WorldWideScience

Sample records for acute pulmonary toxicity

  1. Rosette nanotubes show low acute pulmonary toxicity in vivo

    W Shane Journeay

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available W Shane Journeay1, Sarabjeet S Suri1, Jesus G Moralez2, Hicham Fenniri2, Baljit Singh11Immunology Research Group, Toxicology Graduate Program and Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4, Canada; 2National Institute of Nanotechnology, National Research Council (NINT-NRC and Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2M9, CanadaAbstract: Nanotubes are being developed for a large variety of applications ranging from electronics to drug delivery. Common carbon nanotubes such as single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been studied in the greatest detail but require solubilization and removal of catalytic contaminants such as metals prior to being introduced to biological systems for medical application. The present in vivo study characterizes the degree and nature of inflammation caused by a novel class of self-assembling rosette nanotubes, which are biologically inspired, naturally water-soluble and free of metal content upon synthesis. Upon pulmonary administration of this material we examined responses at 24 h and 7d post-exposure. An acute inflammatory response is triggered at 50 and 25 μg doses by 24 h post-exposure but an inflammatory response is not triggered by a 5 μg dose. Lung inflammation observed at a 50 μg dose at 24 h was resolving by 7d. This work suggests that novel nanostructures with biological design may negate toxicity concerns for biomedical applications of nanotubes. This study also demonstrates that water-soluble rosette nanotube structures represent low pulmonary toxicity, likely due to their biologically inspired design, and their self-assembled architecture.Keywords: nanotoxicology, biocompatibility, nanomedicine, pulmonary drug delivery, lung inflammation

  2. Acute Amiodarone Pulmonary Toxicity after Drug Holiday: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Ahmed Abuzaid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amiodarone is reported to cause a wide continuum of serious clinical effects. It is often challenging to detect Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity (AIPT. Typically, the diagnosis is made based on the clinical settings and may be supported by histopathology results, if available. We describe a 57-year-old patient who developed severe rapidly progressive respiratory failure secondary to AIPT with acute bilateral infiltrates and nodular opacities on chest imaging. Interestingly, Amiodarone was discontinued 3 weeks prior to his presentation. He had normal cardiac filling pressures confirmed by echocardiography. To our knowledge, this is the first case of isolated acute lung injury induced by Amiodarone, three weeks after therapy cessation, with adequate clinical improvement after supportive management and high dose steroid therapy.

  3. Acute pulmonary toxicity following inhalation exposure to aerosolized VX in anesthetized rats.

    Peng, Xinqi; Perkins, Michael W; Simons, Jannitt; Witriol, Alicia M; Rodriguez, Ashley M; Benjamin, Brittany M; Devorak, Jennifer; Sciuto, Alfred M

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluated acute toxicity and pulmonary injury in rats at 3, 6 and 24 h after an inhalation exposure to aerosolized O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX). Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) were incubated with a glass endotracheal tube and exposed to saline or VX (171, 343 and 514 mg×min/m³ or 0.2, 0.5 and 0.8 LCt₅₀, respectively) for 10 min. VX was delivered by a small animal ventilator at a volume of 2.5 ml × 70 breaths/minute. All VX-exposed animals experienced a significant loss in percentage body weight at 3, 6, and 24 h post-exposure. In comparison to controls, animals exposed to 514 mg×min/m³ of VX had significant increases in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein concentrations at 6 and 24 h post-exposure. Blood acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was inhibited dose dependently at each of the times points for all VX-exposed groups. AChE activity in lung homogenates was significantly inhibited in all VX-exposed groups at each time point. All VX-exposed animals assessed at 20 min and 3, 6 and 24 h post-exposure showed increases in lung resistance, which was prominent at 20 min and 3 h post-exposure. Histopathologic evaluation of lung tissue of the 514 mg×min/m³ VX-exposed animals at 3, 6 and 24 h indicated morphological changes, including perivascular inflammation, alveolar exudate and histiocytosis, alveolar septal inflammation and edema, alveolar epithelial necrosis, and bronchiolar inflammatory infiltrates, in comparison to controls. These results suggest that aerosolization of the highly toxic, persistent chemical warfare nerve agent VX results in acute pulmonary toxicity and lung injury in rats.

  4. Histoplasmosis - acute (primary) pulmonary

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000098.htm Histoplasmosis - acute (primary) pulmonary To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute pulmonary histoplasmosis is a respiratory infection that is caused by ...

  5. Acute and subacute pulmonary toxicity and mortality in mice after intratracheal instillation of ZnO nanoparticles in three laboratories

    Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Stoeger, Tobias; van den Brule, Sybille

    2015-01-01

    , desquamation of epithelial cells with concomitantly increased barrier permeability of the alveolar/blood as well as DNA damage. Oxidative stress was shown via a strong increase in lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione in the pulmonary tissue. Two months post-exposure revealed no obvious toxicity for 12...... prematurely terminated because interim results unexpectedly showed severe pulmonary toxicity. High bolus doses of ZnO NP (25 up to 100μg; ≥1.4mg/kg) were clearly associated with a dose dependent mortality in the mice. Lower doses (≥6μg; ≥0.3mg/kg) elicited acute toxicity in terms of reduced weight gain...

  6. Acute and subacute pulmonary toxicity caused by a single intratracheal instillation of colloidal silver nanoparticles in mice: pathobiological changes and metallothionein responses.

    Kaewamatawong, Theerayuth; Banlunara, Wijit; Maneewattanapinyo, Pattwat; Thammachareon, Chuchaat; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2014-01-01

    To study the acute and subacute pulmonary toxicity of colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), 0 or 100 ppm of Ag-NPs were instilled intratracheally in mice. Cellular and biochemical parameters in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and histological alterations were determined 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days after instillation. Ag-NPs induced moderate pulmonary inflammation and injury on BALF indices during the acute period; however, these changes gradually regressed in a time-dependent manner. Concomitant histopathological and laminin immunohistochemical findings generally correlated to BALF data. Superoxide dismutase and metallothionein expression occurred in particle-laden macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells, which correlated to lung lesions in mice treated with Ag-NPs. These findings suggest that instillation of Ag-NPs causes transient moderate acute lung inflammation and tissue damage. Oxidative stress may underlie the induction of injury to lung tissue. Moreover, the expression of metallothionein in tissues indicated the protective response to exposure to Ag-NPs.

  7. Amiodarone-induced acute lung toxicity in an ICU setting.

    Skroubis, G; Skroubis, T; Galiatsou, E; Metafratzi, Z; Karahaliou, A; Kitsakos, A; Nakos, G

    2005-04-01

    Amiodarone is a highly effective antiarrhythmic drug, albeit notorious for its serious pulmonary toxicity. The incidence of amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity (APT) appears to be 1% per year (1). We report a case of very acute APT in a man suffering from postoperative atrial fibrillation.

  8. Glyphosate Poisoning with Acute Pulmonary Edema

    Thakur, Darshana Sudip; Khot, Rajashree; Joshi, P. P.; Pandharipande, Madhuri; Nagpure, Keshav

    2014-01-01

    GlySH-surfactant herbicide (GlySH), one of the most commonly used herbicides worldwide, has been considered as minimally toxic to humans. However, clinical toxicologists occasionally encounter cases of severe systemic toxicity. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) states that ‘GlySH’ is of relatively low oral and acute dermal toxicity. It does not have anticholinesterase effect and no organophosphate-like central nervous system (CNS) effects. The clinical features range from skin and throat irritation to hypotension and death. Severe GlySH-surfactant poisoning is manifested by gastroenteritis, respiratory disturbances, altered mental status, hypotension refractory to the treatment, renal failure, and shock.[1] GlySH intoxication has a case fatality rate 3.2–29.3%. Pulmonary toxicity and renal toxicity seem to be responsible for mortality. Metabolic acidosis, abnormal chest X-ray, arrhythmias, and elevated serum creatinine levels are useful prognostic factors for predicting GlySH mortality.[2] There is no antidote and the mainstay of treatment for systemic toxicity is decontamination and aggressive supportive therapy. We report a case of acute pulmonary edema, which is a rare but severe manifestation of oral GlySH poisoning, where patient survived with aggressive supportive therapy. PMID:25948977

  9. Sympathetic crashing acute pulmonary edema.

    Agrawal, Naman; Kumar, Akshay; Aggarwal, Praveen; Jamshed, Nayer

    2016-12-01

    Sympathetic crashing acute pulmonary edema (SCAPE) is the extreme end of the spectrum of acute pulmonary edema. It is important to understand this disease as it is relatively common in the emergency department (ED) and has better outcomes when managed appropriately. The patients have an abrupt redistribution of fluid in the lungs, and when treated promptly and effectively, these patients will rapidly recover. Noninvasive ventilation and intravenous nitrates are the mainstay of treatment which should be started within minutes of the patient's arrival to the ED. Use of morphine and intravenous loop diuretics, although popular, has poor scientific evidence.

  10. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis.

  11. Acute exacerbations and pulmonary hypertension in advanced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Judge, Eoin P

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for and outcomes of acute exacerbations in patients with advanced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and to examine the relationship between disease severity and neovascularisation in explanted IPF lung tissue. 55 IPF patients assessed for lung transplantation were divided into acute (n=27) and non-acute exacerbation (n=28) groups. Haemodynamic data was collected at baseline, at the time of acute exacerbation and at lung transplantation. Histological analysis and CD31 immunostaining to quantify microvessel density (MVD) was performed on the explanted lung tissue of 13 transplanted patients. Acute exacerbations were associated with increased mortality (p=0.0015). Pulmonary hypertension (PH) at baseline and acute exacerbations were associated with poor survival (p<0.01). PH at baseline was associated with a significant risk of acute exacerbations (HR 2.217, p=0.041). Neovascularisation (MVD) was significantly increased in areas of cellular fibrosis and significantly decreased in areas of honeycombing. There was a significant inverse correlation between mean pulmonary artery pressure and MVD in areas of honeycombing. Acute exacerbations were associated with significantly increased mortality in patients with advanced IPF. PH was associated with the subsequent development of an acute exacerbation and with poor survival. Neovascularisation was significantly decreased in areas of honeycombing, and was significantly inversely correlated with mean pulmonary arterial pressure in areas of honeycombing.

  12. [Acute pulmonary edema secondary to acute upper airway obstruction].

    Sánchez-Ortega, J L; Carpintero-Moreno, F; Olivares-López, A; Borrás-Rubio, E; Alvarez-López, M J; García-Izquierdo, A

    1992-01-01

    We report a 72 years old woman with mild arterial hypertension and no other pathological history who presented an acute pulmonary edema due to acute obstruction of the upper airway secondary to vocal chord paralysis developing during the immediate postoperative phase of thyroidectomy. The acute pulmonary edema resolved after application of tracheal reintubation, mechanical ventilation controlled with end expiratory positive pressure, diuretics, morphine, and liquid restriction. We discuss the possible etiopathogenic possibilities of this infrequent clinical picture and we suggest that all patients who suffered and acute obstruction of the upper airways require a careful clinical surveillance in order to prevent the development of the pulmonary syndrome.

  13. Toxicity of Ambient Particulate Matter IV: Acute toxicity study in pulmonary hypertensive rats after exposure to model compounds for the secondary aerosol fraction of PM10 - ammonium bisulfate, ferrosulfate and nitrate

    Cassee FR; Boere AJF; Fokkens PHB; Dormans JAMA; Bree L van; Rombout PJA; LEO; LPI

    1999-01-01

    This (4th) report on the toxicity of ambient particulate matter (PM) presents effects of the model compounds for PM in ambient air - ammonium bisulfate, ammonium ferrosulfate and ammonium nitrate - on healthy rats and rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH). The objective was bas

  14. Anatomic distribution of embolus at CT pulmonary angiography in patients suspected acute pulmonary embolism

    朱力

    2013-01-01

    Objective To summarize and analyze the morphology and distribution of embolus in patients suspected acute pulmonary embolism. Methods The CT pulmonary angiography(CTPA) imagings of 279 patients suspected acute pulmonary embolism were analyzed retrospectively in

  15. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Acute Pulmonary Edema.

    Pablo Rodríguez Díaz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical Practice Guidelines for Acute Pulmonary Edema. It has been defined as an abrupt and severe failure of the left ventricular function which causes pulmonary edema or cardiac origin interfering with the normal oxygen exchange at pulmonary level. This document includes a review and update of the main clinical aspects allowing the early diagnosis and immediate therapeutic treatment. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.

  16. Pulmonary toxicity of manufactured nanoparticles

    Peebles, Brian Christopher

    Manufactured nanomaterials have become ubiquitous in science, industry, and medicine. Although electron microscopy and surface probe techniques have improved understanding of the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials, much less is known about what makes nanomaterials toxic. Particulate matter less than 2.5 mum in effective aerodynamic diameter is easily inhaled and taken deep into the lungs. The toxicity of inhaled particulate matter is related to its size and surface chemistry; for instance, the smaller the size of particles, the greater their specific surface area. The chemistry and toxicity of insoluble particles depends on their surface area, since chemical reactions may happen with the environment on the surface. Oxidation and reduction may occur on the surfaces of particles after they are produced. For instance, it is known that carbonaceous particles from vehicle exhaust and industrial emission may interact with reactive species like ozone in their ambient environment, altering the surface chemistry of the particles. Reaction with species in the environment may cause changes in the chemical functionality of the surface and change the toxic properties of the particles when they are inhaled. Furthermore, metals on the surface of inhalable particles can contribute to their toxicity. Much attention has been given to the presence of iron on the surfaces of inhalable particles in the environment. After particle inhalation, particles are endocytosed by alveolar macrophages in the immune response to foreign matter. They are exposed to hydrogen peroxide in the oxidative burst, which can cause the iron-mediated production of hydroxyl free radicals via the Fenton reaction, causing oxidative stress that leads to inflammation and cell death. The toxicity of particles that contain metals depends on the redox activity and bioavailability of the metals, the causes of thich have not yet been adequately explored. In this thesis, electron paramagnetic spectroscopy showed

  17. Acute Exacerbations of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Collard, Harold R.; Moore, Bethany B.; Flaherty, Kevin R.; Brown, Kevin K.; Kaner, Robert J.; King, Talmadge E.; Lasky, Joseph A.; Loyd, James E.; Noth, Imre; Olman, Mitchell A.; Raghu, Ganesh; Roman, Jesse; Ryu, Jay H.; Zisman, David A.; Hunninghake, Gary W.

    2007-01-01

    The natural history of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has been characterized as a steady, predictable decline in lung function over time. Recent evidence suggests that some patients may experience a more precipitous course, with periods of relative stability followed by acute deteriorations in respiratory status. Many of these acute deteriorations are of unknown etiology and have been termed acute exacerbations of IPF. This perspective is the result of an international effort to summariz...

  18. [Acute heart failure: acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock].

    Sánchez Marteles, Marta; Urrutia, Agustín

    2014-03-01

    Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock are two of the main forms of presentation of acute heart failure. Both entities are serious, with high mortality, and require early diagnosis and prompt and aggressive management. Acute pulmonary edema is due to the passage of fluid through the alveolarcapillary membrane and is usually the result of an acute cardiac episode. Correct evaluation and clinical identification of the process is essential in the management of acute pulmonary edema. The initial aim of treatment is to ensure hemodynamic stability and to correct hypoxemia. Other measures that can be used are vasodilators such as nitroglycerin, loop diuretics and, in specific instances, opioids. Cardiogenic shock is characterized by sustained hypoperfusion, pulmonary wedge pressure > 18 mmHg and a cardiac index 30 mmHg) and absent or reduced diuresis (< 0.5 ml/kg/h). The most common cause is left ventricular failure due to acute myocardial infarction. Treatment consists of general measures to reverse acidosis and hypoxemia, as well as the use of vasopressors and inotropic drugs. Early coronary revascularization has been demonstrated to improve survival in shock associated with ischaemic heart disease.

  19. Acute pulmonary edema after near strangulation

    Shumaker, D.; Kottamasu, S.; Preston, G.; Treloar, D.

    1988-11-01

    We report a case of acute, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema in an 11 year old boy who suffered strangulation during an altercation. The clinical presentation was characterized by moderate respiratory distress and hemoptysis. Both the radiographic and clinical findings resolved during the three day admission which followed. A review of the literature is presented, and possible pathogenesis is discussed.

  20. An uncommon cause of acute pulmonary edema.

    Nepal, Santosh; Giri, Smith; Bhusal, Mohan; Siwakoti, Krishmita; Pathak, Ranjan

    2016-09-01

    Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema secondary to catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy is a very uncommon and fatal initial presentation of pheochromocytoma. However, with early clinical suspicion and aggressive management, the condition is reversible. This case report describes a patient who presented with hypertension, dyspnea, and cough with bloody streaks, and who recovered within 48 hours after appropriate treatment.

  1. Acute Exacerbations of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Collard, Harold R.; Moore, Bethany B.; Flaherty, Kevin R.; Brown, Kevin K.; Kaner, Robert J.; King, Talmadge E.; Lasky, Joseph A.; Loyd, James E.; Noth, Imre; Olman, Mitchell A.; Raghu, Ganesh; Roman, Jesse; Ryu, Jay H.; Zisman, David A.; Hunninghake, Gary W.; Colby, Thomas V.; Egan, Jim J.; Hansell, David M.; Johkoh, Takeshi; Kaminski, Naftali; Kim, Dong Soon; Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Lynch, David A.; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim; Myers, Jeffrey L.; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Selman, Moisés; Toews, Galen B.; Wells, Athol U.; Martinez, Fernando J.

    2007-01-01

    The natural history of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has been characterized as a steady, predictable decline in lung function over time. Recent evidence suggests that some patients may experience a more precipitous course, with periods of relative stability followed by acute deteriorations in respiratory status. Many of these acute deteriorations are of unknown etiology and have been termed acute exacerbations of IPF. This perspective is the result of an international effort to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding acute exacerbations of IPF. Acute exacerbations of IPF are defined as acute, clinically significant deteriorations of unidentifiable cause in patients with underlying IPF. Proposed diagnostic criteria include subjective worsening over 30 days or less, new bilateral radiographic opacities, and the absence of infection or another identifiable etiology. The potential pathobiological roles of infection, disordered cell biology, coagulation, and genetics are discussed, and future research directions are proposed. PMID:17585107

  2. Unilateral pulmonary edema following acute subglottic edema.

    Morisaki, H; Ochiai, R; Takeda, J; Nagano, M

    1990-01-01

    Presented here is a case of unilateral pulmonary edema following acute subglottic edema after removal of an endotracheal tube. A 3-year-old boy, diagnosed as having nondiphtheric croup and pectus excavatum deformity, was scheduled for repair of a cleft lip. No complication occurred during the operation. After removal of the endotracheal tube, he showed dyspnea and cyanosis and was later found to have acute subglottic edema. After reintubation of the trachea, frothy pink fluid was discharged from the tube, and chest roentgenogram showed a right-sided alveolar infiltrate. Many factors may cause unilateral pulmonary edema, but it is suggested that acute subglottic edema and unilateral bronchial fragility strongly affected this episode.

  3. Postpartum Acute Pulmonary Oedema with Sub clinical Rheumatic Heart Disease

    2015-01-01

    Acute dyspnea with pulmonary oedema in postpartum is uncommon but life-threatening event. Contributing factors for pulmonary oedema include, administration of tocolytics, underlying cardiac disease, iatrogenic fluid overload and preeclampsia acounting 0.08% of pregnancies. Pulmonary embolism, amniotic fluid embolism, pneumonia, aspiration and pulmonary oedema are some of the potentially devastating conditions that should be considered by the attending physician.

  4. Pathophysiology of pulmonary complications of acute pancreatitis

    George W Browne; CS Pitchurnoni

    2006-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis in its severe form is complicated by multiple organ system dysfunction, most importantly by pulmonary complications which include hypoxia,acute respiratory distress syndrome, atelectasis, and pleural effusion. The pathogenesis of some of the above complications is attributed to the production of noxious cytokines. Clinically significant is the early onset of pleural effusion, which heralds a poor outcome of acute pancreatitis. The role of circulating trypsin, phospholipase A2, platelet activating factor, release of free fatty acids,chemoattractants such as tumor necrsosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, fMet-leu-phe (a bacterial wall product), nitric oxide, substance P, and macrophage inhibitor factor is currently studied. The hope is that future management of acute pancreatitis with a better understanding of the pathogenesis of lung injury will be directed against the production of noxious cytokines.

  5. Acute pulmonary edema after intramyometrial prostodin

    Neha Baduni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 25 year old, 68 kg, primigravida, was taken up for emergency caesarean section for meconium stained liquor and fetal distress. She was a known case of pre eclampsia and her blood pressure was controlled on tab methyl dopa. she was administered general anaesthesia. after delivery of baby she went into postpartum hemorrhage which was controlled with intramyometrial prostodin. but immediately after its administration she went into acute pulmonary edema.

  6. Amiodarone-Induced Pulmonary Toxicity – A Frequently Missed Complication

    Sweidan, Alexander J.; Singh, Navneet K.; Dang, Natasha; Lam, Vinh; Datta, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Amiodarone is often used in the suppression of tachyarrhythmias. One of the more serious adverse effects includes amiodarone pulmonary toxicity (APT). Several pulmonary diseases can manifest including interstitial pneumonitis, organizing pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, pulmonary nodules or masses, and pleural effusion. Incidence of APT varies from 5–15% and is correlated to dosage, age of the patient, and preexisting lung disease. DESCRIPTION A 56-year-old male with a past medical history of coronary artery disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was admitted for a coronary artery bypass graft. Post-operatively, the patient was admitted to the ICU for ventilator management and continued to receive his home dose of amiodarone 400 mg orally twice daily, which he had been taking for the past 3 months. The patient was found to be hypoxemic with a PaO2 52 mmHg and bilateral infiltrates on chest x-ray. Patient also complained of new onset dyspnea. Physical exam found bilateral rhonchi with bibasilar crackles and subcutaneous emphysema along the left anterior chest wall. Daily chest x-rays showed worsening of bilateral interstitial infiltrates and pleural effusions. A chest high-resolution computed tomography on post-operative day 3 showed extensive and severe bilateral ground glass opacities. APT was suspected and amiodarone was discontinued. A course of oral prednisone without antibiotics was initiated, and after one week of treatment the chest film cleared, the PaO2 value normalized and dyspnea resolved. DISCUSSION APT occurs via cytotoxic T cells and indirectly by immunological reaction. Typically the lungs manifest a diffuse interstitial pneumonitis with varying degrees of fibrosis. Infiltrates with a ‘ground-glass’ appearance appreciated on HRCT are more definitive than chest x-ray. Pulmonary nodules can be seen, frequently in the upper lobes. These are postulated to be accumulations of

  7. Negative spiral CT in acute pulmonary embolism

    Nilsson, T.; Olausson, A. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Thoracic Radiology; Johnsson, H. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Internal Medicine; Nyman, U. [County Hospital, Trelleborg (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology; Aspelin, P. [Huddinge Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology

    2002-09-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the clinical outcome of non-anticoagulated patients with clinically suspected acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and no symptoms or signs of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) following a negative contrast medium-enhanced spiral CT of the pulmonary arteries (s-CTPA). Material and Methods: During a 24-month period, 739 of 751 patients underwent s-CTPA with acceptable diagnostic quality for clinically suspected acute PE. All patients who had a CT study not positive for PE were followed up with a questionnaire, a telephone interview and review of all medical reports, including autopsies and death certificates for any episodes of venous thromboembolism (VTE) during a 3-month period. Results: PE was diagnosed in 158 patients. Of the remaining 581 patients with a negative s-CTPA, 45 patients were lost to follow-up. 88 patients were excluded because of anticoagulation treatment (cardiac disorder n=32, chronic VTE or acute symptomatic DVT n=31, PE diagnosed at pulmonary angiography n=1, thrombus prophylaxis during diagnostic work-up or other reasons than VTE n=24) and 7 patients undergoing lower extremity venous studies because of symptoms of DVT (all negative). Thus, 441 patients with a negative s-CTPA and no DVT symptoms, venous studies or anticoagulant treatment constituted the follow-up cohort. Four of these patients had proven VTE (all PE) during the 3-month follow-up period. Two of the PE episodes contributed to the patient's death. Conclusion: Patients with clinically suspected acute PE, no symptoms or signs of DVT and a negative single slice s-CTPA using 3-5 mm collimation, may safely be left without anticoagulation treatment unless they are critically ill, have a limited cardiopulmonary reserve and/or if a high clinical suspicion remains.

  8. Multidetector computed tomography pulmonary angiography in childhood acute pulmonary embolism

    Tang, Chun Xiang; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Pediatrics, Charleston, SC (United States); Chowdhury, Shahryar M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Pediatrics, Charleston, SC (United States); Fox, Mary A. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pulmonary embolism is a life-threatening condition affecting people of all ages. Multidetector row CT pulmonary angiography has improved the imaging of pulmonary embolism in both adults and children and is now regarded as the routine modality for detection of pulmonary embolism. Advanced CT pulmonary angiography techniques developed in recent years, such as dual-energy CT, have been applied as a one-stop modality for pulmonary embolism diagnosis in children, as they can simultaneously provide anatomical and functional information. We discuss CT pulmonary angiography techniques, common and uncommon findings of pulmonary embolism in both conventional and dual-energy CT pulmonary angiography, and radiation dose considerations. (orig.)

  9. Present state of radiological diagnostics in acute pulmonary failure

    Jaspers, C.; Hoetzinger, H.; Toedt, H.C.; Beyer, H.K.

    1989-03-01

    Acute pulmonary failure is a very serious cause of respiratory failure. Radiological diagnosis occupies a central position in intensive-care monitoring. X-ray film of the thorax is performed not only for detecting any complications, but mainly for noninvasive and semiquantitative determination of the extravascular pulmonary fluid and hence of the fluid balance. Other methods such as MR or methods of nuclear medicine have not acquired substantial importance in respect of diagnosis and monitoring acute pulmonary failure. (orig./GDG).

  10. Acute and delayed toxicities of total body irradiation

    Deeg, H.J.

    1983-12-01

    Total body irradiation is being used with increasing frequency for the treatment of lymphopoietic malignancies and in preparation for marrow transplantation. Acute toxicities include reversible gastroeneritis, mucositis, myelosuppression alopecia. As the success of treatment improves and more patients become long-term survivors, manifestations of delayed and chronic toxicity become evident. These include impairment of growth and development, gonadal failure and sterility, cataract formation and possibly secondary malignancies. The contribution of total body irradiation to the development of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis is still poorly understood. Some of these changes are reversible or correctable, whereas others are permanent. Nevertheless, until equally effective but less toxic regimens become available, total body irradiation appears to be the treatment of choice to prepare patients with leukemia for marrow transplantation.

  11. Oxidative stress-induced autophagy: Role in pulmonary toxicity

    Malaviya, Rama [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Debra L., E-mail: laskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process important in regulating the turnover of essential proteins and in elimination of damaged organelles and protein aggregates. Autophagy is observed in the lung in response to oxidative stress generated as a consequence of exposure to environmental toxicants. Whether autophagy plays role in promoting cell survival or cytotoxicity is unclear. In this article recent findings on oxidative stress-induced autophagy in the lung are reviewed; potential mechanisms initiating autophagy are also discussed. A better understanding of autophagy and its role in pulmonary toxicity may lead to the development of new strategies to treat lung injury associated with oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Exposure to pulmonary toxicants is associated with oxidative stress. • Oxidative stress is known to induce autophagy. • Autophagy is upregulated in the lung following exposure to pulmonary toxicants. • Autophagy may be protective or pathogenic.

  12. Hydroxyaluminosilicates and acute aluminium toxicity in fish

    Exley; Pinnegar; Taylor

    1997-11-21

    The essentiality of silicon in biology might be explained in the terms of its chemistry with aluminium. In a previous study we demonstrated the elimination of acute aluminium toxicity in fish by silicon. We suggested that the reaction of silicic acid with aluminium to form hydroxyaluminosilicates reduced the biological availability, and hence toxicity, of aluminium. Though assumed in a burgeoning number of studies and contended in others this detoxification mechanism has remained unproven. Herein we have tested the toxicity of hydroxyaluminosilicates in fish and in doing so we have provided evidence which strongly supports a role for hydroxyaluminiosilicates in the elimination of acute aluminium toxicity in fish by silicon.Copyright 1997 Academic Press Limited Copyright 1997 Academic Press Limited

  13. CDP-choline: acute toxicity study.

    Grau, T; Romero, A; Sacristán, A; Ortiz, J A

    1983-01-01

    The acute toxicity of a single dose of cytidine diphosphate choline (CDP-choline, citicoline, Somazina) by different administration routes in mice and rats has been studied. LD50 values were determined according to the cumulative method by Reed-Muench for mortality rate, and Pizzi's method for calculation of standard error.

  14. Acute methanol toxicity in minipigs

    Dorman, D.C.; Dye, J.A.; Nassise, M.P.; Ekuta, J.; Bolon, B.

    1993-01-01

    The pig has been proposed as a potential animal model for methanol-induced neuro-ocular toxicosis in humans because of its low liver tetrahydrofolate levels and slower rate of formate metabolism compared to those of humans. To examine the validity of this animal model, 12 4-month-old female minipigs (minipig YU) were given a single oral dose of water or methanol at 1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 g/kg body wt by gavage (n = 3 pigs/dose). Dose-dependent signs of acute methanol intoxication, which included mild CNS depression, tremors, ataxia, and recumbency, developed within 0.5 to 2.0 hr, and resolved by 52 hr. Methanol- and formate-dosed pigs did not develop optic nerve lesions, toxicologically significant formate accumulation, or metabolic acidosis. Based on results following a single dose, female minipigs do not appear to be overtly sensitive to methanol and thus may not be a suitable animal model for acute methanol-induced neuroocular toxicosis.

  15. Acute inhalation toxicity of carbonyl sulfide

    Benson, J.M.; Hahn, F.F.; Barr, E.B. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS), a colorless gas, is a side product of industrial procedures sure as coal hydrogenation and gasification. It is structurally related to and is a metabolite of carbon disulfide. COS is metabolized in the body by carbonic anhydrase to hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), which is thought to be responsible for COS toxicity. No threshold limit value for COS has been established. Results of these studies indicate COS (with an LC{sub 50} of 590 ppm) is slightly less acutely toxic than H{sub 2}S (LC{sub 50} of 440 ppm).

  16. Postpartum Acute Pulmonary Oedema with Sub clinical Rheumatic Heart Disease.

    R, Padmaja; Gande, Sri Krishna Padma Challa Rao

    2015-02-01

    Acute dyspnea with pulmonary oedema in postpartum is uncommon but life-threatening event. Contributing factors for pulmonary oedema include, administration of tocolytics, underlying cardiac disease, iatrogenic fluid overload and preeclampsia acounting 0.08% of pregnancies. Pulmonary embolism, amniotic fluid embolism, pneumonia, aspiration and pulmonary oedema are some of the potentially devastating conditions that should be considered by the attending physician. Here, we report a case of postpartum acute pulmonary oedema referred to causality after an emergency caesarean section in a private hospital. No matter what the underlying pathology, prompt administration and appropriate resuscitation is always the first priority. Only after the patient has been stabilized attention must be turned to diagnosis and specific treatment. A diagnosis of severe Mitral Stenosis, probably of rheumatic origin was made after stabilizing the patient.

  17. Rescue surgical pulmonary embolectomy for acute massive pulmonary embolism

    Ahmed Abdulrahman Elassal

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Surgical pulmonary embolectomy is a rescue operation in high-risk PE. It could save patients with preoperative cardiac arrest. Early diagnosis, interdisciplinary team action, appropriate and emergent treatment strategy are necessary for favorable outcome.

  18. CT pulmonary angiography findings that predict 30-day mortality in patients with acute pulmonary embolism

    Bach, Andreas Gunter, E-mail: mail@andreas-bach.de [Department of Radiology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Ernst-Grube-Str. 40, 06120 Halle (Germany); Nansalmaa, Baasai; Kranz, Johanna [Department of Radiology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Ernst-Grube-Str. 40, 06120 Halle (Germany); Taute, Bettina-Maria [Department of Internal Medicine, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Ernst-Grube-Str. 40, 06120 Halle (Germany); Wienke, Andreas [Institute of Medical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Informatics, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Magdeburger-Str. 8, 06112 Halle (Germany); Schramm, Dominik; Surov, Alexey [Department of Radiology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Ernst-Grube-Str. 40, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • In patients with acute pulmonary embolism contrast reflux in inferior vena cava is significantly stronger in non-survivors (odds ratio 3.29; p < 0.001). • This finding is independent from the following comorbidities: heart insufficiency and pulmonary hypertension. • Measurement of contrast reflux is a new and robust radiologic method for predicting 30-day mortality in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. • Measurement of contrast reflux is a better predictor of 30-day mortality after acute pulmonary embolism than any other existing radiologic predictor. This includes thrombus distribution, and morphometric measurements of right ventricular dysfunction. - Abstract: Purpose: Standard computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) can be used to diagnose acute pulmonary embolism. In addition, multiple findings at CTPA have been proposed as potential tools for risk stratification. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine the prognostic value of (I) thrombus distribution, (II) morphometric parameters of right ventricular dysfunction, and (III) contrast reflux in inferior vena cava on 30-day mortality. Material and methods: In a retrospective, single-center study from 06/2005 to 01/2010 365 consecutive patients were included. Inclusion criteria were: presence of acute pulmonary embolism, and availability of 30-day follow-up. A review of patient charts and images was performed. Results: There were no significant differences between the group of 326 survivors and 39 non-survivors in (I) thrombus distribution, and (II) morphometric measurements of right ventricular dysfunction. However, (III) contrast reflux in inferior vena cava was significantly stronger in non-survivors (odds ratio 3.29; p < 0.001). Results were independent from comorbidities like heart insufficiency and pulmonary hypertension. Conclusion: Measurement of contrast reflux is a new and robust method for predicting 30-day mortality in patients with acute pulmonary

  19. Pulmonary hypertension due to acute respiratory distress syndrome

    S.A. Ñamendys-Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Our aims were to describe the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, to characterize their hemodynamic cardiopulmonary profiles, and to correlate these parameters with outcome. All consecutive patients over 16 years of age who were in the intensive care unit with a diagnosis of ARDS and an in situ pulmonary artery catheter for hemodynamic monitoring were studied. Pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed when the mean pulmonary artery pressure was >25 mmHg at rest with a pulmonary artery occlusion pressure or left atrial pressure <15 mmHg. During the study period, 30 of 402 critically ill patients (7.46% who were admitted to the ICU fulfilled the criteria for ARDS. Of the 30 patients with ARDS, 14 met the criteria for pulmonary hypertension, a prevalence of 46.6% (95% CI; 28-66%. The most common cause of ARDS was pneumonia (56.3%. The overall mortality was 36.6% and was similar in patients with and without pulmonary hypertension. Differences in patients' hemodynamic profiles were influenced by the presence of pulmonary hypertension. The levels of positive end-expiratory pressure and peak pressure were higher in patients with pulmonary hypertension, and the PaCO2 was higher in those who died. The level of airway pressure seemed to influence the onset of pulmonary hypertension. Survival was determined by the severity of organ failure at admission to the intensive care unit.

  20. CT Pulmonary Angiography and Suspected Acute Pulmonary Embolism

    Enden, T.; Kloew, N.E. [Ullevaal Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Cardiovascular Radiology

    2003-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the use and quality of CT pulmonary angiography in our department, and to relate the findings to clinical parameters and diagnoses. Material and Methods: A retrospective study of 324 consecutive patients referred to CT pulmonary angiography with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). From the medical records we registered clinical parameters, blood gases, D-dimer, risk factors and the results of other relevant imaging studies. Results: 55 patients (17%) had PE detected on CT. 39 had bilateral PE, and 8 patients had isolated peripheral PE. 87% of the examinations showing PE had satisfactory filling of contrast material including the segmental pulmonary arteries, and 60% of the subsegmental arteries. D-dimer test was performed in 209 patients, 85% were positive. A negative D-dimer ruled out PE detected at CT. Dyspnea and concurrent symptoms or detection of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), contraceptive pills and former venous thromboembolism (VTE) were associated with PE. The presence of only one clinical parameter indicated a negative PE diagnosis (p < 0.017), whereas two or more suggested a positive PE diagnosis (p < 0.002). CT also detected various ancillary findings such as consolidation, pleural effusion, nodule or tumor in nearly half of the patients; however, there was no association with the PE diagnosis. Conclusion: The quality of CT pulmonary angiography was satisfactory as a first-line imaging of PE. CT also showed additional pathology of importance in the chest. Our study confirmed that a negative D-dimer ruled out clinically suspected VTE.

  1. Prevalence of pulmonary edema among the deceased cases with acute Methadone poisoning: A report from Iran

    Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Naeini, Seyed Amir Hossein Madani; Hedaiaty, Mahrang; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Moudi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Methadone poisoning is common in our society, mainly in drug addicts. One of its lethal complications is pulmonary edema. Therefore, we evaluated the prevalence of pulmonary edema in the deceased cases with methadone poisoning and its possible relationship with some medical variables. Methods: In this cross-sectional study which was done in 2014, we have investigated the deceased patients with methadone toxicity who underwent autopsy at Isfahan Forensic Medicine Department (Iran). All variables including age, gender, and autopsy findings were recorded and analyzed. Demographic characteristics and medical complications of the patients were compared between the patients with or without pulmonary edema in the autopsy findings. Findings: There were 64 cases who died with methadone poisoning during the 1-year study period. The average age of cases (±standard deviation) was 32.1 ± 10.29 years, among which 92.2% were male. Based on the autopsy findings, 64.1% were diagnosed with pulmonary edema. There was no statistically significant relationship between pulmonary edema and age, gender, history of addiction, and hepatic or cardiovascular complications. Conclusion: Pulmonary edema is a common finding in deceased methadone poisoning cases and must be considered and ruled out in patients with acute methadone toxicity. PMID:27843967

  2. Amiodaron-induced pulmonary toxicity with fatal outcome

    Brachtel, D.; Krischel, W.

    1984-12-01

    Three month after initiation of amiodarone treatment wih 1000 mg daily a 62 years old man with refractory ventricular tachycardia developed increasing dyspnea. Chest X-ray findings consisted of patchy alveolar infiltrates and interstitial changes. Despite withdrawal of amiodarone and institution of prednisolone treatment the patient died of cardiorespiratory failure. Chest X-ray examinations at frequent intervals should be performed during the first year of high dose amiodarone therapy to detect early signs of pulmonary toxicity.

  3. Acute Liver Failure Secondary to Niacin Toxicity

    Marc A. Ellsworth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 17-year-old male was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit for evaluation of acute liver failure. He was recently released from an alcohol treatment center with acute onset of chest pain. Cardiac workup was negative but he was found to have abnormal coagulation studies and elevated liver transaminases. Other evaluations included a normal toxicology screen and negative acetaminophen level. Autoimmune and infectious workups were normal providing no identifiable cause of his acute liver failure. He initially denied any ingestions or illicit drug use but on further query he admitted taking niacin in an attempt to obscure the results of an upcoming drug test. Niacin has been touted on the Internet as an aid to help pass urine drug tests though there is no evidence to support this practice. Niacin toxicity has been associated with serious multisystem organ failure and fulminant hepatic failure requiring liver transplantation. Pediatric providers should be aware of the risks associated with niacin toxicity and other experimental medical therapies that may be described on the Internet or other nonreputable sources.

  4. Pancreatic and pulmonary mast cells activation during experimental acute pancreatitis

    Inmaculada; Lopez-Font; Sabrina; Gea-Sorlí; Enrique; de-Madaria; Luis; M; Gutiérrez; Miguel; Pérez-Mateo; Daniel; Closa

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To study the activation of pancreatic and pulmonary mast cells and the effect of mast cell inhibition on the activation of peritoneal and alveolar macrophages during acute pancreatitis.METHODS:Pancreatitis was induced by intraductal infusion of 5% sodium taurodeoxycholate in rats.The mast cell inhibitor cromolyn was administered intraperitoneally(i.p.) 30 min before pancreatitis induction.The pancreatic and pulmonary tissue damage was evaluated histologically and mast cells and their state of activation...

  5. Incidence of pulmonary embolism in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease:a meta-analysis

    王芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the incidence of pulmonary embolism in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) .Methods Comprehensive searches as of June 2012 were performed in PubMed (1966—) ,Embase (1974—) ,Chinese

  6. Pulmonary toxicity of components of textile paint linked to the Ardystil syndrome: intratracheal administration in hamsters.

    Clottens, F L; Verbeken, E K; Demedts, M; Nemery, B

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It was hypothesised from an epidemiological investigation that a formula change from Acramin FWR (a polyurea) to Acramin FWN (a polyamide-amine) had led to severe pulmonary disease in textile printing sprayers in SPAIN AND ALGERIA. To verify this, the pulmonary toxicity of the components of the paint systems involved was assessed in experimental animals. METHODS: Individual components and relevant mixtures, diluted in phosphate buttered saline, were given by intratracheal instillation of 2 ml/kg to hamsters. Pulmonary toxicity was assessed on days 3, 7, 14, 28, and 92 after a single intratracheal instillation, by histology and by measuring wet and dry lung weight, protein concentration, the activities of lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase, inflammatory cell number and distribution in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and hydroxyproline content in dried lung tissue. RESULTS: Based on the doses that killed 50% of the animals (LD50s), the various components were found to be 10 to 1250 times more toxic when given intratracheally than when given orally (according to reported oral LD50s in rats). Acramin FWN, Acramin FWR, Acrafix FHN, or their mixtures caused lung damage. Protein concentration, enzyme activities, total cell number, and percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils were increased in BALF during the first week after intratracheal instillation. Lung weights remained high for at least a month. Histology showed inflammatory cell infiltration and subsequent fibrosis with collagen deposition. This finding was confirmed by an increased hydroxyproline content in dried lung tissue. Acramoll W did not show toxic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that there is no major difference, in hamsters, between the acute intratracheal toxicity of Acramin FWR and that of Acramin FWN. Consequently, there is no simple toxicological explanation for the epidemiological hypothesis. However

  7. Pulmonary toxicity and fibrogenic response of carbon nanotubes.

    Manke, Amruta; Wang, Liying; Rojanasakul, Yon

    2013-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been a subject of intensive research for a wide range of applications. However, because of their extremely small size and light weight, CNTs are readily inhaled into human lungs resulting in increased rates of pulmonary disorders, most notably fibrosis. Several studies have demonstrated the fibrogenic effects of CNTs given their ability to translocate into the surrounding areas in the lung causing granulomatous lesions and interstitial and sub-pleural fibrosis. However, the mechanisms underlying the disease process remain obscure due to the lack of understanding of the cellular interactions and molecular targets involved. Interestingly, certain physicochemical properties of CNTs have been shown to affect their respiratory toxicity, thereby becoming significant determinants of fibrogenesis. CNT-induced fibrosis involves a multitude of cell types and is characterized by the early onset of inflammation, oxidative stress and accumulation of extracellular matrix. Increased reactive oxygen species activate various cytokine/growth factor signaling cascades resulting in increased expression of inflammatory and fibrotic genes. Profibrotic growth factors and cytokines contribute directly to fibroblast proliferation and collagen production. Given the role of multiple players during the pathogenesis of CNT-induced fibrosis, the objective of this review is to summarize the key findings and discuss major cellular and molecular events governing pulmonary fibrosis. We also discuss the physicochemical properties of CNTs and their effects on pulmonary toxicities as well as various biological factors contributing to the development of fibrosis.

  8. Methotrexate-induced acute toxic leukoencephalopathy

    Parag R Salkade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is one of the most common malignancies of childhood, which is treated with high doses of methotrexate (MTX, as it crosses the blood-brain barrier and can be administered intravenously and via intrathecal route to eradicate leukemic cells from central nervous system (CNS. Additionally, high doses of MTX not only prevent CNS recurrence but also hematologic relapses. Although, standard treatment protocol for ALL includes multimodality therapy, MTX is usually associated with neurotoxicity and affects periventricular deep white matter region. Methotrexate-induced ′acute toxic leukoencephalopathy′ has varying clinical manifestations ranging from acute neurological deficit to seizures or encephalopathy. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI is widely available and routinely used in clinical practice to identify acute stroke and also to distinguish acute stroke from non-stroke like conditions. We report a local teenage Chinese girl who developed 2 discrete episodes of left upper and lower limb weakness with left facial nerve paresis after receiving the 2 nd and 3 rd cycle of high dose of intravenous and intrathecal methotrexate, without having cranial irradiation. After each episode of her neurological deficit, the DW-MRI scan showed focal restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale. Her left sided focal neurological deficit and facial nerve paresis almost completely subsided on both these occasions within 3 days of symptom onset. Follow-up DW-MRI, after her neurological recovery, revealed almost complete resolution of previously noted restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale, while the lesion was not evident on concurrent T2W (T2-weighted and FLAIR (Fluid-Attenuated Inversion recovery sequences, nor showed any post contrast enhancement on post gadolinium enhanced T1W (T1-weighted sequences. No residual neurological deficit or intellectual impairment was identified on clinical follow up

  9. Methotrexate-induced acute toxic leukoencephalopathy.

    Salkade, Parag R; Lim, Teh Aun

    2012-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most common malignancies of childhood, which is treated with high doses of methotrexate (MTX), as it crosses the blood-brain barrier and can be administered intravenously and via intrathecal route to eradicate leukemic cells from central nervous system (CNS). Additionally, high doses of MTX not only prevent CNS recurrence but also hematologic relapses. Although, standard treatment protocol for ALL includes multimodality therapy, MTX is usually associated with neurotoxicity and affects periventricular deep white matter region. Methotrexate-induced 'acute toxic leukoencephalopathy' has varying clinical manifestations ranging from acute neurological deficit to seizures or encephalopathy. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) is widely available and routinely used in clinical practice to identify acute stroke and also to distinguish acute stroke from non-stroke like conditions. We report a local teenage Chinese girl who developed 2 discrete episodes of left upper and lower limb weakness with left facial nerve paresis after receiving the 2 nd and 3 rd cycle of high dose of intravenous and intrathecal methotrexate, without having cranial irradiation. After each episode of her neurological deficit, the DW-MRI scan showed focal restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale. Her left sided focal neurological deficit and facial nerve paresis almost completely subsided on both these occasions within 3 days of symptom onset. Follow-up DW-MRI, after her neurological recovery, revealed almost complete resolution of previously noted restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale, while the lesion was not evident on concurrent T2W (T2-weighted) and FLAIR (Fluid-Attenuated Inversion recovery) sequences, nor showed any post contrast enhancement on post gadolinium enhanced T1W (T1-weighted) sequences. No residual neurological deficit or intellectual impairment was identified on clinical follow up over a 2 year

  10. Size effects of single-walled carbon nanotubes on in vivo and in vitro pulmonary toxicity.

    Fujita, Katsuhide; Fukuda, Makiko; Endoh, Shigehisa; Maru, Junko; Kato, Haruhisa; Nakamura, Ayako; Shinohara, Naohide; Uchino, Kanako; Honda, Kazumasa

    2015-03-01

    To elucidate the effect of size on the pulmonary toxicity of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), we prepared two types of dispersed SWCNTs, namely relatively thin bundles with short linear shapes (CNT-1) and thick bundles with long linear shapes (CNT-2), and conducted rat intratracheal instillation tests and in vitro cell-based assays using NR8383 rat alveolar macrophages. Total protein levels, MIP-1α expression, cell counts in BALF, and histopathological examinations revealed that CNT-1 caused pulmonary inflammation and slower recovery and that CNT-2 elicited acute lung inflammation shortly after their instillation. Comprehensive gene expression analysis confirmed that CNT-1-induced genes were strongly associated with inflammatory responses, cell proliferation, and immune system processes at 7 or 30 d post-instillation. Numerous genes were significantly upregulated or downregulated by CNT-2 at 1 d post-instillation. In vitro assays demonstrated that CNT-1 and CNT-2 SWCNTs were phagocytized by NR8383 cells. CNT-2 treatment induced cell growth inhibition, reactive oxygen species production, MIP-1α expression, and several genes involved in response to stimulus, whereas CNT-1 treatment did not exert a significant impact in these regards. These results suggest that SWCNTs formed as relatively thin bundles with short linear shapes elicited delayed pulmonary inflammation with slower recovery. In contrast, SWCNTs with a relatively thick bundle and long linear shapes sensitively induced cellular responses in alveolar macrophages and elicited acute lung inflammation shortly after inhalation. We conclude that the pulmonary toxicity of SWCNTs is closely associated with the size of the bundles. These physical parameters are useful for risk assessment and management of SWCNTs.

  11. Morphine in the treatment of acute pulmonary oedema--Why?

    Ellingsrud, C; Agewall, S

    2016-01-01

    Morphine has for a long time, been used in patients with acute pulmonary oedema due to its anticipated anxiolytic and vasodilatory properties, however a discussion about the benefits and risks has been raised recently. A literature search in Medline and Embase using the keywords "pulmonary oedema" OR "lung oedema" OR "acute heart failure" AND "morphine" was performed. A certain vasodilation has been described after morphine administration, but the evidence for this mechanism is relatively poor and morphine-induced anxiolysis may possibly be the most important factor of morphine in pulmonary oedema and therefore some authors have suggested benzodiazepines as an alternative treatment. Respiratory depression seems to be a less relevant clinical problem according to the literature, whereas vomiting is common, which may cause aspiration. In the largest outcome study, based on the ADHERE registry, morphine given in acute decompensated heart failure was an independent predictor of increased hospital mortality, with an odds ratio of 4.8 (95% CI: 4.52-5.18, pmorphine administration and mortality, which was lost after adjusting for confounding factors. Morphine is still used for pulmonary oedema in spite of poor scientific background data. A randomised, controlled study is necessary in order to determine the effect--and especially the risk--when using morphine for pulmonary oedema. Since the positive effects are not sufficiently documented, and since the risk for increased mortality cannot be ruled out, one can advocate that the use should be avoided.

  12. Acute Toxicity of Four Organophosphorus Pesticide Products

    2012-01-01

    Acute toxicity of phoxim,acephate,isofenphos-methyl and isocarbophos on male SD rats of clean grade was carried out by gastric lavage method at room temperature of 18℃. These rats are 4 to 5 months old with body weight of 180 to 220 kg. The results indicate that the orders of the toxicity of these four pesticides on SD rats are isofenphos-methyl,isocarbophos,acephate,phoxim. We found that the median lethal concentration of phoxim in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 3. 892 g /kg,3. 051 g /kg,2. 618 g /kg and 2. 458 g /kg respectively; the median lethal concentration of isofenphos-methyl in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 015 g /kg,0. 013g /kg,0. 012g /kg and 0. 011 g /kg respectively; the median lethal concentration of isocarbophos in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 049 g /kg,0. 046 g /kg,0. 043 g /kg,0. 041 g /kg respectively; and the median lethal concentration of acephate in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 137 g /kg,0. 113 g /kg,0. 100 g /kg,0. 085 g /kg respectively. Finally,we evaluated the characteristics of toxicity effect and safe concentration of these pesticides to SD rats.

  13. Pathophysiology of acute mountain sickness and high altitude pulmonary oedema

    Sutton, J R; Lassen, N

    1979-01-01

    We review the evidence that acute mountain sickness (AMS) and high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) occur together more often than is realized. We hypothesize that AMS and HAPO have a common pathophysiological basis: both are due to increased pressure and flow in the microcirculation, causing...

  14. Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dusts in Rodents

    Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    NASA will build an outpost on the lunar surface for long-duration human habitation and research. The surface of the Moon is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust, and the living quarters in the lunar outpost are expected to be contaminated by lunar dust. Because the toxicity of lunar dust is not known, NASA has tasked its toxicology laboratory to evaluate the risk of exposure to the dust and to establish safe exposure limits for astronauts working in the lunar habitat. Studies of the pulmonary toxicity of a dust are generally done first in rodents by intratracheal/intrapharyngeal instillation. This toxicity screening test is then followed by an inhalation study, which requires much more of the test dust and is labor intensive. Preliminary results obtained by examining lung lavage fluid from dust-treated mice show that lunar dust was somewhat toxic (more toxic than TiO2, but less than quartz dust). More extensive studies are in progress to further examine lung lavage fluid for biomarkers of toxicity and lung tissues for histopathological lesions in rodents exposed to aged and activated (ground) lunar dust samples. In these studies, reference dusts (TiO2 and quartz) of known toxicities and have industrial exposure limits will be studied in parallel so the relative toxicity of lunar dust can be determined. The results from the instillation studies will be useful for choosing exposure concentrations for the animal inhalation study. The animal inhalation exposure will be conducted with lunar dust simulant prior to the study with the lunar dust. The experiment with the simulate will ensure that the study techniques used with actual lunar dust will be successful. The results of instillation and inhalation studies will reveal the toxicological risk of exposures and are essential for setting exposure limits on lunar dust for astronauts living in the lunar habitat.

  15. Tenecteplase in the treatment of acute pulmonary thrombo-embolism.

    Bhuvaneswaran, J S; Premchand, Rajendra Kumar; Iyengar, S S; Rajeev Khare; Chabra, C B; Padmanabhan, T N C; Sharma, S K; Jain, Alkesh; Pandian, S A; Rajdev, S; Modi, N; Kumar, V

    2011-05-01

    This is a retrospective study documenting the use of tenecteplase in 41 cases of suspected or confirmed pulmonary embolism receiving in-hospital tenecteplase as per weight-adjusted dosing in addition to standard heparin and oral anticoagulant therapy. The presenting symptoms of dyspnoea, chest pain, hemoptysis and syncope were found in 40 (97.56%), 19 (46.34%), 6 (14.63%) and 9 (21.95%) patients, respectively. There was one case of mortality who was a 26 yrs old female of postpartum pulmonary thrombo-embolism with severe hypotension, cyanosis, bilateral crepitations in lungs and pulmonary hypertension. In the 40 survived patients, there was alleviation of dyspnoea and hemoptysis in all patients. Significant reduction in tachycardia (P tenecteplase therapy. Resolution of pulmonary embolism on CT pulmonary angiography was documented in only two patients. No bleeding events or any other adverse events were reported during this study. The present study suggests favourable efficacy of tenecteplase in patients with suspected or confirmed acute pulmonary embolism. Although no major adverse events were noted, a large prospective study on the use of tenecteplase in pulmonary embolism is suggested.

  16. A case of severe preeclampsia presenting as acute pulmonary oedema

    D. Sumangala Devi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary edema refers to an excessive accumulation of fluid in the pulmonary interstitial and alveolar spaces. It may occur in low risk pregnancies but one very important predisposing factor is association with preeclampsia. We are reporting a case of severe preeclampsia presenting as acute pulmonary oedema. 21 year old primi, a known case of gestational hypertension on drugs had pedal edema which was progressively increasing. She was admitted at 29w5d as her BP was still high. Since her preeclampsia profile was normal and her BP was controlled she was continued on conservative management. After 2 days she developed cough, tachypnoea and tachycardia with clinical findings suggestive of A/c pulmonary oedema. Shifted to HDU and started on diuretics and other symptomatic management. After 1 hour as patient's condition was worsening with O2 saturation fall, decided for LSCS + elective post operative ventilatory support. LSCS done showed evidence of Grade 3 abruption with couvelaire changes on uterus. Baby weighed 1.24 kg, severely asphyxiated, died after 3 days. Patient was put on ventillatory support and she improved postoperatively. Acute pulmonary oedema in pregnant women is a life-threatening event. Prompt diagnosis and management is very important for the survival of the patient. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(3.000: 899-902

  17. CT imaging in acute pulmonary embolism: diagnostic strategies

    Wildberger, Joachim E.; Mahnken, Andreas H.; Das, Marco; Guenther, Rolf W. [University of Technology (RWTH), Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Aachen (Germany); Kuettner, Axel [Eberhard Karls University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Lell, Michael [Friedrich Alexander University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTA) has increasingly become accepted as a widely available, safe, cost-effective, and accurate method for a quick and comprehensive diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Pulmonary catheter angiography is still considered the gold standard and final imaging method in many diagnostic algorithms. However, spiral CTA has become established as the first imaging test in clinical routine due to its high negative predictive value for clinically relevant PE. Despite the direct visualization of clot material, depiction of cardiac and pulmonary function in combination with the quantification of pulmonary obstruction helps to grade the severity of PE for further risk stratification and to monitor the effect of thrombolytic therapy. Because PE and deep venous thrombosis are two different aspects of the same disease, additional indirect CT venography may be a valuable addition to the initial diagnostic algorithm - if this was positive for PE - and demonstration of the extent and localization of deep venous thrombosis has an impact on clinical management. Additional and alternate diagnoses add to the usefulness of this method. Using advanced multislice spiral CT technology, some practitioners have advocated CTA as the sole imaging tool for routine clinical assessment in suspected acute PE. This will simplify standards of practice in the near future. (orig.)

  18. Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves

    Juheini Amin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves. Preminelary experiment showed that ethanolic extract ofgandarusa leaves (Justicia gendarussa Burm. could decreased uric acid blood level on rats. The aim of this experimentwas to determine of the value LD50 and liver function based on activities of aminotransferase. Animals test which wereused in this experiment were 50 males and 50 females white mice. They were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 as controlgroup was given aquadest. Group 2-5 were treated by ethanolic extract of gandarusa leaves with dosage 4, 8, 16, and 32g/kg bw. The LD50 value was determined by the amount of death in group during 24 hours after giving a single dose oftest substance. The result showed that the highest dose was practically non toxic with LD50 value of 31.99 g/kg bw(male groups and 27.85 g/kg bw (female groups. Measurement of aminotransferase activity was done by usingcolorimetric method. The result of ANOVA analysis for liver function showed that the giving test substance 4 g/kg bw–16 g/kg bw was not significantly different between treated groups and control group.

  19. Febrile-range hyperthermia augments pulmonary neutrophil recruitment and amplifies pulmonary oxygen toxicity.

    Hasday, Jeffrey D; Garrison, Allen; Singh, Ishwar S; Standiford, Theodore; Ellis, Garrettson S; Rao, Srinivas; He, Ju-Ren; Rice, Penny; Frank, Mariah; Goldblum, Simeon E; Viscardi, Rose M

    2003-06-01

    Febrile-range hyperthermia (FRH) improves survival in experimental infections by accelerating pathogen clearance, but may also increase collateral tissue injury. We hypothesized that FRH would worsen the outcome of inflammation stimulated by a non-replicating agonist and tested this hypothesis in a murine model of pulmonary oxygen toxicity. Using a conscious, temperature-controlled mouse model, we showed that maintaining a core temperature at FRH (39 degrees C to 40 degrees C) rather than at euthermic levels (36.5 degrees C to 37 degrees C) during hyperoxia exposure accelerated lethal pulmonary vascular endothelial injury, reduced the inspired oxygen threshold for lethality, induced expression of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, and expanded the circulating neutrophil pool. In these same mice, FRH augmented pulmonary expression of the ELR(+) CXC chemokines, KC and LPS-induced CXC chemokine, enhanced recruitment of neutrophils, and changed the histological pattern of lung injury to a neutrophilic interstitial pneumonitis. Immunoblockade of CXC receptor-2 abrogated neutrophil recruitment, reduced pulmonary vascular injury, and delayed death. These combined data demonstrate that FRH may enlist distinct mediators and effector cells to profoundly shift the host response to a defined injurious stimulus, in part by augmenting delivery of neutrophils to sites of inflammation, such as may occur in infections. In certain conditions, such as in the hyperoxic lung, this process may be deleterious.

  20. [Effect of artificial ventilation on pulmonary capillary pressure in acute respiratory insufficiency].

    Labrousse, J; Tenaillon, A; Massabie, P; Simonneau, G; Lissac, J

    1977-05-07

    To determine the influence of intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB), the level of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) was compared during IPPB and after a short period off the respirator in 68 occasions on 42 patients with an acute respiratory failure (ARF) of various etiologies. During IPPB, the average PCWP was in the normal range in patients with toxic or neurologic comas and in cases of increased pulmonary capillary permeability edema (IPCPE), PCWP slightly increased within chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) complicated with ARF and in hemodynamic acute pulmonary edema (HAPE). During the weaning stage, PCWP decreased in the groups of coma, COPD, and IPCPE, but increased in HAPE. The weaning test demonstrates that IPPB influenced PCWP in all patients. Therefore, PCWP cannot be assumed to represent the left ventricle filling pressure. The weaning test allows differentiation of IPCPE from HAPE. In the event of over-infusion or hypovolemia, PCWP measured under IPPB can lead to misinterpretation if not followed up by a second measurement off the respirator.

  1. Computed tomography of acute pulmonary embolism: state-of-the-art

    Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Meinel, Felix G.; McQuiston, Andrew D.; Ravenel, James G. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Multidetector computed tomography (CT) plays an important role in the detection, risk stratification and prognosis evaluation of acute pulmonary embolism. This review will discuss the technical improvements for imaging peripheral pulmonary arteries, the methods of assessing pulmonary embolism severity based on CT findings, a multidetector CT technique for pulmonary embolism detection, and lastly, how to avoid overutilization of CT pulmonary angiography and overdiagnosis of pulmonary embolism. (orig.)

  2. Pulmonary toxicity of well-dispersed cerium oxide nanoparticles following intratracheal instillation and inhalation

    Morimoto, Yasuo, E-mail: yasuom@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Izumi, Hiroto; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Tomonaga, Taisuke; Oyabu, Takako; Myojo, Toshihiko; Kawai, Kazuaki; Yatera, Kazuhiro [University of Occupational and Environmental Health (Japan); Shimada, Manabu; Kubo, Masaru [Hiroshima University (Japan); Yamamoto, Kazuhiro [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) (Japan); Kitajima, Shinichi [National Sanatorium Hoshizuka Keiaien (Japan); Kuroda, Etsushi [Osaka University, Laboratory of Vaccine Science, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center (Japan); Kawaguchi, Kenji; Sasaki, Takeshi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    We performed inhalation and intratracheal instillation studies of cerium dioxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles in order to investigate their pulmonary toxicity, and observed pulmonary inflammation not only in the acute and but also in the chronic phases. In the intratracheal instillation study, F344 rats were exposed to 0.2 mg or 1 mg of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Cell analysis and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analyzed from 3 days to 6 months following the instillation. In the inhalation study, rats were exposed to the maximum concentration of inhaled CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles (2, 10 mg/m{sup 3}, respectively) for 4 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). The same endpoints as in the intratracheal instillation study were examined from 3 days to 3 months after the end of the exposure. The intratracheal instillation of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles caused a persistent increase in the total and neutrophil number in BALF and in the concentration of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, CINC-2, chemokine for neutrophil, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an oxidative stress marker, in BALF during the observation time. The inhalation of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles also induced a persistent influx of neutrophils and expression of CINC-1, CINC-2, and HO-1 in BALF. Pathological features revealed that inflammatory cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, invaded the alveolar space in both studies. Taken together, the CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles induced not only acute but also chronic inflammation in the lung, suggesting that CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles have a pulmonary toxicity that can lead to irreversible lesions.

  3. Acute isoniazid toxicity--report of 2 cases and review of literature.

    Gilhotra, R; Malik, S K; Singh, S; Sharma, B K

    1987-05-01

    Accidental or intentional isoniazid (INH) overdose is not uncommon. Two patients suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis ingested INH (9 g and 12 g respectively) intentionally following acute personal stress. One patient presented with oliguria and coma whereas seizures were the dominant feature in the second case. Serum levels of INH were high in both cases. Satisfactory clinical recovery followed after the administration of intravenous pyridoxine. Literature on the subject was reviewed and the manifestations and recommendations for the management of acute INH toxicity are highlighted.

  4. Acute Pulmonary Edema Caused by a Giant Atrial Myxoma

    Andrea Fisicaro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial myxoma is the most common primary cardiac tumor. Its clinical presentation spreads from asymptomatic incidental mass to serious life-threatening cardiovascular complications. We report the case of a 44-year-old man with evening fever and worsening dyspnea in the last weeks, admitted to our hospital for acute pulmonary edema. The cardiac auscultation was very suspicious for mitral valve stenosis, but the echocardiography revealed a huge atrial mass with a diastolic prolapse into mitral valve orifice causing an extremely high transmitral gradient pressure. Awareness of this uncommon acute presentation of atrial myxoma is necessary for timely diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention.

  5. Acute pulmonary edema secondary to hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    Obiagwu, Chukwudi; Paul, Vishesh; Chadha, Sameer; Hollander, Gerald; Shani, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of diabetic ulcers, air embolism, carbon monoxide poisoning and gas gangrene with minimal adverse effects. Very few cases of HBOT causing acute pulmonary edema (PE) has been described; with a study on dogs suggesting that a complication of this therapy could be PE. We describe the case of an 80-year-old man with a history of stable systolic heart failure and diabetes mellitus presenting with acute PE following treatment with HBOT for diabetic foot. PMID:25988073

  6. Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Cardiovascular Links

    Cheryl R. Laratta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a chronic, progressive lung disease resulting from exposure to cigarette smoke, noxious gases, particulate matter, and air pollutants. COPD is exacerbated by acute inflammatory insults such as lung infections (viral and bacterial and air pollutants which further accelerate the steady decline in lung function. The chronic inflammatory process in the lung contributes to the extrapulmonary manifestations of COPD which are predominantly cardiovascular in nature. Here we review the significant burden of cardiovascular disease in COPD and discuss the clinical and pathological links between acute exacerbations of COPD and cardiovascular disease.

  7. Acute pulmonary admissions following implementation of a national workplace smoking ban.

    Kent, Brian D

    2012-09-01

    The implementation of workplace smoking bans has contributed to a significant reduction in the incidence of acute coronary syndrome admissions, but their influence on adult acute pulmonary disease admissions is unclear. We sought to assess the impact of a national smoking ban on nationwide admissions of individuals of working age with acute pulmonary illness.

  8. Pharm GKB: Acute bovine pulmonary emphysema AND edema [PharmGKB

    Full Text Available Overview Alternate Names: Synonym ABPE; Acute bovine pulmonary emphysema and edema;...63 External Vocabularies MeSH: Pneumonia, Atypical Interstitial, of Cattle (D011016) SnoMedCT: Acute bovine ...ia, Atypical Interstitial, of Cattle [Disease/Finding] (N0000010988) Common Searches Search Medline Plus Search CTD Pharm GKB: Acute bovine pulmonary emphysema AND edema ...

  9. [Acute toxicity of different type pesticide surfactants to Daphnia magna].

    Li, Xiu-huan; Li, Hua; Chen, Cheng-yu; Li, Jian-tao; Liu, Feng

    2013-08-01

    By using the standard test methods in Experimental Guideline for Environmental Safety Evaluation of Chemical Pesticide to aquatic organisms, a comparative study was conducted on the acute toxicity of 39 nonionic, 6 anionic, and 3 cationic surfactants to Daphnia magna. The acute toxicity of three cationic surfactants 1427, 1227 and C8-10 to D. magna belonged to virulent level, and the toxicity of 1427 was the highest, with the EC50 value being 0.97 x 10(-2) mg x L(-1). The acute toxicity of nonionic surfactants polyoxyethylene ether castor oil EL, Tween, and Span emulsifiers belonged to low level, but the toxicity of alkylphenol polyoxyethylene ether and fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether surfactants was relatively high, of which, AEO-7 and AEO-5 displayed high toxicity, with the EC50 value being 0.82 and 0.97 mg x L(-1), respectively. In these surfactants, the more liposolubility, the higher the toxicity was. Most of the anionic surfactants were medium in toxicity, but the acute toxicity of NNO belonged to high toxicity, with the EC50 value being 0.17 mg x L(-1).

  10. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema.

    Rialp Cervera, G; del Castillo Blanco, A; Pérez Aizcorreta, O; Parra Morais, L

    2014-03-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) with conventional therapy improves the outcome of patients with acute respiratory failure due to hypercapnic decompensation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE). This review summarizes the main effects of NIV in these pathologies. In COPD, NIV improves gas exchange and symptoms, reducing the need for endotracheal intubation, hospital mortality and hospital stay compared with conventional oxygen therapy. NIV may also avoid reintubation and may decrease the length of invasive mechanical ventilation. In ACPE, NIV accelerates the remission of symptoms and the normalization of blood gas parameters, reduces the need for endotracheal intubation, and is associated with a trend towards lesser mortality, without increasing the incidence of myocardial infarction. The ventilation modality used in ACPE does not affect the patient prognosis.

