WorldWideScience

Sample records for acute pulmonary toxicity

  1. [Acute onset pulmonary toxicity associated to amiodarone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Pedro Gonçalo; Saraiva, Fátima; Carreira, Cláudia

    2012-01-01

    Amiodarone is a potent anti-arrhythmic drug with a well-known potential chronic pulmonary toxicity. We describe a case of acute pulmonary toxicity (APT) induced by amiodarone in a 57 year old patient submitted to a perfusion of 900 mg in just 6 hours, to control an auricular flutter with rapid ventricular response. During the administration, the patient developed hemodynamic instability and oxygen dessaturation that led to an electrical cardioversion with return of sinus rhythm. Still, the patient continued in progressive respiratory deterioration with acute bilateral infiltrates on chest x-ray and apparent normal cardiac filling pressures confirmed by echocardiography. Anon-cardiogenic pulmonar edema progressing to clinico-physiological ARDS criteria was diagnosed. Expeditive therapeutic measures were undertaken, namely by initiation of non-invasive positive airway pressure support, that attained a good result.Albeit rare, amiodarone-induced APT might have severe consequences, namely progression to ALI/ARDS with a high mortality index.As it is a frequently prescribed drug, there should be a high clinical suspicion towards this phenomenon, allowing precocious therapeutic measures to be taken in a timely fashion to prevent the associated unfavorable outcome.

  2. Acute Toxic Myocarditis and Pulmonary Oedema Developing from Scorpion Sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Sahin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of scorpion stings are generally seen with a set of simple clinical findings, such as pain, oedema, numbness, and tenderness in the area of the sting. However, occasionally events, such as toxic myocarditis, acute heart failure, acute pulmonary oedema, and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS, which occur in scorpion sting cases are a significant problem which determine mortality and morbidity. The case presented here was a 38-year-old man who developed acute toxic myocarditis, acute heart failure, and acute pulmonary oedema following a scorpion sting on the 3rd finger of his right hand.

  3. Medical image of the week: acute amiodarone pulmonary toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazursky K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 71 year old man with a medical history significant for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease with post-operative status coronary artery bypass grafting, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (25% and atrial fibrillation/flutter underwent an elective ablation of the tachyarrhythmia at another facility and was prescribed amiodarone post procedure. He started complaining of cough and dyspnea one day post procedure and was empirically treated with 2 weeks of broad spectrum antibiotics. He subsequently was transferred to our facility due to worsening symptoms. He also complained of nausea, anorexia with resultant weight loss since starting amiodarone, which was stopped 5 days prior to transfer. Infectious work up was negative. On arrival to our facility, he was diagnosed with small sub-segmental pulmonary emboli, pulmonary edema and possible acute amiodarone toxicity. His was profoundly hypoxic requiring high flow nasal cannula or 100% non-rebreather mask at all times. His symptoms persisted despite ...

  4. Rosette nanotubes show low acute pulmonary toxicity in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Shane Journeay

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available W Shane Journeay1, Sarabjeet S Suri1, Jesus G Moralez2, Hicham Fenniri2, Baljit Singh11Immunology Research Group, Toxicology Graduate Program and Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4, Canada; 2National Institute of Nanotechnology, National Research Council (NINT-NRC and Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2M9, CanadaAbstract: Nanotubes are being developed for a large variety of applications ranging from electronics to drug delivery. Common carbon nanotubes such as single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been studied in the greatest detail but require solubilization and removal of catalytic contaminants such as metals prior to being introduced to biological systems for medical application. The present in vivo study characterizes the degree and nature of inflammation caused by a novel class of self-assembling rosette nanotubes, which are biologically inspired, naturally water-soluble and free of metal content upon synthesis. Upon pulmonary administration of this material we examined responses at 24 h and 7d post-exposure. An acute inflammatory response is triggered at 50 and 25 μg doses by 24 h post-exposure but an inflammatory response is not triggered by a 5 μg dose. Lung inflammation observed at a 50 μg dose at 24 h was resolving by 7d. This work suggests that novel nanostructures with biological design may negate toxicity concerns for biomedical applications of nanotubes. This study also demonstrates that water-soluble rosette nanotube structures represent low pulmonary toxicity, likely due to their biologically inspired design, and their self-assembled architecture.Keywords: nanotoxicology, biocompatibility, nanomedicine, pulmonary drug delivery, lung inflammation

  5. Acute fibrinous organising pneumonia: a manifestation of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole pulmonary toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamous, Fady; Ayaz, Syed Zain; Choate, Jacquelyn

    2014-10-29

    A 50-year-old man was treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for acute arthritis of his right big toe. Within a few days, he developed dyspnoea, hypoxaemia and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. Symptoms improved with discontinuation of the antibiotic but worsened again with its reintroduction. An open lung biopsy was performed. We describe the workup performed and the factors that pointed to a final diagnosis of TMP-SMX-related pulmonary toxicity in the form of acute fibrinous organising pneumonia. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  6. Acute and subacute pulmonary toxicity and mortality in mice after intratracheal instillation of ZnO nanoparticles in three laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Stoeger, Tobias; van den Brule, Sybille

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation is the main pathway of ZnO exposure in the occupational environment but only few studies have addressed toxic effects after pulmonary exposure to ZnO nanoparticles (NP). Here we present results from three studies of pulmonary exposure and toxicity of ZnO NP in mice. The studies were...

  7. Acute and subacute pulmonary toxicity caused by a single intratracheal instillation of colloidal silver nanoparticles in mice: pathobiological changes and metallothionein responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewamatawong, Theerayuth; Banlunara, Wijit; Maneewattanapinyo, Pattwat; Thammachareon, Chuchaat; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2014-01-01

    To study the acute and subacute pulmonary toxicity of colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), 0 or 100 ppm of Ag-NPs were instilled intratracheally in mice. Cellular and biochemical parameters in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and histological alterations were determined 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days after instillation. Ag-NPs induced moderate pulmonary inflammation and injury on BALF indices during the acute period; however, these changes gradually regressed in a time-dependent manner. Concomitant histopathological and laminin immunohistochemical findings generally correlated to BALF data. Superoxide dismutase and metallothionein expression occurred in particle-laden macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells, which correlated to lung lesions in mice treated with Ag-NPs. These findings suggest that instillation of Ag-NPs causes transient moderate acute lung inflammation and tissue damage. Oxidative stress may underlie the induction of injury to lung tissue. Moreover, the expression of metallothionein in tissues indicated the protective response to exposure to Ag-NPs.

  8. Cyclophosphamide-induced pulmonary toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, D.W.; Macler, L.; Penney, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    Unlike radiation effects, pulmonary toxicity following drug treatments may develop soon after exposure. The dose-response relationship between Cyclophosphamide and lung toxicity was investigated using increased breathing frequency assays used successfully for radiation induced injury. The data indicate that release of protein into the alveolus may play a significant role in Cy induced pulmonary toxicity. Although the mechanism responsible for the increased alveolar protein is as yet not identified, the present findings suggest that therapeutic intervention to inhibit protein release may be an approach to protect the lungs from toxic effects. (UK)

  9. The toxic autoimmune syndrome with pulmonary edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parizhskij, Z.M.; Artyunina, G.P.; Trofimova, T.N.

    1992-01-01

    A case was considered in detail of a patient with pulmonary edema of immunnocomplex nature in aerogenic intoxication by nickel tetracarbonyl. It was shown that acute aerogenic intoxication nickel carbonyl by led to unfolded toxic autoimmune syndrome. In this case autoimmune immunecomplex pulmonary lesion (AIPL) menifested by progressing pulmonary edema with expressed parenchymatous respiratory insufficiency played a leading role. Lesion of endothelium of pulmonary capillaries by immune complexes has the most significant in pathogenesis of pulmonary edema. The fact that edema appears due to AIPL, is confirmed by high efficiency of glucocorticoid therapy. Use of glucorticoids serves as a diagnostic test which provides an effective roentgenologic diagnosis of AIPL and differential diagnosis of any other pathological processes in the lungs

  10. Acute pulmonary infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhl, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Acute pulmonary infection may be caused by a variety of organisms. In some instances they produce a reasonably characteristic, gross pathologic pattern and, therefore, a recognizable roentgenographic pattern. In the subsequent discussions the most common gross anatomic findings in the pneumonias of various causes as reflected in chest roentgenograms will be described. The roentgenographic manifestations of pulmonary infections are so varied that the pattern observed often gives us little information regarding the causative organism. Therefore, in each instance it should be remembered that roentgenographic findings must be correlated with clinical, bacteriological, and laboratory data to ascertain the correct etiologic diagnosis upon which treatment is based. The role of the radiologist is to locate and define the extent of the disease and any complicating findings such as lung abscess and pleural effusion or empyema

  11. Amiodarone pulmonary toxicity: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Nada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Amiodarone, an antiarrhythmic drug, which contains iodine compound, has a tendency to accumulate in some organs including the lungs. This is age, drug dosage and therapy duration dependent. Case Outline. We present a case of a 73-year-old man, a smoker, who was admitted as emergency case due to severe dyspnea, tachypnea with signs of cyanosis and respiratory insufficiency. Chest x-ray revealed bilateral diffuse pulmonary shadows in the middle and upper parts of the lungs, similar to those in tuberculosis. His illness history showed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arterial hypertension, and atrial fibrillation which has been treated with amiodarone for six years. Sputum smears were negative for mycobacteria, and by the diagnostic elimination method for specific, non-specific and malignant disease the diagnosis of amiodarone pulmonary toxicity was made. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy and pathohistological findings of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia confirmed the diagnosis. As the first therapeutic approach, amiodarone therapy was stopped. Then, systemic therapy with methylprednisolone 21 (sodium succinate 40 mg i.v. daily during the first two weeks was initiated and continued with daily dose of methylprednisolone 30 mg orally during the next three months. The patient showed a marked subjective improvement during the first week, which was followed by the improvement of respiratory function and withdrawal of pulmonary changes with complete radiographic and CT resolution after eight months. Conclusion. Amiodarone pulmonary toxicity should be taken into consideration, especially in elderly patients with respiratory symptoms and pulmonary changes, even if only a low dose of amiodarone is administred over a longer time period.

  12. Evaluation of Pulmonary and Systemic Toxicity of Oil Dispersant (COREXIT EC9500A(®)) Following Acute Repeated Inhalation Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jenny R; Anderson, Stacey E; Kan, Hong; Krajnak, Kristine; Thompson, Janet A; Kenyon, Allison; Goldsmith, William T; McKinney, Walter; Frazer, David G; Jackson, Mark; Fedan, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Oil spill cleanup workers come into contact with numerous potentially hazardous chemicals derived from the oil spills, as well as chemicals applied for mitigation of the spill, including oil dispersants. In response to the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, a record volume of the oil dispersant, COREXIT EC9500A, was delivered via aerial applications, raising concern regarding potential health effects that may result from pulmonary exposure to the dispersant. The current study examined the effects on pulmonary functions, cardiovascular functions, and systemic immune responses in rats to acute repeated inhalation exposure of COREXIT EC9500A at 25 mg/m(3), five hours per day, over nine work days, or filtered air (control). At one and seven days following the last exposure, a battery of parameters was measured to evaluate lung function, injury, and inflammation; cardiovascular function; peripheral vascular responses; and systemic immune responses. No significant alterations in airway reactivity were observed at one or seven days after exposure either in baseline values or following methacholine (MCh) inhalation challenge. Although there was a trend for an increase in lung neutrophils and phagocyte oxidant production at one-day post exposure, there were no significant differences in parameters of lung inflammation. In addition, increased blood monocytes and neutrophils, and decreased lymphocyte numbers at one-day post exposure also did not differ significantly from air controls, and no alterations in splenocyte populations, or serum or spleen immunoglobulin M (IgM) to antigen were observed. There were no significant differences in peripheral vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agonists or in blood pressure (BP) responses to these agents; however, the baseline heart rate (HR) and HR responses to isoproterenol (ISO) were significantly elevated at one-day post exposure, with resolution by day 7. In summary, acute

  13. Evaluation of Pulmonary and Systemic Toxicity of Oil Dispersant (COREXIT EC9500A following Acute Repeated Inhalation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny R. Roberts

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oil spill cleanup workers come into contact with numerous potentially hazardous chemicals derived from the oil spills, as well as chemicals applied for mitigation of the spill, including oil dispersants. In response to the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, a record volume of the oil dispersant, COREXIT EC9500A, was delivered via aerial applications, raising concern regarding potential health effects that may result from pulmonary exposure to the dispersant. Methods The current study examined the effects on pulmonary functions, cardiovascular functions, and systemic immune responses in rats to acute repeated inhalation exposure of COREXIT EC9500A at 25 mg/m 3 , five hours per day, over nine work days, or filtered air (control. At one and seven days following the last exposure, a battery of parameters was measured to evaluate lung function, injury, and inflammation; cardiovascular function; peripheral vascular responses; and systemic immune responses. Results No significant alterations in airway reactivity were observed at one or seven days after exposure either in baseline values or following metha-choline (MCh inhalation challenge. Although there was a trend for an increase in lung neutrophils and phagocyte oxidant production at one-day post exposure, there were no significant differences in parameters of lung inflammation. In addition, increased blood monocytes and neutrophils, and decreased lymphocyte numbers at one-day post exposure also did not differ significantly from air controls, and no alterations in splenocyte populations, or serum or spleen immunoglobulin M (IgM to antigen were observed. There were no significant differences in peripheral vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agonists or in blood pressure (BP responses to these agents; however, the baseline heart rate (HR and HR responses to isoproterenol (ISO were significantly elevated at one-day post exposure

  14. Acute pulmonary toxicity following occupational exposure to a floor stain protector in the building industry in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazor-Blanchet, Catherine; Rusca, Sophie; Vernez, David; Berry, Raymond; Albrecht, Eric; Droz, Pierre-Olivier; Boillat, Marcel-André

    2004-05-01

    Waterproofing agents are widely applied to leather and textile garments; they are also used as floor stain protectors by professionals. Acute respiratory injury is described in three cases of young healthy adults following occupational inhalation of a new waterproofing formulation containing an acrylate fluoropolymer. Within 1 or 2 h after exposure they developed a rapidly progressive dyspnoea; two of them had hypoxaemia and flu-like reactions. All patients improved with supportive treatment in a few days. The mechanism of toxicity is still under investigation, but experimental data suggest the role of this new acrylate fluoropolymer. Tilers should be warned against spraying floor stain repellents; there is also a need to make consumers aware that the spraying of waterproofing agents in a closed environment and concomitant smoking should be avoided.

  15. DART-bid for loco-regionally advanced NSCLC. Summary of acute and late toxicity with long-term follow-up; experiences with pulmonary dose constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurstbauer, Karl [Paracelsus Medical University, Institute for Research and Development on Advanced Radiation Technologies (radART), Salzburg (Austria); Zehentmayr, Franz; Deutschmann, Heinz; Sedlmayer, Felix [Paracelsus Medical University, Institute for Research and Development on Advanced Radiation Technologies (radART), Salzburg (Austria); Paracelsus Medical University Clinics, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Landeskrankenhaus, Salzburg (Austria); Dagn, Karin; Exeli, Ann-Katrin; Kopp, Peter [Paracelsus Medical University Clinics, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Landeskrankenhaus, Salzburg (Austria); Porsch, Peter; Maurer, Birgit; Studnicka, Michael [Paracelsus Medical University Clinics, Departement of Pneumology, Salzburg (Austria)

    2017-04-15

    To report acute and late toxicity with long-term follow-up, and to describe our experiences with pulmonary dose constraints. Between 2002 and 2009, 150 patients with 155 histologically/cytologically proven non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC; tumor stages II, IIIA, IIIB in 6, 55 and 39%, respectively) received the following median doses: primary tumors 79.2 Gy (range 72.0-90.0 Gy), lymph node metastases 59.4 Gy (54.0-73.8 Gy), nodes electively 45 Gy; with fractional doses of 1.8 Gy twice daily (bid). In all, 86% of patients received 2 cycles of chemotherapy previously. Five treatment-related deaths occurred: pneumonitis, n = 1; progressive pulmonary fibrosis in patients with pre-existing pulmonary fibrosis, n = 2; haemorrhage, n = 2. In all, 8% of patients experienced grade 3 and 1.3% grade 4 pneumonitis; 11% showed late fibrotic alterations grade 2 in lung parenchyma. Clinically relevant acute esophagitis (grade 2 and 3) was seen in 33.3% of patients, 2 patients developed late esophageal stenosis (G3). Patients with upper lobe, middle lobe and central lower lobe tumours (n = 130) were treated with V20 (total lung) up to 50% and patients with peripheral lower lobe tumours (n = 14, basal lateral tumours excluded) up to 42%, without observing acute or late pulmonary toxicity >grade 3. Only patients with basal lateral lower lobe tumours (n = 5) experienced grade 4/5 pulmonary toxicity; V20 for this latter group ranged between 30 and 53%. The mean lung dose was below the QUANTEC recommendation of 20-23 Gy in all patients. The median follow-up time of all patients is 26.3 months (range 2.9-149.4) and of patients alive 80.2 months (range 63.9-149.4.). The median overall survival time of all patients is 26.3 months; the 2-, 5- and 8-year survival rates of 54, 21 and 15%, respectively. The local tumour control rate at 2 and 5 years is 70 and 64%, the regional control rate 90 and 88%, respectively. Grade 4 or 5 toxicity occurred in 7/150 patients (4.7%), which can be

  16. [Acute neurogenic pulmonary edema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roquefeuil, B

    1975-01-01

    Neurogenic edema, in the strict sense of the term, has at the present time practically not benefitted from precise hemodynamic investigations in human clinical practice, and owing to this fact, authors still classify them under the heading "mixed edema or of unknown pathogenesis". In contrast with this lack of information in man, animal experimental works are surprising by their coherence and the experimental facility of producing neurogenic edema (cranial hypertension by a small inflatable balloon and cisternal infection of fibrin). If one excludes the now ancient vagal theories (CAMERON 1949; CAMPBELL, 1949) which were never confirmed, all of the most recent experimental works (SARNOFF, 1952; DUCKER, 1968; LUISADA, 1967; MORITZ, 1974) confirm the adrenergic disorder of central origin during neurogenic A.P.E. which from the hemodynamic standpoint is like an authentic hemodynamic A.P.E. with raised left atrial pressure, pulmonary venous pressure and pulmonary capillary pressure.

  17. Severe Pulmonary Toxicity After Myeloablative Conditioning Using Total Body Irradiation: An Assessment of Risk Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, Chris R.; Horwitz, Mitchell E.; Chino, Junzo P.; Craciunescu, Oana; Steffey, Beverly; Folz, Rodney J.; Chao, Nelson J.; Rizzieri, David A.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess factors associated with severe pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 101 adult patients who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at Duke University between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. TBI was combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide, melphalan, fludarabine, or etoposide, depending on the underlying disease. Acute pulmonary toxicity, occurring within 90 days of transplantation, was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Actuarial overall survival and the cumulative incidence of acute pulmonary toxicity were calculated via the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a log-rank test. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with acute severe pulmonary toxicity. Results: The 90-day actuarial risk of developing severe (Grade 3-5) pulmonary toxicity was 33%. Actuarial survival at 90 days was 49% in patients with severe pulmonary toxicity vs. 94% in patients without (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the number of prior chemotherapy regimens was the only factor independently associated with development of severe pulmonary toxicity (odds ratio, 2.7 per regimen). Conclusions: Severe acute pulmonary toxicity is prevalent after TBI-based myeloablative conditioning regimens, occurring in approximately 33% of patients. The number of prior chemotherapy regimens appears to be an important risk factor.

  18. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk

    1974-01-01

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis

  19. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis.

  20. Fatal acute pulmonary injury associated with everolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depuydt, Pieter; Nollet, Joke; Benoit, Dominique; Praet, Marleen; Caes, Frank

    2012-03-01

    To report a case of fatal alveolar hemorrhage associated with the use of everolimus in a patient who underwent a solid organ transplant. In a 71-year-old cardiac transplant patient, cyclosporine was replaced with everolimus because of worsening renal function. Over the following weeks, the patient developed nonproductive cough and increasing dyspnea. His condition deteriorated to acute respiratory failure with hemoptysis, requiring hospital admission. Bilateral patchy alveolar infiltrates were apparent on chest X-ray and computed tomography. Cardiac failure was ruled out and empiric antimicrobial therapy was initiated. Additional extensive workup could not document opportunistic infection. Everolimus was discontinued and high-dose corticosteroid therapy was initiated. Despite this, the patient required invasive mechanical ventilation and died because of refractory massive hemoptysis. Autopsy revealed diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Everolimus is a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor approved for use as an immunosuppressant and antineoplastic agent. Its main advantage over calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus and cyclosporine) is a distinct safety profile. Although it has become clear that everolimus induces pulmonary toxicity more frequently than initially thought, most published cases thus far represented mild and reversible disease, and none was fatal. Here, we report a case of pulmonary toxicity developing over weeks following the introduction of everolimus, in which a fatal outcome could not be prevented by drug withdrawal and corticosteroid treatment. The association of everolimus and this syndrome was probable according to the Naranjo probability scale. This case indicates that with the increasing use of everolimus, clinicians should be aware of the rare, but life-threatening manifestation of pulmonary toxicity.

  1. Acute toxicity of ingested fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Gary Milton

    2011-01-01

    This chapter discusses the characteristics and treatment of acute fluoride toxicity as well as the most common sources of overexposure, the doses that cause acute toxicity, and factors that can influence the clinical outcome. Cases of serious systemic toxicity and fatalities due to acute exposures are now rare, but overexposures causing toxic signs and symptoms are not. The clinical course of systemic toxicity from ingested fluoride begins with gastric signs and symptoms, and can develop with alarming rapidity. Treatment involves minimizing absorption by administering a solution containing calcium, monitoring and managing plasma calcium and potassium concentrations, acid-base status, and supporting vital functions. Approximately 30,000 calls to US poison control centers concerning acute exposures in children are made each year, most of which involve temporary gastrointestinal effects, but others require medical treatment. The most common sources of acute overexposures today are dental products - particularly dentifrices because of their relatively high fluoride concentrations, pleasant flavors, and their presence in non-secure locations in most homes. For example, ingestion of only 1.8 ounces of a standard fluoridated dentifrice (900-1,100 mg/kg) by a 10-kg child delivers enough fluoride to reach the 'probably toxic dose' (5 mg/kg body weight). Factors that may influence the clinical course of an overexposure include the chemical compound (e.g. NaF, MFP, etc.), the age and acid-base status of the individual, and the elapsed time between exposure and the initiation of treatment. While fluoride has well-established beneficial dental effects and cases of serious toxicity are now rare, the potential for toxicity requires that fluoride-containing materials be handled and stored with the respect they deserve. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Acute exacerbations and pulmonary hypertension in advanced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Judge, Eoin P

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for and outcomes of acute exacerbations in patients with advanced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and to examine the relationship between disease severity and neovascularisation in explanted IPF lung tissue. 55 IPF patients assessed for lung transplantation were divided into acute (n=27) and non-acute exacerbation (n=28) groups. Haemodynamic data was collected at baseline, at the time of acute exacerbation and at lung transplantation. Histological analysis and CD31 immunostaining to quantify microvessel density (MVD) was performed on the explanted lung tissue of 13 transplanted patients. Acute exacerbations were associated with increased mortality (p=0.0015). Pulmonary hypertension (PH) at baseline and acute exacerbations were associated with poor survival (p<0.01). PH at baseline was associated with a significant risk of acute exacerbations (HR 2.217, p=0.041). Neovascularisation (MVD) was significantly increased in areas of cellular fibrosis and significantly decreased in areas of honeycombing. There was a significant inverse correlation between mean pulmonary artery pressure and MVD in areas of honeycombing. Acute exacerbations were associated with significantly increased mortality in patients with advanced IPF. PH was associated with the subsequent development of an acute exacerbation and with poor survival. Neovascularisation was significantly decreased in areas of honeycombing, and was significantly inversely correlated with mean pulmonary arterial pressure in areas of honeycombing.

