a dose typically received during radiotherapy (2.0 Gy) and a lethal dose (10 Gy). These doses could be received after an intentional or accidental radiation exposure and biomarkers are needed to rapidly and accurately triage exposed individuals. A total of 1701 genes were deemed to be significantly affected by high dose radiation exposure with the majority of genes affected at 10 Gy. A group of 29 genes including GDF15, BBC3, PPM1D, FDXR, GADD45A, MDM2, CDKN1A, TP53INP1, CYCSP27, SESN1, SESN2, PCNA, and AEN were similarly altered at both 2 and 10 Gy, but not 0.1 Gy, at multiple time points. A much larger group of up regulated genes, including those involved in inflammatory responses, was significantly altered only after a 10 Gy exposure. At high doses, down regulated genes were associated with cell cycle regulation and exhibited an apparent linear response between 2 and 10 Gy. While only a handful of genes were significantly affected by 0.1 Gy exposure using stringent statistical filters, groups of related genes regulating cell cycle progression and inflammatory responses consistently exhibited opposite trends in their regulation compared to the high dose exposures. Differential regulation of PLK1 signaling at low and high doses was confirmed using qRT-PCR. These results indicate that some alterations in gene expression are qualitatively different at low and high doses of radiation in this model system.

  3. Risk of chronic myeloid and acute leukemia mortality after exposure to ionizing radiation among workers at four U.S. nuclear weapons facilities and a nuclear naval shipyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Daniels, Robert D; Fleming, Donald A; Markey, Andrea M; Couch, James R; Ahrenholz, Steven H; Burphy, Jenneh S; Anderson, Jeri L; Tseng, Chih-Yu

    2007-02-01

    A nested case-control study was conducted among workers at five U.S. nuclear facilities to evaluate leukemia mortality risk (excluding chronic lymphocytic) from ionizing radiation using worksite doses and adjusting for potential confounding. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of exposed workers and the excess relative risk (ERR) per unit of radiation among 206 cases and 823 age-matched controls. Adjusting for sex and benzene, the RR of leukemia for workers receiving more than 10 mSv was higher compared to those receiving lower or no dose; however, the risk increase was attenuated in the highest dose group. The ERR per 10 mSv was 1.44% (95% CI: 100 mSv), the sex- and benzene-adjusted ERR per 10 mSv was 6.82% (95% CI: -2.87%, 24.1%). The results suggest that risks among these nuclear workers are comparable to those observed in high-dose populations, although no evidence was observed of a positive quadratic dose-response term in this study. This large study is among the first to jointly evaluate benzene and ionizing radiation risk.

  4. [Clinical-microbiological evaluation of the efficacy of combined use of chitosan, low intensity laser radiation and photosensitizer in treatment of patients with acute suppurative maxillofacial periostitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomina, S A; Bogatov, V V; Chervinets, V M

    2005-01-01

    Results are presented on treatment of 68 patients with acute suppurative periostitis of maxillofacial region. After surgical interventions in patients of the study group (48 patients) the wounds were cleansed by 1% chitosan on 0.2% HC1 in combination with methylene blue and irradiated by IR laser beam. The wounds healed in 2-3 days. In the control group (20 patients) for wound dressing chlorhexidine as a standard procedure was used, length of the healing process was 5-6 days. After combined treatment the number of microflora in the wound was reduced and microflora did not show the signs of pathogenicity.

  5. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Be extra careful not to spend time with children or pregnant women. Internal Radiation Therapy Makes You Give Off Radiation With systemic radiation, your body fluids ( urine , sweat, and saliva ) will give off radiation for a while. With ...

  6. Radiation enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation enteropathy; Radiation-induced small bowel injury; Post-radiation enteritis ... Radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells. The therapy ...

  7. Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your cough ... that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when people ...

  8. Principals Of Radiation Toxicology: Important Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava; Jones, Jeffrey

    “All things are poison, and nothing is without poison; only the dose permits something not to be poisonous.” Paracelsus Key Words: Radiation Toxins (RT), Radiation Toxicants (RTc), Radiation Poisons (RP), Radiation Exposure (RE), Radiation Toxicology is the science about radiation poisons. [D.Popov et al. 2012,J.Zhou et al. 2007,] Radiation Toxins is a specific proteins with high enzymatic activity produced by living irradiated mammals. [D.Popov et al. 2012,] Radiation Toxicants is a substances that produce radiomimetics effects, adverse biological effects which specific for radiation. [D.Popov et al. 2012,] Radiation Toxic agent is specific proteins that can produce pathological biological effects specific for physical form of radiation.[D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev 2007] Different Toxic Substances isolated from cells or from blood or lymph circulation. [Kudriashov I. et al. 1970, D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev et al. 2007,] Radiation Toxins may affects many organs or specific organ, tissue, specific group of cells. [Kudriashov I. et al. 1970, D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev et al. 2007] For example: Radiation Toxins could induce collective toxic clinical states to include: systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS),toxic multiple organ injury (TMOI), toxic multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (TMODS),and finally, toxic multiple organ failure (TMOF). [T. Azizova et al. 2005, Konchalovsky et al., 2005, D. Popov et al 2012] However, Radiation Toxins could induce specific injury of organs or tissue and induce Acute Radiation Syndromes such as Acute Radiation Cerebrovascular Syndrome, Acute Radiation Cardiovascular Syndrome, Acute Radiation Hematopoietic Syndrome, Acute Radiation GastroIntestinal Syndrome. [ D.Popov et al. 1990, 2012, V. Maliev et al. 2007] Radiation Toxins correlates with Radiation Exposure and the dose-response relationship is a fundamental and essential concept in classic Toxicology and Radiation Toxicology.[ D.Popov et al

  9. Effects of an acute dose of gamma radiation exposure on stem diameter growth, carbon gain, and biomass partitioning in Helianthus annuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiede, M.E.

    1988-05-25

    Nineteen-day-old dwarf sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus, variety NK894) received a variable dose (0-40 Gy) from a cobalt-60 gamma source. A very sensitive stem monitoring device, developed at Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, Washington was used to measure real-time changes in stem diameter. Exposure of plants caused a significant reduction in stem growth and root biomass. Doses as low as 5 Gy resulted in a significant increase in leaf density, suggesting that nonreversible morphological growth changes could be induced by very low doses of radiation. Carbohydrate analysis of 40-Gy irradiated plants demonstrated significantly more starch content in leaves and significantly less starch content in stems 18 days after exposure than did control plants. In contrast, the carbohydrate content in roots of 40-Gy irradiated plants were not significantly different from unirradiated plants 18 days after exposure. These results indicate that radiation either decreased phloem transport or reduced the availability of sugar reducing enzymes in irradiated plants. 44 refs., 12 figs.

  10. Clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of acute and late radiation reactions from the MASCC Skin Toxicity Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rebecca K S; Bensadoun, René-Jean; Boers-Doets, Christine B; Bryce, Jane; Chan, Alexandre; Epstein, Joel B; Eaby-Sandy, Beth; Lacouture, Mario E

    2013-10-01

    Radiation dermatitis (RD) results from radiotherapy and often occurs within the first 4 weeks of treatment, although late effects also occur. While RD may resolve over time, it can have a profound effect on patients' quality of life and lead to dose modifications. A study group of international, interdisciplinary experts convened to develop RD prevention and treatment guidelines based on evidence from randomized, controlled trials. Evidence-based recommendations were developed after an extensive literature review. Randomized, controlled trials with standardized measurement of outcomes were considered the best evidence, and a majority of the recommendations were formulated from this literature. The adoption of washing with water, with or without a mild soap, and allowing the use of antiperspirants is supported by randomized trials. Use of topical prophylactic corticosteroids (mometasone) is recommended to reduce discomfort and itching. There is some evidence that silver sulfadiazine cream can reduce dermatitis score. There is insufficient evidence to support, and therefore the panel recommends against the use of trolamine, topical sulcrate, hyaluronic acid, ascorbic acid, silver leaf dressing, light-emitting diode lasers, Theta cream, dexpanthenol, calendula, proteolytic enzymes, sulcralfate, oral zinc, and pentoxifylline. Moreover, there is no evidence to support the superiority for any specific intervention in a reactive fashion. For patients with established radiation-induced telangiectasia and fibrosis, the panel suggests the use of pulse dye laser for visual appearance, and the use of pentoxifylline and vitamin E for the reduction of fibrosis.

  11. Acute Toxicity and Tumor Response in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer After Preoperative Chemoradiation Therapy With Shortening of the Overall Treatment Time Using Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy With Simultaneous Integrated Boost: A Phase 2 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    But-Hadzic, Jasna, E-mail: jbut@onko-i.si [Division of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Anderluh, Franc [Division of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Brecelj, Erik; Edhemovic, Ibrahim [Division of Surgery, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Secerov-Ermenc, Ajra; Hudej, Rihard; Jeromen, Ana [Division of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kozelj, Miran; Krebs, Bojan [Division of Surgery, University Medical Centre Maribor, Maribor (Slovenia); Oblak, Irena [Division of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Omejc, Mirko [Division of Surgery, University Medical Centre Lubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vogrin, Andrej [Division of Diagnostics, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Velenik, Vaneja [Division of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-12-01

    Background and Purpose: This phase 2 study investigated the efficacy and safety of preoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy with a simultaneous integrated boost (IMRT-SIB) without dose escalation, concomitant with standard capecitabine chemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 2014 and March 2015, 51 patients with operable stage II-III rectal adenocarcinoma received preoperative IMRT with pelvic dose of 41.8 Gy and simultaneously delivered 46.2 Gy to T2/3 and 48.4 Gy to T4 tumor in 22 fractions, concomitant with capecitabine, 825 mg/m{sup 2}/12 hours, including weekends. The primary endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR). Results: Fifty patients completed preoperative treatment according to the protocol, and 47 underwent surgical resection. The sphincter preservation rate for the low rectal tumors was 62%, and the resection margins were free in all but 1 patient. Decrease in tumor and nodal stage was observed in 32 (68%) and 39 (83%) patients, respectively, with pCR achieved in 12 (25.5%) patients. There were only 2 G ≥ 3 acute toxicities, with infectious enterocolitis in 1 patient and dermatitis over the sacral area caused by the bolus effect of the treatment table in the second patient. Conclusions: Preoperative IMRT-SIB without dose escalation is well tolerated, with a low acute toxicity profile, and can achieve a high rate of pCR and downstaging.

  12. [Efficacy of sucralfate in the prophylaxis of diarrhea secondary to acute radiation-induced enteritis. Preliminary results of a double-blind randomized trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, A; Algara, M; Domènech, M; Lladó, A; Ferrer, E; Marín, S

    1991-03-30

    Pelvic radiation therapy is usually associated with intestinal symptoms, especially diarrhea. Sucralfate has been demonstrated to be effective in peptic ulcers, and seems to provide some benefits in chemotherapy induced mucositis and radiogenic rectitis and enteritis. Thirty-four patients between 20-80 years of age, without diarrea and with a Karnofsky index greater than 60%, undergoing whole pelvic irradiation (46 Gy total dose, 2 Gy/day, 5 days/week) have been randomized to receive: sucralfate (1g/6h) (18 patients) or placebo (16 patients) during the treatment period and 3 weeks later. The statistical analysis of the clinical records show that patients receiving sucralfate do better during the whole treatment period (p = 0.03), and they need other complementary measures against diarrhea, as diet (p = 0.03) or pharmacologic support (p = 0.002), later in the course of the radiotherapy. Nevertheless, the incidence and severity of diarrea and other associated simptoms show no differences between both groups. Sucralfate increases the enteric tolerance during pelvic irradiation in cancer patients.

  13. [The electroretinogram parameters and the state of the cornea in the rabbit following acute exposure of the eye to UV-radiation of different intensities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, V V; Gramenitskiĭ, A E

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate wave amplitudes and latencies of electroretinograms (ERG) and to examine the eye cornea of rabbits a month after their eye UV-B-irradiation with a biologically effective dose of 1.3 kJ/m2 at three intensities of 1.62, 0.567 or 0.157 W/m2. It was demonstrated that ERG a- and b-waves decreased significantly 7-20 days after irradiation while latencies remained unchanged. It was also found that during this time period ERG wave amplitudes were dependent on the intensity: at higher intensities amplitudes of both waves diminished to a greater extent. After irradiation with a peak intensity photokeratoconjunctivitis was more severe and prolonged; however, the effect of irradiation with two other intensities was very similar. In view of the fact that the highest intensity of UV-B-radiation was comparable with that beyond the Earth's atmosphere while the lowest intensity was close to that near the Earth's surface, the above findings can be used to solve space biology problems and to assess potential effects of the ozone layer destruction on the eye.

  14. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment. It uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and stop them from ... half of all cancer patients receive it. The radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, ...

  15. Radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hine, Gerald J; Hine, Gerald J

    1956-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry focuses on the advancements, processes, technologies, techniques, and principles involved in radiation dosimetry, including counters and calibration and standardization techniques. The selection first offers information on radiation units and the theory of ionization dosimetry and interaction of radiation with matter. Topics include quantities derivable from roentgens, determination of dose in roentgens, ionization dosimetry of high-energy photons and corpuscular radiations, and heavy charged particles. The text then examines the biological and medical effects of radiation,

  16. N08C9 (Alliance): A Phase 3 Randomized Study of Sulfasalazine Versus Placebo in the Prevention of Acute Diarrhea in Patients Receiving Pelvic Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Robert C., E-mail: miller.robert@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Petereit, Daniel G. [Rapid City Regional Oncology Group, Rapid City, South Dakota (United States); Sloan, Jeff A.; Liu, Heshan [Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Martenson, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Bearden, James D. [Upstate Carolina Community Clinical Oncology Program, Spartanburg, South Carolina (United States); Sapiente, Ronald [Carle Cancer Center CCOP, Urbana, Illinois (United States); Seeger, Grant R. [Altru Health Systems, Grand Forks, North Dakota (United States); Mowat, Rex B. [Toledo Community Hospital Oncology Program CCOP, Toledo, Ohio (United States); Liem, Ben [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico (United States); Iott, Matthew J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Loprinzi, Charles L. [Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: To provide confirmatory evidence on the use of sulfasalazine to reduce enteritis during pelvic radiation therapy (RT), following 2 prior single-institution trials suggestive that benefit existed. Methods and Materials: A multi-institution, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial was designed to assess the efficacy of sulfasalazine versus placebo in the treatment of RT-related enteritis during RT including the posterior pelvis (45.0-53.5 Gy) and conducted through a multicenter national cooperative research alliance. Patients received 1000 mg of sulfasalazine or placebo orally twice daily during and for 4 weeks after RT. The primary endpoint was maximum severity of diarrhea (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0). Toxicity and bowel function were assessed by providers through a self-administered bowel function questionnaire taken weekly during RT and for 6 weeks afterward. Results: Eighty-seven patients were enrolled in the trial between April 29, 2011, and May 13, 2013, with evenly distributed baseline factors. At the time of a planned interim toxicity analysis, more patients with grade ≥3 diarrhea received sulfasalazine than received placebo (29% vs 11%, P=.04). A futility analysis showed that trial continuation would be unlikely to yield a positive result, and a research board recommended halting study treatment. Final analysis of the primary endpoint showed no significant difference in maximum diarrhea severity between the sulfasalazine and placebo arms (P=.41). Conclusions: Sulfasalazine does not reduce enteritis during pelvic RT and may be associated with a higher risk of adverse events than placebo. This trial illustrates the importance of confirmatory phase 3 trials in the evaluation of symptom-control agents.

  17. Studies of acute and chronic radiation injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1970-1992: The JANUS Program Survival and Pathology Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahn, D.; Wright, B.J.; Carnes, B.A.; Williamson, F.S.; Fox, C.

    1995-02-01

    A research reactor for exclusive use in experimental radiobiology was designed and built at Argonne National Laboratory in the 1960`s. It was located in a special addition to Building 202, which housed the Division of Biological and Medical Research. Its location assured easy access for all users to the animal facilities, and it was also near the existing gamma-irradiation facilities. The water-cooled, heterogeneous 200-kW(th) reactor, named JANUS, became the focal point for a range of radiobiological studies gathered under the rubic of {open_quotes}the JANUS program{close_quotes}. The program ran from about 1969 to 1992 and included research at all levels of biological organization, from subcellular to organism. More than a dozen moderate- to large-scale studies with the B6CF{sub 1} mouse were carried out; these focused on the late effects of whole-body exposure to gamma rays or fission neutrons, in matching exposure regimes. In broad terms, these studies collected data on survival and on the pathology observed at death. A deliberate effort was made to establish the cause of death. This archieve describes these late-effects studies and their general findings. The database includes exposure parameters, time of death, and the gross pathology and histopathology in codified form. A series of appendices describes all pathology procedures and codes, treatment or irradiation codes, and the manner in which the data can be accessed in the ORACLE database management system. A series of tables also presents summaries of the individual experiments in terms of radiation quality, sample sizes at entry, mean survival times by sex, and number of gross pathology and histopathology records.

  18. CASE REPORT Neutropenic enterocolitis com- plicating acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    annaline

    Blood cultures, on admission, were negative. Bone marrow aspirate and trephine biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. On immunophe- notyping, the ... with bronchopneumonia. Blood cultures confirmed septicaemia ..... registration by the New Zealand Medical Radiation. Technologists Board.

  19. Bronchitis - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute bronchitis is swelling and inflamed tissue in the main ... present only for a short time. Causes When acute bronchitis occurs, it almost always comes after having a ...

  20. Acute cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000264.htm Acute cholecystitis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute cholecystitis is sudden swelling and irritation of the gallbladder. ...

  1. Ozone Therapy in the Management of Persistent Radiation-Induced Rectal Bleeding in Prostate Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavo, Bernardino; Santana-Rodriguez, Norberto; Llontop, Pedro; Gutierrez, Dominga; Ceballos, Daniel; Méndez, Charlin; Rovira, Gloria; Suarez, Gerardo; Rey-Baltar, Dolores; Garcia-Cabrera, Laura; Martínez-Sánchez, Gregorio; Fiuza, Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Persistent radiation-induced proctitis and rectal bleeding are debilitating complications with limited therapeutic options. We present our experience with ozone therapy in the management of such refractory rectal bleeding. Methods. Patients (n = 12) previously irradiated for prostate cancer with persistent or severe rectal bleeding without response to conventional treatment were enrolled to receive ozone therapy via rectal insufflations and/or topical application of ozonized-oil. Ten (83%) patients had Grade 3 or Grade 4 toxicity. Median follow-up after ozone therapy was 104 months (range: 52-119). Results. Following ozone therapy, the median grade of toxicity improved from 3 to 1 (p ozone therapy, respectively (p = 0.008). Ozone therapy was well tolerated and no adverse effects were noted, except soft and temporary flatulence for some hours after each session. Conclusions. Ozone therapy was effective in radiation-induced rectal bleeding in prostate cancer patients without serious adverse events. It proved useful in the management of rectal bleeding and merits further evaluation.

  2. Ozone Therapy in the Management of Persistent Radiation-Induced Rectal Bleeding in Prostate Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardino Clavo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Persistent radiation-induced proctitis and rectal bleeding are debilitating complications with limited therapeutic options. We present our experience with ozone therapy in the management of such refractory rectal bleeding. Methods. Patients (n=12 previously irradiated for prostate cancer with persistent or severe rectal bleeding without response to conventional treatment were enrolled to receive ozone therapy via rectal insufflations and/or topical application of ozonized-oil. Ten (83% patients had Grade 3 or Grade 4 toxicity. Median follow-up after ozone therapy was 104 months (range: 52–119. Results. Following ozone therapy, the median grade of toxicity improved from 3 to 1 (p<0.001 and the number of endoscopy treatments from 37 to 4 (p=0.032. Hemoglobin levels changed from 11.1 (7–14 g/dL to 13 (10–15 g/dL, before and after ozone therapy, respectively (p=0.008. Ozone therapy was well tolerated and no adverse effects were noted, except soft and temporary flatulence for some hours after each session. Conclusions. Ozone therapy was effective in radiation-induced rectal bleeding in prostate cancer patients without serious adverse events. It proved useful in the management of rectal bleeding and merits further evaluation.

  3. State of erythroid, granulocyte and platelet branches of hematopoiesis on stages of chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, who were exposed to ionizing radiation after the Chornobyl NPP accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebeshko, V G; Bruslova, K M; Pushkareva, T I; Tsvyetkova, N M; Lyashenko, L O; Kuznyetsova, O Ye; Kuzmenko, V F; Gonchar, L O; Yaatsemyrskyy, S M

    2016-12-01

    Evaluation of proliferation and differentiation processes of progenitor cells in bone marrow by the com position of elements of erythroid, granulocyte and platelet branches of hematopoiesis on the treatment stages in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), who were exposed to radiation from the Chornobyl NPP accident. The 46 children with ALL were studied, who lived in Kyiv, Zhytomyr and Chernihiv regions. Studies were conducted before the start of chemotherapy (ChT), on the 33 day of ChT (phase I), and after the com pletion of ChT (phase II). Exposure doses of patients, hemogram and myelogram parameters both with indices of mat uration of progenitor cells were evaluated. Signs of dysplasia of hematopoietic branch elements were revewed. The 46 patients were studied. They have had the B ALL, namely pro B ALL (n=5), «common type» (n=36), pre B ALL (n=3), and T ALL in 2 other cases. In a debut of ALL the bone marrow was represented by lymphoblasts. Along with ChT conduction the bone marrow hematopoiesis recovered by such types, as erythroid, granulocyte, gran ulocyte whith monocytes, and uniform, when the cells number of all branches was within a normal quantity. At the phase ІІ of ChT the number of patients with hematopoiesis recovery by erythroid type decreased and number of chil dren with activation of granulocyte branch of hematopoiesis increased. In children with pro B ALL the number of erythroid elements was higher than normative at both ChT phases. A direct correlation was established between the number of myelokaryocytes (Mkc) and megakaryocytes (Mgkc) in both phase І and phase ІІ of treatment (Rs = +0.72; Rs = +0.56, respectively). There was no correlation between the radiation dose in patients (3.73 ± 0.12 mSv) and studied parameters. Types of bone marrow recovery were established in ALL patients after the ChT indicating to the differ ent kinetic pathways of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Evaluation of reasons of prevalence of some

  4. Adjuvant postoperative radiation therapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Ja; Moon, Hye Seong; Kim, Seung Cheol; Kim, Chong Il; Ahn, Jung Ja [College of Medicine, Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of postoperative radiotherapy, and to investigate the prognostic factors for FIGO stages IB-IIB cervical cancer patients who were treated with simple hysterectomy, or who had high-risk factors following radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. Between March 1986 and December 1998, 58 patients, with FIGO stages IB-IIB cervical cancer were included in this study, The indications for postoperative radiation therapy were based on the pathological findings, including lymph node metastasis, positive surgical margin, parametrial extension, Iymphovascular invasion, invasion of more than half the cervical stroma, uterine extension and the incidental finding of cervix cancer following simple hysterectomy. All patients received external pelvic radiotherapy, and 5 patients, received an additional intracavitary radiation therapy. The radiation dose from the external beam to the whole pelvis was 45 - 50 Gy. Vagina cuff irradiation was performed, after completion of the external beam irradiation, al a low-dose rate of CS-137, with the total dose of 4488-4932 chy (median: 4500 chy) at 5 mm depth from the vagina surface. The median follow-up period was 44 months (15-108 months), The 5-yr actuarial local control rate, distant free survival and disease-free survival rate were 98%, 95% and 94%, respectively. A univariate analysis of the clinical and pathological parameters revealed that the clinical stage (p=0.0145), status of vaginal resection margin (p=0.0002) and parametrial extension (p=0.0001) affected the disease-free survival. From a multivariate analysis, only a parametrial extension independently influenced the disease-free survival. Five patients (9%) experienced Grade 2 late treatment-related complications, such as radiation proctitis (1 patient), cystitis (3 patients) and lymphedema of the leg (1 patient). No patient had grade 3 or 4 complications. Our results indicate that postoperative radiation therapy can

  5. Analysis of clinical and dosimetric factors associated with severe acute radiation pneumonitis in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Bo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the association between the clinical, dosimetric factors and severe acute radiation pneumonitis (SARP in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LANSCLC treated with concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT. Methods We analyzed 94 LANSCLC patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT between May 2005 and September 2006. SARP was defined as greater than or equal 3 side effects and graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE version 3.0. The clinical and dosimetric factors were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between clinical, dosimetric factors and SARP. Results Median follow-up was 10.5 months (range 6.5-24. Of 94 patients, 11 (11.7% developed SARP. Univariate analyses showed that the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP, mean lung dose (MLD, relative volumes of lung receiving more than a threshold dose of 5-60 Gy at increments of 5 Gy (V5-V60, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and Forced Expiratory Volume in the first second (FEV1 were associated with SARP (p p = 0.001 and V10 (p = 0.015 were the most significant factors associated with SARP. The incidences of SARP in the group with NTCP > 4.2% and NTCP ≤4.2% were 43.5% and 1.4%, respectively (p 50% were 5.7% and 29.2%, respectively (p Conclusions NTCP value and V10 are the useful indicators for predicting SARP in NSCLC patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT.