  11. Pulmonary CT findings in acute mercury vapour exposure

    Hashimoto, Manabu; Sato, Kimihiko; Heianna, Jyouiti; Hirano, Yoshinori; Omachi, Kohiti; Izumi, Jyunichi; Watarai, Jiro

    2001-01-01

    AIM: We describe the pulmonary computed tomography (CT) findings in acute mercury poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Initial (n= 8) and follow-up (n= 6) chest CT examinations in eight patients exposed to mercury vapour while cutting pipes in a sulphuric acid plant were reviewed. Of the eight patients, two were asymptomatic and had normal CT results, two were asymptomatic but had abnormalities on CT, and four had both acute symptoms and positive CT results. The patients were all men whose ages ranged from 37 to 54 years (mean, 49 years). RESULTS: Poorly defined nodules were present in five of six patients with positive CT findings, present alone in two patients or as part of a mixed pattern in three. They were random in distribution. Alveolar consolidation (n= 3) and areas of ground-glass opacity (n= 4) were observed and were more prominent in the most severely affected patients with the highest blood and urine level of mercury, predominantly in the upper and/or middle zone. These abnormal findings on CT resolved with (n= 1) or without (n= 5) steroid therapy. Pathological findings (n= 1) demonstrated acute interstitial changes predominantly with oedema. CONCLUSION: We report CT findings in eight patients acutely exposed to mercury vapour. The pulmonary injury was reversible on CT in these cases. Hashimoto, M. (2001)

  12. 40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.

    2010-07-01

    .... Also note any unusual cell shapes, color differences, flocculations, adherence of algae to test... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Algal acute toxicity test. 797.1050... toxicity test. (a) Purpose. The guideline in this section is intended for use in developing data on...

  13. 40 CFR 799.9120 - TSCA acute dermal toxicity.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true TSCA acute dermal toxicity. 799.9120 Section 799.9120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES...) Preparations. Healthy young adult animals are acclimatized to the laboratory conditions for at least 5...

  14. 40 CFR 799.9110 - TSCA acute oral toxicity.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true TSCA acute oral toxicity. 799.9110 Section 799.9110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... Part 792—Good Laboratory Practice Standards. (3) Test procedures—(i) Preparations. Healthy young...

  15. 40 CFR 799.9130 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true TSCA acute inhalation toxicity. 799.9130 Section 799.9130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... 40 CFR part 792, subpart f. (3) Test procedures—(i) Preparation. Healthy young adult animals...

  16. Delayed Pneumoperitoneum and Acute Pulmonary Edema Secondary to Acute Gastric Dilatation

    Ahn, Jae Yun; Kim, Jong Kun

    2015-01-01

    Pneumoperitoneum caused by acute gastric dilatation (AGD) is a very rare complication. We report a case of pneumoperitoneum and acute pulmonary edema caused by AGD in a patient with Parkinson’s disease. A 78-year-old woman presented with pneumonia and AGD. We inserted a nasogastric tube and administered empirical antibiotics. We performed an endoscopy, and perforation or necrosis of the stomach and pyloric stenosis were not observed. Thirty-six hours after admission, the patient suddenly developed dyspnea and shock, and eventually died. We suspected the cause of death was pneumoperitoneum and acute pulmonary edema caused by AGD during the conservative treatment period. Immunocompromised patients with chronic illness require close observation even if they do not show any symptoms suggestive of complications. Even if the initial endoscopic or abdominal radiologic findings do not show gastric necrosis or perforation, follow-up with endoscopy is essential to recognize complications of AGD early. PMID:26668807

  17. Acute hemodynamic response to vasodilators in primary pulmonary hypertension.

    Kulkarni H

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute hemodynamic effects of high flow oxygen (O2 inhalation, sublingual isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN, intravenous aminophylline (AMN and sublingual nifedipine (NIF were studied in 32 patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH. In 30 out of 32 patients the basal ratio of pulmonary to systemic vascular resistance (Rp/Rs was > 0.5 (mean = 0.77 +/- 0.20. Oxygen caused significant decrease in the mean resistance ratio to 0.68 +/- 0.20 (p = 0.005. ISDN, AMN and NIF caused increase in the resistance ratio to 0.79 +/- 0.26; 0.78 +/- 0.26; and 0.80 +/- 0.23 respectively. O2, ISDN, AMN and NIF caused a fall of Rp/Rs in 21 (65.6%, 10 (31.2%, 10(31.2% and 9(28.1% patients respectively. Thus, of the four drugs tested high flow O2 inhalation resulted in fall of Rp/Rs in two thirds of patients whereas ISDN, AMN and NIF caused a mean rise in Rp/Rs. One third of patients did respond acutely to the latter three drugs. Acute hemodynamic studies are useful before prescribing vasodilators in patients with PPH since more of the commonly used drugs like ISDN, AMN, NIF could have detrimental hemodynamic responses in some patients. However, great caution should be exercised before performing hemodynamic study as the procedure has definite mortality and morbidity.

  18. Surgical treatment of acute pulmonary embolism--a 12-year retrospective analysis

    Lehnert, Per; Møller, Christian H; Carlsen, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    Surgical embolectomy for acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is considered to be a high risk procedure and therefore a last treatment option. We wanted to evaluate the procedures role in modern treatment of acute PE....

  19. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    Toussaint, M.W. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Fort Washington, MD (United States); Shedd, T.R. [Army Biomedical Research and Development Lab., Frederick, MD (United States); Schalie, W.H. van der [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Leather, G.R. [Hood Coll., Frederick, MD (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1995-05-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  20. Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; VanDerSchal, W.H.; Leather, G.R.

    1995-10-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus ccalyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photo bacterium phosphoreum - Microtox test, and a mixture of bacterial species - the polytox test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriadaphnta dubia), green algae (Setenastrum capricarnutum), fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC5O/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  1. DETERMINATION OF ACUTE TOXICITY OF BIO HUMATES

    Zholobova I. S.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the work, we present the results of the investigation of acute toxicity of bio humates obtained by the method vermicultivation on laboratory animals. In the diets of farm animals and Pets to fill in the missing nutrients in the past years, we had an extensive use of various feed additives. Among them, mineral (macro - and micronutrients, protein and fat supplements, vitamins, biostimulants, complex natural compounds (sapropel, peat, synthetic products (enzymes, hormones, antibiotics, adaptogens, antioxidants. The search for new ways of improvement and increase of efficiency of agricultural animals using feed additives with high demands on ecology of meat and dairy foods naturally led to increased studies on the use in livestock farming of water-soluble alkaline salts of natural humic acids - humates. Their environmental safety and the unique ability to improve metabolism and increase energy cells very positively manifested in living organisms. Numerous studies Russian and foreign scientists installed a high efficiency natural humates as biostimulators and immunomodulators in animal husbandry and veterinary medicine. Accumulated extensive experimental material, proving that the use of humates leads to faster growth of animals, reducing morbidity and mortality, increase the body's resistance to toxins in feed and resistance to adverse environmental conditions. Improving with the help of humates ecological purity of the ecosystems "water — soil — plant", as well as the health of birds, animals and fish will ultimately lead to strengthen health and to prolong human life as a consumer of agricultural products. Currently, the livestock market is intensively increasing the humates produced in Russia and abroad from brown coal, peat, sapropel. A special place among them has been occupied by the newest formulations because of a unique combination of safety, efficiency, and value, which, thanks to its amazing properties to increase energy cells

  2. Pulmonary Thromboembolism Complicating Acute Pancreatitis With Pancreatic Ascites: A Series of 4 cases

    Ruchir Patel; Nirav Pipaliya; Prateik Poddar; Vikas Pandey; Meghraj Ingle; Prabha Sawant

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease often associated with local and systemic complications. Portosplenic and splanchnic vascular complications of acute pancreatitis are common, but extrasplanchnic vessel thrombosis is less commonly seen. Among them, pulmonary thromboembolism is a very rare complication to be encountered with. We report four cases of acute pulmonary thromboembolism in patients with acute pancreatitis superimposed on chronic pancreatitis. All the patients had abdomina...

  3. Severity assessment of acute pulmonary embolism: evaluation using helical CT

    Collomb, D.; Paramelle, P.J.; Calaque, O. [Department of Radiology, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, 38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Bosson, J.L. [Department of Statistics and Vascular diseases, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, 38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Vanzetto, G. [Department of Cardiology, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, 38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Barnoud, D. [Department of Medical Intensive Care, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, BP 218, 38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Pison, C. [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, 38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Coulomb, M.; Ferretti, G.

    2003-07-01

    The objective was to evaluate the helical CT (HCT) criteria that could indicate severe pulmonary embolism (PE). In a retrospective study, 81 patients (mean age 62 years) with clinical suspicion of PE explored by HCT were studied. The patients were separated into three different groups according to clinical severity and treatment decisions: group SPE included patients with severe PE based on clinical data who were treated by fibrinolysis or embolectomy (n=20); group NSPE included patients with non-severe PE who received heparin (n=30); and group WPE included patients without PE (n=31). For each patient we calculated a vascular obstruction index based on the site of obstruction and the degree of occlusion in the pulmonary artery. We noted the HCT signs, i.e., cardiac and pulmonary artery dimensions, that could indicate acute cor pulmonale. According to multivariate analysis, factors significantly correlated with the severity of PE were: the vascular obstruction index (group SPE: 54%; group NSPE: 24%; p<0.001); the maximum minor axis of the left ventricle (group SPE: 30.2 mm; group NSPE: 40.4 mm; p<0.001); the diameter of the central pulmonary artery (group SPE: 32.4 mm; group NSPE: 28.3 mm; p<0.001); the maximum minor axis of the right ventricle (group SPE: 47.5 mm; group NSPE: 42.7 mm; p=0.029); the right ventricle/left ventricle minor axis ratio (group SPE: 1.63; group NSPE: 1.09; p<0.0001). Our data suggest that hemodynamic severity of PE can be assessed on HCT scans by measuring four main criteria: the vascular obstruction index; the minimum diameter of the left ventricle; the RV:LV ratio; and the diameter of the central pulmonary artery. (orig.)

  4. Acute Pulmonary Edema Associated With Propofol: An Unusual Complication

    Waheed, Mian Adnan; Oud, Lavi

    2014-01-01

    Propofol is frequently used in the emergency department to provide procedural sedation for patients undergoing various procedures and is considered to be safe when administered by trained personnel. Pulmonary edema after administration of propofol has rarely been reported. We report a case of a 23-year-old healthy male who developed acute cough, hemoptysis and hypoxia following administration of propofol for splinting of a foot fracture. Chest radiography showed bilateral patchy infiltrates. The patient was treated successfully with supportive care. This report emphasizes the importance of this potentially fatal propofol-associated complication and discusses possible underlying mechanisms and related literature. PMID:25493132

  5. The importance of serological assays in diagnosing acute pulmonary histoplasmosis

    RS Freitas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis is a systemic mycosis caused by inhalation of Histoplasma capsulatum microconidia. The disease does not normally affect immunocompetent individuals after a single, transient inhalation exposure. However, longer exposure may cause chronic or disseminated acute pulmonary infection. Herein, we report the case of a 24-year-old immunocompetent patient, who presented fever, cough and dyspnea for one month. The chest radiography revealed interstitial infiltrate and diffuse micronodules. The patient reported having had close and prolonged contact with bats. Diagnosis was confirmed by positive double immunodifusion and immunoblotting assays. She was treated with ketoconazole (400 mg and there was complete resolution of the disease.

  6. Massive pulmonary embolism at the onset of acute promyelocytic leukemia

    Federica Sorà

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Life-threatening bleeding is a major and early complication of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL, but in the last years there is a growing evidence of thromboses in  APL. We report the first case of a young woman with dyspnea as the first symptom of APL due to massive pulmonary embolism (PE successfully treated with thrombolysis for PE and heparin. APL has been processed with a combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA and arsenic trioxide (ATO obtaining complete remission.

  7. Echocardiographic changes during acute pulmonary edema subsequent to scorpion sting

    K Delma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary edema (APE occurring after scorpion sting is the leading cause of death of the victims of scorpion envenomation. The APE origin is still questioned by physicians treating these patients. Based on echocardiographic study of 20 patients with severe envenomation treated in Ouargla Hospital resuscitation ward during the last four years, the APE etiology seems more likely cardiogenic, referring to cardiac symptoms confirmed by echocardiography although other mechanisms may also be involved. This hypothesis is further confirmed by the positive response of patients to the administration of dobutamine.

  8. In Vitro Pulmonary Toxicity of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles

    Cupi, Denisa; Dreher, Kevin

    2B cytotoxicity was observed for any particle following a 24hr exposure to concentrations upto100 μg/ml. The ability of TiO2 and CeO2 particles to induce inflammation and oxidative stress was assessed by gene induction using RT-PCR. At 50 μg/ml maximal IL-8 and IL-6 gene induction by TiO2 and CeO2...... for comprehensive toxicological assessments. BEAS2B human bronchial epithelial cells were employed to assess the in vitro pulmonary toxicity of 4 TiO2 and 4 CeO2 particles varying is size (6 - 1288nm) and crystalline structure. Exposures were conducted over several concentrations for each endpoint examined. No BEAS...... NMs (6 - 8nm) was observed at 6hr and 24hr post-exposure, respectively. Smaller TiO2 and CeO2 NMs induced greater induction of IL-8 and IL-6 mRNA levels compared to larger sized particles. CeO2 8nm NMs produced the greatest induction of IL-8 and IL-6 mRNA levels. At 50 μg/ml all TiO2 and CeO2...

  9. Chest sonography: a useful tool to differentiate acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema from acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Soldati Gino

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differential diagnosis between acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (APE and acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS may often be difficult. We evaluated the ability of chest sonography in the identification of characteristic pleuropulmonary signs useful in the diagnosis of ALI/ARDS and APE. Methods Chest sonography was performed on admission to the intensive care unit in 58 consecutive patients affected by ALI/ARDS or by acute pulmonary edema (APE. Results Ultrasound examination was focalised on finding in the two groups the presence of: 1 alveolar-interstitial syndrome (AIS 2 pleural lines abnormalities 3 absence or reduction of "gliding" sign 4 "spared areas" 5 consolidations 6 pleural effusion 7 "lung pulse". AIS was found in 100% of patients with ALI/ARDS and in 100% of patients with APE (p = ns. Pleural line abnormalities were observed in 100% of patients with ALI/ARDS and in 25% of patients with APE (p All signs, except the presence of AIS, presented a statistically significant difference in presentation between the two syndromes resulting specific for the ultrasonographic characterization of ALI/ARDS. Conclusion Pleuroparenchimal patterns in ALI/ARDS do find a characterization through ultrasonographic lung scan. In the critically ill the ultrasound demonstration of a dyshomogeneous AIS with spared areas, pleural line modifications and lung consolidations is strongly predictive, in an early phase, of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema.

  10. Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dust in Rodents

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    NASA has been contemplating returning astronauts to the moon for long-duration habitation and research and using it as a stepping-stone to Mars. Other spacefaring nations are planning to send humans to the moon for the first time. The surface of the moon is covered by a layer of fine dust. Fine terrestrial dusts, if inhaled, are known to pose a health risk to humans. Some Apollo crews briefly exposed to moon dust that adhered to spacesuits and became airborne in the Lunar Module reported eye and throat irritation. The habitable area of any lunar landing vehicle or outpost would inevitably become contaminated with lunar dust. To assess the health risks of exposure of humans to airborne lunar dust, we evaluated the toxicity of Apollo 14 moon dust in animal lungs. Studies of the pulmonary toxicity of a dust are generally first done by intratracheal instillation (ITI) of aqueous suspensions of the test dust into the lungs of rodents. If a test dust is irritating or cytotoxic to the lungs, the alveolar macrophages, after phagocytizing the dust particles, will release cellular messengers to recruit white blood cells (WBCs) and to induce dilation of blood capillary walls to make them porous, allowing the WBCs to gain access to the alveolar space. The dilation of capillary walls also allows serum proteins and water entering the lung. Besides altering capillary integrity, a toxic dust can also directly kill the cells that come into contact with it or ingest it, after which the dead cells would release their contents, including lactate dehydrogenase (a common enzyme marker of cell death or tissue damage). In the treated animals, we lavaged the lungs 1 and 4 weeks after the dust instillation and measured the concentrations of these biomarkers of toxicity in the bronchioalveolar lavage fluids to determine the toxicity of the dust. To assess whether the inflammation and cellular injury observed in the biomarker study would lead to persistent or progressive histopathological

  11. Acute toxicity and toxic interaction of chromium and nickel to common guppy Poecilia reticulata (Peters)

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India))

    1990-06-01

    The acute toxicity of heavy metals in combination to the common guppy has been reported. Information on the combined effects of chromium and nickel to fish is rather scarce. Toxicity of nickel and chromium to fish is generally low. These two elements are usually less toxic than silver, cadmium, copper and thallium; depending on test conditions, these may also be less hazardous than zinc, lead and arsenic. The present study was undertaken to investigate the acute toxicity of Ni and Cr singly and the toxic interaction of these two metal ions on survival of the common guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Peters). This species was selected for static bioassays because it can be easily cultured and raised under laboratory conditions through a complete life cycle, and it is one of the most common fish used for laboratory toxicity studies.

  12. Review of Quantitative Structure - Activity Relationships for Acute Mammalian Toxicity

    Iglika Lessigiarska

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR models for acute mammalian toxicity published in the last decade. A number of QSAR models based on cytotoxicity data from mammalian cell lines are also included because of their possible use as a surrogate system for predicting acute toxicity to mammals. On the basis of the review, the following conclusions can be made: i a relatively small number of models for in vivo toxicity are published in the literature. This is due to the nature of the endpoint - acute systemic toxicity is usually related to whole body phenomena and therefore is very complex. The complexity of the mechanisms involved leads to difficulties in the QSAR modelling; ii most QSAR models identify hydrophobicity as a parameter of high importance for the modelled toxicity. In addition, many models indicate the role of the electronic and steric effects; iii most of the literature-based models are restricted to single chemical classes. Models based on more heterogeneous data sets are those incorporated in expert systems. In general, the QSAR models for mammalian toxicity identified in this review are considered useful for investigating the mechanisms of toxicity of defined chemical classes. However, for predictive purposes in the regulatory assessment of chemicals most of the models require additional information to satisfy internationally agreed validation principles. In addition, the development of new models covering larger chemical domains would be useful for the regulatory assessment of chemicals.

  13. Simple in vitro models can predict pulmonary toxicity of silver nanoparticles.

    Braakhuis, Hedwig M; Giannakou, Christina; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Vermeulen, Jolanda; van Loveren, Henk; Park, Margriet V D Z

    2016-08-01

    To study the effects of nanomaterials after inhalation, a large number of in vitro lung models have been reported in literature. Although the in vitro models contribute to the reduction of animal studies, insufficient data exists to determine the predictive value of these in vitro models for the in vivo situation. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between in vitro and in vivo data by comparing the dose metrics of silver nanoparticles in an in vitro lung model of increasing complexity to our previously published in vivo inhalation study. In vivo, the previously published study showed that the alveolar dose expressed as particle surface area is the most suitable dose metric to describe the toxicity of silver nanoparticles after inhalation. The results of the present study show that particle surface area is a suitable dose metric to describe the effects of silver nanoparticles when using a simple monolayer of lung epithelial cells. The dose metric shifted from particle surface area to particle mass when adding an increasing number of macrophages. In addition, a co-culture of endothelial cells, epithelial cells and macrophages on a Transwell® insert correlated less well to the in vivo results compared to the epithelial monolayer. We conclude that for studying the acute pulmonary toxicity of nanoparticles simple in vitro models using an epithelial monolayer better predict the in vivo response compared to complex co-culture models.

  14. Pulmonary toxicity of carbon nanotubes and asbestos - similarities and differences.

    Donaldson, Ken; Poland, Craig A; Murphy, Fiona A; MacFarlane, Marion; Chernova, Tatyana; Schinwald, Anja

    2013-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes are a valuable industrial product but there is potential for human pulmonary exposure during production and their fibrous shape raises the possibility that they may have effects like asbestos, which caused a worldwide pandemic of disease in the20th century that continues into present. CNT may exist as fibres or as more compact particles and the asbestos-type hazard only pertains to the fibrous forms of CNT. Exposure to asbestos causes asbestosis, bronchogenic carcinoma, mesothelioma, pleural fibrosis and pleural plaques indicating that both the lungs and the pleura are targets. The fibre pathogenicity paradigm was developed in the 1970s-80s and has a robust structure/toxicity relationship that enables the prediction of the pathogenicity of fibres depending on their length, thickness and biopersistence. Fibres that are sufficiently long and biopersistent and that deposit in the lungs can cause oxidative stress and inflammation. They may also translocate to the pleura where they can be retained depending on their length, and where they cause inflammation and oxidative stress in the pleural tissues. These pathobiological processes culminate in pathologic change - fibroplasia and neoplasia in the lungs and the pleura. There may also be direct genotoxic effects of fibres on epithelial cells and mesothelium, contributing to neoplasia. CNT show some of the properties of asbestos and other types of fibre in producing these types of effects and more research is needed. In terms of the molecular pathways involved in the interaction of long biopersistent fibres with target tissue the events leading to mesothelioma have been a particular area of interest. A variety of kinase pathways important in proliferation are activated by asbestos leading to pre-malignant states and investigations are under way to determine whether fibrous CNT also affects these molecular pathways. Current research suggests that fibrous CNT can elicit effects similar to asbestos but more

  15. A mechanism for acute aluminium toxicity in fish.

    Exley, C; Chappell, J S; Birchall, J D

    1991-08-07

    Aluminium is acutely toxic to fish in acid waters. The gill is the principal target organ and death is due to a combination of ionoregulatory, osmoregulatory and respiratory dysfunction. The toxic mechanism has hitherto received little direct consideration and is unknown. In this paper the mechanism of acute aluminium toxicity is approached from a chemical perspective. Symptomatic evidence of toxicity is taken from the literature and combined with our own research to elucidate a biochemically sound model to describe a possible mechanism of acute aluminium toxicity in fish. The proposed model delineates the chemical conditions immediately adjacent to the gill surface and emphasizes their importance in aluminium's toxic mode of action. The mechanism is shown to be bipartite. Aluminium binding to functional groups both apically located at the gill surface and intracellularly located within lamellar epithelial cells disrupts the barrier properties of the gill epithelium. The concomitant iono- and osmoregulatory dysfunction results in accelerated cell necrosis, sloughing and death of the fish. The mechanism of epithelial cell death is proposed as a general mechanism of aluminium-induced accelerated cell death.

  16. Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity Evaluation of the Methanolic Extract of Alstonia scholaris Stem Bark

    Idris Bello

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Alstonia scholaris has been used by traditional medicine practitioners since the medieval ages for the treatment of diseases. The aim of this research was to evaluate the acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of its methanolic extract. The acute toxicity test was conducted using Sprague Dawley (SD rats. The methanolic extract of Alstonia scholaris stem bark (ASME was administrated in a single dose of 2000 mg/kg via oral gavage; and the animals were observed for any behavioral changes or mortality. In the sub-acute toxicity study, SD rats received three doses of ASME (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg for 28 days via oral gavage. During these 28 days of treatment, the rats were observed weekly for toxicity symptoms. Following the 28-day treatment, the rats were sacrificed for hematological, biochemical and histopathology studies. In the acute toxicity study, Alstonia scholaris was found to be non-toxic at a dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w. In the sub-acute toxicity study, significant variations in body weight, hematological and biochemical parameters were observed in the experimental groups at the dose of 500 and 1000 mg/kg with the death of two female rats being recorded at the highest dose (1000 mg/kg b.w.. Histopathological studies revealed slight degeneration (lesion and centrilobular necrosis in the liver, which was most expressed in the highest-dose group. These results demonstrate that, while a single dose and short term oral intake of Alstonia scholaris bark extract caused no toxicity up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w., toxic effects manifested in the long term treatment at the highest dose (500 and 1000 mg/kg. The long-term toxic effect was found to be associated with alterations in hematological compositions and end-organ damage to the liver. Thus, prolonged use of high doses of ASME orally should be discouraged and lower doses encouraged.

  17. Acute and late toxicity in radical radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    Josifovski Tatjana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although radical radiotherapy has proved to be a successful method in prostate cancer treatment, the conventional (box technique can result in significant adverse events. Objective. The objective of our study was to estimate the frequency, type and severity of acute and late toxicity in radical radiotherapy of prostate cancer. Methods. In a clinical retrospective study, we included 283 patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer. All our patients received radical, conventional radiotherapy using the four-field technique. The study was performed at the Radiotherapy Department of the Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia between January 1991 and December 2005. During regular follow-up, we analyzed the frequency, type and severity of acute and late toxicity. Results. Two thirds (71% of our patients had acute toxicity of at least one organ within the radiation field. Most frequent complication was radiation dermatitis (10.5%, and enteritis (9%, cystitis (6% and proctitis (2.5%. Acute adverse events were mostly low grade (I and II, 28-61%. Late complications were registered in 20.5% of patients. Skin fibrosis was most frequent (12%. Chronic proctitis was detected in 4% and urethral stricture in 4.5% of our patients. All late complications were low grade. Conclusion. Treatment tolerance of radical radiotherapy is relatively good. Although most patients develop acute toxicity, it is commonly low grade and requires the interruption of radiotherapy treatment in 20% of patients only. Late toxicity is rarer than acute and, in most cases, it does not affect the quality of life.

  18. Butachlor-induced acute toxic hepatitis.

    Daryani, Nasser Ebrahimi; Hosseini, Parviz; Bashashati, Mohammad; Haidarali, Mona; Sayyah, Alireza

    2007-01-01

    Butachlor is a highly effective herbicidal substance widely used by farmers. We report a 60-year-old man with exfoliative dermatitis, jaundice, increase in liver enzymes and eosinophilia one day after accidental dermal exposure to butachlor toxin. The diagnostic workup showed no other cause and liver histology was consistent with substance-induced toxic hepatitis. Within two weeks of conservative therapy, his liver function tests returned to normal.

  19. Thallium scintigraphy in experimental toxic pulmonary edema: relationship to extravascular pulmonary fluid. [Dogs

    Slutsky, R.A.; Higgins, C.B.

    1984-05-01

    Pulmonary fluid volumes (PBV = lung blood volume; EVLW = extravascular lung water) were examined to define the effects of oleic acid injury and then to examine the relationship between edema formation and accumulation of pulmonary thallium. In six dogs, pulmonary fluid compartments were monitored during the induction of pulmonary injury by oleic acid (0.15 cc/kg i.v.). By 30 min after the injection, EVLW had doubled; it continued to increase slowly for 180 min, whereas PBV declined. In six anesthetized dogs, similar measurements were made in an identical preparation and pulmonary fluid volumes were compared with pulmonary counts derived from sequential thallium scintigrams obtained after the injection of oleic acid. Measures of EVLW and PBV were obtained sequentially along with thallium scintigrams. The authors conclude that sequential thallium scintigrams provide useful information about the degree of change of EVLW over time in a model of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema.

  20. Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity. Immunoallergologic tests and bronchoalveolar lavage phospholipid content.

    Nicolet-Chatelain, G; Prevost, M C; Escamilla, R; Migueres, J

    1991-02-01

    Amiodarone (A) is a widely-used antiarrhythmic drug. Pulmonary toxicity is the most serious adverse effect with an estimated mortality of 1 to 33 percent. In order to determine an element helpful for diagnosis, we examined four patients with amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity, three patients treated with A, without evidence of pulmonary toxicity but with a main underlying pulmonary disease, and four healthy volunteers. Daily and cumulative doses or duration of treatment were similar in the first two groups. Pulmonary function tests (spirometry, CO-diffusing capacity, arterial blood gases), roentgenographic examinations, pulmonary biopsies or immunoallergologic tests (skin reaction, lymphoblastic transformation test and human basophile degranulation test) did not provide any discriminatory element. In APT+, we observed an increased cellularity of the bronchoalveolar lavage. Neither the differential cell count nor the presence of foamy macrophages were distinguishable between APT+ and APT-. The phospholipid composition of BAL fluid showed a decreased total phospholipid and phospholipid/protein ratio in all patients compared to normal subjects. These changes reflect more the severity of pulmonary disease than the specificity of the causative agent. However, we observed that the unique PL which decreases in APT- and remains normal in APT+ is phosphatidyl-serine + phosphatidylinositol (PS + PI). This has to be confirmed and should be evaluated at different stages of the disease to determine an eventual specific element. We conclude that there are no data currently available to establish the diagnosis of APT except perhaps for the analysis of BAL PL content.

  1. Syncope as a presentation of acute pulmonary embolism

    Altınsoy B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bülent Altınsoy, Fatma Erboy, Hakan Tanrıverdi, Fırat Uygur, Tacettin Örnek, Figen Atalay, Meltem Tor Department of Pulmonary Medicine, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak, Turkey Purpose: Syncope is an atypical presentation for acute pulmonary embolism (APE. There are conflicting data concerning syncope and prognosis of APE. Patients and methods: One hundred and seventy-nine consecutive patients aged 22–96 years (median, 68 years with APE were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Results: Prevalence of syncope was 13% (n=23 at the time of presentation. Compared to patients without syncope, those with syncope had a higher rate of central embolism (83% vs 43%, respectively, P=0.002, right ventricular dysfunction (91% vs 68%, P=0.021, and troponin positivity (80% vs 39%, P=0.001 but not 30-day mortality (13% vs 10%, P=0.716. Multivariate analysis showed that central localization (odds ratio: 9.08 and cardiac troponin positivity (odds ratio: 4.67 were the independent correlates of the presence of syncope in the patients with APE. Frequency of cardiopulmonary disease was lower, and duration from symptom onset to hospital admission was shorter in patients with syncope (P=0.138 and 0.118, respectively, although not significant. Conclusion: Syncope most likely represents an intermediate condition between massive APE and hypotension. In APE patients with syncope, the prognosis seems to depend on the underlying pathology, the patient’s age, comorbidities and duration from symptom onset to hospital admission, and the use of thrombolytic therapy. Keywords: syncope, prognosis, pulmonary embolism, mortality rate, compression sonography, right ventricular dysfunction

  2. Treatment of acute pulmonary failure with extracorporeal support: 100% survival in a pediatric population.

    Ryan, D P; Doody, D P

    1992-08-01

    Since February 1990, five children, aged 10 days to 6.5 years, were treated with extracorporeal lung support at our hospital for acute, unrelenting pulmonary failure. Two had viral pneumonia: one with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis, and one with herpes simplex virus pneumonia, encephalitis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. One presented with a febrile illness followed by a pulmonary hemorrhage. Two patients had adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) complicating severe systemic illnesses, toxic epidermal necrolysis in one and cat scratch disease with encephalitis in the other. All children had diffuse parenchymal lung disease by chest x-ray. On maximum medical management all patients were developing carbon dioxide retention and progressive hypoxemia, exceeding previously established NIH study criteria for extracorporeal treatment. Three children (10 days, 2 months, 13 months) were placed on venoarterial support and two children (20 months and 6.5 years) were placed on venovenous extracorporeal support (ECCO2R). Three of the five had open lung biopsies performed, which showed findings consistent with a moderate to severe cellular phase of ARDS. No viral inclusions were found in the patient with RSV infection. One hundred percent immediate survival was achieved in this patient population. Average duration of support was 330 hours (range, 89 to 840). Following completion of extracorporeal support, all children were successfully weaned from the ventilator with an average time to extubation of 23.2 days (range, 2 to 58 days). One child died of congestive heart failure following palliative surgery for a complex noncyanotic congenital cardiac lesion 35 days after successfully weaning from extracorporeal support for an acute febrile illness and pulmonary hemorrhage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Pulmonary Surfactants for Acute and Chronic Lung Diseases (Part II

    O. A. Rozenberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Part 2 of the review considers the problem of surfactant therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in adults and young and old children. It gives information on the results of surfactant therapy and prevention of ARDS in patients with severe concurrent trauma, inhalation injuries, complications due to complex expanded chest surgery, or severe pneumonias, including bilateral pneumonia in the presence of A/H1N1 influenza. There are data on the use of a surfactant in obstetric care and prevention of primary graft dysfunction during lung transplantation. The results of longterm use of surfactant therapy in Russia, suggesting that death rates from ARDS may be substantially reduced (to 20% are discussed. Examples of surfactant therapy for other noncritical lung diseases, such as permanent athelectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and asthma, as well tuberculosis, are also considered.

  4. Acute aqueous toxicities of diesel-biodiesel blends

    Hollebone, B.P.; Ho, N.; Landriault, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environmental Science and Technology Centre; Harrison, S. [Science Applications International Corp., SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Doe, K.; Jackman, P. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Toxicology Laboratory, Environmental Science Centre

    2008-07-01

    The renewed interest in biodiesels as a new transportation fuel was discussed. Although there are several advantages to using biodiesels, their environmental behaviours and effects need to be evaluated along with the risks associated with their use, such as accidental releases of these biodiesels to the environment. The wide variability of biodiesels may result in different toxicological impacts, depending on the fuel feedstock. This study evaluated the aqueous effects of biodiesels from several commonly available feedstocks and their blends with petroleum diesel. Since most of the commercial uses of these products are currently focused on road-use, this study focused on the effects of these fuels in fresh-water. Biodiesels derived from soy, canola and waste restaurant oil feedstocks were used in the study. The acute toxicities of these biodiesels and biodiesel/petroleum diesel fuel blends were reported for 3 test species used by Environment Canada for toxicological evaluation, notably rainbow trout, the water flea, and a luminescent bacterium. The correlations between acute toxicity, water accommodated fractions (WAF) concentrations and fuel property data were examined. The study revealed that biodiesel is significantly less acutely toxic than petroleum diesels in potential ecological impacts. However, the biodiesel-diesel blends were found to be more acutely toxic than a linear dilution model predicts. 11 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  5. Acute and chronic toxicity of veterinary antibiotics to Daphnia magna

    Wollenberger, Leah; Halling-Sørensen, B.; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2000-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of nine antibiotics used both therapeutically and as growth promoters in intensive farming was investigated on the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. The effect of the antibiotics metronidazole (M), olaquindox (OL), oxolinic acid (OA), oxytetracycline (OTC), strep...

  6. Acute pulmonary embolism | EU Clinical Trials Register [EU Clinical Trials Register

    Full Text Available the Trial E.1 Medical condition or disease under investigation E.1.1Medical condition(s) being investigated Acute... pulmonary embolism Embolismo pulmonar agudo E.1.1.1Medical condition in easily understood language Acute...rial contains a sub-study No E.3Principal inclusion criteria 1) Acute symptomatic PE confirmed by multidetec

  7. Comparison Between the Acute Pulmonary Vascular Effects of Oxygen with Nitric Oxide and Sildenafil

    Ronald W. Day

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Right heart catheterization is performed in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension to determine the severity of disease and their pulmonary vascular reactivity. The acute pulmonary vascular effect of inhaled nitric oxide is frequently used to identify patients who will respond favorably to vasodilator therapy. This study sought to determine whether the acute pulmonary vascular effects of oxygen with nitric oxide and intravenous sildenafil are similar. Methods. A retrospective, descriptive study of 13 individuals with pulmonary hypertension who underwent heart catheterization and acute vasodilator testing was performed. The hemodynamic measurements during five phases (21% to 53% oxygen, 100% oxygen, 100% oxygen with 20 ppm nitric oxide, 21% to 51% oxygen, and 21% to 51% oxygen with 0.05 mg/kg to 0.29 mg/kg intravenous sildenafil of the procedures were compared.Results. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance acutely decreased with 100% oxygen with nitric oxide, and 21% to 51% oxygen with sildenafil. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mm Hg, mean ± standard error of the mean was 38 ± 4 during 21% to 53% oxygen, 32 ± 3 during 100% oxygen, 29 ± 2 during 100% oxygen with nitric oxide, 37 ± 3 during 21% to 51% oxygen, and 32 ± 2 during 21% to 51% oxygen with sildenafil. There was not a significant correlation between the percent change in pulmonary vascular resistance from baseline with oxygen and nitric oxide, and from baseline with sildenafil (r2 = 0.011, p = 0.738. Conclusions. Oxygen with nitric oxide and sildenafil decreased pulmonary vascular resistance. However, the pulmonary vascular effects of oxygen and nitric oxide cannot be used to predict the acute response to sildenafil. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the acute response to sildenafil can be used to predict the long-term response to treatment with an oral phosphodiesterase V inhibitor.

  8. Pathogenic aspects of pulmonary complications in acute pancreatitis patients

    Serge Chooklin

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experimental and clinical observations show that proinlfammatory cytokines and oxidative stress are involved in the development of local and particularly systemic complications in acute pancreatitis (AP) patients. There are often pulmonary complications in such patients. The mechanisms through which lung injury is induced in AP are not fully clear. METHODS: In order to assess the role of activated neutrophils, pro- and anti-inlfammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules at the onset and development of respiratory complications and respiratory failure, we measured the serum levels of pro-inlfammatory (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, TNF-α) and anti-inlfammatory (IL-1ra, IL-10) cytokines in 51 AP patients who had been diagnosed with pancreatitis-associated lung injury with and without the development of organ dysfunction. RESULTS: When admitted to the hospital, severe AP patients had increased concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, and TNF-α. The concentration of IL-18 alone was considerably increased in the patients who later developed respiratory failure. The onset of acute respiratory distress syndrome in the AP patients was accompanied by an increase in the level of anti-inlfammatory cytokines, especially IL-10. It was noted that in severe lung injury, myeloperoxidase activity in the blood increased signiifcantly, but still relfected the processes taking place in the lung parenchyma. Increase in the concentrations of adhesion molecules preceded the development of pulmonary inifltration with respiratory failure symptoms, which provoked endothelial dysfunction and determined the capillary surface permeability for neutrophils and monocytes.CONCLUSIONS: In the pathogenesis of respiratory complications in AP cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules, in particular IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, TNF-α, ICAM-1, and E-selectin play major roles. At IL-18 concentrations >650 pg/ml, AP patients are likely to develop pulmonary dysfunction (sensitivity

  9. Dasatinib induces lung vascular toxicity and predisposes to pulmonary hypertension

    Phan, Carole; Seferian, Andrei; Huertas, Alice; Thuillet, Raphaël; Sattler, Caroline; Le Hiress, Morane; Tamura, Yuichi; Jutant, Etienne-Marie; Chaumais, Marie-Camille; Bouchet, Stéphane; Manéglier, Benjamin; Molimard, Mathieu; Rousselot, Philippe; Sitbon, Olivier; Simonneau, Gérald; Montani, David; Humbert, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disease that can be induced by dasatinib, a dual Src and BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is used to treat chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Today, key questions remain regarding the mechanisms involved in the long-term development of dasatinib-induced PAH. Here, we demonstrated that chronic dasatinib therapy causes pulmonary endothelial damage in humans and rodents. We found that dasatinib treatment attenuated hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction responses and increased susceptibility to experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH) in rats, but these effects were absent in rats treated with imatinib, another BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Furthermore, dasatinib treatment induced pulmonary endothelial cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, while imatinib did not. Dasatinib treatment mediated endothelial cell dysfunction via increased production of ROS that was independent of Src family kinases. Consistent with these findings, we observed elevations in markers of endothelial dysfunction and vascular damage in the serum of CML patients who were treated with dasatinib, compared with CML patients treated with imatinib. Taken together, our findings indicate that dasatinib causes pulmonary vascular damage, induction of ER stress, and mitochondrial ROS production, which leads to increased susceptibility to PH development. PMID:27482885

  10. Clinical and morphologic features of acute, subacute and chronic cor pulmonale (pulmonary heart disease).

    Roberts, William Clifford; Shafii, Alexis E; Grayburn, Paul A; Ko, Jong Mi; Weissenborn, Matthew R; Rosenblatt, Randall L; Guileyardo, Joseph M

    2015-03-01

    Described are certain clinical and morphologic features of one patient with acute, another with subacute, and one with chronic cor pulmonale. All 3 had evidence of severe pulmonary hypertension. The patient with acute cor pulmonale 4 days after coronary bypass for unstable angina pectoris suddenly developed severe breathlessness with cyanosis and had fatal cardiac arrest and necropsy disclosed massive pulmonary embolism. The patient with subacute cor pulmonale had severe right-sided heart failure for 5 weeks and necropsy disclosed microscopic-sized neoplastic pulmonary emboli from a gastric carcinoma without parenchymal pulmonary metastases. The patient with chronic cor pulmonale had evidence of right-sided heart failure for years, the result of primary or idiopathic pulmonary hypertension almost certainly present from birth because the pattern of elastic fibers in the pulmonary trunk was that seen in newborns where the pressure in the pulmonary trunk and ascending aorta are similar. The patient with chronic cor pulmonale had plexiform pulmonary lesions indicative of irreversible pulmonary hypertension. Neither the acute nor the subacute patient had chronic pulmonary vascular changes. All 3 patients had dilated right ventricular cavities and non-dilated left ventricular cavities and only the patient with chronic cor pulmonale had right ventricular hypertrophy.

  11. Effect of solcoseryl on antitumour action and acute toxicity of some antineoplastic drugs.

    Danysz, A; Sołtysiak-Pawluczuk, D; Czyzewska-Szafran, H; Jedrych, A; Jastrzebski, Z

    1991-01-01

    The in vivo effect of Solcoseryl on the antitumour activity and acute toxicity of some antineoplastic drugs was examined. It was found that Solcoseryl does not inhibit the antineoplastic effectiveness of the drugs against transplantable P 388 leukaemia in mice. Studies of the effect of Solcoseryl on acute toxicity of selected antineoplastic drugs in mice revealed that the biostimulator could exert a modifying influence. The prior administration of Solcoseryl significantly decreases the acute toxicity of methotrexate but has no effect on acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil, increases the acute toxicity of bleomycin and vinblastine and has no effect on acute toxicity of methotrexate and mitoxantron. On the other hand, Solcoseryl administered simultaneously with the antineoplastic drugs increases acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil, bleomycin and mitoxantron. The protective effect of the biostimulator noted exclusively against acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil was also observed after multiple administration of this anticancer drug.

  12. Acute and subchronic dermal toxicity of nanosilver in guinea pig

    Arbabi Bidgoli S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available M Korani1, SM Rezayat1,2,4, K Gilani3, S Arbabi Bidgoli4, S Adeli11Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 2Department of Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 4Department of Toxicology & Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAUPS, Tehran, IranAbstract: Silver has been used as an antimicrobial agent for a long time in different forms, but silver nanoparticles (nanosilver have recently been recognized as potent antimicrobial agents. Although nanosilver is finding diverse medical applications such as silver-based dressings and silver-coated medical devices, its dermal and systemic toxicity via dermal use has not yet been identified. In this study, we analyzed the potential toxicity of colloidal nanosilver in acute and subchronic guinea pigs. Before toxicity assessments, the size of colloidal nanosilver was recorded in sizes <100 nm by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. For toxicological assessments, male guinea pigs weighing 350 to 400 g were exposed to two different concentrations of nanosilver (1000 and 10,000 µg/mL in an acute study and three concentrations of nanosilver (100, 1000, and 10,000 µg/mL in a subchronic study. Toxic responses were assessed by clinical and histopathologic parameters. In all experimental animals the sites of exposure were scored for any type of dermal toxicity and compared with negative control and positive control groups. In autopsy studies during the acute test, no significant changes in organ weight or major macroscopic changes were detected, but dose-dependent histopathologic abnormalities were seen in skin, liver, and spleen of all test groups. In addition, experimental animals subjected to subchronic tests showed greater

  13. Long-term pulmonary and systemic toxicity following intravenous mercury injection

    Dell`Omo, M.; Muzi, G.; Filiberto, S.; Abbritti, G. [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Pharmacology, University of Perugia, Via E. dal Pozzo, 06100 Perugia (Italy); Bernard, A.; Lauwerys, R.R. [Unite de Toxicologie Industrielle et Medicine du Travail, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Clos Chapelle-aux Champs 30 - BTE 30.54, 1200 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1997-12-01

    Long-term pulmonary and systemic toxicity following mercury intravenous injection has rarely been assessed. We present the results of a detailed investigation assessing pulmonary and systemic long-term toxic effects in a subject who had pulmonary and systemic mercury microembolism diagnosed more than 11 years previously. Radiographic examination showed the persistence of mercury microemboli in both lungs and elsewhere in the body. Lung function tests revealed a decreased diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and Po{sub 2} probably indicative of microscopic inflammation of lung interstitium. Electroneuromyography showed signs of mild axonopathy in both legs. At semen analysis, a high proportion of motionless spermatozoa was present. Urinary excretion of mercury was high. Signs of interstitial lung impairment, peripheral axonopathy and asthenozoospermia in a subject who had mercury microembolism persisting for more than 11 years might be evidence of long-term mercury toxicity. (orig.) With 2 figs., 33 refs.

  14. ACUTE DERMAL TOXICITY STUDIES OF TROISTM IN NEWZEALAND WHITE RABBITS

    Anurag Payasi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was performed to assess the acute dermal toxicity of TroisTM in Newzealand white rabbit. Test substance was applied as such to the shaven skin of group of rabbits at the dose of 2000 mg/Kg body weight. Control group of animals were similarly treated but only with base. Following dosing up to 14 days the rabbits were observed for mortality and clinical sign of toxicity. No visible signs of toxicity after treatment were observed on the animals of both control and treated animals up to 14 days. Various haematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated and found to be in the normal limit, which indicates that no sign of toxicity in NewZealand white rabbits after 14 days treatment in respect to control group, proving safety of TroisTM in topical application.

  15. Time course of pulmonary vascular response to an acutely repetitive pulmonary microembolism in dogs--an analysis using pulmonary vascular impedance.

    Tobise, K; Tosaka, S; Onodera, S

    1992-05-01

    To understand the mechanism leading to progressive pulmonary hypertension, we investigated the time course of vascular response to an acutely repetitive pulmonary microembolism in dogs by using pulmonary vascular impedance. In a normal state, the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) was transiently increased by emboli, and the impedance moduli of 0 Hz (= Rin), 1.5 Hz and 3 Hz were slightly increased. A four-element electrical vascular model showed the transient increase in peripheral pulmonary vascular resistance (R2) and inertia, and reduction in compliance (C). In contrast, in a state of a slight pulmonary hypertension, mPAP was continuously increased by the same amount of emboli, and the impedance moduli of both 0 Hz and 3 Hz were significantly increased. By a four-element model, a severe increase in R2 and reduction in C were observed, and these changes continued. Therefore, although the vascular response to pulmonary microembolism basically depends on the degree of mechanical obstruction, this response is thought to be modulated by the responsiveness of pulmonary vessels at that time, which is involved in the alteration in the local characteristics of pulmonary vessels, and/or the recruitment of a new blood flow.

  16. ACUTE AND SUB ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY ON SIDDHA DRUG VELVANGA PARPAM

    K. Samraj*, K. Kanagavalli , P. Sathiya Rajeswaran and P. Parthiban

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH is a common progressive disease among men, with an incidence that is high among elderly. Velvanga parpam (VP has been employed as traditional remedy for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH which is a herbo mineral formulation. As a mandate, steps were taken to evaluate safety profile of VP in rats and mice following OECD guidelines. Acute toxicity studies, different doses of VP were administered orally to rats once daily for one week. Sub-acute toxicity studies were carried in four different groups in which VP was administrated orally to rats once daily for 28 days in various doses ranging from 2.5, 5, 10 Mg/kg for mice respectively. Detailed hematological, biochemical, necropsy and histopathological evaluation of organs was performed for all animals. The VP was well tolerated and no toxic manifestations were seen in any animal. Histopathological analysis revealed that Spleen, Testes, Pancreas, Lung, Liver, Brain, Heart, Stomach, Intestine, Bone, Ovary, and Kidney tissues of treated groups did not show any signs of toxicity. Mortality observed in highdose. The VP was found to be safe in animals. No toxic effect was observed up to 5mg/kg of Velvanga parpam in acute and sub-acute toxicity studies.

  17. A Rare Case of Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage Secondary to Acute Pulmonary Histoplasmosis

    Kunal Grover

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH is a rare presentation of acute pulmonary histoplasmosis. While histoplasmosis has been reported to cause hemoptysis and alveolar hemorrhage in children, the English language literature lacks any adult case reports documenting this association. We report a case of pulmonary histoplasmosis where the initial presentation was pneumonia with a subsequent diagnosis of DAH.

  18. Cannabidiol Rescues Acute Hepatic Toxicity and Seizure Induced by Cocaine

    Luciano Rezende Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597, or with a phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD, protects against cocaine toxicity. URB597 (1.0 mg/kg abolished cocaine-induced seizure, yet it did not protect against acute liver injury. Using confocal liver intravital microscopy, we observed that CBD (30 mg/kg reduced acute liver inflammation and damage induced by cocaine and prevented associated seizure. Additionally, we showed that previous liver damage induced by another hepatotoxic drug (acetaminophen increased seizure and lethality induced by cocaine intoxication, linking hepatotoxicity to seizure dynamics. These findings suggest that activation of cannabinoid system may have protective actions on both liver and brain induced by cocaine, minimizing inflammatory injury promoted by cocaine, supporting its further clinical application in the treatment of cocaine abuse.

  19. Protection against oxaliplatin acute neurosensory toxicity by venlafaxine.

    Durand, Jean-Philippe; Brezault, Catherine; Goldwasser, François

    2003-07-01

    Venlafaxine (Effexor; Wyeth Lederlé) has previously shown therapeutic effects for the management of chronic and neuropathic pains. We report here the efficacy of venlafaxine upon acute neurosensory symptoms secondary to oxaliplatin toxicity. A dose of 50 mg of venlafaxine was given orally at the beginning of the oxaliplatin infusion. Patients did not experience any or very low paresthesias, even in the cold. As the results were very dramatic and reproducible, we propose that venlafaxine may be of use in the daily management of oxaliplatin-related neurosensory toxicity.

  20. Assessment of heat shock proteins and endothelial dysfunction in acute pulmonary embolism.

    İn, Erdal; Deveci, Figen; Kaman, Dilara

    2016-06-01

    We determined the levels of some heat shock proteins (HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90), L-arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) levels in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. The present case-control study comprised a healthy control group (n = 57) and patients with acute pulmonary embolism (n = 84). HSPs, L-arginine, ADMA, and SDMA levels were measured in all of the cases. The mean age of the control group was 56.72 ± 8.44 years, and the mean age of the patients with acute pulmonary embolism was 60.20 ± 16.56 years (P = 0.104). Compared with controls, patients with acute pulmonary embolism had significantly higher mean serum HSP27, HSP90, and ADMA levels, whereas the mean serum L-arginine and SDMA levels were lower (P In patients with acute pulmonary embolism serum HSP27, HSP70, and ADMA levels were negatively correlated with partial pressures of arterial oxygen levels (r = -0.281, P = 0.01; r = -0.263, P = 0.016; and r = -0.275, P = 0.011, respectively) and arterial oxygen saturation (r = -0.225, P = 0.039; r = -0.400, P in acute pulmonary embolism.

  1. Sirolimus-related pulmonary toxicity mimicking 'asthma like' symptoms

    2007-01-01

    Sirolimus is an immunosuppressant with expanding use in pediatric organ transplantation, dermatology and rheumatology. We report two cases of children who developed asthma like symptoms and were diagnosed with interstitial lung disease, which responded to discontinuation of sirolimus. Pediatricians should be aware about the pulmonary side effects of sirolimus.

  2. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity profile of Acorus calamus (Sweet flag) in rodents

    Arunachalam Muthuraman; Nirmal Singh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the acute and sub-acute oral toxicity profile of the hydroalcoholic extract of Acorus calamus (HAE-AC) in mice and rats respectively. Methods: In acute toxicity study, mice were assessed to any alteration of general behavior and mortality rate within 24 h. Further, in sub-acute toxicity study, rats were used for assessment of mortality, body weight, hematological, biochemical and histopathological changes. Results: Single oral administrations of the HAE-AC 2500-10000 mg/kg induced increase in general behavioral abnormalities in mice. The mortality rate also increased with increasing dosage (median lethal dose; LD50 = 5 070.59 mg/kg). Daily single oral doses of HAE-AC 200, 500 and 1 000 mg/kg were observed to be well tolerated behaviorally after 28 days of dosing and induced no significant changes in body and organs weights of rats. Further, a mild rise in the levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and histopatholological changes in liver tissue was noted at 1000 mg/kg dose of HAE-AC. Conclusions: Overall, the findings of this study indicate that, HAE-AC is non-toxic and has at high dose, a mild but acceptable toxicity potential.

  3. Macrophage activation in acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Jonas Christian Schupp

    Full Text Available Acute exacerbation (AE of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a common cause of disease acceleration in IPF and has a major impact on mortality. The role of macrophage activation in AE of IPF has never been addressed before.We evaluated BAL cell cytokine profiles and BAL differential cell counts in 71 IPF patients w/wo AE and in 20 healthy volunteers. Twelve patients suffered from AE at initial diagnosis while sixteen patients developed AE in the 24 months of follow-up. The levels of IL-1ra, CCL2, CCL17, CCL18, CCL22, TNF-α, IL-1β, CXCL1 and IL-8 spontaneously produced by BAL-cells were analysed by ELISA.In patients with AE, the percentage of BAL neutrophils was significantly increased compared to stable patients. We found an increase in the production rate of the pro-inflammatory cytokines CXCL1 and IL-8 combined with an increase in all tested M2 cytokines by BAL-cells. An increase in CCL18 levels and neutrophil counts during AE was observed in BAL cells from patients from whom serial lavages were obtained. Furthermore, high baseline levels of CCL18 production by BAL cells were significantly predictive for the development of future AE.BAL cell cytokine production levels at acute exacerbation show up-regulation of pro-inflammatory as well as anti-inflammatory/ M2 cytokines. Our data suggest that AE in IPF is not an incidental event but rather driven by cellular mechanisms including M2 macrophage activation.

  4. Acute toxicity of intravenously administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles in mice.

    Jiaying Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With a wide range of applications, titanium dioxide (TiO₂ nanoparticles (NPs are manufactured worldwide in large quantities. Recently, in the field of nanomedicine, intravenous injection of TiO₂ nanoparticulate carriers directly into the bloodstream has raised public concerns on their toxicity to humans. METHODS: In this study, mice were injected intravenously with a single dose of TiO₂ NPs at varying dose levels (0, 140, 300, 645, or 1387 mg/kg. Animal mortality, blood biochemistry, hematology, genotoxicity and histopathology were investigated 14 days after treatment. RESULTS: Death of mice in the highest dose (1387 mg/kg group was observed at day two after TiO₂ NPs injection. At day 7, acute toxicity symptoms, such as decreased physical activity and decreased intake of food and water, were observed in the highest dose group. Hematological analysis and the micronucleus test showed no significant acute hematological or genetic toxicity except an increase in the white blood cell (WBC count among mice 645 mg/kg dose group. However, the spleen of the mice showed significantly higher tissue weight/body weight (BW coefficients, and lower liver and kidney coefficients in the TiO₂ NPs treated mice compared to control. The biochemical parameters and histological tissue sections indicated that TiO₂ NPs treatment could induce different degrees of damage in the brain, lung, spleen, liver and kidneys. However, no pathological effects were observed in the heart in TiO₂ NPs treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous injection of TiO₂ NPs at high doses in mice could cause acute toxicity effects in the brain, lung, spleen, liver, and kidney. No significant hematological or genetic toxicity was observed.

  5. An evaluation of acute toxicity of colloidal silver nanoparticles.

    Maneewattanapinyo, Pattwat; Banlunara, Wijit; Thammacharoen, Chuchaat; Ekgasit, Sanong; Kaewamatawong, Theerayuth

    2011-11-01

    Tests for acute oral toxicity, eye irritation, corrosion and dermal toxicity of colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were conducted in laboratory animals following OECD guidelines. Oral administration of AgNPs at a limited dose of 5,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout the observation period. Percentage of body weight gain of the mice showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. In the hematological analysis, there was no significant difference between mice treated with AgNPs and controls. Blood chemistry analysis also showed no differences in any of the parameter examined. There was neither any gross lesion nor histopathological change observed in various organs. The results indicated that the LD(50) of colloidal AgNPs is greater than 5,000 mg/kg body weight. In acute eye irritation and corrosion study, no mortality and toxic signs were observed when various doses of colloidal AgNPs were instilled in guinea pig eyes during 72 hr observation period. However, the instillation of AgNPs at 5,000 ppm produced transient eye irritation during early 24 hr observation time. No any gross abnormality was noted in the skins of the guinea pigs exposed to various doses of colloidal AgNPs. In addition, no significant AgNPs exposure relating to dermal tissue changes was observed microscopically. In summary, these findings of all toxicity tests in this study suggest that colloidal AgNPs could be relatively safe when administered to oral, eye and skin of the animal models for short periods of time.

  6. Acute Oral Toxicity and Kinetic Behaviors of Inorganic Layered Nanoparticles

    Jin Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxide (LDH nanoparticles, also known as anionic clays, have attracted a great deal of interest for their potential as delivery carriers. Recent studies showed that LDH nanoparticles can efficiently deliver drugs or bioactive molecules into cells, which are highly related to their endocytic pathway. However, the efficient cell permeation capacity of LDH may also raise concern about their toxicity potential. In this study, the acute oral toxicity of LDH nanoparticles was assessed, and their kinetic behaviors, such as plasma concentration-time curve, tissue distribution, and excretion, were also evaluated in mice. No significant effects of oral LDH nanoparticles on behaviors, body weight gain, survival rate, and organosomatic index were observed up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg for 14 days. Serum biochemical parameters did not significantly increase, indicating that LDH nanoparticles did not cause acute liver or kidney injury. Plasma concentration of LDH nanoparticles rapidly decreased within 30 min depending on exposure doses, but they did not accumulate in any specific organ. Their excretion via urine and feces was observed within 24 h. These findings suggest that LDH nanoparticles do not exhibit acute oral toxicity and favorable kinetic behaviors in mice and, therefore, will be promising candidates for biological and pharmaceutical applications.

  7. Acute mesenteric ischemia after cardio-pulmonary bypass surgery

    Bassam Abboud; Ronald Daher; Joe Boujaoude

    2008-01-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a highly-lethal surgical emergency.Several pathophysiologic events (arterial obstruction,venous thrombosis and diffuse vasospasm) lead to a sudden decrease in mesenteric blood flow.Ischemia/reperfusion syndrome of the intestine is responsible for systemic abnormalities,leading to multi-organ failure and death.Early diagnosis is difficult because the clinical presentation is subtle,and the biological and radiological diagnostic tools lack sensitivity and specificity.Therapeutic options vary from conservative resuscitation,medical treatment,endovascular techniques and surgical resection and revascularization.A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis,and prompt treatment is the only hope of reducing the mortality rate.Studies are in progress to provide more accurate diagnostic tools for early diagnosis.AMI can complicate the post-operative course of patients following cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB).Several factors contribute to the systemic hypo-perfusion state,which is the most frequent pathophysiologic event.In this particular setting,the clinical presentation of AMI can be misleading,while the laboratory and radiological diagnostic tests often produce inconclusive results.The management strategies are controversial,but early treatment is critical for saving lives.Based on the experience of our team,we consider prompt exploratory laparotomy,irrespective of the results of the diagnostic tests,is the only way to provide objective assessment and adequate treatment,leading to dramatic reduction in the mortality rate.

  8. Acute kidney injury in patients with pulmonary embolism

    Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Fu, Chung-Ming; Fan, Pei-Chun; Chen, Shao-Wei; Chang, Su-Wei; Mao, Chun-Tai; Tian, Ya-Chung; Chen, Yung-Chang; Chu, Pao-Hsien; Chen, Tien-Hsing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI) is overlooked in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). Risk factors for and long-term outcomes of this complication remain unknown. This study evaluated the predictors and prognosis of AKI in patients with PE. This retrospective cohort study used Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We enrolled a total of 7588 patients who were admitted to a hospital for PE from January1997 to December 2011 and administered anticoagulation or thrombolytic agents. All demographic data, risk factors, and outcomes were analyzed. AKI was diagnosed in 372 (4.9%) patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed pre-existing chronic kidney disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, massive PE, anemia, and sepsis as independent risk factors for AKI. In the long-term follow-up, the survival rate was similar in the AKI and non-AKI groups. Careful risk factor screening and intensive intervention in patients with AKI might yield outcomes similar to those in patients without AKI. PMID:28248851

  9. Management of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema: a literature review.

    Johnson, Jeremy M

    2009-01-01

    Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE) is a pathology frequently seen in patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) and can usually be attributed to preexisting cardiovascular disease. Heart failure alone accounts for more than 1 million hospital admissions annually and has one of the highest ED morbidity and mortality to date (). Historically, CPE has been managed by the treating clinician in a manner that is based largely on anecdotal evidence. Furosemide (Lasix), morphine, and nitroglycerin have historically been the baseline standard for drug therapy in CPE management. A lack of drastic improvement in the patient's condition over the course of the ED visit may reflect a management style that results in higher morbidity and mortality for CPE patients. Several recent articles provide evidence-based outcomes that suggest changing standard therapy along with the adjunctive use of other medications. These articles also describe treatment modalities that result in a marked improvement in the management of patients with CPE along with decreases in adverse outcomes and hospital length of stay. The goal of this article is to present a summary of the evidence regarding the management of CPE and discuss the implications for current practice.

  10. Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity - Predisposing factors, clinical symptoms and treatment

    Jessurun, GAJ; Boersma, WG; Crijns, HJGM

    1998-01-01

    Amiodarone is frequently used for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Although the therapeutic efficacy of amiodarone has been established, its use is limited by its safety profile. Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity is one of the most life-threatening complications of this therapy. It is a rel

  11. A case of heart failure due to alcoholic cardiomyopathy combined with acute pulmonary embolism.

    Xiao, Feng; Yuan, Wei; Li, Xiaorong; Wang, Gannan; Jiang, Ting; Wang, Weiwei; Zhang, Jinsong; Li, Ping; Qi, Lianwen; Chen, Yan

    2014-09-01

    It has not been reported that cases of alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) combined with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). We hereby present a case of a 48-year-old male with ACM with significant enlargement of the heart and heart failure is described. Then, the patient was seized with acute PE which was confirmed by specific examination and his symptoms.

  12. Acute pulmonary vasodilatory properties of amlodipine in humans with pulmonary hypertension.

    Woodmansey, P. A.; O'Toole, L.; Channer, K S; Morice, A H

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Calcium antagonists are the only oral vasodilators shown to influence mortality in primary pulmonary hypertension, but the high doses required are often poorly tolerated. Amlodipine is a novel, relatively well tolerated, calcium antagonist. It has not been previously tested in humans with pulmonary hypertension. DESIGN: Calcium antagonists are claimed to be of benefit in the 20-30% of patients who respond--that is, whose mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resista...

  13. Noninvasive ventilation in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema

    Andrea Bellone

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The term noninvasive ventilation (NIV encompasses two different modes of delivering positive airway pressure, namely continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP and bilevel positive airway pressure (bilevel-PAP. The two modes are different since CPAP does not actively assist inspiration whereas bilevel-PAP does. Bilevel-PAP is a type of noninvasive ventilation that helps keep the upper airways of the lungs open by providing a flow of air delivered through a face mask. The air is pressurized by a machine, which delivers it to the face mask through long, plastic hosing. With bilevel-PAP, the doctor prescribes specific alternating pressures: a higher pressure is used to breathe in (inspiratory positive airway pressure and a lower pressure is used to breath out (expiratory positive airway pressure. Noninvasive ventilation has been shown to reduce the rate of tracheal intubation. The main indications are exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE. This last is a common cause of respiratory failure with high incidence and high mortality rate. Clinical findings of ACPE are related to the increased extra-vascular water in the lungs and the resulting reduced lung compliance, increased airway resistance and elevated inspiratory muscle load which generates a depression in pleural pressure. These large pleural pressure swings are responsible for hemodynamic changes by increasing left ventricular afterload, myocardial transmural pressure, and venous return. These alterations can be detrimental to patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Under these circumstances, NIV, either by CPAP or bilevel-PAP, improves vital signs, gas exchange, respiratory mechanics and hemodynamics by reducing left ventricular afterload and preload. In the first randomized study which compared the effectiveness of CPAP plus medical treatment vs medical treatment alone, the CPAP group showed a significant decrease in its

  14. Acute and subacute toxicity of {sup 18F}-FDG

    Dantas, Danielle M.; Silva, Natanael G. da; Manetta, Ana Paula; Osso Junior, Joao A., E-mail: danielle_2705@hotmail.com, E-mail: jaossoj@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ngsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: apaulasp2008@hotmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Before initiating clinical trials of a new drug, it is necessary to perform a battery of safety tests, for evaluating the risk in humans. Radiopharmaceuticals must be tested taking into account its specificity, duration of treatment and especially the toxicity of both, the unlabelled molecule and its radionuclide, apart from impurities emanating from radiolysis. In Brazil the production of radiopharmaceuticals was not regulated until the end of 2009, when ANVISA established the Resolutions No. 63, which refers to the Good Manufacturing Practices of radiopharmaceuticals and No. 64 which seeks the registration of radiopharmaceuticals. Nowadays IPEN produces one of the most important radiopharmaceutical for nuclear medicine, the {sup 18}F-FDG, which is used in the diagnosis. The objective of this study is to assess systemic toxicity (acute / subacute) of {sup 18}F-FDG in an in vivo test system, as recommended by the RDC No. 64. In acute tests the administration occurred on the first day, healthy rats were observed for 14 days reporting their clinical signs and water consumption, and on the 15th day they were euthanized and necropsied. The assay of subacute toxicity observations were made over a period of 28 days and the first dose was administered at the beginning of the test and after a fortnight a second dose was administered. The parameters evaluated were the necropsy, histopathology of target organs, hematology studies and liver and kidney function. The results are being processed and evaluated. Initial observations did not show any acute toxicity in animals when compared to control animals. (author)

  15. Acute effect of tetrandrine pulmonary targeting microspheres on hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in rats

    程德云; 陈文彬; 莫晓能

    2002-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of tetrandrine (Tet) pulmonary targeting microspheres on hypoxic pulmonary hypertension and evaluate its selective action on pulmonary circulation. Methods Twenty rats were exposed to hypoxic conditions for 3 weeks. Ten rats were used as normoxic controls. We administered Tet pulmonary targeting microspheres to 10 hypoxic rats and Tet aqueous solution to 10 hypoxic rats and the 10 control rats. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) was measured by a right cardiac catheterization, and mean systemic blood pressure (mSBP) was measured by left femoral catheterization. Results Rats exposed to hypoxia developed pulmonary hypertension. The decrease in mPAP in rats treated with Tet pulmonary targeting microspheres was significantly greater than that in rats receiving Tet aqueous solution (P<0.05), and the effects were longer with Tet pulmonary targeting microspheres. Moreover, Tet pulmonary targeting microspheres, unlike Tet aqueous solution, did not decrease mSBP. Conclusion Tet pulmonary targeting microspheres were more effective than Tet aqueous solution in treating hypoxic pulmonary hypertension and acted selectively on the pulmonary circulation.