  3. Pulmonary toxicity of manufactured nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, Brian Christopher

    Manufactured nanomaterials have become ubiquitous in science, industry, and medicine. Although electron microscopy and surface probe techniques have improved understanding of the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials, much less is known about what makes nanomaterials toxic. Particulate matter less than 2.5 mum in effective aerodynamic diameter is easily inhaled and taken deep into the lungs. The toxicity of inhaled particulate matter is related to its size and surface chemistry; for instance, the smaller the size of particles, the greater their specific surface area. The chemistry and toxicity of insoluble particles depends on their surface area, since chemical reactions may happen with the environment on the surface. Oxidation and reduction may occur on the surfaces of particles after they are produced. For instance, it is known that carbonaceous particles from vehicle exhaust and industrial emission may interact with reactive species like ozone in their ambient environment, altering the surface chemistry of the particles. Reaction with species in the environment may cause changes in the chemical functionality of the surface and change the toxic properties of the particles when they are inhaled. Furthermore, metals on the surface of inhalable particles can contribute to their toxicity. Much attention has been given to the presence of iron on the surfaces of inhalable particles in the environment. After particle inhalation, particles are endocytosed by alveolar macrophages in the immune response to foreign matter. They are exposed to hydrogen peroxide in the oxidative burst, which can cause the iron-mediated production of hydroxyl free radicals via the Fenton reaction, causing oxidative stress that leads to inflammation and cell death. The toxicity of particles that contain metals depends on the redox activity and bioavailability of the metals, the causes of thich have not yet been adequately explored. In this thesis, electron paramagnetic spectroscopy showed

  4. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnaike, R

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption o...

  5. Differential toxicity and influence of salinity on acute toxicity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential toxicity and influence of salinity on acute toxicity of copper sulphate and lead nitrate against Oreochromis niloticus. KA Bawa-Allah, F Osuala, J Effiong. Abstract. This study investigated the salinity-tolerance of Oreochromis niloticus and the influence of salinity changes on the acute toxicities of copper sulphate ...

  6. Significance of Intratracheal Instillation Tests for the Screening of Pulmonary Toxicity of Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Izumi, Hiroto; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Fujisawa, Yuri; Fujita, Katsuhide

    Inhalation tests are the gold standard test for the estimation of the pulmonary toxicity of respirable materials. Intratracheal instillation tests have been used widely, but they yield limited evidence of the harmful effects of respirable materials. We reviewed the effectiveness of intratracheal instillation tests for estimating the hazards of nanomaterials, mainly using research papers featuring intratracheal instillation and inhalation tests centered on a Japanese national project. Compared to inhalation tests, intratracheal instillation tests induced more acute inflammatory responses in the animal lung due to a bolus effect regardless of the toxicity of the nanomaterials. However, nanomaterials with high toxicity induced persistent inflammation in the chronic phase, and nanomaterials with low toxicity induced only transient inflammation. Therefore, in order to estimate the harmful effects of a nanomaterial, an observation period of 3 months or 6 months following intratracheal instillation is necessary. Among the endpoints of pulmonary toxicity, cell count and percentage of neutrophil, chemokines for neutrophils and macrophages, and oxidative stress markers are considered most important. These markers show persistent and transient responses in the lung from nanomaterials with high and low toxicity, respectively. If the evaluation of the pulmonary toxicity of nanomaterials is performed in not only the acute but also the chronic phase in order to avoid the bolus effect of intratracheal instillation and inflammatory-related factors that are used as endpoints of pulmonary toxicity, we speculate that intratracheal instillation tests can be useful for screening for the identification of the hazard of nanomaterials through pulmonary inflammation.

  7. Acute pulmonary embolism in helical computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paslawski, M.

    2005-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a common condition in which diagnostic and therapeutic delays contribute to substantial morbidity and mortality. Clinical diagnosis is difficult because the signs and symptoms re unspecific, and a differential diagnosis is extensive, including pneumonia or bronchitis, asthma, myocardial infraction, pulmonary edema, anxiety, dissection of the aorta, pericardial tamponade, lung cancer, primary pulmonary hypertension, rib fracture, and pneumothorax. The purpose of the study was to present the use of CT in diagnosing acute pulmonary embolism. A group of 23 patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism underwent CT examination with a helical CT scanner (Somatom Emotion, Siemens) before and after administration of 150 ml of Ultravist. Pulmonary embolism was found in the CT examinations of 13 patients. In two of these it was a central filling defect. Amputation of the artery was found in one. Parietal filling defect in three patients formed an acute angle with the vessel walls. Saddle emboli appearing as filling defects in the contrast column that hung over vessel bifurcations was found in two patients. In five patients,emboli were found in small segmental arteries. CT provides information not only on the pulmonary arteries, but also on the lung parenchyma, hila, mediastinum, and the heart. Alternative findings may be identified by CT chest examination, stablishing alternative diagnoses, including pulmonary disorders (such as pneumonia or fibrosis), pleural abnormalities, and cardiovascular disease (such as aortic dissection or pericardial tamponade). Another advantage of the CT is its widespread availability.(author)

  8. Acute pulmonary parenchymal densities in the adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.H.; Murphy, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    The thrust of the radiographic interpretation is to correlate the often non-specific appearance of any parenchymal density with its time-table of development, rate of change, distribution, and the patient's clinical status. Although this chapter contains separate sections on each major cause of acute pulmonary opacification, the intent of the chapter overall is their differential diagnosis. Before beginning to deal with acute pulmonary densities, it is stressed that acute densities can only be differentiated from chronic ones by reviewing preoperative or pre-existing studies. Without the baseline comparison film or reliable presumption of prior normalcy, the acuteness of a parenchymal density may not be apparent until later examinations reveal change or resolution. Also, as discussed is baseline pathology that is altered by the portable technique can be terribly confusing when attempting to evaluate a single isolated film in an acute clinical situation

  9. Categorization of nano-structured titanium dioxide according to physicochemical characteristics and pulmonary toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Hashizume

    Full Text Available A potentially useful means of predicting the pulmonary risk posed by new forms of nano-structured titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2 is to use the associations between the physicochemical properties and pulmonary toxicity of characterized forms of TiO2. In the present study, we conducted intratracheal administration studies in rats to clarify the associations between the physicochemical characteristics of seven characterized forms of TiO2 and their acute or subacute pulmonary inflammatory toxicity. Examination of the associations between the physicochemical characteristics of the TiO2 and the pulmonary inflammatory responses they induced revealed (1 that differences in the crystallinity or shape of the TiO2 particles were not associated with the acute pulmonary inflammatory response; (2 that particle size was associated with the acute pulmonary inflammatory response; and (3 that TiO2 particles coated with Al(OH3 induced a greater pulmonary inflammatory response than did non-coated particles. We separated the seven TiO2 into two groups: a group containing the six TiO2 with no surface coating and a group containing the one TiO2 with a surface coating. Intratracheal administration to rats of TiO2 from the first group (i.e., non-coated TiO2 induced only acute pulmonary inflammatory responses, and within this group, the acute pulmonary inflammatory response was equivalent when the particle size was the same, regardless of crystallinity or shape. In contrast, intratracheal administration to rats of the TiO2 from the second group (i.e., the coated TiO2 induced a more severe, subacute pulmonary inflammatory response compared with that produced by the non-coated TiO2. Since alteration of the pulmonary inflammatory response by surface treatment may depend on the coating material used, the pulmonary toxicities of coated TiO2 need to be further evaluated. Overall, the present results demonstrate that physicochemical properties may be useful for predicting the

  10. [Acute heart failure: acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Marteles, Marta; Urrutia, Agustín

    2014-03-01

    Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock are two of the main forms of presentation of acute heart failure. Both entities are serious, with high mortality, and require early diagnosis and prompt and aggressive management. Acute pulmonary edema is due to the passage of fluid through the alveolarcapillary membrane and is usually the result of an acute cardiac episode. Correct evaluation and clinical identification of the process is essential in the management of acute pulmonary edema. The initial aim of treatment is to ensure hemodynamic stability and to correct hypoxemia. Other measures that can be used are vasodilators such as nitroglycerin, loop diuretics and, in specific instances, opioids. Cardiogenic shock is characterized by sustained hypoperfusion, pulmonary wedge pressure > 18 mmHg and a cardiac index 30 mmHg) and absent or reduced diuresis (acute myocardial infarction. Treatment consists of general measures to reverse acidosis and hypoxemia, as well as the use of vasopressors and inotropic drugs. Early coronary revascularization has been demonstrated to improve survival in shock associated with ischaemic heart disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute pulmonary edema after near strangulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumaker, D.; Kottamasu, S.; Preston, G.; Treloar, D.

    1988-01-01

    We report a case of acute, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema in an 11 year old boy who suffered strangulation during an altercation. The clinical presentation was characterized by moderate respiratory distress and hemoptysis. Both the radiographic and clinical findings resolved during the three day admission which followed. A review of the literature is presented, and possible pathogenesis is discussed. (orig.)

  12. Pulmonary toxicity of cytostatic drugs: cell kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witschi, H.; Godfrey, G.; Frome, E.; Lindenschmidt, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    Mice were treated with three cytostatic drugs: cyclophosphamide, busulfan, or 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). The alveolar labeling index was measured following drug administration with a pulse of 3 H-labeled thymidine and autoradiography. In cyclophosphamide-treated animals, peak alveolar cell proliferation was seen 5 days after injection of the drug. In animals treated with busulfan or BCNU, proliferation was even more delayed (occurring 2-3 weeks after administration). In contrast, with oleic acid, the highest alveolar cell labeling was found 2 days after intravenous administration. In animals exposed to a cytostatic drug, proliferation of type II alveolar cells was never a prominent feature whereas in animals treated with oleic acid there was an initial burst of type II cell proliferation. It is concluded that the patterns of pulmonary repair vary between chemicals designed to interfere with DNA replication as compared to agents which produce acute lung damage such as oleic acid

  13. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening results indicate the presence of saponins, flavonoids, phytosterols and phenols. Acute toxicity study showed there was no mortality at 8000 mg/kg of the extract. The results indicate that the plant is rich in phytochemicals and is relatively safe. Key words: Phytochemicals, acute toxicity, proximate ...

  14. Computerized tomography in acute toxic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Nobuhiko; Kaneshi, Kunio; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Kurihara, Eiji.

    1983-01-01

    We experienced three cases of acute toxic encephalopathy, including a case of probable Reye syndrome, which had similar and unique CT findings in their acute stage; symmetrical low density area in the thalamus and the dentate nucleus, followed by changes in cerebellar hemispheres and around lateral ventricles. The CT findings, common to probable Reye syndrome and other acute toxic encephalopathy, may suggest the possibility of similar pathogenesis of brain damage in both disorders. The authors propose that present cases are a new subgroup in acute toxic encephalopathy, because of their similar and unique CT features. (author)

  15. Chemical warfare agent and biological toxin-induced pulmonary toxicity: could stem cells provide potential therapies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Daniel J; Dorsey, Russell M; Willis, Kristen L; Hong, Charles; Moyer, Robert A; Oyler, Jonathan; Jensen, Neil S; Salem, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) as well as biological toxins present a significant inhalation injury risk to both deployed warfighters and civilian targets of terrorist attacks. Inhalation of many CWAs and biological toxins can induce severe pulmonary toxicity leading to the development of acute lung injury (ALI) as well as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The therapeutic options currently used to treat these conditions are very limited and mortality rates remain high. Recent evidence suggests that human stem cells may provide significant therapeutic options for ALI and ARDS in the near future. The threat posed by CWAs and biological toxins for both civilian populations and military personnel is growing, thus understanding the mechanisms of toxicity and potential therapies is critical. This review will outline the pulmonary toxic effects of some of the most common CWAs and biological toxins as well as the potential role of stem cells in treating these types of toxic lung injuries.

  16. Acute And Toxicity Effect of The Aqueous Extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    antidiarrhoeal, antimalarial and antitrypanosomal activities of plants-based products support this ... Experimental design for Acute toxicity Study: The acute toxicity study was .... Lorke, D. (1983). A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing.

  17. Predicting Pulmonary O2 Toxicity: A New Look at the Unit Pulmonary Toxicity Dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    beatl loeged# aNy ahepes in Vo was considered error. The assumptieo was shoe eapeova to a 10 below the "safe’! I02 should have produced se daeromeat...Naval Medical Research Institute SethesdolMO 20814-505b NMRI 86-52 December 1986 PREDICTING4 PULMONARY 0 2 TOXICITY: j k,, NEW LOOK AT THE UNIT...distribution is unlimited °Q0- C(-" Naval Medical Research LLj and Development Command ,, J Bethesda, Maryland 20814-5044 -4 • Department of the Navy Naval

  18. Negative spiral CT in acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, T.; Olausson, A. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Thoracic Radiology; Johnsson, H. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Internal Medicine; Nyman, U. [County Hospital, Trelleborg (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology; Aspelin, P. [Huddinge Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology

    2002-09-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the clinical outcome of non-anticoagulated patients with clinically suspected acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and no symptoms or signs of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) following a negative contrast medium-enhanced spiral CT of the pulmonary arteries (s-CTPA). Material and Methods: During a 24-month period, 739 of 751 patients underwent s-CTPA with acceptable diagnostic quality for clinically suspected acute PE. All patients who had a CT study not positive for PE were followed up with a questionnaire, a telephone interview and review of all medical reports, including autopsies and death certificates for any episodes of venous thromboembolism (VTE) during a 3-month period. Results: PE was diagnosed in 158 patients. Of the remaining 581 patients with a negative s-CTPA, 45 patients were lost to follow-up. 88 patients were excluded because of anticoagulation treatment (cardiac disorder n=32, chronic VTE or acute symptomatic DVT n=31, PE diagnosed at pulmonary angiography n=1, thrombus prophylaxis during diagnostic work-up or other reasons than VTE n=24) and 7 patients undergoing lower extremity venous studies because of symptoms of DVT (all negative). Thus, 441 patients with a negative s-CTPA and no DVT symptoms, venous studies or anticoagulant treatment constituted the follow-up cohort. Four of these patients had proven VTE (all PE) during the 3-month follow-up period. Two of the PE episodes contributed to the patient's death. Conclusion: Patients with clinically suspected acute PE, no symptoms or signs of DVT and a negative single slice s-CTPA using 3-5 mm collimation, may safely be left without anticoagulation treatment unless they are critically ill, have a limited cardiopulmonary reserve and/or if a high clinical suspicion remains.

  19. ACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES AND ANTIDOTAL THERAPY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES AND ANTIDOTAL THERAPY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF JATROPHA CURCAS SEEDS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS. ... with the aim of investigating the toxicity of the ethanol seed extract of JC in rats, mice, and chicks; and also to use conventional antidotes to treat intoxication in rats due to ...

  20. Oxidative stress-induced autophagy: Role in pulmonary toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaviya, Rama; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process important in regulating the turnover of essential proteins and in elimination of damaged organelles and protein aggregates. Autophagy is observed in the lung in response to oxidative stress generated as a consequence of exposure to environmental toxicants. Whether autophagy plays role in promoting cell survival or cytotoxicity is unclear. In this article recent findings on oxidative stress-induced autophagy in the lung are reviewed; potential mechanisms initiating autophagy are also discussed. A better understanding of autophagy and its role in pulmonary toxicity may lead to the development of new strategies to treat lung injury associated with oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Exposure to pulmonary toxicants is associated with oxidative stress. • Oxidative stress is known to induce autophagy. • Autophagy is upregulated in the lung following exposure to pulmonary toxicants. • Autophagy may be protective or pathogenic

  1. Oxidative stress-induced autophagy: Role in pulmonary toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaviya, Rama [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Debra L., E-mail: laskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process important in regulating the turnover of essential proteins and in elimination of damaged organelles and protein aggregates. Autophagy is observed in the lung in response to oxidative stress generated as a consequence of exposure to environmental toxicants. Whether autophagy plays role in promoting cell survival or cytotoxicity is unclear. In this article recent findings on oxidative stress-induced autophagy in the lung are reviewed; potential mechanisms initiating autophagy are also discussed. A better understanding of autophagy and its role in pulmonary toxicity may lead to the development of new strategies to treat lung injury associated with oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Exposure to pulmonary toxicants is associated with oxidative stress. • Oxidative stress is known to induce autophagy. • Autophagy is upregulated in the lung following exposure to pulmonary toxicants. • Autophagy may be protective or pathogenic.

  2. Therapeutic management of acute pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromeur, Cécile; Van Der Pol, Liselotte M; Couturaud, Francis; Klok, Frederikus A; Huisman, Menno V

    2017-08-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially fatal manifestation of venous thromboembolism. Prompt anticoagulant treatment is crucial for PE patients, which can decrease morbidity and mortality. Risk assessment is the cornerstone of the therapeutic management of PE. It guides physicians to the most appropriate treatment and selects patients for early discharge or home treatment. Areas covered: Here, we review the current treatments of acute PE according to contemporary risk stratification strategies, highlighting each step of PE therapeutic management. Expert commentary: Currently, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) represent the first-line therapy of patients presenting with non-high risk PE with a better risk-benefit ratios than vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) due to lower risk of major bleeding. Only high-risk patients with PE who present in shock should be treated with systematic thrombolysis, while surgical thrombectomy or catheter direct thrombolysis (CDT) should only be considered when thrombolysis is contraindicated because of too high bleeding risk.

  3. The acute pulmonary oedema in the intensive-care ward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciniak, R.; Aronski, A.

    1989-01-01

    760 patients suffering from acute pulmonary oedema were treated between 1980 and 1986 at the Institute of Anaesthesiology of the Medical Academy in Wroclaw. The radiological image of the pulmonary oedema was subdivided into three forms (hilar, hilar and perihilar, and hilar with massive plane-shaped infiltrates). In the treatment of acute pulmonary oedema in the intensive-care ward a thorough diagnostic programme is mandatory after the immediately necessary measures have been taken. (orig.) [de

  4. Pulmonary applications and toxicity of engineered nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Card, Jeffrey W.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Bonner, James C.; Nestmann, Earle R.

    2008-01-01

    Because of their unique physicochemical properties, engineered nanoparticles have the potential to significantly impact respiratory research and medicine by means of improving imaging capability and drug delivery, among other applications. These same properties, however, present potential safety concerns, and there is accumulating evidence to suggest that nanoparticles may exert adverse effects on pulmonary structure and function. The respiratory system is susceptible to injury resulting from...

  5. The establishment of animal model of acute massive pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Junliang; Yang Ning; Yang Jianping; Ma Junshan; Zhao Shijun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To find a way of establishing the model of acute massive pulmonary embolism in dog. Methods: Seven dogs were selected with self-clots made outside the body transferring through a 10 F guiding catheter into the central branch of pulmonary artery via the femoral vein approach on one side and then under pressure monitor of pulmonary artery until the very branch of pulmonary artery was occluded. Blood gas and pulmonary arterial pressure were tested before and after the embolization, Pulmonary artery pressure was continuously monitored together with the examinations of angiography. The bilateral lung specimens were resected for histological examination 12 hours in average after the embolization for comparative study. Results: One animal died of cardiogenic shock after clots injection; the other one presented with tachycardia and premature ventricular beat causing partial recanalization 12 h later. The others were occluded successfully in central branch of pulmonary artery and the pulmonary arterial pressure reached above 50 mmHg after occlusion. Pathologic examination showed the formation of red and mix thrombi within the vascular lumens. Conclusions: This method for making acute massive pulmonary embolism animal model was reliable, feasible and reproducible, and could provide an animal model of acute massive pulmonary embolism for other correlative experiments. (authors)

  6. Rapid Onset Acute Epiglottitis Leading to Negative Pressure Pulmonary Edema

    OpenAIRE

    V Saraswat; P V Madhu; Suresh S Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary edema is a potentially life-threatening complication of acute airway obstruction. It develops rapidly, without warning, in young healthy individuals. Two forms of post-obstructive pulmonary edema (POPE) (also known as negative pressure pulmonary edema, NPPE) have been identified. POPE I follows sudden, severe upper airway obstruction. POPE II occurs following surgical relief of chronic upper airway obstruction. Treatment for both is supportive. Full and rapid recovery can be expecte...

  7. Acute inhalation toxicity of carbonyl sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Hahn, F.F.; Barr, E.B. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS), a colorless gas, is a side product of industrial procedures sure as coal hydrogenation and gasification. It is structurally related to and is a metabolite of carbon disulfide. COS is metabolized in the body by carbonic anhydrase to hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), which is thought to be responsible for COS toxicity. No threshold limit value for COS has been established. Results of these studies indicate COS (with an LC{sub 50} of 590 ppm) is slightly less acutely toxic than H{sub 2}S (LC{sub 50} of 440 ppm).

  8. Acute toxicity from baking soda ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S H; Stone, C K

    1994-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is an extremely well-known agent that historically has been used for a variety of medical conditions. Despite the widespread use of oral bicarbonate, little documented toxicity has occurred, and the emergency medicine literature contains no reports of toxicity caused by the ingestion of baking soda. Risks of acute and chronic oral bicarbonate ingestion include metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypertension, gastric rupture, hyporeninemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, intravascular volume depletion, and urinary alkalinization. Abrupt cessation of chronic excessive bicarbonate ingestion may result in hyperkalemia, hypoaldosteronism, volume contraction, and disruption of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The case of a patient with three hospital admissions in 4 months, all the result of excessive oral intake of bicarbonate for symptomatic relief of dyspepsia is reported. Evaluation and treatment of patients with acute bicarbonate ingestion is discussed.

  9. Predictive acute toxicity tests with pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V K

    1983-01-01

    By definition pesticides are biocidal products and this implies a probability that pesticides may be acutely toxic to species other than the designated target species. The ways in which pesticides are manufactured, formulated, packaged, distributed and used necessitates a potential for the exposure of non-target species although the technology exists to minimize adventitious exposure. The occurrence of deliberate exposure of non-target species due to the misuse of pesticides is known to happen. The array of predictive acute toxicity tests carried out on pesticides and involving the use of laboratory animals can be justified as providing data on which hazard assessment can be based. This paper addresses the justification and rationale of this statement.