  6. RADIATION AND EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan YAREN

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In modern world, living without radiation is impossible. Radiation is defined as ?energy transmitted through space as waves or particles? and also determined as ?particles or waves emitted from the nucleus of unstable radioactive atoms to become stable? Mainly two types of radiation are exist; ionising radiation and non-ionising radiation. Ionising radiation is consist of alpha, beta particules, neutrons, x rays and gamma rays. Ionising radiation which can be measured by ion chambers, geiger-Mueller detectors, Scintillation Counters, fluorescent counters etc. Has harmfull effects on human health in levels of molecular, cellular, tissue, organs and organ systems. These harmfull effects can also be named somatic and genetic. One of the most encountered problem is ?Acute Radiation Syndrom? which has three sub syndroms called haematopoetic syndrom, gastrointestinal syndrom and neurovascular syndrom. Exposure time, distance and armorisation are the key elements of protection from radiation. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(4.000: 199-208

  7. Treatment and prognosis of patients with late rectal bleeding after intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takemoto Shinya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation proctitis after intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT differs from that seen after pelvic irradiation in that this adverse event is a result of high-dose radiation to a very small area in the rectum. We evaluated the results of treatment for hemorrhagic proctitis after IMRT for prostate cancer. Methods Between November 2004 and February 2010, 403 patients with prostate cancer were treated with IMRT at 2 institutions. Among these patients, 64 patients who developed late rectal bleeding were evaluated. Forty patients had received IMRT using a linear accelerator and 24 by tomotherapy. Their median age was 72 years. Each patient was assessed clinically and/or endoscopically. Depending on the severity, steroid suppositories or enemas were administered up to twice daily and Argon plasma coagulation (APC was performed up to 3 times. Response to treatment was evaluated using the Rectal Bleeding Score (RBS, which is the sum of Frequency Score (graded from 1 to 3 by frequency of bleeding and Amount Score (graded from 1 to 3 by amount of bleeding. Stoppage of bleeding over 3 months was scored as RBS 1. Results The median follow-up period for treatment of rectal bleeding was 35 months (range, 12–69 months. Grade of bleeding was 1 in 31 patients, 2 in 26, and 3 in 7. Nineteen of 45 patients (42% observed without treatment showed improvement and bleeding stopped in 17 (38%, although mean RBS did not change significantly. Eighteen of 29 patients (62% treated with steroid suppositories or enemas showed improvement (mean RBS, from 4.1 ± 1.0 to 3.0 ± 1.8, p = 0.003 and bleeding stopped in 9 (31%. One patient treated with steroid enema 0.5-2 times a day for 12 months developed septic shock and died of multiple organ failure. All 12 patients treated with APC showed improvement (mean RBS, 4.7 ± 1.2 to 2.3 ± 1.4, p  Conclusions After adequate periods of observation, steroid suppositories

  8. Acute Porphyrias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besur, Siddesh; Schmeltzer, Paul; Bonkovsky, Herbert L

    2015-09-01

    Porphyrias are a group of eight metabolic disorders characterized by defects in heme biosynthesis. Porphyrias are classified into two major categories: 1) the acute or inducible porphyrias and 2) the chronic cutaneous porphyrias. The acute hepatic porphyrias are further classified into acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), hereditary coproporphyria, variegate porphyria, and porphyria due to severe deficiency of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) dehydratase (ALADP). AIP is the most common, and ALADP is the least common acute porphyria. The clinical presentations of acute porphyrias are nonspecific. There are no pathognomonic signs or symptoms. The most frequent presenting symptom is abdominal pain, but pain in the chest, back, or lower extremities may also occur. Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality during acute attacks, and hypomagnesemia is also common. Both are risk factors for development of seizures, which occur in ∼ 20-30% of acute attacks. Once suspected, the diagnosis of porphyria can be rapidly established by checking random urinary porphobilinogen. Initial management of acute porphyria includes discontinuation of all potentially harmful drugs and management of symptoms. Acute attacks should be treated emergently with intravenous heme and glucose to avoid considerable morbidity and mortality. Acute attacks last a few days, and the majority of patients are asymptomatic between attacks. Prognosis is good if the condition is recognized early and treated aggressively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation Therapy: Professions in Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Professions in Radiation Therapy Radiation Oncologist Therapeutic Medical Physicist Radiation Therapist Dosimetrist Radiation Oncology Nurse Social Worker Dietitian Radiation Oncologist Radiation oncologists are physicians who oversee the ...

  10. Acute cholecystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Fialkowski, Elizabeth; Halpin, Valerie; Whinney, Robb R

    2008-01-01

    Acute cholecystitis causes unremitting right upper quadrant pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and fever, and if untreated can lead to perforations, abscess formation, or fistulae. About 95% of people with acute cholecystitis have gallstones.It is thought that blockage of the bile duct by a gallstone or local inflammation can lead to acute cholecystitis, but we don't know whether bacterial infection is also necessary.

  11. Acute cholecystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Halpin, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Acute cholecystitis causes unremitting right upper quadrant pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and fever, and if untreated can lead to perforations, abscess formation, or fistulae. About 95% of people with acute cholecystitis have gallstones.It is thought that blockage of the cystic duct by a gallstone or local inflammation can lead to acute cholecystitis, but we don't know whether bacterial infection is also necessary.

  12. Acute cholecystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Halpin, Valerie; Gupta, Aditya

    2011-01-01

    Acute cholecystitis causes unremitting right upper quadrant pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and fever, and if untreated can lead to perforations, abscess formation, or fistulae. About 95% of people with acute cholecystitis have gallstones.It is thought that blockage of the bile duct by a gallstone or local inflammation can lead to acute cholecystitis, but we don't know whether bacterial infection is also necessary.

  13. RADIATION ACOUSTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Lyamshev, L.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation acoustics is a new branch of acoustics. Its' fundamentals are lying in the research of acoustical effects due to the interaction of a radiation with matter. The sound excitation in liquids and solids by modulated or pulsed particle beams (electron, proton, ion beams, γ-radiation and single high-energy elementary particles) and some practical applications are discussed.

  14. Bronchoalveolar lavage in radiation pneumonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordier, J.F.; Mornex, J.F.; Lasne, Y.; Gerard, J.P.; Cordier, G.; Creyssel, R.; Touraine, R.

    1984-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was carried out in six patients with radiation pneumonitis, the early radiation-induced lung damage that usually leads to radiation fibrosis. Protein analysis by immuno-electrophoresis and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of BAL fluid revealed leakage of circulatory proteins, including high molecular weight components. Cell count of BAL fluid showed an increased number of lymphocytes; these proved to be activated on cell cycle analysis in one patient. Collagenolytic activity, assessed by degradation of radiolabelled type I human collagen, was present in BAL fluid of all six patients. The following mechanisms are therefore considered to participate in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced lung damage: 1) permeability oedema, which led to acute respiratory distress syndrome in one case of hyperacute radiation pneumonitis, 2) lymphocyte alveolitis possibly perpetuated by activated lymphocytes, and 3) release of collagenolytic enzymes in alveolar structures contributing to fibrotic processes.

  15. Acute Effects of Gamma Radiation in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-04-01

    Equally prominent was the Two of the animals died identical deaths. severe damage to the cerebral vascular system Each had severe hemorrhagic cystitis ...it is deemed vascular hemorrhage . This finding has been absolutely essential for completeness of the observed in nonirradiated animals and its... hemorrhagic ulcerations in the larynx was observed oc- casionally. It is well to note at this time that the laryngeal ulceration in these animals ap

  16. Physiological Mechanisms of Acute Intestinal Radiation Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION This work was sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency under PDT &E RMSS Code 3350085466 U99QMXMKO0040 H2590D. 17 COSATi CODES 18...irradiation had no effect on survival time in the pure gut death dose range where survival time is dose independent (Figure 8). Hence antimicrobial ...Figures 10 and 11) when there is an overlap of intestinal and hematopoietic injuries in these animals. Hence, antimicrobial therapy after irradiation

  17. Bronchitis (acute)

    OpenAIRE

    Wark, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Acute bronchitis affects more than 40 in 1000 adults per year in the UK. The causes are usually considered to be infective, but only around half of people have identifiable pathogens.The role of smoking or environmental tobacco smoke inhalation in predisposing to acute bronchitis is unclear.One third of people may have longer-term symptoms or recurrence.

  18. Acute nierschade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; van Heurn, L.W.E.; Snoeijs, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  19. Radiation hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomraning, G.C.

    1982-12-31

    This course was intended to provide the participant with an introduction to the theory of radiative transfer, and an understanding of the coupling of radiative processes to the equations describing compressible flow. At moderate temperatures (thousands of degrees), the role of the radiation is primarily one of transporting energy by radiative processes. At higher temperatures (millions of degrees), the energy and momentum densities of the radiation field may become comparable to or even dominate the corresponding fluid quantities. In this case, the radiation field significantly affects the dynamics of the fluid, and it is the description of this regime which is generally the charter of radiation hydrodynamics. The course provided a discussion of the relevant physics and a derivation of the corresponding equations, as well as an examination of several simplified models. Practical applications include astrophysics and nuclear weapons effects phenomena.

  20. Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, James E

    2007-01-01

    Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of

  1. Radiation Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnárovits, L.

    Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.

  2. The treatment of late radiation effects with hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plafki, C. [Center for Hyperbaric Medicine, Luebeck (Germany); Carl, U.M.; Glag, M.; Hartmann, K.A. [Department for Radiotherapy, University Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Background: Late radiation injuries may impose a negative influence on the quality of life in the affected patients. In several entities, standardized treatment protocols are lacking. Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) has been shown to have beneficial effects in the treatment of late radiation sequelae. Material and methods: The basic principles of HBO are reviewed as well as clinical issues. Current study protocols are presented. Results: During HBO-therapy the patient breathes pure oxygen at pressures above 100 kPa. The oxygen solubility within the fluid phase of the blood is largely increased. Biological effects include an increased oxygen diffusibility, improved collagen synthesis and neoangiogenesis as well as an enhancement of antimicrobial defenses. By decreasing the capillary filtration pressure a reduction of edema becomes possible. HBO has been shown to prevent complications following surgery in irradiated tissues. Its efficacy as an adjunct in the treatment of osteonecroses in radiation patients could be demonstrated. In addition, the loss of osseointegrated implants in the maxillofacial bones of these patients could be significantly reduced. Further indications include soft tissue necroses, hemorrhagic cystitis and proctitis in tumor patients that have been treated by radiotherapy as part of a multimodality approach. Conclusions: HBO in the treatment of late radiation effects is still subject of investigation, but remarkable results have been reported. Optimized treatment protocols need to be determined in various entities. The rate of side effects is acceptable low. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: Radiogene Spaeteffekte koennen die Lebensqualitaet der betroffenen Patienten erheblich beeintraechtigen. Bei vielen Erscheinungsformen fehlen standardisierte Therapieschemata. Die hyperbare Sauerstofftherapie (HBO) hat sich als hilfreiche Methode in der Behandlung radiogener Spaeteffekte erwiesen. Material und Methode: Die wesentlichen Grundlagen und klinischen

  3. Leukemia and ionizing radiation revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttler, J.M. [Cuttler & Associates Inc., Vaughan, Ontario (Canada); Welsh, J.S. [Loyola University-Chicago, Dept. or Radiation Oncology, Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Illinois (United States)

    2016-03-15

    A world-wide radiation health scare was created in the late 19508 to stop the testing of atomic bombs and block the development of nuclear energy. In spite of the large amount of evidence that contradicts the cancer predictions, this fear continues. It impairs the use of low radiation doses in medical diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy. This brief article revisits the second of two key studies, which revolutionized radiation protection, and identifies a serious error that was missed. This error in analyzing the leukemia incidence among the 195,000 survivors, in the combined exposed populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, invalidates use of the LNT model for assessing the risk of cancer from ionizing radiation. The threshold acute dose for radiation-induced leukemia, based on about 96,800 humans, is identified to be about 50 rem, or 0.5 Sv. It is reasonable to expect that the thresholds for other cancer types are higher than this level. No predictions or hints of excess cancer risk (or any other health risk) should be made for an acute exposure below this value until there is scientific evidence to support the LNT hypothesis. (author)

  4. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  5. Radiation carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The risk of iatrogenic tumors with radiation therapy is so outweighed by the benefit of cure that estimates of risk have not been considered necessary. However, with the introduction of chemotherapy, combined therapy, and particle radiation therapy, the comparative risks should be examined. In the case of radiation, total dose, fractionation, dose rate, dose distribution, and radiation quality should be considered in the estimation of risk. The biological factors that must be considered include incidence of tumors, latent period, degree of malignancy, and multiplicity of tumors. The risk of radiation induction of tumors is influenced by the genotype, sex, and age of the patient, the tissues that will be exposed, and previous therapy. With chemotherapy the number of cells at risk is usually markedly higher than with radiation therapy. Clearly the problem of the estimation of comparative risks is complex. This paper presents the current views on the comparative risks and the importance of the various factors that influence the estimation of risk.

  6. Hawking radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parentani, Renaud; Spindel, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Hawking radiation is the thermal radiation predicted to be spontaneously emitted by black holes. It arises from the steady conversion of quantum vacuum fluctuations into pairs of particles, one of which escaping at infinity while the other is trapped inside the black hole horizon. It is named after the physicist Stephen Hawking who derived its existence in 1974. This radiation reduces the mass of black holes and is therefore also known as black hole evaporation.

  7. The Results and Prognostic Factors of Postoperative Radiation Therapy in the Early Stages of Endometrial Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Ja [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    To evaluate the results and prognostic factors for postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy in patients at stages I and II of endometrial cancer. Materials and Methods: Between January 1991 and December 2006, 35 patients with FIGO stages I and II disease, who received adjuvant radiation therapy following surgery for endometrial cancer at Ewha Womans University Hospital, were enrolled in this study. A total of 17 patients received postoperative pelvic external beam radiation therapy; whereas, 12 patients received vaginal brachytherapy alone, and 6 patients received both pelvic radiation therapy and vaginal brachytherapy. Results: The median follow-up period for all patients was 54 months. The 5-yr overall survival and disease-free survival rates for all patients were 91.4% and 81.7%, respectively. The 5-yr overall survival rates for low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk groups were 100%, 100% and 55.6%, respectively. In addition, the 5-yr disease-free survival rates were 100%, 70.0%, and 45.7%, respectively. Although no locoregional relapses were identified, distant metastases were observed in 5 patients (14%). The most common site of distant metastases was the lung, followed by bone, liver, adrenal gland, and peritoneum. A univariate analysis revealed a significant correlation between distant metastases and risk-group (p=0.018), pathology type (p=0.001), and grade (p=0.019). A multivariate analysis also revealed that distant metastases were correlated with pathology type (p=0.009). Papillary, serous and clear cell carcinoma cases demonstrated a poor patient survival rate compared to cases of endometrioid adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma. The most common complication of pelvic external beam radiation therapy was enteritis (30%), followed by proctitis, leucopenia, and lymphedema. All these complications were of RTOG grades 1 and 2; no grades 3 and 4 were observed. Conclusion: For the low-risk and intermediate-risk groups (stages 1 and 2) endometrial

  8. GRAVITATIONAL RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin SALTIK

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available According to classical electromagnetic theory, an accelerated charge or system of charges radiates electromagnetic waves. In a radio transmitter antenna charges are accelerated along the antenna and release electromagnetic waves, which is radiated at the velocity of light in the surrounding medium. All of the radio transmitters work on this principle today. In this study an analogy is established between the principles by which accelerated charge systems markes radiation and the accelerated mass system, and the systems cousing gravitational radiation are investigated.

  9. Acute Cholecystitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schuld, Jochen; Glanemann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of acute cholecystitis has been controversially discussed in the literature as there are no high-evidence-level data yet for determining the optimal point in time for surgical intervention...

  10. Bronchitis (acute)

    OpenAIRE

    Wark, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Acute bronchitis, with transient inflammation of the trachea and major bronchi, affects over 40/1000 adults a year in the UK. The causes are usually considered to be infective, but only around half of people have identifiable pathogens.The role of smoking or environmental tobacco smoke inhalation in predisposing to acute bronchitis is unclear.A third of people may have longer-term symptoms or recurrence.

  11. Sarcoma risk after radiation exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrington de Gonzalez Amy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sarcomas were one of the first solid cancers to be linked to ionizing radiation exposure. We reviewed the current evidence on this relationship, focusing particularly on the studies that had individual estimates of radiation doses. There is clear evidence of an increased risk of both bone and soft tissue sarcomas after high-dose fractionated radiation exposure (10 + Gy in childhood, and the risk increases approximately linearly in dose, at least up to 40 Gy. There are few studies available of sarcoma after radiotherapy in adulthood for cancer, but data from cancer registries and studies of treatment for benign conditions confirm that the risk of sarcoma is also increased in this age-group after fractionated high-dose exposure. New findings from the long-term follow-up of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors suggest, for the first time, that sarcomas can be induced by acute lower-doses of radiation (

  12. Radiation Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, M

    2002-04-01

    Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2001 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department are enviromnental remediation, emergency planning, radiation protection research, low-level radioactvity measurements, safeguards and physics measurements, decision strategy research and policy support and social sciences in nuclear research. Main achievements for 2001 in these areas are reported.

  13. Prognostic significance of gastrointestinal symptoms and diagnosis in relation to the acute radiation syndrome. A retrospective analysis based on the data base SEARCH; Prognostische Bedeutung von gastrointestinalen Symptomen und Befunden in Zusammenhang mit dem aktuen Strahlensyndrom. Eine retrospektive Datenanalyse anhand der Datenbank SEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoebbel, Mathias Niklaus Johannes

    2016-11-17

    The following thesis explores the prognostic significance of gastrointestinal symptoms and diagnoses in relation to acute radiation syndrome. This is a retrospective analysis based on the SEARCH (System of Evaluation and Archiving of Radiation Accidents based on Case Histories) database, which was created by a team of researchers in Ulm in 1998. The SEARCH database compiled health status data of individuals involved in a total of 78 ionized radiation accidents between 1945 and 2003. In the past changes in bloodbuilding systems were considered the defining factor in determining a prognosis regarding survival times. Treatment decisions were made in line with these findings, including stem-cell transplants. In recent history, especially after the nuclear disaster in Chernobyl in 1986, the focus shifted onto other organ systems. As a result it has been proven that significant cutaneous damages present an important influence on survival regardless of haematopoiesis. Several researchers have looked at changes in the gastrointestinal tract and possible correlations with radiation induced multiple organ failure. In this paper, all of the data recorded in SEARCH in regards to gastrointestinal symptoms have been analyzed. These include symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and changes in bowel movement as well as their onset and severity. Radiation-induced oral mucositis was also further investigated. Despite the occasional gaps in data in SEARCH, results from the analysis proved that the occurrence of certain symptoms, their severity and their onset were directly correlated to life expectancy, regardless of the dose estimation, and the pending blood test results. An immediate triage of these patients by skilled medical professionals is imperative to accurate categorization.

  14. Radiation shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemezawa, Isao; Kimura, Tadahiro [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Omori, Tetsu; Mizuochi, Akira

    1997-11-18

    A radiation shield is constituted by using a flexible bag made of a synthetic resin, a rubber plate or a composite member of them. Water is charged therein as a shielding liquid. Water injection ports are formed at the lower surface, and gas exhaustion ports are formed on the upper surface of the radiation shield. A plurality of vertical ribs made of the same material as the bag of the radiation shield are formed, integral with the bag, each at a space on the outer surface of the radiation shield. A reinforcing tube are inserted to the vertical ribs integral with the bag. The reinforcing tube may be made of an metal or non-metal material, but material having a bending strength greater than that of the bag is used. When wide surfaces are constituted in the horizontal direction as radiation shielding surfaces, a plurality of the radiation shields are used being in adjacent in the horizontal direction. The reinforcing tubes in adjacent with each other among the adjacent radiation shields are connected by connectors. (I.N.)

  15. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapio, Soile

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

  16. Far-infrared radiation acutely increases nitric oxide production by increasing Ca(2+) mobilization and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase at serine 1179.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Sangmi; Cho, Du-Hyong; Park, Young Mi; Kang, Duk-Hee; Jo, Inho

    2013-07-12

    Repeated thermal therapy manifested by far-infrared (FIR) radiation improves vascular function in both patients and mouse model with coronary heart disease, but its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Using FIR as a thermal therapy agent, we investigate the molecular mechanism of its effect on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and NO production. FIR increased the phosphorylation of eNOS at serine 1179 (eNOS-Ser(1179)) in a time-dependent manner (up to 40min of FIR radiation) in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) without alterations in eNOS expression. This increase was accompanied by increases in NO production and intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Treatment with KN-93, a selective inhibitor of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and H-89, a protein kinase A inhibitor, inhibited FIR radiation-stimulated eNOS-Ser(1179) phosphorylation. FIR radiation itself also increased the temperature of culture medium. As transient receptors potential vanilloid (TRPV) ion channels are known to be temperature-sensitive calcium channels, we explore whether TRPV channels mediate these observed effects. Reverse transcription-PCR assay revealed two TRPV isoforms in BAEC, TRPV2 and TRPV4. Although ruthenium red, a pan-TRPV inhibitor, completely reversed the observed effect of FIR radiation, a partial attenuation (∼20%) was found in cells treated with Tranilast, TRPV2 inhibitor. However, ectopic expression of siRNA of TRPV2 showed no significant alteration in FIR radiation-stimulated eNOS-Ser(1179) phosphorylation. This study suggests that FIR radiation increases NO production via increasing CaMKII-mediated eNOS-Ser(1179) phosphorylation but TRPV channels may not be involved in this pathway. Our results may provide the molecular mechanism by which FIR radiation improves endothelial function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiation Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castor, J I

    2003-10-16

    The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correct description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is

  18. Acute Pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertilsson, Sara; Håkansson, Anders; Kalaitzakis, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    Aims: We aimed to evaluate the potential relation between the incidence of (alcoholic and non-alcoholic) acute pancreatitis (AP) and alcohol consumption in the general population, and whether the occurrence of AP shows any seasonal variation, particularly in relation to periods with expected...... consumption in the general population do not appear to be related to changes in the incidence of AP and there are no significant seasonal differences in the occurrence of AP in Sweden. Short summary: The incidence of acute pancreatitis (AP) is increasing, and alcohol is still recognized as one of the most...

  19. Skin cancer: role of ultraviolet radiation in carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, Silvia E; Wang, Steven Q

    2014-01-01

    UV radiation is a carcinogen known to play a role in the development of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Acute and chronic exposure to UV radiation causes clinical and biological effects that promote the unregulated proliferation of skin cells. In recent decades, changes in climate and increased air pollution have led to environmental changes that increase UV light transmission. In this chapter, we discuss sources of UV radiation that are relevant to human health, as well as the acute and chronic effects that result from UV radiation exposure.

  20. Radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M; CERN. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    a) Radiation damage in organic materials. This series of lectures will give an overview of radiation effects on materials and components frequently used in accelerator engineering and experiments. Basic degradation phenomena will be presented for organic materials with comprehensive damage threshold doses for commonly used rubbers, thermoplastics, thermosets and composite materials. Some indications will be given for glass, scintillators and optical fibres. b) Radiation effects in semiconductor materials and devices. The major part of the time will be devoted to treat radiation effects in semiconductor sensors and the associated electronics, in particular displacement damage, interface and single event phenomena. Evaluation methods and practical aspects will be shown. Strategies will be developed for the survival of the materials under the expected environmental conditions of the LHC machine and detectors. I will describe profound revolution in our understanding of black holes and their relation to quantum me...

  1. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  2. Radiation Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, M

    2001-04-01

    Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2000 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department remain neutron dosimetry and neutron activation analysis, safeguards information handling and non-destructive assay techniques. Further activities include low-level radioactivity measurements in environmental and biological samples and radiation protection research. Finally, achievements in decision strategy research and social sciences in nuclear research are reported.

  3. Acute Sinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acute sinusitis is mostly caused by the common cold. Unless a bacterial infection develops, most cases resolve within a week to 10 days. In ... sinusitis is most often caused by the common cold, which is a viral infection. In some cases, a bacterial infection develops. Risk factors You may ...