  16. Safety studies of homoeopathic drugs in acute, sub-acute and chronic toxicity in rats

    Surender Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homoeopathic drugs are frequently recommended in day to day life as therapeutic agents by homoeopathic practitioners. However, safety of homoeopathic drugs remains a challenge because of the high variability of chemical components involved. Aim: The objective of the present study was to investigate the acute, subacute, and chronic oral toxicity of different homoeopathic drugs (Ferrum phosphoricum 3X, Ferrum phosphoricum 6X, Calcarea phosphoricum 6X, and Magnesium phosphoricum 6X in experimental models. Materials and Methods: In acute oral toxicity study, homoeopathic drugs were administered orally at 2000mg/kg body weight, and animals were observed for toxic symptoms till 10 days as per the OECD guidelines. For subacute and chronic toxicity study, homoeopathic drugs were administered for 28 and 180 days, respectively, as per the OECD guidelines. At the end of 28 and 180 days, the animals were sacrificed and toxicity parameters were assessed. Histopathological evaluation of different organs was also performed to assess any toxicity. Results: In acute toxicity study, no mortality was found at a dose of 2000 mg/kg which indicates that oral LD50of homoeopathic drugs were more than 2000 mg/kg. The administration of drugs at a dose of 70 mg/kg body weight for 28 and 180 days did not produce any significant change in haematological and biochemical parameters of male and female rats as compared to normal control group. No pathological changes were observed in histology of various organs of treated rats as compared to normal control animals. Conclusion: These homoeopathic drugs are safe & produce no toxicity when administered for longer duration.

  17. Death by bleomycin pulmonary toxicity in ovarian dysgerminoma with pathologic complete response to chemotherapy. A case report.

    Calzas Rodríguez, Julia; Carmen Juarez Morales, María Del; Casero, Miguel Angel Racionero

    2016-01-01

    With cisplatin-based chemotherapy, most patients with ovarian dysgerminoma will survive long-term. Bleomycin is an important part of ovarian germ cell tumors (OGCT) treatment, and its dose-limiting toxicity is the development of pulmonary toxicity and it is increased in patients older than 40 years. We report the case of an elderly patient with an unresectable ovarian dysgerminoma who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and who developed fatal bleomycin pulmonary toxicity (BPT) after surgery. A monitoring of pulmonary function is not routinely recommended for detecting BPT, although together with carefully assessment for symptoms or signs suggestive of pulmonary toxicity is the best way to reduce the risk of BPT. The frequency of pulmonary events in older patients makes us to think about the possibility of either reduce the dose of bleomycin or removing it from the BEP in ovarian GCT.

  18. Acute Toxicity of Amorphous Silica Nanoparticles in Intravenously Exposed ICR Mice

    Wang, Wen; Jin, Minghua; Du, Zhongjun; Li, Yanbo; Duan, Junchao; Yu, Yongbo; Sun, Zhiwei

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the acute toxicity of intravenously administrated amorphous silica nanoparticles (SNPs) in mice. The lethal dose, 50 (LD50), of intravenously administrated SNPs was calculated in mice using Dixon's up-and-down method (262.45±33.78 mg/kg). The acute toxicity was evaluated at 14 d after intravenous injection of SNPs at 29.5, 103.5 and 177.5 mg/kg in mice. A silicon content analysis using ICP-OES found that SNPs mainly distributed in the resident macrophages of the liver (10.24%ID/g), spleen (34.78%ID/g) and lung (1.96%ID/g). TEM imaging showed only a small amount in the hepatocytes of the liver and in the capillary endothelial cells of the lung and kidney. The levels of serum LDH, AST and ALT were all elevated in the SNP treated groups. A histological examination showed lymphocytic infiltration, granuloma formation, and hydropic degeneration in liver hepatocytes; megakaryocyte hyperplasia in the spleen; and pneumonemia and pulmonary interstitial thickening in the lung of the SNP treated groups. A CD68 immunohistochemistry stain indicated SNPs induced macrophage proliferation in the liver and spleen. The results suggest injuries induced by the SNPs in the liver, spleen and lungs. Mononuclear phagocytic cells played an important role in the injury process. PMID:23593469

  19. Acute toxicity of amorphous silica nanoparticles in intravenously exposed ICR mice.

    Yang Yu

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the acute toxicity of intravenously administrated amorphous silica nanoparticles (SNPs in mice. The lethal dose, 50 (LD50, of intravenously administrated SNPs was calculated in mice using Dixon's up-and-down method (262.45±33.78 mg/kg. The acute toxicity was evaluated at 14 d after intravenous injection of SNPs at 29.5, 103.5 and 177.5 mg/kg in mice. A silicon content analysis using ICP-OES found that SNPs mainly distributed in the resident macrophages of the liver (10.24%ID/g, spleen (34.78%ID/g and lung (1.96%ID/g. TEM imaging showed only a small amount in the hepatocytes of the liver and in the capillary endothelial cells of the lung and kidney. The levels of serum LDH, AST and ALT were all elevated in the SNP treated groups. A histological examination showed lymphocytic infiltration, granuloma formation, and hydropic degeneration in liver hepatocytes; megakaryocyte hyperplasia in the spleen; and pneumonemia and pulmonary interstitial thickening in the lung of the SNP treated groups. A CD68 immunohistochemistry stain indicated SNPs induced macrophage proliferation in the liver and spleen. The results suggest injuries induced by the SNPs in the liver, spleen and lungs. Mononuclear phagocytic cells played an important role in the injury process.

  20. Development of pulmonary oxygen toxicity in rats after hyperoxic exposure

    Siermontowski Piotr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the effects of hyperbaric oxygen on lung aeration on an animal experimental model and compare the obtained results with the anticipated scope of damage to pulmonary parenchyma in humans under the same exposure conditions. The research was carried out on Black Hood rats that were kept in a hyperbaric chamber designed for animals in an atmosphere of pure oxygen and at overpressures of 0.15, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 MPa for 1, 2 or 4 h. After sacrificing the animals, histopathological specimens were obtained encompassing cross-sections of entire lungs, which were subjected to qualitative and quantitative examination with the use of the 121-point Haug grid. A statistically significant decrease in pulmonary parenchyma was observed as a result of an increasing oxygen partial pressure as well as with prolonged exposure time. The intensification of changes observed was much higher than expected on the basis of calculations performed with the use of tables.

  1. Acute oral toxicities of wildland fire control chemicals to birds

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hill, E.F.

    2009-01-01

    Wildland fire control chemicals are released into the environment by aerial and ground applications to manage rangeland, grassland, and forest fires. Acute oral 24 h median lethal dosages (LD50) for three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R?, Phos-Chek D-75F?, and Fire-Trol LCG-R?) and two Class A fire suppressant foams (Silv-Ex? and Phos-Chek WD881?) were estimated for northern bobwhites, Colinus virginianus, American kestrels, Falco sparverius, and red-winged blackbirds, Agelaius phoeniceus. The LD50s of all chemicals for the bobwhites and red-winged blackbirds and for kestrels dosed with Phos-Chek WD881? and Silv-Ex? were above the predetermined 2000 mg chemical/kg body mass regulatory limit criteria for acute oral toxicity. The LD50s were not quantifiable for kestrels dosed with Fire-Trol GTS-R?, Phos-Chek D-75F?, and Fire-Trol LCG-R? because of the number of birds which regurgitated the dosage. These chemicals appear to be of comparatively low order of acute oral toxicity to the avian species tested.

  2. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor

    Wuen Yew Teoh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynura bicolor (Compositae which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116, one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7, and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay, possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor.

  3. Data on acute toxicity of the progestin STS 557.

    Hillesheim, H G; Hoffmann, H

    1983-02-01

    In mice and rabbits of both sexes the acute toxicity of STS 557 (17 alpha-cyanomethyl-17 beta-hydroxy-estra-4, 9-dien-3-one) was determined after its oral or parenteral (i.p., s.c.) administration. In rabbits increasing lethality was observed following STS 557 suspended in tylose solution at the dose range of 1.0 to 3.0 g/kg p.o. or i.p. The approximate LD50-values were 1.0 to 1.5 g/kg for the i.p. route and 1.0 to 2.0 g/kg for the oral route. Levonorgestrel injected i.p. did not cause any lethality up to the dose of 3.0 g/kg. After oral or s.c. administration to mice, doses of 4.0 g/kg STS 557 were well tolerated. A dose-related toxicity occurred only after i.p. doses between 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg (STS 557), and between 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg (levonorgestrel), respectively. Using an oily vehicle for the oral route in mice, the lethal threshold dose for STS 557 was lowered to about 2.0 g/kg. In conclusion, a low oral acute toxicity was determined for STS 557 corresponding to that of other progestagens like levonorgestrel or norethisterone.

  4. Acute toxicity of TBT and IRGAROL in Artemia salina.

    Panagoula, Bakoulia; Panayiota, Marcouli; Iliopoulou-Georgudaki, Joan

    2002-01-01

    A 24-hour LC(50) bioassay method was carried out to study acute toxicity of Tributyltin (TBT) and IRGAROL (C(11)H(19)N(5)S) in Artemia salina. Five graded levels of both biocides were tested. According to the range test, the doses of TBT were 11.6 ng x l(-1), 21.0 ng x l(-1), 37.3 ng x l(-1), 65.2 ng x l(-1), and 116.5 ng x l(-1), and for IRGAROL were 1.0 mg x l(-1), 1.8 mg x l(-1), 3.2 mg x l(-1), 5.6 mg x l(-1), and 10 mg x l(-1). The determined LC(50) values were 41.41 ng x l(-1) and 1.62 mg x l(-1) respectively. These results indicate that in this system TBT is acutely more toxic than IRGAROL; however, both are proven environmentally toxic substances.

  5. Identifying and designing chemicals with minimal acute aquatic toxicity.

    Kostal, Jakub; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina; Anastas, Paul T; Zimmerman, Julie Beth

    2015-05-19

    Industrial ecology has revolutionized our understanding of material stocks and flows in our economy and society. For this important discipline to have even deeper impact, we must understand the inherent nature of these materials in terms of human health and the environment. This paper focuses on methods to design synthetic chemicals to reduce their intrinsic ability to cause adverse consequence to the biosphere. Advances in the fields of computational chemistry and molecular toxicology in recent decades allow the development of predictive models that inform the design of molecules with reduced potential to be toxic to humans or the environment. The approach presented herein builds on the important work in quantitative structure-activity relationships by linking toxicological and chemical mechanistic insights to the identification of critical physical-chemical properties needed to be modified. This in silico approach yields design guidelines using boundary values for physiochemical properties. Acute aquatic toxicity serves as a model endpoint in this study. Defining value ranges for properties related to bioavailability and reactivity eliminates 99% of the chemicals in the highest concern for acute aquatic toxicity category. This approach and its future implementations are expected to yield very powerful tools for life cycle assessment practitioners and molecular designers that allow rapid assessment of multiple environmental and human health endpoints and inform modifications to minimize hazard.

  6. Respiratory viruses in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Koul, Parvaiz A; Mir, Hyder; Akram, Shabir; Potdar, Varsha; Chadha, Mandeep S

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) cause significant morbidity, mortality, and an inexorable decline of lung function. Data from developed countries have shown viruses to be important causes of AECOPD, but data from developing countries like India are scant. We set out to determine the contribution of viruses in the causation of hospitalized patients with AECOPD. Methods: Twin nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs collected from 233 patients admitted with an acute AECOPD and tested for respiratory viruses including respiratory syncytial virus A and B, parainfluenza were (PIV) 1, 2, 3, and 4, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) A and B, influenza A and B, enterovirus, corona NL65, OC43, and 229E viruses, adenovirus 2 and 4, rhinovirus, and bocavirus, by duplex real time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using CDC approved primers and probes. Samples positive for influenza A were subtyped for A/H1N1pdm09 and A/H3N2 whereas influenza B samples were subtyped into B/Yamagata and B/Victoria subtypes, using primers and probes recommended by CDC, USA. Results: Respiratory viruses were detected in 46 (19.7%) cases, influenza A/H3N2 and rhinoviruses being the most common viruses detected. More than one virus was isolated in four cases consisting of hMPV-B + adeno-2 + Inf-B; rhino + H3N2, PIV-1 + rhino; and PIV-1+ hMPV-B in one case each. Ancillary supportive therapeutic measures included bronchodilators, antibiotics, steroids, and ventilation (noninvasive in 42 and invasive in 4). Antiviral therapy was instituted in influenza-positive patients. Three patients with A/H3N2 infection died during hospitalization. Conclusions: We conclude that respiratory viruses are important contributors to AECOPD in India. Our data calls for prompt investigation during an exacerbation for viruses to obviate inappropriate antibiotic use and institute antiviral therapy in viral disease amenable to antiviral therapy. Appropriate

  7. Pulmonary extraction of propranolol in normal and oxygen-toxic sheep

    Howell, R.E.; Lanken, P.N.; Hansen-Flaschen, J.H.; Haselton, F.R.; Albelda, S.M.; Fishman, A.P.

    1989-07-01

    To help define the mechanisms involved in the handling of propranolol by normal and injured lungs, we studied the pulmonary extraction of (/sup 3/H)propranolol in 23 unanesthetized sheep. Extraction of propranolol by normal lungs during a single circulation was characterized by (1) subsequent back-diffusion and pulmonary retention of the drug, (2) no evidence of saturable uptake or binding, (3) no effect of isoproterenol or imipramine, and (4) no effect of increasing cardiac output by treadmill exercise. In lungs damaged by oxygen toxicity, (/sup 3/H)propranolol extraction decreased progressively to 63% of base line, paralleling progressive arterial hypoxemia and hypercapnia. In contrast, (/sup 14/C)serotonin extraction remained unchanged from base line. Our results suggest that in normal unanesthetized sheep, pulmonary extraction of propranolol occurs primarily by passive diffusion that is flow-limited. Also, lung injury induced by oxygen toxicity in sheep reduces the pulmonary extraction of propranolol. Indeed, in oxygen toxicity, the depressed extraction of propranolol is a more sensitive marker of lung injury than is serotonin extraction.

  8. Acute oral and percutaneous toxicity of pesticides to mallards: Correlations with mammalian toxicity data

    Hudson, R.H.; Haegele, M.A.; Tucker, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    Acute oral (po) and 24-hr percutaneous (perc) LD50 values for 21 common pesticides (19 anticholinesterases, of which 18 were organophosphates, and one was a carbamate; one was an organochlorine central nervous system stimulant; and one was an organonitrogen pneumotoxicant) were determined in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Three of the pesticides tested were more toxic percutaneously than orally. An index to the percutaneous hazard of a pesticide, the dermal toxicity index (DTI = po LD50/perc LD50 ? 100), was also calculated for each pesticide. These toxicity values in mallards were compared with toxicity data for rats from the literature. Significant positive correlations were found between log po and log percutaneous LD50 values in mallards (r = 0.65, p 0.10). Variations in percutaneous methodologies are discussed with reference to interspecies variation in toxicity values. It is recommended that a mammalian DTI value approaching 30 be used as a guideline for the initiation of percutaneous toxicity studies in birds, when the po LD50 and/or projected percutaneous LD50 are less than expected field exposure levels.

  9. Pulmonary toxicity induced by three forms of titanium dioxide nanoparticles via intra-tracheal instillation in rats

    Ran Liu; Lihong Yin; Yuepu Pu; Geyu Liang; Juan Zhang; Yaoyao Su; Zhiping Xiao; Bing Ye

    2009-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are in wide commercial use worldwide.To evaluate if acute pulmonary toxicity can be induced by nano-TiO2 particles,rats were intra-tracheally instilled with 0.5,5,or 50 mg/kg of 5,21,and 50 nm TiO2 primary particles.Toxic effects were determined with the coefficients of lung tissues to body weight,histopathology,biochemical parameters of blood,activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH),alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (ACP) in tissues,and the phagocytotic ability of alveolar macrophages (AMs).All the indicators were observed in sacrificed rats one week post-exposure.There was a significant difference of coefficients of pulmonary tissues between the high-dose group and the low- or moderate-dose groups with an exposure of 5 nm TiO2.At the same time,5 nm TiO2 primary particles increased the activity of LDH and ALP when exposure dose was >5 mg/kg.A significant difference in LDH and ALP activity was observed between the 50 mg/kg group and 0.5 or 5 mg/kg group with exposure of 5 nm TiO2.Lung tissues showed increased ALP activity only if treated with 5 and 50 mg/kg of 21 nm TiO2 particles.There was no significant difference in LDH and ALP activity in the 50 nm TiO2 group and control group.Histopathologic examination of lung tissues indicated that the pulmonary response to exposure to TiO2 particles in rats manifested as dosedependent inflammatory lesions,which mainly consisted of infiltration of inflammatory cells and interstitial thickening.Analysis of uptake of neutral red dye showed that 50 nm TiO2 particles significantly increased phagocytotic ability of AMs compared with controls (P < 0.05),whereas exposure with 5 nm TiO2 reduced the phagocytotic ability of AMs when the exposure dose was 50 mg/kg.These results suggest that particle size and exposure dose may have important roles in pulmonary toxicity.The toxic effect of TiO2 nanoparticles in lung tissue exhibited a dose-response relationship.After exposure with Ti

  10. Non-animal Replacements for Acute Toxicity Testing.

    Barker-Treasure, Carol; Coll, Kevin; Belot, Nathalie; Longmore, Chris; Bygrave, Karl; Avey, Suzanne; Clothier, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Current approaches to predicting adverse effects in humans from acute toxic exposure to cosmetic ingredients still heavily necessitate the use of animals under EU legislation, particularly in the context of the REACH system, when cosmetic ingredients are also destined for use in other industries. These include the LD50 test, the Up-and-Down Procedure and the Fixed Dose Procedure, which are regarded as having notable scientific deficiencies and low transferability to humans. By expanding on previous in vitro tests, such as the animal cell-based 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay, this project aims to develop a truly animal-free predictive test for the acute toxicity of cosmetic ingredients in humans, by using human-derived cells and a prediction model that does not rely on animal data. The project, funded by Innovate UK, will incorporate the NRU assay with human dermal fibroblasts in animal product-free culture, to generate an in vitro protocol that can be validated as an accepted replacement for the currently available in vivo tests. To date, the project has successfully completed an assessment of the robustness and reproducibility of the method, by using sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as a positive control, and displaying analogous results to those of the original studies with mouse 3T3 cells. Currently, the testing of five known ingredients from key groups (a surfactant, a preservative, a fragrance, a colour and an emulsifier) is under way. The testing consists of initial range-finding runs followed by three valid runs of a main experiment with the appropriate concentration ranges, to generate IC50 values. Expanded blind trials of 20 ingredients will follow. Early results indicate that this human cell-based test holds the potential to replace aspects of in vivo animal acute toxicity testing, particularly with reference to cosmetic ingredients.

  11. Acute Warfarin Toxicity as Initial Manifestation of Metastatic Liver Disease

    Varalaxmi Bhavani Nannaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Near complete infiltration of the liver secondary to metastasis from the head and neck cancer is a rare occurrence. The prognosis of liver failure associated with malignant infiltration is extremely poor; the survival time of patients is extremely low. We present a case of acute warfarin toxicity as initial manifestation of metastatic liver disease. Our patient is a 64-year-old woman presenting with epigastric pain and discomfort, found to have unrecordable International Normalized Ratio. She rapidly deteriorated with acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, profound shock requiring high dose vasopressor infusion, severe coagulopathy, worsening liver enzymes with worsening of lactic acidosis and severe metabolic abnormalities, and refractory to aggressive supportive care and died in less than 48 hours. Autopsy revealed that >90% of the liver was replaced by tumor masses.

  12. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

    Akram Ghadirkhomi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50 of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels.  There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (pConclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg.

  13. Preliminary acute toxicity study on imidacloprid in Swiss albino mice

    Preeti Bagri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To ascertain the maximum tolerated dose (MTD and to investigate the acute oral toxic effects of imidacloprid towards Swiss albino male mice.Materials and Methods: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined in pilot dose range finding study following the standard method. Animals were observed for toxic signs and symptoms after oral administration of MTD of imidacloprid in single dose. The body weights of animals were recorded on alternate day. Animals were sacrificed on 14th day and changes in hematological parameters (Hb, TEC, TLC and DLC and morphometric measurements (length, breadth, thickness and weight of various body organs (heart, liver, spleen, kidney, testis and epididymis were examined. The student's t-test was applied to statistically analyze the results.Results: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined to be 110 mg/kg body weight. The sign and symptoms of acute toxicity were ataxia, rigidity and fasciculation of muscles, protrusion of eye ball and tremors of head. Imidacloprid treatment resulted in decreased body weight gain as compared to the control group. The changes in hematological parameters were not significant between imidacloprid treated and control groups. Also the values of relative organ weights and morphometric measurements of various body organs did not differ significantly between the control and imidacloprid treated animals.Conclusions: MTD of imidacloprid in Swiss albino male mice through oral route was determined for the first time. Study revealed a non-toxic effect of imidacloprid on body weight, relative organs weight, hematological parameters and morphometric measurements of various body organs in mice.

  14. Acute Pulmonary Edema in an Eclamptic Pregnant Patient: A Rare Case of Takotsubo Syndrome

    Karamchandani, Kunal; Bortz, Brandon; Vaida, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 35 Final Diagnosis: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy Symptoms: Seizures Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Cesarean section Specialty: Critical Care Medicine Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Acute pulmonary edema in a pregnant patient is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Takotsubo syndrome, or stress-induced cardiomyopathy, is a rare cause of acute pulmonary edema in a pregnant patient, especially prior to delivery of the fetus. Case Report: We describe a case of a pregnant patient who presented with acute pulmonary edema and eclampsia and was found to have Takotsubo syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, eclampsia as a precipitating factor for Takotsubo syndrome has not been described in literature. Conclusions: Clinicians taking care of pregnant patients should be aware of the potential link between eclampsia and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Prompt correction of the precipitating cause along with supportive management as described is the key to a successful outcome. PMID:27658947

  15. Acute Pulmonary Edema in an Eclamptic Pregnant Patient: A Rare Case of Takotsubo Syndrome.

    Karamchandani, Kunal; Bortz, Brandon; Vaida, Sonia

    2016-09-23

    BACKGROUND Acute pulmonary edema in a pregnant patient is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Takotsubo syndrome, or stress-induced cardiomyopathy, is a rare cause of acute pulmonary edema in a pregnant patient, especially prior to delivery of the fetus. CASE REPORT We describe a case of a pregnant patient who presented with acute pulmonary edema and eclampsia and was found to have Takotsubo syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, eclampsia as a precipitating factor for Takotsubo syndrome has not been described in literature. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians taking care of pregnant patients should be aware of the potential link between eclampsia and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Prompt correction of the precipitating cause along with supportive management as described is the key to a successful outcome.

  16. Subclavian steal syndrome presenting as recurrent pulmonary oedema associated with acute left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.

    Mangialavori, Giuseppe; Ballo, Piercarlo; Michelagnoli, Stefano; Ercolini, Leonardo; Barbanti, Enrico; Passuello, Franco; Abbondanti, Alessandro; Consoli, Lorenzo; Chechi, Tania; Fibbi, Veronica; Nannini, Marco; Chiodi, Leandro; Zuppiroli, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Subclavian steal syndrome typically presents as angina in patients with internal mammary artery grafts. Atypical clinical presentations have been rarely described. We report an unusual case of subclavian steal syndrome presenting as pulmonary oedema with acute left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and preserved ejection fraction in a patient with internal mammary artery graft and severe stenosis of the proximal left subclavian artery. After successful angioplasty and stenting of subclavian artery, the patient remained asymptomatic for six months, but then experienced acute diastolic dysfunction and recurrent pulmonary oedema associated with critical subclavian in-stent restenosis with stent deformation. This report points out that, in patients with internal mammary-to-LAD grafts, subclavian steal syndrome may present as acute left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and pulmonary oedema even in the presence of normal ejection fraction.

  17. Epithelial sodium channel is involved in H2S-induced acute pulmonary edema.

    Jiang, Lei; Wang, Yixin; Su, Chenglei; Sun, Hao; Zhang, Huazhong; Zhu, Baoli; Zhang, Hengdong; Xiao, Hang; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Acute pulmonary edema is one of the major outcomes of exposure to high levels of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). However, the mechanisms involved in H2S-induced acute pulmonary edema are still poorly understood. Therefore, the present study is designed to evaluate the role of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in H2S-induced acute pulmonary edema. The Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to sublethal concentrations of inhaled H2S, then the pulmonary histological and lung epithelial cell injury were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining and electron microscopy, respectively. In addition to morphological investigation, our results also revealed that H2S exposure significantly decreased the alveolar fluid clearance and increased the lung tissue wet-dry ratio. These changes were demonstrated to be associated with decreased ENaC expression. Furthermore, the extracellular-regulated protein kinases 1/2 pathway was demonstrated to be implicated in H2S-mediated ENaC expression, because PD98059, an ERK1/2 antagonist, significantly mitigated H2S-mediated ENaC down-regulation. Therefore, our results show that ENaC might represent a novel pharmacological target for the treatment of acute pulmonary edema induced by H2S and other hazardous gases.

  18. [Acute Toxicity of Coptis chinensis Rhizome Extracts to Daphnia carinata].

    Chen, Ya-nan; Yuan, Ling

    2015-10-01

    Coptis chinensis rhizome and preparations were widely used for the treatment of fish diseases in aquaculture. the acute toxicological effect of CRE on lethal, movement and phototaxis was studied on Daphnia carinata monoclone as a test animal in the present experiment. The results showed that CRE was acute toxic to this animal and alkaloids berberine concentrations in CRE changed in the following sequence: half lethal > half inhibitory > limitable, which led to a significant change in phototaxis index of Daphnia carinata. The concentration of CRE for the significant change in phototaxis index was 4.27 mg x L(-1), which was lower than the concentration in water to cure the fish diseases and this conclusion indicated an ecological risk of this antibiotic to Daphnia carinata in aquaculture. In addition, the concentration of CRE in phototaxis index was changed from 30.62 times at 48th hour to 36.51 times at 24th hour that were lower than half lethal concentration. Detecting phototaxis index was easy and only 3 hours was required, so utilizing the quickly change of Daphnia carinata phototaxis can be an effective method to monitor the toxicity effect of CRE on Daphnia carinata. The abuse of rhizome or preparations in aquaculture might destroy the aquatic food chain, resulting in an imbalance of aquatic ecosystems.

  19. Acute and subchronic toxicity of hydroxylammonium nitrate in Wistar rats

    An Hui; Liu Jinyi; Yang Lujun; Liu Shengxue; Zhou Yanhong; Yang Huan; Jia Qingjun; Cui Zhihong; Cao Jia

    2008-01-01

    Hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) is a major constituent in a class of liquid monopropellants and is extensively used in nuclear industry and space propulsion. Previous toxicological studies have focused on oral, inhalation and dermal routes of exposure to HAN-based propellant blends. In this study, acute and subchronic toxicity of HAN in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injections were evaluated. In this acute study, doses of HAN at 115, 125, 135, 147, 160 or 174 mg/kg were administered. No adverse effects were observed during a 14-day period and at gross histopathological examination. In the subchronic study, HAN at 7, 14 or 28 mg/kg were administered for 13 weeks. The treatment with HAN caused significant changes in the weight of spleen, in the level of hematological parameters, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, uric acid and carbondioxidecombining power and histopathological damages of the lung, liver, spleen and kidney. Overall, the study suggests that 13-week HAN treatment caused abnormal hematological changes and tissue lesions, and the risk of toxicity to mammals is not negligible.

  20. Assessment of pulmonary toxicity of MgO nanoparticles in rats.

    Gelli, Kiranmai; Porika, Mahendar; Anreddy, Rama Narsimha Reddy

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the pulmonary toxicity of MgO nanoparticles (MgO NPs) in rats following their exposure. NPs in phosphate buffered saline + 1% Tween 80 were exposed via intratracheal instillation at a doses of 1 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg into rat lungs and evaluated for various tissue damage markers like alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and histopathology of lungs at 1, 7, and 30 days of post-exposure intervals. A dose-dependant increase in ALP and LDH activity was observed in BAL fluids of rat lungs than sham control at all post-exposure periods (P MgO NPs. In conclusion, MgO NPs exposure produced a dose-dependent pulmonary toxicity in rats and was comparable with that of Quartz particles.

  1. Corticosteroid-Responsive Pulmonary Toxicity Associated with Fludarabine Monophosphate: A Case Report

    Milda Rudzianskiene

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fludarabine monophosphate is an effective drug for the treatment of lymphoid malignancies. Myelosuppression, opportunistic infections, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia are the most common side effects of fludarabine. Herein we report a 55-year-old female that presented with fever and dyspnea after completing her third cycle of FMD (fludarabine, mitoxantrone, and dexamethasone chemotherapy for stage IV non-Hodgkin follicular lymphoma. Chest X-ray revealed bilateral pneumofibrotic changes and chest CT showed bilateral diffuse interstitial changes with fibrotic alterations. No evidence of infectious agents was noted. The patient had a reduced carbon monoxide transfer factor (45%. Her symptoms and radiographic findings resolved following treatment with prednisolone. The literature contains several cases of fludarabine-associated interstitial pulmonary toxicity that responded to steroid therapy. Fludarabine-induced pulmonary toxicity is reversible with cessation of the drug and administration of glucocorticosteroids.

  2. Pulmonary Toxicity and Modifications in Iron Homeostasis Following Libby Amphibole Asbestos Exposure in Rat Models of Cardiovascular Disease

    Rationale: Individuals suffering from cardiovascular disease (CVD) develop iron dysregulation which may influence pulmonary toxicity and injury upon exposure to asbestos. We hypothesized spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and spontaneously hypertensive heart failure (SHHF) rats woul...

  3. Pulmonary hydatid cyst in a pregnant patient causing acute respiratory failure

    Hijazi Mohammed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year-old primigravida, at 32 weeks of gestation, presented with acute onset of respiratory failure and circulatory shock. Chest imaging showed findings suggestive of ruptured hydatid cyst, which was confirmed by histology post-thoracotomy. Tissue cultures from the removed cyst grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis also. She was successfully managed in the intensive care unit and was then discharged home on antituberculosis medications in addition to albendazole after prolonged hospitalization and a need for chest tube for bronchopleural fistula. Acute respiratory failure and anaphylactic shock secondary to ruptured pulmonary hydatid cyst and superimposed pulmonary tuberculosis in a pregnant lady should be considered in patients living in endemic areas.

  4. EVALUATION OF THE PULMONARY TOXICITY OF AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER FROM CAMP VICTORY, IRAQ

    Porter, K. L.; Green, F. H. Y.; Harley, R. A.; Vallyathan, V; Castranova, V.; Waldron, N. R.; Leonard, S.S.; Nelson, D E; Lewis, J. A.; Jackson, D A

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotal reports in the press and epidemiological studies suggest that deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan may be associated with respiratory diseases and symptoms in U.S. military personnel and veterans. Exposures during military operations were complex, but virtually all service members were exposed to high levels of respirable, geogenic dust. Inhalation of other dusts has been shown to be associated with adverse health effects, but the pulmonary toxicity of ambient dust from Iraq has not b...

  5. Pulmonary toxicity and metabolic activation of dauricine in CD-1 mice.

    Jin, Hua; Dai, Jieyu; Chen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jia; Zhong, Dafang; Gu, Yansong; Zheng, Jiang

    2010-03-01

    Dauricine is the major bioactive component isolated from the roots of Menispermum dauricum D.C. and has shown promising pharmacological activities with a great potential for clinic use. However, the adverse effects and toxicity of the alkaloid are unfortunately ignored. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the toxicity of dauricine in vitro and in vivo. Mice (CD-1) were treated intraperitoneally with dauricine at various doses, and sera and lung lavage fluids were collected after 24 h of treatment. No changes in serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and blood urea nitrogen were noticed, whereas a dose-dependent increase in lactate dehydrogenase activity was observed in lung lavage fluids. Ethidium-based staining studies showed that remarkable cells lost membrane integrity in the lungs of the animals treated with dauricine at 150 mg/kg. Histopathological evaluation of lungs of mice showed that dauricine at the same dose caused significant alveolar edema and hemorrhage. Exposure to dauricine at 40 muM for 24 h resulted in up to 60% cell death in human lung cell lines BEAS-2B, WI-38, and A549. Ketoconazole showed protective effect on the pulmonary injury in mice given dauricine. A quinone methide metabolite of dauricine was identified in mouse lung microsomal incubations, and the presence of ketoconazole in the microsomal incubations suppressed the formation of the quinone methide metabolite. In conclusion, dauricine produced pulmonary injury in CD-1 mice. The pulmonary toxicity appears to depend on the metabolism of dauricine mediated by CYP3A. The electrophilic quinone methide metabolite probably plays an important role in the pulmonary toxicity induced by dauricine.

  6. Pulmonary toxicity of indium-tin oxide production facility particles in rats

    Badding, Melissa A.; Fix, Natalie R.; Orandle, Marlene S.; Barger, Mark W.; Dunnick, Katherine M.; Cummings, Kristin J.; Leonard, Stephen S.

    2016-01-01

    Indium-tin oxide (ITO) is used to make transparent conductive coatings for touch-screen and liquid crystal display electronics. Occupational exposures to potentially toxic particles generated during ITO production have increased in recent years as the demand for consumer electronics continues to rise. Previous studies have demonstrated cytotoxicity in vitro and animal models have shown pulmonary inflammation and injury in response to various indium-containing particles. In humans, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) and fibrotic interstitial lung disease have been observed in ITO facility workers. However, which indium materials or specific processes in the workplace may be the most toxic to workers is unknown. Here we examined the pulmonary toxicity of three different particle samples that represent real-life worker exposures, as they were collected at various production stages throughout an ITO facility. Indium oxide (In2O3), sintered ITO (SITO) and ventilation dust (VD) particles each caused pulmonary inflammation and damage in rats over a time course (1, 7 and 90 days post-intratracheal instillation), but SITO and VD appeared to induce greater toxicity in rat lungs than In2O3 at a dose of 1 mg per rat. Downstream pathological changes such as PAP and fibrosis were observed in response to all three particles 90 days after treatment, with a trend towards greatest severity in animals exposed to VD when comparing animals that received the same dose. These findings may inform workplace exposure reduction efforts and provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of an emerging occupational health issue. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:26472246

  7. Acute oral toxicity of the herbicide BUREX EKO in pheasants.

    Legáth, J; Mlynarcíková, H; Svický, E; Lenhardt, L; Kacmár, P; Benová, K; Kovác, G

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the acute LD50, clinical symptoms and pathological changes of acute BUREX EKO intoxication in pheasants according to OECD No 205. Medium lethal dose (LD50) of BUREX EKO in pheasant is 3.84 ml/kg body weight with the upper level of reliability 4.50 ml and lower level of reliability 3.27 ml/kg body weight. As far as the calculation to the effective substance is concerned it is 1077 mg of chloridazone per kg body weight with the interval of reliability from 919 to 1263 mg/kg body weight. Calculated the effective substance of chloridazone (3.84 ml is LD50 of BUREX EKO which contains 1077 mg of chloridazone) BUREX EKO can be classified as the moderately toxic substance to pheasants. There were following clinical symptoms of the BUREX EKO intoxication in pheasants: apathy, drowsiness, incapability to move, ruffled feathers, slight diarrhoea, strenuous respiration, tonico-clonical cramps before death, decease with the head expressively bent rearwards. There was a relatively fast beginning of rigor mortis in dead pheasants. Pathologico-anatomical dissection of the pheasants obtained under conditions of acute intoxication did not reveal any changes on the organs of both experimental and control pheasants which would be immediately connected with the effect of the administered substance. Hyperaemia was recorded by histologico-pathological investigation of the liver and kidneys. No changes on the brain and intestine wall were recorded.

  8. Stereotactic radiotherapy of meningiomas. Symptomatology, acute and late toxicity

    Henzel, M.; Gross, M.W.; Failing, T.; Strassmann, G.; Engenhart-Cabillic, R. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Gisssen (Germany); Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Marburg Univ. (Germany); Hamm, K.; Surber, G.; Kleinert, G. [Dept. of Stereotactic Neurosurgery and Radiosurgery, Helios Klinikum Erfurt (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    Background and purpose: stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is well established in the treatment of skull base meningiomas, but this therapy approach is limited to small tumors only. The fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) offers an alternative treatment option. This study aims at local control, symptomatology, and toxicity. Patients and methods: between 1997-2003, 224 patients were treated with SRT (n= 183), hypofractionated SRT (n = 30), and SRS (n = 11). 95/224 were treated with SRT/SRS alone. 129/224 patients underwent previous operations. Freedom from progression and overall survival, toxicity, and symptomatology were evaluated systematically. Additionally, tumor volume (TV) shrinkage was analyzed three-dimensionally within the planning system. Results: the median follow-up was 36 months (range, 12-100 months). Overall survival and freedom from progression for 5 years were 92.9% and 96.9%. Quantitative TV reduction was 26.2% and 30.3% 12 and 18 months after SRT/SRS (p < 0.0001). 95.9% of the patients improved their symptoms or were stable. Clinically significant acute toxicity (CTC III ) was rarely seen (2.5%). Clinically significant late morbidity (III -IV ) or new cranial nerve palsies did not occur. Conclusion: SRT offers an additional treatment option of high efficacy with only few side effects. In the case of large tumor size (> 4 ml) and adjacent critical structures (< 2 mm), SRT is highly recommended. (orig.)

  9. Coronary Artery Calcification Is Often Unreported in CT Pulmonary Angiograms in Patients With Suspected Pulmonary Embolism: An Opportunity to Improve Diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Johnson, Patrick Connor

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE), coronary artery calcification (CAC) can be an incidental finding in CT pulmonary angiograms. We evaluated the frequency of unreported CAC and its association with diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: The data of 469 consecutive patients who were referred to the emergency radiology department for CT pulmonary angiography because of suspicion for PTE were reviewed. Radiology reports were rechecked, and pos...

  10. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H. [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2005-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  11. Quantification of right ventricular function in acute pulmonary embolism: relation to extent of pulmonary perfusion defects

    Kjaergaard, J.; Schaadt, B.K.; Lund, J.O.;

    2008-01-01

    and regional RV dysfunction in 58 consecutive patients with non-massive PE. Methods and results Patients were compared with 58 age-matched controls that had normal ventilation/perfusion scintigraphies. A 2D, Doppler and Tissue Doppler echocardiography performed on the same day, quantified RV pressure...... and global and regional performance. Intermediate and large pulmonary emboli were associated with a significant impact on RV pressure and function. For small pulmonary emboli obstructing

  12. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

    Ghadirkhomi, Akram; Safaeian, Leila; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Agha Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica) is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg) was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day) of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50) of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels. There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and in monocyte counts at the highest dose of the extract in both male and female rats (p<0.05). Mild inflammation was also found in histological examination of kidney and liver tissues at the highest dose of extract. Conclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg. PMID:27761426

  13. Relatively spared central multifocal electroretinogram responses in acute quinine toxicity

    Saeed, Muhammad Usman; Noonan, Carmel; Hagan, Richard; Brown, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    A 71-year-old man was investigated with electrodiagnostic testing 4 months after a deliberate quinine overdose. Initially he was admitted to intensive care unit with visual acuity (VA) of perception of light in both eyes. VA recovered to 6/6 right eye and 6/12 left eye, though severely constricted fields were noted. Slow stimulus (base period of 83 ms) multifocal electroretinogram (ERG) showed electronegative responses outside the inner 5 degrees, with a reduced but electropositive response seen in this central area. It appears that in this case of bilaterally negative ERGs that the macula/fovea (which has a vascular supply through the choroid) is relatively spared as is seen in bilateral vascular electronegative ERGs. This may indicate that quinine toxicity to the retina may be secondary to effects similar to vascular occlusion or severe ischemia during the acute phase of quinine poisoning. PMID:22693278

  14. Sporadic multicentric right atrial and right ventricular myxoma presenting as acute pulmonary thromboembolism

    Satyajit Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicentric cardiac myxoma is a rare syndrome; usually it is familial. We report a rare case of sporadic right atrium (RA and right ventricle (RV myxoma in a 26-year-old female presenting to our hospital for the evaluation of sudden onset of dyspnea and left precordial pain attributed to the embolization of degenerating tumor fragments to the pulmonary artery (PA. The exact incidence of sporadic multicentric RA and RV myxoma presenting as acute pulmonary embolism is unknown as multicentric RA and RV myxoma are very rare. Myxomas presenting as pulmonary embolism is <10%. Majority of cardiac myxomas present as exertional dyspnea, chest pain, positional syncope, fever, weight loss and other constitutional symptoms. Any young patient presenting with acute onset dyspnea with multiple cardiac masses may have tumor embolization to the PA diagnosis with transthoracic echocardiography and high-resolution computed tomography of thorax, fast-tracks patient transfer for urgent cardiac surgery to prevent further embolization.

  15. [Cardiogenic pulmonary edema following β2 agonist infusion for acute, severe asthma].

    Bahloul, M; Chaari, A; Dammak, H; Medhioub, F; Abid, L; Chtourou, K; Rekik, N; Chelly, H; Kallel, H; Bouaziz, M

    2015-09-01

    We report the case of a severe acute pulmonary edema secondary to the administration of salbutamol to a patient admitted for severe asthma. The diagnosis of acute pulmonary edema was suspected on the clinical examination, chest radiography, biological (plasmatic Pro-BNP rate) and echocardiographic findings. Rapid improvement under dobutamine and mechanical ventilation argue in favour of cardiogenic pulmonary edema. The young age of our patient, the absence of history of cardiovascular disease and the chronology of this complication onset regarded to salbutamol infusion could suggest β2 agonist involvement in this event. The improvement of cardiac function on echocardiography and the normal results obtained with myocardial perfusion scintigraphy performed 35 days later show the left ventricular reversible dysfunction.

  16. Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease provide a unique opportunity to take care of patients

    Bianca Beghé

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ECOPD identifies the acute phase of COPD. The COPD patient is often frail and elderly with concomitant chronic diseases. This requires the physician not only looks at specific symptoms or organs, but to consider the patient in all his or her complexity.

  17. Low level of residual thrombotic obstruction following 6 months of anticoagulant treatment for acute pulmonary embolism

    Den Exter, P.L.; Van Es, J.; Kroft, L.J.M.; Erkens, P.G.M.; Douma, Renee; Jonkers, G.; Ten Cate, H.; Beenen, L.; Kamphuisen, P.W.; Huisman, M.V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE), systematic assessment of residual thrombotic obstruction after long-term anticoagulation has been understudied. This information may be of clinical importance for diagnostic baseline imaging, in case of clinically suspected recurrent PE or

  18. Bacteriology in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients admitted to hospital

    Larsen, Mette V; Janner, Julie H; Nielsen, Susanne D;

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the bacterial flora and antimicrobial sensitivity in sputum from patients admitted to hospital with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) in order to recommend the best empirical treatment for these patients. The survey was a retrospective study of a...... for AECOPD we recommend either cefuroxime for intravenous treatment or amoxicillin-clavulanate for oral treatment....

  19. PULMONARY AND CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION FOLLOWING ACUTE ULTRAFINE CARBON PARTICLE INHALATION IN HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    Inhalation of ultrafine carbon particles (ufCP) causes cardiac physiological changes without marked pulmonary injury or inflammation. We hypothesized that acute ufCP exposure of 13 months old Spontaneously Hypertensive (SH) rats will cause differential effects on the lung and hea...

  20. Effect of age and body weight on toxicity and survival in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia

    Løhmann, Ditte J A; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Ha, Shau-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Treatment for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia is very toxic and the association between outcome and age and Body Mass Index is unclear. We investigated effect of age and Body Mass Index on toxicity and survival in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. We studied all patients who completed first indu...

  1. Pulmonary mucormycosis with embolism: two autopsied cases of acute myeloid leukemia.

    Kogure, Yasunori; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Shinozaki-Ushiku, Aya; Watanabe, Akira; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Yoshizato, Tetsuichi; Nannya, Yasuhito; Fukayama, Masashi; Kurokawa, Mineo

    2014-01-01

    Mucormycosis is an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality for patients with hematological malignancies. The diagnosis of mucormycosis usually requires mycological evidence through tissue biopsy or autopsy because the signs and symptoms are nonspecific and there are currently no biomarkers to identify the disease. We herein present two autopsied cases of acute myeloid leukemia with prolonged neutropenia who developed invasive mucormycosis accompanied by pulmonary artery embolism. Our cases were featured by unexplained fever and rapidly progressive dyspnea. Computed tomography scan detected nodular lesions or nonspecific consolidations in the lungs. Cultures, cytological study, and serum fungal markers consistently gave negative results. Autopsy revealed embolism of the pulmonary artery which consisted of fibrin clots by filamentous fungi. Genomic DNA was extracted from the paraffin-embedded clots and was applied to polymerase chain reaction amplification, leading to the diagnosis of infection by Rhizopus microsporus. We should carefully search for life-threatening pulmonary embolism when patients with hematological malignancies develop pulmonary mucormycosis.

  2. Intravascular lymphoma presenting as a specific pulmonary embolism and acute respiratory failure: a case report

    Georgin-Lavialle Sophie

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The occurrence of an intravascular lymphoma with severe pulmonary involvement mimicking pulmonary embolism is described. Case presentation A 38-year-old man was referred to our intensive care unit with acute respiratory failure and long lasting fever. Appropriate investigations failed to demonstrate any bacterial, viral, parasitic or mycobacterial infection. A chest computed tomography scan ruled out any proximal or sub-segmental pulmonary embolism but the ventilation/perfusion lung scan concluded that there was a high probability of pulmonary embolism. The cutaneous biopsy pathology diagnosed intravascular lymphoma. Conclusion Intravascular lymphoma is a rare disease characterized by exclusive or predominant growth of neoplastic cells within the lumina of small blood vessels. Lung involvement seems to be common, but predominant lung presentation of this disease is rare. In our patient, urgent chemotherapy, along with adequate supportive care allowed complete recovery.

  3. Acute isoniazid toxicity and the need for adequate pyridoxine supplies.

    Morrow, Lee E; Wear, Robert E; Schuller, Dan; Malesker, Mark

    2006-10-01

    A 25-year-old, 54-kg Hispanic man who had recently started multidrug therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis presented in status epilepticus after ingesting 9 g of isoniazid in a suicide attempt. Successful management of this patient required collaboration between several institutions to provide the large amount of necessary intravenous pyridoxine. Ultimately, this single overdose depleted the supply of intravenous pyridoxine for a significant region of the state of Nebraska. Isoniazid is commonly used to treat tuberculosis, but it is encountered relatively infrequently as the cause of an acute overdose. Severe isoniazid overdoses may present as seizure activity that is refractory to conventional antiepileptic therapy. Although intravenous pyridoxine is an effective antidote for isoniazid overdoses in patients presenting with status epilepticus, this agent has few indications and is typically stocked in limited quantities. In regions with large populations of patients who receive antituberculosis therapy, collaborative networks must be created to ensure that adequate supplies of intravenous pyridoxine (> or = 20 g) are available for effective treatment of isoniazid poisonings.

  4. Acute effects of riociguat in borderline or manifest pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Ghofrani, Hossein A; Staehler, Gerd; Grünig, Ekkehard; Halank, Michael; Mitrovic, Veselin; Unger, Sigrun; Mueck, Wolfgang; Frey, Reiner; Grimminger, Friedrich; Schermuly, Ralph T; Behr, Juergen

    2015-06-01

    Riociguat is the first oral soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator shown to improve pulmonary hemodynamics in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (PH). This pilot study assessed the impact of a single dose of riociguat on hemodynamics, gas exchange, and lung function in patients with PH associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Adults with COPD-associated borderline or manifest PH (pulmonary vascular resistance > 270 dyn·s·cm(-5), mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥ 23 mmHg, ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] to forced vital capacity 70%, and partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide in arterial blood > 50 and ≤ 55 mmHg, respectively) received riociguat 1 or 2.5 mg during right heart catheterization. Twenty-two patients completed the study (11 men, 11 women, aged 56-82 years; 1-mg group: n = 10 [mean FEV1: 43.1%]; 2.5-mg group: n = 12 [mean FEV1: 41.2%]). Riociguat caused significant improvements (P mmHg [-11.44%]; 2.5 mg: -4.83 mmHg [-14.76%]) and pulmonary vascular resistance (1 mg: -58.32 dyn·s·cm(-5) [-15.35%]; 2.5 mg: -123.8 dyn·s·cm(-5) [-32.96%]). No relevant changes in lung function or gas exchange were observed. Single doses of riociguat were well tolerated and showed promising hemodynamic effects without untoward effects on gas exchange or lung function in patients with COPD-associated PH. Placebo-controlled studies of chronic treatment with riociguat are warranted.

  5. Mustard gas toxicity: the acute and chronic pathological effects.

    Ghabili, Kamyar; Agutter, Paul S; Ghanei, Mostafa; Ansarin, Khalil; Shoja, Mohammadali M

    2010-10-01

    Ever since it was first used in armed conflict, mustard gas (sulfur mustard, MG) has been known to cause a wide range of acute and chronic injuries to exposure victims. The earliest descriptions of these injuries were published during and in the immediate aftermath of the First World War, and a further series of accounts followed the Second World War. More recently, MG has been deployed in warfare in the Middle East and this resulted in large numbers of victims, whose conditions have been studied in detail at hospitals in the region. In this review, we bring together the older and more recent clinical studies on MG toxicity and summarize what is now known about the acute and chronic effects of the agent on the eyes, skin, respiratory tract and other physiological systems. In the majority of patients, the most clinically serious long-term consequences of MG poisoning are on the respiratory system, but the effects on the skin and other systems also have a significant impact on quality of life. Aspects of the management of these patients are discussed.

  6. Acute toxicity evaluation for quinolone antibiotics and their chlorination disinfection processes.

    Li, Min; Wei, Dongbin; Du, Yuguo

    2014-09-01

    Acute toxicity of 21 quinolone antibiotics was monitored using photobacterium Vibrio fischeri assay. The minimum IC20 (inhibitory concentration for 20% luminescence elimination) was obtained at the least 18.86μmol/L for the tested quinolones. A quantitative structure-activity relationship model was established to investigate the possible mechanism for the acute toxicity. The critical physicochemical descriptors, describing σ and π atom electronegativity, implied that the electron transfer might occur between the quinolones and photobacterium V. fischeri. Although the quinolones exhibited limited acute toxicity to photobacterium, toxicity elevation was detected after their chlorination. Hence, chlorination disinfection treatment of quinolone-containing water should be of concerns.

  7. [Echocardiography in acute pulmonary embolism. Not a routine method but useful in the diagnosis of simultaneous hemodynamic disorders].

    Kierkegaard, A

    1998-08-19

    Echocardiographic diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism as illustrated by three case reports is discussed in the article. Acute pulmonary embolism was diagnosed by demonstration of right heart strain in one case, of long vermiform thrombi floating in the right atrium in another, and in the third case by demonstration of a long thrombus lodged in the foramen ovale, astride the atrial septum, and with its ends floating in either atrium. Thus, as echocardiography enables pulmonary embolism to be diagnosed by demonstration either of right heart strain or of intracardial thrombi, it is a useful diagnostic tool in cases of haemodynamic compromise, though it does not detect minor pulmonary embolism.

  8. Acute Pulmonary Thromboembolism Presenting As Complete Heart Block - A Rare Presentation

    Vikash Goyal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE is a life threatening condition which requires early diagnosis and management. Electrocardiogram (ECG is helpful for suspecting the disease. The various ECG changes are sinus tachycardia, P pulmonale, Right bundle branch block (RBBB -incomplete or complete, axis shift, S1Q3T3, T wave inversion, and ST-segment depression in leads V1-4, aVF, and Lead III, supra ventricular tachycardia, low voltage QRS complex in limb leads. In addition, sinus bradycardia and complete heart block (CHB can be seen. CHB has been reported as an exceptionally rare manifestation of acute PTE. Here, we are reporting a case of 66 year old male presented with CHB with acute pulmonary thromboembolism, who reverted to sinus rhythm after thrombolysis.

  9. Acute toxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles to Daphnia magna under different test conditions

    Thit, Amalie; Huggins, Krista; Selck, Henriette;

    2016-01-01

    The acute toxicity of monodispersed 6 nm and <100 nm poly-dispersed copper oxide nanoparticles toward Daphnia magna was assessed using 48 h immobilization tests. CuSO4 was used as a reference. Four different exposure conditions were tested, to study whether the toxicity of the nanoparticle suspen...... model MINTEQ. These findings show that the acute toxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles is governed by test water composition and the chemical species Cu2+....

  10. Acute Pulmonary Edema in Patients with Cushing’s Syndrome

    Mitra Niafar; Mehrnoush Toufan; Nooshin Milanchian; Farhad Niafar; Kavous Shahsavari Nia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Dyspnea refers to difficulty in breathing, and short and shallow breaths. This sign is seen in numerous diseases due to pulmonary, cardiac, metabolic and neurological causes. Among cardiac causes, heart failure is considered the main cause of dyspnea. Cardiac failure is a clinical syndrome associated with a set of symptoms (dyspnea, and fatigue) and signs (edema and rales). Common causes of cardiac failure include: myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, hypertensi...

  11. Pulmonary toxicity after exposure to military-relevant heavy metal tungsten alloy particles

    Roedel, Erik Q., E-mail: Erik.Roedel@amedd.army.mil [Department of General Surgery, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859 (United States); Cafasso, Danielle E., E-mail: Danielle.Cafasso@amedd.army.mil [Department of General Surgery, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859 (United States); Lee, Karen W.M., E-mail: Karen.W.Lee@amedd.army.mil [Department of Clinical Investigation, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859 (United States); Pierce, Lisa M., E-mail: Lisa.Pierce@amedd.army.mil [Department of Clinical Investigation, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Significant controversy over the environmental and public health impact of depleted uranium use in the Gulf War and the war in the Balkans has prompted the investigation and use of other materials including heavy metal tungsten alloys (HMTAs) as nontoxic alternatives. Interest in the health effects of HMTAs has peaked since the recent discovery that rats intramuscularly implanted with pellets containing 91.1% tungsten/6% nickel/2.9% cobalt rapidly developed aggressive metastatic tumors at the implantation site. Very little is known, however, regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with the effects of inhalation exposure to HMTAs despite the recognized risk of this route of exposure to military personnel. In the current study military-relevant metal powder mixtures consisting of 92% tungsten/5% nickel/3% cobalt (WNiCo) and 92% tungsten/5% nickel/3% iron (WNiFe), pure metals, or vehicle (saline) were instilled intratracheally in rats. Pulmonary toxicity was assessed by cytologic analysis, lactate dehydrogenase activity, albumin content, and inflammatory cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 24 h after instillation. The expression of 84 stress and toxicity-related genes was profiled in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage cells using real-time quantitative PCR arrays, and in vitro assays were performed to measure the oxidative burst response and phagocytosis by lung macrophages. Results from this study determined that exposure to WNiCo and WNiFe induces pulmonary inflammation and altered expression of genes associated with oxidative and metabolic stress and toxicity. Inhalation exposure to both HMTAs likely causes lung injury by inducing macrophage activation, neutrophilia, and the generation of toxic oxygen radicals. -- Highlights: ► Intratracheal instillation of W–Ni–Co and W–Ni–Fe induces lung inflammation in rats. ► W–Ni–Co and W–Ni–Fe alter expression of oxidative stress and toxicity genes. ► W

  12. [Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    Skalická, Hana; Bělohlávek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema is a clinical syndrome manifested by rapidly progressive respiratory distress leading, without therapy, to severe respiratory insufficiency and subsequent multiorgan failure. The pathophysiological causes are: the change in the pressure gradients in the pulmonary capillaries, the impaired membrane permeability of the alveolocapillary in the lungs, and impaired lymphatic drainage. Unlike in cardiogenic pulmonary edema, cardiac disease is not a cause, and there is no increase in wedge pressure (< 18 mm Hg). The aetiological base is diverse and includes more clinical pathological factors. The diagnosis and evaluation are usually very difficult due to the rapidly deteriorating clinical condition of the patients. A decisive, quick and comprehensive approach, using all available invasive and non-invasive methods is necessary. The basic steps of treatment are: the use of different types of ventilatory support in order to achieve adequate oxygenation, dealing with possible hemodynamic instability, and, when needed, other specific procedures. It is always important to keep in mind that this is a very serious condition with a high mortality rate. And there is a need for fast and efficient access to the best specialized clinic.

  13. Acute Postpartum Pulmonary Edema in a 32-Year-Old Woman Five Days after Cesarean Delivery

    Masuda Islam Khan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute dyspnea after pregnancy is a rare presentation, and a number of important conditions may accompany it. Pulmonary embolism, amniotic fluid embolism, pneumonia, aspiration and pulmonary edema are some of the potential causes that must be considered. The percentage of pregnancies that are complicated by acute pulmonary edema has been estimated 0.08%. The most common contributing factors include the administration of tocolytic agents, underlying cardiac disease, iatrogenic fluid overload and preeclampsia. Here we report a case of 32- year-old woman of 5th postpartum day following lower uterine cesarean section with acute dyspnea from her first pregnancy who was admitted in coronary care unit with history of one episode of raised blood pressure 160/90 mm Hg and cough on 1st postoperative day. Clinical examination and relevant investigations explored that it was a case of bilateral pulmonary edema. Patient was kept in ventilator and was treated with nitroglycerine (GTN, frusemide and ACE inhibitor. After diuresis, considerable improvement was observed in her respiratory status. From the 4th day, the patient became hemodynamically stable and was weaned off the ventilator. After five days, all the biochemical parameters became normal and she had no dyspnea.

  14. A patient with possible TRALI who developed pulmonary hypertensive crisis and acute pulmonary edema during cardiac surgery.

    Kojima, Taiki; Nishisako, Ryo; Sato, Hideo

    2012-06-01

    There are very few case reports of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) under close hemodynamic monitoring. We encountered a case of possible TRALI during on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). A 66-year-old man who had undergone on-pump CABG was administered fresh frozen plasma (FFP). One hour after FFP transfusion, pulmonary hypertensive crisis and subsequent hypoxic decompensation occurred. A second cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was needed for circulatory and respiratory deterioration. Extracorporeal life support (ECLS), intraaortic balloon pumping (IABP), and nitric oxide therapy were required after the surgery. Despite the severity of the initial state, his recovery was comparatively smooth. ECLS and IABP were removed on postoperative day (POD)1; the patient was extubated and discharged from the ICU on POD7 and POD12, respectively. The diagnosis of TRALI was confirmed by human leukocyte antigen antibody detection in the administered FFP. In addition, lymphocytic immunofluorescence test showed that a cross-match of the plasma from the pooled FFP against the recipient leukocytes was positive. The clinical course of the pulmonary artery hypertension was followed by a decrease in dynamic lung compliance. The mechanism of this phenomenon is unclear. However, it might suggest the possibility of vasoconstriction or obstruction of the peripheral pulmonary artery preceding lung damage, as in the case in animal models reported previously.

  15. Endovascular Management of Acute Pulmonary Embolism Using the Ultrasound-Enhanced EkoSonic System.

    Garcia, Mark J

    2015-12-01

    Acute, symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) in the massive and submassive categories continues to be a healthcare concern with significant risk for increased morbidity and mortality. Despite increased awareness and venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, endovascular treatment is still an important option for many of these patients. There are a variety of techniques and devices used for treating PE, but none have been evaluated as extensively as the EkoSonic endovascular system that is also currently the only FDA-approved device for the treatment of pulmonary embolism. This article describes the use of the EkoSonic device for this patient population.

  16. ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF CLINACANTHUS NUTANS IN MICE

    Xiu Wen P'ng, Gabriel Akyirem Akowuah and Jin Han Chin*

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (Family: Acanthaceae has attracted public interest recently due to its high medicinal values for the treatment of cancer, inflammation and various skin problems. This study was aimed to determine the oral LD50 value of the methanol leaves extract of C. nutans and identify the targeted organs in mice. This acute oral toxicity study was conducted in accordance to OECD 423 guidelines by using male Swiss albino mice weighing 25-35 g. First group was served as control group which received distilled water (vehicle while second and third group were orally treated with single daily dose of 0.9 g/kg and 1.8 g/kg of methanol leaves extract of C. nutans, respectively. All the animals were closely observed for 14 days. Body weight for each mouse was recorded at day-0, day-3, day-7 and day-14. Relative organ weights for liver, kidney, spleen, lung and heart were also determined. All the results were presented as mean ± standard deviation and analyzed using Dunnett’s Test after ANOVA test. From the results obtained, no mortality was observed in both treatment groups either post 24 hours or 14 days of oral administration of C. nutans. Body weight for each mouse and relative organ weight showed insignificant difference when compared to the control group. In conclusion, acute exposure of 1.8 g/kg of C. nutans was safe in male mice without causing any adverse effects or mortality. The oral LD50 of methanol leaves extract of C. nutans was suggested to be greater than 1.8 g/kg bw in male mice.

  17. Mannose-binding lectin deficiency and acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Woodruff PG

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Richard K Albert,1 John Connett,2 Jeffrey L Curtis,3,4 Fernando J Martinez,3 MeiLan K Han,3 Stephen C Lazarus,5 Prescott G Woodruff51Medicine Service, Denver Health and Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, 2Division of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 3Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 4Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, VA Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI, 5Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, and Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: Mannose-binding lectin is a collectin involved in host defense against infection. Whether mannose-binding lectin deficiency is associated with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is debated.Methods: Participants in a study designed to determine if azithromycin taken daily for one year decreased acute exacerbations had serum mannose-binding lectin concentrations measured at the time of enrollment.Results: Samples were obtained from 1037 subjects (91% in the trial. The prevalence of mannose-binding lectin deficiency ranged from 0.5% to 52.2%, depending on how deficiency was defined. No differences in the prevalence of deficiency were observed with respect to any demographic variable assessed, and no differences were observed in time to first exacerbation, rate of exacerbations, or percentage of subjects requiring hospitalization for exacerbations in those with deficiency versus those without, regardless of how deficiency was defined.Conclusion: In a large sample of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease selected for having an increased risk of experiencing an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, only 1.9% had mannose-binding lectin concentrations below the normal range and we found no association between mannose-binding lectin

  18. Acute and subacute oral toxicity assessment of the oil extracted from Attalea phalerata Mart ex Spreng. pulp fruit in rats.

    Freitas de Lima, Fernando; Traesel, Giseli Karenina; Menegati, Sara Emilia Lima Tolouei; Santos, Ariany Carvalho Dos; Souza, Roosevelt Isaias Carvalho; de Oliveira, Vinícius Soares; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Oesterreich, Silvia Aparecida; Vieira, Maria do Carmo

    2017-01-01

    Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng., popularly known as "bacuri", is a native plant from the brazilian Cerrado and used in folk medicine as a pulmonary decongestant, an anti-inflammatory for joints and antipyretic. There is an expectation about the use in chronic disease of the Attalea phalerata oil since its composition is high in carotenoids and beneficial fatty acids. The aim of the study was to evaluate the toxicological profile of the oil extracted from Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. pulp (APO). Acute and subacute toxicity studies were performed in male and female Wistar rats according to the OECD - Guidelines 425 and 407. For the acute toxicity, one single dose of the APO (2000mg/kg) was administered by gavage to five female rats. In the subacute toxicity, four different doses (125, 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg) of the APO were administered to male and female rats for 28 consecutive days. No deaths or behavioral changes were observed during both experiments as well as no changes in organ weights, hematological, histopathological parameters. The biochemical parameters showed changes in phosphatase alkaline and albumin levels, however these values are within the normal range for the species. A significant reduction in cholesterol and triglycerides was also observed in some of the animals treated with the APO. Therefore, the LD50 is higher than 2000mg/kg and the APO oil can be considered safe at the doses tested in rats. However, further assessments are required in order to proceed to clinical studies in humans.

  19. Toxicological evaluation of ferrous N-carbamylglycinate chelate: Acute, Sub-acute toxicity and mutagenicity.

    Wan, Dan; Zhou, Xihong; Xie, Chunyan; Shu, Xugang; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong

    2015-11-01

    Iron is an essential trace element that is vital important in various biological process. A deficiency in iron could induce public health problem e.g. anaemia, while an overload could induce ROS production, lipid peroxidation and DNA bases modifications. In the present study, a new iron fortifier was synthesized, and its acute/sub-acute toxicity was investigated. According to the improved Karber's method, the median lethal dose (LD50) of the ferrous N-carbamylglycinate in SD rat was 3.02 g/kg and the 95% confidence intervals were between 2.78 and 3.31 g/kg. No biologically significant or test substance-related differences were observed in body weights, feed consumption, clinical signs, organ weights, histopathology, ophthalmology, hematology, and clinical chemistry parameters in any of the treatment groups of ferrous N-carbamylglycinate at target concentrations corresponding to 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg/day for 28 days. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for ferrous N-carbamylglycinate was at least 600 mg/kg b.w. day in rats. In addition, no evidence of mutagenicity was found, either in vitro in bacterial reverse mutation assay or in vivo in mice bone marrow micronucleus assay and sperm shape abnormality assay. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that ferrous N-carbamylglycinate is a low-toxic substance with no genotoxicity.

  20. Comparison of organics and heavy metals acute toxicities to Vibrio fischeri

    Yang Xuepeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition has been widely used to test acute toxicities of metals and organics contaminants. However, the differences of metals and organics acute toxicities to V. fischeri have not been compared. Here, four heavy metals (Zn2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Cr6+ and five organics (phenol, benzoic acid, p-hydroxy benzoic acid, nitro-benzene and benzene acute toxicities to V. fischeri were investigated. Heavy metals toxicities to V. fischeri were increased along with the reaction time, while the organics toxicities kept the same level in different reaction times. In order to explain the difference, the relative cell death rate of V. fischeri was detected. In metals toxicities tests, the bioluminescence inhibition rate of V. fischeri was found to be significantly higher than the relative cell death rate (P<0.05, while for the organics toxicities tests, the cell death rate was similar to the bioluminescence inhibition rate. These results indicated that organics acute toxicities to V. fischeri could reflect the death of cell, but metals acute toxicities to V. fischeri may not lead to the death of cell, just represent the bioluminescence inhibition.

  1. Pulmonary toxicity after exposure to military-relevant heavy metal tungsten alloy particles.

    Roedel, Erik Q; Cafasso, Danielle E; Lee, Karen W M; Pierce, Lisa M

    2012-02-15

    Significant controversy over the environmental and public health impact of depleted uranium use in the Gulf War and the war in the Balkans has prompted the investigation and use of other materials including heavy metal tungsten alloys (HMTAs) as nontoxic alternatives. Interest in the health effects of HMTAs has peaked since the recent discovery that rats intramuscularly implanted with pellets containing 91.1% tungsten/6% nickel/2.9% cobalt rapidly developed aggressive metastatic tumors at the implantation site. Very little is known, however, regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with the effects of inhalation exposure to HMTAs despite the recognized risk of this route of exposure to military personnel. In the current study military-relevant metal powder mixtures consisting of 92% tungsten/5% nickel/3% cobalt (WNiCo) and 92% tungsten/5% nickel/3% iron (WNiFe), pure metals, or vehicle (saline) were instilled intratracheally in rats. Pulmonary toxicity was assessed by cytologic analysis, lactate dehydrogenase activity, albumin content, and inflammatory cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 24h after instillation. The expression of 84 stress and toxicity-related genes was profiled in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage cells using real-time quantitative PCR arrays, and in vitro assays were performed to measure the oxidative burst response and phagocytosis by lung macrophages. Results from this study determined that exposure to WNiCo and WNiFe induces pulmonary inflammation and altered expression of genes associated with oxidative and metabolic stress and toxicity. Inhalation exposure to both HMTAs likely causes lung injury by inducing macrophage activation, neutrophilia, and the generation of toxic oxygen radicals.