  10. Prognostic factors in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Conte, P; Coutant, V; N'Guyen, J M; Baron, D; Touze, M D; Potel, G

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical and biological findings at admission in the Department of Emergency Medicine associated with a poor prognosis, and to evaluate early response to treatment as a prognostic factor. It was a prospective cohort study with a 5-month follow-up. One hundred eighty-six patients admitted for acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema were included. Features were analyzed at the admission and on response to initial treatment. The main outcome measure was survival at 2 end-points: hospital discharge, and 5 months of follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed that in-hospital mortality was associated with marbleization (mottling) odd-ratio (OR) = 9.0), low diuresis (OR = 4.0), high breath rate 6 hours after admission (OR = 4.0), and chronic digoxin use (OR = 3.39). Five-month mortality was associated with a bedridden state (OR = 9.0), marbleization (mottling) (OR = 5.5), myocardial infarction (OR = 3), and poor early response to initial treatment (OR = 3.2). In addition to well-known factors, the response to initial treatment evaluated 6 hours after admission was a major determinant of outcome.

  11. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for acute pulmonary emboli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witte, H.; Grabbe, E.; Buecheler, E.

    1983-01-01

    The results of 49 DSAs (in 29 patients) are presented; these were performed for the diagnosis or follow-up of pulmonary emboli. The direct or indirect signs of pulmonary emboli, known to occur during conventional pulmonary angiography, were used as diagnostic criteria. In 47 examinations it was possible to make or to exclude the diagnosis unequivocally. The advantages of DSA make it desirable to use this method as the first form of examination in the diagnosis of acute, but not immediately life-threatening, pulmonary emboli. (orig.) [de

  12. Rapid Onset Acute Epiglottitis Leading to Negative Pressure Pulmonary Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Saraswat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary edema is a potentially life-threatening complication of acute airway obstruction. It develops rapidly, without warning, in young healthy individuals. Two forms of post-obstructive pulmonary edema (POPE (also known as negative pressure pulmonary edema, NPPE have been identified. POPE I follows sudden, severe upper airway obstruction. POPE II occurs following surgical relief of chronic upper airway obstruction. Treatment for both is supportive. Full and rapid recovery can be expected with appropriate management. A case report of a middle aged man with acute onset epiglottitis who developed negative pressure pulmonary edema after intubation is presented. The report includes a brief discussion on etiology, clinical features and management dilemma of acute upper airway obstruction.

  13. CT pulmonary angiography findings that predict 30-day mortality in patients with acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, Andreas Gunter, E-mail: mail@andreas-bach.de [Department of Radiology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Ernst-Grube-Str. 40, 06120 Halle (Germany); Nansalmaa, Baasai; Kranz, Johanna [Department of Radiology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Ernst-Grube-Str. 40, 06120 Halle (Germany); Taute, Bettina-Maria [Department of Internal Medicine, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Ernst-Grube-Str. 40, 06120 Halle (Germany); Wienke, Andreas [Institute of Medical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Informatics, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Magdeburger-Str. 8, 06112 Halle (Germany); Schramm, Dominik; Surov, Alexey [Department of Radiology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Ernst-Grube-Str. 40, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • In patients with acute pulmonary embolism contrast reflux in inferior vena cava is significantly stronger in non-survivors (odds ratio 3.29; p < 0.001). • This finding is independent from the following comorbidities: heart insufficiency and pulmonary hypertension. • Measurement of contrast reflux is a new and robust radiologic method for predicting 30-day mortality in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. • Measurement of contrast reflux is a better predictor of 30-day mortality after acute pulmonary embolism than any other existing radiologic predictor. This includes thrombus distribution, and morphometric measurements of right ventricular dysfunction. - Abstract: Purpose: Standard computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) can be used to diagnose acute pulmonary embolism. In addition, multiple findings at CTPA have been proposed as potential tools for risk stratification. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine the prognostic value of (I) thrombus distribution, (II) morphometric parameters of right ventricular dysfunction, and (III) contrast reflux in inferior vena cava on 30-day mortality. Material and methods: In a retrospective, single-center study from 06/2005 to 01/2010 365 consecutive patients were included. Inclusion criteria were: presence of acute pulmonary embolism, and availability of 30-day follow-up. A review of patient charts and images was performed. Results: There were no significant differences between the group of 326 survivors and 39 non-survivors in (I) thrombus distribution, and (II) morphometric measurements of right ventricular dysfunction. However, (III) contrast reflux in inferior vena cava was significantly stronger in non-survivors (odds ratio 3.29; p < 0.001). Results were independent from comorbidities like heart insufficiency and pulmonary hypertension. Conclusion: Measurement of contrast reflux is a new and robust method for predicting 30-day mortality in patients with acute pulmonary

  14. A Challenging Case of Acute Mercury Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nayfeh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mercury exists in multiple forms: elemental, organic, and inorganic. Its toxic manifestations depend on the type and magnitude of exposure. The role of colonoscopic decompression in acute mercury toxicity is still unclear. We present a case of acute elemental mercury toxicity secondary to mercury ingestion, which markedly improved with colonoscopic decompression. Clinical Case. A 54-year-old male presented to the ED five days after ingesting five ounces (148 cubic centimeters of elemental mercury. Examination was only significant for a distended abdomen. Labs showed elevated serum and urine mercury levels. An abdominal radiograph showed radiopaque material throughout the colon. Succimer and laxatives were initiated. The patient had recurrent bowel movements, and serial radiographs showed interval decrease of mercury in the descending colon with interval increase in the cecum and ascending colon. Colonoscopic decompression was done successfully. The colon was evacuated, and a repeat radiograph showed decreased hyperdense material in the colon. Three months later, a repeat radiograph showed no hyperdense material in the colon. Conclusion. Ingested elemental mercury can be retained in the colon. Although there are no established guidelines for colonoscopic decompression, our patient showed significant improvement. We believe further studies on this subject are needed to guide management practices.

  15. Acute Liver Failure Secondary to Niacin Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Ellsworth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 17-year-old male was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit for evaluation of acute liver failure. He was recently released from an alcohol treatment center with acute onset of chest pain. Cardiac workup was negative but he was found to have abnormal coagulation studies and elevated liver transaminases. Other evaluations included a normal toxicology screen and negative acetaminophen level. Autoimmune and infectious workups were normal providing no identifiable cause of his acute liver failure. He initially denied any ingestions or illicit drug use but on further query he admitted taking niacin in an attempt to obscure the results of an upcoming drug test. Niacin has been touted on the Internet as an aid to help pass urine drug tests though there is no evidence to support this practice. Niacin toxicity has been associated with serious multisystem organ failure and fulminant hepatic failure requiring liver transplantation. Pediatric providers should be aware of the risks associated with niacin toxicity and other experimental medical therapies that may be described on the Internet or other nonreputable sources.

  16. Pulmonary hypertension due to acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Ñamendys-Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Our aims were to describe the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, to characterize their hemodynamic cardiopulmonary profiles, and to correlate these parameters with outcome. All consecutive patients over 16 years of age who were in the intensive care unit with a diagnosis of ARDS and an in situ pulmonary artery catheter for hemodynamic monitoring were studied. Pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed when the mean pulmonary artery pressure was >25 mmHg at rest with a pulmonary artery occlusion pressure or left atrial pressure <15 mmHg. During the study period, 30 of 402 critically ill patients (7.46% who were admitted to the ICU fulfilled the criteria for ARDS. Of the 30 patients with ARDS, 14 met the criteria for pulmonary hypertension, a prevalence of 46.6% (95% CI; 28-66%. The most common cause of ARDS was pneumonia (56.3%. The overall mortality was 36.6% and was similar in patients with and without pulmonary hypertension. Differences in patients' hemodynamic profiles were influenced by the presence of pulmonary hypertension. The levels of positive end-expiratory pressure and peak pressure were higher in patients with pulmonary hypertension, and the PaCO2 was higher in those who died. The level of airway pressure seemed to influence the onset of pulmonary hypertension. Survival was determined by the severity of organ failure at admission to the intensive care unit.

  17. Acute toxic neuropathy mimicking guillain barre syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Case: A 30 year old male presented with numbness of palms and soles followed by weakness of upper limbs and lower limbs of 5 days duration, which was ascending and progressive. Three months back he was treated for oral and genital ulcers with oral steroids. His ulcers improved and shifted to indigenous medication. His clinical examination showed polyneuropathy. CSF study did not show albuminocytological dissociation. Nerve conduction study showed demyelinating polyneuropathy. His blood samples and the ayurvedic drug samples were sent for toxicological analysis. Inference: Acute toxic neuropathy - Arsenic

  18. Evaluation of pulmonary artery flow in acute massive pulmonary thromboembolism with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongzhong; Li Kuncheng; Zhao Xigang; Zhao Hong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To probe into the value of MR imaging in evaluating the pulmonary artery hemodynamics and pulmonary artery pressure in acute massive pulmonary embolism. Methods: MR studies were performed in 21 patients with acute massive pulmonary embolism (diagnosed by contrast enhanced MR pulmonary angiography) and 20 healthy volunteers. The pulmonary artery hemodynamic parameters, such as the diameters of main and right pulmonary artery, peak velocity, average velocity, flow volume, flow patterns, and ejection acceleration time in main pulmonary artery were measured. The findings in patients and volunteers were compared. The hemodynamic parameters in patients were correlated with mean pulmonary artery pressure acquired with right heart catheterization. Results: The diameters of main pulmonary artery (2.93 vs 2.52 cm) and right pulmonary artery (2.49 vs 1.92 cm) in patients and volunteers showed significant differences (t=3.55, P<0.01 and t=4.19, P<0.01, respectively); Peak velocity (85.29 vs 100.63 cm/s), average velocity (11.00 vs 17.12 cm/s), flow volume (89.15 vs 98.96 ml/s), and ejection acceleration time (105.09 vs 163.85 ms) in main pulmonary artery were significantly different between patients and volunteers (t values were 2.89, 6.37, 2.21, and 9.46, respectively; P values were 0.01, <0.01, 0.03, and <0.01, respectively). The peak velocity-time curve of main pulmonary artery acquired with velocity encoded cine of MR in patients demonstrated earlier and lower peak velocity as well as abnormal retrograde flow. In addition, linear correlations were seen between the mean pulmonary pressure and the diameter of main pulmonary artery (r=0.62, P=0.001), diameter of right pulmonary artery (r=0.63, P=0.001), and ejection acceleration time (r=-0.55, P=0.005). Conclusion: MR imaging is a promising technique not only for the detection of pulmonary thromboemboli but also for the evaluation of hemodynamic parameters in pulmonary hypertension. (author)

  19. Establishment of selected acute pulmonary thromboembolism model in experimental sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Jihai; Gu Xiulian; Chao Shengwu; Zhang Peng; Fan Ruilin; Wang Li'na; Wang Lulu; Wang Ling; Li Bo; Chen Taotao

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To establish a selected acute pulmonary thromboembolism model in experimental sheep suitable for animal experiment. Methods: By using Seldinger's technique the catheter sheath was placed in both the femoral vein and femoral artery in ten sheep. Under C-arm DSA guidance the catheter was inserted through the catheter sheath into the pulmonary artery. Via the catheter appropriate amount of sheep autologous blood clots was injected into the selected pulmonary arteries. The selected acute pulmonary thromboembolism model was thus established. Pulmonary angiography was performed to check the results. The pulmonary arterial pressure, femoral artery pressure,heart rates and partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO 2 ) were determined both before and after the treatment. The above parameters obtained after the procedure were compared with the recorded parameters measured before the procedure, and the sheep model quality was evaluated. Results: The baseline of pulmonary arterial pressure was (27.30 ± 9.58) mmHg,femoral artery pressure was (126.4 ± 13.72) mmHg, heart rate was (103 ± 15) bpm and PaO 2 was (87.7 ± 12.04) mmHg. Sixty minutes after the injection of (30 ± 5) ml thrombotic agglomerates, the pulmonary arterial pressures rose to (52 ± 49) mmHg, femoral artery pressures dropped to (100 ± 21) mmHg. The heart rates went up to (150 ± 26) bpm. The PaO 2 fell to (25.3 ± 11.2) mmHg. After the procedure the above parameters were significantly different from that measured before the procedure in all ten animals (P < 0.01). The pulmonary arteriography clearly demonstrated that the selected pulmonary arteries were successfully embolized. Conclusion: The anatomy of sheep's femoral veins,vena cava system, pulmonary artery and right heart system are suitable for the establishment of the catheter passage, for this reason, selected acute pulmonary thromboembolism model can be easily created in experimental sheep. The technique is feasible and the model

  20. Histopathological Study of Cyclosporine Pulmonary Toxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Said Elshama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporine is considered one of the common worldwide immunosuppressive drugs that are used for allograft rejection prevention. However, articles that address adverse effects of cyclosporine use on the vital organs such as lung are still few. This study aims to investigate pulmonary toxic effect of cyclosporine in rats by assessment of pulmonary histopathological changes using light and electron microscope examination. Sixty male adult albino rats were divided into three groups; each group consists of twenty rats. The first received physiological saline while the second and third groups received 25 and 40 mg/kg/day of cyclosporine, respectively, by gastric gavage for forty-five days. Cyclosporine reduced the lung and body weight with shrinkage or pyknotic nucleus of pneumocyte type II, degeneration of alveoli and interalveolar septum beside microvilli on the alveolar surface, emphysema, inflammatory cellular infiltration, pulmonary blood vessels congestion, and increase of fibrous tissues in the interstitial tissues and around alveoli with negative Periodic Acid-Schiff staining. Prolonged use of cyclosporine induced pulmonary ultrastructural and histopathological changes with the lung and body weight reduction depending on its dose.

  1. Determination of leachate toxicity through acute toxicity using Daphnia pulex and anaerobic toxicity assays

    OpenAIRE

    Carabalí-Rivera, Y. S; Barba-Ho, L. E; Torres-Lozada, P

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The municipal solid waste (MSW) of large cities, in particular the ones of developing countries, is mainly disposed in landfills (LFs), whose inadequate management generates the emission of greenhouse gases and the production of leachates with high concentrations of organic and inorganic matter and, occasionally heavy metals. In this study, the toxicity of the leachates from an intermediate-age municipal landfill was evaluated by ecotoxicity and anaerobic toxicity tests. The acute to...

  2. Tomotherapy for prostate adenocarcinoma: A report on acute toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiler, Louis; Dobbins, Donald; Kulasekere, Ravi; Einstein, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: To analyze the impact of Tomotherapy (TOMO) intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) on acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity in prostate cancer. Materials and methods: The records of 55 consecutively treated TOMO patients were reviewed. Additionally a well-matched group of 43 patients treated with LINAC-based step and shoot IMRT (LINAC) was identified. Acute toxicity was scored according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute toxicity criterion. Results: The grade 2-3 acute GU toxicity rates for the TOMO vs. LINAC groups were 51% vs. 28% (p = 0.001). Acute grade 2 GI toxicity was 25% vs. 40% (p = 0.024), with no grade 3 GI toxicity in either group. In univariate analysis, androgen deprivation, prostate volume, pre-treatment urinary toxicity, and prostate dose homogeneity correlated with acute GI and GU toxicity. With multivariate analysis use of Tomotherapy, median bladder dose and bladder dose homogeneity remained significantly correlated with GU toxicity. Conclusions: Acute GI toxicity for prostate cancer is improved with Tomotherapy at a cost of increased acute GU toxicity possibly due to differences in bladder and prostate dose distribution

  3. Extensive review of fish embryo acute toxicities for the prediction of GHS acute systemic toxicity categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Stefan; Ortmann, Julia; Klüver, Nils; Léonard, Marc

    2014-08-01

    Distribution and marketing of chemicals require appropriate labelling of health, physical and environmental hazards according to the United Nations global harmonisation system (GHS). Labelling for (human) acute toxicity categories is based on experimental findings usually obtained by oral, dermal or inhalative exposure of rodents. There is a strong societal demand for replacing animal experiments conducted for safety assessment of chemicals. Fish embryos are considered as alternative to animal testing and are proposed as predictive model both for environmental and human health effects. Therefore, we tested whether LC50s of the fish embryo acute toxicity test would allow effectively predicting of acute mammalian toxicity categories. A database of published fish embryo LC50 containing 641 compounds was established. For these compounds corresponding rat oral LD50 were identified resulting in 364 compounds for which both fish embryo LC50 and rat LD50 was available. Only a weak correlation of fish embryo LC50 and rat oral LD50 was obtained. Fish embryos were also not able to effectively predict GHS oral acute toxicity categories. We concluded that due to fundamental exposure protocol differences (single oral dose versus water-borne exposure) a reverse dosimetry approach is needed to explore the predictive capacity of fish embryos. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Methotrexate-induced acute toxic leukoencephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag R Salkade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is one of the most common malignancies of childhood, which is treated with high doses of methotrexate (MTX, as it crosses the blood-brain barrier and can be administered intravenously and via intrathecal route to eradicate leukemic cells from central nervous system (CNS. Additionally, high doses of MTX not only prevent CNS recurrence but also hematologic relapses. Although, standard treatment protocol for ALL includes multimodality therapy, MTX is usually associated with neurotoxicity and affects periventricular deep white matter region. Methotrexate-induced ′acute toxic leukoencephalopathy′ has varying clinical manifestations ranging from acute neurological deficit to seizures or encephalopathy. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI is widely available and routinely used in clinical practice to identify acute stroke and also to distinguish acute stroke from non-stroke like conditions. We report a local teenage Chinese girl who developed 2 discrete episodes of left upper and lower limb weakness with left facial nerve paresis after receiving the 2 nd and 3 rd cycle of high dose of intravenous and intrathecal methotrexate, without having cranial irradiation. After each episode of her neurological deficit, the DW-MRI scan showed focal restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale. Her left sided focal neurological deficit and facial nerve paresis almost completely subsided on both these occasions within 3 days of symptom onset. Follow-up DW-MRI, after her neurological recovery, revealed almost complete resolution of previously noted restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale, while the lesion was not evident on concurrent T2W (T2-weighted and FLAIR (Fluid-Attenuated Inversion recovery sequences, nor showed any post contrast enhancement on post gadolinium enhanced T1W (T1-weighted sequences. No residual neurological deficit or intellectual impairment was identified on clinical follow up

  5. Antioxidant activity and acute toxicity of Neoglaziovia variegata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total phenolics content of the extracts was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid was also determined. The most ... of low toxicity. Keywords: Antioxidant activity, acute toxicity, Neoglaziovia variegata, Bromeliaceae ...

  6. GHS additivity formula: can it predict the acute systemic toxicity of agrochemical formulations that contain acutely toxic ingredients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cott, Andrew; Hastings, Charles E; Landsiedel, Robert; Kolle, Susanne; Stinchcombe, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    In vivo acute systemic testing is a regulatory requirement for agrochemical formulations. GHS specifies an alternative computational approach (GHS additivity formula) for calculating the acute toxicity of mixtures. We collected acute systemic toxicity data from formulations that contained one of several acutely-toxic active ingredients. The resulting acute data set includes 210 formulations tested for oral toxicity, 128 formulations tested for inhalation toxicity and 31 formulations tested for dermal toxicity. The GHS additivity formula was applied to each of these formulations and compared with the experimental in vivo result. In the acute oral assay, the GHS additivity formula misclassified 110 formulations using the GHS classification criteria (48% accuracy) and 119 formulations using the USEPA classification criteria (43% accuracy). With acute inhalation, the GHS additivity formula misclassified 50 formulations using the GHS classification criteria (61% accuracy) and 34 formulations using the USEPA classification criteria (73% accuracy). For acute dermal toxicity, the GHS additivity formula misclassified 16 formulations using the GHS classification criteria (48% accuracy) and 20 formulations using the USEPA classification criteria (36% accuracy). This data indicates the acute systemic toxicity of many formulations is not the sum of the ingredients' toxicity (additivity); but rather, ingredients in a formulation can interact to result in lower or higher toxicity than predicted by the GHS additivity formula. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Primary extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma of pulmonary arteries: a rare mimic of acute pulmonary thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadabanahalli, Karthik; Belaval, Vinay V; Bhat, Venkatraman; Gorur, Imran M

    2015-04-01

    Primary extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma of the pulmonary arteries is a very rare entity. Multimodality imaging reports on this entity are few. Myxoid chondrosarcoma is characterized by chondroid and neurogenic differentiation in extraskeletal locations. These tumours represent fewer than 2.5% of all soft-tissue sarcomas, and are most commonly found in the lower extremities, limb girdles, distal extremities and trunk. We report an unusual case of a 31-year old man with histopathologically proven extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma of the pulmonary arteries mimicking acute pulmonary thromboembolism. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute and chronic systemic chromium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, S C

    1989-10-01

    Although chromium and compounds containing it have been recognized as having potential severe adverse effects on health for more than 160 years, understanding of the systemic toxicology and true hazard of these compounds is still not complete. A review of the current state of knowledge is attempted in this paper, with appropriate attention given to the complications of multiple valence states and solubility. Selected chromium compounds, particularly hexavalent ones, are carcinogens, corrosives, delayed contact sensitizers, and have the kidney as their primary target organ. But chromium is also an essential element for humans. The body clearly possesses some effective detoxification mechanisms for some degree of exposure to hexavalent chrome compounds. The significant features of acute and chronic chromium toxicity are presented in view of these considerations.

  9. Pharmacologic treatment of acute pediatric methamphetamine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruha, Anne-Michelle; Yarema, Mark C

    2006-12-01

    To report our experience with the use of benzodiazepines and haloperidol for sedation of pediatric patients with acute methamphetamine poisoning. We performed a retrospective chart review of 18 pediatric patients who were admitted to an intensive care unit for methamphetamine toxicity from January 1997 to October 2004 and treated with benzodiazepines or haloperidol. Clinical features, dose of drug received, and laboratory test results were noted. Adverse effects from the use of haloperidol such as prolonged QTc, dystonic reactions, and torsades de pointes were recorded. Eighteen patients received a benzodiazepine, the dose of which varied depending on the agent used. Twelve patients also received parenteral haloperidol. No complications developed from the use of either haloperidol or benzodiazepines. In this case series of pediatric patients poisoned with methamphetamine, parenteral benzodiazepines and haloperidol were used to control agitation. No serious adverse effects were observed from the use of these agents.

  10. Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juheini Amin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves. Preminelary experiment showed that ethanolic extract ofgandarusa leaves (Justicia gendarussa Burm. could decreased uric acid blood level on rats. The aim of this experimentwas to determine of the value LD50 and liver function based on activities of aminotransferase. Animals test which wereused in this experiment were 50 males and 50 females white mice. They were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 as controlgroup was given aquadest. Group 2-5 were treated by ethanolic extract of gandarusa leaves with dosage 4, 8, 16, and 32g/kg bw. The LD50 value was determined by the amount of death in group during 24 hours after giving a single dose oftest substance. The result showed that the highest dose was practically non toxic with LD50 value of 31.99 g/kg bw(male groups and 27.85 g/kg bw (female groups. Measurement of aminotransferase activity was done by usingcolorimetric method. The result of ANOVA analysis for liver function showed that the giving test substance 4 g/kg bw–16 g/kg bw was not significantly different between treated groups and control group.

  11. Acute pulmonary embolism. Part 1: Epidemiology and diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, Renée A.; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.; Büller, Harry R.