  4. Acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsell, Melissa A; Buscaglia, Jonathan M

    2010-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a common disease most frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion. Diagnosis is usually based on characteristic symptoms, often in conjunction with elevated serum pancreatic enzymes. Imaging is not always necessary, but may be performed for many reasons, such as to confirm a diagnosis of pancreatitis, rule out other causes of abdominal pain, elucidate the cause of pancreatitis, or to evaluate for complications such as necrosis or pseudocysts. Though the majority of patients will have mild, self-limiting disease, some will develop severe disease associated with organ failure. These patients are at risk to develop complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation such as pancreatic necrosis, fluid collections, pseudocysts, and pancreatic duct disruption. Validated scoring systems can help predict the severity of pancreatitis, and thus, guide monitoring and intervention.Treatment of acute pancreatitis involves supportive care with fluid replacement, pain control, and controlled initiation of regular food intake. Prophylactic antibiotics are not recommended in acute pancreatitis if there is no evidence of pancreatic infection. In patients who fail to improve, further evaluation is necessary to assess for complications that require intervention such as pseudocysts or pancreatic necrosis. Endoscopy, including ERCP and EUS, and/or cholecystectomy may be indicated in the appropriate clinical setting. Ultimately, the management of the patient with severe acute pancreatitis will require a multidisciplinary approach. (c) 2010 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  5. Acute Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkade, Scott; Long, Natalie A

    2016-10-01

    Cough is the most common illness-related reason for ambulatory care visits in the United States. Acute bronchitis is a clinical diagnosis characterized by cough due to acute inflammation of the trachea and large airways without evidence of pneumonia. Pneumonia should be suspected in patients with tachypnea, tachycardia, dyspnea, or lung findings suggestive of pneumonia, and radiography is warranted. Pertussis should be suspected in patients with cough persisting for more than two weeks that is accompanied by symptoms such as paroxysmal cough, whooping cough, and post-tussive emesis, or recent pertussis exposure. The cough associated with acute bronchitis typically lasts about two to three weeks, and this should be emphasized with patients. Acute bronchitis is usually caused by viruses, and antibiotics are not indicated in patients without chronic lung disease. Antibiotics have been shown to provide only minimal benefit, reducing the cough or illness by about half a day, and have adverse effects, including allergic reactions, nausea and vomiting, and Clostridium difficile infection. Evaluation and treatment of bronchitis include ruling out secondary causes for cough, such as pneumonia; educating patients about the natural course of the disease; and recommending symptomatic treatment and avoidance of unnecessary antibiotic use. Strategies to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use include delayed prescriptions, patient education, and calling the infection a chest cold.

  6. Pathophysiology and Natural History of Anorectal Sequelae Following Radiation Therapy for Carcinoma of the Prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeoh, Eric K., E-mail: eric.yeoh@health.sa.gov.au [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Holloway, Richard H. [Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Fraser, Robert J. [Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Gastrointestinal Investigation Unit, Repatriation General Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Botten, Rochelle J.; Di Matteo, Addolorata C.; Butters, Julie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To characterize the prevalence, pathophysiology, and natural history of chronic radiation proctitis 5 years following radiation therapy (RT) for localized carcinoma of the prostate. Methods and Materials: Studies were performed in 34 patients (median age 68 years; range 54-79) previously randomly assigned to either 64 Gy in 32 fractions over 6.4 weeks or 55 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks RT schedule using 2- and later 3-dimensional treatment technique for localized prostate carcinoma. Each patient underwent evaluations of (1) gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (Modified Late Effects in Normal Tissues Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic scales including effect on activities of daily living [ADLs]); (2) anorectal motor and sensory function (manometry and graded balloon distension); and (3) anal sphincteric morphology (endoanal ultrasound) before RT, at 1 month, and annually for 5 years after its completion. Results: Total GI symptom scores increased after RT and remained above baseline levels at 5 years and were associated with reductions in (1) basal anal pressures, (2) responses to squeeze and increased intra-abdominal pressure, (3) rectal compliance and (4) rectal volumes of sensory perception. Anal sphincter morphology was unchanged. At 5 years, 44% and 21% of patients reported urgency of defecation and rectal bleeding, respectively, and 48% impairment of ADLs. GI symptom scores and parameters of anorectal function and anal sphincter morphology did not differ between the 2 RT schedules or treatment techniques. Conclusions: Five years after RT for prostate carcinoma, anorectal symptoms continue to have a significant impact on ADLs of almost 50% of patients. These symptoms are associated with anorectal dysfunction independent of the RT schedules or treatment techniques reported here.

  7. Far-infrared radiation acutely increases nitric oxide production by increasing Ca{sup 2+} mobilization and Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase at serine 1179

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Sangmi [Department of Molecular Medicine and Ewha Medical Research Institute, Ewha Womans University Medical School, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Du-Hyong [Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Mi [Department of Molecular Medicine and Ewha Medical Research Institute, Ewha Womans University Medical School, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Duk-Hee [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Womans University Medical School, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Inho, E-mail: inhojo@ewha.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Medicine and Ewha Medical Research Institute, Ewha Womans University Medical School, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •Far-infrared (FIR) radiation increases eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation and NO production in BAEC. •CaMKII and PKA mediate FIR-stimulated increases in eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation. •FIR increases intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels. •Thermo-sensitive TRPV Ca{sup 2+} channels are unlikely to be involved in the FIR-mediated eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation pathway. -- Abstract: Repeated thermal therapy manifested by far-infrared (FIR) radiation improves vascular function in both patients and mouse model with coronary heart disease, but its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Using FIR as a thermal therapy agent, we investigate the molecular mechanism of its effect on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and NO production. FIR increased the phosphorylation of eNOS at serine 1179 (eNOS-Ser{sup 1179}) in a time-dependent manner (up to 40 min of FIR radiation) in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) without alterations in eNOS expression. This increase was accompanied by increases in NO production and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels. Treatment with KN-93, a selective inhibitor of Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and H-89, a protein kinase A inhibitor, inhibited FIR radiation-stimulated eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation. FIR radiation itself also increased the temperature of culture medium. As transient receptors potential vanilloid (TRPV) ion channels are known to be temperature-sensitive calcium channels, we explore whether TRPV channels mediate these observed effects. Reverse transcription-PCR assay revealed two TRPV isoforms in BAEC, TRPV2 and TRPV4. Although ruthenium red, a pan-TRPV inhibitor, completely reversed the observed effect of FIR radiation, a partial attenuation (∼20%) was found in cells treated with Tranilast, TRPV2 inhibitor. However, ectopic expression of siRNA of TRPV2 showed no significant alteration in FIR radiation-stimulated eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation. This

  8. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  9. Radiation Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Giving Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions Radiation Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Radiation Therapy Print A ... have many questions and concerns about it. About Radiation Therapy In radiation therapy, high-energy radiation from ...

  10. Abdominal radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - abdomen - discharge; Cancer - abdominal radiation; Lymphoma - abdominal radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after radiation treatment starts, you might notice changes ...

  11. NASA Strategy to Safely Live and Work in the Space Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis; Wu, Honglu; Corbin, Barbara; Sulzman, Frank; Kreneck, Sam

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the radiation environment that is a significant potential hazard to NASA's goals for space exploration, of living and working in space. NASA has initiated a Peer reviewed research program that is charged with arriving at an understanding of the space radiation problem. To this end NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed to simulate the harsh cosmic and solar radiation found in space. Another piece of the work was to develop a risk modeling tool that integrates the results from research efforts into models of human risk to reduce uncertainties in predicting risk of carcinogenesis, central nervous system damage, degenerative tissue disease, and acute radiation effects acute radiation effects.

  12. Acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wig J

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available 550 cases of acute abdomen have been analysed in detail includ-ing their clinical presentation and operative findings. Males are more frequently affected than females in a ratio of 3: 1. More than 45% of patients presented after 48 hours of onset of symptoms. Intestinal obstruction was the commonest cause of acute abdomen (47.6%. External hernia was responsible for 26% of cases of intestinal obstruction. Perforated peptic ulcer was the commonest cause of peritonitis in the present series (31.7% while incidence of biliary peritonitis was only 2.4%.. The clinical accuracy rate was 87%. The mortality in operated cases was high (10% while the over-all mortality rate was 7.5%.

  13. Radiation myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, I.A.; Myers, S.J.

    1976-02-01

    Myelopathy secondary to radiation is a relatively uncommon entity which was reported initially in 1941 by Ahlbom. From a total of 65 patients who were seen in our spinal injury clinic during the past four years, three patients have received a diagnosis of radiation myelopathy. This is 4.6 percent of the total number. The case histories of two patients with radiation myelopathy are presented. The clinical and pathologic features are discussed. Since the three patients with this diagnosis whose cases are followed in the clinic are still alive, the second case that is reported is taken from the files of the pathology department so that autopsy and histologic data also can be presented.

  14. Directional radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowell, Jonathan L.

    2017-09-12

    Directional radiation detectors and systems, methods, and computer-readable media for using directional radiation detectors to locate a radiation source are provided herein. A directional radiation detector includes a radiation sensor. A radiation attenuator partially surrounds the radiation sensor and defines an aperture through which incident radiation is received by the radiation sensor. The aperture is positioned such that when incident radiation is received directly through the aperture and by the radiation sensor, a source of the incident radiation is located within a solid angle defined by the aperture. The radiation sensor senses at least one of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma particles, or neutrons.

  15. [Acute cholangiocholecystitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilescu, S; Rădulescu, D

    1991-01-01

    In analysis of a group of 48 patients, the authors describe an entity they call acute cholangio-cholecystitis (or acute cholecystitis of choledochal origin) and define it by 4 obligatory criteria: 1. vesicular lesion of acute cholecystitis type; 2. the obstruction of the main bile duct in the direction of its junction with the cystic duct; 3. free duct communication between the gallbladder and the main bile ducts; 4. fluid content (purulent gallbladder) found identical over the whole biliary territory (the gallbladder the main bile ducts the intrahepatic bile ducts). This entity represents 7.6% of the total of acute cholecystitis and was met in 2.8% of the total of the interventions for the main bile ducts obstruction. The deficient biological background of the patients (60% over 60 years old), and other seriousness factors--vesicular destructive lesions associated with biliary peritonitis (7/48), the existence of the duct obstruction, usually calculous (42/48), but also hydatic (3/48) or tumoural (3/48), the multitude and seriousness of the associated lesions are emphasized. The surgery, performed in over 80% emergent cases, was directed to the decomprimation of the main biliary axis to which the increase of the gangrenous cholecyst, treatment of the duct obstructive factor, repair of the internal biliary fistulas, treatment of the consequent peritonitis were added. The results, very often good (71%), were shadowed by a series of complications (29%) which ended in deaths (14.5%). The paper pleads for the early surgery of the lithiasic biliary disease, before the appearance of the inevitable complications.

  16. Sinusitis (acute)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute sinusitis is defined pathologically, by transient inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses lasting less than 4 weeks. Clinically, it is characterised by nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, facial pain, hyposmia, sneezing, and, if more severe, additional malaise and fever. It affects 1−5% of the adult population each year in Europe. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in people with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis, and with radiologically or bacteriologically confirmed acute sinusitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to August 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics (amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides, different doses [amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides], long-course regimens), antihistamines, cephalosporins or macrolides, decongestants (xylometazoline, phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine), doxycycline, saline nasal washes, steam inhalation, and topical corticosteroids (intra-nasal). PMID:19450327

  17. Bronchitis (acute).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wark, Peter

    2011-06-20

    Acute bronchitis affects over 40/1000 adults a year in the UK. The causes are usually considered to be infective, but only around half of people have identifiable pathogens. The role of smoking or of environmental tobacco smoke inhalation in predisposing to acute bronchitis is unclear. One third of people may have longer-term symptoms or recurrence. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute bronchitis in people without chronic respiratory disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 21 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: analgesics, antibiotics (macrolides, tetracyclines, cephalosporins, penicillins, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole [co-trimoxazole]), antihistamines, antitussives, beta(2) agonists (inhaled or oral), and expectorants/mucolytics.

  18. Moderate acute intake of de-alcoholised red wine, but not alcohol, is protective against radiation-induced DNA damage ex vivo-Results of a comparative in vivo intervention study in younger men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenrod, W. [CSIRO Health Sciences and Nutrition, Genome Health and Nutrigenomics Laboratory, PO Box 10041, Adelaide BC, SA 5000 (Australia); Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, University of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Stockley, C.S. [Australian Wine Research Institute, South Australia (Australia); Burcham, P. [Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, University of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Abbey, M. [CSIRO Health Sciences and Nutrition, Genome Health and Nutrigenomics Laboratory, PO Box 10041, Adelaide BC, SA 5000 (Australia); Fenech, M. [CSIRO Health Sciences and Nutrition, Genome Health and Nutrigenomics Laboratory, PO Box 10041, Adelaide BC, SA 5000 (Australia)]. E-mail: michael.fenech@hsn.csiro.au

    2005-12-11

    Moderate intake of wine is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and possibly cancer however it remains unclear whether the potential health benefits of wine intake are due to alcohol or the non-alcoholic fraction of wine. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the non-alcoholic fraction of wine protects against genome damage induced by oxidative stress in a crossover intervention study involving six young adult males aged 21-26 years. The participants adhered to a low plant phenolic compound diet for 48 h prior to consuming 300 mL of complete red wine, dealcoholised red wine or ethanol on separate occasions 1 week apart. Blood samples were collected 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 h after beverage consumption. Baseline and radiation-induced genome damage was measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay and total plasma catechin concentration was measured. Consumption of dealcoholised red wine significantly decreased the gamma radiation-induced DNA damage at 1 and 2 h post-consumption by 20%. In contrast alcohol tended to increase radiation-induced genome damage and complete wine protected against radiation-induced genome damage relative to alcohol. The observed effects were only weakly correlated with the concentration of total plasma catechin (R = -0.23). These preliminary data suggest that only the non-alcoholic fraction of red wine protects DNA from oxidative damage but this effect cannot be explained solely by plasma catechin.

  19. Treatment of bulky stage IB and IIB cervical cancers with outpatient neutron brachytherapy, external pelvic radiation and extrafascial hysterectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Nagell, J.R.; Maruyama, Y.; Yoneda, J.; Donaldson, E.S.; Hanson, M.B.; Gallion, H.H.; Powell, D.E.; Kryscio, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    From January, 1977, to December, 1982, twenty-nine patients with bulky (>4 cms diameter) Stage IB or IIB cervical cancer were treated at the University of Kentucky Medical Center by a combination of out-patient neutron brachytherapy (Cf-252) and external pelvic radiation followed by extrafascial hysterectomy. Residual tumor was present in the hysterectomy specimens of 25 per cent. Complications during and following radiation therapy and surgery were minimal and included vaginal stenosis, proctitis, and hemorrhagic cystitis. The mean duration of hospitalization for surgery in these patients was 6.6 days (range 5-15 days) and postoperative morbidity was low. No patient required blood transfusion. Four patients developed urinary tract infections and two had superficial wound separations. Following treatment, patients were seen at monthly intervals for one year, every three months for two years, and every six months thereafter. No patient has been lost to follow-up. Two patients (7 per cent) developed tumor recurrence and have died of disease (1 of distant metastases; 1 local). The remaining 27 patients (93 per cent) are alive and well with no evidence of disease 24-89 months (mean 48 months) after therapy. No radiogenic fistulae or bowel obstruction were observed. These preliminary results suggest that the combination of outpatient neutron brachytherapy, external pelvic radiation, and extrafascial hysterectomy for patients with Stage IB and IIB cervical cancer is well tolerated. Complications associated with this treatment regimen have been minimal, and the recurrence rate is low. The duration of intracavitary neutron brachytherapy was short, and outpatient therapy was well received by patients.

  20. Electromagnetic radiations and cancer. Cause and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, R E

    1988-10-15

    The various types of electromagnetic radiation differ considerably in their ability to induce cancer. The potential of radiofrequency or microwave radiation and low-frequency electromagnetic radiation to alter DNA is very limited, because their energy is too low to produce substantial ionizations. They are therefore unlikely to be carcinogenic by any direct mechanism. Epidemiologic studies of the carcinogenicity of microwave radiation are basically negative. Studies of workers with relatively high exposures to low-frequency electromagnetic fields have suggested that such persons may be at somewhat elevated risk for leukemia, especially of the acute myeloid type, but the studies have had methodologic weaknesses and mixed results. The association is not proven at this point, but neither can it be ruled out. For ionizing radiation, which is clearly carcinogenic, major questions pertain to how to define the magnitude of risk from low doses and low dose rates, how to identify subgroups of people who are especially susceptible to the effects of ionizing radiation, and how to minimize radiation exposure. When fortuitous radiation exposure from manmade sources, such as radioactive releases from nuclear power plants, are examined in the context of the total exposure people receive from natural sources, medical irradiation, etc., they are almost always found to be small by comparison. Quantitatively, two sources of radiation provide the greatest opportunities for exposure reduction: abatement of radon levels in homes, and reduction in medical radiation exposures.

  1. [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET Standard Uptake Value as a Metabolic Predictor of Bone Marrow Response to Radiation: Impact on Acute and Late Hematological Toxicity in Cervical Cancer Patients Treated With Chemoradiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elicin, Olgun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne (Switzerland); Callaway, Sharon [Velocity Medical Solutions, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Prior, John O. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne (Switzerland); Bourhis, Jean [Department of Radiation Oncology, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne (Switzerland); Ozsahin, Mahmut, E-mail: mahmut.ozsahin@chuv.ch [Department of Radiation Oncology, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne (Switzerland); Herrera, Fernanda G., E-mail: fernanda.herrera@chuv.ch [Department of Radiation Oncology, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To quantify the relationship between bone marrow (BM) response to radiation and radiation dose by using {sup 18}F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET standard uptake values (SUV) and to correlate these findings with hematological toxicity (HT) in cervical cancer (CC) patients treated with chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: Seventeen women with a diagnosis of CC were treated with standard doses of CRT. All patients underwent pre- and post-therapy [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT). Hemograms were obtained before and during treatment and 3 months after treatment and at last follow-up. Pelvic bone was autosegmented as total bone marrow (BM{sub TOT}). Active bone marrow (BM{sub ACT}) was contoured based on SUV greater than the mean SUV of BM{sub TOT}. The volumes (V) of each region receiving 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy (V{sub 10}, V{sub 20}, V{sub 30}, and V{sub 40}, respectively) were calculated. Metabolic volume histograms and voxel SUV map response graphs were created. Relative changes in SUV before and after therapy were calculated by separating SUV voxels into radiation therapy dose ranges of 5 Gy. The relationships among SUV decrease, radiation dose, and HT were investigated using multiple regression models. Results: Mean relative pre-post-therapy SUV reductions in BM{sub TOT} and BM{sub ACT} were 27% and 38%, respectively. BM{sub ACT} volume was significantly reduced after treatment (from 651.5 to 231.6 cm{sup 3}, respectively; P<.0001). BM{sub ACT} V{sub 30} was significantly correlated with a reduction in BM{sub ACT} SUV (R{sup 2}, 0.14; P<.001). The reduction in BM{sub ACT} SUV significantly correlated with reduction in white blood cells (WBCs) at 3 months post-treatment (R{sup 2}, 0.27; P=.04) and at last follow-up (R{sup 2}, 0.25; P=.04). Different dosimetric parameters of BM{sub TOT} and BM{sub ACT} correlated with long-term hematological outcome. Conclusions: The volumes of BM

  2. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment reverses radiation induced pro-fibrotic and oxidative stress responses in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscarsson, N; Ny, L; Mölne, J; Lind, F; Ricksten, S-E; Seeman-Lodding, H; Giglio, D

    2017-02-01

    Radiotherapy is effective in the treatment of tumors in the pelvic area but is associated with side effects such as cystitis and proctitis. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT) has emerged as a treatment modality for radiation-induced side effects. In a rat model for radiation cystitis, we studied the effects of HBOT on oxidative stress and pro-fibrotic factors. Sedated Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bladder irradiation of 20Gy with and without 20 sessions of HBOT during a fortnight. Control animals were treated with and without HBOT. All four groups of animals were euthanized 28 days later. Histopathological examinations, immunohistochemistry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were used to analyze changes in oxidative stress (8-OHdG), anti-oxidative responses (SOD-1, SOD2, HO-1 and NRFα) and a panel of Th1-type and Th2-type cytokines (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, TNF-α, TGF-β, IFN-γ) in the urinary bladder. Bladder irradiation increased the expression of 8-OHdG, SOD2, HO-1, NRFα, IL-10, TNF-α and tended to increase TGF-β. These changes were completely reversed by HBOT while HBOT in control animals had no effects on the studied markers for oxidative stress, anti-oxidative responses and Th1-type and Th2-type cytokines. Radiation induced a significant elevation of oxidative stress, antioxidants and pro-fibrotic factors in our animal model for radiation cystitis that were completely reversed and normalized by HBOT. Our findings indicate that HBOT may prevent radiation-induced changes by affecting oxidative stress and inflammatory cascades induced by radiation. Radiotherapy may cause the development of chronic inflammation and fibrosis, significantly impairing organ function. We hypothesized that bladder irradiation induces an oxidative stress reaction, thereby triggering the redox system and thus initiating an inflammatory and pro-fibrotic response. We aimed to assess whether these changes would be reversed by hyperbaric oxygen using an

  3. Case Report - Radiation Recall; A Paediatric Case Report From ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiation Recall Dermatitis (RRD) is an acute inflammatory reaction that develops within an area of previous irradiation, occurring after administering a chemotherapeutic agent. We present the case of a 3-year-old Zambian girl with a nephroblastoma who developed radiation recall after the administration of dactinomycin, ...

  4. Radiation recall dermatitis induced by trastuzumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Kaynak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiation recall phenomenon is an acute, egzematous reaction that develops throughout a previously irradiated area, precipitated by the administration of docetaxel, doxorubicin, gemcitabine and paclitaxel. We report a 52-year-old woman with breast cancer who received locoregional radiotherapy followed by trastuzumab monotherapy. Three day after the first cycle of trastuzumab monotherapy, dermatitis developed in the previously irradiated skin.

  5. Ultraviolet Radiation: Human Exposure and Health Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkate, Thomas D.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation and associated health effects as well as risk estimates for acute and chronic conditions resulting from such exposure. Demonstrates substantial reductions in health risk that can be achieved through preventive actions. Also includes a risk assessment model for skin cancer. Contains 36…

  6. Acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Inman, Hayley; Kuehl, Damon

    2014-08-01

    Although great progress has been made in the understanding and treatment of acute leukemia, this disease has not been conquered. For emergency providers (EPs), the presentation of these patients to an emergency department presents a host of challenges. A patient may present with a new diagnosis of leukemia or with complications of the disease process or associated chemotherapy. It is incumbent on EPs to be familiar with the manifestations of leukemia in its various stages and maintain some suspicion for this diagnosis, given the nebulous and insidious manner in which leukemia can present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiation-induced esophagitis in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Baker, Alysa Fairchild Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: Radiation-induced esophagitis is the most common local acute toxicity of radiotherapy (RT delivered for the curative or palliative intent treatment of lung cancer. Although concurrent chemotherapy and higher RT dose are associated with increased esophagitis risk, advancements in RT techniques as well as adherence to esophageal dosimetric constraints may reduce the incidence and severity. Mild acute esophagitis symptoms are generally self-limited, and supportive management options include analgesics, acid suppression, diet modification, treatment for candidiasis, and maintenance of adequate nutrition. Esophageal stricture is the most common late sequela from esophageal irradiation and can be addressed with endoscopic dilatation. Approaches to prevent or mitigate these toxicities are also discussed. Keywords: non–small cell lung cancer, acute, late, toxicity, stricture

  8. Effects of radiation; Effets des radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, R. [Office de Protection contre les Rayonnements Ionisants, 78 - le Vesinet (France)

    2006-07-01

    The medical consequences of a whole-body irradiation come from the destruction of cells and inflammatory reactions it provokes. The most sensitive organs are the tissues that actively split. The embryo is particularly sensitive, from 200 mSv for the effects on the brain development. The reproduction functions are reached for man from 2000 mSv, the ovary sensitivity is less, the oocytes do not split after the fetus life. For adult the bone marrow outrage leads to the disappearing of blood cells (4000 mSv). The doses from 6000 to 10000 mSv lead the failure of the digestive system and lung. for the upper doses every tissue is reached, particularly by the effects on cells of blood vessels. Important brain dysfunctions appear beyond 10000 mSv. As regards the delayed effects of overexposures the epidemiology brings to light sanitary consequences of the exposure of the population to the ionizing radiations and requires that all the possible factors associated for that purpose are considered. About hereditary effects, it appears that moderate acute radiation exposures of even a relatively large human population must have little impact, in spite of the rate of spontaneous congenital deformations is of the order of 6 %. For the induction of cancers, it is not observed excess for doses lower than 200 mSv for adults and 100 mSv for children (the populations studied are survival people of hiroshima and Nagasaki, patients treated by irradiation, uranium miners, children exposed to radioactive iodine after Chernobylsk accident). To simplify an expression of the risk has been fixed to 5% of induced cancer by Sv for population and 4% by Sv for workers, the different being explained by the demography and the sensitivity of the youngest age groups. As regards the low doses of radiations, a bundle of convergent epidemiological observations notices the absence of effects of the low doses rates. Biological mechanisms, notably of repair are approached, then certain accidents (Goiania

  9. Space Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses three kinds of space radiation, cosmic rays, Van Allen Belts, and solar plasma. Cosmic rays are penetrating particles that we cannot see, hear or feel, which come from distant stars. Van Allen Belts, named after their discoverer are great belts of protons and electrons that the earth has captured in its magnetic trap. Solar plasma is a gaseous, electrically neutral mixture of positive and negative ions that the sun spews out from convulsed regions on its surface.

  10. Radiation Engineering for Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial provides an overview of the natural space radiation environment, an introduction to radiation effect types, an overview of EEE parts selection, scrubbing, and radiation mitigation, and an introduction to radiation testing.

