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Sample records for acute radiation proctitis

  1. Acute radiation proctitis. A clinical, histopathological and histochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovdenak, Nils

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study is: 1) A sequential description of the clinical course of acute radiation proctitis during pelvic RT. 2) A sequential description of the rectal mucosal histopathology during pelvic RT as a possible substrate for clinical toxicity. 3) To assess the mucosal protease activity during RT as a possible explanation of the observed tissue changes. 4) To assess the efficacy of prophylactic sucralfate in acute radiation proctitis a randomised study was initiated and carried out together with a meta-analysis of previously available data. 5) Most studies on clinical acute toxicity in pelvic RT use either the RTOG/EORTC score system or focus on diarrhoea/stool frequency. A more differentiated and sensitive recording was developed and tested to pick up symptoms escaping the commonly used scores. 6) Study the relation between histopathological findings and the clinical picture. 4 papers presenting various studies are included. The titles are: 1) Acute radiation proctitis: a sequential clinicopathologic study during pelvic radiotherapy. 2) Clinical significance of increased gelatinolytic activity in the rectal mucosa during external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer. 3) Profiles and time course of acute radiation toxicity symptoms during conformal radiotherapy for cancer of the prostate. 4) Sucralfate does not ameliorate acute radiation proctitis. Some future prospects are discussed

  2. Acute radiation proctitis. A clinical, histopathological and histochemical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovdenak, Nils

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the study is: 1) A sequential description of the clinical course of acute radiation proctitis during pelvic RT. 2) A sequential description of the rectal mucosal histopathology during pelvic RT as a possible substrate for clinical toxicity. 3) To assess the mucosal protease activity during RT as a possible explanation of the observed tissue changes. 4) To assess the efficacy of prophylactic sucralfate in acute radiation proctitis a randomised study was initiated and carried out together with a meta-analysis of previously available data. 5) Most studies on clinical acute toxicity in pelvic RT use either the RTOG/EORTC score system or focus on diarrhoea/stool frequency. A more differentiated and sensitive recording was developed and tested to pick up symptoms escaping the commonly used scores. 6) Study the relation between histopathological findings and the clinical picture. 4 papers presenting various studies are included. The titles are: 1) Acute radiation proctitis: a sequential clinicopathologic study during pelvic radiotherapy. 2) Clinical significance of increased gelatinolytic activity in the rectal mucosa during external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer. 3) Profiles and time course of acute radiation toxicity symptoms during conformal radiotherapy for cancer of the prostate. 4) Sucralfate does not ameliorate acute radiation proctitis. Some future prospects are discussed.

  3. Immunohistological studies in radiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honke, Yoshifumi; Katsuta, Shizutomo; Haruma, Ken

    1985-01-01

    Immunohistological studies of radiation proctitis were performed in comparison with those in control subjects, with special reference to the number of immunoglobulin bearing cells in the rectal mucosa. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The rates of distribution of immunoglobulin bearing cells were 16.9% in IgG, 71.7% in IgA, and 11.4% in IgM in control subjects. 2) The number of IgG bearing cells in acute and late radiation proctitis markedly decreased in comparison with those in control subjects. 3) The number of IgA bearing cells in the patients with acute radiation proctitis decreased slightly and recovere 1 in late phase. 4) The number of IgM bearing cells markedly decreased in 11 Gy to 30 Gy radiation group with acute phase. 5) No significant difference could be found in the number of immunoglobulin bearing cells in late radiation proctitis with and without rectal bleeding. 6) Serum immunoglobulin levels of patients with acute radiation proctitis decreased and were well correlated with change the number of immunoglobulin bearing cells. (author)

  4. A phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of misoprostol rectal suppositories to prevent acute radiation proctitis in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, Andrea; Schmidberger, Heinz; Hermann, Robert M.; Christiansen, Hans; Saile, Bernhard; Pradier, Olivier; Hess, Clemens F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Acute radiation proctitis is the most relevant complication of pelvic radiation and is still mainly treated supportively. Considering the negative impact of acute proctitis symptoms on patients' daily activities and the potential relationship between the severity of acute radiation injury and late damage, misoprostol was tested in the prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 100 patients who underwent radiotherapy for prostate cancer were entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. Radiation-induced toxicity was evaluated weekly during radiotherapy using the Common Toxicity Criteria. Results: Between the placebo and the misoprostol groups, no significant differences in proctitis symptoms occurred: 76% of patients in each group had Grade 1 toxicity, and 26% in the placebo group and 36% in the misoprostol group had Grade 2 toxicity. No differences were found in onset or symptom duration. Comparing the peak incidence of patients' toxicity symptoms, significantly more patients experienced rectal bleeding in the misoprostol group (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Misoprostol given as a once-daily suppository did not decrease the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis and may increase the incidence of acute bleeding

  5. Radiation proctitis. Clinical and pathological manifestations, therapy and prophylaxis of acute and late injurious effects of radiation on the rectal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, F.B.; Feldmann, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Often the rectum is the dose-limiting organ in curative radiation therapy of pelvic malignancies. It reacts with serous, mucoid, or more rarely bloody diarrhea. Methods: A research for reports on prophylactic and supportive therapies of radiation-induced proctitis was performed (Medline, Cancerlit, and others). Results: No proven effective prophylactic local or systemic therapies of radiation proctitis exist. Also, no reasonable causal medication is known. In the treatment of late radiation sequelae no clinically tested certain effective therapy exists, too. Antiinflammatory, steroidal or non-steroidal therapeutics as well as sucralfate can be used as topical measures. They will be successful in some patients. Side effects are rare and the therapy is cost-effective. Treatment failures can be treated by hyperbaric oxygen. This will achieve good clinical results in about 50% of the cases. Single or few mucosal telangiectasias with rectal bleeding can be treated sufficiently by endoscopic cautherization. Conclusion: Besides clinical studies acute proctitis should be treated just symptomatically. Radical surgery should be performed only when all conventional treatments have been uneffective, although no certain effective therapies of radiation-induced late proctitis exist. (orig.) [de

  6. Efficacy of Polaprezinc for Acute Radiation Proctitis in a Rat Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Hiroshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Takada, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Tsuboi, Keita; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Tanooka, Masao; Nakamura, Takeshi; Shikata, Toshiyuki; Tsujimura, Tohru; Hirota, Shozo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to standardize the experimental rat model of radiation proctitis and to examine the efficacy of polaprezinc on radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 54 female Wistar rats (5 weeks old) were used. The rats were divided into three groups: those treated with polaprezinc (PZ+), those treated with base alone, exclusive of polaprezinc (PZ-), and those treated without any medication (control). All the rats were irradiated to the rectum. Polaprezinc was prepared as an ointment. The ointment was administered rectally each day after irradiation. All rats were killed on the 10th day after irradiation. The mucosal changes were evaluated endoscopically and pathologically. The results were graded from 0 to 4 and compared according to milder or more severe status, as applicable. Results: According to the endoscopic findings, the proportion of mild changes in the PZ+, PZ-, and control group was 71.4%, 25.0%, and 14.3% respectively. On pathologic examination, the proportion of low-grade findings in the PZ+, PZ-, and control group was 80.0%, 58.3%, and 42.9% for mucosal damage, 85.0%, 41.7%, and 42.9% for a mild degree of inflammation, and 50.0%, 33.3%, and 4.8% for a shallow depth of inflammation, respectively. The PZ+ group tended to have milder mucosal damage than the other groups, according to all criteria used. In addition, significant differences were observed between the PZ+ and control groups regarding the endoscopic findings, degree of inflammation, and depth of inflammation. Conclusions: This model was confirmed to be a useful experimental rat model for radiation proctitis. The results of the present study have demonstrated the efficacy of polaprezinc against acute radiation-induced rectal disorders using the rat model.

  7. Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated With the Severity of Radiation-Induced Proctitis in Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorbanzadeh-Moghaddam, Amir; Gholamrezaei, Ali; Hemati, Simin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced injury to normal tissues is a common complication of radiation therapy in cancer patients. Considering the role of vitamin D in mucosal barrier hemostasis and inflammatory responses, we investigated whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with the severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis in cancer patients. Methods and Materials: This prospective observational study was conducted in cancer patients referred for pelvic radiation therapy. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured before radiation therapy. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of <35 nmol/L and <40 nmol/L in male and female patients, respectively, based on available normative data. Acute proctitis was assessed after 5 weeks of radiation therapy (total received radiation dose of 50 Gy) and graded from 0 to 4 using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria. Results: Ninety-eight patients (57.1% male) with a mean age of 62.8 ± 9.1 years were studied. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 57 patients (58.1%). Symptoms of acute proctitis occurred in 72 patients (73.4%) after radiation therapy. RTOG grade was significantly higher in patients with vitamin D deficiency than in normal cases (median [interquartile range] of 2 [0.5-3] vs 1 [0-2], P=.037). Vitamin D deficiency was associated with RTOG grade of ≥2, independent of possible confounding factors; odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 3.07 (1.27-7.50), P=.013. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis. Investigating the underlying mechanisms of this association and evaluating the effectiveness of vitamin D therapy in preventing radiation-induced acute proctitis is warranted

  8. Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated With the Severity of Radiation-Induced Proctitis in Cancer Patients

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    Ghorbanzadeh-Moghaddam, Amir [Medical Student' s Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholamrezaei, Ali, E-mail: Gholamrezaei@med.mui.ac.ir [Medical Student' s Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Poursina Hakim Research Institution, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hemati, Simin [Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced injury to normal tissues is a common complication of radiation therapy in cancer patients. Considering the role of vitamin D in mucosal barrier hemostasis and inflammatory responses, we investigated whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with the severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis in cancer patients. Methods and Materials: This prospective observational study was conducted in cancer patients referred for pelvic radiation therapy. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured before radiation therapy. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of <35 nmol/L and <40 nmol/L in male and female patients, respectively, based on available normative data. Acute proctitis was assessed after 5 weeks of radiation therapy (total received radiation dose of 50 Gy) and graded from 0 to 4 using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria. Results: Ninety-eight patients (57.1% male) with a mean age of 62.8 ± 9.1 years were studied. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 57 patients (58.1%). Symptoms of acute proctitis occurred in 72 patients (73.4%) after radiation therapy. RTOG grade was significantly higher in patients with vitamin D deficiency than in normal cases (median [interquartile range] of 2 [0.5-3] vs 1 [0-2], P=.037). Vitamin D deficiency was associated with RTOG grade of ≥2, independent of possible confounding factors; odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 3.07 (1.27-7.50), P=.013. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis. Investigating the underlying mechanisms of this association and evaluating the effectiveness of vitamin D therapy in preventing radiation-induced acute proctitis is warranted.

  9. Efficacy of Synbiotics to Reduce Acute Radiation Proctitis Symptoms and Improve Quality of Life: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Mariana; Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo; Caporossi, Cervantes; Castro-Barcellos, Heloisa Michelon; Motta, Rodrigo Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether the daily intake of synbiotics interferes in radiation-induced acute proctitis symptoms and in quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients who underwent 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer were randomized to intake either a synbiotic powder containing Lactobacillus reuteri 10 8  colony-forming units and 4.3 g of soluble fiber (Nestlé) or placebo. The questionnaire EORTC QLQ-PRT23 was applied before the beginning of radiation therapy and in every week for the first 4 weeks of treatment. The sum of both the complete (proctitis symptoms plus quality of life) and partial (proctitis symptoms) scores of the EORTC QLQ-PRT23 (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Module for Proctitis–23 items) questionnaire were the main endpoints. Results: This pilot study showed that the complete questionnaire score (median [range]) was higher in the second (23 [21-30] vs 26.5 [22-34], P<.05) and third (23 [21-32] vs 27.5 [24-33], P<.01) weeks in the placebo group. Proctitis symptoms were highest scored in the placebo group in both the second (19.5 [16-25]) and third (19 [17-24]) weeks than in the synbiotic group (week 2: 16.5 [15-20], P<.05; week 3: 17 [15-23], P<.01). In both scores the placebo group had a significantly higher result (P<.01) than the synbiotic group (repeated-measures analysis of variance). Conclusions: Synbiotics reduce proctitis symptoms and improve quality of life in radiation-induced acute proctitis during radiation therapy for prostate cancer

  10. Efficacy of Synbiotics to Reduce Acute Radiation Proctitis Symptoms and Improve Quality of Life: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial

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    Nascimento, Mariana, E-mail: mari1980hemato@yahoo.com.br [Department of Medicine, University Center of Varzea Grande (UNIVAG), Varzea Grande, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo [Department of Medicine, University Center of Varzea Grande (UNIVAG), Varzea Grande, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Caporossi, Cervantes; Castro-Barcellos, Heloisa Michelon; Motta, Rodrigo Teixeira [Department of Medicine, Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiabá, Mato Grosso (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether the daily intake of synbiotics interferes in radiation-induced acute proctitis symptoms and in quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients who underwent 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer were randomized to intake either a synbiotic powder containing Lactobacillus reuteri 10{sup 8} colony-forming units and 4.3 g of soluble fiber (Nestlé) or placebo. The questionnaire EORTC QLQ-PRT23 was applied before the beginning of radiation therapy and in every week for the first 4 weeks of treatment. The sum of both the complete (proctitis symptoms plus quality of life) and partial (proctitis symptoms) scores of the EORTC QLQ-PRT23 (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Module for Proctitis–23 items) questionnaire were the main endpoints. Results: This pilot study showed that the complete questionnaire score (median [range]) was higher in the second (23 [21-30] vs 26.5 [22-34], P<.05) and third (23 [21-32] vs 27.5 [24-33], P<.01) weeks in the placebo group. Proctitis symptoms were highest scored in the placebo group in both the second (19.5 [16-25]) and third (19 [17-24]) weeks than in the synbiotic group (week 2: 16.5 [15-20], P<.05; week 3: 17 [15-23], P<.01). In both scores the placebo group had a significantly higher result (P<.01) than the synbiotic group (repeated-measures analysis of variance). Conclusions: Synbiotics reduce proctitis symptoms and improve quality of life in radiation-induced acute proctitis during radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

  11. Intrarectal amifostine suspension may protect against acute proctitis during radiation therapy for prostate cancer: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anurag K.; Menard, Cynthia; Guion, Peter; Simone, Nicole L.; Smith, Sharon; Crouse, Nancy Sears; Godette, Denise J.; Cooley-Zgela, Theresa; Sciuto, Linda C.; Coleman, Jonathan; Pinto, Peter; Albert, Paul S.; Camphausen, Kevin; Coleman, C. Norman

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Our goal was to test the ability of intrarectal amifostine to limit symptoms of radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: The first 18 patients received 1 g of intrarectal amifostine suspension placed 30-45 min before each radiation treatment. The following 12 patients received 2 g of amifostine. Total dose prescribed ranged from 66 to 76 Gy. All patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. The suspension remained intrarectal during treatment and was expelled after treatment. For gastrointestinal symptoms, during treatment and follow-up, all patients had a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade recorded. Results: Median follow-up was 18 months (range, 6-24 months). With 2 g vs. 1 g amifostine, there was a nearly significant decrease in RTOG Grade 2 acute rectal toxicity. Seven weeks after the start of radiation therapy, the incidence of Grade 2 toxicity was 33% in the 1-g group (6/18) compared with 0% (0/12) in the 2-g group (p = 0.06). No Grade 3 toxicity or greater occurred in this study. Conclusion: This trial suggests greater rectal radioprotection from acute effects with 2 g vs. 1 g amifostine suspension. Further studies should be conducted in populations at higher risk for developing symptomatic acute and late proctitis

  12. A phase III double-blind randomised study of rectal sucralfate suspension in the prevention of acute radiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, Peter C.; Franklin, C. Ian; Dear, Keith B.G.; Hamilton, Christopher C.; Poulsen, Michael; Joseph, David J.; Spry, Nigel; Denham, James W.

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: A limited number of studies have suggested that oral sucralfate reduces the acute and late gastro-intestinal side-effects of pelvic radiotherapy and sucralfate enemas ameliorate symptoms of chronic proctitis. Sucralfate may act via local bFGF at the mucosal level in promoting angiogenesis and reducing epithelial associated microvascular injury. This multi-institutional study was designed to test the hypothesis that sucralfate given as an enema would have a significant protective effect against acute radiation induced rectal injury by direct application to the mucosa. Materials and methods: Eighty-six patients having radiotherapy for localised carcinoma of the prostate were randomised in a double-blind placebo-controlled study to receive either 15 ml of placebo suspension or 3 g of sucralfate in 15 ml suspension, given as a once daily enema during and for 2 weeks following radiotherapy. Assessment was based on the EORTC/RTOG acute toxicity criteria and a patient self-assessment diary. Results: There was no significant difference between placebo and sucralfate for peak incidences of EORTC/RTOG proctitis. For the placebo and sucralfate arms 95 and 88% (difference 7 ± 11%) suffered some degree of proctitis, with 71 and 61% (difference 10 ± 19%) reaching grade 2, respectively. The median period to onset of grade 2 proctitis was 33.5 and 36 days, with the median duration being 9.5 and 15 days, respectively, again these difference being non-significant. Thirty-five and 37% of patients rated the effect of radiotherapy on bowel habit as 'a lot' with a moderate or severe effect on normal daily living in 52 and 49%, respectively. Conclusion: This study suggests that sucralfate given as a once daily enema does not substantially reduce the incidence of symptoms associated with acute radiation proctitis and its routine clinical use cannot be recommended. This cohort of patients will be followed to determine if any difference develops in relation to late

  13. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment for radiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tony Choon Seng; Joseph, David; Oxer, Harry

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Our objective was to assess, retrospectively, the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen treatment in radiation proctitis in all patients who have completed treatment for this disease at the Fremantle Hyperbaric Oxygen Unit. This unit is the only one of its kind in Western Australia. Methods and Materials: Patients were assessed by a review of hospital records, blood bank records, and clinic review (if this was convenient), and all patients responded to a telephone survey. Patients were questioned regarding radiation proctitis symptoms and the degree to which each had improved. Results: Most patients had previously been treated with radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma. Patients with proctitis mainly suffered from bleeding, diarrhoea, incontinence, and pain. In more than half of these patients, symptoms partially or completely resolved after hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Conclusion: Radiation-induced proctitis is a difficult clinical problem to treat and will probably become more significant with the rising incidence of diagnosis of prostate cancer. Hyperbaric Oxygen should be considered in the treatment of radiation-induced proctitis. Further prospective trials with strict protocol guidelines are warranted

  14. Long-term sequential changes of radiation proctitis and angiopathy in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Hiroshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Takada, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish an experimental rat model for late radiation proctitis, and to examine the assessment strategy for late radiation proctitis. A total of 57 Wistar rats were used. Forty-five of the rats were exposed to selective rectal irradiation with a single fraction of 25 Gy. These rats were sacrificed at the 4th, 12th, 24th, and 37th week following irradiation. The remaining 12 rats comprised the control group without irradiation. The rectal mucosa of each rat was evaluated macroscopically and pathologically. The number of vessels in the rectal mucosa was counted microscopically. In addition, the vascular stenosis was evaluated. In the results, the degree of clinical and macroscopic findings decreased following acute proctitis and developed later. In the pathological examination, mucosal changes and microangiopathy were followed up, as well. The absolute number of vessels in the rectum was the greatest at the 12th week following irradiation and was the lowest in the control group. The severity of the microangiopathy was also well evaluated. To conclude, we established an animal experimental model of late radiation proctitis, and also established an assessment strategy to evaluate objectively the severity of late radiation proctitis with focusing on microangiopathy using an animal experimental model. This model can be used as an animal experimental model of radiation-induced microangiopathy. (author)

  15. An initial report of polaprezinc suppositories to radiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Hiroshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Takada, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Although radiation proctitis is one of popular adverse effects, standard treatments are not established. We reported 5 cases with the administration of polaprezinc suppositories to radiation proctitis. We made polaprezinc suppositories and administered to 5 patients with radiation proctitis. It was possible to administer it safely. 3 cases have the improvement of the symptoms. And one case had endoscopic findings improved significantly. Polaprezinc may be one of the treatments to radiation proctitis. (author)

  16. Surgical treatment of radiation proctitis

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    Maruyama, Izumi; Sato, Gohei; Okaue, Toyotake; Isobe, Yoshinari; Ohtsu, Akira; Sugimoto, Yuzo (Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan))

    1982-08-01

    Severe radiation proctitis was surgically treated in 8 cases. Colostomy was performed in 2 cases, total resection of the rectum in 2 and proctectomy with colostomy in 4. Perineal abscess developed in the 2 cases with total resection of the rectum. Rather than completely resection of the lesion, a procedure leaving no dead space i.e. proctectomy with colostomy, is desirable for radiation proctitis. Complete preoperative examination of the condition of the underlying disease and possible urinary tract complications is important.

  17. Surgical treatment of radiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Izumi; Sato, Gohei; Okaue, Toyotake; Isobe, Yoshinari; Ohtsu, Akira; Sugimoto, Yuzo

    1982-01-01

    Severe radiation proctitis was surgically treated in 8 cases. Colostomy was performed in 2 cases, total resection of the rectum in 2 and proctectomy with colostomy in 4. Perineal abscess developed in the 2 cases with total resection of the rectum. Rather than completely resection of the lesion, a procedure leaving no dead space i.e. proctectomy with colostomy, is desirable for radiation proctitis. Complete preoperative examination of the condition of the underlying disease and possible urinary tract complications is important. (Chiba, N.)

  18. EORTC radiation proctitis-specific quality of life module - Pretesting in four European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halkett, Georgia; Aoun, Samar; Hayne, Dickon; Lund, Jo-Asmund; Gruen, Arne; Villa, Julie; Livi, Lorenzo; Arcangeli, Stefano; Velikova, Galina; Spry, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Radiation proctitis is a side effect which can occur after pelvic radiation therapy. Currently available questionnaires do not comprehensively assess the range of problems, nor impact on quality of life associated with proctitis. This article reports on the cultural testing phase of an EORTC module (QLQ-PRT21) developed to assess radiation proctitis specific issues and designed to be used in conjunction with the EORTC core quality of life questionnaire (QLQ-C30). Methods: The previously developed 21-item module, pre-tested in Australia, was translated into Norwegian, German, French and Italian. Patients completed the EORTC QLQ-C30 and module questionnaires towards the end of their radical pelvic radiation treatment to target acute side effects. Patients experiencing chronic proctitis were also surveyed. Patients also participated in structured interviews to determine issues of comprehensibility, coverage and relevance. Results were compared with Australian data. Results: Questionnaires were completed by 64 European patients. The module was found to be relevant and culturally acceptable to participants. Feedback has led to minor translation modifications and the inclusion of two additional questions. Conclusion: This module is ready for Phase IV testing which will consist of large scale field testing with the aim to perform psychometric analysis and finalise a module that will be suitable in the assessment of radiation induced proctitis.

  19. Successful Treatment of Acute Radiation Proctitis with Aloe Vera: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebnasagh, Adeleh; Ghasemi, Arash; Akbari, Jafar; Alipour, Abbas; Lashkardoost, Hossein; Ala, Shahram; Salehifar, Ebrahim

    2017-11-01

    Acute radiation proctitis (ARP) is a common side-effect that affects up to 50% of patients receiving radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of a topical preparation of Aloe vera in the treatment of ARP induced by radiotherapy of pelvic area. In this double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 20 consecutive patients with ARP after external-beam radiation therapy (46-72 Gy) of pelvic malignancies were randomized to receive either Aloe vera 3% or placebo ointment, 1 g twice daily for 4 weeks. These patients presented with at least two of the following symptoms: rectal bleeding, abdominal/rectal pain, diarrhea, or fecal urgency. These symptoms were rated by the patients in terms of their severity (grade 0-4) for each of the symptoms mentioned earlier at baseline and then weekly for 4 weeks. A symptom index was calculated by the addition of the scores (16 most symptomatic). Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) acute toxicity criteria and psychosocial status of the patients were also recorded weekly. The lifestyle impact of the symptoms was assessed by questionnaire grading from 0 (no effect on daily activity) to 4 (afraid to leave home). There was a significant (p Aloe vera) for diarrhea (median score: 0.67 vs. 0.11), fecal urgency (median score: 0.89 vs. 0.11), clinical presentation total (median score: 4.33 vs. 1.22), RTOG total (median score: 2.89 vs. 0.89), and lifestyle (median score: 1.1 vs. 0.33). Hemorrhage and abdominal/rectal pain did not improve significantly. The odds ratios for advantage of Aloe vera over placebo for "clinical presentation total" and "RTOG total" were 3.97 (1.3-11.9) and 5.9 (1.6-21.6), respectively. A substantial number of patients with radiation proctitis seem to benefit from therapy with Aloe vera 3% ointment.

  20. Clinical and experimental studies on radiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honke, Yoshifumi

    1988-01-01

    Clinical and experimental studies were performed to clarify the mechanism of developing radiation proctitis. The results were as follows; (1) In the clinical study with 38 uterine cervix cancer patients, who received radiotherapy, diarrhea was observed in 44.7% at the acute stage, while rectal bleeding in 36.7% about 1 year after radiation. However, no clinical correlation was observed between diarrhea and rectal bleeding. (2) Colon fiberscopic examination revealed little change at the acute stage. However, erosion, ulcer and remarkable redness were found at the late stage. By the magnified fiberscope, unit degeneration was found in 72.8% at the acute stage. (3) Concerning the histopathological changes, edema and inflammatory change were observed immediately after irradiation. Fibrosis was observed in 83.3% at the late stage. (4) The number of the immunoglobulin containing cells decreased by radiation. However, its recovered as time passed after radiation. (5) In experimental study with rats by microangiography, there were ramarkable changes of the small vessels, such as bending, tortuosity and capillary hyperplasia at the acute stage. However, these changes returned to normal soon. At the late stage, decreased number of blood vessels were observed. The above results indicated that rectal bleeding after exposure to radiation are developed by secondary circulation abnormality caused by fibrosis of the perivascular tissues. (author) 52 refs

  1. Radiation proctitis and its surgical problems

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    Ichikawa, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Shiro; Yasuna, Osamu; Yamaura, Yoshinori

    1985-01-01

    Radiation proctitis was investigated in terms of clinico-pathological findings, the method of treatment and therapeutic results in 11 patients (7 with cervical cancer, 1 with ovarian cancer, and 3 with cancer of the bladder). Four of the patients with cervical cancer were treated with 4,136-5,000 rad of WCo combined with brachytherapy of WCo or TXCs, one patient with 6,000 rad of WCo alone, one with 3,000 rad of x-ray alone, and one with 4,900 rad of x-ray combined with brachytherapy of TXCs. A patient with ovarian cancer was treated with 6,000 rad of x-ray and three patients with cancer of the bladder were treated with 4,200-6,330 rad of x-ray. Radiation proctitis developed early (4 months to 1 year after therapy) in 8 patients and late (4 years to 19 years after therapy) in the other 3 patients. Common symptoms were melena, constipation and sensation of gastric fullness. According to the Sherman's classification, proctitis was grade III or IV (showing constriction, ulcer or fistula) in all patients. Although the lesion could be resected in one patient, only colostomy was performed in the other 10 patients. It is recommended that care should be taken in deciding the method of exposure to the pelvic viscera and exposure doses for the prevention of radiation proctitis, and that intestinal lesions should be resected before far-advanced intestinal disturbance developes. (Namekawa, K.).

  2. Failure of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas to improve chronic radiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, C.A.; Biddle, W.L.; Miner, P.B. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation proctitis is a well-known complication of abdominal and pelvic radiation. Conventional medical and surgical treatment often is disappointing. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is the active component in sulfasalazine and is effective in the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis. Four patients with radiation proctitis were treated with 4 g 5-ASA by enema nightly for two to six months. Patients were seen monthly, interviewed, and a sigmoidoscopic exam performed. No change was seen in the degree of mucosal inflammation on follow-up sigmoidoscopic exams. Three patients noted no change in their symptoms of bleeding, pain, or tenesmus. One patient noted initial improvement, but this was not sustained. 5-ASA enemas do not appear to be effective in the treatment of radiation proctitis

  3. Effect of pentoxifylline and tocopherol on radiation proctitis/enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, A.; Christiansen, H.; Pradier, O.; Hermann, R.M.; Siekmeyer, B.; Weiss, E.; Hess, C.F.; Schmidberger, H.; Hilgers, R.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Chronic radiation proctitis/enteritis is a relevant complication of pelvic irradiation, which is still mainly treated by supportive measures only. There is some evidence that the combined treatment with pentoxifylline and tocopherol might alter the pathogenesis of radiation-induced fibrosis. In a retrospective analysis the clinical benefit of the treatment with pentoxifylline/tocopherol on radiation-induced proctitis/enteritis was evaluated, compared to supportive care only. Patients and methods: Of 30 patients with radiation-induced proctitis/enteritis grade I-II according to the RTOG/EORTC toxicity criteria, 21 were treated with pentoxifylline and tocopherol. Depending on physician's decision nine patients received symptomatic treatment only. Results: With pentoxifylline/tocopherol treatment 15/21 patients (71%) experienced a relief of their symptoms. A reduction from grade I/II to grade 0 toxicity was observed in seven and from grade II to grade I toxicity in eight patients. No improvement was seen in six patients. The median time to improvement with pentoxifylline and tocopherol treatment was 28 weeks. In three of nine patients who were treated supportively only, deterioration of symptoms occurred. Three patients experienced no amelioration, and three patients with grade I toxicity experienced a spontaneous relief of their symptoms (33%). Conclusion: The combination treatment with pentoxifylline and tocopherol seems to have a benefit in patients with grade I-II radiation-induced proctitis/enteritis. The optimal schedule of treatment duration is not yet clear. From the observations made in this study it is assumed the treatment should be given for 6-12 months at least. A prospective phase II study should be undertaken to evaluate optimal treatment duration. (orig.)

  4. Effect of pentoxifylline and tocopherol on radiation proctitis/enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hille, A.; Christiansen, H.; Pradier, O.; Hermann, R.M.; Siekmeyer, B.; Weiss, E.; Hess, C.F.; Schmidberger, H. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation; Hilgers, R. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. for Medical Statisics

    2005-09-15

    Background and purpose: Chronic radiation proctitis/enteritis is a relevant complication of pelvic irradiation, which is still mainly treated by supportive measures only. There is some evidence that the combined treatment with pentoxifylline and tocopherol might alter the pathogenesis of radiation-induced fibrosis. In a retrospective analysis the clinical benefit of the treatment with pentoxifylline/tocopherol on radiation-induced proctitis/enteritis was evaluated, compared to supportive care only. Patients and methods: Of 30 patients with radiation-induced proctitis/enteritis grade I-II according to the RTOG/EORTC toxicity criteria, 21 were treated with pentoxifylline and tocopherol. Depending on physician's decision nine patients received symptomatic treatment only. Results: With pentoxifylline/tocopherol treatment 15/21 patients (71%) experienced a relief of their symptoms. A reduction from grade I/II to grade 0 toxicity was observed in seven and from grade II to grade I toxicity in eight patients. No improvement was seen in six patients. The median time to improvement with pentoxifylline and tocopherol treatment was 28 weeks. In three of nine patients who were treated supportively only, deterioration of symptoms occurred. Three patients experienced no amelioration, and three patients with grade I toxicity experienced a spontaneous relief of their symptoms (33%). Conclusion: The combination treatment with pentoxifylline and tocopherol seems to have a benefit in patients with grade I-II radiation-induced proctitis/enteritis. The optimal schedule of treatment duration is not yet clear. From the observations made in this study it is assumed the treatment should be given for 6-12 months at least. A prospective phase II study should be undertaken to evaluate optimal treatment duration. (orig.)

  5. Effect of a prostaglandin - given rectally for prevention of radiation-induced acute proctitis - on late rectal toxicity. Results of phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Tereza; Herrmann, Markus K.A.; Christiansen, Hans; Hermann, Robert M.; Hess, Clemens F.; Hille, Andrea; Zapf, Antonia; Pradier, Olivier; Schmidberger, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: to assess the late effect of a prostaglandin, given rectally during irradiation, on late rectal toxicity. In the acute treatment setting no significant differences in reducing the incidence of acute proctitis symptoms in patients receiving misoprostol, however, significantly more rectal bleeding had been reported. Patients and methods: a total of 100 patients who had undergone radiotherapy for prostate cancer had been entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. The toxicity was evaluated yearly after cessation of irradiation by the RTOG/LENT-SOMA scale. Results: the median follow-up was 50 months. 20 patients suffered from grade 1, four patients from grade 2 as well, and three patients only from grade 2 toxicity. Frequency, bleeding and urgency were the most commonly reported symptoms. In keeping with other studies and clinical experience, the symptoms peaked within the first 2 years with a median for grade 1 of 13 months and for grade 2 of 15 months. The presence of acute toxicity grade 2 showed a correlation with the development of any late toxicity (p = 0.03). Any acute rectal bleeding was significant correlated with any late rectal bleeding (p = 0.017). Conclusion: misoprostol given as once-daily suppository for prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis does neither influence the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute nor late rectal toxicity. Misoprostol has no negative impact on the incidence and severity of late rectal bleeding, in contrast to acute rectal bleeding. The routine clinical use of misoprostol suppositories cannot be recommended. (orig.)

  6. Effect of a prostaglandin - given rectally for prevention of radiation-induced acute proctitis - on late rectal toxicity. Results of phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertesz, Tereza; Herrmann, Markus K.A.; Christiansen, Hans; Hermann, Robert M.; Hess, Clemens F.; Hille, Andrea [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Zapf, Antonia [Dept. of Medical Statistics, Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Pradier, Olivier [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Brest (France); Schmidberger, Heinz [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Mainz (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Background and purpose: to assess the late effect of a prostaglandin, given rectally during irradiation, on late rectal toxicity. In the acute treatment setting no significant differences in reducing the incidence of acute proctitis symptoms in patients receiving misoprostol, however, significantly more rectal bleeding had been reported. Patients and methods: a total of 100 patients who had undergone radiotherapy for prostate cancer had been entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. The toxicity was evaluated yearly after cessation of irradiation by the RTOG/LENT-SOMA scale. Results: the median follow-up was 50 months. 20 patients suffered from grade 1, four patients from grade 2 as well, and three patients only from grade 2 toxicity. Frequency, bleeding and urgency were the most commonly reported symptoms. In keeping with other studies and clinical experience, the symptoms peaked within the first 2 years with a median for grade 1 of 13 months and for grade 2 of 15 months. The presence of acute toxicity grade 2 showed a correlation with the development of any late toxicity (p = 0.03). Any acute rectal bleeding was significant correlated with any late rectal bleeding (p = 0.017). Conclusion: misoprostol given as once-daily suppository for prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis does neither influence the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute nor late rectal toxicity. Misoprostol has no negative impact on the incidence and severity of late rectal bleeding, in contrast to acute rectal bleeding. The routine clinical use of misoprostol suppositories cannot be recommended. (orig.)

  7. Clinical studies in the effect of sodium alginate on radiation esophagitis and proctitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Hideki; Ono, Koji; Abe, Mitsuyuki; Inoue, Toshihiko; Imura, Toshio; Onoyama, Yasuto; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Narabayashi, Isamu; Yoshikawa, Yuichi

    1985-04-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of sodium alginate, a drug which has been used for the treatment of peptic ulcer, on radiation esophagitis or proctitis. Over seventy percent of patients suffered from swallowing pain due to radiation esophagitis were relieved from the pain within a week after an oral administration of sodium alginate. The extent of the improvement of the symptom did not significantly correlate with sex and age of the patients and with radiation doses delivered before occurrence of swallowing pain. For the treatment of radiation proctitis, an anal administration of sodium alginate was also effective. Melena, a major symptom of radiation proctitis, was decreased or disappeared in seventeen out of nineteen cases. The durations required for the improvement of melena varied from seven to seventy days. Endoscopical examinations of the rectum revealed reparation of erosions on the mucosal surface in parallel with the improvement of melena. (author).

  8. Can Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Reduce the Incidence, Severity, and Duration of Radiation Proctitis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alashkham, Abduelmenem; Paterson, Catherine; Rauchhaus, Petra; Nabi, Ghulam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether participants taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and treated with radical radiation therapy with neoadjuvant/adjuvant hormone therapy have less incidence, severity, and duration of radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: A propensity score analysis of 817 patients who underwent radical radiation therapy with neoadjuvant or adjuvant hormone therapy as primary line management in a cohort study during 2009 to 2013 was conducted. Patients were stratified as follows: group 1, hypertensive patients taking ACEIs (as a study group); group 2, nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs; and group 3, hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (both as control groups). The incidence, severity, and duration of proctitis were the main outcome. χ"2 tests, Mann-Whitney U tests, analysis of variance, risk ratio (RR), confidence interval (CI), Kaplan-Meier plots, and log-rank tests were used. Results: The mean age of the participants was 68.91 years, with a follow-up time of 3.38 years. Based on disease and age-matched comparison, there was a statistically significant difference of proctitis grading between the 3 groups: χ"2 (8, n=308) = 72.52, P<.001. The Mann-Whitney U test indicated that grades of proctitis were significantly lower in hypertensive patients taking ACEIs than in nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs and hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (P<.001). The risk ratio (RR) of proctitis in hypertensive patients taking ACEIs was significantly lower than in hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.30-0.53, P<.001) and in nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.44-0.77, P<.001). Time to event analysis revealed that hypertensive patients taking ACEIs were significantly different from the control groups (P<.0001). Furthermore, hypertensive patients taking ACEIs had significantly faster resolution of proctitis (P<.0001). Conclusion: Patients who were taking ACEIs were

  9. Can Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Reduce the Incidence, Severity, and Duration of Radiation Proctitis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alashkham, Abduelmenem, E-mail: alashkham@yahoo.com [Academic Section of Urology, Division of Cancer Research, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom); Paterson, Catherine [Academic Section of Urology, Division of Cancer Research, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom); Rauchhaus, Petra [Tayside Clinical Trials Unit, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom); Nabi, Ghulam [Academic Section of Urology, Division of Cancer Research, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether participants taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and treated with radical radiation therapy with neoadjuvant/adjuvant hormone therapy have less incidence, severity, and duration of radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: A propensity score analysis of 817 patients who underwent radical radiation therapy with neoadjuvant or adjuvant hormone therapy as primary line management in a cohort study during 2009 to 2013 was conducted. Patients were stratified as follows: group 1, hypertensive patients taking ACEIs (as a study group); group 2, nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs; and group 3, hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (both as control groups). The incidence, severity, and duration of proctitis were the main outcome. χ{sup 2} tests, Mann-Whitney U tests, analysis of variance, risk ratio (RR), confidence interval (CI), Kaplan-Meier plots, and log-rank tests were used. Results: The mean age of the participants was 68.91 years, with a follow-up time of 3.38 years. Based on disease and age-matched comparison, there was a statistically significant difference of proctitis grading between the 3 groups: χ{sup 2} (8, n=308) = 72.52, P<.001. The Mann-Whitney U test indicated that grades of proctitis were significantly lower in hypertensive patients taking ACEIs than in nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs and hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (P<.001). The risk ratio (RR) of proctitis in hypertensive patients taking ACEIs was significantly lower than in hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.30-0.53, P<.001) and in nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.44-0.77, P<.001). Time to event analysis revealed that hypertensive patients taking ACEIs were significantly different from the control groups (P<.0001). Furthermore, hypertensive patients taking ACEIs had significantly faster resolution of proctitis (P<.0001). Conclusion: Patients who were taking ACEIs were

  10. Daily Sodium Butyrate Enema for the Prevention of Radiation Proctitis in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Radical Radiation Therapy: Results of a Multicenter Randomized Placebo-Controlled Dose-Finding Phase 2 Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggio, Angelo; Magli, Alessandro; Rancati, Tiziana; Fiorino, Claudio; Valvo, Francesca; Fellin, Giovanni; Ricardi, Umberto; Munoz, Fernando; Cosentino, Dorian; Cazzaniga, Luigi Franco; Valdagni, Riccardo; Vavassori, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of sodium butyrate enemas (NABUREN) in prostate cancer radiation therapy (RT) in reducing the incidence, severity, and duration of acute RT-induced proctitis. Methods and Materials: 166 patients, randomly allocated to 1 of 4 groups (rectal sodium butyrate 1 g, 2 g, or 4 g daily or placebo), were treated with NABUREN during and 2 weeks after RT. The grade of proctitis was registered in a daily diary. The correlation between NABUREN and proctitis was investigated through χ 2 statistics. The toxicity endpoints considered were as follows: total number of days with grade ≥1 proctitis (≥G1); total number of days with grade ≥2 proctitis (≥G2); ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis lasting at least 3 and 5 consecutive days starting from week 4 (≥G1+3d, ≥G2+3d); damaging effects of RT on rectal mucosa as measured by endoscopy. The relationship between endpoints and pretreatment morbidities, hormonal therapy, presence of diabetes or hypertension, abdominal surgery, or hemorrhoids was investigated by univariate analysis. Results: The patients were randomly allocated to the 4 arms. No difference in the distribution of comorbidities among the arms was observed (P>.09). The mean ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis were 7.8 and 4.9 for placebo and 8.9 and 4.7 for the NABUREN group, respectively. No favorable trend in reduction of incidence, severity, and duration of ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis was observed with NABUREN use. In univariate analysis, ≥G1+3d toxicity was found to be related to hemorrhoids (P=.008), and a slight correlation was found between ≥G2 proctitis and hormonal therapy (P=.06). The RT effects on rectal mucosa as based on endoscopic assessment were mainly related to diabetes (P<.01). Endoscopy data at 6 week showed no significant difference between the placebo and butyrate arms. The other investigated endpoints were not correlated with any of the clinical risk factors analyzed. Conclusion: There was no evidence of efficacy of

  11. Daily Sodium Butyrate Enema for the Prevention of Radiation Proctitis in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Radical Radiation Therapy: Results of a Multicenter Randomized Placebo-Controlled Dose-Finding Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggio, Angelo, E-mail: maggio.angelo@gmail.com [Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Magli, Alessandro [Department of Radiotherapy, Ospedale S. Maria della Misericordia, Udine (Italy); Rancati, Tiziana [Prostate Cancer Programme, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Fiorino, Claudio [Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Valvo, Francesca [Division of Radiation Oncology 1, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Fellin, Giovanni [Department of Radiotherapy, Ospedale Santa Chiara, Trento (Italy); Ricardi, Umberto [University of Turin, Department of Oncology, Torino (Italy); Munoz, Fernando [Radiotherapy Unit, AO Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Torino (Italy); Cosentino, Dorian; Cazzaniga, Luigi Franco [Ospedale S. Anna, Como (Italy); Valdagni, Riccardo [Prostate Cancer Programme, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Division of Radiation Oncology 1, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Vavassori, Vittorio [Department of Radiotherapy, Ospedale di Circolo, Varese (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of sodium butyrate enemas (NABUREN) in prostate cancer radiation therapy (RT) in reducing the incidence, severity, and duration of acute RT-induced proctitis. Methods and Materials: 166 patients, randomly allocated to 1 of 4 groups (rectal sodium butyrate 1 g, 2 g, or 4 g daily or placebo), were treated with NABUREN during and 2 weeks after RT. The grade of proctitis was registered in a daily diary. The correlation between NABUREN and proctitis was investigated through χ{sup 2} statistics. The toxicity endpoints considered were as follows: total number of days with grade ≥1 proctitis (≥G1); total number of days with grade ≥2 proctitis (≥G2); ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis lasting at least 3 and 5 consecutive days starting from week 4 (≥G1+3d, ≥G2+3d); damaging effects of RT on rectal mucosa as measured by endoscopy. The relationship between endpoints and pretreatment morbidities, hormonal therapy, presence of diabetes or hypertension, abdominal surgery, or hemorrhoids was investigated by univariate analysis. Results: The patients were randomly allocated to the 4 arms. No difference in the distribution of comorbidities among the arms was observed (P>.09). The mean ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis were 7.8 and 4.9 for placebo and 8.9 and 4.7 for the NABUREN group, respectively. No favorable trend in reduction of incidence, severity, and duration of ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis was observed with NABUREN use. In univariate analysis, ≥G1+3d toxicity was found to be related to hemorrhoids (P=.008), and a slight correlation was found between ≥G2 proctitis and hormonal therapy (P=.06). The RT effects on rectal mucosa as based on endoscopic assessment were mainly related to diabetes (P<.01). Endoscopy data at 6 week showed no significant difference between the placebo and butyrate arms. The other investigated endpoints were not correlated with any of the clinical risk factors analyzed. Conclusion: There was no evidence of efficacy

  12. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Radiation-Induced Cystitis and Proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliai, Caspian; Fisher, Brandon; Jani, Ashish; Wong, Michael; Poli, Jaganmohan; Brady, Luther W.; Komarnicky, Lydia T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a retrospective analysis of the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) for treating hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) and proctitis secondary to pelvic- and prostate-only radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Nineteen patients were treated with HBOT for radiation-induced HC and proctitis. The median age at treatment was 66 years (range, 15–84 years). The range of external-beam radiation delivered was 50.0–75.6 Gy. Bleeding must have been refractory to other therapies. Patients received 100% oxygen at 2.0 atmospheres absolute pressure for 90–120 min per treatment in a monoplace chamber. Symptoms were retrospectively scored according to the Late Effects of Normal Tissues—Subjective, Objective, Management, Analytic (LENT-SOMA) scale to evaluate short-term efficacy. Recurrence of hematuria/hematochezia was used to assess long-term efficacy. Results: Four of the 19 patients were lost to follow-up. Fifteen patients were evaluated and received a mean of 29.8 dives: 11 developed HC and 4 proctitis. All patients experienced a reduction in their LENT-SOMA score. After completion of HBOT, the mean LENT-SOMA score was reduced from 0.78 to 0.20 in patients with HC and from 0.66 to 0.26 in patients with proctitis. Median follow-up was 39 months (range, 7–70 months). No cases of hematuria were refractory to HBOT. Complete resolution of hematuria was seen in 81% (n = 9) and partial response in 18% (n = 2). Recurrence of hematuria occurred in 36% (n = 4) after a median of 10 months. Complete resolution of hematochezia was seen in 50% (n = 2), partial response in 25% (n = 1), and refractory bleeding in 25% (n = 1). Conclusions: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is appropriate for radiation-induced HC once less time-consuming therapies have failed to resolve the bleeding. In these conditions, HBOT is efficacious in the short and long term, with minimal side effects.

  13. Radiation proctitis in the rat. Sequential changes and effects of anti-inflammatory agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northway, M.G.; Scobey, M.W.; Geisinger, K.R.

    1988-11-01

    Female Wistar rats were treated with single exposure irradiation to 2 cm of distal colon to cause radiation proctitis. All animals were evaluated by examination, colonoscopy and histologic evaluation for changes post-irradiation. Exposures of 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, 20, 22.5, 25, 27.5 and 30 Gy caused dose-related clinical and histologic changes peaking at 7 to 15 days post-exposure. Rats treated with 20 Gy were colonoscoped and biopsied daily and showed sequential post-irradiation endoscopic changes ranging from mucosal edema and mild inflammatory changes to erosion and ulcers. Histologically, crypt abscess and mural wall necrosis similar to changes found in the human rectum after radiotherapy were noted. Treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, (aspirin, indomethacin, piroxicam), misoprostol (a prostaglandin E1 analogue), or sucralfate (an anti-ulcer agent) did not ameliorate nor exacerbate radiation proctitis in rats exposed to 22.5 Gy. We conclude from these data that the female Wistar rat is a good model for studying radiation proctitis because endoscopic, histologic, and clinical changes seen post-exposure closely resemble those found in man.

  14. Evaluation of quality of polaprezinc suppositories and their clinical effect on radiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikata, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Takeshi; Hikasa, Shinichi; Hamaguchi, Tsuneo; Doi, Hiroshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Kadobayashi, Muneo; Kimura, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Polaprezinc (PZ) suppositories have been used for radiation proctitis in our hospital. In this study, we established methods to evaluate the quality of hospital-prepared PZ suppositories and investigated their stability. As PZ is dissociated at an acidic pH but not at a medium pH, the release of PZ from the suppository was carried out using chelatometric titration in weakly acidic buffer solutions (pH 3, pH 4, and pH 5). As the release of PZ from the suppository was fastest in the buffer solution at pH 3, we used this pH for the release test for PZ. Conducting this test in the stability investigation showed that the amount of PZ released from the suppository after 84 days was the same as that immediately after manufacture. We also examined the clinical efficacy of the PZ suppository in 5 patients with radiation proctitis, finding that efficacy was satisfactory in 3 patients. These results indicated that the PZ suppository is a good treatment for radiation proctitis. (author)

  15. Radiation proctitis in the rat. Sequential changes and effects of anti-inflammatory agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northway, M.G.; Scobey, M.W.; Geisinger, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    Female Wistar rats were treated with single exposure irradiation to 2 cm of distal colon to cause radiation proctitis. All animals were evaluated by examination, colonoscopy and histologic evaluation for changes post-irradiation. Exposures of 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, 20, 22.5, 25, 27.5 and 30 Gy caused dose-related clinical and histologic changes peaking at 7 to 15 days post-exposure. Rats treated with 20 Gy were colonoscoped and biopsied daily and showed sequential post-irradiation endoscopic changes ranging from mucosal edema and mild inflammatory changes to erosion and ulcers. Histologically, crypt abscess and mural wall necrosis similar to changes found in the human rectum after radiotherapy were noted. Treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, (aspirin, indomethacin, piroxicam), misoprostol (a prostaglandin E1 analogue), or sucralfate (an anti-ulcer agent) did not ameliorate nor exacerbate radiation proctitis in rats exposed to 22.5 Gy. We conclude from these data that the female Wistar rat is a good model for studying radiation proctitis because endoscopic, histologic, and clinical changes seen post-exposure closely resemble those found in man

  16. The effect of oral sucralfate on the acute proctitis associated with prostate radiotherapy: a double-blind, randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneebone, Andrew; Mameghan, Hedy; Bolin, Terry; Berry, Martin; Turner, Sandra; Kearsley, John; Graham, Peter; Fisher, Richard; Delaney, Geoff

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Acute rectal complications occur in the majority of patients receiving external-beam radiotherapy for carcinoma of the prostate. Sucralfate has been proposed to reduce radiation-induced mucosal injury by forming a protective barrier on ulcer bases, binding local growth factors, and stimulating angiogenesis. However, there is conflicting clinical evidence as to whether sucralfate, taken prophylactically during radiotherapy, can ameliorate the symptoms of acute radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: A double-blind randomized trial was conducted at four Radiation Oncology Departments in Sydney, Australia, between February 1995 and June 1997. A total of 338 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer receiving small volume radiotherapy, of whom 335 were evaluable, were randomized to receive either 3 g of oral sucralfate suspension or placebo twice a day during radiotherapy. Patients kept a daily record of their bowel symptoms and were graded according to the RTOG/EORTC acute toxicity criteria. Results: One hundred sixty-four patients received sucralfate and 171 received placebo. Both groups were well balanced with regard to patient, tumor, treatment factors, and baseline symptoms, except that the placebo group had a significantly more liquid baseline stool consistency score (p=0.004). Patients kept a daily diary of symptoms during radiotherapy. After adjusting for baseline values, there was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to stool frequency (p=0.41), consistency (p=0.20), flatus (p=0.25), mucus (p=0.54), and pain (p=0.73). However, there was more bleeding in the sucralfate group, with 64% of patients noticing rectal bleeding, compared with 47% in the placebo group (p=0.001). There was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to RTOG/EORTC acute toxicity (p=0.88; sucralfate 13%, 44%, 43% and placebo 15%, 44%, 40% for grade 0, 1, and 2, respectively). Conclusion: This study suggests that oral

  17. Sucralfate paste enema: a new method of topical treatment for haemorrhagic radiation proctitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElvanna, K; Wilson, A; Irwin, T

    2014-04-01

    Rectal sucralfate has been reported to deliver clinical improvement in haemorrhagic radiation proctitis, but patients with active proctitis find the enema suspension difficult to retain thus reducing compliance and effectiveness. We describe a novel method of rectal administration via a low-volume sucralfate paste and report its results in a series of 23 patients. Patients with rectal bleeding occurring more than 6 months after radiotherapy were shown how to prepare and self-administer sucralfate paste enemas (SPEs) twice daily for 6 weeks. The SPE was prepared using two sucralfate 1-g tablets mixed with 4.5 ml of water in an enema applicator producing a low-volume paste. The clinical response was evaluated by comparison of pre- and posttreatment clinical proctitis scores (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer). Eighteen male (postprostatic radiotherapy) and five female (postcervical radiotherapy) patients with a median age of 67 (32-75) years were included. The median interval between pelvic irradiation and SPE treatment was 24 (7-69) months. Twenty-two patients had full clinical scoring, of whom 16 (73%) demonstrated clinical improvement. Six (27%) had neither clinical improvement nor deterioration. Seven (32%) had resolution of all symptoms. Most patients demonstrated clinical improvement. This initial experience of the sucralfate paste enema may provide the basis for a prospective study of its effectiveness in the treatment of haemorrhagic radiation proctitis. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. Sucralfate or placebo following argon plasma coagulation for chronic radiation proctitis: a randomized double blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chruscielewska-Kiliszek, M R; Regula, J; Polkowski, M; Rupinski, M; Kraszewska, E; Pachlewski, J; Czaczkowska-Kurek, E; Butruk, E

    2013-01-01

    Chronic radiation proctitis is a long-term complication of radiation therapy for pelvic malignancy. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of two treatment regimens, sucralfate or placebo, following argon plasma coagulation (APC) for chronic haemorrhagic radiation proctitis. A single-centre, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was performed on patients with haemorrhagic chronic radiation proctitis after irradiation for prostate, uterine, cervical, rectal or vaginal cancer. All patients received APC, and were then randomized to oral sucralfate (6 g twice a day) or placebo treatment for 4 weeks. APC was repeated every 8 weeks if necessary after the first session. Patients were graded clinically and endoscopically according to the Chutkan and Gilinski scales before and at 8 and 16 weeks after initial APC treatment (1.5-2 l/min, 25-40 W) and after 52 weeks (clinical only). Of 122 patients, 117 completed the entire protocol, with 57/60 in the sucralfate group and 60/62 in the placebo group. At baseline there were no significant differences between the sucralfate and placebo groups. At 1 year, a significant improvement in the clinical scale in both groups occurred compared with baseline. After 16 weeks, the median overall clinical severity scores fell from 4 to 2 points and the median bleeding score from 2 to 0 in both groups. APC is safe and effective for the management of chronic radiation proctitis. Additional sucralfate treatment did not influence the clinical or endoscopic outcome. © 2012 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2012 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  19. WE-D-BRE-05: Prediction of Late Radiation-Induced Proctitis in Prostate Cancer Patients Using Chromosome Aberration and Cell Proliferation Rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, J; Deasy, J [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Chromosome damage and cell proliferation rate have been investigated as potential biomarkers for the early prediction of late radiationinduced toxicity. Incorporating these endpoints, we explored the predictive power for late radiation proctitis using a machine learning method. Methods: Recently, Beaton et al. showed that chromosome aberration and cell proliferation rate could be used as biomarkers to predict late radiation proctitis (Beaton et al. (2013) Int J Rad Onc Biol Phys, 85:1346–1352). For the identification of radiosensitive biomarkers, blood samples were collected from 10 patients with grade 3 late proctitis along with 20 control patients with grade 0 proctitis. After irradiation at 6 Gy, statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups, using the number of dicentrics and excess fragments, and the number of cells in metaphase 2 (M2). However, Beaton et al. did not show the usefulness of combining these endpoints. We reanalyzed the dataset to investigate whether incorporating these endpoints can increase the predictive power of radiation proctitis, using a support vector machine (SVM). Results: Using the SVM method with the number of fragments and M2 endpoints, perfect classification was achieved. In addition, to avoid biased estimate of the classification method, leave-one-out cross-validation (LOO-CV) was performed. The best performance was achieved when all three endpoints were used with 87% accuracy, 90% sensitivity, 85% specificity, and 0.85 AUC (the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve). The most significant endpoint was the number of fragments that obtained 83% accuracy, 70% sensitivity, 90% specificity, and 0.82 AUC. Conclusion: We demonstrated that chromosome damage and cell proliferation rate could be significant biomarkers to predict late radiation proctitis. When these endpoints were used together in conjunction with a machine learning method, the better performance was obtained

  20. A refractory case of radiation proctitis. Effectiveness of argon plasma coagulation therapy and the rectal stenosis after therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Katsunobu; Morita, Akihiko; Terada, Itsuro

    2006-01-01

    A 75-years-old man received external radiation with a cumulative dose of 60 Gy for prostatic cancer. Severe hematochezia occurred approximately 16 months after irradiation. A extensive and circumferential telangiectatic lesion in the lower segment of the rectum was detected, then he was diagnosed as having radiation proctitis. Pharmacotherapy was employed at first, but the bleeding was uncontrollable. Colostomy was performed, but the bleeding could not be controlled. Argon plasma coagulation therapy (APC) was applied, and the bleeding ceased after first session of APC. But the severe rectal stricture appeared three months after APC. APC is effective treatment for refractory radiation proctitis, but the rectal stenosis was occurred three months after APC. (author)

  1. Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment in Radiation-Induced Cystitis and Proctitis: A Prospective Cohort Study on Patient-Perceived Quality of Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oscarsson, Nicklas, E-mail: nicklas.oscarsson@vgregion.se [Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Arnell, Per [Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Lodding, Pär [Department of Urology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Ricksten, Sven-Erik; Seeman-Lodding, Heléne [Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: In this prospective cohort study, the effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) were evaluated concerning patient-perceived symptoms of late radiation-induced cystitis and proctitis secondary to radiation therapy for pelvic cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-nine patients, 35 men and 4 women with a mean age of 71 (range, 35-84) years were included after informed consent and institutional ethics approval. They had all been treated with radiation therapy for prostate (n=34), cervix (n=2), or rectal (n=3) cancer using external beam radiation at a dose of 25 to 75 Gy. Patients with hematuria requiring blood transfusion were excluded. The HBOT was delivered with 100% oxygen for 90 minutes at 2.0 to 2.4 atmospheres (ATA). Mean number of treatments was 36 (28-40). Symptoms were prospectively assessed using the Expanded Prostate Index Composite score before, during, and 6 to 12 months after HBOT. Results: The HBOT was successfully conducted, and symptoms were alleviated in 76% for patients with radiation cystitis, 89% for patients with radiation proctitis, and 88% of patients with combined cystitis and proctitis. Symptom reduction was demonstrated by an increased Expanded Prostate Index Composite score in the urinary domain from 50 ± 16 to 66 ± 20 after treatment (P<.001) and in the bowel domain from 48 ± 18 to 68 ± 18 after treatment (P<.001). For 31% of the patients with cystitis and 22% with proctitis, there were only trivial symptoms after HBOT. The improvement was sustained at follow-up in both domains 6 to 12 months after HBOT. No severe side effects were observed related to HBOT, and treatment compliance was high. Conclusions: HBOT can be an effective and safe treatment modality for late radiation therapy-induced soft tissue injuries in the pelvic region.

  2. Intravesical or intrarectal instillation of Maalox for the treatment of radiation cystitis or proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawagoe, Koh; Kawana, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    Intravesical or intrarectal instillation of Maalox, a well-known material for protection of mucous epithelia, was performed in 3 cases of radiation cystitis and one case of radiation proctitis, resulting in successful control of hemorrhage. Four cases of uterine cervical cancer with radiotherapy, including 2 cases of primary and 2 cases of postoperative radiotherapy, were managed by Maalox treatment with intervals of one to nine years between radiotherapy and Maalox instillation. One of the three patients with hemorrhagic cystitis, who had received internal iliac arterial embolization at the another hospital, was to be performed the operation of the urinary tract diversion. 50-100 ml of original or 1/2 diluted Maalox was instilled into urinary bladder or rectum with clump of catheter for 30 min. to 1 hr. after sufficient irrigation with 500 ml of 100 times diluted isodine. Blood transfusion for anemia was done in all cases, and antibiotics, or anticoagulant agents were systematically administered in some cases. Macrohematuria or melena ceased within 2 to 8 days after initiation of Maalox therapy in all cases. In one of the three cases of hemorrhagic cystitis, macroscopic hematuria, which reappeared one year later, was also successfully treated by Maalox therapy. In a case of radiation proctitis, though the melena disappeared in 5 days, diarrhea continued and the patient died of the primary disease two months later with the formation of rectovaginal fistula. No ultimate way of treatment of radiation hemorrhagic cystitis or proctitis has been established, though both of them were clinically important and serious side effects of radiotherapy. Therefore, intravesical or intrarectal instillation of Maalox could become one of the leading ways of treatment of intractable hemorrhagic cystitis, because the technique was simple and the effectiveness was valid without any notable side effects. (author)

  3. PROCTITIS ONE WEEK AFTER STEREOTACTIC BODY RADIATION THERAPY FOR PROSTATE CANCER: IMPLICATIONS FOR CLINICAL TRIAL DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ima Paydar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proctitis following prostate cancer radiation therapy is a primary determinant of quality of life (QOL. While previous studies have assessed acute rectal morbidity at 1 month after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT, little data exist on the prevalence and severity of rectal morbidity within the first week following treatment. This study reports the acute bowel morbidity one week following prostate SBRT. Materials and methods: Between May 2013 and August 2014, 103 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with 35 to 36.25 Gy in five fractions using robotic SBRT delivered on a prospective clinical trial. Bowel toxicity was graded using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 (CTCAEv.4. Bowel QOL was assessed using EPIC-26 questionnaire bowel domain at baseline, one week, one month, and three months. Time-dependent changes in bowel symptoms were statistically compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Clinically significant change was assessed by the minimally important difference (MID in EPIC score. This was defined as a change of one-half standard deviation (SD from the baseline score. Results: One hundred and three patients with a minimum of three months of follow-up were analyzed. The cumulative incidence of acute grade 2 GI toxicity was 23%. There were no acute ≥ grade 3 bowel toxicities. EPIC bowel summary scores maximally declined at 1 week after SBRT (-13.9, p<0.0001 before returning to baseline at three months after SBRT (+0.03, p=0.94. Prior to treatment, 4.9% of men reported that their bowel bother was a moderate to big problem. This increased to 28.4% (p<0.0001 one week after SBRT and returned to baseline at three months after SBRT (0.0%, p=0.66. Only the bowel summary and bowel bother score declines at 1 week met the MID threshold for clinically significant change. Conclusion: The rate and severity of acute proctitis following prostate SBRT peaked at one week after

  4. Sucralfate does not ameliorate acute radiation proctitis: randomised study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovdenak, N; Sørbye, H; Dahl, O

    2005-09-01

    During pelvic radiotherapy, many patients develop radiation-induced gastrointestinal symptoms, which may interfere with treatment. Prophylaxis during radiotherapy should ideally prevent acute reaction and the development of delayed injury. Sucralfate, an aluminium sucrose octasulphate, has been used for acute and delayed radiation side-effects. However, conflicting results have been published. We report here a prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled study of prophylactic sucralfate during pelvic radiotherapy. In addition, a meta-analysis of available data from the literature has been carried out. Fifty-one patients with localised pelvic tumours scheduled for curative conformal pelvic radiotherapy (total dose 64-70 Gy over 6.5-7 weeks in 2 Gy daily fractions) were included. Peroral sucralfate 2 g three times daily, or identically appearing placebo tablets, was given during the course of radiotherapy. Symptom registration, endoscopy and biopsies were carried out immediately before radiotherapy, 2 weeks and 6 weeks into the treatment course, and 2 weeks after completing radiotherapy. Mucosal cup forceps biopsies were obtained through a rigid proctoscope. Graded endoscopic appearance and quantitative histology were registered. On the basis of previously published negative reports, an unplanned interim analysis of 44 evaluable patients showed significantly increased diarrhoea in the sucralfate group and the trial was stopped. No difference was seen in other symptoms, endoscopic appearance or histology. A meta-analysis comprising five published studies showed no statistically significant beneficial effect of sucralfate on acute symptoms. Sucralfate cannot be recommended for prophylaxis of acute radiation proctopathy and may even worsen the symptoms.

  5. Formalin treatment of radiation-induced hemorrhagic proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, E.; Ibsen, T.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Reimer, E.; Sorensen, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    A 71-year-old man developed severe hemorrhagic proctitis 1 year after pelvic irradiation for carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Conservative treatment as well as performance of a colostomy failed to control the rectal bleeding. After irrigation of the rectum with a formalin solution the bleeding stopped, and no recurrence has been observed for the next 14 months

  6. Ulcerative Proctitis

    OpenAIRE

    Whitlow, Charles B.

    2004-01-01

    Ulcerative proctitis is an idiopathic mucosal inflammatory disease involving only the rectum and is therefore an anatomically limited form of ulcerative colitis. Diagnosis is made based on clinical presentation, endoscopic appearance, and histopathology. Additionally, other etiologies of proctitis are excluded. The course of the disease is variable ranging from complete resolution to easily maintained remission to frequent relapses or refractory disease. Extension of inflammatory changes invo...

  7. Herpes simplex virus proctitis in homosexual men. Clinical, sigmoidoscopic, and histopathological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, S E; Quinn, T C; Mkrtichian, E; Schuffler, M D; Holmes, K K; Corey, L

    1983-04-14

    Acute herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection was detected in 23 of 102 consecutively examined, sexually active male homosexuals who presented with anorectal pain, discharge, tenesmus, or hematochezia, as compared with 3 of 75 homosexual men without gastrointestinal symptoms (P less than 0.01). Findings that were significantly more frequent in men with HSV proctitis than in men with proctitis due to other infectious causes included fever (48 per cent), difficulty in urinating (48 per cent), sacral paresthesias (26 per cent), inguinal lymphadenopathy (57 per cent), severe anorectal pain (100 per cent), tenesmus (100 per cent), constipation (78 per cent), perianal ulcerations (70 per cent), and the presence of diffuse ulcerative or discrete vesicular or pustular lesions in the distal 5 cm of the rectum (50 per cent). Serologic evidence indicated that 85 per cent of the men with symptomatic HSV proctitis were having their first episode of HSV-2 infection. The diagnosis of HSV proctitis is suggested by the presence of severe anorectal pain, difficulty in urinating, sacral paresthesias or pain, and diffuse ulceration of the distal rectal mucosa.