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a frequently occurring, acute, and potentially fatal condition. Numerous risk factors for PE, both inherited and acquired, have been identified. Adequate diagnosis is mandatory to prevent PE-related morbidity and mortality on the one hand, and unnecessary treatment on the

  12. Pathophysiology of acute mountain sickness and high altitude pulmonary oedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sutton, J R; Lassen, N

    1979-01-01

    We review the evidence that acute mountain sickness (AMS) and high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) occur together more often than is realized. We hypothesize that AMS and HAPO have a common pathophysiological basis: both are due to increased pressure and flow in the microcirculation, causing...

  13. Acute toxicity of chemoradiation for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedel, C.; Fietkau, R.; Keilholz, L.; Grabenbauer, G.G.; Kessler, H.; Martus, P.; Sauer, R.

    1997-01-01

    Between 1987 and 1995, 120 patients with rectal cancer (73 patients with primary tumor, 47 with recurrent disease) received chemoradiation for rectal cancer. Fifty-six patients received preoperative chemoradiation, 64 patients were treated postoperatively. Radiation was given by 4-field box technique with 6 to 10 MV-photons. Daily fraction size was 1.8 Gy, total dose 50.4 Gy (range: 41,4 to 56 Gy) ± 5.4 Gy (range: 3.6 to 19.8 Gy) local boost in selected cases, specified to the ICRU reference point. During the first and fifth week of radiation 5-FU at a dose of 1000 m 2 /d for 120 hours was administered by continuous infusion. Toxicity was recorded following (modified) WHO-criteria. Results: Acute grade 3 toxicity occurred mainly as diarrhea (33%), perineal skin reaction (37%), and leukopenia (10%). Extension of the treatment volume including paraaortic lymph nodes (L3) led to a significant increase of grade 3-diarrhea (68% vs. 25%, p = 0.0003) and grade 3-leukopenia (18% vs. 8%, p 0.03). After abdominoperineal resection less patients suffered from grade 3-diarrhea (8% vs. 47% after sphincter preserving procedures, p = 0.0006), whereas severe perineal erythema occurred more frequently (56% vs. 29%, p 0.02). Women had significantly more toxic side effects (grade 3-diarrhea: 39% vs. 16% in men, p = 0,04; grade 2 to 3-nausea/emesis: 21% vs 8% in men, p 0.018; grade 2 to 3-leukopenia 53% vs. 31% in men, p = 0.02). After preoperative chemoradiation a significant reduction of grade 3-diarrhea (11% vs 29%, p 0.03) and grade 3-erythema (16% vs. 41%, p = 0.04) was noted. (orig./AJ) [de

  14. Bosutinib induced pleural effusions: Case report and review of tyrosine kinase inhibitors induced pulmonary toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia I. Moguillansky, MD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are known to cause pulmonary complications. We report a case of bosutinib related bilateral pleural effusions in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia. Characteristics of the pleural fluid are presented. We also discuss other tyrosine kinase inhibitors induced pulmonary toxicities, including pulmonary hypertension and interstitial lung disease.

  15. Pulmonary toxicity of well-dispersed cerium oxide nanoparticles following intratracheal instillation and inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Yasuo, E-mail: yasuom@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Izumi, Hiroto; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Tomonaga, Taisuke; Oyabu, Takako; Myojo, Toshihiko; Kawai, Kazuaki; Yatera, Kazuhiro [University of Occupational and Environmental Health (Japan); Shimada, Manabu; Kubo, Masaru [Hiroshima University (Japan); Yamamoto, Kazuhiro [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) (Japan); Kitajima, Shinichi [National Sanatorium Hoshizuka Keiaien (Japan); Kuroda, Etsushi [Osaka University, Laboratory of Vaccine Science, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center (Japan); Kawaguchi, Kenji; Sasaki, Takeshi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    We performed inhalation and intratracheal instillation studies of cerium dioxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles in order to investigate their pulmonary toxicity, and observed pulmonary inflammation not only in the acute and but also in the chronic phases. In the intratracheal instillation study, F344 rats were exposed to 0.2 mg or 1 mg of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Cell analysis and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analyzed from 3 days to 6 months following the instillation. In the inhalation study, rats were exposed to the maximum concentration of inhaled CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles (2, 10 mg/m{sup 3}, respectively) for 4 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). The same endpoints as in the intratracheal instillation study were examined from 3 days to 3 months after the end of the exposure. The intratracheal instillation of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles caused a persistent increase in the total and neutrophil number in BALF and in the concentration of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, CINC-2, chemokine for neutrophil, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an oxidative stress marker, in BALF during the observation time. The inhalation of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles also induced a persistent influx of neutrophils and expression of CINC-1, CINC-2, and HO-1 in BALF. Pathological features revealed that inflammatory cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, invaded the alveolar space in both studies. Taken together, the CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles induced not only acute but also chronic inflammation in the lung, suggesting that CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles have a pulmonary toxicity that can lead to irreversible lesions.

  16. Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis triggered by Aspergillus empyema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Suzuki

    Full Text Available Acute exacerbation (AE is a severe and life-threatening complication of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. In 2016, the definition and diagnostic criteria for AE-IPF were updated by an international working group. The new definition includes any acute, clinically significant respiratory deterioration (both idiopathic and triggered events characterized by evidence of new widespread alveolar abnormality in patients with IPF. There are no currently proven beneficial management strategies for idiopathic and triggered AE-IPF. This is the first report describing AE-IPF triggered by Aspergillus empyema, which was improved by a combination of corticosteroid, systemic antifungal therapy, local antifungal therapy, and additional pharmacological therapies. Future research may reveal optimal strategies for both idiopathic and triggered AE-IPF. Keywords: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Acute exacerbation, AE-IPF, Triggered AE, Aspergillus infection

  17. Multidetector-row computed tomography management of acute pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Takahiro; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Terada, Jiro

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness and safety of multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) pulmonary angiography and indirect venography management of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), including indication for inferior vena cava (IVC) filter. Seventy-one consecutive patients who were clinically suspected of PE and underwent 16-slice MDCT pulmonary angiography and indirect venography were enrolled. Management included indication of IVC filter for patients with extensive deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in submassive or massive PE. A right ventricular to left ventricular short-axis diameter by MDCT >1.0 was judged as submassive PE. All patients were followed for 1 year. MDCT identified 50 patients with venous thromboembolism and 47 patients had acute PE: 4 were judged as massive, 14 as submassive, and 29 as non-massive by MDCT; 3 patients had DVT alone and 7 patients had caval or iliac DVT. Only 1 patient with massive PE and DVT near the right atrium died of recurrence. No other patients died of PE. Management based on MDCT pulmonary angiography combined with indirect venography is considered to be safe and reliable in patients with suspected acute PE. (author)

  18. [PREVENTION AND CORRECTION OF PULMONARY COMPLICATIONS FOR SEVERE ACUTE PANCREATITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorkiv, M B

    2015-06-01

    Increased of proinflammatory cytokines levels, including interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on severe acute pancreatitis causes vasodilatation, increased permeability of the wall, accumulation of fluid in lung tissue and pleural sinuses. Transudate from acute parapancreatyc clusters of hot liquid and abdomen falls into the chest cavity through microscopic defects in the diaphragm due to the formation of pathological pleural-peritoneal connections or the relevant pressure gradient between the abdominal and pleural cavities. Remediation and removal of acute parapancreatyc clusters combined with the use of a multicomponent drug infusion therapy Cytoflavin provide a reduction in the frequency of pulmonary complications of acute pancreatitis from 48.3 to 31.0%. Use of the drug Cytoflavin reduces the severity of endogenous intoxication and mortality from acute lung injury from 12.9 to 6.1%.

  19. Acute Lidocaine Toxicity: a Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Rahimi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parenteral form of lidocaine is the best-known source of lidocaine poisoning. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of acute lidocaine toxicity.Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory findings, and outcome of patients intoxicated with lidocaine (based on  ICD10 codes admitted to Loghman Hakim Hospital, during April 2007 to March 2014 were analyzed.Results: 30 cases with the mean age of 21.83 ± 6.57 year were studied (60% male. All subjects had used either 6.5% lidocaine spray or 2% topical formulations of lidocaine. The mean consumed dose of lidocaine was 465 ± 318.17 milligrams. The most frequent clinical presentations were nausea and vomiting (50%, seizure (33.3%, and loss of consciousness (16.7%. 22 (73.3% cases had normal sinus rhythm, 4 (13.3% bradycardia, 2 (6.7% ventricular tachycardia, and 2 (6.7% had left axis deviation. 11 (36.6% cases were intubated and admitted to intensive care unit (ICU for 6.91 ± 7.16 days. Three patients experienced status epilepticus that led to cardiac arrest, and death (all cases with suicidal intention.Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, most cases of topical lidocaine toxicity were among < 40-year-old patients with a male to female ratio of 1.2, with suicidal attempt in 90%, need for intensive care in 36.6%, and  mortality rate of 10%.

  20. Potential Occupational Risks Associated with Pulmonary Toxicity of Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manke, Amruta; Luanpitpong, Sudjit; Rojanasakul, Yon

    Given their remarkable properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have made their way through various industrial and medicinal applications and the overall production of CNTs is expected to grow rapidly in the next few years, thus requiring an additional recruitment of workers. However, their unique applications and desirable properties are fraught with concerns regarding occupational exposure. The concern about worker exposure to CNTs arises from the results of recent animal studies. Short-term and sub-chronic exposure studies in rodents have shown consistent adverse health effects such as pulmonary inflammation, granulomas, fibrosis, genotoxicity and mesothelioma after inhalation or instillation of several types of CNTs. Furthermore, physicochemical properties of CNTs such as dispersion, functionalization and particle size can significantly affect their pulmonary toxicity. Risk estimates from animal studies necessitate implementation of protective measures to limit worker exposure to CNTs. Information on workplace exposure is very limited, however, studies have reported that CNTs can be aerosolized and attain respirable airborne levels during synthesis and processing activities in the workplace. Quantitative risk assessments from sub-chronic animal studies recommend the health-based need to reduce exposures below the recommended exposure limit of 1 µg/m 3 . Practice of prevention measures including the use of engineering controls, personal protective equipment, health surveillance program, safe handling and use, as well as worker training can significantly minimize worker exposure and improve worker health and safety.

  1. Acute oral toxicity test of chemical compounds in silkworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Kimihito; Nishida, Satoshi; Sugita, Takuya; Ueki, Takuro; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Okumura, Hidenobu; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-02-01

    This study performed an acute oral toxicity test of 59 compounds in silkworms. These compounds are listed in OECD guidelines as standard substances for a cytotoxicity test, and median lethal dose (LD(50)) werecalculated for each compound. Acute oral LD(50) values in mammals are listed in OECD guidelines and acute oral LD(50) values in silkworms were determined in this study. R(2) for the correlation between LD(50) values in mammals and LD(50) values in silkworms was 0.66. In addition, the acute oral toxicity test in silkworms was performed by two different facilities, and test results from the facilities were highly reproducible. These findings suggest that an acute oral toxicity test in silkworms is a useful way to evaluate the toxicity of compounds in mammals.

  2. Metal toxicity- a possible cause of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, M.S.; Gilani, R.

    2011-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a fatal disease of unknown etiology. Attempts are being made in the world to understand the disease mechanism by knowing its causes. Present research is a part to that contribution. Concentrations of some toxic metals were estimated in the blood and lung tissues of the persons diagnosed to be the subject of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. IPF subjects were selected for this purpose which was admitted in different hospitals in Lahore. Blood samples were taken directly from the patients whereas lung tissue samples were collected from the relevant biopsy labs. Three control blood samples were also collected from healthy persons. The samples were digested with Conc. HNO/sub 3/ to make their solutions for the estimation of metals. The metals selected were Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, Be, Zn, Al, As and Co. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) was used to estimate the metal concentrations in the sample solutions. The mean values of the concentrations (ppm) of these metals in the blood samples were Cu (0.65), Pb(0.69), Cd(1.17), Cr(0.21), Be(0.67), Zn(6.31), Al(1.33), As(0.46) and Co(0.46). The mean values of the concentrations (ppm) of these metals in the lung tissue samples were Cu (1.57), Pb(1.01), Cd(1.70), Cr(0.46), Be(2.02), Zn(10.20), Al(1.68), As(0.83) and Co(0.65). The concentrations of these metals were also estimated in the blood samples of control healthy persons and compared with the subjects. The difference of concentrations (ppm) in the blood samples of IPF subjects and Control Maximum (Mean Subjects - Control Max.) were Cu (0.50), Pb(0.62), Cd(1.17), Cr(0.21), Be(0.56), Zn(5.06), Al(1.31), As(0.46) and Co(0.46). Comparison of the mean values of concentrations of metals in blood samples of IPF subjects with the maximum concentration of metals in the blood samples of control healthy persons shows that metals levels are higher in the subjects than the control ones. i.e. Cu(76.92%), Pb(89.6%), Cd(100%), Cr(100%), Be(83.58%), Zn(80

  3. Diagnosing acute pulmonary embolism with computed tomography: imaging update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Anand; Sayer, Charlie; Sheard, Sarah; Grubnic, Sisa; Nair, Arjun; Vlahos, Ioannis

    2015-05-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism is recognized as a difficult diagnosis to make. It is potentially fatal if undiagnosed, yet increasing referral rates for imaging and falling diagnostic yields are topics which have attracted much attention. For patients in the emergency department with suspected pulmonary embolism, computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is the test of choice for most physicians, and hence radiology has a key role to play in the patient pathway. This review will outline key aspects of the recent literature regarding the following issues: patient selection for imaging, the optimization of CTPA image quality and dose, preferred pathways for pregnant patients and other subgroups, and the role of CTPA beyond diagnosis. The role of newer techniques such as dual-energy CT and single-photon emission-CT will also be discussed.

  4. Classification of baseline toxicants for QSAR predictions to replace fish acute toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nendza, Monika; Müller, Martin; Wenzel, Andrea

    2017-03-22

    Fish acute toxicity studies are required for environmental hazard and risk assessment of chemicals by national and international legislations such as REACH, the regulations of plant protection products and biocidal products, or the GHS (globally harmonised system) for classification and labelling of chemicals. Alternative methods like QSARs (quantitative structure-activity relationships) can replace many ecotoxicity tests. However, complete substitution of in vivo animal tests by in silico methods may not be realistic. For the so-called baseline toxicants, it is possible to predict the fish acute toxicity with sufficient accuracy from log K ow and, hence, valid QSARs can replace in vivo testing. In contrast, excess toxicants and chemicals not reliably classified as baseline toxicants require further in silico, in vitro or in vivo assessments. Thus, the critical task is to discriminate between baseline and excess toxicants. For fish acute toxicity, we derived a scheme based on structural alerts and physicochemical property thresholds to classify chemicals as either baseline toxicants (=predictable by QSARs) or as potential excess toxicants (=not predictable by baseline QSARs). The step-wise approach identifies baseline toxicants (true negatives) in a precautionary way to avoid false negative predictions. Therefore, a certain fraction of false positives can be tolerated, i.e. baseline toxicants without specific effects that may be tested instead of predicted. Application of the classification scheme to a new heterogeneous dataset for diverse fish species results in 40% baseline toxicants, 24% excess toxicants and 36% compounds not classified. Thus, we can conclude that replacing about half of the fish acute toxicity tests by QSAR predictions is realistic to be achieved in the short-term. The long-term goals are classification criteria also for further groups of toxicants and to replace as many in vivo fish acute toxicity tests as possible with valid QSAR

  5. Imaging diagnosis of acute pulmonary thromboembolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mut, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a frequent disease which requires an accurate diagnosis in order to establish an effective treatment considering that anticoagulant therapy may lead to complications. Lung ventilation / perfusion scintigraphy (LS V/Q) has been employed as the imaging meted of choice in patients with suspicion of PE. Pulmonary angiography is considered invasive, hence its utilization is usually reserved for otherwise unresolved cases. Other methods like venous Doppler ultrasound and echocardiography have a complementary role or are not widely indicated. The introduction of spiral CT (SCT), specially with multislice capabilities has made available a fast, relatively economic and efficient method for non-invasive diagnosis of PE. Availability of the technique is increasing and it has been included in some diagnostic algorithms for PE as the initial method of evaluation (and sometimes the only one). However, most research has been performed comparing this state-of-the-art technology with classical radionuclide protocols instead of using updated techniques such as SPECT and ultrafine radio aerosols. Moreover, SCT delivers much higher dose rates to the patient which must be taken into account specially in young individuals. In general, available evidence shows superior sensitivity of LS V/Q with higher specificity of SCT, within a context of similar overall accuracy provided optimized protocols are employed. Interpretation criteria for LS V/Q should be revised in an attempt to minimize indeterminate results, and together with the routine utilization of SPECT and novel ventilation systems should improve the performance of LS V/Q. The choice of the initial diagnostic modality should be guided by a correct determination of pre-test probability, clinical characteristics of the patient potentially influencing the efficacy and safety of the method, availability of the different techniques, relative costs and operator's experience. Such a selective and pragmatic

  6. Acute Pulmonary Edema Caused by a Giant Atrial Myxoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fisicaro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial myxoma is the most common primary cardiac tumor. Its clinical presentation spreads from asymptomatic incidental mass to serious life-threatening cardiovascular complications. We report the case of a 44-year-old man with evening fever and worsening dyspnea in the last weeks, admitted to our hospital for acute pulmonary edema. The cardiac auscultation was very suspicious for mitral valve stenosis, but the echocardiography revealed a huge atrial mass with a diastolic prolapse into mitral valve orifice causing an extremely high transmitral gradient pressure. Awareness of this uncommon acute presentation of atrial myxoma is necessary for timely diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention.

  7. Tomographic findings of acute pulmonary toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Giassi, Karina; Costa, Andre Nathan; Apanavicius, Andre; Teixeira, Fernando Bin; Fernandes, Caio Julio Cesar; Helito, Alfredo Salim; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib

    2014-11-25

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common human zoonosis, and is generally benign in most of the individuals. Pulmonary involvement is common in immunocompromised subjects, but very rare in immunocompetents and there are scarce reports of tomographic findings in the literature. The aim of the study is to describe three immunocompetent patients diagnosed with acute pulmonary toxoplasmosis and their respective thoracic tomographic findings. Acute toxoplasmosis was diagnosed according to the results of serological tests suggestive of recent primary infection and the absence of an alternative etiology. From 2009 to 2013, three patients were diagnosed with acute respiratory failure secondary to acute toxoplasmosis. The patients were two female and one male, and were 38, 56 and 36 years old. Similarly they presented a two-week febrile illness and progressive dyspnea before admission. Laboratory tests demonstrated lymphocytosis, slight changes in liver enzymes and high inflammatory markers. Tomographic findings were bilateral smooth septal and peribronchovascular thickening (100%), ground-glass opacities (100%), atelectasis (33%), random nodules (33%), lymph node enlargement (33%) and pleural effusion (66%). All the patients improved their symptoms after treatment, and complete resolution of tomographic findings were found in the followup. These cases provide a unique description of the presentation and evolution of pulmonary tomographic manifestations of toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients. Toxoplasma pneumonia manifests with fever, dyspnea and a non-productive cough that may result in respiratory failure. In animal models, changes were described as interstitial pneumonitis with focal infiltrates of neutrophils that can finally evolve into a pattern of diffuse alveolar damage with focal necrosis. The tomographic findings are characterized as ground glass opacities, smooth septal and marked peribronchovascular thickening; and may mimic pulmonary congestion

  8. Acute and chronic toxicity of veterinary antibiotics to Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollenberger, Leah; Halling-Sørensen, B.; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2000-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of nine antibiotics used both therapeutically and as growth promoters in intensive farming was investigated on the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. The effect of the antibiotics metronidazole (M), olaquindox (OL), oxolinic acid (OA), oxytetracycline (OTC...

  9. Acute toxicity, lipid peroxidation and ameliorative properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OKEY

    2014-01-29

    Jan 29, 2014 ... Full Length Research Paper. Acute toxicity ... Diabetes mellitus represents a group of metabolic ... Figure 1. Pictorial view of Alstonia boonei leaves (Sidiyasa, 1998). ..... The position of hydroxyl groups and other features in the.

  10. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rialp Cervera, G; del Castillo Blanco, A; Pérez Aizcorreta, O; Parra Morais, L

    2014-03-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) with conventional therapy improves the outcome of patients with acute respiratory failure due to hypercapnic decompensation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE). This review summarizes the main effects of NIV in these pathologies. In COPD, NIV improves gas exchange and symptoms, reducing the need for endotracheal intubation, hospital mortality and hospital stay compared with conventional oxygen therapy. NIV may also avoid reintubation and may decrease the length of invasive mechanical ventilation. In ACPE, NIV accelerates the remission of symptoms and the normalization of blood gas parameters, reduces the need for endotracheal intubation, and is associated with a trend towards lesser mortality, without increasing the incidence of myocardial infarction. The ventilation modality used in ACPE does not affect the patient prognosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute aquatic toxicity and biodegradation potential of biodiesel fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haws, R.A.; Zhang, X.; Marshall, E.A.; Reese, D.L.; Peterson, C.L.; Moeller, G.

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies on the biodegradation potential and aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels are reviewed. Biodegradation data were obtained using the shaker flask method observing the appearance of CO 2 and by observing the disappearance of test substance with gas chromatography. Additional BOD 5 and COD data were obtained. The results indicate the ready biodegradability of biodiesel fuels as well as the enhanced co-metabolic biodegradation of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel mixtures. The study examined reference diesel, neat soy oil, neat rape oil, and the methyl and ethyl esters of these vegetable oils as well as various fuel blends. Acute toxicity tests on biodiesel fuels and blends were performed using Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout) in a static non-renewal system and in a proportional dilution flow replacement system. The study is intended to develop data on the acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels and blends under US EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards. The test procedure is designed from the guidelines outlined in Methods for Measuring the Acute Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater and Marine Organisms and the Fish Acute Aquatic Toxicity Test guideline used to develop aquatic toxicity data for substances subject to environmental effects test regulations under TSCA. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an LC50, a lethal concentration effecting mortality in 50% of the test population

  12. Acute pulmonary admissions following implementation of a national workplace smoking ban.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Brian D

    2012-09-01

    The implementation of workplace smoking bans has contributed to a significant reduction in the incidence of acute coronary syndrome admissions, but their influence on adult acute pulmonary disease admissions is unclear. We sought to assess the impact of a national smoking ban on nationwide admissions of individuals of working age with acute pulmonary illness.

  13. Acute toxicity of tobacco ( Nicotiana tobaccum ) leaf dust on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted using dry tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum) leaves aqueous extract to determine the acute toxicity and sub lethal effects on some haematological indices of Oreochromis niloticus using static renewable bioassay method. The extract was found to be toxic with a 48-h LC50 value of 109.6 mg/l.

  14. Evaluation of the acute toxicity of refined petroleum products against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Static and static-renewal evaluation of the acute toxicity of three refined petroleum products — petrol, kerosene and diesel — against two freshwater animals, the mollusc Pila ovata and the fish Poecilia reticulata, was conducted in the laboratory. Petrol, kerosene and diesel were found to be moderately toxic to the test ...

  15. Acute Toxicity of a Recently Identified Phenol-based Synthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on the acute toxicity of a new phenol based synthetic tsetse fly repellent recently identified at the International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology (patent No. ... The repellent can be classified as being highly toxic with central nervous system (CNS) involvement and a mild skin and eye irritant.