  2. Pulmonary toxicity of well-dispersed titanium dioxide nanoparticles following intratracheal instillation

    Yoshiura, Yukiko, E-mail: y-yoshiura@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Izumi, Hiroto [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Occupational Pneumology, Institute of Industrial Ecological Science (Japan); Oyabu, Takako [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences (Japan); Hashiba, Masayoshi; Kambara, Tatsunori [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Occupational Pneumology, Institute of Industrial Ecological Science (Japan); Mizuguchi, Yohei; Lee, Byeong Woo; Okada, Takami [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences (Japan); Tomonaga, Taisuke [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Occupational Pneumology, Institute of Industrial Ecological Science (Japan); Myojo, Toshihiko [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences (Japan); Yamamoto, Kazuhiro [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) (Japan); Kitajima, Shinichi [National Sanatorium Hoshizuka Keiaien (Japan); Horie, Masanori [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Health Research Institute (HRI) (Japan); Kuroda, Etsushi [Osaka University, Laboratory of Vaccine Science, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center (Japan); Morimoto, Yasuo [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Occupational Pneumology, Institute of Industrial Ecological Science (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    In order to investigate the pulmonary toxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles, we performed an intratracheal instillation study with rats of well-dispersed TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and examined the pulmonary inflammation and histopathological changes in the lung. Wistar Hannover rats were intratracheally administered 0.2 mg (0.66 mg/kg) and 1.0 mg (3.3 mg/kg) of well-dispersed TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (P90; diameter of agglomerates: 25 nm), then the pulmonary inflammation responses were examined from 3 days to 6 months after the instillation, and the pathological features were examined up to 24 months. Transient inflammation and the upregulation of chemokines in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid were observed for 1 month. No respiratory tumors or severe fibrosis were observed during the recovery time. These data suggest that transient inflammation induced by TiO{sub 2} may not lead to chronic, irreversible legions in the lung, and that TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles may not have a high potential for lung disorder.

  3. Assessment of Pulmonary Toxicity Induced by Inhaled Toner with External Additives

    Taisuke Tomonaga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the harmful effects of exposure to a toner with external additives by a long-term inhalation study using rats, examining pulmonary inflammation, oxidative stress, and histopathological changes in the lung. Wistar rats were exposed to a well-dispersed toner (mean of MMAD: 2.1 μm at three mass concentrations of 1, 4, and 16 mg/m3 for 22.5 months, and the rats were sacrificed after 6 months, 12 months, and 22.5 months of exposure. The low and medium concentrations did not induce statistically significant pulmonary inflammation, but the high concentration did, and, in addition, a histopathological examination showed fibrosis in the lung. Although lung tumor was observed in one sample of high exposure for 22.5 months, the cause was not statistically significant. On the other hand, a persistent increase in 8-OHdG was observed in the high exposure group, indicating that DNA damage by oxidative stress with persistent inflammation leads to the formation of tumorigenesis. The results of our studies show that toners with external additives lead to pulmonary inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis only at lung burdens beyond overload. These data suggest that toners with external additives may have low toxicity in the lung.

  4. ACUTE TOXICITY OF METHOMYL ON POECILIA LATIPINNA (LESUEUR 1821 (POECILIDAE

    Napan, K.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Methomyl is a chemical compound acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that acts by contact system and is one of the most widely used chemicals such as insecticide-acaricide for control of a wide range of agricultural pests. The following study aims to assess the acute toxicity of methomyl on introduced fish Poecilia latipinna (Lesueur 1821 (Poecilidae at 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure. Bioassays were carried out with 5 levels and 4 treatments, temperature was 21.8 ° C ± 1, pH 7.34 ± 0.31, conductivity 0.54 mS ± 0.03, and average dissolved solutes in the middle 267.39 mg.L-1. The data obtained during tests were evaluated using the statistical method analytic Probit ver. 1.5. The results of the median Lethal Concentration (LC of methomyl on P. latipinna were: 2 h = 13.95 mg IA.L-1, 4 h 50 =10.39 mg IA.L-1, 6 h = 8.12 mg IA.L-1, 8 h = 5.81 mg IA.L-1, 24 h 3.99 mg IA.L-1, 48 h = 2.61 mg IA.L-1, 72 h = 2.24 mg IA.L-1 and finally 96 h = 2.08 IA.L mg-1. At the highest concentration was observed a change of skin color intensity of silver to black.

  5. Rosiglitazone dampens pulmonary inflammation in a porcine model of acute lung injury.

    Mirakaj, Valbona; Mutz, Christian; Vagts, Dierk; Henes, Janek; Haeberle, Helene A; Husung, Susanne; König, Tony; Nöldge-Schomburg, Gabriele; Rosenberger, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The hallmarks of acute lung injury (ALI) are the compromised alveolar-capillary barrier and the extravasation of leukocytes into the alveolar space. Given the fact that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist rosiglitazone holds significant anti-inflammatory properties, we aimed to evaluate whether rosiglitazone could dampen these hallmarks of local pulmonary inflammation in a porcine model of lung injury. For this purpose, we used a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 50 μg/kg)-induced ALI. One hundred twenty minutes following the infusion of LPS, we started the exposure to rosiglitazone through inhalation or infusion. We found that intravenous rosiglitazone significantly controlled local pulmonary inflammation as determined through the expression of cytokines within the alveolar compartment. Furthermore, we found a significant reduction of the protein concentration and neutrophil activity within the alveolar space. In summary, we therefore conclude that the treatment with rosiglitazone might dampen local pulmonary inflammation during the initial stages of ALI.

  6. Biodistribution and acute toxicity of naked gold nanoparticles in a rabbit hepatic tumor model.

    Glazer, Evan S; Zhu, Cihui; Hamir, Amir N; Borne, Agatha; Thompson, Catherine Shea; Curley, Steven A

    2011-12-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the safety of administering solid gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in large animal tumor models. We assessed the acute toxicity and biodistribution of 5 nm and 25 nm solid AuNPs in New Zealand White rabbits (n = 6 in each) with implanted liver Vx2 tumors 24 h after intravenous injection. Gold concentration was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP) and imaged with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). There was no clinico-pathologic evidence of renal, hepatic, pulmonary, or other organ dysfunction. After 25 nm AuNP administration, the concentration of white blood cells increased after treatment (p = 0.001). Most other blood studies were unchanged. AuNPs were distributed to the spleen, liver, and Vx2 tumors, but not to other tissues. The urinary excretion of AuNPs was bimodal as measured by ICP. 25 nm AuNPs were more evenly distributed throughout tissues and may be better tools for medical therapy.

  7. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response may be the causal link between particle inhalation and cardiovascular disease

    Saber, Anne T.; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Jackson, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of ambient and workplace particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. One proposed mechanism for this association is that pulmonary inflammation induces a hepatic acute phase response, which increases risk of cardiovascular disease. Induction...... epidemiological studies. In this review, we present and review emerging evidence that inhalation of particles (e.g., air diesel exhaust particles and nanoparticles) induces a pulmonary acute phase response, and propose that this induction constitutes the causal link between particle inhalation and risk...

  8. Pulmonary Toxicity, Distribution, and Clearance of Intratracheally Instilled Silicon Nanowires in Rats.

    Roberts, Jenny R; Mercer, Robert R; Chapman, Rebecca S; Cohen, Guy M; Bangsaruntip, Sarunya; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Scabilloni, James F; Castranova, Vincent; Antonini, James M; Leonard, Stephen S

    Silicon nanowires (Si NWs) are being manufactured for use as sensors and transistors for circuit applications. The goal was to assess pulmonary toxicity and fate of Si NW using an in vivo experimental model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with 10, 25, 50, 100, or 250 μg of Si NW (~20-30 nm diameter; ~2-15 μm length). Lung damage and the pulmonary distribution and clearance of Si NW were assessed at 1, 3, 7, 28, and 91 days after-treatment. Si NW treatment resulted in dose-dependent increases in lung injury and inflammation that resolved over time. At day 91 after treatment with the highest doses, lung collagen was increased. Approximately 70% of deposited Si NW was cleared by 28 days with most of the Si NW localized exclusively in macrophages. In conclusion, Si NW induced transient lung toxicity which may be associated with an early rapid particle clearance; however, persistence of Si NW over time related to dose or wire length may lead to increased collagen deposition in the lung.

  9. Pulmonary Toxicity, Distribution, and Clearance of Intratracheally Instilled Silicon Nanowires in Rats

    Jenny R. Roberts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanowires (Si NWs are being manufactured for use as sensors and transistors for circuit applications. The goal was to assess pulmonary toxicity and fate of Si NW using an in vivo experimental model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with 10, 25, 50, 100, or 250 μg of Si NW (~20–30 nm diameter; ~2–15 μm length. Lung damage and the pulmonary distribution and clearance of Si NW were assessed at 1, 3, 7, 28, and 91 days after-treatment. Si NW treatment resulted in dose-dependent increases in lung injury and inflammation that resolved over time. At day 91 after treatment with the highest doses, lung collagen was increased. Approximately 70% of deposited Si NW was cleared by 28 days with most of the Si NW localized exclusively in macrophages. In conclusion, Si NW induced transient lung toxicity which may be associated with an early rapid particle clearance; however, persistence of Si NW over time related to dose or wire length may lead to increased collagen deposition in the lung.

  10. Papillary muscle rupture due to acute myocardial infarction followed by cardiogenic shock, pulmonary edema, and acute renal failure

    Ilić Radoje

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The case of successful surgical treatment of anterolateral papillary muscle rupture due to acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock, pulmonary edema and acute renal failure. Case report. A 62-year old male from Belgrade with chest pain, hypotension and a new heart murmur refused hospitalization at the Military Medical Academy. On the third day of his illness he was readmitted to MMA as an emergency due to hemoptysis. Examination revealed mitral valve anterolateral papillary muscle rupture. The patient, with signs of cardiogenic shock and acute renal failure, was immediately operated on. The surgery was performed using extracorporeal circulation. An artificial mitral valve was implanted, and myocardial revascularization accomplished with one venous graft of the left anterior descending artery. On the second postoperative day, hemodialysis was carried out due to acute renal failure. On the 28th postoperative day, the patient was discharged from the hospital being hemodynamically stable with normal renal function and balanced anticoagulation. The case is interesting in terms of unrecognized papillary muscle rupture that led to the development of cardiogenic shock, hemoptysis and acute renal failure. Conclusion. Papillary muscle rupture is a fatal complication of acute myocardial infarction. Early recognition and urgent surgical intervention were lifesaving in the case of complete papillary muscle rupture. Surgical treatment, regardless of high risk, is the procedure of choice.

  11. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: role of early diagnosis and surgical treatment in patients with acute leukemia

    Ursavas Ahmet

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspergillus is a ubiquitous soil-dwelling fungus known to cause significant pulmonary infection in immunocompromised patients. The incidence of aspergillosis has increased during the past two decades and is a frequently lethal complication of acute leukemia patients that occurs following both chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. The diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA according to the criteria that are established by European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer and Mycoses Study Group raise difficulties in severely ill patients. Despite established improvements in field of diagnosis (galactomannan antigen, quantitative PCR, real-time PCR for Aspergillus spp., and findings of computed tomography and treatment with new antifungals, it is still a major problem in patients with acute leukemia. However, prompt and effective treatment of IPA is crucial because most patients will need subsequent chemotherapy for underlying hematologic disease as soon as possible. Case presentation We report a 33-year-old male patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia diagnosed in 1993 that developed invasive pulmonary aspergillosis due to A. flavus at relapse in 2003. The patient was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B and underwent surgical pulmonary resection. The operative course was uneventful. Conclusion This report emphasizes the clinical picture, applicability of recent advances in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for IPA. For early identification of a patient infected with IPA, a high index of suspicion and careful clinical and radiological examinations with serial screening for galactomannan should be established. If aspergillosis is suspected, anti-aspergillosis drug should be administered immediately, and if a unique pulmonary lesion remains, surgical resection should be considered to prevent reactivation during consecutive chemotherapy courses and to improve the outcome.

  12. Acute cerebral and pulmonary edema induced by hemodialysis in a dog model

    SHI Zhen-wei; WANG Zhi-gang

    2008-01-01

    Background The dialysis disequilibrium syndrome is characterized by neurologic deterioration and cerebral edema which occurs after hemodialysis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathogenesis of acute cerebral and pulmonary edema induced by hemodialysis.Methods We evaluated the effects of hemodialysis on the biochemical and hemodynamic parameters of the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid, including the intracranial pressure, dry/wet ratio, and pulmonary edema index, and we also examined the pathological changes of the brain and lung tissue in dogs suffering from uremia.Results Seventy-two hours after bilateral ureteral ligation, 10 uremic dogs were hemodialyzed for 2 hours, yielding a 73.6% and 60.1% decrease in the plasma urea and creatinine, respectively, a decrease in the plasma osmolality from (359±18) mOsm/kgH2O to (304±6) mOsm/kgH2O (P <0.01 ), a decrease in the dry/wet ratio of the lung and brain tissue,and an increase in the hemodynamic parameters (right atrial pressure, right ventricular pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and central venous pressure), intracranial pressure, total pulmonary resistance index, and pulmonary edema index. Moreover, the pathological examination revealed lung and brain edema in the dialyzed dogs. This group was compared to 3 control groups: 6 uremic dogs which were sham dialyzed without dialysate so that no fall in the plasma urea occurred, and 12 uremic and 12 nonuremic animals that were not dialyzed.However, the parameters mentioned above were not significantly changed among these 3 control groups.Conclusions The acute brain and lung edema in our model appeared to be primarily due to a large osmotic gradient between the plasma and the brain and lung. This is the "urea reverse effect" which promoted the osmotically-induced lung and brain swelling.

  13. Nicardipine-induced acute pulmonary edema: a rare but severe complication of tocolysis.

    Serena, Claire; Begot, Emmanuelle; Cros, Jérôme; Hodler, Charles; Fedou, Anne Laure; Nathan-Denizot, Nathalie; Clavel, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We report four cases of acute pulmonary edema that occurred during treatment by intravenous tocolysis using nicardipine in pregnancy patients with no previous heart problems. Clinical severity justified hospitalization in intensive care unit (ICU) each time. Acute dyspnea has begun at an average of 63 hours after initiation of treatment. For all patients, the first diagnosis suspected was pulmonary embolism. The patients' condition improved rapidly with appropriate diuretic treatment and by modifying the tocolysis. The use of intravenous nicardipine is widely used for tocolysis in France even if its prescription does not have a marketing authorization. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this complication remain unclear. The main reported risk factors are spontaneous preterm labor, multiple pregnancy, concomitant obstetrical disease, association with beta-agonists, and fetal lung maturation corticotherapy. A better knowledge of this rare but serious adverse event should improve the management of patients. Nifedipine or atosiban, the efficiency of which tocolysis was also studied, could be an alternative.

  14. Nicardipine-Induced Acute Pulmonary Edema: A Rare but Severe Complication of Tocolysis

    Serena, Claire; Begot, Emmanuelle; Cros, Jérôme; Hodler, Charles; Fedou, Anne Laure; Nathan-Denizot, Nathalie; Clavel, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We report four cases of acute pulmonary edema that occurred during treatment by intravenous tocolysis using nicardipine in pregnancy patients with no previous heart problems. Clinical severity justified hospitalization in intensive care unit (ICU) each time. Acute dyspnea has begun at an average of 63 hours after initiation of treatment. For all patients, the first diagnosis suspected was pulmonary embolism. The patients' condition improved rapidly with appropriate diuretic treatment and by modifying the tocolysis. The use of intravenous nicardipine is widely used for tocolysis in France even if its prescription does not have a marketing authorization. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this complication remain unclear. The main reported risk factors are spontaneous preterm labor, multiple pregnancy, concomitant obstetrical disease, association with beta-agonists, and fetal lung maturation corticotherapy. A better knowledge of this rare but serious adverse event should improve the management of patients. Nifedipine or atosiban, the efficiency of which tocolysis was also studied, could be an alternative. PMID:25215245

  15. Nicardipine-Induced Acute Pulmonary Edema: A Rare but Severe Complication of Tocolysis

    Claire Serena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report four cases of acute pulmonary edema that occurred during treatment by intravenous tocolysis using nicardipine in pregnancy patients with no previous heart problems. Clinical severity justified hospitalization in intensive care unit (ICU each time. Acute dyspnea has begun at an average of 63 hours after initiation of treatment. For all patients, the first diagnosis suspected was pulmonary embolism. The patients' condition improved rapidly with appropriate diuretic treatment and by modifying the tocolysis. The use of intravenous nicardipine is widely used for tocolysis in France even if its prescription does not have a marketing authorization. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this complication remain unclear. The main reported risk factors are spontaneous preterm labor, multiple pregnancy, concomitant obstetrical disease, association with beta-agonists, and fetal lung maturation corticotherapy. A better knowledge of this rare but serious adverse event should improve the management of patients. Nifedipine or atosiban, the efficiency of which tocolysis was also studied, could be an alternative.

  16. Adjuvant chemotherapy and acute toxicity in hypofractionated radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    Kouloulias, Vassilis; Zygogianni, Anna; Kypraiou, Efrosini; Georgakopoulos, John; Thrapsanioti, Zoi; Beli, Ivelina; Mosa, Eftychia; Psyrri, Amanta; Antypas, Christos; Armbilia, Christina; Tolia, Maria; Platoni, Kalliopi; Papadimitriou, Christos; Arkadopoulos, Nikolaos; Gennatas, Costas; Zografos, George; Kyrgias, George; Dilvoi, Maria; Patatoucas, George; Kelekis, Nikolaos; Kouvaris, John

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of chemotherapy to the acute toxicity of a hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) schedule for breast cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 116 breast cancer patients with T1, 2N0Mx. The patients received 3-D conformal radiotherapy with a total physical dose of 50.54 Gy or 53.2 Gy in 19 or 20 fractions according to stage, over 23-24 d. The last three to four fractions were delivered as a sequential tumor boost. All patients were monitored for acute skin toxicity according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. The maximum monitored value was taken as the final grading score. Multivariate analysis was performed for the contribution of age, chemotherapy and 19 vs 20 fractions to the radiation acute skin toxicity. RESULTS: The acute radiation induced skin toxicity was as following: grade I 27.6%, grade II 7.8% and grade III 2.6%. No significant correlation was noted between toxicity grading and chemotherapy (P = 0.154, χ2 test). The mean values of acute toxicity score in terms of chemotherapy or not, were 0.64 and 0.46 respectively (P = 0.109, Mann Whitney test). No significant correlation was also noted between acute skin toxicity and radiotherapy fractions (P = 0.47, χ2 test). According to univariate analysis, only chemotherapy contributed significantly to the development of acute skin toxicity but with a critical value of P = 0.05. However, in multivariate analysis, chemotherapy lost its statistical significance. None of the patients during the 2-years of follow-up presented any locoregional relapse. CONCLUSION: There is no clear evidence that chemotherapy has an impact to acute skin toxicity after an HFRT schedule. A randomized trial is needed for definite conclusions. PMID:25405195

  17. Management of Acute Exacerbation of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in the Emergency Department.

    Suau, Salvador J; DeBlieux, Peter M C

    2016-02-01

    Acute asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are the most common respiratory diseases requiring emergent medical evaluation and treatment. Asthma and COPD are chronic, debilitating disease processes that have been differentiated traditionally by the presence or absence of reversible airflow obstruction. Asthma and COPD exacerbations impose an enormous economic burden on the US health care budget. In daily clinical practice, it is difficult to differentiate these 2 obstructive processes based on their symptoms, and on their nearly identical acute treatment strategies; major differences are important when discussing anatomic sites involved, long-term prognosis, and the nature of inflammatory markers.

  18. Acute toxicity and mutagenicity of the copper complex of pyruvaldehyde-bis (N-4-methylthiosemicarbazone), Cu-PTSM.

    Kostyniak, P J; Nakeeb, S M; Schopp, E M; Maccubbin, A E; John, E K; Green, M A; Kung, H F

    1990-12-01

    Cu-PTSM is a potential imaging agent for the heart and brain when labeled with either 64Cu or 62Cu. Unlabeled Cu-PTSM was evaluated for its acute toxicity and mutagenicity. Cu-PTSM had an i.v. LD50 of 26 mg kg-1 in the rat and 2 mg kg-1 in the rabbit. At necropsy, rats exhibited severely hemorrhagic lungs, histological findings of acute pulmonary congestion, hemorrhage and edema, and mild congestion in kidney, liver and brain. The rabbit displayed marked polymorphonuclear infiltration in alveoli, peribronchial and periarterial areas with marked macrophage hyperplasia, congestion and mild hemorrhage into alveolar spaces. No effects were found in kidney, liver, testes or brain. Administration of 2.16 micrograms kg-1 day-1 for 5 days per week for 2 weeks resulted in no changes in histopathology, hematology or clinical chemistry parameters. This daily dose is at least 300 times the diagnostic dose intended for use in man. Cu-PTSM was not mutagenic when tested in the absence of S9 supernatant, but elicited a weakly mutagenic response in the presence of S9. Since acute effects in the lung occur at doses approaching 300,000 times the diagnostic dose, it is highly unlikely that the clinical use of Cu-PTSM would result in any acute adverse effects.

  19. Does acute exposure to aldehydes impair pulmonary function and structure?

    Abreu, Mariana de; Neto, Alcendino Cândido; Carvalho, Giovanna; Casquillo, Natalia Vasconcelos; Carvalho, Niedja; Okuro, Renata; Ribeiro, Gabriel C Motta; Machado, Mariana; Cardozo, Aléxia; Silva, Aline Santos E; Barboza, Thiago; Vasconcellos, Luiz Ricardo; Rodrigues, Danielle Araujo; Camilo, Luciana; Carneiro, Leticia de A M; Jandre, Frederico; Pino, Alexandre V; Giannella-Neto, Antonio; Zin, Walter A; Corrêa, Leonardo Holanda Travassos; Souza, Marcio Nogueira de; Carvalho, Alysson R

    2016-07-15

    Mixtures of anhydrous ethyl alcohol and gasoline substituted for pure gasoline as a fuel in many Brazilian vehicles. Consequently, the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as ketones, other organic compounds, and particularly aldehydes increased in many Brazilian cities. The current study aims to investigate whether formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, or mixtures of both impair lung function, morphology, inflammatory and redox responses at environmentally relevant concentrations. For such purpose, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to either medical compressed air or to 4 different mixtures of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Eight hours later animals were anesthetized, paralyzed and lung mechanics and morphology, inflammatory cells and IL-1β, KC, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2, MCP-1 contents, superoxide dismutase and catalalase activities were determined. The extra pulmonary respiratory tract was also analyzed. No differences could be detected between any exposed and control groups. In conclusion, no morpho-functional alterations were detected in exposed mice in relation to the control group.

  20. A rare case of tricuspid valve thrombus with acute pulmonary embolism

    GUO Chun-yan; TENG Ying-xing; YANG Chuan-rui; SHEN Lu-hua; GU Fu-sheng; LI Hong-wei

    2011-01-01

    The development of thrombus on the tricuspid valve is very rare.This report describes a case of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) with a mass on the tricuspid valve in a normal heart,detected by bedside transthoracic echocardiography (TTE).After successful surgical management,the histopathological examination revealed the mass from the tricuspid valve to be mixed thrombus.The early use of bedside TrE can facilitate the prompt diagnosis and aggressive therapy when PE is suspected.

  1. Effects of Ischemic Acute Kidney Injury on Lung Water Balance: Nephrogenic Pulmonary Edema?

    Rajit K. Basu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary edema worsens the morbidity and increases the mortality of critically ill patients. Mechanistically, edema formation in the lung is a result of net flow across the alveolar capillary membrane, dependent on the relationship of hydrostatic and oncotic pressures. Traditionally, the contribution of acute kidney injury (AKI to the formation of pulmonary edema has been attributed to bulk fluid accumulation, increasing capillary hydrostatic pressure and the gradient favoring net flow into the alveolar spaces. Recent research has revealed more subtle, and distant, effects of AKI. In this review we discuss the concept of nephrogenic pulmonary edema. Pro-inflammatory gene upregulation, chemokine over-expression, altered biochemical channel function, and apoptotic dysregulation manifest in the lung are now understood as “extra-renal” and pulmonary effects of AKI. AKI should be counted as a disease process that alters the endothelial integrity of the alveolar capillary barrier and has the potential to overpower the ability of the lung to regulate fluid balance. Nephrogenic pulmonary edema, therefore, is the net effect of fluid accumulation in the lung as a result of both the macroscopic and microscopic effects of AKI.

  2. Consensus definitions of 14 severe acute toxic effects for childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Barzilai, Shlomit

    2016-01-01

    Although there are high survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their outcome is often counterbalanced by the burden of toxic effects. This is because reported frequencies vary widely across studies, partly because of diverse definitions of toxic effects. Using the Delphi...... method, 15 international childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia study groups assessed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia protocols to address toxic effects that were to be considered by the Ponte di Legno working group. 14 acute toxic effects (hypersensitivity to asparaginase, hyperlipidaemia, osteonecrosis......, thromboembolism, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia) that are serious but too rare to be addressed comprehensively within any single group, or are deemed to need consensus definitions for reliable incidence comparisons, were selected for assessment. Our results showed that none of the protocols addressed all 14...

  3. Cross-Sector Review of Drivers and Available 3Rs Approaches for Acute Systemic Toxicity Testing

    Seidle, Troy; Robinson, Sally; Holmes, Tom; Creton, Stuart; Prieto, Pilar; Scheel, Julia; Chlebus, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Acute systemic toxicity studies are carried out in many sectors in which synthetic chemicals are manufactured or used and are among the most criticized of all toxicology tests on both scientific and ethical grounds. A review of the drivers for acute toxicity testing within the pharmaceutical industry led to a paradigm shift whereby in vivo acute toxicity data are no longer routinely required in advance of human clinical trials. Based on this experience, the following review was undertaken to identify (1) regulatory and scientific drivers for acute toxicity testing in other industrial sectors, (2) activities aimed at replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, and (3) recommendations for future work in this area. PMID:20484382

  4. Acute toxicity and effect of some petroleum hydrocarbon on the metabolic index in Etroplus suratensis

    Ansari, Z.A.; Farshchi, P.

    Acute toxicity (LC sub(50)) and effect of some petroleum hydrocarbons (Toluene, Quinoline, Pyridine and Naphthalene) on the metabolic index (oxygen consumption rate) of an estuarine fish. Etroplus suratensis is reported. The LC sub(50) values were...

  5. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity assessment of the hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera roots in Wistar rats.

    Prabu, P C; Panchapakesan, S; Raj, C David

    2013-08-01

    Withania somnifera is a widely used medicinal plant for several disorders. Toxicity studies on Withania somnifera are not available. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of Withania somnifera root extract in Wistar rats were evaluated in the present study. In the acute toxicity study, WSR extract was administered to five rats at 2000 mg/kg, once orally and were observed for 14 days. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. In the sub-acute study, WSR extract was administered once daily for 28 days to rats at 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, orally. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. There were no significant changes (P < 0.05) in the body weights, organ weights and haemato-biochemical parameters in any of the dose levels. No treatment related gross/histopathological lesions were observed. The present investigation demonstrated that the no observed adverse effect level was 2000 mg/kg body weight per day of hydroalcoholic extract of W. somnifera in rats and hence may be considered as non-toxic.

  6. A review of pulmonary coagulopathy in acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome and pneumonia

    Nieuwenhuizen, Laurens; de Groot, Philip G.; Grutters, Jan C.; Biesma, Douwe H.

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced bronchoalveolar coagulation is a hallmark of many acute inflammatory lung diseases such as acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome and pneumonia. Intervention with natural anticoagulants in these diseases has therefore become a topic of interest. Recently, new data on the rol

  7. Understanding how data triangulation identifies acute toxicity of novel psychoactive drugs.

    Wood, D M; Dargan, P I

    2012-09-01

    Over the last decade, there has been an increase in the availability and use of novel psychoactive substances (also known as "legal highs"). There is limited information available on the potential acute toxicity (harms) associated with the use of these novel psychoactive substances. Gold standard evidence, such as animal studies or human clinical trials, is rarely available to users or healthcare professionals. However, it is possible to use triangulation of data on the acute toxicity from multiple sources to describe the overall pattern of toxicity associated with a novel psychoactive substance. In this review, we will describe these potential data sources, which include self-reported toxicity on internet discussion fora, data from sub-population user surveys, data from regional and national poisons information services and published case reports and case series. We will then describe how pattern of acute toxicity associated with the use of the cathinone mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) was established using triangulation of these different data sources.

  8. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies.

  9. Proceedings of the Workshop on Acute Lung Injury and Pulmonary Edema Held in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland on 4-5 May 1989

    1989-11-01

    with side effects, including pulmonary edema . The objective of this study was to determine if the pulmonary edema was cardiogenic or noncardio- genic...Proeedings ~FL gof the .1Workshop on Acute Lung Injury and Pulmonary Edema 4-5 May 1989a Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland I7 21 Sponsored by the...TITLE (include Security Classification) (U) Proceedings of the" Workshop on Acute Lung Injury and Pulmonary Edema , May 1989 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) David

  10. Metal and pharmaceutical mixtures: Is ion loss the mechanism underlying acute toxicity and widespread additive toxicity in zebrafish?

    Alsop, Derek, E-mail: alsopde@mcmaster.ca; Wood, Chris M.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Zebrafish larvae were used to test the acute toxicity of contaminant mixtures. •Interactions were observed between metals, ammonia and pharmaceuticals. •Larval Na{sup +} loss was observed with exposure to all acutely toxic contaminants tested. •Water quality criteria should recognize the toxic interactions between contaminants. -- Abstract: The acute toxicities and mechanisms of action of a variety of environmental contaminants were examined using zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio; 4–8 days post fertilization). Toxic interactions were observed between metals. For example, the addition of a sublethal level of nickel (15% of the LC{sub 50}, one third of the LC{sub 01}) to all copper treatments decreased the copper 96 h LC{sub 50} by 58%, while sublethal copper exposure (6% of the copper LC{sub 50}, 13% of the LC{sub 01}) decreased the cadmium 96 h LC{sub 50} by 47%. Two predictive models were assessed, the concentration addition (CA) model, which assumes similar mechanisms of action, and the independent action (IA) model, which assumes different mechanisms of action. Quantitative comparisons indicated the CA model performed better than the IA model; the latter tended to underestimate combined toxicity to a greater extent. The effects of mixtures with nickel or ammonia were typically additive, while mixtures with copper or cadmium were typically greater than additive. Larvae exposed to cadmium, copper or nickel experienced whole body ion loss. Decreases were greatest for Na{sup +} followed by K{sup +} (as high as 19% and 9%, respectively, in 24 h). Additive toxicity between copper and other pharmaceutical compounds such as fluoxetine (Prozac™), β-naphthoflavone, estrogen and 17α-ethinylestradiol were also observed. Similar to metals, acutely toxic concentrations of fluoxetine, β-naphthoflavone and ammonia all decreased whole body Na{sup +} and K{sup +}. Overall, whole body Na{sup +} loss showed the greatest correlation with mortality across a

  11. Acute Pulmonary Edema in Patients with Cushing’s Syndrome

    Mitra Niafar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionDyspnea refers to difficulty in breathing, and short and shallow breaths. This sign is seen in numerous diseases due to pulmonary, cardiac, metabolic and neurological causes. Among cardiac causes, heart failure is considered the main cause of dyspnea.Cardiac failure is a clinical syndrome associated with a set of symptoms (dyspnea, and fatigue and signs (edema and rales. Common causes of cardiac failure include: myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, valvular heart diseases, and cardiomyopathy. Among uncommon causes of heart failure, endocrine disorders such as Cushing’s syndrome can be cited. Cushing’s syndrome can present itself in less common forms such as dyspnea due to heart failure. Cushing’s syndrome’s cardiovascular complications usually occur due to hypertension, end organ damage such as left ventricular heart failure, diastolic and ischemic myocardial heart failure, which are rather seen in chronic cases of the disease and are often irreversible.Transient heart failure in patients with Cushing’s syndrome, due to adrenal adenoma, has been reported in a number of patients. In this case report, a patient is introduced who presented to emergency department with severe dyspnea (FC III, and was ultimately diagnosed with Cushing’s syndrome after work up. Three months after treatment of Cushing’s syndrome, dramatic improvement was observed in this patient’s cardiac function.

  12. Sequential Treatments with Tongsai and Bufei Yishen Granules Reduce Inflammation and Improve Pulmonary Function in Acute Exacerbation-Risk Window of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Rats

    Xiaofan Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sequential treatments of Chinese medicines for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD risk window (RW have benefits for preventing reoccurrences of AEs; however, the effects on pulmonary function, pulmonary, and systemic inflammatory biomarkers remain unclear. Methods. Cigarette-smoke/bacterial infections induced rats were randomized into Control, COPD, AECOPD, Tongsai Granule/normal saline (TSG/NS, moxifloxacin + salbutamol/NS (MXF+STL/NS, TSG/Bufei Yishen Granule (BYG, MXF+STL/STL, and TSG+MXF+STL/BYG+STL groups and given corresponding medicine(s in AE- and/or RW phase. Body temperature, pulmonary function, blood cytology, serum amyloid A (SAA and C-reactive protein (CRP, pulmonary histomorphology and myeloperoxidase (MPO, polymorphonuclear (PMN elastase, interleukins IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α expressions were determined. Results. Body temperature, inflammatory cells and cytokines, SAA, CRP, and pulmonary impairment were higher in AECOPD rats than stable COPD, while pulmonary function declined and recovered to COPD level in 14–18 days. All biomarkers were improved in treated groups with shorter recovery times of 4–10 days, especially in TSG+MXF+STL/BYG+STL group. Conclusion. Sequential treatments with Tongsai and Bufei Yishen Granules, during AECOPD-RW periods, can reduce inflammatory response and improve pulmonary function and shorten the recovery courses of AEs, especially the integrated Chinese and Western medicines.

  13. Sequential Treatments with Tongsai and Bufei Yishen Granules Reduce Inflammation and Improve Pulmonary Function in Acute Exacerbation-Risk Window of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Rats

    Lu, Xiaofan; Li, Ya; Wang, Haifeng; Wu, Zhaohuan; Li, Hangjie; Wang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background. Sequential treatments of Chinese medicines for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) risk window (RW) have benefits for preventing reoccurrences of AEs; however, the effects on pulmonary function, pulmonary, and systemic inflammatory biomarkers remain unclear. Methods. Cigarette-smoke/bacterial infections induced rats were randomized into Control, COPD, AECOPD, Tongsai Granule/normal saline (TSG/NS), moxifloxacin + salbutamol/NS (MXF+STL/NS), TSG/Bufei Yishen Granule (BYG), MXF+STL/STL, and TSG+MXF+STL/BYG+STL groups and given corresponding medicine(s) in AE- and/or RW phase. Body temperature, pulmonary function, blood cytology, serum amyloid A (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP), pulmonary histomorphology and myeloperoxidase (MPO), polymorphonuclear (PMN) elastase, interleukins IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α expressions were determined. Results. Body temperature, inflammatory cells and cytokines, SAA, CRP, and pulmonary impairment were higher in AECOPD rats than stable COPD, while pulmonary function declined and recovered to COPD level in 14–18 days. All biomarkers were improved in treated groups with shorter recovery times of 4–10 days, especially in TSG+MXF+STL/BYG+STL group. Conclusion. Sequential treatments with Tongsai and Bufei Yishen Granules, during AECOPD-RW periods, can reduce inflammatory response and improve pulmonary function and shorten the recovery courses of AEs, especially the integrated Chinese and Western medicines. PMID:27563333

  14. Acute and chronic toxicity of short chained perfluoroalkyl substances to Daphnia magna

    Barmentlo, S.H.; Stel, J.M.; van Doorn, M.; Eschauzier, C.; de Voogt, P.; Kraak, M.H.S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the aquatic toxicity of a C4-C6 chemistry based fluoroalkylated polymer and the perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, PFBA, PFHxA and PFOA to Daphnia magna. The acute toxicity decreased with decreasing carbon chain length, but the polymer did not show a dose related

  15. Acute methaemoglobinaemia initially treated as organophosphate poisoning leading to atropine toxicity

    Srinivas Kakhandki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of unknown compound poisoning is presented. It was initially treated as organophosphate poisoning with lack of response. A timely diagnosis of acute methaemoglobinaemia and iatrogenic atropine toxicity was made based on clinical evaluation. Treatment of methaemoglobinaemia using oral methylene blue and of atropine toxicity with supportive measures could save the patient.

  16. Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome presenting as acute respiratory distress and cor pulmonale.

    Zaki, S A; Shanbag, P; Chavan, V; Shenoy, P

    2010-01-01

    We describe a 7-year-old boy with staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome who presented with acute respiratory distress and cor pulmonale. We wish to highlight this unusual presentation as the diagnosis of toxic shock syndrome depends chiefly on a high degree of clinical suspicion. Early diagnosis and prompt institution of appropriate therapy will significantly reduce morbidity and mortality.

  17. Nanosilica and Polyacrylate/Nanosilica: A Comparative Study of Acute Toxicity.

    Niu, Ying-Mei; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Chang, Bing; Tong, Zhao-Hui; Cao, Wen; Qiao, Pei-Huan; Zhang, Lin-Yuan; Zhao, Jing; Song, Yu-Guo

    2016-01-01

    We compared the acute toxicity of nanosilica and polyacrylate/nanosilica instillation in Wistar rats (n = 60). Exposure to nanosilica and polyacrylate/nanosilica showed a 30% mortality rate. When compared with saline-treated rats, animals in both exposure groups exhibited a significant reduction of PO2 (P polyacrylate/nanosilica and nanosilica is likely to cause multiple organ toxicity.

  18. Impacts of acute severe pulmonary regurgitation on right ventricular geometry and contractility assessed by tissue-Doppler echocardiography

    Kjaergaard, Jesper; Iversen, Kasper K; Vejlstrup, Niels G;

    2010-01-01

    Little is known of the impact of acute right ventricular (RV) volume overload on RV function. We assessed the impact of acute severe pulmonary regurgitation (PR) on global and regional RV function by applying novel quantitative echocardiographic markers of myocardial performance in an animal model....

  19. Impacts of acute severe pulmonary regurgitation on right ventricular geometry and contractility assessed by tissue-Doppler echocardiography

    Kjaergaard, Jesper; K. Iversen, Kasper; G Vejlstrup, Niels;

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: Little is known of the impact of acute right ventricular (RV) volume overload on RV function. We assessed the impact of acute severe pulmonary regurgitation (PR) on global and regional RV function by applying novel quantitative echocardiographic markers of myocardial performance in an animal...

  20. Importance of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for prognosis and diagnosis of congestive heart failure in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Kjøller, Erik; Køber, Lars; Iversen, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the importance of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for prognosis and diagnosis of congestive heart failure in patients with acute myocardial infarction. METHOD AND RESULTS: Prospective registration of 6669 consecutive patients admitted with infarction and screened...... in patients with acute myocardial infarction without congestive heart failure, but is also a confounding factor for the diagnosis of congestive heart failure....

  1. Comparative acute toxicity of DDT metabolites among American and European species of planarians.

    Bonner, J C; Wells, M R

    1987-01-01

    1. DDT metabolism in a North American species of planarian leads to the formation of metabolites more toxic than the parent compound. 2. The increased toxicity of DDT metabolites is similar to acute toxicity data reported previously in a European species. 3. It is suggested that planarians lack a direct mechanism for DDT detoxification, since two North American and one European species are known to metabolize DDT initially to DDE and DDD.

  2. Acute toxicity of furazolidone on Artemia salina, Daphnia magna, and Culex pipiens molestus larvae

    Macri, A.; Stazi, A.V.; Dojmi di Delupis, G.

    1988-10-01

    As a result of evidence of the ecotoxicity of nitrofurans, the acute toxicity of furazolidone was tested in vivo on two aquatic organisms, Artemia salina and Daphnia magna, which are both crustaceans. Toxicity studies were also performed on larvae of Culex pipiens molestus. Results indicated a significant toxicity of the compound on Culex pipiens and Daphnia magna, while Artemia salina proved to be the least sensitive.

  3. Synergistic effect of piperonyl butoxide on acute toxicity of pyrethrins to Hyalella azteca.

    Giddings, Jeffrey; Gagne, James; Sharp, Janice

    2016-08-01

    A series of acute toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca was performed to quantify the synergistic effect of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on pyrethrin toxicity. Concentrations of PBO <4 µg/L caused no toxicity enhancement, whereas toxicity increased with PBO concentrations between 4 µg/L and 15 µg/L. Additive toxicity calculations showed that true synergism accounted for an increase in pyrethrin toxicity (decrease in median lethal concentration) of 1.4-fold to 1.6-fold and varied only slightly between 4 µg/L and 15 µg/L PBO, whereas direct toxicity of PBO accounted for an additional increase in mixture toxicity (up to 3.2-fold) that was proportional to PBO concentration. The results can be used to assess the risk of measured or predicted co-occurring concentrations of PBO and pyrethrins in surface waters. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2111-2116. © 2016 SETAC.

  4. Early Hemodynamic Disorders and Their Association with the Development of Acute Pulmonary Lesion in Severe Concomitant Injury

    V. V. Moroz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Early changes in the parameters of central hemodynamics and pulmonary extravascular fluid were studied in patients who had sustained a severe concomitant injury in combination with acute massive blood loss. Early postoperative monitoring of these parameters by a «Pulsion Picco Plus» invasive monitoring apparatus was ascertained to verify the early stages on non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, to assess a risk for acute lung lesion and acute respiratory distress syndrome in the phase of reperfusion lesions, and to perform an adequate correction of therapy.

  5. Pulmonary toxicity of instilled silver nanoparticles: influence of size, coating and rat strain.

    Joanna Seiffert

    Full Text Available Particle size and surface chemistry are potential determinants of silver nanoparticle (AgNP respiratory toxicity that may also depend on the lung inflammatory state. We compared the effects of intratracheally-administered AgNPs (20 nm and 110 nm; polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP and citrate-capped; 0.1 mg/Kg in Brown-Norway (BN and Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. In BN rats, there was both a neutrophilic and eosinophilic response, while in SD rats, there was a neutrophilic response at day 1, greatest for the 20 nm citrate-capped AgNPs. Eosinophilic cationic protein was increased in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL in BN and SD rats on day 1. BAL protein and malondialdehyde levels were increased in BN rats at 1 and 7 days, and BAL KC, CCL11 and IL-13 levels at day 1, with increased expression of CCL11 in lung tissue. Pulmonary resistance increased and compliance decreased at day 1, with persistence at day 7. The 20 nm, but not the 110 nm, AgNPs increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness on day 1, which continued at day 7 for the citrate-capped AgNPs only. The 20 nm versus the 110 nm size were more proinflammatory in terms of neutrophil influx, but there was little difference between the citrate-capped versus the PVP-capped AgNPs. AgNPs can induce pulmonary eosinophilic and neutrophilic inflammation with bronchial hyperresponsiveness, features characteristic of asthma.

  6. Pulmonary toxicity of instilled silver nanoparticles: influence of size, coating and rat strain.

    Seiffert, Joanna; Hussain, Farhana; Wiegman, Coen; Li, Feng; Bey, Leo; Baker, Warren; Porter, Alexandra; Ryan, Mary P; Chang, Yan; Gow, Andrew; Zhang, Junfeng; Zhu, Jie; Tetley, Terry D; Chung, Kian Fan

    2015-01-01

    Particle size and surface chemistry are potential determinants of silver nanoparticle (AgNP) respiratory toxicity that may also depend on the lung inflammatory state. We compared the effects of intratracheally-administered AgNPs (20 nm and 110 nm; polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and citrate-capped; 0.1 mg/Kg) in Brown-Norway (BN) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. In BN rats, there was both a neutrophilic and eosinophilic response, while in SD rats, there was a neutrophilic response at day 1, greatest for the 20 nm citrate-capped AgNPs. Eosinophilic cationic protein was increased in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in BN and SD rats on day 1. BAL protein and malondialdehyde levels were increased in BN rats at 1 and 7 days, and BAL KC, CCL11 and IL-13 levels at day 1, with increased expression of CCL11 in lung tissue. Pulmonary resistance increased and compliance decreased at day 1, with persistence at day 7. The 20 nm, but not the 110 nm, AgNPs increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness on day 1, which continued at day 7 for the citrate-capped AgNPs only. The 20 nm versus the 110 nm size were more proinflammatory in terms of neutrophil influx, but there was little difference between the citrate-capped versus the PVP-capped AgNPs. AgNPs can induce pulmonary eosinophilic and neutrophilic inflammation with bronchial hyperresponsiveness, features characteristic of asthma.

  7. Dual energy CT pulmonary blood volume assessment in acute pulmonary embolism - correlation with D-dimer level, right heart strain and clinical outcome

    Bauer, Ralf W.; Frellesen, Claudia; Schell, Boris; Lehnert, Thomas; Jacobi, Volkmar; Vogl, Thomas J.; Kerl, J.M. [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Renker, Matthias [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Medical University of South Carolina, Heart and Vascular Center, Ashley River Tower, Charleston, SC (United States); Ackermann, Hanns [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Biostatistics and Mathematical Modelling, Frankfurt (Germany); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Heart and Vascular Center, Ashley River Tower, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2011-09-15

    To investigate the role of perfusion defect (PD) size on dual energy CT pulmonary blood volume assessment as predictor of right heart strain and patient outcome and its correlation with d-dimer levels in acute pulmonary embolism (PE). 53 patients with acute PE who underwent DECT pulmonary angiography were retrospectively analyzed. Pulmonary PD size caused by PE was measured on DE iodine maps and quantified absolutely (VolPD) and relatively to the total lung volume (RelPD). Signs of right heart strain (RHS) on CT were determined. Information on d-dimer levels and readmission for recurrent onset of PE and death was collected. D-dimer level was mildly (r = 0.43-0.47) correlated with PD size. Patients with RHS had significantly higher VolPD (215 vs. 73 ml) and RelPD (9.9 vs. 2.9%) than patients without RHS (p < 0.003). There were 2 deaths and 1 readmission due of PE in 18 patients with >5% RelPD, while no such events were found for patients with <5% RelPD. Pulmonary blood volume on DECT in acute PE correlates with RHS and appears to be a predictor of patient outcome in this pilot study. (orig.)

  8. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.chapet@chu-lyon.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); EMR3738, Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie [Pole Information Médicale Evaluation Recherche, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); EA SIS, Université de Lyon, Lyon (France); Faix, Antoine [Department of Urology, Clinique Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Ruffion, Alain [Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Department of Urology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Jalade, Patrice [Department of Medical Physics, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  9. Diagnóstico por imagem do tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo Imaging of acute pulmonary thromboembolism

    C. Isabela S. Silva

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico do tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo é baseado na probabilidade clínica, uso do dímero D (quando disponível e na avaliação por imagem. Os principais métodos de imagem utilizados no diagnóstico são representados por cintilografia ventilação-perfusão, angiografia pulmonar e tomografia computadorizada (TC. Na última década vários estudos têm demonstrado que a TC espiral apresenta elevada sensibilidade e especificidade no diagnóstico de tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo. Uma melhor avaliação das artérias pulmonares tornou-se possível com a recente introdução dos equipamentos de TC espirais com multidetectores. Vários pesquisadores têm sugerido que a angiografia pulmonar por TC espiral deve substituir a cintilografia na avaliação de pacientes com suspeita clinica de tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo. Os autores discutem os principais métodos de imagem utilizados no diagnóstico de tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo enfatizando o papel da TC espiral.The diagnosis of acute pulmonary thromboembolism is based on the clinical probability, use of D-dimer (when available and imaging. The main imaging modalities used in the diagnosis are ventilation-perfusion (V/Q, scintigraphy, angiography, and computed tomography (CT. In the last decade several studies have demonstrated that spiral CT has a high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of acute pulmonary thromboembolism. The evaluation of the pulmonary arteries has further improved with the recent introduction of multidetector spiral CT scanners. Various investigators have suggested that spiral CT pulmonary angiography should replace scintigraphy in the assessment of patients whose symptoms are suggestive of acute PE. This article discusses the role of the various imaging modalities in the diagnosis of acute pulmonary thromboembolism with emphasis on the role of spiral CT.

  10. Recurrent acute pulmonary embolism and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation associated with subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Currò, Alessio; Cimino, Claudia

    2010-07-09

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is an increasingly recognized entity that is defined as a normal serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine levels with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level suppressed below the normal range and usually undetectable. It has been reported that subclinical hyperthyroidism is not associated with coronary heart disease or mortality from cardiovascular causes but it is sufficient to induce arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. It has also been reported that increased factor X activity in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism represents a potential hypercoagulable state. Elevated D-dimer levels have been reported in acute pulmonary embolism and it has also been reported that right ventricular overload and hypoxia in acute pulmonary embolism may lead to right ventricular myocardium injury reflected by elevated cardiac troponin levels too. We present a case of recurrent pulmonary embolism associated with subclinical hyperthyroidism, in an 81-year-old Italian woman. Also this case focuses attention on the importance of a correct evaluation of subclinical hyperthyroidism.

  11. Free Floating Right Heart Thrombus Associated with Acute Pulmonary Embolism: An Unsettled Therapeutic Difficulty

    Clovis Nkoke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Free floating right heart thrombus is a rare phenomenon in the context of acute pulmonary embolism and it is associated with a poor outcome. The increased use of echocardiography has led to an increased detection of right heart thrombi. However, optimal management of free floating right heart thrombus remains controversial with no clear consensus. We present the case of a 74-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department with acute onset dyspnea on minimal exertion which had developed over a period of 1 day. A computed tomography of the chest demonstrated massive bilateral proximal pulmonary embolism. A bedside transthoracic echocardiography performed showed a moderately dilated, poorly functioning right ventricle with visible highly mobile serpiginous thrombus moving to and fro across the tricuspid valve. Thrombolytic therapy was immediately initiated with tenecteplase which resulted in excellent results. Although there is no clear consensus for the management of right heart thrombus associated with pulmonary embolism, thrombolysis is readily available and can be effective in carefully selected patients.

  12. Free Floating Right Heart Thrombus Associated with Acute Pulmonary Embolism: An Unsettled Therapeutic Difficulty

    Nkoke, Clovis; Faucher, Olivier; Camus, Lise; Flork, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Free floating right heart thrombus is a rare phenomenon in the context of acute pulmonary embolism and it is associated with a poor outcome. The increased use of echocardiography has led to an increased detection of right heart thrombi. However, optimal management of free floating right heart thrombus remains controversial with no clear consensus. We present the case of a 74-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department with acute onset dyspnea on minimal exertion which had developed over a period of 1 day. A computed tomography of the chest demonstrated massive bilateral proximal pulmonary embolism. A bedside transthoracic echocardiography performed showed a moderately dilated, poorly functioning right ventricle with visible highly mobile serpiginous thrombus moving to and fro across the tricuspid valve. Thrombolytic therapy was immediately initiated with tenecteplase which resulted in excellent results. Although there is no clear consensus for the management of right heart thrombus associated with pulmonary embolism, thrombolysis is readily available and can be effective in carefully selected patients. PMID:26078887

  13. A meta-analysis of carbon nanotube pulmonary toxicity studies--how physical dimensions and impurities affect the toxicity of carbon nanotubes.

    Gernand, Jeremy M; Casman, Elizabeth A

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a regression-tree-based meta-analysis of rodent pulmonary toxicity studies of uncoated, nonfunctionalized carbon nanotube (CNT) exposure. The resulting analysis provides quantitative estimates of the contribution of CNT attributes (impurities, physical dimensions, and aggregation) to pulmonary toxicity indicators in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid: neutrophil and macrophage count, and lactate dehydrogenase and total protein concentrations. The method employs classification and regression tree (CART) models, techniques that are relatively insensitive to data defects that impair other types of regression analysis: high dimensionality, nonlinearity, correlated variables, and significant quantities of missing values. Three types of analysis are presented: the RT, the random forest (RF), and a random-forest-based dose-response model. The RT shows the best single model supported by all the data and typically contains a small number of variables. The RF shows how much variance reduction is associated with every variable in the data set. The dose-response model is used to isolate the effects of CNT attributes from the CNT dose, showing the shift in the dose-response caused by the attribute across the measured range of CNT doses. It was found that the CNT attributes that contribute the most to pulmonary toxicity were metallic impurities (cobalt significantly increased observed toxicity, while other impurities had mixed effects), CNT length (negatively correlated with most toxicity indicators), CNT diameter (significantly positively associated with toxicity), and aggregate size (negatively correlated with cell damage indicators and positively correlated with immune response indicators). Increasing CNT N2 -BET-specific surface area decreased toxicity indicators.

  14. Principal component and causal analysis of structural and acute in vitro toxicity data for nanoparticles.

    Wang, Xue Z; Yang, Yang; Li, Ruifa; McGuinnes, Catherine; Adamson, Janet; Megson, Ian L; Donaldson, Kenneth

    2014-08-01

    Structure toxicity relationship analysis was conducted using principal component analysis (PCA) for a panel of nanoparticles that included dry powders of oxides of titanium, zinc, cerium and silicon, dry powders of silvers, suspensions of polystyrene latex beads and dry particles of carbon black, nanotubes and fullerene, as well as diesel exhaust particles. Acute in vitro toxicity was assessed by different measures of cell viability, apoptosis and necrosis, haemolytic effects and the impact on cell morphology, while structural properties were characterised by particle size and size distribution, surface area, morphology, metal content, reactivity, free radical generation and zeta potential. Different acute toxicity measures were processed using PCA that classified the particles and identified four materials with an acute toxicity profile: zinc oxide, polystyrene latex amine, nanotubes and nickel oxide. PCA and contribution plot analysis then focused on identifying the structural properties that could determine the acute cytotoxicity of these four materials. It was found that metal content was an explanatory variable for acute toxicity associated with zinc oxide and nickel oxide, while high aspect ratio appeared the most important feature in nanotubes. Particle charge was considered as a determinant for high toxicity of polystyrene latex amine.

  15. Acute toxicity of pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin to Hyalella azteca.

    Morrison, Shane A; McMurry, Scott T; Smith, Loren M; Belden, Jason B

    2013-07-01

    Fungicide application rates on row crop agriculture have increased across the United States, and subsequently, contamination of adjacent wetlands can occur through spray drift or field runoff. To investigate fungicide toxicity, Hyalella azteca amphipods were exposed to 2 fungicide formulations, Headline and Stratego, and their active strobilurin ingredients, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin. Water-only exposures resulted in similar median lethal concentration (LC50; 20-25 µg/L) values for formulations and strobilurin ingredients, suggesting that toxicity is due to strobilurin ingredients. These values were below concentrations that could occur following spray drift over embedded cropland wetlands. When fungicides were added to overlying water of sediment-water microcosms, toxicity was reduced by 500% for Headline and 160% for Stratego, compared with water-only exposures, based on the total amount of fungicide added to the systems. In addition, when fungicides were added to sediment prior to the addition of water, the reduction in toxicity was even greater, with no toxicity occurring at environmentally relevant levels. Differences in toxicity among exposure groups were explained by dissipation from water as toxicity values based on measured water concentrations were within 20% between all systems. The present study reinforces previous studies that Headline and Stratego are toxic to nontarget aquatic organisms. However, the presence of sediment is likely to ameliorate some toxicity of fungicide formulations, especially if spraying occurs prior to wetland inundation.

  16. Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in a Patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Orhan Ayyıldız

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections are common and life-threatening among immunosupressive patients.Invasive pulmonar aspergilloz (IPA generally occurs when Aspergillus inhaled, but rarelywith the hematogen spread of dermal or gastrointestinal Aspergillus. We present here, IPA ina 58 year-old male patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. He was admitted to ourclinic with fatigue, weakness, pansitopenia, and with petechia. Supportive treatment,vincristine and prednisone was initiated. Chest roentgenogram was normal. Dyspnea andfever (39.5’C were seen after 1 month of therapy. Thorax high resolution computerizedtomography was obtained and cavitary lesion was seen in the left upper-anterior segment oflung. Sputum and blood culture were negative. In spite of the empiric use of Meropenem 3gr/d, Vancomycin 2 gr/d and fluconazole 200 mg/d, fever was not turned to normal andclinical symptoms were not healed. On the fifth days of therapy amphotericin-B was initiatedand the other antibiotics were stopped after 3 days. General symptoms were healed on the 8thdays. Radiologic findings were improved partially after 20 days. The patient clinically is welland remains in remission and radiologic findings were turn to near normal after 10 monthsof treatment. We aimed to emphasis about treatment of empirical Amphotericin-B incritically ill patient with ALL.

  17. Acute toxicity of combined photon IMRT and carbon ion boost for intermediate-risk prostate cancer - Acute toxicity of 12C for PC

    Nikoghosyan, Anna V.; Herfarth, Klaus; Didinger, Bernd; Muenter, Marc W.; Jensen, Alexandra D.; Debus, Juergen (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany)), e-mail: a.nikoghosyan@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela (Radiological Inst. (Medical Care Unit), Markus Hospital, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)); Jaekel, Oliver (Dept. of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Centre of the Univ. Hospital Heidelberg (Germany)); Hoess, Angelika; Haberer, Thomas (Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Centre of the Univ. Hospital Heidelberg (Germany))

    2011-08-15

    Background. Carbon ion (12C) therapy in the treatment of prostate cancer (PC) might result in an improved outcome as compared to low linear energy transfer irradiation techniques. In this study, we present the first interim report of acute side effects of the first intermediate-risk PC patients treated at the GSI (Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung) and the Univ. of Heidelberg in an ongoing clinical phase I/II trial using combined photon intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and 12C carbon ion boost. Material and methods. Fourteen patients (planned accrual: 31 pts) have been treated within this trial so far. IMRT is prescribed to the median PTV at a dose of 30 x 2 Gy; 12C boost is applied to the prostate (GTV) at a dose of 6 x 3 GyE using raster scan technique. Safety margins added to the clinical target volume were determined individually for each patient based on five independent planning computed tomography (CT)-scans. Acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity was assessed and documented according to the CTCAE Version 3.0. Results. Radiotherapy was very well tolerated without any grade 3 or higher toxicity. Acute anal bleeding grade 2 was observed in 2/14 patients. Rectal tenesmus grade 1 was reported by three other patients. No further GI symptoms have been observed. Most common acute symptoms during radiotherapy were nocturia and dysuria CTC grade 1 and 2 (12/14). There was no severe acute GU toxicity. Conclusion. The combination of photon IMRT and carbon ion boost is feasible in patients with intermediate-risk PC. So far, the treatment has been well tolerated. Acute toxicity rates were in good accordance with data reported for high dose IMRT alone

  18. Pulmonary infection control window as a switching point for consequential ventilation: an encouraging finding in treatment of acute respiratory failure of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    ZHANG Xi-long

    2005-01-01

    @@ I read with great interest the article by Collaborating Research Group for Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation of Chinese Respiratory Society.1 Based on the concept mentioned in this paper, I have found that it is really an encouraging new finding in the field of clinical application of mechanical ventilation and treatment of acute respiratory failure (ARF) of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

  19. Pulmonary toxicity of polyvinyl chloride particles after a single intratracheal instillation in rats. Time course and comparison with silica.

    Xu, Haiyan; Verbeken, Erik; Vanhooren, Hadewijch M; Nemery, Benoit; Hoet, Peter H M

    2004-01-15

    Our previous in vitro studies indicated that emulsion polyvinyl chloride (PVC) particles (PVC-E3), with a mean diameter of 2 microm, exhibited a moderate toxicity in different pulmonary cell cultures. The in vitro cytotoxicity and pro-inflammatory potential of PVC-E3 particles were reduced when the additives had been "washed off" (PVC-W3), indicating that PVC-particle associated toxicity is probably related to the residual additives. In the present study, male Wistar rats (230 +/- 18 g) received a single intratracheal instillation of vehicle, crystalline silica particles [Min-U-Sil, 10 mg/kg body weight (BW)], PVC-E3 (10 or 50 mg/kg BW), or PVC-W3 (10 or 50 mg/kg BW). After 2, 7, 28, or 90 days, the rats were sacrificed (n = 6) and pulmonary injury and inflammation were determined by measuring lung weight, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), differential BALF cell count, and histopathology. Silica exposure resulted in pulmonary inflammation and damage at all time points with a progressive deterioration. Exposure to high concentrations of PVC particles caused pulmonary inflammation and damage, which were similar to the silica-exposed group at 2 days, but at 90 days, most parameters had returned to the control level, except for minor histopathological lesions. PVC-E3 did not induce more damage than PVC-W3. Two days after exposure, PVC-W3 caused less neutrophil but more eosinophil influx than PVC-E3. Although the pulmonary toxicity of both PVC-E3 and PVC-W3 appeared limited, this in vivo study has not confirmed the conclusion from the in vitro toxicity tests that removal of residual additives reduces the toxicity of PVC-E3 particles.

  20. Acute and Subacute Oral Toxicity of Periodate in Rats

    2014-11-17

    Inflammation - Minimal, Subacute Necrosis, glandular stomach - Minimal Testes (Required) Degeneration - Mild, Germinal Epithelium Thymus (Required...diagnosed separately). Necrosis, glandular stomach- Minimal, Acute Testes (Required) Degeneration - Mild, Germinal Epithelium Thymus (Required...Stomach (Required) Necrosis, glandular stomach - :tvfinimal, Acute Testes (Required) Degeneration - Mild, Germinal Epithelium Thymus (Required) Atrophy

  1. [Pulmonary contusion and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as complications of blunt chest trauma].

    Michalska, Agata; Jurczyk, Agnieszka P; Machała, Waldemar; Szram, Stefan; Berent, Jarosław

    2009-01-01

    Blunt chest traumas are common nowadays due to development of motor transport. They are associated with high mortality rates because of serious injuries of internal organs. The mechanisms of injuries are complex and may cause damages ranging from small ones, such as bruises or abrasions, to life-threatening trauma. Among typical injuries there are rib fractures, sternal fractures, pneumothorax, hemothorax, diaphragm lacerations, pulmonary contusions, cardiac tamponade, cardiac rupture and many others. The authors of the article would like to emphasize the pathophysiology and diagnostic difficulties in such blunt chest trauma complications as pulmonary contusions and acute respiratory distress syndrome, for which no causal treatment is available and only early diagnosis and administration of symptomatic treatment may increase the patients' chances to survive. In Forensic Medicine Department, Medical University of Łódź, an opinion was issued on a case which illustrates the clinical problem.

  2. Unilateral pulmonary edema: a rare initial presentation of cardiogenic shock due to acute myocardial infarction.

    Shin, Jeong Hun; Kim, Seok Hwan; Park, Jinkyu; Lim, Young-Hyo; Park, Hwan-Cheol; Choi, Sung Il; Shin, Jinho; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soon-Gil; Hong, Mun K; Lee, Jae Ung

    2012-02-01

    Cardiogenic unilateral pulmonary edema (UPE) is a rare clinical entity that is often misdiagnosed at first. Most cases of cardiogenic UPE occur in the right upper lobe and are caused by severe mitral regurgitation (MR). We present an unusual case of right-sided UPE in a patient with cardiogenic shock due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) without severe MR. The patient was successfully treated by percutaneous coronary intervention and medical therapy for heart failure. Follow-up chest Radiography showed complete resolution of the UPE. This case reminds us that AMI can present as UPE even in patients without severe MR or any preexisting pulmonary disease affecting the vasculature or parenchyma of the lung.

  3. An unusual presentation of massive pulmonary embolism mimicking septal acute myocardial infarction treated with tenecteplase.

    Fasullo, Sergio; Paterna, Salvatore; Di Pasquale, Pietro

    2009-02-01

    A 31-year-old man (175 cm, 82 kg) was referred to the emergency department 2 h after the sudden onset of acute dyspnea. Immediate ECG showed sinus tachycardia with ST elevations from V1 through V2 and a diagnosis of septal acute myocardial infarction was made. ECG on admission to the cardiology department showed the same results plus the S1-Q3-T3 pattern. Echocardiogram revealed a normally contracting left ventricle, a distended right ventricle with free wall hypokinesia and displacement of the interventricular septum towards the left ventricle. Thrombolytic therapy with tenecteplase 8000 IU and heparin 5000 IU was administered 5-10 min after hospitalisation and the patient was haemodynamically stable 30 min later. Echocardiogram performed 12 h after thrombolysis showed a normal left ventricle and a less distended right ventricle. Lung spiral computed tomography (CT) and lower abdominal CT on the fourth day showed large emboli in the inferior pulmonary arteries of the right and left lung. Rarely, massive pulmonary embolism may mimic anteroseptal acute myocardial infarction on ECG and this case demonstrates the utility of echocardiography for a differential diagnosis, as well as the efficacy of tenecteplase for thrombolytic therapy.

  4. Alterations in welding process voltage affect the generation of ultrafine particles, fume composition, and pulmonary toxicity.

    Antonini, James M; Keane, Michael; Chen, Bean T; Stone, Samuel; Roberts, Jenny R; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Andrews, Ronnee N; Frazer, David G; Sriram, Krishnan

    2011-12-01

    The goal was to determine if increasing welding voltage changes the physico-chemical properties of the fume and influences lung responses. Rats inhaled 40 mg/m³ (3 h/day × 3 days) of stainless steel (SS) welding fume generated at a standard voltage setting of 25 V (regular SS) or at a higher voltage (high voltage SS) of 30 V. Particle morphology, size and composition were characterized. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed at different times after exposures to assess lung injury. Fumes collected from either of the welding conditions appeared as chain-like agglomerates of nanometer-sized primary particles. High voltage SS welding produced a greater number of ultrafine-sized particles. Fume generated by high voltage SS welding was higher in manganese. Pulmonary toxicity was more substantial and persisted longer after exposure to the regular SS fume. In summary, a modest raise in welding voltage affected fume size and elemental composition and altered the temporal lung toxicity profile.

  5. Acute and sub-acute toxicity studies of aqueous and methanol extracts of Nelsonia campestris in rats

    Janet Mobolaji Olaniyan; Hadiza Lami Muhammad; Hussaini Anthony Makun; Musa Bola Busari; Abubakar Siddique Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of aqueous and methanol ex-tracts of Nelsonia campestris (N. campestris) in rats. Methods: Acute oral toxicity study of aqueous and methanol extracts was carried out by administration of 10, 100, 1 000, 1 600, 2 900 and 5 000 mg/kg body weight of N. campestris extracts to rats in the respective groups. Sub-acute toxicity study was conducted by oral administration of the extracts at daily doses of 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight to another group of rats for 28 days, while rats in the control group received 0.5 mL of normal saline. Results: The LD50 of the N. campestris extracts in rats was determined to be greater than 5 000 mg/kg body weight. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the test groups administered with aqueous and methanol extracts in relation to the control group for serum electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl−, HCO3−), serum albumin, total and conjugated bili-rubin. Similarly, mean organ-to-body weight ratio and all haematological parameters (white blood cell, red blood cell, mean cell volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume) evaluated were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the control. There was a significant increase (P Conclusions: Intake of high doses of this plant extracts may exhibit mild organ toxicity.

  6. Evaluation of a Western Blot Test in an Outbreak of Acute Pulmonary Histoplasmosis

    Pizzini, Claudia V.; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely M.; Reiss, Errol; Hajjeh, Rana; Kaufman, Leo; Peralta, José Mauro

    1999-01-01

    A western blot (WB) test was evaluated for detection of antibodies against native glycosylated and chemically deglycosylated M and H antigens of Histoplasma capsulatum in serum obtained from patients during the acute phase of pulmonary histoplasmosis that occurred during an outbreak. Of 275 serum samples tested by immunodiffusion and complement fixation (CF) samples from 40 patients affected during this outbreak and from 37 negative controls were tested by WB test. A group of patients whose sera were negative for CF antibodies and precipitins early in the acute stage of histoplasmosis but who all seroconverted during convalescence 6 weeks later were tested with the WB test. Antibodies against untreated H and M antigens were detected at a 1:100 dilution by WB test in 45% of the 20 acute-phase serum samples and in all 20 of the convalescent-phase specimens. The WB test’s sensitivity for acute-phase specimens increased to 90% (18 of 20 specimens) when H and M antigens were treated by periodate oxidation to inactivate susceptible carbohydrate epitopes. When native glycosylated antigens were used in the WB test, positive reactions were observed in negative control serum specimens (3 of 37 specimens; 8%) and in serum specimens obtained from asymptomatic persons screened as part of the outbreak investigation (13 of 20 specimens; 65%). These positive reactions were also attributed to glycosidic epitopes since the specificity of the WB test increased from 78 to 100% when periodate-treated H and M antigens were used. WB test with deglycosylated H and M antigens of histoplasmin provides a rapid, sensitive, and specific test to diagnose acute pulmonary histoplasmosis before precipitins can be detected. PMID:9874658

  7. Three dimensional quantitative structure-toxicity relationship modeling and prediction of acute toxicity for organic contaminants to algae.