  8. Role of mastocytes in the development of in vivo radiation proctitis and in vitro endothelial response to irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blirando, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Radiation therapy is used alone or in combination with chemotherapy in more than 50 % of cancer treatments. Despite recent advances in treatment delivery such as dose-sculpting techniques, irradiation of healthy tissues surrounding the tumor and the associated side effects limit the radiation amount used. Those side effects when concerning the gastro-intestinal tract have profound repercussions on patient's quality of life and may even engage their vital prognosis. The comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in the development of these lesions is thus a major stake in the identification of therapeutic targets allowing their prevention and treatment. During my PhD, we studied the role of mast cells in the development of radiation proctitis in vivo and in the endothelial response to irradiation in vitro. Our results suggest that mast cells have a deleterious role in the development of human and murine radiation proctitis, in particular by the influence of some of its mediators such as histamine and proteases on the phenotype of the smooth muscle cells of the muscularis propria. Targeting mast cells mediators may represent new therapeutic tools to prevent and / or limit digestive radiation damage. Other shares our work shows that mast cells mediators such as histamine can exacerbate the endothelial inflammatory response to irradiation by mechanisms involving the activation of the p38MAP-Kinase pathway and the transcription factor NF-κB. The study of intracellular signaling pathways activated during radiation damage development may offer new therapeutic possibilities in the management of healthy tissues radiation damage. (author)

  9. Successful treatment of radiation-induced proctitis pain by blockade of the ganglion impar in an elderly patient with prostate cancer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Ankur; Adeyefa, Oludayo; Nasir, Syed

    2013-05-01

    Chronic rectal pain secondary to radiation-induced proctitis is fast-becoming a leading cause of chronic pain, especially for prostate cancer survivors. Currently, many elderly patients resort to increased opioid intake to alleviate the pain. However, this increase in opioid consumption often leads to constipation and further aggravates the anorectal pain, thus leading to a perpetual, vicious cycle. We reasoned that blocking the ganglion impar could attenuate this sympathetically maintained pain, which would lead to a reduction in the consumption of opioids, lessen constipation, and lead to an improvement in the patient's quality of life. Case report. An academic tertiary pain management clinic. The authors report the case of a 73-year-old African American man with a history of prostate cancer who presented to the pain management clinic for evaluation and treatment of his chronic anorectal pain secondary to radiation-induced proctitis. The patient underwent a ganglion impar block, using the transcoccygeal technique, and consequently reported excellent pain relief with little or no use for opioid pain medications at a 2-month follow-up. Ultimately, this approach led to improved mobility and an increase in the patient's quality of life. Based on this case's success, a prospective study or randomized control trial evaluating the efficacy of the ganglion impar block as a treatment option for chronic anorectal pain secondary to radiation-induced proctitis appears warranted. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Proctitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgery in which the passage of stool is diverted from the rectum. Food protein-induced proctitis. This ... Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization and proceeds from Web advertising help support ...

  11. Endoscopic diode laser therapy for chronic radiation proctitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Lino; Marini, Lucia; Rizzato, Roberto; Picardi, Edgardo; Merigliano, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of endoscopic diode laser therapy in patients presenting rectal bleeding due to chronic radiation proctitis (CRP). A retrospective analysis of CRP patients who underwent diode laser therapy in a single institution between 2010 and 2016 was carried out. The patients were treated by non-contact fibers without sedation in an outpatient setting. Fourteen patients (median age 77, range 73-87 years) diagnosed with CRP who had undergone high-dose radiotherapy for prostatic cancer and who presented with rectal bleeding were included. Six required blood transfusions. Antiplatelet (three patients) and anticoagulant (two patients) therapy was not suspended during the treatments. The patients underwent a median of two sessions; overall, a mean of 1684 J of laser energy per session was used. Bleeding was resolved in 10/14 (71%) patients, and other two patients showed improvement (93%). Only one patient, who did not complete the treatment, required blood transfusions after laser therapy; no complications were noted during or after the procedures. Study findings demonstrated that endoscopic non-contact diode laser treatment is safe and effective in CRP patients, even in those receiving antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant therapy.

  12. Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment of Chronic Refractory Radiation Proctitis: A Randomized and Controlled Double-Blind Crossover Trial With Long-Term Follow-Up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Richard E.; Tenorio, L. M. Catalina; Hussey, James R.; Toklu, Akin S.; Cone, D. Lindsie; Hinojosa, Jose G.; Desai, Samir P.; Dominguez Parra, Luis; Rodrigues, Sylvia D.; Long, Robert J.; Walker, Margaret B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy remain at life-long risk of radiation-induced injury to normal tissues. We conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover trial with long-term follow-up to evaluate the effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen for refractory radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: Patients with refractory radiation proctitis were randomized to hyperbaric oxygen at 2.0 atmospheres absolute (Group 1) or air at 1.1 atmospheres absolute (Group 2). The sham patients were subsequently crossed to Group 1. All patients were re-evaluated by an investigator who was unaware of the treatment allocation at 3 and 6 months and Years 1-5. The primary outcome measures were the late effects normal tissue-subjective, objective, management, analytic (SOMA-LENT) score and standardized clinical assessment. The secondary outcome was the change in quality of life. Results: Of 226 patients assessed, 150 were entered in the study and 120 were evaluable. After the initial allocation, the mean SOMA-LENT score improved in both groups. For Group 1, the mean was lower (p 0.0150) and the amount of improvement nearly twice as great (5.00 vs. 2.61, p = 0.0019). Similarly, Group 1 had a greater portion of responders per clinical assessment than did Group 2 (88.9% vs. 62.5%, respectively; p 0.0009). Significance improved when the data were analyzed from an intention to treat perspective (p = 0.0006). Group 1 had a better result in the quality of life bowel bother subscale. These differences were abolished after the crossover. Conclusion: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy significantly improved the healing responses in patients with refractory radiation proctitis, generating an absolute risk reduction of 32% (number needed to treat of 3) between the groups after the initial allocation. Other medical management requirements were discontinued, and advanced interventions were largely avoided. Enhanced bowel-specific quality of life resulted

  13. The correlation of acute toxicity and late rectal injury in radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma: Evidence suggestive of consequential late effect (CQLE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.-J.; Leung, Stephen Wan; Chen, H.-C.; Sun, L.-M.; Fang, F.-M.; Huang, E.-Y.; Hsiung, C.-Y.; Changchien, C.-C.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate the acute toxicity during pelvic irradiation and the development of late rectal injury following radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Two hundred and twenty patients treated with curative-intent radiation therapy between November 1987 and January 1992 were analyzed. Patients were treated initially with external beam irradiation, 40-44 Gy/20-22 fractions to whole pelvis, followed by high dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy, 7.2 Gy to point A for 3 fractions. Severity of diarrhea during radiation therapy was scored according to six criteria: fecal characteristics, frequency, onset, prescription of antidiarrheal agents, body weight loss during irradiation, and extramedical care needed. Patients were categorized as group ND (no obvious diarrhea), group MD (moderate diarrhea), and group SD (severe diarrhea) for sum score 0-1, 2-5, and ≥6, respectively. The rate of radiation proctitis was expressed, analyzed, and compared with actuarial proctitis-free rate and prevalence. Results: 1) According to the score, 76 (35%), 89 (40%), and 55 (25%) patients were categorized as group ND, group MD, and group SD, respectively. Distribution of patients and treatment characteristics among the three groups appeared similar. Patients treated with a larger field size, ≥16.5 cm 2 , tended to have increased severity of diarrhea. 2) Overall, 103 patients (47%, 103 of 220) developed radiation proctitis. Twenty-one patients were in group ND (28%, 21 of 76), 43 in group MD (48%, 43 of 89), and 39 in group SD (71%, 39 of 55). 3) The five-year actuarial proctitis-free rate was 72, 52, and 29% for group ND, MD, and SD, respectively (p s = 0.229, p = 0.098). 6) Cox's multivariate analysis revealed that severity of diarrhea was the only factor that significantly correlated with the development of radiation proctitis. Conclusion: Patients with increased acute toxicity and diarrhea during radiation therapy of cervical carcinoma significantly

  14. Abscess of the iliopsoas muscle associated external fistula of the rectum caused by radiation proctitis. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Shigeru; Imazu, Hiroki; Matubara, Toshiki; Sakurai, Yoichi; Ochiai, Masahiro; Funabiki, Takahiko [Fujita Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-12-01

    This paper deals with a case of abscess of the iliopsoas muscle, an intractable external fistula of the rectum caused by radiation proctitis in a 68-year-old man. There were previous histories of undergoing an A-C bypass operation for coronary stricture 10 years before; and undergoing aportial resection of the bladder with radiation therapy for urinary bladder cancer, followed by colostomy for hemorrhage and stricture of the rectum for radiation proctitis 2 years before admission. In April, 1997 when he had been treated at outpatient clinic, exhumation of pusfrom the sacurred that was diagnosed external fistula of the rectum on a fistulography and he was continuously treated on an ambulant basis. On November 17, 1997, the patient had a temperature 38.7deg C, the white blood cell count increased to 35 x 10{sup 4} /ml, inflammation reaction increased, and unconsciousness appeared. An emergency CT revealed retention of fluid in the retroperitoneum covering from the fistulation through the iliopsoas muscle to pelvis. An abscess of the iliopsoas muscle was diagnosed. It was determined that any operations under general anesthesia were impossible due to poor general condition, and an emergency incision drainage was performed under local anesthesia. Thereafter, the patient developed MRSA septicemia which demanded redrainage and strict general management, but he was successfully freed from the management. Although the intractable fistula in persistently present, he was discharged after a resection of sequestrum and is followed on an ambulant basis. (author)

  15. Is argon plasma coagulation an effective and safe treatment option for patients with chronic radiation proctitis after high doses of radiotherapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Hortelano

    Full Text Available Introduction: In severe cases refractory to medical treatment, APC appears to be the preferred alternative to control persistent rectal bleeding of patients with chronic radiation proctitis. Although successful outcomes have been demonstrated in patients previously treated with moderate doses of radiotherapy, there is reluctance towards its indication due to the concern of severe adverse events in patients treated with high doses of radiation. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and toxicity of APC in the management of bleeding radiation-induced proctitis in patients treated with high doses of radiation for prostate cancer. Methods and materials: Data from 30 patients were treated with APC due to chronic radiation proctitis, were reviewed retrospectively. All cases had prostate cancer and 9 of them (30 % underwent previous radical prostatectomy. The median dose of conformal 3D External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT delivered was 74 Gy (range 46-76. Median rectal D1cc and D2cc was 72.5 and 72.4 Gy respectively. Median rectal V70, V60 and V40 was 12, 39.5 and 80 %. Cardiovascular and digestive disease, diabetes, smoking behaviour, lowest haemoglobin and transfusion requirements were recorded. Indications for treatment with APC were anemia and persistent bleeding despite medical treatment. Argon gas flow was set at 1.8 l/min with an electrical power setting of 50 W. Results: Median age of all patients was 69.6 years. The median lowest haemoglobin level was 9.6 g/dL. Median time between completion of radiotherapy and first session of APC was 13 months. Ninety-four therapeutic sessions were performed (median 3 sessions. Median time follow-up was 14.5 months (range 2-61. Complete response with resolved rectal bleeding was achieved in 23 patients (77 %, partial response in 5 (16 % and no control in 2 (6 %. No patients required transfusion following therapy. Two patients developed long-term (> 6 weeks grade 2 rectal ulceration and

  16. The Value of Botox-A in Acute Radiation Proctitis: Results From a Phase I/II Study Using a Three-Dimensional Scoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuong, Te; Waschke, Kevin; Niazi, Tamim; Richard, Carole; Parent, Josee; Liberman, Sender; Mayrand, Serge; Loungnarath, Rasmy; Stein, Barry; Devic, Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Acute radiation proctitis (ARP) is a common side effect of pelvic radiotherapy, and its management is challenging in daily practice. The present phase I/II study evaluates the safety and efficacy of the botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) in ARP treatment for rectal cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant high-dose-rate endorectal brachytherapy (HDREBT). Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients, treated with neoadjuvant HDREBT, 26-Gy in 4 fractions, received the study treatment that consisted of a single injection of BTX-A into the rectal wall. The injection was performed post-HDREBT and prior to the development of ARP. The control group, 20 such patients, did not receive the BTX-A injection. Both groups had access to standard treatment with hydrocortisone rectal aerosol foam (Cortifoam) and anti-inflammatory and narcotic medication. The ARP was clinically evaluated by self-administered daily questionnaires using visual analog scores to document frequency and urgency of bowel movements, rectal burning/tenesmus, and pain symptoms before and after HDREBT. Results: At the time of this analysis, there was no observed systemic toxicity. Patient compliance with the self-administered questionnaire was 100% from week 1 to 4, 70% during week 5, and 40% during week 6. The maximum tolerated dose was established at the 100-U dose level, and noticeable mean differences were observed in bowel frequency (p = 0.016), urgency (p = 0.007), and pain (p = 0.078). Conclusions: This study confirms the feasibility and efficacy of BTX-A intervention at 100-U dose level for study patients compared to control patients. A phase III study with this dose level is planned to validate these results.

  17. Delayed Microbial Cure of Lymphogranuloma Venereum Proctitis with Doxycycline Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, H.J.C.; Smelov, V.; Middelburg, J.G.; Pleijster, J.; Speksnijder, A.G.; Morré, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Microbial cure of chlamydia proctitis (lymphogranuloma venereum [LGV] and non-LGV) with doxycycline treatment was evaluated by chlamydia DNA and RNA persistence in anal swab specimens. In LGV proctitis, RNA persisted for up to 16 days. In non-LGV chlamydia proctitis, DNA was undetectable after 7

  18. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Rectum; Dose de tolerance a l'irradiation des tissus sains: le rectum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, P. [Departement de radiotherapie, institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Chapet, O. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, centre hospitalier Lyon-Sud, 69 - Pierre-Benite (France)

    2010-07-15

    Radiation proctitis is among the most frequent radiation-induced toxicities. This is related to the high frequency of pelvic tumours and the key role of radiotherapy in the treatment of these tumours. Late rectal toxicity usually occurs within the first two years after the completion of a radiotherapy course. Rectal bleeding and a rectal syndrome are the main symptoms, and can be associated to fistulas or rectal ulcers. Clinical factors, such as diabetes mellitus, a severe acute radiation toxicity, small rectal volume or radiation hypersensitivity, are associated with late rectal toxicity. Dosimetric factors derived from the analysis of dose-volume histograms can also predict the occurrence of radiation proctitis, and help to adapt the prescribed dose and the ballistic of irradiation. (authors)

  19. Radiation proctitis after the high dose rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, Masashi; Katsumata, Tomoe; Satoh, Takefumi

    2006-01-01

    We reviewed the medical records of 12 patients treated for rectal bleeding after high-dose rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer. All patients developed grade 2 proctitis according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAC) and no patients needed blood transfusion. The patients were treated with argon plasma coagulation (APC) and/or steroid suppositories. The bleeding stopped or improved in 11 patients. Although re-bleeding was noticed in 7 patients the same treatment was effective in 5 patients. (author)

  20. Lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Tucker; Stroup, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    We describe a 60-year-old man who presented with rectal pain and bleeding of a month's duration. His presentation was highly suggestive of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) proctitis. Nucleic acid amplification for chlamydia and gonorrhea via rectal swab revealed evidence supportive of anorectal chlamydia. Treatment with doxycycline resulted in complete resolution of his symptoms. PMID:27695183

  1. Colostomy is a simple and effective procedure for severe chronic radiation proctitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zi-Xu; Ma, Teng-Hui; Wang, Huai-Ming; Zhong, Qing-Hua; Yu, Xi-Hu; Qin, Qi-Yuan; Wang, Jian-Ping; Wang, Lei

    2016-06-28

    To assess the efficacy and safety of diverting colostomy in treating severe hemorrhagic chronic radiation proctitis (CRP). Patients with severe hemorrhagic CRP who were admitted from 2008 to 2014 were enrolled into this study. All CRP patients were diagnosed by a combination of pelvic radiation history, clinical rectal bleeding, and endoscopic findings. Inclusion criteria were CRP patients with refractory bleeding with moderate to severe anemia with a hemoglobin level colostomy, while the control group included patients who received conservative treatment. The remission of bleeding was defined as complete cessation or only occasional bleeding that needed no further treatment. The primary outcome was bleeding remission at 6 mo after treatment. Quality of life before treatment and at follow-up was evaluated according to EORTC QLQ C30. Severe CRP complications were recorded during follow-up. Forty-seven consecutive patients were enrolled, including 22 in the colostomy group and 27 in the conservative treatment group. When compared to conservative treatment, colostomy obtained a higher rate of bleeding remission (94% vs 12%), especially in control of transfusion-dependent bleeding (100% vs 0%), and offered a better control of refractory perianal pain (100% vs 0%), and a lower score of bleeding (P colostomy achieved better remission of both moderate bleeding (100% vs 21.5%, P = 0.002) and severe bleeding (100% vs 0%, P colostomy, which included global health, function, and symptoms, but it was not improved in the control group. Pathological evaluation after colostomy found diffused chronic inflammation cells, and massive fibrosis collagen depositions under the rectal wall, which revealed potential fibrosis formation. Diverting colostomy is a simple, effective and safe procedure for severe hemorrhagic CRP. Colostomy can improve quality of life and reduce serious complications secondary to radiotherapy.

  2. [Gonorrheal proctitis imitating proctalgia fugax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechvátal, A; Masek, T; Hoch, J; Hercogová, J

    2004-01-01

    Proctalgia fugax is usually a source of many diagnostic and therapeutic problems. It is often very difficult to find the cause of the pain. Case-report of a 27-year-old patient who was examined by surgeons on cramp-like pain localized to the rectum. The careful history and laboratory examination confirmed gonorrheal proctitis. She was then successfully treated with ceftriaxon.

  3. Efficacy and safety of argon plasma coagulation for the treatment of hemorrhagic radiation proctitis Eficacia y seguridad de la electrocoagulación con plasma de argón en el tratamiento del sangrado rectal secundario a proctitis por radioterapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. de la Serna Higuera

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficacy, safety and medium-/long-term clinical course of patients undergoing endoscopic treatment with argon plasma coagulation for hemorrhagic radiation proctopathy. Design: descriptive, retrospective study with medium- and long-term follow-up. Patients, material and methods: ten patients were treated with argon plasma coagulation for hemorrhagic radiation proctopathy between July 1998 and February 2003. Inclusion criteria were: evidence of chronic rectal bleeding, consistent endoscopic findings, and absence of any other cause of hematochezia after a comprehensive ano-rectal examination and complete colonoscopy. The equipment used was a standard colonoscope, an argon delivery unit, an argon plasma coagulation probe 1.5 mm in internal diameter, and a high-frequency electrosurgical generator. Consecutive treatment sessions were programmed whenever it was considered necessary until all mucosal lesions had been treated. Clinical and evolutive follow-up was performed with a focus on tolerance, efficacy, and potential argon plasma coagulation-related complications. Data were updated by personal or telephonic interview. Results: in all patients, chronic rectal bleeding stopped after the last treatment session. The mean number of treatment sessions to stop symptoms was 1.7. Mean follow-up was 31.1 months. All sessions were well tolerated, similarly to standard rectoscopy. In one case a recurrence of rectal bleeding was observed four months later, which required two repeat sessions. Four patients were anemic at inclusion. Three of them reported a resolved anemia at the end of the study. No delayed argon plasma coagulation-related complications such us ulcers or strictures were seen. Conclusions: argon plasma coagulation appears to be a useful, effective and safe treatment for rectal bleeding resulting from chronic radiation proctitis when compared to standard medical and endoscopic treatments. These successful outcomes seem

  4. A clinical and pathological study of acute rectal injury by the radiation therapy of uterine cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honke, Yoshifumi; Katsuta, Shizutomo; Katayama, Hiroshi; Haruma, Ken; Fujiwara, Atsushi; Suenaga, Kenji.

    1983-01-01

    The clinical features, magnifying colonoscopic findings and pathological findings of acute radiation proctitis were investigated in 40 cases of uterine cervix cancer and the following results were obtained. 1)As a clinical simptom, diarrhea was observed in about half of all cases. 2)The value of serum total protein and number of leukocyte decreased until the dose of 30 Gy (3000 rads) and no remarkable change of them were observed afterwards. Hemoglobin value did not change throughout the whole clinical course. 3)Magnifying colonoscopic findings showed remarkable change with increase of the dose and especially irregularity of pit was observed in all cases. 4)In pathological findings, edema, degenerative change of epitherial cells and decreased number of goblet cells were observed from the beginning. In cases that received more than 50 Gy (5000 rads), fibrosis developed and the epithelium showed strong regeneration. Also Paneth cells were observed in 5 out of 40 cases. 5)Remarkable change was not observed before or after the radiation by barium enema. (author)

  5. Ulcerative proctitis: an update on the pharmacotherapy and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gecse, Krisztina B; Lakatos, Peter L

    2014-08-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) presents as proctitis in approximately a quarter of the patients. It may progress into left-sided or extensive colitis in up to 50% of cases upon long-term follow-up. Currently available data on ulcerative proctitis are summarized and critically reviewed. Extensive literature search (MEDLINE) was performed to identify relevant articles up to March 2014. The short-term goal of the treatment in UC is to induce remission, whereas long-term goals are to maintain remission and prevent disease progression. Topically administered 5-aminosalicylates (5-ASA) and corticosteroids are effective in the treatment of proctitis, although they seem to be underused in everyday practice. Locally administered 5-ASA preparations are more effective than oral compounds. The combination of topical and oral 5-ASA and steroids should be considered for escalation of treatment. Refractory patients should be re-evaluated to exclude for compliance failures, infections or proximal disease extent. True refractory or steroid-dependent patients may require immunomodulators or biological therapy. Alternative medicine can be used complementarily, while experimental approaches are reserved for patients failing conventional medication. Proctocolectomy may be the last resort of treatment. Upon long-term, 5-ASA maintenance treatment is indicated in all UC cases to prevent relapse and disease progression.

  6. Study on the Therapeutic Effect of Dispersive He-Ne Laser on Radiation Proctitis%弥散型He-Ne激光治疗放射性直肠炎的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴先哲; 宋奇; 邢国良

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨弥散型He-Ne激光直肠内照射对放射性直肠炎的临床治疗作用.方法 将功率为30 mW、能量密度为3.62 J/cm2弥散型He-Ne激光导入直肠,使He-Ne激光直接照射直肠病变黏膜,观察患者直肠出血、直肠疼痛、腹泻等,比较治疗前后患者直肠黏膜病理组织学的改变.结果 He-Ne激光可以显著减少放射性直肠炎患者的直肠出血,对直肠疼痛、腹泻等症状的影响不大,能明显减轻黏膜组织的炎症反应,并能促进黏膜的修复.结论 弥散性He-Ne激光直肠腔内照射对放射性直肠炎所致的直肠出血有较好的治疗作用.%Objective To study the therapeutic effect of dispersive He-Ne laser on radiation proctitis. Methods Sent He-Ne laser to the rectum, irradiated the mucoga lesions of the rectum with He-Ne laser, observed the major therapeutic effects of He-Ne laser, including but not limited to rectal bleeding and pain, and diarrhea, and compared the histopathological changes of the rectum mncosa before and after the treatment. Results For radiation proctitis patients, He-Ne laser can significantly reduce significantly rectal bleeding .reduce the and inflammatory reaction of mucosal tissue inflammatory reaction, and as well as can facilitate mucosal tissue repair, but has little effect in relieving other symptoms, such as pain and diarrhea. Conclusions The laser irradiation in the rectal cavity with dispersive He-Ne is effective in treating the bleeding caused by radiation proctitis.

  7. Clinical significance of increased gelatinolytic activity in the rectal mucosa during external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovdenak, Nils; Wang Junru; Sung, C.-C.; Kelly, Thomas; Fajardo, Luis F.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Rectal toxicity (proctitis) is a dose-limiting factor in pelvic radiation therapy. Mucosal atrophy, i.e., net extracellular matrix degradation, is a prominent feature of radiation proctitis, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. We prospectively examined changes in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 (gelatinase A and B) in the rectal mucosa during radiation therapy of prostate cancer, as well as the relationships of these changes with symptomatic, structural, and cellular evidence of radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients scheduled for external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer were prospectively enrolled. Symptoms of gastrointestinal toxicity were recorded, and endoscopy with biopsy of the rectal mucosa was performed before radiation therapy, as well as 2 and 6 weeks into the treatment course. Radiation proctitis was assessed by endoscopic scoring, quantitative histology, and quantitative immunohistochemistry. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were localized immunohistochemically, and activities were determined by gelatin zymography. Results: Symptoms, endoscopic scores, histologic injury, and mucosal macrophages and neutrophils increased from baseline to 2 weeks. Symptoms increased further from 2 weeks to 6 weeks, whereas endoscopic and cellular evidence of proctitis did not. Compared to pretreatment values, there was increased total gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 at 2 weeks (p=0.02 and p=0.004, respectively) and 6 weeks (p=0.006 and p=0.001, respectively). Active MMP-2 was increased at both time points (p=0.0001 and p=0.002). Increased MMP-9 and MMP-2 at 6 weeks was associated with radiation-induced diarrhea (p=0.007 and p=0.02, respectively) and with mucosal neutrophil infiltration (rho=0.62). Conclusions: Pelvic radiation therapy causes increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in the rectal mucosa. These changes correlate with radiation-induced diarrhea and granulocyte infiltration and may contribute to abnormal

  8. 2013 European Guideline on the management of proctitis, proctocolitis and enteritis caused by sexually transmissible pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Henry J. C.; Zingoni, Adele; White, John A.; Ross, Jonathan D. C.; Kreuter, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Proctitis is defined as an inflammatory syndrome of the distal 10-12 cm of the anal canal, also called the rectum. Infectious proctitis can be sexually transmitted via genital-anal mucosal contact, but some also via mutual masturbation.N. gonorrhoeae,C. trachomatis(including lymphogranuloma

  9. Up-Regulation of Endothelin Type A Receptor in Human and Rat Radiation Proctitis: Preclinical Therapeutic Approach With Endothelin Receptor Blockade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jullien, Nicolash; Blirando, Karl; Milliat, Fabien; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Benderitter, Marc; Francois, Agnes

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Rectum radiation damage and fibrosis are often associated with radiation therapy of pelvic tumors. The endothelin (ET) system has been implicated in several fibrotic diseases but never studied in the context of gastrointestinal radiation damage. This study assessed modifications in ET type 1 (ET-1), ET type A receptor (ET A ), and ET type B receptor (ET B ) localization and/or expression in irradiated human rectal tissue and in a rat model of delayed colorectal injury. We also evaluated the therapeutic potential of long-term ET receptor blockade. Methods and Materials: Routine histological studies of sections of healthy and radiation-injured human rectum tissue were done; the sections were also immunostained for ET A and ET B receptors. The rat model involved the delivery of 27 Gy in a single dose to the colons and rectums of the animals. The ET-1/ET A /ET B expression and ET A /ET B localization were studied at 10 weeks postexposure. The abilities of bosentan and atrasentan to protect against delayed rectal injury were also investigated. Results: The immunolocalization of ET A and ET B in healthy human rectums was similar to that in rat rectums. However, strong ET A immunostaining was seen in the presence of human radiation proctitis, and increased ET A mRNA levels were seen in the rat following colorectal irradiation. Immunostaining for ET A was also strongly positive in rats in areas of radiation-induced mucosal ulceration, atypia, and fibroproliferation. However, neither bosentan nor atrasentan prevented radiation damage to the rectum when given long term. The only effect seen for atrasentan was an increased number of sclerotic vessel sections in injured tissues. Conclusions: As the result of the overexpression of ET A , radiation exposure deregulates the endothelin system through an 'ET A profile' in the human and rodent rectum. However, therapeutic interventions involving mixed or specific ET A receptor blockade do not prevent radiation damage

  10. Irradiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Akira

    1977-01-01

    Literatures on late rectal injuries are discussed, referring to two patients with uterine cervical cancer in whom irradiation proctitis occurred after telecobalt irradiation following uterine extirpation. To one patients, a total of 5000 rads was irradiated, dividing into 250 rads at one time, and after 3 months, irradiation with a total of 2000 rads, dividing into 200 rads at one time, was further given. In another one patient, two parallel opposing portal irradiation with a total of 6000 rads was given. About a year after the irradiation, rectal injuries and cystitis, accompanying with hemorrhage, were found in both of the patients. Rectal amputation and proctotoreusis were performed. Cystitis was treated by cystic irradiation in the urological department. Pathohistological studies of the rectal specimen revealed atrophic mucosa, and dilatation of the blood vessels and edema in the colonic submucosa. Incidence of this disease, term when the disease occurs, irradiation dose, type of the disease, treatment and prevention are described on the basis of the literatures. (Kanao, N.)

  11. Irradiation proctitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, A [Osaka Kita Tsishin Hospital (Japan)

    1977-06-01

    Literatures on late rectal injuries are discussed, referring to two patients with uterine cervical cancer in whom irradiation proctitis occurred after telecobalt irradiation following uterine extirpation. To one patients, a total of 5000 rads was irradiated, dividing into 250 rads at one time, and after 3 months, irradiation with a total of 2000 rads, dividing into 200 rads at one time, was further given. In another one patient, two parallel opposing portal irradiation with a total of 6000 rads was given. About a year after the irradiation, rectal injuries and cystitis, accompanying with hemorrhage, were found in both of the patients. Rectal amputation and proctotoreusis were performed. Cystitis was treated by cystic irradiation in the urological department. Pathohistological studies of the rectal specimen revealed atrophic mucosa, and dilatation of the blood vessels and edema in the colonic submucosa. Incidence of this disease, term when the disease occurs, irradiation dose, type of the disease, treatment and prevention are described on the basis of the literatures.

  12. Neurological aspects of acute radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torubarov, F.S.; Bushmanov, A.Yu.

    1999-01-01

    Results of the most important clinical studies of human nervous system reactions to acute radiation, carried out at Neurology Clinic of the State Research Center of Russia - Institute of Biophysics are presented. Clinical picture of changes in the nervous system in acute radiation disease caused by homologous and heterologous external irradiation is described. Main neurological syndrome of extremely severe acute radiation disease: acute radiation encephalopathy, radiation toxic encephalopathy, and hemorrhagic syndrome of the central nervous system is distinguished. Relationship between neurological disorders and the geometry of exposure are considered [ru

  13. Efficacy and safety of mesalamine suppositories for treatment of ulcerative proctitis in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Melvin B; Kierkus, Jaroslaw; Spénard, Jean; Shbaklo, Hadia; Giguere, Monique

    2010-11-01

    Treatment of ulcerative proctitis has not been well studied in pediatric populations. We conducted an open-label trial to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a mesalamine suppository (500 mg) to treat pediatric patients with mild to moderate ulcerative proctitis. Pediatric patients (5-17 years of age) with ulcerative proctitis were enrolled for baseline evaluations, including a flexible sigmoidoscopic (or colonoscopic) assessment with biopsies performed at study entry. Eligible patients were started on mesalamine suppositories (500 mg) at bedtime. Two follow-up visits were scheduled after 3 and 6 weeks of treatment. The dose could be increased to 500 mg twice daily at the week 3 follow-up visit if deemed appropriate by the investigator based on the Disease Activity Index (DAI) assessment. The primary outcome measure was a DAI derived from a composite score of stool frequency, urgency of defecation, rectal bleeding, and general well-being. Forty-nine patients were included in the intent-to-treat analysis. The mean DAI value decreased from 5.5 at baseline to 1.6 and 1.5 at weeks 3 and 6, respectively (P children with ulcerative proctitis.

  14. Orgotein in radiation treatment of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, O.S.; Overgaard, J.; Overgaard, M.; Steenholdt, S.; Jakobsen, A.; Sell, A.; Kommunehospitalet, Aarhus

    1987-01-01

    The possible protective effect of orgotein (a superoxide dismutase) an radiation cystitis and proctitis was studied in patients with carcinoma of the urinary bladder. A double-blind study in 60 patients was planned but due to unacceptable side effects only 30 patients were included. Radiation treatment was given with curative intent at a dose of 63 Gy in 30 fractions. Orgotein was injected 15 min after each daily radiation treatment at a dose of 4 or 8 mg. No effect of orgotein on tumour radiation response or on the acute radiation reactions in the bladder and rectum was detected. Marked subcutaneous infiltration and redness was seen at the local injection site in 5 patients. No general symptoms were observed. Intradermal tests and antibody titration tests showed that the local reactions were due to allergic reactions to the drug itself. The lack of radioprotective effect and the high frequency of unaccaptable side effects makes orgotein an unsuitable drug in climical radiation therapy. (orig.)

  15. Prostate hypofractionated radiation therapy with injection of hyaluronic acid: acute toxicities in a phase 2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-03-15

    Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity

  17. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.chapet@chu-lyon.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); EMR3738, Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie [Pole Information Médicale Evaluation Recherche, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); EA SIS, Université de Lyon, Lyon (France); Faix, Antoine [Department of Urology, Clinique Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Ruffion, Alain [Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Department of Urology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Jalade, Patrice [Department of Medical Physics, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  18. Dosimetric Coverage of the Prostate, Normal Tissue Sparing, and Acute Toxicity with High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Large Prostate Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurposeTo evaluate dosimetric coverage of the prostate, normal tissue sparing, and acute toxicity with HDR brachytherapy for large prostate volumes.Materials and MethodsOne hundred and two prostate cancer patients with prostate volumes >50 mL (range: 5-29 mL were treated with high-dose-rate (HDR brachytherapy ± intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT to 4,500 cGy in 25 daily fractions between 2009 and 2013. HDR brachytherapy monotherapy doses consisted of two 1,350-1,400 cGy fractions separated by 2-3 weeks, and HDR brachytherapy boost doses consisted of two 950-1,150 cGy fractions separated by 4 weeks. Twelve of 32 (38% unfavorable intermediate risk, high risk, and very high risk patients received androgen deprivation therapy. Acute toxicity was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE version 4.ResultsMedian follow-up was 14 months. Dosimetric goals were achieved in over 90% of cases. Three of 102 (3% patients developed Grade 2 acute proctitis. No variables were significantly associated with Grade 2 acute proctitis. Seventeen of 102 (17% patients developed Grade 2 acute urinary retention. American Urological Association (AUA symptom score was the only variable significantly associated with Grade 2 acute urinary retention (p=0.04. There was no ≥ Grade 3 acute toxicity.ConclusionsDosimetric coverage of the prostate and normal tissue sparing were adequate in patients with prostate volumes >50 mL. Higher pre-treatment AUA symptom scores increased the relative risk of Grade 2 acute urinary retention. However, the overall incidence of acute toxicity was acceptable in patients with large prostate volumes.

  19. Dosimetric coverage of the prostate, normal tissue sparing, and acute toxicity with high-dose-rate brachytherapy for large prostate volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, George; Strom, Tobin J.; Shrinath, Kushagra; Mellon, Eric A.; Fernandez, Daniel C.; Biagioli, Matthew C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL (United States); Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: mcbiagioli@yahoo.com [Cancer Treatment Centers of America, Newnan, GA (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: to evaluate dosimetric coverage of the prostate, normal tissue sparing, and acute toxicity with HDR brachytherapy for large prostate volumes. Materials and methods: one hundred and two prostate cancer patients with prostate volumes >50 mL (range: 5-29 mL) were treated with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy ± intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to 4,500 cGy in 25 daily fractions between 2009 and 2013. HDR brachytherapy monotherapy doses consisted of two 1,350-1,400 cGy fractions separated by 2-3 weeks, and HDR brachytherapy boost doses consisted of two 950-1,150 cGy fractions separated by 4 weeks. Twelve of 32 (38%) unfavorable intermediate risk, high risk, and very high risk patients received androgen deprivation therapy. Acute toxicity was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4. Results: median follow-up was 14 months. Dosimetric goals were achieved in over 90% of cases. Three of 102 (3%) patients developed Grade 2 acute proctitis. No variables were significantly associated with Grade 2 acute proctitis. Seventeen of 102 (17%) patients developed Grade 2 acute urinary retention. American Urological Association (AUA) symptom score was the only variable significantly associated with Grade 2 acute urinary retention (p-0.04). There was no ≥ Grade 3 acute toxicity. Conclusions: dosimetric coverage of the prostate and normal tissue sparing were adequate in patients with prostate volumes >50 mL. Higher pre-treatment AUA symptom scores increased the relative risk of Grade 2 acute urinary retention. However, the overall incidence of acute toxicity was acceptable in patients with large prostate volumes. (author)

  20. Radiation protection with mesalamine (5-amino salicylic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoda, James M.; Court, Wayne S.; Feldmeier, John J.; Alecu, Rodica

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation proctitis induced during the therapy of rectal and prostate cancers, and radiation injuries in general, are often the principal dose limiting factor limiting dose escalation for radiation therapy. Thus, there has been a continuous search for radioprotective agents, especially those that could selectively protect normal tissues, as opposed to the target cancer. 5-amino salicylic acid (5ASA) is in clinical use as Mesalamine for the local treatment of ulcerative proctitis. Inasmuch as other investigators have identified 5ASA as a free radical scavenger, we determined whether pretreatment with 5ASA could confer radiation protection. Materials and Methods: Adult male C57BL/6J mice obtained from Jackson Laboratories were employed for these studies. We determined LD50 for acute gastrointestinal death for young (≤ 10 weeks old, ≤ 25 gms body weight) and aged (≥ 1 year old, ≥ 35 gms body weight) animals exposed to single fractions (1 - 20 Gy) from three different radiation sources, Cs 137 , 270 KeV x-rays, and a 4 MeV linear accelerator. Experimental mice were pre- or post-treated with 5ASA in an acidified isotonic saline solution by oral, rectal, or intraperitoneal administration. Animals were housed, maintained by AAALAC standards and treated with antibiotics or acidified water post radiation exposure to control opportunistic infections. Animals were scored for death when moribund. Results: 5ASA was found to be radioprotective by oral, rectal or intraperitoneal administration when given 15 to 90 minutes prior to radiation exposure. Administration of drug following radiation exposure failed to confer radioprotection. We determined a dose effect for 5ASA with maximum tolerated dose of 200 mg/kg administered ip 30 minutes prior to 11 Gy whole body exposure. Dose modification and radioprotection by 5ASA were determined by LD50(6), LD50(30), or LD50(365). More recently, we determined that 5ASA conferred significant radioprotection to mice exposed to

  1. Association of rectal toxicity with thermal dose parameters in treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer with radiation and hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurwitz, Mark D.; Kaplan, Irving D.; Hansen, Jorgen L.; Prokopios-Davos, Savina; Topulos, George P.; Wishnow, Kenneth; Manola, Judith; Bornstein, Bruce A.; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Although hyperthermia has been used for more than two decades in the treatment of pelvic tumors, little is known about the potential impact of heat on rectal toxicity when combined with other treatment modalities. Because rectal toxicity is a concern with radiation and may be exacerbated by hyperthermia, definition of the association of thermal dose parameters with rectal toxicity is important. In this report, we correlate rectal toxicity with thermal dose parameters for patients treated with hyperthermia and radiation for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with T2b-T3b disease (1992 American Joint Committee On Cancer criteria) enrolled in a Phase II study of external beam radiation ± androgen-suppressive therapy with two transrectal ultrasound hyperthermia treatments were assessed for rectal toxicity. Prostatic and anterior rectal wall temperatures were monitored for all treatments. Rectal wall temperatures were limited to 40 deg. C in 19 patients, 41 deg. C in 3 patients, and 42 deg. C in 8 patients. Logistic regression was used to estimate the log hazard of developing National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria Grade 2 toxicity based on temperature parameters. The following were calculated: hazard ratios, 95% confidence intervals, p values for statistical significance of each parameter, and proportion of variability explained for each parameter. Results: Gastrointestinal toxicity was limited to Grade 2. The rate of acute Grade 2 proctitis was greater for patients with an allowable rectal wall temperature of >40 deg. C. In this group, 7 of 11 patients experienced acute Grade 2 proctitis, as opposed to 3 of 19 patients in the group with rectal wall temperatures limited to 40 deg. C (p=0.004). Preliminary assessment of long-term toxicity revealed no differences in toxicity. Hazard ratios for acute Grade 2 proctitis for allowable rectal wall temperature, average rectal wall Tmax, and average prostate Tmax were 9.33 (p=0.01), 3

  2. Comparison of Sucralfate and Hydrocortisone Enemas in Treatment of Active Ulcerative Proctitis; A Double-Blind Randomized ClinicalL Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Javadi

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Sucralfate enema has been proposed and investigated in treatment of ulcerative proctitis, but its efficacy is still a matter of debate. Hydrocortisone enema is still an established drug in treatment of ulcerative proctitis. This study was designed to compare the effect of sucralfate enema with hydrocortisone enema. Patients with active sigmoidoscopic and histologic features of ulcerative proctitis were included. All patients had clinical manifestations of proctitis for at least four weeks prior to the study and had negative parasitic stool culture. The total of 25 patients entered the study. They were randomly divided in two groups; group I (n =14 and group II (n = 11 who received sucralfate and hydrocortisone enemas respectively for 4 weeks. Both groups had a significant improvement in clinical features, histologic activity and sigmoidoscopic evaluation in comparison with the baseline. Furthermore there was no significant differences between the two groups concerning mean changes of clinical, sigmoidoscopic, and histologic grading, after treatment. Considering the low cost and minimal adverse effects of sucralfate, and almost equal efficacy in comparison with hydrocortisone enema, its usage can be recommended.

  3. External radiation therapy of prostatic carcinoma and its relationship to hormonal therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Chitose; Ito, Koushiro; Nishi, Junko; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Hatanaka, Yoshimi; Baba, Yuji; Takahashi, Mutsumasa.

    1995-01-01

    From 1980 to 1990, a total of 54 patients with prostatic carcinoma were treated with external radiation therapy at the Kumamoto National Hospital. Ten patients were classified as Stage B, 22 as Stage C, and another 22 as Stage D according to the American Urological Association Clinical Staging System. The 5-year survival for all 54 patients was 30%. The 5-year disease-specific survival was 67% for Stage B, 47% for Stage C, and 26% for Stage D. The 5-year survival was 43% for patients in whom radiation therapy was initiated immediately after the first diagnosis or with less than one year of hormonal therapy, while it was 0% for patients in whom radiation therapy was initiated after more than one year of hormonal therapy (p=0.01). The cause of intercurrent death was acute myocardial infarction in four patients and acute cardiac failure in one. Four of these patients received hormonal therapy for more than one year. The incidence of radiation-induced proctitis was not severe. This study suggests that long-term hormonal therapy prior to radiation therapy worsens the prognosis of patients with prostatic carcinoma. (author)

  4. Prevention of acute radiation-induced proctosigmoiditis by balsalazide: A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial in prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahraus, Christopher D.; Bettenhausen, Doug Phar; Malik, Uzma M.B.B.S.; Sellitti, Marguerite; St Clair, William H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: A common complication of pelvic radiotherapy (RT) is acute radiation-induced proctosigmoiditis (RIPS), for which a multitude of therapies have been tried. The 5-aminosalicylates (5-ASA), which are traditionally used to treat inflammatory bowel disease, have been tested; however, all but one prior randomized attempt to limit or prevent RIPS with 5-ASA-type agents have failed. We sought to evaluate balsalazide, a new 5-ASA drug, for its potential to prevent or limit RIPS in patients undergoing RT for carcinoma of the prostate, as a representative sample of pelvic RT patients. Balsalazide has a unique delivery system in that 99% of ingested drug is delivered to and activated in the colon, a higher yield than all other oral agents currently available in this class. Furthermore, it lacks the antigenic sulfa moiety present in sulfasalazine, the only other 5-ASA with demonstrated benefit in this setting. Thus, it was deemed an ideal candidate for preventing or limiting RIPS. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients included prostate cancer patients, American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage T1-3, M0 being treated with external beam radiotherapy in University of Kentucky Department of Radiation Medicine. Between January 1, 2003 and July 1, 2004, 27 eligible patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were administered 2250 mg of balsalazide or an identical-appearing placebo twice daily beginning 5 days before RT and continuing for 2 weeks after completion. Toxicities were graded weekly according to National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria v. 2.0 for each of the following: proctitis, diarrhea, dysuria, weight loss, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. A symptom index was formulated for each toxicity consisting of the toxicity's numeric grade multiplied by the number of days it was experienced, and summed for each grade experienced throughout the course of RT. Results: With the exception of nausea or vomiting, seen in 3 patients on balsalazide and 2 on placebo

  5. Acute Toxicity After Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Compared to 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer Patients

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    Wortel, Ruud C.; Incrocci, Luca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pos, Floris J.; Lebesque, Joos V.; Witte, Marnix G.; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Herk, Marcel van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heemsbergen, Wilma D., E-mail: w.heemsbergen@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) allows significant dose reductions to organs at risk in prostate cancer patients. However, clinical data identifying the benefits of IG-IMRT in daily practice are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare dose distributions to organs at risk and acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity levels of patients treated to 78 Gy with either IG-IMRT or 3D-CRT. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with 3D-CRT (n=215) and IG-IMRT (n=260) receiving 78 Gy in 39 fractions within 2 randomized trials were selected. Dose surface histograms of anorectum, anal canal, and bladder were calculated. Identical toxicity questionnaires were distributed at baseline, prior to fraction 20 and 30 and at 90 days after treatment. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 endpoints were derived directly from questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were applied. Results: The median volumes receiving 5 to 75 Gy were significantly lower (all P<.001) with IG-IMRT for anorectum, anal canal, and bladder. The mean dose to the anorectum was 34.4 Gy versus 47.3 Gy (P<.001), 23.6 Gy versus 44.6 Gy for the anal canal (P<.001), and 33.1 Gy versus 43.2 Gy for the bladder (P<.001). Significantly lower grade ≥2 toxicity was observed for proctitis, stool frequency ≥6/day, and urinary frequency ≥12/day. IG-IMRT resulted in significantly lower overall RTOG grade ≥2 GI toxicity (29% vs 49%, respectively, P=.002) and overall GU grade ≥2 toxicity (38% vs 48%, respectively, P=.009). Conclusions: A clinically meaningful reduction in dose to organs at risk and acute toxicity levels was observed in IG-IMRT patients, as a result of improved technique and tighter margins. Therefore reduced late toxicity levels can be expected as well; additional research is needed to quantify such reductions.

  6. Acute symptoms, not rectally administered sucralfate, predict for late radiation proctitis: longer term follow-up of a phase III trial--Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Peter C; Franklin, C Ian; Poulsen, Michael G; Joseph, David J; Spry, Nigel S; Denham, James W

    2002-10-01

    To assess the potential for sucralfate administered rectally to reduce the risk of late rectal morbidity in patients undergoing nonconformal radiotherapy (RT) for carcinoma of the prostate and to study the variables potentially contributing to late rectal morbidity and particularly to explore the relationship between acute and late toxicity. Eighty-six patients with localized prostate carcinoma were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study to a daily enema of 3 g of sucralfate in a 15-mL suspension or the same suspension without sucralfate. The enema began the first day of RT and was continued for 2 weeks after treatment completion. The primary end point of the study was acute Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) toxicity; however, the patients were followed for an additional 5 years on a 6-month basis. The evaluation included late RTOG/EORTC toxicity and a patient self-assessment questionnaire. With a median follow-up of 5 years, the Kaplan-Meier probability of late Grade 2 RTOG/EORTC toxicity was 12% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2-22%) for placebo and 5% (95% CI 0-12%) for sucralfate (p = 0.26). The probability of late rectal bleeding was 59% (95% CI 45-73%) for placebo and 54% (95% CI 40-68%) for sucralfate. No statistically significant difference was found between the treatment arms for the peak incidence of any of the other patient self-assessment variables. Cox proportional hazards modeling indicated acute RTOG/EORTC toxicity of Grade 2 or greater was associated with a hazard ratio of 2.74 (95% CI 1.31-5.73) for the development of late toxicity of Grade 1 or greater. Substituting the patient self-assessment variables for acute RTOG/EORTC toxicity revealed that rectal pain of a moderate or severe grade during RT was the best predictor of the subsequent development of late toxicity, with a hazard ratio of 3.44 (95% CI 1.68-7). The results of this study do not support the use of

  7. Acute symptoms, not rectally administered sucralfate, predict for late radiation proctitis: longer term follow-up of a phase III trial--Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, Peter C.; Franklin, C. Ian; Poulsen, Michael G.; Joseph, David J.; Spry, Nigel S.; Denham, James W.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the potential for sucralfate administered rectally to reduce the risk of late rectal morbidity in patients undergoing nonconformal radiotherapy (RT) for carcinoma of the prostate and to study the variables potentially contributing to late rectal morbidity and particularly to explore the relationship between acute and late toxicity. Methods and Materials: Eighty-six patients with localized prostate carcinoma were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study to a daily enema of 3 g of sucralfate in a 15-mL suspension or the same suspension without sucralfate. The enema began the first day of RT and was continued for 2 weeks after treatment completion. The primary end point of the study was acute Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) toxicity; however, the patients were followed for an additional 5 years on a 6-month basis. The evaluation included late RTOG/EORTC toxicity and a patient self-assessment questionnaire. Results: With a median follow-up of 5 years, the Kaplan-Meier probability of late Grade 2 RTOG/EORTC toxicity was 12% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2-22%) for placebo and 5% (95% CI 0-12%) for sucralfate (p=0.26). The probability of late rectal bleeding was 59% (95% CI 45-73%) for placebo and 54% (95% CI 40-68%) for sucralfate. No statistically significant difference was found between the treatment arms for the peak incidence of any of the other patient self-assessment variables. Cox proportional hazards modeling indicated acute RTOG/EORTC toxicity of Grade 2 or greater was associated with a hazard ratio of 2.74 (95% CI 1.31-5.73) for the development of late toxicity of Grade 1 or greater. Substituting the patient self-assessment variables for acute RTOG/EORTC toxicity revealed that rectal pain of a moderate or severe grade during RT was the best predictor of the subsequent development of late toxicity, with a hazard ratio of 3.44 (95% CI 1.68-7). Conclusion

  8. Efficacy and Safety of Mesalamine Suppositories for Treatment of Ulcerative Proctitis in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Melvin B.; Kierkus, Jaroslaw; Spénard, Jean; Shbaklo, Hadia; Giguere, Monique

    2011-01-01

    Background Treatment of ulcerative proctitis has not been well studied in pediatric populations. We conducted an open-label trial to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a mesalamine suppository (500 mg) to treat pediatric patients with mild to moderate ulcerative proctitis. Methods Pediatric patients (5–17 years of age) with ulcerative proctitis were enrolled for baseline evaluations, including a flexible sigmoidoscopic (or colonoscopic) assessment with biopsies performed at study entry. Eligible patients were started on mesalamine suppositories (500 mg) at bedtime. Two follow-up visits were scheduled after 3 and 6 weeks of treatment. The dose could be increased to 500 mg twice daily at the week 3 follow-up visit if deemed appropriate by the investigator based on the Disease Activity Index (DAI) assessment. The primary outcome measure was a DAI derived from a composite score of stool frequency, urgency of defecation, rectal bleeding, and general well-being. Results Forty-nine patients were included in the intent-to-treat analysis. The mean DAI value decreased from 5.5 at baseline to 1.6 and 1.5 at weeks 3 and 6, respectively (P < 0.0001). Only 4 patients had their dose increased to 500 mg twice daily at week 3. Forty-one patients experienced at least one adverse event, most of which were deemed mild and unrelated to study therapy. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were gastrointestinal (n = 30, 61.2%). Conclusions This study showed that a daily bedtime dose of a 500 mg mesalamine suppository is safe and efficacious in children with ulcerative proctitis. PMID:20848454

  9. Treatment and prevention of acute radiation dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benomar, S.; Hassam, B.; Boutayeb, S.; Errihani, H.; Lalya, I.; El Gueddari, B.K.

    2010-01-01

    Acute radiation dermatitis is a common side-effect of radiotherapy which often necessitates interruption of the therapy. Currently, there is no general consensus about its prevention or about the treatment of choice. The goal of this work was to focus on optimal methods to prevent and manage acute skin reactions related to radiation therapy and to determine if there are specific topical or oral agents for the prevention of this acute skin reaction. The prevention and the early treatment are the two focus points of the management of the acute radiation dermatitis. (authors)

  10. Rectal necrosis following external radiation therapy for carcinoma of the prostate: report of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, S.H.Q.; O'Kelly, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the use of radiation therapy in the management of primary carcinoma of the prostate. Since 1965, radical radiation therapy has been used at Memorial Hospital to treat primary carcinoma of the prostate. Small primary tumors are treated by implantation with radioactive iodine ( 125 I) seeds and larger tumors considered unsuitable for implantation are treated by external supervoltage beam therapy. Fifty patients had been treated by implantation and 30 by external beam therapy at the time of this report. None of the patients treated by implantation developed rectal symptoms. Proctitis developed in all patients treated by external radiation therapy and in half the patients chronic proctitis ensued, accompanied by the passage of mucus. The constant leaking of mucus through the anal sphincter produces irritation of the skin and intermittent attacks of pruritus ani, a discomfiting sequel. Apart from the proctitis, most patients tolerated treatment well, with one notable exception, in whom rectal necrosis developed. This case is described

  11. Pathogenesis and symptomatics of the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.; Haen, M.; Carbonell, F.

    1980-01-01

    The pathogenesis and symptomatics of the acute radiation syndrome are discussed. Diagnosis and therapy would be impossible without detailed knowledge in these fields. The concept of acute radiation syndrome is explained, and a pathophysiological analysis of the various forms of radiation syndrome - haematological, intestinal and affecting the central nervous system is attempted. The developments in the diagnosis and therapy of acute radiation syndrome since its first description - 35 years ago - are reviewed. Today, whole-body doses of 100 rd and more can be treated by radiotherapy. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Antiradiation Vaccine: Immunological neutralization of Radiation Toxins at Acute Radiation Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: Current medical management of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) does not include immune prophylaxis based on the Antiradiation Vaccine. Existing principles for the treatment of acute radiation syndromes are based on the replacement and supportive therapy. Haemotopoietic cell transplantation is recomended as an important method of treatment of a Haemopoietic form of the ARS. Though in the different hospitals and institutions, 31 pa-tients with a haemopoietic form have previously undergone transplantation with stem cells, in all cases(100%) the transplantants were rejected. Lethality rate was 87%.(N.Daniak et al. 2005). A large amount of biological substances or antigens isolated from bacterias (flagellin and derivates), plants, different types of venom (honeybees, scorpions, snakes) have been studied. This biological active substances can produce a nonspecific stimulation of immune system of mammals and protect against of mild doses of irradiation. But their radioprotection efficacy against high doses of radiation were not sufficient. Relative radioprotection characteristics or adaptive properties of antioxidants were expressed only at mild doses of radiation. However antioxidants demonstrated a very low protective efficacy at high doses of radiation. Some ex-periments demonstrated even a harmful effect of antioxidants administered to animals that had severe forms of the ARS. Only Specific Radiation Toxins roused a specific antigenic stim-ulation of antibody synthesis. An active immunization by non-toxic doses of radiation toxins includes a complex of radiation toxins that we call the Specific Radiation Determinant (SRD). Immunization must be provided not less than 24 days before irradiation and it is effective up to three years and more. Active immunization by radiation toxins significantly reduces the mortality rate (100%) and improves survival rate up to 60% compare with the 0% sur-vival rate among the irradiated animals in control groups

  13. Spectrum of rectal radiation lesions in cases of cancer cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, V.K.; Rohatgi, V.K.; Gupta, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The study was carried out in 70 cases of carcinoma cervix uteri, showing varying degree of proctitis following radiotherapy treatment for cervical cancer. Grossly, the rectal mucosa showed oedema, congestion, granular proctitis, ulceration, and microscopically stromal connective tissue as well as epithelial changes. The stromal changes have been emphasised as useful diagnostic criteria of radiation reaction. The familarity of these changes is considered necessary because it is imperative to know categorically that a given lesion is entirely or in part due to radiation or due to extension of adjacent tumour in the cervix. Further, this issue is very important in management of cases of cancer cervix. The criteria of distinguishing the lesions in the rectal tissue have been laid down. (auth.)

  14. Lung pathology in case of acute radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, P.A.; Kvacheva, Yu.V.

    1998-01-01

    Results of pathomorphological studies of 27 patients exposed to total external γ- and β-radiation resulted from the Chernobyl accident and lost due to the acute radiation disease in the first weeks following radiation exposure are discussed. Dose range is 3.7-13.7 Gy. Two groups of pathological changes in lungs are revealed, those are: infection (bacterial, viral and fungous) ones caused by acute radiation disease and signs of respiratory distress-syndrome in adults [ru

  15. Considerations on the classification of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, M.A.; Andreev, E.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation disease is a well-defined and extensively studied entity with typical signs and symptomatology. A basic point in establishing a classification is dose absorbed by the organism. The pattern of pathology displayed will vary with dose distribution in time and space. Acute radiation disease after single, overall exposure to a radiation level ranging from 100 to 1000 rem and above may be manifested in four main forms, according to the prevailing pathogenetic mechanism: cerebral, toxemic, intestinal, and a typical form dominated by injury to the hematopoietic system. In the course of the disease, three major periods may be distinguished: development, recovery, and long-term effects and outcome. These three periods will not necessarily be represented in all forms of radiation disease. As for the clinical symptomatology of acute radiation disease, its evolution allows the delineation of four phases: primary general reactions, latent period, clinical manifestation, and apparent recovery. In a typical form of acute radiation disease, severity of effects is a function of dose. Chronic radiation disease may also be of two varieties, depending on space distribution of dose. In addition, a third variety has been distinguished, namely the case of a combination of external exposure with internal contamination. Similar to the acute radiation disease, periods and degrees of severity in chronic radiation disease will vary with cumulative radiation dose. In this case, degrees of severity overlap with phases in the development of the pathological process. A category by itself in the classification is alloted to combined lesions resulting from exposure to radiological plus nonradiological factors. (A.B.)

  16. High Prevalence of Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Autoantibodies in Infants with Food Protein-Induced Proctitis/Proctocolitis: Autoimmunity Involvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Sekerkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Food protein-induced proctitis/proctocolitis (FPIP is the most common noninfectious colitis in children in the first year of life. Along with the overall clinical symptoms, diarrhoea and rectal bleeding are the main manifestations of the disease. There is no routine noninvasive test that would be specific for this type of colitis. The aim of our study was to find a noninvasive laboratory test or tests that may be helpful in differential diagnosis of food protein-induced proctitis/proctocolitis. Methods. ANA, ANCA, ASCA, a-EMA, a-tTg, specific IgE, total IgE, IgG, IgA, IgM, and concentration of serum calprotectin were measured in a group of 25 patients with colitis and 18 children with other diagnoses. Results. Atypical-pANCA antibodies of IgG isotype were detected in the sera of 24 patients by the method of indirect immunofluorescence, and 5 patients showed also the positivity of IgA isotype. In control samples these autoantibodies were not detected. Other autoantibodies were not demonstrated in either patient or control group. Conclusions. Of the parameters tested in noninfectious colitis, atypical-pANCA on ethanol-fixed granulocytes appears to be a suitable serological marker of food protein-induced proctitis/proctocolitis and suggests a possible involvement of an autoimmune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of this disease.

  17. Explanation of nurse standard of external exposure acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiuling; Jiang Enhai; Sun Feifei; Zhang Bin; Wang Xiaoguang; Wang Guilin

    2012-01-01

    National occupational health standard-Nurse Standard of External Exposure Acute Radiation Sickness has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. Based on the extensive research of literature, collection of the previous nuclear and radiation accidents excessive exposed personnel data and specific situations in China, this standard was enacted according to the current national laws, regulations, and the opinions of peer experts. It is mainly used for care of patients with acute radiation sickness, and also has directive significance for care of patients with iatrogenic acute radiation sickness which due to the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation pretreatment. To correctly carry out this standard and to reasonably implement nursing measures for patients with acute radiation sickness, the contents of this standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  18. Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome : Radiation Neurotoxins, Mechanisms of Toxicity, Neuroimmune Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (CvARS) is an extremely severe in-jury of Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). CvARS can be induced by the high doses of neutron, heavy ions, or gamma radiation. The Syndrome clinical picture depends on a type, timing, and the doses of radiation. Four grades of the CvARS were defined: mild, moderate, severe, and extremely severe. Also, four stages of CvARS were developed: prodromal, latent, manifest, outcome -death. Duration of stages depends on the types, doses, and time of radiation. The CvARS clinical symptoms are: respiratory distress, hypotension, cerebral edema, severe disorder of cerebral blood microcirculation, and acute motor weakness. The radiation toxins, Cerebro-Vascular Radiation Neurotoxins (SvARSn), determine development of the acute radiation syndrome. Mechanism of action of the toxins: Though pathogenesis of radiation injury of CNS remains unknown, our concept describes the Cv ARS as a result of Neurotoxicity and Excitotoxicity, cell death through apoptotic necrosis. Neurotoxicity occurs after the high doses radiation exposure, formation of radiation neuro-toxins, possible bioradicals, or group of specific enzymes. Intracerebral hemorrhage can be a consequence of the damage of endothelial cells caused by radiation and the radiation tox-ins. Disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB)and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCFB)is possibly the most significant effect of microcirculation disorder and metabolic insufficiency. NMDA-receptors excitotoxic injury mediated by cerebral ischemia and cerebral hypoxia. Dam-age of the pyramidal cells in layers 3 and 5 and Purkinje cell layer the cerebral cortex , damage of pyramidal cells in the hippocampus occur as a result of cerebral ischemia and intracerebral bleeding. Methods: Radiation Toxins of CV ARS are defined as glycoproteins with the molec-ular weight of RT toxins ranges from 200-250 kDa and with high enzymatic activity

  19. Hyperbaric oxygen - an effective tool to treat radiation morbidity in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, Ramona; Klemen, Huberta; Quehenberger, Franz; Sankin, Oliver; Mayer, Elisabeth; Hackl, Arnulf; Smolle-Juettner, Freyja-Maria

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: We report the results of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) used in the treatment of radiation cystitis and proctitis following irradiation of prostate cancer. Materials and methods: Between June 1995 and March 2000, 18 men (median age 71 years) with radiation proctitis (n=7), cystitis (n=8), and combined proctitis/cystitis (n=3) underwent HBO therapy in a multiplace chamber for a median of 26 sessions (range 2-60). The treatment schedule (2.2-2.4 atmospheres absolute, 60 min bottom time, once-a-day, 7 days a week) was set at a lower limit of 20 sessions; the upper limit was left open to symptom-related adjustment. Prior to HBO treatment, RTOG/EORTC late genitourinal (GU) morbidity was Grade 2 (n=3), Grade 3 (n=6) or Grade 4 (n=2); modified RTOG/EORTC late gastrointestinal (GI) morbidity was either Grade 2 (n=4) or Grade 3 (n=6). Results: Sixteen patients underwent an adequate number of sessions. RTOG/EORTC late GU as well as modified GI morbidity scores showed a significant improvement after HBO (GI, P=0.004; GU, P=0.004; exact Wilcoxon signed rank test); bleeding ceased in five out of five patients with proctitis and in six out of eight patients with cystitis; one of those two patients, in whom an ineffective treatment outcome was obtained, went on to have a cystectomy. Conclusions: HBO treatment seems to be an effective tool to treat those patients with late GI and GU morbidity when conventional treatment has led to unsatisfactory results. Particularly in patients with radiation cystitis, HBO should not be delayed too long, as in the case of extensive bladder shrinkage improvement is hard to achieve

  20. Lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis: a differential diagnose to inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høie, Sverre; Knudsen, Lene Surland; Gerstoft, Jan

    2011-04-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical areas for many years. After 2003 there have been several outbreaks in western countries, especially among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). An important manifestation of LGV is a proctitis, with a clinical presentation and endoscopic findings resembling those of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). LGV is considered new in Scandinavia. This case report focuses on difficulties in differentiating LGV and IBD. This case report used a systematic search in the literature using PubMed and clinical cases from the Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Denmark (Cases 1-3) and the Section of Surgery, Hamar Hospital, Norway (Case 4). Clinical and endoscopic findings in LGV and IBD resemble each other. All cases were MSM. Three out of four were HIV-positive. Three out of four contacted their general practitioner (GP) due to gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and were referred to a gastroenterologist (GE) with suspicion of IBD. Because of non-successful IBD treatment, control of HIV status, relapses of GI-symptoms or extended information concerning sexual habits, LGV was suspected and diagnosed. All patients responded with remission of GI-symptoms and endoscopic findings after oral treatment with doxycycline. Due to similarities between LGV and IBD, LGV should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with proctitis or IBD-related symptoms, especially among HIV-positive men. Hence LGV patients may be spared long-lasting examination, mistreatment and surgery.

  1. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (Bone marrow syndrome, Aplastic Anemia): Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri

    Key Words: Aplastic Anemia (AA), Pluripotential Stem Cells (PSC) Introduction: Aplastic Anemia (AA) is a disorder of the pluripotential stem cells involve a decrease in the number of cells of myeloid, erythroid and megakaryotic lineage [Segel et al. 2000 ]. The etiology of AA include idiopathic cases and secondary aplastic anemia after exposure to drugs, toxins, chemicals, viral infections, lympho-proliferative diseases, radiation, genetic causes, myelodisplastic syndromes and hypoplastic anemias, thymomas, lymphomas. [Brodskyet al. 2005.,Modan et al. 1975., Szklo et al. 1975]. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (or Bone marrow syndrome, or Radiation-Acquired Aplastic Anemia) is the acute toxic syndrome which usually occurs with a dose of irradiation between 0.7 and 10 Gy (70- 1000 rads), depending on the species irradiated. [Waselenko et al., 2004]. The etiology of bone morrow damage from high-level radiation exposure results depends on the radiosensitivity of certain bone marrow cell lines. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Aplastic anemia after radiation exposure is a clinical syndrome that results from a marked disorder of bone marrow blood cell production. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Radiation hematotoxicity is mediated via genotoxic and other specific toxic mechanisms, leading to aplasia, cell apoptosis or necrosis, initiation via genetic mechanisms of clonal disorders, in cases such as the acute radiation-acquired form of AA. AA results from radiation injury to pluripotential and multipotential stem cells in the bone marrow. The clinical signs displayed in reticulocytopenia, anemia, granulocytopenia, monocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia. The number of marrow CD34+ cells (multipotential hematopoietic progenitors) and their derivative colony-forming unit{granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) and burst forming unit {erythroid (BFU{E) are reduced markedly in patients with AA. [Guinan 2011, Brodski et al. 2005, Beutler et al.,2000] Cells expressing CD34 (CD34+ cell) are normally

  2. Chlamydial Proctitis in a Young Man Who Has Sex with Men: Misdiagnosed as Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Jin; Kim, Jaeyeon; Shin, Dong Hwan; Jung, Jun Oh; Koh, Seokyoung; Kim, Ka Young; Lee, Jae Min

    2015-12-01

    We report the case of a 20-year-old man with a 2-month history of anal pain and bloody rectal discharge. He was referred to our clinic of gastroenterology for suspected inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The colonoscopy showed mucosal nodularities on the rectum and an anal tag. Because the colonoscopic findings were not consistent with the typical manifestations of IBD, we took an additional sexual history and performed studies for infectious proctitis, including serologic tests for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Treponema pallidum. He had homosexual experience, and the serologic tests and PCR of a rectal swab were positive for C. trachomatis infection. Finally he was diagnosed as having chlamydial proctitis and was treated with intramuscular ceftriaxone 250 mg in a single dose and doxycycline 100 mg orally twice daily for 7 days. After 2 months, he had no lower abdominal symptoms and his endoscopic findings were improved.