  16. Pulmonary CT findings in acute mercury vapour exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Manabu; Sato, Kimihiko; Heianna, Jyouiti; Hirano, Yoshinori; Omachi, Kohiti; Izumi, Jyunichi; Watarai, Jiro

    2001-01-01

    AIM: We describe the pulmonary computed tomography (CT) findings in acute mercury poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Initial (n= 8) and follow-up (n= 6) chest CT examinations in eight patients exposed to mercury vapour while cutting pipes in a sulphuric acid plant were reviewed. Of the eight patients, two were asymptomatic and had normal CT results, two were asymptomatic but had abnormalities on CT, and four had both acute symptoms and positive CT results. The patients were all men whose ages ranged from 37 to 54 years (mean, 49 years). RESULTS: Poorly defined nodules were present in five of six patients with positive CT findings, present alone in two patients or as part of a mixed pattern in three. They were random in distribution. Alveolar consolidation (n= 3) and areas of ground-glass opacity (n= 4) were observed and were more prominent in the most severely affected patients with the highest blood and urine level of mercury, predominantly in the upper and/or middle zone. These abnormal findings on CT resolved with (n= 1) or without (n= 5) steroid therapy. Pathological findings (n= 1) demonstrated acute interstitial changes predominantly with oedema. CONCLUSION: We report CT findings in eight patients acutely exposed to mercury vapour. The pulmonary injury was reversible on CT in these cases. Hashimoto, M. (2001)

  17. Acute and subacute toxicities of defatted ethanolic extract of Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moringa oleifera seeds are widely accepted as a nutritional supplement. The seeds are consumed and are sold on the shelf of nature, herbal shops, pharmacy and supermarkets. They are consumed as herbal remedy for various diseases. This study was designed to evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of defatted ...

  18. Logistic Analysis Of Acute Toxicity Of Hunteria Umbellata Extract In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we analyse the acute toxicity of Hunteria umbellata, a herbal medicinal plant, in mice in Nigeria using the logistic model. Hunteria umbellata is a plant with therapeutic potentials in the treatment of various diseases that include yaws, peptic ulcers, diabetes, piles, infertility and inflammation. Data on the acute ...

  19. Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dust in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    NASA has been contemplating returning astronauts to the moon for long-duration habitation and research and using it as a stepping-stone to Mars. Other spacefaring nations are planning to send humans to the moon for the first time. The surface of the moon is covered by a layer of fine dust. Fine terrestrial dusts, if inhaled, are known to pose a health risk to humans. Some Apollo crews briefly exposed to moon dust that adhered to spacesuits and became airborne in the Lunar Module reported eye and throat irritation. The habitable area of any lunar landing vehicle or outpost would inevitably become contaminated with lunar dust. To assess the health risks of exposure of humans to airborne lunar dust, we evaluated the toxicity of Apollo 14 moon dust in animal lungs. Studies of the pulmonary toxicity of a dust are generally first done by intratracheal instillation (ITI) of aqueous suspensions of the test dust into the lungs of rodents. If a test dust is irritating or cytotoxic to the lungs, the alveolar macrophages, after phagocytizing the dust particles, will release cellular messengers to recruit white blood cells (WBCs) and to induce dilation of blood capillary walls to make them porous, allowing the WBCs to gain access to the alveolar space. The dilation of capillary walls also allows serum proteins and water entering the lung. Besides altering capillary integrity, a toxic dust can also directly kill the cells that come into contact with it or ingest it, after which the dead cells would release their contents, including lactate dehydrogenase (a common enzyme marker of cell death or tissue damage). In the treated animals, we lavaged the lungs 1 and 4 weeks after the dust instillation and measured the concentrations of these biomarkers of toxicity in the bronchioalveolar lavage fluids to determine the toxicity of the dust. To assess whether the inflammation and cellular injury observed in the biomarker study would lead to persistent or progressive histopathological

  20. The Acute Toxicity of Major Ion Salts to Ceriodaphnia dubia. III. Mathematical models for mixture toxicity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset concerns the development of models for describing the acute toxicity of major ions to Ceriodaphnia dubia using data from single salt tests and binary...

  1. Acute and Subacute Toxicity Evaluation of Corn Silk Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ae Wha; Kang, Hyeon Jung; Kim, Sun Lim; Kim, Myung Hwan; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2018-03-01

    Many studies have reported therapeutic efficacy of corn silk extract. However, research on its toxicity and safe dose range is limited. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the acute and subacute toxicity of corn silk extract in ICR mice. To determine acute toxicity, corn silk extract containing high levels of maysin was orally administered to mice at a dose of 0 or 2,000 mg/kg. Clinical symptoms, mortality, and body weight changes were recorded for 14 days. To determine subacute toxicity, corn silk extract was orally administered to mice over a 4-week period, and then body weight, water and food consumption, and organ weight were determined. In addition, urine and serum analyses were performed. In the acute toxicity study, no death or abnormal symptoms was observed in all treatment groups during the study period. Body weights did not show any significant change compared to those of the control group. Lethal dose of corn silk extract was estimated to be more than 2,000 mg/kg. In the 4-week subacute toxicity study, there was no corn silk extract related toxic effect on body weight, water intake, food consumption, urine parameters, clinical chemistry, or organ weight. Histopathological examination showed no abnormality related to the administration of corn silk extract at 500 mg/kg. The maximum non-toxic dose of corn silk extract containing high levels of maysin was found to be more than 500 mg/kg.

  2. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of honokiol microemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Li, Jianguo; Zhang, Wei; An, Quan; Wen, Jianhua; Wang, Aiping; Jin, Hongtao; Chen, Shizhong

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of honokiol microemulsion. In the acute toxicity tests, the mice were intravenously injected graded doses of honokiol microemulsion and were observed for toxic symptoms and mortality daily for 14 days. In the sub-chronic toxicity study, rats were injected honokiol microemulsion at doses of 100, 500, 2500 μg/kg body weight (BW) for 30 days. After 30 days treatment and 14 days recovery, the rats were sacrificed for hematological, biochemical and histological examination. In the acute toxicity tests, the estimated median lethal dosage (LD50) was 50.5mg/kg body weight in mice. In the sub-chronic toxicity tests, the non-toxic reaction dose was 500 μg/kg body weight. In each treatment group, degeneration or/and necrosis in vascular endothelial cells and structure change of vessel wall can be observed in the injection site (cauda vein) of a few animals while there were no changes in the vessels of other organs. The overall findings of this study indicate that the honokiol microemulsion is non-toxic up to 500 μg/kg body weight, and it has irritation to the vascular of the injection site which should be paid attention to in clinical medication. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Acute hemodynamic response to vasodilators in primary pulmonary hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni H

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute hemodynamic effects of high flow oxygen (O2 inhalation, sublingual isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN, intravenous aminophylline (AMN and sublingual nifedipine (NIF were studied in 32 patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH. In 30 out of 32 patients the basal ratio of pulmonary to systemic vascular resistance (Rp/Rs was > 0.5 (mean = 0.77 +/- 0.20. Oxygen caused significant decrease in the mean resistance ratio to 0.68 +/- 0.20 (p = 0.005. ISDN, AMN and NIF caused increase in the resistance ratio to 0.79 +/- 0.26; 0.78 +/- 0.26; and 0.80 +/- 0.23 respectively. O2, ISDN, AMN and NIF caused a fall of Rp/Rs in 21 (65.6%, 10 (31.2%, 10(31.2% and 9(28.1% patients respectively. Thus, of the four drugs tested high flow O2 inhalation resulted in fall of Rp/Rs in two thirds of patients whereas ISDN, AMN and NIF caused a mean rise in Rp/Rs. One third of patients did respond acutely to the latter three drugs. Acute hemodynamic studies are useful before prescribing vasodilators in patients with PPH since more of the commonly used drugs like ISDN, AMN, NIF could have detrimental hemodynamic responses in some patients. However, great caution should be exercised before performing hemodynamic study as the procedure has definite mortality and morbidity.

  4. COMPARATIVE ACUTE TOXICITY OF CHLORPYRIFOS-ETHYL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR OKEY

    disintegration and low toxicity to birds and mammals (Maud et ... banned in some developed countries, are still being heavily used in Africa, and particularly in Nigeria. Multinational. Corporations continue to market banned products in.

  5. Non-infectious chemotherapy-associated acute toxicities during childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Müller, Klaus; Mogensen, Signe Sloth; Mogensen, Pernille Rudebeck; Wolthers, Benjamin Ole; Stoltze, Ulrik Kristoffer; Tuckuviene, Ruta; Frandsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    During chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, all organs can be affected by severe acute side effects, the most common being opportunistic infections, mucositis, central or peripheral neuropathy (or both), bone toxicities (including osteonecrosis), thromboembolism, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, endocrinopathies (especially steroid-induced adrenal insufficiency and hyperglycemia), high-dose methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity, asparaginase-associated hypersensitivity, pancreatitis, and hyperlipidemia. Few of the non-infectious acute toxicities are associated with clinically useful risk factors, and across study groups there has been wide diversity in toxicity definitions, capture strategies, and reporting, thus hampering meaningful comparisons of toxicity incidences for different leukemia protocols. Since treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia now yields 5-year overall survival rates above 90%, there is a need for strategies for assessing the burden of toxicities in the overall evaluation of anti-leukemic therapy programs. PMID:28413626

  6. High‑risk pulmonary embolism in a patient with acute dissecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-07

    Apr 7, 2016 ... Key words: Acute dissection of an aneurysm, anticoagulant therapy, pulmonary ... On admission, the physical examination revealed cyanosis, .... myocardial infarction and type B acute aortic dissection – A case report. Adv.

  7. Surgical treatment of acute pulmonary embolism--a 12-year retrospective analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehnert, Per; Møller, Christian H; Carlsen, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    Surgical embolectomy for acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is considered to be a high risk procedure and therefore a last treatment option. We wanted to evaluate the procedures role in modern treatment of acute PE....

  8. Albendazole Induced Recurrent Acute Toxic Hepatitis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgic, Yilmaz; Yilmaz, Cengiz; Cagin, Yasir Furkan; Atayan, Yahya; Karadag, Nese; Harputluoglu, Murat Muhsin Muhip

    2017-01-01

    Drug induced acute toxic hepatitis can be idiosyncratic. Albendazole, a widely used broad spectrum antiparasitic drug is generally accepted as a safe drug. It may cause asymptomatic transient liver enzyme abnormalities but acute toxic hepatitis is very rare. Case Report : Herein, we present the case of 47 year old woman with recurrent acute toxic hepatitis after a single intake of albendazole in 2010 and 2014. The patient was presented with symptoms and findings of anorexia, vomiting and jaundice. For diagnosis, other acute hepatitis etiologies were excluded. Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) score was calculated and found to be 10, which meant highly probable drug hepatotoxicity. Within 2 months, all pathological findings came to normal. There are a few reported cases of albendazole induced toxic hepatitis, but at adults, there is no known recurrent acute toxic hepatitis due to albendazole at this certainty according to RUCAM score. Physicians should be aware of this rare and potentially fatal adverse effect of albendazole. © Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.

  9. Acute pulmonary edema associated with propofol: an unusual complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Mian Adnan; Oud, Lavi

    2014-11-01

    Propofol is frequently used in the emergency department to provide procedural sedation for patients undergoing various procedures and is considered to be safe when administered by trained personnel. Pulmonary edema after administration of propofol has rarely been reported. We report a case of a 23-year-old healthy male who developed acute cough, hemoptysis and hypoxia following administration of propofol for splinting of a foot fracture. Chest radiography showed bilateral patchy infiltrates. The patient was treated successfully with supportive care. This report emphasizes the importance of this potentially fatal propofol-associated complication and discusses possible underlying mechanisms and related literature.

  10. Acute and subacute toxicity of Schinus terebinthifolius bark extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, L B; Vasconcelos, C F B; Maranhão, H M L; Leite, V R; Ferreira, P A; Andrade, B A; Araújo, E L; Xavier, H S; Lafayette, S S L; Wanderley, A G

    2009-12-10

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) has long been used in traditional Brazilian medicine, especially to treat inflammatory and haemostatic diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity (45 days) of Schinus terebinthifolius via the oral route in Wistar rats of both sexes. For the acute toxicity test, the dried extract of Schinus terebinthifolius bark was administered in doses from 0.625 to 5.0 g/kg (n=5/group/sex) and in the subacute toxicity test the following doses were used: 0.25, 0.625 and 1.5625 g/kg/day (n=13/group/sex), for 45 consecutive days. In the acute toxicity test, Schinus terebinthifolius did not produce any toxic signs or deaths. The subacute treatment with Schinus terebinthifolius did not alter either the body weight gain or the food and water consumption. The hematological and biochemical analysis did not show significant differences in any of the parameters examined in female or male groups, except in two male groups, in which the treatment with Schinus terebinthifolius (0.25 and 0.625 g/kg) induced an increase of mean corpuscular volume values (2.9 and 2.6%, respectively). These variations are within the physiological limits described for the specie and does not have clinical relevance. The acute and subacute administration of the dried extract of Schinus terebinthifolius bark did not produced toxic effects in Wistar rats.

  11. Prognostic impact of pleural effusion in acute pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiris, Tuncay; Yazıcı, Selçuk; Koc, Ali; Köprülü, Cinar; Ilke Akyildiz, Zehra; Karaca, Mustafa; Nazli, Cem; Dogan, Abdullah

    2017-07-01

    Background Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common and life-threatening condition associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Pleural effusion occurs in about one in three cases; however, data on its prognostic value are scarce. Purpose To investigate the association between pleural effusion and both 30-day and long-term mortality in patients with acute PE. Material and Methods We retrospectively evaluated 463 patients diagnosed with acute PE using computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Echocardiographic, demographic, and laboratory data were collected. The study population was divided into two groups: patients with and without pleural effusions. Pleural effusion detected on CT was graded as small, moderate, and large according to the amount of effusion. The predictors of 30-day and long-term total mortality were analyzed. Results Pleural effusions were found in 120 patients (25.9%). After the 30-day follow-up, all-cause mortality was higher in acute PE patients with pleural effusions than in those without (23% versus 9%, P pleural effusions had significantly higher incidence of long-term total mortality than those without pleural effusions (55% versus 23%, P pleural effusion was an independent predictor of 30-day and long-term mortality (odds ratio [OR], 2.154; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.186-3.913; P = 0.012 and OR, 1.591; 95% CI, 1.129-2.243; P = 0.008, respectively). Conclusion Pleural effusion can be independently associated with both 30-day and long-term mortality in patients with acute PE.

  12. Acute toxicity and associated mechanisms of four strobilurins in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Yu; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Junli; Wang, Chengju; Li, Xuefeng; Pang, Sen

    2018-04-03

    Strobilurins have been reported highly toxic to non-target aquatic organisms but few illustrated how they cause toxic effects on algae. This study investigated the acute toxicity of Kresoxim-methy (KRE), Pyraclostrobin (PYR), Trifloxystrobin (TRI) and Picoxystrobin (PIC) on two algae and their toxicity mechanisms. Four strobilurins showed lower toxic effects on Chlorella pyrenoidsa but higher on Chlorella vulgaris. bc1 complex activities in C. vulgaris were significantly inhibited by all strobilurins, suggesting bc 1 complex might be the target of strobilurin toxicity in algae. Moreover, SOD, CAT and POD activities were significantly up-regulated by all doses of KRE, PYR and PIC. In contrast, low concentrations of TRI stimulated SOD and POD activities but highest concentration significantly inhibited those activities. Comet assays showed damaged DNA in C. vulgaris by four strobulirins, suggesting their potential genotoxic threats to algae. The results illustrated acute toxicity by strobulirins on algae and their possible toxicity mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute oral Toxicity and Antioxidant Activity of Neoglaziovia variegata

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fisiologia

    2012-09-18

    Sep 18, 2012 ... In the acute toxicity of Nv-EtOH, behavioral and physiological alterations were not observed neither animal's death in the doses of 2.0 g/kg intraperitoneally and 5.0 g/kg orally, respectively indicating low toxicity of the extract. In this experiment, it was observed that the. Nv-EtOH has LD50 > 5000 mg/kg.

  14. Acute and subacute toxicity of 18F-FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Danielle Maia

    2013-01-01

    Before starting clinical trials of a new drug, it is necessary to perform a battery of safety tests for assessing human risk. Radiopharmaceuticals like any new drug must be tested taking into account its specificity, duration of treatment and especially the toxicity of both parties, the unlabeled molecule and its radionuclide, apart from impurities emanating from radiolysis. Regulatory agencies like the Food and Drug Administration - USA (FDA) and the European Medicine Agency (EMEA), establish guidelines for the regulation of production and research of radiopharmaceuticals. In Brazil the production of radiopharmaceuticals was not regulated until the end of 2009, when were established by the National Agency for Sanitary Surveillance (ANVISA) resolutions No. 63, which refers to the Good Manufacturing Practices of Radiopharmaceuticals and No. 64 which seeks the registration of record radiopharmaceuticals. To obtain registration of radiopharmaceuticals are necessary to prove the quality, safety, efficacy and specificity of the drug . For the safety of radiopharmaceuticals must be presented studies of acute toxicity, subacute and chronic toxicity as well as reproductive, mutagenic and carcinogenic. Nowadays IPEN-CNEN/SP produces one of the most important radiopharmaceutical of nuclear medicine, the 18 F-FDG, which is used in many clinical applications, particularly in the diagnosis and staging of tumors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the systemic toxicity (acute/ subacute) radiopharmaceutical 18 F-FDG in an in vivo test system, as recommended by the RDC No. 64, which will serve as a model for protocols toxicity of radiopharmaceuticals produced at IPEN. The following tests were performed: tests of acute and subacute toxicity, biodistribution studies of 18 F-FDG, comet assay and reproductive toxicity. In acute toxicity, healthy rats were injected . (author)

  15. Acute brain herniation from lead toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Sheldon; Tarrago, Rod

    2006-12-01

    A 4-year-old black boy was admitted to the hospital with vomiting, low-grade fever, and dehydration that were thought to be caused by viral gastroenteritis. He proceeded over the next 12 hours to rapidly deteriorate with brain herniation leading to brain death. The ultimate cause of death was found to be acute lead intoxication from a swallowed foreign body.

  16. Investigating suspected acute pulmonary embolism - what are hospital clinicians thinking?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQueen, A.S.; Worthy, S.; Keir, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To assess local clinical knowledge of the appropriate investigation of suspected acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and this compare with the 2003 British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines as a national reference standard. Methods: A clinical questionnaire was produced based on the BTS guidelines. One hundred and eight-six participants completed the questionnaires at educational sessions for clinicians of all grades, within a single NHS Trust. The level of experience amongst participants ranged from final year medical students to consultant physicians. Results: The clinicians were divided into four groups based on seniority: Pre-registration, Junior, Middle, and Senior. Forty-six point eight percent of all the clinicians correctly identified three major risk factors for PE and 25.8% recognized the definition of the recommended clinical probability score from two alternatives. Statements regarding the sensitivity of isotope lung imaging and computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) received correct responses from 41.4 and 43% of participants, respectively, whilst 81.2% recognized that an indeterminate ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy (V/Q) study requires further imaging. The majority of clinicians correctly answered three clinical scenario questions regarding use of D-dimers and imaging (78, 85, and 57.5%). There was no statistically significant difference between the four groups for any of the eight questions. Conclusions: The recommended clinical probability score was unfamiliar to all four groups of clinicians in the present study, and the majority of doctors did not agree that a negative CTPA or isotope lung scintigraphy reliably excluded PE. However, questions based on clinical scenarios received considerably higher rates of correct responses. The results indicate that various aspects of the national guidelines on suspected acute pulmonary embolism are unfamiliar to many UK hospital clinicians. Further research is needed to identify methods to improve

  17. Toxicity of Single and Mixed Contaminants in Seawater Measured with Acute Toxicity Bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Fernandez-Alba

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of organic pollutants commonly detected in seawater have been evaluated by acute toxicity bioassays. Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, and Selenastrum capricornotum were selected to test toxic effects of individual compounds and mixtures of these compounds, obtaining EC50 values in the range of 0.001 to 28.9 mg/l. In the case of mixtures, synergistic toxic responses were seen for a clear majority of the cases (>60%. Mixtures containing methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE exhibit accelerated processes that result in a change in concentration required to produce a toxic effect; for example, in the case of mixtures containing MTBE and Diuron and Dichlofluanid.

  18. Non-infectious chemotherapy-associated acute toxicities during childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Müller, Klaus Gottlob; Mogensen, Signe Sloth

    2017-01-01

    During chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, all organs can be affected by severe acute side effects, the most common being opportunistic infections, mucositis, central or peripheral neuropathy (or both), bone toxicities (including osteonecrosis), thromboembolism, sinusoidal...... useful risk factors, and across study groups there has been wide diversity in toxicity definitions, capture strategies, and reporting, thus hampering meaningful comparisons of toxicity incidences for different leukemia protocols. Since treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia now yields 5-year overall...... obstruction syndrome, endocrinopathies (especially steroid-induced adrenal insufficiency and hyperglycemia), high-dose methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity, asparaginase-associated hypersensitivity, pancreatitis, and hyperlipidemia. Few of the non-infectious acute toxicities are associated with clinically...

  19. Non-infectious chemotherapy-associated acute toxicities during childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Müller, Klaus Gottlob; Mogensen, Signe Sloth

    2017-01-01

    obstruction syndrome, endocrinopathies (especially steroid-induced adrenal insufficiency and hyperglycemia), high-dose methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity, asparaginase-associated hypersensitivity, pancreatitis, and hyperlipidemia. Few of the non-infectious acute toxicities are associated with clinically...

  20. The acute pulmonary oedema in the intensive-care ward. Das akute Lungenoedem auf der Intensivstation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciniak, R.; Aronski, A. (Akademia Medyczna, Wroclaw (Poland))

    1989-07-01

    760 patients suffering from acute pulmonary oedema were treated between 1980 and 1986 at the Institute of Anaesthesiology of the Medical Academy in Wroclaw. The radiological image of the pulmonary oedema was subdivided into three forms (hilar, hilar and perihilar, and hilar with massive plane-shaped infiltrates). In the treatment of acute pulmonary oedema in the intensive-care ward a thorough diagnostic programme is mandatory after the immediately necessary measures have been taken. (orig.).

  1. Comparison of Serum Leptin Levels in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients with Acute Pneumonia Patients and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naderi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Leptin is one of the most important fat-derived hormones. Several studies have shown that serum leptin levels in systemic inflammatory diseases are reduced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum leptin levels in three groups: patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB, patients with non-pulmonary infections (acute pneumonia and normal people. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, in 2010, 40 patients with active pulmonary TB (case group and 40 patients with non-pulmonary infections (positive control group admitted to Boo-Ali hospital in Zahedan and 40 healthy subjects (negative control group were selected using easy access and serum leptin levels were evaluated by ELISA. Data were analyzed by SPSS 18 software and one-way ANOVA. Findings: The mean of serum leptin levels in patients with non-pulmonary infections (p=0.030 and in patients with active pulmonary TB (p=0.004 were significantly lower than normal group, but the mean of serum leptin levels in patients with active pulmonary TB and patients with non-pulmonary infections were not significantly different (p=0.555. Conclusion: Serum leptin levels are lower in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis and in patients with non-pulmonary infections than in normal people, but there is no difference between patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis and patients with non-pulmonary infections. Therefore, serum leptin levels are not an appropriate marker for the differentiation of active pulmonary tuberculosis from pulmonary infections (acute pneumonia.