    Jin, Xiangqin; Jin, Minghao; Sheng, Lianxi

    2014-08-01

    Although numerous chemicals have been identified to have significant toxicological effect on aquatic organisms, there is still lack of a reliable, high-throughput approach to evaluate, screen and monitor the presence of organic contaminants in aquatic system. In the current study, we proposed a synthetic pipeline to automatically model and predict the acute toxicity of chemicals to algae. In the procedure, a new alignment-free three dimensional (3D) structure characterization method was described and, with this method, several 3D-quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (3D-QSTR) models were developed, from which two were found to exhibit strong internal fitting ability and high external predictive power. The best model was established by Gaussian process (GP), which was further employed to perform extrapolation on a random compound library consisting of 1014 virtually generated substituted benzenes. It was found that (i) substitution number can only exert slight influence on chemical׳s toxicity, but low-substituted benzenes seem to have higher toxicity than those of high-substituted entities, and (ii) benzenes substituted by nitro group and halogens exhibit high acute toxicity as compared to other substituents such as methyl and carboxyl groups. Subsequently, several promising candidates suggested by computational prediction were assayed by using a standard algal growth inhibition test. Consequently, four substituted benzenes, namely 2,3-dinitrophenol, 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline, 1,2,3-trinitrobenzene and 3-bromophenol, were determined to have high acute toxicity to Scenedesmus obliquus, with their EC50 values of 2.5±0.8, 10.5±2.1, 1.4±0.2 and 42.7±5.4μmol/L, respectively.

  8. January 2015 Phoenix pulmonary journal club: noninvasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure

    Mathew M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation has expanded its role in the treatment of both chronic and acute respiratory failure. Its initial use in conditions such as obstructive sleep apnea, neuromuscular disease and tracheobronchomalacia, have been shown to improve quality of life and reduce mortality. Over the past 20 years studies have looked at using noninvasive ventilation in the management of acute respiratory failure from pulmonary edema, asthma and COPD exacerbations. During this month's journal club we reviewed 3 articles evaluating the efficacy of noninvasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure. Gupta D, Nath A, Agarwal R, Behera D. A prospective randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of noninvasive ventilation in severe acute asthma. Respir Care. 2010;55(5:536-43. [PubMed] This was a small unblinded randomized controlled trial (RCT looking at the efficacy using noninvasive ventilation (NIV in acute asthma. A total of 53 patients were included and divided into 2 groups of 28 patients ...

  9. Influences of water chemistry on the acute toxicity of lead to Pimephales promelas and Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    Mager, Edward M; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Brix, Kevin V; Ryan, Adam C; Grosell, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The acute toxicity of lead (Pb) was examined for fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas; 96-h) and daphnids (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 48-h) in waters modified for hardness (as CaSO₄), dissolved organic carbon (DOC; as Aldrich humic acid) and alkalinity (as NaHCO₃) for parameterization of an acute freshwater biotic ligand model (BLM). Additionally, acute (96-h) and chronic (30-d) bioassays were performed for P. promelas to more clearly define the influence of pH (5.5-8.3) on Pb toxicity as modified by addition of HCl or NaOH using an automated titration system. Results indicate that Ca(2+) is protective against acute Pb toxicity to P. promelas but not C. dubia. Strong protection was afforded by DOC and NaHCO(3) against acute Pb toxicity to P. promelas, whereas milder protection was observed for C. dubia with both parameters. Dissolved Pb LC50s from the P. promelas pH bioassays revealed a complex effect of pH on Pb toxicity, likely explained in part by Pb speciation and the competitive interaction of H(+) with ionic Pb(2+). Chronic pH bioassays also demonstrated that 30-d growth is not impaired in fathead minnows at relevant Pb concentrations. The findings reported herein suggest that development of separate BLMs for P. promelas and C. dubia should be considered.

  10. Acute effect of glucan-spiked office dust on nasal and pulmonary inflammation in guinea pigs

    Straszek, Sune; Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Nervana, Metwali

    2007-01-01

     office dust and glucan on nasal and pulmonary inflammation. This is relevant for humans with occupational exposure in waste handling and farming and buildings with mold problems.  Office dust collected from Danish offices was spiked with 1% (1-3)-β-glucan (curdlan). Guinea pig nasal cavity volume was measured...... office dust exposures produced a delayed nasal sub-acute congestion in guinea pigs compared to office dust alone but extrapolated to nasal congestion in humans, paralleling the nasal congestion seen in human volunteers exposed to the same dust, it may not have clinical importance....

  11. Concurrent early-onset peripartum cardiomyopathy in a preeclampsia patient with acute pulmonary edema.

    Belen, Erdal; Tipi, Fahri Fatih; Helvaci, Aysen; Bayyigit, Akif

    2015-01-01

    We herein report the case of a preeclampsia patient with comorbid peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCMP). A 22-year-old woman in the 26th week of gestation was admitted with acute pulmonary edema. Hypertension and proteinuria were detected, and echocardiography showed an ejection fraction of 33%. It is remarkable that PPCMP particularly that associated with preeclampsia was observed in the early gestational period. In conclusion, while dyspnea and pretibial edema are often noted during normal pregnancies, the potential for PPCMP should be considered if these symptoms are excessive and/or comorbid paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea and orthopnea are present, even in patients with preeclampsia.

  12. Treatment of Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Update on Newer Pharmacologic and Interventional Strategies

    Francesco Pelliccia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary embolism (PE is a common complication in hospitalized patients, spanning multiple patient populations and crossing various therapeutic disciplines. Current treatment paradigm in patients with massive PE mandates prompt risk stratification with aggressive therapeutic strategies. With the advent of endovascular technologies, various catheter-based thrombectomy and thrombolytic devices are available to treat patients with massive or submassive PE. In this paper, a variety of newer treatment strategies for PE are analyzed, with special emphasis on various interventional treatment strategies. Clinical evidence for utilizing endovascular treatment modalities, based on our institutional experience as well as a literature review, is provided.

  13. Acute toxicity tests on raw leachate from a Malaysian dumping site.

    Sujá, Fatihah; Yusof, Arij; Osman, Md Anuar

    2010-01-01

    Leachate samples collected from the Ampar Tenang open dumping site at Dengkil, Malaysia, were analyzed for acute toxicity. Two in vivo toxicity tests, Acute Oral Toxicity (AOT) and Primary Skin Irritation (PSI), were performed using Sprague Dawley rats and New Zealand Albino rabbits, respectively. The leachate samples were also analyzed chemically for nitrate and phosphate, ammonia-nitrogen, Kjeldahl-nitrogen and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Results from both the AOT and PSI tests showed that the leachate did not contribute to acute toxicity. The AOT test yielded a negative result: no effect was observed in at least half of the rat population. The PSI test on rabbits produced effects only at a leachate concentration of 100%. However, the skin irritation was minor, and the test returned a negative result. The four chemical tests showed high levels of nutrient pollution in the leachate. The nitrate and phosphate concentrations were 2.1 mg/L and 23.6 mg/L, respectively. Further, the ammonia-nitrogen concentration was 1,000 mg NH(3)-N/L the Kjeldahl-nitrogen level was 446 mg NH(3)-N/L, and the Chemical Oxygen Demand was 1,300 mg/L. The in vivo toxicity and chemical analyses showed that the leachate is polluted but not acutely toxic to organisms.

  14. Acute toxicity of commonly used forestry herbicide mixtures to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas.

    Tatum, Vickie L; Borton, Dennis L; Streblow, William R; Louch, Jeffrey; Shepard, James P

    2012-12-01

    Because many herbicides selectively control specific species or types of vegetation, they are often applied as mixtures to achieve better control over undesirable vegetation. When herbicides are applied in forest ecosystems, streams, ponds, and other bodies of water are typically protected by buffer zones in which no herbicide is applied. However, in some landscapes, small wetlands and streams are difficult to see and avoid, thus the potential acute toxicity of herbicide mixtures to aquatic organisms is of interest, yet it has not been well-studied. We examined the acute toxicity of 23 different herbicide mixtures to Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) at environmentally relevant concentrations, and, where possible, characterized mixture interactions using Marking's Additive Index. Maximum exposure concentrations were equivalent to applying the maximum allowable rate for each component directly to the surface of a 6-in. deep pond with no dissipation following application. Under the conditions of this study, herbicide formulations containing Accord Concentrate (glyphosate), Arsenal AC (imazapyr), Chopper (imazapyr), Escort (metsulfuron methyl), Oust XP (sulfometuron methyl), and Velpar L (hexazinone) were not associated with appreciable acute toxicity to fathead minnows or C. dubia when used alone or in mixtures with each other and various surfactants and adjuvants. Herbicide mixtures for which Additive Indexes could be calculated exhibited primarily antagonistic or simple additive toxicity. In the few cases where synergistic toxicity was observed, the degree of synergism was slight, never exceeding approximately twice the effect estimated based on additive toxicity. Based on the results of this study, neither acute toxicity nor enhanced acute aquatic toxicity due to synergistic mixture effects appears to be a significant concern for applications of the herbicide mixtures most commonly used in forestry.

  15. Poor Baseline Pulmonary Function May Not Increase the Risk of Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity

    Wang, Jingbo [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Cao, Jianzhong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Yuan, Shuanghu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ji, Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Arenberg, Douglas [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Dai, Jianrong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Stanton, Paul; Tatro, Daniel; Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Wang, Luhua, E-mail: wlhwq@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Kong, Feng-Ming, E-mail: fengkong@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Poor pulmonary function (PF) is often considered a contraindication to definitive radiation therapy for lung cancer. This study investigated whether baseline PF was associated with radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving conformal radiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients treated with CRT and tested for PF at baseline were eligible. Baseline predicted values of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were analyzed. Additional factors included age, gender, smoking status, Karnofsky performance status, coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tumor location, histology, concurrent chemotherapy, radiation dose, and mean lung dose (MLD) were evaluated for RILT. The primary endpoint was symptomatic RILT (SRILT), including grade ≥2 radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Results: There was a total of 260 patients, and SRILT occurred in 58 (22.3%) of them. Mean FEV1 values for SRILT and non-SRILT patients were 71.7% and 65.9% (P=.077). Under univariate analysis, risk of SRILT increased with MLD (P=.008), the absence of COPD (P=.047), and FEV1 (P=.077). Age (65 split) and MLD were significantly associated with SRILT in multivariate analysis. The addition of FEV1 and age with the MLD-based model slightly improved the predictability of SRILT (area under curve from 0.63-0.70, P=.088). Conclusions: Poor baseline PF does not increase the risk of SRILT, and combining FEV1, age, and MLD may improve the predictive ability.

  16. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response correlates with neutrophil influx linking inhaled particles and cardiovascular risk

    Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Lamson, Jacob Stuart; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun

    2013-01-01

    at a biofuel plant. Mice were exposed to single or multiple doses of particles by inhalation or intratracheal instillation and pulmonary mRNA expression of Saa3 was determined at different time points of up to 4 weeks after exposure. Also hepatic mRNA expression of Saa3, SAA3 protein levels in broncheoalveolar......, whereas hepatic Saa3 levels were much less affected. Pulmonary Saa3 expression correlated with the number of neutrophils in BAL across different dosing regimens, doses and time points. Conclusions Pulmonary acute phase response may constitute a direct link between particle inhalation and risk...

  17. Fatal course of pulmonary Absidia sp. infection in a 4-year-old girl undergoing treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Krauze, Agnieszka; Krenke, Katarzyna; Matysiak, Michal; Kulus, Marek

    2005-07-01

    Absidia sp. is a rare etiologic agent responsible for infectious complications in immunosuppressed patients. The authors describe a 4-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia complicated with pleuropneumonia caused by an Absidia infection during the induction of remission. A review of the published reports in current literature is included for comparison. To the authors' knowledge only six cases of primary pulmonary absidiomycosis have been published. Despite its uncommon pulmonary presentation, mucormycosis should be considered in patients with an immunosuppressing illness and positive risk factors and when a pulmonary lesion is not responding to appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  18. VALIDATION OF PULMONARY SCORE IN THE EVALUATION OF ACUTE EXACERBATION OF ASTHMA

    Chandrakala

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Numerous asthma scoring systems have been devised which combine a number of physical signs to estimate the severity of an acute asthma exacerbation. Although more than 16 scoring systems exist, many are difficult to use. The pulmonary score was developed to provide ‘‘user-friendly’’ measure of asthma severity for children with acute asthma exacerbation. The objective of the study is to study the efficacy of pulmonary score in assessing the severity of acute exacerbation of asthma in comparison to peak expiratory flow rate. METHODS: The study sampled 50 children, aged 5–18 years, with mild to moderate acute exacerbation of asthma. The PEFR (best of three attempts and the PS were measured before and after treatment at 5, 10 and 15 minutes. The PS includes respiratory rate, wheezing, and retractions, each rated on a 0–3 scale. Pre- and post-treatment PEFR and PS score were compared using paired t-tests to establish construct validity. Correlation of pre- and post-treatment PSs with PEFRs was measured to establish criterion validity. RESULTS: The mean predicted PEFR improved with treatment by 21.2% (from 50.8% to 72.0% of predicted (p <0.0001 at 15 minutes. The mean PS improved by 2.8 (from 4.8 to 2 (p < 0.0001 at 15 minutes. Pre- and post-treatment PSs were significantly correlated with PEFRs. The correlation of pre-treatment PEFR and PS is r = -0.497 (p = 0.000, that for post treatment at 15 minutes is r = -0.589 (p = 0.000. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: These data support the construct and criterion validities of the PS as a measure of asthma severity among children. The PS is a practical substitute to estimate airway obstruction in children who are too young or too sick to obtain PEFRs.

  19. A 64-year old man who sustained many episodes of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema successfully treated with Boussignac continuous positive airway pressure : A case report

    Dieperink, Willem; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Nannenberg-Koops, Jaqueline W.; Brouwer, Henk W.; Jaarsma, T.; Nieuwland, Wybe; Zijlstra, Felix; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.

    2007-01-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is standard treatment for patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. We describe a patient who had 21 episodes of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema due to very poor patient compliance. This 64-year old man had end-stage congestive heart failure based

  20. Acute effects of inspiratory muscle warm-up on pulmonary function in healthy subjects.

    Özdal, Mustafa

    2016-06-15

    The acute effects of inspiratory muscle warm-up on pulmonary functions were examined in 26 healthy male subjects using the pulmonary function test (PFT) in three different trials. The control trial (CON) did not involve inspiratory muscle warm-up, while the placebo (IMWp) and experimental (IMW) trials involved inspiratory muscle warm-up. There were no significant changes between the IMWp and CON trials (p>0.05). All the PFT measurements, including slow vital capacity, inspiratory vital capacity, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, maximal voluntary ventilation, and maximal inspiratory pressure were significantly increased by 3.55%, 12.52%, 5.00%, 2.75%, 2.66%, and 7.03% respectively, in the subjects in the IMW trial than those in the CON trial (p<0.05). These results show that inspiratory muscle warm-up improved the pulmonary functions. The mechanisms responsible for these improvements are probably associated with the concomitant increase in the inspiratory muscle strength, and the cooperation of the upper thorax, neck, and respiratory muscles, and increased level of reactive O2 species in muscle tissue, and potentially improvement of muscle O2 delivery-to-utilization. However, further investigation is required to determine the precise mechanisms responsible from among these candidates.

  1. Three-view bedside ultrasound for the differentiation of acute respiratory distress syndrome from cardiogenic pulmonary edema.

    Mantuani, Daniel; Nagdev, Arun; Stone, Michael

    2012-09-01

    Bedside ultrasound is being increasingly used by emergency physicians (EPs) for the differentiation of acute dyspnea in critically ill patients. Lung ultrasound is emerging as a highly sensitive tool in diagnosing alveolar interstitial edema with the presence of diffuse “B-lines” arising from the pleural line. However, when used independently, lung ultrasound is unable to differentiate between cardiogenic and noncardiogenic causes of pulmonary edema. This case report describes a rapid 3-view or “triple scan” sonographic examination to differentiate acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from cardiogenic pulmonary edema.

  2. Characterisation of acute toxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress posed by textile effluent on zebrafish

    Wenjuan Zhang; Wei Liu; Jing Zhang; Huimin Zhao; Yaobin Zhang; Xie Quan; Yihe Jin

    2012-01-01

    Textile industries are important sources of toxic discharges and contribute enormously to water deterioration,while little attention has been paid to the toxicity of textile effluents in discharge regulation.Bioassays with zebrafish were employed to evaluate the toxicity of wastewater samples collected from different stages at a textile factory and sewage treatment plants (STPs).Physico-chemical parameters,acute toxicity,genotoxicity and oxidative stress biomarkers were analyzed.The wastewater samples from bleaching,rinsing and soaping of the textile factory exhibited high acute toxicity and genotoxicity.The coexisting components of dye compounds,as assistants and oxidants,seemed to cause some effect on the toxic response.After treatment employing the anoxic-oxic (A/O) process in STPs,the color and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) were reduced by 40% and 84%,respectively,falling within the criteria of the Chinese Sewage Discharge Standard.In contrast,increases in acute toxicity and genotoxicity were observed in the anaerobic tank,indicating the formation of toxic intermediates.The genotoxicity of the effluent of the STP was not significantly different from that of the influent,suggesting the wastewater treatment processes were not effective in removing the genotoxicity of the dye wastewater.Results indicated that the effluent contains pro-oxidants since the activities of glutathione (GSH),malondialdehyde (MDA),and total anti-oxidation capacity (T-AOC) were all elevated.In addition,decreases in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S transferase (GST) activities observed can be interpreted as a cytotoxicity sign due to an over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS).The results of the present study suggest that the STPs were not capable of reducing the toxicity of wastewater sufficiently.Further treatment is needed to remove the potential risks posed by textile effluent to ecosystems and human health,and employing a toxicity index is necessary for

  3. Metal uptake and acute toxicity in zebrafish: Common mechanisms across multiple metals

    Alsop, Derek, E-mail: alsopde@mcmaster.ca [Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1 (Canada); Wood, Chris M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    All metals tested reduced calcium uptake in zebrafish larvae. However, it was whole body sodium loss that was functionally related to toxicity. The zebrafish larvae acute toxicity assay save time, space and resources. - Abstract: Zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio) were used to examine the mechanisms of action and acute toxicities of metals. Larvae had similar physiological responses and sensitivities to waterborne metals as adults. While cadmium and zinc have previously been shown to reduce Ca{sup 2+} uptake, copper and nickel also decreased Ca{sup 2+} uptake, suggesting that the epithelial transport of all these metals is through Ca{sup 2+} pathways. However, exposure to cadmium, copper or nickel for up to 48 h had little or no effect on total whole body Ca{sup 2+} levels, indicating that the reduction of Ca{sup 2+} uptake is not the acute toxic mechanism of these metals. Instead, mortalities were effectively related to whole body Na{sup +}, which decreased up to 39% after 48 h exposures to different metals around their respective 96 h LC50s. Decreases in whole body K{sup +} were also observed, although they were not as pronounced or frequent as Na{sup +} losses. None of the metals tested inhibited Na{sup +} uptake in zebrafish (Na{sup +} uptake was in fact increased with exposure) and the observed losses of Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} were proportional to the ionic gradients between the plasma and water, indicating diffusive ion loss with metal exposure. This study has shown that there is a common pathway for metal uptake and a common mechanism of acute toxicity across groups of metals in zebrafish. The disruption of ion uptake accompanying metal exposure does not appear to be responsible for the acute toxicity of metals, as has been previously suggested, but rather the toxicity is instead due to total ion loss (predominantly Na{sup +}).

  4. Acute Toxicity and Environmental Risks of Five Veterinary Pharmaceuticals for Aquatic Macroinvertebrates.

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Hahn, Torsten; Ehrlich, Bert; Höltge, Sibylla; Kreuzig, Robert; Schulz, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    Due to the high use of antibiotics and antiparasitics for the treatment of livestock, there is concern about the potential impacts of the release of these compounds into freshwater ecosystems. In this context, the present study quantified the acute toxicity of two antibiotics (sulfadiazine and sulfadimidine), and three antiparasitic agents (flubendazole, fenbendazole, ivermectin) for nine freshwater invertebrate species. These experiments revealed a low degree of toxicity for the sulfonamide antibiotics, with limited implications in the survival of all test species at the highest test concentrations (50 and 100 mg/L). In contrast, all three antiparasitic agents indicated on the basis of their acute toxicity risks for the aquatic environment. Moreover, chronic toxicity data from the literature for antiparasitics, including effects on reproduction in daphnids, support the concern about the integrity of aquatic ecosystems posed by releases of these compounds. Thus, these pharmaceuticals warrant further careful consideration by environmental risk managers.

  5. Inhibition effect of glyphosate on the acute and subacute toxicity of cadmium to earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Zhou, Chui-Fan; Wang, Yu-Jun; Sun, Rui-Juan; Liu, Cun; Fan, Guang-Ping; Qin, Wen-Xiu; Li, Cheng-Cheng; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2014-10-01

    The acute and subacute toxicities of cadmium (Cd) to earthworm Eisenia fetida in the presence and absence of glyphosate were studied. Although Cd is highly toxic to E. fetida, the presence of glyphosate markedly reduced the acute toxicity of Cd to earthworm; both the mortality rate of the earthworms and the accumulation of Cd decreased with the increase of the glyphosate/Cd molar ratio. The subcellular distribution of Cd in E. fetida tissues showed that internal Cd was dominant in the intact cells fraction and the heat-stable proteins fraction. The presence of glyphosate reduced the concentration of Cd in all fractions, especially the intact cells. During a longer period of exposure, the weight loss of earthworm and the total Cd absorption was alleviated by glyphosate. Thus, the herbicide glyphosate can reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cd in the soil ecosystems at both short- and long-term exposures.

  6. Prognostic stratification of acute pulmonary embolism: Focus on clinical aspects, imaging, and biomarkers

    Luca Masotti

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Luca Masotti1, Marc Righini2, Nicolas Vuilleumier3, Fabio Antonelli4, Giancarlo Landini5, Roberto Cappelli6, Patrick Ray71Internal Medicine, 4Clinical Chemistry, Cecina Hospital, Cecina, Italy; 2Division of Angiology and Haemostasis, Department of Internal Medicine, Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland; 3Division of Laboratory Medicine, Department of Genetics and Laboratory Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals and University of Geneva, Switzerland; 5Internal Medicine, Santa Maria Nuova Hospital, Florence, Italy; 6Thrombosis Center, University of Siena, Siena, Italy; 7Department of Emergency Medicine, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Pitié-Salpêtrière, UPMC Paris 6, Paris, FranceAbstract: Pulmonary embolism (PE represents a common disease in emergency medicine and guidelines for diagnosis and treatment have had wide diffusion. However, PE morbidity and mortality remain high, especially when associated to hemodynamic instability or right ventricular dysfunction. Prognostic stratification to identify high risk patients needing to receive more aggressive pharmacological and closer monitoring is of utmost importance. Modern guidelines for management of acute PE are based on risk stratification using either clinical, radiological, or laboratory findings. This article reviews the modern treatment of acute PE, which is customized upon patient prognosis. Accordingly the current risk stratification tools described in the literature such as clinical scores, echocardiography, helical computer tomography, and biomarkers will be reviewed.Keywords: pulmonary embolism, prognosis, troponin, BNP, NT-proBNP, echocardiography, computer tomography

  7. Acute lyme infection presenting with amyopathic dermatomyositis and rapidly fatal interstitial pulmonary fibrosis: a case report

    Nguyen Hanh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Dermatomyositis has been described in the setting of lyme infection in only nine previous case reports. Although lyme disease is known to induce typical clinical findings that are observed in various collagen vascular diseases, to our knowledge, we believe that our case is the first presentation of acute lyme disease associated with amyopathic dermatomyositis, which was then followed by severe and fatal interstitial pulmonary fibrosis only two months later. Case presentation We present a case of a 64-year-old African-American man with multiple medical problems who was diagnosed with acute lyme infection after presenting with the pathognomonic rash and confirmatory serology. In spite of appropriate antimicrobial therapy for lyme infection, he developed unexpected amyopathic dermatomyositis and then interstitial lung disease. Conclusions This case illustrates a potential for lyme disease to produce clinical syndromes that may be indistinguishable from primary connective tissue diseases. An atypical and sequential presentation (dermatomyositis and interstitial lung disease of a common disease (lyme infection is discussed. This case illustrates that in patients who are diagnosed with lyme infection who subsequently develop atypical muscular, respiratory or other systemic complaints, the possibility of severe rheumatological and pulmonary complications should be considered.

  8. Acute Toxicity of Amorphous Silica Nanoparticles in Intravenously Exposed ICR Mice

    Yang Yu; Yang Li; Wen Wang; Minghua Jin; Zhongjun Du; Yanbo Li; Junchao Duan; Yongbo Yu; Zhiwei Sun

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the acute toxicity of intravenously administrated amorphous silica nanoparticles (SNPs) in mice. The lethal dose, 50 (LD50), of intravenously administrated SNPs was calculated in mice using Dixon's up-and-down method (262.45±33.78 mg/kg). The acute toxicity was evaluated at 14 d after intravenous injection of SNPs at 29.5, 103.5 and 177.5 mg/kg in mice. A silicon content analysis using ICP-OES found that SNPs mainly distributed in the resident macrophages of the l...

  9. Risk-Adapted Management of Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Recent Evidence, New Guidelines

    Anja Käberich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE, the third most frequent acute cardiovascular syndrome, may cause life-threatening complications and imposes a substantial socio-economic burden. During the past years, several landmark trials paved the way towards novel strategies in acute and long-term management of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE. Risk stratification is increasingly recognized as a cornerstone for an adequate diagnostic and therapeutic management of the highly heterogeneous population of patients with acute PE. Recently published European Guidelines emphasize the importance of clinical prediction rules in combination with imaging procedures (assessment of right ventricular function and laboratory biomarkers (indicative of myocardial stress or injury for identification of normotensive PE patients at intermediate risk for an adverse short-term outcome. In this patient group, systemic full-dose thrombolysis was associated with a significantly increased risk of intracranial bleeding, a complication which discourages its clinical application unless hemodynamic decompensation occurs. A large-scale clinical trial program evaluating new oral anticoagulants in the initial and long-term treatment of venous thromboembolism showed at least comparable efficacy and presumably increased safety of these drugs compared to the current standard treatment. Research is continuing on catheter-directed, ultrasound-assisted, local, low-dose thrombolysis in the management of intermediate-risk PE.

  10. Acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in Wistar rats.

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bueno, Viviana; Guerra, Isbel; Valdés, Odalys; Vega, Yamile; Torres, Leonid

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute C. officinalis extract dose of 2000 mg/kg dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered in drinking water. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights, and histopathological examinations. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total and differential leukocyte count and blood clotting time and blood chemistry: glucose, total cholesterol, urea, total proteins, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the acute study, there were no mortality and signs of toxicity. In the subchronic study, several of the blood elements were significantly affected in males and females after 90 days; hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes and blood clotting time. For blood chemistry parameters, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were affected. Histopathological examination of tissues showed slight abnormalities in hepatic parenchyma that were consistent with biochemical variations observed. These studies indicate that the acute and subchronic toxicities of C. officinalis extract are low.

  11. Evaluation of the importance of astrocytes when screening for acute toxicity in neuronal cell systems.

    Woehrling, E K; Hill, E J; Coleman, M D

    2010-02-01

    Reliable, high throughput, in vitro preliminary screening batteries have the potential to greatly accelerate the rate at which regulatory neurotoxicity data is generated. This study evaluated the importance of astrocytes when predicting acute toxic potential using a neuronal screening battery of pure neuronal (NT2.N) and astrocytic (NT2.A) and integrated neuronal/astrocytic (NT2.N/A) cell systems derived from the human NT2.D1 cell line, using biochemical endpoints (mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depolarisation and ATP and GSH depletion). Following exposure for 72 h, the known acute human neurotoxicants trimethyltin-chloride, chloroquine and 6-hydroxydopamine were frequently capable of disrupting biochemical processes in all of the cell systems at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Astrocytes provide key metabolic and protective support to neurons during toxic challenge in vivo and generally the astrocyte containing cell systems showed increased tolerance to toxicant insult compared with the NT2.N mono-culture in vitro. Whilst there was no consistent relationship between MMP, ATP and GSH log IC(50) values for the NT2.N/A and NT2.A cell systems, these data did provide preliminary evidence of modulation of the acute neuronal toxic response by astrocytes. In conclusion, the suitability of NT2 neurons and astrocytes as cell systems for acute toxicity screening deserves further investigation.

  12. Hypofractionated IMRT of the Prostate Bed After Radical Prostatectomy: Acute Toxicity in the PRIAMOS-1 Trial

    Katayama, Sonja, E-mail: sonja.katayama@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Striecker, Thorbjoern; Kessel, Kerstin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Sterzing, Florian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Habl, Gregor [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Edler, Lutz [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Herfarth, Klaus [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy as primary treatment for prostate cancer is currently being investigated in large phase 3 trials. However, there are few data on postoperative hypofractionation. The Radiation therapy for the Prostate Bed With or Without the Pelvic Lymph Nodes (PRIAMOS 1) trial was initiated as a prospective phase 2 trial to assess treatment safety and toxicity of a hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of the prostate bed. Methods and Materials: From February to September 2012, 40 patients with indications for adjuvant or salvage radiation therapy were enrolled. One patient dropped out before treatment. Patients received 54 Gy in 18 fractions to the prostate bed with IMRT and daily image guidance. Gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities (according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0) were recorded weekly during treatment and 10 weeks after radiation therapy. Results: Overall acute toxicity was favorable, with no recorded adverse events grade ≥3. Acute GI toxicity rates were 56.4% (grade 1) and 17.9% (grade 2). Acute GU toxicity was recorded in 35.9% of patients (maximum grade 1). Urinary stress incontinence was not influenced by radiation therapy. The incidence of grade 1 urinary urge incontinence increased from 2.6% before to 23.1% 10 weeks after therapy, but grade 2 urge incontinence remained unchanged. Conclusions: Postoperative hypofractionated IMRT of the prostate bed is tolerated well, with no severe acute side effects.

  13. Acute toxicity assessment of ANAMMOX substrates and antibiotics by luminescent bacteria test.

    Ding, Shuang; Wu, Junwei; Zhang, Meng; Lu, Huifeng; Mahmood, Qaisar; Zheng, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Acute toxicities of anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) substrates and four antibiotics from pharmaceutical wastewaters on ANAMMOX process were reported. Individual and joint acute toxicity assays were performed using 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50). Results showed that IC50 values and their 95% confidence interval of ammonium chloride (A), sodium nitrite (B), penicillin G-Na (C), polymyxin B sulfate (D), chloramphenicol (E) and kanamycin sulfate (F) were 2708.9 (2247.9-3169.9), 1475.4 (1269.9-1680.9), 5114.4 (4946.4-5282.4), 10.2 (1.8-18.6), 409.9 (333.7-486.1) and 5254.1 (3934.4-6573.8) mgL(-1) respectively, suggesting toxicities were in the order of D>E>B>A>C>F. Joint acute toxicities of bicomponent mixtures A and B, C and D, C and F, D and F were independent; D and E, E and F were additive while C and E were synergistic. Joint acute toxicities of multicomponent mixtures were synergistic or additive. Luminescent bacteria test is an easy and robust method for forecasting the feasibility of ANAMMOX process for pharmaceutical wastewater treatment.

  14. Towards Global QSAR Model Building for Acute Toxicity: Munro Database Case Study

    Swapnil Chavan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of 436 Munro database chemicals were studied with respect to their corresponding experimental LD50 values to investigate the possibility of establishing a global QSAR model for acute toxicity. Dragon molecular descriptors were used for the QSAR model development and genetic algorithms were used to select descriptors better correlated with toxicity data. Toxic values were discretized in a qualitative class on the basis of the Globally Harmonized Scheme: the 436 chemicals were divided into 3 classes based on their experimental LD50 values: highly toxic, intermediate toxic and low to non-toxic. The k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classification method was calibrated on 25 molecular descriptors and gave a non-error rate (NER equal to 0.66 and 0.57 for internal and external prediction sets, respectively. Even if the classification performances are not optimal, the subsequent analysis of the selected descriptors and their relationship with toxicity levels constitute a step towards the development of a global QSAR model for acute toxicity.

  15. Acute oral toxicity of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia in mice

    Sim, K. S.; A M Sri Nurestri; Sinniah, S. K.; Kim, K. H.; Norhanom, A. W.

    2010-01-01

    Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia, belonging to the botanical family Cactaceae, have been traditionally used by the locals in Malaysia for treatment of various ailments. The current study reports the outcome of acute oral toxicity investigation of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia, on ICR mice. No mortalities or evidence of adverse effects have been observed in ICR mice following acute oral administration at the highest dose of 2500 mg/ kg crude extracts of Pereskia bleo and Pereski...

  16. Toward a comparative overview of dependence potential and acute toxicity of psychoactive substances used nonmedically.

    Gable, R S

    1993-01-01

    A procedure is outlined for comparing dependence potential and acute toxicity across a broad range of abused psychoactive substances. Tentative results, based on an extensive literature review of 20 substances, suggested that the margin of safety ("therapeutic index") varied dramatically between substances. Intravenous heroin appeared to have the greatest risk of dependence and acute lethality; oral psilocybin appeared to have the least. Hazards due to behavioral deficits, perceptual distortion, or chronic illness were not factored into the assessments.

  17. Nebulization of the acidified sodium nitrite formulation attenuates acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    Surber Mark W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Generalized hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV occurring during exposure to hypoxia is a detrimental process resulting in an increase in lung vascular resistance. Nebulization of sodium nitrite has been shown to inhibit HPV. The aim of this project was to investigate and compare the effects of nebulization of nitrite and different formulations of acidified sodium nitrite on acute HPV. Methods Ex vivo isolated rabbit lungs perfused with erythrocytes in Krebs-Henseleit buffer (adjusted to 10% hematocrit and in vivo anesthetized catheterized rabbits were challenged with periods of hypoxic ventilation alternating with periods of normoxic ventilation. After baseline hypoxic challenges, vehicle, sodium nitrite or acidified sodium nitrite was delivered via nebulization. In the ex vivo model, pulmonary arterial pressure and nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled gas were monitored. Nitrite and nitrite/nitrate were measured in samples of perfusion buffer. Pulmonary arterial pressure, systemic arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood gases were monitored in the in vivo model. Results In the ex vivo model, nitrite nebulization attenuated HPV and increased nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled gas and nitrite concentrations in the perfusate. The acidified forms of sodium nitrite induced higher levels of nitric oxide in exhaled gas and had longer vasodilating effects compared to nitrite alone. All nitrite formulations increased concentrations of circulating nitrite to the same degree. In the in vivo model, inhaled nitrite inhibited HPV, while pulmonary arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood gases were not affected. All nitrite formulations had similar potency to inhibit HPV. The tested concentration of appeared tolerable. Conclusion Nitrite alone and in acidified forms effectively and similarly attenuates HPV. However, acidified nitrite formulations induce a more pronounced increase in nitric oxide exhalation.

  18. ACUTE AND SUBACUTE TOXICITY STUDY ON SPERMATOGENIC SIDDHA DRUG ‘ISAPPUKOL CHOORANAM’ (IC

    S. Thillaivanan*, K. Kanagavalli , P. Sathiyarajeswaran and P. Parthiban

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines have been broadly used in developed countries hence they are natural and comparatively safe. They contain plant materials as their pharmacologically active components. Infertility is one of the most extremely tragic all over the world. Despite recent advances in the treatment of male infertility, the problem has not been satisfactorily tackled. The male infertility is mainly due to an inadequate number of spermatozoa in the semen, the failure of the spermatozoa to move with sufficient vigor towards their goal. Aim of the study is to evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the spermatogenic siddha drug Isappukol Chooranam (IC (siddha drug.For acute studies, different doses of IC were administered orally to rats once daily for one week. Forsub-acute studies, different doses of IC were administered orally to rats once daily for 28 days in various doses at 50,100,200 mg/kg of body weight. Detailed hematological, biochemical, necropsy and Histopathological evaluation of organs was performed for all animals. Histopathological analysis revealed that Spleen, Testes, Pancreas, Lung, Liver, Brain, Heart, Stomach, Intestine, Bone, Ovary, and Kidney tissues of treated groups did not show any signs of toxicity. No impairment in hepatic, renal, haemopoietic functions were observed throughout the study. No mortality was observed up to 200 mg/kg of body weight in acute and sub-acute toxicity studies.

  19. Acute toxicity of organic solvents on Artemia salina

    Barahona-Gomariz, M.V.; Sanz-Barrera, F.; Sanchez-Fortun, S. (Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain))

    1994-05-01

    Organic solvents can make their way into the environment as industrial wastes and components of pesticide formulation. In laboratory bioassays, the use of organic formulations. In laboratory bioassays, the use of organic solvents is often unavoidable, since many pesticides and organic pollutants have low water solubility and must be dissolved in organic solvents prior to addition into experimental systems. In the toxicant bioassays, invertebrates with special reference to aquatic arthropod species are of recent interest as test models due to the need for developing nonmammalian test systems. Toxic effects of organic solvents have been tested with a few aquatic species, but information on the comparative toxicity of solvents towards Artemia salina is not available. Artemia salina have, within recent years, gained popularity as test organisms for short-term toxicity testing. Because Artemia salina exhibit rapid development and growth within 48 hr after hatch, their potential as a model organism for toxicology screening has been considered. To do this, synchronous populations of Artemia salina at different development intervals must be available.

  20. Draft Test Guideline: Fish Acute Toxicity Test, Freshwater And Marine

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  1. Cytotoxicity and Oral Acute Toxicity Studies of Lantana camara Leaf Extract

    Badakhshan Mahdi Pour

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of Lantana camara methanol extract. Methods: In order to evaluate the toxicity of Lantana camara, the acute toxicity of the methanolic extract on adult mice and cytotoxicity test on Vero cell line were investigated. A fixed large dose of 2 g/kg body weight of L. camara leaf extract was administrated by a single oral gavage according to the OECD procedure. Results: In 2 weeks, L. camara leaf extract showed no obvious acute toxicity. While female mice lost body weight after being treated with single dose of leaf extract in acute toxicity test, male ones lost organ mass, particularly for heart and kidney. The biochemical liver function tests showed significantly elevated TBIL and ALT in the L. camara leaf extract treated female mice group compared with the control group. Cytotoxicity effect of leaf extract of L. camara was estimated through a MTT assay. Cytotoxicity tests on Vero cell line disclosed that leaf extract at concentrations up to 500 µg/mL inhibited the growth of cells 2.5 times less than did Triton 100× 1%. More interestingly, the cytotoxicity initiated to decline at elevated concentrations of this extract. Conclusions: The results of both tests confirm that L. camara shows a pro toxic effect.

  2. Evaluation of acute toxicity and teratogenic effects of plant growth regulators by Daphnia magna embryo assay.

    Wang, Kai-Sung; Lu, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2011-06-15

    This study selected common plant growth regulators (Atonik, Cytokinin, Ethephon, Gibberellic acid and Paclobutrazol) to investigate their biological toxicity to the waters of the important biological indicator Daphnia magna. The methods used in this study included traditional neonate acute toxicity test, new Daphnia embryo toxicity test, and teratogenic embryo test. The study concluded that the acute toxicity of the five PGRs to Daphnia neonate had EC(50) value range of 1.9-130.5 mg l(-1), while acute toxicity of PGRs on Daphnia embryo had EC(50) value range of 0.2-125 mg l(-1); the Daphnia embryos' LOEC values (0.05-48 mg l(-1)) for the five PGRs were lower than embryo EC(50) values. The toxic ratios of 48 h EC(50) (neonate)/48 h LOEC (embryo) for 5 PGRs were 19-512 times. The study found that teratogenic effects of Paclobutrazol and Cytokinin induced in embryo were higher than those of most other PGRs. Microscopic observation of the teratogenic effects showed that all 5 PGRs induced malformations of the second antenna, rostrum, Malpighian tube, sensory bristles, and tail spine as well as function loss and death.

  3. Acute toxicity, mutagenicity, and estrogenicity of bisphenol-A and other bisphenols.

    Chen, Min-Yu; Ike, Michihiko; Fujita, Masanori

    2002-02-01

    Although abundant data are available on the toxicity of bisphenol-A (2,2-bis (4-hydroxydiphenyl)propane; BPA), little is known about the toxicities of the structurally similar compounds, namely bisphenols (BPs). A variety of BPs were examined for their acute toxicity against Daphnia magna, mutagenicity, and estrogenic activity using the Daphtoxkit (Creasel Ltd.), the umu test system, and the yeast two-hybrid system, respectively, in comparison with BPA. BPA was moderately toxic to D. magna (48-h EC50 was 10 mg/l) according to the current U.S. EPA acute toxicity evaluation standard, and it was weakly estrogenic with 5 orders of magnitude lower activity than that of the natural estrogen 17 beta-estradiol in the yeast screen, while no mutagenicity was observed. All seven BPs tested here showed moderate to slight acute toxicity, no mutagenicity, and weak estrogenic activity as well as BPA. Some of the BPs showed considerably higher estrogenic activity than BPA, and others exhibited much lower activity. Among the tested BPs, two compounds, i.e., bisphenol-S (bis(4-hydroxydiphenyl)sulfone) and bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)sulfide, have never been reported for their estrogenic activity previously.

  4. Diagnostic usefulness of dual-energy computed tomography in evaluation of the severity of acute pulmonary thromboembolism

    Moon, Sung Min; Beak, Jang Mi; Yoon, Yeon Hong; Kim, Yun Hyeon [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Seon, Hyun Ju [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Bitgoeul Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) in severity assessment of patients with acute pulmonary thromboembolism (APTE). We evaluated 61 patients diagnosed as APTE from 2011 to 2012 in a retrospective analysis of the severity assessment indices according to Criteria by European Society of Cardiology as well as pulmonary CT angiographic obstruction score (OS) and lung perfusion index (pulmonary perfusion defect score; DS) by DECT. The correlation between OS, DS and the severity of pulmonary thromboembolism was evaluated using logit analysis. Patients with high OS also showed significantly higher DS values (p < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between both the OS and DS values and the severity of the pulmonary thromboembolism using simple sequence logit analysis (p < 0.001). However, only the DS value showed a very high correlation with the severity of pulmonary thromboembolism using multiple sequence logit analysis. DECT provides a more useful marker for the diagnosis and severity assessment of pulmonary thromboembolism by checking the degree of lung perfusion as well as determining the existence of APTE in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism.

  5. Electrocardiographic differentiation between acute coronary syndrome and acute pulmonary embolism associated with inverted T waves in precordial leads

    ZHAN Zhong-qun; WANG Chong-quan; HE Chao-rong; WANG Zhi-xiao; MAO Shan

    2010-01-01

    Background Inverted T waves in precordial leads are often seen in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The purpose of this study was to analyze the electrocardiogram (ECG) difference between APE and ACS related inverted T waves in precordial leads. Methods The ECG difference among 62 patients with APE and 125 patients with ACS related inverted T waves in precordial leads were compared. Results Compared with ACS, Patients with APE were more frequently associated with incomplete or complete RBBB or slurred S wave in lead V1, the sum of the depth of inverted T waves in leads V1 and V2 not less than in lead V3 and V4 (inverted TV1 + V2 ≥ inverted TV3 + V4), and inverted T waves in leads V1 and Ⅲ. Conclusions Complete or incomplete RBBB or slurred S wave in lead V1, inverted T waves in leads V1 and III, and inverted TV1 + V2 ≥ inverted TV3 + V4 are useful criteria for predicting APE.

  6. Acute Liver Toxicity due to Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir

    Rashmee Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fixed-dose combination of Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir is a first-line agent for the treatment of HIV; however few cases have reported hepatotoxicity associated with the drug. We report a case of Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir-associated hepatotoxicity presenting mainly with hepatocellular injury characterized by extremely elevated aminotransferase levels, which resolved without acute liver failure or need for liver transplant referral.

  7. Acute Toxicity of Sodium Fluorescein to Ashy Pebblesnails Fluminicola fuscus

    Stockton, Kelly A.; Moffitt, Christine M.; Blew, David L.; Farmer, C. Neil

    2011-01-01

    Water resource agencies and groundwater scientists use fluorescein dyes to trace ground water flows that supply surface waters that may contain threatened or endangered mollusk species. Since little is known of the toxicity of sodium fluorescein to mollusks, we tested the toxicity of sodium fluorescein to the ashy pebblesnail Fluminicola fuscus. The pebblesnail was selected as a surrogate test species for the threatened Bliss Rapid snail Taylorcocha serpenticola that is endemic to the Snake River and its tributaries in the Hagerman Valley, Idaho. In laboratory tests, we expose replicated groups of snails to a series of concentrations of fluorescein in a static 24 h exposure at 15 degrees C. Following the exposure, we removed snails, rinsed them, and allowed a 48 h recovery in clean water before recording mortality. We estimated 377 mg/L as the median lethal dose. Mortality to snails occurred at concentrations well above those expected in test wells during the monitoring efforts.

  8. Duration of Acute and Chronic Toxicity Testing in Animals (ICH S4A and S4B)

    Spindler, Per; Van Cauteren, Herman

    2013-01-01

    To support approval of pharmaceuticals for long term use in humans it is required that product safety is supported by acute and chronic toxicity studies in rodents and non-rodents. The duration of acute toxicity studies (S4A) and chronic rodent studies (S4B) were harmonised between the three ICH ...

  9. Assessment of Acute Toxicity of Hexachloroethane in Laboratory Animals

    1978-01-09

    camphoraceous odor, readily sublimes without meltinq and is solubl,: in alcohol. benzene, chloroform, ether and oil: insoluble in water. It is used as a solvent...in explosives, as ý camphor suostitute in celluloid, and as a rubber vulcanizing accelerator.’ It is used in veterinary practice as an anthelminthic...moderately toxic orally, produced reversible eye irritation and little or no skin irritation. Although it sublimes at room temperature

  10. Methods of acute biological assays in guinea-pigs for the study of toxicity and innocuity of drugs and chemicals

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 602 samples were tested by the following assays performed at the animal facilities (Cedeme) of the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP): 385 for dermal irritability, 90 for ocular irritability (discontinued in 1995), 31 for systemic toxicity by injection, 26 for oral acute toxicity, 15 for toxicity by intracutaneous injection, 15 for skin sensitization, 15 for toxicity of serum and vaccines for human use, 14 for toxicity by intramuscular implantation, 7 for pyrogens, 2 for...

  11. Acute toxicity evaluation of cutting fluids used in manufacturing processes to Poecilia reticulata and Daphnia magna

    William Gerson Matias

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Grinding operations are very significant among the manufacturing processes of the metal-mechanic industry. In conventional grinding, cutting fluids are of great concern for improving productivity, but also for being hazardous to the environment. In order to contribute to the knowledge of the actual toxic effects of these products in aquatic environments, the present work assesses the toxicity potential through acute toxicity tests of three different kinds of cutting fluids, with three different usage times. The tests were carried out using the fish Poecilia reticulate and the microcrustacean Daphnia magna as test organisms. These tests made it possible to determine the Median Lethal Concentration (LC50 for the fish and the Median Effective Concentration (EC50 for the microcrustacean. The results indicate that, after storage, the toxicity potential of cutting fluids decreases. However, in the three situations investigated, the product presented a high toxicity potential, which reinforces the need of special care in its handling, usage and disposal.

  12. TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN AGING BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental stressors is poorly understood. To investigate the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of acute exposure by oral gavage of the volatile organic solvent toluene (0.00, 0.3...

  13. AGE-RELATED TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental exposures is poorly understood. To investigate-the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of an acute exposure to the volatile organic compound, toluene (0.0 or 1.0 g/kg), i...

  14. Development of a standard acute dietary toxicity test for the silkworm (Bombyx mori L.)

    Sun, X.; Valk, H.; Jiang, H.; Wang, X.; Yuan, S.; Zhang, Y.; Roessink, I.; Gao, X.

    2012-01-01

    Larvae of the silkworm (Bombyx mod L.) may be exposed to pesticide residues on the leaves of their food plant, the mulberry tree (Morus spp.), which can lead to adverse effects on silk production. A new acute dietary toxicity test method was evaluated as the basis for pesticide risk assessment. A se

  15. Acute and chronic aquatic toxicity of aromatic extracts. Summary of relevant test data

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Leon Paumen, M.; Dmytrasz, B.; Del Castillo, F.

    2013-09-15

    This report describes the experimental procedures and the results obtained in acute and chronic ecotoxicity tests on several aromatic extracts samples. The samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter, Daphnia magna and the algae, Selenastrum capricornutum using water accommodated fractions. These results assist in determining the environmental hazard posed by aromatic extracts.

  16. Reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine (Prozac) submitted to ionizing radiation to Vibrio fischeri

    Santos, Dymes R.A.; Garcia, Vanessa S.G.; Vilarrubia, Anna C.S.; Borrely, Sueli I., E-mail: vanessagarcia@usp.br, E-mail: sborrely@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The constant use of pharmaceutical drugs by great part of the population and its continuous input into the environment creates a growing need of investigating its presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat wastewater containing such substances. The fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH) present in the drug Prozac is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Generally, these compounds enter the aquatic environment by sewage collectors systems after undergoing prior treatment in sewage treatment plants (STPs) or without any treatment. This study focused on evaluating the reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical FH, under its manipulated formula, for the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It was also evaluated the acute toxicity of the aqueous solution containing the FH after its exposition to ionizing radiation from industrial electron accelerator. It was performed acute toxicity tests lasting 15 minutes, where the average EC (50) of the non-irradiated CF water solution was approximately 0.68 mg L-1. While the CF water solution irradiated with 1 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy, presented an average EC(50) 1.63 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.34 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.35 mg.L{sup -1} and 1.80 mg.L{sup -1}, respectively, showing a notable reduction of the acute toxicity for this organism. (author)

  17. Evaluation the protective effect of diphenhydramine against acute toxicity induced by levamisole in male mice

    M.Y. Matti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of different doses of diphenhydramine against acute toxicosis with Levamisole. The Mechanism of levamisole induced acute toxicity and that of protective effect of diphenhydramine against Levamisole toxicosis also examined on the level of cholinesterase (ChE activity. Subcutanous injection of 100mg/kg levamisole in male mice with induced cholinergic over stimulation and death in 100% of animals. The Toxicosis was not related to the significantly decreased in plasma, red blood cells and brain ChE activity. Injection low dose of diphenhydramin 2.5mg/kg S.C. 15 min before levamisole produced protective effect against acute toxicity with levamisole. Significantly decreased the severity of toxicosis and increased survival rates to 100%. Diphenhydramine at low dose alone or with acute dose of levamisole did not Produced Significantly inhibition in ChE activity.The data suggested that the toxic effect of Levamisole was not related to inhibition of ChE. The low dose of diphenhydramine protected mice from Levamisole toxicity. The antidoatal effect of diphenhydramine not at the level of protection from ChE inhibition. There was no adverse interaction between two drugs.

  18. ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF BREVETOXIN TO OYSTERS AND GRASS SHRIMP

    Walker, Calvin C., James T. Winstead, Steven S. Foss, Janis C. Kurtz, James Watts, Jeanne E. Scott and William S. Fisher. In press. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Brevetoxin to Oysters and Grass Shrimp (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November ...

  19. Economic Impact of Using an Immunostimulating Agent to Prevent Severe Acute Exacerbations in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Jean-Paul Collet

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: OM-85 BV, an immunostimulant made from bacterial extracts, has been shown to reduce the risk of hospitalization for acute exacerbation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as to reduce the length of stay for all hospitalizations.

  20. Practical use, effects and complications of prehospital treatment of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema using the Boussignac CPAP system

    E.E. Spijker (Eva Eiske); M. De Bont (Maarten); M. Bax; M. Sandel (Maro)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Early use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been shown to be beneficial within the setting of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE). The Boussignac CPAP system (BCPAP) was therefore introduced into the protocols of emergency medical services (EMS) in a larg

  1. Upregulation of Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein by Hypoxia Stimulates Aldosterone Synthesis in Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells to Promote Pulmonary Vascular Fibrosis

    Maron, Bradley A.; Oldham, William M.; Chan, Stephen Y.; Vargas, Sara O.; Arons, Elena; Zhang, Ying-Yi; Loscalzo, Joseph; Leopold, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The molecular mechanism(s) regulating hypoxia-induced vascular fibrosis are unresolved. Hyperaldosteronism correlates positively with vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), suggesting that aldosterone may contribute to the pulmonary vasculopathy of hypoxia. The hypoxia-sensitive transcription factors c-Fos/c-Jun regulate steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), which facilitates the rate-limiting step of aldosterone steroidogenesis. We hypothesized that c-Fos/c-Jun upregulation by hypoxia activates StAR-dependent aldosterone synthesis in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs) to promote vascular fibrosis in PAH. Methods and Results Patients with PAH, rats with Sugen/hypoxia-PAH, and mice exposed to chronic hypoxia expressed increased StAR in remodeled pulmonary arterioles, providing a basis for investigating hypoxia-StAR signaling in HPAECs. Hypoxia (2.0% FiO2) increased aldosterone levels selectively in HPAECs, which was confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Increased aldosterone by hypoxia resulted from enhanced c-Fos/c-Jun binding to the proximal activator protein (AP-1) site of the StAR promoter in HPAECs, which increased StAR expression and activity. In HPAECs transfected with StAR-siRNA or treated with the AP-1 inhibitor, SR-11302, hypoxia failed to increase aldosterone, confirming that aldosterone biosynthesis required StAR activation by c-Fos/c-Jun. The functional consequences of aldosterone were confirmed by pharmacological inhibition of the mineralocorticoid receptor with spironolactone or eplerenone, which attenuated hypoxia-induced upregulation of the fibrogenic protein connective tissue growth factor and collagen III in vitro, and decreased pulmonary vascular fibrosis to improve pulmonary hypertension in Conclusions Our findings identify autonomous aldosterone synthesis in HPAECs due to hypoxia-mediated upregulation of StAR as a novel molecular mechanism that promotes pulmonary vascular

  2. Clinical and pulmonary thin-section CT findings in acute Klebsiella Pneumoniae pneumonia

    Okada, Fumito [Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Oita (Japan); Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oita (Japan); Ando, Yumiko; Honda, Koichi; Nakayama, Tomoko; Kiyonaga, Maki; Ono, Asami; Tanoue, Shuichi; Maeda, Toru; Mori, Hiromu [Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Oita (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and pulmonary thin-section CT findings in patients with acute Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia. We retrospectively evaluated thin-section CT examinations performed between January 1991 and December 2007 from 962 patients with acute Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia. Seven hundred and sixty-four cases with concurrent infectious diseases were excluded. Thus, our study group comprised 198 patients (118 male, 80 female; age range 18-97 years, mean age 61.5). Underlying diseases and clinical findings were assessed. Parenchymal abnormalities were evaluated along with the presence of enlarged lymph nodes and pleural effusion. CT findings in patients with acute Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia consisted mainly of ground-glass attenuation (100%), consolidation (91.4%), and intralobular reticular opacity (85.9%), which were found in the periphery (96%) of both sides of the lungs (72.2%) and were often associated with pleural effusion (53%). The underlying conditions in patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia were alcoholism or smoking habit. (orig.)

  3. Clinical and pulmonary thin-section CT findings in acute Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia.

    Okada, Fumito; Ando, Yumiko; Honda, Koichi; Nakayama, Tomoko; Kiyonaga, Maki; Ono, Asami; Tanoue, Shuichi; Maeda, Toru; Mori, Hiromu

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and pulmonary thin-section CT findings in patients with acute Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia. We retrospectively evaluated thin-section CT examinations performed between January 1991 and December 2007 from 962 patients with acute Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia. Seven hundred and sixty-four cases with concurrent infectious diseases were excluded. Thus, our study group comprised 198 patients (118 male, 80 female; age range 18-97 years, mean age 61.5). Underlying diseases and clinical findings were assessed. Parenchymal abnormalities were evaluated along with the presence of enlarged lymph nodes and pleural effusion. CT findings in patients with acute Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia consisted mainly of ground-glass attenuation (100%), consolidation (91.4%), and intralobular reticular opacity (85.9%), which were found in the periphery (96%) of both sides of the lungs (72.2%) and were often associated with pleural effusion (53%). The underlying conditions in patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia were alcoholism or smoking habit.

  4. Acute and chronic toxicity of lead in water and diet to the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Brunson, E.L.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of waterborne and dietary lead (Pb) exposure on the acute and chronic toxicity of Pb to the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Test solutions were generated by a modified diluter with an extended (24-h) equilibration period. Acute (96-h) toxicity of Pb varied with water hardness in the range of 71 to 275 mg/L as CaCO3, despite similar dissolved Pb concentrations. Acute toxicity was greatest in soft test water, with less than 50% survival at the lowest dissolved Pb concentration (151 ??g/L). Survival also was significantly reduced in medium-hardness water but not in hard test water. In chronic (42-d) studies, amphipods were exposed to waterborne Pb and fed either a control diet or a diet equilibrated with waterborne Pb levels. For animals fed the control diet, the median lethal concentration (LC50) for Pb was 24 ??g/L (as dissolved Pb), and significant reductions in survival occurred at 16 ??g/L. Exposure to Pb-treated diets significantly increased toxicity across a wide range of dissolved Pb concentrations, with a LC50 of 16 ??g/L and significant reductions in growth and reproduction at 3.5 ??g/L. Significant effects on growth and reproduction occurred at dissolved Pb concentrations close to the current U.S. chronic water-quality criterion. Our results suggest that both aqueous- and dietary-exposure pathways contribute significantly to chronic Pb exposure and toxic effects in aquatic biota. ?? 2005 SETAC.

  5. A summary of the acute toxicity of 14 phthalate esters to representative aquatic organisms

    Adams, W.J. [ABC Labs. (United States), Inc., Columbia, MO (United States); Biddinger, G.R. [Exxon Biomedical Sciences Inc., Benecia, CA (United States); Robillard, K.A.; Gorsuch, J.W. [Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Acute aquatic toxicity studies were performed with 14 commercial phthalate esters and representative freshwater and marine species. The 14 esters were dimethyl phthalate; diethyl phthalate; di-n-butyl phthalate; butyl benzyl phthalate; dihexyl phthalate; butyl 2-ethylhexyl phthalate; di-(n-hexy, n-octyl, n-decyl) phthalate; di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; diisooctyl phthalate; diisononyl phthalate; di-(heptyl, nonyl, undecyl) phthalate; diisodecyl phthalate; diundecyl phthalate; and ditridecyl phthalate. Phthalate esters with alkyl chain lengths of four carbon atoms or fewer were determined to be actually toxic at concentrations ranging from 0.21 to 377 mg/L depending on the ester and the solubility of the test chemical in water. Three was a general trend for the lower-molecular-weight phthalate esters (C{sub 1} to C{sub 4} alkyl chain lengths: dimethyl phthalate; diethyl phthalate; di-n-butyl phthalate; and butyl benzyl phthalate) to become more toxic with decreasing water solubility for all species tested. There were only minor differences in species sensitivity to each of the phthalate esters. Phthalate esters with alkyl chain lengths of six carbon atoms or more were not acutely toxic at concentrations approaching their respective aqueous solubilities. Insufficient mortality occurred to calculate either LC50 or EC50 values or acute no-observed-effect concentrations for these higher-molecular-weight phthalate esters. The lack of toxicity observed for the higher-molecular-weight phthalate esters resulted from their limited water solubility ({le}1.1 mg/L).

  6. Critique on the use of the standardized avian acute oral toxicity test for first generation anticoagulant rodenticides

    Vyas, Nimish B.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2012-01-01

    Avian risk assessments for rodenticides are often driven by the results of standardized acute oral toxicity tests without regards to a toxicant's mode of action and time course of adverse effects. First generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs) generally require multiple feedings over several days to achieve a threshold concentration in tissue and cause adverse effects. This exposure regimen is much different than that used in the standardized acute oral toxicity test methodology. Median lethal dose values derived from standardized acute oral toxicity tests underestimate the environmental hazard and risk of FGARs. Caution is warranted when FGAR toxicity, physiological effects, and pharmacokinetics derived from standardized acute oral toxicity testing are used for forensic confirmation of the cause of death in avian mortality incidents and when characterizing FGARs' risks to free-ranging birds.

  7. Acute and late toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated by dose escalated intensity modulated radiation therapy and organ tracking

    Behrensmeier Frank

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report acute and late toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated by dose escalated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT and organ tracking. Methods From 06/2004 to 12/2005 39 men were treated by 80 Gy IMRT along with organ tracking. Median age was 69 years, risk of recurrence was low 18%, intermediate 21% and high in 61% patients. Hormone therapy (HT was received by 74% of patients. Toxicity was scored according to the CTC scale version 3.0. Median follow-up (FU was 29 months. Results Acute and maximal late grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI toxicity was 3% and 8%, late grade 2 GI toxicity dropped to 0% at the end of FU. No acute or late grade 3 GI toxicity was observed. Grade 2 and 3 pre-treatment genitourinary (GU morbidity (PGUM was 20% and 5%. Acute and maximal late grade 2 GU toxicity was 56% and 28% and late grade 2 GU toxicity decreased to 15% of patients at the end of FU. Acute and maximal late grade 3 GU toxicity was 8% and 3%, respectively. Decreased late ≥ grade 2 GU toxicity free survival was associated with higher age (P = .025, absence of HT (P = .016 and higher PGUM (P Discussion GI toxicity rates after IMRT and organ tracking are excellent, GU toxicity rates are strongly related to PGUM.

  8. Cigarette smoking and pulmonary function in adult survivors of childhood cancer exposed to pulmonary-toxic therapy: results from the St. Jude lifetime cohort study.

    Oancea, S Cristina; Gurney, James G; Ness, Kirsten K; Ojha, Rohit P; Tyc, Vida L; Klosky, James L; Srivastava, DeoKumar; Stokes, Dennis C; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Green, Daniel M

    2014-09-01

    Treatments for childhood cancer can impair pulmonary function. We assessed the potential impact of cigarette smoking on pulmonary function in 433 adult childhood cancer survivors (CCS) who received pulmonary-toxic therapy, using single breath diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide corrected for hemoglobin (DLCOcorr), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and total lung capacity (TLC). FEV1/FVC median values among current [1.00; interquartile range (IQR): 0.94-1.04] and former smokers (0.98; IQR: 0.93-1.04) were lower than those who had never smoked (1.02; IQR: 0.96-1.06; P = 0.003). Median FEV1/FVC values were lower among those who smoked ≥ 6 pack-years (0.99; IQR: 0.92-1.03) and those who smoked <6 pack-years (1.00; IQR: 0.94-1.04), than among those who had never smoked (P = 0.005). Our findings suggest that CCSs have an increased risk for future obstructive and restrictive lung disease. Follow-up is needed to determine whether smoking imparts more than additive risk. Smoking prevention and cessation need to be a priority in this population.

  9. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response correlates with neutrophil influx linking inhaled particles and cardiovascular risk.

    Anne Thoustrup Saber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiovascular disease. Acute phase response is causally linked to cardiovascular disease. Here, we propose that particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response provides an underlying mechanism for particle-induced cardiovascular risk. METHODS: We analysed the mRNA expression of Serum Amyloid A (Saa3 in lung tissue from female C57BL/6J mice exposed to different particles including nanomaterials (carbon black and titanium dioxide nanoparticles, multi- and single walled carbon nanotubes, diesel exhaust particles and airborne dust collected at a biofuel plant. Mice were exposed to single or multiple doses of particles by inhalation or intratracheal instillation and pulmonary mRNA expression of Saa3 was determined at different time points of up to 4 weeks after exposure. Also hepatic mRNA expression of Saa3, SAA3 protein levels in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid and in plasma and high density lipoprotein levels in plasma were determined in mice exposed to multiwalled carbon nanotubes. RESULTS: Pulmonary exposure to particles strongly increased Saa3 mRNA levels in lung tissue and elevated SAA3 protein levels in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma, whereas hepatic Saa3 levels were much less affected. Pulmonary Saa3 expression correlated with the number of neutrophils in BAL across different dosing regimens, doses and time points. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary acute phase response may constitute a direct link between particle inhalation and risk of cardiovascular disease. We propose that the particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response may predict risk for cardiovascular disease.

  10. [Clinical and immunological features of acute hepatitis B in patients with concomitant chronic toxic liver damage].

    Furyk, E; Ryabokon, E

    2013-02-01

    The article presents information obtained during the survey in 64 patients with acute hepatitis B. We show that acute hepatitis B in patients with concomitant chronic toxic liver characterized by a marked imbalance of cytokine status due to a lower level of interleukin-2 and a higher content of interleukin-8, the highest levels of nitrite content, spontaneous oxidative modifications of blood proteins and the lowest content of L -arginine in the blood serum in the dynamics of disease compared with patients without this concomitant factor. In the period of convalescence these changes in patients with acute hepatitis B with concomitant chronic toxic liver characterized combined with higher cytolysis of liver cells, often circulating in the blood of HBsAg seroconversion and less frequently with the advent of anti-HBeAg.

  11. Acute oral toxicity of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia in mice

    K S Sim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia, belonging to the botanical family Cactaceae, have been traditionally used by the locals in Malaysia for treatment of various ailments. The current study reports the outcome of acute oral toxicity investigation of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia, on ICR mice. No mortalities or evidence of adverse effects have been observed in ICR mice following acute oral administration at the highest dose of 2500 mg/ kg crude extracts of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia. This is the first report on the acute oral toxicity of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia and the findings of this study are in agreement with those of in vitro experiments and thus provide scientific validation on the use of the leaves of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia.

  12. Whole effluent toxicity of agricultural irrigation drainwater entering Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge, NV : Acute toxicity studies with fish and aquatic invertebrates

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the acute toxicity studies conducted with samples collected from Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge. The objective of these studies was to...

  13. Acute Oral Toxicity Potential of 4-Nitrophenyl Methkyl Phenyl Phosphinate.

    1982-09-01

    methyl phenyl phosphinate Chemical Abstract Service Registry No.: None Molecular structure: C Ii NO P 13 12 4 .0 0~ NO., CH3 o o...C 56.33 56.17 H 4.36 4.28 N 5.05 5.14 P 11.17 11.25 2. Chemical Name: Polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) Chemical Abstract Service Registry No.: 9005-65-6...administration particularly in chronic toxicity studies in experimental data. 3. Chemical Name: Citric Acid, monohydrate Chemical Abstract Service

  14. Acute and subacute oral toxicity of Litsea elliptica Blume essential oil in rats

    Siti Balkis BUDIN; Seri Masran SITINOR AIN; Baharuddin OMAR; Izatus Shima TAIB; Othman HIDAYATULFATHI

    2012-01-01

    Litsea elliptica Blume has been traditionally used to treat headache,fever,and stomach ulcer,and has also been used as an insect repellent.The acute and subacute toxicities of L.el/iptica essential oil were evaluated orally by gavage in female Sprague-Dawley rats.For the acute toxicity study,L.e//iptica essential oil was administered in doses from 500 to 4000 mg/kg (single dose),and in the subacute toxicity test,the following doses were used:125,250,and 500 mg/kg,for 28 consecutive days.In the acute toxicity study,L.elliptica essential oil caused dose-dependent adverse behaviours and mortality.The median lethal dose value was 3488.86 mg/kg and the acute non-observed-adversed-effect level value was found to be 500 mg/kg.The subacute toxicity study of L.elliptica essential oil did not reveal alterations in body weight,and food and water consumptions.The haematological and biochemical analyses did not show significant differences between control and treated groups in most of the parameters examined,except for the hemoglobin,mean cell hemoglobin concentration,mean cell volume,mean cell hemoglobin,serum albumin,and serum sodium.However,these differences were still within the normal range.No abnormalities or histopathological changes were observed in the liver,pancreatic islet of Langerhans,and renal glomerulous and tubular cells of all treated groups.In conclusion,L.el/iptica essential oil can be classified in the U group,which is defined as a group unlikely to present an acute hazard according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification.