  3. Oral sucralfate in acute radiation oesophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sur, R.K. (Dept. of Radiotherapy, Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India)); Kochhar, R. (Dept. of Gastroenterology, Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India)); Singh, D.P. (Dept. of Radiotherapy, Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India))

    1994-01-01

    Eighty patients with carcinoma in the middle third of oesophagus and with acute radiation oesophagitis following external beam and intracavitary radiotherapy were managed by two different schedules. Group 1 (n = 40) received an antacid containing sodium alginate whereas Group 2 (n = 40) were given a 10% sucralfate suspension during 4 weeks. In Group 2, 32 patients had significant relief of symptoms within 7 days of treatment and most ulcers had healed by 12 days of treatment as seen on endoscopy. Patients in Group 1, on the other hand, showed little improvement of symptoms and had persistent ulcers even after 4 weeks of therapy. We conclude that sucralfate is useful in the management of acute radiation oesophagitis. (orig.).

  4. Oral sucralfate in acute radiation oesophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sur, R.K.; Kochhar, R.; Singh, D.P.

    1994-01-01

    Eighty patients with carcinoma in the middle third of oesophagus and with acute radiation oesophagitis following external beam and intracavitary radiotherapy were managed by two different schedules. Group 1 (n = 40) received an antacid containing sodium alginate whereas Group 2 (n = 40) were given a 10% sucralfate suspension during 4 weeks. In Group 2, 32 patients had significant relief of symptoms within 7 days of treatment and most ulcers had healed by 12 days of treatment as seen on endoscopy. Patients in Group 1, on the other hand, showed little improvement of symptoms and had persistent ulcers even after 4 weeks of therapy. We conclude that sucralfate is useful in the management of acute radiation oesophagitis. (orig.)

  5. A double blind controlled trial of prednisolone-21-phosphate suppositories in the treatment of idiopathic proctitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennard-Jones, J. E.; Baron, J. H.; Connell, A. M.; Jones, F. Avery

    1962-01-01

    A double blind trial of prednisolone suppositories in out-patients with idiopathic proctitis is reported. Significant improvement was noted. When prednisolone suppositories were given after the patient had already used suppositories of base alone for three weeks the active treatment was no longer so effective. PMID:13929632

  6. Sucralfate versus mesalazine versus hydrocortisone in the prevention of acute radiation proctitis during conformal radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma. A randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Franzone, Paola; Marcenaro, Michela; Foppiano, Franca; Vitale, Vito

    2003-07-01

    To assess whether the topical use of steroids or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is superior to sucralfate in preventing acute rectal toxicity during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) to 76 Gy. Patients undergoing 3DCRT for prostate carcinoma at our institution were offered to be randomized to sucralfate 3 g in 15 ml suspension enema (Antepsin, mesalazine 4 g gel enema (Enterasyn, or hydrocortisone 100 mg foam enema (Colifoam. Randomization was blind to the treating physician but not to the patient. Sucralfate was chosen as control arm. Topical treatment had to be performed once daily, starting on day 1 of 3DCRT. Acute rectal toxicity was scored weekly according to RTOG criteria. Time to occurrence of grade 2+ acute rectal toxicity was taken as endpoint. The trial was opened in August 1999, and after the first 24 patients had been treated, arm 2 was discontinued because of eight patients receiving mesalazine, seven actually developed acute rectal toxicity (five patients grade 3 and two patients grade 2). Until May 2001, 134 consecutive patients were randomly assigned to sucralfate (63 patients), mesalazine (eight patients) or hydrocortisone (63 patients). The cumulative incidence of acute rectal toxicity at the end of treatment by arm is 61.9 +/- 6.1%, 87.5 +/- 11.7%, and 52.4 +/- 6.2% for arms 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The difference between the mesalazine group and the sucralfate group is highly significant (hazard ratio [HR] 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-5.7; p = 0.03). At both uni- and multivariate analysis taking into account several patients and treatment covariates, the difference between hydrocortisone and sucralfate is not significant (HR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-1.2; p = 0.2). Topical mesalazine is contraindicated during radiotherapy. Hydrocortisone enema is not superior to sucralfate in preventing acute rectal toxicity.

  7. Use of mesalazine slow release suppositories 1 g three times per week to maintain remission of ulcerative proctitis: a randomised double blind placebo controlled multicentre study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteau, P; Crand, J; Foucault, M; Rambaud, J

    1998-01-01

    Background—Daily administration of rectal formulations of mesalazine is effective in preventing relapse of ulcerative proctitis. Maintenance of remission with lower doses would be an advantage. 
Aim—The efficacy of mesalazine suppositories (Pentasa) 1 g three times a week v placebo to maintain remission in patients with cryptogenetic proctitis was studied. 
Methods—Ninety five patients with cryptogenetic proctitis were randomised within two weeks of remission to receive for one year or until relapse three suppositories per week of either Pentasa (n=48) or placebo (n=47). In the case of a relapse, the patients received one suppository/day. 
Results—It was found that 25 of 48 subjects v 18 of 47 remained in remission in the mesalazine and placebo groups respectively. The relapse rate was lower in the mesalazine group for the following time intervals: 0-90 days (19% v 38%, p=0.035), 0-180 days (29% v 54%, p=0.017), 0-270 days (38% v 60%, p=0.031), and 0-365 days (48% v 62%, p=0.18). Treatment of relapse with one suppository/day induced remission in 11 of 18 and 2 of 26 patients in the mesalazine and placebo groups respectively (p=0.001). Overall, 61% v 28% patients remained in the protocol and were in remission at one year (p=0.001). Tolerance was good. 
Conclusion—Mesalazine suppositories 1 g three times a week are effective for preventing relapses of cryptogenetic proctitis. Increasing the dose to 1 g/day is effective in a high proportion of subjects who relapsed. 

 Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease; mesalazine; 5-aminosalicylic acid; topical treatments; proctitis PMID:9536943

  8. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörr Harald

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  9. Sucralfate versus mesalazine versus hydrocortisone in the prevention of acute radiation proctitis during conformal radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma. A randomized study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanguineti, G.; Franzone, P.; Marcenaro, M.; Vitale, V.; Foppiano, F.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To assess whether the topical use of steroids or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is superior to sucralfate in preventing acute rectal toxicity during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) to 76 Gy. Patients and Methods: Patients undergoing 3DCRT for prostate carcinoma at our institution were offered to be randomized to sucralfate 3 g in 15 ml suspension enema (Antepsin trademark ), mesalazine 4 g gel enema (Enterasyn trademark), or hydrocortisone 100 mg foam enema (Colifoam trademark ). Randomization was blind to the treating physician but not to the patient. Sucralfate was chosen as control arm. Topical treatment had to be performed once daily, starting on day 1 of 3DCRT. Acute rectal toxicity was scored weekly according to RTOG criteria. Time to occurrence of grade 2+ acute rectal toxicity was taken as endpoint. Results: The trial was opened in August 1999, and after the first 24 patients had been treated, arm 2 was discontinued because of eight patients receiving mesalazine, seven actually developed acute rectal toxicity (five patients grade 3 and two patients grade 2). Until May 2001, 134 consecutive patients were randomly assigned to sucralfate (63 patients), mesalazine (eight patients) or hydrocortisone (63 patients). The cumulative incidence of acute rectal toxicity at the end of treatment by arm is 61.9 ± 6.1%, 87.5 ± 11.7%, and 52.4 ± 6.2% for arms 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The difference between the mesalazine group and the sucralfate group is highly significant (hazard ratio [HR] 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-5.7; p = 0.03). At both uni- and multivariate analysis taking into account several patients and treatment covariates, the difference between hydrocortisone and sucralfate is not significant (HR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-1.2; p = 0.2). Conclusion: Topical mesalazine is contraindicated during radiotherapy. Hydrocortisone enema is not superior to sucralfate in preventing acute rectal toxicity. (orig.)

  10. Sucralfate versus mesalazine versus hydrocortisone in the prevention of acute radiation proctitis during conformal radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma. A randomized study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanguineti, G.; Franzone, P.; Marcenaro, M.; Vitale, V. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, National Inst. for Cancer Research, Genova (Italy); Foppiano, F. [Dept. of Physics, National Inst. for Cancer Research, Genova (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    Purpose: To assess whether the topical use of steroids or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is superior to sucralfate in preventing acute rectal toxicity during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) to 76 Gy. Patients and Methods: Patients undergoing 3DCRT for prostate carcinoma at our institution were offered to be randomized to sucralfate 3 g in 15 ml suspension enema (Antepsin {sup trademark}), mesalazine 4 g gel enema (Enterasyn trademark), or hydrocortisone 100 mg foam enema (Colifoam {sup trademark}). Randomization was blind to the treating physician but not to the patient. Sucralfate was chosen as control arm. Topical treatment had to be performed once daily, starting on day 1 of 3DCRT. Acute rectal toxicity was scored weekly according to RTOG criteria. Time to occurrence of grade 2+ acute rectal toxicity was taken as endpoint. Results: The trial was opened in August 1999, and after the first 24 patients had been treated, arm 2 was discontinued because of eight patients receiving mesalazine, seven actually developed acute rectal toxicity (five patients grade 3 and two patients grade 2). Until May 2001, 134 consecutive patients were randomly assigned to sucralfate (63 patients), mesalazine (eight patients) or hydrocortisone (63 patients). The cumulative incidence of acute rectal toxicity at the end of treatment by arm is 61.9 {+-} 6.1%, 87.5 {+-} 11.7%, and 52.4 {+-} 6.2% for arms 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The difference between the mesalazine group and the sucralfate group is highly significant (hazard ratio [HR] 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-5.7; p = 0.03). At both uni- and multivariate analysis taking into account several patients and treatment covariates, the difference between hydrocortisone and sucralfate is not significant (HR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-1.2; p = 0.2). Conclusion: Topical mesalazine is contraindicated during radiotherapy. Hydrocortisone enema is not superior to sucralfate in preventing acute rectal toxicity. (orig.)

  11. Pathogenesis of acute radiation effects in the urinary bladder. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerr, W.; Eckhardt, M.; Ehme, A.; Koi, S.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The present review summarizes experimental studies of the pathogenesis of acute radiation-induced changes in urinary bladder function. Material and methods: Transurethral cystometry was used for longitudinal assessment of bladder function in mice. With this technique, radiation-induced changes in storage capacity can be quantified. In histological studies, changes in urothelial cell density and in urothelial protein expression during the acute radiation response were determined. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was used for the treatment of acute functional changes. Results: The histological studies did not reveal any systematic fluctuations in urothelial cell density during the time of the acute radiation response. However, characteristic changes in the expression of proteins associated with urothelial cell function, differentiation and cell contact were observed, which correlated with the functional impairment. By local or systemical application of ASA, a significant restoration of bladder function compared to placebo treatment could be achieved. Conclusion: Acute functional radiation effects in the urinary bladder are not based on urothelial denudation. However, changes in protein expression indicate an impairment of the urothelial barrier function. The results of ASA treatment demonstrate that prostaglandins are involved in the response. Alterations in urothelial or endothelial prostaglandin metabolism may be primarily radiation-induced or secondary because of the impaired urothelial barrier. (orig.) [de

  12. Acute Radiation Effects Resulting from Exposure to Solar Particle Event-Like Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann; Cengel, Keith

    2012-07-01

    A major solar particle event (SPE) may place astronauts at significant risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which may be exacerbated when combined with other space flight stressors, such that the mission or crew health may be compromised. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR) is focused on the assessment of risks of adverse biological effects related to the ARS in animal models exposed to space flight stressors combined with the types of radiation expected during an SPE. As part of this program, FDA-approved drugs that may prevent and/or mitigate ARS symptoms are being evaluated. The CARR studies are focused on the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to the types of radiation, at the appropriate energies, doses and dose-rates, present during an SPE (and standard reference radiations, gamma rays or electrons). The ARS is a phased syndrome which often includes vomiting and fatigue. Other acute adverse biologic effects of concern are the loss of hematopoietic cells, which can result in compromised bone marrow and immune cell functions. There is also concern for skin damage from high SPE radiation doses, including burns, and resulting immune system dysfunction. Using 3 separate animal model systems (ferrets, mice and pigs), the major ARS biologic endpoints being evaluated are: 1) vomiting/retching and fatigue, 2) hematologic changes (with focus on white blood cells) and immune system changes resulting from exposure to SPE radiation with and without reduced weightbearing conditions, and 3) skin injury and related immune system functions. In all of these areas of research, statistically significant adverse health effects have been observed in animals exposed to SPE-like radiation. Countermeasures for the management of ARS symptoms are being evaluated. New research findings from the past grant year will be discussed. Acknowledgements: This research is supported by the NSBRI Center of Acute

  13. Clinical impact of predictive assays for acute and late radiation morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budach, W.; Classen, J.; Belka, C.; Bamberg, M.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Clinically reliable predictive assays for normal tissue radiation sensitivity would help to avoid severe radiation induced morbidity and result in individualized dose prescriptions. Profound differences of individual fibroblast and lymphocyte radiation sensitivity in vitro have been documented in patients with certain genetic syndromes but also in patients without known genetic disorders. The following review evaluates whether fibroblast or lymphocyte radiation sensitivity measured in vitro correlates with the degree of acute and late radiation induced morbidity. Results: Acute radiation side effects and lymphocyte sensitivity has been investigated in 2 studies. One of them reported an insecure correlation, the other no correlation at all. Fibroblast radiation sensitivity and the extent of acute radiation induced side effects on skin and mucosal sites has been compared in a total of 5 studies. None of these studies found a consistent significant correlation. Lymphocyte radiation sensitivity and late effects have been studied by 2 institutions. Late radiation induced skin and mucosal changes did not correlate with lymphocyte sensitivity in head and neck cancer patients, whereas in breast cancer patients a weak (R 2 =0.06) correlation between the degree of late skin reactions and lymphocyte sensitivity was observed. Late skin or mucosal radiation reactions and fibroblast sensitivity were examined by 5 research groups. Data analysis revealed significant correlations or at least a trend towards a significant correlation in all studies. The quality of the reported correlations expressed as R 2 ranged from 0.13 to 0.60, indicating a low predictive value. Conclusions: Lymphocyte radiation sensitivity as measured by currently available assays does not or only poorly correlate with acute and late effects of radiation in patients, precluding predictive tests based on lymphocyte sensitivity. Fibroblast radiation sensitivity does not correlate with acute but

  14. Effect of gene time on acute radiation mucositis and dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Suyan; Gao Li; Yin Weibo; Xu Guozhen; Xiao Guangli

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (Gene Time) on acute mucositis and dermatitis induced by radiation. Methods: 120 head and neck cancer patients were randomized into 3 groups: 1. Mucositis prophylactic application (MPA) group with control, 2. Mucositis therapeutic application (MTA) group with control and 3. Dermatitis therapeutic application (DTA) group with control. Prophylactic application of drug consisted of spraying the Gene Time preparation on the irradiated skin or mucous membrane as radiotherapy was being carried out. This was compared with control patients who received routine conventional skin care. Therapeutic application was started as grade I radiation mucositis or dermatitis appeared. The evaluation of acute radiation mucositis and dermatitis was done according to the systems proposed by RTOG or EORTC. Results: The results showed that in the MPA group, the rate of radiation mucositis at ≤10 Gy was 20% (4/20) as compared to the 70% (14/20) of the control (P = 0.004). During the course of radiation, the incidences of grade III, IV acute radiation mucositis and dermatitis were always lower than the control. In therapeutic application of Gene Time, the response rate of acute radiation mucositis was also better than the control (90% vs 50%) (P = 0.016) and that of acute dermatitis was similar (95% vs 50%) (P = 0.005). Moreover, the ≤3 d rate of healing of grade III dermatitis in the application group was 3/7 as compared to the 0/14 of the control. Conclusion: Prophylactic application of recombinant human epidermal growth factor is able to postpone the development of radiation mucositis. This preparation is also able to lower the incidence of grade III, IV mucositis and dermatitis both by therapeutic and prophylactic application in addition to the hastened healing of grade III dermatitis

  15. The role of radiation therapy in childhood acute leukemia. A review from the viewpoint of basic and clinical radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Miwako

    2003-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been playing important roles in the treatment of childhood acute leukemia since the 1970s. The first is the preventive cranial irradiation for central nervous system therapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The second is the total body irradiation as conditioning before bone marrow transplantation for children with acute myeloid leukemia in first remission and with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in second remission. Although some late effects have been reported, a part of them could be overcome by technical improvement in radiation and salvage therapy. Radiation therapy for children might have a successful outcome on a delicate balance between efficiencies and potential late toxicities. The role of radiation therapy for childhood acute leukemia was reviewed from the standpoint of basic and clinical radiation oncology in this paper. (author)

  16. Suggested classification of acute radiation sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Guo; Mingyue, Zhu; Zhiqin, Zhao

    1984-08-01

    Acute radiation sickness is usually classified into three types. Over the last decade, we have been engaged in experimental studies on the classification of this syndrome. Our findings from these studies, however, point to the fact that between the hemopoietic and intestinal types, and between the intestinal and cerebral types there are transitive forms, namely, hemopoieto-intestinal type and cardio-vascular type, respectively. In this article the required radiation doses and the clinical courses of these transitive forms with special emphasis on their histological and clinical manifestations are described. In case of the hemopoieto-intestinal form, histological examination may reveal residual crypts and typical ''abnormal cells'' in the intestinal mucosa, and clinical manifestations include almost the whole spectrum of symptoms and signs of infection and hemorrhage. The watery stool in pink colour may be specific and helpful in diagnosis. In case of the cardio-vascular form, shock may occur immediately after exposure, and histological examination may show myocardial edema, hemorrhage, cell-infiltration and even necrosis. We propose that the acute radiation sickness should be divided into 5 forms, namely, hemopoietic, hemopoieto-intestinal, intestinal, cardio-vascular and cerebral types. Accurate diagnosis can only be made by taking an comprehensive view of radiation dose, clinical course, clinical manifestations and histological findings. (author).

  17. Sensory and motor dysfunction assessed by anorectal manometry in uterine cervical carcinoma patients with radiation-induced late rectal complication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwi Eon; Lim, John Jihoon; Park, Won; Park, Hee Chul; Chung, Eun Ji; Seong, Jinsil; Suh, Chang Ok; Lee, Yong Chan; Park, Hyo Jin

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of radiation on anorectal function in patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Methods and Materials: Anorectal manometry was carried out on 24 patients (complication group) with late radiation proctitis. All of the manometric data from these patients were compared with those from 24 age-matched female volunteers (control group), in whom radiation treatment had not yet been performed. Results: Regardless of the severity of proctitis symptoms, 25% of patients demonstrated all their manometric data within the normal range, but 75% of patients exhibited one or more abnormal manometric parameters for sensory or motor functions. Six patients (25%) had an isolated sensory dysfunction, eight patients (33.3%) had an isolated motor dysfunction, and four patients (16.7%) had combined disturbances of both sensory and motor functions. The maximum tolerable volume, the minimal threshold volume, and the urgent volume in the complication group were significantly reduced compared with those in the control group. The mean squeeze pressure in the complication group was significantly reduced, whereas the mean resting pressure and anal sphincter length were unchanged. Conclusions: Physiologic changes of the anorectum in patients with late radiation proctitis seem to be caused by a variety of sensory and/or motor dysfunctions in which many different mechanisms are working together. The reduced rectal reservoir capacity and impaired sensory functions were crucial factors for functional disorder in such patients. In addition, radiation damage to the external anal sphincter muscle was considered to be an important cause of motor dysfunction

  18. Proctitis as the clinical presentation of lymphogranuloma venereum, a re-emerging disease in developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge López-Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV is a sexually transmitted infectious disease caused by serovars L1, L2 and L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis. The initial presentation is usually a painless ulcerated papule on the genitalia or distal proctitis. The progression of the infection can lead to major complications: rectal strictures, intestinal obstruction or perforation. We present five cases of LGV proctitis as the initial presentation of the disease. All patients were male, mean age 44.6 years, with positive serology to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and promiscuous men who have sex with men (MSM. The initial diagnosis was made by rectosigmoidoscopy indicated for pain and anal discharge. All cases were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction technique in rectal tissue. Endoscopic images obtained showed a great variety of rectal lesions, from mild erythema of the mucosa and ulcers to deep ulcers with elevated borders and purulent exudate. All cases were resolved after treatment with doxycycline for 3 weeks. It emphasizes the importance of suspecting this re-emerging disease in patients with risk factors (HIV and MSM, with the aim of early treatment and to avoid major complications.

  19. Proctitis as the clinical presentation of lymphogranuloma venereum, a re-emerging disease in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Jorge; Rodríguez-Alcalde, Daniel; Hernández-Villalba, Luis; Moreno-Sánchez, Diego; Lumbreras-Cabrera, Mercedes; Barros-Aguado, Carlos; Galán, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infectious disease caused by serovars L1, L2 and L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis. The initial presentation is usually a painless ulcerated papule on the genitalia or distal proctitis. The progression of the infection can lead to major complications: rectal strictures, intestinal obstruction or perforation. We present five cases of LGV proctitis as the initial presentation of the disease. All patients were male, mean age 44.6 years, with positive serology to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and promiscuous men who have sex with men (MSM).The initial diagnosis was made by rectosigmoidoscopy indicated for pain and anal discharge. All cases were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction technique in rectal tissue. Endoscopic images obtained showed a great variety of rectal lesions, from mild erythema of the mucosa and ulcers to deep ulcers with elevated borders and purulent exudate. All cases were resolved after treatment with doxycycline for 3 weeks. It emphasizes the importance of suspecting this re-emerging disease in patients with risk factors (HIV and MSM), with the aim of early treatment and to avoid major complications.

  20. Lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis: A differential diagnose to inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, Sverre; Knudsen, Lene Surland; Gerstoft, Jan

    2011-01-01

    each other. All cases were MSM. Three out of four were HIV-positive. Three out of four contacted their general practitioner (GP) due to gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and were referred to a gastroenterologist (GE) with suspicion of IBD. Because of non-successful IBD treatment, control of HIV status...... as a differential diagnosis in patients with proctitis or IBD-related symptoms, especially among HIV-positive men. Hence LGV patients may be spared long-lasting examination, mistreatment and surgery.......Abstract Objective. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical areas for many years. After 2003 there have been several outbreaks in western countries, especially among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). An important...

  1. Diagnosis of acute radiation disease by Enzyme Immune-Assay (EIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, D.; Maliev, V.; Jones, J.; Gonta, S.; Prasad, K.; Rachal, C.

    2006-01-01

    Diagnosis of the acute radiation disease by the method of immune enzyme assay is a simple and efficient tool of evaluating and biological dosimetry and forecasting of development of the acute radiation defeats as at group of population so at individuals locating in the zone polluted by the radiation. We use as biological markers the group of essential radiotoxins - high molecular mass glycoprotein ( molecular mass - 200 - 250 kDa ) - radiation antigens (S.D.R. - specific radiation determinant ) accumulated in the lymphoid system, with epitopes specific to each form of radiation syndrome, after animals have been irradiated in doses inducing the development of the cerebral (1), toxic ( 2), gastrointestinal ( 3 ) and typical ( 4 ) forms of acute radiation sickness. These two phenomena allowed us to develop a technologies for diagnosis, prophylaxis and therapy of radiation disease - enzyme immune assay ( EIA ), anti radiation vaccine, anti radiation serum, method of immune - lymph - plasma-sorption. The important first step in effectiveness of therapy is an accurate assessment of severity of disease in early period after irradiation. The ideal markers for early and accurate assessment is high weight glycoprotein with specifics radiation induced features (S.D.R.) mentioned above. This biology active substance isolated from lymph can induct the symptoms of radiation syndrome without previously radiation when it is administrated intra-muscularly or intravenously to healthy animals. Enzyme immune assay (EIA) allowed researchers to indicate the significant levels of different forms of S.D.R. in peripheral blood of animals in first 24 hours after radiation. Indication of high level of S.D.R. -1 allowed to forecast a fast development of cerebral form of acute radiation disease. Determination of high levels of S.D.R.-2, S.D.R.-3 and S.D.R.-4 in peripheral blood allowed to recognize early periods of toxic, gastrointestinal and typical forms of acute radiation sickness

  2. Diagnosis of acute radiation disease by Enzyme Immune-Assay (EIA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, D.; Maliev, V. [Russian Academy of Science, Vladicaukas (Russian Federation); Jones, J.; Gonta, S. [NASA -Johnson Spa ce Center, Houston (United States); Prasad, K. [Antioxidant Research Institute, Premier Micrinutrient corporation, Novato (United States); Rachal, C. [Univercity Space Research Assotiation, Colorado (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Diagnosis of the acute radiation disease by the method of immune enzyme assay is a simple and efficient tool of evaluating and biological dosimetry and forecasting of development of the acute radiation defeats as at group of population so at individuals locating in the zone polluted by the radiation. We use as biological markers the group of essential radiotoxins - high molecular mass glycoprotein ( molecular mass - 200 - 250 kDa ) - radiation antigens (S.D.R. - specific radiation determinant ) accumulated in the lymphoid system, with epitopes specific to each form of radiation syndrome, after animals have been irradiated in doses inducing the development of the cerebral (1), toxic ( 2), gastrointestinal ( 3 ) and typical ( 4 ) forms of acute radiation sickness. These two phenomena allowed us to develop a technologies for diagnosis, prophylaxis and therapy of radiation disease - enzyme immune assay ( EIA ), anti radiation vaccine, anti radiation serum, method of immune - lymph - plasma-sorption. The important first step in effectiveness of therapy is an accurate assessment of severity of disease in early period after irradiation. The ideal markers for early and accurate assessment is high weight glycoprotein with specifics radiation induced features (S.D.R.) mentioned above. This biology active substance isolated from lymph can induct the symptoms of radiation syndrome without previously radiation when it is administrated intra-muscularly or intravenously to healthy animals. Enzyme immune assay (EIA) allowed researchers to indicate the significant levels of different forms of S.D.R. in peripheral blood of animals in first 24 hours after radiation. Indication of high level of S.D.R. -1 allowed to forecast a fast development of cerebral form of acute radiation disease. Determination of high levels of S.D.R.-2, S.D.R.-3 and S.D.R.-4 in peripheral blood allowed to recognize early periods of toxic, gastrointestinal and typical forms of acute radiation sickness

  3. Gastrointestinal symptoms resembling ulcerative proctitis caused by larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Gaillard, Julien; Borée-Moreau, Diane; Bailly, Éric; Andres, Christian R; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of facultative intestinal myiasis due to larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax, also named the rat-tailed maggots. The development of larvae in the lower bowel was responsible for non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that resembled ulcerative proctitis. The diagnosis was established upon the observation of four spontaneously excreted mobile larvae. The definite identification of the E. tenax species was made possible by scanning electron microscopy. The clinical outcome was satisfactory.

  4. Late Side Effects After Image Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Compared to 3D-Conformal Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Results From 2 Prospective Cohorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortel, Ruud C.; Incrocci, Luca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pos, Floris J.; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Lebesque, Joos V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Aluwini, Shafak [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Witte, Marnix G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heemsbergen, Wilma D., E-mail: w.heemsbergen@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: Technical developments in the field of external beam radiation therapy (RT) enabled the clinical introduction of image guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT), which improved target conformity and allowed reduction of safety margins. Whether this had an impact on late toxicity levels compared to previously applied three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) is currently unknown. We analyzed late side effects after treatment with IG-IMRT or 3D-CRT, evaluating 2 prospective cohorts of men treated for localized prostate cancer to investigate the hypothesized reductions in toxicity. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with 3D-CRT (n=189) or IG-IMRT (n=242) to 78 Gy in 39 fractions were recruited from 2 Dutch randomized trials with identical toxicity scoring protocols. Late toxicity (>90 days after treatment) was derived from self-assessment questionnaires and case report forms, according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG-EORTC) scoring criteria. Grade ≥2 endpoints included gastrointestinal (GI) rectal bleeding, increased stool frequency, discomfort, rectal incontinence, proctitis, and genitourinary (GU) obstruction, increased urinary frequency, nocturia, urinary incontinence, and dysuria. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to compare grade ≥2 toxicities between both techniques, adjusting for other modifying factors. Results: The 5-year cumulative incidence of grade ≥2 GI toxicity was 24.9% for IG-IMRT and 37.6% following 3D-CRT (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.59, P=.005), with significant reductions in proctitis (HR: 0.37, P=.047) and increased stool frequency (HR: 0.23, P<.001). GU grade ≥2 toxicity levels at 5 years were comparable with 46.2% and 36.4% following IG-IMRT and 3D-CRT, respectively (adjusted HR: 1.19, P=.33). Other strong predictors (P<.01) of grade ≥2 late toxicity were baseline complaints, acute toxicity, and age

  5. Late Side Effects After Image Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Compared to 3D-Conformal Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Results From 2 Prospective Cohorts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wortel, Ruud C.; Incrocci, Luca; Pos, Floris J.; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Lebesque, Joos V.; Aluwini, Shafak; Witte, Marnix G.; Heemsbergen, Wilma D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Technical developments in the field of external beam radiation therapy (RT) enabled the clinical introduction of image guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT), which improved target conformity and allowed reduction of safety margins. Whether this had an impact on late toxicity levels compared to previously applied three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) is currently unknown. We analyzed late side effects after treatment with IG-IMRT or 3D-CRT, evaluating 2 prospective cohorts of men treated for localized prostate cancer to investigate the hypothesized reductions in toxicity. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with 3D-CRT (n=189) or IG-IMRT (n=242) to 78 Gy in 39 fractions were recruited from 2 Dutch randomized trials with identical toxicity scoring protocols. Late toxicity (>90 days after treatment) was derived from self-assessment questionnaires and case report forms, according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG-EORTC) scoring criteria. Grade ≥2 endpoints included gastrointestinal (GI) rectal bleeding, increased stool frequency, discomfort, rectal incontinence, proctitis, and genitourinary (GU) obstruction, increased urinary frequency, nocturia, urinary incontinence, and dysuria. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to compare grade ≥2 toxicities between both techniques, adjusting for other modifying factors. Results: The 5-year cumulative incidence of grade ≥2 GI toxicity was 24.9% for IG-IMRT and 37.6% following 3D-CRT (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.59, P=.005), with significant reductions in proctitis (HR: 0.37, P=.047) and increased stool frequency (HR: 0.23, P<.001). GU grade ≥2 toxicity levels at 5 years were comparable with 46.2% and 36.4% following IG-IMRT and 3D-CRT, respectively (adjusted HR: 1.19, P=.33). Other strong predictors (P<.01) of grade ≥2 late toxicity were baseline complaints, acute toxicity, and age

  6. Diagnosis of moderate acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shoucheng; Chen Zhijian; Chen Youxin

    1989-01-01

    Forty patients with malignant lymphoma were given 60 Co TLI. 21 cases received 6 Gy and 19 received 8 Gy. It was estimated that a single TLI of 6 and 8 Gy would correspond to TBI of 3.55 Gy and 4.25 Gy (average values) by analysing peripheral blood cell chromosome aberrations and 1.85-2.37 Gy by measuring red bone marrow stem cells clinically. Moderate acute radiation sickness with digestive tract reaction and hemopoietic and immunologic depression was observed. WBC and platelets decreased rapidly. Lymphocytes showed quantitative and qualitative changes even at early stage. All these indexes are significant for diagnosis. Besides, the degree of labial stimulation response, levels of C-reactive protein, corticoid, and urinal nucleoside and alkaloid base presented great changes both pre-and post-irradiation. Early diagnosis of moderate acute radiation sickness could be made in cancer patients subjected to 6-8 Gy TLI

  7. Stem cell-based therapies for acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha, Chandan

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation in the event of accidental or intentional incident such as nuclear/radiological terrorism can lead to debilitating injuries to multiple organs resulting in death within days depending on the amount of radiation dose and the quality of radiation. Unfortunately, there is not a single FDA-licensed drug approved against acute radiation injury. The RadStem Center for Medical Countermeasures against Radiation (RadStem CMGR) program at Einstein is developing stem cell-based therapies to treat acute radiation syndrome (ARS). We have demonstrated that intravenous transplantation of bone marrow-derived and adipose-derived stromal cells, consisting of a mixture of mesenchymal, endothelial and myeloid progenitors can mitigate mice exposed to whole body irradiation of 12 Gy or whole abdominal irradiation of up to 20 Gy. We identified a variety of growth and differentiation factors that individually is unable to improve survival of animals exposed to lethal irradiation, but when administered sequentially mitigates radiation injury and improves survival. We termed this phenomenon as synthetic survival and describe a new paradigm whereby the 'synthetic survival' of irradiated tissues can be promoted by systemic administration of growth factors to amplify residual stem cell clonogens post-radiation exposure, followed by a differentiation factor that favors tissue stem cell differentiation. Synthetic survival can be applied to mitigate lethal radiation injury in multiple organs following radiation-induced hematopoeitic, gastrointestinal and pulmonary syndromes. (author)

  8. Time patterns of changes in biomarkers, symptoms and histopathology during pelvic radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Annette; Dahl, Olav [Section of Oncology, Institute of Medicine, Univ. of Bergen, and Dept. of Oncology, Haukeland Univ. Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Bjoerge, Benedikte; Klementsen, Beate [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, Bergen (Norway); Helgeland, Lars [Dept. of Pathology, Haukeland Univ. Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Wentzel-Larsen, Tore [Centre for Clinical Research, Haukeland Univ. Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Fagerhol, Magne K. [Dept. of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, Ullevaal Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Hovdenak, Nils [Dept. of Medicine, Haukeland Univ. Hospital, Bergen (Norway)

    2007-07-15

    Acute radiation proctitis was evaluated before, during and after radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer. The main aims of the study were to examine changes related to the increasing radiation dose, and identify surrogate markers of gastrointestinal (GI) reaction to radiation. Twenty consecutive prostate cancer patients scheduled for 7 weeks of conformal RT were prospectively included in a longitudinal study assessing symptoms, inflammation in rectal mucosa biopsies, and blood and stool samples at four time points (before RT and 2, 6 and 11 weeks after start of RT). Blood samples were examined for acute phase response-related markers, fatty acids (FAs), vitamin E and leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Lactoferrin, calprotectin and S100A12 were measured in stool samples and FAs in biopsies from rectal mucosa. The increase in histopathological inflammation reached a maximum 2 weeks after start of RT. Symptoms of GI toxicity increased with higher radiation dose and had not returned to pre-treatment level 4 weeks after RT. Lactoferrin concentrations in stool increased significantly at week 6. Significant decreases of vitamin E, leukocyte count, hemoglobin and some groups of FAs were discovered, while a few FAs increased significantly during the study period. Time courses vary between the selected indicators of acute radiation proctitis. The biopsy grading of inflammatory changes were most intense 2 weeks into the treatment period while symptoms continued to increase until week 6. Lactoferrin in stool samples could be a non-invasive marker of GI inflammation during RT. A transient decrease in vitamin E and some FAs during RT warrants further studies.

  9. Evaluation and management of acute radiation dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modesto, A.; Faivre, J.C.; Granel-Brocard, F.; Tao, Y.G.; Pointreau, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Acute radiation dermatitis remains one of the most commonly observed side effect during radiation therapy leading to complication such as superinfection or treatment disruption. Its management is characterized by a great heterogeneity. Few strategies have demonstrated a benefit in preventing radiation dermatitis, which relies mostly on decreasing dose delivered to the skin and skin care practices. Simple emollients and use of topical steroids can be useful in early stages. The singularity of the skin toxicity seen with cetuximab and radiotherapy warrants a specific grading system and distinctive clinical treatment with use of antibiotics. (authors)

  10. Changes in mast cells during acute radiation sickness(a morphometric study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datsenko, A.V.; Shikhodyrov, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the morphometric parameters of rat mast cells during acute radiation sickness have been studied. The most significant deviation of the quantitative indices of mast cells from the control values were noted at the height of the bone-marrow, at the terminal stage of the intestinal, and during the first few hours of the cerebral forms of acute radiation sickness

  11. A suggested classification of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yao; Zhu Mingyue; Zhao Zhiqin

    1984-01-01

    Acute radiation sickness is usually classified into three types. Over the last decade, we have been engaged in experimental studies on the classification of this syndrome. Our findings from these studies, however, point to the fact that between the hemopoietic and intestinal types, and between the intestinal and cerebral types there are transitive forms, namely, hemopoieto-intestinal type and cardio-vascular type, respectively. In this article the required radiation doses and the clinical courses of these transitive forms with special emphasis on their histological and clinical manifestations are described. In case of the hemopoieto-intestinal form, histological examination may reveal residual crypts and typical ''abnormal cells'' in the intestinal mucosa, and clinical manifestations include almost the whole spectrum of symptoms and signs of infection and hemorrhage. The watery stool in pink colour may be specific and helpful in diagnosis. In case of the cardio-vascular form, shock may occur immediately after exposure, and histological examination may show myocardial edema, hemorrhage, cell-infiltration and even necrosis. We propose that the acute radiation sickness should be divided into 5 forms, namely, hemopoietic, hemopoieto-intestinal, intestinal, cardio-vascular and cerebral types. Accurate diagnosis can only be made by taking an comprehensive view of radiation dose, clinical course, clinical manifestations and histological findings. (author)

  12. Acute Radiation Syndrome Severity Score System in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossetrova, Natalia I; Ney, Patrick H; Condliffe, Donald P; Krasnopolsky, Katya; Hieber, Kevin P

    2016-08-01

    Radiation accidents or terrorist attacks can result in serious consequences for the civilian population and for military personnel responding to such emergencies. The early medical management situation requires quantitative indications for early initiation of cytokine therapy in individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and effective triage tools for first responders in mass-casualty radiological incidents. Previously established animal (Mus musculus, Macaca mulatta) total-body irradiation (γ-exposure) models have evaluated a panel of radiation-responsive proteins that, together with peripheral blood cell counts, create a multiparametic dose-predictive algorithm with a threshold for detection of ~1 Gy from 1 to 7 d after exposure as well as demonstrate the acute radiation syndrome severity score systems created similar to the Medical Treatment Protocols for Radiation Accident Victims developed by Fliedner and colleagues. The authors present a further demonstration of the acute radiation sickness severity score system in a mouse (CD2F1, males) TBI model (1-14 Gy, Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min) based on multiple biodosimetric endpoints. This includes the acute radiation sickness severity Observational Grading System, survival rate, weight changes, temperature, peripheral blood cell counts and radiation-responsive protein expression profile: Flt-3 ligand, interleukin 6, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, thrombopoietin, erythropoietin, and serum amyloid A. Results show that use of the multiple-parameter severity score system facilitates identification of animals requiring enhanced monitoring after irradiation and that proteomics are a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposure, enhancing accuracy and discrimination index for acute radiation sickness response categories and early prediction of outcome.

  13. Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

  14. Scintigraphic and Endoscopic Evaluation of Radiation-induced Acute Gastrointestinal Syndrome in Micro-pig Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Sook; Kim, Kyung-Min; Kim, Jin; Jang, Won-Suk; Lee, Jung-Eun; Kim, Noo-Ri; Lee, Sun-Joo; Kim, Mi-Sook; Ji, Young-Hoon; Cheon, Gi-Jeong; Lim, Sang-Moo

    2007-01-01

    Micro-pig model can be served as a proper substitute for humans in studying acute radiation syndrome following radiation-exposure accidents, especially showing similar clinico-pathologic response of hematopoietic and gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome to human. Among acute GI syndrome induced by radiation, GI motility disturbance has not been studied, however, it would be important in a viewpoint of affecting infectious progression from GI tract. Here, we employed scintigraphy of GI transit time and sequential endoscopic examination and tissue sampling in micropigs followed by abdominal radiation exposure. The specific aims of this study are to evaluate objective evidence of GI motility disturbance by scintigraphic evaluation and to find corresponding clinicoapthologic changes in radiation-induced acute GI syndrome

  15. Serial Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Optic Radiations after Acute Optic Neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott C. Kolbe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported diffusion tensor imaging (DTI changes within the optic radiations of patients after optic neuritis (ON. We aimed to study optic radiation DTI changes over 12 months following acute ON and to study correlations between DTI parameters and damage to the optic nerve and primary visual cortex (V1. We measured DTI parameters [fractional anisotropy (FA, axial diffusivity (AD, radial diffusivity (RD, and mean diffusivity (MD] from the optic radiations of 38 acute ON patients at presentation and 6 and 12 months after acute ON. In addition, we measured retinal nerve fibre layer thickness, visual evoked potential amplitude, optic radiation lesion load, and V1 thickness. At baseline, FA was reduced and RD and MD were increased compared to control. Over 12 months, FA reduced in patients at an average rate of −2.6% per annum (control = −0.51%; p=0.006. Change in FA, RD, and MD correlated with V1 thinning over 12 months (FA: R=0.450, p=0.006; RD: R=-0.428, p=0.009; MD: R=-0.365, p=0.029. In patients with no optic radiation lesions, AD significantly correlated with RNFL thinning at 12 months (R=0.489, p=0.039. In conclusion, DTI can detect optic radiation changes over 12 months following acute ON that correlate with optic nerve and V1 damage.

  16. Moist skin care can diminish acute radiation-induced skin toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momm, F.; Weissenberger, C.; Bertelt, S.; Henke, M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Radiation treatment may induce acute skin reactions. There are several methods of managing them. Validity of these methods, however, is not sufficiently studied. We therefore investigated, whether moist skin care with 3% urea lotion will reduce acute radiation skin toxicity. Patients and Methods: 88 patients with carcinomas of the head and neck undergoing radiotherapy with curative intent (mean total dose 60 Gy, range: 50-74 Gy) were evaluated weekly for acute skin reactions according to the RTOG-CTC score. In 63 patients, moist skin care with 3% urea lotion was performed. The control group consisted of 25 patients receiving conventional dry skin care. The incidence of grade I, II, and III reactions and the radiation dose at occurrence of a particular reaction were determined and statistically analyzed using the log-rank test. The dose-time relations of individual skin reactions are described. Results: At some point of time during radiotherapy, all patients suffered from acute skin reactions grade I, > 90% from grade II reactions. 50% of patients receiving moist skin care experienced grade I reactions at 26 Gy as compared to 22 Gy in control patients (p = 0.03). Grade II reactions occurred at 51 Gy versus 34 Gy (p = 0.006). Further, 22% of the patients treated with moist skin care suffered from acute skin toxicity grade III as compared to 56% of the controls (p = 0.0007). Conclusion: Moist skin care with 3% urea lotion delays the occurrence and reduces the grade of acute skin reactions in percutaneously irradiated patients with head and neck tumors. (orig.)

  17. Chromosome Damage and Cell Proliferation Rates in In Vitro Irradiated Whole Blood as Markers of Late Radiation Toxicity After Radiation Therapy to the Prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, Lindsay A., E-mail: Lindsay.Beaton@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Ferrarotto, Catherine; Marro, Leonora [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Samiee, Sara; Malone, Shawn; Grimes, Scott; Malone, Kyle [The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, 501 Smyth Rd, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Wilkins, Ruth C. [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: In vitro irradiated blood samples from prostate cancer patients showing late normal tissue damage were examined for lymphocyte response by measuring chromosomal aberrations and proliferation rate. Methods and Materials: Patients were selected from a randomized trial evaluating the optimal timing of dose-escalated radiation and short-course androgen deprivation therapy. Of 438 patients, 3% experienced grade 3 late radiation proctitis and were considered to be radiosensitive. Blood samples were taken from 10 of these patients along with 20 matched samples from patients with grade 0 proctitis. The samples were irradiated at 6 Gy and, along with control samples, were analyzed for dicentric chromosomes and excess fragments per cell. Cells in first and second metaphase were also enumerated to determine the lymphocyte proliferation rate. Results: At 6 Gy, there were statistically significant differences between the radiosensitive and control cohorts for 3 endpoints: the mean number of dicentric chromosomes per cell (3.26 ± 0.31, 2.91 ± 0.32; P=.0258), the mean number of excess fragments per cell (2.27 ± 0.23, 1.43 ± 0.37; P<.0001), and the proportion of cells in second metaphase (0.27 ± 0.10, 0.46 ± 0.09; P=.0007). Conclusions: These results may be a valuable indicator for identifying radiosensitive patients and for tailoring radiation therapy.

  18. Evaluation of acute radiation optic neuropathy by B-scan ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovato, A.A.; Char, D.H.; Quivey, J.M.; Castro, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the accuracy of B-scan ultrasonography to diagnose radiation-induced optic neuropathy in 15 patients with uveal melanoma. Optic neuropathy was diagnosed by an observer masked as to clinical and photographic data. We analyzed planimetry area measurements of the retrobulbar nerve before and after irradiation. The retrobulbar area of the optic nerve shadow on B-scan was quantitated with a sonic digitizer. Increased optic nerve shadow area was confirmed in 13 of 15 patients who had radiation optic neuropathy (P less than .004). The correct diagnosis was confirmed when the results of ultrasound were compared to fundus photography and fluorescein angiography. In 13 patients there was acute radiation optic neuropathy. Two patients did not show an enlarged retrobulbar optic nerve, and the clinical appearance suggested early progression to optic atrophy. Ultrasonography documents the enlargement of the optic nerve caused by acute radiation changes

  19. Case report: lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis-from rapid screening to molecular confirmation of a masked sexually transmitted disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowicz, Mateusz; Grilnberger, Evelyn; Huber, Florian; Leibl, Gabriele; Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Gartner, Manfred; Huber, Monika; Chott, Andreas; Reiter, Michael; Stanek, Gerold

    2013-08-01

    Proctitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis L2b can manifest with very mild, nonspecific symptoms, and appropriate diagnostic evaluation is crucial. The case report demonstrates that rapid screening test, detection of specific antibodies in serum, and direct pathogen identification by PCR performed on tissue sample or rectal swab allow successful diagnosis of the still emerging sexually transmitted disease among homosexual patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute irradiation syndrome : radiation disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestries, J.C.; Multon, E.

    1995-01-01

    It is classically assumed that the symptomatology of the acute radiation syndrome is mainly due to stem and progenitor cells death in compartimentalized tissues, particularly in bone marrow and intestine. Our observations on baboons, irradiated with a mixed neutron/gamma or a gamma radiation, showed that the whole organism response plays a major role. There is an inflammatory syndrome, not only during the prodromal phase, but also a second one, that precedes and accompanies the manifest-illness phase. This inflammatory syndrome was associated with coagulation disorders which are largely responsible for bleeding. This syndrome makes the therapeutic approach more complicated since some cytokines, which could be able to improve the hematopoietic cells recovery (e.g. IL-6), exhibit pro-inflammatory activities as well. Regarding radiobiological triage, no biological marker has a prognosis value during the first days following a radiation exposure, for those individuals exposed to around a LD50. On the contrary, some inflammation markers allow to anticipate a fatal issue, without any treatment, as early as the beginning of the manifest-illness phase. (authors). 10 refs., 11 figs

  1. Multifocal atherosclerosis in patient after acute first degree radiation sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metlyaeva N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: assessment the heavy psychosomatic and all-somatic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular pathology of patient, transferred an acute I degree radiation sickness, from the general evenly gamma-beta radiation. Conclusions. The subdepressive and disturbing-depressive syndrome of patient, transferred an acute radiation sickness (ARS of I degree, from the general evenly gamma-beta radiation, was independent risk factor of development of multifocal atherosclerosis; Features of development of all-somatic and psychosomatic pathology of patient are based on a combination of genetic prerequisites, environment influences (the stress caused by accident on the ChNPP and social factors, influencing on him during a course of life, especially during early socialization. Thus at development of psychosomatic frustration the combination of feature of the mental reaction connected with the personal characteristic and special relationship between mental (stress and physiological (somatic by aspects of reaction which led to metabolism violation, to aging, decrease in adaptation opportunities of an organism and development age — dependent pathology took place.

  2. Akut iskaemisk proktitis efter et epileptisk anfald

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klintmann, Camille Kristine; Hillingsø, Jens; Glenthøj, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Acute ischemic proctitis is a rare diagnosis mainly because the rectum is supplied by an extensive arterial network. Consequently, in more than 90% of patients with ischemic colitis the rectum is spared. Previously reported cases are related to severe vascular insufficiency of the rectal circulat...... circulation caused by systemic atherosclerosis, usually following aortic or aortoiliac operations. We report one case of acute ischemic proctitis following an epileptic attack....

  3. Effect Of Oligomeric Enteral Nutrition On Symptoms Of Acute Radiation Enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinsky, P.

    2008-01-01

    Radiotherapy of abdominal and pelvic tumours is frequently associated with acute radiation enteritis. Predominant symptoms include diarrhea, watery stools, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. There are very few effective interventions available for this condition. Enteral oligomeric nutrition has been used in bowel diseases with functional failure similar to radiation enteritis. The aim of presented work was to observe occurrence of symptoms of radiation enteritis in patients undergoing abdominal or pelvic radiotherapy. Apart from diet and pharmacological therapy, oral oligomeric enteral nutrition (Peptisorb Powder Nutricia) at the dose of 1000 - 2000 ml per day was administered for minimum of 4 days. Planned period of administration was 14 days and longer. Symptoms of radiation enteritis were evaluated at the beginning and in the end of administration. Prevalence of all evaluated symptoms of radiation enteritis was decreased and difference was statistically significant for diarrhea, watery stools, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. The use of evaluated oligomeric nutritional support might, in conjunction with pharmacotherapy and diet, alleviate symptoms of acute radiation enteritis and maintain nutritional status of patients. (author)

  4. Ileal perforation induced by acute radiation injury under gefitinib treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Takayuki; Tsukuda, Kazunori; Toyooka, Shinichi

    2011-01-01

    Enteritis is one of the side effects of radiotherapy to the abdominal cavity. Radiation enteritis involves damage to mucous membranes in the acute phase and to stromal tissues in the late phase. Perforation of the intestine tends to occur in the late phase, and rarely in the acute phase. However, we describe here a case of intestinal perforation occurring in the acute phase after irradiation in a patient who received gefitinib treatment. Gefitinib, one of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), is widely used to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, but is simultaneously known to inhibit wound healing. We suspect that gefitinib may affect regeneration of the small intestinal mucosa injured by irradiation. A 76-year-old woman had NSCLC with metastases to the 5th lumbar, sacral, and right iliac bones. To control the pain from bone metastasis, anterior-posterior opposing portal irradiation (total 35 Gy) was started, and was completed over 22 days. On day 25 after starting radiotherapy, the patient began to take gefitinib. On day 35, she presented with acute peritonitis, and an emergency laparotomy was performed. The terminal ileum was affected by radiation enteritis and there were two pin-hole perforations. In the surgical specimen, no cancerous lesions were detected, and immunohistochemical staining of phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR) was negative. pEGFR has an important role in mucous membrane repair after irradiation. Intestinal perforation in the acute phase of radiation enteritis may be associated with impaired mucosal repair mechanisms due to the use of an EGFR-TKI such as gefitinib, as evidenced by the absence of pEGFR. (author)

  5. Chernobyl 1996. New materials concerning acute radiation syndrome around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupandin, Vladimir M.

    2016-01-01

    In 1996 we have succeeded in getting reliable data on radiation situation in the Khoiniki district. These were data of Civil Defence Headquarters of the Khoiniki district, remaining in private notes of the Chief of the Headquarters. Including the other data or materials, radiation syndromes in particular the acute are described. (J.P.N.)

  6. Acute Toxicity of Radiochemotherapy in Rectal Cancer Patients: A Risk Particularly for Carriers of the TGFB1 Pro25 variant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirmer, Markus Anton; Mergler, Caroline Patricia Nadine [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University Medical Center, Goettingen (Germany); Rave-Fraenk, Margret; Herrmann, Markus Karl; Hennies, Steffen [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University Medical Center, Goettingen (Germany); Gaedcke, Jochen; Conradi, Lena-Christin; Jo, Peter [Department of General and Visceral Surgery, University Medical Center, Goettingen (Germany); Beissbarth, Tim [Department of Medical Statistics, University Medical Center, Goettingen (Germany); Hess, Clemens Friedrich [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University Medical Center, Goettingen (Germany); Becker, Heinz; Ghadimi, Michael [Department of General and Visceral Surgery, University Medical Center, Goettingen (Germany); Brockmoeller, Juergen [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University Medical Center, Goettingen (Germany); Christiansen, Hans [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University Medical Center, Goettingen (Germany); Wolff, Hendrik Andreas, E-mail: hendrik.wolff@med.uni-goettingen.de [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University Medical Center, Goettingen (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Transforming growth factor-beta1 is related to adverse events in radiochemotherapy. We investigated TGFB1 genetic variability in relation to quality of life-impairing acute organ toxicity (QAOT) of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy under clinical trial conditions. Methods and Materials: Two independent patient cohorts (n = 88 and n = 75) diagnosed with International Union Against Cancer stage II/III rectal cancer received neoadjuvant radiation doses of 50.4 Gy combined with 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Toxicity was monitored according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. QAOT was defined as a CTCAE grade {>=}2 for at least one case of enteritis, proctitis, cystitis, or dermatitis. Nine germline polymorphisms covering the common genetic diversity in the TGFB1 gene were genotyped. Results: In both cohorts, all patients carrying the TGFB1 Pro25 variant experienced QAOT (positive predictive value of 100%, adjusted p = 0.0006). In a multivariate logistic regression model, gender, age, body mass index, type of chemotherapy, or disease state had no significant impact on QAOT. Conclusion: The TGFB1 Pro25 variant could be a relevant marker for individual treatment stratification and carriers may benefit from adaptive clinical care or specific radiation techniques.

  7. Multiple abdominal nodules in a patient with ulcerative proctitis: a case of peritoneal splenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Marocchi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year old gardener was referred for ulcerative proctitis treated with topical mesalamine with rapid improvement of symptoms. Eighteen years before he had had a splenectomy for traumatic splenic rupture. At the end of 2010, he was admitted to another hospital because of abdominal pain. Computerized tomography (CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple abdominal nodules but a definite diagnosis was not made. While being examined for the proctitis, the patient was admitted to our unit due to worsening of the abdominal pain. After another CT scan, a laparoscopy was performed: several reddish-blue nodules on the peritoneal wall were observed and biopsies were performed. Histological examination was consistent with splenosis. After the procedure, we observed an improvement in the abdominal pain. Splenosis is an acquired condition defined as autotransplantation of viable splenic tissue throughout different sites of the body. It occurs after splenic rupture via trauma or surgery. Splenosis is a benign condition that is usually found incidentally unless symptomatic. Since on radiographic examination it can mimic a neoplasia, extensive workup is usually needed. The diagnostic method of choice is nuclear scintigraphy. Splenosis usually occurs in the abdominal and pelvic cavities but patients have been described with splenosis in other intrathoracic, hepatic and subcutaneous sites. Splenosis is usually asymptomatic and treatment is not necessary. Most patients who have an exploratory laparotomy or laparoscopy for abdominal pain, such as in our patient, experience no more pain after the procedure, regardless of whether the splenic nodules have been completely removed or not. The reason for this spontaneous improvement is not known.

  8. Modification of Acute Radiation Response in Different Demographic Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-25

    greater radiosensitivity. Other studies provided further mechanistic insight into the observed age effect of radiation responses. For example ...DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. October 2017 HDTRA1-14-0003; 0005 Prepared by: Applied ... Research Associates, Inc. 801 N. Quincy Street Suite 700 Arlington, VA 22203 Modification of Acute Radiation Response in Different Demographic Age

  9. Parks coloanal pull-through anastomosis for severe, complicated radiation proctitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazet, J.C.

    1985-02-01

    A variety of operations have been proposed for the treatment of radiation injuries of the rectum. In this study, the procedure advocated by the late Sir Alan Parks--resection of the diseased segment down to its points of fixation to the vagina, bladder or prostate; with perianal mucosal stripping of the anorectal segment and primary coloanal (pull-through) anastomosis--was performed in 11 patients. In two others, an attempt at colorectal anastomosis was abandoned because of extreme scarring in the pelvis. The procedures were done following definitive treatment of carcinoma of the rectum (seven patients), carcinoma of the cervix (two patients), carcinoma of the uterus (one patient), carcinoma of the ovary (one patient), seminoma (one patient), and carcinoma of the bladder (one patient). One patient died from a pulmonary embolus on the seventh postoperative day. Of the survivors with a coloanal anastomosis, all had successful closure of their temporary colostomies with follow-up from one to six years. In eight, continence was assessed as being good or excellent. Four patients required anastomotic dilation and another required a surgical procedure for anastomotic stricture. There was one instance each of reoperation for small bowel obstruction and ileocolic fistula. There were no instances of recurrence of hemorrhage, fistulas, perineal pain or tenesmus. The Parks procedure obviates the need for a difficult dissection of the lower rectum and separation of tissues damaged by radiation and avoids the need for eversion techniques. Its selective use is advocated for patients suffering from severe radiation injuries of the rectum.

  10. Parks coloanal pull-through anastomosis for severe, complicated radiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazet, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    A variety of operations have been proposed for the treatment of radiation injuries of the rectum. In this study, the procedure advocated by the late Sir Alan Parks--resection of the diseased segment down to its points of fixation to the vagina, bladder or prostate; with perianal mucosal stripping of the anorectal segment and primary coloanal (pull-through) anastomosis--was performed in 11 patients. In two others, an attempt at colorectal anastomosis was abandoned because of extreme scarring in the pelvis. The procedures were done following definitive treatment of carcinoma of the rectum (seven patients), carcinoma of the cervix (two patients), carcinoma of the uterus (one patient), carcinoma of the ovary (one patient), seminoma (one patient), and carcinoma of the bladder (one patient). One patient died from a pulmonary embolus on the seventh postoperative day. Of the survivors with a coloanal anastomosis, all had successful closure of their temporary colostomies with follow-up from one to six years. In eight, continence was assessed as being good or excellent. Four patients required anastomotic dilation and another required a surgical procedure for anastomotic stricture. There was one instance each of reoperation for small bowel obstruction and ileocolic fistula. There were no instances of recurrence of hemorrhage, fistulas, perineal pain or tenesmus. The Parks procedure obviates the need for a difficult dissection of the lower rectum and separation of tissues damaged by radiation and avoids the need for eversion techniques. Its selective use is advocated for patients suffering from severe radiation injuries of the rectum

  11. Clinical and microbiological aspects of the use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus PL1 strains in proctological patients with symptoms of chronic proctitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borycka-Kiciak, K; Strus, M; Pietrzak, P; Wawiernia, K; Mikołajczyk, D; Gałęcka, M; Heczko, P; Tarnowski, W

    2017-06-30

    Recurrent proctitis and the symptoms associated therewith pose significant clinical problem in proctological patients. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus PL1 strain on the clinical presentation and composition of intestinal microbiota in patients with symptoms of proctitis in the course of hemorrhoidal disease and diverticulosis. Material consisted of 24 patients in whom no complete clinical improvement could be obtained after the treatment of the underlying disease. Subject to the assessment was the presence and the intensity of clinical symptoms as well as qualitative and quantitative changes in the composition of bacterial flora detected in the stool before, during and after a 9-week supplementation with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus PL1 strain. In the entire study group, the intensity of pain after 12 weeks was significantly lower (p=0,.011) compared to baseline; the intensity of flatulence and abdominal discomfort was reduced significantly as early as after 3 weeks, with the difference reaching a highly significant level after 12 weeks (pP<0,.0001). No significant difference was observed in the frequency of the reported episodes of diarrhea, constipation, as well as itching and burning in the anal region. As early as after 3 weeks of supplementation with the probiotic L. rhamnosus PL1 strain, significant qualitative and quantitative changes were observed in the composition of intestinal microbiota; the changes differed depending on the underlying disease. An increase in the total counts of the bacteria of Lactobacillus genus, particularly L. rhamnosus PL1 strain was observed regardless of the underlying disease. Tthe probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus PL1 strain appears to be useful in restoring appropriate ratios of bacterial populations in patients presenting with symptoms of proctitis in the course of the treatment of certain diseases of the lower gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Macrophage expression in acute radiation colitis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadami, Tokuma; Shichijo, Kazuko; Matsuu, Mutsumi; Niino, Daisuke; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Nakashima, Masahiro; Sekine, Ichiro

    2003-01-01

    Although radiation therapy is important in the treatment of tumors in pelvic and abdominal region, it may cause radiation injury as a side effect. But there is no effective way of preventing or curing the damages. The mechanism of acute radiation colitis has not been elucidated yet. Our previous reports have revealed that X-ray irradiation induce apoptosis of epithelial stem cells in colon. Then a hypothesis of the radiation colitis can be put forward, DNA damage by irradiation, apoptosis of mucosal epithelial stem cells and degeneration of epithelial gland structure, macrophages phagocyte the debris, being activated and secreting various inflammatory cytokines, infiltration of inflammatory cells. Several recent reports show that macrophages may play an important role in the process of inflammatory bowel diseases such ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. We studied radiation colitis using rat animal models. Male Wister rats were irradiated by a single fraction dose of 22.5 Gy X-ray at laparotomy, shielding except for an approximately 2.5 cm length of rectum. Histological changes and macrophage accumulation in the rectum mucosa were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot method with the specimens which were taken on the 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and 14th day after irradiation. Severe macrophage accumulation in the lamina propria of the rectum was observed on the 5th day. At the same time, severe destruction of mucosal structure and inflammatory cells infiltration were also observed. Based on the potent pro-inflammatory cytokine producing effects of macrophage in rat and the increased expression in inflammatory bowel disease patients, speculate that intervention in the macrophage-cytokine network could form a future target for the treatment of acute radiation colitis. (author)

  13. Explanation of application standards of hematopoietic stimulating factors in the treatment of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhiwei; Jiang Enhai; Wang Guilin; Luo Qingliang

    2012-01-01

    Occupational standard of the Ministry of health-Application Standards of Hematopoietic Stimulating Factors in the Treatment of Acute Radiation Sickness has been completed as a draft standard. Based on the wide study and analysis of related animal experimental literature about hematopoietic stimulating factor in the treatment of acute radiation sickness and domestic and foreign clinical reports about application of hematopoietic stimulating factor in radiation accidents in the past decade, the standard was enacted according to the suggestions of International Atomic Energy Agency and the United States Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group and European countries about the application of hematopoietic stimulating factor. It is mainly used for nuclear accident emergency and the treatment of the bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness caused by radiation accidents. It also applies to other hematopoietic failure diseases. In order to implement this standard correctly, the relevant contents of the standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  14. Clinico-morphological characteristics of reparation of acute radiation ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrik, V.D.; Yakovleva, N.D.; Bardychev, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanism of reparative processes under the effect of various drugs was studied in experimental acute radiation ulcer of rats. It was established that at the stage of marked exudative-necrotic processes the use of antiinflammatory and antiexudative substances (bariz, dimethylsulfoxyde) led to normalization of the microcirculation that reduced the time of radiation ulcer healing. The use of anabolic steroids (retabolil) intensified metabolism that also produced a favourable effect on the reparative processes

  15. Hematological observations on two cases of acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Benrong; Wang Guilin; Huang Shimin

    1990-01-01

    The hematological changes of two cases of acute radiation syndrome were observed. The physical doses of patients Liang and Yan were 3.5 Gy and 2.6 Gy respectively. According to the changes in WBC and platelet counts and the absolute count of lymphocytes and in comparison with the hematological data of the victims of Y-12 accident in USA in 1958 and those of previous accidents in China, Liang suffered from a moderate or moderate to severe degree, and Yan suffered from a moderate or moderate mild degree of hemopoietic form of acute radiation syndrome. This estimation was consistent with their clinical course and physical doses. Some blood cells appeared in the cytoplasm of megakaryocytes in bone marrow smears of those two cases. The mechanism of this phenomenon is discussed and its clinical significance remains to be studied

  16. Radioprotective effect of Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin in gamma induced acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindekov, Ivan; Vassilieva, Vladimir; Aljakova, Mitko; Mileva, Milka; Krastev, Dimo; Raynova, Yuliana; Idakieva, Krassimira; Doumanov, Lyuba

    2014-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin (RtH) against radiation-induced injuries (stomach ulcers, survival time and endogenous haemopoiesis) and post-radiation recovery was investigated in male albino mice (C3H strain). Radiation course was in a dose of 7.5 Gy (LD 100/30 - dose that kills 100% of the mice at 30 days) from "1"3"7Cs with a dose of 2.05 Gy/ min. Radiation injuries were manifested by inducing 2 hematopoietic form of acute radiation syndrome. RtH was administered intraperitoneally in a single dose of 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b. w.) once a day for five consecutive days before irradiation. The results obtained showed that radiation exposure led to (1) 100% mortality rate, (2) ulceration in the stomach mucosa and (3) decrease formation of spleen colonies as a marker of endogenous haemopoiesis. Administration of RtH at a dose of 200 mg/kg provided better protection against radiation-induced stomach ulceration, mitigated the lethal effects of radiation exposure and recovered endogenous haemopoiesis versus irradiated but not supplemented mice. It could be expected that RtH will find a use in mitigating radiation induced injury and enhanced radiorecovery. Keywords: Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin; acute radiation syndrome; radioprotective effect; spleen colony assay; stomach ulcerations

  17. Residual insufficiency of hematopoiesis after acute or chronic exposure to gamma radiation or neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangenheim, K.H. v.; Peterson, H.P.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    Recovery of the stem cell quality is possible after acute exposure to 500 rad γ radiation up to a period of 6 months. Beyond this data, a significant residual damage remains. The same applies to quantitative stem cell recovery. Chronic γ exposure leads to less radiation damage than acute exposure. After a total accumulation of 500 rad, the proliferation factors after chronic exposure were, on an average 20% higher than after acute radiation exposure. 6 MeV neutron exposure reduced the stem cell quality and stem cell count much more efficiently than γ exposure. The relative biological effect of neutrons is at least 2.5 times as high as the γ effect, both for the stem cell count and the stem cell quality. (orig.) [de

  18. Diagnosis of acute radiation disease by enzyme immune-assay (EIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, D.; Maliev, V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Multifactor fundamental research under experimental and industrial conditions on farm and laboratory animals and also on humans blood serum of Chernobyl NPP clean-up workers conducted within 1982 - 2002 have enabled us to establish the existence of two previously unknown phenomena: the phenomenon of reversible redistribution of cytobiochemical parameters in the blood-interstices-lymph-blood system of irradiated animals, which supports compensatory maintenance of homeostasis. The phenomenon of specific immunochemical reactions to the radiological effect, involving the formation of high molecular mass glycoprotein (molecular mass - 200 - 250 kDa) - radiation antigens (SDR - specific radiation determinant) in the lymphoid system with epitopes specific to each form of radiation syndrome, after animals have been irradiated in doses inducing the development of the cerebral (1) , toxic (2) gastrointestinal (3) and typical (4) forms of acute radiation sickness. These two phenomena allowed us to develop a technologies for diagnosis, prophylaxis and therapy of radiation disease - enzyme immune assay (EIA), antiradiation vaccine, antiradiation serum, method of immune-lymph-plasmosorption. The important first step in effectiveness of therapy is an accurate assessment of severity of disease in early period after irradiation. The ideal markers for early and accurate assessment is high weight glycoprotein with specifics radiation induced features (SDR) mentioned above. This biology active substance isolated from lymph can induct the symptoms of radiation syndrome without previously radiation when it is administrated intramuscularly or intravenously to healthy animals. Enzyme immune assay (EIA) allowed researchers to indicate the significant levels of different forms of SDR in peripheral blood of animals in first 24 hours after radiation. Indication of high level of SDR -1 allowed to forecast a fast development of cerebral form of acute radiation disease. Determination

  19. Subacute radiation dermatitis: a histologic imitator of acute cutaneous graft-versus-host disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBoit, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    The histopathologic changes of radiation dermatitis have been classified either as early effects (necrotic keratinocytes, fibrin thrombi, and hemorrhage) or as late effects (vacuolar changes at the dermal-epidermal junction, atypical radiation fibroblasts, and fibrosis). Two patients, one exposed to radiation therapeutically and one accidentally, are described. Skin biopsy specimens showed an interface dermatitis characterized by numerous dyskeratotic epidermal cells with lymphocytes in close apposition (satellite cell necrosis); that is, the epidermal changes were similar to those in acute graft-versus-host disease. Because recipients of bone marrow transplants frequently receive total body irradiation as part of their preparatory regimen, the ability of radiation to cause persistent epidermal changes similar to those in acute graft-versus-host disease could complicate the interpretation of posttransplant skin biopsy specimens

  20. Methods for assessing the extent of acute radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    Previous radiation accidents have shown that the medical management of exposed persons cannot be performed without the use of 'biological indicators' of effect and of repair. For the clinical management of a patient with the acute radiation syndrome, it is essential to obtain information on the subjective symptomatology as well as on laboratory parameters, especially during the first 3 to 6 days after exposure. The medical doctor responsible for the clinical care of patients has to rely on the use of what has been described as 'sequential diagnosis'. This approach consists essentially of the determination of a limited number of parameters as a function of time. From the analysis of the pattern of the determined and evaluated signs and symptoms in the first hours and days, one is able to characterize patients according to type and severity of symptomatology. This has been clearly demonstrated in the Moscow - Ulm Radiation Accident Database (MURAD) developed in a collaborative project between the Institute of Biophysics in Moscow and the Department of Clinical Physiology and Occupational Medicine of the University of Ulm. On the basis of the radiation accident clinical response pattern observed early after irradiation, one is able to develop a first approach for therapeutic strategies. It is the purpose of this contribution to outline the diagnostic and prognostic significance of blood cell changes and to discuss the following problem areas: significance and elements of a sequential diagnosis; significance of blood lymphocytes for radiation accident diagnosis; significance of blood granulocyte changes for the prognosis of the acute radiation syndrome; analysis of granulocyte changes by means of regulated system models; utilization of indicators of response and repair for planning therapeutic options

  1. Immuno-therapy of Acute Radiation Syndromes : Extracorporeal Immuno-Lympho-Plasmo-Sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Methods Results Summary and conclusions Introduction: Existing Medical Management of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) does not include methods of specific immunotherapy and active detoxication. Though the Acute Radiation Syndromes were defined as an acute toxic poisonous with development of pathological processes: Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), Toxic Multiple Organ Injury (TMOI), Toxic Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome(TMODS), Toxic Multiple Organ Failure (TMOF). Radiation Toxins of SRD Group play an important role as the trigger mechanisms in development of the ARS clinical symptoms. Methods: Immuno-Lympho-Plasmo-Sorption is a type of Immuno-therapy which includes prin-ciples of immunochromato-graphy, plasmopheresis, and hemodialysis. Specific Antiradiation Antitoxic Antibodies are the active pharmacological agents of immunotherapy . Antiradia-tion Antitoxic Antibodies bind selectively to Radiation Neurotoxins, Cytotoxins, Hematotox-ins and neutralize their toxic activity. We have developed the highly sensitive method and system for extracorporeal-immune-lypmh-plasmo-sorption with antigen-specific IgG which is clinically important for treatment of the toxic and immunologic phases of the ARS. The method of extracorporeal-immune-lypmh-plasmo-sorption includes Antiradiation Antitoxic Antibodies (AAA) immobilized on microporous polymeric membranes with a pore size that is capable to provide diffusion of blood-lymph plasma. Plasma of blood or lymph of irradiated mammals contains Radiation Toxins (RT) that have toxic and antigenic properties. Radiation Toxins are Antigen-specific to Antitoxic blocking antibodies (Immunoglobulin G). Plasma diffuses through membranes with immobilized AAA and AA-antibodies bind to the polysaccharide chain of tox-ins molecules and complexes of AAA-RT that are captured on membrane surfaces. RT were removed from plasma. Re-transfusion of plasma of blood and lymph had been provided. We show a statistical significant

  2. Cholesterol level in the circulating immune complexes of subjects suffering from the remote aftereffects of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, G.Yu.; Barabanova, A.V.; Nadezhina, N.M.; Tertov, V.V.; Orekhov, A.N.