  2. Acute Toxicity Evaluation of Nitroaromatic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    eye of any animal during the observation period. Extreme fluorescein staining was evident in all of the test animals. Pannus (corneal vasculation) was...treated eyes at this time point showed signs of pannus . 39 0 TABLE 13 ACUTE ORAL - RANGE FINDING - RATS 1,3,5-TRINITROBENZENE Dose Dose Wt (g) Wt (g) Wt...the cornea at the 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h observation points. Additional Observations: Pannus (corneal vascularization) was noted at the 96h observation

  3. Hypercalcemia and acute pancreatitis in a male patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia and pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Ali S; Adel, Ahmad M; Hussein, Radwa M; Abdullah, Mohammed Aj; Yousaf, Anil; Mudawi, Deena; Mohamed, Shehab F; Nashwan, Abdulqadir J; Soliman, Dina; Ibrahim, Feryal; Yassin, Mohamed A

    2018-04-03

    We report a rare case of hypercalcemia and acute pancreatitis in a subject with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and pulmonary tuberculosis, during all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment. Both associated complications were potentially due to several causes. A careful monitoring and exclusion of all causative factors must be addressed. Further research is necessary to improve our understanding of risk factors for these complications in patients with (APL). Studying these patterns may help us to improve outcomes for all children and young adults with hematologic malignancies.

  4. Resolution of sonographic B-lines as a measure of pulmonary decongestion in acute heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Jennifer L

    2016-06-01

    Objective noninvasive measures of dyspnea in patients with acute heart failure are lacking. In this review, we describe lung ultrasound as a tool to estimate the degree of pulmonary congestion in patients presenting with acute heart failure and to monitor therapeutic efficacy. Serial semiquantitative measures of sonographic B-lines in acute heart failure patients can be converted to pulmonary edema scores obtained at admission and hospital discharge. These scores provide prognostic information for short-term clinical outcomes. Lung ultrasound has the potential to measure changes in pulmonary edema during acute heart failure management and improve risk stratification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential kinetics of response and toxicity using stereotactic radiation and interventional radiological coiling for pulmonary arterio-venous shunting from metastatic leiomyosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Annie Ngai Man; Siva, Shankar; Chin, Kwang; Manser, Renee; Antippa, Phillip; Dowling, Richard; Mileshkin, Linda Rose

    2015-01-01

    Case report demonstrating the differential kinetics of response and toxicity using stereotactic radiation and interventional radiological coiling for pulmonary arterio-venous shunting from leiomyosarcoma pulmonary metastases.

  6. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicities of aqueous ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicities of aqueous ethanolic extract of leaves of Senna alata (L.) Roxb (Ceasalpiniaceae) ... Significant variation (P<0.05) of the body weight was observed after 26 days of treatment, in some biochemicals index of serum and 20% liver homogenates (glutathione , alkaline phosphatase ...

  7. Acute toxicity and sleep-wake EEG analysis of Stachtarpheta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of systemic administration of TASC on sleep architecture in rats was also evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats that were chronically implanted with electrodes for electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) recording. The acute toxicity test revealed no lethal effect with doses of SCCR (up to 2000 ...

  8. Asparaginase-Associated toxicity in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Hijiya (Nobuko); I.M. van der Sluis (Inge)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAsparaginase is an integral component of multiagent chemotherapy regimens for the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Positive outcomes are seen in patients who are able to complete their entire prescribed course of asparaginase therapy. Toxicities associated with

  9. Acute toxicity of potassium permanganate to fingerlings of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... Key words: Potassium permanganate, acute toxicity, LC50, LT50, behaviour, Clarias gariepinus, Nigeria. ... soft waters where other chemicals, such as copper sulphate, were too .... The temperature (oC) was measured by dipping a dry bulb thermo- .... (KMnO4) interferes with the respiratory mechanisms of.

  10. Acute toxicity study of methanolic extract of Asparagus pubescens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acute toxicity study of methanolic extract of Asparagus pubescens root was studied on rats. The indices of the study were the liver enzymes (transaminases), cholesterol, creatinine and urea serum levels as well as the ionic analysis. Both alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) showed a ...

  11. Phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and acute toxicity of Annona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and acute toxicity of Annona vepretorum Mart (Annonaceae) leaf extracts. Mariana G e Silva, Ana P de Oliveira, Camila de S Araújo, Érica M de Lavor, Juliane C Silva, Rosemairy L Mendes, Cláudia do Ó Pessoa, Marcília P Costa, Jackson R G da S Almeida ...

  12. 40 CFR 799.9130 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... period. Chamber concentration may be measured using gravimetric or analytical methods as appropriate. If...) Conventional acute toxicity test—(1) Principle of the test method. Several groups of experimental animals are... practicable, monitored continuously or intermittently depending on the method of analysis, and recorded at...

  13. Acute toxicity studies of aqueous stem bark extract of Ximenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... the aqueous stem bark extract revealed the presence of cardiac ... needs of rural populations in African and other third world ... Table 1. Phytochemical screening of Ximenia Americana. ... Table 2. Post mortem gross pathology result of acute toxicity of ... while the treated groups showed variable weight loss.

  14. Comparative acute toxicity of shale and petroleum derived distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C R; Ferguson, P W; Katchen, M A; Dennis, M W; Craig, D K

    1989-12-01

    In anticipation of the commercialization of its shale oil retorting and upgrading process, Unocal Corp. conducted a testing program aimed at better defining potential health impacts of a shale industry. Acute toxicity studies using rats and rabbits compared the effects of naphtha, Jet-A, JP-4, diesel and "residual" distillate fractions of both petroleum derived crude oils and hydrotreated shale oil. No differences in the acute oral (greater than 5 g/kg LD50) and dermal (greater than 2 g/kg LD50) toxicities were noted between the shale and petroleum derived distillates and none of the samples were more than mildly irritating to the eyes. Shale and petroleum products caused similar degrees of mild to moderate skin irritation. None of the materials produced sensitization reactions. The LC50 after acute inhalation exposure to Jet-A, shale naphtha, (greater than 5 mg/L) and JP-4 distillate fractions of petroleum and shale oils was greater than 5 mg/L. The LC50 of petroleum naphtha (greater than 4.8 mg/L) and raw shale oil (greater than 3.95 mg/L) also indicated low toxicity. Results demonstrate that shale oil products are of low acute toxicity, mild to moderately irritating and similar to their petroleum counterparts. The results further demonstrate that hydrotreatment reduces the irritancy of raw shale oil.

  15. Phytochemical composition and acute toxicity evaluation of aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the phytochemical constituents and acute toxicity of the aqueous root bark extract of Securidaca longipedunculata Linn. The result of phytochemical screening revealed the presence of some secondary metabolites of pharmacological significance in the aqueous root bark extract ...

  16. Thallium pulmonary scintigraphy. Relationship to pulmonary fluid volumes during left atrial hypertension and the acute release of pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutsky, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between thallium-201 lung activity and pulmonary fluid volumes, we compared thallium pulmonary scintigrams with measures of intravascular (PBV), extravascular (EVLW) and total lung water (TLW) during gradual left atrial (LA) hypertension and then serially after the acute release of pressure. The study group was composed of nine mongrel dogs who were each studied at seven levels of elevated LA pressure, and then every 15 minutes for 2 hours after the acute release of pressure. During LA pressure (congestion phase) elevation, lung counts (normalized for myocardial activity), correlated best with TLW (r . .91), rather than PBV (r . .84) or EVLW (r . .81). After the release of pressure (recovery phase), lung counts correlated well with EVLW (r . .92) and TLW (r . .82), but not with PBV (r . .28). Postmortem lung counts from 197 separate lung sections correlated well with the corresponding wet weight/dry weight ratio from that section (r . .81). Thus, we conclude that changes in pulmonary thallium emissions during cardiogenic pulmonary edema relate to corresponding changes in pulmonary fluid volumes. During congestion, the confounding effects of nonlinear increases in EVLW and PBV make thallium emissions more a marker of TLW than either the intravascular or extravascular pulmonary fluid compartment. After pressure release, PBV immediately returns to normal, at which time EVLW and pulmonary emissions correlate closely. These latter data, more applicable to postexercise stress thallium data, lend support to the hypothesis that elevated pulmonary emissions during postexercise thallium scintigrams reflect elevations in EVLW that develop during exercise

  17. Acute Pulmonary Edema Associated With Propofol: An Unusual Complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Adnan Waheed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Propofol is frequently used in the emergency department to provide procedural sedation for patients undergoing various procedures and is considered to be safe when administered by trained personnel. Pulmonary edema after administration of propofol has rarely been reported. We report a case of a 23-year-old healthy male who developed acute cough, hemoptysis and hypoxia following administration of propofol for splinting of a foot fracture. Chest radiography showed bilateral patchy infiltrates. The patient was treated successfully with supportive care. This report emphasizes the importance of this potentially fatal propofol-associated complication and discusses possible underlying mechanisms and related literature. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:–0.

  18. Pulmonary Surfactants for Acute and Chronic Lung Diseases (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Rozenberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Part 2 of the review considers the problem of surfactant therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in adults and young and old children. It gives information on the results of surfactant therapy and prevention of ARDS in patients with severe concurrent trauma, inhalation injuries, complications due to complex expanded chest surgery, or severe pneumonias, including bilateral pneumonia in the presence of A/H1N1 influenza. There are data on the use of a surfactant in obstetric care and prevention of primary graft dysfunction during lung transplantation. The results of longterm use of surfactant therapy in Russia, suggesting that death rates from ARDS may be substantially reduced (to 20% are discussed. Examples of surfactant therapy for other noncritical lung diseases, such as permanent athelectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and asthma, as well tuberculosis, are also considered.

  19. Variability of LD50 Values from Rat Oral Acute Toxicity Studies: Implications for Alternative Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative models developed for estimating acute systemic toxicity are generally evaluated using in vivo LD50 values. However, in vivo acute systemic toxicity studies can produce variable results, even when conducted according to accepted test guidelines. This variability can ma...

  20. Acute and subacute toxicity of 18F-FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Danielle M.; Silva, Natanael G. da; Manetta, Ana Paula; Osso Junior, Joao A.

    2013-01-01

    Before initiating clinical trials of a new drug, it is necessary to perform a battery of safety tests, for evaluating the risk in humans. Radiopharmaceuticals must be tested taking into account its specificity, duration of treatment and especially the toxicity of both, the unlabelled molecule and its radionuclide, apart from impurities emanating from radiolysis. In Brazil the production of radiopharmaceuticals was not regulated until the end of 2009, when ANVISA established the Resolutions No. 63, which refers to the Good Manufacturing Practices of radiopharmaceuticals and No. 64 which seeks the registration of radiopharmaceuticals. Nowadays IPEN produces one of the most important radiopharmaceutical for nuclear medicine, the 18 F-FDG, which is used in the diagnosis. The objective of this study is to assess systemic toxicity (acute / subacute) of 18 F-FDG in an in vivo test system, as recommended by the RDC No. 64. In acute tests the administration occurred on the first day, healthy rats were observed for 14 days reporting their clinical signs and water consumption, and on the 15th day they were euthanized and necropsied. The assay of subacute toxicity observations were made over a period of 28 days and the first dose was administered at the beginning of the test and after a fortnight a second dose was administered. The parameters evaluated were the necropsy, histopathology of target organs, hematology studies and liver and kidney function. The results are being processed and evaluated. Initial observations did not show any acute toxicity in animals when compared to control animals. (author)

  1. Acute toxicity of postoperative IMRT and chemotherapy for endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierney, R.M.; Powell, M.A.; Mutch, D.G.; Gibb, R.K.; Rader, J.S.; Grigsby, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with and without chemotherapy in patients with endometrial cancer. A total of 19 patients with stages IB-IVB endometrial cancer who underwent surgery and postoperative IMRT were reviewed. The treatment planning goal was to cover the tissue at risk and minimize the dose to the bladder, bowel, and bone marrow. Median dose was 50.4 Gy (range 49.6-51.2 Gy). Altogether, 14 patients underwent chemotherapy; most were given carboplatin and paclitaxel. Toxicity was scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 (CTCAE). The prescribed radiation treatment was completed in all patients. The prescribed cycles of chemotherapy were completed in all 14 patients, except one who received five of six cycles limited by prolonged thrombocytopenia. Chemotherapy was delayed in two patients (14%). Three patients required growth factor support during chemotherapy, and one patient required a blood transfusion. Acute grades 3-4 hematological toxicity occurred in 9 of the 14 patients (64%) who underwent chemotherapy. None experienced acute grade 3 or 4 genitourinary or gastrointestinal toxicity. Adjuvant IMRT and chemotherapy following surgery in patients with endometrial cancer is well tolerated and did not lead to treatment modification in most patients. (author)

  2. Comparison Between the Acute Pulmonary Vascular Effects of Oxygen with Nitric Oxide and Sildenafil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W. Day

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Right heart catheterization is performed in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension to determine the severity of disease and their pulmonary vascular reactivity. The acute pulmonary vascular effect of inhaled nitric oxide is frequently used to identify patients who will respond favorably to vasodilator therapy. This study sought to determine whether the acute pulmonary vascular effects of oxygen with nitric oxide and intravenous sildenafil are similar. Methods. A retrospective, descriptive study of 13 individuals with pulmonary hypertension who underwent heart catheterization and acute vasodilator testing was performed. The hemodynamic measurements during five phases (21% to 53% oxygen, 100% oxygen, 100% oxygen with 20 ppm nitric oxide, 21% to 51% oxygen, and 21% to 51% oxygen with 0.05 mg/kg to 0.29 mg/kg intravenous sildenafil of the procedures were compared.Results. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance acutely decreased with 100% oxygen with nitric oxide, and 21% to 51% oxygen with sildenafil. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mm Hg, mean ± standard error of the mean was 38 ± 4 during 21% to 53% oxygen, 32 ± 3 during 100% oxygen, 29 ± 2 during 100% oxygen with nitric oxide, 37 ± 3 during 21% to 51% oxygen, and 32 ± 2 during 21% to 51% oxygen with sildenafil. There was not a significant correlation between the percent change in pulmonary vascular resistance from baseline with oxygen and nitric oxide, and from baseline with sildenafil (r2 = 0.011, p = 0.738. Conclusions. Oxygen with nitric oxide and sildenafil decreased pulmonary vascular resistance. However, the pulmonary vascular effects of oxygen and nitric oxide cannot be used to predict the acute response to sildenafil. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the acute response to sildenafil can be used to predict the long-term response to treatment with an oral phosphodiesterase V inhibitor.

  3. HRCT in AIDS patients presenting with acute pulmonary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, S.J.; Lehmann, K.J.; Georgi, M.; Thienel, F.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical value of HRCT of the lung in patients with known HIV-infection and acute lung disease. In a prospective study a HRCT was performed in 31 patients infected with the HIV-1 virus, mainly stage C (CDC), who had acute pulmonary symptoms. Precondition for the HRCT examination was a normal or non-specific chest radiograph. A provoked sputum as well as bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and/or transbronchial biopsy were performed concurrently. In 24 out of 31 cases a pathogenic organism was identified. 19 of these 24 patients showed abnormal HRCT findings. The most frequent pathogenic organism was Pneumocystis carinii (n=12). 9 out of these 12 patients (75%) showed pathological HRCT findings consisting of ground-glass opacity. Specific patterns of attenuation could not be worked out except for Pneumocystis carinii infection. Compared to bronchoalveolar lavage, the diagnostic value of HRCT is inferior; it is however helpful in the early stage of disease, when the pathogenic organism has not yet been identified, HRCT may demonstrate parenchymal abnormalities in patients with normal radiographic findings. Compared to bronchoalveolar lavage and induced sputum, HRCT can provide conclusive results within a short time. (orig.) [de

  4. Toxicity after reirradiation of pulmonary tumours with stereotactic body radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peulen, Heike; Karlsson, Kristin; Lindberg, Karin; Tullgren, Owe; Baumann, Pia; Lax, Ingmar; Lewensohn, Rolf; Wersäll, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess toxicity and feasibility of reirradiation with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) after prior lung SBRT for primary lung cancer or lung metastases. Patients and materials: Twenty-nine patients reirradiated with SBRT on 32 lung lesions (11 central, 21 peripheral) were retrospectively reviewed. Median follow-up time was 12 months (range 1–97). The primary endpoint was toxicity, secondary endpoints were local control and overall survival time. Toxicity was scored according to the NCI-CTCAE version 3. Results: Grade 3–4 toxicity was scored 14 times in eight patients. Three patients died because of massive bleeding (grade 5). Larger clinical target volumes (CTV) and central tumour localization were associated with more severe toxicity. There was no correlation between mean lung dose (MLD) and lung toxicity. Local control at 5 months after reirradiation was 52%, as assessed by CT-scan (n = 12) or X-thorax (n = 3). A larger CTV was associated with poorer local control. Kaplan–Meier estimated 1- and 2-year survival rates were 59% and 43%, respectively. Conclusions: Reirradiation with SBRT is feasible although increased risk of toxicity was reported in centrally located tumours. Further research is warranted for more accurate selection of patients suitable for reirradiation with SBRT.

  5. Cannabidiol Rescues Acute Hepatic Toxicity and Seizure Induced by Cocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rezende Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597, or with a phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD, protects against cocaine toxicity. URB597 (1.0 mg/kg abolished cocaine-induced seizure, yet it did not protect against acute liver injury. Using confocal liver intravital microscopy, we observed that CBD (30 mg/kg reduced acute liver inflammation and damage induced by cocaine and prevented associated seizure. Additionally, we showed that previous liver damage induced by another hepatotoxic drug (acetaminophen increased seizure and lethality induced by cocaine intoxication, linking hepatotoxicity to seizure dynamics. These findings suggest that activation of cannabinoid system may have protective actions on both liver and brain induced by cocaine, minimizing inflammatory injury promoted by cocaine, supporting its further clinical application in the treatment of cocaine abuse.

  6. Acute toxicity of uranium hexafluoride, uranyl fluoride and hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) released into the atmosphere will react rapidly with moisture in the air to form the hydrolysis products uranyl fluoride (UO 2 F 2 ) and hydrogen fluoride (HF). Uranium compounds such as UF 6 and UO 2 F 2 exhibit both chemical toxicity and radiological effects, while HF exhibits only chemical toxicity. This paper describes the development of a methodology for assessing the human health consequences of a known acute exposure to a mixture of UF 6 , UO 2 F 2 , and HF. 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Scorpion-related cardiomyopathy and acute pulmonary edema in a child who is stung by Leiurus abdullahbayrami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Dokur

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Venom of Leiurus abdullahbayrami (Scorpiones: Buthidae is an extremely toxic one and it stimulates voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels. In case of a stung by this scorpion; excessive catecholamine release occur and it impairs left ventricle contractility and consequently a heart failure occurs (scorpion sting-related cardiomyopathy. In addition to this cardiac-induced acute pulmonary, edema may occur in severe cases too. An 11-year-old male child who was stung by a scorpion (species: Leiurus abdullahbayrami consulted to the Emergency Room. Even after 7 h of scorpion envenomation he was confused and having hallucinations. Besides he was dyspneic, tachycardic, hypotensive and got worse in overall situation due to cardiogenic pulmonary edema. These clinical findings are concordant with the Level III scorpion envenomation (major systemic manifestations. Positive inotropic agents, diuretics and antiagregant agents used on supportive therapy in his treatment. After 2 weeks he get recovered and discharged from the pediatric intensive care unit. This research is conducted by thinking emergency physicians should learn that Leiurus abdullahbayrami envenomation can cause scorpion-related cardiomyopathy and acute pulmonary edema especially in children. Keywords: Leiurus, Scorpionism, Cardiomyopathy, Pulmonary edema

  8. Clinical and pulmonary functions profiling of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease experiencing frequent acute exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Parkash Gupta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study aimed at clinical and pulmonary functions profiling of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD to anticipate future exacerbations. Methods: The study included 80 COPD patients; 40 patients had ≥2 acute exacerbations during preceding 1 year (frequent exacerbation [FECOPD] group and 40 patients had <2 acute exacerbations during preceding 1 year (infrequent exacerbation [I-FECOPD] group. Clinical profile, sputum microbiology, blood gas analysis, spirometric indices, and diffusion capacity (transfer test variables were assessed. Groups' comparison was performed using an independent t-test for numeric scale parameters and Chi-square test for nominal parameters. Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients were derived for numeric scale parameters and numeric nominal parameters, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: FECOPD group contained younger patients than in I-FECOPD group although the difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference between two groups regarding smoking pack-years and duration of illness. FECOPD group had significantly more expectoration score and Modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scores. Cough score and wheeze score did not differ significantly between two groups. More patients in FECOPD group (12/40 vs. 4/40 had lower airway bacterial colonization. Arterial blood gas parameters were more deranged in FECOPD group. Spirometric indices (forced expiratory volume during 1st s as well as transfer test (both diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and transfer coefficient of the lung values were significantly reduced in FECOPD group. Conclusions: The patients in FECOPD group had clinical, spirometric, and transfer test profiling suggestive of a severe COPD phenotype, the recognition will help in predicting future exacerbations and a better management.