  15. Acute toxicity and hepatotoxicokinetic studies of Tamarindus indica extract.

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Ngene, Augustine A; Anaga, Aruh O; Chigor, Vincent N; Henrietta, Igbinosa I; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-08-31

    Tamarindus indica is widely used as a food and beverage and in traditional medicine. The apparent lack of dose standardization in herbal medicine necessitates the evaluation of the lethality T. indica on Artemia salina nauplii and chicken embryos via in vitro and in vivo techniques. Furthermore, hepatotoxicokinetics of the crude extract and fractions on Wister rats was also assessed. At concentrations of 200, 20 and 2 µg/mL, crude extract and fractions showed brine shrimp death percentages ranging from 86.70% to 3.30% and the sub-fractions showed death percentage ranges of 46.70% to 3.30%. Calculated LD₅₀ values ranged from 832 µg/mL to 5,019 µg/mL. Dosing Wister rats with 25% and 50% concentration of LD₅₀ determined for crude extract and fractions on chicken embryos showed an elevation in the ALT and AST levels in the serum. Brine shrimps and chicken embryos showed a positive correlation, with R² values of 0.541 and 0.588 (P ≤ 0.05) for fractions and subfractions, respectively, as media for the lethality assay. Dose standardization in folk herbal medicine is imperative as T. indica used as food and medicine has been shown to be toxic at high doses. Brine shrimp and chicken embryos may be comparably used as medium for toxicity assay.

  16. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures.

    Wang, Ning; Dorman, Rebecca A; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Hardesty, Doug K; Brumbaugh, William G; Hammer, Edward J; Bauer, Candice R; Mount, David R

    2016-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1 mg K/L to 3 mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined.

  17. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in a Patient With Refractory Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Secondary to Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.

    2014-12-01

    life support (ECLS) in adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has increased markedly during the past few years after suc- cessful...Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in a Patient With Refractory Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Secondary to Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Christy...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in a Patient With Refractory Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Secondary to

  18. Acute Toxicity-Supported Chronic Toxicity Prediction: A k-Nearest Neighbor Coupled Read-Across Strategy

    Swapnil Chavan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classification model was constructed for 118 RDT NEDO (Repeated Dose Toxicity New Energy and industrial technology Development Organization; currently known as the Hazard Evaluation Support System (HESS database chemicals, employing two acute toxicity (LD50-based classes as a response and using a series of eight PaDEL software-derived fingerprints as predictor variables. A model developed using Estate type fingerprints correctly predicted the LD50 classes for 70 of 94 training set chemicals and 19 of 24 test set chemicals. An individual category was formed for each of the chemicals by extracting its corresponding k-analogs that were identified by k-NN classification. These categories were used to perform the read-across study for prediction of the chronic toxicity, i.e., Lowest Observed Effect Levels (LOEL. We have successfully predicted the LOELs of 54 of 70 training set chemicals (77% and 14 of 19 test set chemicals (74% to within an order of magnitude from their experimental LOEL values. Given the success thus far, we conclude that if the k-NN model predicts LD50 classes correctly for a certain chemical, then the k-analogs of such a chemical can be successfully used for data gap filling for the LOEL. This model should support the in silico prediction of repeated dose toxicity.

  19. Metallothionein does not sequester arsenic(III) ions in condition of acute arsenic toxicity.

    Garla, Roobee; Ganger, Renuka; Mohanty, Biraja P; Verma, Shivcharan; Bansal, Mohinder P; Garg, Mohan L

    2016-07-29

    The major cause of toxicity of trivalent arsenicals is due to their interaction with the sulfhydryl groups in proteins. Because of its high content, Metallothionein (MT) provides one of the most favorable conditions for the binding of As(III) ions to it. MT has long been anticipated for providing resistance in case of arsenic (As) toxicity with similar mechanism as in case of cadmium toxicity. The present study investigates whether the sequestration of As ions by MT is one of the mechanisms in providing protection against acute arsenic toxicity. A rat model study on the metal stoichiometric analysis of MT1 isoform isolated from the liver of arsenic treated, untreated and zinc treated animals has been carried out using the combination of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results revealed the absence of arsenic bound MT1 in the samples isolated from arsenic treated animals. Although, both Cu and Zn ions were present in MT1 samples isolated from all the treatment groups. Moreover, only partially metallated MT1 with varying number of Zn ions were observed in all the groups. These results suggest that the role of MT during acute arsenic toxicity is different from its already established role in case of cadmium toxicity.

  20. The Acute Oral Toxicity of Commonly Used Pesticides in Iran, to Honeybees (Apis Mellifera Meda

    Rasuli Farhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The honey bee is credited with approximately 85% of the pollinating activity necessary to supply about one-third of the world’s food supply. Well over 50 major crops depend on these insects for pollination. The crops produce more abundantly when honey bees are plentiful. Worker bees are the ones primarily affected by pesticides. Poisoning symptoms can vary depending on the developmental stage of the individual bee, and the kind of chemical employed. The oral toxicity of these insecticides: (phosalone and pirimicarb, acaricide (propargite, insecticide and acaricide (fenpropathrin, fungicides, and bactericides (copper oxychloride and the Bordeaux mixture, were evaluated for the purposes of this research. The results showed that fenpropathrin had high acute oral toxicity (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 0.54 and 0.3 ppm, respectively. Propargite had 7785 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-24h and 6736 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-48h in honeybees and is therefore, non-toxic to Apis mellifera. On the other hand, copper oxychloride had minimum acute oral toxicity to honeybees (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 4591.5 and 5407.9 ppm, respectively and was therefore considered non-toxic. Also, the Bordeaux mixture was safe to use around honeybees. Phosalone and primicarb were considered highly and moderately toxic to honeybees, respectively.

  1. The acute toxicity of major ion salts to Ceriodaphnia dubia: I. ...

    The ions Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO42-, and HCO3-/CO32- (referred to as “major ions”) are present in all fresh waters and are physiologically required by aquatic organisms, but can be increased to harmful levels by a variety of anthropogenic activities that speed geochemical weathering or otherwise introduce or concentrate ions. While toxicity of these ions to aquatic organisms has been previously shown, it is also known that their toxicity can vary depending on the concentrations of other co-occurring anions, and understanding these relationships is key to predicting toxicity and establishing appropriate environmental limits. In this paper we conduct a series of experiments with Ceriodaphnia dubia to evaluate the acute toxicity of all twelve major ionsalts (pairing one of the cations with one of the anions) and to determine how toxicity of these salts varies as a function of background water chemistry. All salts except CaSO4 and CaCO3 were acutely toxic to C. dubia below saturation, with the lowest LC50s found for K salts. Of the remaining salts, all but CaCl2 showed some degree of decreased toxicity as the ionic content of the background water increased. Experiments that independently varied Ca:Mg ratio, Na:K ratio, Cl:SO4 ratio, and alkalinity/pH were used to show that Ca concentration was the primary factor influencing the toxicities of Na and Mg salts. In contrast, the toxicities of K salts were primarily influenced by the concentration of Na. Th

  2. Acute pulmonary edema following liposuction due to heart failure and atypical pneumonia.

    Wollina, Uwe; Graf, Andreas; Hanisch, Volkmar

    2015-05-01

    Microcannular liposuction in tumescent anesthesia is the most effective treatment for painful lipedema. Tumescent anesthesia is an established and safe procedure in local analgesia when performed according to guidelines. Major adverse effects are rare. In patients with advanced lipedema, however, the commonly presented comorbidities bear additional risks.We report on post-surgical acute pulmonary edema after tumescent liposuction according to guidelines in a 52-year-old female patient with lipedema of the legs. We discuss in detail possible scenarios that might be involved in such emergency. In the present case the most likely was a retarded community acquired atypical pneumonia with aggravation of pre-existent comorbidities.A combined treatment with intravenous b-lactam antibiosis, positive pressure ventilation, and continuous venovenous hemodialysis and filtration resulted in complete remission in a couple of days. In conclusion, tumescent liposuction of advanced lipedema patients should only be performed in well-trained centers with sufficient infrastructure.

  3. Severity of acute pulmonary embolism: evaluation of a new spiral CT angiographic score in correlation with echocardiographic data

    Mastora, Ioana; Remy-Jardin, Martine; Masson, Pascal; Remy, Jacques [Department of Radiology, University Center Hospital Calmette, Boulevard Jules Leclerc, 59037 Lille Cedex (France); Medical Research Group ' ' Equipe d' Accueil no. 2682' ' , Boulevard Jules Leclerc, 59037 Lille Cedex (France); Galland, Eric; Bauchart, Jean-Jacques [Department of Cardiology, University Center Cardiology Hospital; Boulevard Jules Leclerc, 59037 Lille Cedex (France); Delannoy, Valerie [Department of Medical Statistics, University of Lille, Place de Verdun, 59037 Lille Cedex (France)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the severity of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) could be quantitatively assessed with spiral CT angiography (SCTA). Thirty-six consecutive patients without underlying cardiopulmonary disease and high clinical suspicion of PE underwent prospectively thin-collimation SCTA and echocardiography at the time of the initial diagnosis (T0) and after initial therapy (T1; mean interval of time T1-T2: 32 days). The CT severity score was based on the percentage of obstructed surface of each central and peripheral pulmonary arterial section using a 5-point scale (1: <25%; 2: 25-49%; 3: 50-74%; 4: 75-99%; 5: 100%). The sum of the detailed scores attributed to 5 mediastinal, 6 lobar and 20 segmental arteries per patient led to the determination of central, peripheral and global CT severity scores and subsequent determination of percentages of obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. Echocardiographic severity criteria included the presence of signs of acute cor pulmonale and/or systolic pulmonary hypertension (>40 mm Hg). The SCTA depicted acute PE in all patients at T0 with complete resolution of endovascular clots in 10 patients at T1. At T0, the mean percentage of obstruction of the pulmonary arterial bed was significantly higher in the 22 patients with echocardiographic signs of severity (56{+-}13 vs 28{+-}32%; p<0.001). A significant reduction in the mean percentage of pulmonary artery obstruction was observed in the 19 patients with resolution of echocardiographic criteria of severity between T0 and T1 T0: 57{+-}14%; T1: 7{+-}11%; p<0.001. The threshold value for severe PE on CT angiograms was 49% (sensitivity: 0.773; specificity: 0.214). The mean ({+-}SD) pulmonary artery pressure was significantly higher in the 26 patients with more than 50% obstruction of the pulmonary artery bed (45{+-}15 mm Hg) than in the 10 patients with less than 50% obstruction of pulmonary artery bed at T0 (31{+-}11 mm Hg; p<0.01). The CT

  4. Recovery of right and left ventricular function after acute pulmonary embolism

    Klok, F.A., E-mail: f.a.klok@lumc.nl [Section of Vascular Medicine, Department of General Internal Medicine-Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Romeih, S. [Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Kroft, L.J.M.; Westenberg, J.J.M. [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Huisman, M.V. [Section of Vascular Medicine, Department of General Internal Medicine-Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Roos, A. de [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    Aim: To evaluate recovery of cardiac function after acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Materials and methods: Routine breath-held computed tomography (CT)-pulmonary angiography was performed in patients with suspected PE to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of PE at initial presentation. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggered cardiac CT was performed to assess biventricular function. After 6 months, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed. In total, 15 consecutive patients with PE and 10 without were studied. A significant change in ventricular volume was defined as a >15% change in end-diastolic or -systolic volumes (EDV, ESV), and significant ventricular function improvement as a >5% increase in ejection fraction (EF) as based on reported cut-off values. Results: Right and left ventricular (RV and LV) EDV and ESV changed non-significantly (<1.3%) in the patients without PE, indicating good comparability of those values measured by CT and MRI. PE patients with baseline normal RV function (RVEF {>=}47%) revealed a >5% improvement in the RVEF (+5.4 {+-} 3.1%) due to a decrease in the RVESV. Patients with baseline abnormal RV function showed a >5% improvement in the RVEF (+14 {+-} 15%) due to decreases in both the RVESV and RVEDV. Furthermore, the LVEDV increased in this latter patient group. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated an improvement in RV function in the majority of patients with PE, independent of baseline RV function. The degree of RV and LV recovery was dependent on the severity of baseline RV dysfunction.

  5. Successful voriconazole treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a patient with acute biphenotypic leukemia

    Hirano,Teiichi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A 23-year old woman with acute biphenotypic leukemia (ABL complained of chest pain with cough, high fever and hemoptysis during induction chemotherapy, although she had been treated with anti-biotics and micafungin. We made a clinical diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA based on a consolidation in the right upper lung field on a chest radiograph as well as a high level of serum beta-D-glucan (with no evidence of tuberculosis and candidiasis. We changed her treatment from micafungin to voriconazole. Later, we discovered an air-crescent sign by CT scan that supported the diagnosis of IPA. Following voriconazole treatment, clinical symptoms ceased and abnormal chest shadows improved gradually and concurrently with a recovery of neutrophils. IPA must be considered in immunocompromised patients with pulmonary infiltrates who do not respond to broad-spectrum antibiotics. Serological tests and CT findings can aid in early diagnosis of IPA, which, along with treatment for IPA, will improve clinical outcomes.

  6. Comparative and combined acute toxicity of butachlor, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos on earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    Chen, Chen; Wang, Yanhua; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang; Qian, Yongzhong

    2014-04-01

    Various pesticides have become widespread contaminants of soils due to their large applications in agriculture and homes. An earthworm assay was used to assess the acute toxicity of butachlor, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos with different modes of action. Ecotoxicities of these pesticides were compared for earthworm Eisenia fetida separately and in combination in artificial soil and contact filter paper tests. Imidacloprid was the most toxic for E. fetida with LC₅₀ (lethal concentration 50) values three orders magnitude lower than that of butachlor and chlorpyrifos in both tests. The toxicity of the mixtures was compared to that predicted by the concentration addition (CA) model. According to the CA model, the observed toxicities of all binary mixtures were less than additive. However, for all the mixtures in 14 d artificial soil test, and mixtures of butachlor plus chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid plus chlorpyrifos in 48 h contact filter paper test, the difference in toxicity was less than 30%, hence it was concluded that the mixtures conformed to CA. The combined effects of the pesticides in contact filter paper tests were not consistent with the results in artificial soil toxicity tests, which may be associated with the interaction of soil salts with the pesticides. The CA model provides estimates of mixture toxicity that did not markedly underestimate the measured toxicity, and therefore the CA model is the most suitable to use in ecological risk assessments of the pesticides.

  7. Joint acute toxicity of the herbicide butachlor and three insecticides to the terrestrial earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    Wang, Yanhua; Cang, Tao; Yu, Ruixian; Wu, Shenggan; Liu, Xinju; Chen, Chen; Wang, Qiang; Cai, Leiming

    2016-06-01

    The herbicide butachlor and three insecticides phoxim, chlorpyrifos, and lambda-cyhalotrhin are widely used pesticides with different modes of action. As most previous laboratory bioassays for these pesticides have been conducted solely based on acute tests with a single compound, only limited information is available on the possible combined toxicity of these common chemicals to soil organisms. In this study, we evaluated their mixture toxicity on the terrestrial earthworm, Eisenia fetida, with binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures. Two different types of bioassays were employed in our work, including a contact filter paper toxicity test and a soil toxicity test. Mixture toxicity effects were assessed using the additive index method. For all of the tested binary mixtures (butachlor-phoxim, butachlor-chlorpyrifos, and butachlor-lambda-cyhalothrin), significant synergistic interactions were observed after 14 days in the soil toxicity assay. However, greater additive toxicity was found after 48 h in the contact toxicity bioassay. Most of the ternary and quaternary mixtures exhibited significant synergistic effects on the worms in both bioassay systems. Our findings would be helpful in assessing the ecological risk of these pesticide mixtures to soil invertebrates. The observed synergistic interactions underline the necessity to review soil quality guidelines, which are likely underestimating the adverse combined effects of these compounds.

  8. The value of brain CT findings in acute methanol toxicity

    Taheri, Morteza Sanei [Department of Radiology, Shohada Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Poison Control Center, Loghman-Hakim Poison Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: saneim@yahoo.com; Moghaddam, Hossein Hassanian [Poison Control Center, Loghman-Hakim Poison Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moharamzad, Yashar; Dadgari, Shahrzad [Department of Radiology, Shohada Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nahvi, Vahideh [Poison Control Center, Loghman-Hakim Poison Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Objective: Due to depressant effects of methanol on the central nervous system, brain computed tomography (CT) scan has been introduced as a diagnostic device in methanol intoxication. The authors aimed to present brain CT findings in patients with acute methanol intoxication and to determine signs associated with death. Materials and methods: This cohort study involved 42 consecutive patients with acute methanol intoxication. Inclusion criteria were consisted of characteristic clinical presentation of methanol poisoning, and metabolic acidosis with increased anion and osmolar gaps. Brain CT scans without contrast medium were obtained. To determine the association between the CT findings and death, the chi-square test or the Fisher's exact test, odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. Results: Twenty-eight patients (66.6%) had a total of 55 abnormal findings on brain CT, in which bilateral putaminal hypodense lesions was the most common manifestation (27 cases, 96.4%). Putaminal hemorrhage with varying degrees was observed in 7 patients (25%). Six patients (21.4%) had low attenuation lesions in the subcortical white matter of the insula. A significant association was observed between putaminal hemorrhage (OR = 8, 95% CI = 1.187-53.93, P = 0.018) and subcortical necrosis of the insula (OR = 11, 95% CI = 1.504-80.426, P = 0.007) with death. Conclusion: In addition to clinical and laboratory findings, presence of putaminal hemorrhage and insular subcortex white matter necrosis are associated with a poor clinical outcome in patients with methanol poisoning.

  9. Prevalence of deep venous thrombosis in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DUAN Sheng-chen; YANG Yuan-hua; LI Xu-yan; LIANG Xiao-ning; GUO Rui-jun; XIE Wan-mu; KUANG Tu-guang; DAI Hua-ping; WANG Chen

    2010-01-01

    Background Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is always associated with a high incidence and mortality. Because of the presence of some concomitant risk factors such as immobilization, bronchial superinfection, patients who are admitted for acute exacerbations of COPD are generally considered to be at moderate risk for the development of venous thromboembolism. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and the clinical manifestations of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD.Methods From March 2007 to March 2009, 520 consecutive patients were included in this study. On admission, color Doppler ultrasound of lower extremities in all cases was performed for diagnosing DVT. Patients with DVT were compared with those without DVT from such aspects as demographics, symptoms, physical signs and risk factors.Results Among the 520 patients, DVT was found in 46 cases (9.7%). In patients with DVT, the duration of hospitalization was longer (P=0.01), and the mechanical ventilation requirement increased (P <0.001). Other indicators for patients with more possibility of DVT were immobility exceeding 3 days (P <0.001); pneumonia as concomitance (P=0.01); respiratory failure type Ⅱ (P=0.013); current smoking (P=0.001). Lower extremity pain was more common in DVT cases in comparison to those without DVT (34.8% vs. 15.2%, P=0.01 ).Conclusions The acute exacerbation of COPD patients, who were immobilized for over 3 days, complicated by pneumonia and had respiratory failure type Ⅱ, had a higher risk of DVT. In addition, DVT detection awareness should be increased in cases that had a lower extremity pain.

  10. Comparative proteome analysis of serum from acute pulmonary embolism rat model for biomarker discovery.

    Li, Sheng-qing; Yun, Jun; Xue, Fu-bo; Bai, Chang-qing; Yang, Shu-guang; Que, Hai-ping; Zhao, Xin; Wu, Zhe; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shao-jun

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common, potentially fatal disease and its diagnosis is challenging because clinical signs and symptoms are nonspecific. In this study, to investigate protein alterations of a rat PE model, total serum proteins collected at different time points were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and identified using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Bioinformatics analysis of 24 differentially expressed proteins showed that 20 had corresponding protein candidates in the database. According to their properties and obvious alterations after PE, changes of serum concentrations of Hp, Fn, DBP, RBP, and TTR were selected to be reidentified by western blot analysis. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed DBP, RBP, and TTR to be down-regulated at mRNA levels in livers but not in lung tissues. The low serum concentrations of DBP, RBP, and TTR resulted in the up-regulation of 25(OH)D3, vitamin A, and FT4 (ligands of DBP, RBP, and TTR) after acute PE in rat models. The serum levels of Hp and Fn were detected in patients with DVT/PE and controls to explore their diagnostic prospects in acute PE because the mRNA levels of Hp and Fn were found to be up-regulated both in lung tissues and in livers after acute PE. Our data suggested that the concentration of serum Fn in controls was 79.42 +/- 31.57 microg/L, whereas that of PE/DVT patients was 554.43 +/- 136.18 microg/L (P PE/DVT patients was 2063.48 +/- 425.38 mg/L (P diagnosis of acute PE, but diagnostic tests are still needed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of these markers and also the number of false positives and false negatives.

  11. Dual acute proinflammatory and antifibrotic pulmonary effects of short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone-1 after exposure to carbon nanotubes.

    Di, Y Peter; Tkach, Alexey V; Yanamala, Naveena; Stanley, Shyla; Gao, Shengli; Shurin, Michael R; Kisin, Elena R; Kagan, Valerian E; Shvedova, Anna

    2013-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs; allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure) have emerged as one of the most commonly used types of nanomaterials, with numerous applications in industry and biomedicine. However, the inhalation of CNTs has been shown to elicit pulmonary toxicity, accompanied by a robust inflammatory response with an early-onset fibrotic phase. Epithelial host-defense proteins represent an important component of the pulmonary innate immune response to foreign inhalants such as particles and bacteria. The short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone-1 (SPLUNC1) protein, a member of the bactericidal/permeability-increasing-fold (BPIF)-containing protein family, is a 25-kD secretory protein that is expressed in nasal, oropharyngeal, and lung epithelia, and has been shown to have multiple functions, including antimicrobial and chemotactic activities, as well as surfactant properties. This study sought to assess the importance of SPLUNC1-mediated pulmonary responses in airway epithelial secretions, and to explore the biological relevance of SPLUNC1 to inhaled particles in a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) model. Using Scgb1a1-hSPLUNC1 transgenic mice, we observed that SPLUNC1 significantly modified host inflammatory responses by increasing leukocyte recruitment and enhancing phagocytic activity. Furthermore, we found that transgenic mice were more susceptible to SWCNT exposure at the acute phase, but showed resistance against lung fibrogenesis through pathological changes in the long term. The binding of SPLUNC1 also attenuated SWCNT-induced TNF-α secretion by RAW 264.7 macrophages. Taken together, our data indicate that SPLUNC1 is an important component of mucosal innate immune defense against pulmonary inhaled particles.

  12. Development of Novel Chitosan Microcapsules for Pulmonary Delivery of Dapsone: Characterization, Aerosol Performance, and In Vivo Toxicity Evaluation.

    Ortiz, Manoel; Jornada, Denise Soledade; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski

    2015-10-01

    Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is a major opportunistic infection that affects patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Although orally administered dapsone leads to high hepatic metabolism, decreasing the therapeutic index and causing severe side effects, this drug is an effective alternative for the treatment of PCP. In this context, microencapsulation for pulmonary administration can offer an alternative to increase the bioavailability of dapsone, reducing its adverse effects. The aim of this work was to develop novel dapsone-loaded chitosan microcapsules intended for deep-lung aerosolized drug delivery. The geometric particle size (D 4,3) was approximately 7 μm, the calculated aerodynamic diameter (d aero) was approximately 4.5 μm, and the mass median aerodynamic diameter from an Andersen cascade impactor was 4.7 μm. The in vitro dissolution profile showed an efficient dapsone encapsulation, demonstrating the sustained release of the drug. The in vitro deposition (measured by the Andersen cascade impactor) showed an adequate distribution and a high fine particles fraction (FPF = 50%). Scanning electron microscopy of the pulmonary tissues demonstrated an adequate deposition of these particles in the deepest part of the lung. An in vivo toxicity experiment showed the low toxicity of the drug-loaded microcapsules, indicating a protective effect of the microencapsulation process when the particles are microencapsulated. In conclusion, the pulmonary administration of the novel dapsone-loaded microcapsules could be a promising alternative for PCP treatment.

  13. Pulmonary Toxicity of a Formulated Preparation of Fenvalerate in Rats Subchronically Exposed by Nose Only Inhalation for 90 Days

    2001-01-01

    Objective The pulmonary toxicity of a commercially available formulated preparation of Fenvalerate (Fen), a synthetic pyrethroid has been studied in rats following subchronic nose only inhalation exposure route. Method  Adult male rats were exposed to Fen for 4h/day, 5 days a week for 90 days by using Flow Past Dynamic Nose only Inhalation Chamber. Results Fen exposed rats showed a significant increase in enzymatic activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) which are considered as biochemical indicators of pulmonary damage. The concomitant histopathological examination of Fen exposed rats' lung revealed inflammatory changes viz., influx of mononuclear cells admixed with a few giant cells in alveolar lumen, hypetrophied bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial lining cells and presence of edematous fluid in alveolar lumen alongwith congested parenchymatous blood vessels. Conclusion These results for the first time indicate the pulmonary toxic effects of a commonly used formulated Fen preparation by using rat model and nose only inhalation as the route of exposure.

  14. Helical tomotherapy in the treatment of pediatric malignancies: a preliminary report of feasibility and acute toxicity

    Beltrán César

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation therapy plays a central role in the management of many childhood malignancies and Helical Tomotherapy (HT provides potential to decrease toxicity by limiting the radiation dose to normal structures. The aim of this article was to report preliminary results of our clinical experience with HT in pediatric malignancies. Methods In this study 66 consecutive patients younger than 14 years old, treated with HT at our center between January 2006 and April 2010, have been included. We performed statistical analyses to assess the relationship between acute toxicity, graded according to the RTOG criteria, and several clinical and treatment characteristics such as a dose and irradiation volume. Results The median age of patients was 5 years. The most common tumor sites were: central nervous system (57%, abdomen (17% and thorax (6%. The most prevalent histological types were: medulloblastoma (16 patients, neuroblastoma (9 patients and rhabdomyosarcoma (7 patients. A total of 52 patients were treated for primary disease and 14 patients were treated for recurrent tumors. The majority of the patients (72% were previously treated with chemotherapy. The median prescribed dose was 51 Gy (range 10-70 Gy. In 81% of cases grade 1 or 2 acute toxicity was observed. There were 11 cases (16,6% of grade 3 hematological toxicity, two cases of grade 3 skin toxicity and one case of grade 3 emesis. Nine patients (13,6% had grade 4 hematological toxicity. There were no cases of grade 4 non-hematological toxicities. On the univariate analysis, total dose and craniospinal irradiation (24 cases were significantly associated with severe toxicity (grade 3 or more, whereas age and chemotherapy were not. On the multivariate analysis, craniospinal irradiation was the only significant independent risk factor for grade 3-4 toxicity. Conclusion HT in pediatric population is feasible and safe treatment modality. It is characterized by an acceptable level of

  15. Prevalence of acute epiglottitis and its association with pulmonary tuberculosis in adults in a tertiary care hospital of Nepal

    Thapa, Narmaya

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute epiglottitis is a relatively uncommon disease in both children and adults. It can be a serious life threatening disease because of its potential for sudden upper airway obstruction. Objective: To determine the prevalence of acute epiglottitis and to find out its association with Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Methods: All cases of acute epiglottitis admitted in ENT and Head and Neck Surgery ward of TUTH, Kathmandu, Nepal, from April 2001 to September 2007, were enrolled. Routine investigations including x-rays and blood cultures were done. The patients were further investigated to rule out the presence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis.The standard treatment protocol we used included Injection Ampicillin 500 mg intravenously six hourly for 72 hours followed by oral Ampicillin 500mg for 7 days, with analgesics and intravenous steroid (Hydrocortisone 200mg if required. Study Design: Prospective longitudinal study. Results: Majority of the patients presented with a history sore throat (83.3%, dysphagia (78.6% and odynophagia (78.6%. On examination all the patients were found to have swollen and congested epiglottis. Positive "Thumb sign" on plain X-ray soft tissue neck lateral view was found in almost all the patients (95.2%. Four patients presented with stridor and patient needed emergency tracheostomy. None of the investigations done to detect Pulmonary Tuberculosis was found to be positive. Conclusion: Acute epiglottitis is a rare disease which now occurs more commonly in adults. The annual prevalence of Acute Epiglottitis in adult in TUTH is 4.8 per 1000. This study did not find any association of acute epiglottitis with pulmonary tuberculosis.

  16. A fatal case of acute pulmonary embolism caused by right ventricular masses of acute lymphoblastic lymphoma-leukemia in a 13 year old girl

    Yu Mi Ko Ko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 13-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic lymphoma- leukemia, who presented with a cardiac metastasis in the right ventricle, resulting in a pulmonary embolism. At the time of her leukemia diagnosis, a cardiac mass was incidentally found. The differential diagnosis for this unusual cardiac mass included cardiac tumor, metastasis, vegetation, and thrombus. Empirical treatment was initiated, including anticoagulation and antibiotics. She underwent plasmapheresis and was administered oral prednisolone for her leukemia. Five days later, she experienced sudden hemodynamic collapse and required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation insertion and emergency surgery. These interventions proved futile, and the patient died. Pathology revealed that the cardiac mass comprised an aggregation of small, round, necrotic cells consistent with leukemia. This is the first known case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting as a right ventricular mass, with consequent fatal acute pulmonary embolism. A cardiac mass in a child with acute leukemia merits investigation to rule out every possible etiology, including vegetation, thrombus, and even a mass of leukemic cells, which could result in the fatal complication of pulmonary embolism.

  17. Acute and chronic toxicity of selected disinfection byproducts to Daphnia magna, Cyprinodon variegatus, and Isochrysis galbana.

    Fisher, Daniel; Yonkos, Lance; Ziegler, Gregory; Friedel, Elizabeth; Burton, Dennis

    2014-05-15

    Ballast water treatment has become a major issue in the last decade due to the problem of invasive species transported and released by the uptake and discharge of ballast water for shipping operations. One of the important issues considering ballast water treatment is to determine whether treated ballast water, once discharged, is safe to the aquatic environment. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) Marine Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC) has determined that prior to approval of a ballast water management system, aquatic toxicity data must be available for both the active substance and relevant byproducts. Many proposed ballast water treatment systems use chlorine as the active ingredient. Although there are sufficient toxicity data concerning active substances such as chlorine, there are limited toxicity data concerning disinfection (halogenated) byproducts including dibromochloromethane, four haloacetic acids and sodium bromate. Acute and chronic toxicity were determined for these disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Acute toxicity values ranged from 96-h LC50s of 46.8 mg/l for Daphnia magna for both dibromochloromethane and sodium bromate to a 96-h LC50 of 376.4 mg/l for Cyprinodon variegatus for tribromoacetic acid. Acute Isochrysis galbana population growth effect values ranged from a 72-h EC10 of 39.9 mg/l for dichloroacetic acid to a 72-h EC50 of 15,954 mg/l for sodium bromate. Chronic toxicity mortality/reproduction effects values for D. magna ranged from a 21-d IC25 of 160.9 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid to a 21-d LOEC of 493.0 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid. Chronic toxicity mortality/growth values for C. variegatus ranged from a 32-d IC25 of 246.8 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid to a 32-d LOEC of 908.1 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid. I. galbana 96-h chronic population growth effects values ranged from an EC10 of 38.5 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid to an LOEC of 500.0 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid. Acute to chronic ratios for all of these

  18. Assessment of acute toxicity of carbofuran in Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegmann, 1836) at different temperature levels.

    Barbieri, Edison; Moreira, Priscila; Luchini, Luiz Alberto; Hidalgo, Karla Ruiz; Muñoz, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate; C12H15NO3) is one of the most toxic carbamate pesticides. For acute toxicity of carbofuran, juveniles of Macrobrachium olfersii were exposed to different concentrations of carbofuran using the static renewal method at different temperature levels (15, 20 and 25°C) at pH 7.0. The main purpose of the present study was to detect the acute toxicity of carbofuran to M. olfersii and investigate its effects on oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion; these tests have not been carried out in this species before. First, the acute toxicity - median lethal concentration - of carbofuran to M. olfersii for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h was examined, which resulted in the following values: 1.64, 1.22, 0.86 and 0.42 mg L(-1), respectively. Furthermore, we also found that carbofuran caused an inhibition in oxygen consumption of 60.6, 65.3 and 66.2% with respect to the control. In addition, after separate exposures to carbofuran, elevations in ammonium excretion were more than 500% with respect to the control.

  19. Acute and subacute toxicity evaluation of ethanolic extract from fruits of Schinus molle in rats.

    Ferrero, Adriana; Minetti, Alejandra; Bras, Cristina; Zanetti, Noelia

    2007-09-25

    Ethanolic and hexanic extracts from fruits and leaves of Schinus molle showed ability to control several insect pests. Potential vertebrate toxicity associated with insecticidal plants requires investigation before institutional promotion. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of ethanolic extracts from fruits of Schinus molle in rats. The plant extract was added to the diet at 2g/kg body weight/day during 1 day to evaluate acute toxicity and at 1g/kg body weight/day during 14 days to evaluate subacute toxicity. At the end of the exposure and after 7 days, behavioral and functional parameters in a functional observational battery and motor activity in an open field were assessed. Finally, histopathological examinations were conducted on several organs. In both exposures, an increase in the arousal level was observed in experimental groups. Also, the landing foot splay parameter increased in the experimental group after acute exposure. Only the subacute exposure produced a significant increase in the motor activity in the open field. All these changes disappeared after 7 days. None of the exposures affected the different organs evaluated. Our results suggest that ethanolic extracts from fruits and leaves of Schinus molle should be relatively safe to use as insecticide.

  20. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF MUCUNA PRURIENS LINN. IN ALBINO MICE

    Deka Manalisha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mucuna Pruriens Linn. is an annual, climbing shrub which has an important place among aphrodisiac herbs in India since the ancient times. The plant has been using traditionally for many medicinal purposes such as Infertility, Parkinson’s disease, Loss of libido, Antioxidant, Anti venom, Anti microbial etc. The present study was carried out to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute oral toxicity of the seeds of M.pruriens on albino mice. Matured seeds of M.pruriens were dried in shed and grinded in a mechanical grinder. The preliminary phytochemical analysis was done by following standard protocols. For acute oral toxicity study, methanolic extract of the seeds were used. The extract was prepared in a Soxlet apparatus. The preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of protein, carbohydrates, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, phenols and tannins. The acute oral toxicity study showed no mortality up to a dose of 4000 mg per kg body weight. The presence of plant chemicals revealed the medicinal values and the non toxic property of the plant indicated the value of the plant as medicine. Thus, we can conclude that, the seed of the plant can be used as a safe drug against many diseases.

  1. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF CLITORIA TERNATEA LINN. ROOTS IN ALBINO MICE

    Deka Manalisha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Clitoria ternatea has been using since the ancient times for its medicinal values. Almost all the parts of the plant have medicinal property. The root of the plant is reported to have anti diarrheal, Anti histamic, cholinergic activity etc. Traditionally the root has been using for the treatment of many diseases like leucorrhoea, diarrhea, urinary problems, diuretic, impotency, stomach trouble etc. The present study was designed to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute oral toxicity of the root of the plant. The shed dried materials were grinded and used in the study. The preliminary phytochemical analysis was done by following standard protocols. For acute oral toxicity study, methanolic extract of the root was used. The extract was prepared by standard protocol. The preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of proteins, carbohydrates, glycosides, resins, saponin, flavonoid, alkaloids, steroids and phenol. The acute oral toxicity study showed no mortality up to a dose of 3000 mg per kg body weight. The presence of plant chemicals revealed the medicinal values and the non toxic property of the plant indicated the value of the plant as medicine. Thus we can conclude that, the root of the plant can be used as a safe drug against many diseases.

  2. Acute and chronic toxicity of the benzoylurea pesticide, lufenuron, in the fish, Colossoma macropomum.

    Rafaela Leão Soares, Priscila; Lucas Corrêa de Andrade, André; Pinheiro Santos, Thamiris; Caroline Barros Lucas da Silva, Stephannie; Freitas da Silva, Jadson; Rodrigues Dos Santos, Amanda; Hugo Lima da Silva Souza, Elton; Magliano da Cunha, Franklin; Wanderley Teixeira, Valéria; Sales Cadena, Marilia Ribeiro; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrício; Bezerra de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz; Gonçalves Cadena, Pabyton

    2016-10-01

    Lufenuron is a benzoylurea insecticide that interfere in chitin synthesis in insects. Although lufenuron is widely used in agriculture and aquaculture, rare are studies described that relates to possible toxic effects in fish. This work aimed to evaluate acute and chronic toxic effects of benzoylurea pesticide (lufenuron) on biological parameters of Colossoma macropomum (Tambaqui). In the acute test, juveniles of Tambaqui were divided into control group and five experimental groups with exposure from 0.1 to 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron for 96 h. Animals were also submitted to chronic toxicity test for four months in concentrations of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L of lufenuron, the concentration used in the treatment of ectoparasites in fish and 50% of LC50 96 h, respectively. The presence of hemorrhages was observed in eyes, fins and operculum of fish exposed to 0.7 and 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron. Histological analysis showed changes in the morphology of fish gills submitted to acute toxicity test, as lamellar aneurysm and blood congestion inside lamellae. Lufenuron promoted damage in fish retina as in ability to respond to stimuli in photoreceptors and in ON-bipolar cells in acute test. In chronic test, blood glucose analysis and morphometric parameters showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). In general, Tambaqui exhibited behaviors associated with stress when exposed to lufenuron. Thus, lufenuron showed several toxic effects in relation to biological parameters in Tambaqui. This concerns about the use and discard of lufenuron, and indicates the requirement of environmental actions to prevent potential contamination of aquatic biota.

  3. Acute and sub acute toxicity and efficacy studies of Hippophae rhamnoides based herbal antioxidant supplement

    Rashid Ali

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The data obtained indicate no toxicity of this antioxidant supplement up to the highest dose studied. Efficacy in terms of increased bioavailability of vitamin A and C in human volunteers indicates the clinical usefulness of the supplement.

  4. Acute behavioral toxicity of carbaryl and propoxur in adult rats.

    Ruppert, P H; Cook, L L; Dean, K F; Reiter, L W

    1983-04-01

    Motor activity and neuromotor function were examined in adult CD rats exposed to either carbaryl or propoxur, and behavioral effects were compared with the time course of cholinesterase inhibition. Rats received an IP injection of either 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 mg/kg propoxur or 0, 4, 8, 16 or 28 mg/kg carbaryl in corn oil 20 min before testing. All doses of propoxur reduced 2 hr activity in a figure-eight maze, and crossovers and rears in an open field. For carbaryl, dosages of 8, 16 and 28 mg/kg decreased maze activity whereas 16 and 28 mg/kg reduced open field activity. In order to determine the time course of effects, rats received a single IP injection of either corn oil, 2 mg/kg propoxur or 16 mg/kg carbaryl, and were tested for 5 min in a figure-eight maze either 15, 30, 60, 120 or 240 min post-injection. Immediately after testing, animals were sacrificed and total cholinesterase was measured. Maximum effects of propoxur and carbaryl on blood and brain cholinesterase and motor activity were seen within 15 min. Maze activity had returned to control levels within 30 and 60 min whereas cholinesterase levels remained depressed for 120 and 240 min for propoxur and carbaryl, respectively. These results indicate that both carbamates decrease motor activity, but behavioral recovery occurs prior to that of cholinesterase following acute exposure.

  5. [Acute toxicity by methotrexate used for abortion purpose. Case report].

    Estrada-Altamirano, Ariel; Chacón-Solís, Rogerio Armando; Hernández-Pacheco, José Antonio; Belmont-Gómez, Aurora; Valenzuela-Jirón, Arlen; Carvajal-Valencia, Javier Andrés; Maya-Quiñones, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 16 years old female patient, with a pregnancy history of 11.4 weeks by ultrasound and intrauterine fetal death. In a private clinic were prescribed methotrexate 500 mg intramuscular single dose, and vaginal misoprostol. She had a clinical feature of five days of evolution characterized by fever of 39 degrees C, nausea, general attack and vomiting. The initial diagnosis was severe sepsis secondary to septic abortion, oral candidiasis and acute poisoning by methotrexate. After that, she was referred to the Instituto Nacional de Perinatologia, where stayed with fever for four days, and was managed with hydration, antibiotics, folinic acid and alkalizing. Her recovery was gradual. She was discharged after 12 days with significant clinical improvement. The literature review describes that the use of methotrexate for abortion purpose with therapeutic-dose presents a similar adverse effects to those found in our patient, however there are no case reports that describe the use of this drug in macrodosis for the same purpose, and their cytotoxic effects. We present this case because the patient used a macrodosis of this antimetabolite and due to the premature and empirical management with folinic acid, joined with alkalinization of urine, is the ideal treatment and as it is illustrated in our case.

  6. Helical tomotherapy in cervical cancer patients. Simultaneous integrated boost concept: technique and acute toxicity

    Marnitz, Simone; Stromberger, Carmen; Kawgan-Kagan, Michael; Wlodarczyk, Waldemar; Jahn, Ulrich; Budach, Volker [Dept. of Radiooncology, Charite - Univ. Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Schneider, Achim; Koehler, Christhardt [Dept. of Gynecology Charite - Univ. Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Ulrich, Uwe [Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Martin Luther Hospital, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the acute toxicity of simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique for dose escalation with helical tomotherapy (HT) in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. Patients and Methods: 20 patients (FIGO IB1 pN1-IIIB) underwent primary chemoradiation. Prior to chemoradiation, a laparoscopic pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy was performed. A boost region was defined using titanium clips during staging for planning target volume (PTV-B). Patients were treated with five weekly fractions of 1.8 Gy to a total dose of 50.4 Gy to the tumor region and the pelvic (para-aortic) lymph node region (PTV-A), and five weekly fractions of 2.12 Gy to a total dose of 59.36 Gy to the PTV-B. Chemotherapy consisted of weekly cisplatin 40 mg/m{sup 2}. 19 patients underwent brachytherapy. Dose-volume histograms were evaluated and acute gastrointestinal (GI), genitourinary (GU), and hematologic toxicity were documented (CTCAE v3.0). Results: Pelvic and para-aortic lymph node metastases were confirmed in nine and four patients, respectively. Five patients refused laparoscopic staging. The mean volume of PTV-A and PTV-B was 1,570 {+-} 404 cm{sup 3} and 341 {+-} 125 cm{sup 3}, respectively. The mean dose to the bladder, rectum, and small bowel was 47.85 Gy, 45.76 Gy, and 29.71 Gy, respectively. No grade 4/5 toxicity was observed. Grade 2/3 hematologic toxicity occurred in 50% of patients and 5% experienced grade 3 diarrhea. There was no grade 3 GU toxicity. 19 patients underwent curettage 6-9 weeks after chemoradiation without any evidence of tumor. Conclusion: The concept of SIB for dose escalation in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer is feasible with a low rate of acute toxicity. Whether dose escalation can translate into improved outcome will be assessed after a longer follow-up. (orig.)

  7. Intensity modulated whole pelvic radiotherapy in patients with cervix cancer: analysis of acute toxicity

    Choi, Young Min; Lee, Hyung Sik; Hur, Won Joo; Cha, Moon Seok; Kim, Hyun Ho [School of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    To evaluate acute toxicities in cervix cancer patients receiving intensity modulated whole pelvic radiation therapy (IM-WPRT). Between August 2004 and April 2006, 17 patients who underwent IM-WPRT were analysed. An intravenous contrast agent was used for radiotherapy planning computed tomography (CT). The central clinical target volume (CTV) included the primary tumor, uterus, vagina, and parametrium. The nodal CTV was defined as the lymph nodes larger than 1 cm seen on CT and the contrased-enhanced pelvic vessels. The planning target volume (PTV) was the 1-cm expanded volume around the central CTV, except for a 5-mm expansion from the posterior vagina, and the nodal PTV was defined as the nodal CTV plus a 1.5 cm margin. IM-WPRT was prescribed to deliver a dose of 50 Gy to more than 95% of the PTV. Acute toxicity was assessed with common toxicity criteria up to 60 days after radiotherapy. Grade 1 nausea developed in 10 (58.9%) patients, and grade 1 and 2 diarrhea developed in 11 (64.7%) and 1 (5.9%) patients, respectively. No grade 3 or higher gastrointestinal toxicity was seen. Leukopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia occurred in 15 (88.2%). 7 (41.2%), and 2 (11.8%) patients, respectively, as hematologic toxicities. Grade 3 leukopenia developed in 2 patients who were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. IM-WPRT can be a useful treatment for cervix cancer patients with decreased severe acute toxicities and a resultant improved compliance to whole pelvic irradiation.

  8. Reduced Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    Samuelian, Jason M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Callister, Matthew D., E-mail: Callister.matthew@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Ashman, Jonathan B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Young-Fadok, Tonia M. [Division of Colorectal Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Borad, Mitesh J. [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Gunderson, Leonard L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. Results: From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced {>=}Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, {>=}Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions: In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a

  9. Acute Toxicity Prediction in Multiple Species by Leveraging Mechanistic ToxCast Mitochondrial Inhibition Data and Simulation of Oral Bioavailability.

    Bhhatarai, Barun; Wilson, Daniel M; Bartels, Michael J; Chaudhuri, Shubhra; Price, Paul S; Carney, Edward W

    2015-10-01

    There is great interest in assessing the in vivo toxicity of chemicals using nonanimal alternatives. However, acute mammalian toxicity is not adequately predicted by current in silico or in vitro approaches. Mechanisms of acute toxicity are likely conserved across invertebrate, aquatic, and mammalian species, suggesting that dose-response concordance would be high and in vitro mechanistic data could predict responses in multiple species under conditions of similar bioavailability. We tested this hypothesis by comparing acute toxicity between rat, daphnia, and fish and by comparing their respective acute data to inhibition of mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ToxCast in vitro high-throughput screening data. Logarithmic scatter plots of acute toxicity data showed a clear relationship between fish, daphnia, and intravenous rat but not oral rat data. Similar plots versus MMP showed a well-delineated upper boundary for fish, daphnia, and intravenous data but were scattered without an upper boundary for rat oral data. Adjustments of acute oral rat toxicity values by simulating fractional absorption and CYP-based metabolism as well as removing compounds with hydrolyzable linkages or flagged as substrates for glucuronidation delineated an upper boundary for rat oral toxicity versus MMP. Mitochondrial inhibition at low concentrations predicted highly acutely toxic chemicals for fish and daphnia but not the rat where toxicity was often attenuated. This use of a single high-throughput screening assay to predict acute toxicity in multiple species represents a milestone and highlights the promise of such approaches but also the need for refined tools to address systemic bioavailability and the impact of limited absorption and first pass metabolism.

  10. Acute and Subchronic Toxic Effects of the Fruits of Physalis peruviana L.

    Basak Ozlem Perk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit of Physalis peruviana L. (PPL has been traditionally used as antispasmodic, diuretic, antiseptic, sedative, and analgesic all over the world. We aimed to perform qualitative content analysis of the fruits of PPL and to clarify the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo acute and subchronic toxicity of the fruit. Lyophilized fruit juice does not induce genetic damage. In the acute toxicity studies, LD50 value of the fruit was found to be more than 5000 mg kg−1 for both sexes. According to the subchronic toxicity studies, hepatic, renal, and hematological toxic effects were not induced in both sexes. Plasma troponin I (only in the group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice and troponin T levels were significantly increased in male groups treated with lyophilized fruit juice compared to the control group. Furthermore, potassium level was significantly increased in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice. These findings were considered to indicate the myocardial damage particularly in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice. In conclusion, lyophilized fruit juice of PPL is shown to induce cardiac toxicity only at high doses and in male gender.

  11. Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva (Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    WANG Chao; YU Rencheng; ZHOU Mingjiang

    2011-01-01

    From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides")occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva (Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

  12. Acute toxicity of mixture of acetaminophen and ibuprofen to Green Neon Shrimp, Neocaridina denticulate.

    Sung, Hung-Hung; Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Wang, Shu-Yin; Chen, Chien-Min; Huang, Da-Ji

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, numerous studies have indicated that various long-term use drugs, such as antibiotics or analgesics, not only cannot be completely decomposed via sewage treatment but also exhibit biological toxicity if they enter the environment; thus, the release of these drugs into the environment can damage ecological systems. This study sought to investigate the acute toxicity of two commonly utilized analgesics, ibuprofen (IBU) and acetaminophen (APAP), to aquatic organisms after these drugs have entered the water. To address this objective, the acute toxicity (median lethal concentration, LC₅₀, for a 96-h exposure) of IBU alone, APAP alone, and mixtures containing different ratios of IBU and APAP in green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulata) were measured. The results of four tests revealed that the 96-h LC₅₀ values for IBU and APAP alone were 6.07 mg/L and 6.60 mg/L, respectively. The 96-h LC₅₀ for a 1:1 mixture of IBU and APAP was 6.23 mg/L, and the toxicity of this mixture did not significantly differ from the toxicity of either drug alone (pneon shrimp.

  13. Acute and Chronic Oral Toxicity of a Partially Purified Plaunotol Extract from Croton stellatopilosus Ohba

    Chatchai Chaotham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plaunotol, an acyclic diterpenoid with highly effective antigastric ulcer properties, has been commercially isolated from leaves of Croton stellatopilosus Ohba. This Thai medicinal plant was traditionally used in the form of crude extracts, suggesting that it is possible to administer these plaunotol-containing extracts without toxicity. To confirm its safety, the oral toxicity of a partially purified plaunotol extract (PPE was evaluated in vivo. The PPE was simply prepared by 95% ethanol reflux extraction followed by hexane partition. The obtained extract was analyzed and found to contain 43% w/w of plaunotol and another compound, likely a fatty acid-plaunotol conjugate that is considered a major impurity. Oral administration of PPE to ICR mice and Wistar rats was conducted to evaluate acute and chronic toxicity of the plaunotol extract, respectively. The acute toxicity study demonstrated that PPE was practically nontoxic based on its high median lethal dose value (LD50=10.25 g/kg. The chronic toxicity studies also showed the absence of mortality and clinical symptoms in all rats treated with 11–1,100 mg/kg/day of PPE during a 6-month period. Histopathological and hematological analyses revealed that altered liver and kidney function and increased blood platelet number, but only at the high doses (550–1,100 mg/kg/day. These results suggest that PPE is potentially safe for further development as a therapeutic agent in humans.

  14. Correlation between TCDD acute toxicity and aryl hydrocarbon receptor structure for different mammals.

    Wang, Yonghua; Wang, Qiuying; Wu, Bing; Li, Yi; Lu, Guanghua

    2013-03-01

    The 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity has large species differences, and TCDD exerts its toxicity by binding into aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). In this study, we applied bioinformatics approaches to quantitatively analyze the correlation between TCDD acute toxicity and AHRs. Seven mammalian AHRs were chosen as target receptors. Low conserved functional domains of AHRs were identified and quantitatively characterized. Linear regression was applied to determine the relationships of different mammalian AHRs and TCDD LD(50) values. The results indicated that ligand binding domain and glutamine-rich domain of mammalian AHRs showed a low degree of conservation. Based on previous literatures, the number of glutamine residues (NOQ) and binding free energy with TCDD were applied to quantitatively represent the differences of glutamine-rich domain and ligand binding domain, respectively. Then, regression equations between studied mammalian AHR structures and TCDD LD(50) were constructed, and high linear correlation was found (R(2)=0.986). This study indicated that mammalian differences of TCDD acute toxicity might be partly determined by the differences of glutamine-rich domain and ligand binding domain of AHR, which provides a potential insight to analyze the species differences of TCDD toxicity.

  15. Predictors of long-term clinical outcome of patients with acute massive pulmonary embolism after thrombolytic therapy

    2003-01-01

    Objective To assess the in-hospital clinical course and the long-term evolution of acute massive pulmonary embolism after thrombolytic therapy and to identify predictors of adverse clinical outcome.Methods A total of 260 patients hospitalized from January 1989 to October 1998 were retrospectively reviewed and followed up for 3.9 to 8.4 years. Baseline characteristics and variables pre- and post-thrombolysis were identified. Particular attention was paid to the clinical events, including death, recurrent thromboembolism, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and major bleeding attributable to the use of anticoagulants. Kaplan-Meier event-free survival curves were generated. Univariate analysis by means of the log-rank test was used to test each candidate variable for association with clinical outcome. Multivariate analysis with the Cox proportional hazard model was used to determine independent predictors of the long-term outcome.Results The in-hospital mortality rate was 8.5%, with 68.2% due to pulmonary embolism itself, and the follow-up mortality rate was 31.7%, with 29.2% due to recurrent embolism. Factors associated with an adverse outcome in univariate analysis were: (1) prior thromboembolic diseases; (2) duration of anticoagulant therapy 50 mmHg after thrombolysis; and (6) greater than 30% obstruction of pulmonary vasculature identified by pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy before hospital discharge. Multivariate analysis identified three independent predictors of poor long-term outcome for patients with acute massive pulmonary embolism after thrombolysis; which were: (1) Doppler recording of pulmonary artery systolic pressure >50 mmHg, with relative risk of 3.78 and a 95% confidence interval of 2.70 to 4.86; (2) echocardiographic evidence of right ventricular dysfunction/dilatation (relative risk: 2.18; 95% confidence interval: 1.48 to 2.88); and (3) greater than 30% obstruction of pulmonary vasculature documented by lung scan (relative

  16. Pulmonary thromboembolism in a child with sickle cell hemoglobin d disease in the setting of acute chest syndrome.

    Villanueva, Hazel; Kuril, Sandeepkumar; Krajewski, Jennifer; Sedrak, Aziza

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Sickle cell hemoglobin D disease (HbSD) is a rare variant of sickle cell disease (SCD). Incidence of pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in children with HbSD is unknown. PE and DVT are known complications of SCD in adults but have not been reported in the literature in children with HbSD. Case Report. We are reporting a case of a 12-year-old boy with HbSD with acute chest syndrome (ACS) complicated by complete thrombosis of the branch of the right pulmonary artery and multiple small pulmonary artery emboli seen on computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiogram and thrombosis of the right brachial vein seen on Doppler ultrasound. Our patient responded to treatment with anticoagulant therapy. Conclusion. There are no cases reported in children with HbSD disease presenting as ACS with pulmonary thromboembolism. We suggest that PE should be suspected in patients presenting with ACS who do not show improvement with standard management. CT pulmonary angiogram should be utilized for early diagnosis and appropriate management as there is no current protocol for management of PE/DVT in pediatric patients with SCD.

  17. Emergency planning and the acute toxic potency of inhaled ammonia.

    Michaels, R A

    1999-08-01

    Ammonia is present in agriculture and commerce in many if not most communities. This report evaluates the toxic potency of ammonia, based on three types of data: anecdotal data, in some cases predating World War 1, reconstructions of contemporary industrial accidents, and animal bioassays. Standards and guidelines for human exposure have been driven largely by the anecdotal data, suggesting that ammonia at 5,000-10,000 parts per million, volume/volume (ppm-v), might be lethal within 5-10 min. However, contemporary accident reconstructions suggest that ammonia lethality requires higher concentrations. For example, 33,737 ppm-v was a 5-min zero-mortality value in a major ammonia release in 1973 in South Africa. Comparisons of secondary reports of ammonia lethality with original sources revealed discrepancies in contemporary sources, apparently resulting from failure to examine old documents or accurately translate foreign documents. The present investigation revealed that contemporary accident reconstructions yield ammonia lethality levels comparable to those in dozens of reports of animal bioassays, after adjustment of concentrations to human equivalent concentrations via U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) procedures. Ammonia levels potentially causing irreversible injury or impairing the ability of exposed people to escape from further exposure or from coincident perils similarly have been biased downwardly in contemporary sources. The EPA has identified ammonia as one of 366 extremely hazardous substances subject to community right-to-know provisions of the Superfund Act and emergency planning provisions of the Clean Air Act. The Clean Air Act defines emergency planning zones (EPZs) around industrial facilities exceeding a threshold quantity of ammonia on-site. This study suggests that EPZ areas around ammonia facilities can be reduced, thereby also reducing emergency planning costs, which will vary roughly with the EPZ radius squared.

  18. Efficacy and Safety of Thrombolytic Therapy in Acute Submassive Pulmonary Embolism: Follow-Up Study

    Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Sachan, Mohit; Goel, Amit; Singh, Karandeep; Mishra, Vikas; Jha, Mukesh Jitendra; Kumar, Ashutosh; Abdali, Nasar; Asif, Mohammad; Razi, Mahamdula; Pandey, Umeshwar; Thakur, Ramesh; Varma, Chandra Mohan; Krishna, Vinay

    2017-01-01

    Background Thrombolysis in acute submassive pulmonary embolism (PE) remains controversial. So we studied impact of thrombolytic therapy in acute submassive PE in terms of mortality, hemodynamic status, improvement in right ventricular function, and safety in terms of major and minor bleeding. Method A single-center, prospective, randomized study of 86 patients was conducted at LPS Institute of Cardiology, G.S.V.M. Medical College, Kanpur, India. Patients received thrombolysis (single bolus of tenecteplase) with unfractionated heparin (UFH, group I) or placebo with UFH (group II). Result Mean age of patients was 54.35 ± 12.8 years with male dominance (M:F = 70%:30%). Smoking was the most common risk factor seen in 29% of all patients, followed by recent history of immobilization (25%), history of surgery or major trauma within past 1 month (15%), dyslipidemia (10%) and diabetes mellitus (10%). Dyspnea was the most common symptom in 80% of all patients, followed by chest pain in 55% and syncope in 6%. Primary efficacy outcome occurred significantly better in group I vs. group II (4.5% vs. 20%; P = 0.04), and significant difference was also found in hemodynamic decompensation (4.5% vs. 20%; P = 0.04), the fall in mean pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) (28.8% vs. 22.5%; P = 0.03), improvement in right ventricular (RV) function (70% vs. 40%; P = 0.001) and mean hospital stay (8.1 ± 2.5 vs. 11.1 ± 2.14 days; P = 0.001). There was no difference in mortality and major bleeding as safety outcome but increased minor bleeding occurred in group I patients (16% vs. 12%; P = 0.04). Conclusion Patients with acute submassive PE do not derive overall mortality benefit, recurrent PE and rehospitalization with thrombolytic therapy but had improved clinical outcome in form of decrease in hemodynamic decompensation, mean hospital stay, PASP and improvement of RV function with similar risk of major bleed but at cost of increased minor bleeding. PMID:28090232

  19. Kinetic constraints in acute aluminium toxicity in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Exley, C; Wicks, A J; Hubert, R B; Birchall, J D

    1996-03-07

    We have designed a laboratory bioassay to expose fish to kinetically determined differences in aluminium hydroxide solution chemistry. We have used this system to demonstrate the hitherto unexpected result of an acute aluminium toxicity in the fish at a pH of 6.5. Supporting experiments have demonstrated that the mechanism of toxicity at this pH was probably an asphyxiation brought about by aluminium-induced changes in the rheological and diffusional properties of the mucus lining of the gill epithelium.

  20. TBHQ Alleviated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress by PERK-Nrf2 Crosstalk in Methamphetamine-Induced Chronic Pulmonary Toxicity

    Yun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (MA leads to cardiac and pulmonary toxicity expressed as increases in inflammatory responses and oxidative stress. However, some interactions may exist between oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS. The current study is designed to investigate if both oxidative stress and ERS are involved in MA-induced chronic pulmonary toxicity and if antioxidant tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ alleviated ERS-apoptosis and oxidative stress by PERK-Nrf2 crosstalk. In this study, the rats were randomly divided into control group, MA-treated group (MA, and MA plus TBHQ-treated group (MA + TBHQ. Chronic exposure to MA resulted in slower growth of weight and pulmonary toxicity of the rats by increasing the pulmonary arterial pressure, promoting the hypertrophy of right ventricle and the remodeling of pulmonary arteries. MA inhibited the Nrf2-mediated antioxidative stress by downregulation of Nrf2, GCS, and HO-1 and upregulation of SOD2. MA increased GRP78 to induce ERS. Overexpression and phosphorylation of PERK rapidly phosphorylated eIF2α, increased ATF4, CHOP, bax, caspase 3, and caspase 12, and decreased bcl-2. These changes can be reversed by antioxidant TBHQ through upregulating expression of Nrf2. The above results indicated that TBHQ can alleviate MA-induced oxidative stress which can accelerate ERS to initiate PERK-dependent apoptosis and that PERK/Nrf2 is likely to be the key crosstalk between oxidative stress and ERS in MA-induced chronic pulmonary toxicity.

  1. TBHQ Alleviated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress by PERK-Nrf2 Crosstalk in Methamphetamine-Induced Chronic Pulmonary Toxicity

    Gu, Yu-Han; Liu, Ming; Bai, Yang; Liang, Li-Ye; Wang, Huai-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) leads to cardiac and pulmonary toxicity expressed as increases in inflammatory responses and oxidative stress. However, some interactions may exist between oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). The current study is designed to investigate if both oxidative stress and ERS are involved in MA-induced chronic pulmonary toxicity and if antioxidant tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) alleviated ERS-apoptosis and oxidative stress by PERK-Nrf2 crosstalk. In this study, the rats were randomly divided into control group, MA-treated group (MA), and MA plus TBHQ-treated group (MA + TBHQ). Chronic exposure to MA resulted in slower growth of weight and pulmonary toxicity of the rats by increasing the pulmonary arterial pressure, promoting the hypertrophy of right ventricle and the remodeling of pulmonary arteries. MA inhibited the Nrf2-mediated antioxidative stress by downregulation of Nrf2, GCS, and HO-1 and upregulation of SOD2. MA increased GRP78 to induce ERS. Overexpression and phosphorylation of PERK rapidly phosphorylated eIF2α, increased ATF4, CHOP, bax, caspase 3, and caspase 12, and decreased bcl-2. These changes can be reversed by antioxidant TBHQ through upregulating expression of Nrf2. The above results indicated that TBHQ can alleviate MA-induced oxidative stress which can accelerate ERS to initiate PERK-dependent apoptosis and that PERK/Nrf2 is likely to be the key crosstalk between oxidative stress and ERS in MA-induced chronic pulmonary toxicity. PMID:28303170

  2. Comparative pulmonary toxicity assessment of pristine and functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes intratracheally instilled in rats: morphohistochemical evaluations.

    Roda, E; Coccini, T; Acerbi, D; Barni, S; Vaccarone, R; Manzo, L

    2011-03-01

    Increasing interest in safety evaluation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has risen in relation to their wide applications, together with the evidence of their cytotoxic effects. It has been shown that chemical functionalization extends the applications of CNTs, conferring them new functions that cannot otherwise be acquired by pristine CNTs, but also impacts on biological response to CNTs, modifying their toxicological profile. We assessed the onset of pulmonary toxic effects caused by pristine MW-CNTs and functionalized MW-NH₂ or MW-COOH, 16 days after intratracheal instillation (1 mg/kg b.w.); major endpoints tested included (i) histopathology of lung (Haematoxylin/Eosin Staining), (ii) apoptotic/proliferating features examined by TUNEL and PCNA immunostaining, and (iii) presence/distribution of (1) Transforming Growth Factor-beta1 (TGFß1), (2) Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and (3) Collagen (Type I) investigated by immunochemical methods, as markers of lung toxicity, inflammation, and fibrosis, respectively. Lung histopathology from exposed animals showed dark, particulate-laden macrophages, reflecting carbon nanomaterial engulfing, both at alveolar and bronchiolar levels, after treatment with all the tested CNTs. Alteration of lung architecture was also observed in several areas showing collapsed thick-walled alveoli and the presence of micro-haemorrhagic foci. TUNEL and PCNA, indicative of apoptosis and cell proliferation respectively, showed a significant increase of immunopositive cells at bronchiolar, alveolar and macrophagic levels, as expression of an improved cellular turnover. Increased immunoreactivity for pulmonary TGFß1 and IL-6 was observed in treated rats, particularly in bronchiolar areas, collapsed alveoli and at stromal level, while evident changes for collagen were not detected. Taken together these findings demonstrated the general pulmonary toxicity coupled with inflammatory response after in vivo exposure to CNTs, without overt signs of fibrosis and

  3. Boussignac continuous positive airway pressure for the management of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema: prospective study with a retrospective control group

    Aarts Leon PHJ

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP treatment for acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema can have important benefits in acute cardiac care. However, coronary care units are usually not equipped and their personnel not adequately trained for applying CPAP with mechanical ventilators. Therefore we investigated in the coronary care unit setting the feasibility and outcome of the simple Boussignac mask-CPAP (BCPAP system that does not need a mechanical ventilator. Methods BCPAP was introduced in a coronary care unit where staff had no CPAP experience. All consecutive patients transported to our hospital with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, a respiratory rate > 25 breaths/min and a peripheral arterial oxygen saturation of Results During the 2-year prospective BCPAP study period 108 patients were admitted with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Eighty-four of these patients (78% were treated at the coronary care unit of which 66 (61% were treated with BCPAP. During the control period 66 patients were admitted over a 1-year period of whom 31 (47% needed respiratory support in the intensive care unit. BCPAP treatment was associated with a reduced hospital length of stay and fewer transfers to the intensive care unit for intubation and mechanical ventilation. Overall estimated savings of approximately € 3,800 per patient were achieved with the BCPAP strategy compared to conventional treatment. Conclusion At the coronary care unit, BCPAP was feasible, medically effective, and cost-effective in the treatment of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Endpoints included mortality, coronary care unit and hospital length of stay, need of ventilatory support, and cost (savings.