  11. Risk Factors: Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation of certain wavelengths, called ionizing radiation, has enough energy to damage DNA and cause cancer. Ionizing radiation includes radon, x-rays, gamma rays, and other forms of high-energy radiation.

  12. Chest radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - chest - discharge; Cancer - chest radiation; Lymphoma - chest radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after your first treatment: It may be hard ...

  13. Long-Term Results of an RTOG Phase II Trial (00-19) of External-Beam Radiation Therapy Combined With Permanent Source Brachytherapy for Intermediate-Risk Clinically Localized Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Colleen A., E-mail: clawton@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Yan, Yan [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (United States); Gillin, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Firat, Selim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Baikadi, Madhava [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northeast Radiation Oncology Center, Scranton, PA (United States); Crook, Juanita [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of British Columbia, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Kuettel, Michael [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Morton, Gerald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Toronto-Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Center, Toronto, ON (Canada); Sandler, Howard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: External-beam radiation therapy combined with low-doserate permanent brachytherapy are commonly used to treat men with localized prostate cancer. This Phase II trial was performed to document late gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicity as well as biochemical control for this treatment in a multi-institutional cooperative group setting. This report defines the long-term results of this trial. Methods and Materials: All eligible patients received external-beam radiation (45 Gy in 25 fractions) followed 2-6 weeks later by a permanent iodine 125 implant of 108 Gy. Late toxicity was defined by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer late radiation morbidity scoring scheme. Biochemical control was defined by the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus definition and the ASTRO Phoenix definition. Results: One hundred thirty-eight patients were enrolled from 20 institutions, and 131 were eligible. Median follow-up (living patients) was 8.2 years (range, 2.7-9.3 years). The 8-year estimate of late grade >3 genitourinary and/or gastrointestinal toxicity was 15%. The most common grade >3 toxicities were urinary frequency, dysuria, and proctitis. There were two grade 4 toxicities, both bladder necrosis, and no grade 5 toxicities. In addition, 42% of patients complained of grade 3 impotence (no erections) at 8 years. The 8-year estimate of biochemical failure was 18% and 21% by the Phoenix and ASTRO consensus definitions, respectively. Conclusion: Biochemical control for this treatment seems durable with 8 years of follow-up and is similar to high-dose external beam radiation alone or brachytherapy alone. Late toxicity in this multi-institutional trial is higher than reports from similar cohorts of patients treated with high-dose external-beam radiation alone or permanent low-doserate brachytherapy alone, perhaps suggesting further attention to strategies that limit doses to

  14. Acute cerebellar ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerebellar ataxia; Ataxia - acute cerebellar; Cerebellitis; Post-varicella acute cerebellar ataxia; PVACA ... Acute cerebellar ataxia in children, particularly younger than age 3, may occur several weeks after an illness caused by a virus. ...

  15. Acute Liver Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute liver failure Overview Acute liver failure is loss of liver function that occurs rapidly — in days or weeks — usually in a person who has no pre-existing liver disease. Acute liver failure is less common than ...

  16. Radiation change in normal organs: an overview of body imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libshitz, H.I. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States); DuBrow, R.A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Loyer, E.M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Charnsangavej, C. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Radiotherapy causes changes in a treated malignancy and the surrounding normal tissue which must be included in the radiation fields. Awareness of the expected appearance of these changes frequently permits differentiation of them from superimposed infection, recurrent malignancy, radiation-induced tumors, and the other true complications of radiation therapy. Radiotherapy changes are a function of the tissue volume treated, field shape, total dose and how it was delivered, time from completion of therapy, and the possible effect of other therapies. Timing of radiation changes varies in the different organs. Acute radiation pneumonitis is generally seen approximately 2 months after completion of radiotherapy, but radiation pericarditis not until 6-9 months after therapy. Radiation-induced sarcomas do not develop on average until 10-15 years after radiation therapy. An overview of expected findings and complications in the lungs, heart, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, and bones is presented. (orig.)

  17. Preoperative concurrent chemo-radiation in rectal cancer; Radiochimiotherapie concomitante preoperatoire pour cancer du rectum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, C.; Kirscher, S.; Felix-Faure, C.; Chauvet, B.; Vincent, P.; Brewer, Y.; Reboul, F. [Clinique Sainte-Catherine, 84 - Avignon (France)

    1998-05-01

    To evaluate retrospectively treatment-related morbidity of concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy for rectal cancer. Between 1992 and 1995, 38 patients (median age: 60) were treated for locally advanced resectable rectal cancer. Median dose of radiotherapy was 45 Gy/25 fractions/5 weeks. Chemotherapy consisted of two courses of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin administered during the first and the fifth weeks of radiotherapy. Median dose of 5-fluorouracil was 350 mg/m{sup 2}/day, and median dose of leucovorin was 350 mg/m{sup 2}/day, day 1 to day 5. Surgery was performed 5 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. Before surgery, one patient died of febrile neutropenia and sepsis after two cycles of chemotherapy and 45 Gy. Main pre-operative grade 3-4 toxicities were respectively: neutropenia: 3% ; nausea/vomiting: 3%; diarrhea: 3%; proctitis: 5%; radiation dermatitis: 8%. Twenty-six patients underwent a low anterior resection and 11 an abdomino-perineal resection. A temporary colostomy was performed in 12 patients. Pathologic complete response rate was 27 %. There was one post-operative death due to thrombo-embolic disease. Major post-operative grade 3-4 complications were: pelvic infection: 14 %; abdominal infection : 5%; perineal sepsis: 8%; anastomotic dehiscence: 8%; cardiac failure: 5%. Delayed perineal wound healing was observed in six patients. No significant prognostic factor of post-operative complications has been observed. Median duration of hospitalization was 22 days. With a median follow-up of 24 months, 2-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 82 and 64%. Tolerance of preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy was acceptable. Ongoing controlled studies will assess the impact of this combined treatment on survival. (authors)

  18. Radiation or chemoradiation: initial utility study of selected therapy for local advanced stadium cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramitasari, D. A.; Gondhowiardjo, S.; Nuranna, L.

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to compare radiation only or chemo radiation treatment of local advanced cervical cancers by examining the initial response of tumors and acute side effects. An initial assessment employed value based medicine (VBM) by obtaining utility values for both types of therapy. The incidences of acute lower gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and hematology side effects in patients undergoing chemoradiation did not differ significantly from those undergoing radiation alone. Utility values for patients who underwent radiation alone were higher compared to those who underwent chemoradiation. It was concluded that the complete response of patients who underwent chemoradiation did not differ significantly from those who underwent radiation alone.

  19. Acute Appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tind, Sofie; Qvist, Niels

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The classification of acute appendicitis (AA) into various grades is not consistent, partly because it is not clear whether the perioperative or the histological findings should be the foundation of the classification. When comparing results from the literature on the frequency...... patients were included. In 116 (89 %) of these cases, appendicitis was confirmed histological. There was low concordance between the perioperative and histological diagnoses, varying from 16 to 76 % depending on grade of AA. Only 44 % of the patients receiving antibiotics postoperatively had a positive...... peritoneal fluid cultivation. CONCLUSION: There was a low concordance in clinical and histopathological diagnoses of the different grades of appendicitis. Perioperative cultivation of the peritoneal fluid as a standard should be further examined. The potential could be a reduced postoperative antibiotic use...

  20. Acute kidney failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney injury. Alternative Names Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute Images Kidney anatomy References Devarajan P. Biomarkers for assessment of renal ...

  1. Benefits of sonography in diagnosing suspected uncomplicated acute diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Welfur C; Shuaib, Waqas; Vijayasarathi, Arvind; Fajardo, Carlos G; Cabrera, Waldo E; Costa, Juan L

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence demonstrating equivalent accuracy of sonography and computed tomography (CT) in the workup of mild/uncomplicated acute diverticulitis, CT is overwhelmingly performed as the initial diagnostic test, particularly in the acute setting. Our study evaluated potential radiation and turnaround time savings associated with performing sonography instead of CT as the initial diagnostic examination in the workup of suspected uncomplicated acute diverticulitis. We retrospectively reviewed medical records from January 2010 to December 2012 for patients presenting with clinical symptoms of acute diverticulitis. Patients were categorized as a whole and subgrouped by age (>40 and 40 years and 121 diverticulitis. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  2. Care of Acute Gastrointestinal Conditions in the Observation Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jason J; Ordonez, Edgar; Wilkerson, R Gentry

    2017-08-01

    The Emergency Department Observation Unit (EDOU) provides a viable alternative to inpatient admission for the management of many acute gastrointestinal conditions with additional opportunities of reducing resource utilization and reducing radiation exposure. Using available evidence-based criteria to determine appropriate patient selection, evaluation, and treatment provides higher-quality medical care and improved patient satisfaction. Discussions of factors involved in creating an EDOU capable of caring for acute gastrointestinal conditions and clinical protocol examples of acute appendicitis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and acute pancreatitis provide a framework from which a successful EDOU can be built. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. How to diagnose acute appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostbeck, Gerhard; Adam, E Jane; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2016-01-01

    Acute appendicitis (AA) is a common abdominal emergency with a lifetime prevalence of about 7 %. As the clinical diagnosis of AA remains a challenge to emergency physicians and surgeons, imaging modalities have gained major importance in the diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected AA in order...... appendicitis (AA). • Primary US for AA diagnosis will decrease ionizing radiation and cost. • Sensitivity of US to diagnose AA is lower than of CT/MRI. • Non-visualization of the appendix should lead to clinical reassessment. • Complementary MRI or CT may be performed if diagnosis remains unclear....

  4. Ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    UVR can be classified into UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C regions. A long period of UVR deficiency may have a harmful effect on the human body. The best known manifestation of UVR deficiency is the development of vitamin D deficiency and rickets in children because of a disturbance in the phosphorus and calcium metabolism. The acute effects of UVR on the eyes consist of the development of photokeratitis and photoconjunctivitis. Acute effects on the skin consist of solar erythema sunburn. Chronic effects on the eye consist of the development of pterygium and squamous cell cancer of the conjunctiva and perhaps cataracts. Chronic skin changes due to UVR consist of aging and the induction of premalignant changes and malignant skin tumours. Criteria for occupational exposure levels in work places have been proposed. It must be recognized that significant nonoccupational exposure to UVR occurs from exposure to sunlight. Thus, exposure limits for the general population are difficult to recommend. Finally, the document describes existing protection and control measures such as the containment of UVR sources, and methods for personal protection including the use of sunscreen preparations, clothing, transparent material for eye and skin protection, and behavioural modifications.

  5. Space Radiation and Risks to Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Janice L.

    2014-01-01

    The radiation environment in space poses significant challenges to human health and is a major concern for long duration manned space missions. Outside the Earth's protective magnetosphere, astronauts are exposed to higher levels of galactic cosmic rays, whose physical characteristics are distinct from terrestrial sources of radiation such as x-rays and gamma-rays. Galactic cosmic rays consist of high energy and high mass nuclei as well as high energy protons; they impart unique biological damage as they traverse through tissue with impacts on human health that are largely unknown. The major health issues of concern are the risks of radiation carcinogenesis, acute and late decrements to the central nervous system, degenerative tissue effects such as cardiovascular disease, as well as possible acute radiation syndromes due to an unshielded exposure to a large solar particle event. The NASA Human Research Program's Space Radiation Program Element is focused on characterization and mitigation of these space radiation health risks along with understanding these risks in context of the other biological stressors found in the space environment. In this overview, we will provide a description of these health risks and the Element's research strategies to understand and mitigate these risks.

  6. Diagnosing and Treating Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Disease Lookup > Acute Bronchitis Diagnosing and Treating Acute Bronchitis Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Acute Bronchitis ... Symptoms that last a few weeks How Is Acute Bronchitis Diagnosed? Healthcare providers diagnose acute bronchitis by asking ...

  7. System-Level Radiation Hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladbury, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Although system-level radiation hardening can enable the use of high-performance components and enhance the capabilities of a spacecraft, hardening techniques can be costly and can compromise the very performance designers sought from the high-performance components. Moreover, such techniques often result in a complicated design, especially if several complex commercial microcircuits are used, each posing its own hardening challenges. The latter risk is particularly acute for Commercial-Off-The-Shelf components since high-performance parts (e.g. double-data-rate synchronous dynamic random access memories - DDR SDRAMs) may require other high-performance commercial parts (e.g. processors) to support their operation. For these reasons, it is essential that system-level radiation hardening be a coordinated effort, from setting requirements through testing up to and including validation.

  8. Potential health effects of space radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chui-Hsu; Craise, Laurie M.

    1993-01-01

    Crewmembers on missions to the Moon or Mars will be exposed to radiation belts, galactic cosmic rays, and possibly solar particle events. The potential health hazards due to these space radiations must be considered carefully to ensure the success of space exploration. Because there is no human radioepidemiological data for acute and late effects of high-LET (Linear-Energy-Transfer) radiation, the biological risks of energetic charged particles have to be estimated from experimental results on animals and cultured cells. Experimental data obtained to date indicate that charged particle radiation can be much more effective than photons in causing chromosome aberrations, cell killing, mutation, and tumor induction. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) varies with biological endpoints and depends on the LET of heavy ions. Most lesions induced by low-LET radiation can be repaired in mammalian cells. Energetic heavy ions, however, can produce large complex DNA damages, which may lead to large deletions and are irreparable. For high-LET radiation, therefore, there are less or no dose rate effects. Physical shielding may not be effective in minimizing the biological effects on energetic heavy ions, since fragments of the primary particles can be effective in causing biological effects. At present the uncertainty of biological effects of heavy particles is still very large. With further understanding of the biological effects of space radiation, the career doses can be kept at acceptable levels so that the space radiation environment need not be a barrier to the exploitation of the promise of space.

  9. Psychiatric disorders after radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokai, Masahiro [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Soejima, Toshinori; Wang, Shangdong; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2001-04-01

    This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)

  10. Acute lower extremity ischaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a nutshell. • A patient with sudden onset of a cold, weak, numb and painful foot has acute lower extremity ischaemia (ALEXI) until proven otherwise. Labelling patients as acute gout, acute phlegmasia (deep vein thrombosis), acute sciatica, etc. may result in unnecessary delays in treatment, with tragic consequences.

  11. Late complications of radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaki, Norie [Osaka Prefectural Center for Adult Diseases (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    There are cases in which, although all traces of acute radiation complications seem to have disappeared, late complications may appear months or years to become apparent. Trauma, infection or chemotherapy may sometimes recall radiation damage and irreversible change. There were two cases of breast cancer that received an estimated skin dose in the 6000 cGy range followed by extirpation of the residual tumor. The one (12 y.o.) developed atrophy of the breast and severe teleangiectasis 18 years later radiotherapy. The other one (42 y.o.) developed severe skin necrosis twenty years later radiotherapy after administration of chemotherapy and received skin graft. A case (52 y.o.) of adenoidcystic carcinoma of the trachea received radiation therapy. The field included the thoracic spinal cord which received 6800 cGy. Two years and 8 months after radiation therapy she developed complete paraplegia and died 5 years later. A truly successful therapeutic outcome requires that the patient be alive, cured and free of significant treatment-related morbidity. As such, it is important to assess quality of life in long-term survivors of cancer treatment. (author)

  12. Sunitinib Plus Androgen Deprivation and Radiation Therapy for Patients With Localized High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Results From a Multi-institutional Phase 1 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corn, Paul G., E-mail: pcorn@mdanderson.org [Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Song, Danny Y. [Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Heath, Elisabeth; Maier, Jordan [Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Meyn, Raymond [Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kuban, Deborah [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); DePetrillo, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Mathew, Paul, E-mail: pmathew@tuftsmedicalcenter.org [Department of Hematology-Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of administering sunitinib in combination with androgen deprivation therapy and external-beam intensity modulated radiation therapy (XRT) in patients with localized high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Seventeen men with localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate with cT2c-cT4 or Gleason 8-10 or prostate-specific antigen >20 ng/mL received initial androgen deprivation (leuprolide 22.5 mg every 12 weeks plus oral bicalutamide 50 mg daily) for 4-8 weeks before oral sunitinib 12.5, 25, or 37.5 mg daily for 4 weeks as lead-in, then concurrently with and 4 weeks after XRT (75.6 Gy in 42 fractions to prostate and seminal vesicles). A 3+3 sequential dose-escalation design was used to assess the frequency of dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and establish a maximal tolerated dose of sunitinib. Results: Sunitinib at 12.5- and 25-mg dose levels was well tolerated. The first 4 patients enrolled at 37.5 mg experienced a DLT during lead-in, and a drug interaction between sunitinib and bicalutamide was suspected. The protocol was revised and concurrent bicalutamide omitted. Of the next 3 patients enrolled at 37.5 mg, 2 of 3 receiving concurrent therapy experienced DLTs during radiation: grade 3 diarrhea and grade 3 proctitis, respectively. Only 1 of 7 patients completed sunitinib at 37.5 mg daily, whereas 3 of 3 patients (25 mg as starting dose) and 3 of 4 patients (25 mg as reduced dose) completed therapy. Conclusions: The feasibility of combined vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)/platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) inhibitor therapy, androgen deprivation, and radiation therapy for prostate cancer was established. Using a daily dosing regimen with lead-in, concurrent, and post-XRT therapy, the recommended phase 2 dose of sunitinib is 25 mg daily.

  13. Role of Surgical Versus Clinical Staging in Chemoradiated FIGO Stage IIB-IVA Cervical Cancer Patients-Acute Toxicity and Treatment Quality of the Uterus-11 Multicenter Phase III Intergroup Trial of the German Radiation Oncology Group and the Gynecologic Cancer Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnitz, Simone; Martus, Peter; Köhler, Christhardt; Stromberger, Carmen; Asse, Elke; Mallmann, Peter; Schmidberger, Heinz; Affonso Júnior, Renato José; Nunes, João Soares; Sehouli, Jalid; Budach, Volker

    2016-02-01

    The Uterus-11 trial was designed to evaluate the role of surgical staging in patients with cervical cancer before primary chemoradiation therapy (CRT). The present report provides the toxicity data stratified by the treatment arm and technique. A total of 255 patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIB-IVA) were randomized to either surgical staging followed by CRT (arm A) or clinical staging followed by CRT (arm B). Patients with para-aortic metastases underwent extended field radiation therapy (RT). Brachytherapy was mandatory. The present report presents the acute therapy-related toxicities stratified by treatment arm and radiation technique. A total of 240 patients were eligible (n=121 in arm A; n=119 in arm B). Of the 240 patients, 236 (98.3%) underwent external beam RT with a median total dose of 50.4 Gy. The mean treatment duration was 53 days. Of the patients, 60% underwent intensity modulated RT (IMRT). A total of 234 patients (97.5%) underwent chemotherapy, and 231 (96.3%) underwent brachytherapy, with a median single dose of 6 Gy covering the tumor to a median nominal total dose of 28 Gy. Treatment was well tolerated, with 0% grade ≥3 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity, 6% grade 3 nausea, 3% grade 3 vomiting, and <2% grade 3 diarrhea. More patients after surgical staging experienced grade 2 anemia (54.3% in arm A vs 45.3% in arm B; P=.074) and grade 2 leukocytopenia (41.4% vs 31.6%; P=.56). Of the patients who received IMRT versus a 3-dimensional technique, 65.3% versus 33.7% presented with grade 2 anemia. Grade 3 gastrointestinal and grade 2 bladder toxicity were significantly reduced with the use of IMRT. The incidence and severity of acute therapy-related toxicity compared favorably with those from other randomized trials. Excellent adherence to treatment and treatment quality was achieved compared with patterns of care analyses. Surgical staging led to a doubled number of

  14. Role of Surgical Versus Clinical Staging in Chemoradiated FIGO Stage IIB-IVA Cervical Cancer Patients—Acute Toxicity and Treatment Quality of the Uterus-11 Multicenter Phase III Intergroup Trial of the German Radiation Oncology Group and the Gynecologic Cancer Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnitz, Simone, E-mail: simone.marnitz-schulze@uk-koeln.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cologne Medical Faculty, Cologne (Germany); Martus, Peter [Institute for Clinical Epidemiology and Applied Biostatistics, Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, Tübingen (Germany); Köhler, Christhardt [Department of Advanced Operative and Oncologic Gynecology, Asklepios Clinics, Hamburg (Germany); Stromberger, Carmen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cologne Medical Faculty, Cologne (Germany); Asse, Elke [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany); Mallmann, Peter [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Schmidberger, Heinz [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Affonso Júnior, Renato José [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de Cãncer de Barretos, Barretos (Brazil); Nunes, João Soares [Department of Clinical Oncology, Hospital de Cãncer de Barretos, Barretos (Brazil); Sehouli, Jalid [Department of Gynecology, Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Budach, Volker [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cologne Medical Faculty, Cologne (Germany)

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: The Uterus-11 trial was designed to evaluate the role of surgical staging in patients with cervical cancer before primary chemoradiation therapy (CRT). The present report provides the toxicity data stratified by the treatment arm and technique. Methods and Materials: A total of 255 patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIB-IVA) were randomized to either surgical staging followed by CRT (arm A) or clinical staging followed by CRT (arm B). Patients with para-aortic metastases underwent extended field radiation therapy (RT). Brachytherapy was mandatory. The present report presents the acute therapy-related toxicities stratified by treatment arm and radiation technique. Results: A total of 240 patients were eligible (n=121 in arm A; n=119 in arm B). Of the 240 patients, 236 (98.3%) underwent external beam RT with a median total dose of 50.4 Gy. The mean treatment duration was 53 days. Of the patients, 60% underwent intensity modulated RT (IMRT). A total of 234 patients (97.5%) underwent chemotherapy, and 231 (96.3%) underwent brachytherapy, with a median single dose of 6 Gy covering the tumor to a median nominal total dose of 28 Gy. Treatment was well tolerated, with 0% grade ≥3 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity, 6% grade 3 nausea, 3% grade 3 vomiting, and <2% grade 3 diarrhea. More patients after surgical staging experienced grade 2 anemia (54.3% in arm A vs 45.3% in arm B; P=.074) and grade 2 leukocytopenia (41.4% vs 31.6%; P=.56). Of the patients who received IMRT versus a 3-dimensional technique, 65.3% versus 33.7% presented with grade 2 anemia. Grade 3 gastrointestinal and grade 2 bladder toxicity were significantly reduced with the use of IMRT. Conclusions: The incidence and severity of acute therapy-related toxicity compared favorably with those from other randomized trials. Excellent adherence to treatment and treatment quality was achieved compared with patterns of

  15. TH-E-BRF-09: Gaussian Mixture Model Analysis of Radiation-Induced Parotid-Gland Injury: An Ultrasound Study of Acute and Late Xerostomia in Head-And-Neck Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, T [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory Univ, Atlanta, GA (United States); Yu, D; Beitler, J; Curran, W; Yang, X [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Tridandapani, S [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Bruner, D [School of Nursing and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory Univesity, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Xerostomia (dry mouth), secondary to parotid-gland injury, is a distressing side-effect in head-and-neck radiotherapy (RT). This study's purpose is to develop a novel ultrasound technique to quantitatively evaluate post-RT parotid-gland injury. Methods: Recent ultrasound studies have shown that healthy parotid glands exhibit homogeneous echotexture, whereas post-RT parotid glands are often heterogeneous, with multiple hypoechoic (inflammation) or hyperechoic (fibrosis) regions. We propose to use a Gaussian mixture model to analyze the ultrasonic echo-histogram of the parotid glands. An IRB-approved clinical study was conducted: (1) control-group: 13 healthy-volunteers, served as the control; (2) acutetoxicity group − 20 patients (mean age: 62.5 ± 8.9 years, follow-up: 2.0±0.8 months); and (3) late-toxicity group − 18 patients (mean age: 60.7 ± 7.3 years, follow-up: 20.1±10.4 months). All patients experienced RTOG grade 1 or 2 salivary-gland toxicity. Each participant underwent an ultrasound scan (10 MHz) of the bilateral parotid glands. An echo-intensity histogram was derived for each parotid and a Gaussian mixture model was used to fit the histogram using expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. The quality of the fitting was evaluated with the R-squared value. Results: (1) Controlgroup: all parotid glands fitted well with one Gaussian component, with a mean intensity of 79.8±4.9 (R-squared>0.96). (2) Acute-toxicity group: 37 of the 40 post-RT parotid glands fitted well with two Gaussian components, with a mean intensity of 42.9±7.4, 73.3±12.2 (R-squared>0.95). (3) Latetoxicity group: 32 of the 36 post-RT parotid fitted well with 3 Gaussian components, with mean intensities of 49.7±7.6, 77.2±8.7, and 118.6±11.8 (R-squared>0.98). Conclusion: RT-associated parotid-gland injury is common in head-and-neck RT, but challenging to assess. This work has demonstrated that the Gaussian mixture model of the echo-histogram could quantify acute and

  16. An application trial with oriental medicine against radiation complication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Yukimasa; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Sasaki, Yasuhito (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1991-11-01

    Late radiation complications have been the inevitable obstacles for radio-therapy, since the normal tissue damage restricts the maximum tumor dose. Recently, this limitation has been alleviated owing to the technological development in the field of radiation treatment devices. However, the treatment dose in case of radical and prophylactic irradiation cannot be adequately reduced, and acute radiation complications present another hurdle. Results of our preliminary trials with an oriental medicine to overcome the specified acute complication were favorable. We started a new trial with combined oriental medicines against various features of acute complications. Sixty-five cases were registered as the group administered oriental medicine (O group), thirty-two cases as conventionally treated group (C group) and forty-one cases as control group without medication (N group). They were analyzed according to the kind of symptoms. The improvement of sore throat, diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome was more significant in the O group than in the C group. The effect on nausea was roughly equal between O and C groups. The effects of oriental medicines for the passage disturbance and the stomatitis were the same. The results of O group and C group were better than those of N group in every symptom. Acute radiation complication can be interpreted as unbalanced local liquid distribution from the oriental medical point of view, which is considered as a good indication of intermediate type in oriental medicines. Precise individualization will be required to control acute radiation complications more efficiently. (author).