  9. Risk stratification of patients with combined acute pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension using dynamic and regular pulmonary perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuemei; Wang Jing; Li Guohua; Wang Xiangcheng; Zhang Kaixiu; Liu Caiping

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To stratify the risks of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE) and pulmonary hypertension (PH) by dynamic pulmonary perfusion imaging (DPPI) and pulmonary perfusion imaging (PPI). Methods: From October 2007 to February 2009, 20 healthy volunteers (12 males, 8 females; mean age =48.47±13.47 years) and 31 APE patients (21 males, 10 females; mean age =47.68±18.06 years; from October 2007 to July 2009) were included in the study. DPPI and PPI were performed in all subjects. Percentage of perfusion defect scores (PPDs%) were calculated by semi-quantitative analysis of PPI. Risk levels were defined according to PPDs% calculated from PPI: normal (PPDs% =0); very low risk (0 60%). Lung equilibrium time (LET) was calculated on region of interest (ROI) drawn over DPPI. Clinical risk was scored by Aujesky method.The t-test, ANOVA and correlation analysis were used with SPSS 13.0 software. Results: (1) LET in healthy volunteers and APE patients was (12.18±3.28) and (32.90±14.29) s respectively (t = 6.81, P<0.01). (2) The correlation coefficient, coefficient of determination between LET and PPDs% in APE patients were 0.93 and 0.87, respectively. The correlation coefficient between LET and clinical risk score was 0.86. (3) The mean LET of APE patients in very low risk (n =5), low risk (n = 12), moderate risk (n=9), high risk (n=4) and very high risk groups (n=1) were (19.59 ±0.04), (25.03±0.08), (36.07±0.10), (57.15±0.06) and (70±0.00) s, respectively. There was significant difference among APE patients with different risk levels (F =16.78, P<0.01). Conclusions: (1) DPPI was a reliable, convenient and non-invasive method for the evaluation of PH in APE. (2) Combined LET of DPPI and PPDs% of PPI was valuable for risk stratification and prognosis estimation in APE patients. (authors)

  10. The prognostic value of pulmonary embolism severity index in acute pulmonary embolism: a meta-analysis

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    Zhou Xiao-Yu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prognostic assessment is important for the management of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE. Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI and simple PESI (sPESI are new emerged prognostic assessment tools for APE. The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the accuracy of the PESI and the sPESI to predict prognostic outcomes (all-cause and PE-related mortality, serious adverse events in APE patients, and compare between these two PESIs. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE database were searched up to June 2012 using the terms “Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index” and “pulmonary embolism”. Summary odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for prognostic outcomes in low risk PESI versus high risk PESI were calculated. Summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC used to estimate overall predicting accuracies of prognostic outcomes. Results Twenty-one studies were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed low-risk PESI was significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality (OR 0.13; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.15, PE-related mortality (OR 0.09; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.17 and serious adverse events (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.29 to 0.41, with no homogeneity across studies. In sPESI subgroup, the OR of all-cause mortality, PE-related mortality, and serious adverse events was 0.10 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.14, 0.09 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.26 and 0.40 (95% CI 0.31 to 0.51, respectively; while in PESI subgroup, the OR was 0.14 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.16, 0.09 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.21, and 0.30 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.38, respectively. For accuracy analysis, the pooled sensitivity, the pooled specificity, and the overall weighted AUC for PESI predicting all-cause mortality was 0.909 (95% CI: 0.900 to 0.916, 0.411 (95% CI: 0.407 to 0.415, and 0.7853±0.0058, respectively; for PE-related mortality, it was 0.953 (95% CI: 0.913 to 0.978, 0.374 (95% CI: 0.360 to 0.388, and 0.8218±0.0349, respectively; for serious adverse events, it was 0.821 (95% CI: 0.795 to 0

  11. Acute toxicity of ammonia to blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acute toxicity of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus (3.28 ± 0.36 g in body weight, 61.84 ± 2.08 mm in body length) exposed to environmental un-ionized ammonia at different salinities (1, 8, 12, 16 and 20 ppt) was assessed via a series of static exposure trials. Median lethal concentrations of 24 h of exposure were ...

  12. Use of pharmacogenomics in predicting bleomycin-induced pulmonary toxicity in testicular cancer patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuver, J; Van Zweeden, M; Holzik, ML; Meijer, C; Hoekstra, H; Suurmeijer, A; Hofstra, R; Groen, H; Sleijfer, D; Gietema, J

    2004-01-01

    4531 Background:Use of bleomycin, important for treatment efficacy in testicular cancer, is limited by its pulmonary toxicity. Bleomycin is mainly excreted by the kidneys, but can also be inactivated by bleomycin hydrolase (BLH). An A1450G polymorphic site in the BLH gene results in an amino acid

  13. Acute toxicity of intravenously administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles in mice.

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    Jiaying Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With a wide range of applications, titanium dioxide (TiO₂ nanoparticles (NPs are manufactured worldwide in large quantities. Recently, in the field of nanomedicine, intravenous injection of TiO₂ nanoparticulate carriers directly into the bloodstream has raised public concerns on their toxicity to humans. METHODS: In this study, mice were injected intravenously with a single dose of TiO₂ NPs at varying dose levels (0, 140, 300, 645, or 1387 mg/kg. Animal mortality, blood biochemistry, hematology, genotoxicity and histopathology were investigated 14 days after treatment. RESULTS: Death of mice in the highest dose (1387 mg/kg group was observed at day two after TiO₂ NPs injection. At day 7, acute toxicity symptoms, such as decreased physical activity and decreased intake of food and water, were observed in the highest dose group. Hematological analysis and the micronucleus test showed no significant acute hematological or genetic toxicity except an increase in the white blood cell (WBC count among mice 645 mg/kg dose group. However, the spleen of the mice showed significantly higher tissue weight/body weight (BW coefficients, and lower liver and kidney coefficients in the TiO₂ NPs treated mice compared to control. The biochemical parameters and histological tissue sections indicated that TiO₂ NPs treatment could induce different degrees of damage in the brain, lung, spleen, liver and kidneys. However, no pathological effects were observed in the heart in TiO₂ NPs treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous injection of TiO₂ NPs at high doses in mice could cause acute toxicity effects in the brain, lung, spleen, liver, and kidney. No significant hematological or genetic toxicity was observed.

  14. An evaluation of acute toxicity of colloidal silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneewattanapinyo, Pattwat; Banlunara, Wijit; Thammacharoen, Chuchaat; Ekgasit, Sanong; Kaewamatawong, Theerayuth

    2011-11-01

    Tests for acute oral toxicity, eye irritation, corrosion and dermal toxicity of colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were conducted in laboratory animals following OECD guidelines. Oral administration of AgNPs at a limited dose of 5,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout the observation period. Percentage of body weight gain of the mice showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. In the hematological analysis, there was no significant difference between mice treated with AgNPs and controls. Blood chemistry analysis also showed no differences in any of the parameter examined. There was neither any gross lesion nor histopathological change observed in various organs. The results indicated that the LD(50) of colloidal AgNPs is greater than 5,000 mg/kg body weight. In acute eye irritation and corrosion study, no mortality and toxic signs were observed when various doses of colloidal AgNPs were instilled in guinea pig eyes during 72 hr observation period. However, the instillation of AgNPs at 5,000 ppm produced transient eye irritation during early 24 hr observation time. No any gross abnormality was noted in the skins of the guinea pigs exposed to various doses of colloidal AgNPs. In addition, no significant AgNPs exposure relating to dermal tissue changes was observed microscopically. In summary, these findings of all toxicity tests in this study suggest that colloidal AgNPs could be relatively safe when administered to oral, eye and skin of the animal models for short periods of time.

  15. CT and pathologic correlation acute miliary pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jing; Ma Daqing; Zhang Yansong; Guan Yansheng; Yang Jun; Liu Weihua

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the CT characteristics and pathology of acute miliary pulmonary tuberculosis (AMPT). Methods: The CT features of AMPT in 25 cases were analyzed retrospectively, and the CT features in HIV-seronegative and HIV-seropositive patients were compared by 2-sided exact probability Chi-square test. Two lung specimens were inflated and fixed by Heitzman's method. HRCT scans, gross specimen section (80-150 μm) and histologic section (5 μm) were performed on dry lung specimens and CT-pathologic correlation was conducted. The distribution of micronodules in the secondary lobule on HRCT and pathology in one specimen was evaluated by Chi-square test. Results: Twenty five patients with AMPT were included in this study, including 11 HIV-seropositive patients and 14 HIV- seronegative patients. HRCT showed diffuse micronodules randomly distributed throughout both lungs in 25 patients, and ground-glass opacity (17 patients) was the predominant complicated finding. Coalescence of nodules and consolidation in HIV-seropositive patients (5 and 6 patients) were markedly higher than that in HIV-seronegative patients (none). In lung specimens, most nodules located in the lung parenchyma between the central bronchovascular bundle and the perilobular structures (792 and 560 nodules), which located in the interlobular septum pathologically. The distribution of micronodules in the secondary lobule showed on HRCT (1060 nodules) and pathology (864 nodules) was not significantly difference (χ 2 =2.814, P>0.05) . HRCT showed ground-glass opacities when ARDS occurred, which were pulmonary edema, inflammation and hyaline membrane on alveolar wall pathologically. Conclusions: The HRCT characteristic of nodule distribution in AMPT is random. ARDS should be suspected when diffuse ground-glass opacities appear on HRCT. (authors)

  16. Successful Treatment of Free-Floating Right Ventricular Thrombus with Acute Pulmonary Embolism

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    Sanjay Singhal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary embolism with floating right intra-ventricular thrombus is a rare phenomena associated with poor prognosis. Here, we are presenting a case of 35-year-young male with no co-morbid illness diagnosed to have right ventricular thrombus with bilateral pulmonary embolism, which was managed successfully with thrombolytic therapy.

  17. Acute toxicity of injection of 153Sm-EDTMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Baiwei; Chai Xuehong

    2004-01-01

    Sm-153 has several distinct advantages as a radiopharmaceutical for the treat of patients with bone to skeletal metastasis. Sm-153 shows high skeletal uptake and rapid blood and nonosseous tissue clearance. Several paper have considered the toxicity of 153Sm-EDTMP. We report the acute toxicity in mice and rats after injection of 153Sm-EDTMP or unlabeled EDTMP. The EDTMP was injected to mice by 9.76, 7.8, 6.25, 5, 4 mg/Kg. The logarithmic dose of EDTMP were given to mice to determine LD50. The LD50 of EDTMP in mice is 7.1 mg/Kg. The decay of 153Sm-EDTMP for 4 months were injected to mice at dose of 225 mg/Kg. 153Sm-EDTMP were given at 4 difference dosage to rats by 74 MBq/Kg, 370 MBq/Kg, 1110 MBq/Kg, 1850 MBq/Kg. The LD50 of 153Sm-EDTMP in rats is more than 370 MBq/Kg. Although the cold EDTMP LD50 was low, chelated with Sm can decrease it's toxicity. The decay 153Sm-EDTMP can be safe at dose of 225 mg/Kg. The clinical dose will be used at 37 MBq/Kg. So there is no need to consider to acute toxicity in clinical used 153Sm-EDTMP in designated regimen because the safe range is wide enough to cover clinical used. (authors)

  18. Pulmonary vascular responses during acute and sustained respiratory alkalosis or acidosis in intact newborn piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J B; Rehorst-Paea, L A; Hoffman, G M; Nelin, L D

    1999-12-01

    Acute alkalosis-induced pulmonary vasodilation and acidosis-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction have been well described, but responses were generally measured within 5-30 min of changing pH. In contrast, several in vitro studies have found that relatively brief periods of sustained alkalosis can enhance, and sustained acidosis can decrease, vascular reactivity. In this study of intact newborn piglets, effects of acute (20 min) and sustained (60-80 min) alkalosis or acidosis on baseline (35% O2) and hypoxic (12% O2) pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were compared with control piglets exposed only to eucapnia. Acute alkalosis decreased hypoxic PVR, but sustained alkalosis failed to attenuate either baseline PVR or the subsequent hypoxic response. Acute acidosis did not significantly increase hypoxic PVR, but sustained acidosis markedly increased both baseline PVR and the subsequent hypoxic response. Baseline PVR was similar in all piglets after resumption of eucapnic ventilation, but the final hypoxic response was greater in piglets previously exposed to alkalosis than in controls. Thus, hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction was not attenuated during sustained alkalosis, but was accentuated during sustained acidosis and after the resumption of eucapnia in alkalosis-treated piglets. Although extrapolation of data from normal piglets to infants and children with pulmonary hypertension must be done with caution, this study suggests that sustained alkalosis may be of limited efficacy in treating acute hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and the risks of pulmonary hypertension must be considered when using ventilator strategies resulting in permissive hypercapnic acidosis.

  19. Effects of asphalt fume condensate exposure on acute pulmonary responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, J.Y.C.; Barger, M.W.; Castranova, V. [Health Effects Lab. Div., National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States); Kriech, A.J. [Heritage Research Group, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2000-10-01

    The present study was carried out to characterize the effects of in vitro exposure to paving asphalt fume condensate (AFC) on alveolar macrophage (AM) functions and to monitor acute pulmonary responses to in vivo AFC exposure in rats. Methods: For in vitro studies, rat primary AM cultures were incubated with various concentrations of AFC for 24 h at 37 C. AM-conditioned medium was collected and assayed for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as a marker of cytotoxicity. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) production were assayed in AM-conditioned medium to monitor AM function. The effect of AFC on chemiluminescence (CL) generated by resting AM or AM in response to zymosan or PMA stimulation was also determined as a marker of AM activity. For in vivo studies, rats received either (1) a single intratracheal (IT) instillation of saline, or 0.1 mg or 0.5 mg AFC and were killed 1 or 3 days later; or (2) IT instillation of saline, or 0.1, 0.5, or 2 mg AFC for three consecutive days and were killed the following day. Differential counts of cells harvested by bronchoalveolar lavage were measured to monitor inflammation. Acellular LDH and protein content in the first lavage fluid were measured to monitor damage. CL generation, TNF-{alpha} and IL-1 production by AM were assayed to monitor AM function. Results: In vitro AFC exposure at <200 {mu}g/ml did not induce cytotoxicity, oxidant generation, or IL-1 production by AM, but it did cause a small but significant increase in TNF-{alpha} release from AM. In vitro exposure of AM to AFC resulted in a significant decline of CL in response to zymosan or PMA stimulation. The in vivo studies showed that AFC exposure did not induce significant neutrophil infiltration or alter LDH or protein content in acellular lavage samples. Macrophages obtained from AFC-exposed rats did not show significant differences in oxidant production or cytokine secretion at rest or in response to LPS in comparison with control

  20. Acute Arterial Hypertension in Acute Pulmonary Edema: Mostly a Trigger or an Associated Phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueras, Jaume; Bañeras, Jordi; Peña-Gil, Carlos; Masip, Josep; Barrabés, José A; Rodriguez Palomares, Jose; Garcia-Dorado, David

    2016-10-01

    The role of acute arterial hypertension in acute pulmonary edema (APE) as an associated or triggering phenomenon has been poorly investigated and is relevant to patient management. This was a prospective observational study of clinical, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic characteristics of patients with APE. Potential triggers, including acute coronary syndrome (ACS), rapid atrial fibrillation (AF) (≥ 120 bpm in AF), fever > 38°C or volume overload, isolated acute hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥ 170 mm Hg), and unknown factors were investigated. There were 742 patients, 578 with coronary artery disease (78%), 116 with valvular heart disease or cardiomyopathy (16%), and 47 without identifiable heart disease (6%). ACS was present in 482 (65%) patients (silent in 154 of them), AF was present in 76 (10%) patients, fever/volume overload was present in 62 (8%) patients, acute hypertension was present in 50 (7%) patients, and no apparent trigger was seen in 72 (10%) patients. Admission hypertension occurred in 260 patients (35%): 155 (60%) with ACS (silent in 49 [32%]), 36 (14%) with AF, 19 (7%) with fever/volume overload, and 59 (19%) as an isolated trigger. Similar results were obtained when analyzing patients using coronary angiography (467 patients [63%]). Acute hypertension was present more frequently in patients with severe hypoventilation (arterial Pco 2 > 60 mm Hg) than in those without (57% vs 29%; P acute hypertension is often present but mainly as an associated/reactive phenomenon and seems favoured by severe hypoventilation. Silent myocardial ischemia/necrosis deserves systematic investigation because it is not rare that it may be the underlying cause of APE. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The acute pulmonary and thrombotic effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles after intratracheal instillation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemmar A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abderrahim Nemmar,1 Suhail Al-Salam,2 Sumaya Beegam,1 Priya Yuvaraju,2 Badreldin H Ali3 1Department of Physiology, 2Department of Pathology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, UAE; 3Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Al-Khod, Sultanate of Oman Abstract: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs, used as a diesel fuel catalyst, can be emitted into the ambient air, resulting in exposure to humans by inhalation. Recent studies have reported the development of lung toxicity after pulmonary exposure to CeO2 NPs. However, little is known about the possible thrombotic effects of these NPs. The present study investigated the acute (24 hours effect of intratracheal (IT instillation of either CeO2 NPs (0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg or saline (control on pulmonary and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress and thrombosis in mice. CeO2 NPs induced a significant increase of neutrophils into the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid with an elevation of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα and a decrease in the activity of the antioxidant catalase. Lung sections of mice exposed to CeO2 NPs showed a dose-dependent infiltration of inflammatory cells consisting of macrophages and neutrophils. Similarly, the plasma levels of C-reactive protein and TNFα were significantly increased, whereas the activities of catalase and total antioxidant were significantly decreased. Interestingly, CeO2 NPs significantly and dose dependently induced a shortening of the thrombotic occlusion time in pial arterioles and venules. Moreover, the plasma concentrations of fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were significantly elevated by CeO2 NPs. The direct addition of CeO2 NPs (1, 5, or 25 µg/mL to mouse whole blood, collected from the inferior vena cava, in vitro neither caused significant platelet aggregation nor affected prothrombin time or partial

  2. Development of pulmonary oxygen toxicity in rats after hyperoxic exposure

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    Siermontowski Piotr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the effects of hyperbaric oxygen on lung aeration on an animal experimental model and compare the obtained results with the anticipated scope of damage to pulmonary parenchyma in humans under the same exposure conditions. The research was carried out on Black Hood rats that were kept in a hyperbaric chamber designed for animals in an atmosphere of pure oxygen and at overpressures of 0.15, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 MPa for 1, 2 or 4 h. After sacrificing the animals, histopathological specimens were obtained encompassing cross-sections of entire lungs, which were subjected to qualitative and quantitative examination with the use of the 121-point Haug grid. A statistically significant decrease in pulmonary parenchyma was observed as a result of an increasing oxygen partial pressure as well as with prolonged exposure time. The intensification of changes observed was much higher than expected on the basis of calculations performed with the use of tables.

  3. Role of oxidative stress in thuringiensin-induced pulmonary toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, S.-F.; Yang Chi; Liu, B.-L.; Hwang, J.-S.; Ho, S.-P.

    2006-01-01

    To understand the effect of thuringiensin on the lungs tissues, male Sprague-Dawley rats were administrated with thuringiensin by intratracheal instillation at doses 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 mg/kg of body weight, respectively. The rats were sacrificed 4 h after treatment, and lungs were isolated and examined. Subsequently, an effective dose of 1.6 mg/kg was selected for the time course study (4, 8, 12, and 24 h). Intratracheal instillation of thuringiensin resulted in lung damage, as evidenced by increase in lung weight and decrease in alkaline phosphatase (10-54%), an enzyme localized primarily in pulmonary alveolar type II epithelial cells. Furthermore, the administration of thuringiensin caused increases in lipid peroxidation (21-105%), the indices of lung injury. In addition, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) activities of lung tissue extracts were measured to evaluate the effect of thuringiensin on antioxidant defense system. The SOD activity and GSH content in lung showed significant decreases in a dose-related manner with 11-21% and 15-37%, respectively. Those were further supported by the release of proinflammatory cytokines, as indicated by increases in IL-1β (229-1017%) and TNF-α (234%) levels. Therefore, the results demonstrated that changes in the pulmonary oxidative-antioxidative status might play an important role in the thuringiensin-induced lung injury

  4. Acute and subacute toxicity of {sup 18F}-FDG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Danielle M.; Silva, Natanael G. da; Manetta, Ana Paula; Osso Junior, Joao A., E-mail: danielle_2705@hotmail.com, E-mail: jaossoj@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ngsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: apaulasp2008@hotmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Before initiating clinical trials of a new drug, it is necessary to perform a battery of safety tests, for evaluating the risk in humans. Radiopharmaceuticals must be tested taking into account its specificity, duration of treatment and especially the toxicity of both, the unlabelled molecule and its radionuclide, apart from impurities emanating from radiolysis. In Brazil the production of radiopharmaceuticals was not regulated until the end of 2009, when ANVISA established the Resolutions No. 63, which refers to the Good Manufacturing Practices of radiopharmaceuticals and No. 64 which seeks the registration of radiopharmaceuticals. Nowadays IPEN produces one of the most important radiopharmaceutical for nuclear medicine, the {sup 18}F-FDG, which is used in the diagnosis. The objective of this study is to assess systemic toxicity (acute / subacute) of {sup 18}F-FDG in an in vivo test system, as recommended by the RDC No. 64. In acute tests the administration occurred on the first day, healthy rats were observed for 14 days reporting their clinical signs and water consumption, and on the 15th day they were euthanized and necropsied. The assay of subacute toxicity observations were made over a period of 28 days and the first dose was administered at the beginning of the test and after a fortnight a second dose was administered. The parameters evaluated were the necropsy, histopathology of target organs, hematology studies and liver and kidney function. The results are being processed and evaluated. Initial observations did not show any acute toxicity in animals when compared to control animals. (author)

  5. Management of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeremy M

    2009-01-01

    Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE) is a pathology frequently seen in patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) and can usually be attributed to preexisting cardiovascular disease. Heart failure alone accounts for more than 1 million hospital admissions annually and has one of the highest ED morbidity and mortality to date (). Historically, CPE has been managed by the treating clinician in a manner that is based largely on anecdotal evidence. Furosemide (Lasix), morphine, and nitroglycerin have historically been the baseline standard for drug therapy in CPE management. A lack of drastic improvement in the patient's condition over the course of the ED visit may reflect a management style that results in higher morbidity and mortality for CPE patients. Several recent articles provide evidence-based outcomes that suggest changing standard therapy along with the adjunctive use of other medications. These articles also describe treatment modalities that result in a marked improvement in the management of patients with CPE along with decreases in adverse outcomes and hospital length of stay. The goal of this article is to present a summary of the evidence regarding the management of CPE and discuss the implications for current practice.

  6. Asymmetry in acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Sokai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute exacerbation (AE of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF results in poor survival. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the impact of asymmetrical ground-glass opacity (GGO and/or consolidation on outcomes in patients with AE-IPF. The cases of 59 consecutive patients with AE-IPF were retrospectively reviewed. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT at diagnosis of an AE was assessed to determine the disease extent and asymmetry. Asymmetrical AE was defined as a right-to-left ratio of GGO and consolidation ≥2.0 or ≤0.5. The impacts of HRCT indices and other clinical parameters on 180-day mortality were analysed. The overall 180-day mortality rate was 59.2%, and asymmetrical AE was observed in 13 patients (22.0%. A multivariate analysis revealed that asymmetrical AE was a significant predictor of 180-day mortality (hazard ratio=0.36, p=0.047, long-term oxygen therapy before AE and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels. The 180-day mortality of patients with asymmetrical AE was significantly lower than that of patients with symmetrical AE (asymmetrical AE 30.8% versus symmetrical AE 68.2%, p=0.03. An asymmetrical distribution of GGO and/or consolidation is a predictor of survival in patients with AE-IPF.

  7. Factors associated with pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using fractionated total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Hwa Kyung; Yoon, Hong In; Cho, Jae Ho [Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-09-15

    Pulmonary toxicities, including infectious pneumonia (IP) and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS), are serious side effects of total body irradiation (TBI) used for myeloablative conditioning. This study aimed to evaluate clinical factors associated with IP and IPS following TBI. Fifty-eight patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent TBI before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between 2005 and 2014 were reviewed. Most patients (91%) received 12 Gy in 1.5 Gy fractions twice a day. Pulmonary toxicities were diagnosed based on either radiographic evidence or reduced pulmonary function, and were subdivided into IP and IPS based on the presence or absence of concurrent infection. Pulmonary toxicities developed in 36 patients (62%); 16 (28%) had IP and 20 (34%) had IPS. IP was significantly associated with increased treatment-related mortality (p = 0.028) and decreased survival (p = 0.039). Multivariate analysis revealed that the risk of developing IPS was significantly higher in patients who received stem cells from a matched unrelated donor than from a matched sibling donor (p = 0.021; hazard ratio [HR] = 12.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46–110.30). Combining other conditioning agents with cyclophosphamide produced a higher tendency to develop IP (p = 0.064; HR = 6.19; 95% CI, 0.90–42.56). IP and IPS involve different risk factors and distinct pathogeneses that should be considered when planning treatments before and after TBI.