    1994-01-01

    The potentiaoity of coronary atherosclerosis was assessed from cholesterol levels in the ciculationg immune complexes (CIC) in 53 subjects who suffered acute radiation sickness in 1986 after the Chernobyl power plant accident. CIC cholesterol levels of the subjects who suffered 3-4 years before acute radiation sickness of the first-second degrees of severity were found elevated as against an adequately matched reference group. Thus, subjects who suffered the second degree of severity acute radiation sickness after the radiation exposure, from 3-4 years later a group at high risk of coronary atherosclerosis

  3. A mathematical model for leukemogenesis of radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia in C3H/He mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, M.; Ban, N.

    2002-01-01

    We developed a mathematical model in leukemogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia(AML) in C3H/He mice irradiated. Our previous study indicated that the leukemogenesis of AML was associated with a deletion of chromosome 2 directly induced by acute radiation. We hypothesized that radiation-induced AML needs both inactivation of one allele of a causative gene directly induced by acute radiation and another mutational event at the other allele. We analyzed data using a two-stage stochastic model for carcinogenesis. Model fitting was based on the maximum likelihood method. Our model analysis suggested that a single exposure might induce the long-lasting delayed cell death of radiation-induced initiated cells, and that the incidence of AML may be determined through both radiation-induced initiation and persistent increase of delayed cell death of the initiated cell induced by radiation

  4. Developing diagnostic guidelines for the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Densow, D.; Fliedner, T.M.; Kindler, H.

    1996-01-01

    Diagnostic guidelines seem to be promising for improving medical care. One aspect of a diagnostic guideline for the acute radiation syndrome has been tested against an extensive case history database. Subsequently, the guideline has been optimized for a small set of case histories. The improved performance has been proven by a test against the rest of the case history database

  5. The cognitive profile of children treated with radiation for acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cognitive profile of children treated with radiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. ... to disrupt the myelination and integrity of white matter tracts in the brain. ... The current study focused on the assessment of memory and learning, two ...

  6. Therapeutic effect of bee pollens on acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingsuo; Huang Chaoqun; Chen Zhen; Huang Meiying; Jiang Ying; Wang Tao

    1997-09-01

    The therapeutic effect of bee pollens on acute radiation sickness were evaluated by observing the changes in the peripheral white blood cell (PWBC) count, the total activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the levels of lipid peroxides (LPO) in sera of the irradiated rats following P.O. administration of bee pollens. It was found that bee pollens could remarkably help irradiated rats recover from radiation-induced injury. The functions of bee pollens might be summarized as follows: (1) Stimulating Proliferation of PWBC. The PWBC count of the bee pollens group showed no significant difference as compared with the normal control group on the 30 th day postirradiation. (2) Enhancing antioxidative effect of clearing free radicals. The total activity of serum SOD in the bee pollens group increased by 6.48% as compared with the normal control group on the 30 th day after irradiation, and the LPO levels i.e. MDA and POV in sera of the irradiated rats decreased by 54.73% and 21.60% respectively. The result suggests that using bee pollens as antiradiation and health-promoting agents in clinical treatment of acute radiation sickness and during radiotherapy of patients with tumors may has certain practical value. (12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.)

  7. Acute neurocognitive impairment during cranial radiation therapy in patients with intracranial tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welzel, Grit; Mai, Sabine K.; Hermann, Brigitte; Kraus-Tiefenbacher, Uta; Wenz, Frederik; Fleckenstein, Katharina; Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the acute effects of cranial radiation therapy (CNS-RT) using different radiation doses (0, 1.8, 2, 3, ≤ 20 Gy) on cognitive function with special emphasis on memory. We assessed patients with and without intracranial tumors to distinguish between direct and indirect radiation effects on brain tissue. Eighty-two patients were evaluated with neuropsychological testing before and acutely after radiotherapy (RT). Sixty-four patients received RT to the brain (55 with, 9 without intracranial tumor). Eighteen patients treated with RT to the breast served as controls. Patients with intracranial tumor demonstrated attention (19-38th percentile) and verbal memory scores (34-46th percentile) below the population average at baseline. The average Verbal Memory score was significantly different between patients with intracranial tumor and controls both at baseline (38th vs. 58th percentile) and after irradiation (27th vs. 52th percentile). Patients with preexisting peritumoral edema performed worse than patients without edema and controls. Radiation dose-related deficits were seen for working memory performance in patients with intracranial tumor. Our data indicate no measurable impairment of cognitive functioning acutely after prophylactic cranial irradiation. Patients with intracranial tumor show a deterioration of almost all memory functions with a dose-dependent impairment in working memory. Patients with preexisting peritumoral brain edema show the strongest deterioration. (orig.)

  8. Acute neurocognitive impairment during cranial radiation therapy in patients with intracranial tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welzel, Grit; Mai, Sabine K.; Hermann, Brigitte; Kraus-Tiefenbacher, Uta; Wenz, Frederik [University Medical Center Mannheim, Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Fleckenstein, Katharina [University Medical Center Mannheim, Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology]|[Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2008-12-15

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the acute effects of cranial radiation therapy (CNS-RT) using different radiation doses (0, 1.8, 2, 3, {<=} 20 Gy) on cognitive function with special emphasis on memory. We assessed patients with and without intracranial tumors to distinguish between direct and indirect radiation effects on brain tissue. Eighty-two patients were evaluated with neuropsychological testing before and acutely after radiotherapy (RT). Sixty-four patients received RT to the brain (55 with, 9 without intracranial tumor). Eighteen patients treated with RT to the breast served as controls. Patients with intracranial tumor demonstrated attention (19-38th percentile) and verbal memory scores (34-46th percentile) below the population average at baseline. The average Verbal Memory score was significantly different between patients with intracranial tumor and controls both at baseline (38th vs. 58th percentile) and after irradiation (27th vs. 52th percentile). Patients with preexisting peritumoral edema performed worse than patients without edema and controls. Radiation dose-related deficits were seen for working memory performance in patients with intracranial tumor. Our data indicate no measurable impairment of cognitive functioning acutely after prophylactic cranial irradiation. Patients with intracranial tumor show a deterioration of almost all memory functions with a dose-dependent impairment in working memory. Patients with preexisting peritumoral brain edema show the strongest deterioration. (orig.)

  9. Tissue Respiration and Glycolysis in the Development of Acute Radiation Sickness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golubentsev, D

    1960-01-01

    The condition of tissue respiration and glycolysis in the development of acute radiation sickness has been insufficiently studied, and the factual data and opinions of various investigators are frequently contradictory...

  10. Anti-infection treatment of iatrogenic acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shulan; Ke Xiaoyan; Jia Tengzhen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To occumulatle experience of anti-infection treatment in acute radiation sickness (ARS) induced by medical treatment in order to provide beneficial help for victims of accidental of acute radiation sickness. Methods: The changes of peripheral blood indices, body temperature and clinical symptoms of 17 cases who were clinically irradiated with 6.0-7.2 Gy X-rays were observed both before peripheral blood stem cell transplantation(PBSCT) and after anti-infection treatment. Results: WBC count began to decrease to below 1 x 10 9 /L from the 8th to 10th days after irradiation and maintained at row level for 4 days or for 13.3 days if the patients had not received rhG-CSF treatment. In 29.4% of patients the body temperature was higher than 38.5 degree C. After comprehensive enviromental protection and anti-infection treatment, all patients could successfully tide over the period of bone marrow depression without appearance of the typical critical phase of ARS. Conclusion: PBSCT and rhG-CSF treatment can reduce the time span for reconstruction of bone marrow. Comprehensive enviromental protection and combined anti-infection treatment are key points fm successful treatment. (authors)

  11. Acute Radiation Syndrome. Consequences and outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okladnikova, N.D.; Pesternikova, V.S.; Sumina, M.V.; Azizova, T.V.; Yurkov, N.N.

    2000-01-01

    The consequences and outcomes of an Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS), induced by external gamma radiation for 59 persons (49 men and 10 women) have been estimated. All incidents have taken place more than 40 years ago in the yearly years of adjustment of an atomic industry (1950-1953-38 persons, 1954-1958-21 persons). According to the degree of severity ARS 5 groups are selected: the severest degree - 7 individuals (average dose in group 43.8±12.8 Sv), severe - 4 individuals (9.3±1.5 Sv), medium - 14 individuals (2.2±0.8 Sv), a light degree - 15 individuals (0.93±0.13 Sv), ''erased'' from - 19 individuals (0.85±0.07 Sv). In all cases, except for lethal (the severest degree), the characteristics of morphological composition of the peripheral blood were restored in the first year after ARS and now correspond to physiological standard. In 2 cases the moderate hypoplasia of granulocytopoiesis was diagnosed. A marker of the acute exposure was the chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of the peripheral blood. The frequency of chromosome aberrations correlates with severity degree of ARS (from 3-7 up to 35-50 stable aberrations per 100 cells). In cases of ARS with severe degree the early development of a cerebral atherosclerosis is detected. The radiation cataract was diagnosed in 5 patients (an exposure doses 4.0-9.8 Sv, a period of development 2-5 years). During the first years after ARS in 80% of cases the complete labour rehabilitation is reached. Of 53 patients with known vital status by 45 year of monitoring 19 persons (35.8%) have died, of these in 2 cases the causes of death are not determined. In remaining cases the causes of death were ARS of severest degree (7 persons), Ischemic Heart Disease (5 persons), malignant tumors (4 persons), accidents and traumas (2 persons). (author)

  12. Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose Projection Graphical User Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Hu, Shaowen; Nounu, Hateni N.; Kim, Myung-Hee

    2011-01-01

    The integration of human space applications risk projection models of organ dose and acute radiation risk has been a key problem. NASA has developed an organ dose projection model using the BRYNTRN with SUM DOSE computer codes, and a probabilistic model of Acute Radiation Risk (ARR). The codes BRYNTRN and SUM DOSE are a Baryon transport code and an output data processing code, respectively. The risk projection models of organ doses and ARR take the output from BRYNTRN as an input to their calculations. With a graphical user interface (GUI) to handle input and output for BRYNTRN, the response models can be connected easily and correctly to BRYNTRN. A GUI for the ARR and BRYNTRN Organ Dose (ARRBOD) projection code provides seamless integration of input and output manipulations, which are required for operations of the ARRBOD modules. The ARRBOD GUI is intended for mission planners, radiation shield designers, space operations in the mission operations directorate (MOD), and space biophysics researchers. BRYNTRN code operation requires extensive input preparation. Only a graphical user interface (GUI) can handle input and output for BRYNTRN to the response models easily and correctly. The purpose of the GUI development for ARRBOD is to provide seamless integration of input and output manipulations for the operations of projection modules (BRYNTRN, SLMDOSE, and the ARR probabilistic response model) in assessing the acute risk and the organ doses of significant Solar Particle Events (SPEs). The assessment of astronauts radiation risk from SPE is in support of mission design and operational planning to manage radiation risks in future space missions. The ARRBOD GUI can identify the proper shielding solutions using the gender-specific organ dose assessments in order to avoid ARR symptoms, and to stay within the current NASA short-term dose limits. The quantified evaluation of ARR severities based on any given shielding configuration and a specified EVA or other mission

  13. Severe side effects with the application of Mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid) during radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, U.; Siems, H.; Wannenmacher, M.; Schoelmerich, J.; Kluge, F.; Schaefer, H.E.

    1987-10-01

    In a prospective randomized placebo controlled double blind study, the prophylactic effect of Mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid, 5-ASA) as suppositories (3x250 mg/day) on radiation induced proctitis during radiotherapy for prostatic carcinoma was studied. The study ended when 16 patients had been included (5-ASA: Eight, placebo: Eight) because of severe side effects in the 5-ASA group. 75% of patients treated with 5-ASA reported symptoms of a severe proctitis while only one patient in the placebo group had similar complaints. The application of Mesalazine as suppositories is not useful in preventing radiation induced proctitis during radiotherapy of prostate carcinoma.

  14. Severe side effects with the application of Mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid) during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, U.; Siems, H.; Wannenmacher, M.; Schoelmerich, J.; Kluge, F.; Schaefer, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    In a prospective randomized placebo controlled double blind study, the prophylactic effect of Mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid, 5-ASA) as suppositories (3x250 mg/day) on radiation induced proctitis during radiotherapy for prostatic carcinoma was studied. The study ended when 16 patients had been included (5-ASA: Eight, placebo: Eight) because of severe side effects in the 5-ASA group. 75% of patients treated with 5-ASA reported symptoms of a severe proctitis while only one patient in the placebo group had similar complaints. The application of Mesalazine as suppositories is not useful in preventing radiation induced proctitis during radiotherapy of prostate carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  15. Development of a murine model of acute radiation encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Yigang; Tang Yamei; Liu Jun; Sun Ying

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To develop a murine model of acute radiation encephalopathy. Methods: A total of 40 rats were subjected to local γ-irradiation to the brain with the dosage of 7 Gy/d for 6 consecutive days. The amount of food intake, hairs and skin of irradiated field, body weight, general activities, CNS symptoms and signs were examined and recorded after irradiation. On day 3, 7, 14 and 30, the brain tissue was removed to observe histopathologic changes. Results: During the first two days after irradiation, the irradiated rats were agitated, and the amount of food intake decreased from day 2 onwards. No serious skin reaction to irradiation was observed. Survived rats had normal activities without any abnormal nervous signs. Histopathologic changes showed slight neuronal degeneration, smaller cell body, red-colored cytoplasm, disappearance of Nissl body, vacuolation, typical cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and nuclear divergence. On the 14th and 30th days, hypochromatism, loose and reticular necrotic foci were found in some samples. Conclusion: The murine model of acute radiation encephalopathy is useful and practical in radiobiological studies

  16. Abdominoendorectal resection with peranal anastomosis in the treatment of radiation injuries of the rectum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanasiadis, S.; Girona, J.

    1982-01-01

    During the period 1974-1980 39 patients underwent operations at the Prosper Hospital in Recklinghausen for radiation injuries to the rectum or rectosigmoid. They comprised 22 patients with rectovaginal fistulas, 6 with ulcers, 3 suffering from severe hemorrhagic proctitis, 5 with rectal strictures, 1 with necrosis, and 2 with radiation ulcers and carcinoma. A sphincter-saving operative method of treating postirradiation damage of the rectum is presented. The technique involves the peranal anastomosis of healthy colon to the midanal canal using a sleeve anastomosis. Technical and functional results of resectional surgery for the rectal complications of radiation therapy are reported. Subjectively, total continence was present in 78%, only 1 patient was incontinent because of flatus and watery stools.

  17. Dose Response for Monokaryon mycelium of Pleurotus pulmonarius After Acute Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Safina Wan Abdul Razak; Azhar Mohamad; Nie, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Pleurotus pulmonarius is locally known as Grey oyster. The species is popular and widely cultivated throughout the world mostly in Asia Europe as their simple and low cost production technology and higher biological efficiency. Mutation induction is an alternative ways for improving available commercial strain for better quality traits. Dose response is important in evaluating effects of mutagenesis via acute gamma radiation. Monokaryon mycelium of Pleurotus pulmonarius was exposed to acute gamma radiation ranged from 0 Gy, 0.1 kGy, 0.2 kGy, 0.3 kGy, 0.4 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 0.6 kGy, 0.7 kGy, 0.8 kGy, 0.9 kGy, 1.0 kGy, 1.5 Gy, 2.0 kGy, 3.0 kGy and 4.0 kGy at dose rate 0.013 kGy/ min. growth performance was measured at 2 days interval to get the LD_5_0. Increasing of the irradiation dose found to decrease the growth performance of the monokaryon mycelium. LD_5_0 was revealed at 1.56 kGy for mono karyon mycelium. Discoveries of the works are important for the improvement of Pleurotus species via acute gamma radiation and benefiting to growers and mushroom industries. (author)

  18. New scoring system identifies kidney outcome with radiation therapy in acute renal allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Luci M.; Godinez, Juan; Thisted, Ronald A.; Woodle, E. Steve; Thistlewaite, J. Richard; Powers, Claire; Haraf, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of radiation therapy for acute refractory renal rejection after failure of medical intervention, and to identify risk factors that influence graft survival following radiation therapy. Methods: Between June 1989 and December 1995, 53 renal transplant recipients (34 men and 19 women) were treated with localized radiation therapy for acute renal allograft rejection. Graft rejection was defined as an increase in serum creatinine with histologic evidence of rejection on renal biopsy. Ninety-one percent were cadaveric transplant recipients. The majority of patients who experienced acute graft rejection initially received corticosteroid therapy, except for 25% who were referred for radiation therapy and steroids for the first rejection. In more recent years, patients with moderate or severe steroid-resistant or recurrent rejection received OKT3, a polyclonal antilymphocyte antibody (ATGAM), tacrolimus (FK506), or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Patients who failed to respond to medical treatment were then referred for radiation therapy. Ultrasound was performed for kidney localization. Treatment consisted of a dose of 600 cGy given in 3 or 4 fractions using 6 MV photons, delivered AP or AP/PA. Results: The overall actuarial graft survival from the initiation of RT was 83% at 1 month, 60% at 1 year, and 36% at 5 years. The median follow-up from the date of transplant to the last follow-up was 22 months. The median time from the date of transplant to the initiation of radiotherapy was 3 months, and the median time from the initiation of radiotherapy to the last follow-up was 10 months. Variables evaluated were as follows: human leukocyte antigen matching on HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DR, the transplant panel-reactive antibodies (PRA) at transplantation, number of acute rejection episodes, interval from the date of the transplant to the first rejection, serum creatinine levels at the time of the first radiation treatment, number of transplants, and

  19. Role of radiation in the treatment of acute myelogenous leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honeyman, L D; Morgan, D E [Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    1982-06-01

    The article deals with the radiation treatment of acute myelogenous leukaemia. The contribution of radiotherapy can be considered in three parts: a) irradiation of blood packs for patient support; b) irradiation of laboratory animals in order to improve existing knowledge and techniques; c) total body irradiation of the patient on the day of the transplant using a dose large enough to destroy the bone marrow and the immune system. The radiation effects, post graft immunosuppression and the supporting of the patient after transplantation are also discussed.

  20. The acute radiation syndrome in the 137Cs Brazilian accident, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde, N.J.; Cordeiro, J.M.; Oliveira, A.R.; Brandao Mello, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    Eight patients with the most severe degreed of bone marrow impairment are studied. Case descriptions are limited to manifestations and complications related to the 'Acute Radiation Syndrome' (ARS). Medical facilities, exams and therapeutic management are discussed. (MAC) [pt

  1. Characteristics of long-term consequences of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, A.N.; Belyj, D.A.; Bebeshko, V.G.

    2000-01-01

    In persons who suffered from acute radiation sickness (ARS) as a result of the Chernobyl accident in course of time there are revealed the stochastic and non-stochastic effects of irradiation both in 'critical' and 'non-critical' organism systems. It is connected with maintenance of somatic mutation high level and steady changes in membranes subcellular structures, biomolecules as well as metabolic disturbances. Stable changes of hemopoietic and immune system indexes have to be considered as pre-pathological status with high hazard of stochastic effects development. Frequency rate of typical radiation cataracts (posterior subcapsular) is correlated with ARS severity degree; fundus oculi vessel pathology have essential weight in total eye pathology. Chronic radiation dermatitis is an important clinical problem being a long-term consequence of irradiation. It demands a constant attention in order to prevent trophic secondary skin lesions. Radiation damage of eye and skin as well as high frequency of chronic somatic diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders conditioned the high level of disablement in ARS-patients

  2. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1991-02-01

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m 3 for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m 3 (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  3. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1991-02-01

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m{sup 3} for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m{sup 3} (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  4. Antiradiation Antitoxin IgG : Immunological neutralization of Radiation Toxins at Acute Radiation Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: High doses of radiation induce apoptotic necrosis of radio-sensitive cells. Mild doses of radiation induce apoptosis or controlled programmed death of radio-sensitive cells with-out development of inflammation and formation of Radiation Toxins. Cell apoptotic necrosis initiates Radiation Toxins (RT)formation. Radiation Toxins play an important role as a trig-ger mechanism for inflammation development and cell lysis. If an immunotherapy approach to treatment of the acute radiation syndromes (ARS) were to be developed, a consideration could be given to neutralization of radiation toxins (Specific Radiation Determinants-SRD) by specific antiradiation antibodies. Therapeutic neutralization effects of the blocking anti-radiation antibodies on the circulated RT had been studied. Radiation Toxins were isolated from the central lymph of irradiated animals with Cerebrovascular(Cv ARS),Cardiovascular (Cr ARS),Gastrointestinal(Gi ARS) and Haemopoietic (Hp ARS) forms of ARS. To accomplish this objective, irradiated animals were injected with a preparation of anti-radiation immunoglobulin G (IgG) obtained from hyperimmune donors. Radiation-induced toxins that we call Specific Radiation Determinants (SRD) possess toxic (neurotoxic, haemotoxic) characteristics as well as specific antigenic properties. Depending on direct physiochemical radiation damage, they can induce development of many of the pathological processes associated with ARS. We have tested several specific hyperimmune IgG preparations against these radiation toxins and ob-served that their toxic properties were neutralized by the specific antiradiation IgGs. Material and Methods: A scheme of experiments was following: 1.Isolation of radiation toxins (RT) from the central lymph of irradiated animals with different form of ARS. 2.Transformation of a toxic form of the RT to a toxoid form of the RT. 3.Immunization of radiation naive animals. Four groups of rabbits were inoculated with a toxoid form of SRD

  5. The acute radiation syndrome: A study of ten cases and a review of the problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempelmann, L.H.; Lisco, H.

    1950-03-17

    In this report ten cases of acute radiation syndrome are described resulting from two accidents occurring at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory of unique nature involving fissionable material. These cases are described in considerable detail. The report comprises ten sections. This volume, part II of the report, is comprised of sections entitled: (1) the Biological Basis for the Clinical Response seen in the Acute radiation Syndrome, (2) Clinical Signs and Symptoms, (3) Discussion of Hematological Findings, (4) Chemistry of the Blood and Urine, (5) Discussion of Pathological Findings, and (6) Reconsiderations of the Calculated Radiation Doses in Terms of the Observed Biological Response of the Patients. This report was prepared primarily for the clinician who is interested in radiation injuries and therefore emphasis has been placed on the correlation of clinical and pathological changes with the type of cytogenetic change known to be produced by ionizing radiation.

  6. Study of radiation safety education practices in acute care Texas hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemley, A.A.; Hedl, J.J. Jr.; Griffin, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    A survey study was performed to assess the extent of radiation safety education and training in acute care Texas hospitals for radiologic technologists and other hospital personnel. The findings revealed a self-perceived need by hospital administrative personnel and were interpreted to suggest a quantitative need for increased radiation safety education for several classes of hospital personnel. The findings are discussed relative to potential certification requirements for technologists and implications for the training of other personnel

  7. Cranial radiation in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Neuropsychologic sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitt, J.K.; Wells, R.J.; Lauria, M.M.; Wilhelm, C.L.; McMillan, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    A battery of neuropsychologic tests was administered ''blindly'' to 18 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who had been randomly assigned to treatment regimens with or without cranial radiation. These children were all in complete continuous remission for more than 3 1/2 years and were no longer receiving therapy. The results indicated no substantial differences between groups as a function of radiation therapy. However, decreased neuropsychologic performance was found when the entire sample was compared with population norms. These data do not support the hypothesis that cranial radiation therapy is responsible for the neuropsychologic sequelae seen in these survivors of ALL. Post hoc multiple regression analysis indicated that parental education levels accounted for more of the neuropsychologic variability seen in these children than other factors such as age at diagnosis, type of therapy, or sex of child

  8. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and myoglobinuric acute renal failure following radiation therapy in a patient with polymyositis and cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Hirofumi; Nagake, Yoshio; Moriwaki, Kazuhiko; Hirakawa, Shuzo; Katayama, Takaaki; Yanai, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Akagi, Tadaatsu; Ota, Zensuke

    1995-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman was admitted to receive radiation treatment for uterine cervical cancer, however a complex series of events ensued, leading to death. She developed an acute exacerbation of polymyositis complicated by thrombocytopenic purpura, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. Radiation therapy may have produced an immune disturbance leading to the acute exacerbation of polymyositis. Auto-immune-mediated endothelial damage might have triggered a series of events leading to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Rhabdomyolysis seemed to be the main cause of acute renal failure. (author)

  9. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and myoglobinuric acute renal failure following radiation therapy in a patient with polymyositis and cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makino, Hirofumi; Nagake, Yoshio; Moriwaki, Kazuhiko; Hirakawa, Shuzo; Katayama, Takaaki; Yanai, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Akagi, Tadaatsu; Ota, Zensuke [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman was admitted to receive radiation treatment for uterine cervical cancer, however a complex series of events ensued, leading to death. She developed an acute exacerbation of polymyositis complicated by thrombocytopenic purpura, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. Radiation therapy may have produced an immune disturbance leading to the acute exacerbation of polymyositis. Auto-immune-mediated endothelial damage might have triggered a series of events leading to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Rhabdomyolysis seemed to be the main cause of acute renal failure. (author).

  10. Gene expression in Catla catla (Hamilton) subjected to acute and protracted doses of gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anbumani, S., E-mail: aquatox1982@gmail.com; Mohankumar, Mary N., E-mail: marynmk@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Gamma radiation induced up- and down- regulation of cell cycle genes. • Protracted dose-rate induced gene up-regulation to facilitate cell survival. • bcl-2 gene facilitates repair at protracted dose and cell death at acute exposures. • gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 genes work in concert to promote ‘repair’ and ‘death’ circuitries in fish blood cells. - Abstract: Studies on transcriptional modulation after gamma radiation exposure in fish are limited. Cell cycle perturbations and expression of apoptotic genes were investigated in the fish, Catla catla after acute and protracted exposures to gamma radiation over a 90 day period. Significant changes in gene expression were observed between day 1 and 90 post-exposure. Gamma radiation induced a significant down-regulation of target genes gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 from day 1 to day 3 after protracted exposure, whereas it persists till day 6 upon acute exposure. From day 12 onwards, Gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 genes were up-regulated following protracted exposure, indicating DNA repair, cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. There exists a linear correlation between these genes (gadd45α – r = 0.85, p = 0.0073; cdk1 – r = 0.86, p = 0.0053; bcl-2 – r = 0.89, p = 0.0026) at protracted exposures. This is the first report on the dual role of bcl-2 gene in fish exposed to acute and protracted radiation and correlation among the aforementioned genes that work in concert to promote ‘repair’ and ‘death’ circuitries in fish blood cells.

  11. Gene expression in Catla catla (Hamilton) subjected to acute and protracted doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anbumani, S.; Mohankumar, Mary N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Gamma radiation induced up- and down- regulation of cell cycle genes. • Protracted dose-rate induced gene up-regulation to facilitate cell survival. • bcl-2 gene facilitates repair at protracted dose and cell death at acute exposures. • gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 genes work in concert to promote ‘repair’ and ‘death’ circuitries in fish blood cells. - Abstract: Studies on transcriptional modulation after gamma radiation exposure in fish are limited. Cell cycle perturbations and expression of apoptotic genes were investigated in the fish, Catla catla after acute and protracted exposures to gamma radiation over a 90 day period. Significant changes in gene expression were observed between day 1 and 90 post-exposure. Gamma radiation induced a significant down-regulation of target genes gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 from day 1 to day 3 after protracted exposure, whereas it persists till day 6 upon acute exposure. From day 12 onwards, Gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 genes were up-regulated following protracted exposure, indicating DNA repair, cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. There exists a linear correlation between these genes (gadd45α – r = 0.85, p = 0.0073; cdk1 – r = 0.86, p = 0.0053; bcl-2 – r = 0.89, p = 0.0026) at protracted exposures. This is the first report on the dual role of bcl-2 gene in fish exposed to acute and protracted radiation and correlation among the aforementioned genes that work in concert to promote ‘repair’ and ‘death’ circuitries in fish blood cells.

  12. Hematological parameters after acute radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirashima, Kunitake

    1989-01-01

    According to clinical experiences of radiation accidents during the past two decades, utilization of measured hematologic changes as a direcrt indicator of the severity of radiation injury provides important information for diagnosis and prognostic evaluation in individual cases. Hematologic changes can be described in terms of prognostic categories based on the possible outcome of the acute radiation syndrome. The five categories suggested by Wald according to the grade of severity. By the actual application of this category to our experience of the 1971 Chiba accident of exposure to irridium 192, it was proved that the estimated dose was well correlated to the value by cytogenetic analysis and physical estimation used of thermo-luminescence phenomena. In hematological parameters, a decrease of lymphocytes occurs whithin 24 hours after the exposure. The level of this early lymphopenia is regarded as one of the best indicators of severity of radiation injury. For the decision of therapeutic procedures, however, the total granulocyte count and platelet count are more valuable to exclude severe infection and bleeding symptoms occurred one month after the exposure. The limitation of the approach by hematologic data must exist in the case exposed in a non-uniform fashion. To overwhelm this difficulty, the application of rapid marrow scanning by short-lived RI such as 52 Fe is expected and the bone marrow imaging by magnetic resonance studies is more exciting. For more sensitive and technically easy-drived methods detecting hematologic injury, our new method of detecting micro-nucleus in polychromatic erythroblasts from cultured erythroid colonies from peripheral blood is now developing. Preliminary data have shown the sensitivity of this method is comparable to the cytogenetic study of pheripheral lymphocytes. (author)

  13. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor in the Treatment of Acute Radiation Syndrome: A Concise Review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, Michal; Pospíšil, Milan; Komůrková, Denisa; Hoferová, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2014), s. 4770-4778 ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0128 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : granulocyte colony-stimulating factor * radiation accident s * acute radiation syndrome Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2014

  14. Diagnostic criterions of the postradiation encephalopathy in remote period of the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.; Loganovskij, K.N.; Vashchenko, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    Development of post-radiation encephalopathy diagnostic criteria on the base of neuro psychic, neuro- and psychofisiological research in patients who suffered with acute radiation disease after Chernobyl catastrophe was the aim of this work. 110 persons of 20-75 years age were investigated. 55 refs., 6 tab., 6 figs

  15. DNA copy number analysis from mice with radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Certain mouse strains such as CBA C3H and RFM have high incidence of radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The data in this series wer generated by using...

  16. A case of acutely developed delayed radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Shintaro; Amari, Masakuni; Fukuda, Toshio; Okamoto, Koichi

    2002-01-01

    A 66-year-old man with a history of hypertension received radiation therapy on his neck at age 61 because of laryngeal cancer (T1bN0M0). Five years after the radiation, he acutely developed dysuria, tetraparesis and dissociated sensory disturbances below bilateral Th4 level. T2 weighted MRI showed a high signal lesion affecting the central area of the spinal cord extending from C1 to C7. On the second clinical day, he developed respiratory arrest and was ventilated. The cerebrospinal fluid contained 20/mm 3 (monocyte 15, neutorophil 5) white cells; protein was 52.5 mg/dl; IgG index 0.54; Q albumin was 9.6; tests for oligoclonal band and myelin basic protein were negative; a culture yielded no microorganism. He was treated with steroids and supportive measures without improvement, and died of a sudden cardiac arrest on the 8th clinical day. postmortem examination confirmed conspicuous focal spongy changes with many axonal swellings, especially in the posterior and lateral columns at cervical and Th1 levels. The pathological findings were considered to be compatible with those of delayed radiation myelopathy (DRM). In the anterior horn of the cervical cord there were lesions of diffuse racification and the proliferation of small vessels. There were no findings of hyaline vascular changes, infarction or metastasis of laryngeal cancer at the spinal cord. It is considered that hyperintensity of signals on T2-weighted may originate from racification and proliferation of small vessels in the gray matter, and these pathological changes would be intimately associated with the severe neurologic morbidity of this patient. Acute development of neurological findings and the pathological changes in the gray matter of the spinal cord are rare manifestations of DRM. (author)

  17. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.; Martin, M.

    2011-01-01

    The acute radiation syndrome (ARS) occurs after whole-body or significant partial-body irradiation (typically at a dose of >1 Gy). ARS can involve the hematopoietic, cutaneous, gastrointestinal and the neurovascular organ systems either individually or in combination. There is a correlation between the severity of clinical signs and symptoms of ARS and radiation dose. Radiation induced multi-organ failure (MOF) describes the progressive dysfunction of two or more organ systems over time. Radiation combined injury (RCI) is defined as radiation injury combined with blunt or penetrating trauma, burns, blast, or infection. The classic syndromes are: hematopoietic (doses >2 - 3 Gy), gastrointestinal (doses 5- 12 Gy) and cerebrovascular syndrome (doses 10 - 20 Gy). There is no possibility to survive after doses >10 - 12 Gy. The Phases of ARS are - prodromal: 0 - 2 days from exposure, latent: 2 - 20 days, and manifest illness: 21 - 60 days from exposure. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) at a dose of 5 micro g/kg body weight per day subcutaneously has been recommended as treatment of neutropenia, and antibiotics, antiviral and antifungal agents for prevention or treatment of infections. If taken within the first hours of contamination, stable iodine in the form of nonradioactive potassium iodide (KI) saturates iodine binding sites within the thyroid and inhibits incorporation of radioiodines into the gland. Finally, if severe aplasia persists under cytokines for more than 14 days, the possibility of a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation should be evaluated. This review will focus on the clinical aspects of the ARS, using the European triage system (METREPOL) to evaluate the severity of radiation injury, and scoring groups of patients for the general and specific management of the syndrome. (authors)

  18. Two cases of acute leukemia developed after therapeutic radiation for malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Naoki; Matsuo, Kakaru; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Tsuno, Sumio; Toyoda, Shigeki

    1978-01-01

    Report was made as to two cases of acute leukemia developed after therapeutic radiation for malignant tumors. Both cases were exposed to atomic-bomb at the places 4 and 3 km far from the center of explosion, and they did not suffer from injuries and acute symptoms due to radiation. Case 1. -A 78 year old man had a mass in a right hypogastric region in April of 1975. In March of 1976, he received laparotomy and was diagnosed as malignant schwannoma. He received radiation therapy with 4,600 R and MFC therapy. In February of 1977, a clinical diagnosis of erythroleukemia was made according to the findings by bone marrow puncture, and he died in March. Postmortem examination revealed that main lesions were malignant schwannoma, its metastases, and leukemia. Case 2. -A 51 year old woman had a finger-tip sized tumor in the left breast in November of 1965, and had a radical operation on the basis of a diagnosis of comedo sarcoma. After that she received 60 Co irradiation with 18,800 R, and she was admitted in December of 1971, because she was suspected of having leukemia. She died in January of 1972. Postmortem examination revealed acute myelocytic leukemia. It is suspected that the onset of erythroleukemia within one year after irradiation would be influenced by MFC therapy in addition to radiotherapy. It was thought that leukemia in Case 2 was influenced by radiotherapy rather than atomic-bomb radioactivity. (Serizawa, K.)

  19. Breast Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Reduces Time Spent With Acute Dermatitis for Women of All Breast Sizes During Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, Gary M.; Li Tianyu; Nicolaou, Nicos; Chen Yan; Ma, Charlie C.-M.; Anderson, Penny R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To study the time spent with radiation-induced dermatitis during a course of radiation therapy for breast cancer in women treated with conventional or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 804 consecutive women with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation from 2001 to 2006. All patients were treated with whole-breast radiation followed by a boost to the tumor bed. Whole-breast radiation consisted of conventional wedged photon tangents (n = 405) earlier in the study period and mostly of photon IMRT (n = 399) in later years. All patients had acute dermatitis graded each week of treatment. Results: The breakdown of the cases of maximum acute dermatitis by grade was as follows: 3%, Grade 0; 34%, Grade 1; 61%, Grade 2; and 2%, Grade 3. The breakdown of cases of maximum toxicity by technique was as follows: 48%, Grade 0/1, and 52%, Grade 2/3, for IMRT; and 25%, Grade 0/1, and 75%, Grade 2/3, for conventional radiation therapy (p < 0.0001). The IMRT patients spent 82% of weeks during treatment with Grade 0/1 dermatitis and 18% with Grade 2/3 dermatitis, compared with 29% and 71% of patients, respectively, treated with conventional radiation (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the time spent with Grade 2/3 toxicity was decreased in IMRT patients with small (p = 0.0015), medium (p < 0.0001), and large (p < 0.0001) breasts. Conclusions: Breast IMRT is associated with a significant decrease both in the time spent during treatment with Grade 2/3 dermatitis and in the maximum severity of dermatitis compared with that associated with conventional radiation, regardless of breast size.

  20. Single-centre experience of radiation exposure in acute surgical patients: assessment of therapeutic impact and future recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzmaurice, Gerard J; Brown, Robin; Cranley, Brian; Conlon, Enda F; Todd, R Alan J; O'Donnell, Mark E

    2010-09-01

    Radiological investigations have become a key adjunct in patient management and consequently radiation exposure to patients is increasing. The study objectives were to examine the use of radiological investigations in the management of acute surgical patients and to assess whether a guideline-based radiation exposure risk/benefit analysis can aid in the choice of radiological investigation used. A prospective observational study was completed over a 12-week period from April to July 2008 for all acute surgical admissions. Data recorded included demographics, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, investigations, surgical interventions, and final clinical outcome. The use of radiological investigative modalities as an adjunct to clinical assessment was then evaluated against The Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) guidelines. A total of 380 acute surgical admissions (M = 174, F = 185, children = 21) were assessed during the study period. Seven hundred thirty-four radiological investigations were performed with a mean of 1.93 investigations per patient. Based on the RCR guidelines, 680 (92.6%) radiological investigations were warranted and included 142 CT scans (19.3%), 129 chest X-rays (17.6%), and 85 abdominal X-rays (11.6%). Clinically, radiological imaging complemented surgical management in 326 patients (85.8%) and the management plan remained unchanged for the remaining 54 patients (14.2%). This accounted for an average radiation dose of 4.18 millisievert (mSv) per patient or 626 days of background radiation exposure. CT imaging was responsible for the majority of the radiation exposure, with a total of 1310 mSv (82.6%) of the total radiation exposure being attributed to CT imaging in 20.8% of acute admissions. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that 92.8% of the CT scans performed were appropriate. Radiation exposure was generally low for the majority of acute surgical admissions. However, it is recommended that CT imaging requests be evaluated carefully

  1. The abdominoendorectal resection with peranal anastomosis in the treatment of radiation injuries of the rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athanasiadis, S.; Girona, J.

    1982-01-01

    During the period 1974-1980 39 patients underwent operations at the Prosper Hospital in Recklinghausen for radiation injuries to the rectum or rectosigmoid. They comprised 22 patients with rectovaginal fistulas, 6 with ulcers, 3 suffering from severe hemorrhagic proctitis, 5 with rectal strictures, 1 with necrosis, and 2 with radiation ulcers and carcinoma. A sphincter-saving operative method of treating postirradiation damage of the rectum is presented. The technique involves the peranal anastomosis of healthy colon to the midanal canal using a sleeve anastomosis. Technical and functional results of resectional surgery for the rectal complications of radiation therapy are reported. Subjectively, total continence was present in 78%, only 1 patient was incontinent because of flatus and watery stools. (orig.) [de

  2. Successful Mitigation of Delayed Intestinal Radiation Injury Using Pravastatin is not Associated with Acute Injury Improvement or Tumor Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydont, Valerie; Gilliot, Olivier; Rivera, Sofia; Bourgier, Celine; Francois, Agnes; Aigueperse, Jocelyne; Bourhis, Jean; Vozenin-Brotons, Marie-Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether pravastatin mitigates delayed radiation-induced enteropathy in rats, by focusing on the effects of pravastatin on acute cell death and fibrosis according to connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression and collagen inhibition. Methods and Materials: Mitigation of delayed radiation-induced enteropathy was investigated in rats using pravastatin administered in drinking water (30 mg/kg/day) 3 days before and 14 days after irradiation. The ileum was irradiated locally after surgical exteriorization (X-rays, 19 Gy). Acute apoptosis, acute and late histologic alterations, and late CTGF and collagen deposition were monitored by semiquantitative immunohistochemistry and colorimetric staining (6 h, 3 days, 14 days, 15 weeks, and 26 weeks after irradiation). Pravastatin antitumor action was studied in HT-29, HeLa, and PC-3 cells by clonogenic cell survival assays and tumor growth delay experiments. Results: Pravastatin improved delayed radiation enteropathy in rats, whereas its benefit in acute and subacute injury remained limited (6 h, 3 days, and 14 days after irradiation). Delayed structural improvement was associated with decreased CTGF and collagen deposition but seemed unrelated to acute damage. Indeed, the early apoptotic index increased, and severe subacute structural damage occurred. Pravastatin elicited a differential effect, protecting normal intestine but not tumors from radiation injury. Conclusion: Pravastatin provides effective protection against delayed radiation enteropathy without interfering with the primary antitumor action of radiotherapy, suggesting that clinical transfer is feasible

  3. Ataxia Telangiectasia–Mutated Gene Polymorphisms and Acute Normal Tissue Injuries in Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Lihua; Cui, Jingkun; Tang, Fengjiao; Cong, Xiaofeng; Han, Fujun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Studies of the association between ataxia telangiectasia–mutated (ATM) gene polymorphisms and acute radiation injuries are often small in sample size, and the results are inconsistent. We conducted the first meta-analysis to provide a systematic review of published findings. Methods and Materials: Publications were identified by searching PubMed up to April 25, 2014. Primary meta-analysis was performed for all acute radiation injuries, and subgroup meta-analyses were based on clinical endpoint. The influence of sample size and radiation injury incidence on genetic effects was estimated in sensitivity analyses. Power calculations were also conducted. Results: The meta-analysis was conducted on the ATM polymorphism rs1801516, including 5 studies with 1588 participants. For all studies, the cut-off for differentiating cases from controls was grade 2 acute radiation injuries. The primary meta-analysis showed a significant association with overall acute radiation injuries (allelic model: odds ratio = 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.71). Subgroup analyses detected an association between the rs1801516 polymorphism and a significant increase in urinary and lower gastrointestinal injuries and an increase in skin injury that was not statistically significant. There was no between-study heterogeneity in any meta-analyses. In the sensitivity analyses, small studies did not show larger effects than large studies. In addition, studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries showed larger effects than studies with low incidence. Power calculations revealed that the statistical power of the primary meta-analysis was borderline, whereas there was adequate power for the subgroup analysis of studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis showed a consistency of the results from the overall and subgroup analyses. We also showed that the genetic effect of the rs1801516 polymorphism on acute radiation injuries was

  4. Classification system for acute and chronic radiation treatment sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seegenschmiedt, M.H.; Sauer, R.

    1993-01-01

    A classification system in German language is proposed for scoring of acute and chronic treatment sequelae after radiotherapy. It includes all important organs and organ systems. The proposed grading corresponds to the four-scale-system of the WHO and UICC. The system is also compatible to the RTOG and EORTC acute and late radiation morbidity scoring criteria. This facilitates the data transfer for retrospective and prospective analysis of monomodal and multimodal radiotherapy treatment regimes. We recommend to use this scoring system in all German speaking countries for multicentric prospective studies. It is possible, that organ-specific sophistications of the toxicity grading will be developed in the future. These additions should conform with (inter)national standards and apply the same four-scale grading of this classification system. (orig.) [de

  5. Potent corticosteroid cream (mometasone furoate) significantly reduces acute radiation dermatitis: results from a double-blind, randomized study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, Aasa; Lindman, Henrik; Swartling, Carl; Berne, Berit; Bergh, Jonas

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced dermatitis is a very common side effect of radiation therapy, and may necessitate interruption of the therapy. There is a substantial lack of evidence-based treatments for this condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mometasone furoate cream (MMF) on radiation dermatitis in a prospective, double-blind, randomized study. Material and methods: The study comprised 49 patients with node-negative breast cancer. They were operated on with sector resection and scheduled for postoperative radiotherapy using photons with identical radiation qualities and dosage to the breast parenchyma. The patients were randomized to receive either MMF or emollient cream. The cream was applied on the irradiated skin twice a week from the start of radiotherapy until the 12th fraction (24 Gy) and thereafter once daily until 3 weeks after completion of radiation. Both groups additionally received non-blinded emollient cream daily. The intensity of the acute radiation dermatitis was evaluated on a weekly basis regarding erythema and pigmentation, using a reflectance spectrophotometer together with visual scoring of the skin reactions. Results: MMF in combination with emollient cream treatment significantly decreased acute radiation dermatitis (P=0.0033) compared with emollient cream alone. There was no significant difference in pigmentation between the two groups. Conclusions: Adding MMF, a potent topical corticosteroid, to an emollient cream is statistically significantly more effective than emollient cream alone in reducing acute radiation dermatitis

  6. Acute radiation nephritis. Light and electron microscopic observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapur, S.; Chandra, R.; Antonovych, T.

    1977-01-01

    Light and electron microscopy were used to observe acute radiation nephritis. By light microscopy the changes were of fibrinoid necrosis of the arteries and arterioles with segmental necrosis of the glomerular tufts. By electron microscopy the endocapillary cells reacted by hypertrophy and hyperplasia with increase in cytoplasmic organelles. In addition, disruption of endothelial and epithelial cells from the basement membranes were seen. It is concluded that the electron microscopic changes were unique and may be helpful in differentiating the necrotizing glomerulitis seen in other conditions, especially malignant hypertension

  7. Effective chemotherapy of acute myelocytic leukemia occurring after alkylating agent or radiation therapy for prior malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, W.P.; Karp, J.E.; Burke, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    Eleven consecutive patients with acute myelocytic leukemia occurring as a second malignancy were treated with high-dose, timed, sequential chemotherapy. Eight of the patients were felt to have ''secondary'' acute leukemia because they had received an alkylating agent or radiation therapy. The other three patients were considered controls. Despite a median age of 65, four of the eight secondary leukemia patients achieved complete remission with this regimen. One of the three control patients also achieved complete remission. This remission rate and duration are comparable to what was achieved with this treatment of ''primary'' acute myelocytic leukemia during the same period of time. These results suggest that patients with leukemia occurring after an alkylating agent or radiation therapy are not at especially high risk if treated aggressively

  8. Medical management of severe local radiation injury after acute X-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushmanov, A.; Nadezhina, N.; Kretov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Medical management during acute period in a case of severe local radiation injury after acute X-ray exposure includes 3 stages. During the fist stage patient got conservative treatment according to the common pathogenetic mechanisms of LRI (dis aggregating therapy, stimulation of regeneration, dis intoxication therapy, antibiotic therapy, pain relief therapy, Local anti-burn therapy-specific non-adhesive bandage with antiseptic and anti-burn medicaments); estimation of severity, deepness and area of injury by clinical picture and dates of instrumental methods of examining; defining necessity and volume of surgical treatment; preparing arrangements for surgical treatment. This stage ends with forming of demarcation line of a very hard severity of a Local Radiation Injure. The second stage includes necrectomy of the area of a very hard severity with microsurgical plastic by re vascularized flap and auto dermoplastic. The third stage - adaptation of re vascularized flap and total epithelization of injured area. (author)

  9. Therapy and prophylaxis of acute and late radiation-induced sequelae of the esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, F.B.; Geinitz, H.; Feldmann, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Radiation-induced esophagitis is a frequent acute side effect in curative and palliative radiotherapy of thoracal and cervical tumors. Late reactions are rare but might be severe. Methods: A resarch for reports on prophylactic and supportive therapies of radiation-induced esophagitis was performed (Medline, Cancerlit, and others). Results: Nutrition must be ensured and symptomatic relief of sequelae is important, especially in the case of dysphagia. The latter can be improved by topic or systemic analgetics. If esophageal spasm occurs, calcium antagonists might help. In case of gastro-esophageal reflux proton pump inhibitors should be used. There is no effective prophylactic measure for radiation esophagitis. Late side effects with clinical relevance are rare in conventional radiotherapy. Chronic ulcera, fistula or stenosis may develop. Before any treatment, a tumor infiltration of the esophagus should be excluded by biopsy. This can lead more often to late complications than radiation therapy itself. Nutrition should be ensured by endoscopic dilation, stent-implantation, or endoscopic percutaneous gastrostomy. Local injection of steroids might be used to avoid an early restenosis. Conclusions: An intensive symptomatic therapy of acute esophagitis is reasonable. Effective prophylaxis do not exist. Late radiation induced sequelae is rare. Therefore, a tumor recurrence should be excluded in cases of dysphagia. Securing nutrition by PEG, stent, or port is well in the fore. (orig.) [de

  10. Prophylactic Treatment with Adlay Bran Extract Reduces the Risk of Severe Acute Radiation Dermatitis: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jen Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute radiation dermatitis is a frequent adverse effect in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy, but there are only a small number of studies providing evidence-based interventions for this clinical condition. Adlay is a cereal crop that has been previously shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this study, we seek to evaluate the effectiveness of oral prophylactic treatment with adlay bran extract in reducing the risk of severe acute radiation dermatitis. A total of 110 patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy were analyzed. Using a prospective, randomized, double-blind design, 73 patients received oral treatment with adlay bran extract and 37 patients received olive oil (placebo. Treatment was started at the beginning of radiation therapy and continued until the termination of radiation treatment. Our results showed that the occurrence of severe acute radiation dermatitis (RTOG grade 2 or higher was significantly lower in patients treated with oral adlay bran extract compared to placebo (45.2% versus 75.7%, adjusted odds ratio 0.24. No serious adverse effects from adlay bran treatment were noted. In conclusion, prophylactic oral treatment with adlay bran extract reduces the risk of severe acute radiation dermatitis and may have potential use in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy.

  11. Chromosomal mechanisms in murine radiation acute myeloid leukemogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouffler, S.D.; Breckon, G.; Cox, R.

    1996-01-01

    Chromosome 2 abnormalities, particularly interstitial deletions, characterize murine radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemias (AMLs). Here, G-band analyses in CBA/H mice of early (1-6 month) post 3 Gy X-radiation events in bone marrow cells in vivo and karyotype evolution in one unusual AML are presented. The early event analysis showed that all irradiated animals carry chromosome 2 abnormalities, that chromosome 2 abnormalities are more frequent than expected and that interstitial deletions are more common in chromosome 2 than in the remainder of the genome. On presentation AML case N122 carried a t(2; 11) terminal translocation which, with passaging, evolved into a del2(C3F3). Therefore two pathways in leukaemogenesis might exist, one deletion-driven, the other terminal tranlocation-driven involving interstitial genes and terminal genes respectively of chromosome 2. As all irradiated individuals carried chromosome 2 abnormalities, the formation of these aberrations does not determine individual leukaemogenic sensitivity as only 20-25% of animals would be expected to develop AML. Similar lines of argument suggest that chromosome 2 abnormalities are necessary but not sufficient for radiation leukaemogenesis in CBA/H nor are they rate limiting in leukaemogenesis. (Author)

  12. Acute adverse effects of radiation therapy on HIV-positive patients in Japan. Study of 31 cases at Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminuma, Takuya; Karasawa, Katsuyuki; Hanyu, Nahoko

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients has increased in Japan. HIV-positive patients are at a higher risk of cancer than the general population. This paper retrospectively reports the acute adverse effects of radiation therapy on HIV-positive patients who were treated at Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious diseases Center Komagome Hospital (TMCICK). Thirty-one cases involving 24 HIV-positive cancer patients who were treated at TMCICK from January 1997 to March 2009 were included in this study. All acute adverse effects of radiation therapy were examined during, and one month after, the last radiation therapy session. Acute adverse effects were classified according to the site of radiation therapy treatment and analyzed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 3.0. Grade 3 acute adverse effects were seen in 17% of cases, and Grade 2 toxicities were found in 23% of patients. Damage to the skin and mucosa, including stomatitis or diarrhea, tended to occur after low-dose radiation therapy; however, no severe acute adverse effects were seen in other organs, such as the brain, lung, and bone. Acute adverse effects tended to occur earlier in HIV-positive patients and became severe more frequently than in the general population. In particular, disorders of the mucosa, such as those of the oral cavity, pharynx, and intestine, tended to occur rapidly. It was shown that radiation therapy is safe when treatment is performed carefully and that it is a very useful treatment for cancer in HIV-positive patients. (author)

  13. Combined Hydration and Antibiotics with Lisinopril to Mitigate Acute and Delayed High-dose Radiation Injuries to Multiple Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Brian L; Gao, Feng; Narayanan, Jayashree; Bergom, Carmen; Jacobs, Elizabeth R; Cohen, Eric P; Moulder, John E; Orschell, Christie M; Medhora, Meetha

    2016-11-01

    The NIAID Radiation and Nuclear Countermeasures Program is developing medical agents to mitigate the acute and delayed effects of radiation that may occur from a radionuclear attack or accident. To date, most such medical countermeasures have been developed for single organ injuries. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been used to mitigate radiation-induced lung, skin, brain, and renal injuries in rats. ACE inhibitors have also been reported to decrease normal tissue complication in radiation oncology patients. In the current study, the authors have developed a rat partial-body irradiation (leg-out PBI) model with minimal bone marrow sparing (one leg shielded) that results in acute and late injuries to multiple organs. In this model, the ACE inhibitor lisinopril (at ~24 mg m d started orally in the drinking water at 7 d after irradiation and continued to ≥150 d) mitigated late effects in the lungs and kidneys after 12.5-Gy leg-out PBI. Also in this model, a short course of saline hydration and antibiotics mitigated acute radiation syndrome following doses as high as 13 Gy. Combining this supportive care with the lisinopril regimen mitigated overall morbidity for up to 150 d after 13-Gy leg-out PBI. Furthermore, lisinopril was an effective mitigator in the presence of the growth factor G-CSF (100 μg kg d from days 1-14), which is FDA-approved for use in a radionuclear event. In summary, by combining lisinopril (FDA-approved for other indications) with hydration and antibiotics, acute and delayed radiation injuries in multiple organs were mitigated.

  14. 2013 Space Radiation Standing Review Panel Status Review for: The Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure, The Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events (SPEs), The Risk Of Degenerative Tissue Or Other Health Effects From Radiation Exposure, and The Risk of Radiation Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) was impressed with the strong research program presented by the scientists and staff associated with NASA's Space Radiation Program Element and National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). The presentations given on-site and the reports of ongoing research that were provided in advance indicated the potential Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure (CNS) and were extensively discussed by the SRP. This new data leads the SRP to recommend that a higher priority should be placed on research designed to identify and understand these risks at the mechanistic level. To support this effort the SRP feels that a shift of emphasis from Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) and carcinogenesis to CNS-related endpoints is justified at this point. However, these research efforts need to focus on mechanisms, should follow pace with advances in the field of CNS in general and should consider the specific comments and suggestions made by the SRP as outlined below. The SRP further recommends that the Space Radiation Program Element continue with its efforts to fill the vacant positions (Element Scientist, CNS Risk Discipline Lead) as soon as possible. The SRP also strongly recommends that NASA should continue the NASA Space Radiation Summer School. In addition to these broad recommendations, there are specific comments/recommendations noted for each risk, described in detail below.

  15. Acute coronary syndrome associated with Churg-Strauss syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Doris Wagner

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Annette Doris Wagner1, Gerd Peter Meyer2, Markus Rihl3, Anke Rathmann2, Ulrike Wittkop1, Henning Zeidler4, Hermann Haller1, Joachim Lotz51Department Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology; 2Division of Cardiology; 3Division of Rheumatology; 4Rheumatologikum Hannover; 5Department of Diagnostic Radiology; Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover, GermanyAbstract: A 41-year old female patient was admitted with acute onset of dyspnea and chest pain. Previous history revealed asthma, chronic sinusitis and eosinophilic proctitis. Electrocardiogram showed anterior ST-segment elevations and inferior ST-segment depression. Immediate heart catheterization revealed a distally occluded left anterior descending coronary artery, the occlusion being reversible after nitroglycerine. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was consistent with perimyocarditis. Hypereosinophilia and IgE elevation were present and Churg-strauss syndrome was diagnosed.Keywords: Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS, carditis, cardiac MRI

  16. Carcinoma of the prostate treated by pelvic node dissection, iodine-125 seed implant and external irradiation; a study of rectal complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadir, R.; Ross, G. Jr.; Weinstein, S.H. (Missouri Univ., Columbia (USA). Hospital and Clinics)

    1984-09-01

    The University of Missouri-Columbia protocol for localised cancer of the prostate calls for pelvic node dissection, 10 000 cGy at the periphery of the prostate from /sup 125/I and 4000 cGy in 20 fractions to the whole pelvis using supervoltage X-ray therapy. Rectal complications were studied in 104 patients; acute and chronic reactions were defined. During external irradiation 54% did not develop diarrhoea, 43% had mild diarrhoea and 3% had severe diarrhoea. In the chronic stage 77% did not have diarrhoea, 12% had delayed, non-distressing rectal bleeding which did not need specific treatment or needed only simple treatment, 7% had prolonged distressing proctitis and 4% had rectal ulceration or recto-urethral fistula necessitating colostomy. Each of the four patients who had colostomy had an additional aetiological factor (arterial disease, pelvic inflammation, additional radiation, pelvic malignancy or second operation). None of the patients entered in the combined brachytherapy and teletherapy programme, and in whom 0.5 cm space was maintained between the closest seed and the rectal mucosa, developed prolonged proctitis.

  17. The modes of death in mammals exposed to whole body radiation (acute radiation syndromes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, O.R. dos.