  17. RADIATION COUNTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsworthy, W.W.

    1958-02-01

    This patent relates to a radiation counter, and more particularly, to a scintillation counter having high uniform sensitivity over a wide area and capable of measuring alpha, beta, and gamma contamination over wide energy ranges, for use in quickly checking the contami-nation of personnel. Several photomultiplier tubes are disposed in parallel relationship with a light tight housing behind a wall of scintillation material. Mounted within the housing with the photomultipliers are circuit means for producing an audible sound for each pulse detected, and a range selector developing a voltage proportional to the repetition rate of the detected pulses and automatically altering its time constant when the voltage reaches a predetermined value, so that manual range adjustment of associated metering means is not required.

  18. Radiation pneumonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amla, T.R.; Chakravarti, R.N.; Lal, K.

    1975-07-01

    Adult healthy rhesus monkeys were exposed to a course of roentgen irradiation over the chest and back to produce pulmonary changes simulating human radiation pneumonitis. Macroscopic and morphologic changes included dense adhesions, pleural thickening and increased consistency of the lungs. Microscopically the early reaction was characterized by dilatation of pulmonary vessels, microhaemorrhages, collapse of alveoli, permeation of the interstitial tissue with a fibrinous fluid and cells. In the late stage the fibrinous interstitial matrix was replaced by hyaline eosinophilic mass, fragmentation and dissolution of the elastic tissue and thickening of the alveolar walls. The cell population in the interstitial tissue showed decline and at places radiolytic effect. There was peribronchial and perivascular fibrosis and hyalinization and pulmonary arteries revealed marked degree of arteriosclerosis. The present study opens a new field for experimental research on the development of pulmonary hypertension as a post-irradiation complication.

  19. RADIATION DOSIMETER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkwell, W.R. Jr.; Adams, G.D. Jr.

    1960-05-10

    An improvement was made in the determination of amounts of ionizing radiation, particularly low-energy beta particles of less than 1000 rad total dose by means of fluid-phase dosimeter employing a stabilized-- sensitized ferrous-ferric colorimetric system in a sulphuric acid medium. The improvement in the dosimeter consists of adding to the ferrous-ferric system in concentrations of 10/sub -2/ to 10/sup -4/M an organic compound having one or more carboxylic or equivalent groups, such compounds being capable of chelating or complexing the iron ions in the solution. Suitable sensitizing and stabilizing agents are benzoic, phthalic, salicylic, malonic, lactic, maleic, oxalic, citric, succinic, phenolic tartaric, acetic, and adipic acid, as well as other compounds which are added to the solution alone or in certain combinations. As in conventional fluid-phase dosimeters, the absorbed dosage is correlated with a corresponding change in optical density at particular wavelengths of the solution.

  20. Acute otitis externa

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Charles PS

    2013-01-01

    Acute otitis externa, also known as ‘swimmer’s ear’, is a common disease of children, adolescents and adults. While chronic suppurative otitis media or acute otitis media with tympanostomy tubes or a perforation can cause acute otitis externa, both the infecting organisms and management protocol are different. This practice point focuses solely on managing acute otitis externa, without acute otitis media, tympanostomy tubes or a perforation being present.

  1. Radiation-induced esophagitis in lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sarah; Fairchild, Alysa

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced esophagitis is the most common local acute toxicity of radiotherapy (RT) delivered for the curative or palliative intent treatment of lung cancer. Although concurrent chemotherapy and higher RT dose are associated with increased esophagitis risk, advancements in RT techniques as well as adherence to esophageal dosimetric constraints may reduce the incidence and severity. Mild acute esophagitis symptoms are generally self-limited, and supportive management options include analgesics, acid suppression, diet modification, treatment for candidiasis, and maintenance of adequate nutrition. Esophageal stricture is the most common late sequela from esophageal irradiation and can be addressed with endoscopic dilatation. Approaches to prevent or mitigate these toxicities are also discussed. PMID:28210168

  2. Radiation chemistry comes before radiation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Peter; Wardman, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to illustrate some contributions of radiation chemistry to radiobiology and related science, and to draw attention to examples where radiation chemistry is central to our knowledge of specific aspects. Radiation chemistry is a mature branch of radiation science which is continually evolving and finding wider applications. This is particularly apparent in the study of the roles of free radicals in biology generally, and radiation biology specifically. The chemical viewpoint helps unite the spatial and temporal insight coming from radiation physics with the diversity of biological responses. While historically, the main application of radiation chemistry of relevance to radiation biology has been investigations of the free-radical processes leading to radiation-induced DNA damage and its chemical characterization, two features of radiation chemistry point to its wider importance. First, its emphasis on quantification and characterization at the molecular level helps provide links between DNA damage, biochemical repair processes, and mutagenicity and radiosensitivity. Second, its central pillar of chemical kinetics aids understanding of the roles of 'reactive oxygen species' in cell signalling and diverse biological effects more generally, and application of radiation chemistry in the development of drugs to enhance radiotherapy and as hypoxia-specific cytotoxins or diagnostic agents. The illustrations of the broader applications of radiation chemistry in this article focus on their relevance to radiation biology and demonstrate the importance of synergy in the radiation sciences. The past contributions of radiation chemistry to radiation biology are evident, but there remains considerable potential to help advance future biological understanding using the knowledge and techniques of radiation chemistry.

  3. Effect of mobile phone radiation on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Kouchaki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Scientific interest in potential mobile phone impact on human brain and performance has significantly increased in recent years. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of mobile phone radiation on seizure threshold in mice. Materials and methods:BALB/c male mice were randomly divided into three groups: control, acute, and chronic mobile phone radiation for 30, 60, and 90 min with frequency 900 to 950 MHz and pulse of 217 Hz. The chronic group received 30 days of radiation, while the acute group received only once. The intravenous infusion of pentylenetetrazole (5 mg/ml was used to induce seizure signs. Results:  Although acute mobile radiation did not change seizure threshold, chronic radiation decreased the clonic and tonic seizure thresholds significantly. Conclusion: Our data suggests that thecontinued and prolonged contact with the mobile phone radiation might increase the risk of seizure attacks and should be limited.

  4. Black-Body Radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Black-body radiation; thermal radiation; heat; electromagnetic radiation; Stefan's Law; Stefan–Boltzmann Law; Wien's Law; Rayleigh–Jeans Law; black-body spectrum; ultraviolet catastrophe; zero point energy; photon.

  5. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is exposed to radiation. Whether IMRT leads to improved control of tumor growth and better survival compared ... treatments. Some patients may receive radiation therapy and chemotherapy at the same time. The timing of radiation ...

  6. Radiation Exposure and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Updated: June 2017 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Radiation Exposure and Pregnancy The birth of a child ... experience. It is In addition to unavoidable background radiation, one hard to prepare yourself for the joys— ...

  7. Lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis: A differential diagnose to inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, Sverre; Knudsen, Lene Surland; Gerstoft, Jan

    2011-01-01

    , relapses of GI-symptoms or extended information concerning sexual habits, LGV was suspected and diagnosed. All patients responded with remission of GI-symptoms and endoscopic findings after oral treatment with doxycycline. Conclusion. Due to similarities between LGV and IBD, LGV should be considered...

  8. Thermal radiation heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, John R; Siegel, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Further expanding on the changes made to the fifth edition, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 6th Edition continues to highlight the relevance of thermal radiative transfer and focus on concepts that develop the radiative transfer equation (RTE). The book explains the fundamentals of radiative transfer, introduces the energy and radiative transfer equations, covers a variety of approaches used to gauge radiative heat exchange between different surfaces and structures, and provides solution techniques for solving the RTE.

  9. [Synchronous acute cholecystolithiasis and perforated acute appendicitis. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrón-Arredondo, Guillermo; de Atocha Rosado-Montero, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Acute appendicitis and acute cholecystitis are among the most common diagnoses that general surgeons operate on. However, it is rarely described in its synchronous form. A 43 year-old woman attending the clinic for right upper quadrant pain of 11 days duration. The patient refers to intermittent radiating pain in the right side, with positive Murphy, tachycardia, and fever. The laboratory results showed white cells 16,200/mm(3), glucose 345 mg/dl, abnormal liver function tests. Acute cholecystitis was reported with ultrasound. A Masson-type incision was made, noting an enlarged pyogenic gallbladder with thickened walls, sub-hepatic abscess of approximately 300 ml, greenish-yellow colour, and foetid. An anterograde subtotal cholecystectomy is performed due to difficulty in identifying elements of Calot triangle due to the inflammatory process, opening it and extracting stones. The right iliac fossa is reviewed, finding a plastron and a sub-serous retrocaecal appendix perforated in its middle third with free fecalith and an abscess in the pelvic cavity. An anterograde appendectomy was performed and the patient progressed satisfactorily, later being discharged due to improvement. In this patient, with a history of recurrent episodes of gallbladder pain and disseminated acute abdominal pain without peritoneal irritation, clinical suspicion was exacerbated cholecystitis with probable empyema of the gallbladder. Open surgery approach for this patient allowed access to both the appendix and gallbladder in order to perform a complete exploration of the abdominal cavity. The synchronous presentation of cholecystolithiasis and complicated appendicitis has not been reported in the literature. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  10. Studies of acute and chronic radiation injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1953-1970: Description of individual studies, data files, codes, and summaries of significant findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahn, D.; Fox, C.; Wright, B.J.; Carnes, B.A.

    1994-05-01

    Between 1953 and 1970, studies on the long-term effects of external x-ray and {gamma} irradiation on inbred and hybrid mouse stocks were carried out at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory. The results of these studies, plus the mating, litter, and pre-experimental stock records, were routinely coded on IBM cards for statistical analysis and record maintenance. Also retained were the survival data from studies performed in the period 1943-1953 at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. The card-image data files have been corrected where necessary and refiled on hard disks for long-term storage and ease of accessibility. In this report, the individual studies and data files are described, and pertinent factors regarding caging, husbandry, radiation procedures, choice of animals, and other logistical details are summarized. Some of the findings are also presented. Descriptions of the different mouse stocks and hybrids are included in an appendix; more than three dozen stocks were involved in these studies. Two other appendices detail the data files in their original card-image format and the numerical codes used to describe the animal`s exit from an experiment and, for some studies, any associated pathologic findings. Tabular summaries of sample sizes, dose levels, and other variables are also given to assist investigators in their selection of data for analysis. The archive is open to any investigator with legitimate interests and a willingness to collaborate and acknowledge the source of the data and to recognize appropriate conditions or caveats.

  11. Risks and management of radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Loren G

    2013-09-01

    High-energy ionizing radiation is harmful. Low-level exposure sources include background, occupational, and medical diagnostics. Radiation disaster incidents include radioactive substance accidents and nuclear power plant accidents. Terrorism and international conflict could trigger intentional radiation disasters that include radiation dispersion devices (RDD) (a radioactive dirty bomb), deliberate exposure to industrial radioactive substances, nuclear power plant sabotage, and nuclear weapon detonation. Nuclear fissioning events such as nuclear power plant incidents and nuclear weapon detonation release radioactive fallout that include radioactive iodine 131, cesium 137, strontium 90, uranium, plutonium, and many other radioactive isotopes. An RDD dirty bomb is likely to spread only one radioactive substance, with the most likely substance being cesium 137. Cobalt 60 and strontium 90 are other RDD dirty bomb possibilities. In a radiation disaster, stable patients should be decontaminated to minimize further radiation exposure. Potassium iodide (KI) is useful for iodine 131 exposure. Prussian blue (ferric hexacyanoferrate) enhances the fecal excretion of cesium via ion exchange. Ca-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) and Zn-DTPA form stable ionic complexes with plutonium, americium, and curium, which are excreted in the urine. Amifostine enhances chemical and enzymatic repair of damaged DNA. Acute radiation sickness ranges in severity from mild to lethal, which can be assessed by the nausea/vomiting onset/duration, complete blood cell count findings, and neurologic symptoms.

  12. Mild acute pancreatitis with vildagliptin use

    OpenAIRE

    Ravikant Saraogi; Ritwika Mallik; Sujoy Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Vildagliptin has not been associated with the development of acute pancreatitis in postmarketing reports except one case report from Sydney, Australia. We present the case report of 42 year old male, diabetic, with no historyof alcohol use, on vildagliptin 50 mg and metformin 500 mg daily since 6 months, who presented with severe abdominal pain radiating to back, nausea and fever. On evaluation, serum pancreatic enzymes were elevated, triglycerides were not raised and ultrasound showed swolle...

  13. Acute toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated with and without image-guided radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Scott

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT increases the accuracy of treatment delivery through daily target localisation. We report on toxicity symptoms experienced during radiotherapy treatment, with and without IGRT in prostate cancer patients treated radically. Methods Between 2006 and 2009, acute toxicity data for ten symptoms were collected prospectively onto standardized assessment forms. Toxicity was scored during radiotherapy, according to the Common Terminology Criteria Adverse Events V3.0, for 275 prostate cancer patients before and after the implementation of a fiducial marker IGRT program and dose escalation from 74Gy in 37 fractions, to 78Gy in 39 fractions. Margins and planning constraints were maintained the same during the study period. The symptoms scored were urinary frequency, cystitis, bladder spasm, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, proctitis, anal skin discomfort and fatigue. Analysis was conducted for the maximum grade of toxicity and the median number of days from the onset of that toxicity to the end of treatment. Results In the IGRT group, 14228 toxicity scores were analysed from 249 patients. In the non-IGRT group, 1893 toxicity scores were analysed from 26 patients. Urinary frequency ≥G3 affected 23% and 7% in the non-IGRT and IGRT group respectively (p = 0.0188. Diarrhoea ≥G2 affected 15% and 3% of patients in the non-IGRT and IGRT groups (p = 0.0174. Fatigue ≥G2 affected 23% and 8% of patients in the non-IGRT and IGRT groups (p = 0.0271. The median number of days with a toxicity was higher for ≥G2 (p = 0.0179 and ≥G3 frequency (p = 0.0027, ≥G2 diarrhoea (p = 0.0033 and ≥G2 fatigue (p = 0.0088 in the non-IGRT group compared to the IGRT group. Other toxicities were not of significant statistical difference. Conclusions In this study, prostate cancer patients treated radically with IGRT had less severe urinary frequency, diarrhoea and fatigue during treatment

  14. Atypical acute reaction associated with radiotherapy. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akamansu, M.; Erel, A. [Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Medicine

    1998-09-01

    Radiation therapy may cause acute and/or chronic skin reactions. In this paper a patient with contact urticaria associated with irradiation is described. We could not determine the agent behind the contact urticaria in our patient in light of the current literature. We are reporting this case because the literature neither mentioned radiotherapy as being among the agents that lead to contact urticaria nor reported contact urticaria as being among the acute reactions to radiotherapy. (author)

  15. Pentoxifylline Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis (AP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-14

    Acute Pancreatitis (AP); Gallstone Pancreatitis; Alcoholic Pancreatitis; Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis; Trauma Acute Pancreatitis; Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis; Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis; Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis; Cancer Acute Pancreatitis; Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis)

  16. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000103.htm Acute respiratory distress syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening lung ...

  17. Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Celiac Disease Additional Content Medical News Acute Mesenteric Ischemia By Parswa Ansari, MD, Assistant Professor and Program ... Abdominal Abscesses Abdominal Wall Hernias Inguinal Hernia Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Appendicitis Ileus Intestinal Obstruction Ischemic Colitis Perforation of ...

  18. Acute Bronchitis - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Acute Bronchitis URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Acute Bronchitis - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  19. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... APF You are here Home Diet and Nutrition Weight loss & acute Porphyria Being overweight is a particular problem ... of carbohydrate and energy in an effort to lose weight can worsen these diseases. Severe acute attacks have ...

  20. Evaluation and redesign of radiation shielding in a radionuclide production facility at a particle accelerator / Onalenna Kegopotsemang

    OpenAIRE

    Kegopotsemang, Onalenna

    2004-01-01

    iThemba LABS is a particle accelerator facility housing a radionuclide production facility that uses a 66 MeV proton beam to produce radionuclides for medical and industrial use. Ionising radiation is produced by a variety of sources at Themba LABS. Ionising is a health hazard. High doses can cause acute radiation syndrome, i.e. "radiation sickness". Lower doses cannot cause acute symptom, but carry a risk of radiation-related cancer. Ionising radiation is also detrimental to materials, and c...

  1. Radiation Leukemogenesis at Low Dose Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, Michael; Ullrich, Robert

    2013-09-25

    The major goals of this program were to study the efficacy of low dose rate radiation exposures for the induction of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and to characterize the leukemias that are caused by radiation exposures at low dose rate. An irradiator facility was designed and constructed that allows large numbers of mice to be irradiated at low dose rates for protracted periods (up to their life span). To the best of our knowledge this facility is unique in the US and it was subsequently used to study radioprotectors being developed for radiological defense (PLoS One. 7(3), e33044, 2012) and is currently being used to study the role of genetic background in susceptibility to radiation-induced lung cancer. One result of the irradiation was expected; low dose rate exposures are ineffective in inducing AML. However, another result was completely unexpected; the irradiated mice had a very high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), approximately 50%. It was unexpected because acute exposures are ineffective in increasing HCC incidence above background. This is a potential important finding for setting exposure limits because it supports the concept of an 'inverse dose rate effect' for some tumor types. That is, for the development of some tumor types low dose rate exposures carry greater risks than acute exposures.

  2. Gravitation radiation observations

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, E. N.

    2017-01-01

    The notion of gravitational radiation begins with electromagnetic radiation. In 1887 Heinrich Hertz, working in one room, generated and received electromagnetic radiation. Maxwell's equations describe the electromagnetic field. The quanta of electromagnetic radiation are spin 1 photons. They are fundamental to atomic physics and quantum electrodynamics.

  3. Detection of Terahertz Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for detecting terahertz radiation, a camera device, and a method for detecting terahertz radiation.......The present invention relates to a system for detecting terahertz radiation, a camera device, and a method for detecting terahertz radiation....

  4. Radiation-Induced Heart Disease: Pathologic Abnormalities and Putative Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil K Taunk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a common diagnosis in women. Breast radiation has become a critical in managing patients who receive breast conserving surgery, or have certain high-risk features after mastectomy. Most patients have an excellent prognosis, therefore understanding the late effects of radiation to the chest is important. Radiation induced heart disease (RIHD comprises a spectrum of cardiac pathology including myocardial fibrosis and cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, valvular disease, pericardial disease, and arrhythmias. Tissue fibrosis is a common mediator in RIHD. Multiple pathways converge with both acute and chronic cellular, molecular, and genetic changes to result in fibrosis. In this article, we review the pathophysiology of cardiac disease related to radiation therapy to the chest. Our understanding of these mechanisms has improved substantially, but much work remains to further refine radiation delivery techniques and develop therapeutics to battle late effects of radiation.

  5. Radiology of acute phlebothrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, E.I.; Zeitler, E.

    1980-09-01

    The difference in technique of phlebography in acute phlebothrombosis and that in chronic venous insufficiency is demonstrated. Since acute phlebothrombosis can be cured with good results by thrombectomy and fibrinolysis in the first few days of the disease, phlebography should be performed early, preferably the day on which the presence of acute thrombosis is suspected.

  6. Radiopharmaceuticals in Acute Porphyria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, Nanno; Mamedova, Ilahä; Jansman, Frank G A

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The acute porphyrias are a group of rare metabolic disorders of the heme biosynthetic pathway. Carriers of the acute porphyria gene are prone to potentially fatal acute attacks, which can be precipitated by drug exposure. It is therefore important to know whether a drug is safe for carriers

  7. Acute mastoiditis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthonsen, Kristian; Høstmark, Karianne; Hansen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Conservative treatment of acute otitis media may lead to more complications. This study evaluates changes in incidence, the clinical and microbiological findings, the complications and the outcome of acute mastoiditis in children in a country employing conservative guidelines in treating acute...

  8. Thermal radiation heat transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, R.; Howell, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of heat transfer by thermal radiation is presented, including the radiative behavior of materials, radiation between surfaces, and gas radiation. Among the topics considered are property prediction by electromagnetic theory, the observed properties of solid materials, radiation in the presence of other modes of energy transfer, the equations of transfer for an absorbing-emitting gas, and radiative transfer in scattering and absorbing media. Also considered are radiation exchange between black isothermal surfaces, radiation exchange in enclosures composed of diffuse gray surfaces and in enclosures having some specularly reflecting surfaces, and radiation exchange between nondiffuse nongray surfaces. The use of the Monte Carlo technique in solving radiant-exchange problems and problems of radiative transfer through absorbing-emitting media is explained.

  9. Dermatopathology effects of simulated solar particle event radiation exposure in the porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzari, Jenine K; Diffenderfer, Eric S; Hagan, Sarah; Billings, Paul C; Gridley, Daila S; Seykora, John T; Kennedy, Ann R; Cengel, Keith A

    2015-07-01

    The space environment exposes astronauts to risks of acute and chronic exposure to ionizing radiation. Of particular concern is possible exposure to ionizing radiation from a solar particle event (SPE). During an SPE, magnetic disturbances in specific regions of the Sun result in the release of intense bursts of ionizing radiation, primarily consisting of protons that have a highly variable energy spectrum. Thus, SPE events can lead to significant total body radiation exposures to astronauts in space vehicles and especially while performing extravehicular activities. Simulated energy profiles suggest that SPE radiation exposures are likely to be highest in the skin. In the current report, we have used our established miniature pig model system to evaluate the skin toxicity of simulated SPE radiation exposures that closely resemble the energy and fluence profile of the September, 1989 SPE using either conventional radiation (electrons) or proton simulated SPE radiation. Exposure of animals to electron or proton radiation led to dose-dependent increases in epidermal pigmentation, the presence of necrotic keratinocytes at the dermal-epidermal boundary and pigment incontinence, manifested by the presence of melanophages in the derm is upon histological examination. We also observed epidermal hyperplasia and a reduction in vascular density at 30 days following exposure to electron or proton simulated SPE radiation. These results suggest that the doses of electron or proton simulated SPE radiation results in significant skin toxicity that is quantitatively and qualitatively similar. Radiation-induced skin damage is often one of the first clinical signs of both acute and non-acute radiation injury where infection may occur, if not treated. In this report, histopathology analyses of acute radiation-induced skin injury are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pelvic radiation disease: Updates on treatment options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazzoni, Leonardo; La Marca, Marina; Guido, Alessandra; Morganti, Alessio Giuseppe; Bazzoli, Franco; Fuccio, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic cancers are among the most frequently diagnosed neoplasms and radiotherapy represents one of the main treatment options. The irradiation field usually encompasses healthy intestinal tissue, especially of distal large bowel, thus inducing gastrointestinal (GI) radiation-induced toxicity. Indeed, up to half of radiation-treated patients say that their quality of life is affected by GI symptoms (e.g., rectal bleeding, diarrhoea). The constellation of GI symptoms - from transient to long-term, from mild to very severe - experienced by patients who underwent radiation treatment for a pelvic tumor have been comprised in the definition of pelvic radiation disease (PRD). A correct and evidence-based therapeutic approach of patients experiencing GI radiation-induced toxicity is mandatory. Therapeutic non-surgical strategies for PRD can be summarized in two broad categories, i.e., medical and endoscopic. Of note, most of the studies have investigated the management of radiation-induced rectal bleeding. Patients with clinically significant bleeding (i.e., causing chronic anemia) should firstly be considered for medical management (i.e., sucralfate enemas, metronidazole and hyperbaric oxygen); in case of failure, endoscopic treatment should be implemented. This latter should be considered the first choice in case of acute, transfusion requiring, bleeding. More well-performed, high quality studies should be performed, especially the role of medical treatments should be better investigated as well as the comparative studies between endoscopic and hyperbaric oxygen treatments. PMID:26677440

  11. Acute luchtweginfecties en acute coronaire syndromen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, T. T.; Mairuhu, A. T. A.; Gerdes, V. E. A.; Brandjes, D. P. M.; Peters, R. J. G.; van Gorp, E. C. M.