  4. Clinical use of enteral immune nutrition in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Zhi-cheng ZHANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the use of enteral immune nutrition preparation in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD, regard its efficacy in improving nutritional status, and its influence on immunity and the status of acute inflammatory reaction of the patients. Methods Sixty-two AECOPD patients requiring mechanical ventilation in ICU of our hospital were randomly divided into two groups: immune nutrition group [study group, n=32, receiving Ruineng (a product of Huarui Pharmaceutical Ltd., which contained essential fatty acids, Omega-3 fatty acids, and energy 1.3 kcal/ml] and conventional nutrition group (control group, n=30, receiving the hospital self-made homogenized diet with 1.2 kal/ml. Patients in the two groups took enteral nutrition of equal calorie, and it was given by nasointestinal tube. On the day of admission and the 14th and 18th after admission, venous blood was obtained for the determination of serum albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, C reactive protein (CRP, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and interleukin-6 (IL-6. At the same time upper arm muscle circumference (MAMC was measured at the bed side. The 14-day off-respirator rate and mechanical ventilation time within 28 days were compared between the two groups. Results The 14-day off-respirator rate was higher in study group than in control group (P0.05. Conclusions Compared with homogenized diet, immune enteral nutrition could better improve the nutritional status and immune function, lower the acute inflammatory response level, increase the success rate of early off-respirator in AECOPD patients, therefore, enteral immune nutrition preparation is a better nutrition support solution for AECOPD. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.05.17

  5. Efficacy and safety of 2-hour urokinase regime in acute pulmonary embolism: a randomized controlled trial

    Huang Kewu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Urokinase (UK 2 200 U/kg·h for 12 hours infusion(UK-12 his an ACCP recommended regimen in treating acute pulmonary embolism (PE. It is unclear whether this dose and time can be reduced further. We compared the efficacy and safety of 20, 000 U/kg for 2 hours (UK-2 h with the UK-12 h regime in selected PE patients. Methods A randomized trial involving 129 patients was conducted. Patients with acute PE were randomly assigned to receive either UK-12 h (n = 70, or UK-2 h (n = 59. The efficacy was determined by the improvement of right heart dysfunction and perfusion defect at 24 h and 14 d post UK treatment. The bleeding incidence, death rate and PE recurrence were also evaluated. Results Similarly significant improvements in right heart dysfunction and lung perfusion defects were observed in both groups. Overall bleeding incidents were low in both groups. Major bleeding directly associated with UK infusion occurred in one patient in the UK-2 h group and one in the UK-12 h group. Mortality rates were low, with one reported fatal recurrent in the UK-12 h group and none in the UK-2 h group. When the rate of bleeding, death and PE recurrence were compared separately in the hemodynamic instability and the massive anatomic obstruction subgroups, no significant difference was found. Conclusions The UK-2 h regimen exhibits similar efficacy and safety as the UK-12 h regimen for acute PE. Trial Registration Clinical trial registered with http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00799968 (Identifier: NCT 00799968

  6. Invasive and Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation For Acute Exacerbations Of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Abd-Hay I. Abd-Hay; Ahmed S. Alsaily* and Essam A. El-Moselhy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a frequent cause of hospitalization and intensive care unit admission. Respiratory failure from airflow obstruction is a direct consequence of acute airway narrowing. Aim of the study: It was to compare the efficacy of noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV against conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. Patients and methods: Forty patients with acute exacerbation of COPD were recruited in the present study. A comparative, hospital based study design was used. All the cases were examined; clinically and laboratory. The patients were divided into two groups each include 20 patients. Group A received NIMV in the form of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP and group B with CMV. Results: There were statistically significant decreases in respiratory rate, heart rate and diastolic blood pressure after 6 hours of CPAP in comparison to baseline parameters in group A. While, there were statistically significant increases in PaO2 and SaO2 after 6 hours of CPAP in comparison to baseline parameters. In group B there were statistically significant decreases in respiratory rate, heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure after 6 hours of CMV in comparison to baseline parameters. While, there were statistically significant increases in pH, PaO2, and SaO2 and a statistically significant decrease in PaCO2 after 6 hours of CMV in comparison to baseline parameters. Further, comparison of respiratory rate and hemodynamic parameters in both groups showed statistically significant decreases in respiratory rate, heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in group A in comparison to group B. Finally, failure rate was 35.0% in group A (NIMV compared to 5.0% in group B (CMV with statistically significant difference. Conclusions and recommendations: Noninvasive mechanical ventilation is a safe

  7. Acute oral toxicity of chemicals in terrestrial life stages of amphibians: Comparisons to birds and mammals.

    Crane, Mark; Finnegan, Meaghean; Weltje, Lennart; Kosmala-Grzechnik, Sylwia; Gross, Melanie; Wheeler, James R

    2016-10-01

    Amphibians are currently the most threatened and rapidly declining group of vertebrates and this has raised concerns about their potential sensitivity and exposure to plant protection products and other chemicals. Current environmental risk assessment procedures rely on surrogate species (e.g. fish and birds) to cover the risk to aquatic and terrestrial life stages of amphibians, respectively. Whilst a recent meta-analysis has shown that in most cases amphibian aquatic life stages are less sensitive to chemicals than fish, little research has been conducted on the comparative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages. Therefore, in this paper we address the questions "What is the relative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages to acute chemical oral exposure when compared with mammals and birds?" and "Are there correlations between oral toxicity data for amphibians and data for mammals or birds?" Identifying a relationship between these data may help to avoid additional vertebrate testing. Acute oral amphibian toxicity data collected from the scientific literature and ecotoxicological databases were compared with toxicity data for mammals and birds. Toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages are generally sparse, as noted in previous reviews. Single-dose oral toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages were available for 26 chemicals and these were positively correlated with LD50 values for mammals, while no correlation was found for birds. Further, the data suggest that oral toxicity to terrestrial amphibian life stages is similar to or lower than that for mammals and birds, with a few exceptions. Thus, mammals or birds are considered adequate toxicity surrogates for use in the assessment of the oral exposure route in amphibians. However, there is a need for further data on a wider range of chemicals to explore the wider applicability of the current analyses and recommendations.

  8. Acute hemodynamic effects of inhaled sodium nitrite in pulmonary hypertension associated with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    Simon, Marc A.; Vanderpool, Rebecca R.; Nouraie, Mehdi; Bachman, Timothy N.; White, Pamela M.; Sugahara, Masataka; Gorcsan, John; Parsley, Ed L.; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with poor outcomes, yet specific treatments only exist for a small subset of patients. The most common form of PH is that associated with left heart disease (Group 2), for which there is no approved therapy. Nitrite has shown efficacy in preclinical animal models of Group 1 and 2 PH, as well as in patients with left heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a potentially novel inhaled formulation of nitrite in PH-HFpEF patients as compared with Group 1 and 3 PH. METHODS. Cardiopulmonary hemodynamics were recorded after acute administration of inhaled nitrite at 2 doses, 45 and 90 mg. Safety endpoints included change in systemic blood pressure and methemoglobin levels. Responses were also compared with those administered inhaled nitric oxide. RESULTS. Thirty-six patients were enrolled (10 PH-HFpEF, 20 Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension patients on background PH-specific therapy, and 6 Group 3 PH). Drug administration was well tolerated. Nitrite inhalation significantly lowered pulmonary, right atrial, and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures, most pronounced in patients with PH-HFpEF. There was a modest decrease in cardiac output and systemic blood pressure. Pulmonary vascular resistance decreased only in Group 3 PH patients. There was substantial increase in pulmonary artery compliance, most pronounced in patients with PH-HFpEF. CONCLUSIONS. Inhaled nitrite is safe in PH patients and may be efficacious in PH-HFpEF and Group 3 PH primarily via improvements in left and right ventricular filling pressures and pulmonary artery compliance. The lack of change in pulmonary vascular resistance likely may limit efficacy for Group 1 patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01431313 FUNDING. This work was supported in part by the NIH grants P01HL103455 (to MAS and MTG), R01HL098032 (to MTG), and R01HL096973 (to MTG), and Mast Therapeutics, Inc. PMID

  9. Toxicological evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil: acute and subacute toxicity.

    Deng, Yun-xia; Cao, Mei; Shi, Dong-xia; Yin, Zhong-qiong; Jia, Ren-yong; Xu, Jiao; Wang, Chuan; Lv, Cheng; Liang, Xiao-xia; He, Chang-liang; Yang, Zhi-rong; Zhao, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica), popularly known as traditional medicine is a native plant in India. Neem oil is a vegetable oil derived from seeds or fruits of the neem tree through pressing or solvent extraction, and largely used in popular medicine to have antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, as well as immunemodulatory properties in different animal species. In the present study, acute and 28-day subacute toxicity tests were carried out. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of neem oil were found to be 31.95g/kg. The subacute treatment with neem oil failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption. Serum biochemistry analysis showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined under the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of neem oil were testicle, liver and kidneys up to the dose of 1600mg/kg/day.

  10. Concurrent acute interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary embolism during treatment with peginterferon alpha-2a and ribavirin in a patient with hepatitis C

    Hikmet Coban

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The case presented is the first patient with concurrent acute interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary embolism associated with combined treatment of peginterferon and ribavirin for hepatitis C.

  11. Safety Evaluation of Turmeric Polysaccharide Extract: Assessment of Mutagenicity and Acute Oral Toxicity

    Chandrasekaran Chinampudur Velusami; Srinivasa Rao Boddapati; Srikanth Hongasandra Srinivasa; Edwin Jothie Richard; Joshua Allan Joseph; Murali Balasubramanian; Amit Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae) commonly known as turmeric has long been used for centuries as a spice and household remedy. The present study was carried out to assess the possible mutagenic potential and acute oral toxicity of polysaccharide extract of turmeric rhizome (NR-INF-02) using standard tests. The standard battery of in vitro genotoxicity tests, bacterial reverse mutation test (BRMT), chromosome aberration (CA), and micronucleus (MN) tests were employed to assess the possible m...

  12. Acute toxicity of whole-pelvis IMRT in 87 patients with localized prostate cancer

    Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Bicquart, Celine; Little, Michael; Chen, George; Berilgen, Jason (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (US)); Endres, Eugene J.; Parker, Brent C. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (US))

    2008-02-15

    Purpose. To assess the acute toxicity profile of whole pelvis IMRT (WP-IMRT) for localized prostate cancer. Materials. Eighty seven patients treated with definitive WP-IMRT at UTMB from May 2002 to November 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. Treatment consisted of two sequential phases, WP-IMRT to 54 Gy at 1.8 Gy per fraction to the pelvic nodes and seminal vesicles and 60 Gy at 2 Gy to the prostate, and a separate external beam boost, 3DCRT or IMRT, to bring the dose to the prostate to 76 Gy. Acute toxicity was prospectively scored weekly during treatment and at 3 month follow-up according to CTC v2.0 for 10 genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) domains. The proportion of patients experiencing a given level of peak acute toxicity at a given point is reported. Results. Treatment was feasible with delivered doses to PTVs not significantly lower than planned ones and with only two patients experiencing treatment gaps longer than 5 days. About 2/3 and 1/10 of the patients experienced peak grade 2 and grade 3 reactions at least once during RT, respectively. Frequency/urgency (Grade 2+: 37.9%) and diarrhea (36.7%) were the most prevalent symptoms followed by proctitis (21.8%) and dysuria (16.1%). GI reactions were generally shorter lasting compared to GU ones which accumulated progressively during treatment. At 3 months, almost half of the patients were asymptomatic and most of observed reactions (89.2%) were mild, with GI ones more likely to be fully resolved (92.5%) than GU ones (68.7%, 2, p=0.001). Conclusion. Our approach is dosimetrically and clinically feasible with intense, but transient, acute toxicity

  13. Bioconcentration and acute toxicity of polycyclic musks in two benthic organisms (Chironomus riparius and Lumbriculus variegatus)

    Artola-Garicano, E.; Sinnige, T.L.; Holsteijn, I. van; Vaes, W.H.J.; Hermens, J.L.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, the bioconcentration behavior and acute toxicity of two polycyclic musks, Tonalide® 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6,-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4,-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) and Galaxolide® 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexa-methyl-cyclopenta[γ]-2- benzopyran (HHCB), were studied in two benth

  14. Acute Inhalation Toxicity Study of 1, 4-Dioxane in Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    2012-07-01

    of degenerative and/or toxic nephropathy . Degenerative nephropathy is not uncommon in rats and is due to the predisposing factors of age, sex...was attributed to early and more acute progression of chronic progressive glomerular nephropathy . 4.2.6 Statistical Analysis: A statistical...0.6084 Degeneration 1 day M - - - - - - - F 0.0011 - - 0.0256 - 0.0256 0.0256 2 wk M - - - - - - - F - - - - - - - Kidney Nephropathy

  15. Acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of three potential biofuels also used as flavor or solvent

    Bluhm, Kerstin; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Environmental Research, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Anders, Nico [RWTH Aachen University, Aachener Verfahrenstechnik — Enzyme Process Technology, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Klankermayer, Jürgen [RWTH Aachen University, Institut für Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Schaeffer, Andreas [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Environmental Research, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Chongqing University, College of Resources and Environmental Science, Chongqing 400715 (China); Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing 210093 (China); Hollert, Henner, E-mail: Henner.Hollert@bio5.rwth-aachen.de [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Environmental Research, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Chongqing University, College of Resources and Environmental Science, Chongqing 400715 (China); Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing 210093 (China); Tongji University, College of Environmental Science and Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2016-10-01

    The demand for biofuels increases due to concerns regarding greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of fossil oil reserves. Many substances identified as potential biofuels are solvents or already used as flavors or fragrances. Although humans and the environment may be readily exposed little is known regarding their (eco)toxicological effects. In this study, the three potential biofuels ethyl levulinate (EL), 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) and 2-methylfuran (2-MF) were investigated for their acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity using the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test to identify unknown hazard potentials and to allow focusing further research on substances with low toxic potentials. In addition, two fossil fuels (diesel and gasoline) and an established biofuel (rapeseed oil methyl ester) were investigated as references. The FET test is widely accepted and used in (eco)toxicology. It was performed using the zebrafish Danio rerio, a model organism useful for the prediction of human teratogenicity. Testing revealed a higher acute toxicity for EL (LC{sub 50}: 83 mg/L) compared to 2-MTHF (LC{sub 50}: 2980 mg/L), 2-MF (LC{sub 50}: 405 mg/L) and water accommodated fractions of the reference fuels including gasoline (LC{sub 50}: 244 mg DOC/L). In addition, EL caused a statistically significant effect on head development resulting in elevated head lengths in zebrafish embryos. Results for EL reduce its likelihood of use as a biofuel since other substances with a lower toxic potential are available. The FET test applied at an early stage of development might be a useful tool to avoid further time and money requiring steps regarding research on unfavorable biofuels. - Highlights: • The demand for biofuels increases but their (eco)toxicological effects are unknown. • Acute fish embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of potential biofuels were evaluated. • Ethyl levulinate induced a higher acute toxicity compared to WAFs of gasoline. • Ethyl levulinate caused

  16. Differential diagnosis of acute miliary pulmonary tuberculosis from widespread-metastatic cancer for postoperative lung cancer patients: two cases

    Zhao, Wei; Tian, Yuke; Peng, Feng; Long, Jianlin; Liu, Lan; Lu, You

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary infections and lung cancer can resemble each other on radiographic images, which makes it difficult to diagnosis accurately and apply an appropriate therapy. Here we report two cases that two postoperative patients with lung adenocarcinoma developed diffuse nodules in bilateral lungs in a month which needed to be distinguished between metastatic malignancies and infectious diseases. Although there are much similarities in disease characteristics of two cases, patient in case one was diagnosed as acute miliary pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) while patient in case two was diagnosed as metastatic disease. The symptoms and pulmonary foci on CT scan of patient in case one improved distinctly after the immediate anti-TB treatment, but the disease of patient in case two progressed after chemotherapy. These findings caution us that differential diagnosis is crucial and have significance in guiding clinical work.

  17. Depression, anxiety and influencing factors in patients with acute pulmonary embolism

    LIU Chun-ping; LI Xiao-mei; CHEN Hang-wei; CUI Jun-yu; NIU Li-li; HE Yu-bin; TIAN Xin-li

    2011-01-01

    Background Psychological distress has been widely studied in many cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, but the condition in acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate levels of depression and anxiety and their influencing factors in APE patients.Methods Sixty consecutive patients with APE were subjected to investigation of depression and anxiety by the Beck Depression Inventory and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and 60 community-based subjects were enrolled as controls.APE patients were stratified as high-risk, intermediate-risk and low-risk according to the disease severity. Scores of depression and anxiety were compared by statistical analysis using paired t tests between APE patients and controls,and by analysis of variance within the APE patients with the three risk stratification. Factors influencing depression and anxiety were evaluated.Results The mean age of the patients (38 males and 22 females) was (52+12) years. APE patients displayed higher scores of depression (P=0.04) and anxiety (P=0.001) compared with controls. Patients in the high-risk group displayed higher scores of depression (P=0.004) and anxiety (P=0.001) compared with those in the intermediate- and low-risk groups. Depression scores were highly correlated with anxiety scores (r=0.60, P <0.001). Both depression and anxiety inversely related to risk stratification (P <0.01), age (P <0.05), and arterial blood oxygen pressure (PaO2) (P <0.05).Linear regression analysis showed that PaO2 was independently inversely related to both depression (P <0.01) and anxiety (P <0.05); risk stratification and age were independently inversely related to anxiety (P <0.05).Conclusions Patients of APE suffered high levels of depression and anxiety, which were negatively influenced by PaO2,risk stratification and age.

  18. Acute effects of aerosolized iloprost in COPD related pulmonary hypertension - a randomized controlled crossover trial.

    Lucas Boeck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inhaled iloprost potentially improves hemodynamics and gas exchange in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and secondary pulmonary hypertension (PH. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate acute effects of aerosolized iloprost in patients with COPD-associated PH. METHODS: A randomized, double blind, crossover study was conducted in 16 COPD patients with invasively confirmed PH in a single tertiary care center. Each patient received a single dose of 10 µg iloprost (low dose, 20 µg iloprost (high dose and placebo during distinct study-visits. The primary end-point of the study was exercise capacity as assessed by the six minute walking distance. RESULTS: Both iloprost doses failed to improve six-minute walking distance (p = 0.36. Low dose iloprost (estimated difference of the means -1.0%, p = 0.035 as well as high dose iloprost (-2.2%, p<0.001 significantly impaired oxygenation at rest. Peak oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production differed significantly over the three study days (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, accordingly. As compared to placebo, low dose iloprost was associated with reduced peak oxygen consumption (-76 ml/min, p = 0.002, elevated partial pressure of carbon dioxide (0.27 kPa, p = 0.040 and impaired ventilation during exercise (-3.0l/min, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Improvement of the exercise capacity after iloprost inhalation in patients with COPD-associated mild to moderate PH is very unlikely. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN61661881.

  19. Activation of MTOR in pulmonary epithelium promotes LPS-induced acute lung injury.

    Hu, Yue; Lou, Jian; Mao, Yuan-Yuan; Lai, Tian-Wen; Liu, Li-Yao; Zhu, Chen; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Juan; Li, Yu-Yan; Zhang, Fan; Li, Wen; Ying, Song-Min; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Shen, Hua-Hao

    2016-12-01

    MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin [serine/threonine kinase]) plays a crucial role in many major cellular processes including metabolism, proliferation and macroautophagy/autophagy induction, and is also implicated in a growing number of proliferative and metabolic diseases. Both MTOR and autophagy have been suggested to be involved in lung disorders, however, little is known about the role of MTOR and autophagy in pulmonary epithelium in the context of acute lung injury (ALI). In the present study, we observed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation induced MTOR phosphorylation and decreased the expression of MAP1LC3B/LC3B (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 β)-II, a hallmark of autophagy, in mouse lung epithelium and in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. The activation of MTOR in HBE cells was mediated by TLR4 (toll-like receptor 4) signaling. Genetic knockdown of MTOR or overexpression of autophagy-related proteins significantly attenuated, whereas inhibition of autophagy further augmented, LPS-induced expression of IL6 (interleukin 6) and IL8, through NFKB signaling in HBE cells. Mice with specific knockdown of Mtor in bronchial or alveolar epithelial cells exhibited significantly attenuated airway inflammation, barrier disruption, and lung edema, and displayed prolonged survival in response to LPS exposure. Taken together, our results demonstrate that activation of MTOR in the epithelium promotes LPS-induced ALI, likely through downregulation of autophagy and the subsequent activation of NFKB. Thus, inhibition of MTOR in pulmonary epithelial cells may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for preventing ALI induced by certain bacteria.

  20. Acute toxicity reduction and toxicity identification in pigment-contaminated wastewater during anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A/A/O) treatment process.

    Deng, Minjie; Zhang, Ying; Quan, Xie; Na, Chunhong; Chen, Shuo; Liu, Wei; Han, Shuping; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2017-02-01

    In China, a considerable part of industrial wastewater effluents are discharged into the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) after pretreatment in their own wastewater treatment plants. Even though the industrial effluents meet the professional emission standards, many micro-pollutants still remained, and they could be resistant in the municipal WWTPs with conventional activated sludge process. Pigment wastewater was chosen in this study, and the acute toxicity reduction and identification of the pigment-contaminated wastewater treated by the conventional anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A/A/O) process were evaluated. Results indicated that the raw pigment-contaminated wastewater was acutely toxic to Photobacterium phosphoreum (P. phosphoreum), Daphnia magna (D. magna) and Danio rerio (D. rerio). The acute toxicity was decreased in some degree after A/A/O treatment, but the final effluent still exhibited acute toxicity to D. magna and D. rerio with the toxic units (TU) of 1.1 and 2.0, respectively. Chemical analyses showed the presence of various refractory and toxic nitrogen-containing polycyclic and heterocyclic compounds in the pigment-contaminated wastewater. Toxicity identification by combining chemical analyses and correlation analysis showed that N-containing refractory organic toxicants were the main toxicity source for the pigment-contaminated wastewater, and several toxicants showed significant correlation with P. phosphoreum and D. magna. This study indicated that the A/A/O process was not efficient for pigment-contaminated wastewater treatment, and it was irradiative for technology improvement in the WWTPs receiving pretreated industrial wastewater effluents.

  1. Acute toxicity of fire-retardant and foam-suppressant chemicals to yalella azteca (Saussure)

    McDonald, Susan F.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Heisinger, James F.

    1997-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted with Hyalella azteca Saussure (an amphipod) exposed in soft and hard waters to three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two foam suppressants (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex). The chemicals were slightly to moderately toxic to amphipods. The most toxic chemical to amphipods in soft and hard water was Phos-Chek WD-881 (96-h mean lethal concentration [LC50] equal to 10 mg/L and 22 mg/L, respectively), and the least toxic chemical to amphipods in soft water was Fire-Trol GTS-R (96-h LC50 equal to 127 mg/L) and in hard water was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-h LC50 equal to 535 mg/L). Concentrations of ammonia in tests with the three fire retardants and both water types were greater than reported LC50 values and probably were the major toxic component. Estimated un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the LC50 were frequently less than the reported LC50 ammonia concentrations for amphipods. The three fire retardants were more toxic in soft water than in hard water even though ammonia and un-ionized ammonia concentrations were higher in hard water tests than in soft water tests. The accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect aquatic invertebrates, thereby disrupting ecosystem function.

  2. Acute toxicity of agricultural pesticides to embryo-larval and juvenile African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    Agbohessi, P T; Imorou Toko, I; Houndji, A; Gillardin, V; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2013-05-01

    Acute toxicities of Tihan 175 O-TEQ, as well as its active ingredients flubendiamide and spirotetramat, and of Thionex 350 EC (active compound endosulfan) were measured for embryo-larval and juvenile stages of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus to assess risks of pesticide use in the cotton basin in Benin (West Africa). For embryo-larval stages, Tihan was more toxic (LC5048h 20 ppm) than Thionex (LC5048h 56 ppm), and flubendiamide was more toxic (LC5048h 2.0 ppm) than spirotetramat (LC5048h 8.44 ppm). All decreased hatching rates. Tihan and spirotetramat disturbed larval swimming coordination; flubendiamide induced tail cleavage. For juvenile fish, Thionex was more toxic (LC5096h 0.22 ppm) than Tihan (LC5096h 8.8 ppm), and flubendiamide (LC5096h 4.7 ppm) was more toxic than spirotetramat (LC5096h 6.0 ppm). Eggs were more resistant than juvenile fish to all tested pesticides except flubendiamide. Although Thionex was more toxic to juvenile fish, replacing Thionex with Tihan may be undesirable for survival of eggs and larvae.

  3. A Microfluidic Device for Continuous Sensing of Systemic Acute Toxicants in Drinking Water

    Xinyan Zhao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A bioluminescent-cell-based microfluidic device for sensing toxicants in drinking water was designed and fabricated. The system employed Vibrio fischeri cells as broad-spectrum sensors to monitor potential systemic cell toxicants in water, such as heavy metal ions and phenol. Specifically, the chip was designed for continuous detection. The chip design included two counter-flow micromixers, a T-junction droplet generator and six spiral microchannels. The cell suspension and water sample were introduced into the micromixers and dispersed into droplets in the air flow. This guaranteed sufficient oxygen supply for the cell sensors. Copper (Cu2+, zinc (Zn2+, potassium dichromate and 3,5-dichlorophenol were selected as typical toxicants to validate the sensing system. Preliminary tests verified that the system was an effective screening tool for acute toxicants although it could not recognize or quantify specific toxicants. A distinct non-linear relationship was observed between the zinc ion concentration and the Relative Luminescence Units (RLU obtained during testing. Thus, the concentration of simple toxic chemicals in water can be roughly estimated by this system. The proposed device shows great promise for an early warning system for water safety.

  4. Acute toxicity bioassay of mercury and silver on Capoeta fusca (black fish).

    Mansouri, Borhan; Baramaki, Rahimeh; Ebrahimpour, Mohammad

    2012-06-01

    Since toxicity is based on the effect that a toxicant produces at a target site within an organism, establishing the relationship between the concentration of substance at the target site and the subsequent toxic effect can provide a tool for predicting toxicity. The behavior of a single toxicant could not be fully understood without the knowledge of the fact the physical and biochemical properties of substances that can change. To understand this, the acute toxicity of mercury (as HgSO₄) and silver (as AgSO₄) to Capoeta fusca (6 treatments in triplicate) was determined. During September 2009, C. fusca belonging to the family Cyprinidae, weighing 2.95 (±0.55) g, were obtained from qanats in Birjand, East of Iran. The fish were maintained in an aquarium system at a holding temperature of 21 (±0.2) and were allowed to adjust to lab conditions for 1 week before experimentation. The lethal concentration 50 (LC₅₀) values for HgSO₄ at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure were 0.32, 0.28, 0.26, and 0.24 mg L⁻¹, respectively. Also, the LC₅₀ values for AgSO₄ at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure were 0.014, 0.013, 0.013, and 0.013 mg L⁻¹, respectively. Results of this study showed that C. fusca was very sensitive to AgSO₄.

  5. Artemia salina as test organism for assessment of acute toxicity of leachate water from landfills.

    Svensson, B M; Mathiasson, L; Mårtensson, L; Bergström, S

    2005-03-01

    Artemia salina has, for the first time, been used as test organism for acute toxicity of leachate water from three landfills (the municipal landfills at Kristianstad, Sweden and Siauliai, Lithuania, and an industrial landfill at Stena fragmenting AB, Halmstad, as well as for leachate from Kristianstad treated in different ways in a pilot plan). Artemia can tolerate the high concentrations of chloride ions found in such waters. Large differences in toxicities were found, the leachate from Siauliai being the most toxic one. To increase the selectivity in the measurements, a fractionation was done by using ion exchange to separate ammonium/ammonia and metal ions from the leachate, and activated carbon adsorbents for organic pollutants. The influence of some metals and phenol compounds on the toxicity was investigated separately. It was found that most of the toxicity emanated from the ammonium/ammonia components in the leachate. However, there was also a significant contribution n from organic pollutants, other than phenol compounds, since separate experiments had in this latter case indicated negligible impact. The concentrations of metals were at a level, shown by separate experiments, where only small contribution to the toxicity could be expected.

  6. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Study of Euphorbia hirta L. Methanol Extract in Rats

    Kwan Yuet Ping

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite Euphorbia hirta L. ethnomedicinal benefits, very few studies have described the potential toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo toxicity of methanolic extracts of E. hirta. The acute and subchronic oral toxicity of E. hirta was evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats. The extract at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the LD 50 of this plant was estimated to be more than 5000 mg/kg. In the repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study, the administration of 50 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg/day of E. hirta extract per body weight revealed no significant difference (P>0.05 in food and water consumptions, body weight change, haematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and gross findings compared to the control group. Macropathology and histopathology examinations of all organs including the liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Analyses of these results with the information of signs, behaviour, and health monitoring could lead to the conclusion that the long-term oral administration of E. hirta extract for 90 days does not cause sub-chronic toxicity.

  7. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of Euphorbia hirta L. methanol extract in rats.

    Yuet Ping, Kwan; Darah, Ibrahim; Chen, Yeng; Sreeramanan, Subramaniam; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2013-01-01

    Despite Euphorbia hirta L. ethnomedicinal benefits, very few studies have described the potential toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo toxicity of methanolic extracts of E. hirta. The acute and subchronic oral toxicity of E. hirta was evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats. The extract at a single dose of 5,000 mg/kg did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the LD 50 of this plant was estimated to be more than 5,000 mg/kg. In the repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study, the administration of 50 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 1,000 mg/kg/day of E. hirta extract per body weight revealed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in food and water consumptions, body weight change, haematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and gross findings compared to the control group. Macropathology and histopathology examinations of all organs including the liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Analyses of these results with the information of signs, behaviour, and health monitoring could lead to the conclusion that the long-term oral administration of E. hirta extract for 90 days does not cause sub-chronic toxicity.

  8. Acute toxicity tests and meta-analysis identify gaps in tropical ecotoxicology for amphibians.

    Ghose, Sonia L; Donnelly, Maureen A; Kerby, Jacob; Whitfield, Steven M

    2014-09-01

    Amphibian populations are declining worldwide, particularly in tropical regions where amphibian diversity is highest. Pollutants, including agricultural pesticides, have been identified as a potential contributor to decline, yet toxicological studies of tropical amphibians are very rare. The present study assesses toxic effects on amphibians of 10 commonly used commercial pesticides in tropical agriculture using 2 approaches. First, the authors conducted 8-d toxicity assays with formulations of each pesticide using individually reared red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas) tadpoles. Second, they conducted a review of available data for the lethal concentration to kill 50% of test animals from the US Environmental Protection Agency's ECOTOX database to allow comparison with their findings. Lethal concentration estimates from the assays ranged over several orders of magnitude. The nematicides terbufos and ethoprophos and the fungicide chlorothalonil were very highly toxic, with evident effects within an order of magnitude of environmental concentrations. Acute toxicity assays and meta-analysis show that nematicides and fungicides are generally more toxic than herbicides yet receive far less research attention than less toxic herbicides. Given that the tropics have a high diversity of amphibians, the findings emphasize the need for research into the effects of commonly used pesticides in tropical countries and should help guide future ecotoxicological research in tropical regions.

  9. Clinical Study of Acute Vasoreactivity Testing in Patients with Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    Xu, Qi-Xia; Yang, Yuan-Hua; Geng, Jie; Zhai, Zhen-Guo; Gong, Juan-Ni; Li, Ji-Feng; Tang, Xiao; Wang, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Background: The clinical significance of acute vasoreactivity testing (AVT) in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) remains unclear. We analyzed changes in hemodynamics and oxygenation dynamics indices after AVT in patients with CTEPH using patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) as controls. Methods: We analyzed retrospectively the results of AVT in 80 patients with PAH and 175 patients with CTEPH registered in the research database of Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital between October 2005 and August 2014. Demographic variables, cardiopulmonary indicators, and laboratory findings were compared in these two subgroups. A long-term follow-up was conducted in patients with CTEPH. Between-group comparisons were performed using the independent-sample t-test or the rank sum test, within-group comparisons were conducted using the paired t-test or the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and count data were analyzed using the Chi-squared test. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Results: The rates of positive response to AVT were similar in the CTEPH (25/175, 14.3%) and PAH (9/80, 11.3%) groups (P > 0.05). Factors significantly associated a positive response to AVT in the CTEPH group were level of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (≤1131.000 ng/L), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP, ≤44.500 mmHg), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR, ≤846.500 dyn·s−1·m−5), cardiac output (CO, ≥3.475 L/min), and mixed venous oxygen partial pressure (PvO2, ≥35.150 mmHg). Inhalation of iloprost resulted in similar changes in mean blood pressure, mPAP, PVR, systemic vascular resistance, CO, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), mixed venous oxygen saturation, partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2), PvO2, and intrapulmonary shunt (Qs/Qt) in the PAH and CTEPH groups (all P > 0.05). The survival time in patients with CTEPH with a negative response to AVT was somewhat shorter than that in AVT

  10. Acute toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated with and without image-guided radiotherapy

    Williams Scott

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT increases the accuracy of treatment delivery through daily target localisation. We report on toxicity symptoms experienced during radiotherapy treatment, with and without IGRT in prostate cancer patients treated radically. Methods Between 2006 and 2009, acute toxicity data for ten symptoms were collected prospectively onto standardized assessment forms. Toxicity was scored during radiotherapy, according to the Common Terminology Criteria Adverse Events V3.0, for 275 prostate cancer patients before and after the implementation of a fiducial marker IGRT program and dose escalation from 74Gy in 37 fractions, to 78Gy in 39 fractions. Margins and planning constraints were maintained the same during the study period. The symptoms scored were urinary frequency, cystitis, bladder spasm, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, proctitis, anal skin discomfort and fatigue. Analysis was conducted for the maximum grade of toxicity and the median number of days from the onset of that toxicity to the end of treatment. Results In the IGRT group, 14228 toxicity scores were analysed from 249 patients. In the non-IGRT group, 1893 toxicity scores were analysed from 26 patients. Urinary frequency ≥G3 affected 23% and 7% in the non-IGRT and IGRT group respectively (p = 0.0188. Diarrhoea ≥G2 affected 15% and 3% of patients in the non-IGRT and IGRT groups (p = 0.0174. Fatigue ≥G2 affected 23% and 8% of patients in the non-IGRT and IGRT groups (p = 0.0271. The median number of days with a toxicity was higher for ≥G2 (p = 0.0179 and ≥G3 frequency (p = 0.0027, ≥G2 diarrhoea (p = 0.0033 and ≥G2 fatigue (p = 0.0088 in the non-IGRT group compared to the IGRT group. Other toxicities were not of significant statistical difference. Conclusions In this study, prostate cancer patients treated radically with IGRT had less severe urinary frequency, diarrhoea and fatigue during treatment

  11. Acute Toxicity Comparison of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Various Freshwater Organisms

    Eun Kyung Sohn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While the commercialization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs is rapidly expanding, the environmental impact of this nanomaterial is not well understood. Therefore, the present study evaluates the acute aquatic toxicity of SWCNTs towards two freshwater microalgae (Raphidocelis subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris, a microcrustacean (Daphnia magna, and a fish (Oryzias latipes based on OECD test guidelines (201, 202, and 203. According to the results, the SWCNTs inhibited the growth of the algae R. subcapitata and C. vulgaris with a median effective concentration (EC50 of 29.99 and 30.96 mg/L, respectively, representing “acute category 3” in the Globally Harmonized System (GHS of classification and labeling of chemicals. Meanwhile, the acute toxicity test using O. latipes and D. magna did not show any mortality/immobilizing effects up to a concentration of 100.00 mg/L SWCNTs, indicating no hazard category in the GHS classification. In conclusion, SWCNTs were found to induce acute ecotoxicity in freshwater microalgae, yet not in D. magna and medaka fish.

  12. Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests

    Débora Rebechi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests. Organophosphate compounds are used in agro-systems, and in programs to control pathogen vectors. Because they are continuously applied, organophosphates often reach water sources and may have an impact on aquatic life. The effects of acute and chronic exposure to the organophosphate insecticide malathion on the midge Chironomus sancticaroli are evaluated. To that end, three biochemical biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, alpha (EST-α and beta (EST-β esterase were used. Acute bioassays with five concentrations of malathion, and chronic bioassays with two concentrations of malathion were carried out. In the acute exposure test, AChE, EST-α and EST-β activities declined by 66, 40 and 37%, respectively, at 0.251 µg L-1 and more than 80% at 1.37, 1.96 and 2.51 µg L-1. In chronic exposure tests, AChE and EST-α activities declined by 28 and 15% at 0.251 µg L-1. Results of the present study show that low concentrations of malathion can influence larval metabolism, indicating high toxicity for Chironomus sancticaroli and environmental risk associated with the use of organophosphates.

  13. Acute and repeated dose toxicity studies of different β-cyclodextrin-based nanosponge formulations.

    Shende, Pravin; Kulkarni, Yogesh A; Gaud, R S; Deshmukh, Kiran; Cavalli, Roberta; Trotta, Francesco; Caldera, Fabrizio

    2015-05-01

    Nanosponges (NS) show promising results in different fields such as medicine, agriculture, water purification, fire engineering and so on. The present study was designed to evaluate toxicity of different NS formulations (namely, S1-S6) synthesized with different cross-linking agents such as carbonyl diimidazole, pyromellitic dianhydride and hexamethylene diisocynate; and preparation methods in experimental animals. Acute and repeated dose toxicity studies of formulations were carried out as per OECD guidelines 423 and 407, respectively. For acute toxicity study, formulations were administered to female rats at doses of 300 and 2000 mg/kg orally. The general behaviour of the rats was continuously monitored for 1 h after dosing, periodically during the first 24 h and daily thereafter for a total of 14 days. On day 14, animals were fasted overnight, weighed, and sacrificed. After sacrification, animals were subjected to necropsy. For repeated dose toxicity study, rats of either sex were orally administered with formulations at the dose of 300 mg/kg per day for a period of 28 days. The maximally tolerated dose of all formulations was found to be 2000 mg/kg. Repeated administration of formulations for 28 days did not show any significant changes in haematological and biochemical parameters in experimental animals. These results indicate that the formulations are safe, when tested in experimental animals.

  14. ACUTE AND SUB-CHORONIC ORAL TOXICITY OF ASIATICOSIDE TO MICE

    Uvarajan Sampath

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The components in Centellaasiatica (gotukala, vallarai was reported to possess different biological activities in various in vitro and in vivo test models including gastric ulcer healing, wound healing, memory enhancing, immunomodulating effects along with cytotoxic, neuroprotective, antioxidant potential. Asiaticoside is one of the major triterpenoid saponin isolated from Centellaasiatica. Currently, there is no evidence for safety details of asiaticoside in experimental mice. The purpose of this study is to explore the acute and sub-chronic oral toxicities of asiaticoside. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted by giving 300-5000 mgkg-1 bodyweight of asiaticoside and the animals were observed after 1 h administration of the drug and also examined after 14 days of administration for mortality and morbidity.The lethal dose (LD50 was found to greater than 2000 mgkg⁻¹ bodyweight. In sub-chronic oral toxicity studies, the selected oral doses were 200, 500, 1000 mgkg⁻¹and the evaluation was carried out after 90 days of oral administration of asiaticoside. Biochemical, histopathological and hematological changes along with body and relative organ weights of the mice were analysed and significant changes were observed in the mice treated with 1000 mgkg-1 of asiaticoside.. The observed results were statistically analyzed using one way ANOVA which suggested that Asiaticoside does not possess any toxic effect up to 500mg/kg bodyweight and it is best suited for any kind of future application related to its efficacy.

  15. Comparative analysis of acute toxic poisoning in 2003 and 2011: analysis of 3 academic hospitals.

    Jang, Hak-Soo; Kim, Jung-Youn; Choi, Sung-Hyuk; Yoon, Young-Hoon; Moon, Sung-Woo; Hong, Yun-Sik; Lee, Sung-Woo

    2013-10-01

    Social factors may affect the available sources of toxic substances and causes of poisoning; and these factors may change over time. Additionally, understanding the characteristics of patients with acute toxic poisoning is important for treating such patients. Therefore, this study investigated the characteristics of patients with toxic poisoning. Patients visiting one of 3 hospitals in 2003 and 2011 were included in this study. Data on all patients who were admitted to the emergency departments with acute toxic poisoning were retrospectively obtained from medical records. Total 939 patients were analyzed. The average age of patients was 40.0 ± 20 yr, and 335 (36.9%) patients were men. Among the elements that did not change over time were the facts that suicide was the most common cause, that alcohol consumption was involved in roughly 1 of 4 cases, and that there were more women than men. Furthermore, acetaminophen and doxylamine remained the most common poisoning agents. In conclusion, the average patient age and psychotic drug poisoning has increased over time, and the use of lavage treatment has decreased.

  16. Acute oral toxicity and biodistribution study of zinc-aluminium-levodopa nanocomposite

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Saifullah, Bullo; Cheah, Pike-See; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Azmi, Norazrina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-03-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) is an inorganic-organic nano-layered material that harbours drug between its two-layered sheets, forming a sandwich-like structure. It is attracting a great deal of attention as an alternative drug delivery (nanodelivery) system in the field of pharmacology due to their relative low toxic potential. The production of these nanodelivery systems, aimed at improving human health through decrease toxicity, targeted delivery of the active compound to areas of interest with sustained release ability. In this study, we administered zinc-aluminium-LDH-levodopa nanocomposite (ZAL) and zinc-aluminium nanocomposite (ZA) to Sprague Dawley rats to evaluate for acute oral toxicity following OECD guidelines. The oral administration of ZAL and ZA at a limit dose of 2,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout 14 days of the observation. The percentage of body weight gain of the animals showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. Animal from the two treated groups gained weight continuously over the study period, which was shown to be significantly higher than the weight at the beginning of the study ( P models for short periods of time. It also highlighted the potential distribution ability of Tween-80 coated nanocomposite after oral administration.

  17. Ecological effects of various toxic agents on the aquatic microcosm in comparison with acute ionizing radiation

    Fuma, S. E-mail: fuma@nirs.go.jp; Ishii, N.; Takeda, H.; Miyamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, K.; Ichimasa, Y.; Saito, M.; Kawabata, Z.; Polikarpov, G.G

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this study was an evaluation of the effect levels of various toxic agents compared with acute doses of ionizing radiation for the experimental model ecosystem, i.e., microcosm mimicking aquatic microbial communities. For this purpose, the authors used the microcosm consisting of populations of the flagellate alga Euglena gracilis as a producer, the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila as a consumer and the bacterium Escherichia coli as a decomposer. Effects of aluminum and copper on the microcosm were investigated in this study, while effects of {gamma}-rays, ultraviolet radiation, acidification, manganese, nickel and gadolinium were reported in previous studies. The microcosm could detect not only the direct effects of these agents but also the community-level effects due to the interspecies interactions or the interactions between organisms and toxic agents. The authors evaluated doses or concentrations of each toxic agent which had the following effects on the microcosm: (1) no effects; (2) recognizable effects, i.e., decrease or increase in the cell densities of at least one species; (3) severe effects, i.e., extinction of one or two species; and (4) destructive effects, i.e., extinction of all species. The resulting effects data will contribute to an ecological risk assessment of the toxic agents compared with acute doses of ionizing radiation.

  18. Mycophenolate mofetil toxicity mimicking acute cellular rejection in a small intestinal transplant

    Apostolov, Ross; Asadi, Khashayar; Lokan, Julie; Kam, Ning; Testro, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is an important medication used for maintenance immunosuppression in solid organ transplants. A common gastrointestinal (GI) side effect of MMF is enterocolitis, which has been associated with multiple histological features. There is little data in the literature describing the histological effects of MMF in small intestinal transplant (SIT) recipients. We present a case of MMF toxicity in a SIT recipient, with histological changes in the donor ileum mimicking persistent acute cellular rejection (ACR). Concurrent biopsies of the patient’s native colon showed similar changes to those from the donor small bowel, suggesting a non-graft specific process, raising suspicion for MMF toxicity. The MMF was discontinued and complete resolution of these changes occurred over three weeks. MMF toxicity should therefore be considered as a differential diagnosis for ACR and graft-versus-host disease in SITs. PMID:28280702

  19. Differential concentration-specific effects of caffeine on cell viability, oxidative stress, and cell cycle in pulmonary oxygen toxicity in vitro

    Tiwari, Kirti Kumar; Chu, Chun; Couroucli, Xanthi; Moorthy, Bhagavatula; Lingappan, Krithika

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine is used to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature neonates. Hyperoxia contributes to the development of BPD, inhibits cell proliferation and decreases cell survival. The mechanisms responsible for the protective effect of caffeine in pulmonary oxygen toxicity remain largely unknown. A549 and MLE 12 pulmonary epithelial cells were exposed to hyperoxia or maintained in room air, in the presence of different concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1 and 1 mM) of caffeine. Caffeine had...

  20. The Study on Acute and Subacute Toxicity and Anti-Cancer Effects of cultivated wild ginseng Herbal acupuncture

    Ki-Rok, Kwon

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate acute and subacute toxicity and sarcoma-180 anti-cancer effects of herbal acupuncture with cultivated wild ginseng (distilled in mice and rats. Methods : Balb/c mice were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for LD50 and acute toxicity test. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for subacute toxicity test. The cultivated wild ginseng herbal-acupuncture was injected at the tail vein of mice. Results : 1. In acute LD50 toxicity test, there was no mortality thus unable to attain the value. 2. Examining the toxic response in the acute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication. 3. In acute toxic test, running biochemical serum test couldn't yield any differences between the control and experiment groups. 4. In subacute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication in the experimental groups and didn't show any changes in weight compared to the normal group. 5. In subacute toxicity test, biochemical serum test showed significant increase of Total albumin, Albumin, and Glucose in the experimental group I compared with the control group. Significant decrease of GOT, ALP, GPT, and Triglyceride were shown. In experiment group II, only Glucose showed significant increase compared with the control group. 6. Measuring survival rate for anti-cancer effects of Sarcoma-180 cancer cell line, all the experimental groups showed significant increase in survival rate. 7. Measuring NK cell activity rate, no significant difference was shown throughout the groups. 8. Measuring Interleukin-2 productivity rate, all the experimental groups didn't show significant difference. 9. For manifestation of cytokine mRNA, significant decrease of interleukin-10 was witnessed in the experimental group compared to the control group. Conclusion : According to the results, we can conclude cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture

  1. Effect of low-dose glucocorticoid on corticosteroid insufficient patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    袁光雄

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of low-dose glucocorticoid on prognosis of critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficient(CIRCI)patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(AECOPD).Methods A total of 385 eligible patients met the criteria of AECOPD were admitted from January 2010 to December 2012.The AECOPD patients co-morbid with CIRCI screened by an adrenal corticotrophic hormone test within 12 hours after admission were randomly divided

  2. Clinical audit indicators of outcome following admission to hospital with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    2002-01-01

    Background: The 1997 BTS/RCP national audit of acute chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in terms of process of care has previously been reported. This paper describes from the same cases the outcomes of death, readmission rates within 3 months of initial admission, and length of stay. Identification of the main pre-admission predictors of outcome may be used to control for confounding factors in population characteristics when comparing performance between units.

  3. Comparison of acute toxicities of two chemotherapy schedules for head and neck cancers

    Geeta S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemo-radiotherapy has become the standard of care for loco-regionally advanced head and neck cancers. Platinum based regimens are the most effective. Although benefits are proven with chemo-radiation, acute toxicities are markedly increased. The dose and delivery schedules of Cisplatin have ranged from intermittent higher dose [100 mg/m2] every 3 weeks to low dose [6 mg/m2] daily administration. At present there is no data indicating which regimen is superior. Purpose: To compare acute toxicities of two chemotherapy schedules for head and neck cancers. Materials and Methods: A total of 83 head and neck cancer patients treated with two schedules of concurrent chemo RT were analyzed, retrospectively, for treatment toxicity. In group A [51 patients], chemotherapy [CT] was administered on week 1, 4 and 7 [cisplatin 100 mg/m2] over a period of 2-3 days. In group B [32 patients], CT was delivered weekly [cisplatin 40 mg/m2]. Radiotherapy dose was 7000 cGy in 35 fractions for definitive concurrent chemo-radiation and 6600 cGy in 33 fractions for adjuvant treatment. Results: Group B patients had increased grade III skin and hematological toxicity, where as patients in group A had more pharyngeal toxicity. Treatment interruptions and percentage of weight loss were higher in group B. Weekly CT schedule had higher rate of severe mucositis, which was statistically significant on both univariate [ P =0.005] and multivariate [ P =0.007] analysis. Conclusions: Three weekly CT is less toxic than weekly. Weekly CT can be made more acceptable by reducing the dose and using feeding tubes for nutrition.

  4. Acute toxicity of binary and ternary mixtures of Cd, Cu, and Zn to Daphnia magna.

    Meyer, Joseph S; Ranville, James F; Pontasch, Mandee; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Adams, William J

    2015-04-01

    Standard static-exposure acute lethality tests were conducted with Daphnia magna neonates exposed to binary or ternary mixtures of Cd, Cu, and Zn in moderately hard reconstituted water that contained 3 mg dissolved organic carbon/L added as Suwannee River fulvic acid. These experiments were conducted to test for additive toxicity (i.e., the response to the mixture can be predicted by combining the responses obtained in single-metal toxicity tests) or nonadditive toxicity (i.e., the response is less than or greater than additive). Based on total metal concentrations (>90% dissolved) the toxicity of the tested metal mixtures could be categorized into all 3 possible additivity categories: less-than-additive toxicity (e.g., Cd-Zn and Cd-Cu-Zn mixtures and Cd-Cu mixtures when Cu was titrated into Cd-containing waters), additive toxicity (e.g., some Cu-Zn mixtures), or more-than-additive toxicity (some Cu-Zn mixtures and Cd-Cu mixtures when Cd was titrated into Cu-containing waters). Exposing the organisms to a range of sublethal to supralethal concentrations of the titrated metal was especially helpful in identifying nonadditive interactions. Geochemical processes (e.g., metal-metal competition for binding to dissolved organic matter and/or the biotic ligand, and possibly supersaturation of exposure waters with the metals in some high-concentration exposures) can explain much of the observed metal-metal interactions. Therefore, bioavailability models that incorporate those geochemical (and possibly some physiological) processes might be able to predict metal mixture toxicity accurately.

  5. Acute toxicity of fire control chemicals to Daphnia magna (Straus) and Selenastrum capricornutum (Printz).

    McDonald, S F; Hamilton, S J; Buhl, K J; Heisinger, J F

    1996-02-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted exposing Daphnia magna Straus (daphnid) in soft and hard reconstituted waters (hardness 42 and 162 mg/liter as CaCO3, respectively), and Selenastrum capricornutum Printz (algae) in ASTM algal assay medium (hardness 15 mg/liter as CaCO3) to fire retardants Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F, and foam suppressants Phos-Check WD-881 and Silv-Ex. The chemicals were slightly toxic to practically harmless to daphnids and moderately toxic to algae. Water quality did not consistently alter the toxicity of the test chemicals to daphnids. The most toxic chemical to daphnids was Silv-Ex (48-hr EC50 7 mg/liter in soft and hard waters), whereas the least toxic chemical to daphnids was Fire-Trol LCG-R (48-hr EC50 848 mg/liter in soft water, 813 mg/liter in hard water). The most toxic chemical to algae was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-hr IC50 10 mg/liter), and the least toxic chemical was Phos-Chek D75-F (96-hr IC50 79 mg/liter). Un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the EC50 or IC50 value in tests with the Fire-Trol compounds were frequently equal to or above reported LC50 un-ionized ammonia concentrations. Un-ionized ammonia concentrations in tests with Phos-Chek D75-F were low, thus other toxic components present in the compounds probably contributed to the toxicity. When compared to the daphnids tested in ASTM soft water, the Fire-Trol compounds were most toxic to algae, whereas Phos-Chek D75-F and the foam suppressants were most toxic to daphnids. The results of these tests are comparable to those obtained from research conducted in other laboratories with the same species and similar chemicals. Accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect algae and aquatic invertebrates, thus disrupting ecosystem function.

  6. Feasibility and Acute Toxicity of Hypofractionated Radiation in Large-breasted Patients

    Dorn, Paige L., E-mail: pdorn@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States); Corbin, Kimberly S.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Hasan, Yasmin; Chmura, Steven J. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of and acute toxicity associated with hypofractionated whole breast radiation (HypoRT) after breast-conserving surgery in patients excluded from or underrepresented in randomized trials comparing HypoRT with conventional fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: A review was conducted of all patients consecutively treated with HypoRT at University of Chicago. All patients were treated to 42.56 Gy in 2.66 Gy daily fractions in either the prone or supine position. Planning was performed in most cases using wedges and large segments or a 'field-in-field' technique. Breast volume was estimated using volumetric measurements of the planning target volume (PTV). Dosimetric parameters of heterogeneity (V105, V107, V110, and maximum dose) were recorded for each treatment plan. Acute toxicity was scored for each treated breast. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 78 patients were treated to 80 breasts using HypoRT. Most women were overweight or obese (78.7%), with a median body mass index of 29.2 kg/m{sup 2}. Median breast volume was 1,351 mL. Of the 80 treated breasts, the maximum acute skin toxicity was mild erythema or hyperpigmentation in 70.0% (56/80), dry desquamation in 21.25% (17/80), and focal moist desquamation in 8.75% (7/80). Maximum acute toxicity occurred after the completion of radiation in 31.9% of patients. Separation >25 cm was not associated with increased toxicity. Breast volume was the only patient factor significantly associated with moist desquamation on multivariable analysis (p = 0.01). Patients with breast volume >2,500 mL experienced focal moist desquamation in 27.2% of cases compared with 6.34% in patients with breast volume <2,500 mL (p = 0.03). Conclusions: HypoRT is feasible and safe in patients with separation >25 cm and in patients with large breast volume when employing modern planning and positioning techniques. We recommend counseling regarding expected increases in skin toxicity in women

  7. SYSTEMIC IMBALANCE OF ESSENTIAL METALS AND CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION IN RATS FOLLOWING ACUTE PULMONARY ZINC EXPOSURE

    We have recently demonstrated that PM containing water-soluble zinc may cause cardiac injury following pulmonary exposure. To investigate if pulmonary zinc exposure causes systemic metal imbalance and direct cardiac effects, we intratracheally (IT) instilled male Wistar Kyoto (WK...

  8. Oxygen therapy, continuous positive airway pressure, or noninvasive bilevel positive pressure ventilation in the treatment of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema

    Park Marcelo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of 3 types of noninvasive respiratory support systems in the treatment of acute pulmonary edema: oxygen therapy (O2, continuous positive airway pressure, and bilevel positive pressure ventilation. METHODS: We studied prospectively 26 patients with acute pulmonary edema, who were randomized into 1 of 3 types of respiratory support groups. Age was 69±7 years. Ten patients were treated with oxygen, 9 with continuous positive airway pressure, and 7 with noninvasive bilevel positive pressure ventilation. All patients received medicamentous therapy according to the Advanced Cardiac Life Support protocol. Our primary aim was to assess the need for orotracheal intubation. We also assessed the following: heart and respiration rates, blood pressure, PaO2, PaCO2, and pH at begining, and at 10 and 60 minutes after starting the protocol. RESULTS: At 10 minutes, the patients in the bilevel positive pressure ventilation group had the highest PaO2 and the lowest respiration rates; the patients in the O2 group had the highest PaCO2 and the lowest pH (p<0.05. Four patients in the O2 group, 3 patients in the continuous positive pressure group, and none in the bilevel positive pressure ventilation group were intubated (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Noninvasive bilevel positive pressure ventilation was effective in the treatment of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, accelerated the recovery of vital signs and blood gas data, and avoided intubation.

  9. Diagnostic utility of C-reactive Protein combined with brain natriuretic peptide in acute pulmonary edema: a cross sectional study

    Murakami Junji

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Discriminating acute lung injury (ALI or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS from cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE using the plasma level of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP alone remains controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic utility of combination measurements of BNP and C-reactive protein (CRP in critically ill patients with pulmonary edema. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. BNP and CRP data from 147 patients who presented to the emergency department due to acute respiratory failure with bilateral pulmonary infiltrates were analyzed. Results There were 53 patients with ALI/ARDS, 71 with CPE, and 23 with mixed edema. Median BNP and CRP levels were 202 (interquartile range 95-439 pg/mL and 119 (62-165 mg/L in ALI/ARDS, and 691 (416-1,194 pg/mL (p Conclusions Measurement of CRP is useful as well as that of BNP for distinguishing ALI/ARDS from CPE. Furthermore, a combination of BNP and CRP can provide higher accuracy for the diagnosis.

  10. Eradication of Pulmonary Aspergillosis in an Adolescent Patient Undergoing Three Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantations for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Michaela Döring

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic fungal infections are a major cause of infection-related mortality in patients with hematologic malignancies. This report addresses the case of an adolescent patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who underwent three allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations and developed pulmonary aspergillosis. Combination therapy with liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB, 3 mg/kg bw/day and caspofungin (CAS, 50 mg/day during the first allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT improved the pulmonary situation. After shifting the antifungal combination therapy to oral voriconazole (2 × 200 mg/day and CAS, a new pulmonal lesion occurred alongside the improvements in the existing pulmonary aspergillosis. An antifungal combination during a second HSCT with L-AmB (3 mg/kg bw/day and CAS showed an improvement in the pulmonary aspergillosis. A combination therapy with CAS and L-AmB (1 mg/kg bw/day during the third HSCT led once again to progress the pulmonary aspergillosis, after increasing the L-AMB to 3 mg/kg bw/day for recovery. The presented case provides an example of how, despite severe immunosuppression, a combination of antifungal drugs administered intravenously at therapeutic dosages may be more efficient than either intravenous monotherapy or combinations of intravenous and oral antifungals in selecting pediatric and adolescent patients with proven fungal infections.

  11. Pulmonary vasodilation in acute and chronic heart failure: empiricism and evidence.

    Guglin, Maya

    2011-09-01

    Pulmonary hypertension in heart failure is associated with exercise intolerance and adverse outcomes. With the availability of multiple drugs that cause pulmonary vasodilation and decrease pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary hypertension becomes an attractive therapeutic target. Out of several classes of medications, oral phosphodiesterase inhibitors emerge as the most promising in terms of symptomatic improvement, hemodynamic benefits, reverse cardiac remodeling, and functional capacity. Future trials will show whether the use of these drugs translates to decreased morbidity and mortality in heart failure.

  12. Evaluation of the detoxication efficiencies for acrylonitrile wastewater treated by a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process: Acute toxicity and zebrafish embryo toxicity.

    Na, Chunhong; Zhang, Ying; Deng, Minjie; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Yaobin

    2016-07-01

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) wastewater generated during ACN production has been reported to be toxic to many aquatic organisms. However, few studies have evaluated toxicity removal of ACN wastewater during and after the treatment process. In this study, the detoxication ability of an ACN wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was evaluated using Daphnia magna, Danio rerio and zebrafish embryo. This ACN WWTP has a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process upgraded from the traditional anaerobic oxic (A/O) process. Moreover, the potential toxicants of the ACN wastewaters were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The raw ACN wastewater showed high acute and embryo toxicity. 3-Cyanopyridine, succinonitrile and a series of nitriles were detected as the toxic contributors of ACN wastewater. The A/O process was effective for the acute and embryo toxicity removal, as well as the organic toxicants. However, the A/O effluent still showed acute and embryo toxicity which was attributed by the undegraded and the newly generated toxicants during the A/O process. The residual acute and embryo toxicity as well as the organic toxicants in the A/O effluent were further reduced after going through the downstream ABFT process system. The final effluent displayed no significant acute and embryo toxicity, and less organic toxicants were detected in the final effluent. The upgrade of this ACN WWTP results in the improved removal efficiencies for acute and embryo toxicity, as well as the organic toxicants.

  13. Acute toxicity study of tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil-solid lipid nanoparticles

    Xie Shuyu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our previous studies demonstrated that tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil solid lipid nanoparticles (Til-HCO-SLN are a promising formulation for enhanced pharmacological activity and therapeutic efficacy in veterinary use. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity of Til-HCO-SLN. Methods Two nanoparticle doses were used for the study in ICR mice. The low dose (766 mg/kg.bw with tilmicosin 7.5 times of the clinic dosage and below the median lethal dose (LD50 was subcutaneously administered twice on the first and 7th day. The single high dose (5 g/kg.bw was the practical upper limit in an acute toxicity study and was administered subcutaneously on the first day. Blank HCO-SLN, native tilmicosin, and saline solution were included as controls. After medication, animals were monitored over 14 days, and then necropsied. Signs of toxicity were evaluated via mortality, symptoms of treatment effect, gross and microscopic pathology, and hematologic and biochemical parameters. Results After administration of native tilmicosin, all mice died within 2 h in the high dose group, in the low dose group 3 died after the first and 2 died after the second injections. The surviving mice in the tilmicosin low dose group showed hypoactivity, accelerated breath, gloomy spirit and lethargy. In contrast, all mice in Til-HCO-SLN and blank HCO-SLN groups survived at both low and high doses. The high nanoparticle dose induced transient clinical symptoms of treatment effect such as transient reversible action retardation, anorexy and gloomy spirit, increased spleen and liver coefficients and decreased heart coefficients, microscopic pathological changes of liver, spleen and heart, and minor changes in hematologic and biochemical parameters, but no adverse effects were observed in the nanoparticle low dose group. Conclusions The results revealed that the LD50 of Til-HCO-SLN and blank HCO-SLN exceeded 5 g/kg.bw and thus the

  14. Evaluation of the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the ethanolic extract ofPericampylus glaucus (Lam.) Merr. in BALB/c mice

    Muhammad Kifayatullah; Mohd. Shahimi Mustafa; Pinaki Senguptha; Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker; Arindam Das; Sreemoy Kanti Das

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety dose range of ethanolic extract from the leaves of Pericampylus glaucus(Lam.) Merr. by acute and sub-acute oral toxicity study on animal model. Methods: The acute and sub-acute toxicity study was carried out as per Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines 423 and 407. In acute toxicity study, the oral dose (300, 2 000 and 4 000 mg/kg) of tested plant extract was administered to three groups in single dose and general behavior, adverse effects and mortality were determined up to 72 h and compared to normal group. In sub-acute study, the tested crude plant extract was administered orally at doses of 600 and 1 000 mg/kg for 28 days to the two animals groups and their body weight, hematological, serum hepatic biochemical parameters were evaluated and compared to normal group by sacrificing all group animals. Results: In acute toxicity, all treated groups’ revealed neither mortality nor any significant alteration in behavior only drowsiness, sedation and lethargy were observed in two group, i.e. 2 000 and 4 000 mg/kg of the tested plant extract. In sub-acute toxicity study no change in hematological, biochemical parameter and organ body weight were observed during study compared to the normal group. The kidney function parameters [serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (aspartate transaminase), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (alanine transaminase)] were significantly increased following administration of tested crude plant extract (600, 1 000 mg/kg). Conclusions:The result indicates that the oral administration ofPericampylus glaucus (Lam.) Merr. extract did not produce any significant toxic effect in BALB/c mice. Hence, the extract can be utilized safely for therapeutic use in pharmaceutical formulations.

  15. How closely do acute lethal concentration estimates predict effects of toxicants on populations?

    Stark, John D

    2005-04-01

    Acute lethal dose/concentration estimates are the most widely used measure of toxicity and these data often are used in ecological risk assessment. However, the value of the lethal concentration (LC50) as a toxicological endpoint for use in ecological risk assessment recently has been criticized. A question that has been asked frequently is how accurate is the LC50 for prediction of longer-term effects of toxicants on populations of organisms? To answer this question, Daphnia pulex populations were exposed to nominal concentrations equal to the 48-h acute LC50 of 6 insecticides, Actara, Aphistar diazinon, pymetrozine, Neemix, and Spinosad; and 8 agricultural adjuvants, Bond, Kinetic, Plyac, R-11, Silwet, Sylgard 309, Water Maxx, and X-77; for 10 d. None of the D. pulex populations exposed to the acute LC50 of these insecticides were 50% lower than the control populations at the end of the study; exposure to diazinon resulted in populations that were higher than expected (91% of the control). Exposure to Actara and Aphistar resulted in populations that were < 1 and 29% of the control, respectively. Exposure to Fulfill, Neemix, and Spinosad resulted in extinction. Extinction occurred after exposure to all of the adjuvants, except Silwet L-77 where the population was 31% of the control. These results corroborate other studies that indicate that the LC50 is not a good predictor of effects on population growth. Although lethal concentration estimates have their place in toxicology, namely to compare intrinsic toxicity of chemicals among species or susceptibility of a species to different chemicals over short time periods, population growth and growth-rate studies are necessary to predict toxicant effects on populations.

  16. Beryllium metal I. experimental results on acute oral toxicity, local skin and eye effects, and genotoxicity.

    Strupp, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of soluble metal compounds is often different from that of the parent metal. Since no reliable data on acute toxicity, local effects, and mutagenicity of beryllium metal have ever been generated, beryllium metal powder was tested according to the respective Organisation for Economical Co-Operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Acute oral toxicity of beryllium metal was investigated in rats and local effects on skin and eye in rabbits. Skin-sensitizing properties were investigated in guinea pigs (maximization method). Basic knowledge about systemic bioavailability is important for the design of genotoxicity tests on poorly soluble substances. Therefore, it was necessary to experimentally compare the capacities of beryllium chloride and beryllium metal to form ions under simulated human lung conditions. Solubility of beryllium metal in artificial lung fluid was low, while solubility in artificial lysosomal fluid was moderate. Beryllium chloride dissolution kinetics were largely different, and thus, metal extracts were used in the in vitro genotoxicity tests. Genotoxicity was investigated in vitro in a bacterial reverse mutagenicity assay, a mammalian cell gene mutation assay, a mammalian cell chromosome aberration assay, and an unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay. In addition, cell transformation was tested in a Syrian hamster embryo cell assay, and potential inhibition of DNA repair was tested by modification of the UDS assay. Beryllium metal was found not to be mutagenic or clastogenic based on the experimental in vitro results. Furthermore, treatment with beryllium metal extracts did not induce DNA repair synthesis, indicative of no DNA-damaging potential of beryllium metal. A cell-transforming potential and a tendency to inhibit DNA repair when the cell is severely damaged by an external stimulus were observed. Beryllium metal was also found not to be a skin or eye irritant, not to be a skin sensitizer, and not to have relevant acute oral

  17. Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation in the Course of Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Clinical Significance and Impact on Prognosis

    Agnieszka Krajewska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship and clinical implications of atrial fibrillation (AF in acute pulmonary embolism (PE are poorly investigated. We aimed to analyze clinical characteristics and prognosis in PE patients with paroxysmal AF episode. Methods. From the 391 patients with PE 31 subjects with paroxysmal AF were selected. This group was compared with patients with PE and sinus rhythm (SR and 32 patients with PE and permanent AF. Results. Paroxysmal AF patients were the oldest. Concomitant DVT varies between groups: paroxysmal AF 32.3%, SR 49.5%, and permanent AF 28.1% (p=0.02. The stroke history frequency was 4.6% SR, 12.9% paroxysmal AF, and 21.9% permanent AF (p<0.001. Paroxysmal AF comparing to permanent AF and SR individuals had higher estimated SPAP (56 versus 48 versus 47 mmHg, p=0.01 and shorter ACT (58 versus 65 versus 70 ms, p=0.04. Patients with AF were more often classified into high-risk group according to revised Geneva score and sPESI than SR patients. In-hospital mortality was lower in SR (5% and paroxysmal AF (6.5% compared to permanent AF group (25% (p<0.001. Conclusions. Patients with PE-associated paroxysmal AF constitute a separate population. More severe impairment of the parameters reflecting RV afterload may indicate relation between PE severity and paroxysmal AF episode. Paroxysmal AF has no impact on short-term mortality.

  18. Pulmonary Function Tests in Emergency Department Pediatric Patients with Acute Wheezing/Asthma Exacerbation

    Kathryn Giordano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pulmonary function tests (PFT have been developed to analyze tidal breathing in patients who are minimally cooperative due to age and respiratory status. This study used tidal breathing tests in the ED to measure asthma severity. Design/Method. A prospective pilot study in pediatric patients (3 to 18 yrs with asthma/wheezing was conducted in an ED setting using respiratory inductance plethysmography and pneumotachography. The main outcome measures were testing feasibility, compliance, and predictive value for admission versus discharge. Results. Forty patients were studied, of which, 14 (35% were admitted. Fifty-five percent of the patients were classified as a mild-intermittent asthmatic, 30% were mild-persistent asthmatics, 12.5% were moderate-persistent asthmatics, and 2.5% were severe-persistent. Heart rate was higher in admitted patients as was labored breathing index, phase angle, and asthma score. Conclusions. Tidal breathing tests provide feasible, objective assessment of patient status in the enrolled age group and may assist in the evaluation of acute asthma exacerbation in the ED. Our results demonstrate that PFT measurements, in addition to asthma scores, may be useful in indicating the severity of wheezing/asthma and the need for admission.

  19. Novel drugs in the management of acute mountain sickness and high altitude pulmonary edema

    Sikri G

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gaurav Sikri, Anirban Bhattacharya Department of Physiology, Armed Forces Medical College, Wanowarie, Pune, IndiaWe read with great interest the review article titled “Wilderness medicine at high altitude: recent developments in the field” by Shah et al.1 The authors have comprehensively summarized the recent advances in the field of high altitude medicine relevant to sports and travel medicine. However, Shah et al have described potential drugs for management of high-altitude illnesses, such as acute mountain sickness (AMS, high altitude cerebral edema, and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE as one group under the section “Novel drug treatment for AMS”. The pathophysiologies of these two sets of diseases (AMS/high altitude cerebral edema as one and HAPE as another set are different2 and hence it would have been nice to have had the novel drugs described separately to elucidate the therapeutic approach for the two different classes of diseases.View original paper by Shah et al.