    1990-07-01

    When an animal is exposed to a sufficient amount of radiation, there will be changes in many organs of the body, and as a result of either the effects in one particular organ or the interaction of effects in several organs, the animal as a whole will show characteristic syndromes. Some syndromes result inevitably in death. Others may or may not be lethal, depending on the extent of the tissue damage. The time of appearance of the syndromes, their duration, and the survival of the organism depend on many factors. Whole body acute doses of radiation produce the same spectrum of Central Nervous System (CNS), Gastrointestinal (GI) and Bone Marrow (BM) injury in man as was described for animals. Damage to the skin, ovary and testis are an integral and important part of the symptoms. (author) [pt

  18. Effect of BMPs on hematopoietic injury of acute radiation sickness in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Qiong; Zhang Shaozhang; Pu Qin; Zhang Fake; Hannah, X.H.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) on hematopoietic acute radiation sickness in mice. BMP, rhBMP-2m and PBK/hBMP-2-NIH3T3 cells were obtained separately by chemistry, molecule biological method and genetherapy method. In this study, the effect of BMPs on hematopoiesis was detected at postirradiation: some hematological parameters, 30 days the survival ratio and formation of bone marrow CFU-GM colony. The experiments indicate that when phBMP (purified bovine bone morphogenetic protein) can increase the formation of bone narrow CFU-GM colony (p<0.05) at 10th d after irradiation. Irradiation control group's mice died in 30 days, but effect of rhBMP-2m on the survival of mice after 7.5Gy irradiation, was detected whereas there were 10%, 15% and 35% all mice of survived after injection i.p. with 0.5 mg, 1.0 mg and 2.0 mg of rhBMP-2m respectively. All hematological parameters of treated mice were significantly higher than control group (p<0.01). PBK/hBMP-2-NIH3T3 cells were established and transplanted into mice irradiated by 7.0Gy r ray by i.p., the survival ratio of treated mice higher than negative control group (p<0.01), and all hematopoietic parameters were increased statistically significant (p<0.01). These data support the our hypothesis: BMPs can treat the acute radiation sickness. The results indicate that in adult mice, BMPs can recover or treat the hematopoietic injury of acute radiation sickness in mice. (author)

  19. Special investigations of hemoglobin in the dynamics of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdravko, B.J.; Panasyuk, E.N.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of penetrating radiation into the UV, visible and IR spectra of hemoglobin obtained from guinea-pigs being irradiated by the 300 and 600 cGy doses is studied. The change of the absorption intensity in the range of 275 nm of aqueous hemoglobin solutions depending on the stage and duration of the radiation pathology is revealed. The displacement of amide absorption bands into a shorter area of hemoglobin fluctuations frequencies of irradiated animals in the period from the 1 to 19-th day after the irradiation by the 300 cGy dose and during the whole period of the acute radiation pathology after the irradiation by the 600 cGy dose is established by the use of the IR-spectroscopy method. For the relative quantitative estimation of the denaturized hemoglobins by radiation, radiotoxins and by other physical and chemical factors, one suggests to use the formulas of the hem optical density relation coefficient to the globin optical density

  20. Topical Calendula and Betamethasone Valerate in the prevention of acute radiation dermatitis: a randomized prospective trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotouhi M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute radiation dermatitis is a very common side effect of radiation therapy for many cancers, including breast cancer. Despite the high prevalence of acute radiation dermatitis as well as wet desquamation, only a few trials studying the prophylaxis of this complication using topical treatment have been conducted. In spite of these studies, some controversy still exists about regarding treatments for acute radiation dermatitis, as does some concern about their long-term complications. For this reason, we conducted a clinical trial for a new treatment with the same effectiveness as corticosteroids, but fewer complications. Methods: This trial included 60 patients with pathologic diagnoses of breast cancer for whom radiotherapy had been planned. Patients were 30-73 years old. Patients with radical mastectomy received 5000 cGy over five weeks, and those with conservative surgery received 6000 cGy over six weeks divided in 200 cGy fractions. Patients were divided randomly into two groups: one group received a moderately-potent glucocorticoid steroid, 0.1% betamethasone ointment (30, and the other received the new treatment, 0.1% calendula ointment (30. All patients applied their respective drugs twice daily within the tangential field from the first day of radiation treatment until one month after treatment was completed. Starting one week after radiation therapy commenced, patients were monitored weekly for symptoms of dermatitis and the degree of severity as well as possible adverse drug effects, in addition to such monitoring on the days of their appointments. Four weeks after termination of therapy, patients were again examined, at which time they completed a questionnaire about dermatologic complications. Results: The mean time to develop dermatitis was 3.7 weeks for the betamethasone group and 3.87 weeks for the calendula group. Maximal dermatitis intensity during treatment in the betamethasone group was: 0, 6.7%; I, 73.3%; II, 16

  1. Prophylactic and therapeutic management of acute radiation related morbidity of the skin and mucosa. Part I. Results of a German multicenter questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, J.S.; Wilhelm, R.; Niehoff, P.; Schneider, R.; Kovacs, G.; Kimmig, B.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, it was to evaluate the remedies, which are used for prevention and therapeutic management of acute radiation related morbidity of the skin and mucosa (mouth, pharynx, esophagus, small and large bowel, rectum and vagina). A questionnaire was sent to 130 radiotherapeutic departments in Germany in Juli 1995. The questionnaire had been designed with 22 open questions concerning the preventive and therapeutic management of acute radiation related morbidity of skin and mucosal sites. From 130 questionnaires, 89 (68.4%) were sent back till August 1995. All of them were evaluable. The recommendations showed a broad spectrum for each site. Especially the oral mucositis was treated in many different ways and combinations. The prevention and therapy of complicating superinfections seem to be the joint principle of most of the recommendations. The management of the acute radiation related morbidity has a wide clinical spectrum among different radiation therapy centers. Systematic prospectively designed investigations are necessary in order to achieve a further reduction in the radiation related acute morbidity. Therefore, a multicenter collaborative working group has been founded. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Curcumin protects against radiation-induced acute and chronic cutaneous toxicity in mice and decreases mRNA expression of inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okunieff, Paul; Xu Jianhua; Hu Dongping; Liu Weimin; Zhang Lurong; Morrow, Gary; Pentland, Alice; Ryan, Julie L.; Ding, Ivan M.D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether curcumin ameliorates acute and chronic radiation skin toxicity and to examine the expression of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1, IL-6, IL-18, IL-1Ra, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, and lymphotoxin-β) or fibrogenic cytokines (transforming growth factor [TGF]-β) during the same acute and chronic phases. Methods and Materials: Curcumin was given intragastrically or intraperitoneally to C3H/HeN mice either: 5 days before radiation; 5 days after radiation; or both 5 days before and 5 days after radiation. The cutaneous damage was assessed at 15-21 days (acute) and 90 days (chronic) after a single 50 Gy radiation dose was given to the hind leg. Skin and muscle tissues were collected for measurement of cytokine mRNA. Results: Curcumin, administered before or after radiation, markedly reduced acute and chronic skin toxicity in mice (p < 0.05). Additionally, curcumin significantly decreased mRNA expression of early responding cytokines (IL-1 IL-6, IL-18, TNF-α, and lymphotoxin-β) and the fibrogenic cytokine, TGF-β, in cutaneous tissues at 21 days postradiation. Conclusion: Curcumin has a protective effect on radiation-induced cutaneous damage in mice, which is characterized by a downregulation of both inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines in irradiated skin and muscle, particularly in the early phase after radiation. These results may provide the molecular basis for the application of curcumin in clinical radiation therapy

  3. Exposed persons at the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station accident: acute radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kova, A.K.; Baranov, A.E.; Barabanova, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    Observation made over 115 patients with acute radiation sickness due to exposure external γ- and β-rays confirmed high efficiency of the earlier proposed principles of prognostication of the degree of severity by clinical manifestations of the primary disease response and those of separate syndromes, using the methods of hematological and cytogenetic analyses. Out of 115 victims, 56 persons had radiation burns (RB), 17 intestinal syndrome (IS), 80 - oropharengeal syndrome (ORS), 7 - interstitial radiation pneumonitis (IRP). In thanatogenesis, of prime importance were: RB (more than 40% of the body surface) - 19 persons and IRP - 7 persons. A severe course of intestinal and oropharengeal syndromes was combined with other fatal manifestations of radiation injury. Early isolation of patients (2-4 stages), selective decontamination of the intestine, prescription of a wide spectrum antibiotics, antimycotic and antiviral drugs, as well as γ-globulin could practically remove the risk of the development of fatal infectious complications during a medullary andtransitory forms of radiation sickness

  4. The stratification of severity of acute radiation proctopathy after radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma using diffusion-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang Sheng, E-mail: lxsheng500@163.com [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Fang, Hong, E-mail: hongfang196808@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Song, Yunlong, E-mail: yunlongsong010@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Li, Dechang, E-mail: dechangli1972@sina.com [Department of Pathology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Wang, Yingjie, E-mail: wangyj19710813@sina.com [Department of Radiotherapy, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Zhu, Hongxian, E-mail: hongxian0102@sina.cn [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Meng, Limin, E-mail: liminmeng1977@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Wang, Ping, E-mail: pingwang1978@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Wang, Dong, E-mail: dongwang1964@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China); Fan, Hongxia, E-mail: fanhongxia1975@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Air Force General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100142 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Objective: To determine whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can be used for quantitatively evaluating severity of acute radiation proctopathy after radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma. Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty-four patients with cervical carcinoma underwent MR examination including DWI before and after radiotherapy. Acute radiation proctopathy was classified into three groups (grade 0, grade I–II and grade III–IV) according to Toxicity Criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). The pretreatment ADC (ADC{sub pre}), ADC after treatment (ADC{sub post}) and ADC change (ΔADC) were compared among three groups. In addition, acute radiation proctopathy was classified into good-prognosis group and poor-prognosis group. ADC{sub pre}, ADC{sub post} and ΔADC were compared between two groups. For DWI parameter that had significant difference, discriminatory capability of the parameter was determined using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Results: ADC{sub post} and ΔADC were higher in grade I–II group than in grade 0 group (p < 0.05), yielding a sensitivity of 79.3% and specificity of 69.4% for ADC{sub post}, and 85.1%, 72.3% for ΔADC for discrimination between two groups. ADC{sub post} and ΔADC were higher in grade III–IV group than in grade I–II group (p < 0.05), yielding a sensitivity of 80.3% and specificity of 72.5% for ADC{sub post}, and 84.1%, 74.5% for ΔADC for discrimination between two groups. ADC{sub post} and ΔADC were higher in poor-prognosis group than in good-prognosis group (p < 0.05), yielding a sensitivity of 79.5% and specificity of 73.4% for ADC{sub post}, and 87.2%, 78.3% for ΔADC for discrimination between two groups. Conclusion: Diffusion-weighted MRI can be used for quantitative stratification of severity of acute radiation proctopathy, which serves as an important basis for appropriate timely adjustment of radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma in order to maximally reduce the

  5. Topical betamethasone for the prevention of acute radiation dermatitis in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhan, F.; Kazemian, A.; Alagheband, H.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Acute radiation dermatitis is a very common side effect of radiation therapy in large numbers of cancers including breast cancer. Despite high prevalence rate of acute radiation dermatitis and also wet desquamation, a few trials on prophylaxis of this complication using topical treatment have been conducted. Despite effectiveness of topical corticosteroids in treatment of acute radiation dermatitis which are focused in the literature, yet there are some controversy about their usage in this regard. For this reason we attempted to investigate this subject via conducting a clinical trial. Materials and Methods: This trial included 76 patients with pathologic diagnosis of breast cancer for whom radiotherapy has been planned. Patients were 27-70 years old. Patients with radical mastectomy received 5000 cGy within 5 weeks, and those with conservative surgery received 6000 cGy within 6 weeks devided in 200 centigray fractions. Patients were divided randomly into two groups, betamethasone and placebo, 38 patients in each group. In placebo group, 3 patients did not attend for weekly assessment. Additional one patient did not refer during follow-up period. Thus, they were excluded from the study. One group was given betamethasone o.1% and other group was administered base of ointment as placebo. All patient consumed drug or placebo from the 1st day of treatment until one week after treatment completion as twice daily within tangential field. Patients were monitored for assessing dermatitis severity and its symptoms and also possible drug adverse effects one week after the therapy commenced and afterwards by one-week intervals as well as in an appointed day. Three weeks after termination of therapy, patients were also visited, and each examination provided information about dermatologic complications which were registered in the questionnaire. Results: Mean times development of dermatitis in both betamethasone and placebo groups were 3.2500 and 2.2571 (weeks

  6. BiodosEPR-2006 Meeting: Acute dosimetry consensus committee recommendations on biodosimetry applications in events involving uses of radiation by terrorists and radiation accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, George A. [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Preparedness and Emergency Operations, 200 Independence Avenue, SW, Room 403B-1, Washington, DC 20201 (United States); Swartz, Harold M. [Dept. of Radiology and Physiology Dept., Dartmouth Medical School, HB 7785, Vail 702, Rubin 601, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Amundson, Sally A. [Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 W. 168th Street, VC11-215, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Blakely, William F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)], E-mail: blakely@afrri.usuhs.mil; Buddemeier, Brooke [Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528 (United States); Gallez, Bernard [Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Unit and Lab. of Medicinal Chemistry and Radiopharmacy, Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Dainiak, Nicholas [Dept. of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, 267 Grant Street, Bridgeport, CT 06610 (United States); Goans, Ronald E. [MJW Corporation, 1422 Eagle Bend Drive, Clinton, TN 37716-4029 (United States); Hayes, Robert B. [Remote Sensing Lab., MS RSL-47, P.O. Box 98421, Las Vegas, NV 89193 (United States); Lowry, Patrick C. [Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS), Oak Ridge Associated Universities, P.O. Box 117, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117 (United States); Noska, Michael A. [Food and Drug Administration, FDA/CDRH, 1350 Piccard Drive, HFZ-240, Rockville, MD 20850 (United States); Okunieff, Paul [Dept. of Radiation Oncology (Box 647), Univ. of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Salner, Andrew L. [Helen and Harry Gray Cancer Center, Hartford Hospital, 80 Seymour Street, Hartford, CT 06102 (United States); Schauer, David A. [National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 400, Bethesda, MD 20814-3095 (United States)] (and others)

    2007-07-15

    In the aftermath of a radiological terrorism incident or mass-casualty radiation accident, first responders and receivers require prior guidance and pre-positioned resources for assessment, triage and medical management of affected individuals [NCRP, 2005. Key elements of preparing emergency responders for nuclear and radiological terrorism. NCRP Commentary No. 19, Bethesda, Maryland, USA]. Several recent articles [Dainiak, N., Waselenko, J.K., Armitage, J.O., MacVittie, T.J., Farese, A.M., 2003. The hematologist and radiation casualties. Hematology (Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program) 473-496; Waselenko, J.K., MacVittie, T.J., Blakely, W.F., Pesik, N., Wiley, A.L., Dickerson, W.E., Tsu, H., Confer, D.L., Coleman, C.N., Seed, T., Lowry, P., Armitage, J.O., Dainiak, N., Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group, 2004. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 140(12), 1037-1051; Blakely, W.F., Salter, C.A., Prasanna, P.G., 2005. Early-response biological dosimetry-recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Phys. 89(5), 494-504; Goans, R.E., Waselenko, J.K., 2005. Medical management of radiation casualties. Health Phys. 89(5), 505-512; Swartz, H.M., Iwasaki, A., Walczak, T., Demidenko, E., Salikhov, I., Lesniewski, P., Starewicz, P., Schauer, D., Romanyukha, A., 2005. Measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using non-invasive in vivo EPR spectroscopy of teeth in situ. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 62, 293-299; . Acute radiation injury: contingency planning for triage, supportive care, and transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 12(6), 672-682], national [. Management of persons accidentally contaminated with radionuclides. NCRP Report No. 65, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; . Management of terrorist events involving radioactive material. NCRP Report No. 138, Bethesda, Maryland

  7. BiodosEPR-2006 Meeting: Acute dosimetry consensus committee recommendations on biodosimetry applications in events involving uses of radiation by terrorists and radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, George A.; Swartz, Harold M.; Amundson, Sally A.; Blakely, William F.; Buddemeier, Brooke; Gallez, Bernard; Dainiak, Nicholas; Goans, Ronald E.; Hayes, Robert B.; Lowry, Patrick C.; Noska, Michael A.; Okunieff, Paul; Salner, Andrew L.; Schauer, David A.

    2007-01-01

    In the aftermath of a radiological terrorism incident or mass-casualty radiation accident, first responders and receivers require prior guidance and pre-positioned resources for assessment, triage and medical management of affected individuals [NCRP, 2005. Key elements of preparing emergency responders for nuclear and radiological terrorism. NCRP Commentary No. 19, Bethesda, Maryland, USA]. Several recent articles [Dainiak, N., Waselenko, J.K., Armitage, J.O., MacVittie, T.J., Farese, A.M., 2003. The hematologist and radiation casualties. Hematology (Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program) 473-496; Waselenko, J.K., MacVittie, T.J., Blakely, W.F., Pesik, N., Wiley, A.L., Dickerson, W.E., Tsu, H., Confer, D.L., Coleman, C.N., Seed, T., Lowry, P., Armitage, J.O., Dainiak, N., Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group, 2004. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 140(12), 1037-1051; Blakely, W.F., Salter, C.A., Prasanna, P.G., 2005. Early-response biological dosimetry-recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Phys. 89(5), 494-504; Goans, R.E., Waselenko, J.K., 2005. Medical management of radiation casualties. Health Phys. 89(5), 505-512; Swartz, H.M., Iwasaki, A., Walczak, T., Demidenko, E., Salikhov, I., Lesniewski, P., Starewicz, P., Schauer, D., Romanyukha, A., 2005. Measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using non-invasive in vivo EPR spectroscopy of teeth in situ. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 62, 293-299; . Acute radiation injury: contingency planning for triage, supportive care, and transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 12(6), 672-682], national [. Management of persons accidentally contaminated with radionuclides. NCRP Report No. 65, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; . Management of terrorist events involving radioactive material. NCRP Report No. 138, Bethesda, Maryland

  8. Clinical report of three cases of acute radiation sickness from a 60Co radiation accident in Henan Province in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qiang; Jiang Bo; Jiang Liping; Wu Ying; Wang Xiaoguang; Jiang Enhai; Zhao Fengling; Fu Baohua; Istvan, Turai

    2008-01-01

    On 26 April 1999, three persons were accidentally exposed by high dose 60 Co irradiation. They suffered from severe (one case) or moderate (two cases) hemopoietic form of acute radiation sickness (ARS). As part of the comprehensive treatment, strict reverse isolation and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) therapy were applied. All the patients recovered after an appropriate treatment for 83 days. In our experience, the correct diagnosis and effective treatment at an early stage proved to be helpful to the patients in pulling out from the critical stage of acute radiation sickness. To avoid menstruation by the female patient just in the critical stage, we modified her menstruation cycle by testosterone. In our view, GM-CSF should be given as early as possible with enough dosage for promoting early hematological reconstruction. The experience obtained from the medical management of these patients is valuable for the treatment of such patients in the future. (author)

  9. Biological effects of nuclear war: Acute effects of radiation; the LD-50 value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkita, T.; Rotblat, J.

    1987-01-01

    Recent surveys carried out in Japan in connection with the reassessment of the dosimetry for long-term effects provided an opportunity for another look at the acute effects of radiation and a recalculation of the LD-50 value. The recalculation gave an LD-50 value which is two to three times lower than had been assumed before. It means that in a nuclear war the number of fatalities due to exposure to radiation would be considerably higher than thought hitherto. 11 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Preliminary early evaluation of radiation acute syndrome severity in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenez, J.C.; Nasazzi, N.B.; Taja, M.R.; Nagle, C.; Dubner, D.; Di Rizzio, C.

    1992-01-01

    To improve the knowledge of Radiation Acute Syndrome radiopathological picture, whole body x-rays irradiation at 2Gy of a primate (Cebus apella paraguayanus) used as model has been performed. Early evaluations of clinical symptoms and dose and damage biological indicators have shown that this primate has given out similar responses to those of man. (author)

  11. Preliminary early evaluation of radiation acute syndrome severity in an animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimenez, J.C.; Nasazzi, N.B.; Taja, M.R. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, (Argentina); Nagle, C. [Centro de Educacion Medica e Investigaciones Clinicas (Argentina); Dubner, D. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, (Argentina); Di Rizzio, C. [Academia Nacional de Medicina (Argentina)

    1992-07-01

    To improve the knowledge of Radiation Acute Syndrome radiopathological picture, whole body x-rays irradiation at 2Gy of a primate (Cebus apella paraguayanus) used as model has been performed. Early evaluations of clinical symptoms and dose and damage biological indicators have shown that this primate has given out similar responses to those of man. (author)

  12. Interaction of radiation, Dihydroxyanthraquinone, and Adriamycin on the induction of acute lethality in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimler, B.F.; Cox, G.G.; Reddy, E.K.

    1984-01-01

    The acute lethality induced by combinations of radiation, Dihydroxyanthraquinone (DHAQ), and Adriamycin (ADR) was investigated in mice. Whole-body irradiation produced acute lethality, with an LD-50/30 of approximately 6.5 Gy. ADR and DHAQ produced LD-50/30's of 14 and 4 mg/kg, respectively. When 10 mg/kg doses were fractionated into 5 x 2 mg/kg daily doses, both drugs were equally or more efficient at producing mortality, 90% by day 30. When 4 Gy radiation was combined with 5 mg/kg ADR or 5 mg/kg DHAQ, a response no greater than that produced by drug alone was obtained. However, when 5 mg/kg ADR was administered concomitantly with 5 mg/kg DHAQ, there was a less-than-additive induction of lethality, resulting in only 21% mortality by day 20. ADR and DHAQ (at doses of 5 mg/kg) were combined but with a 1 day interval between drugs, the protective effect was lost and animals died earlier than after either agent alone. At present, no definite explanation is available for this unusual protective effect of ADR against acute lethality induced by DHAQ

  13. Radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouffler, S.D.; Silver, A.R.J.; Cox, R. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Ample epidemiological studies of human populations implicate ionizing radiation as a carcinogen and these quantitative studies provide the foundation for the core estimates of radiation cancer risk. The majority of the epidemiological data originate from situations of radiation exposure at high dose and high dose rate. The relevance of risk estimates based on such exposures to the more commonly encountered low dose and dose rate situation has been questioned frequently. Thus, there is a need to investigate and quantitate low dose and dose rate effects. A number of approaches may be considered, for example, very large scale epidemiology, very large scale animal experimentation; however, both of these present problems of a practical and/or ethical nature. A further possible approach is that of mechanistic modelling. This requires a fairly detailed understanding of neoplastic disease and how it develops post-irradiation. Many factors and variables have to be taken into consideration in mechanistic modelling approaches. Testing of mechanistic modelling schemes is best carried out using animal model systems. Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a radiogenic cancer of significance in man and several good mouse models of the disease are available. Here, recent studies conducted at NRPB with the aim of elucidating the post-irradiation development of AML will be discussed. In particular three areas critical for developing a sound mechanistic model will be covered, definition of the initiating event; study of disease progression, this addresses the question of the frequency of conversion of initiated cells into the neoplastic state and the influence of genetic background on leukaemogenesis. (author)

  14. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor in the Treatment of Acute Radiation Syndrome: A Concise Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Hofer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article concisely summarizes data on the action of one of the principal and best known growth factors, the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, in a mammalian organism exposed to radiation doses inducing acute radiation syndrome. Highlighted are the topics of its real or anticipated use in radiation accident victims, the timing of its administration, the possibilities of combining G-CSF with other drugs, the ability of other agents to stimulate endogenous G-CSF production, as well as of the capability of this growth factor to ameliorate not only the bone marrow radiation syndrome but also the gastrointestinal radiation syndrome. G-CSF is one of the pivotal drugs in the treatment of radiation accident victims and its employment in this indication can be expected to remain or even grow in the future.

  15. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS – treatment of the reduced host defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heslet L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lars Heslet1, Christiane Bay2, Steen Nepper-Christensen31Serendex ApS, Gentofte; 2University of Copenhagen, Medical Faculty, Copenhagen; 3Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Otorhinolaryngology, Køge University Hospital, Køge, DenmarkBackground: The current radiation threat from the Fukushima power plant accident has prompted rethinking of the contingency plan for prophylaxis and treatment of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS. The well-documented effect of the growth factors (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [G-CSF] and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF] in acute radiation injury has become standard treatment for ARS in the United States, based on the fact that growth factors increase number and functions of both macrophages and granulocytes.Methods: Review of the current literature.Results: The lungs have their own host defense system, based on alveolar macrophages. After radiation exposure to the lungs, resting macrophages can no longer be transformed, not even during systemic administration of growth factors because G-CSF/GM-CSF does not penetrate the alveoli. Under normal circumstances, locally-produced GM-CSF receptors transform resting macrophages into fully immunocompetent dendritic cells in the sealed-off pulmonary compartment. However, GM-CSF is not expressed in radiation injured tissue due to defervescence of the macrophages. In order to maintain the macrophage’s important role in host defense after radiation exposure, it is hypothesized that it is necessary to administer the drug exogenously in order to uphold the barrier against exogenous and endogenous infections and possibly prevent the potentially lethal systemic infection, which is the main cause of death in ARS.Recommendation: Preemptive treatment should be initiated after suspected exposure of a radiation dose of at least ~2 Gy by prompt dosing of 250–400 µg GM-CSF/m2 or 5 µg/kg G-CSF administered systemically and concomitant inhalation of

  16. Microwave hyperthermia as an adjuvant to radiation therapy. Summary experience of 256 multifraction treatment cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicher, H.I.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis is presented of a series of 256 human tumors treated under multifraction protocol regimes with standard controlled hyperthermia parameters and increasing doses of radiation therapy. Air cooled microwave applicators intracavitary and interstitial antennae operating at 915 or 300 MHz were used in various sites. Temperatures were measured by micro-thermocouples. Minimum tumor temperatures of 42 0 C were maintained at 1 hour, twice weekly. Treatment included a radiation dose of 1600-1700 rads. Tumor response was 94% with 60% or more total response. Frequency and duration of total responses depended mainly on the radiation dose. Skin tumors, melanomas, chest wall recurrences responded better than head and neck or intrapelvic recurrences. Side effects observed were minor burns; proctitis or oesophagitis with intracavitary devices; ulcerations or fistulae due to rapid tumor regression; 4 cases of pleuritis treating chest wall. Overall toxicity was less than 5%. In conclusion: 1) Combination heat-low dose radiation offers good palliation. 2) Response depends on radiation dose. 3) Combination of full dose radiation therapy plus hyperthermia proves to be well tolerated

  17. Clinical report of one case of intestinal form of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Changlin; Qiao Jianhui; Luo Weidong; Guo Mei; Wang Danhong; Sun Qiyun; Zhang Shi; Chen Jiankui; Li Xiaobing; Ai Huisheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the irradiation course, estimation of radiation dosage, clinical course, diagnosis and treatment of the patient A in a 60 Co radiation accident on October 21, 2004 in Jining, Shandong Province, China. Methods: According to the simulated test of the scene, chromosome aberration analysis, clinical course and tooth enamel ESR measurement, the total body dose of A was 20-25 Gy and diagnosed as intestinal form of acute radiation sickness. The patient was transferred to our hospital on day 3 post- irradiation, total environmental protection (TEP), antibiotics and emergency HLA-typing from his elder sister were given. On day 7 HLA haplo-identical peripheral blood stem cell transplantation was performed. Results: On day 10 post-transplant (+ 10 d), the counts of WBC began to increase and up to 5.1 x 10 9 /L on + 12 d. Bone marrow feature showed hematopoietic recovery of the three lineage blood cells. Continuous detection of the implantation ratio of donor's cells by STR-PCR showed stable 100% donor-derived chimera. On day 13, severe acute peritonitis and intestinal obstruction occurred; imipenem was much effective to control intestinal bacteria infection. Three days later, hematopoiesis reconstructed rapidly, peritonitis and intestinal obstruction were cured. On day 19, chest X-ray picture and CT scanning suggested that pulmonary mixed infection of bacteria and fungi appeared. The most severe skin irradiation burn damage occurred on day 25 which occupied the 14% of whole body skin surface. The functions of lung, heart and kidney were deteriorated sequentially. On day 30, tracheotomy had to be conducted and respirator was used. The patient died of multiple organ failure (MOF) on day 33. Conclusions: Patient A was exposed to relative well-distributed high dose and high dose rate of irradiation up to 20-25 Gy. This is the first case report of successful HLA haplo-identical peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for intestinal form of acute

  18. Whole acute toxicity removal from industrial and domestic effluents treated by electron beam radiation: emphasis on anionic surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.C.F.; Romanelli, M.F; Sena, H.C.; Pasqualini da Silva, G.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Borrely, S.I.

    2004-01-01

    Electron beam radiation has been applied to improve real industrial and domestic effluents received by Suzano wastewater treatment plant. Radiation efficacy has been evaluated as toxicity reduction, using two biological assays. Three sites were sampled and submitted for toxicity assays, anionic surfactant determination and electron beam irradiation. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity for both test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. The raw toxic effluents exibitted from 0.6 ppm up to 11.67 ppm for anionic surfactant before being treated by the electron beam. Radiation processing resulted in reduction of the acute toxicity as well as surfactant removal. The final biological effluent was in general less toxic than other sites but the presence of anionic surfactants was evidenced

  19. Whole acute toxicity removal from industrial and domestic effluents treated by electron beam radiation: emphasis on anionic surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, M.C.F. E-mail: mariacristinafm@uol.com.br; Romanelli, M.F; Sena, H.C.; Pasqualini da Silva, G.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Borrely, S.I

    2004-10-01

    Electron beam radiation has been applied to improve real industrial and domestic effluents received by Suzano wastewater treatment plant. Radiation efficacy has been evaluated as toxicity reduction, using two biological assays. Three sites were sampled and submitted for toxicity assays, anionic surfactant determination and electron beam irradiation. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity for both test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. The raw toxic effluents exibitted from 0.6 ppm up to 11.67 ppm for anionic surfactant before being treated by the electron beam. Radiation processing resulted in reduction of the acute toxicity as well as surfactant removal. The final biological effluent was in general less toxic than other sites but the presence of anionic surfactants was evidenced.

  20. Diminution of acute radiation reaction of mouse skin with low-intensity infrared laser/red diodes-emitted light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshcherikova, V.V.; Klimakov, B.D.; Goldobenko, G.V.; Vajnson, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Efficiency of the application of different regimes of laser treatment of radiation-induced skin reactions in mice feet is compared. Posterior limb feet of mice were exposed to acute X radiation at 30-36 Gy dose or fractionated radiation at 45 Gy dose. In the day of primary irradiation or different time later the feet were treated using magnetic infrared laser therapeutic MILTA-01 apparatus. Magnetic and light components of the MILTA-01 apparatus reduce the effect of radiation on mice skin corresponding two time decrease in X-radiation dose [ru

  1. Feasibility and Acute Toxicity of Hypofractionated Radiation in Large-breasted Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, Paige L.; Corbin, Kimberly S.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Hasan, Yasmin; Chmura, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of and acute toxicity associated with hypofractionated whole breast radiation (HypoRT) after breast-conserving surgery in patients excluded from or underrepresented in randomized trials comparing HypoRT with conventional fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: A review was conducted of all patients consecutively treated with HypoRT at University of Chicago. All patients were treated to 42.56 Gy in 2.66 Gy daily fractions in either the prone or supine position. Planning was performed in most cases using wedges and large segments or a “field-in-field” technique. Breast volume was estimated using volumetric measurements of the planning target volume (PTV). Dosimetric parameters of heterogeneity (V105, V107, V110, and maximum dose) were recorded for each treatment plan. Acute toxicity was scored for each treated breast. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 78 patients were treated to 80 breasts using HypoRT. Most women were overweight or obese (78.7%), with a median body mass index of 29.2 kg/m 2 . Median breast volume was 1,351 mL. Of the 80 treated breasts, the maximum acute skin toxicity was mild erythema or hyperpigmentation in 70.0% (56/80), dry desquamation in 21.25% (17/80), and focal moist desquamation in 8.75% (7/80). Maximum acute toxicity occurred after the completion of radiation in 31.9% of patients. Separation >25 cm was not associated with increased toxicity. Breast volume was the only patient factor significantly associated with moist desquamation on multivariable analysis (p = 0.01). Patients with breast volume >2,500 mL experienced focal moist desquamation in 27.2% of cases compared with 6.34% in patients with breast volume 25 cm and in patients with large breast volume when employing modern planning and positioning techniques. We recommend counseling regarding expected increases in skin toxicity in women with a PTV volume >2,500 mL.

  2. Feasibility and Acute Toxicity of Hypofractionated Radiation in Large-breasted Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, Paige L., E-mail: pdorn@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States); Corbin, Kimberly S.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Hasan, Yasmin; Chmura, Steven J. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of and acute toxicity associated with hypofractionated whole breast radiation (HypoRT) after breast-conserving surgery in patients excluded from or underrepresented in randomized trials comparing HypoRT with conventional fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: A review was conducted of all patients consecutively treated with HypoRT at University of Chicago. All patients were treated to 42.56 Gy in 2.66 Gy daily fractions in either the prone or supine position. Planning was performed in most cases using wedges and large segments or a 'field-in-field' technique. Breast volume was estimated using volumetric measurements of the planning target volume (PTV). Dosimetric parameters of heterogeneity (V105, V107, V110, and maximum dose) were recorded for each treatment plan. Acute toxicity was scored for each treated breast. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 78 patients were treated to 80 breasts using HypoRT. Most women were overweight or obese (78.7%), with a median body mass index of 29.2 kg/m{sup 2}. Median breast volume was 1,351 mL. Of the 80 treated breasts, the maximum acute skin toxicity was mild erythema or hyperpigmentation in 70.0% (56/80), dry desquamation in 21.25% (17/80), and focal moist desquamation in 8.75% (7/80). Maximum acute toxicity occurred after the completion of radiation in 31.9% of patients. Separation >25 cm was not associated with increased toxicity. Breast volume was the only patient factor significantly associated with moist desquamation on multivariable analysis (p = 0.01). Patients with breast volume >2,500 mL experienced focal moist desquamation in 27.2% of cases compared with 6.34% in patients with breast volume <2,500 mL (p = 0.03). Conclusions: HypoRT is feasible and safe in patients with separation >25 cm and in patients with large breast volume when employing modern planning and positioning techniques. We recommend counseling regarding expected increases in skin toxicity in women

  3. Impact of Bone Marrow Radiation Dose on Acute Hematologic Toxicity in Cervical Cancer: Principal Component Analysis on High Dimensional Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun Liang; Messer, Karen; Rose, Brent S.; Lewis, John H.; Jiang, Steve B.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Mundt, Arno J.; Mell, Loren K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To study the effects of increasing pelvic bone marrow (BM) radiation dose on acute hematologic toxicity in patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy, using a novel modeling approach to preserve the local spatial dose information. Methods and Materials: The study included 37 cervical cancer patients treated with concurrent weekly cisplatin and pelvic radiation therapy. The white blood cell count nadir during treatment was used as the indicator for acute hematologic toxicity. Pelvic BM radiation dose distributions were standardized across patients by registering the pelvic BM volumes to a common template, followed by dose remapping using deformable image registration, resulting in a dose array. Principal component (PC) analysis was applied to the dose array, and the significant eigenvectors were identified by linear regression on the PCs. The coefficients for PC regression and significant eigenvectors were represented in three dimensions to identify critical BM subregions where dose accumulation is associated with hematologic toxicity. Results: We identified five PCs associated with acute hematologic toxicity. PC analysis regression modeling explained a high proportion of the variation in acute hematologicity (adjusted R 2 , 0.49). Three-dimensional rendering of a linear combination of the significant eigenvectors revealed patterns consistent with anatomical distributions of hematopoietically active BM. Conclusions: We have developed a novel approach that preserves spatial dose information to model effects of radiation dose on toxicity, which may be useful in optimizing radiation techniques to avoid critical subregions of normal tissues. Further validation of this approach in a large cohort is ongoing.

  4. Association of Acute Radiation Syndrome and Rain after the Bombings in Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, K; Sakata, R; Cullings, H M; Grant, E J

    2016-06-01

    Acute radiation-induced symptoms reported in survivors after the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been suspected to be associated with rain that fell after the explosions, but this association has not been evaluated in an epidemiological study that considers the effects of the direct dose from the atomic bombs and other factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate this association using information from a fixed cohort, comprised of 93,741 members of the Life Span Study who were in the city at the time of the bombing. Information on acute symptoms and exposure to rain was collected in surveys conducted by interviewers, primarily in the 1950s. The proportion of survivors developing severe epilation was around 60% at levels of direct radiation doses of 3 Gy or higher and less than 0.2% at levels <0.005 Gy regardless of reported rain exposure status. The low prevalence of acute symptoms at low direct doses indicates that the reported fallout rain was not homogeneously radioactive at a level sufficient to cause a substantial probability of acute symptoms. We observed that the proportion of reported acute symptoms was slightly higher among those who reported rain exposure in some subgroups, however, suggestions that rain was the cause of these reported symptoms are not supported by analyses specific to the known areas of radioactive fallout. Misclassification of exposure and outcome, including symptoms due to other causes and recall bias, appears to be a more plausible explanation. However, the insufficient and retrospective nature of the available data limited our ability to quantify the attribution to those possible causes.

  5. Comparison of conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapy techniques for treatment of pelvic tumors. Analysis of acute toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrigno, Robson; Santos, Adriana; Martins, Lidiane C; Weltman, Eduardo; Chen, Michael J; Sakuraba, Roberto; Lopes, Cleverson P; Cruz, José C

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective analysis reports on the comparative outcome of acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities between conformal radiation therapy (CRT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques in the treatment of patients with pelvic tumors. From January 2002 to December 2008, 69 patients with pelvic tumors underwent whole pelvic CRT and 65 underwent whole pelvic IMRT to treat pelvic lymph nodes and primary tumor regions. Total dose to the whole pelvis ranged from 50 to 50.4 Gy in 25 to 28 daily fractions. Chemotherapy (CT) regimen, when employed, was based upon primary tumor. Acute GI and GU toxicities were graded by RTOG/EORTC acute radiation morbidity criteria. Absence of GI symptoms during radiotherapy (grade 0) was more frequently observed in the IMRT group (43.1% versus 8.7; p < 0.001) and medication for diarrhea (Grade 2) was more frequently used in the CRT group (65.2% versus 38.5%; p = 0.002). Acute GI grade 1 and 3 side effects incidence was similar in both groups (18.5% versus 18.8%; p = 0.95 and 0% versus 7.2%; p = 0.058, respectively). Incidence of GU toxicity was similar in both groups (grade 0: 61.5% versus 66.6%, p = 0.54; grade 1: 20% versus 8.7%, p = 0.06; grade 2: 18.5% versus 23.5%, p = 0.50 and grade 3: 0% versus 1.5%, p > 0.99). This comparative case series shows less grade 2 acute GI toxicity in patients treated with whole pelvic IMRT in comparison with those treated with CRT. Incidence of acute GU toxicity was similar in both groups

  6. The pitfalls of treating anorectal conditions after radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thornhill, J A

    2012-03-01

    We present a salutary lesson learned from three cases with significant complications that followed anorectal intervention in the presence of radiation proctitis due to prior radiotherapy for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. After apparent routine rubber band ligation for painful haemorrhoids, one patient developed a colo-cutaneous fistula. Following laser coagulation for radiation proctitis, one patient required a pelvic exenteration for a fistula, while another developed a rectal stenosis. Those diagnosing and treating colonic conditions should be mindful of the increased prevalence of patients who have had radiotherapy for prostate cancer and the potential for complications in treating these patients.

  7. Overview of Graphical User Interface for ARRBOD (Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose Projection)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hu, Shaowen; Nounu, Hatem N.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    Solar particle events (SPEs) pose the risk of acute radiation sickness (ARS) to astronauts, because organ doses from large SPEs may reach critical levels during extra vehicular activities (EVAs) or lightly shielded spacecraft. NASA has developed an organ dose projection model of Baryon transport code (BRYNTRN) with an output data processing module of SUMDOSE, and a probabilistic model of acute radiation risk (ARR). BRYNTRN code operation requires extensive input preparation, and the risk projection models of organ doses and ARR take the output from BRYNTRN as an input to their calculations. With a graphical user interface (GUI) to handle input and output for BRYNTRN, these response models can be connected easily and correctly to BRYNTRN in a user friendly way. The GUI for the Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose (ARRBOD) projection code provides seamless integration of input and output manipulations required for operations of the ARRBOD modules: BRYNTRN, SUMDOSE, and the ARR probabilistic response model. The ARRBOD GUI is intended for mission planners, radiation shield designers, space operations in the mission operations directorate (MOD), and space biophysics researchers. Assessment of astronauts organ doses and ARS from the exposure to historically large SPEs is in support of mission design and operation planning to avoid ARS and stay within the current NASA short-term dose limits. The ARRBOD GUI will serve as a proof-of-concept for future integration of other risk projection models for human space applications. We present an overview of the ARRBOD GUI product, which is a new self-contained product, for the major components of the overall system, subsystem interconnections, and external interfaces.

  8. Packing effects on the intracavitary radiation therapy of the uterine cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jung Kun; Lee, Du Hyun; Si, Chang Kun; Choi, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Tae Yoon

    2004-01-01

    Purpose of the radio-therapy is maximize the radiation dose to the tumor while minimizing the dose to the critical organ. Carcinoma of the uterine cervix treatment are external irradiation or an interstitial brachytherapy make use of isotope. Brachytherapy is a method of radiotherapy in advantage to achieve better local control with minimum radiation toxicity in comparison with external irradiation because radiation dose is distributed according to the inverse square low of gamma-ray emitted from the implanted sources. Authors make use of the patients data which 192 Ir gives medical treatment intracavity. Intracavitary radiation of the uterine cervix cancer, critical organ take 20% below than exposure dose of A point in the ICRU report. None the less of the advice, Radiation proctitis and radiation cystitis are frequent and problematic early complications in patients treated with radiation for the uterine cervix cancer. In brachytherapy of uterine cervical cancer using a high dose rate remote afterloading system, it is of prime importance to deliver a accurate dose in each fractionated treatment by minimizing the difference between the pre-treatment planned and post-treatment calculated doses. Use of packing to reduce late complications intracavitary radiation of the uterine cervix cancer. Bladder and rectum changes exposure dose rate by radiotherapy make use of packing.

  9. Studies of adaptive response and mutation induction in MCF-10A cells following exposure to chronic or acute ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manesh, Sara Shakeri; Sangsuwan, Traimate; Wojcik, Andrzej; Haghdoost, Siamak, E-mail: Siamak.haghdoost@su.se

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • 50 mGy at 1.4 mGy/h induces adaptive response in MCF-10A at mutation level. • Low dose rate γ-radiation does not induce adaptive response at survival level. • Overall, a dose rate effect is absent at the level of mutation in MCF-10A cells. - Abstract: A phenomenon in which exposure to a low adapting dose of radiation makes cells more resistant to the effects of a subsequent high dose exposure is termed radio-adaptive response. Adaptive response could hypothetically reduce the risk of late adverse effects of chronic or acute radiation exposures in humans. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of such responses is of relevance for radiation protection as well as for the clinical applications of radiation in medicine. However, due to the variability of responses depending on the model system and radiation condition, there is a need to further study under what conditions adaptive response can be induced. In this study, we analyzed if there is a dose rate dependence for the adapting dose, assuming that the adapting dose induces DNA response/repair pathways that are dose rate dependent. MCF-10A cells were exposed to a 50 mGy adapting dose administered acutely (0.40 Gy/min) or chronically (1.4 mGy/h or 4.1 mGy/h) and then irradiated by high acute challenging doses. The endpoints of study include clonogenic cell survival and mutation frequency at X-linked hprt locus. In another series of experiment, cells were exposed to 100 mGy and 1 Gy at different dose rates (acutely and chronically) and then the mutation frequencies were studied. Adaptive response was absent at the level of clonogenic survival. The mutation frequencies were significantly decreased in the cells pre-exposed to 50 mGy at 1.4 mGy/h followed by 1 Gy acute exposure as challenging dose. Importantly, at single dose exposures (1 Gy or 100 mGy), no differences at the level of mutation were found comparing different dose rates.

  10. Double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of 5-ASA suppositories in active distal proctitis and measurement of extent of spread using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled 5-ASA suppositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.N.; Haber, G.; Aquino, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Patients with active distal proctitis received either 5-aminosalicylic (5-ASA) acid or identical placebo suppositories, 500 mg t.i.d. for 6 weeks. Activity at 3 and 6 wks was assessed using a Disease Activity Index (DAI), derived from four categories: number of daily evacuations more than usual, evacuations containing blood, sigmoidoscopy appearance, and physician's overall assessment. Each category was graded 0-3. There was thus 0-12 points scored ranging from complete remission to severe disease. A minimum score of 3 from two categories was necessary for study entry. Of 27 patients randomized, 14 received active medication and 13 placebo. Of the 14 patients, with initial mean DAI 7.1 +/- 1.8, 11 were in complete remission at 6 wks (78.6%). Whereas, there was no significant change in the placebo group, with initial mean DAI 7.1 +/- 1.8. An additional 6 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and 6 healthy volunteers were given /sup 99m/Tc-labelled 5-aminosalicylic acid suppositories. The extent of spread was limited to the rectum, and the suppositories were retained for 3 hours. There was no absorbed radioactivity. 5-ASA suppositories are safe, well-tolerated, and effective treatment for active distal proctitis

  11. Double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of 5-ASA suppositories in active distal proctitis and measurement of extent of spread using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled 5-ASA suppositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C.N.; Haber, G.; Aquino, J.A.

    1987-12-01

    Patients with active distal proctitis received either 5-aminosalicylic (5-ASA) acid or identical placebo suppositories, 500 mg t.i.d. for 6 weeks. Activity at 3 and 6 wks was assessed using a Disease Activity Index (DAI), derived from four categories: number of daily evacuations more than usual, evacuations containing blood, sigmoidoscopy appearance, and physician's overall assessment. Each category was graded 0-3. There was thus 0-12 points scored ranging from complete remission to severe disease. A minimum score of 3 from two categories was necessary for study entry. Of 27 patients randomized, 14 received active medication and 13 placebo. Of the 14 patients, with initial mean DAI 7.1 +/- 1.8, 11 were in complete remission at 6 wks (78.6%). Whereas, there was no significant change in the placebo group, with initial mean DAI 7.1 +/- 1.8. An additional 6 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and 6 healthy volunteers were given /sup 99m/Tc-labelled 5-aminosalicylic acid suppositories. The extent of spread was limited to the rectum, and the suppositories were retained for 3 hours. There was no absorbed radioactivity. 5-ASA suppositories are safe, well-tolerated, and effective treatment for active distal proctitis.

  12. Probable reasons for the lower effectiveness of remedies for early treatment of acute radiation sickness accompanied by combination of radiation and thermal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budagov, R.S.; Ul'yanova, L.P.

    2001-01-01

    Mechanism underlying a lower effectiveness of remedies for early treatment of acute radiation sickness in the case of combined radiation and thermal injuries are studied. Experiments were carried out on mice. Animals had been subjected to either a 3B degree thermal burn covering 10% of the body surface or a single whole body gamma-irradiation of 7 Gy dose or a combined injury (radiation exposure + burn), and changes of the blood serum level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) were investigated by means of ELISA kits. Modifying influence of remedies for early therapy (a synthetic analogue of dicorynomycolate trehalose and a preparation based on killed Lacobacillus acidophilus) on the endogenous serum level of IL-6 and on the 30-day survival was evaluated. In accordance with the degree and duration of increased levels of IL-6 in blood serum, the investigated groups of animals were ranged as follows: combined action > burn only > irradiation only. L. acidophilus based preparation rendered a transient modifying action on the IL-6 level at the combined injury and contributed to increasing the 30-day survival. Lower effectiveness of remedies for early treatment of acute radiation sickness may be associated with too excessive levels of IL-6 in the blood serum [ru

  13. Mometasone Furoate Cream Reduces Acute Radiation Dermatitis in Patients Receiving Breast Radiation Therapy: Results of a Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindley, Andrew; Zain, Zakiyah; Wood, Lisa; Whitehead, Anne; Sanneh, Alison; Barber, David; Hornsby, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We wanted to confirm the benefit of mometasone furoate (MF) in preventing acute radiation reactions, as shown in a previous study (Boström et al, Radiother Oncol 2001;59:257-265). Methods and Materials: The study was a double-blind comparison of MF with D (Diprobase), administered daily from the start of radiation therapy for 5 weeks in patients receiving breast radiation therapy, 40 Gy in 2.67-Gy fractions daily over 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was mean modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score. Results: Mean RTOG scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.046). Maximum RTOG and mean erythema scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.018 and P=.012, respectively). The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score was significantly less for MF than for D at weeks 4 and 5 when corrected for Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) questionnaire scores. Conclusions: MF cream significantly reduces radiation dermatitis when applied to the breast during and after radiation therapy. For the first time, we have shown a significantly beneficial effect on quality of life using a validated instrument (DLQI), for a topical steroid cream. We believe that application of this cream should be the standard of care where radiation dermatitis is expected

  14. Mometasone Furoate Cream Reduces Acute Radiation Dermatitis in Patients Receiving Breast Radiation Therapy: Results of a Randomized Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindley, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.hindley@lthtr.nhs.uk [Rosemere Cancer Centre, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston (United Kingdom); Zain, Zakiyah [College of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah (Malaysia); Wood, Lisa [Department of Social Sciences, Lancaster Medical School, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Whitehead, Anne [Medical and Pharmaceutical Statistics Research Unit, Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Sanneh, Alison; Barber, David; Hornsby, Ruth [Rosemere Cancer Centre, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: We wanted to confirm the benefit of mometasone furoate (MF) in preventing acute radiation reactions, as shown in a previous study (Boström et al, Radiother Oncol 2001;59:257-265). Methods and Materials: The study was a double-blind comparison of MF with D (Diprobase), administered daily from the start of radiation therapy for 5 weeks in patients receiving breast radiation therapy, 40 Gy in 2.67-Gy fractions daily over 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was mean modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score. Results: Mean RTOG scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.046). Maximum RTOG and mean erythema scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.018 and P=.012, respectively). The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score was significantly less for MF than for D at weeks 4 and 5 when corrected for Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) questionnaire scores. Conclusions: MF cream significantly reduces radiation dermatitis when applied to the breast during and after radiation therapy. For the first time, we have shown a significantly beneficial effect on quality of life using a validated instrument (DLQI), for a topical steroid cream. We believe that application of this cream should be the standard of care where radiation dermatitis is expected.

  15. Acute cataract in the rat after exposure to radiation in the 300 nm wavelength region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederberg, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental and epidemiological data indicate a correlation between exposure to UV radiation and cataract morbidity. UV radiation induced cataract is thought to be evoked by photochemical mechanisms. The present investigation resolves the macroscopical events in the rat lens after a one dose exposure to spectrally and radiometrically well defined UV radiation, as revealed in light- and dark-field illumination. The macroscopic sequence of events is related to the morphology as revealed by light- and electron microscopy. The radiation was found to alter the chromation pattern and to induce morphological changes indicating a disturbance of the cellular water balance. The latter is assumed to cause the acute UV radiation induced opacification of the lens. It is suggested that future investigations of the toxic effects of UV radiation in the lens should focus on how UV radiation effects the chromatin and the cellular water balance. (author)

  16. Medical Management of Acute Radiation Syndromes : Immunoprophylaxis by Antiradiation Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Vecheslav; Jones, Jeffrey; Casey, Rachael; Kedar, Prasad

    Introduction: Traditionally, the treatment of Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) includes supportive therapy, cytokine therapy, blood component transfusions and even stem cell transplantation. Recommendations for ARS treatment are based on clinical symptoms, laboratory results, radiation exposure doses and information received from medical examinations. However, the current medical management of ARS does not include immune prophylaxis based on antiradiation vaccines or immune therapy with hyperimmune antiradiation serum. Immuneprophylaxis of ARS could result from stimulating the immune system via immunization with small doses of radiation toxins (Specific Radiation Determinants-SRD) that possess significant immuno-stimulatory properties. Methods: Principles of immuno-toxicology were used to derive this method of immune prophylaxis. An antiradiation vaccine containing a mixture of Hematotoxic, Neurotoxic and Non-bacterial (GI) radiation toxins, underwent modification into a toxoid forms of the original SRD radiation toxins. The vaccine was administered to animals at different times prior to irradiation. The animals were subjected to lethal doses of radiation that induced different forms of ARS at LD 100/30. Survival rates and clinical symptoms were observed in both control and vaccine-treated animals. Results: Vaccination with non-toxic doses of Radiation toxoids induced immunity from the elaborated Specific Radiation Determinant (SRD) toxins. Neutralization of radiation toxins by specific antiradiation antibodies resulted in significantly improved clinical symptoms in the severe forms of ARS and observed survival rates of 60-80% in animals subjected to lethal doses of radiation expected to induce different forms of ARS at LD 100/30. The most effective vaccination schedule for the antiradiation vaccine consisted of repeated injections 24 and 34 days before irradiation. The vaccine remained effective for the next two years, although the specific immune memory probably

  17. Development of Graphical User Interface for ARRBOD (Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose Projection)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee; Hu, Shaowen; Nounu, Hatem N.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    The space radiation environment, particularly solar particle events (SPEs), poses the risk of acute radiation sickness (ARS) to humans; and organ doses from SPE exposure may reach critical levels during extra vehicular activities (EVAs) or within lightly shielded spacecraft. NASA has developed an organ dose projection model using the BRYNTRN with SUMDOSE computer codes, and a probabilistic model of Acute Radiation Risk (ARR). The codes BRYNTRN and SUMDOSE, written in FORTRAN, are a Baryon transport code and an output data processing code, respectively. The ARR code is written in C. The risk projection models of organ doses and ARR take the output from BRYNTRN as an input to their calculations. BRYNTRN code operation requires extensive input preparation. With a graphical user interface (GUI) to handle input and output for BRYNTRN, the response models can be connected easily and correctly to BRYNTRN in friendly way. A GUI for the Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose (ARRBOD) projection code provides seamless integration of input and output manipulations, which are required for operations of the ARRBOD modules: BRYNTRN, SUMDOSE, and the ARR probabilistic response model. The ARRBOD GUI is intended for mission planners, radiation shield designers, space operations in the mission operations directorate (MOD), and space biophysics researchers. The ARRBOD GUI will serve as a proof-of-concept example for future integration of other human space applications risk projection models. The current version of the ARRBOD GUI is a new self-contained product and will have follow-on versions, as options are added: 1) human geometries of MAX/FAX in addition to CAM/CAF; 2) shielding distributions for spacecraft, Mars surface and atmosphere; 3) various space environmental and biophysical models; and 4) other response models to be connected to the BRYNTRN. The major components of the overall system, the subsystem interconnections, and external interfaces are described in this

  18. Efficacy of Tsumura Juzentaihoto in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Yamashita, Shoji; Tominaga, Shinichi; Kondo, Makoto; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1985-01-01

    The effect of Tsumura Juzentaihoto (Tsumura No. 48), 7.5 g/day, on the relief of radiation-associated complaints was examined in 22 cancer patients treated with external irradiation of total doses of 50 to 60 Gy. The mean duration of administration of this drug was 95 days. Their complaints included loss of appetite, general fatigue, epigastric discomfort, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and constipation. The rates of remarkable improvement of these complaints were 8.3 % - 16.7 %; the corresponding figures for moderate and slight improvement were 25.0 % - 80.0 % and 20.0 % - 52.9 %, respectively. With regard to overall improvement, two (9 %) of the 22 patients were evaluated as remarkably improved, 10 (45 %) as moderately improved, 6 (27 %) as slightly improved, and 4 (18 %) as unchanged. Diarrhea and rectal bleeding due to radiation proctitis were cured by administration of Tsumura No. 48 alone. None of the patients, except one who refused the medication, appeared to have side effects of this drug. No abnormal hematological or serological findings were observed. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Anorectal Lymphogranuloma Venereum in Madrid: A Persistent Emerging Problem in Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello Úbeda, Alfonso; Fernández Roblas, Ricardo; García Delgado, Rosa; Martínez García, Laura; Sterlin, Fabiola; Fernández Guerrero, Manuel L; Górgolas, Miguel

    2016-07-01

    Since 2003, outbreaks of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) with anorectal syndrome have been increasingly recognized in many Western countries. All of them have been classified as LGV serovar L2b, mainly occurring in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have had sex with men (MSM). We describe a series of 26 diagnosed cases of LGV proctitis in downtown Madrid, Spain, in 2014, after implementing routine diagnostic procedures for this disease in symptomatic MSM. We conducted an observational study of patients with symptomatic proctitis attending an outpatient infectious diseases clinic in Madrid, Spain during calendar year 2014. Clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, and therapeutic data were gathered and analyzed. Twenty-six patients were included in the analysis. All were MSM, and 24 of them were HIV-positive. All patients reported having acute proctitis symptoms including tenesmus (85%), pain (88%), constipation (62%), or anal discharge (96%). Proctoscopy showed mucopurulent exudate (25 patients [96%]), and rectal bleeding, with mucosal erythema and/or oedema in all cases. Rectal swabs were obtained from all patients, and LGV serovar L2 was confirmed in all of them. The cure rate was 100% after standard treatments with doxycycline 100 mg twice per day for 3 weeks. Simultaneous rectal infections with other sexually transmitted pathogens (gonorrhoea, herpes simplex virus, Mycoplasma genitalium) and systemic sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (syphilis, acute HIV, and hepatitis C infections) were also documented in 12 patients (46%), but these co-infections did not appear to influence the clinical manifestations of LGV. Anorectal LGV is a common cause of acute proctitis and proctocolitis among HIV-infected MSM who practice unprotected anal sex, and it is frequently associated with other rectal STDs. The implementation of routine screening and prompt diagnosis of these rectal infections should be mandatory in all clinical settings attended by HIV and STD

  20. Radiation responses of hematopoietic-cells and inducing acute myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojima, Mitsuaki; Hirouchi, Tokuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Leukemia has consistently held the interest of researchers from the beginning of radiation carcinogenesis. One of the major reasons for this interest is the availability of several strains of mice that develop leukemia following radiation exposure after a short latency period that resemble those found in A-Bomb survivors. Previous studies have shown that rAML (Radiation-induced Acute Myeloid Leukemia) in mice show inactivation of Sfpi1 gene and a hemizygous deletion in chromosome 2. Leukemic stem cells in murine rAML have been reported to share some characteristics with common myeloid progenitor cells. In this review, we will discuss the possible mechanisms in the development of rAML stem cells, focusing on the alterations found in the leukemic stem cells and as well as the environment in which these leukemic stem cells are developed, such cytokine expression, as Well as alterations that may be found in other cells residing in the bone marrow. Hematopoietic stem cells respond to radiation exposure both as a single cell and as a part of the differentiating hematopoietic tissue for several months prior to its transformation to a rAML stem cell. It is however unclear how these 2 responses contribute to the development of the rAML stem cell. This review covers previous reports and examines the development of the rAML stem cell in detail. (author)

  1. A proposal for prevention of acute radiation hazard and social panic regarding orphan sources in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahash, T. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto Univ., Osaka (Japan); Kai, M. [Oita Univ., of Nursing and Health Sciences, Oita (Japan); Yamazaki, K. [Chiyoda Technol Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); Gomi, K. [Japan Radioisotope Association, Tokyo (Japan); Nakazato, K. [School of Medicine, Keio univ., Tokyo (Japan); Iida, T. [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    To respond to an increase of social problems concerning orphan sources in Japan, a working group was formed in the Japan Health Physics Society. In this working group, we investigated how to prevent acute radiation hazard or social panic regarding orphan sources in scrap metal and detection system for orphan sources brought into scrap yards before recycle. For detection system in a scrap yard we conducted an experiment on detectability of monitoring instrument using a radiation source mixed in scrap metal on a truck. The result showed that it was not easy to detect even a high-level source if it was shielded by scrap metal. We also estimated detection limits for radioactive materials in scrap metal by calculation that was validated with experimental data. We summarized present status about orphan sources in Japan and proposed a categorization of orphan sources according to dose rates to deal with unknown sources in a scrap yard. Our report includes some proposals to the government, industry and academic world for preventing acute radiation hazard and social panic.

  2. A proposal for prevention of acute radiation hazard and social panic regarding orphan sources in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahash, T.; Kai, M.; Yamazaki, K.; Gomi, K.; Nakazato, K.; Iida, T.

    2002-01-01

    To respond to an increase of social problems concerning orphan sources in Japan, a working group was formed in the Japan Health Physics Society. In this working group, we investigated how to prevent acute radiation hazard or social panic regarding orphan sources in scrap metal and detection system for orphan sources brought into scrap yards before recycle. For detection system in a scrap yard we conducted an experiment on detectability of monitoring instrument using a radiation source mixed in scrap metal on a truck. The result showed that it was not easy to detect even a high-level source if it was shielded by scrap metal. We also estimated detection limits for radioactive materials in scrap metal by calculation that was validated with experimental data. We summarized present status about orphan sources in Japan and proposed a categorization of orphan sources according to dose rates to deal with unknown sources in a scrap yard. Our report includes some proposals to the government, industry and academic world for preventing acute radiation hazard and social panic

  3. Changes in reticulocyte in 2 patients with acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yuan; Chen Jiankui; Zheng Naxin; Kang Shuwei; Jin Xin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of routine blood and reticulocyte parameters in acute radiation sickness(ARS). Methods: Two patients with ARS were analyzed. White blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), platelet count (Plt), reticulocyte count (RET), absolute reticulocyte count, immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF), high fluorescence reticulocytes (HFR), middle fluorescence reticulocytes (MFR), and low fluorescence reticulocytes (LFR) were measured using Sysmex XT-2000i automatic hematology analyzer. Results: During early days after exposure, an increase in WBC, decrease in lymphocyte count, RET and absolute RET were observed, HFR and IRF were zero. After hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, HFR and IRF recovered at first, 1 day before the rise in WBC, 2 days before the rise in RET and absolute RET, and 3 days before the rise in Plt. Conclusion: During early days, WBC, lymphocyte count, RET and absolute RET are related to radiation dose. The rises of WBC, HFR and IRF can reflect marrow recovery after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in ARS. (authors)

  4. On clinics and therapy of acute radiation disease at the recovery period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, G.I.; Ivanov, I.A.; Nikiforov, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    Main features of clinics and therapy of acute radiation disease at the recovery period are described. Search for ways of activization of recovery to improve the efficiency of treatments and to accelerate patients rehabilitation is of great interest for clinical medicine. It is outlined that correction of post-irradiation disorders of energy and plastic metabolism by means of influence on cell metabolism must begin as early as possible already at the initial period of disease

  5. The hematopoietic system of the acute radiation syndrome reconvalescents in post-accidental period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, V.; Dyagil, I.; Yukhimuk, L.; Bilko, N.; Bebeshko, V.; Klimenko, S.; Oberenko, O.

    1996-01-01

    The state of hemopoietic system has been studied since 1986 up to now in 145 patients who had acute radiation sickness after the Chernobyl accident. We studied clinical, morpho functional, histological, ultrastructural, biophysical, cultural, cytochemical indexes of the hematopoietic elements. The connection between hemopoietic microenvironment and hemopoiesis state was put up. The realization of the hematological disorders as myelodysplastic syndrome testified the most important problem in future

  6. The characters and developments of therapy and research of neutron-induced acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinru; Luo Qingliang; Wang Baoqing; Dong Shukui

    2003-01-01

    Neutron radiation will exert seriously lesions on body and lead to acute radiation sickness (ARS). Neutron induced ARS is characterized by complicated symptoms of gastrointestinal, high earlier death rate and lacking of specially therapeutic approaches. The primarily curable method is to treat patients with comprehensive means such as anti-infection, anti-bleeding and blood infusion, et. Cytokines can improve the hematopoietic functions of bone marrow. With the rapid development of the molecular biology and the emergence of cytokines such as recombinant human interleukin-11 that could help the regeneration of the gastrointestinal mucosa, neutron-induced ARS will be treated with new methods

  7. Immunological effects in acute radiation sickness reconvalescents - results of thirteen years of follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, A.A.; Bazyka, D.A.; Belyaeva, N.V.; Azarskova, M.B.; Minchenko, Zh.N.; Pleskach, O.Ya.; Mishchenko, L.P.

    2000-01-01

    For immunological follow-up of people who had suffered from acute radiation sickness in 1986 connected with the Chernobyl NPP accident different immunological reactions were used. Both in the period of early recovery and remote reconvalescence period people had changes in expression of lymphocytes surface antigens, suggesting that even in the cases of satisfactory compensations functional reserves of immune system was narrow. Correlations with absorbed doses and somatic mutations in the locus of T-cell receptor were found. Results of the study suggested that individual characteristics of postirradiation recovery depended both on absorbed doses and genetically determined responses on the radiation hazard

  8. Acute and delayed radiation injuries in the small intestine and colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiss, H.

    1981-01-01

    The group of patients with severe actinic intestinal injuries consists of 67 patients, 46 female and 21 male. The main indication of irradiation were gynaecologic tumours with 67%. The irradiation was carried out with a telekobalt unit combined with radium. From the pathogenetic point of view, acute inflammation and necrobiotic processes in the intestinal mucosa and a restriction of the ability to regenerate are the main radiation-induced acute injuries; delayed injuries are mainly the narrowing and rarefaction of the vessels with lacking capillary budding. The cause of the completely different intervals of up to 26 years until the manifestation of the delayed injury remained unclear. The majority of the delayed symptoms were unspecific; therefore, the danger of misinterpretation was pointed out. A resection with primary anastomosis of the ends of the intestines is the goal to be reached operation-technically. The postoperative complication rate was 45.0%. The most frequent complications were the recurrence of a fistula and the formation of a new fistula, respectively, followed by anastomotic and wound insufficiency, and gastrointestinal bleedings. The postoperative lethality was 18.3%. The causes of death were, according to their frequency, peritonitis, acute failure of the coronary circulation, pneumonia, and massive bleedings. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Dynamics of ceruloplasmin amd of some blood parameters in piglets suffering from acute radiation disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aladzhov, E.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in oxidase activity of ceruloplasmin (CP) were followed up after treatment with gamma rays of 60 Co with a dose of 4 Ey (dose power 0.68 Ey/min) in the blood serum of male piglets of an average life weight of 18+-3 kg. CP level from 217 E/l raised to 376 E/l on the 16th hour after radiation and on the 16th day decreased to 296 e/l. Moreover, serum copper increased from 25 μmol/l to 42.3 μmol/l on the 16th hour following irradiation but on the 14th day its level dropped to 32.5 μmol/l. Erythrocyte and leucocyte count decreased from 5.83x10 12 /l and 19.94x10 12 /l to 2.47x10 12 /l and 2.0x10 9 /l, respectively. Besides, serum albumin decreased, but α-and β-globulins increased. Examination of ailing piglets showed a paraclinical pattern of an inflammatory process by acute radiation disease. CP as an antioxidant participates in reactions with toxic radiacals on radiation. By the rising of its level on radiation it again was characterized as an acute-phase protein. Serum CP was determined according to the method of Ravin using as substrate P-phenylendiamine dihydrochloride; serum copper - by the test of Boehringer Mannheim; serum proteins were studied electrophoretically on agarose gels using veronal buffer, pH 8.6

  10. Argon Plasma Coagulation Therapy Versus Topical Formalin for Intractable Rectal Bleeding and Anorectal Dysfunction After Radiation Therapy for Prostate Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeoh, Eric, E-mail: eric.yeoh@health.sa.gov.au [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Tam, William; Schoeman, Mark [School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Moore, James; Thomas, Michelle [School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Department of Colorectal Surgery, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Botten, Rochelle; Di Matteo, Addolorata [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare the effect of argon plasma coagulation (APC) and topical formalin for intractable rectal bleeding and anorectal dysfunction associated with chronic radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: Thirty men (median age, 72 years; range, 49-87 years) with intractable rectal bleeding (defined as ≥1× per week and/or requiring blood transfusions) after radiation therapy for prostate carcinoma were randomized to treatment with APC (n=17) or topical formalin (n=13). Each patient underwent evaluations of (1) anorectal symptoms (validated questionnaires, including modified Late Effects in Normal Tissues–Subjective, Objective, Management, and Analytic and visual analogue scales for rectal bleeding); (2) anorectal motor and sensory function (manometry and graded rectal balloon distension); and (3) anal sphincteric morphology (endoanal ultrasound) before and after the treatment endpoint (defined as reduction in rectal bleeding to 1× per month or better, reduction in visual analogue scales to ≤25 mm, and no longer needing blood transfusions). Results: The treatment endpoint was achieved in 94% of the APC group and 100% of the topical formalin group after a median (range) of 2 (1-5) sessions of either treatment. After a follow-up duration of 111 (29-170) months, only 1 patient in each group needed further treatment. Reductions in rectal compliance and volumes of sensory perception occurred after APC, but no effect on anorectal symptoms other than rectal bleeding was observed. There were no differences between APC and topical formalin for anorectal symptoms and function, nor for anal sphincteric morphology. Conclusions: Argon plasma coagulation and topical formalin had comparable efficacy in the durable control of rectal bleeding associated with chronic radiation proctitis but had no beneficial effect on anorectal dysfunction.