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological research indicates a correlation between respiratory-tract infections and acute cardiovascular events. Chronic infections have been linked to the development of atherosclerosis. As a result of chronic infections a prolonged and elevated inflammatory activity arises. Inflammation and

  12. Decitabine in Treating Children With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  13. Radiation terrorism: what society needs from the radiobiology-radiation protection and radiation oncology communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, C Norman; Parker, Gerald W

    2009-06-01

    Society's and individuals' concerns about the adverse effects from radiation are logically amplified many times when radiological terrorism is considered. The spectrum of events include industrial sabotage, the use of an explosive or non-explosive radiological dispersal device, the placement of a radiological exposure device in a public facility and the use of an improvised nuclear device. The consequences of an event relate to the physical and medical damage of the event itself, the financial impact, and the acute and long-term medical consequences, including fear of radiation-induced cancer. The magnitude of a state-sponsored nuclear event is so great that limited detailed response planning had been done in the past, as compared to the work now ongoing. Planning is done on the basis of scenario modelling. Medical response planning includes medical triage, distribution of victims to care by experienced physicians, developing medical countermeasures to mitigate or treat radiation injury, counselling and appropriately following exposed or potentially exposed people, and helping the local community develop confidence in their own response plan. Optimal response must be based on the best available science. This requires scientists who can define, prioritise and address the gaps in knowledge with the range of expertise from basic physics to biology to translational research to systems expertise to response planning to healthcare policy to communications. Not only are there unique needs and career opportunities, but there is also the opportunity for individuals to serve their communities and country with education regarding radiation effects and by formulating scientifically based government policy.

  14. Radiation terrorism: what society needs from the radiobiology-radiation protection and radiation oncology communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, C Norman [Office of Preparedness and Emergency Response, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC (United States); Parker, Gerald W [Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Society's and individuals' concerns about the adverse effects from radiation are logically amplified many times when radiological terrorism is considered. The spectrum of events include industrial sabotage, the use of an explosive or non-explosive radiological dispersal device, the placement of a radiological exposure device in a public facility and the use of an improvised nuclear device. The consequences of an event relate to the physical and medical damage of the event itself, the financial impact, and the acute and long-term medical consequences, including fear of radiation-induced cancer. The magnitude of a state-sponsored nuclear event is so great that limited detailed response planning had been done in the past, as compared to the work now ongoing. Planning is done on the basis of scenario modelling. Medical response planning includes medical triage, distribution of victims to care by experienced physicians, developing medical countermeasures to mitigate or treat radiation injury, counselling and appropriately following exposed or potentially exposed people, and helping the local community develop confidence in their own response plan. Optimal response must be based on the best available science. This requires scientists who can define, prioritise and address the gaps in knowledge with the range of expertise from basic physics to biology to translational research to systems expertise to response planning to healthcare policy to communications. Not only are there unique needs and career opportunities, but there is also the opportunity for individuals to serve their communities and country with education regarding radiation effects and by formulating scientifically based government policy.

  15. Possible Radiation Sensitisation by Trastuzumab Leading to Radiation-Induced Myelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Alastair B; Evans, Tamasin; Hayward, Richard L; Higgins, Geoffrey S; Murray, Katherine L; Summers, David; Kunkler, Ian H

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY: BACKGROUND: Trastuzumab is used as adjuvant treatment in patients with HER2-positive breast cancers and has been shown to reduce the chance of recurrence by up to 50%. However, experience with it given with radiotherapy is limited and there is in vitro evidence of a radiosensiti-sation effect. We describe the first case of trastuzumab-associated radiation-induced myelitis. CASE REPORT: This patient received a calculated dose of 28 Gy to the spinal cord when receiving adjuvant radiotherapy to the chest wall and supraclavicular and axillary lymph nodes. This is well below the accepted radiation tolerance of the spinal cord (50-60 Gy) but she developed radiation-induced myelitis of her spinal cord with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging changes. We postulate that trastuzu-mab given concurrently with radiation may have acted as a radiosensitiser and that normal repair mechanisms in the acute stage were affected by trastuzumab blockage of epidermal growth factor receptors, resulting in demy-elination at a lower dose of radiation than normally seen. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant radiotherapy and adjuvant trastuzumab treatment should be given with caution and consideration made of delaying trastuzumab until after radiotherapy has been completed. As longer-term data become available for patients who received trastuzumab and radiation, it will become clearer whether there is a significant interaction on organs such as the heart and spinal cord in the radiation field.

  16. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Michael I [Dublin, CA

    2010-02-02

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  17. ASSOCIATION OF 1800 CGY CRANIAL IRRADIATION WITH INTELLECTUAL FUNCTION IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC-LEUKEMIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANKOVIC, M; BROUWERS, P; VALSECCHI, MG; VANVELDHUIZEN, A; KAMPHUIS, R; KINGMA, A; MOR, W; VANDONGENMELMAN, J; FERRONATO, L; MANCINI, MA; SPINETTA, JJ; MASERA, G

    1994-01-01

    Cranial radiation therapy in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia has been associated with adverse neuropsychological effects, such as low intelligence. However, records show that these associations usually occur when the dose of radiation used is 2400 cGy. We investigated whether a lower dose of

  18. Investigation of an acute microwave-oven hand injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickason, W L; Barutt, J P

    1984-01-01

    A case of an acute microwave-oven injury is presented, demonstrating a selective radial hand neuropathy and chronic moderate dysesthesia with discussion of the potential mechanism of disease. Microwave characteristics, their spectrum of effects on biological structures, microwave-oven safety design, and the international controversy concerning nonionizing radiation research are described.

  19. Diagnostic Utility of CT Scan for Acute Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ED records for 364 children 2 to 5 years of age who presented to the Children’s National Medical Center ED, Washington, DC, between July 1, 2003, and June 30, 2006, with headache as their chief complaint, were examined to determine whether CT scans led to better acute management, justifying the risk of radiation.

  20. Melioidosis: reactivation during radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegasothy, B.V.; Goslen, J.B.; Salvatore, M.A.

    1980-05-01

    Melioidosis is caused by Pseudomonas pseudomallei, a gram-negative, motile bacillus which is a naturally occurring soil saprophyte. The organism is endemic in Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Australia, and parts of Central and South America. Most human disease occurs from infection acquired in these countries. Infection with P pseudomallei may produce no apparent clinical disease. Acute pneumonitis or septicemia may result from inhalation of the organism, and inoculation into sites of trauma may cause localized skin abscesses, or the disease may remain latent and be reactivated months or years later by trauma, burns, or pneumococcal pneumonia, diabetic ketoacidosis, influenza, or bronchogenic carcinoma. The last is probably the commonest form of melioidosis seen in the United States. We present the first case of reactivation of melioidosis after radiation therapy for carcinoma of the lung, again emphasizing the need to consider melioidosis in a septic patient with a history of travel, especially to Southeast Asia.

  1. Unique proteomic signature for radiation sensitive patients; a comparative study between normo-sensitive and radiation sensitive breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiöld, Sara [Center for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wernner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Azimzadeh, Omid [Institute of Radiation Biology, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum München (Germany); Merl-Pham, Juliane [Research Unit Protein Science, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg (Germany); Naslund, Ingemar; Wersall, Peter; Lidbrink, Elisabet [Division of Radiotherapy, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Tapio, Soile [Institute of Radiation Biology, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum München (Germany); Harms-Ringdahl, Mats [Center for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wernner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Haghdoost, Siamak, E-mail: Siamak.Haghdoost@su.se [Center for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wernner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • The unique protein expression profiles were found that separate radiosensitive from normal sensitive breast cancer patients. • The oxidative stress response, coagulation properties and acute phase response suggested to be the hallmarks of radiation sensitivity. - Abstract: Radiation therapy is a cornerstone of modern cancer treatment. Understanding the mechanisms behind normal tissue sensitivity is essential in order to minimize adverse side effects and yet to prevent local cancer reoccurrence. The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers of radiation sensitivity to enable personalized cancer treatment. To investigate the mechanisms behind radiation sensitivity a pilot study was made where eight radiation-sensitive and nine normo-sensitive patients were selected from a cohort of 2914 breast cancer patients, based on acute tissue reactions after radiation therapy. Whole blood was sampled and irradiated in vitro with 0, 1, or 150 mGy followed by 3 h incubation at 37 °C. The leukocytes of the two groups were isolated, pooled and protein expression profiles were investigated using isotope-coded protein labeling method (ICPL). First, leukocytes from the in vitro irradiated whole blood from normo-sensitive and extremely sensitive patients were compared to the non-irradiated controls. To validate this first study a second ICPL analysis comparing only the non-irradiated samples was conducted. Both approaches showed unique proteomic signatures separating the two groups at the basal level and after doses of 1 and 150 mGy. Pathway analyses of both proteomic approaches suggest that oxidative stress response, coagulation properties and acute phase response are hallmarks of radiation sensitivity supporting our previous study on oxidative stress response. This investigation provides unique characteristics of radiation sensitivity essential for individualized radiation therapy.

  2. Radiation Safety Awareness among Radiation Workers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: All x-ray utilization in human medicine leads to exposure of the patient and personnel to radiation. Although the quantity is low in diagnostic examinations, special attention should be given to this fact in order to minimize unnecessary exposure for both groups. Exposure to ionizing radiation cannot be avoided ...

  3. Acute renal failure associated with nonfulminant acute viral hepatitis A

    OpenAIRE

    Sarawgi, S.; Gupta, A K; Arora, D S; Jasuja, S.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis A runs a benign course in children, but may have atypical presentations in adults. Very rarely acute renal failure complicates nonfulminant hepatitis A. We report a patient with nonfulminant acute viral hepatitis A with multiorgan involvement. Patient had biopsy proven acute interstitial nephritis, acute pancreatitis, acute myocarditis and required hemodialysis for 6 weeks.

  4. Hendee's radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pawlicki, Todd; Starkschall, George

    2016-01-01

    The publication of this fourth edition, more than ten years on from the publication of Radiation Therapy Physics third edition, provides a comprehensive and valuable update to the educational offerings in this field. Led by a new team of highly esteemed authors, building on Dr Hendee’s tradition, Hendee’s Radiation Therapy Physics offers a succinctly written, fully modernised update. Radiation physics has undergone many changes in the past ten years: intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has become a routine method of radiation treatment delivery, digital imaging has replaced film-screen imaging for localization and verification, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is frequently used, in many centers proton therapy has become a viable mode of radiation therapy, new approaches have been introduced to radiation therapy quality assurance and safety that focus more on process analysis rather than specific performance testing, and the explosion in patient-and machine-related data has necessitated an ...

  5. Fluorescent radiation converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viehmann, W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A fluorescence radiation converter is described which includes a substantially undoped optically transparent substrate and a waveshifter coating deposited on at least one portion of the substrate for absorption of radiation and conversion of fluorescent radiation. The coating is formed to substantially 1000 g/liter of a solvent, 70 to 200 g/liter of an organic polymer, and 0.2 to 25 g/liter of at least one organic fluorescent dye. The incoming incident radiation impinges on the coating. Radiation is absorbed by the fluorescent dye and is re-emitted as a longer wavelength radiation. Radiation is trapped within the substrate and is totally internally reflected by the boundary surface. Emitted radiation leaves the substrate ends to be detected.

  6. Cell Radiation Experiment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    2010-01-01

    The cell radiation experiment system (CRES) is a perfused-cell culture apparatus, within which cells from humans or other animals can (1) be maintained in homeostasis while (2) being exposed to ionizing radiation during controlled intervals and (3) being monitored to determine the effects of radiation and the repair of radiation damage. The CRES can be used, for example, to determine effects of drug, radiation, and combined drug and radiation treatments on both normal and tumor cells. The CRES can also be used to analyze the effects of radiosensitive or radioprotectant drugs on cells subjected to radiation. The knowledge gained by use of the CRES is expected to contribute to the development of better cancer treatments and of better protection for astronauts, medical-equipment operators, and nuclear-power-plant workers, and others exposed frequently to ionizing radiation.

  7. Environmental Radiation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) is an electronic and print journal compiled and distributed quarterly by the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air's National Air and...

  8. Radiation processing in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  9. Radiation Protection Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A handbook which sets forth the Kennedy Space Center radiation protection policy is presented. The book also covers administrative direction and guidance on organizational and procedural requirements of the program. Only ionizing radiation is covered.

  10. Breast radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - breast - discharge ... You may notice changes in the way your breast looks or feels (if you are getting radiation ... after treatment is over. The skin on your breast may become more sensitive or numb. Skin and ...

  11. ERLN Radiation Focus Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Environmental Response Laboratory Network, the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) here provides your laboratory with access to radiation-specific laboratory guidance documents and training courses.

  12. Radiation and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... Is it safe? > Radiation and pregnancy Radiation and pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  13. Radiation therapy -- skin care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000735.htm Radiation therapy - skin care To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. When you have radiation treatment for cancer, you may have some changes ...

  14. 2015 Space Radiation Standing Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on December 8 - 9, 2015. The SRP met with representatives from the Space Radiation Element and members of the Human Research Program (HRP) to review the updated research plan for the Risk of Radiation Carcinogenesis Cancer Risk. The SRP also reviewed the newly revised Evidence Reports for the Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events (SPEs) (Acute Risk), the Risk of Acute (In-flight) and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure (CNS Risk), and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation (Degen Risk), as well as a status update on these Risks. The SRP would like to commend Dr. Simonsen, Dr. Huff, Dr. Nelson, and Dr. Patel for their detailed presentations. The Space Radiation Element did a great job presenting a very large volume of material. The SRP considers it to be a strong program that is well-organized, well-coordinated and generates valuable data. The SRP commended the tissue sharing protocols, working groups, systems biology analysis, and standardization of models. In several of the discussed areas the SRP suggested improvements of the research plans in the future. These include the following: It is important that the team has expanded efforts examining immunology and inflammation as important components of the space radiation biological response. This is an overarching and important focus that is likely to apply to all aspects of the program including acute, CVD, CNS, cancer and others. Given that the area of immunology/inflammation is highly complex (and especially so as it relates to radiation), it warrants the expansion of investigators expertise in immunology and inflammation to work with the individual research projects and also the NASA Specialized Center of Research (NSCORs). Historical data on radiation injury to be entered into the Watson

  15. Acute Idiopathic Scrotal Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheál Breen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of acute idiopathic scrotal edema (AISE in a 4-year-old boy who presented with acute scrotal pain and erythema. The clinical features, ultrasound appearance, and natural history of this rare diagnosis are reviewed. In this report, we highlight the importance of good ultrasound technique in differentiating the etiology of the acute scrotum and demonstrate the color Doppler “Fountain Sign” that is highly suggestive of AISE.

  16. Acute recurrent polyhydramnios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Bundgaard, Anne; Skibsted, Lillian

    2007-01-01

    Acute recurrent polyhydramnios is a rare occurrence characterized by a poor fetal outcome. This is a case report describing a 34-year-old woman presenting with acute recurrent polyhydramnios. Treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and therapeutic amniocenteses was initiated...... an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. As in normal pregnancies, amniotic prolactin levels decreased by 80% from highest to lowest value in this case of resolving acute recurrent polyhydramnios....

  17. Acute periodontal lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Gonzalez, David; Alonso Álvarez, Bettina; Arriba de la Fuente, Lorenzo; Santa- Cruz Astorqui, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz Alonso, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    This is a review and update on acute conditions affecting the gingival tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases, and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious process not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, muco-cutanenous disorders, and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important since it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodo...

  18. Radiation effects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to understand and combat potential radiation damage problems in semiconductor devices and circuits. Written by international experts, this book explains the effects of radiation on semiconductor devices, radiation detectors, and electronic devices and components. These contributors explore emerging applications, detector technologies, circuit design techniques, new materials, and innovative system approaches. The text focuses on how the technology is being used rather than the mathematical foundations behind it. It covers CMOS radiation-tolerant circuit implementations, CMOS pr

  19. External radiation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  20. Synchrotron radiation facilities

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Particularly in the past few years, interest in using the synchrotron radiation emanating from high energy, circular electron machines has grown considerably. In our February issue we included an article on the synchrotron radiation facility at Frascati. This month we are spreading the net wider — saying something about the properties of the radiation, listing the centres where synchrotron radiation facilities exist, adding a brief description of three of them and mentioning areas of physics in which the facilities are used.

  1. Acute rhinosinusitis in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aring, Ann M; Chan, Miriam M

    2011-05-01

    Rhinosinusitis is one of the most common conditions for which patients seek medical care. Subtypes of rhinosinusitis include acute, subacute, recurrent acute, and chronic. Acute rhinosinusitis is further specified as bacterial or viral. Most cases of acute rhinosinusitis are caused by viral infections associated with the common cold. Symptomatic treatment with analgesics, decongestants, and saline nasal irrigation is appropriate in patients who present with nonsevere symptoms (e.g., mild pain, temperature less than 101°F [38.3°C]). Narrow-spectrum antibiotics, such as amoxicillin or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, are recommended in patients with symptoms or signs of acute rhinosinusitis that do not improve after seven days, or that worsen at any time. Limited evidence supports the use of intranasal corticosteroids in patients with acute rhinosinusitis. Radiographic imaging is not recommended in the evaluation of uncomplicated acute rhinosinusitis. Computed tomography of the sinuses should not be used for routine evaluation, although it may be used to define anatomic abnormalities and evaluate patients with suspected complications of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Rare complications of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis include orbital, intracranial, and bony involvement. If symptoms persist or progress after maximal medical therapy, and if computed tomography shows evidence of sinus disease, referral to an otolaryngologist is warranted.

  2. Fulminant Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hassan A Alayafi; Faisal R Jahangiri; Mukki Almuntashri

    2014-01-01

      Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, or post infectious encephalomyelitis is an immunologically mediated demyelinating disorder affecting the central nervous system after infection or vaccination...

  3. Radiation bioengineering; Bioinzynieria radiacyjna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosiak, J.M. [Politechnika Lodzka, Lodz (Poland). Inst. Techniki Radiacynej

    1997-10-01

    Radiation processing for modification of different properties of materials being designed for medical use have been described. Especially the polymers as very often used for medical equipment production have been modified by radiation. The different medical applications of biomaterials based on radiation modified polymers have been presented. 13 refs.

  4. Ultraviolet radiation and immunosuppression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, G M

    2009-11-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a complete carcinogen. The effects of UV radiation are mediated via direct damage to cellular DNA in the skin and suppression of image surveillance mechanisms. In the context of organ transplantation, addiction of drugs which suppress the immune system add greatly to the carcinogenicity of UV radiation. This review considers the mechanisms of such effects.

  5. (Mis)Understanding Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, Stephen Bruce [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-10

    This set of slides discusses radiation and fears concerning it at a non-technical level. Included are some misconceptions and practical consequences resulting from these. The concept of radiation hormesis is explained. The author concludes that a number of significant societal benefits are being foregone because of overly cautious concerns about low-level radiation.

  6. RADIATION AND SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. S.A. Adewuyi

    Introduction. Radiation therapy is devoted to management of patients with cancers and occasionally benign conditions by ionizing radiations. It can be used alone or in combination with other treatment modalities like surgery, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy and immunotherapy . Ionizing radiations were discovered.

  7. Radiation Protection Using Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M.; Lu, Meng; Lucente-Schultz, Rebecca; Leonard, Ashley; Doyle, Condell Dewayne; Kosynkin, Dimitry V.; Price, Brandi Katherine

    2011-01-01

    This invention is a means of radiation protection, or cellular oxidative stress mitigation, via a sequence of quenching radical species using nano-engineered scaffolds, specifically single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and their derivatives. The material can be used as a means of radiation protection by reducing the number of free radicals within, or nearby, organelles, cells, tissue, organs, or living organisms, thereby reducing the risk of damage to DNA and other cellular components (i.e., RNA, mitochondria, membranes, etc.) that can lead to chronic and/or acute pathologies, including but not limited to cancer, cardiovascular disease, immuno-suppression, and disorders of the central nervous system. In addition, this innovation could be used as a prophylactic or antidote for accidental radiation exposure, during high-altitude or space travel where exposure to radiation is anticipated, or to protect from exposure from deliberate terrorist or wartime use of radiation- containing weapons.

  8. [About Dose-Effect Relationship in the Environment Radiation Protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udalova, A A

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important stages in the development of a methodology for the environment radiation protection is the assessment and justification of critical radiation exposure levels for ecosystem components. In this study application of the approach for critical dose level estimation is demonstrated on the example of the data about ionizing radiation effect on reproduction and survival of agricultural plants after acute and chronic exposures. Influence of the type of dose-effect relationship on the estimated values of the critical doses and dose rates is studied using three models (linear, logarithmic and logistic). The findings obtained do not provide any robust recommendations in favor of one of the three tested functions. The models of dose-effect relationship (threshold or non-threshold) and types of radiation-induced effects (stochastic and deterministic) are discussed from the viewpoint of developing a system for radiation protection of human and non-human biota.

  9. Impact of climate change on occupational exposure to solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Carlo; Borra, Massimo; Militello, Andrea; Polichetti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to solar radiation may induce both acute and long-term effects on skin and eyes. Personal exposure is very difficult to assess accurately, as it depends on environmental, organisational and individual factors. The ongoing climate change interacting with stratospheric ozone dynamics may affect occupational exposure to solar radiation. In addition, tropospheric levels of environmental pollutants interacting with solar radiation may be altered by climate dynamics, so introducing another variable affecting the overall exposure to solar radiation. Given the uncertainties regarding the direction of changes in exposure to solar radiation due to climate change, compliance of outdoor workers with protective measures and a proper health surveillance are crucial. At the same time, education and training, along with the promotion of healthier lifestyles, are of paramount importance.

  10. Pelvic (between the hips) radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiation treatment area on your body is large. Alternative Names Radiation of the pelvis - discharge; Cancer treatment - pelvic radiation; Prostate cancer - pelvic radiation; Ovarian cancer - pelvic radiation; Cervical ...

  11. Study on the radiation-induced biological responses based on the analysis of metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sungkee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Haeran; Roh, Changhyun; Shin, Heejune; Ryu, Dongkyoung

    2013-01-15

    1. Objectives □ Establishment of basis of biological radiation response study by metabolite analysis 2. Project results □ Establishment of analytical basis of radiation-responsive metabolites in biological samples - Large scale collection of tissue samples from irradiated animal for radiation metabolomics research - Establishment of mass spectromety (GC MS, LC MS-MS) analysis methods of biological samples - 3 Standard Operation Protocols (SOP) for ultra high resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS, Q-TOF MS) analysis of metabolites from biological samples - Establishment of database for radiation metabolites □ Basic research on radiation-responsive metabolites and the interpretation of their functions - Validation of spermidine as a candidate biomarker of acute radiation response in mouse blood - Verification of 5 radiation-responsive steroid hormones and alteration of their metabolic enzyme activities in mouse blood - Verification of 13 radiation-responsive amino acids (related to oxidative stress, neurotransmission, energy metabolism) in regional mouse brain -Verification of 10 radiation-responsive amino acids (related to oxidative stress, neurotransmission, energy metabolism) in regional mouse brain - Verification of 74 radiation-responsive metabolites in whole rat brain by ultra high resolution FT-ICR MS and Q-TOF MS analysis 3. Expected benefits and plan of application □ Establishment of research basis of radiation metabolomics in Korea □ Provision of core technology in radiation bioscience and safety field by application of radiation metabolomics results to the technology development in radiation biodosimetry, and radiation response evaluation and modulation.

  12. Photoprotection of human skin beyond ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether-Beck, Susanne; Marini, Alessandra; Jaenicke, Thomas; Krutmann, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Photoprotection of human skin by means of sunscreens or daily skin-care products is traditionally centered around the prevention of acute (e.g. sunburn) and chronic (e.g. skin cancer and photoaging) skin damage that may result from exposure to ultraviolet rays (UVB and UVA). Within the last decade, however, it has been appreciated that wavelengths beyond the ultraviolet spectrum, in particular visible light and infrared radiation, contribute to skin damage in general and photoaging of human skin in particular. As a consequence, attempts have been made to develop skin care/sunscreen products that not only protect against UVB or UVA radiation but provide photoprotection against visible light and infrared radiation as well. In this article, we will briefly review the current knowledge about the mechanisms responsible for visible light/infrared radiation-induced skin damage and then, based on this information, discuss strategies that have been successfully used or may be employed in the future to achieve photoprotection of human skin beyond ultraviolet radiation. In this regard we will particularly focus on the use of topical antioxidants and the challenges that result from the task of showing their efficacy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A comparison of Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison of Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III scoring system in predicting mortality and length of stay at surgical intensive care unit.

  14. Topics in radiation dosimetry radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    1972-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry, Supplement 1: Topics in Radiation Dosimetry covers instruments and techniques in dealing with special dosimetry problems. The book discusses thermoluminescence dosimetry in archeological dating; dosimetric applications of track etching; vacuum chambers of radiation measurement. The text also describes wall-less detectors in microdosimetry; dosimetry of low-energy X-rays; and the theory and general applicability of the gamma-ray theory of track effects to various systems. Dose equivalent determinations in neutron fields by means of moderator techniques; as well as developm

  15. Radiative Corrections to Bremsstrahlung in Radiative Return

    CERN Document Server

    Yost, S A; Ward, B F L; Yost, Scott A.