  20. Weight-based contrast administration in the computerized tomography evaluation of acute pulmonary embolism

    Laurent, Lisa; Zamfirova, Ina; Sulo, Suela; Baral, Pesach

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Compare individualized contrast protocol, or weight-based protocol, to standard methodology in evaluating acute pulmonary embolism. Retrospective chart review was performed on patients undergoing computed tomography angiography with standard contrast protocol (n = 50) or individualized protocol (n = 50). Computerized tomography images were assessed for vascular enhancement and image quality. Demographics were comparable, however, more patients in the individualized group were admitted to intensive care unit (48% vs 16%, P = 0.004). Vascular enhancement and image quality were also comparable, although individualized protocol had significantly fewer contrast and motion artifact limitations (28% vs 48%, P = 0.039). Fifteen percent decrease in intravenous contrast volume was identified in individualized group with no compromise in image quality. Individualized contrast protocol provided comparable vascular enhancement and image quality to the standard, yet with fewer limitations and lower intravenous contrast volume. Catheter-gauge flow rate restrictions resulting in inconsistent technologist exam execution were identified, supporting the need for further investigation of this regimen. PMID:28151887

  1. The acute and chronic toxicity of major geochemical ions to Hyalella azteca Ion interactions and comparisons to other species

    We have previously reported that the acute and chronic toxicities of major geochemical ions (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4, HCO3) to Ceriodaphnia dubia can involve multiple, independent mechanisms. The toxicities of K, Mg, and Ca salts were best related to the chemical activity of the c...

  2. Acute and chronic toxicity of neonicotinoids to nymphs of a mayfly species and some notes on seasonal differences

    Brink, Van den P.J.; Smeden, Van J.M.; Bekele, R.S.; Dierick, Wiebe; Gelder, De Daphne M.; Noteboom, Maarten; Roessink, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Mayfly nymphs are among the most sensitive taxa to neonicotinoids. The present study presents the acute and chronic toxicity of 3 neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) to a mayfly species (Cloeon dipterum) and some notes on the seasonality of the toxicity of imidacloprid to

  3. Combined anaerobic–ozonation process for treatment of textile wastewater: Removal of acute toxicity and mutagenicity

    Punzi, Marisa, E-mail: marisa.punzi@biotek.lu.se [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, Filip [Water and Environmental Engineering at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Anbalagan, Anbarasan [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Svensson, Britt-Marie [School of Education and Environment, Kristianstad University, SE-291 88 Kristianstad (Sweden); Jönsson, Karin [Water and Environmental Engineering at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Mattiasson, Bo; Jonstrup, Maria [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • COD and UV absorbance were effectively reduced. • The treated effluents were non-toxic to Artemia salina and Vibrio fischeri. • The real textile wastewater was mutagenic. • Mutagenicity persisted after bio treatment and even more after a short ozonation. • Higher ozone doses completely remove mutagenicity. - Abstract: A novel set up composed of an anaerobic biofilm reactor followed by ozonation was used for treatment of artificial and real textile effluents containing azo dyes. The biological treatment efficiently removed chemical oxygen demand and color. Ozonation further reduced the organic content of the effluents and was very important for the degradation of aromatic compounds, as shown by the reduction of UV absorbance. The acute toxicity toward Vibrio fischeri and the shrimp Artemia salina increased after the biological treatment. No toxicity was detected after ozonation with the exception of the synthetic effluent containing the highest concentration, 1 g/l, of the azo dye Remazol Red. Both untreated and biologically treated textile effluents were found to have mutagenic effects. The mutagenicity increased even further after 1 min of ozonation. No mutagenicity was however detected in the effluents subjected to longer exposure to ozone. The results of this study suggest that the use of ozonation as short post-treatment after a biological process can be beneficial for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds and the removal of toxicity of textile wastewater. However, monitoring of toxicity and especially mutagenicity is crucial and should always be used to assess the success of a treatment strategy.

  4. Acute toxicity when concentration varies with time: A case study with carbon monoxide inhalation by rats.

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Sommerville, Douglas R; Goodwin, Michelle R; James, R Arden; Channel, Stephen R

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to time-varying concentrations of toxic compounds is the norm in both occupational settings and daily human life, but little has been done to investigate the impact of variations in concentration on toxic outcomes; this case study with carbon monoxide helps fill that gap. Median acute lethality of 10-, 20-, 40-, and 60-min continuous exposures of rats to carbon monoxide was well described by the toxic load model (k = C(n) × t; k is constant, C = test concentration, n = toxic load exponent, and t = exposure duration) with n = 1.74. Dose response-relationships for 1-h exposures including a recovery period between 10- or 20-min pulses showed greater similarity (in both median lethality and steepness of dose-response curve) to continuous exposures with equivalent pulse duration and concentration, rather than a 60-min exposure with equivalent time-weighted average concentrations or toxic load. When pulses were of unequal concentration (3:1 ratio), only the high concentration pulse contributed to lethality. These findings show that fluctuations or interruptions in exposure over a short time scale (60 min or less) can have a substantial impact on outcomes (when n > 1), and thus high-resolution monitoring data are needed to aid interpretation of resulting outcomes.

  5. Ecotoxicological evaluation of leachate from the Limeira sanitary landfill with a view to identifying acute toxicity

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Final disposal of solid waste is still a cause for serious impacts on the environment. In sanitary landfills, waste undergoes physical, chemical, and biological decomposition, generating biogas and leachate. Leachate is a highly toxic liquid with a very high pollution potential. The purpose of this work is to evaluate toxicity of in natura leachate samples collected from Limeira Sanitary Landfill, in Limeira, SP. The ecotoxicological evaluation comprised acute toxicity assays using as test organisms Daphnia Similis, seeds of Eruca sativa (arugula, and Allium cepa roots (onion. Analyses of color, pH, turbidity, conductivity, hardness, nitrogen, total organic carbon (TOC, adsorbable organic halogen (AOX, and metals were also carried out. The main results for Eruca sativa (arugula and Allium cepa (onion indicated that the diluted leachate 50% presented similar toxicity to the phenol solution of 1000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion. With the solution of Cr+6 concentrations of 3000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion were found. For analyses with Daphnia Similis the EC50 was 9.3% on average. This way it was possible to observe that biological tests are necessary to evaluate the pollution in the effluents or water bodies. These tests serve to determine the toxic potential of a chemical agent or complex mixture.

  6. Conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer - Longer duration of acute genitourinary toxicity in patients with prior history of invasive urological procedure

    Odrazka, Karel; Vanasek, Jaroslav; Vaculikova, Miloslava; Petera, Jiri; Zouhar, Milan; Zoul, Zdenk; Stejskal, Jan; Skrabkova, Zuzana; Kadeka, David [Charles Univ. Medical School and Teaching Hospital, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology

    2001-11-01

    The incidence and predictors of acute toxicity were evaluated in patients treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for localized prostate cancer. Between December 1997 and November 1999, 116 patients with T1-T3 prostatic carcinoma were enrolled in the study. Ninety patients were treated with 70 Gy and 26 patients with T3 tumors received 74 Gy. Of the 116 patients 42 (36.2%) had a prior history of invasive urological procedure (IUP) (transurethral resection of the prostate or transvesical prostatectomy for benign prostatic hyperplasia). Acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) symptoms were graded according to the EORTC/RTOG scoring system. Toxicity duration after the completion of 3D-CRT was recorded. The majority of patients experienced only mild or no (Grade 1) acute toxicities. Medications for GI and GU symptoms (Grade 2) were required by 28.4% and 12.9% of patients, respectively. Only one case of Grade 3 GI toxicity (0.9%) was observed. Seven patients (6.1%) experienced severe GU toxicity (Grade 3 or 4). No correlation was found between acute toxicity and age, stage, dose (70 Gy vs. 74 Gy), IUP and pelvic lymphadenectomy. A significant relationship was observed between the duration of acute GU toxicity and prior IUP. Symptoms persisted for more than 4 weeks in 51.9% and 26.0% of patients with and without a prior history of IUP, respectively (p = 0.02). The incidence of acute complications, associated with 3D-CRT for prostate cancer, was acceptable in our cohort of patients. A prior history of IUP resulted in a significantly longer duration of acute GU toxicity.

  7. Predicting acute aquatic toxicity of structurally diverse chemicals in fish using artificial intelligence approaches.

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Rai, Premanjali

    2013-09-01

    The research aims to develop global modeling tools capable of categorizing structurally diverse chemicals in various toxicity classes according to the EEC and European Community directives, and to predict their acute toxicity in fathead minnow using set of selected molecular descriptors. Accordingly, artificial intelligence approach based classification and regression models, such as probabilistic neural networks (PNN), generalized regression neural networks (GRNN), multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPN), radial basis function neural network (RBFN), support vector machines (SVM), gene expression programming (GEP), and decision tree (DT) were constructed using the experimental toxicity data. Diversity and non-linearity in the chemicals' data were tested using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. Predictive and generalization abilities of various models constructed here were compared using several statistical parameters. PNN and GRNN models performed relatively better than MLPN, RBFN, SVM, GEP, and DT. Both in two and four category classifications, PNN yielded a considerably high accuracy of classification in training (95.85 percent and 90.07 percent) and validation data (91.30 percent and 86.96 percent), respectively. GRNN rendered a high correlation between the measured and model predicted -log LC50 values both for the training (0.929) and validation (0.910) data and low prediction errors (RMSE) of 0.52 and 0.49 for two sets. Efficiency of the selected PNN and GRNN models in predicting acute toxicity of new chemicals was adequately validated using external datasets of different fish species (fathead minnow, bluegill, trout, and guppy). The PNN and GRNN models showed good predictive and generalization abilities and can be used as tools for predicting toxicities of structurally diverse chemical compounds.

  8. Acute dysprosium toxicity to Daphnia pulex and Hyalella azteca and development of the biotic ligand approach.

    Vukov, Oliver; Smith, D Scott; McGeer, James C

    2016-01-01

    The toxicological understanding of rare earth elements (REEs) in the aquatic environment is very limited but of increasing concern. The objective of this research is to compare the toxicological effect of the REE dysprosium to the freshwater invertebrates Daphnia pulex and Hyalella azteca and in the more sensitive organism, understand the toxicity modifying influence of Ca, Na, Mg, pH and dissolved organic matter (DOM). Standard methods (Environment Canada) were followed for testing and culture in media of intermediate hardness (60mg CaCO3 mg/L) at pH 7.8 with Ca at 0.5, Na 0.5, Mg 0.125 (mM) and 23°C. Acute toxicity tests were done with azteca and D. pulex revealed Hyalella to be 1.4 times more sensitive than Daphnia. Additions of Ca and Na but not Mg provided significant protection against Dy toxicity to Hyalella. Similarly, low pH was associated with reduction in toxicity. Exposures which were pH buffered with and without MOPS were significantly different and indicated that MOPS enhanced Dy toxicity. DOM also mitigated Dy toxicity. Biotic ligand based parameters (LogK values) were calculated based on free ion relationships as determined by geochemical equilibrium modeling software (WHAM ver. 7.02). The logK value for Dy(3+) toxicity to Hyalella was 7.75 while the protective influence of Ca and Na were 3.95 and 4.10, respectively. This study contributes data towards the development of site specific water quality guidelines and criteria for Dy and possibly REEs in general and offers insight into the complex bio-geochemical nature of this element.

  9. Outcomes associated with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder requiring hospitalization

    Gajanan S Gaude

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (AECOPD are known to be associated with increased morbidity and mortality and have a significant socioeconomic impact. The factors that determine frequent hospital readmissions for AECOPD are poorly understood. The present study was done to ascertain failures rates following AECOPD and to evaluate factors associated with frequent readmissions. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective study among 186 patients with COPD with one or more admissions for acute exacerbations in a tertiary care hospital. Frequency of previous re-admissions for AECOPD in the past year, and clinical characteristics, including spirometry were ascertained in the stable state both before discharge and at 6-month post-discharge. Failure rates following treatment were ascertained during the follow-up period. All the patients were followed up for a period of 2 years after discharge to evaluate re-admissions for the AECOPD. Results: Of 186 COPD patients admitted for AECOPD, 54% had one or more readmission, and another 45% had two or more readmissions over a period of 2 years. There was a high prevalence of current or ex-heavy smokers, associated co-morbidity, underweight patients, low vaccination prevalence and use of domiciliary oxygen therapy among COPD patients. A total of 12% mortality was observed in the present study. Immediate failure rates after first exacerbation was observed to be 34.8%. Multivariate analysis showed that duration >20 years (OR = 0.37; 95% CI: 0.10-0.86, use of Tiotropium (OR = 2.29; 95% CI: 1.12-4.69 and use of co-amoxiclav during first admission (OR = 2.41; 95% CI: 1.21-4.79 were significantly associated with higher immediate failure rates. The multivariate analysis for repeated admissions revealed that disease duration >10 years (OR = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.27-0.93, low usage of inhaled ICS + LABA (OR = 2.21; 95% CI: 1.08-4.54, and MRC dyspnea grade >3 (OR = 2.51; 95% CI: 1

  10. Plasma copeptin for short term risk stratification in acute pulmonary embolism.

    Wyzgał, Anna; Koć, Marcin; Pacho, Szymon; Bielecki, Maksymilian; Wawrzyniak, Radosław; Kostrubiec, Maciej; Ciurzyński, Michał; Kurnicka, Katarzyna; Goliszek, Sylwia; Paczyńska, Marzena; Palczewski, Piotr; Pruszczyk, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    Copeptin (COP) was reported to have prognostic value in various cardiovascular diseases. We hypothesized that COP levels reflect the severity of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and may be useful in prognostic assessment. Plasma COP concentrations were measured on the Kryptor Compact Plus platform (BRAHMS, Hennigsdorf, Germany). The study included 107 consecutive patients with diagnosed acute PE (47 males, 60 females), with median age of 65 years (range 20-88). High risk PE was diagnosed in 3 patients (2.8 %), intermediate risk in 69 (64.5 %), and low risk PE in 35 (32.7 %) patients. Control group included 64 subjects (25 males, 39 females; median age 52.5 year, range 17-87). Four patients (3.7 %) died during 30-day observation. Complicated clinical course (CCC) was experienced by 10 (9.3 %) patients. COP level was higher in PE patients than in controls [11.55 pmol/L (5.16-87.97), and 19.00 pmol/L (5.51-351.90), respectively, p < 0.0001], and reflected PE severity. COP plasma concentration in low risk PE was 14.67 nmol/L (5.51-59.61) and in intermediate/high risk PE 19.84 mol/L (5.64-351.90) p < 0.05. Median COP levels in nonsurvivors was higher than in survivors, 84.6 (28.48-351.9) pmol/L and 18.68 (5.512-210.1) pmol/L, respectively, p = 0.009. Subjects with CCC presented higher COP levels than patients with benign clinical course 53.1 (17.95-351.9) pmol/L and 18.16 (5.51-210.1) pmol/L, respectively, p = 0.001. Log-transformed plasma COP was the significant predictor of CCC, OR 16.5 95 % CI 23.2-111.9, p < 0.001. AUC-for prediction of CCC using plasma COP was 0.811 (95 % CI 0.676-0.927). The COP cut off value of 17.95 nmol/l had sensitivity of 100 %, specificity 49.5 %, positive predictive value of 16.9 % and negative predictive value of 100 %. We conclude that plasma COP levels can be regarded for promising marker of severity of acute PE and show potential in risk stratification of these patients.

  11. Pulmonary Inflammatory Responses To Acute Meteorite Dust Exposures - Implications For Human Space Exploration

    Harrington, A. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Kaur, J.; Smirnov, A.; Galdanes, K.; Schoonen, M. A. A.; Chen, L. C.; Tsirka, S. E.; Gordon, T.

    2017-01-01

    The previous manned missions to the Moon represent milestones of human ingenuity, perseverance, and intellectual curiosity. However, one of the major ongoing concerns is the array of hazards associated with lunar surface dust. Not only did the dust cause mechanical and structural integrity issues with the suits, the dust 'storm' generated upon reentrance into the crew cabin caused "lunar hay fever" and "almost blindness" (Figure 1). It was further reported that the allergic response to the dust worsened with each exposure. The lack of gravity exacerbated the exposure, requiring the astronauts to wear their helmet within the module in order to avoid breathing the irritating particles. Due to the prevalence of these high exposures, the Human Research Roadmap developed by NASA identifies the Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure as an area of concern. Extended human exploration will further increase the probability of inadvertent and repeated exposures to celestial dusts. Going forward, hazard assessments of celestial dusts will be determined through sample return efforts prior to astronaut deployment. Studies on the lunar highland regolith indicate that the dust is not only respirable but also reactive, and previous studies concluded that it is moderately toxic; generating a greater response than titanium oxide but a lower response than quartz. The presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the surface of the dust has been implicated. However, there is actually little data related to physicochemical characteristics of particulates and pulmonary toxicity, especially as it relates to celestial dust exposure. As a direct response to this deficit, the present study evaluates the role of a particulate's innate geochemical features (e.g., bulk chemistry, internal composition, morphology, size, and reactivity) in generating adverse toxicological responses in vitro and in vivo. This highly interdisciplinary study evaluates the relative

  12. Indoxyl Sulfate as a Mediator Involved in Dysregulation of Pulmonary Aquaporin-5 in Acute Lung Injury Caused by Acute Kidney Injury

    Nozomi Yabuuchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available High mortality of acute kidney injury (AKI is associated with acute lung injury (ALI, which is a typical complication of AKI. Although it is suggested that dysregulation of lung salt and water channels following AKI plays a pivotal role in ALI, the mechanism of its dysregulation has not been elucidated. Here, we examined the involvement of a typical oxidative stress-inducing uremic toxin, indoxyl sulfate (IS, in the dysregulation of the pulmonary predominant water channel, aquaporin 5 (AQP-5, in bilateral nephrectomy (BNx-induced AKI model rats. BNx evoked AKI with the increases in serum creatinine (SCr, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and serum IS levels and exhibited thickening of interstitial tissue in the lung. Administration of AST-120, clinically-used oral spherical adsorptive carbon beads, resulted in a significant decrease in serum IS level and thickening of interstitial tissue, which was accompanied with the decreases in IS accumulation in various tissues, especially lung. Interestingly, a significant decrease in AQP-5 expression of lung was observed in BNx rats. Moreover, the BNx-induced decrease in pulmonary AQP-5 protein expression was markedly restored by oral administration of AST-120. These results suggest that BNx-induced AKI causes dysregulation of pulmonary AQP-5 expression, in which IS could play a toxico-physiological role as a mediator involved in renopulmonary crosstalk.

  13. Acute Oral Toxicity Study of GAL-57 (Bentazon + Dicamba Herbicide in Rats

    Dragica Brkić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An acute oral toxicity study of the herbicide GAL-57 (Avalon, a mixture of bentazon and dicamba as active ingredients, was conducted to assess its acute oral toxicity to rats, using a new method that has been used in the past several years (2001. Clinical observations were performed for all animals after different time intervals, and gross necropsy was performed at termination of examination. Clinical symptoms (decreased activity, prone position, abnormal limb position, decreased righting reflex, decreased grip and limb tone, decreased body and abdominal tone and dyspnoea from mild to marked degree were noted after administration of 2000 mg/kg. Animals were found dead 30 minutes to one hour after the treatment. GAL-57 did not cause any clinical sings at single 300 mg/kg bw dose. The physical condition and behaviour of animals were normal during the 14-day observation period. The acute oral LD-50 value of the GAL-57 proved to be between 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight in rats and was ranked into Poison group III according to Serbian criteria, category 4 of the Global Harmonized Classification System and Category III of the EPA classification.

  14. Joint acute toxicity of esfenvalerate and diazinon to larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    Denton, Debra L; Wheelock, Craig E; Murray, Shauna A; Deanovic, Linda A; Hammock, Bruce D; Hinton, David E

    2003-02-01

    California (USA) agriculture employs pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides to control insects in orchards and other crops. Diazinon and esfenvalerate were selected for this study because of their application overlaps. Toxicological and biochemical responses of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed singly and in combinations to esfenvalerate and diazinon were determined. Exposures were 96-h static renewal tests that used standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency acute toxicity test methods. After pesticide exposures, larvae were evaluated for carboxylesterase and acetylcholinesterase activity, and histopathological effects. Carboxylesterase activity was examined because of its potential influence on the toxicity of both organophosphates and pyrethroids. In vivo studies demonstrated that diazinon significantly inhibited carboxylesterase activity at nominal water concentrations as low as 50 microg/L. However, esfenvalerate did not affect carboxylesterase activity at any concentration tested. Liver glycogen depletion was the only histopathological effect observed; this effect was demonstrated with the individual pesticides and pesticide combinations (i.e., mixtures). The combinations of diazinon and esfenvalerate causing acute toxicity to fathead minnow larvae appeared to be greater than additive (i.e., synergistic) in all three tests.

  15. Acute and subchronic toxicity assessment model of Ferula assa-foetida gum in rodents

    Ayman Goudah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was performed to investigate acute and subchronic oral toxicity of Ferula assa-foetida gum (28 days in Sprague Dawley rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral administration of F. assa-foetida was done as a single bolus dose up to 5 g/kg in mice and subchronic toxicity study for 28 days was done by oral administration at doses of 0 (control and 250 mg/kg in Sprague Dawley rats. Results: The obtained data revealed that oral administration of F. assa-foetida extract in rats for 28 successive days had no significant changes on body weight, body weight gain, the hematological parameters in rats all over the period of the experiment, and there are no significant increases in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea. Liver of treated rats showed mild changes as thrombosis and sinusoidal leukocytosis. It also showed portal infiltration with inflammatory cells, while kidney of treated rat showed an atrophy of glomerular tuft, thickening of parietal layer of Bowman capsule, and focal tubular necrosis. It also showed dilatation and congestion of renal blood vessels. Conclusion: We concluded that F. assa-foetida gum had broad safety and little toxicity for short term use in dose of 250 mg/kg.

  16. Acute toxic effects of fenpyroximate acaricide on Guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859).

    Doğan, Nesli; Yazıcı, Zehra; Şişman, Turgay; Aşkin, Hakan

    2013-09-01

    Fenpyroximate (FP), an acaricide, is widely used in the prevention of acarids (mites) in fruit plant gardens. In this study, the acute toxic effects of different concentrations of FP were investigated using adult guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859). Guppy adults were exposed to a range of FP concentrations (25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 µg/L) during 48 h. Static method, which is one of the acute toxicity experiments, has been used in this study. According to probit analysis, the 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) value of FP at 26°C was found to be 72.821 µg/L. Sublethal exposures were predetermined based on 48-h LC50 value. Guppies were exposed to low concentrations (15, 25, and 50 µg/L) of FP for 48 h. Signs of paralysis and behavior deformations were monitored every 12 h in a number of live and dead adults. Low concentrations of FP were also responsible for erratic swimming, loss of equilibrium, and being lethargic. Liver histology revealed several pathological damages including congestion, picnotic nucleus, sinusoidal dilatation, increase in melanomacrophagic centers, and endothelial degeneration. Finally, the toxicity test results provided 48-h LC50 value for FP, and low concentrations of FP can be highly detrimental to guppy adults with clear evidence of behavioral and histologic effects.

  17. EVALUATION OF ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY AND ANTI-ASTHMATIC ACTIVITY OF ZEAL HERBAL GRANULES

    Bhatt Swati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the Acute toxicity study and Anti-asthmatic activity of Zeal Herbal Granules. Materials & Methods: In the present study, acute toxicity study was carried out as per OECD guideline 423. Anti-asthmatic activity of Zeal Herbal Granules was investigated against compound 48/80-induced mast cell degranulation. Percentage mast cell degranulation was calculated at different concentration level i.e.1, 10, 100 and 1000μg/mL. Results: Zeal Herbal Granules showed significant protection of rat mesenteric mast cells from disruption caused by compound 48/80. Significant dose dependent effect was observed in percentage mast cell degranulation at different dose level of Zeal Herbal Granules in comparison to negative control. 26.83% mast cell degranulation was observed at 100μg/mL dose level of Zeal Herbal Granules. Conclusion: The present study revealed that Zeal Herbal Granules has significant anti-asthmatic activity against compound 48/80-induced mast cell degranulation comparable to that produced by Ketotifen fumarate. There was no lethal and toxic reactions found among the tested animals. Zeal Herbal Granules can be a safe and effective drug for patient with asthmatic complaints.

  18. Acute and chronic oral toxicity of standardized water extract from the fruit of Phyllanthus emblica Linn.

    K Jaijoy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (Euphorbiaceae is an herbal plant commonly used in Asian traditional medicine systems for treatment of many disorders. In the present study, we investigated for the first time acute and chronic toxicity of the standardized water extract of P. emblica fruit. The water extract of P. emblica was prepared according to the Thai Herbal Pharmacopoeia and standardized to 20% gallic acid. For studying acute toxicity study, single oral dose of 5000 mg water extract /kg body weight was administered to Sprague Dawley rats (five females, five males. The results showed no toxicity in terms of general behavior change, mortality, or change in gross appearance of internal organs (LD50 > 5,000 mg/kg. Chronic toxicity was studied by daily oral dose (ten females, ten males of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg for 270 days. The results showed slightly significant differences in the body and organ weights between the control and treatment groups. In addition, the rats were analyzed for final body and organ weights, necropsy, and hematological, blood chemical and histopathological parameters. Hematological analysis and clinical blood chemistry revealed slightly changes, but were within the normal limits. No gross or histopathology findings were observed in the treatment groups. Altogether, the standardized water extract from the fruit of P. emblica did not produce acute and chronic toxicity in its traditional uses. Industrial relevance: Traditional medicine is still stronghold of more than 50% of the world population, especially in developing countries. Nowadays, a number of medicinal plants (such as Phyllanthus emblica Linn. are commercially available on local markets as a tonic, food and/or dietary supplement product commonly used for clinical management of several conditions. Despite the widespread use of this plant, there is still little literature on the scientific evaluation of their toxicity. Results of the current study provide

  19. Acute toxic hepatitis caused by an aloe vera preparation in a young patient: a case report with a literature review.

    Lee, Jeonghun; Lee, Mi Sun; Nam, Kwan Woo

    2014-07-01

    Aloe is one of the leading products used in phytomedicine. Several cases of aloe-induced toxic hepatitis have been reported in recent years. However, its toxicology has not yet been systematically described in the literature. A 21-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with acute hepatitis after taking an aloe vera preparation for four weeks. Her history, clinical manifestation, laboratory findings, and histological findings all led to the diagnosis of aloe vera-induced toxic hepatitis. We report herein on a case of acute toxic hepatitis induced by aloe vera.

  20. Acute toxicity of fire-control chemicals, nitrogenous chemicals, and surfactants to rainbow trout

    Buhl, Kevin J.; Hamilton, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the acute toxicity of three ammonia-based fire retardants (Fire-Trol LCA-F, Fire-Trol LCM-R, and Phos-Chek 259F), five surfactant-based fire-suppressant foams (FireFoam 103B, FireFoam 104, Fire Quench, ForExpan S, and Pyrocap B-136), three nitrogenous chemicals (ammonia, nitrate, and nitrite), and two anionic surfactants (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate [LAS] and sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS]) to juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in soft water. The descending rank order of toxicity (96-h concentration lethal to 50% of test organisms [96-h LC50]) for the fire retardants was as follows: Phos-Chek 259F (168 mg/L) > Fire-Trol LCA-F (942 mg/L) = Fire-Trol LCM-R (1,141 mg/L). The descending rank order of toxicity for the foams was as follows: FireFoam 103B (12.2 mg/L) = FireFoam 104 (13.0 mg/L) > ForExpan S (21.8 mg/L) > Fire Quench (39.0 mg/L) > Pyrocap B-136 [156 mg/L). Except for Pyrocap B-136, the foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. Un-ionized ammonia (NH3; 0.125 mg/L as N) was about six times more toxic than nitrite (0.79 mg/L NO2-N) and about 13,300 times more toxic than nitrate (1,658 mg/L NO3-N). Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (5.0 mg/L) was about five times more toxic than SDS (24.9 mg/L). Estimated total ammonia and NH3 concentrations at the 96-h LC50s of the fire retardants indicated that ammonia was the primary toxic component in these formulations. Based on estimated anionic surfactant concentrations at the 96-h LC50s of the foams and reference surfactants, LAS was intermediate in toxicity and SDS was less toxic to rainbow trout when compared with the foams. Comparisons of recommended application concentrations to the test results indicate that accidental inputs of these chemicals into streams require substantial dilutions (100-1,750-fold to reach concentrations nonlethal to rainbow trout.

  1. Expert consensus on acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the People's Republic of China

    Cai BQ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bai-qiang Cai,1 Shao-xi Cai,2 Rong-chang Chen,3 Li-ying Cui,4 Yu-lin Feng,5 Yu-tong Gu,6 Shao-guang Huang,7 Rong-yu Liu,8 Guang-nan Liu,9 Huan-zhong Shi,10 Yi Shi,11 Yuan-lin Song,6 Tie-ying Sun,12 Chang-zheng Wang,13 Jing-lan Wang,1 Fu-qiang Wen,5 Wei Xiao,14 Yong-jian Xu,15 Xi-xin Yan,16 Wan-zhen Yao,17 Qin Yu,18 Jing Zhang,6 Jin-ping Zheng,3 Jie Liu,6 Chun-xue Bai6 1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 2Southern Medical University South Hospital, Guangzhou, 3The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College and Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Guangzhou, 4Affiliate Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University, Huhehaote, 5Huaxi Hospital of Sichuan University, Chendu, 6Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University and Shanghai Respiratory Research Institute, Shanghai, 7Ruijing Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 8The First Affiliated University of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 9The First Affiliated University of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, 10Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 11General Hospital of Nanjing Military Region, Nanjing, 12Beijing Hospital of the Ministry of Health, Beijing, 13Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 14Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, 15Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 16The Second Affiliated Hospital of Hebei Medical University and Hebei Research Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Shijiazhuang, 17The Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University, Beijing, 18The First Affiliated University of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common disease that severely threatens human health. Acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD is a major cause of

  2. Attenuation of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in acute oleic acid lung injury--significance of vasodilator prostanoids.

    Yamaguchi, K; Mori, M; Kawai, A; Asano, K; Takasugi, T; Umeda, A; Yokoyama, T

    1992-01-01

    To assess a significant role of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, HPV, on maintaining the gas exchange efficiency in acute lung injury, 24 mongrel dogs were treated with intravenously injecting 0.07 ml/kg of oleic acid. Hemodynamic and gas-exchange parameters were investigated at varied inspired O2 concentration, FIO2. To know a possible contribution of vasoactive prostanoids in regulating vascular reactivity under these circumstances, observations were repeated after infusion of indomethacin. The impairment of gas exchange in injured lungs was examined by measuring the fractional retention, R, of the gas in arterial blood. For this evaluation, a normal saline containing five foreign inert gases such as sulfur hexafluoride, SF6, ethane, cyclopropane, halothane and diethyl ether was infused at a constant rate through a peripheral vein. After a steady state was established, the expired gas was collected and the samples of both arterial and mixed venous blood were simultaneously taken for the inert-gas analysis. The concentrations of the indicator gases in the samples were measured in terms of a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector for SF6 and a flame ionization detector for the other four gases. Although pulmonary vascular resistance, PVR, after injecting oleic acid at FIO2 0.60 was significantly smaller than that obtained at FIO2 0.21, cardiac output, QT as well as extravascular lung water were not different between the two conditions. R value for the indicator gas was consistently lower at FIO2 0.60 irrespective of the gas species. As increasing FIO2, R estimate concerning SF6, RSF6, rational index of the fractional blood flow perfusing shunt area, decreased significantly. Administration of indomethacin caused the rise in PVR without an appreciable change in either QT or extravascular lung water but a considerable diminution in R value for the inert gas. RSF6 after infusion of indomethacin decreased from 0.35 to 0.27, accompanied by a

  3. Lung toxicity and biodistribution of Cd/Se-ZnS quantum dots with different surface functional groups after pulmonary exposure in rats

    Roberts, Jenny R; Antonini, James M.; Porter, Dale W.; Chapman, Rebecca S.; Scabilloni, James F.; Young, Shih-Houng; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; CASTRANOVA, VINCENT; Mercer, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The potential use of quantum dots (QD) in biomedical applications, as well as in other systems that take advantage of their unique physiochemical properties, has led to concern regarding their toxicity, potential systemic distribution, and biopersistence. In addition, little is known about workplace exposure to QD in research, manufacturing, or medical settings. The goal of the present study was to assess pulmonary toxicity, clearance, and biodistribution of QD with different funct...

  4. Late outcomes after acute pulmonary embolism: rationale and design of FOCUS, a prospective observational multicenter cohort study.

    Konstantinides, Stavros V; Barco, Stefano; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Lankeit, Mareike; Held, Matthias; Gerhardt, Felix; Bruch, Leonard; Ewert, Ralf; Faehling, Martin; Freise, Julia; Ghofrani, Hossein-Ardeschir; Grünig, Ekkehard; Halank, Michael; Heydenreich, Nadine; Hoeper, Marius M; Leuchte, Hanno H; Mayer, Eckhard; Meyer, F Joachim; Neurohr, Claus; Opitz, Christian; Pinto, Antonio; Seyfarth, Hans-Jürgen; Wachter, Rolf; Zäpf, Bianca; Wilkens, Heinrike; Binder, Harald; Wild, Philipp S

    2016-11-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a frequent cause of death and serious disability. The risk of PE-associated mortality and morbidity extends far beyond the acute phase of the disease. In earlier follow-up studies, as many as 30 % of the patients died during a follow-up period of up to 3 years, and up to 50 % of patients continued to complain of dyspnea and/or poor physical performance 6 months to 3 years after the index event. The most feared 'late sequela' of PE is chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), the true incidence of which remains obscure due to the large margin of error in the rates reported by mostly small, single-center studies. Moreover, the functional and hemodynamic changes corresponding to early, possibly reversible stages of CTEPH, have not been systematically investigated. The ongoing Follow-Up after acute pulmonary embolism (FOCUS) study will prospectively enroll and systematically follow, over a 2-year period and with a standardized comprehensive program of clinical, echocardiographic, functional and laboratory testing, a large multicenter prospective cohort of 1000 unselected patients (all-comers) with acute symptomatic PE. FOCUS will possess adequate power to provide answers to relevant remaining questions regarding the patients' long-term morbidity and mortality, and the temporal pattern of post-PE abnormalities. It will hopefully provide evidence for future guideline recommendations regarding the selection of patients for long-term follow-up after PE, the modalities which this follow-up should include, and the findings that should be interpreted as indicating progressive functional and hemodynamic post-PE impairment, or the development of CTEPH.

  5. Estrogenicity and acute toxicity of selected anilines using a recombinant yeast assay.

    Hamblen, Elizabeth L; Cronin, Mark T D; Schultz, T Wayne

    2003-08-01

    Suspected estrogen modulators include industrial organic chemicals (i.e., xenoestrogens), and have been shown to consist of alkylphenols, bisphenols, biphenylols, and some hydroxy-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The most prominent structural feature identified to be important for estrogenic activity is a polar group capable of donating hydrogen bonds (i.e., hydroxyl) on an aromatic system. The present study was undertaken to explore the estrogenic activity and acute toxicity of chemicals containing a weaker hydrogen bond donor group on aromatic systems, i.e., the amino substituent. There is a great deal of chemical similarity between aromatic amines (anilines) and aromatic alcohols (phenols). The chemicals chosen for the current study contained an amino-substituted benzene ring with hydrophobic constituents varying in size and shape. Thus, 37 substituted aromatic amines were assayed for estrogenic activity EC50 and acute toxicity LC50 using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae recombinant yeast assay. While the EC50 of 17-beta-estradiol occurs at the 10(-10) range, the aniline with the greatest activity had an EC50 of 10(-6) M. Thus, anilines, in general, are capable only of very weak estrogenic activity in this assay. A comparison of estrogenic potency between the present group of anilines and a set of previously tested analogous phenols indicated that anilines are consistently less estrogenic than phenols. A comparison of hazard indices (EC50/LC50) of these chemicals revealed that, for the vast majority of anilines, the EC50 and LC50 were in the same order of magnitude. More specifically, estrogenic activity of para-substituted alkylanilines increases with alkyl group size up to 5 carbons in length, after which the acute toxicity of the larger alkyl-substituents precluded the ability of the compound to induce the estrogenic response.

  6. Environmental properties of long chain alcohols. Part 1: Physicochemical, environmental fate and acute aquatic toxicity properties

    Fisk, Peter; Sanderson, Hans; Wildey, Ross;

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarises the physicochemical, biodegradation and acute aquatic ecotoxicity properties of long chain aliphatic alcohols. Properties of pure compounds are shown to follow somewhat predictable trends, which are amenable to estimation by quantitative structure-activity relationships ((Q......)SARs). This allows predictions of data relating to human and environmental safety profiles and patterns. These alcohols have been shown to be rapidly degradable under standard conditions up to C18. Furthermore, evidence suggests that longer chain lengths are also rapidly biodegradable. While log Kow values suggest...... possible bioaccumulation potential, available data suggest that these substances are not as bioaccumulative as estimations would predict. For acute aquatic toxicity, solubility limits the possibility of effects being appropriately observed and become increasingly challenging above C12. Further, a model has...

  7. Preclinical animal acute toxicity studies of new developed MRI contrast agent based on gadolinium

    Nam, I. F.; Zhuk, V. V.

    2015-04-01

    Acute toxicity test of new developed MRI contrast agent based on disodium salt of gadopentetic acid complex were carried out on Mus musculus and Sprague Dawley rats according to guidelines of preclinical studies [1]. Groups of six animals each were selected for experiment. Death and clinical symptoms of animals were recorded during 14 days. As a result the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for female mice is 2.8 mM/kg of body weight, male mice - 1.4 mM/kg, female rats - 2.8 mM/kg, male rats - 5.6 mM/kg of body weight. No Observed Adverse Effect Dose (NOAEL) for female mice is 1.4 mM/kg, male mice - 0.7 mM/kg, male and female rats - 0.7 mM/kg. According to experimental data new developed MRI contrast agent based on Gd-DTPA complex is low-toxic.

  8. Nanosilica and Polyacrylate/Nanosilica: A Comparative Study of Acute Toxicity

    Ying-Mei Niu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared the acute toxicity of nanosilica and polyacrylate/nanosilica instillation in Wistar rats (n=60. Exposure to nanosilica and polyacrylate/nanosilica showed a 30% mortality rate. When compared with saline-treated rats, animals in both exposure groups exhibited a significant reduction of PO2 (P<0.05 at both 24 and 72 hr. after exposure. Both exposure groups exhibited a significant reduction of neutrophils in arterial blood compared to saline controls (P<0.05 24 hr. after exposure. The levels of blood ALT and LDH in exposed groups were found to be significantly increased (P<0.05 24 hr. following exposure. The exposed groups exhibited various degrees of pleural effusion and pericardial effusion. Our findings indicated respiratory exposure to polyacrylate/nanosilica and nanosilica is likely to cause multiple organ toxicity.

  9. Acute Toxicity of Formalin to the Red-tide Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum Schiller (Protozoa, Mastigophora)

    XU Henglong; SONG Weibo; ZHU Mingzhuang; QIU Yantao; MA Honggang

    2005-01-01

    The acute toxic levels of formalin to a marine red-tide dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum Schiller(Mastigophora,Dinoflagellida) were determined by linear regression analysis. The data obtained revealed that there is a close regression relationship between logarithmic concentrations of formalin and mortality probit scales of the organism whenexposure times are1, 2, 6, 12, 24 h. The median lethal concentrations (LC50 values) obtained from correlation analysis for these exposure times (with 95% confidence intervals), were 11.83, 6.76, 4.37, 4.27 and 3.98mgL-1, respectively. A toxicity curve was obtained to connect the exposure time and LC50 value from the correlation between them. The results indicated that P. minimum could be killed or fixed by formalin in the concentration range of 4-12 mgL-1 within 1-24 h.

  10. Acute toxic effects of two lampricides on twenty-one freshwater invertebrates

    Rye, Robert P.; King, Everett Louis

    1976-01-01

    We conducted laboratory static bioassays to determine acute toxicity of two lampricides -- a 70% 2-aminoethanol salt of 5,2'dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide (Bayer 73) and a mixture containing 98% 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and 2% Bayer 73 (TFM-2B) -- to 21 freshwater invertebrates. LC50 values were determined for 24-h exposure periods at 12.8 C. Organisms relatively sensitive to Bayer 73 were a turbellarian (Dugesia tigrina), aquatic earthworms (Tubifex tubifex and Lumbriculus inconstans), snails (Physa sp.) and (Pleurocera sp.), a clam (Eliptio dilatatus), blackflies (Simulium sp.), leeches (Erpobdellidae), and a daphnid (Daphnia pulex). The invertebrates most sensitive to TFM-2B were turbellarians, aquatic earthworms (Tubifex), snails (Physa), blackflies, leeches, and burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia sp.). Bayer 73 was generally much more toxic to the test organisms than TFM-2B. At lampricidal concentrations, TFM-2B was more highly selective than Bayer 73 against larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus).

  11. Antidiarrheal activity and acute oral toxicity of Mentha longifolia L. essential oil

    Ghader Jalilzadeh-Amin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Mentha longifolia L. (Lamiaceae is an annual herb that is used in the Iranian traditional medicine for treating stomach and intestinal disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effect of M. longifolia on experimental diarrhea in a rat model. Materials and Methods: The antidiarrheal activity of essential oil of M. longifolia (20-80 mg/kg was investigated against castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats using loperamide as the standard reference drug. In acute toxicity evaluation, rats were orally administrated with single dose of EOML at doses ranging from 10 to 1000 mg/kg. Results: EOML caused a significant (p

  12. A high throughput passive dosing format for the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity test

    Vergauwen, Lucia; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Stinckens, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    High throughput testing according to the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity (FET) test (OECD Testing Guideline 236) is usually conducted in well plates. In the case of hydrophobic test substances, sorptive and evaporative losses often result in declining and poorly controlled exposure conditions. Therefore......, our objective was to improve exposure conditions in FET tests by evaluating a passive dosing format using silicone O-rings in standard 24-well polystyrene plates. We exposed zebrafish embryos to a series of phenanthrene concentrations until 120 h post fertilization (hpf), and obtained a linear...

  13. Acute silver toxicity in aquatic animals is a function of sodium uptake rate

    Bianchini, A.; Grosell, Martin Hautopp; Gregory, S.

    2002-01-01

    -specific surface area of the gills depends on animal body mass; and (iv) the gill surface is also the major site of Na+ loss by diffusion, we hypothesized that whole body Na+ uptake rate (i.e., turnover rate) and secondarily body mass would be good predictors of acute silver toxicity. Results obtained from...... toxicological (LC50 of AgNO3) and physiological (22Na uptake rate) tests performed on juvenile fish (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss), early juvenile and adult crayfish (Cambarus diogenes diogenes), and neonate and adult daphnids (Daphnia magna) in moderately hard water of constant quality support the above...

  14. Acute toxicity of alpha-cypermethrin to guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Pallas, 1859).

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Gül, Ali; Erbaşli, Kazim

    2004-07-01

    Alpha-cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to control pests in domestic, industrial and agricultural situations. Adult male guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata standard test species) were selected for the bioassay experiments. The experiments were performed in four series and the 96-h LC50 value was determined for guppies. The acute toxicity experiments were carried out by static method and behavioral changes in guppies were determined for each alpha-cypermethrin (98% technical grade) concentration. Data obtained from the alpha-cypermethrin investigation were evaluated by the use of probit analysis statistical method and the 96-h LC50 value for guppy was estimated as 9.43 microg/l.

  15. Nanosilica and Polyacrylate/Nanosilica: A Comparative Study of Acute Toxicity

    Ying-Mei Niu; Xiao-Li Zhu; Bing Chang; Zhao-Hui Tong; Wen Cao; Pei-Huan Qiao; Lin-Yuan Zhang; Jing Zhao; Yu-Guo Song

    2016-01-01

    We compared the acute toxicity of nanosilica and polyacrylate/nanosilica instillation in Wistar rats (n = 60). Exposure to nanosilica and polyacrylate/nanosilica showed a 30% mortality rate. When compared with saline-treated rats, animals in both exposure groups exhibited a significant reduction of PO2 (P < 0.05) at both 24 and 72 hr. after exposure. Both exposure groups exhibited a significant reduction of neutrophils in arterial blood compared to saline controls (P < 0.05) 24 hr. after expo...

  16. Combined anaerobic-ozonation process for treatment of textile wastewater: removal of acute toxicity and mutagenicity.

    Punzi, Marisa; Nilsson, Filip; Anbalagan, Anbarasan; Svensson, Britt-Marie; Jönsson, Karin; Mattiasson, Bo; Jonstrup, Maria

    2015-07-15

    A novel set up composed of an anaerobic biofilm reactor followed by ozonation was used for treatment of artificial and real textile effluents containing azo dyes. The biological treatment efficiently removed chemical oxygen demand and color. Ozonation further reduced the organic content of the effluents and was very important for the degradation of aromatic compounds, as shown by the reduction of UV absorbance. The acute toxicity toward Vibrio fischeri and the shrimp Artemia salina increased after the biological treatment. No toxicity was detected after ozonation with the exception of the synthetic effluent containing the highest concentration, 1 g/l, of the azo dye Remazol Red. Both untreated and biologically treated textile effluents were found to have mutagenic effects. The mutagenicity increased even further after 1 min of ozonation. No mutagenicity was however detected in the effluents subjected to longer exposure to ozone. The results of this study suggest that the use of ozonation as short post-treatment after a biological process can be beneficial for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds and the removal of toxicity of textile wastewater. However, monitoring of toxicity and especially mutagenicity is crucial and should always be used to assess the success of a treatment strategy.

  17. Acute toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Wise, M.L.; Stiebel, C.L.; Grizzle, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nitrofurazone (5-nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone) is a nitrofuran, a group of organic compounds which have inhibitory activity against many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and against some protozoan parasites. Although not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use with food fish, nitrofurazone has been found effective in fish against external and internal infections by various species of Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and myxobacteria and can be administered either as a food additive or as a bath treatment. Attempts to control the microsporidian parasite Pleistophora ovariae in golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, with nitrofurazone met with equivocal results. The following experiment was performed to determine acute toxicity, including lesions, of nitrofurazone to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, carassius auratus, fingerlings. Toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish was determined with low dissolved oxygen concentrations (2 mg/L) to simulate conditions frequently encountered in channel catfish culture. Information abut toxic levels of drugs and the lesions occurring in exposed fish is important to determine the safety of treatment levels and the effects of toxic concentrations.

  18. Temperature-dependent acute toxicity of methomyl pesticide on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species.

    Lau, Edward Tak Chuen; Karraker, Nancy Elizabeth; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee

    2015-10-01

    Relative to other animal taxa, ecotoxicological studies on amphibians are scarce, even though amphibians are experiencing global declines and pollution has been identified as an important threat. Agricultural lands provide important habitats for many amphibians, but often these lands are contaminated with pesticides. The authors determined the acute toxicity, in terms of 96-h median lethal concentrations, of the carbamate pesticide methomyl on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species, the Asian common toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus), the brown tree frog (Polypedates megacephalus), and the marbled pygmy frog (Microhyla pulchra), at 5 different temperatures (15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C, 30 °C, and 35 °C) to examine the relationships between temperature and toxicity. Significant interspecific variation in methomyl sensitivity and 2 distinct patterns of temperature-dependent toxicity were found. Because high proportions of malformation among the surviving tadpoles were observed, a further test was carried out on the tree frog to determine effect concentrations using malformation as the endpoint. Concentrations as low as 1.4% of the corresponding 96-h median lethal concentrations at 25 °C were sufficient to cause malformation in 50% of the test population. As the toxicity of pesticides may be significantly amplified at higher temperatures, temperature effects should not be overlooked in ecotoxicological studies and derivation of safety limits in environmental risk assessment and management.

  19. Acute Oral Toxicity and Brine Shrimp Lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (Oil Palm Leaf Methanol Extract

    Yeng Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC50 values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively, confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization.

  20. QSARS for Acute Toxicity of Halogenated Benzenes to Bacteria in Natural Waters

    GUAN-GHUA LU; CHAO WANG; YU-MEI LI

    2006-01-01

    Objective To measure the acute toxicity of halogenated benzenes to bacteria in natural waters and to study quantitative relationships between the structure and activity of chemicals. Methods The concentration values causing 50% inhibition of bacteria growth (24h-IC50) were determined according to the bacterial growth inhibition test method. The energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the net charge of carbon atom of 20 halogenated benzenes were calculated by the quantum chemical MOPAC program. Results The log1/IC50 values ranged from 4.79 for 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to 3.65 for chlorobenzene. A quantitative structure-activity relationship model was derived from the toxicity and structural parameters: log1/IC50 =-0.531(ELUMO)+1.693(Qc)+0.163(logP)+3.375. This equation was found to fit well (r2=0.860, s=0.106), and the average percentage error was only 1.98%. Conclusion Halogenated benzenes and alkyl halogenated benzenes are non-polar narcotics, and have hydrophobicity-dependent toxicity. The halogenated phenols and anilines exhibit a higher toxic potency than their hydrophobicity, whereas 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene is electrophile with the halogen acting as the leaving group.

  1. Acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (oil palm leaf) methanol extract.

    Syahmi, Abdul Rani Muhamad; Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Kwan, Yuet Ping; Lau, Yee Ling; Shin, Lai Ngit; Chen, Yeng

    2010-11-10

    Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae) is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC₅₀) values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively), confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization.

  2. Acute Toxicity of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes to Three Aquatic Organisms

    Lungile P. Lukhele

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the toxicity of double walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs to three aquatic organisms, namely, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia pulex, and Poecilia reticulata under the influence of exposure media properties specifically the ionic strength and organic matter represented by humic acid. Results indicated that ionic strength enhanced DWCNTs agglomeration whilst humic acid stabilized the CNTs and in turn inhibited the formation of aggregates. LC50s for D. pulex were higher at 2.81 and 4.45 mg/L for pristine and oxidised DWCNTs, respectively; however, P. reticulata had lower values of 113.64 mg/L and 214.0 mg/L for the same CNTs correspondingly. P. subcapitata had EC50s of 17.95 mg/L and 10.93 mg/L for the pristine and oxidised DWCNTs, respectively. In the presence of humic acid high DWCNTs acute toxicity towards D. pulex and P. reticulata was observed but ionic strength led to opposite effect irrespective of DWCNTs form. Both humic acid and ionic strength shielded the P. subcapitata from toxic effects of DWCNTs. Overall, our findings suggest that the toxicity of DWCNTs in the aquatic systems (i will be dependent on media properties and (ii is likely to proceed at different rates to organisms at different trophic levels.

  3. Predictors of Severe Acute and Late Toxicities in Patients With Localized Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation Therapy

    Meyer, Francois, E-mail: francois.meyer@chuq.qc.ca [Laval University Cancer Research Center, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Fortin, Andre; Wang, Chang Shu [Radiation Therapy Department, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Liu, Geoffrey [Applied Molecular Oncology, Ontario Cancer Institute/Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Bairati, Isabelle [Laval University Cancer Research Center, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) causes acute and late toxicities that affect various organs and functions. In a large cohort of patients treated with RT for localized head and neck cancer (HNC), we prospectively assessed the occurrence of RT-induced acute and late toxicities and identified characteristics that predicted these toxicities. Methods and Materials: We conducted a randomized trial among 540 patients treated with RT for localized HNC to assess whether vitamin E supplementation could improve disease outcomes. Adverse effects of RT were assessed using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Acute Radiation Morbidity Criteria during RT and one month after RT, and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Scheme at six and 12 months after RT. The most severe adverse effect among the organs/tissues was selected as an overall measure of either acute or late toxicity. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were considered as severe. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify all independent predictors (p < 0.05) of acute or late toxicity and to estimate odds ratios (OR) for severe toxicity with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Grade 3 or 4 toxicity was observed in 23% and 4% of patients, respectively, for acute and late toxicity. Four independent predictors of severe acute toxicity were identified: sex (female vs. male: OR = 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-2.80), Karnofsky Performance Status (OR = 0.67 for a 10-point increment, 95% CI: 0.52-0.88), body mass index (above 25 vs. below: OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.22-2.90), TNM stage (Stage II vs. I: OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.25-2.92). Two independent predictors were found for severe late toxicity: female sex (OR = 3.96, 95% CI: 1.41-11.08) and weight loss during RT (OR = 1.26 for a 1 kg increment, 95% CI: 1.12-1.41). Conclusions: Knowledge of these predictors easily collected in a clinical setting could help

  4. The epidemiology and patterns of acute and chronic toxicity associated with recreational ketamine use

    Sarbjeet S. Kalsi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine was originally synthesised for use as a dissociative anaesthetic, and it remains widely used legitimately for this indication. However, there is increasing evidence of non-medical recreational use of ketamine, particularly in individuals who frequent the night-time economy. The population-level and sub-population (clubbers prevalence of recreational use of ketamine is not known but is likely to be similar, or slightly lower than, that of other recreational drugs such as cocaine, MDMA, and amphetamine.The predominant features of acute toxicity associated with the recreational use of ketamine are neuro-behavioural abnormalities such as agitation, hallucinations, anxiety, and psychosis. Secondary to these, individuals put themselves at greater risk of physical harm/trauma. Cardiovascular features (hypertension and tachycardia occur less frequently and the risk of death from recreational use is low and is predominately due to the physical harm/trauma.Long-term recreational use of ketamine can be associated with the development of psychological dependence and tolerance. There are reports of gastro-intestinal toxicity, particularly abdominal pain and abnormal liver function tests, and of neuropsychiatric disorders, typically a schizophrenia-like syndrome, in long-term users. Finally, there are increasing reports of urological disorders, particularly haemorrhagic cystitis, associated with long-term use. The management of these problems associated with the long-term use of ketamine is largely supportive and abstinence from ongoing exposure to ketamine.In this review we will collate the available information on the epidemiology of recreational use of ketamine and describe the patterns of acute and chronic toxicity associated with its recreational use and the management of this toxicity.

  5. Multislice computed tomography perfusion imaging for visualization of acute pulmonary embolism: animal experience

    Wildberger, Joachim Ernst; Spuentrup, Elmar; Mahnken, Andreas H.; Guenther, Rolf W. [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Klotz, Ernst; Ditt, Hendrik [Computed Tomography, Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of our animal study was to evaluate a new computed tomography (CT) subtraction technique for visualization of perfusion defects within the lung parenchyma in subsegmental pulmonary embolism (PE). Seven healthy pigs were entered into a prospective trial. Acute PE was artificially induced by fresh clot material prior to the CT scans. Within a single breath-hold, whole thorax CT scans were performed with a 16-slice multidetector-row CT scanner (SOMATOM Sensation 16; Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) before and after intravenous application of 80 ml of contrast medium with a flow rate of 4 ml/s, followed by a saline chaser. The scan parameters were 120 kV and 100 mAs{sub eff}, using a thin collimation of 16 x 0.75 mm and a table speed/rotation of 15-18 mm (pitch, 1.25-1.5; rotation time, 0.5 s). Axial source images were reconstructed with an effective slice thickness of 1 mm (overlap, 30%). A new automatic subtraction technique was used. After 3D segmentation of the lungs in the plain and contrast-enhanced series, threshold-based extraction of major airways and vascular structures in the contrast images was performed. This segmentation was repeated in the plain CT images segmenting the same number of vessels and airways as in the contrast images. Both scans were registered onto each other using nonrigid registration. After registration both image sets were filtered in a nonlinear fashion excluding segmented airways and vessels. After subtracting the plain CT data from the contrast data the resulting enhancement images were color-encoded and overlaid onto the contrast-enhanced CT angiography (CTA) images. This color-encoded combined display of parenchymal enhancement of the lungs was evaluated interactively on a workstation (Leonardo, Siemens) in axial, coronal and sagittal plane orientations. Axial contrast-enhanced CTA images were rated first, followed by an analysis of the combination images. Finally, CTA images were reread focusing on areas with perfusion

  6. Acute effect of hydralazine administration on pulmonary artery hemodynamics in dogs with chronic heartworm disease.

    Atkins, C E; Keene, B W; McGuirk, S M; Sato, T

    1994-02-01

    In an effort to better understand the role of vasodilators in the management of pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic heartworm disease (HWD), pulmonary hemodynamic measurements were obtained from 7 experimentally infected, anesthetized dogs before and after hydralazine administration (mean dose, 1.96 mg/kg of body weight). Five dogs were maintained on room air, while 2 were maintained on 100% oxygen during the hydralazine study. The hemodynamic effect of hydralazine in dogs with HWD was evaluated, using heart rate, cardiac index, mean pulmonary artery pressure, mean arterial pressure, total pulmonary resistance, total systemic resistance, total systemic resistance/total pulmonary resistance, left ventricular dP/dtmax, left ventricular end diastolic pressure, and left and right ventricular double products ([mean arterial pressure x heart rate] and [mean pulmonary artery pressure x heart rate], respectively). Responders were defined as those in which total pulmonary resistance decreased > or = 20% without an increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure and in which heart rate increase was < or = 10%. Comparison was also made between maximal hemodynamic effect of hydralazine with that after 100% oxygen administration for 15 minutes to previously normoxemic dogs (n = 5). Significance was determined if P < 0.05, using the paired t-test. Hydralazine induced significant reductions in mean pulmonary and systemic arterial pressures and total pulmonary resistance, with no significant change in heart rate, cardiac index, total systemic resistance, left ventricular dP/dtmax, left ventricular end diastolic pressure, or right and left ventricular double products. Four (57%) of the 7 dogs studied were considered responders. Pretreatment cardiac index, mean pulmonary artery pressure, and total pulmonary resistance did not allow differentiation of responders from nonresponders.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. The Acute Toxicity and Hematological Characterization of the Effects of Tentacle-Only Extract from the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata

    Liming Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the hematologic changes and the activities of jellyfish venoms other than hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, the acute toxicity of tentacle-only extract (TOE from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata was observed in mice, and hematological indexes were examined in rats. The median lethal dose (LD50 of TOE was 4.25 mg/kg, and the acute toxicity involved both heart- and nervous system-related symptoms. Arterial blood gas indexes, including pH, PCO2, HCO3−, HCO3std, TCO2, BEecf and BE (B, decreased significantly. PO2 showed a slight increase, while SO2c (% had no change at any time. Na+ and Ca2+ decreased, but K+ increased. Biochemical indexes, including LDH, CK, CK-MB, ALT, AST and sCr, significantly increased. Other biochemical indexes, including BUN and hemodiastase, remained normal. Lactic acid significantly increased, while glucose, Hct% and THbc showed slight temporary increases and then returned to normal. These results on the acute toxicity and hematological changes should improve our understanding of the in vivo pathophysiological effects of TOE from C. capillata and indicate that it may also have neurotoxicity, liver toxicity and muscular toxicity in addition to hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, but no kidney or pancreatic toxicity.

  8. Economic analysis in admitted patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    CHEN Ya-hong; YAO Wan-zhen; CAI Bai-qiang; WANG Hong; DENG Xiao-mei; GAO Hui-li; HUANG Jia-sheng; WANG Xin-mao

    2008-01-01

    Background The socio-economic burden of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(AECoPD)in Beijing is not fully understood.The study investigated the hospitalization cost in patients with AECOPD and the associated factors.Methods A multi-center,retrospective study was conducted jn the four hospitals in Beijing including two level Ⅲ hospitals and two level Ⅱ hospitals.Patients with AECOPD admixed to the hospitals between January and December in 2006 were enrolled.The hosDitalization cost and its relationship with disease severity and treatment were analyzed.Results Totally 439 patients were enrolled with 294 men(67.0%)and a mean age 73.4 years.The mean hospital stay was 20.7 days.A total of 204 patients(46.5%)had respiratory failure,153(34.9%)with cor pulmonale,123(28.0%)with coronary artery disease,231(52.6%) with hypertension,70(15.9%)with cerebrovascuIar disease and 32(7.3%)with renal failure.The percentage of drug cost to total cost was the highest(71.2%),followed by laboratory cost(16.7%),therapy cost(9.7%),oxygen cost(7.3%),radiology cost(4.5%),examination cost(4.5%),bed cost(4.1%).Correlation analysis showed that cost was positively correlated with age,hospitalization days,co-morbidities such as respiratory failure and cor pulmonale,hypertension.Three hundred and twenty-one patients were further analyzed.The hospitalization cost increased in patients with non-invasive ventilation(P<0.01),invasive mechanical ventilation(P<0.01),ICU stay(P<0.01),antibiotics(P<0.05),systemic steroids(P<0.01),and poor prognosis(P<0.05).Correlation analysis showed that the hospitalization cost was negatively correlated with percentage forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%)(r=0.149,P<0.05),Ph(r=-0.258,P<0.01),and PaO2(r=-0.131,P<0.05),positively correlated with PaCO2 (r=0.319,P<0.01),non-invasive positive pressure ventilation(r=0.375,P<0.01)and duration(r=0.463,P<0.01),invasive mechanical ventilation(r=0.416,P<0.01)and duration

  9. Pulmonary embolism excluded acute coronary syndrome by coronarography: a retrospective analysis

    LIU Chun-ping; LI Jun-xia; NIU Li-li; CHEN Hang-wei; TAN Bo; WANG Ya-ping

    2012-01-01

    Background Pulmonary embolism (PE) is often mistaken as acute coronary syndromes (ACS) because of the considerable overlap in their clinical features.We evaluated the factors causing misdiagnosis of PE as ACS and factors that differentiate PE from ACS to improve the diagnosis efficacy of PE.Methods The medical records of 22 consecutive PE patients,between 2001 and 2010,who were initially suspected of ACS were retrieved.ACS was ruled out by coronary artery angiography before a definite diagnosis of PE was given.Twenty-two contemporary cases of ACS matched by age and sex were recruited as controls.Clinical manifestations,electrocardiograms (ECG),and biomarkers of these patients were reviewed retrospectively.The factors causing misdiagnosis of PE as ACS and factors differentiating PE from ACS were evaluated.Results We found two leading causes of misdiagnosis of PE as ACS.One is that PE can resemble ACS in several clinical aspects (symptoms and signs,ECG findings,plasma cardiac troponin I,and D-dimer).The other is the insufficient recognition of PE by clinicians.Risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE),especially deep venous thrombosis (DVT),together with signs of PE,such as unexplained dyspnea or hypoxemia,and right ventricular pressure overload on ECGs are valuable in differentiating the two diseases.Conclusions Differentiation between PE and ACS is sometimes challenging.Adequate awareness of the risk factors for VTE and the signs of PE are crucial in the diagnosis of PE.

  10. Magnesium for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic review of randomised trials

    Mitrakrishnan Chrishan Shivanthan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of magnesium sulphate in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD was assessed by conducting a systematic review of published randomized clinical trials through extensive searches in MEDLINE and SCOPUS with no date limits, as well as manual review of journals. Outcome measures varied depending on route(s of administration of magnesium sulphate and medications co-administered. Risk of bias was evaluated and quality of evidence was graded. Four (4 randomized trials were included. All trials had a moderate risk of bias and were of average methodological quality. Magnesium sulphate given intravenously did not seem to have an immediate bronchodilatory effect; however it appears to potentiate the bronchodilatory effect of inhaled beta-2 agonists. Increase in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR at 30 and 45 min was greater in those who received magnesium sulphate compared to placebo (P = 0.03, although the mean percentage change in PEFR was just 24%, without significant differences in dyspnoea scores, hospital admission rates, or emergency department readmission rates compared to placebo. Nebulized magnesium sulphate with salbutamol versus nebulized salbutamol with saline placebo showed no significant differences is forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 measured at 90 min after adjustment for baseline FEV 1 (P = 0.34 or differences in the need for hospital admission. Combined inhalational and intravenous magnesium sulphate versus intravenous saline placebo and nebulized ipratropium bromide were comparable in terms of hospital admission, intubation and death, but the ipratropium bromide group showed better bronchodilator effect and improvement in arterial blood gas parameters. Overall, trial evidence for trial evidence for magnesium sulphate in acute exacerbation of COPD is poor, and further well-designed trials are needed.

  11. MicroRNA-134 as a potential plasma biomarker for the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism

    Liu Yi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute pulmonary embolism (APE remains a diagnostic challenge due to a variable clinical presentation and the lack of a reliable screening tool. MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate gene expression in a wide range of pathophysiologic processes. Circulating miRNAs are emerging biomarkers in heart failure, type 2 diabetes and other disease states; however, using plasma miRNAs as biomarkers for the diagnosis of APE is still unknown. Methods Thirty-two APE patients, 32 healthy controls, and 22 non-APE patients (reported dyspnea, chest pain, or cough were enrolled in this study. The TaqMan miRNA microarray was used to identify dysregulated miRNAs in the plasma of APE patients. The TaqMan-based miRNA quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions were used to validate the dysregulated miRNAs. The receiver-operator characteristic (ROC curve analysis was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the miRNA identified as the candidate biomarker. Results Plasma miRNA-134 (miR-134 level was significantly higher in the APE patients than in the healthy controls or non-APE patients. The ROC curve showed that plasma miR-134 was a specific diagnostic predictor of APE with an area under the curve of 0.833 (95% confidence interval, 0.737 to 0.929; P Conclusions Our findings indicated that plasma miR-134 could be an important biomarker for the diagnosis of APE. Because of this finding, large-scale investigations are urgently needed to pave the way from basic research to clinical utilization.

  12. Physiological study on CT image analysis of acute pulmonary edema by oleic acid and its application to diagnosis of drowning

    Nosaka, Mizuho [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Recently, various investigations are carried out about the relationship between the pathophysiological changes and the images of the destructive extent in acute lung injury. In present paper, we examined, in progression time, the pathophysiological and histological changes basing upon pulmonary edema model made by administration of oleic acid to beagle dogs, and simultaneously took images of the lung by employing high-resolution X-ray CT and analyzed them. In pathophysiological and histological investigation, V{sub A}/Q heterogeneity and lung water volume increased, and decrease of PO{sub 2} in arterial blood was observed, and also filling of the alveoli with exudate, edema of the alveolar interstitium, congestion of the alveoli were observed histologically. In image analysis, the findings, that is enough to reflect the pathophysiological and histological changes, were obtained from mean CT value and the distribution of CT value histogram. Moreover, the same examination as in acute pulmonary edema model was carried out in drowning model with seawater. Consequently, it became evident that presuming of pathophysiological changes in drowning was possible from results of X-ray CT image analysis. The results described above seem to indicate that X-ray CT image analysis in acute lung injury can use as an index of the damage degree, and also is available for elucidation of the pathophysiological changes. (author)

  13. DNaseI Protects against Paraquat-Induced Acute Lung Injury and Pulmonary Fibrosis Mediated by Mitochondrial DNA

    Guo Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Paraquat (PQ poisoning is a lethal toxicological challenge that served as a disease model of acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis, but the mechanism is undetermined and no effective treatment has been discovered. Methods and Findings. We demonstrated that PQ injures mitochondria and leads to mtDNA release. The mtDNA mediated PBMC recruitment and stimulated the alveolar epithelial cell production of TGF-β1 in vitro. The levels of mtDNA in circulation and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF were elevated in a mouse of PQ-induced lung injury. DNaseI could protect PQ-induced lung injury and significantly improved survival. Acute lung injury markers, such as TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6, and marker of fibrosis, collagen I, were downregulated in parallel with the elimination of mtDNA by DNaseI. These data indicate a possible mechanism for PQ-induced, mtDNA-mediated lung injury, which may be shared by other causes of lung injury, as suggested by the same protective effect of DNaseI in bleomycin-induced lung injury model. Interestingly, increased mtDNA in the BALF of patients with amyopathic dermatomyositis-interstitial lung disease can be appreciated. Conclusions. DNaseI targeting mtDNA may be a promising approach for the treatment of PQ-induced acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis that merits fast tracking through clinical trials.

  14. The effect of acute magnesium loading on the maximal exercise performance of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Angélica Florípedes do Amaral

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The potential influence of magnesium on exercise performance is a subject of increasing interest. Magnesium has been shown to have bronchodilatatory properties in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute magnesium IV loading on the aerobic exercise performance of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. METHODS: Twenty male chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients (66.2 + 8.3 years old, FEV1: 49.3+19.8% received an IV infusion of 2 g of either magnesium sulfate or saline on two randomly assigned occasions approximately two d