  11. Argon Plasma Coagulation Therapy Versus Topical Formalin for Intractable Rectal Bleeding and Anorectal Dysfunction After Radiation Therapy for Prostate Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeoh, Eric; Tam, William; Schoeman, Mark; Moore, James; Thomas, Michelle; Botten, Rochelle; Di Matteo, Addolorata

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare the effect of argon plasma coagulation (APC) and topical formalin for intractable rectal bleeding and anorectal dysfunction associated with chronic radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: Thirty men (median age, 72 years; range, 49-87 years) with intractable rectal bleeding (defined as ≥1× per week and/or requiring blood transfusions) after radiation therapy for prostate carcinoma were randomized to treatment with APC (n=17) or topical formalin (n=13). Each patient underwent evaluations of (1) anorectal symptoms (validated questionnaires, including modified Late Effects in Normal Tissues–Subjective, Objective, Management, and Analytic and visual analogue scales for rectal bleeding); (2) anorectal motor and sensory function (manometry and graded rectal balloon distension); and (3) anal sphincteric morphology (endoanal ultrasound) before and after the treatment endpoint (defined as reduction in rectal bleeding to 1× per month or better, reduction in visual analogue scales to ≤25 mm, and no longer needing blood transfusions). Results: The treatment endpoint was achieved in 94% of the APC group and 100% of the topical formalin group after a median (range) of 2 (1-5) sessions of either treatment. After a follow-up duration of 111 (29-170) months, only 1 patient in each group needed further treatment. Reductions in rectal compliance and volumes of sensory perception occurred after APC, but no effect on anorectal symptoms other than rectal bleeding was observed. There were no differences between APC and topical formalin for anorectal symptoms and function, nor for anal sphincteric morphology. Conclusions: Argon plasma coagulation and topical formalin had comparable efficacy in the durable control of rectal bleeding associated with chronic radiation proctitis but had no beneficial effect on anorectal dysfunction

  12. Emergency preparedness of Research Center for Radiation medicine and its hospital to admit and treat the patients with signs of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, D. A.; Khomenko, V. I.; Bebeshko, V. G.

    2009-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the Research Center for Radiation Medicine (RCRM) was established in Kiev (Ukraine). Its main task was to maintain a high level of emergency preparedness and be ready to examine and treat patients who suffer as a result of hypothetical radiation accident. Based on the previous experience, this institution's specialists worked out new diagnostic criteria and drug treatment schemata for acute radiation sickness, created a database on 75 patients with this diagnosis and improved educational programmes for medical students and physicians working in the field of radiation medicine. RCRM collaborates fruitfully with western partners through the joint research projects and connects with the World Health Organisation's Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network centre. Collaboration with Kiev Center for Bone Marrow Transplantation allows RCRM to use aseptic wards having highly filtered air for the treatment of most severely irradiated patients. (authors)

  13. Radiation therapy treatment of acute refractory renal allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godinez, J.; Thisted, R.A.; Woodle, E.S.; Thistlethwaite, J.R.; Powers, C.; Haraf, D.

    1996-01-01

    radiation treatment (median 4, range 1-22), number of transplants (one transplant in 77 %), and concomitant immunosuppressive therapy. Independent factors by the Cox regression model were: Sex (P=0.005), Creatinine levels (P=0.000), HLA-DR (P=0.05), PRA-Max > 70% (P=0.014). Each factor was scored using the integral coefficients to generate four different groups. The overall actuarial graft survival from the initiation of RT was 83% at 1 month, 60% at 1 year and 36% at 5 years. The Kaplan-Meier survival analyzed by groups seems to produce an interpretable separation of the risk factors for graft loss. The number of rejections of pre-RT range from 1-6 (median 2) and post-RT range from 0-3 (median 0). Conclusions: Our experience indicates that radiation therapy provides effective treatment for acute refractory renal allograft rejection. The response to radiation therapy in patients treated with acute refractory renal graft rejection can be predicted by a new scoring system

  14. In vitro effects of recombinant human stem cell factor on hematopoietic cells from patients with acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chuansheng; Cheng Tao; Xu Yanqun

    1994-01-01

    The effects of rhSCF, rhPIXY 321, rhGM-CSF and rhIL-3 on clonal proliferation of hematopoietic cells from five cases of acute radiation sickness were studied. The results showed that rhSCF could stimulate clonal proliferation of normal hematopoietic cells and the best results were obtained when the concentration of rhSCF was 5 x 10 4 ng/L. Clonal proliferation of hematopoietic cells from four cases of acute radiation sickness was stimulated while that from one case was inhibited. Moreover, the responsiveness of cells to rhSCF was correlated with the doses of radiation. Analysis of cell surface antigen, cell morphology and histochemistry revealed that rhSCF promoted predominantly the proliferation of granulocyte-macrophage lineage. rhSCF in combination with other three factors could further enhance the clonal proliferation of hematopoietic cells. The effects of rhPIXY 321, a fusion protein of GM-CSF and IL-3, were also analysed and found it to be a novel valuable hematopoietic growth factor

  15. Empirical study on protective effect of dendrobium candidum wall.ex lindl drop on acute radiation-injuried mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jingping; Zhang Guoqing

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the protective effect of Dendrobium candidum Wall.ex Lindl drop (DCWD) on acute radiation-injuried mice and the correlative mechanism. Methods: According to the body weight BALB/c mice were divided into the control group, radiation-injuried group and DCWD groups which were divided into two groups according to the dose of DCWD. Before whole-body irradiation with 4.0 Gy 6 MV X-rays, the BALB/c mice were supplied with DCWD every day. After being irradiated, these mice were continued to be given DCWD until they were killed. The DNA contents of bone marrow, the CD4 + /CD8 + ratios of peripheral blood and splenic cells, blastation of lymphocyte and the contents of IL-2 were observed. Results: DCWD hasincreased the DNA contents of bone marrow, the ability of blastation of lymphocyte and the IL-2 contents of irradiated mice. It has protected T leukomonocyte by accommodating the hyprotypes of T leukomonocyte. Conclusion: DCWD can protect the acute radiation-injuried mice which relates with protecting the hematopoiesis and the immune function etc. (authors)

  16. Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) and its harmful effects on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanam, Yasmin; Singh, Yogender

    2012-01-01

    After radiation exposure a series of many clinical syndromes appear that is called as Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS). ARS also known as radiation toxicology or radiation sickness. Both low and higher doses radiation exposure on human body cause different types of radiation syndromes. These radiations may be ionizing radiations. X-rays and gamma rays etc. some times neutrons or radionuclides may also be deposited in human body and their effective doses cause major injuries or abnormalities even sometimes death also. ARS consist of a sequence of phased symptoms. These symptoms appear after the radiation exposure for several days to several months or sometimes for a long period or years. ARS depends on the quantity of absorbed radiation dose (rad0). ARS is characterized by an initial prodromal stage of malaise, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Critical effects of ARS are Hematologic, that results infections to low white blood cells (WBC), bleeding due to low platelets and anemia due to low red blood cells (RBC), Gastrointestinal results nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and abdominal pain (exposure doses of 600-1000 rad) and Neurovascular depending on the exposure dose. Neurovascular syndrome typically occurs at exposure doses greater than 1000 rad. It presents with neurological symptoms such as dizziness, headache, or decreased level of consciousness with an absence of vomiting. The clinical course of radiation sickness following a single intensive exposure to whole body radiation is characterized by three successive phases; a prodromal phase, which develops within minutes or hours after exposure, an ensuring latent period, which is relatively asymptomatic; and the main phase of the illness. Complete Blood Count (CBC) are helpful for the diagnosis for ARS. ARS may cause skin damage or loss of epidermis. Person suffering from nausea, vomiting, diarrhea should be admitted to well equipped hospitals or clinics. High exposured persons should be analysed CBC. Their

  17. Psychoneurological character of persons who had acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.; Khalyavka, I.G.; Loganovskij, K.N.; Plachinda, Yu.I.; Yur'ev, K.L.; Loganovskaya, T.K.

    1996-01-01

    Survivors of the Chernobyl accident who had an acute radiation syndrome (ARS,110 persons) were observed for 8 years after Chernobyl accident. It has been found that the cerebrovascular pathology and vertebral osteochondrosis rate increase as well as abnormal psychoorganic changes in personality and endogenic-like psychoorganic process, their rate being in proportion to the ARS heaviness. The EEG and evoked potentials have confirmed the dyscirculatory and toxic-metabolic organic disorders of the central nervous system as a result of irradiation in the remote period of the ARS consequences. It is necessary for early and differential diagnostic of the psychoneurological disorders after ARS to carry out the neuro- and psychophysiological examination as well as computer tomography, nucleic magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography of the brain

  18. Aloe vera oral administration accelerates acute radiation-delayed wound healing by stimulating transforming growth factor-β and fibroblast growth factor production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiba, Ayman; Nishimura, Mayumi; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Hiraoka, Takeshi; Goryo, Masanobu; Shimada, Yoshiya; Ueno, Hiroshi; Uzuka, Yuji

    2011-06-01

    Delayed wound healing is a significant clinical problem in patients who have had previous irradiation. This study investigated the effectiveness of Aloe vera (Av) on acute radiation-delayed wound healing. The effect of Av was studied in radiation-exposed rats compared with radiation-only and control rats. Skin wounds were excised on the back of rats after 3 days of local radiation. Wound size was measured on days 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 after wounding. Wound tissues were examined histologically and the expressions of transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β-1) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were examined by immunohistochemistry and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Wound contraction was accelerated significantly by Av on days 6 and 12 after wounding. Furthermore, the inflammatory cell infiltration, fibroblast proliferation, collagen deposition, angiogenesis, and the expression levels of TGF-β-1 and bFGF were significantly higher in the radiation plus Av group compared with the radiation-only group. These data showed the potential application of Av to improve the acute radiation-delayed wound healing by increasing TGF-β-1 and bFGF production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of acute and subacute genitourinary and gastrointestinal adverse events of radiotherapy for prostate cancer using intensity-modulated radiation therapy, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, permanent implant brachytherapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morimoto, Masahiro; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Konishi, Koji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Yutaka; Ogata, Toshiyuki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Teshima, Teruki; Bijl, Henk P; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Langendijk, Johannes A; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    AIMS AND BACKGROUND: To examine acute and subacute urinary and rectal toxicity in patients with localized prostate cancer monotherapeutically treated with the following four radiotherapeutic techniques: intensity-modulated radiation therapy, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy,

  20. Acute myelogenous leukemia following chemotherapy and radiation for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aso, Teijiro; Hirota, Yuichi; Kondou, Seiji; Matsumoto, Isao; Matsuzaka, Toshimitsu; Iwashita, Akinori

    1989-03-01

    In August 1982, a 44-year-old man was diagnosed as having rectal cancer, histologically diagnosed as well differentiated adenocarcinoma, and abdominoperineal resection and colostomy were performed. Postoperatively, he received chemotherapy with mitomycin C up to a total dose of 100 mg. In September 1986, lung metastasis occurred and he was treated with a combination chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin, pirarubicin and 5-fluorouracil. In the following year, radiation treatment (total: 6900 rad) was given for a recurrent pelvic lesion. Peripheral blood on April 30, 1988, showed anemia, thrombocytopenia and appearance of myeloblasts, and a diagnosis of acute myelogenous leukemia (FAB: M1) was made. Combination chemotherapy (including aclarubicin, vincristine, behenoyl ara-C, daunorubicin, 6-mercaptopurine, cytarabine, etoposide and prednisolone) failed to induce remission and the patient died in June 1988. This case was thought to be one of secondary leukemia occurring after chemotherapy and radiation treatment for rectal cancer. This case clearly indicates the need for a careful follow-up of long-term survivors who have received cancer therapy. (author).

  1. Immunomodulatory effects of high-protein diet with resveratrol supplementation on radiation-induced acute-phase inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ok; Park, HyunJin; Chun, Mison; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2014-09-01

    We hypothesized that a high-protein diet and/or resveratrol supplementation will improve acute inflammatory responses in rats after receiving experimental abdominal radiation treatment (ART). Based on our previous study, the period of 10 days after ART was used as an acute inflammation model. Rats were exposed to a radiation dose of 17.5 Gy and were supplied with a control (C), 30% high-protein diet (HP), resveratrol supplementation (RES), or HP with RES diet ([HP+RES]). At day 10 after ART, we measured profiles of lipids, proteins, and immune cells in blood. The levels of clusters of differentiating 4(+) (CD4(+)) cells and regulatory T cells, serum proinflammatory cytokines, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in urine were also measured. ART caused significant disturbances of lipid profiles by increasing triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and decreasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The proinflammatroy cytokine levels were also increased by ART. All the experimental diets (HP, RES, and [HP+RES]) significantly decreased levels of TG, monocytes, proinflammatory cytokines, and 8-OHdG, whereas the platelet counts were increased. In addition, the HP and [HP+RES] diets decreased the concentrations of plasma LDL-C and total cholesterol. Also, the HP and RES diets decreased regulatory T cells compared with those of the control diet in ART group. Further, the HP diet led to a significant recovery of white blood cell counts, as well as increased percentages of lymphocyte and decreased percentages of neutrophils. In summary, RES appeared to be significantly effective in minimizing radiation-induced damage to lipid metabolism and immune responses. Our study also demonstrated the importance of dietary protein intake in recovering from acute inflammation by radiation.

  2. Radiation diagnosis of pelvic ring damages in acute injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dytalov, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Data on 58 victims with multifocal damages to the pelvic ring were used to examine the diagnostic potentialities of different radiation diagnostic techniques and to compare their resolving power. The later was 65.1, 83.3 and 94.7% in plain and multidimensional X-ray studies, and computed tomography, respectively. Complex of signs is described closed sacral fractures on the plain and oblique pelvic inlet (caudal) radiograms proposed, which could improve the diagnosis of fractures by 8.8 times, and an original orthopedic gauze-plate for the detection and estimation of invisible pelvic bone displacement, and an original procedure for pelvic X-ray study with target load in acute injury. This all can improve the quality of examination of casualties substantially and define indications for different treatments more precise [ru

  3. Ecological effects of various toxic agents on the aquatic microcosm in comparison with acute ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuma, S.; Ishii, N.; Takeda, H.; Miyamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, K.; Ichimasa, Y.; Saito, M.; Kawabata, Z.; Polikarpov, G.G.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was an evaluation of the effect levels of various toxic agents compared with acute doses of ionizing radiation for the experimental model ecosystem, i.e., microcosm mimicking aquatic microbial communities. For this purpose, the authors used the microcosm consisting of populations of the flagellate alga Euglena gracilis as a producer, the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila as a consumer and the bacterium Escherichia coli as a decomposer. Effects of aluminum and copper on the microcosm were investigated in this study, while effects of γ-rays, ultraviolet radiation, acidification, manganese, nickel and gadolinium were reported in previous studies. The microcosm could detect not only the direct effects of these agents but also the community-level effects due to the interspecies interactions or the interactions between organisms and toxic agents. The authors evaluated doses or concentrations of each toxic agent which had the following effects on the microcosm: (1) no effects; (2) recognizable effects, i.e., decrease or increase in the cell densities of at least one species; (3) severe effects, i.e., extinction of one or two species; and (4) destructive effects, i.e., extinction of all species. The resulting effects data will contribute to an ecological risk assessment of the toxic agents compared with acute doses of ionizing radiation

  4. The acute radiation syndrome in the miniature pig Troll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegl, R.

    1986-01-01

    8 animals at an average age of 230 days and an average body weight of 24.9 kg were whole-body gamma-irradiated from a cobalt-60 source with 3.0 Gy midline dose. 4 of the 8 pigs survived, the others died within day 14 and 17 after irradiation, mainly due to thrombopenia dependent hemorrhage. Hematologic examinations showed as well that the platelets decreased to a minimum on day 14 p.r. The granulocyte values and yet remarkable the lymphocyte values decreased at an earlier time. The absolute lymphocyte counts reached their lowest mark already on the first day after irradiation. The reticulocytes, which also decreased markedly on day 1 p.r., sank further on the following days, till after two weeks when they started to increase again. Furthermore 25 biochemical serum parameters have been investigated. The major pathological findings of the acute radiation sickness were the mostly heavy hemorrhages. Histological studies indicated primarily aplasia of bone marrow, intestinal mucosa damages and atrophy of lymphatic tissues. Signs for septicemia were rarely found. The investigations in Troll-pigs showed, their reactions to an irradiation of middle-lethal doses are similar to those of other pigs. Only the Vietnamese pot-bellied swine reacts differently: Profuse diarrheas already after low radiation-doses are reported. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Factors influencing incidence of acute grade 2 morbidity in conformal and standard radiation treatment of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, Gerald E.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Hunt, Margie A.; Epstein, Barry

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The fundament hypothesis of conformal radiation therapy is that tumor control can be increased by using conformal treatment techniques that allow a higher tumor dose while maintaining an acceptable level of complications. To test this hypothesis, it is necessary first to estimate the incidence of morbidity for both standard and conformal fields. In this study, we examine factors that influence the incidence of acute grade 2 morbidity in patients treated with conformal and standard radiation treatment for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Two hundred and forty-seven consecutive patients treated with conformal technique are combined with and compared to 162 consecutive patients treated with standard techniques. The conformal technique includes special immobilization by a cast, careful identification of the target volume in three dimensions, localization of the inferior border of the prostate using the retrograde urethrogram, and individually shaped portals that conform to the Planning Target Volume (PTV). Univariate analysis compares differences in the incidence of RTOG-EORTC grade two acute morbidity by technique, T stage, age, irradiated volume, and dose. Multivariate logistic regression includes these same variables. Results: In nearly all categories, the conformal treatment group experienced significantly fewer acute grade 2 complications than the standard treatment group. Only volume (prostate ± whole pelvis) and technique (conformal vs. standard) were significantly related to incidence of morbidity on multivariate analysis. When dose is treated as a continuous variable (rather than being dichotomized into two levels), a trend is observed on multivariate analysis, but it does not reach significant levels. The incidence of acute grade 2 morbidity in patients 65 years or older is significantly reduced by use of the conformal technique. Conclusion: The conformal technique is associated with fewer grade 2 acute toxicities for all patients. This

  6. Medical Management of Acute Radiation Syndromes : Comparison of Antiradiation Vaccine and Antioxidants radioprotection potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliev, Slava; Popov, Dmitri; Lisenkov, Nikolai

    Introduction: This experimental study of biological effects of the Antiradiation Vaccine and Antioxidants which were used for prophylaxis and treatment of the Acute Radiation Syndromes caused by high doses of the low-LET radiation. An important role of Reactive Oxyden Species (Singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions and bio-radicals)in development of the Acute Radiation Syndromes could be defined as a "central dogma" of radiobiology. Oxida-tion and damages of lipids, proteins, DNA, and RNA are playing active role in development of postradiation apoptosis. However, the therapeutic role of antioxidants in modification of a postradiation injury caused by high doses of radiation remains controversial.Previous stud-ies had revealed that antioxidants did not increase a survival rate of mammals with severe forms of the Acute Radiation Syndromes caused by High Doses of the low-LET radiation. The Antiradiation Vaccine(ARV) contains toxoid forms of the Radiation Toxins(RT) from the Specific Radiation Determinants Group (SRD). The RT SRD has toxic and antigenic prop-erties at the same time and stimulates a specific antibody elaboration and humoral response form activated acquired immune system. The blocking antiradiation antibodies induce an im-munologically specific effect and have inhibiting effects on radiation induced neuro-toxicity, vascular-toxicity, gastrointestinal toxcity, hematopoietic toxicity, and radiation induced cytol-ysis of selected groups of cells that are sensitive to radiation. Methods and materials: Scheme of experiments: 1. Irradiated animals with development of Cerebrovascular ARS (Cv-ARS), Cardiovascular ARS (Cr-ARS) Gastrointestinal ARS(GI-ARS), Hematopoietic ARS (H-ARS) -control -were treated with placebo administration. 2. Irradiated animals were treated with antioxidants prophylaxisis and treatment of Cv-ARS, Cr-SRS, GI-ARS, Hp-ARS forms of the ARS. 3. irradiated animals were treated with radioprotection by Antiradiation Vaccine

  7. [Use of lithium carbonate as a leukocyte stimulant in acute radiation sickness in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konchalovskiĭ, M V; Shishkova, T V; Chotiĭ, V G; Baranov, A E

    1989-03-01

    A total of 50 patients, who had suffered from acute radiation sickness (I-III degree of severity) as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, were followed up for hematological changes. The absorbed dose of relatively even gamma-irradiation assessed by karyometry fluctuated from 0.5 to 5.7 Gy. In 17 of the patients the influence of lithium carbonate on the course of radiation neutropenia was evaluated. No appreciable effect of the agent administration in a dose of 900 mg/patient/day was recorder from 9 to 42 day after irradiation. The authors have also considered the correlations of the values of irradiation doses calculated by varying methods of biological dosimetry.

  8. Biotelemetering study of the mobility of dogs treated with acute radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, K.V.; Sharonin, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    For the investigation of the motoric activity of dogs after gamma irradiation in doses of 350 and 650 R, use was made of a biotelementric (non-contact) method of registration based on the use of standing radio waves. The method permits the determination of the distance covered by the animals in the enclosure during the observation, and the speed of their movement. Using these data as a basis, an analysis is made of spontaneous motoric activity during various periods of the clinical development of acute radiation sickness. (author)

  9. Principles of medical rehabilitation of survivors of acute radiation sickness induced by gamma and beta and gumma and neutron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedejina, N.M.; Galstian, I.A.; Savitsky, A.A.; Sachkov, A.V.; Rtisheva, J.N.; Uvatcheva, I.V.; Filin, S.V. [State Research Center of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biophysics

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the principles of medical rehabilitation different degree acute radiation syndrome (ARS) survivors, who exposed {gamma}{beta}- and {gamma}{eta}-irradiation in different radiation accidents. The main reasons of working disability in the late consequences of ARS period are consequences of local radiation injures (LRI) and joining somatic diseases. Its revealing and treatment considerably improves quality of life of the patients. The heaviest consequence of LRI of a skin at {gamma}{beta}- radiation exposure is the development of late radiation ulcers and radiation fibrosis, which require repeated plastic surgery. LRI at {gamma}{eta}-radiation exposure differ by the greater depth of destruction of a underlying tissues and similar defects require the early amputations. Last 10 years microsurgery methods of plastic surgery allow to save more large segments of extremities and to decrease expression of the late consequences (radiation fibrosis and late radiation ulcers) LRI severe and extremely severe degrees. Medical rehabilitation of radiation cataract (development at doses more than 2.0 Gy) includes its extraction and artificial lens implantation, if acuity of vision is considerably decreased. Changes of peripheral blood, observed at the period of the long consequences, as a rule, different, moderate, transient and not requiring treatment. Only one ARS survivor dead from chronic myeloid leukemia. Thyroid nodes, not requiring operative intervention, are found out in Chernobyl survivors. Within the time course the concurrent somatic disease become the major importance for patients disability growth, which concurrent diseases seem to be unrelated to radiation dose and their structure does not differ from that found in general public of Russia. The rehabilitation of the persons who have transferred ARS as a result of radiating failure, should be directed on restoration of functions critical for ionizing of radiation of bodies and

  10. Pathmorphological investigation of pulmonary infections complications in persons dying from acute radiation sickness after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, P.A.; Kvacheva, Yu.E.

    1993-01-01

    Lungs of 27 persons who participated in liquidation of Chernobyl accident and died from acute radiation sickness were studied histologically. Pulmonary infections were found, including invasion of viral, bacterial and fungal agents. Being depended on hematopoietic function the inflammatory reactions were areactive during postirradiation aplasia and became typical within the recovery beginning

  11. Association of oesophageal radiation dose volume metrics, neutropenia and acute radiation oesophagitis in patients receiving chemoradiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everitt, Sarah; Duffy, Mary; Bressel, Mathias; McInnes, Belinda; Russell, Christine; Sevitt, Tim; Ball, David

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between oesophageal radiation dose volume metrics and dysphagia in patients having chemoradiation (CRT) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is well established. There is also some evidence that neutropenia is a factor contributing to the severity of oesophagitis. We retrospectively analysed acute radiation oesophagitis (ARO) rates and severity in patients with NSCLC who received concurrent chemotherapy and high dose radiation therapy (CRT). We investigated if there was an association between grade of ARO, neutropenia and radiation dose volume metrics. Patients with NSCLC having concurrent CRT who had RT dose and toxicity data available were eligible. Exclusion criteria included previous thoracic RT, treatment interruptions and non-standard dose regimens. RT dosimetrics included maximum and mean oesophageal dose, oesophagus dose volume and length data. Fifty four patients were eligible for analysis. 42 (78 %) patients received 60 Gy. Forty four (81 %) patients received carboplatin based chemotherapy. Forty eight (89 %) patients experienced ARO ≥ grade 1 (95 % CI: 78 % to 95 %). ARO grade was associated with mean dose (r s = 0.27, p = 0.049), V20 (r s = 0.31, p = 0.024) and whole oesophageal circumference receiving 20 Gy (r s = 0.32 p = 0.019). In patients who received these doses, V20 (n = 51, r s = 0.36, p = 0.011), V35 (n = 43, r s = 0.34, p = 0.027) and V60 (n = 25, r s = 0.59, P = 0.002) were associated with RO grade. Eleven of 25 (44 %) patients with ARO ≥ grade 2 also had ≥ grade 2 acute neutropenia compared with 5 of 29 (17 %) patients with RO grade 0 or 1 (p = 0.035). In addition to oesophageal dose-volume metrics, neutropenia may also be a risk factor for higher grades of ARO

  12. Comparison of Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect in QU-DB Cells after Acute and Fractionated Irradiation: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Bahreyni Toossi, Mohammad Taghi; Kamran Samani, Roghayeh; Mohebbi, Shokoufeh

    2016-01-01

    Radiation effects induced in non-irradiated cells are termed radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE). The present study intends to examine the RIBE response of QU-DB bystander cells to first, second and third radiation fractions and compare their cumulative outcome with an equal, single acute dose. This experimental study irradiated three groups of target cells for one, two and three times with(60)Co gamma rays. One hour after irradiation, we transferred their culture media to non-irradiated (bystander) cells. We used the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay to evaluate RIBE response in the bystander cells. The numbers of micronuclei generated in bystander cells were determined. RIBE response to single acute doses increased up to 4 Gy, then decreased, and finally at the 8 Gy dose disappeared. The second and third fractions induced RIBE in bystander cells, except when RIBE reached to the maximum level at the first fraction. We split the 4 Gy acute dose into two fractions, which decreased the RIBE response. However, fractionation of 6 Gy (into two fractions of 3 Gy or three fractions of 2 Gy) had no effect on RIBE response. When we split the 8 Gy acute dose into two fractions we observed RIBE, which had disappeared following the single 8 Gy dose. The impact of dose fractionation on RIBE induced in QU-DB cells de- pended on the RIBE dose-response relationship. Where RIBE increased proportion- ally with the dose, fractionation reduced the RIBE response. In contrast, at high dos- es where RIBE decreased proportionally with the dose, fractionation either did not change RIBE (at 6 Gy) or increased it (at 8 Gy).

  13. Rationale treatment and preventive measures for correction of bone structure in children with acute leukemia, exposed to ionizing radiation due to the Chornobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebeshko, V.G.; Bruslova, K.M.; Tsvjetkova, N.M.; Kopilova, O.V.; Belyingyio, T.O.; Berezovs'kij, S.Ya.; Petrun'ko, M.P.; Boyars'kij, V.G.; Polyans'ka, V.M.; Pushkar'ova, T.Yi.; Myishchenko, L.P.; Volodyina, T.T.

    2014-01-01

    A reduction of bone densitometry, calcium and cortisol levels and increase of serum alkaline phosphatase and urine oxyproline were found in children with acute leukemia in acute I phase and during the chemotherapy. In the period of remission the majority of patients did not differ from the comparison group. The signs of osteopenic syndrome that require monitoring of the bone structure status were revealed in 10.0 % of children of the comparison group. Radiation doses of leukemia patients were 3.66 ± 0.11 mSv. No relationship between radiation dose and indicators that reflect the state of the bone tissue structures has been established. The use of complex health care measures in children with acute leukemia in remission, contributed to the positive effect of 62.0 %. Worser effect was observed in patients with an unfavorable course of the disease. Results of the study of bone tissue metabolism prove fore a change in the organic and mineral matrix in patients with acute leukemia exposed to ionizing radiation as a result of the Chornobyl NPP accident, and persons without hematologic diseases, and the need for treatment and prevention

  14. Assessment of acute and late effects to high-LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakely, E.A.; Castro, J.R.; California Univ., San Francisco, CA

    1994-11-01

    We have begun to reassess late tissue effects available from the Charged Particle Cancer Radiotherapy program at Berkeley. Our quantitative approach is limited in the analysis of these Phase I/II studies by not having equivalent patient numbers for each of the particle beams studied, by not having completely comparable follow-up times, by variations in the sizes of the fields compared, by variations in the skin scoring photographic documentation available from the patient charts, and by variations in the fractionation sizes, numbers and schedules. Despite these limitations, preliminary evidence demonstrates acute skin reactions with a shift to increasing lower dose per fraction per field for the maximum skin reactions of helium, carbon and neon ions compared to electrons. Comparisons with skin reactions from low-energy neutrons indicate that Bragg peak carbon ions (initial energy 308 MeV/nucleon) are slightly less effective than 7.5 MeV neutrons. Bragg peak neon ions (initial energy 670 MeV/nucleon) corrected for differences in reference radiation are slightly more effective than 7.5 MeV neutrons. Bragg peak silicon (initial energy 670 MeV/nucleon) result in an enhanced acute skin reaction, and a premature appearance of late effects that may indicate a significantly different mechanism of damage and/or repair

  15. Surgical treatment of radiation injuries of the colon and rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jao, S.W.; Beart, R.W. Jr.; Gunderson, L.L.

    1986-01-01

    Between 1950 and 1983, radiation-induced proctitis was diagnosed proctoscopically in 720 patients at the Mayo Clinic. Sixty-two patients with severe colorectal symptoms were treated surgically. The interval from cessation of radiotherapy to onset of symptoms ranged from 3 weeks to 24 months (mean 33 months). The 62 patients underwent a total of 143 operations with 8 operative deaths (13 percent), and 40 patients (65 percent) had 61 complications. The morbidity rate was lower after colostomy alone (44 percent in 27 patients) than after more aggressive operations (80 percent in 35 patients). Transverse loop colostomy and descending colostomy were safer than sigmoid colostomy. The dissection adhesions, opening of tissue planes, and careless manipulation of intestine may result in necrosis and perforation of the intestine, bladder, or vaginal wall; these were the main causes of fecal and other internal fistulas in our study

  16. Inhibitory effect of magnesium sulfate on reaction of lipid hyperoxidation after radiation-induced acute brain injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lili; Zhou Juying; Yu Zhiying; Qin Songbing; Xu Xiaoting; Li Li; Tu Yu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the protection of magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ) on radiation-induced acute brain injuries. Methods: 60 maturity Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: blank control group, experimental control group and experimental-therapeutic group. The whole brain of SD rats of experimental control group and experimental-therapeutic group was irradiated to a dose of 20 Gy using 6 MeV electron. MgSO 4 was injected intraperitoneally into the rats of experimental-therapeutic group before and after irradiation for five times. At different time points ranging from the 1 d, 7 d, 14 d, 30 d after irradiation, the brain tissue were taken. The xanthine oxidase and colorimetric examination were used to measure the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) respectively in the rat brain respectively. Results: Compared with blank control group, the SOD in brain of experimental control group decreased significantly (P 4 used in early stage can inhibit the lipid peroxidation after radiation-induced acute brain injuries and alleviate the damage induced by free radicals to brain tissue. (authors)

  17. The Impact of Pretreatment Prostate Volume on Severe Acute Genitourinary Toxicity in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizer, Ayal A.; Anderson, Nicole S.; Oh, Steven C.; Yu, James B.; McKeon, Anne M.; Decker, Roy H.; Peschel, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of pretreatment prostate volume on the development of severe acute genitourinary toxicity in patients undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 2004 and 2007, a consecutive sample of 214 patients who underwent IMRT (75.6 Gy) for prostate cancer at two referral centers was analyzed. Prostate volumes were obtained from computed tomography scans taken during treatment simulation. Genitourinary toxicity was defined using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 3.0 guidelines. Acute toxicity was defined as any toxicity originating within 90 days of the completion of radiation therapy. Patients were characterized as having a small or large prostate depending on whether their prostate volume was less than or greater than 50 cm 3 , respectively. Genitourinary toxicity was compared in these groups using the chi-square or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to further assess the impact of prostate volume on severe (Grade 3) acute genitourinary toxicity. Results: Patients with large prostates (>50 cm 3 ) had a higher rate of acute Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity (p = .02). Prostate volume was predictive of the likelihood of developing acute Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity on bivariate (p = .004) and multivariate (p = .006) logistic regression. Every 27.0 cm 3 increase in prostate volume doubled the likelihood of acute Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity. Conclusions: Patients with larger prostates are at higher risk for the development of severe acute genitourinary toxicity when treated with IMRT for prostate cancer.

  18. The present value of the diagnosis and therapy of the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.

    1975-01-01

    The pathophysiological understanding of the acute radiation syndrome could be distinctly improved by the new research results in cell system physiology. It was thus possible to assign radiation-damaged persons to categories reflecting the most probable course of the disease within a few hours or days. This assignment has consequences for the therapeutical measures. Either nor measures or at least no stationary measures are necessary (recovery 'certain' or 'probable'), or the exposure was so great that death occurs within 2-3 days (recovery 'impossible'). The assigning to the category recovery 'improbable' or 'possible' leads to introducing special therapeutical measures where firstly an infection prophylaxis with antibiotics difficult to absorb in an isolation bed system ('sterile therapy') is necessary. Then, however, (in cases of certain inability to regenerate the bone marrow) a stem-call (bone marrow) transplantaion must be performed. (orig.) [de

  19. Diagnostic value of 18F-FDG uptake by spleen in acute radiation disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-jie WU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate whether 18F-FDG uptake can be applied in dosimetry to facilitate a rapid and accurate evaluation of individual radiation dosage after a nuclear accident. Methods Forty-eight Tibetan minipigs were randomly assigned into 6 groups, i.e., 0, 1, 2, 5, 8 and 11Gy groups. Animals in all except 0Gy group received total body irradiation (TBI with a 8MV X centrifugal linear accelerator, and 18F-FDG combined positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT were carried out before TBI, and also at 6, 24 and 72h after receiving TBI in different doses ranging from 1 to 11Gy. Spleen tissues and blood samples were collected for histological examination, apoptosis, and routine blood analysis. Results Mean standardized uptake values (SUVs of the spleen showed significant differences between experimental groups and control group. The spleen SUVs at 6h post-irradiation showed significant correlation with radiation dose; Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.95(P<0.01. Histopathological observations showed that the degree of splenic damage was proportional to the radiation dose. Moreover, flow cytometry revealed that apoptosis was one of the major forms of splenic lymphocyte death. Conclusion In the Tibetan minipig model, it was shown that radiation doses bear a close relationship with the 18F-FDG uptake of spleen. This finding suggests that 18F-FDG PET/CT may be useful for the rapid detection of individual radiation dosage after acute radiation disease (ARD. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.07.08

  20. Successful Teaching of Radiobiology Students in the Medical Management of Acute Radiation Effects From Real Case Histories Using Clinical Signs and Symptoms and Taking Advantage of Recently Developed Software Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Matthäus; Combs, Stephanie E; Trott, Klaus-Rüdiger; Abend, Michael; Port, Matthias

    2018-07-01

    In 2015, the Bundeswehr Institute of Radiobiology organized a North Atlantic Treaty Organization exercise to examine the significance of clinical signs and symptoms for the prediction of late-occurring acute radiation syndrome. Cases were generated using either the Medical Treatment Protocols for Radiation Accident Victims (METREPOL, n = 167) system or using real-case descriptions extracted from a database system for evaluation and archiving of radiation accidents based on case histories (SEARCH, n = 24). The cases ranged from unexposed [response category 0 (RC 0, n = 89)] to mild (RC 1, n = 45), moderate (RC 2, n = 19), severe (RC 3, n = 20), and lethal (RC 4, n = 18) acute radiation syndrome. During the previous exercise, expert teams successfully predicted hematological acute radiation syndrome severity, determined whether hospitalization was required, and gave treatment recommendations, taking advantage of different software tools developed by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization teams. The authors provided the same data set to radiobiology students who were introduced to the medical management of acute effects after radiation exposure and the software tools during a class lasting 15 h. Corresponding to the previous results, difficulties in the discrimination between RC 0/RC 1 and RC 3/RC 4, as well as a systematic underestimation of RC 1 and RC 2, were observed. Nevertheless, after merging reported response categories into clinically relevant groups (RC 0-1, RC 2-3, and RC 3-4), it was found that the majority of cases (95.2% ± 2.2 standard deviations) were correctly identified and that 94.7% (±2.6 standard deviations) developing acute radiation syndrome and z96.4% (±1.6 standard deviations) requiring hospitalization were identified correctly. Two out of three student teams also provided a dose estimate. These results are comparable to the best-performing team of the 2015 North Atlantic Treaty Organization exercise (response category: 92.5%; acute

  1. Acute genitourinary toxicity after high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external-beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer: Correlation between the urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy and the severity of acute genitourinary toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Tetsuo; Ito, Kazuto; Saitoh, Jun-ichi; Noda, Shin-ei; Harashima, Koichi; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Nakayama, Yuko; Yamamoto, Takumi; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Nakano, Takashi; Niibe, Hideo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Several investigations have revealed that the α/β ratio for prostate cancer is atypically low, and that hypofractionation or high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy regimens using appropriate radiation doses may be expected to yield tumor control and late sequelae rates that are better or at least as favorable as those achieved with conventional radiation therapy. In this setting, we attempted treating localized prostate cancer patients with HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using this approach, with special emphasis on the relationship between the severity of acute genitourinary (GU) toxicity and the urethral dose calculated from the dose-volume histogram (DVH) of HDR brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between September 2000 and December 2003, 70 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated by iridium-192 HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT at the Gunma University Hospital. Hypofractionated EBRT was administered in fraction doses of 3 Gy, three times per week; a total dose of 51 Gy was delivered to the prostate gland and the seminal vesicles using the four-field technique. No elective pelvic irradiation was performed. After the completion of EBRT, all the patients additionally received transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided HDR brachytherapy. The fraction size and the number of fractions in HDR brachytherapy were prospectively changed, whereas the total radiation dose for EBRT was fixed at 51 Gy. The fractionation in HDR brachytherapy was as follows: 5 Gy x 5, 7 Gy x 3, 9 Gy x 2, administered twice per day, although the biologic effective dose (BED) for HDR brachytherapy combined with EBRT, assuming that the α/β ratio is 3, was almost equal to 138 in each fractionation group. The planning target volume was defined as the prostate gland with 5-mm margin all around, and the planning was conducted based on

  2. Estimation of remote effects in blood animals after combination action of external acute gamma-radiation and EHF-range radiowave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudakova, O.V.; Nikolaevich, L.N.

    2004-01-01

    In work the experimental data on study of influence combination action of external acute gamma-radiation and EMR SHF-range on hematological status of animals. It is revealed the stimulating effect of action of EMR on irradiated organism. (Authors)

  3. High-dose radiation-induced meningioma following prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Ryosuke; Nikaido, Yuji; Yamada, Tomonori; Mishima, Hideaki; Tamaki, Ryo

    2005-01-01

    A 12 year-old girl was treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). At the age of 39, she was admitted to our hospital for status epilepticus. Computed tomography demonstrated two, enhancing bilateral sided intracranial tumors. After surgery, this patient presented meningiomas which histologically, were of the meningothelial type. The high cure rate in childhood ALL, attributable to aggressive chemotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation, is capable of inducing secondary brain tumor. Twelve cases of high-dose radiation-induced meningioma following ALL are also reviewed. (author)

  4. High-dose radiation-induced meningioma following prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Ryosuke; Nikaido, Yuji; Yamada, Tomonori; Mishima, Hideaki; Tamaki, Ryo [National Hospital Organization Osaka Minami Medical Center, Kawachinagano (Japan)

    2005-03-01

    A 12 year-old girl was treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). At the age of 39, she was admitted to our hospital for status epilepticus. Computed tomography demonstrated two, enhancing bilateral sided intracranial tumors. After surgery, this patient presented meningiomas which histologically, were of the meningothelial type. The high cure rate in childhood ALL, attributable to aggressive chemotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation, is capable of inducing secondary brain tumor. Twelve cases of high-dose radiation-induced meningioma following ALL are also reviewed. (author)

  5. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Simonsen, Lisa; Huff, Janice L.

    2016-01-01

    Possible acute and late risks to the central nervous system (CNS) from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are concerns for human exploration of space. Acute CNS risks may include: altered cognitive function, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, all of which may affect performance and human health. Late CNS risks may include neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia and premature aging. Although detrimental CNS changes are observed in humans treated with high-dose radiation (e.g., gamma rays and 9 protons) for cancer and are supported by experimental evidence showing neurocognitive and behavioral effects in animal models, the significance of these results on the morbidity to astronauts has not been elucidated. There is a lack of human epidemiology data on which to base CNS risk estimates; therefore, risk projection based on scaling to human data, as done for cancer risk, is not possible for CNS risks. Research specific to the spaceflight environment using animal and cell models must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of CNS changes in order to estimate this risk and to establish validity of the current permissible exposure limits (PELs). In addition, the impact of radiation exposure in combination with individual sensitivity or other space flight factors, as well as assessment of the need for biological/pharmaceutical countermeasures, will be considered after further definition of CNS risk occurs.

  6. Radiation-induced acute necrosis of the pancreatic islet and the diabetic syndrome in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubouchi, S; Suzuki, H; Ariyoshi, H [Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan); Matsuzawa, T [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis and Cancer

    1981-07-01

    Exposure of golden hamsters to 35 000 rad of X-rays induced acute and specific necrosis of the cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas within 4 hours, whereas no other tissue revealed any drastic changes which would lead to a critical illness until 36 hours. Animals began to show the characteristic signs of diabetes, that is, hyperglycaemia, hyperkalaemia, ketonemia, and acidosis at 12 hours and these continued until death, 56+-8 hours later. These were accompanied by the disappearance of ..beta..-cell granules and a decrease of plasma insulin. Treatment of irradiated animals with injections of insulin resulted in a reduction in high blood glucose and the prolongation of survival time up to 5 days, which is comparable to the survival time when the cause of death is gastrointestinal. It is concluded that this radiation-induced diabetic syndrome resulted from acute necrosis of the cells of the islets of Langerhans, a previously unreported lethal effect of radiation in golden hamsters.

  7. Th Cell Gene Expression and Function in Response to Low Dose and Acute Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daila S. Gridley, PhD

    2012-03-30

    FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Supported by the Low Dose Radiation Research Program, Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64345 Project ID: 0012965 Award Register#: ER64345 Project Manager: Noelle F. Metting, Sc.D. Phone: 301-903-8309 Division SC-23.2 noelle.metting@science.doe.gov Submitted March 2012 To: https://www.osti.gov/elink/241.3.jsp Title: Th Cell Gene Expression and Function in Response to Low Dose and Acute Radiation PI: Daila S. Gridley, Ph.D. Human low dose radiation data have been derived primarily from studies of space and airline flight personnel, nuclear plant workers and others exposed occupationally, as well as victims in the vicinity of atomic bomb explosions. The findings remain inconclusive due to population inconsistencies and complex interactions among total dose, dose rate, radiation quality and age at exposure. Thus, safe limits for low dose occupational irradiation are currently based on data obtained with doses far exceeding the levels expected for the general population and health risks have been largely extrapolated using the linear-nonthreshold dose-response model. The overall working hypothesis of the present study is that priming with low dose, low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation can ameliorate the response to acute high-dose radiation exposure. We also propose that the efficacy of low-dose induced protection will be dependent upon the form and regimen of the high-dose exposure: photons versus protons versus simulated solar particle event protons (sSPE). The emphasis has been on gene expression and function of CD4+ T helper (Th) lymphocytes harvested from spleens of whole-body irradiated C57BL/6 mice, a strain that provides the genetic background for many genetically engineered strains. Evaluations of the responses of other selected cells, tissues such as skin, and organs such as lung, liver and brain were also initiated (partially funded by other sources). The long-term goal is to provide information

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Neisseria gonorrhoeae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chronic pelvic pain, infertility, acute urethritis, cervicitis and proctitis or pharyngitis [5]. N. gonorrhoeae infections represent 106 million of the estimated 498 million new cases of curable sexually transmitted infection that occur globally every year [5]. Previous studies have estimated. 3.4 million cases of gonorrhea among ...

  9. Method of inhibiting the onset of acute radiation syndrome and also inhibiting the onset of septicemia and a composition therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribi, E E

    1986-01-14

    A method is described for inhibiting the onset of acute radiation syndrome caused by the exposure of warm-blooded animals to a whole body dose of at least 100 rads of x-radiation. Also described is a method for inhibiting the onset of septicemia. The methods comprise administering to a warm-blooded animal an effective amount of a pharmaceutical preparation containing refined detoxified endotoxin in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

  10. Protective effects of seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils against radiation-induced acute intestinal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Jing; Wang, Lan; Lu, Yan; Ji, Yue; Wang, Yaqing; Dong, Ke; Kong, Xiangqing; Sun, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome, including nausea, diarrhea and dehydration, contributes to morbidity and mortality after medical or industrial radiation exposure. No safe and effective radiation countermeasure has been approved for clinical therapy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils against radiation-induced acute intestinal injury. C57/BL6 mice were orally administered seabuckthorn pulp oil, seed oil and control olive oil once per day for 7 days before exposure to total-body X-ray irradiation of 7.5 Gy. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used for the measurement of apoptotic cells and proteins, inflammation factors and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Seabuckthorn oil pretreatment increased the post-radiation survival rate and reduced the damage area of the small intestine villi. Both the pulp and seed oil treatment significantly decreased the apoptotic cell numbers and cleaved caspase 3 expression. Seabuckthorn oil downregulated the mRNA level of inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. Both the pulp and seed oils elevated the level of phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase and reduced the levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38. Palmitoleic acid (PLA) and alpha linolenic acid (ALA) are the predominant components of pulp oil and seed oil, respectively. Pretreatment with PLA and ALA increased the post-radiation survival time. In conclusion, seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils protect against mouse intestinal injury from high-dose radiation by reducing cell apoptosis and inflammation. ALA and PLA are promising natural radiation countermeasure candidates.

  11. Probable clonal origin of acute myeloblastic leukemia following radiation and chemotherapy of colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiggans, R.G.; Jacobson, R.J.; Fialkow, P.J.; Woolley, P.V. III; Macdonald, J.S.; Schein, P.S.

    1978-01-01

    A 64-yr-old female developed acute myeloblastic leukemia following radiation and drug therapy for colon carcinoma. The patient was heterozygous for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase [G-6-PD) and displayed types A and B isoenzymes in nonhematopoietic tissue. In contrast, only type B G-6-PD was observed in peripheral blood white cells. In addition, a karyotypic abnormality was found in peripheral blood and marrow cells but not in skin fibroblasts. The data are consistent with a clonal origin of this leukemia

  12. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heribanova, A.

    1995-01-01

    The basic principles and pathways of effects of ionizing radiation on living organisms and cells are outlined. The following topics are covered: effects of radiation on living matter (direct effects, radical or indirect effects, dual radiation action, and molecular biological theories); effects of radiation on cells and tissues (cell depletion, changes in the cytogenetic information, reparation mechanisms), dose-response relationship (deterministic effects, stochastic effects), and the effects of radiation on man (acute radiation sickness, acute local changes, fetus injuries, non-tumorous late injuries, malignant tumors, genetic changes). (P.A.). 3 tabs., 2 figs., 5 refs

  13. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that may increase the risk of acute lymphocytic leukemia include: Previous cancer treatment. Children and adults who've had certain types of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for other kinds of cancer may have an increased ... leukemia. Exposure to radiation. People exposed to very high ...

  14. Clinical feature of disturbance in the lower gastrointestinal tract development after radiation to tumor in the pelvis and its countermeasure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Sadahito; Sunagawa, Shigenobu; Matsumura, Shigejiro; Masaoka, Takao; Uegaki, Kazuo

    1975-01-01

    The clinical features and the countermeasure were examined on 40 disturbances in the lower gastrointestinal tract developed after radiotherapy of cancer of the uterus, the ovary and the penis. Two to nine months after the irradiation with 10,000 R of Telecobalt and about 5,000 mch of 60 Co, complications such as melena, stenosis and fistula formation were developed. Seventeen of the 40 patients complained of melena and were treated as outpatient. Of the rest 23 patients, 11 were radiation proctitis with a large amount of melena, 9 were recto-sigmoid stenosis, 2 were rectovaginal fistula and 1 was fecal fistula formation. These patients received internal therapy composed of transfusion, hemostatic agent, steroid, solcoseryl suppository, antiulcerative drug and vitamin. However, the prognosis of them, particularly of the patients who were exposed a large amount of radiation, was very poor and the death rate reached 9 to 43%. (Kanao, N.)

  15. Study of biological effects of varying mixtures of Cf-252 and gamma radiation on the acute radiation syndromes: Relevance to clinical radiotherapy of radioresistant cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Y.; Wierzbicki, J.; Feola, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Data for the 30 day bone marrow syndrome (BM-50) and the 6-10 day gastrointestinal (GI-50) syndrome for a one and two fraction schedule and acute and low dose rate irradiation using pure and mixed Cf-252 and photon radiation are presented. The radiation of Cf-252 is a mixture of neutrons and gamma rays. Balb/c mice of both sexes were total body irradiated with acute Co-60, low dose rate Cs-137 and Cf-252 using a 1 x and 2 x schedule. For low linear energy transfer radiations of Co-60 or Cs-137 there was expected to be an increase in the dose to produce the gastrointestinal and bone marrow syndromes with minimal change for Cf-252 neutrons. The proportion of photons in the Cf-252 radiation field were further altered by mixing Cs-137 with the Cf-252 sources and mice were total body irradiated with different proportions of photons to determine the effect on the radiation syndromes. The effects of mixing Cf-252 neutrons with different proportions of photons on the syndromes was determined. There was increase in BM-50 and GI-50 doses with fractionated or low dose rate photon irradiations and the dose modifying factors were 1.3-1.4 for the GI syndrome and 1.2 for the bone marrow syndrome. For Cf-252 there was minimal fractionation effect for the GI-50 syndrome, which increased by 1.1 for x 1 vs. x 2 fractions; for the BM-50 syndrome it rose by a 1.1 factor. For LDR Cs-137 the dose for the GI-50 syndrome rose 2.2-fold. For mixed neutron-photon radiation of 0%, 15%, 35%, and 65% η/γ mixtures, the dose to produce the BM-50 and GI-50 endpoints dropped sharply from 0 to 35% neutrons and remained flat thereafter. For major tissues such as the bone marrow and GI tract, Cf-252 behaved as high linear energy transfer for mixtures of neutrons and gamma rays when the radiations were delivered simultaneously at the low dose rates studied. 35 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. DNA Double-Strand Break Analysis by {gamma}-H2AX Foci: A Useful Method for Determining the Overreactors to Radiation-Induced Acute Reactions Among Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goutham, Hassan Venkatesh; Mumbrekar, Kamalesh Dattaram [Division of Radiobiology and Toxicology, Manipal Life Sciences Centre, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Vadhiraja, Bejadi Manjunath [Manipal Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Fernandes, Donald Jerard; Sharan, Krishna [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Shiridi Sai Baba Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Kanive Parashiva, Guruprasad; Kapaettu, Satyamoorthy [Division of Biotechnology, Manipal Life Sciences Centre, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Bola Sadashiva, Satish Rao, E-mail: satishraomlsc@gmail.com [Division of Radiobiology and Toxicology, Manipal Life Sciences Centre, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: Interindividual variability in normal tissue toxicity during radiation therapy is a limiting factor for successful treatment. Predicting the risk of developing acute reactions before initiation of radiation therapy may have the benefit of opting for altered radiation therapy regimens to achieve minimal adverse effects with improved tumor cure. Methods and Materials: DNA double-strand break (DSB) induction and its repair kinetics in lymphocytes of head-and-neck cancer patients undergoing chemoradiation therapy was analyzed by counting {gamma}-H2AX foci, neutral comet assay, and a modified version of neutral filter elution assay. Acute normal tissue reactions were assessed by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: The correlation between residual DSBs and the severity of acute reactions demonstrated that residual {gamma}-H2AX foci in head-and-neck cancer patients increased with the severity of oral mucositis and skin reaction. Conclusions: Our results suggest that {gamma}-H2AX analysis may have predictive implications for identifying the overreactors to mucositis and skin reactions among head-and-neck cancer patients prior to initiation of radiation therapy.

  17. Bile loss in the acute intestinal radiation syndrome in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, J.P.; Dunston, S.G.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.; Holeski, C.; Eaton, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of bile duct ligation (BDL), choledochostomy, bile acid sequestering within the intestinal lumen by cholestyramine, and fluid and electrolyte replacement on survival time and development of diarrhea after whole-body exposure to doses of ionizing radiation that result in death from acute intestinal injury were studied. BDL significantly prolonged survival and delayed the onset of diarrhea after exposure to 137 Cs gamma rays, fission neutrons, or cyclotron-produced neutrons in the range of doses that produce intestinal death or death from a combination of intestinal and hematopoietic injuries. Cannulation of the bile duct with exteriorized bile flow (choledochostomy) to protect the irradiated intestine from the mucolytic action of bile salts did not duplicate the effect of BDL in increasing survival time. Choledochostomy without fluid replacement eliminated the occurrence of diarrhea in 15.4 Gy irradiated rats. Diarrhea did occur in irradiated animals with choledochostomy if they received duodenal injections of fluid and electrolytes to replace the fluid lost as a result of bile drainage. Duodenal injection of fluid and electrolytes had no significant effect on survival time in irradiated rats. Injection of fluid and electrolytes into the peritoneal cavity of irradiated rats resulted in an increase in survival time that was comparable to that observed after BDL. Addition of antibiotics to the peritoneally injected fluid and electrolytes further increased survival time (up to 9 days). This survival time approached that seen in animals receiving the same radiation dose but which had the intestine exteriorized and shielded to minimize radiation injury to the intestine. Postmortem histological examinations of the irradiated small intestine showed mucosal regeneration in these long-term survivors receiving fluid and antibiotic therapy

  18. Diseases induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The instruction sheet for medical examinations presents information on clinical symptoms and diagnostic procedures relating to the following cases: 1. Acute radiation injury due to whole-body exposure; 2. acute, local radiation injury due to partial body exposure; 3. chronic general affections due to whole-body exposure; 4. chronic, local affections due to partial body exposure; 5. delayed radiation effects. (HP) [de

  19. The effect of Mepitel Film on acute radiation-induced skin reactions in head and neck cancer patients: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, Hayley; Yan, Jing; Yuan, Ling; Chyou, Te-Yu; Gao, Shanbao; Ward, Iain; Herst, Patries M

    2018-01-01

    Mepitel Film significantly decreases acute radiation-induced skin reactions in breast cancer patients. Here we investigated the feasibility of using Mepitel Film in head and neck cancer patients (ACTRN12614000932662). Out of a total of 36 head and neck cancer patients from New Zealand (NZ) (n = 24) and China (n = 12) recruited between June 2015 and December 2016, 33 patients complied with protocol. Of these, 11 NZ patients followed a management protocol; 11 NZ patients and 11 Chinese patients followed a prophylactic protocol. An area of the neck receiving a homogenous radiation dose of > 35 Gy was divided into two equal halves; one half was randomized to Film and the other to either Sorbolene cream (NZ) or Biafine cream (China). Skin reaction severity was measured by Radiation Induced Skin Reaction Assessment Scale and expanded Radiation Therapy Oncology Group toxicity criteria. Skin dose was measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters or gafchromic film. Film decreased overall skin reaction severity (combined Radiation Induced Skin Reaction Assessment Scale score) by 29% and moist desquamation rates by 37% in the Chinese cohort and by 27 and 28%, respectively in the NZ cohort. Mepitel Film did not affect head movements but did not adhere well to the skin, particularly in males with heavy beard stubble, and caused itchiness, particularly in Chinese patients. Mepitel Film reduced acute radiation-induced skin reactions in our head and neck cancer patients, particularly in patients without heavy stubble. Advances in knowledge: This is the first study to confirm the feasibility of using Mepitel Film in head and neck cancer patients.

  20. Therapy of acute irradiation lesions at early stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chigareva, N.G.; Netkevich, N.V.; Myasoedov, A.F.; Abdul', Yu.A.; Andryukhina, V.I.; Serkov, N.V.; Legeza, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    The ways of reducing endotoxemia observed for male dogs at the total X-ray radiation dose equal to 2.9 Gy with detoxicating blood substitutes and plasmapheresis have been studied. The effectiveness of detoxication measures is demonstrated in obvious reduction of intensity as far as pathological processes are concerned in the first 3 days of development of acute radiation sickness. The detoxicating measures at the imitial period of acute radiation sickness are expedient when perishing of the pool of polypotent cells of hemopoietic system is not a factor affecting survival and when the ultimate termination of acute radiation sickness bears no relation to lethal lesion of hemopoiesis. 7 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  1. Treatment for infections complications of experimental acute radiation sickness with sulacillin, a combined antibiotic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertkov, K.S.; Revskaya, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    The therapeutic efficiency of sulacillin (combination of ampicillin antibiotic with beta-lactamase sulbactam inhibitor) used for prevention and treatment of infections complications of the acute radiation disease (ARD) is considered. It is shown that sulacillin antiinfections effect essentially exceeds the activity of ampicillin by treatment of irradiated mice infected with a beta-lactamase-producing strain of Kl pneumoniae. Inclusion of the sulacillin as a principal antibiotic into the ARD therapeutic scheme provides for the 66.6 % survival of dogs at LD 90/45 [ru

  2. The treatment of late radiation effects with hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plafki, C.; Carl, U.M.; Glag, M.; Hartmann, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Late radiation injuries may impose a negative influence on the quality of life in the affected patients. In several entities, standardized treatment protocols are lacking. Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) has been shown to have beneficial effects in the treatment of late radiation sequelae. Material and methods: The basic principles of HBO are reviewed as well as clinical issues. Current study protocols are presented. Results: During HBO-therapy the patient breathes pure oxygen at pressures above 100 kPa. The oxygen solubility within the fluid phase of the blood is largely increased. Biological effects include an increased oxygen diffusibility, improved collagen synthesis and neoangiogenesis as well as an enhancement of antimicrobial defenses. By decreasing the capillary filtration pressure a reduction of edema becomes possible. HBO has been shown to prevent complications following surgery in irradiated tissues. Its efficacy as an adjunct in the treatment of osteonecroses in radiation patients could be demonstrated. In addition, the loss of osseointegrated implants in the maxillofacial bones of these patients could be significantly reduced. Further indications include soft tissue necroses, hemorrhagic cystitis and proctitis in tumor patients that have been treated by radiotherapy as part of a multimodality approach. Conclusions: HBO in the treatment of late radiation effects is still subject of investigation, but remarkable results have been reported. Optimized treatment protocols need to be determined in various entities. The rate of side effects is acceptable low. (orig.) [de

  3. Follow-up of delayed health consequences of acute radiation exposure. Lessons to be learned from their medical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    While the use of radioactive materials around the world offers a wide range of benefits in medicine, industry and research, safety precautions are essential to limit the exposure of persons to harmful radiation. When the quantity of radioactive material employed is substantial, as when radioactive sources are used for radiotherapy in medicine or for industrial radiography, extreme care is necessary to prevent accidents that may lead to severe health consequences for the individuals involved. Despite the fact that the precautions to be taken are clearly established, accidents with radiation sources continue to occur, albeit infrequently. The IAEA, as part of its 'Safety of Radiation Sources' and 'Emergency Response' subprogrammes, follows up severe accidents of this kind. In so doing, the IAEA attempts to document both the circumstances leading to the accident and the subsequent medical treatment in order to define the lessons to be learned from these events. The overall objective is to provide information that will be of benefit to organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection, the safety of radiation sources and the medical management of radiation accidents. The International Atomic Energy Agency has issued a number of publications on radiation accidents which have occurred in the past 15 years, reporting on the causes, radiation safety aspects and medical management of those affected particularly in the acute phase following an accident. These reports cover the accidents in Chernobyl, Ukraine (the Republic of the former Soviet Union) and Goiania (Brazil), and those in El Salvador, Vietnam, Belarus, Israel, Estonia, Costa Rica, Georgia, Russian Federation, Turkey, Peru and Panama. In 1998 the IAEA published three Safety Reports, co-sponsored by the World Health Organization, aimed at disseminating medical information on the recognition and treatment of radiation injuries, planning the medical response to radiation accidents and occupational health

  4. Follow-up of delayed health consequences of acute radiation exposure. Lessons to be learned from their medical management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    While the use of radioactive materials around the world offers a wide range of benefits in medicine, industry and research, safety precautions are essential to limit the exposure of persons to harmful radiation. When the quantity of radioactive material employed is substantial, as when radioactive sources are used for radiotherapy in medicine or for industrial radiography, extreme care is necessary to prevent accidents that may lead to severe health consequences for the individuals involved. Despite the fact that the precautions to be taken are clearly established, accidents with radiation sources continue to occur, albeit infrequently. The IAEA, as part of its 'Safety of Radiation Sources' and 'Emergency Response' subprogrammes, follows up severe accidents of this kind. In so doing, the IAEA attempts to document both the circumstances leading to the accident and the subsequent medical treatment in order to define the lessons to be learned from these events. The overall objective is to provide information that will be of benefit to organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection, the safety of radiation sources and the medical management of radiation accidents. The International Atomic Energy Agency has issued a number of publications on radiation accidents which have occurred in the past 15 years, reporting on the causes, radiation safety aspects and medical management of those affected particularly in the acute phase following an accident. These reports cover the accidents in Chernobyl, Ukraine (the Republic of the former Soviet Union) and Goiania (Brazil), and those in El Salvador, Vietnam, Belarus, Israel, Estonia, Costa Rica, Georgia, Russian Federation, Turkey, Peru and Panama. In 1998 the IAEA published three Safety Reports, co-sponsored by the World Health Organization, aimed at disseminating medical information on the recognition and treatment of radiation injuries, planning the medical response to radiation accidents and occupational health

  5. Therapy and prophylaxis of acute and late radiation-induced sequelae of the esophagus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, F.B.; Geinitz, H.; Feldmann, H.J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Background: Radiation-induced esophagitis is a frequent acute side effect in curative and palliative radiotherapy of thoracal and cervical tumors. Late reactions are rare but might be severe. Methods: A resarch for reports on prophylactic and supportive therapies of radiation-induced esophagitis was performed (Medline, Cancerlit, and others). Results: Nutrition must be ensured and symptomatic relief of sequelae is important, especially in the case of dysphagia. The latter can be improved by topic or systemic analgetics. If esophageal spasm occurs, calcium antagonists might help. In case of gastro-esophageal reflux proton pump inhibitors should be used. There is no effective prophylactic measure for radiation esophagitis. Late side effects with clinical relevance are rare in conventional radiotherapy. Chronic ulcera, fistula or stenosis may develop. Before any treatment, a tumor infiltration of the esophagus should be excluded by biopsy. This can lead more often to late complications than radiation therapy itself. Nutrition should be ensured by endoscopic dilation, stent-implantation, or endoscopic percutaneous gastrostomy. Local injection of steroids might be used to avoid an early restenosis. Conclusions: An intensive symptomatic therapy of acute esophagitis is reasonable. Effective prophylaxis do not exist. Late radiation induced sequelae is rare. Therefore, a tumor recurrenc e should be excluded in cases of dysphagia. Securing nutrition by PEG, stent, or port is well in the fore. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: Die radiogene Oesophagitis ist eine haeufige akute Nebenwirkung bei kurativen wie palliativen Bestrahlungen thorakaler und zervikaler Tumoren. Spaete Gewebereaktionen sind selten, koennen aber schwerwiegend sein. Methode: Es wurde eine Literaturrecherche nach prophylaktischen und supportiven Therapien der radiogen verursachten Oesophagitis durchgefuehrt (Medline, Cancerlit und andere). Ergebnisse: Therapeutisch stehen die Sicherung der Ernaehrung und die

  6. Diagnostic criterions of the postradiation encephalopathy in remote period of the acute radiation syndrome; Diagnosticheskie kriterii postradiatsionnoj ehntsefalopatii v otdalennyj period ostroj luchevoj bolezni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyagu, A I; Loganovskij, K N; Vashchenko, E A [and others

    1998-07-01

    Development of post-radiation encephalopathy diagnostic criteria on the base of neuro psychic, neuro- and psychofisiological research in patients who suffered with acute radiation disease after Chernobyl catastrophe was the aim of this work. 110 persons of 20-75 years age were investigated. 55 refs., 6 tab., 6 figs.

  7. Physical working ability in persons who survived acute radiation sickness due to Chernobyl accident (the data of 16-year follow-up)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, O.M.; Byilij, D.O.