    2005-01-01

    Radiating a photon from the initial state provides a useful tool for studying a range of low energy physics using a high-energy e+ e- accelerator. Accurate results require careful calculation of the first order virtual photon corrections. We compare exact results for initial state radiative corrections, finding agreement to an order of 10^{-5} or better as a fraction of the Born cross-section for most of the range of photon energies, at CMS energies relevant in both high-energy collision and radiative return experiments.

  16. Gamma radiation effects on nestling Tree Swallows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zach, R.; Mayoh, K.R.

    1984-10-01

    The sensitivity of Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) to the stress of ionizing radiation was investigated with growth analysis. Freshly hatched nestlings were temporarily removed from nests, taken to the laboratory and acutely exposed to 0.9, 2.7, or 4.5 Gy gamma radiation. Some of the unirradiated control nestlings were also taken to the laboratory whereas others were left in the nests. Growth of all the nestlings was measured daily and analyzed by fitting growth models. There was no detectable radiation-induced mortality up to fledgling, approx. = 20 d after irradiation. Radiation exposure did not affect the basic growth pattern; the logistic growth model was most suitable for body mass and foot length, and the von Bertalanffy model for primary-feather length, irrespective of treatment. Parameter values from these models indicated pronounced growth depression in the 2.7-Gy and 4.5-Gy groups, particularly for body mass. Radiation also affected the timing of development. The growth depression of the 2.7-Gy group was similar to that caused by hatching asynchrony in unirradiated nestlings. The 4.5-Cy nestlings grew as well as unexposed nestlings that died from natural causes. Chronic irradiation at approx. = 1.0 Cy/d caused more severe growth effects than acute exposure to 4.5 Gy and may have caused permanent stunting. Growth analysis is a potent tool for assessing man-made environmental stresses. Observed body-mass statistics and model parameters seem to be most sensitive to environmental stresses, but coefficients of variation are not necessarily correlated with sensitivity. 34 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  17. Contact lenses and acute exposure to ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, A P; Dumbleton, K A; Chou, B R

    1989-06-01

    The eyes of twenty-three pigmented rabbits (weight approximately 2kg) were irradiated with a single dose of UVB (285 to 315 nm total bandpass at approximately 450 muW.cm-2 irradiance) for exposure times of 22s to 1680s. One group wore UV-transmitting soft contact lenses during exposure of one eye with the fellow eye serving as a control while another group wore a UV-absorbing lens on each eye with only one eye irradiated. UV-transmitting contact lenses did not affect the clinical response to UV exposure whereas the UV-absorbing contact lenses protected the corneas as could have been predicted by consideration of the absorption characteristics of the lenses at the experimental waveband. In no case was there any evidence of adhesion between the contact lens and the corneal epithelium.

  18. Mathematical Models of Human Hematopoiesis Following Acute Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    mediator to the action of known hematopoietic stimulators such as thrombopoietin ( TPO ) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Thus, in our...significant stimulatory role of TPO in thrombopoiesis (Kaushansky 2005), it is assumed to represent a large portion of the generic mediator. Thus, known...biological mechanisms involving TPO are used to justify the effects of the generic mediator in our model. TPO concentration is regulated by platelets

  19. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis mimicking acute meningoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Mahmoud Reza; Amirkashani, Davood; Hirbod-Mobarakeh, Armin; Yaghmaei, Bahareh; Tavassoli, Alireza; Manafi, Farzad; Rezaei, Nima

    2013-12-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that usually occurs following an antecedent infection or vaccination. Children and young adults are predominantly affected, but it has low incidence in children younger than 3 years. The disease manifests with a wide range of neurological abnormalities and a variable combination of fever, headache, meningism, convulsion and cranial nerve palsies, and there are no pathognomonic clinical or laboratory findings. So, establishment of definitive diagnosis is challenging in infants. This challenge may result in delayed diagnosis and consequently delayed treatment of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, which may cause permanent neurological disability. Herein, we report an infant with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, who mimicked the symptoms of meningoencephalitis and the correct diagnosis and treatment were delayed till the development of a severe phase of the disease.

  20. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service.

  1. Topical betamethasone for prevention of radiation dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omidvari Shapour

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although acute radiation dermatitis (ARD is a common side-effect of radiotherapy (RT, currently there is no general consensus about its prevention or treatment of choice. Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether prophylactic use of topical betamethasone 0.1% can prevent ARD caused by chest wall irradiation. Methods: Fifty-one patients who underwent modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer and were going to receive RT, were randomly assigned to receive topical betamethasone 0.1%, petrolatum or none during RT. The frequency and severity of ARD (measured using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute radiation morbidity scoring criteria were recorded at the end of each week during RT and two weeks after its completion. Clinical outcomes were analyzed by relevant statistical methods. Results: All patients developed some degree of ARD, the frequency and severity of which increased with time and reached the maximum at the end of the seventh week for all groups. Patients receiving betamethasone had less severe ARD than the other two groups throughout the course of the study, but this difference was significant only at the end of the third week (p =0.027. No significant difference was observed between the petrolatum and control arms. Conclusion: Prophylactic and ongoing use of topical betamethasone 0.1% during chest wall RT for breast cancer delays occurrence of ARD but does not prevent it. Petrolatum has no effect on the prevention of ARD in these patients.

  2. COHERENCE PROPERTIES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION , COHERENT SCATTERING), (*COHERENT SCATTERING, ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION ), LIGHT, INTERFERENCE, INTENSITY, STATISTICAL FUNCTIONS, QUANTUM THEORY, BOSONS, INTERFEROMETERS, CHINA

  3. Biological improvement of radiation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, K. J.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J

    2000-08-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of gene action related to the radiation resistance in microorganisms could be essentially helpful for the development of radiation protectants and hormeric effects of low dose radiation. This book described isolation of radiation-resistant microorganisms, induction of radiation-resistant and functionally improved mutants by gamma-ray radiation, cloning and analysis of the radiation resistance related genes and analysis of the expressed proteins of the radiation resistant related genes.

  4. Radiation protection and instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. V.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation was found not to be an operational problem during the Apollo program. Doses received by the crewmen of Apollo missions 7 through 17 were small because no major solar-particle events occurred during those missions. One small event was detected by a radiation sensor outside the Apollo 12 spacecraft, but no increase in radiation dose to the crewmen inside the spacecraft was detected. Radiation protection for the Apollo program was focused on both the peculiarities of the natural space radiation environment and the increased prevalence of manmade radiation sources on the ground and onboard the spacecraft. Radiation-exposure risks to crewmen were assessed and balanced against mission gain to determine mission constraints. Operational radiation evaluation required specially designed radiation detection systems onboard the spacecraft in addition to the use of satellite data, solar observatory support, and other liaison. Control and management of radioactive sources and radiation-generating equipment was important in minimizing radiation exposure of ground-support personnel, researchers, and the Apollo flight and backup crewmen.

  5. Thermal radiation heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, John R; Mengüç, M Pinar

    2011-01-01

    Providing a comprehensive overview of the radiative behavior and properties of materials, the fifth edition of this classic textbook describes the physics of radiative heat transfer, development of relevant analysis methods, and associated mathematical and numerical techniques. Retaining the salient features and fundamental coverage that have made it popular, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, Fifth Edition has been carefully streamlined to omit superfluous material, yet enhanced to update information with extensive references. Includes four new chapters on Inverse Methods, Electromagnetic Theory, Scattering and Absorption by Particles, and Near-Field Radiative Transfer Keeping pace with significant developments, this book begins by addressing the radiative properties of blackbody and opaque materials, and how they are predicted using electromagnetic theory and obtained through measurements. It discusses radiative exchange in enclosures without any radiating medium between the surfaces-and where heat conduction...

  6. Haemopoietic cell renewal in radiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliedner, T. M.; Nothdurft, W.; Tibken, B.; Hofer, E.; Weiss, M.; Kindler, H.

    1994-10-01

    Space flight activities are inevitably associated with a chronic exposure of astronauts to a complex mixture of ionising radiation. Although no acute radiation consequences are to be expected as a rule, the possibility of Solar Particle Events (SPE) associated with relatively high doses of radiation (1 or more Gray) cannot be excluded. It is the responsibility of physicians in charge of the health of astronauts to evaluate before, during and after space flight activities the functional status of haemopoietic cell renewal. Chronic low level exposure of dogs indicate that daily gamma-exposure doses below about 2 cGy are tolerated for several years as far as blood cell concentrations are concerned. However, the stem cell pool may be severely affected. The maintenance of sufficient blood cell counts is possible only through increased cell production to compensate for the radiation inflicted excess cell loss. This behaviour of haemopoietic cell renewal during chronic low level exposure can be simulated by bioengineering models of granulocytopoiesis. It is possible to define a ``turbulence region'' for cell loss rates, below which an prolonged adaptation to increased radiation fields can be expected to be tolerated. On the basis of these experimental results, it is recommended to develop new biological indicators to monitor haemopoietic cell renewal at the level of the stem cell pool using blood stem cells in addition to the determination of cytokine concentrations in the serum (and other novel approaches). To prepare for unexpected haemopoietic effects during prolonged space missions, research should be increased to modify the radiation sensitivity of haemopoietic stem cells (for instance by the application of certain regulatory molecules). In addition, a ``blood stem cell bank'' might be established for the autologous storage of stem cells and for use in space activities keeping them in a radiation protected container.

  7. Radiation-induced brain injury: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eRobbins

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 100,000 primary and metastatic brain tumor patients/year in the US survive long enough (> 6 months to experience radiation-induced brain injury. Prior to 1970, the human brain was thought to be highly radioresistant; the acute CNS syndrome occurs after single doses > 30 Gy; white matter necrosis occurs at fractionated doses > 60 Gy. Although white matter necrosis is uncommon with modern techniques, functional deficits, including progressive impairments in memory, attention, and executive function have become important, because they have profound effects on quality of life. Preclinical studies have provided valuable insights into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Given its central role in memory and neurogenesis, the majority of these studies have focused on the hippocampus. Irradiating pediatric and young adult rodent brains leads to several hippocampal changes including neuroinflammation and a marked reduction in neurogenesis. These data have been interpreted to suggest that shielding the hippocampus will prevent clinical radiation-induced cognitive impairment. However, this interpretation may be overly simplistic. Studies using older rodents, that more closely match the adult human brain tumor population, indicate that, unlike pediatric and young adult rats, older rats fail to show a radiation-induced decrease in neurogenesis or a loss of mature neurons. Nevertheless, older rats still exhibit cognitive impairment. This occurs in the absence of demyelination and/or white matter necrosis similar to what is observed clinically, suggesting that more subtle molecular, cellular and/or microanatomic modifications are involved in this radiation-induced brain injury. Given that radiation-induced cognitive impairment likely reflects damage to both hippocampal- and non-hippocampal-dependent domains, there is a critical need to investigate the microanatomic and functional effects of radiation in various brain

  8. Leukocytosis in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Nakayama, H

    1999-01-01

    Leukocytosis is a common finding in the acute phase of stroke. A detrimental effect of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has been suggested, and trials aiming at reducing the leukocyte response in acute stroke are currently being conducted. However, the influence of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has...

  9. [Acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; Heurn, L.W. van; Snoeijs, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  10. Pediatric acute lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahlem, P.; van Aalderen, W. M. C.; Bos, A. P.

    2007-01-01

    Among ventilated children, the incidence of acute lung injury (ALI) was 9%; of that latter group 80% developed the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The population-based prevalence of pediatric ARDS was 5.5 cases/100.000 inhabitants. Underlying diseases in children were septic shock (34%),

  11. Mild acute pancreatitis with vildagliptin use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikant Saraogi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vildagliptin has not been associated with the development of acute pancreatitis in postmarketing reports except one case report from Sydney, Australia. We present the case report of 42 year old male, diabetic, with no historyof alcohol use, on vildagliptin 50 mg and metformin 500 mg daily since 6 months, who presented with severe abdominal pain radiating to back, nausea and fever. On evaluation, serum pancreatic enzymes were elevated, triglycerides were not raised and ultrasound showed swollen and echogenic pancreas, loss of peripancreatic fat plane and pancreatic duct was not dilated. Vildagliptin was stopped and the pancreatits resolved. On Follow up, no secondary cause was not identified. This appears to be the first reported case of acute pancreatitis from India probably attributable to use of vildagliptin, thus raising the possibility that this rare reaction may be a class effect of the DPP-4 inhibitors.

  12. Mild acute pancreatitis with vildagliptin use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraogi, Ravikant; Mallik, Ritwika; Ghosh, Sujoy

    2012-01-01

    Vildagliptin has not been associated with the development of acute pancreatitis in postmarketing reports except one case report from Sydney, Australia. We present the case report of 42 year old male, diabetic, with no historyof alcohol use, on vildagliptin 50 mg and metformin 500 mg daily since 6 months, who presented with severe abdominal pain radiating to back, nausea and fever. On evaluation, serum pancreatic enzymes were elevated, triglycerides were not raised and ultrasound showed swollen and echogenic pancreas, loss of peripancreatic fat plane and pancreatic duct was not dilated. Vildagliptin was stopped and the pancreatits resolved. On Follow up, no secondary cause was not identified. This appears to be the first reported case of acute pancreatitis from India probably attributable to use of vildagliptin, thus raising the possibility that this rare reaction may be a class effect of the DPP-4 inhibitors. PMID:23565473

  13. Global characteristics of childhood acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Samad, A; Pombo-de-Oliveira, M S; Scelo, G; Smith, M T; Feusner, J; Wiemels, J L; Metayer, C

    2015-03-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) comprises approximately 5-10% of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases in the US. While variation in this percentage among other populations was noted previously, global patterns of childhood APL have not been thoroughly characterized. In this comprehensive review of childhood APL, we examined its geographic pattern and the potential contribution of environmental factors to observed variation. In 142 studies (spanning >60 countries) identified, variation was apparent-de novo APL represented from 2% (Switzerland) to >50% (Nicaragua) of childhood AML in different geographic regions. Because a limited number of previous studies addressed specific environmental exposures that potentially underlie childhood APL development, we gathered 28 childhood cases of therapy-related APL, which exemplified associations between prior exposures to chemotherapeutic drugs/radiation and APL diagnosis. Future population-based studies examining childhood APL patterns and the potential association with specific environmental exposures and other risk factors are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Nonocclusive acute mesenteric ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, I; Meşină, C; Paşalega, M; Calotă, F; Vâlcea, I D

    2008-01-01

    The authors present one case of acute mesenteric ischemia appeared to the patient 70 years old, with HTA and coronary heart disease with heart arrhythmia treated with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, anti arrhythmia agents and antithrombin therapy (trombostop). Acute mesenteric ischemia is not an isolated clinical entity, but a complex of diseases, including acute mesenteric arterial embolus and thrombus, mesenteric venous thrombus and nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia. These diseases have common clinical features caused by impaired blood perfusion of the intestine, bacterial translocation and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Reperfusion injury is another important feature of nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia. We discuss about the nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia is the most lethal form of acute mesenteric ischemia because of the poor understanding of its pathophysiology and its nonspecific symptoms, which often delay its diagnosis. Although acute mesenteric ischemia is still lethal and in-hospital mortality rates have remained high over the last few decades, accumulated knowledge on this condition is expected to improve its prognosis.

  15. [Advances in acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Muñoz, J Enrique

    2008-10-01

    The present article reports the most recent evidence on the latest advances in the definition, diagnosis and treatment of acute pancreatitis. The concept of acute pancreatitis and its complications is changing and the presence of persistent organ failure is essential to classify a patient as having severe disease. In this context, increased intestinal permeability is seen as an early phenomenon with important prognostic repercussions. Endoscopic ultrasonography is confirmed as the investigation of choice in patients with idiopathic acute pancreatitis or suspected acute biliary pancreatitis. Aggressive water and electrolyte replacement in the first few hours after onset is the key to a favorable clinical course. Conservative treatment and the use of endoscopic necrosectomy are replacing surgery as the treatment of choice of infected pancreatic necrosis. Lastly, the present article discusses the latest evidence on the prevention of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) acute pancreatitis.

  16. Radiation protection and mitigation potential of phenylbutyrate: delivered via oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alexandra C; Rivas, Rafael; McMahon, Robert; Miller, Karvelisse; Tesoro, Leonard; Villa, Vilmar; Yanushkevich, Daminik; Lison, Paul

    2017-09-01

    Phenylbutyrate (PB), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) has demonstrated radiation protection in both in vitro and in vivo models. Studies previously demonstrated that PB and other HDAC inhibitors could inhibit radiation lethality in vivo by subcutaneous (s.c) injection. The objective of this study was to test the ability of oral PB treatment to protect against or to mitigate acute gamma radiation-induced lethality in vivo. Human osteoblasts cells were used to evaluate radiation survival when PB was delivered pre- or post-radiation. A 30-day radiation lethality study was used to assess the radioprotective (pre-radiation) and radiomitigative (post-radiation) capability of PB. Possible mechanisms evaluated were antioxidant activity effects, HDAC inhibition, DNA damage, and hematological recovery. Treatment of HOS cells with PB 50 μM either before or after radiation increased radiation resistance as assessed by clonogenic survival. Western blot studies showed that PB treatment acetylated histones in vivo and ameliorated the radiation-induced reduction in acetylated histone-4 (H4). Pre-radiation oral administration of PB (10 mg/kg) provided radioprotection against gamma radiation (7-11.5 Gy) with a dose reduction factor of 1.25 (p = 0.001). PB oral administration post-radiation provided moderate radiation mitigation against gamma radiation (7-11.5 Gy) and demonstrated a dose reduction factor of 1.18 (p = 0.05). PB pre-radiation and post-radiation treatment was associated with significant elevations in neutrophils and platelets and attenuation of DNA damage. These results indicate that oral PB has potential as a radiation protector and a radiation mitigator and that potential mechanisms of action include attenuation of DNA damage, antioxidant activity, and bone marrow protection.

  17. Radiation shield for operator under radiation circumference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemezawa, Isao; Kimura, Tadahiro [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Omori, Tetsu; Mizuochi, Akira

    1997-11-18

    A radiation shield for an upper half of a man`s body comprises a synthetic resin clothing, a rubber plate or a composite member of them formed into a bag. The bag is formed three dimensionally in the form of an open in front vest. A radiation shielding bag for the lower half of a man`s body is formed into three dimensionally in the form of open in front half trousers. A water injection port for injecting water as shielding liquid and a gas exhaust port are formed to each of the bags. Upon operation under radiation circumstance, the water injection ports and the gas exhaustion ports are opened, and shielding liquid is injected from the water injection ports to the bag so that the shielding liquid shields radiation rays. After closing the water injection ports and the gas exhaustion ports, an operator wears and buttons up the radiation shield of the upper half and the lower half to protect radiation exposure from the front, back and the side of a man. (I.N.)

  18. Radiation effects on Brassica seeds and seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoli, Naresh; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-07-01

    Space radiation consists of high energy charged particles and affects biological systems, but because of its stochastic, non-directional nature is difficult to replicate on Earth. Radiation damages biological systems acutely at high doses or cumulatively at low doses through progressive changes in DNA organization. These damages lead to death or cause of mutations. While radiation biology typically focuses on mammalian or human systems, little is known as to how radiation affects plants. In addition, energetic ion beams are widely used to generate new mutants in plants considering their high-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) as compared to gamma rays and X-rays. Understanding the effect of ionizing radiation on plant provides a basis for studying effects of radiation on biological systems and will help mitigate (space) radiation damage in plants. We exposed dry and imbibed Brassica rapa seeds and seedling roots to proton beams of varying qualities and compared the theoretical penetration range of different energy levels with observable growth response. We used 1, 2 and 3 MeV protons in air at the varying fluences to investigate the effect of direct irradiation on the seeds (1012 - 1015 ions/cm2) and seedlings (1013 ions/cm2). The range of protons in the tissue was calculated using Monte-Carlo based SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) software. The simulation and biological results indicate that ions did not penetrate the tissue of dry or hydrated seeds at all used ion energies. Therefore the entire energy was transferred to the treated tissue. Irradiated seeds were germinated vertically under dim light and roots growth was observed for two days after imbibition. The LD50 of the germination was about 2×1014 ions/cm2 and about 5×1014 ions/cm2 for imbibed and dry seeds, respectively. Since seedlings are most sensitive to gravity, the change in gravitropic behavior is a convenient means to assess radiation damage on physiological responses other than direct tissue

  19. Science Goals in Radiation Protection for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francs A.

    2008-01-01

    Space radiation presents major challenges to future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Health risks of concern include cancer, degenerative and performance risks to the central nervous system, heart and lens, and the acute radiation syndromes. The galactic cosmic rays (GCR) contain high energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, which have been shown to cause qualitatively distinct biological damage compared to terresterial radiation, such as X-rays or gamma-rays, causing risk estimates to be highly uncertain. The biological effects of solar particle events (SPE) are similar to terresterial radiation except for their biological dose-rate modifiers; however the onset and size of SPEs are difficult to predict. The high energies of GCR reduce the effectiveness of shielding, while SPE s can be shielded however the current gap in radiobiological knowledge hinders optimization. Methods used to project risks on Earth must be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting health risks from space radiation, and thus impact mission requirements and costs. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies probabilistic risk assessments and uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts and to mission design. The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in radiation risk projection models. Exploration science goals in radiation protection are centered on ground-based research to achieve the necessary biological knowledge, and in the development of new technologies to improve SPE monitoring and optimize shielding. Radiobiology research is centered on a ground based program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and HZE nuclei at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

  20. Radiation accident at Mayapuri scrap market, Delhi, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, A B; Mohanan, Sandeep; Damodaran, Deepak; Soneja, Manish; Jain, Neetu; Mohan, Anant; Vikram, Naval Kishore; Sood, Rita

    2012-10-01

    This article reports the accidental public radiation exposure in a scrap market in Delhi, India, on March 2010. The source, a gamma unit containing Cobalt-60 pencils, was improperly disposed of by a research institution in violation of national regulations for radiation protection and safety of radioactive sources. The unit was sold off to unsuspecting scrap dealers who dismantled the equipment. This event subsequently caused the most severe radiation accident reported in India to date, resulting in seven radiation injuries and one death. The clinical course of five of the patients treated at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences hospital, New Delhi, is summarised in this report. All five patients suffered from the haematological form of the acute radiation syndrome and local cutaneous radiation injury as well. While four patients exposed to doses between 0.6 and 2.8 Gy survived with intensive or supportive treatment, the patient with the highest exposure of 3.1 Gy died due to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure on Day 16 after hospitalisation. The incident highlights the current gaps in the knowledge, infrastructure and legislation in handling radioactive materials. Medical institutions need to formulate individualised triage and management guidelines to immediately respond to future public radiological accidents.

  1. Inhaled /sup 147/Pm and/or total-body gamma radiation: Early mortality and morbidity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipy, R.E.; Lauhala, K.E.; McGee, D.R.; Cannon, W.C.; Buschbom, R.L.; Decker, J.R.; Kuffel, E.G.; Park, J.F.; Ragan, H.A.; Yaniv, S.S.; Scott, B.R.

    1989-05-01

    Rats were given doses of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation and/or lung burdens of /sup 147/Pm (in fused aluminosilicate particles) within lethal ranges in an experiment to determine and compare morbidity and mortality responses for the radiation insults within 1 year after exposure. Radiation-induced morbidity was assessed by measuring changes in body weights, hematologic parameters, and pulmonary-function parameters. Acute mortality and morbidity from inhaled promethium were caused primarily by radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis that occurred more than 53 days after exposure. Acute mortality and morbidity from total-body gamma irradiation occurred within 30 days of exposure and resulted from the bone-marrow radiation syndrome. Gamma radiation caused transient morbidity, reflected by immediately depressed blood cell levels and by reduced body weight gain in animals that survived the acute gamma radiation syndrome. Inhaled promethium caused a loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function, but its only effect on blood cell levels was lymphocytopenia. Combined gamma irradiation and promethium lung burdens were synergistic, in that animals receiving both radiation insults had higher morbidity and mortality rates than would be predicted based on the effect of either kind of radiation alone. Promethium lung burdens enhanced the effect of gamma radiation in rats within the first 30 days of exposure, and gamma radiation enhanced the later effect of promethium lung burdens. 70 refs., 68 figs., 21 tabs.

  2. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1993-05-01

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

  3. Acute Hepatic Porphyria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, D. Montgomery; Wang, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The porphyrias comprise a set of diseases, each representing an individual defect in one of the eight enzymes mediating the pathway of heme synthesis. The diseases are genetically distinct but have in common the overproduction of heme precursors. In the case of the acute (neurologic) porphyrias, the cause of symptoms appears to be overproduction of a neurotoxic precursor. For the cutaneous porphyrias, it is photosensitizing porphyrins. Some types have both acute and cutaneous manifestations. The clinical presentation of acute porphyria consists of abdominal pain, nausea, and occasionally seizures. Only a small minority of those who carry a mutation for acute porphyria have pain attacks. The triggers for an acute attack encompass certain medications and severely decreased caloric intake. The propensity of females to acute attacks has been linked to internal changes in ovarian physiology. Symptoms are accompanied by large increases in delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen in plasma and urine. Treatment of an acute attack centers initially on pain relief and elimination of inducing factors such as medications; glucose is administered to reverse the fasting state. The only specific treatment is administration of intravenous hemin. An important goal of treatment is preventing progression of the symptoms to a neurological crisis. Patients who progress despite hemin administration have undergone liver transplantation with complete resolution of symptoms. A current issue is the unavailability of a rapid test for urine porphobilinogen in the urgent-care setting. PMID:26357631

  4. Exposure Risks Among Children Undergoing Radiation Therapy: Considerations in the Era of Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Clayton B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Thompson, Holly M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Benedict, Stanley H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Seibert, J. Anthony [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Wong, Kenneth [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Vaughan, Andrew T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Chen, Allen M., E-mail: allenmchen@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Recent improvements in toxicity profiles of pediatric oncology patients are attributable, in part, to advances in the field of radiation oncology such as intensity modulated radiation (IMRT) and proton therapy (IMPT). While IMRT and IMPT deliver highly conformal dose to targeted volumes, they commonly demand the addition of 2- or 3-dimensional imaging for precise positioning—a technique known as image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). In this manuscript we address strategies to further minimize exposure risk in children by reducing effective IGRT dose. Portal X rays and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) are commonly used to verify patient position during IGRT and, because their relative radiation exposure is far less than the radiation absorbed from therapeutic treatment beams, their sometimes significant contribution to cumulative risk can be easily overlooked. Optimizing the conformality of IMRT/IMPT while simultaneously ignoring IGRT dose may result in organs at risk being exposed to a greater proportion of radiation from IGRT than from therapeutic beams. Over a treatment course, cumulative central-axis CBCT effective dose can approach or supersede the amount of radiation absorbed from a single treatment fraction, a theoretical increase of 3% to 5% in mutagenic risk. In select scenarios, this may result in the underprediction of acute and late toxicity risk (such as azoospermia, ovarian dysfunction, or increased lifetime mutagenic risk) in radiation-sensitive organs and patients. Although dependent on variables such as patient age, gender, weight, body habitus, anatomic location, and dose-toxicity thresholds, modifying IGRT use and acquisition parameters such as frequency, imaging modality, beam energy, current, voltage, rotational degree, collimation, field size, reconstruction algorithm, and documentation can reduce exposure, avoid unnecessary toxicity, and achieve doses as low as reasonably achievable, promoting a culture and practice of “gentle IGRT.”.

  5. Radiation processes in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Tucker, Wallace H

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this book is twofold: to provide a brief, simple introduction to the theory of radiation and its application in astrophysics and to serve as a reference manual for researchers. The first part of the book consists of a discussion of the basic formulas and concepts that underlie the classical and quantum descriptions of radiation processes. The rest of the book is concerned with applications. The spirit of the discussion is to present simple derivations that will provide some insight into the basic physics involved and then to state the exact results in a form useful for applications. The reader is referred to the original literature and to reviews for rigorous derivations.The wide range of topics covered is illustrated by the following table of contents: Basic Formulas for Classical Radiation Processes; Basic Formulas for Quantum Radiation Processes; Cyclotron and Synchrotron Radiation; Electron Scattering; Bremsstrahlung and Collision Losses; Radiative Recombination; The Photoelectric Effect; a...

  6. Radiation and Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albi, Elisabetta; Cataldi, Samuela; Lazzarini, Andrea; Codini, Michela; Beccari, Tommaso; Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco Saverio; Curcio, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Radiation-induced damage is a complex network of interlinked signaling pathways, which may result in apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and cancer. The development of thyroid cancer in response to radiation, from nuclear catastrophes to chemotherapy, has long been an object of study. A basic overview of the ionizing and non-ionizing radiation effects of the sensitivity of the thyroid gland on radiation and cancer development has been provided. In this review, we focus our attention on experiments in cell cultures exposed to ionizing radiation, ultraviolet light, and proton beams. Studies on the involvement of specific genes, proteins, and lipids are also reported. This review also describes how lipids are regulated in response to the radiation-induced damage and how they are involved in thyroid cancer etiology, invasion, and migration and how they can be used as both diagnostic markers and drug targets. PMID:28445397

  7. Foundations of radiation hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalas, D.; Mihalas, B. W.

    This book is the result of an attempt, over the past few years, to gather the basic tools required to do research on radiating flows in astrophysics. The microphysics of gases is discussed, taking into account the equation of state of a perfect gas, the first and second law of thermodynamics, the thermal properties of a perfect gas, the distribution function and Boltzmann's equation, the collision integral, the Maxwellian velocity distribution, Boltzmann's H-theorem, the time of relaxation, and aspects of classical statistical mechanics. Other subjects explored are related to the dynamics of ideal fluids, the dynamics of viscous and heat-conducting fluids, relativistic fluid flow, waves, shocks, winds, radiation and radiative transfer, the equations of radiation hydrodynamics, and radiating flows. Attention is given to small-amplitude disturbances, nonlinear flows, the interaction of radiation and matter, the solution of the transfer equation, acoustic waves, acoustic-gravity waves, basic concepts of special relativity, and equations of motion and energy.

  8. Radiation exposure and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labant, Amy; Silva, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Radiological exposure from nuclear power reactor accidents, transportation of nuclear waste accidents, industrial accidents, or terrorist activity may be a remote possibility, but it could happen. Nurses must be prepared to evaluate and treat pregnant women and infants who have been exposed to radiation, and to have an understanding of the health consequences of a nuclear or radiological incident. Pregnant women and infants are a special group of patients who need consideration when exposed to radiation. Initial care requires thorough assessment and decisions regarding immediate care needs. Ongoing care is based on type and extent of radiation exposure. With accurate, comprehensive information and education, nurses will be better prepared to help mitigate the effects of radiation exposure to pregnant women and infants following a radiological incident. Information about radiation, health effects of prenatal radiation exposure, assessment, patient care, and treatment of pregnant women and infants are presented.

  9. Acute oncological emergencies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gabriel, J

    2012-01-01

    The number of people receiving systemic anti-cancer treatment and presenting at emergency departments with treatment-related problems is rising. Nurses will be the first point of contact for most patients and need to be able to recognise oncological emergencies to initiate urgent assessment of patients and referral to the acute oncology team so that the most appropriate care can be delivered promptly. This article discusses the role of acute oncology services, and provides an overview of the most common acute oncological emergencies.

  10. Insights from radiation treatment for benign disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleehen, N.M.

    1987-08-29

    This note compares mortality figures for patients treated with low dose ionizing radiation for benign conditions between the 1920's and 1950's with figures available from the Japanese A-bomb survivors. X radiation for ringworm, ankylosing spondylitis and post-partum mastitis are considered. Figures for leukemia are roughly comparable between radiotherapy groups and A-bomb survivors. Figures for the increased relative risk of breast cancer in spondylitis patients were in marked contrast to bomb survivors who received comparable doses, but compatible with the increase among women given x-rays for acute post-partum mastitis in the 1940's and 1950's. This study also suggests the possibility of different time patterns of risk between different cancers. (U.K.).

  11. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both...... and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading...

  12. Electromagnetic Radiation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-10

    A methodology is given for determining whether electromagnetic radiation of sufficient strength to cause performance degradation to the test item...exists at the test item location. The results of an electromagnetic radiation effects test are used to identify the radio frequencies and electromagnetic ... radiation levels to which the test item is susceptible. Further, using a test bed, comparisons are made with the representative signal levels to

  13. Galactic Radiation Belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-15

    was formulated by Ortwein et al. 13for analysis of the Jovian radio emission. These authors de- rived their results for an arbitrary dipole-axis...galactic radio sources with the Jovian radiation-belt source, 17suggests a=. intriguing similarity. The related questions of why galactic radiation belts...Space Sciences Laboratory: Atmospheric and ionospheric physics, radiation from the atmosphere, densfty and composition of the upper atmosphere, aurorae

  14. Radiation Physics, Biophysics and Radiation Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, H. H.; Hall, E. J.

    1978-02-01

    Research under Contract EY-76-C-02-3243 has been carried out in the area of Radiation Physics, Biophysics and Radiation Biology. During the period of this contract the major accomplishments include, in Physics, the refinement of tissue equivalent dosimetry, the formulation of the concepts of microdosimetry, the development of apparatus used in microdosimetry, and the development of ionization chambers with internal gas multiplication. Principal contributions in Radiobiology have included the determination of RBE and OER as a function·of neutron energy, the study of combined effects of radiation and a variety of other agents, and the investigation of the transformation of cells in tissue culture. Theoretical research centered around the development of the theoretical framework of microdosimetry and the establishment of the Theory of Dual Radiation Action. In a cooperative effort with Brookhaven National Laboratory, a major accelerator facility dedicated exclusively to Radiobiology and Radiation Physics, has been developed. Members of the laboratory have performed extensive. service to national and international organizations.

  15. Acute acalculous cholecystitis complicating chemotherapy for acute myeloblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Kassar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute acalculous cholecystitis is a rare complication in the treatment of acute myeloblastic leukemia. Diagnosis of acute acalculous cholecystitis remains difficult during neutropenic period. We present two acute myeloblastic leukemia patients that developed acute acalculous cholecystitis during chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. They suffered from fever, vomiting and acute pain in the epigastrium. Ultrasound demonstrated an acalculous gallbladder. Surgical management was required in one patient and conservative treatment was attempted in the other patient. None treatment measures were effective and two patients died. Acute acalculous cholecystitis is a serious complication in neutropenic patients. Earlier diagnosis could have expedited the management of these patients.

  16. Acute and Chronic Kidney Injury in a Non-Human Primate Model of Partial-Body Irradiation with Bone Marrow Sparing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Eric P; Hankey, Kim G; Bennett, Alexander W; Farese, Ann M; Parker, George A; MacVittie, Thomas J

    2017-12-01

    The development of medical countermeasures against acute and delayed multi-organ injury requires animal models predictive of the human response to radiation and its treatment. Late chronic injury is a well-known feature of radiation nephropathy, but acute kidney injury has not been reported in an appropriate animal model. We have established a single-fraction partial-body irradiation model with minimal marrow sparing in non-human primates. Subject-based medical management was used including parenteral fluids according to prospective morbidity criteria. We show herein that 10 or 11 Gy exposures caused both acute and chronic kidney injury. Acute and chronic kidney injury appear to be dose-independent between 10 and 11 Gy. Acute kidney injury was identified during the first 50 days postirradiation and appeared to resolve before the occurrence of chronic kidney injury, which was progressively more severe up to 180 days postirradiation, which was the end of the study. These findings show that mitigation of the acute radiation syndrome by medical management will unmask delayed late effects that occur months after partial-body irradiation. They further emphasize that both acute and chronic changes in kidney function must be taken into account in the use and timing of mitigators and medical management for acute radiation syndrome and delayed effects of acute radiation exposure (DEARE).

  17. NEW RADIATION RESISTANT GREASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DasGupta, Sharda; Slobodian, J.T.

    1962-11-20

    New radiation resistant greases were prepared from commercially available greases by carrying out radioinduced reactions with styrene. The radiation tolerances of the products were 250-1000 fold more than the starting materials and any product of similar properties now available. The various properties of the new products initially and after exposure to large radiation doses were in no case inferior to the original greases and in some respects improvements were observed. Radiation tolerance of commercial greases could be enhanced by the addition of polystyrene to form a physical mixture rather than copolymers. The reaction mechanisms involved at all stages were studied using infrared spectroscopic techniques. (P.C.H.)

  18. Radiation hormesis in plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Byung Hun; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    2000-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as subsequent high doses of radiation or Phytophthora blight of pepper could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with different dose of {gamma}-ray. (author)

  19. Radiation Protection Using Carbon Nanotube Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conyers, Jodie L., Jr.; Moore, Valerie C.; Casscells, S. Ward

    2010-01-01

    BHA and BHT are well-known food preservatives that are excellent radical scavengers. These compounds, attached to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), could serve as excellent radical traps. The amino-BHT groups can be associated with SWNTs that have carbolyxic acid groups via acid-base association or via covalent association. The material can be used as a means of radiation protection or cellular stress mitigation via a sequence of quenching radical species using nano-engineered scaffolds of SWNTs and their derivatives. It works by reducing the number of free radicals within or nearby a cell, tissue, organ, or living organism. This reduces the risk of damage to DNA and other cellular components that can lead to chronic and/or acute pathologies, including (but not limited to) cancer, cardiovascular disease, immuno-suppression, and disorders of the central nervous system. These derivatives can show an unusually high scavenging ability, which could prove efficacious in protecting living systems from radical-induced decay. This technique could be used to protect healthy cells in a living biological system from the effects of radiation therapy. It could also be used as a prophylactic or antidote for radiation exposure due to accidental, terrorist, or wartime use of radiation- containing weapons; high-altitude or space travel (where radiation exposure is generally higher than desired); or in any scenario where exposure to radiation is expected or anticipated. This invention s ultimate use will be dependent on the utility in an overall biological system where many levels of toxicity have to be evaluated. This can only be assessed at a later stage. In vitro toxicity will first be assessed, followed by in vivo non-mammalian screening in zebra fish for toxicity and therapeutic efficacy.

  20. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, E.J.

    1992-05-01

    The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent.

  1. Radiation Dose Estimation by Automated Cytogenetic Biodosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Peter K; Li, Yanxin; Wilkins, Ruth C; Flegal, Farrah N; Knoll, Joan H M

    2016-12-01

    The dose from ionizing radiation exposure can be interpolated from a calibration curve fit to the frequency of dicentric chromosomes (DCs) at multiple doses. As DC counts are manually determined, there is an acute need for accurate, fully automated biodosimetry calibration curve generation and analysis of exposed samples. Software, the Automated Dicentric Chromosome Identifier (ADCI), is presented which detects and discriminates DCs from monocentric chromosomes, computes biodosimetry calibration curves and estimates radiation dose. Images of metaphase cells from samples, exposed at 1.4-3.4 Gy, that had been manually scored by two reference laboratories were reanalyzed with ADCI. This resulted in estimated exposures within 0.4-1.1 Gy of the physical dose. Therefore, ADCI can determine radiation dose with accuracies comparable to standard triage biodosimetry. Calibration curves were generated from metaphase images in ~10 h, and dose estimations required ~0.8 h per 500 image sample. Running multiple instances of ADCI may be an effective response to a mass casualty radiation event. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Grant W; Rossi, Jeffrey E; Cannon, Christopher P

    2017-01-14

    Acute myocardial infarction has traditionally been divided into ST elevation or non-ST elevation myocardial infarction; however, therapies are similar between the two, and the overall management of acute myocardial infarction can be reviewed for simplicity. Acute myocardial infarction remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, despite substantial improvements in prognosis over the past decade. The progress is a result of several major trends, including improvements in risk stratification, more widespread use of an invasive strategy, implementation of care delivery systems prioritising immediate revascularisation through percutaneous coronary intervention (or fibrinolysis), advances in antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants, and greater use of secondary prevention strategies such as statins. This seminar discusses the important topics of the pathophysiology, epidemiological trends, and modern management of acute myocardial infarction, focusing on the recent advances in reperfusion strategies and pharmacological treatment approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute coronary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Have plenty of fruits, veggies, whole grains, and lean meats. Try to limit foods high in cholesterol ... et al. 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary ...

  4. Acute Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breath Acute kidney failure Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  5. [Acute dyspnea in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, P; Orliaguet, G

    2003-07-01

    Diagnosis of an acute obstructive dyspnea in children is very difficult, especially in the prehospital setting, because there are many possible causes. However, some of them may rapidly become life-threatening and therefore require a rapid prehospital management by a team staffed by a physician. The main causes of acute dyspnea in children usually include: obstructive dyspnea (acute laryngitis, foreign body aspiration, bronchiolotis, acute asthma), pulmonary infections and cardiac dyspnea, as well as dyspnea from other origins (cardiovascular collapse, hyperthermia, acidosis, intoxication, deshydratation). Following the assessment of the severity of the illness, the prehospital management should aimed at restoring an optimal oxygenation, before initiating a treatment adapted to the cause of the disease.

  6. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... al. Clinical manifestations and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children. In: Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 6th ed. ... National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/types/leukemia/patient/child-all-treatment-pdq#section/all. Accessed June 5, ...

  7. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis: Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and neuroimaging findings in 84 consecutive children with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM were studied prospectively, between March 1988 and July 2000, in relation to outcome at the National Pediatric Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

  8. Acute management of stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene; Osther, Palle J S

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stone management is often conservative due to a high spontaneous stone passage rate or non-symptomatic calyceal stones that do not necessarily require active treatment. However, stone disease may cause symptoms and complications requiring urgent intervention. MATERIAL AND METHODS......: In this review, we update latest research and current recommendations regarding acute management of stones, with particular focus on imaging, pain management, active stone interventions, medical expulsive therapy, and urolithiasis in pregnancy and childhood. RESULTS: Acute stone management should be planned...

  9. Acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Fin Stolze; Bjerring, Peter Nissen

    2011-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) results in a multitude of serious complications that often lead to multi-organ failure. This brief review focuses on the pathophysiological processes in ALF and how to manage these.......Acute liver failure (ALF) results in a multitude of serious complications that often lead to multi-organ failure. This brief review focuses on the pathophysiological processes in ALF and how to manage these....

  10. Acute Leukemia in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Vilchevska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The lecture presents current data on the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, observation methods and principles of treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. own clinical observation of development of the acute lymphoblastic leukemia clinical picture in a child aged 4 years old has been described. This case is characterized by late diagnosis and inappropriate prescription of steroids in combination with antipyretic agents that led to tumor resistance to the treatment.

  11. Acute Myeloid Leukemia Presenting as Acute Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri Rauenzahn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Appendicitis in leukemic patients is uncommon but associated with increased mortality. Additionally, leukemic cell infiltration of the appendix is extremely rare. While appendectomy is the treatment of choice for these patients, diagnosis and management of leukemia have a greater impact on remission and survival. A 59-year-old Caucasian female was admitted to the surgical service with acute right lower quadrant pain, nausea, and anorexia. She was noted to have leukocytosis, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Abdominal imaging demonstrated appendicitis with retroperitoneal and mesenteric lymphadenopathy for which she underwent laparoscopic appendectomy. Peripheral smear, bone marrow biopsy, and surgical pathology of the appendix demonstrated acute myeloid leukemia (AML with nonsuppurative appendicitis. In the setting of AML, prior cases described the development of appendicitis with active chemotherapy. Of these cases, less than ten patients had leukemic infiltration of the appendix, leading to leukostasis and nonsuppurative appendicitis. Acute appendicitis with leukemic infiltration as the initial manifestation of AML has only been described in two other cases in the literature with an average associated morbidity of 32.6 days. The prompt management in this case of appendicitis and AML resulted in an overall survival of 185 days.

  12. Hypofractionated IMRT of the Prostate Bed After Radical Prostatectomy: Acute Toxicity in the PRIAMOS-1 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Sonja, E-mail: sonja.katayama@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Striecker, Thorbjoern; Kessel, Kerstin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Sterzing, Florian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Habl, Gregor [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Edler, Lutz [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Herfarth, Klaus [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy as primary treatment for prostate cancer is currently being investigated in large phase 3 trials. However, there are few data on postoperative hypofractionation. The Radiation therapy for the Prostate Bed With or Without the Pelvic Lymph Nodes (PRIAMOS 1) trial was initiated as a prospective phase 2 trial to assess treatment safety and toxicity of a hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of the prostate bed. Methods and Materials: From February to September 2012, 40 patients with indications for adjuvant or salvage radiation therapy were enrolled. One patient dropped out before treatment. Patients received 54 Gy in 18 fractions to the prostate bed with IMRT and daily image guidance. Gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities (according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0) were recorded weekly during treatment and 10 weeks after radiation therapy. Results: Overall acute toxicity was favorable, with no recorded adverse events grade ≥3. Acute GI toxicity rates were 56.4% (grade 1) and 17.9% (grade 2). Acute GU toxicity was recorded in 35.9% of patients (maximum grade 1). Urinary stress incontinence was not influenced by radiation therapy. The incidence of grade 1 urinary urge incontinence increased from 2.6% before to 23.1% 10 weeks after therapy, but grade 2 urge incontinence remained unchanged. Conclusions: Postoperative hypofractionated IMRT of the prostate bed is tolerated well, with no severe acute side effects.

  13. Environmental Radiation Effects on Mammals A Dynamical Modeling Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnova, Olga A

    2010-01-01

    This text is devoted to the theoretical studies of radiation effects on mammals. It uses the framework of developed deterministic mathematical models to investigate the effects of both acute and chronic irradiation in a wide range of doses and dose rates on vital body systems including hematopoiesis, small intestine and humoral immunity, as well as on the development of autoimmune diseases. Thus, these models can contribute to the development of the system and quantitative approaches in radiation biology and ecology. This text is also of practical use. Its modeling studies of the dynamics of granulocytopoiesis and thrombocytopoiesis in humans testify to the efficiency of employment of the developed models in the investigation and prediction of radiation effects on these hematopoietic lines. These models, as well as the properly identified models of other vital body systems, could provide a better understanding of the radiation risks to health. The modeling predictions will enable the implementation of more ef...

  14. DNA Repair Inhibition by Mercuric Chloride in Earthworms after Exposure to Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Tae Ho; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nili, Mohammad [Dawnesh Radiation Research Institute, Barcelona (Spain); An, Kwang Guk [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    All organisms are being exposed to harmful factors present in the environment. Ionizing radiation can damage DNA through a series of molecular events depending on the radiation energy. The biological effects due to the combined action of ionizing radiation with the other factor are hard to estimate and predict in advance. Recently International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) requires the effect data of ionizing radiation on non-human biota for the radiological protection of the environment. Earthworms have been identified by the ICRP as one of the reference animals and plants to be used in environmental radiation protection. Particularly, the earthworm Eisenia fetida can be used as a bio-indicator of pollution in soil. This study was performed to investigate the acute genotoxic effects of radiation and the synergistic effects between radiation and mercury in earthworm, E. fetida

  15. Simulating Space Radiation-Induced Breast Tumor Incidence Using Automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuskin, A C; Osseiran, A I; Tang, J; Costes, S V

    2016-07-01

    Estimating cancer risk from space radiation has been an ongoing challenge for decades primarily because most of the reported epidemiological data on radiation-induced risks are derived from studies of atomic bomb survivors who were exposed to an acute dose of gamma rays instead of chronic high-LET cosmic radiation. In this study, we introduce a formalism using cellular automata to model the long-term effects of ionizing radiation in human breast for different radiation qualities. We first validated and tuned parameters for an automata-based two-stage clonal expansion model simulating the age dependence of spontaneous breast cancer incidence in an unexposed U.S. We then tested the impact of radiation perturbation in the model by modifying parameters to reflect both targeted and nontargeted radiation effects. Targeted effects (TE) reflect the immediate impact of radiation on a cell's DNA with classic end points being gene mutations and cell death. They are well known and are directly derived from experimental data. In contrast, nontargeted effects (NTE) are persistent and affect both damaged and undamaged cells, are nonlinear with dose and are not well characterized in the literature. In this study, we introduced TE in our model and compared predictions against epidemiologic data of the atomic bomb survivor cohort. TE alone are not sufficient for inducing enough cancer. NTE independent of dose and lasting ∼100 days postirradiation need to be added to accurately predict dose dependence of breast cancer induced by gamma rays. Finally, by integrating experimental relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for TE and keeping NTE (i.e., radiation-induced genomic instability) constant with dose and LET, the model predicts that RBE for breast cancer induced by cosmic radiation would be maximum at 220 keV/μm. This approach lays the groundwork for further investigation into the impact of chronic low-dose exposure, inter-individual variation and more complex space radiation

  16. DRUGS FOR RADIATION PROTECTION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation Protection , pub. 1961), are not repeated. Bibliographical data are compiled at the end of the book; references are listed alphabetically and...reference book of 1961 are not given. Because of the great influence of the oxygen effect on the action of drugs for radiation protection , the

  17. RADIATION AND SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. S.A. Adewuyi

    Radiotherapy and Oncology Center, A. B. U. Teaching Hospital, Shika – Zaria ... history of premenopausal bilateral breast cancer in ... of the cancer patients; rather it invites a new effort to provide patients with the best quality of life that surgery can offer3, 4, 5 . Radiation Therapy. The aim of radiation therapy is to deliver a ...

  18. New sources of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimmerling, W.

    1979-09-01

    An attempt is made to select examples of radiation sources whose application may make new or unconventional demands on radiation protection and dosimetry. A substantial body of knowledge about high energy facilities exists and, partly for this reason, the great high energy accelerators are mentioned only briefly.

  19. Semiconductor radiation detection systems

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Covers research in semiconductor detector and integrated circuit design in the context of medical imaging using ionizing radiation. This book explores other applications of semiconductor radiation detection systems in security applications such as luggage scanning, dirty bomb detection and border control.

  20. Atoms, Molecules and Radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    2015-11-10

    Nov 10, 2015 ... Module 3: Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter: Quantum theory of radiation, spontaneous, stimulated emission and absorption probabilities, electric dipole selection rules, Einstein A and B coefficients, Rabi coefficients, Thomson Scattering, Jaynes-Cummings Model. Module 4: Molecules ...