    2004-01-01

    Considerable reduction in physical working ability (PWA) in persons who survived acute radiation sickness in the early period is chiefly caused by negative influence of ionizing radiation and is not determined by the degree of severity of bone-marrow syndrome. Further restoration of PWA does not occur which can be explained by development of neurosomatic pathology against a background of age-related changes in the organs and systems of the victims

  8. Treatment and prognosis of patients with late rectal bleeding after intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemoto, Shinya; Kataoka, Hiromi; Mimura, Mikio; Shibamoto, Yuta; Ayakawa, Shiho; Nagai, Aiko; Hayashi, Akihiro; Ogino, Hiroyuki; Baba, Fumiya; Yanagi, Takeshi; Sugie, Chikao

    2012-01-01

    Radiation proctitis after intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) differs from that seen after pelvic irradiation in that this adverse event is a result of high-dose radiation to a very small area in the rectum. We evaluated the results of treatment for hemorrhagic proctitis after IMRT for prostate cancer. Between November 2004 and February 2010, 403 patients with prostate cancer were treated with IMRT at 2 institutions. Among these patients, 64 patients who developed late rectal bleeding were evaluated. Forty patients had received IMRT using a linear accelerator and 24 by tomotherapy. Their median age was 72 years. Each patient was assessed clinically and/or endoscopically. Depending on the severity, steroid suppositories or enemas were administered up to twice daily and Argon plasma coagulation (APC) was performed up to 3 times. Response to treatment was evaluated using the Rectal Bleeding Score (RBS), which is the sum of Frequency Score (graded from 1 to 3 by frequency of bleeding) and Amount Score (graded from 1 to 3 by amount of bleeding). Stoppage of bleeding over 3 months was scored as RBS 1. The median follow-up period for treatment of rectal bleeding was 35 months (range, 12–69 months). Grade of bleeding was 1 in 31 patients, 2 in 26, and 3 in 7. Nineteen of 45 patients (42%) observed without treatment showed improvement and bleeding stopped in 17 (38%), although mean RBS did not change significantly. Eighteen of 29 patients (62%) treated with steroid suppositories or enemas showed improvement (mean RBS, from 4.1 ± 1.0 to 3.0 ± 1.8, p = 0.003) and bleeding stopped in 9 (31%). One patient treated with steroid enema 0.5-2 times a day for 12 months developed septic shock and died of multiple organ failure. All 12 patients treated with APC showed improvement (mean RBS, 4.7 ± 1.2 to 2.3 ± 1.4, p < 0.001) and bleeding stopped in 5 (42%). After adequate periods of observation, steroid suppositories/enemas are expected to be effective. However, short

  9. Radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells leading to acute myeloid leukemia in mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobuhiko Ban; Tomoko Kusama

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia (RI-AML) in mice is charaterized by deletion and/or rearrangement of chromosome 2. While chromosome 2 has been suspected to be a target of RI-AML, radiation-sensitive site of the chromosome might be implicated in the leukemogenesis. There were few cytogenetical studies, however, focusing on chromosomal rearrangements shortly after irradiation, and little was known about the frequency and pattern of chromosome 2 aberrations during the early period. In this study, metaphase samples were prepared from whole-body irradiated mice 24 hours after irradiation, most of the cells considered to be in the first mitotic stage. Distribution of chromosomal breakpoints on the metaphase samples were analyzed to study the relationship between chromosome aberrations and RI-AML. (author)

  10. A multi-centre clinical follow-up database as a systematic approach to the evaluation of mid- and long-term health consequences in Chernobyl acute radiation syndrome patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, B.; Weiss, M.; Fliedner, T.M.; Belyi, D.A.; Kovalenko, A.N.; Bebeshko, V.G.; Nadejina, N.M.; Galstian, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes scope, design and first results of a multi-centre follow-up database that has been established for the evaluation of mid- and long-term health consequences of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) survivors. After the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986, 237 cases with suspected acute radiation syndrome have been reported. For 134 of these cases the diagnosis of ARS was confirmed in a consensus conference three years after the accident. Nearly all survivors underwent regular follow-up examinations in two specialized centres in Kiev and in Moscow. In collaboration with these centres we established a multi-centre clinical follow-up database that records the results of the follow-up examinations in a standardized schema. This database is an integral part of a five step approach to patient evaluation and aims at a comprehensive base for scientific analysis of the mid- and long-term consequences of accidental ionizing radiation. It will allow for a dynamic view on the development of the health status of individuals and groups of patients as well as the identification of critical organ systems that need early support, and an improvement of acute and follow-up treatment protocols for radiation accident victims

  11. Phase II Study of Long-Term Androgen Suppression With Bevacizumab and Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) in High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuky, Jacqueline, E-mail: vukyja@ohsu.edu [Section of Community Hematology/Oncology, Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, OR (United States); Pham, Huong T. [Section of Hematology/Oncology and Radiation Oncology, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Warren, Sarah; Douglass, Erika [Benaroya Research Institute, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Badiozamani, Kasra [Section of Hematology/Oncology and Radiation Oncology, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Madsen, Berit; Hsi, Alex [Peninsula Cancer Center, Poulsbo, WA (United States); Song Guobin [Section of Hematology/Oncology and Radiation Oncology, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: We report a Phase II trial assessing the acute and late toxicities of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), long-term androgen suppression (LTAS), and bevacizumab in patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We treated 18 patients with LTAS with bicalutamide and goserelin in combination with bevacizumab and IMRT. Bevacizumab (10 mg/kg every 2 weeks) was administered for the first 16 weeks, and 15 mg/kg was then given every 3 weeks for 12 additional weeks, with an IMRT dose of 77.9 Gy to the prostate, 64.6 Gy to the seminal vesicles, and 57 Gy to the pelvic lymph nodes. Patients were eligible if they had clinical stage T2b to T4, a Gleason sum score of 8 to 10, or a prostate- specific antigen level of 20ng/mL or greater. The primary endpoint of the study was evaluation of acute and late toxicities. Results: The median age was 69 years, with a median pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level of 12.5 ng/mL and Gleason score of 8. The pretreatment clinical stage was T1c in 4 patients, T2 in 11, and T3 in 3. All patients completed IMRT with median follow-up of 34 months (range, 28-40 months) The most common Grade 2 or higher toxicities were hypertension (61% of patients with Grade 2 and 11% with Grade 3), proteinuria (28% with Grade 2 and 6% with Grade 3), and leucopenia (28% with Grade 2). No Grade 4 or higher acute toxicities were reported. Late toxicities included proctitis (6% of patients with Grade 2 and 11% with Grade 3), rectal bleeding (6% with Grade 2 and 11% with Grade 3), hematuria (6% with Grade 2), proteinuria (17% with Grade 2), hyponatremia (6% with Grade 3), cystitis (6% with Grade 3), and urinary retention (6% with Grade 2 and 11% with Grade 3). Grade 4 prostatitis occurred in 1 patient (6%). Conclusions: Bevacizumab does not appear to exacerbate the acute effects of IMRT. Late toxicities may have been worsened with this regimen. Further investigations of bevacizumab with LTAS and IMRT should be

  12. Phase II Study of Long-Term Androgen Suppression With Bevacizumab and Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) in High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuky, Jacqueline; Pham, Huong T.; Warren, Sarah; Douglass, Erika; Badiozamani, Kasra; Madsen, Berit; Hsi, Alex; Song Guobin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We report a Phase II trial assessing the acute and late toxicities of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), long-term androgen suppression (LTAS), and bevacizumab in patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We treated 18 patients with LTAS with bicalutamide and goserelin in combination with bevacizumab and IMRT. Bevacizumab (10 mg/kg every 2 weeks) was administered for the first 16 weeks, and 15 mg/kg was then given every 3 weeks for 12 additional weeks, with an IMRT dose of 77.9 Gy to the prostate, 64.6 Gy to the seminal vesicles, and 57 Gy to the pelvic lymph nodes. Patients were eligible if they had clinical stage T2b to T4, a Gleason sum score of 8 to 10, or a prostate- specific antigen level of 20ng/mL or greater. The primary endpoint of the study was evaluation of acute and late toxicities. Results: The median age was 69 years, with a median pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level of 12.5 ng/mL and Gleason score of 8. The pretreatment clinical stage was T1c in 4 patients, T2 in 11, and T3 in 3. All patients completed IMRT with median follow-up of 34 months (range, 28–40 months) The most common Grade 2 or higher toxicities were hypertension (61% of patients with Grade 2 and 11% with Grade 3), proteinuria (28% with Grade 2 and 6% with Grade 3), and leucopenia (28% with Grade 2). No Grade 4 or higher acute toxicities were reported. Late toxicities included proctitis (6% of patients with Grade 2 and 11% with Grade 3), rectal bleeding (6% with Grade 2 and 11% with Grade 3), hematuria (6% with Grade 2), proteinuria (17% with Grade 2), hyponatremia (6% with Grade 3), cystitis (6% with Grade 3), and urinary retention (6% with Grade 2 and 11% with Grade 3). Grade 4 prostatitis occurred in 1 patient (6%). Conclusions: Bevacizumab does not appear to exacerbate the acute effects of IMRT. Late toxicities may have been worsened with this regimen. Further investigations of bevacizumab with LTAS and IMRT should be

  13. Principals Of Radiation Toxicology: Important Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava; Jones, Jeffrey

    “All things are poison, and nothing is without poison; only the dose permits something not to be poisonous.” Paracelsus Key Words: Radiation Toxins (RT), Radiation Toxicants (RTc), Radiation Poisons (RP), Radiation Exposure (RE), Radiation Toxicology is the science about radiation poisons. [D.Popov et al. 2012,J.Zhou et al. 2007,] Radiation Toxins is a specific proteins with high enzymatic activity produced by living irradiated mammals. [D.Popov et al. 2012,] Radiation Toxicants is a substances that produce radiomimetics effects, adverse biological effects which specific for radiation. [D.Popov et al. 2012,] Radiation Toxic agent is specific proteins that can produce pathological biological effects specific for physical form of radiation.[D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev 2007] Different Toxic Substances isolated from cells or from blood or lymph circulation. [Kudriashov I. et al. 1970, D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev et al. 2007,] Radiation Toxins may affects many organs or specific organ, tissue, specific group of cells. [Kudriashov I. et al. 1970, D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev et al. 2007] For example: Radiation Toxins could induce collective toxic clinical states to include: systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS),toxic multiple organ injury (TMOI), toxic multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (TMODS),and finally, toxic multiple organ failure (TMOF). [T. Azizova et al. 2005, Konchalovsky et al., 2005, D. Popov et al 2012] However, Radiation Toxins could induce specific injury of organs or tissue and induce Acute Radiation Syndromes such as Acute Radiation Cerebrovascular Syndrome, Acute Radiation Cardiovascular Syndrome, Acute Radiation Hematopoietic Syndrome, Acute Radiation GastroIntestinal Syndrome. [ D.Popov et al. 1990, 2012, V. Maliev et al. 2007] Radiation Toxins correlates with Radiation Exposure and the dose-response relationship is a fundamental and essential concept in classic Toxicology and Radiation Toxicology.[ D.Popov et al

  14. Effects of radiation upon gastrointestinal motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mary F Otterson

    2007-01-01

    Whether due to therapeutic or belligerent exposure, the gastrointestinal effects of irradiation produce symptoms dreaded by a majority of the population. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal cramping are hallmarks of the prodromal phase of radiation sickness, occurring hours to days following radiation exposure. The prodromal phase is distinct from acute radiation sickness in that the absorptive, secretory and anatomic changes associated with radiation damage are not easily identifiable. It is during this phase of radiation sickness that gastrointestinal motility significantly changes. In addition, there is evidence that motor activity of the gut contributes to some of the acute and chronic effects of radiation.

  15. A case of multiple cancers in the pelvic organs after radiation for uterine cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Yasuhiro; Kurokawa, Eiji; Iijima, Shohei; Handa, Rio; Kato, Takeshi; Kikkawa, Nobuteru

    2005-01-01

    Patients who have undergone pelvic irradiation are reported to be at an increased risk of subsequently developing malignancies of the pelvic organs. We report a case of multiple cancers in the pelvic organs after radiation therapy for uterine cancer. The patient was a 76-year-old woman who had undergone a hysterectomy with radiation therapy for uterine cancer in 1960. Thereafter, she had undergone a total cystectomy for bladder cancer in 1989; an abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer with radiation proctitis in February 1991; and a right hemicolectomy for cecum cancer in 1995. Then, in 2005, she was found to have early cancer of the sigmoid colon at the stoma, so that the colon was dissected from the periphery of the stoma, the sigmoid colon was removed, and an artificial anus was reconstructed again. The histopathological diagnosis was early well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. She had undergone three operations for multiple cancers of the large intestine in the pelvis at different times during 16 years since 1989 when the bladder cancer was detected and surgically treated. And she has been alive and well. Long-term follow-up would be mandatory for such patients undergone pelvic irradiation who might be able to survive for a long time with appropriate therapies like this patient. (author)

  16. Transcatheter embolization for treatment of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uflacker, R.

    1987-01-01

    Treatment of lower gastrointestinal bleeding was attempted in 13 patients by selective embolization of branches of the mesenteric arteries with Gelfoam. Bleeding was adequately controlled in 11 patients with active bleeding during the examination. One patient improved after embolization but bleeding recurred within 24 hours and in another patient the catheterization was unsuccessful. Five patients with diverticular hemorrhage were embolized in the right colic artery four times, and once in the middle colic artery. Three patients had embolization of the ileocolic artery because of hemorrhage from cecal angiodysplasia, post appendectomy, and leukemia infiltration. Three patients had the superior hemorrhoidal artery embolized because of bleeding from unspecific proctitis, infiltration of the rectum from a carcinoma of the bladder, and transendoscopic polypectomy. One patient was septic and bled from jejunal ulcers. Ischemic changes with infarction of the large bowel developed in two patients and were treated by partial semi-elective colectomy, three and four days after embolization. Four other patients developed pain and fever after embolization. Transcatheter embolization of branches of mesenteric arteries in an effective way to control acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding, but still has a significant rate of complications that must be seriously weighed against the advantages of operation. (orig.)

  17. Peracute radiation pneumonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, E

    1982-01-01

    Progressive tendencies in curative radiation therapy approach in the treatment of bronchogenic carcinoma will generally prolong a treatment course and modify the manifestation of radiation pneumonitis. There will probably be a tendency for an earlier onset of its acute phase, especially if the irradiated lung was atelectatic with or without post-obstructive pneumonia or if there were changes of chronic pulmonary disease. A peracute of radiation pneumonitis after a tumor dose of 6400 cGy in 29 fractions over 48 days starting within one week after the completion of irradiation is documented and discussed. Literature dealing with clinical, pathological, pathophysiological, and radiographic manifestations of radiation pneumonitis is shortly reviewed. Usage of corticosteroid therapy in the acute phase of radiation pneumonitis is described and controversial reports on this subject are mentioned. Beneficial effect of dexamethasone in the presented case is demonstrated on sequential radiograms.

  18. Reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine (Prozac) submitted to ionizing radiation to Vibrio fischeri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Dymes R.A.; Garcia, Vanessa S.G.; Vilarrubia, Anna C.S.; Borrely, Sueli I.

    2011-01-01

    The constant use of pharmaceutical drugs by great part of the population and its continuous input into the environment creates a growing need of investigating its presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat wastewater containing such substances. The fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH) present in the drug Prozac is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Generally, these compounds enter the aquatic environment by sewage collectors systems after undergoing prior treatment in sewage treatment plants (STPs) or without any treatment. This study focused on evaluating the reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical FH, under its manipulated formula, for the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It was also evaluated the acute toxicity of the aqueous solution containing the FH after its exposition to ionizing radiation from industrial electron accelerator. It was performed acute toxicity tests lasting 15 minutes, where the average EC (50) of the non-irradiated CF water solution was approximately 0.68 mg L-1. While the CF water solution irradiated with 1 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy, presented an average EC(50) 1.63 mg.L -1 , 2.34 mg.L -1 , 2.35 mg.L -1 and 1.80 mg.L -1 , respectively, showing a notable reduction of the acute toxicity for this organism. (author)

  19. The Hematopoietic Syndrome of the Acute Radiation Syndrome in Rhesus Macaques: A Systematic Review of the Lethal Dose Response Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVittie, Thomas J; Farese, Ann M; Jackson, William

    2015-11-01

    Well characterized animal models that mimic the human response to potentially lethal doses of radiation are required to assess the efficacy of medical countermeasures under the criteria of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration "animal rule." Development of a model requires the determination of the radiation dose response relationship and time course of mortality and morbidity across the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome. The nonhuman primate, rhesus macaque, is a relevant animal model that may be used to determine the efficacy of medical countermeasures to mitigate major signs of morbidity and mortality at selected lethal doses of total body irradiation. A systematic review of relevant studies that determined the dose response relationship for the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome in the rhesus macaque relative to radiation quality, dose rate, and exposure uniformity has never been performed. The selection of data cohorts was made from the following sources: Ovid Medline (1957-present), PubMed (1954-present), AGRICOLA (1976-present), Web of Science (1954-present), and U.S. HHS REPORT (2002 to present). The following terms were used: Rhesus, total body-irradiation, total body x irradiation, TBI, irradiation, gamma radiation, hematopoiesis, LD50/60, Macaca mulatta, whole-body irradiation, nonhuman primate, NHP, monkey, primates, hematopoietic radiation syndrome, mortality, and nuclear radiation. The reference lists of all studies, published and unpublished, were reviewed for additional studies. The total number of hits across all search sites was 3,001. There were a number of referenced, unpublished, non-peer reviewed government reports that were unavailable for review. Fifteen studies, 11 primary (n = 863) and four secondary (n = 153) studies [n = 1,016 total nonhuman primates (NHP), rhesus Macaca mulatta] were evaluated to provide an informative and consistent review. The dose response relationships (DRRs) were determined for uniform or non-uniform total

  20. γ-Tocotrienol as a Promising Countermeasure for Acute Radiation Syndrome: Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K. Singh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The hazard of ionizing radiation exposure due to nuclear accidents or terrorist attacks is ever increasing. Despite decades of research, still, there is a shortage of non-toxic, safe and effective medical countermeasures for radiological and nuclear emergency. To date, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA has approved only two growth factors, Neupogen (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, filgrastim and Neulasta (PEGylated G-CSF, pegfilgrastim for the treatment of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS following the Animal Efficacy Rule. Promising radioprotective efficacy results of γ-tocotrienol (GT3; a member of the vitamin E family in the mouse model encouraged its further evaluation in the nonhuman primate (NHP model. These studies demonstrated that GT3 significantly aided the recovery of radiation-induced neutropenia and thrombocytopenia compared to the vehicle controls; these results particularly significant after exposure to 5.8 or 6.5 Gray (Gy whole body γ-irradiation. The stimulatory effect of GT3 on neutrophils and thrombocytes (platelets was directly and positively correlated with dose; a 75 mg/kg dose was more effective compared to 37.5 mg/kg. GT3 was also effective against 6.5 Gy whole body γ-irradiation for improving neutrophils and thrombocytes. Moreover, a single administration of GT3 without any supportive care was equivalent, in terms of improving hematopoietic recovery, to multiple doses of Neupogen and two doses of Neulasta with full supportive care (including blood products in the NHP model. GT3 may serve as an ultimate radioprotector for use in humans, particularly for military personnel and first responders. In brief, GT3 is a promising radiation countermeasure that ought to be further developed for U.S. FDA approval for the ARS indication.

  1. A randomized, double-blind trial on the use of 1% hydrocortisone cream for the prevention of acute radiation dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghrajani, Chandra F; Co, Henri S; Arcillas, Jon G; Maaño, Clarita C; Cupino, Nonette A

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether the application of 1% hydrocortisone cream during radiation therapy can prevent the occurrence of moist desquamation. Fifty adult female breast carcinoma patients were randomized after modified radical mastectomy and chemotherapy to receive prophylactic placebo cream (n = 27) or 1% hydrocortisone cream (n = 23) during radiation therapy. The patients, caregiver and assessor were all blinded to the treatment received. Occurrence of moist desquamation, severity of acute radiation dermatitis (ARD) and hyperpigmentation were evaluated weekly until the end of radiotherapy. Five patients in each group developed moist desquamation; however, its extent and severity were milder in the steroid group. Mean ARD scores were also lower in the steroid group (0.713 vs. 0.874, p = 0.024). A lower incidence of Grades 1 and 2 radiation dermatitis was also noted in the steroid group at weeks 2 and 4, respectively, indicating prophylactic use of steroids delayed the onset of radiodermatitis.

  2. Acute radiation syndrones and their management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation syndromes produced by large doses of ionizing radiation are divided into three general groups depending on dose of radiation and time after exposure. The CNS syndrome requires many thousands of rad, appears in minutes to hours, and kills within hours to days. The GIS appears after doses of a few hundred to 2000 rad. It is characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and disturbances of water and electrolyte metabolism. It has a high mortality in the first week after exposure. Survivors will then experience the HS as a result of marrow aplasia. Depending on dose, survival is possible with antibiotic and transfusion therapy. The relationship of granulocyte depression to mortality in dogs and human beings is illustrated. The role of depth dose pattern of mortality of radiation exposure is described and used as an indication of why air exposure doses may be misleading. The therapy of radiation injury is described based on antibiotics, transfusion therapy, and use of molecular regulators. The limited role of matched allogenic bone marrow transplants is discussed. 52 refs., 13 figs.

  3. Acute radiation syndrones and their management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation syndromes produced by large doses of ionizing radiation are divided into three general groups depending on dose of radiation and time after exposure. The CNS syndrome requires many thousands of rad, appears in minutes to hours, and kills within hours to days. The GIS appears after doses of a few hundred to 2000 rad. It is characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and disturbances of water and electrolyte metabolism. It has a high mortality in the first week after exposure. Survivors will then experience the HS as a result of marrow aplasia. Depending on dose, survival is possible with antibiotic and transfusion therapy. The relationship of granulocyte depression to mortality in dogs and human beings is illustrated. The role of depth dose pattern of mortality of radiation exposure is described and used as an indication of why air exposure doses may be misleading. The therapy of radiation injury is described based on antibiotics, transfusion therapy, and use of molecular regulators. The limited role of matched allogenic bone marrow transplants is discussed. 52 refs., 13 figs

  4. The mouse small eye mutant, Del(2)Sey3H, which deletes the putative tumor suppressor region of the radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia is susceptible to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Yumiko; Yoshida, Kazuko; Tanaka, Kimio; Peters, Jo; Cattanach, Bruce M.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation-induced murine acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by the chromosome 2 deletions. Standing on the hypothesis that an AML suppressor gene would locate on the chromosome 2, a deletion-wide screen was performed on radiation-induced AMLs by the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method. The hemizugous deletion of the D2Mit15, a marker DNA at the 49.0cM region from the centromere, associated with the AMLs in 97 out of the 105 cases (92.4%). As the deletion region was close to the region of human WAGR syndrome (MIM194072), the mouse small eye mutants could be the animal model for radiation-induced AMLs. The mutant, Del(2)Sey3H (Sey3H) was found to delete around the 49.0cM region by the allelic loss mapping. The Sey3H showed high susceptibility to radiation to develop tumors including the myeloid leukemia with shorter latency. These finding support the existence of a putative tumor suppressor gene responsible for the radiation-leukemogenesis near the D2Mit15 region. (author)

  5. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A as early-phase and prognostic indicators of acute radiation exposure in nonhuman primate total-body irradiation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossetrova, N.I., E-mail: ossetrova@afrri.usuhs.mil [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Sandgren, D.J.; Blakely, W.F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Terrorist radiological attacks or nuclear accidents could expose large numbers of people to ionizing radiation. In mass-casualty radiological incidents early medical-management requires triage tools for first-responders to quantitatively identify individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and for early initiation (i.e., within one day after radiation exposure) of cytokine therapy for treatment of bone marrow acute radiation syndrome. Herein, we present results from 30 rhesus macaques total-body irradiated (TBI) to a broad dose range of 1-8.5 Gy with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays (0.55 Gy min{sup -1}) and demonstrate dose- and time-dependent changes in blood of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CRP and SAA dose-response results are consistent with {approx}1 Gy and {approx}0.2 Gy thresholds for photon-exposure at 24 h after TBI, respectively. Highly significant elevations of CRP and SAA (p = 0.00017 and p = 0.0024, respectively) were found in animal plasma at 6 h after all TBI doses suggesting their potential use as early-phase biodosimeters. Results also show that the dynamics and content of CRP and SAA levels reflect the course and severity of the acute radiation sickness (ARS) and may function as prognostic indicators of ARS outcome. These results demonstrate proof-of-concept that these radiation-responsive proteins show promise as a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposures and may also contribute as diagnostic indices in the medical management of radiation accidents.

  6. Accuracy and Radiation Dose Reduction of Limited-Range CT in the Evaluation of Acute Appendicitis in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Michael; Sanchez, Thomas R; Lamba, Ramit; Fananapazir, Ghaneh; Corwin, Michael T

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to determine the accuracy and radiation dose reduction of limited-range CT prescribed from the top of L2 to the top of the pubic symphysis in children with suspected acute appendicitis. We performed a retrospective study of 210 consecutive pediatric patients from December 11, 2012, through December 11, 2014, who underwent abdominopelvic CT for suspected acute appendicitis. Two radiologists independently reviewed the theoretic limited scans from the superior L2 vertebral body to the top of the pubic symphysis, to assess for visualization of the appendix, acute appendicitis, alternative diagnoses, and incidental findings. Separately, the same parameters were assessed on the full scan by the same two reviewers. Whole-body effective doses were determined for the full- and limited-range scans and were compared using the paired t test. The appendix or entire cecum was visualized on the limited scan in all cases, and no cases of acute appendicitis were missed on the simulated limited scan compared with the full scan. Two alternative diagnoses were missed with the limited scan: one case of hydronephrosis and one of acute acalculous cholecystitis. The mean effective dose for the original scan was 5.6 mSv and that for the simulated limited scan was 3.0 mSv, resulting in a dose reduction of 46.4% (p appendicitis and reduces the dose by approximately 46%.

  7. Acute postirradiation nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trojanowski, Z.

    1982-01-01

    The pathogenesis, morphological and clinical signs of acute postirradiation nephropathy are described with particular attention paid to the relationship between the clinical signs of renal involvement and the dose of radiation. (author)

  8. Differential diagnosis of the acute abdomen. Pt. 4. Acute abdomen in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staatz, Gundula; Schneider, Karl

    2010-01-01

    The diagnostic work-up of adults with acute abdominal pain has changed significantly within the last decade and computed tomography is often used as the first imaging modality of choice. In pediatric patients with an acute abdomen, ultrasound and abdominal X-rays remain the first line procedures. Because of the radiation risk, computed tomography is only recommended in selected cases and when strongly indicated. This review is the fourth and final part within a series of reviews dealing with the diagnostic strategy in the work-up of patients with an acute abdomen. (orig.)

  9. Prophylactic vesical instillations with 0.2% chondroitin sulfate may reduce symptoms of acute radiation cystitis in patients undergoing radiotherapy for gynecological malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazewinkel, M.H.; Stalpers, L.J.A.; Dijkgraaf, M.G.; Roovers, J.P.W.R.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the feasibility and efficacy of intravesical instillations with 40 ml chondroitin sulfate 0.2% solution to prevent or reduce acute radiation cystitis in women undergoing pelvic radiotherapy. In a comparative pilot study in 20 patients, half of the patients received instillations.

  10. Reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine (Prozac) submitted to ionizing radiation to Vibrio fischeri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Dymes R.A.; Garcia, Vanessa S.G.; Vilarrubia, Anna C.S.; Borrely, Sueli I., E-mail: vanessagarcia@usp.br, E-mail: sborrely@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The constant use of pharmaceutical drugs by great part of the population and its continuous input into the environment creates a growing need of investigating its presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat wastewater containing such substances. The fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH) present in the drug Prozac is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Generally, these compounds enter the aquatic environment by sewage collectors systems after undergoing prior treatment in sewage treatment plants (STPs) or without any treatment. This study focused on evaluating the reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical FH, under its manipulated formula, for the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It was also evaluated the acute toxicity of the aqueous solution containing the FH after its exposition to ionizing radiation from industrial electron accelerator. It was performed acute toxicity tests lasting 15 minutes, where the average EC (50) of the non-irradiated CF water solution was approximately 0.68 mg L-1. While the CF water solution irradiated with 1 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy, presented an average EC(50) 1.63 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.34 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.35 mg.L{sup -1} and 1.80 mg.L{sup -1}, respectively, showing a notable reduction of the acute toxicity for this organism. (author)

  11. Assessment of efficacy of polaprezinc suppositories against radiation-induced rectal disorders using an experimental rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Hiroshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Takada, Yasuhiro

    2009-01-01

    The purpose/objective of this study was to establish an experimental rat model and examine the efficacy of polaprezinc suppositories against radiation-induced rectal disorders. Female Wister rats (6 weeks old) were used in the present study. The rats were divided into three groups. Group A was irradiated and medicated with polaprezinc suppositories. Group B was irradiated without any medication. Group C had no irradiation or medication. The rat was taped by the tail in the vertical position under anesthesia. Lead shielding was used to cover the rats except the area of the lower pelvis. They were irradiated at 22 Gy by a single fraction. Polaprezinc suppositories were inserted daily into the rat anus for 7 days after irradiation. All rats were evaluated by colonoscopy on the 7th day after irradiation, sacrificed on the 10th day, and evaluated for mucosal damage. In the clinical findings, the endoscopic findings, and the histological findings, the rats not administered polaprezinc suppositories tended to show more severe mucosal damage but there were no significant differences. Our study showed that this model was a useful experimental rat model for radiation-induced rectal disorders and polaprezinc suppositories demonstrated good efficacy against radiation proctitis. (author)

  12. Manual for medical problems of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The manual deals comprehensively and topically with the theoretical and practical fundamentals of radiation protection of the population considering the present knowledge in the fields of radiobiology and radiation protection medicine. The subject is covered under the following headings: (1) physics of ionizing radiations, (2) biological radiation effects, (3) the acute radiation syndrome, (4) medical treatment of the acute radiation syndrome, (5) combined radiation injuries, and (6) prophylaxis and therapy of injuries caused by fission products of nuclear explosions. The book is of interest to medical doctors, medical scientists, and students in medicine who have to acquire special knowledge in the field of radiation protection and it is of value as a reference book in daily routine

  13. Surgery or radiation therapy for Stage I and IIA carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, L.W.

    1979-01-01

    The choice of treatment in carcinoma of the cervix is best decided after careful individual appraisal has been carried out. For best results, a long-term view must be agreed upon initially and careful followup by the same team is obligatory. At present, surgery, radiation therapy, and a combination of these two modalities have been employed successfully to manage carcinoma of the cervix. To a great extent, the facilities, the experience, and the interest of the personnel involved influence the type of therapy that will be employed. Generally speaking, the choice of treatment is determined primarily by the stage of the disease process. Radical surgery in the management of patients with Stage I and Stage II-A carcinoma of the cervix must be planned to include within the en bloc dissection the uterus, tubes, ovaries, and regional lymph node drainage from those organs. Therefore, a radical lymphadnectomy is an integral and important part of the overall management program when radical surgery is performed. In most institutions, radiation therapy is used most frequently to treat carcinoma of the cervix in Stages I and II-A. The data from various institutions indicate significant survival potential from radiation therapy treatment programs that are appropriately devised. In Stages I and II-A the complications are minimal in character (primarily proctitis and cystitis); generally, they involve a potential incidence of about six percent

  14. Health consequences of ionizing radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalci, D.; Dorter, G.; Guclu, I.

    2004-01-01

    The increasing use of ionizing radiations all over the world induces an ever increasing interest of the professionals as well as of the whole society in health protection and the risk due to these practices. Shortly after its discovery, it was recognized that ionizing radiation can have adverse health effects and knowledge of its detrimental effects has accumulated. The fact that ionizing radiation produces biological damage has been known for many years. The biological effects of ionizing radiation for radiation protection considerations are grouped into two categories: The deterministic and the stochastic ones. Deterministic radiation effects can be clinically diagnosed in the exposed individual and occur when above a certain 'threshold' an appropriately high dose is absorbed in the tissues and organs to cause the death of a large number of cells and consequently to impair tissue or organ functions early after exposure. A clinically observable biological effect (Acute Radiation Syndromes, ARS) that occurs days to months after an acute radiation dose. ARS is a complex of acute injury manifestations that occur after a sufficiently large portion of a person's body is exposed to a high dose of ionizing radiation. Such irradiation initially injures all organs to some extent, but the timing and extent of the injury manifestations depend upon the type, rate, and dose of radiation received. Stochastic radiation effects are the chronic effects of radiation result from relatively low exposure levels delivered over long periods of time. These are sort of effects that might result from occupational exposure, or to the background exposure levels (includes radioactive pollution). Such late effects might be the development of malignant (cancerous) disease and of the hereditary consequences. These effects may be observed many years after the radiation exposure. There is a latent period between the initial radiation exposure and the development of the biological effect. In this

  15. Evaluation of acute radiation damage of the human brain by 1H-MRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, Shigeru; Kinosada, Yasutomi.

    1993-01-01

    Fourteen patients (17 cases) were treated with the whole brain irradiation. Physiological changes in white matter were measured by in vivo 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). Phantom examination proved the accuracy of our 1 H-MRS method to be valid. The measurement was performed 2 or 3 times in each case at the radiation doses ranging from 0 to 40 Gy with 2 Gy daily fractionation. For the measurement of 1 H-MRS, 1.5 T whole body MR system was used and stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) with chemical shift selective (CHESS) pulse was applied. Volume of the interest (VOI) was 2.5x2.5x2.5 cm 3 , and the repetition time and echo time were 2000 ms and 272 ms, respectively. Acute radiation damage of the brain was evaluated by the change of peak area ratio (PAR) of choline, creatine and N-acetyl aspartate (NAA). 1 H-MRS spectra before irradiation were different from those observed during irradiation. There were statistically significant (p 1 H-MRS is a powerful modality, detecting the subtle physiological change which is difficult to evaluate with conventional images. (author)

  16. Acute toxicity in comprehensive head and neck radiation for nasopharynx and paranasal sinus cancers: cohort comparison of 3D conformal proton therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Mark W.; Liu, Yuan; Moore, Michael G.; Johnstone, Peter A. S.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate acute toxicity endpoints in a cohort of patients receiving head and neck radiation with proton therapy or intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Forty patients received comprehensive head and neck radiation including bilateral cervical nodal radiation, given with or without chemotherapy, for tumors of the nasopharynx, nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses, any T stage, N0-2. Fourteen received comprehensive treatment with proton therapy, and 26 were treated with IMRT, either comprehensively or matched to proton therapy delivered to the primary tumor site. Toxicity endpoints assessed included g-tube dependence at the completion of radiation and at 3 months after radiation, opioid pain medication requirement compared to pretreatment normalized as equivalent morphine dose (EMD) at completion of treatment, and at 1 and 3 months after radiation. In a multivariable model including confounding variables of concurrent chemotherapy and involved nodal disease, comprehensive head and neck radiation therapy using proton therapy was associated with a lower opioid pain requirement at the completion of radiation and a lower rate of gastrostomy tube dependence by the completion of radiation therapy and at 3 months after radiation compared to IMRT. Proton therapy was associated with statistically significant lower mean doses to the oral cavity, esophagus, larynx, and parotid glands. In subgroup analysis of 32 patients receiving concurrent chemotherapy, there was a statistically significant correlation with a greater opioid pain medication requirement at the completion of radiation and both increasing mean dose to the oral cavity and to the esophagus. Proton therapy was associated with significantly reduced radiation dose to assessed non-target normal tissues and a reduced rate of gastrostomy tube dependence and opioid pain medication requirements. This warrants further evaluation in larger studies, ideally with patient-reported toxicity outcomes and quality of life

  17. Cardiovascular system and physical working capacity in patients who had acute radiation syndrome as the result of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, D.; Gergel, O.; Kovalenko, A.

    1996-01-01

    The functional state of cardiovascular system has been studied since 1986 in 168 patients who had acute radiation syndrome as the result of Chernobyl accident. There was revealed a progressive increase of cardiovascular system pathology. The number of patients with pathological signs at ECG increased from 4.8 % in 1987 to 11.3 % in 1994 and with myocardial hypertrophy from 1.2 % to 22.6 %. The number of patients with coronary heart disease increased on 17.2% and with essential hypertension on 15.5%. The physical working capacity reduced to 50-60 % of a due level for healthy persons. Two patients suffered from acute myocardial infarction during this period of observation. Thirteenth patients died from 1987 to 1995. Among them 4 patient died in a result of acute cardiac failure. The development of cardiovascular pathology has no any correlation with a dose of exposure. Three factors of cardiovascular pathology growth are supposed

  18. Inner organ damages after acute radioactive poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnyuk, Valeriy

    2008-01-01

    Full text: There are some difficulties in making early diagnosis on acute radioactive poisoning. Clinical disorders from a poison in November 2006 in London has not given an opportunity to doctors to reveal radiation as the reason of the acute injury before the death. The report purpose is to give more diagnostic possibilities to reveal early signs of acute radioactive poisoning. It provides an evaluation of clinical observation data on a difference of clinical symptoms after internal or external exposure, activities of some radioactive isotopes that are able to cause ARS with bone marrow failure or damages to different organs and tissues. The report contains descriptions of some clinical cases of radioactive poisonings. Prodromal responses after acute internal expose are significant only in cases of the following early death but are not typical for the most clinical cases of internal exposure. Lethal gastrointestinal or cutaneous damages are not characteristic. Early radiation vasculitis (blood vessel endotheliitis) sings: bloody rash on the trunk, blood in the urine, hemorrhages in the skin and mucous membranes at blood platelet count in excess of 40 x 10 9 l -1 . Death from lung radiation injury could be expected in all individuals from as little as 7 MBq of inhaled alpha emitter with energy of about 5 MeV and an effective half-life greater than 100 days. Death from severe bone marrow syndrome for the first month or death from liver insufficiency for the following 6 months is typical after ingestion or injection of radioactive materials at lethal doses. Hemolytic sings after acute exposure should be confirmed by the following clinical investigations. It is known the erythrocyte hemolysis and the following hemoglobin decay is a significant source of the endogenous CO that release from the hem. So estimation of CO and methemoglobin in the blood is a way for revealing of the higher erythrocyte destroy. If hemolytic syndrome is characteristic for early acute

  19. Treatment and prognosis of patients with late rectal bleeding after intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takemoto Shinya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation proctitis after intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT differs from that seen after pelvic irradiation in that this adverse event is a result of high-dose radiation to a very small area in the rectum. We evaluated the results of treatment for hemorrhagic proctitis after IMRT for prostate cancer. Methods Between November 2004 and February 2010, 403 patients with prostate cancer were treated with IMRT at 2 institutions. Among these patients, 64 patients who developed late rectal bleeding were evaluated. Forty patients had received IMRT using a linear accelerator and 24 by tomotherapy. Their median age was 72 years. Each patient was assessed clinically and/or endoscopically. Depending on the severity, steroid suppositories or enemas were administered up to twice daily and Argon plasma coagulation (APC was performed up to 3 times. Response to treatment was evaluated using the Rectal Bleeding Score (RBS, which is the sum of Frequency Score (graded from 1 to 3 by frequency of bleeding and Amount Score (graded from 1 to 3 by amount of bleeding. Stoppage of bleeding over 3 months was scored as RBS 1. Results The median follow-up period for treatment of rectal bleeding was 35 months (range, 12–69 months. Grade of bleeding was 1 in 31 patients, 2 in 26, and 3 in 7. Nineteen of 45 patients (42% observed without treatment showed improvement and bleeding stopped in 17 (38%, although mean RBS did not change significantly. Eighteen of 29 patients (62% treated with steroid suppositories or enemas showed improvement (mean RBS, from 4.1 ± 1.0 to 3.0 ± 1.8, p = 0.003 and bleeding stopped in 9 (31%. One patient treated with steroid enema 0.5-2 times a day for 12 months developed septic shock and died of multiple organ failure. All 12 patients treated with APC showed improvement (mean RBS, 4.7 ± 1.2 to 2.3 ± 1.4, p  Conclusions After adequate periods of observation, steroid suppositories

  20. Clinical characteristics of subacute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Benrong; Ye Genyao; Huang Shimin

    1991-01-01

    The clinical characteristics, diagnosis and differential diagnosis of subacute radiation sickness are analysed and discussed in this paper on the basis of clinical data from cases in a 137 Cs source accident in Mudanjiang and of a review of the literature. We consider that the subacute radiation sickness is a whole body disease caused by comparatively large dose of continuous or intermittent external irradiation in several weeks or months. it must be differentiated from acute radiation sickness, chronic radiation sickness, idiopathic aplastic anemia and other hematological diseases, such as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome

  1. The clinical characteristics of the radiation pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fuzheng; Wang Mingzhi; Chen Jianjiang; Wang Zhongxiang; Mao Yongjie

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the clinical characteristics of the radiation pneumonia, sum the experience and the basis of the radiation pneumonia for its prevention and treatment. Method: Twenty three cases with radiation pneumonia from 1991 to 1998 were retrospectively analysed. Its clinical manifestation, chest X-ray, thoracic CT and blood routine were evaluated. Result: The acute manifestation was fever, cough, dyspnea, and the chronic manifestation was cough and insufficiency of pulmonary function. Conclusion: The prevention of radiation pneumonia is more important, high dose cortical steroids and antibiotics were prescribed during the acute stage and the chronic radiation pneumonia is irreversible

  2. Medical management of patients overexposed to irradiation in acute and subacute accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genyao, Ye; Guilin, Wang; Shimin, Huang; Xiyuan, Cheng; Bingzhi, Mao; Yingqi, Li [North Taiping Road Hospital, Beijing, BJ (China)

    1991-11-01

    The authors summarize the experiences in the medical management of 7 radiation accidents resulting in 5 cases of acute radiation sickness, 3 cases of subacute radiation sickness and 8 cases of overexposed persons with estimated physical doses below 1 Gy in the past 5 years. The therapeutic measures including the application of antiradiation drugs such as estriol and herbal medicine '208', measures to improve the microcirculation and transfusion of fetal liver cells, etc., were emphasized in the treatment of acute radiation sickness. For subacute radiation sickness, large doses of stanozolum (18 mg/d) in combination with 654-2 (60 mg/d) were administered as the principal therapeutic agents. The advances in the medical management of acute accidentally overexposed cases in China are briefly reviewed and discussed.

  3. Ionizing radiation and water reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Sampa, Maria Helena de Oliveira; Oikawa, Hiroshi; Silveira, Carlos Gaia da; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Cherbakian, Eloisa Helena

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to point out the possibility of including ionizing radiation for wastewater treatment and reuse. Radiation processing is an efficient technology which can be useful for water reuse once the process can reduce not only the biological contamination but also organic substances, promoting an important acute toxicity removal from aquatic resources. Final secondary effluents from three different wastewater treatment plant were submitted to electron beam radiation and the process efficacy was evaluated. Concerning disinfection, relatively low radiation doses (2,0 - 4,0 kGy) accounted for 4 to 6 cycle log reduction for total coliforms. When radiation was applied for general wastewater improvement related to the chemical contamination, radiation process reduced from 78% up to 100% the total acute toxicity, measured for crustaceans, D. similis, and for V. fiscehri bacteria. (author)

  4. Acute adaptive immune response correlates with late radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paun, Alexandra; Kunwar, Amit; Haston, Christina K

    2015-01-01

    The lung response to radiation exposure can involve an immediate or early reaction to the radiation challenge, including cell death and an initial immune reaction, and can be followed by a tissue injury response, of pneumonitis or fibrosis, to this acute reaction. Herein, we aimed to determine whether markers of the initial immune response, measured within days of radiation exposure, are correlated with the lung tissue injury responses occurring weeks later. Inbred strains of mice known to be susceptible (KK/HIJ, C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ) or resistant (C3H/HeJ, A/J, AKR/J) to radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and to vary in time to onset of respiratory distress post thoracic irradiation (from 10–23 weeks) were studied. Mice were untreated (controls) or received 18 Gy whole thorax irradiation and were euthanized at 6 h, 1d or 7 d after radiation treatment. Pulmonary CD4+ lymphocytes, bronchoalveolar cell profile & cytokine level, and serum cytokine levels were assayed. Thoracic irradiation and inbred strain background significantly affected the numbers of CD4+ cells in the lungs and the bronchoalveolar lavage cell differential of exposed mice. At the 7 day timepoint greater numbers of pulmonary Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes and reduced lavage interleukin17 and interferonγ levels were significant predictors of late stage fibrosis. Lavage levels of interleukin-10, measured at the 7 day timepoint, were inversely correlated with fibrosis score (R = −0.80, p = 0.05), while serum levels of interleukin-17 in control mice significantly correlated with post irradiation survival time (R = 0.81, p = 0.04). Lavage macrophage, lymphocyte or neutrophil counts were not significantly correlated with either of fibrosis score or time to respiratory distress in the six mouse strains. Specific cytokine and lymphocyte levels, but not strain dependent lavage cell profiles, were predictive of later radiation-induced lung injury in this panel of inbred strains. The online version of this

  5. In vitro radiosensitivity of primary human fibroblasts. Lack of correlation with acute radiation toxicity in patients with head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudat, Volker; Dietz, Andreas; Conradt, Christian; Weber, Klaus-Josef; Flentje, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: There is a considerable hope among clinicians and radiobiologists to detect genetically radiosensitive patients prior to radiotherapy. A predictive assay would enable adjustment of the total irradiation dose to the individual at a constant risk of normal tissue complications. In this prospective study, the clonogenic survival assay for primary human fibroblasts to determine radiosensitivity in vitro was evaluated and then correlated with clinically observed acute radiation reactions. Materials and methods: One hundred twenty-five independent survival experiments with primary fibroblasts derived from 63 biopsies from 55 cancer and non-cancer patients were performed. Results: A wide variation of cell survival between biopsies was detected. Statistical analysis revealed a highly significantly larger interindividual than intraindividual variation of SF2 values. However, a considerable scatter of SF2 values in repeated experiments was observed in individual cases. Age, gender, disease status (cancer patient, non-cancer patient) and origin of fibroblasts (skin, periodontal tissue) were demonstrated not to be statistically significant confounding factors on the intrinsic radiosensitivity in vitro. In a prospective study, no correlation of the SF2 and acute reactions in 25 patients with head and neck cancer treated with a primary accelerated radiochemotherapy was detected. Conclusion: Our data show that the clonogenic assay is able to distinguish between intrinsic radiosensitivities of primary human fibroblasts if a statistical approach is used but does not predict acute radiation toxicity

  6. Acoustic radiation force impulse shear wave elastography (ARFI) of acute and chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goertz, Ruediger S., E-mail: ruediger.goertz@uk-erlangen.de; Schuderer, Johanna, E-mail: Johanna@schuderer-floss.de; Strobel, Deike, E-mail: deike.strobel@uk-erlangen.de; Pfeifer, Lukas, E-mail: Lukas.Pfeifer@uk-erlangen.de; Neurath, Markus F., E-mail: Markus.Neurath@uk-erlangen.de; Wildner, Dane, E-mail: Dane.Wildner@uk-erlangen.de

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • ARFI elastography of the pancreas is feasible. • Shear wave velocities in patients with acute or chronic pancreatitis or carcinoma are higher than those occurring in normal tissue. • ARFI values considerable overlap between different pathologies. - Abstract: Introduction: Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography evaluates tissue stiffness non-invasively and has rarely been applied to pancreas examinations so far. In a prospective and retrospective analysis, ARFI shear wave velocities of healthy parenchyma, pancreatic lipomatosis, acute and chronic pancreatitis, adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of the pancreas were evaluated and compared. Material and methods: In 95 patients ARFI elastography of the pancreatic head, and also of the tail for a specific group, was analysed retrospectively. Additionally, prospectively in 100 patients ARFI was performed in the head and tail of the pancreas. Results: A total of 195 patients were included in the study. Healthy parenchyma (n = 21) and lipomatosis (n = 30) showed similar shear wave velocities of about 1.3 m/s. Acute pancreatitis (n = 35), chronic pancreatitis (n = 53) and adenocarcinoma (n = 52) showed consecutively increasing ARFI values, respectively. NET (n = 4) revealed the highest shear wave velocities amounting to 3.62 m/s. ARFI elastography showed relevant differences between acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis or adenocarcinoma. With a cut-off value of 1.74 m/s for the diagnosis of a malignant disease the sensitivity was 91.1% whereas the specificity amounted to 60.4%. Conclusion: ARFI shear wave velocities present differences in various pathologies of the pancreas. Acute and chronic pancreatitis as well as neoplastic lesions show high ARFI values. Very high elasticity values may indicate malignant disease of the pancreas. However, there is a considerable overlap between the entities.

  7. Acoustic radiation force impulse shear wave elastography (ARFI) of acute and chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goertz, Ruediger S.; Schuderer, Johanna; Strobel, Deike; Pfeifer, Lukas; Neurath, Markus F.; Wildner, Dane

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • ARFI elastography of the pancreas is feasible. • Shear wave velocities in patients with acute or chronic pancreatitis or carcinoma are higher than those occurring in normal tissue. • ARFI values considerable overlap between different pathologies. - Abstract: Introduction: Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography evaluates tissue stiffness non-invasively and has rarely been applied to pancreas examinations so far. In a prospective and retrospective analysis, ARFI shear wave velocities of healthy parenchyma, pancreatic lipomatosis, acute and chronic pancreatitis, adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of the pancreas were evaluated and compared. Material and methods: In 95 patients ARFI elastography of the pancreatic head, and also of the tail for a specific group, was analysed retrospectively. Additionally, prospectively in 100 patients ARFI was performed in the head and tail of the pancreas. Results: A total of 195 patients were included in the study. Healthy parenchyma (n = 21) and lipomatosis (n = 30) showed similar shear wave velocities of about 1.3 m/s. Acute pancreatitis (n = 35), chronic pancreatitis (n = 53) and adenocarcinoma (n = 52) showed consecutively increasing ARFI values, respectively. NET (n = 4) revealed the highest shear wave velocities amounting to 3.62 m/s. ARFI elastography showed relevant differences between acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis or adenocarcinoma. With a cut-off value of 1.74 m/s for the diagnosis of a malignant disease the sensitivity was 91.1% whereas the specificity amounted to 60.4%. Conclusion: ARFI shear wave velocities present differences in various pathologies of the pancreas. Acute and chronic pancreatitis as well as neoplastic lesions show high ARFI values. Very high elasticity values may indicate malignant disease of the pancreas. However, there is a considerable overlap between the entities.

  8. The acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souhami Filho, L.

    1985-01-01

    Symptoms and signs from medical aspects resulting from whole body exposure, or in the main part, to ionizing radiation are described. The dose-response relationship is studied and the exposure is divided in three parts: central nervous system syndrome, gastrointestinal syndrome and hematopoietic syndrome. Brief comments about the treatment are reported. (M.A.C.) [pt

  9. Phase II multicenter randomized study of amifostine for prevention of acute radiation rectal toxicity: Topical intrarectal versus subcutaneous application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouloulias, Vassilis E.; Kouvaris, John R.; Pissakas, George; Mallas, Elias; Antypas, Christos; Kokakis, John D.; Matsopoulos, George; Michopoulos, Spyros; Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Vlahos, Lambros J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the cytoprotective effect of subcutaneous vs. intrarectal administration of amifostine against acute radiation toxicity. Methods and materials: Patients were randomized to receive amifostine either intrarectally (Group A, n = 27) or a 500-mg flat dose subcutaneously (Group B, n = 26) before irradiation. Therapy was delivered using a four-field technique with three-dimensional conformal planning. In Group A, 1,500 mg of amifostine was administered intrarectally as an aqueous solution in 40 mL of enema. Two different toxicity scales were used: the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) rectal and urologic toxicity criteria and the Subjective-RectoSigmoid scale based on the endoscopic terminology of the World Organization for Digestive Endoscopy. Objective measurements with rectosigmoidoscopy were performed at baseline and 1-2 days after radiotherapy completion. The area under the curve for the time course of mucositis (RTOG criteria) during irradiation represented the mucositis index. Results: Intrarectal amifostine was feasible and well tolerated without any systemic or local side effects. According to the RTOG toxicity scale, Group A had superior results with a significantly lower incidence of Grades I-II rectal radiation morbidity (11% vs. 42%, p 0.04) but inferior results concerning urinary toxicity (48% vs. 15%, p 0.03). The mean rectal mucositis index and Subjective-RectoSigmoid score were significantly lower in Group A (0.44 vs. 2.45 [p = 0.015] and 3.9 vs. 6.0 [p = 0.01], respectively), and the mean urinary mucositis index was lower in Group B (2.39 vs. 0.34, p < 0.028). Conclusions: Intrarectal administration of amifostine (1,500 mg) seemed to have a cytoprotective efficacy in acute radiation rectal mucositis but was inferior to subcutaneous administration in terms of urinary toxicity. Additional randomized studies are needed for definitive decisions concerning the

  10. Heart and radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Martins Júnior

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRATC The heart exposition to ionizing radiation may produce lesions in cardiac structures, acute (in most of cases benign and reversible, or months and even years later. There is a direct relationship of severity of lesions with radiation doses. The clinical picture receives a new denomination: radiation induced cardiopathy. The more frequent use of radiation in diagnosis and therapeutics increases the importance of their knowledge and especially their prevention.

  11. Radiation enteropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farthmann, E.H. (Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)); Imdahl, A. (Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)); Eggstein, S. (Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany))

    1994-08-01

    The pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment of radiation damage to the gut are described. The progress of 90 patients operated on in the Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik Freiburg is retrospectively evaluated. Haemorrhage, vomiting, diarrhoea and, occasionally, perforation are the signs of acute radiation enteropathy, which appears weeks or months after radiotherapy. Expect for perforations, these can usually be treated conservatively. Chronic radiation enteropathy does not manifest itself until years after irradiation, with diarrhoea, obstruction and the development of fistulae. The acute ileus can often be relieved with decompression tubes. After localising the stenosis radiologically with a contrast medium, and improvement in the general condition, many cases require operative intervention. This usually consists of resection, the establishment of a bypass anastomosis or enterostomy. In 44% of the patients postoperative complications followed, with a mortality of 22%. The cause of the high complication rate is partly the poor general condition of the patient, and partly the radiation induced impairment in wound healing, which may lead to insufficiency of the anastomosis and the development of fistulae. (orig./MG)

  12. Plants experiencing chronic internal exposure to ionizing radiation exhibit higher frequency of homologous recombination than acutely irradiated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalchuk, O.; Kovalchuk, I.; Hohn, B. [Friedrich Miescher Institute, P.O. Box 2543, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); Arkhipov, A. [Chernobyl Scientific and Technical Center of International Research, Shkolnaya Str. 6, 255620 Chernobyl (Ukraine); Barylyak, I.; Karachov, I. [Ukrainian Scientific Genetics Center, Popudrenko Str. 50, 253660 Kiev (Ukraine); Titov, V. [Ivano-Frankivsk State Medical Academy, Galitska Str.2, 284000 Ivano-Frankivsk (Ukraine)

    2000-04-03

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a known mutagen responsible for causing DNA strand breaks in all living organisms. Strand breaks thus created can be repaired by different mechanisms, including homologous recombination (HR), one of the key mechanisms maintaining genome stability [A. Britt, DNA damage and repair in plants, Annu. Rev. Plant. Phys. Plant Mol. Biol., 45 (1996) 75-100; H. Puchta, B. Hohn, From centiMorgans to basepairs: homologous recombination in plants, Trends Plant Sci., 1 (1996) 340-348.]. Acute or chronic exposure to IR may have different influences on the genome integrity. Although in a radioactively contaminated environment plants are mostly exposed to chronic pollution, evaluation of both kinds of influences is important. Estimation of the frequency of HR in the exposed plants may serve as an indication of genome stability. We used previously generated Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum plants, transgenic for non-active versions of the {beta}-glucoronidase gene (uidA) [P. Swoboda, S. Gal, B. Hohn, H. Puchta, Intrachromosomal homologous recombination in whole plants, EMBO J., 13 (1994) 484-489; H. Puchta, P. Swoboda, B. Hohn, Induction of homologous DNA recombination in whole plants, Plant, 7 (1995) 203-210.] serving as a recombination substrate, to study the influence of acute and chronic exposure to IR on the level of HR as example of genome stability in plants. Exposure of seeds and seedlings to 0.1 to 10.0 Gy 60Co resulted in increased HR frequency, although the effect was more pronounced in seedlings. For the study of the influence of chronic exposure to IR, plants were grown on two chemically different types of soils, each artificially contaminated with equal amounts of 137Cs. We observed a strong and significant correlation between the frequency of HR in plants, the radioactivity of the soil samples and the doses of radiation absorbed by plants (in all cases r0.9, n=6, P<0.05). In addition, we noted that plants grown in soils with

  13. Can a peri-rectal hydrogel spaceOAR programme for prostate cancer intensity-modulated radiotherapy be successfully implemented in a regional setting?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Te Velde, Bridget L.; Westhuyzen, Justin; Wood, Maree; Shakespeare, Thomas P.; Awad, Nader

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the implementation of a hydrogel spacer (SpaceOAR) programme for patients treated with 81 Gy prostate intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in a regional setting can reduce rectal doses and toxicity. In this retrospective study, 125 patients with localised prostate cancer treated between April 2014 (programme commencement) and June 2015 were compared: 65 with SpaceOAR (inserted by five different urologists) and 60 patients treated over the same time period without SpaceOAR. Patients were treated with 81 Gy in 45Fx of IMRT over 9 weeks. Planning aims included restricting rectal doses to V40 Gy < 35%, V65 Gy < 17%, V75 Gy < 10%. Acute toxicity was assessed weekly during radiotherapy and at 12 weeks. Rectal volume parameters were all significantly lower in the SpaceOAR group, with an associated reduction in acute diarrhoea (13.8% vs 31.7%). There were no significant differences in the very low rates of acute and late faecal incontinence or proctitis, however, there was a trend towards increased haemorrhoid rate in the SpaceOAR group (11.7% vs 3.1%, P = 0.09). A SpaceOAR programme in a regional setting with urologists performing low volumes of insertions (<1 per month on average) is of clinical benefit, and was associated with significantly lower radiation doses to the rectum and lower rates of acute diarrhoea.

  14. CT manifestations of radiation-induced change in chest tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagani, J.J.; Libshitz, H.I.

    1982-01-01

    The computed tomographic appearance of acute and chronic radiation change in the thorax is described. Acute radiation pneumonitis demonstrates patchy, confluent regions of increased pulmonary attenuation. Chronic changes include soft tissue density fibrotic changes that blend smoothly with the pleural surfaces and adjacent mediastinal structures. Also seen are bronchiectatic changes and distortion of normal intrathoracic anatomic relationships. Both the acute and chronic changes usually make linear lateral margins with adjacent aerated lung. Development of a discrete mass or focal cavitation after the radiation changes have become stable is suspect for recurrent tumor or infection

  15. Effect of MgSO4 on the contents of Ca2+ in brain cell and NO in brain tissue of rats with radiation-induced acute brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Wenjia; Cui Fengmei; Liu Ping; He Chao; Tu Yu; Wang Lili

    2009-01-01

    The work is to explore the protection of magnesium sulfate(MgSO 4 ) on radiation-induced acute brain injury. Thirty six mature Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of control, experimental control and experimental therapy group. The whole brains of SD rats of experimental control and experimental therapy group were irradiated with a dose of 20 Gy using 6 MeV electron beam. MgSO 4 was injected into the abdomen of experimental therapy rats group 1 day before, immediately and continue for 5 days after irradiation respectively. The brain tissues were taken on 3, 10, 17 and 24 d after irradiation. Ca 2+ content in brain cell was measured by laser scanning confocal microscopy, and the NO content in brain tissue was detected by the method of nitric acid reductase. Compared with the blank control group, the contents of Ca 2+ in brain cell and NO in brain tissue of the experimental control group increase (P 4 used in early stage can inhibit the contents of Ca 2+ in brain cell and NO in brain tissue after radiation-induced acute brain injury. It means that MgSO 4 has a protective effect on radiation-induced acute brain injury. (authors)

  16. Comparison of the protective roles of L-carnitine and amifostine against radiation-induced acute ovarian damage by histopathological and biochemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuslat Yurut-Caloglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the radioprotective efficacies of L-carnitine (LC and amifostine against radiation-induced acute ovarian damage. Materials and Methods: Forty-five, 3-month-old Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to six groups. Control (CONT, n = 7; irradiation alone RT: radiation therapy (RT, n = 8; amifostine plus irradiation (AMI + RT, n = 8; LC plus irradiation (LC + RT, n = 8; LC and sham irradiation (LC, n = 7; and amifostine and sham irradiation (AMI, n = 7. The rats in the AMI + RT, LC + RT and RT groups were irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy to the whole abdomen. LC (300 mg/kg and amifostine (200 mg/kg was given intraperitoneally 30 min before irradiation. Five days after irradiation, both antral follicles and corpus luteum in the right ovaries were counted, and tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP were measured. Results: Irradiation significantly decreased antral follicles and corpus luteum (P: 0.005 and P 0.05. The level of MDA and AOPP significantly increased after irradiation (P = 0.001 and P 0.005. The levels of both MDA and AOPP were also similar when LC + RT is compared with AMI + RT group (P > 0.005. Conclusions: L-carnitine and amifostine have a noteworthy and similar radioprotective effect against radiation-induced acute ovarian toxicity.

  17. Radiation protection medical care of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walt, H.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation protection medical care for radiation workers is part of the extensive programme protecting people against dangers emanating from the peaceful application of ionizing radiation. Thus it is a special field of occupational health care and emergency medicine in case of radiation accidents. It has proved helpful in preventing radiation damage as well as in early detection, treatment, after-care, and expert assessment. The medical checks include pre-employment and follow-up examinations, continued long-range medical care as well as specific monitoring of individuals and defined groups of workers. Three levels of action are involved: works medical officers specialized in radiation protection, the Institute of Medicine at the National Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection, and a network of clinical departments specialized in handling cases of acute radiation damage. An account is given of categories, types, and methods of examinations for radiation workers and operators. (author)

  18. Clinical study of fetal liver transplantation in treatment of four cases of accidental or therapeutic acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report summarized the clinical experience of fetal liver transplantation (FLT) in the medical handling of accidental (case 1) or therapeutic (cases 2-4) acute radiation sickness of severe haemopoietic form. In addition to receiving 80 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide, cases 2, 3 and 4 were exposed to total body single irradiation of 5.5, 5.0 and 5.0 Gy, respectively; while case 1 was exposed to whole body irradiation of 5.2 Gy only. The total number of nucleated fetal liver cells transplanted was 2.26-4.1 x 10 8 /kg. Only 2-5% of peripheral blood cells of cases 2, 3 and 4 were found to have allogeneic marker. The author points out that FLT may be beneficial in those cases of accidental irradiation or patients with acute leukemia when there were no HLA-identical bone marrow donors available

  19. Argon plasma coagulation for rectal bleeding after prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Stephen; Wallner, Kent; Dominitz, Jason A.; Han, Ben; True, Lawrence; Sutlief, Steven; Billingsley, Kevin

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To better define the efficacy and safety of argon plasma coagulation (APC), specifically for brachytherapy-related proctitis, we reviewed the clinical course of 7 patients treated for persistent rectal bleeding. Approximately 2-10% of prostate cancer patients treated with 125 I or 103 Pd brachytherapy will develop radiation proctitis. The optimum treatment for patients with persistent bleeding is unclear from the paucity of available data. Prior reports lack specific dosimetric information, and patients with widely divergent forms of radiation were grouped together in the analyses. Methods and Materials: Seven patients were treated with APC at the Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System and the University of Washington from 1997 to 1999 for persistent rectal bleeding due to prostate brachytherapy-related proctitis. Four patients received supplemental external beam radiation, delivered by a four-field technique. A single gastroenterologist at the Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System treated 6 of the 7 patients. If the degree of proctitis was limited, all sites of active bleeding were coagulated in symptomatic patients. An argon plasma coagulator electrosurgical system was used to administer treatments every 4-8 weeks as needed. The argon gas flow was set at 1.6 L/min, with an electrical power setting of 40-45 W. Results: The rectal V100 (the total rectal volume, including the lumen, receiving the prescription dose or greater) for the 7 patients ranged from 0.13 to 4.61 cc. Rectal bleeding was first noticed 3-18 months after implantation. APC (range 1-3 sessions) was performed 9-22 months after implantation. Five patients had complete resolution of their bleeding, usually within days of completing APC. Two patients had only partial relief from bleeding, but declined additional APC therapy. No patient developed clinically evident progressive rectal wall abnormalities after APC, (post-APC follow-up range 4-13 months). Conclusions: Most

  20. Radiation nephritis causing nephrotic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennette, J.C.; Ordonez, N.G.

    1983-12-01

    Clinical symptoms of acute radiation nephritis with nephrotic syndrome developed in a fifty-six-year-old woman after abdominal radiation therapy for an astrocytoma of the spinal cord. The diagnosis of radiation nephritis was confirmed by renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of radiation nephritis associated with nephrotic syndrome.

  1. Does granulocyte colony-stimulating factor exacerbate radiation-induced acute lung injury in rats?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Gouji; Awaya, Hitomi; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2000-01-01

    Radiation pneumonitis (RP) frequently occurs as a complication of thoracic irradiation. However, the mechanism of RP is not well known. Activated neutrophils are a possible pathogenesis of RP. Neutrophil activation induced by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may exacerbate RP. We studied the effects of recombinant human G-CSF on acute lung injury induced by thoracic irradiation using rats. Animals were divided into three groups: sham irradiation with saline control, irradiation alone, and irradiation with G-CSF. Actual irradiation was given as a single fraction of 16 Gy delivered to the right hemithorax. G-CSF at a dose of 12 μg/body was administered subcutaneously once a day from 14 to 18 days after actual irradiation. Lung injury was evaluated 21 days after irradiation by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid findings and the lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio. Neutrophil and lymphocyte counts in BAL fluid and the W/D ratio were significantly increased in the irradiation alone and the irradiation with G-CSF groups compared with those of the sham irradiation+saline control group. However, there was no significant difference observed between the irradiation alone and irradiation with G-CSF groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that postradiation administration of G-CSF does not exacerbate acute lung injury induced by thoracic irradiation in rats. (author)

  2. Does granulocyte colony-stimulating factor exacerbate radiation-induced acute lung injury in rats?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Gouji; Awaya, Hitomi; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Matsunaga, Naofumi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-08-01

    Radiation pneumonitis (RP) frequently occurs as a complication of thoracic irradiation. However, the mechanism of RP is not well known. Activated neutrophils are a possible pathogenesis of RP. Neutrophil activation induced by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may exacerbate RP. We studied the effects of recombinant human G-CSF on acute lung injury induced by thoracic irradiation using rats. Animals were divided into three groups: sham irradiation with saline control, irradiation alone, and irradiation with G-CSF. Actual irradiation was given as a single fraction of 16 Gy delivered to the right hemithorax. G-CSF at a dose of 12 {mu}g/body was administered subcutaneously once a day from 14 to 18 days after actual irradiation. Lung injury was evaluated 21 days after irradiation by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid findings and the lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio. Neutrophil and lymphocyte counts in BAL fluid and the W/D ratio were significantly increased in the irradiation alone and the irradiation with G-CSF groups compared with those of the sham irradiation+saline control group. However, there was no significant difference observed between the irradiation alone and irradiation with G-CSF groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that postradiation administration of G-CSF does not exacerbate acute lung injury induced by thoracic irradiation in rats. (author)

  3. Therapeutic effect of rhIL-11 administered at different times on acute radiation sickness in rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Jing; Luo Qingliang; Xiong Guolin; Liu Xiaolan; Qiu Liling; Chen Guozhi; Huang Ying; Ge Ping; Geng Yu; Sun Liansheng; Dong Bo; Li Yuanmin; Chen Wangqiu; Shen Chun

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The author describes the therapeutic effect of recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) administered at different times on acute radiation sickness in monkeys. Methods: Rhesus monkeys irradiated with 3.0 Gy 60 Co γ rays were divided into 3 groups. One group was the control administered with vehicle, the second one was subjected to administer rhIL-11 on days 0-13 after TBI (60 μg·kg -1 ·d -1 , sc) and the third one to administer rhIL-11 on days 13-26 after TBI at the same doses. Results: The early treated group had higher platelet nadirs compared with that of the other two. The duration of platelet and leukocyte numbers below 50% of their baseline values shortened significantly in animals treated with rhIL-11, especially in the early treated group. During the first week after irradiation, the early treated group had lower erythrocyte count compared with the control, but it began to rise at day 19 after irradiation. Semi-solid bone marrow cell culture demonstrated that rhIL-11 could stimulate bone marrow cells to form more CFU-MK, CFU-Mix, CFU-E, BFU-E and CFU-GM in vitro. The authors also got the same results in histopathological observation. Conclusion: rhIL-11 administered at different times can not only accelerate the haematopoietic recovery of acute radiation sickness in rhesus monkeys, but also result in better therapeutic effect when administered earlier

  4. Protracted Oxidative Alterations in the Mechanism of Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai V. Gorbunov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of high-dose total body ionizing irradiation [(thereafter, irradiation (IR] are attributed to primary oxidative breakage of biomolecule targets, mitotic, apoptotic and necrotic cell death in the dose-limiting tissues, clastogenic and epigenetic effects, and cascades of functional and reactive responses leading to radiation sickness defined as the acute radiation syndrome (ARS. The range of remaining and protracted injuries at any given radiation dose as well as the dynamics of post-IR alterations is tissue-specific. Therefore, functional integrity of the homeostatic tissue barriers may decline gradually within weeks in the post-IR period culminating with sepsis and failure of organs and systems. Multiple organ failure (MOF leading to moribundity is a common sequela of the hemotapoietic form of ARS (hARS. Onset of MOF in hARS can be presented as “two-hit phenomenon” where the “first hit” is the underlying consequences of the IR-induced radiolysis in cells and biofluids, non-septic inflammation, metabolic up-regulation of pro-oxidative metabolic reactions, suppression of the radiosensitive hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues and the damage to gut mucosa and vascular endothelium. While the “second hit” derives from bacterial translocation and spread of the bacterial pathogens and inflammagens through the vascular system leading to septic inflammatory, metabolic responses and a cascade of redox pro-oxidative and adaptive reactions. This sequence of events can create a ground for development of prolonged metabolic, inflammatory, oxidative, nitrative, and carbonyl, electrophilic stress in crucial tissues and thus exacerbate the hARS outcomes. With this perspective, the redox mechanisms, which can mediate the IR-induced protracted oxidative post-translational modification of proteins, oxidation of lipids and carbohydrates and their countermeasures in hARS are subjects of the current review. Potential role of ubiquitous

  5. Radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubner, K.F.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation accidents and incidents continue to be of great interest and concern to the public. Issues such as the threat of nuclear war, the Chernobyl reactor accident, or reports of sporadic incidences of accidental radiation exposure keep this interest up and maintain a high level of fear among the public. In this climate of real concern and radiation phobia, physicians should not only be prepared to answer questions about acute or late effects of ionizing radiation, but also be able to participate in the initial assessment and management of individuals who have been exposed to ionizing radiation or contaminated with radioactive material. Some of the key facts about radiation injury and its medical treatment are discussed by the author

  6. Contribution of radiation-induced, nitric oxide-mediated bystander effect to radiation-induced adaptive response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, H.; Ohnishi, T.

    There has been a recent upsurge of interest in radiation-induced adaptive response and bystander effect which are specific modes in stress response to low-dose low-dose rate radiation Recently we found that the accumulation of inducible nitric oxide NO synthase iNOS in wt p53 cells was induced by chronic irradiation with gamma rays followed by acute irradiation with X-rays but not by each one resulting in an increase in nitrite concentrations of medium It is suggested that the accumulation of iNOS may be due to the depression of acute irradiation-induced p53 functions by pre-chronic irradiation In addition we found that the radiosensitivity of wt p53 cells against acute irradiation with X-rays was reduced after chronic irradiation with gamma rays This reduction of radiosensitivity of wt p53 cells was nearly completely suppressed by the addition of NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO to the medium This reduction of radiosensitivity of wt p53 cells is just radiation-induced adaptive response suggesting that NO-mediated bystander effect may considerably contribute to adaptive response induced by radiation

  7. Radiation research contracts: Biological effects of small radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hug, O [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Health, Safety and Waste Disposal, Vienna (Austria)

    1959-04-15

    To establish the maximum permissible radiation doses for occupational and other kinds of radiation exposure, it is necessary to know those biological effects which can be produced by very small radiation doses. This particular field of radiation biology has not yet been sufficiently explored. This holds true for possible delayed damage after occupational radiation exposure over a period of many years as well as for acute reactions of the organism to single low level exposures. We know that irradiation of less than 25 Roentgen units (r) is unlikely to produce symptoms of radiation sickness. We have, however, found indications that even smaller doses may produce certain instantaneous reactions which must not be neglected

  8. The inflammatory response plays a major role in the acute radiation syndrome induced by fission radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agay, D.; Chancerelle, Y.; Hirodin, F.; Mathieu, J.; Multon, E.; Van Uye, A.; Mestries, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    At high dose rates, both gamma and neutron irradiation induce an acute inflammatory syndrome with huge intercellular communication disorders. This inflammatory syndrome evolves in two phases, separated by a latency phase. During the prodromal phase, the molecular and cellular lesions induced by free radicals trigger an initial response which associates cellular repair and multicellular interactions involving both humoral and nervous communications. A large part of perturbations constitute a non specific inflammatory syndrome and clinically silent coagulation disorders which are linked by common intercellular mediators. All these perturbations are rapidly reversible and there is no correlation between the radiation dose and the severity of the response. During the manifest-illness phase, both inflammatory and coagulation disorders resume, slightly preceding the clinical symptoms. Biochemical symptoms are moderate in the animals which will survive, but they escape regulatory mechanisms in those which will die, giving rise to a vicious circle. These biochemical disorders are largely responsible for the death. With lower dose rates, it cannot be excluded that great cellular communication disorders take place at the tissue level, with limited blood modifications. This aspect should be taken into account for the optimization of cytokine therapies. (authors)

  9. Oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer during postoperative irradiation. An alleviating effect on acute radiation mucositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsura, Kouji; Masuko, Noriko; Hayashi, Takafumi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry; Sugita, Tadashi; Sakai, Kunio; Tsuchida, Emiko; Matsumoto, Yasuo; Sasamoto, Ryuta

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer on alleviating acute radiation mucositis. Eighteen patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy for tongue and oral floor cancer were evaluated. Radiotherapy was given in 2 Gy per fraction, 5 times a week for a total dose of 50 Gy in most patients. Radiation field included the tongue and oral floor. During radiotherapy, 8 patients were treated by dento-maxillofacial radiologists with special concern on oral hygiene (oral hygiene group) and the remaining 10 patients were treated with routine dental care (standard medication group). Mucositis were evaluated using JCOG grade and EORTC/RTOG score by radiotherapists or dento-maxillofacial radiologists at 10 Gy intervals. Oral hygiene plans comprised motivation to maintain oral hygiene and establishing the habits of oral self care 4 times per day. Once a week, oral hygiene and oral cleaning of patients were checked by dento-maxillofacial radiologists. Oral self care included mechanical tooth brushing and a chemical mouthwash. No patients with grade 3 and score 4 mucositis were noted in the oral hygiene group. Severe mucositis occurred less frequently in the oral hygiene group than in the standard medication group. Interruption of radiotherapy due to severe mucositis did not occur in the oral hygiene group. On the other hand, interruption of radiotherapy occurred in four patients in the standard medication group, and in three it was due to severe oral pain. Our results suggested that our method of oral hygiene was more effective for alleviating acute radiation mucositis than other methods so far reported. In addition, our method is considered to be useful in preventing rampant dental caries and severe periodontitis due to the xerostomia induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  10. Oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer during postoperative irradiation. An alleviating effect on acute radiation mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsura, Kouji; Masuko, Noriko; Hayashi, Takafumi; Sugita, Tadashi; Sakai, Kunio; Tsuchida, Emiko; Matsumoto, Yasuo; Sasamoto, Ryuta

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer on alleviating acute radiation mucositis. Eighteen patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy for tongue and oral floor cancer were evaluated. Radiotherapy was given in 2 Gy per fraction, 5 times a week for a total dose of 50 Gy in most patients. Radiation field included the tongue and oral floor. During radiotherapy, 8 patients were treated by dento-maxillofacial radiologists with special concern on oral hygiene (oral hygiene group) and the remaining 10 patients were treated with routine dental care (standard medication group). Mucositis were evaluated using JCOG grade and EORTC/RTOG score by radiotherapists or dento-maxillofacial radiologists at 10 Gy intervals. Oral hygiene plans comprised motivation to maintain oral hygiene and establishing the habits of oral self care 4 times per day. Once a week, oral hygiene and oral cleaning of patients were checked by dento-maxillofacial radiologists. Oral self care included mechanical tooth brushing and a chemical mouthwash. No patients with grade 3 and score 4 mucositis were noted in the oral hygiene group. Severe mucositis occurred less frequently in the oral hygiene group than in the standard medication group. Interruption of radiotherapy due to severe mucositis did not occur in the oral hygiene group. On the other hand, interruption of radiotherapy occurred in four patients in the standard medication group, and in three it was due to severe oral pain. Our results suggested that our method of oral hygiene was more effective for alleviating acute radiation mucositis than other methods so far reported. In addition, our method is considered to be useful in preventing rampant dental caries and severe periodontitis due to the xerostomia induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  11. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenger, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity

  12. Radiation-Induced Bystander Response: Mechanism and Clinical Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Keiji; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Absorption of energy from ionizing radiation (IR) to the genetic material in the cell gives rise to damage to DNA in a dose-dependent manner. There are two types of DNA damage; by a high dose (causing acute or deterministic effects) and by a low dose (related to chronic or stochastic effects), both of which induce different health effects. Among radiation effects, acute cutaneous radiation syndrome results from cell killing as a consequence of high-dose exposure.

  13. Acute response of the thyroid to external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holten, I.

    1983-01-01

    The study showed that the thyroid gland to a measurable degree is acutely influenced by external radiation. Animal experimental studies suggest that the functional reduction mainly is determined by cell loss in mitosis. The transitory fall in RAIU demonstrated in the present study is hardly explainable by cell death or changes in the TSH concentration alone. Part of the explanation could by vascular changes, which may reduce the iodine uptake, but a direct influence on the enzyme systems of the cells may play a role, too. The fall in TSH concentration in the patients irradiated to the neck apparently is not explainable by cell destruction alone either, and the fine-needle aspirates revealed no signs of any essential cell degeneration or destruction. Thus, it must be concluded that the cause of the early fall in TSH concentration is still unexplained. The changes during and immediately after radiotherpy in the thyroid hormone levels suggested a - possibly transient - damage to the thyroid. However, the follow-up study demonstrated that the thyroid function continued its slow decrease. The study tells little about the genesis of the functional changes. In all essentials, the findings are compatible with cell loss due to mitotic death being the main cause of the functional reduction. The fall in the radioiodine uptake and the transient dises in the TSH concentration can hardly be explained by cell loss alone, and the rise in the TSH concentration during the first four months of the study period, too, suggested the possibility of contributory mechanisms. (author)

  14. Acute and chronic radiation syndrome in domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuessel, M.

    1974-11-01

    The paper reports on the incidence and the clinical picture of the radiation syndrome in domestic animals, especially in pigs which are often used in animal experiments. The following parameters which influence the radiation reaction are discussed: type of irradiation (whole-body, partial-body and local irradiation), mean lethal radiation dose, radiation quality and RBE, age and individual radiosensitivity. The auther then describes the various symptoms of the radiation syndrome and the lesions which lead to death (death due to intestinal lesions, death following changes in the central nervous system). The next few chapters treat the symptoms manifested after chronic and internal irradiation. The paper closes with some remarks on the usability of irradiated animals for human consumption. (MG/AK) [de

  15. Association of elevated radiation dose with mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, Puja B.; Prakash, Sheena; Tahir, Usman; Kort, Smadar; Gruberg, Luis; Jeremias, Allen, E-mail: allen.jeremias@stonybrook.edu

    2014-09-15

    Objectives: This study sought to identify clinical and procedural predictors of elevated radiation dose received by patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and to determine if elevated radiation dose was predictive of mortality in this population. Background: Little data exist regarding the impact of excessive radiation burden on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing PCI. Methods: The study population included 1,039 patients who underwent PCI for an AMI between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2008 at an academic tertiary care teaching hospital. Cumulative skin dose (measured in milligray [mGy]) was selected as a measurement of patient radiation burden. Clinical and procedural variables were analyzed in multiple logistic and linear regression models to determine predictors of higher skin dose, and its impact was evaluated on all-cause intermediate-term mortality at two years. Results: Median skin dose was 2120 mGy (IQR 1379–3190 mGy) in the overall population, of which 153 (20.8%) patients received an elevated skin dose (defined as a skin dose > 4,000 mGy). Independent predictors of elevated skin dose included male gender, obesity, multivessel intervention, and presentation with a non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI) versus an ST-elevation MI (STEMI). Increased skin dose was not predictive of intermediate-term mortality by multivariate analysis in the overall population or in either subgroup of STEMI and NSTEMI. Conclusions: In this contemporary observational study examining patients with AMI undergoing PCI, male gender, obesity, multivessel intervention, and presentation with a NSTEMI were associated with increased radiation exposure.

  16. Biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  17. Pathophysiology and surgical treatment for radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, Hisashi; Park, Tae Bun; Hasegawa, Masato

    1993-01-01

    We analyzed 23 patients (5 males and 18 females, mean age 60) who had been operated on in our department for radiation enteritis. 1) These patients were divided into two types according to the time of surgery. Sixteen of 23 (79%) patients were operated on a median of 12 months after radiotherapy, while 7 (30%) underwent surgery more than 10 years later. 2) They were also divided according to the dominant symptoms. Fourteen of 23 (60%) complained of nausea and abdominal distension suggestive of small bowel injury, whereas 7 (30%) had tenesmus and anal bleeding indicating proctitis. Two patients developed perforative peritonitis. 3) The operations performed were as follows: extensive intestinal resection and anastomosis (13), pull-through procedure (3), rectal excision (2), ileostomy (3), by-pass operation (2). Two patients with peritonitis died despite open drainage. Nineteen intestinal anastomoses were all successfully performed. Patients who underwent extensive small bowel resection could resume ordinary daily life without symptoms. Our analysis showed that small bowel injury should be treated by generous resection of the affected bowels followed by anastomosis of the disease-free ends, while rectal lesions are best dealt with by restorative proctectomy. This may provide a good quality of life and minimize major postoperative complications such as leakage. (author)

  18. Pathophysiology and surgical treatment for radiation enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onodera, Hisashi; Park, Tae Bun; Hasegawa, Masato (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine) (and others)

    1993-12-01

    We analyzed 23 patients (5 males and 18 females, mean age 60) who had been operated on in our department for radiation enteritis. (1) These patients were divided into two types according to the time of surgery. Sixteen of 23 (79%) patients were operated on a median of 12 months after radiotherapy, while 7 (30%) underwent surgery more than 10 years later. (2) They were also divided according to the dominant symptoms. Fourteen of 23 (60%) complained of nausea and abdominal distension suggestive of small bowel injury, whereas 7 (30%) had tenesmus and anal bleeding indicating proctitis. Two patients developed perforative peritonitis. (3) The operations performed were as follows: extensive intestinal resection and anastomosis (13), pull-through procedure (3), rectal excision (2), ileostomy (3), by-pass operation (2). Two patients with peritonitis died despite open drainage. Nineteen intestinal anastomoses were all successfully performed. Patients who underwent extensive small bowel resection could resume ordinary daily life without symptoms. Our analysis showed that small bowel injury should be treated by generous resection of the affected bowels followed by anastomosis of the disease-free ends, while rectal lesions are best dealt with by restorative proctectomy. This may provide a good quality of life and minimize major postoperative complications such as leakage. (author).

  19. Normal Tissue Complication Probability Analysis of Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Cervical Cancer Patients Undergoing Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Cisplatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Daniel R.; Song, William Y.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Rose, Brent S.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Mundt, Arno J.; Mell, Loren K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that increased bowel radiation dose is associated with acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in cervical cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), using a previously derived normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model. Methods: Fifty patients with Stage I–III cervical cancer undergoing IMRT and concurrent weekly cisplatin were analyzed. Acute GI toxicity was graded using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale, excluding upper GI events. A logistic model was used to test correlations between acute GI toxicity and bowel dosimetric parameters. The primary objective was to test the association between Grade ≥2 GI toxicity and the volume of bowel receiving ≥45 Gy (V 45 ) using the logistic model. Results: Twenty-three patients (46%) had Grade ≥2 GI toxicity. The mean (SD) V 45 was 143 mL (99). The mean V 45 values for patients with and without Grade ≥2 GI toxicity were 176 vs. 115 mL, respectively. Twenty patients (40%) had V 45 >150 mL. The proportion of patients with Grade ≥2 GI toxicity with and without V 45 >150 mL was 65% vs. 33% (p = 0.03). Logistic model parameter estimates V50 and γ were 161 mL (95% confidence interval [CI] 60–399) and 0.31 (95% CI 0.04–0.63), respectively. On multivariable logistic regression, increased V 45 was associated with an increased odds of Grade ≥2 GI toxicity (odds ratio 2.19 per 100 mL, 95% CI 1.04–4.63, p = 0.04). Conclusions: Our results support the hypothesis that increasing bowel V 45 is correlated with increased GI toxicity in cervical cancer patients undergoing IMRT and concurrent cisplatin. Reducing bowel V 45 could reduce the risk of Grade ≥2 GI toxicity by approximately 50% per 100 mL of bowel spared.

  20. The histopathological comparison of L-carnitine with amifostine for protective efficacy on radiation-induced acute small intestinal toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Caloglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to compare the protective efficacy of l-carnitine (LC to amifostine on radiation-induced acute small intestine damage. Materials and Methods: Thirty, 4-week-old Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to four groups - Group 1: control (CONT, n = 6, Group 2: irradiation alone (RT, n = 8, Group 3: amifostine plus irradiation (AMI+RT, n = 8, and Group 4: l-Carnitine plus irradiation (LC+RT, n = 8. The rats in all groups were irradiated individually with a single dose of 20 Gy to the total abdomen, except those in CONT. LC (300 mg/kg or amifostine (200 mg/kg was used 30 min before irradiation. Histopathological analysis of small intestine was carried out after euthanasia. Results: Pretreatment with amifostine reduced the radiation-induced acute degenerative damage (P = 0.009 compared to the RT group. Pretreatment with LC did not obtain any significant difference compared to the RT group. The vascular damage significantly reduced in both of the AMI+RT (P = 0.003 and LC+RT group (P = 0.029 compared to the RT group. The overall damage score was significantly lower in the AMI+RT group than the RT group (P = 0.009. There was not any significant difference between the LC+RT and RT group. Conclusions: Amifostine has a marked radioprotective effect against all histopathological changes on small intestinal tissue while LC has limited effects which are mainly on vascular structure.

  1. Ozone Therapy in the Management of Persistent Radiation-Induced Rectal Bleeding in Prostate Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardino Clavo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Persistent radiation-induced proctitis and rectal bleeding are debilitating complications with limited therapeutic options. We present our experience with ozone therapy in the management of such refractory rectal bleeding. Methods. Patients (n=12 previously irradiated for prostate cancer with persistent or severe rectal bleeding without response to conventional treatment were enrolled to receive ozone therapy via rectal insufflations and/or topical application of ozonized-oil. Ten (83% patients had Grade 3 or Grade 4 toxicity. Median follow-up after ozone therapy was 104 months (range: 52–119. Results. Following ozone therapy, the median grade of toxicity improved from 3 to 1 (p<0.001 and the number of endoscopy treatments from 37 to 4 (p=0.032. Hemoglobin levels changed from 11.1 (7–14 g/dL to 13 (10–15 g/dL, before and after ozone therapy, respectively (p=0.008. Ozone therapy was well tolerated and no adverse effects were noted, except soft and temporary flatulence for some hours after each session. Conclusions. Ozone therapy was effective in radiation-induced rectal bleeding in prostate cancer patients without serious adverse events. It proved useful in the management of rectal bleeding and merits further evaluation.

  2. Transient impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in relatively low-dose of acute radiation syndrome is associated with inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joong-Sun; Lee, Hae-June; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2008-01-01

    Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, which occurs constitutively, is vulnerable to ionizing radiation. In the relatively low-dose exposure of acute radiation syndrome (ARS), the change in the adult hippocampal function is poorly understood. This study analyzed the changes in apoptotic cell death and neurogenesis in the DGs of hippocampi from adult ICR mice with single whole-body gamma-irradiation using the TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method and immunohistochemical markers of neurogenesis, Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX). In addition, the hippocampus-dependent learning and memory tasks after single whole-body gamma-irradiation were examined in order to evaluate the hippocampus-related behavioral dysfunction in the relatively low-dose exposure of ARS. The number of TUNEL-positive apoptotic nuclei in the dentate gyrus (DG) was increased 6-12 h after acute gamma-irradiation (a single dose of 0.5 to 4 Gy). In contrast, the number of Ki-67- and DCX-positive cells began to decrease significantly 6 h postirradiation, reaching its lowest level 24 h after irradiation. The level of Ki-67 and DCX immunoreactivity decreased in a dose-dependent manner within the range of irradiation applied (0-4 Gy). In passive avoidance and object recognition memory test, the mice trained 1 day after acute irradiation (2 Gy) showed significant memory deficits, compared with the sham controls. In conclusion, the pattern of the hippocampus-dependent memory dysfunction is consistent with the change in neurogenesis after acute irradiation. It is suggested that a relatively low dose of ARS in adult ICR mice is sufficiently detrimental to interrupt the functioning of the hippocampus, including learning and memory, possibly through the inhibition of neurogenesis. (author)

  3. Biological impact of high-dose and dose-rate radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliev, V.; Popov, D.; Jones, J.; Gonda, S.; Prasad, K.; Viliam, C.; Haase, G.; Kirchin, V.; Rachael, C.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental anti-radiation vaccine is a power tool of immune - prophylaxis of the acute radiation disease. Existing principles of treatment of the acute radiation dis ease are based on a correction of developing patho-physiological and biochemical processes within the first days after irradiation. Protection from radiation is built on the general principles of immunology and has two main forms - active and passive immunization. Active immunization by the essential radiation toxins of specific radiation determinant (S.D.R.) group allows significantly reduce the lethality and increase duration of life among animals that are irradiated by lethal and sub-lethal doses of gamma radiation.The radiation toxins of S.D.R. group have antigenic properties that are specific for different forms of acute radiation disease. Development of the specific and active immune reaction after intramuscular injection of radiation toxins allows optimize a manifestation of a clinical picture and stabilize laboratory parameters of the acute radiation syndromes. Passive immunization by the anti-radiation serum or preparations of immune-globulins gives a manifestation of the radioprotection effects immediately after this kind of preparation are injected into organisms of mammals. Providing passive immunization by preparations of anti-radiations immune-globulins is possible in different periods of time after radiation. Providing active immunization by preparations of S.D.R. group is possible only to achieve a prophylaxis goal and form the protection effects that start to work in 18 - 35 days after an injection of biological active S.D.R. substance has been administrated. However active and passive immunizations by essential anti-radiation toxins and preparations of gamma-globulins extracted from a hyper-immune serum of a horse have significantly different medical prescriptions for application and depend on many factors like a type of radiation, a power of radiation, absorption doses, a time of

  4. Biological impact of high-dose and dose-rate radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maliev, V.; Popov, D. [Russian Academy of Science, Vladicaucas (Russian Federation); Jones, J.; Gonda, S. [NASA -Johnson Space Center, Houston (United States); Prasad, K.; Viliam, C.; Haase, G. [Antioxida nt Research Institute, Premier Micronutrient Corporation, Novato (United States); Kirchin, V. [Moscow State Veterinary and Biotechnology Acade my, Moscow (Russian Federation); Rachael, C. [University Space Research Association, Colorado (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Experimental anti-radiation vaccine is a power tool of immune - prophylaxis of the acute radiation disease. Existing principles of treatment of the acute radiation dis ease are based on a correction of developing patho-physiological and biochemical processes within the first days after irradiation. Protection from radiation is built on the general principles of immunology and has two main forms - active and passive immunization. Active immunization by the essential radiation toxins of specific radiation determinant (S.D.R.) group allows significantly reduce the lethality and increase duration of life among animals that are irradiated by lethal and sub-lethal doses of gamma radiation.The radiation toxins of S.D.R. group have antigenic properties that are specific for different forms of acute radiation disease. Development of the specific and active immune reaction after intramuscular injection of radiation toxins allows optimize a manifestation of a clinical picture and stabilize laboratory parameters of the acute radiation syndromes. Passive immunization by the anti-radiation serum or preparations of immune-globulins gives a manifestation of the radioprotection effects immediately after this kind of preparation are injected into organisms of mammals. Providing passive immunization by preparations of anti-radiations immune-globulins is possible in different periods of time after radiation. Providing active immunization by preparations of S.D.R. group is possible only to achieve a prophylaxis goal and form the protection effects that start to work in 18 - 35 days after an injection of biological active S.D.R. substance has been administrated. However active and passive immunizations by essential anti-radiation toxins and preparations of gamma-globulins extracted from a hyper-immune serum of a horse have significantly different medical prescriptions for application and depend on many factors like a type of radiation, a power of radiation, absorption doses, a time of

  5. [Effects of radiation exposure on human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kenji; Sasatani, Megumi

    2012-03-01

    There are two types of radiation health effect; acute disorder and late on-set disorder. Acute disorder is a deterministic effect that the symptoms appear by exposure above a threshold. Tissues and cells that compose the human body have different radiation sensitivity respectively, and the symptoms appear in order, from highly radiosensitive tissues. The clinical symptoms of acute disorder begin with a decrease in lymphocytes, and then the symptoms appear such as alopecia, skin erythema, hematopoietic damage, gastrointestinal damage, central nervous system damage with increasing radiation dose. Regarding the late on-set disorder, a predominant health effect is the cancer among the symptoms of such as cancer, non-cancer disease and genetic effect. Cancer and genetic effect are recognized as stochastic effects without the threshold. When radiation dose is equal to or more than 100 mSv, it is observed that the cancer risk by radiation exposure increases linearly with an increase in dose. On the other hand, the risk of developing cancer through low-dose radiation exposure, less 100 mSv, has not yet been clarified scientifically. Although uncertainty still remains regarding low level risk estimation, ICRP propound LNT model and conduct radiation protection in accordance with LNT model in the low-dose and low-dose rate radiation from a position of radiation protection. Meanwhile, the mechanism of radiation damage has been gradually clarified. The initial event of radiation-induced diseases is thought to be the damage to genome such as radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Recently, it is clarified that our cells could recognize genome damage and induce the diverse cell response to maintain genome integrity. This phenomenon is called DNA damage response which induces the cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, apoptosis, cell senescence and so on. These responses act in the direction to maintain genome integrity against genome damage, however, the death of large number of

  6. Characterization of changes in composition and function of erythrocyte membrane proteins in patients with bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinying; Wei Shanjian; Hu Xiaojian

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The delayed effect of radiation on erythrocyte membrane protein, the composition and function of the membrane proteins in five patients with bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness (ARS) were follow up at six years after the Shanghai 60 Co irradiation accident. Methods: Percoll centrifugation, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and analysis of NO 2 - transport rate and DIDS inhibition rate were performed. Results: The injuries of the membrane proteins induced by radiation, characterized by reduced content of band 8 and declined anion transport function of band 3 protein remained the same as initially observed. The further study showed that the inhibition of DIDS on the anion transport of the ARS erythrocytes was decreased and the transport time for NO 2 - by band 3 was significantly prolonged in younger erythrocytes than those in middle-or old-aged cells. Conclusion: It is suggested that the radiation damage to erythrocyte membrane proteins might occur at the stage of erythropoiesis in bone marrow. The exo-facial site in band 3 may be changed after radiation, which could result in the abnormalities in anion transport. It is believed that the aging of erythrocytes might be present in advanced stage of ARS

  7. Clinical report of an extremely severe bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Jianhui; Yu Changlin; Luo Weidong; Guo Mei; Wang Danhong; Sun Qiyun; Zhang Shi; Zhang Xigang; Li Guang; Niu Wenkai; Chen Jiankui; Li Xiaobing; Ge Feijiao; Ai Huisheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To sum up the experiences from the diagnosis and treatment of patient B subjected to an accidental 60 Co exposure on October 21st, 2004, in Jining, Shandong Province, China. Methods: Radiation dose of B was assessed by analysis of chromosome aberration and microneucleus assay, simulation test of the accident site, autopsy and electron spin resonance (ESR). The ultimate clinical diagnosis was based on analysis of irradiation dose, clinical manifestations and laboratory results. In therapeutical aspects, total environmental protection, HLA-identical allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT), anti- infection and protection managements of organs were given. Results: Patient B was diagnosed as extremely severe bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness (ARS). HLA-identical allogeneic PBSCT was performed on the patient from his brother on the 7th day after the accident. The hematopoietic recovery began on the 9th day after transplantation. The patient acquired permanent full donor' engraftment without graft versus host disease (GVHD), But the radiation injury was continuing and the patient complicated with polyinfection in lung, and cardiac insufficiency. On the 45th day after the accident, patient B was performed with tracheotomy and maintained ventilation with respirator. On the 75th day after the accident, patient B died of multiple organ failure. Conclusions: Early triage diagnosis and total environmental protection should be performed as soon as possible for extremely severe bone marrow form of ARS. It is very important to perform a successful HLA-identical allogeneic PBSCT, in order to extend the life time of the patient. Multiple organ injuries and infections of bacteria and fungi usually occurred on this kind of patients, so intense measures of anti-infection and protection of multiple organs should be taken. The important and difficult point in the treatment of this kind ARS might be for help the immune-reconstruction and tissue

  8. Regulatory T Cells Contribute to the Inhibition of Radiation-Induced Acute Lung Inflammation via Bee Venom Phospholipase A₂ in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dasom; Lee, Gihyun; Sohn, Sung-Hwa; Park, Soojin; Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Ji Min; Yang, Jieun; Cho, Jaeho; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-04-30

    Bee venom has long been used to treat various inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Previously, we reported that bee venom phospholipase A₂ (bvPLA₂) has an anti-inflammatory effect through the induction of regulatory T cells. Radiotherapy is a common anti-cancer method, but often causes adverse effects, such as inflammation. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of bvPLA₂ in radiation-induced acute lung inflammation. Mice were focally irradiated with 75 Gy of X-rays in the lung and administered bvPLA₂ six times after radiation. To evaluate the level of inflammation, the number of immune cells, mRNA level of inflammatory cytokine, and histological changes in the lung were measured. BvPLA₂ treatment reduced the accumulation of immune cells, such as macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. In addition, bvPLA₂ treatment decreased inflammasome-, chemokine-, cytokine- and fibrosis-related genes' mRNA expression. The histological results also demonstrated the attenuating effect of bvPLA₂ on radiation-induced lung inflammation. Furthermore, regulatory T cell depletion abolished the therapeutic effects of bvPLA₂ in radiation-induced pneumonitis, implicating the anti-inflammatory effects of bvPLA₂ are dependent upon regulatory T cells. These results support the therapeutic potential of bvPLA₂ in radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis treatments.

  9. The biological effects of exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    Scenarios for exposure to ionising radiation range from natural background radiation (chronic) to the explosions of atomic bombs (acute), with some medical, industrial and research exposures lying between these extremes. Biological responses to radiation that predominate at high doses incurred at high dose rates are different from those that predominate at low doses and low dose rates. Single doses from bomb explosions ranged up to many thousand mGy. Acute doses greater than about 1000 mGy cause acute radiation syndrome (ARS). Below this threshold, radiation has a variety of potential latent health effects: Change to the incidence of cancer is the most usual subject of attention but change to longevity may be the best overall measure because decreased incidences of non-cancer mortality have been observed to coincide with increased incidence of cancer mortality. Acute doses greater than 500 mGy cause increased risks of cancer and decreased life expectancy. For doses less than 100 mGy, beneficial overall health effects ('radiation hormesis') have been observed. At the other end of the spectrum, chronic exposure to natural radiation has occurred throughout evolution and is necessary for the normal life and health of current species. Dose rates greater than the present global average of about 2 mGy per year have either no discernible health effect or beneficial health effects up to several hundred mGy per year. It is clearly not credible that a single health effects model -- such as the linear no-threshold (LNT) model of risk estimation -- could fit all latent health effects. A more realistic model is suggested.

  10. Development of a European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Module to Assess the Quality of Life of Patients With Proctitis After Pelvic Radiotherapy for Malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spry, Nigel; Halkett, Georgia; Aoun, Samar; Spry, Jane; Yeoh, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the development of a proctitis-specific quality-of-life module to supplement the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30). Methods and Materials: The module was developed according to EORTC guidelines, which consisted of an extensive literature review to identify previously described issues and interviews conducted with seven health professionals and 10 patients to rationalize the item list for construction into a provisional module. The module developed was then pretested with 28 patients and five health professionals. Results: The final module contains 21-items that are suitable to obtain information about the patients' quality of life after high-dose pelvic irradiation. The questionnaire has now been translated into four languages and commenced field testing in late 2007. Conclusions: The EORTC QLQ-C30, supplemented by EORTC QLQ-PRT21, will enable health professionals to more accurately monitor the side effects that patients experience after pelvic irradiation

  11. Overview of different information about acute radiation syndrome among inhabitants around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaroshinskaya, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear catastrophe has divided scientists of the world, studying the consequences of its impact on the health of people, into two opposed, at times irreconcilable blocks. The first block generally comprises representatives of medical officials in the soviet and post-soviet society. They have been concealing the truth from the soviet and the world public for years. This group advocates the point of view that, except for firemen and several staff members who died at the time of the catastrophe, the Chernobyl accident has produced no practical impact on human health and will not do any such effect also in future. The second block consists basically of independent scientists. They are anxious about the facts of concealment of the truth on actual radiation doses, received by inhabitants of the areas around the Chernobyl NPP (ChNPP), as well as about impacts of low radiation dose on human health. Scientists of the second block are convinced that doses received by the population in the first days and months after the catastrophe at the ChNPP have played and will play significantly negative roles in worsening of human health years after the accident. The data on these doses have been deliberately concealed by the authorities from both the sufferers and the public. This fact has been already proven (by the Procurator General of the Ukraine as well). I have official and unofficial documents in my Chernobyl archive, which are demonstrating two approaching ways to the problems of radiological consequences due to the Chernobyl catastrophe. I would like to emphasize that these documents have never been published anywhere. In searching the answer to the question about the acute radiation syndrome among inhabitants in the areas around the Chernobyl NPP in the first weeks and months after the catastrophe, we will compare positions, arguments and conclusions of two blocks based on the facts presented in these documents. (author)

  12. Study on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in repairing of radiation induced acute liver injury of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Yongxing; Lou Fan; Zhao Huarong; Zhu Huhu; Ma Yan; Wen Hao

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of mesenchymal stem cells in the repair of radiation induced liver injury. Methods: 12 female SD rats were irradiated with 20 Gy 6 MV X-rays on the right lobe of the liver, to establish the model of radiation induced liver injury. The rats were divided randomly into two groups as invention group and control group, and transplanted with 1 ml male mesenchymal suspension or 1 ml normal saline in 4 hours after radiotherapy. The morphological changes of liver were observed. The existence of sex determining gene Y(SRY) and the level of alpha-smooth muscle actin (a-SMA) were detected. Results: Some injury of right lobe liver in two groups were observed, and the injury degree of right lobe liver in intervention group were lower than that of control group. The amount of SRY positive cells in the right lobe liver of intervention group was higher than that in the left lobe liver (t = 3.77, P <0.05). The positive expression rate of a-SMA in right lobe liver of intervention group was lower than that of control group. Conclusions: Acute radiation induced liver injury could lead BMSCs' homing in order to decrease the degree of liver fibrosis. (authors)

  13. Treatment plan of acute radiation-induced skin injuries with special reference to an accidentally exposed case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasuo; Kusama, Tomoko

    1977-01-01

    Description was made as to clinical cource of one case of acute radiation-induced skin injury and practical use of medical treatment plan for radiation-induced skin injuries. The accident occurred during the working (5 o'clock in the afternoon) on development of x-ray tube for x-ray fluorescent analysis apparatus. The condition of x-ray exposure was 50 KeV and 10 mA, and the window of x-ray tube was Be 0.3 mm in thickness. The exposure time was about 5 seconds, and the exposure dose on the palm of the right hand which was the maximum was estimated as 10,000 rads. In the next morning after the exposure, the patient complained of extension feeling and edema in the palm of the right hand, and redness and blister appeared. On 11 days after the exposure, blister and edematous swelling grew to the greatest, and pain was emphasized. On 15 days after the exposure, tendency of cure appeared, and on 20 days after, pigmentation became marked. Main symptoms of local findings of one year and half after the exposure were skin atrophy, dilatation of capillary vessels, and depigmentation. The strict local rest, the protection from stimulations outside, the use of medicines for external application in which additives were small in quantity, the frequent and detailed local observation and detailed life guidance were mentioned as basic policies in the early treatment. Avoidance of the skin dryness, local observation with proper frequency, protection from stimulations outside, and life guidance were mentioned as basic policies during the period while the symptoms were fixed. In case of acute exposure, the importance of early treatment and necessity of endeavour of preventing delayed disturbances such as chronic ulcer and carcinogenesis were mentioned. (Tsunoda, M.)

  14. Treatment plan of acute radiation-induced skin injuries with special reference to an accidentally exposed case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashizawa, Y; Kusama, T [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1977-05-01

    Description was made as to clinical cource of one case of acute radiation-induced skin injury and practical use of medical treatment plan for radiation-induced skin injuries. The accident occurred during the working (5 o'clock in the afternoon) on development of x-ray tube for x-ray fluorescent analysis apparatus. The condition of x-ray exposure was 50 KeV and 10 mA, and the window of x-ray tube was Be 0.3 mm in thickness. The exposure time was about 5 seconds, and the exposure dose on the palm of the right hand which was the maximum was estimated at 10,000 rads. In the next morning after the exposure, the patient complained of extension feeling and edema in the palm of the right hand, and redness and blister appeared. On 11 days after the exposure, blister and edematous swelling grew to the greatest, and pain was emphasized. On 15 days after the exposure, tendency of cure appeared, and on 20 days after, pigmentation became marked. Main symptoms of local findings of one year and half after the exposure were skin atrophy, dilatation of capillary vessels, and depigmentation. The strict local rest, the protection from stimulations outside, the use of medicines for external application in which additives were small in quantity, the frequent and detailed local observation and detailed life guidance were mentioned as basic policies in the early treatment. Avoidance of the skin dryness, local observation with proper frequency, protection from stimulations outside, and life guidance were mentioned as basic policies during the period while the symptoms were fixed. In case of acute exposure, the importance of early treatment and necessity of endeavour of preventing delayed disturbances such as chronic ulcer and carcinogenesis were mentioned.

  15. Studies of the ionizing radiation effects on the effluents acute toxicity due to anionic surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Maria Cristina Franco de

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have shown the negative effects of surfactants, as detergents active substance, when discharged on biological sewage wastewater treatment plants. High toxicity may represent a lower efficiency for biological treatment. When surfactants are in aquatic environment they may induce a loss of grease revetment on birds (feather). Depending on the surfactant concentration, several damages to all biotic systems can happen. Looking for an alternative technology for wastewater treatment, efficient for surfactant removal, the present work applied ionizing radiation as an advanced oxidation process for affluents and effluents from Suzano Treatment Station. Such wastewater samples were submitted to radiation using an electron beam from a Dynamic Electron Beam Accelerator from Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. In order to assess this proposed treatment efficacy, it was performed acute toxicity evaluation with two test-organisms, the crustacean Daphnia similis and the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The studied effluents were: one from a chemical industry (IND), three from sewage plant (affluents - GG, GM and Guaio) and the last biologically treated secondary effluent (EfF), discharged at Tiete river. The applied radiation doses varied from 3 kGy to 50 kGy, being 50 kGy enough for surfactant degradation contained at industrial effluent. For GG, GM and Guaio samples, doses of 6 kGy and 10 kGy were efficient for surfactant and toxicity reduction, representing an average removal that varied from 71.80% to 82.76% and toxicity from 30% to 91% for most the effluents. The final effluent was less toxic than the others and the radiation induced an average 11% removal for anionic surfactant. The industrial effluents were also submitted to an aeration process in order to quantify the contribution of surfactant to the whole sample toxicity, once it was partially removed as foam and several fractions were evaluated for toxicity. (author)

  16. Common toxicity criteria: version 2.0. an improved reference for grading the acute effects of cancer treatment: impact on radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotti, Andy; Byhardt, Roger; Stetz, Joanne; Gwede, Clement; Corn, Benjamin; Fu, Karen; Gunderson, Leonard; McCormick, Beryl; Morris, Mitchell; Rich, Tyvin; Shipley, William; Curran, Walter

    2000-01-01

    In 1997, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) led an effort to revise and expand the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) with the goal of integrating systemic agent, radiation, and surgical criteria into a comprehensive and standardized system. Representatives from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) participated in this process in an effort to improve acute radiation related criteria and to achieve better clarity and consistency among modalities. CTC v. 2.0 replaces the previous NCI CTC and the RTOG Acute Radiation Morbidity Scoring Criteria and includes more than 260 individual adverse events with more than 100 of these applicable to acute radiation effects. One of the advantages of the revised criteria for radiation oncology is the opportunity to grade acute radiation effects not adequately captured under the previous RTOG system. A pilot study conducted by the RTOG indicated the new criteria are indeed more comprehensive and were preferred by research associates. CTC v. 2.0 represents an improvement in the evaluation and grading of acute toxicity for all modalities

  17. Acute genitourinary toxicity after high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external-beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer: Second analysis to determine the correlation between the urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy and the severity of acute genitourinary toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Tetsuo; Katoh, Hiroyuki; Noda, Shin-ei; Ito, Kazuto; Yamamoto, Takumi; Kashiwagi, Bunzo; Nakano, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We have been treating localized prostate cancer with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) at our institution. We recently reported the existence of a correlation between the severity of acute genitourinary (GU) toxicity and the urethral radiation dose in HDR brachytherapy by using different fractionation schema. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the urethral dose in the development of acute GU toxicity more closely than in previous studies. For this purpose, we conducted an analysis of patients who had undergone HDR brachytherapy with a fixed fractionation schema combined with hypofractionated EBRT. Methods and Materials: Among the patients with localized prostate cancer who were treated by 192-iridium HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT at Gunma University Hospital between August 2000 and November 2004, we analyzed 67 patients who were treated by HDR brachytherapy with the fractionation schema of 9 Gy x two times combined with hypofractionated EBRT. Hypofractionated EBRT was administered at a fraction dose of 3 Gy three times weekly, and a total dose of 51 Gy was delivered to the prostate gland and seminal vesicles using the four-field technique. No elective pelvic irradiation was performed. After the completion of EBRT, all the patients additionally received transrectal ultrasonography-guided HDR brachytherapy. The planning target volume was defined as the prostate gland with a 5-mm margin all around, and the planning was conducted based on computed tomography images. The tumor stage was T1c in 13 patients, T2 in 31 patients, and T3 in 23 patients. The Gleason score was 2-6 in 12 patients, 7 in 34 patients, and 8-10 in 21 patients. Androgen ablation was performed in all the patients. The median follow-up duration was 11 months (range 3-24 months). The toxicities were graded based on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organization

  18. Preclinical acute toxicity, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, radiation dosimetry and microPET imaging studies of ["1"8F]fluorocholine in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Marina B.; Ferreira, Soraya M.Z.M.D.; Nascimento, Leonardo T.C.; Costa, Flávia M.; Mendes, Bruno M.; Ferreira, Andrea V.; Malamut, Carlos; Silva, Juliana B.; Mamede, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    ["1"8F]Fluorocholine (["1"8F]FCH) has been proven to be effective in prostate cancer. Since ["1"8F]FCH is classified as a new radiopharmaceutical in Brazil, preclinical safety and efficacy data are required to support clinical trials and to obtain its approval. The aim of this work was to perform acute toxicity, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, radiation dosimetry and microPET imaging studies of ["1"8F]FCH. The results could support its use in nuclear medicine as an important piece of work for regulatory in Brazil. - Highlights: • Data demonstrated the high quality, safety and effectiveness of ["1"8F]FCH. • ["1"8F]FCH preclinical profile is in accordance with previously published. • Toxicity, distribution, kinetics and radiation dosimetry were well characterized. • The results are important for regulatory issues in Brazil and other countries.

  19. Results and toxicity of the treatment of anal canal carcinoma by radiation therapy or chemoradiotherapy. Therapieergebniss, Frueh- und Spaettoxizitaet der Behandlung des Analkanalkarzinoms durch Strahlentherapie oder Chemoradiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, K.; Brockmann, W.P.; Wiegel, T.; Kruell, A.; Huebener, K.H.; Birk, S. (Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Strahlentherapie)

    1991-08-01

    From 1975 to 1989 114 patients with analcanal carcinoma were treated, 81 of these with radiotherapy (RT) alone and 33 with chemoradiotherapy (CRT). 80% respectively 82% of the patients were colostomy-free at the onset of therapy. RT was given to a total dose of 60 Gy in six weeks, for CRT additional simultaneous 5-fluorouracil (500 mg/m{sup 2} days 1 to 5 and 8 to 12) and mitomycin C (5 mg/m{sup 2} days 5 and 12) was administered. 67% respectively 82% of the patients had UICC stage II to IIIB disease predominantly with G2 and G3 squamous cell carcinomas. Local control after three years was 79% for the RT group vs. 82% for the CRT group. Three-year survival rate was 68% and 71%, respectively. These differences were not signficant. Only for G1-compared to G3-tumors there is a significantly higher survival rate. Acute and late damage was slightly lower for the RT treatment group (77% and 25%) compared to the CRT group (79% and 30%). In both treatment groups there was one patient needing a permanent colostomy due to radiation induced proctitis. In conclusion, RT or CRT should be the primary form of treatment in patients with anal canal carcinoma and abdominoperineal resection should only be performed in case of local recurrence or tumor persitence. The final decision about the indications for RT or CRT can only be made with the results of a prospective randomized trial. (orig.).

  20. The effect of vitamin E on acute skin reaction caused by radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirier, A; Akmansu, M; Bora, H; Gurer, M

    2007-09-01

    Ionizing radiation affects healthy organs and tissues as well as diseased tissues during radiation therapy. Skin reactions varying from acute erythema to necrosis can be seen. It has been found that vitamin E can prevent mutagenic and/or carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation in both animals and cell cultures. This study investigated the preventative effect of antioxidant vitamin E on irradiation-induced acute skin reactions. No protective effect of vitamin E was demonstrated. It is possible that the vehicle induced free radical exposure in the irradiated skin.

  1. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1986-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios; biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios); biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (U.K.)

  3. Health protection of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norwood, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    This textbook is addressed to all those concerned with the protection of radiation workers. It provides full coverage of the implications of radiation in exposed workers, and, after a chapter outlining, in simple terms, the basic facts about radiation, deals with measurement of ionising radiation; radiation dosimetry; effectiveness of absorbed dose; general biological effects of ionising radiation; somatic effects of radiation; the acute radiation syndrome; other somatic effects; hereditary effects; radiation protection standards and regulations; radiation protection; medical supervision of radiation workers; general methods of diagnosis and treatment; metabolism and health problems of some radioisotopes; plutonium and other transuranium elements; radiation accidents; emergency plans and medical care; atomic power plants; medico-legal problems

  4. Radiation dermatitis following electron beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, N.M.

    1978-01-01

    Ten patients, who had been treated for mycosis fungoides with electron beam radiation ten or more years previously, were examined for signs of radiation dermatitis. Although most patients had had acute radiation dermatitis, only a few manifested signs of mild chronic changes after having received between 1,000 and 2,800 rads

  5. Acute radiation dermatitis and pneumonitis in Japanese breast cancer patients with whole breast hypofractionated radiotherapy compared to conventional radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osako, Tomo; Oguchi, Masahiko; Kumada, Madoka; Nemoto, Keiko; Iwase, Takuji; Yamashita, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate acute morbidity, radiation dermatitis and pneumonitis, of Japanese patients treated with whole breast hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS), compared to conventional RT. Japanese patients who received whole breast RT after BCS between October 2003 and September 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who had selected the conventional or hypofractionated schedule received whole breast irradiation of 50 Gy in 25 fractions plus boost or 40 Gy in 16 fractions plus boost. Radiation dermatitis and symptomatic pneumonitis were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Of 443 consecutive patients, 377 (85%) received the conventional schedule and 66 (15%) received the hypofractionated schedule. Of patients treated with the conventional schedule, Grade 0, 1, 2 and 3 radiation dermatitis were observed in 16 (4%), 278 (74%), 77 (20%) and 6 (2%), respectively. Of patients treated with the hypofractionated schedule, Grade 0, 1, 2 and 3 dermatitis were observed in 11 (17%), 49 (74%), 5 (8%) and 1 (1%), respectively. Grade 2-3 dermatitis by the hypofractionated schedule (9%) was observed less frequently than that by the conventional schedule (22%) (chi-square test; P=0.016). Moreover, of patients treated with the conventional schedule, 4 (1%) had Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis. No patient treated with the hypofractionated schedule had symptomatic pneumonitis. Radiation dermatitis and pneumonitis in Japanese patients treated with the hypofractionated schedule is acceptable. Especially, radiation dermatitis by the hypofractionated schedule is milder than that by the conventional schedule. (author)

  6. Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; also called acute lymphocytic leukemia) is a blood cancer that often gets worse quickly if it is not treated. Treatments include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplant, and targeted therapy. Get detailed information about ALL in this expert-reviewed summary.

  7. Computed tomography versus intravenous urography in diagnosis of acute flank pain from urolithiasis: a randomized study comparing imaging costs and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.M.Z.; Maling, T.M.J.; Glocer, J.; Mark, S.; Abbott, C.

    2001-01-01

    The equivalent sensitivity of non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) and intravenous urography (IVU) in the diagnosis of suspected ureteric colic has been established. Approximately 50% of patients with suspected ureteric colic do not have a nephro-urological cause for pain. Because many such patients require further imaging studies, NCCT may obviate the need for these studies and, in so doing, be more cost effective and involve less overall radiation exposure. The present study compares the total imaging cost and radiation dose of NCCT versus IVU in the diagnosis of acute flank pain. Two hundred and twenty-four patients (157 men; mean age 45 years; age range 19-79 years) with suspected renal colic were randomized either to NCCT or IVU. The number of additional diagnostic imaging studies, cost (IVU A$ 136; CTU A$ 173), radiation exposure and imaging times were compared. Of 119(53%) patients with renal obstruction, 105 had no nephro-urological causes of pain. For 21 (20%) of these patients an alternative diagnosis was made at the initial imaging, 10 of which were significant. Of 118 IVU patients, 28 (24%) required 32 additional imaging tests to reach a diagnosis, whereas seven of 106 (6%) NCCT patients required seven additional imaging studies. The average total diagnostic imaging cost for the NCCT group was A$181.94 and A$175.46 for the IVU group (P< 0.43). Mean radiation dose to diagnosis was 5.00 mSv (NCCT) versus 3.50 mSv (IVU) (P < 0.001). Mean imaging time was 30 min (NCCT) versus 75 min (IVU) (P < 0.001). Diagnostic imaging costs were remarkably similar. Although NCCT involves a higher radiation dose than IVU, its advantages of faster diagnosis, the avoidance of additional diagnostic imaging tests and its ability to diagnose other causes makes it the study of choice for acute flank pain at Christchurch Hospital. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  8. Leukemia and ionizing radiation revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttler, J.M. [Cuttler & Associates Inc., Vaughan, Ontario (Canada); Welsh, J.S. [Loyola University-Chicago, Dept. or Radiation Oncology, Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Illinois (United States)

    2016-03-15

    A world-wide radiation health scare was created in the late 19508 to stop the testing of atomic bombs and block the development of nuclear energy. In spite of the large amount of evidence that contradicts the cancer predictions, this fear continues. It impairs the use of low radiation doses in medical diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy. This brief article revisits the second of two key studies, which revolutionized radiation protection, and identifies a serious error that was missed. This error in analyzing the leukemia incidence among the 195,000 survivors, in the combined exposed populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, invalidates use of the LNT model for assessing the risk of cancer from ionizing radiation. The threshold acute dose for radiation-induced leukemia, based on about 96,800 humans, is identified to be about 50 rem, or 0.5 Sv. It is reasonable to expect that the thresholds for other cancer types are higher than this level. No predictions or hints of excess cancer risk (or any other health risk) should be made for an acute exposure below this value until there is scientific evidence to support the LNT hypothesis. (author)

  9. Electromagnetic radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jay L.; Hansen, Gordon J.

    1976-01-01

    An electromagnetic radiation detector including a collimating window, a cathode member having a photoelectric emissive material surface angularly disposed to said window whereby radiation is impinged thereon at acute angles, an anode, separated from the cathode member by an evacuated space, for collecting photoelectrons emitted from the emissive cathode surface, and a negatively biased, high transmissive grid disposed between the cathode member and anode.

  10. An adult patient who developed malignant fibrous histiocytoma 9 years after radiation therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Yasuhiro [National Hiroshima Hospital, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Ohno, Norioki; Horikawa, Yoko; Nishimura, Shin-ichiro; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Shimose, Shoji [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-12-01

    A 24-year-old Japanese man with a history of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, which occurred during childhood, developed malignant fibrous histiocytoma of his left knee. His past history revealed that he had undergone leukemic blast cell invasion of the left knee and subsequent radiation therapy 9 years ago. The total radiation doses for the upper part of the left tibia and the lower part of the left femur were 60 Gy and 40 Gy, respectively. Neither distant metastasis nor a relapse of leukemia occurred. A curative resection of the left femur with a noninvasive margin was performed. Adjuvant chemotherapy including high-dose methotrexate was given successfully before and after surgery; this was followed by relapse-free survival for 3 years. The nature of postirradiation malignant fibrous histiocytoma is highly aggressive. When a patient complains of persistent symptoms in a previously irradiated field, the possibility of this tumor must be taken into account. The importance of early diagnosis cannot be over-emphasized. (author)

  11. An adult patient who developed malignant fibrous histiocytoma 9 years after radiation therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yasuhiro; Ohno, Norioki; Horikawa, Yoko; Nishimura, Shin-ichiro; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Shimose, Shoji

    2002-01-01

    A 24-year-old Japanese man with a history of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, which occurred during childhood, developed malignant fibrous histiocytoma of his left knee. His past history revealed that he had undergone leukemic blast cell invasion of the left knee and subsequent radiation therapy 9 years ago. The total radiation doses for the upper part of the left tibia and the lower part of the left femur were 60 Gy and 40 Gy, respectively. Neither distant metastasis nor a relapse of leukemia occurred. A curative resection of the left femur with a noninvasive margin was performed. Adjuvant chemotherapy including high-dose methotrexate was given successfully before and after surgery; this was followed by relapse-free survival for 3 years. The nature of postirradiation malignant fibrous histiocytoma is highly aggressive. When a patient complains of persistent symptoms in a previously irradiated field, the possibility of this tumor must be taken into account. The importance of early diagnosis cannot be over-emphasized. (author)

  12. Ornithogalum virens as a plant assay for beta and gamma radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herron, V.J.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the monocotyledonous angiosperm, Ornithogalum virens (Quintanilha and Cabral, 1947), could be used in such a biological assay system. After exposing O. virens plants to acute ( 60 Co) and chronic ( 137 Cs) gamma radiation and internal beta radiation ( 32 P), lethality (LD 50 , LD 100 ), growth inhibition, and chromosome aberrations were investigated. The LD 50 and LD 100 for acute gamma radiation were estimated to be between 0.91 to 1.8 krad and less than 3.6 krad, respectively. Though growth inhibition and abnormal growth were observed in the acute and chronic gamma radiation studies, the changes in the growth of the plants were so variable that these parameters were found to be unreliable measures of radiation effects. Chromosome aberrations were a more reliable measure of radiation damage because linear relationships between total aberrations and dose were found for both gamma and beta radiation

  13. Introduction to radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uma Devi, P.; Satish Rao, B.S.; Nagarathnam, A.

    2000-01-01

    This book is arranged in a logical sequence, starting from radiation physics and radiation chemistry, followed by molecular, subcellular and cellular effects and going on to the level of organism. Topics covered include applied radiobiology like modifiers of radiosensitivity, predictive assay, health physics, human genetics and radiopharmaceuticals. The topics covered are : 1. Radiation Physics, 2. Detection and Measurement of Radiation, 3. Radiation Chemistry, 4. DNA Damage and Repair, 5. Chromosomal Aberrations and Gene Mutations, 6. Cellular Radiobiology 7. Acute Radiation Effects, 8. Delayed Effects of Radiation, 9. Biological Basis of Radiotherapy, 10. Chemical Modifiers of Radiosensitivity, 11. Hyperthermia, 12. High LET Radiations in Cancer, Therapy, 13. Predictive Assays, 14. Radiation Effects on Embryos, 15. Human Radiation Genetics, 16. Radiolabelled Compounds in Biology and Medicine and 17. Radiological Health

  14. Acute Toxicity Grade 3 and 4 After Irradiation in Children and Adolescents: Results From the IPPARCA Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pixberg, Caroline [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Koch, Raphael [Institute of Biostatistics and Clinical Research, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Eich, Hans Theodor, E-mail: Hans.Eich@ukmuenster.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Koeln, Koeln (Germany); Martinsson, Ulla [Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Kristensen, Ingrid [Department of Radiation Physics, Skåne University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Matuschek, Christiane [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Pohl, Fabian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Elsayad, Khaled [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Christiansen, Hans [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Willich, Normann [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Lindh, Jack [Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå (Sweden); Steinmann, Diana [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: In the context of oncologic therapy for children, radiation therapy is frequently indicated. This study identified the frequency of and reasons for the development of high-grade acute toxicity and possible sequelae. Materials and Methods: Irradiated children have been prospectively documented since 2001 in the Registry for the Evaluation of Side Effects After Radiation in Childhood and Adolescence (RiSK) database in Germany and since 2008 in the registry for radiation therapy toxicity (RADTOX) in Sweden. Data were collected using standardized, published forms. Toxicity classification was based on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria. Results: As of June 2013, 1500 children have been recruited into the RiSK database and 485 into the RADTOX registry leading to an analysis population of 1359 patients (age range 0-18). A total of 18.9% (n=257) of all investigated patients developed high-grade acute toxicity (grades 3/4). High-grade toxicity of the bone marrow was documented for 63.8% (n=201) of those patients, oral mucositis for 7.6% (n=24), and dermatitis for 7.6% (n=24). Patients with high-grade acute toxicity received concomitant chemotherapy more frequently (56%) than patients with no or lower acute toxicity (31.5%). In multivariate analyses, concomitant chemotherapy, diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma, and total radiation dose showed a statistically noticeable effect (P≤.05) on acute toxicity, whereas age, concomitant chemotherapy, Hodgkin lymphoma, Ewing sarcoma, total radiation dose, and acute toxicity influenced the time until maximal late toxicity. Conclusions: Generally, high-grade acute toxicity after irradiation in children and adolescence occurs in a moderate proportion of patients (18.9%). As anticipated, the probability of acute toxicity appeared to depend on the prescribed dose as well as concomitant chemotherapy. The occurrence of chronic toxicity correlates with the prior acute

  15. The advancement of stem cells in radiation medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Li; Fan Hongxue

    2003-01-01

    It may result in acute radiation syndrome after body is exposed to ionizing radiation. The one of long-term effects of irradiation injury is leukemia. The bone marrow cells (BMC) transplantation including stem cells is the only effective therapy for acute radiation syndrome patients. Recently, with the advancement of stem cell research that the stem cells have multipotential and can convert each other, it may supply the new stem source for the irradiation injury patients. At the same time with the further research of radioprotective reagents, the hematopoietic stem cells proliferation after irradiation injury is promoted

  16. Ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, M.

    1989-01-01

    Although UV radiation can arise from a large number of man-made sources, the sun is the main source and both the general public and people working out of doors will be exposed to it. This natural background radiation and the variations in its magnitude must be taken into account when exposure limits are discussed. The full extent to which UV affects human well-being is difficult to quantify. Artificially produced UV has, however, been used in mines and cellars and in far northern latitudes as a supplement to combat functional impairment among people. Many of the observed effects, such as a decrease in the incidence of infectious diseases and in absenteeism, may be due to the bactericidal nature of the radiation. On the other hand, large doses of UV have an acute destructive effect on the skin and eye. Doses so low that they give rise only to normally acceptable or even desirable acute effects can, if repeated, induce changes resulting in late effects such as elastosis of the skin, keratosis and skin cancers. These effects will be of greater significance in people with lightly pigmented skin. 130 refs, 13 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Effects of acute and chronic exposure to both 900 MHz and 2100 MHz electromagnetic radiation on glutamate receptor signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçek-Saraç, Çiğdem; Er, Hakan; Kencebay Manas, Ceren; Kantar Gok, Deniz; Özen, Şükrü; Derin, Narin

    2017-09-01

    To demonstrate the molecular effects of acute and chronic exposure to both 900 and 2100 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on the hippocampal level/activity of some of the enzymes - including PKA, CaMKIIα, CREB, and p44/42 MAPK - from N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-related signaling pathways. Rats were divided into the following groups: sham rats, and rats exposed to 900 and 2100 MHz RF-EMR for 2 h/day for acute (1 week) or chronic (10 weeks), respectively. Western blotting and activity measurement assays were used to assess the level/activity of the selected enzymes. The obtained results revealed that the hippocampal level/activity of selected enzymes was significantly higher in the chronic groups as compared to the acute groups at both 900 and 2100 MHz RF-EMR exposure. In addition, hippocampal level/activity of selected enzymes was significantly higher at 2100 MHz RF-EMR than 900 MHz RF-EMR in both acute and chronic groups. The present study provides experimental evidence that both exposure duration (1 week versus 10 weeks) and different carrier frequencies (900 vs. 2100 MHz) had different effects on the protein expression of hippocampus in Wistar rats, which might encourage further research on protection against RF-EMR exposure.

  18. Mechanism of Action for Anti-radiation Vaccine in Reducing the Biological Impact of High-dose Gamma Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliev, Vladislav; Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Casey, Rachael C.

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a major health risk of long-term space travel, the biological consequences of which include genetic and oxidative damage. In this study, we propose an original mechanism by which high doses of ionizing radiation induce acute toxicity. We identified biological components that appear in the lymphatic vessels shortly after gamma irradiation. These radiation-induced toxins, which we have named specific radiation determinants (SRD), were generated in the irradiated tissues and then collected and circulated throughout the body via the lymph circulation and bloodstream. Depending on the type of SRD elicited, different syndromes of acute radiation sickness (ARS) were expressed. The SRDs were developed into a vaccine used to confer active immunity against acute radiation toxicity in immunologically naive animals. Animals that were pretreated with SRDs exhibited resistance to lethal doses of gamma radiation, as measured by increased survival times and survival rates. In comparison, untreated animals that were exposed to similar large doses of gamma radiation developed acute radiation sickness and died within days. This phenomenon was observed in a number of mammalian species. Initial analysis of the biochemical characteristics indicated that the SRDs were large molecular weight (200-250 kDa) molecules that were comprised of a mixture of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and mineral. Further analysis is required to further identify the SRD molecules and the biological mechanism by which the mediate the toxicity associated with acute radiation sickness. By doing so, we may develop an effective specific immunoprophylaxis as a countermeasure against the acute effects of ionizing radiation.

  19. Mechanism of action for anti-radiation vaccine in reducing the biological impact of high-dose gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliev, Vladislav; Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Casey, Rachael C.

    Ionizing radiation is a major health risk of long-term space travel, the biological consequences of which include genetic and oxidative damage. In this study, we propose an original mechanism by which high doses of ionizing radiation induce acute toxicity. We identified biological components that appear in the lymphatic vessels shortly after high-dose gamma irradiation. These radiation-induced toxins, which we have named specific radiation determinants (SRD), were generated in the irradiated tissues and then circulated throughout the body via the lymph circulation and bloodstream. Depending on the type of SRD elicited, different syndromes of acute radiation sickness (ARS) were expressed. The SRDs were developed into a vaccine used to confer active immunity against acute radiation toxicity in immunologically naïve animals. Animals that were pretreated with SRDs exhibited resistance to lethal doses of gamma radiation, as measured by increased survival times and survival rates. In comparison, untreated animals that were exposed to similar large doses of gamma radiation developed acute radiation sickness and died within days. This phenomenon was observed in a number of mammalian species. Initial analysis of the biochemical characteristics indicated that the SRDs were large molecular weight (200-250 kDa) molecules that were comprised of a mixture of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and mineral. Further analysis is required to further identify the SRD molecules and the biological mechanism by which they mediate the toxicity associated with acute radiation sickness. By doing so, we may develop an effective specific immunoprophylaxis as a countermeasure against the acute effects of ionizing radiation.

  20. Unique proteomic signature for radiation sensitive patients; a comparative study between normo-sensitive and radiation sensitive breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiöld, Sara [Center for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wernner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Azimzadeh, Omid [Institute of Radiation Biology, German Research Center