  8. Factors associated with pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using fractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Hwa Kyung; Yoon, Hong In; Cho, Jae Ho

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary toxicities, including infectious pneumonia (IP) and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS), are serious side effects of total body irradiation (TBI) used for myeloablative conditioning. This study aimed to evaluate clinical factors associated with IP and IPS following TBI. Fifty-eight patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent TBI before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between 2005 and 2014 were reviewed. Most patients (91%) received 12 Gy in 1.5 Gy fractions twice a day. Pulmonary toxicities were diagnosed based on either radiographic evidence or reduced pulmonary function, and were subdivided into IP and IPS based on the presence or absence of concurrent infection. Pulmonary toxicities developed in 36 patients (62%); 16 (28%) had IP and 20 (34%) had IPS. IP was significantly associated with increased treatment-related mortality (p = 0.028) and decreased survival (p = 0.039). Multivariate analysis revealed that the risk of developing IPS was significantly higher in patients who received stem cells from a matched unrelated donor than from a matched sibling donor (p = 0.021; hazard ratio [HR] = 12.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46–110.30). Combining other conditioning agents with cyclophosphamide produced a higher tendency to develop IP (p = 0.064; HR = 6.19; 95% CI, 0.90–42.56). IP and IPS involve different risk factors and distinct pathogeneses that should be considered when planning treatments before and after TBI

  9. Fundamentals of management of acute postoperative pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mary B; Laussen, Peter C

    2010-03-01

    In the last several years, there have been numerous advancements in the field of pulmonary hypertension as a whole, but there have been few changes in the management of children with pulmonary hypertension after cardiac surgery. Patients at particular risk for postoperative pulmonary hypertension can be identified preoperatively based on their cardiac disease and can be grouped into four broad categories based on the mechanisms responsible for pulmonary hypertension: 1) increased pulmonary vascular resistance; 2) increased pulmonary blood flow with normal pulmonary vascular resistance; 3) a combination of increased pulmonary vascular resistance and increased blood flow; and 4) increased pulmonary venous pressure. In this review of the immediate postoperative management of pulmonary hypertension, various strategies are discussed including medical therapies, monitoring, ventilatory strategies, and weaning from these supports. With early recognition of patients at particular risk for severe pulmonary hypertension, management strategies can be directed at preventing or minimizing hemodynamic instability and thereby prevent the development of ventricular dysfunction and a low output state.

  10. Safety studies of homoeopathic drugs in acute, sub-acute and chronic toxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homoeopathic drugs are frequently recommended in day to day life as therapeutic agents by homoeopathic practitioners. However, safety of homoeopathic drugs remains a challenge because of the high variability of chemical components involved. Aim: The objective of the present study was to investigate the acute, subacute, and chronic oral toxicity of different homoeopathic drugs (Ferrum phosphoricum 3X, Ferrum phosphoricum 6X, Calcarea phosphoricum 6X, and Magnesium phosphoricum 6X in experimental models. Materials and Methods: In acute oral toxicity study, homoeopathic drugs were administered orally at 2000mg/kg body weight, and animals were observed for toxic symptoms till 10 days as per the OECD guidelines. For subacute and chronic toxicity study, homoeopathic drugs were administered for 28 and 180 days, respectively, as per the OECD guidelines. At the end of 28 and 180 days, the animals were sacrificed and toxicity parameters were assessed. Histopathological evaluation of different organs was also performed to assess any toxicity. Results: In acute toxicity study, no mortality was found at a dose of 2000 mg/kg which indicates that oral LD50of homoeopathic drugs were more than 2000 mg/kg. The administration of drugs at a dose of 70 mg/kg body weight for 28 and 180 days did not produce any significant change in haematological and biochemical parameters of male and female rats as compared to normal control group. No pathological changes were observed in histology of various organs of treated rats as compared to normal control animals. Conclusion: These homoeopathic drugs are safe & produce no toxicity when administered for longer duration.

  11. Research on the Relationships between Endogenous Biomarkers and Exogenous Toxic Substances of Acute Toxicity in Radix Aconiti

    OpenAIRE

    Haonan Zhou; Pengjie Zhang; Zhiguo Hou; Jiabin Xie; Yuming Wang; Bin Yang; Yanyan Xu; Yubo Li

    2016-01-01

    Radix Aconiti, a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been widely used throughout China for disease treatment due to its various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, and analgesic effects. However, improper use of Radix Aconiti often generated severe acute toxicity. Currently, research on the toxic substances of Radix Aconiti is not rare. In our previous study, acute toxic biomarkers of Radix Aconiti have been found. However, few studies were availabl...

  12. Acute toxicity testing of some herbicides-, alkaloids-, and antibiotics-metabolizing soil bacteria in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, A; Classen, H G; Eberspächer, J; Lingens, F

    1981-01-01

    Seven strains of soil bacteria with the ability to metabolize herbicides, alkaloids or antibiotics were tested in rats for acute toxicity. 1. Upon oral administration of 9.0 x 10(8) to 6.6 x 10(10) cells daily during 7 d no adverse reactions were observed. 2. Exposure by air did not lead to specific pulmonary changes. 3. Intracutaneous injection of 7.5 x 10(6) to 1.4 x 10(8) cells did not lead to adverse skin reactions. 4. Intraperitoneal injections up to 10(8) cells per animal did not kill rats although bacteria entered blood. At higher concentrations some mortality occurred partly due to unspecific stress reactions. 5. Animal data and observations on 20 humans being exposed to these strains for 2 months up to 15 years support the view that the bacteria tested are essentially harmless for health.

  13. A clinical study on the interventional treatment of acute pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xixiang; Zhang Minghua; Ci Xiao; Wang Chunmei; Lin Xiaojie; Si Tongguo; Huang Linfen; Feng Xiaofeng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of interventional procedures in the treatment of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods: Pulmonary arterial thrombolytic therapy, suction and fragmentation of thromhi, anti-spasm, and balloon dilation were performed in eighteen cases with clinically highly suspected PE confirmed by emergent pulmonary artery angiography beforehand. Wedged pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary recanalization rate, the display ratio of distal pulmonary capillary net, blood gas analysis, blood oxygen saturation, and the improvement of clinical symptoms and signs were used for evaluation of the effectiveness. Seventeen of the alive cases with dislodgement of deep vein thrombi of the lower extremities were confirmed for the formation of PE and then thrombolytic treatment of the thrombotic deep vein was performed after the placement of inferior vena cava filter. Results: Pulmanory artery angiographies showed embolism of the pulmonary arterial trunks or more than two of the branches. The post-treatment pulmonary patency reached 80%-90% in three cases, 90%-95% in eleven cases and 100% in five cases. The display ratio of distal pulmonary capillary net was over 90% in all the cases. Wedged pulmonary arterial pressure decreased to below 25 mmHg in thirteen cases, and to 25-30 mmHg in five cases. Blood oxygen saturation rate improved immediately to 90%-95% in ten cases and to 95%-100% in eight cases. Cough, hemoptysis, dyspnea, and chest pain were completely relieved in thirteen cases and significantly relieved in five cases. Digestive track bleeding was complicated in one case. Conclusions: Pulmonary artery angiography is the golden standard for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Interventional therapy is very effective for acute pulmonary embolism, which can significantly reduce the mortality rate. (authors)

  14. Identifying and designing chemicals with minimal acute aquatic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostal, Jakub; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina; Anastas, Paul T; Zimmerman, Julie Beth

    2015-05-19

    Industrial ecology has revolutionized our understanding of material stocks and flows in our economy and society. For this important discipline to have even deeper impact, we must understand the inherent nature of these materials in terms of human health and the environment. This paper focuses on methods to design synthetic chemicals to reduce their intrinsic ability to cause adverse consequence to the biosphere. Advances in the fields of computational chemistry and molecular toxicology in recent decades allow the development of predictive models that inform the design of molecules with reduced potential to be toxic to humans or the environment. The approach presented herein builds on the important work in quantitative structure-activity relationships by linking toxicological and chemical mechanistic insights to the identification of critical physical-chemical properties needed to be modified. This in silico approach yields design guidelines using boundary values for physiochemical properties. Acute aquatic toxicity serves as a model endpoint in this study. Defining value ranges for properties related to bioavailability and reactivity eliminates 99% of the chemicals in the highest concern for acute aquatic toxicity category. This approach and its future implementations are expected to yield very powerful tools for life cycle assessment practitioners and molecular designers that allow rapid assessment of multiple environmental and human health endpoints and inform modifications to minimize hazard.

  15. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuen Yew Teoh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynura bicolor (Compositae which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116, one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7, and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay, possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor.

  16. Acute pulmonary injury: high-resolution CT and histopathological spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadina, E T; Torrealba, J M

    2013-01-01

    Acute lung injury usually causes hypoxaemic respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although diffuse alveolar damage is the hallmark of ARDS, other histopathological patterns of injury, such as acute and fibrinoid organising pneumonia, can be associated with acute respiratory failure. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia can also cause acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure and mimic ARDS. This pictorial essay reviews the high-resolution CT findings of acute lung injury and the correlative histopathological findings. PMID:23659926

  17. Noninvasive ventilation in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bellone

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The term noninvasive ventilation (NIV encompasses two different modes of delivering positive airway pressure, namely continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP and bilevel positive airway pressure (bilevel-PAP. The two modes are different since CPAP does not actively assist inspiration whereas bilevel-PAP does. Bilevel-PAP is a type of noninvasive ventilation that helps keep the upper airways of the lungs open by providing a flow of air delivered through a face mask. The air is pressurized by a machine, which delivers it to the face mask through long, plastic hosing. With bilevel-PAP, the doctor prescribes specific alternating pressures: a higher pressure is used to breathe in (inspiratory positive airway pressure and a lower pressure is used to breath out (expiratory positive airway pressure. Noninvasive ventilation has been shown to reduce the rate of tracheal intubation. The main indications are exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE. This last is a common cause of respiratory failure with high incidence and high mortality rate. Clinical findings of ACPE are related to the increased extra-vascular water in the lungs and the resulting reduced lung compliance, increased airway resistance and elevated inspiratory muscle load which generates a depression in pleural pressure. These large pleural pressure swings are responsible for hemodynamic changes by increasing left ventricular afterload, myocardial transmural pressure, and venous return. These alterations can be detrimental to patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Under these circumstances, NIV, either by CPAP or bilevel-PAP, improves vital signs, gas exchange, respiratory mechanics and hemodynamics by reducing left ventricular afterload and preload. In the first randomized study which compared the effectiveness of CPAP plus medical treatment vs medical treatment alone, the CPAP group showed a significant decrease in its

  18. Increased brain natriuretic peptide as a marker for right ventricular dysfunction in acute pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulevski, I. I.; Hirsch, A.; Sanson, B. J.; Romkes, H.; van der Wall, E. E.; van Veldhuisen, D. J.; Büller, H. R.; Mulder, B. J.

    2001-01-01

    Right ventricular (RV) function is of major prognostic significance in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of neurohormone plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in assessing RV function in patients with acute PE. BNP levels were

  19. Increased brain natriuretic peptide as a marker for right ventricular dysfunction in acute pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulevski, I.I.; Hirsch, A; Sanson, BJ; Romkes, H; van der Wall, EE; van Veldhuisen, DJ; Buller, HR; Mulder, BJM

    Right ventricular (RV) function is of major prognostic significance in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of neurohormone plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in assessing RV function in patients with acute PE. BNP levels were

  20. Non-animal Replacements for Acute Toxicity Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker-Treasure, Carol; Coll, Kevin; Belot, Nathalie; Longmore, Chris; Bygrave, Karl; Avey, Suzanne; Clothier, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Current approaches to predicting adverse effects in humans from acute toxic exposure to cosmetic ingredients still heavily necessitate the use of animals under EU legislation, particularly in the context of the REACH system, when cosmetic ingredients are also destined for use in other industries. These include the LD50 test, the Up-and-Down Procedure and the Fixed Dose Procedure, which are regarded as having notable scientific deficiencies and low transferability to humans. By expanding on previous in vitro tests, such as the animal cell-based 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay, this project aims to develop a truly animal-free predictive test for the acute toxicity of cosmetic ingredients in humans, by using human-derived cells and a prediction model that does not rely on animal data. The project, funded by Innovate UK, will incorporate the NRU assay with human dermal fibroblasts in animal product-free culture, to generate an in vitro protocol that can be validated as an accepted replacement for the currently available in vivo tests. To date, the project has successfully completed an assessment of the robustness and reproducibility of the method, by using sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as a positive control, and displaying analogous results to those of the original studies with mouse 3T3 cells. Currently, the testing of five known ingredients from key groups (a surfactant, a preservative, a fragrance, a colour and an emulsifier) is under way. The testing consists of initial range-finding runs followed by three valid runs of a main experiment with the appropriate concentration ranges, to generate IC50 values. Expanded blind trials of 20 ingredients will follow. Early results indicate that this human cell-based test holds the potential to replace aspects of in vivo animal acute toxicity testing, particularly with reference to cosmetic ingredients. 2015 FRAME.

  1. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of Dracaena cinnabari resin methanol extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Afifi, Nashwan Abdullah; Alabsi, Aied Mohammed; Bakri, Marina Mohd; Ramanathan, Anand

    2018-02-05

    Dracaena cinnabari (DC) is a perennial tree that located on the Southern coast of Yemen native to the Socotra Island. This tree produces a deep red resin known as the Dragon's blood, the Twobrother's Blood or Damm Alakhwain. The current study performed to evaluate the safety of the DC resin methanol extract after a single or 28 consecutive daily oral administrations. In assessing the safety of DC resin methanol extract, acute and sub-acute oral toxicity tests performed following OECD guidelines 423 and 407, respectively, with slight modifications. In acute oral toxicity test, DC resin methanol extract administered to female Sprague Dawley rats by oral gavage at a single dose of 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight. Rats observed for toxic signs for 14 days. In sub-acute oral toxicity test, DC resin methanol extract administered to the rats by oral gavage at 500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg body weight daily up to 28 days to male and female Spradgue Dawley rats. The control and high dose in satellite groups were also maintained and handled as the previous groups to determine the late onset toxicity of DC resin methanol extract. At the end of each test, hematological and biochemical analysis of the collected blood were performed as well as gross and microscopic pathology. In acute oral toxicity, no treatment-related death or toxic signs were observed. It revealed that the DC resin methanol extract could be well tolerated up to the dose 2000 mg/kg body weight and could be classified as Category 5. The sub-acute test observations indicated that there are no treatment-related changes up to the high dose level compared to the control. Food consumption, body weight, organ weight, hematological parameters, biochemical parameters and histopathological examination (liver, kidney, heart, spleen and lung) revealed no abnormalities. Water intake was significantly higher in the DC resin methanol extract treated groups compared to the control. This study demonstrates tolerability of DC

  2. The acute toxicity of the metaldehyde on the climbing perch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahida Mohamad Ismail, Syamimi; Aini Dahalan, Farrah; Zakaria, Ammar; Mad Shakaff, Ali Yeon; Aqlima Ahmad, Siti; Shukor, Mohd Yunus Abd; Khalizan Sabullah, Mohd; Khalil, Khalilah Abdul; Jalil, Mohd Faizal Ab

    2018-03-01

    In Asia, Climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) is commonly found in paddy fields and irrigation systems. Due to its habitat, Climbing perch is exposed to toxic pesticides used in paddy fields such as metaldehyde which is one of the most widely used molluscicide. This study aims to determine the acute toxicity Lethal Concentration50 (LC50) of metaldehyde and its effect on the behaviour and physical changes of the Climbing perch. The fish mortality responses to six different metaldehyde concentrations ranging from 180 to 330 mg/L were investigated. The 96-h LC50 values were determined and analysed using three different analysis methods which is arithmetic, logarithmic and probit graphic. The LC50 values obtained in this study were 239, 234 and 232 mg/L, respectively. After 96-h of exposure to metaldehyde, the fish showed a series of abnormal behavioural response in all cases: imbalance position, and restlessness of movement. The LC50 values show that metaldehyde is moderately toxic to the Climbing perch indicating that metaldehyde is not destructive to Climbing perch. However, long term exposure of aquatic organisms to the metaldehyde means a continuous health risk for the fish population as they are more vulnerable and it is on high risk for human to consume this toxicated fishes.

  3. Toxicity levels to humans during acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halton, D.M.; Dranitsaris, P.; Baynes, C.J.

    1984-11-01

    A literature review was conducted of the acute toxicity of hydrogen fluoride (HF) with emphasis on the effects of inhalation of gaseous HF. The data and findings of the relevant references were summarized under four categories: animal studies, controlled human studies, community exposure and industrial exposure. These were critically reviewed and then lethal concentration-time relationships were developed for humans, corresponding to LCsub(LO), LCsub(10) and LCsub(50) levels. The effects of age, health and other physiological variables on the sensitivity to HF were discussed, as well as antagonistic and synergistic effects with other substances

  4. An acute toxicity study of Heliotropium scottae Rendle in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahome, W M; Muchiri, D J; Mugera, G M

    1994-08-01

    Twenty-four hour ip median lethal doses (LD50) of freeze-dried aqueous extracts of Heliotropium scottae Rendle leaves and stems in mice were determined and clinical signs noted. The LD50 of the leaf extract was 3.0 g/kg, while that of the stems was 3.5 g/kg. Clinical signs were excitement, prostration, rapid breathing, gasping for breath and death. The signs were the same for both the leaf and stem extracts. It was concluded that both the leaves and stems of H scottae have slight acute toxicity.

  5. Acute and subacute toxicity of 10B-paraboronophenylalanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniyama, K.; Fujiwara, H.; Kuno, T.; Saito, N.; Shuntoh, H.; Sakaue, M.; Tanaka, C.

    1989-01-01

    The acute and subacute toxicities of 10B-paraboronophenylalanine (10B-BPA) were investigated in the rat, according to the Good Laboratory Practice Standard for safety studies on drugs in Japan. In the acute toxicity test of 10B-BPA, LD50 values of acidic 10B-BPA for intraperitoneal and subcutaneous injections were 640 mg/kg for male and 710 mg/kg for female rats, and more than 1,000 mg/kg for male and female rats, respectively. The LD50 values of neutral 10B-BPA for intraperitoneal and subcutaneous injections were more than 3,000 mg/kg for male and female rats. The difference in LD50 values between acidic and neutral 10B-BPA may be attributed to the acidity of material. From the subacute toxicity test, in which the rats were injected daily subcutaneously for 28 days, the following toxic effects of 10B-BPA were observed. Increase in ketone level in the urine was induced in all rats treated with 10B-BPA. High dose of 10B-BPA (1,500 mg/kg) induced increase in spleen weight and reticulocyte count, and decrease in hemoglobin count, thereby suggesting that 10B-BPA causes hemolysis. Increases in the leukocyte count and the ratio of neutrophils and lymphocytes were also observed in rats treated with a high dose of 10B-BPA. This may be attributed to local reactions at the injection site. There were no significant differences in the findings between control rats and rats treated with a low dose of 10B-BPA (300 mg/kg). Thus, low doses of neutral 10B-BPA may be available for use as a drug

  6. Widening of coronary sinus in CT pulmonary angiography indicates right ventricular dysfunction in patients with acute pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staskiewicz, Grzegorz; Czekajska-Chehab, Elzbieta; Trojanowska, Agnieszka; Drop, Andrzej; Przegalinski, Jerzy; Tomaszewski, Andrzej; Torres, Kamil; Torres, Anna; Maciejewski, Ryszard

    2010-01-01

    Right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) may occur in the course of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Patients with RVD need more intensive treatment, and the prognosis is more severe. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the measurement of the coronary sinus in the assessment of RVD in patients with acute PE and to compare it with other indicators of RVD. Retrospective assessment of 55 CT pulmonary angiography examinations with signs of acute PE was performed. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) was echocardiographically assessed in all patients, and RVD was defined as PASP values greater than 30 mmHg. CT measurements included the size of the heart ventricles, mediastinal vessels and the width of the coronary sinus. Median width of the coronary sinus was 16 mm (range 12-24 mm) in patients with increased PASP and 10 mm (range 7-22 mm) in patients with normal PASP (p = 0.001). Best cut-off value was assessed to be 12.5 mm, with sensitivity 94% and specificity 75%. It was characterised by the largest area under ROC curve (0.82) among analysed parameters. Width of the coronary sinus seems to be a promising parameter for identification of RVD in patients with acute PE. A prospective study should be undertaken to further assess its clinical and prognostic applicability. (orig.)

  7. Pulmonary drug toxicity. FDG-PET findings in patients with lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazama, Toshiki; Faria, S.C.; Macapinlac, H.A.; Uchida, Yoshitaka; Ito, Hisao

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging features of pulmonary drug toxicity in patients with lymphoma during or just following chemotherapy. A total of 677 PET scans on 460 patients with lymphoma (351 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 92 Hodgkin's disease, and 17 both Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) were performed for the evaluation of chemotherapy response. In 51 patients, abnormal accumulation on both sides of the chest was reported. A review of medical records, 18 fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG)-PET scans, and chest computed tomography (CT) was performed, and cases with probable drug toxicity were identified. Inclusion criteria of probable drug toxicity were abnormal but symmetrical FDG accumulation in both lungs seen during or just following the completion of chemotherapy, the abnormal accumulation or corresponding abnormal CT findings resolved on subsequent studies, exclusion of clinical diagnosis of pneumonia, radiation pneumonitis, or lymphoma involvement. In 10 patients (six men and four women, average age 47.3), 2.2% of cases, probable drug toxicity was identified. In all 10 cases, diffuse and subpleural-dominant FDG accumulation was seen on FDG-PET scans, and scattered or diffuse ground-glass opacities were observed on chest CT. Four patients reported symptoms, and six patients did not report any symptoms. Diffuse and peripheral-dominant FDG accumulation in the lung, which may represent pulmonary drug toxicity, was not uncommon in patients with lymphoma who underwent chemotherapy. FDG-PET scan might be able to detect pulmonary drug toxicity in asymptomatic patients. (author)

  8. Pulmonary toxicity screening studies in male rats with TiO2 particulates substantially encapsulated with pyrogenically deposited, amorphous silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webb TR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute lung toxicity in rats of intratracheally instilled TiO2 particles that have been substantially encapsulated with pyrogenically deposited, amorphous silica. Groups of rats were intratracheally instilled either with doses of 1 or 5 mg/kg of hydrophilic Pigment A TiO2 particles or doses of 1 or 5 mg/kg of the following control or particle-types: 1 R-100 TiO2 particles (hydrophilic in nature; 2 quartz particles, 3 carbonyl iron particles. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS instilled rats served as additional controls. Following exposures, the lungs of PBS and particle-exposed rats were evaluated for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid inflammatory markers, cell proliferation, and by histopathology at post-instillation time points of 24 hrs, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months. The bronchoalveolar lavage results demonstrated that lung exposures to quartz particles, at both concentrations but particularly at the higher dose, produced significant increases vs. controls in pulmonary inflammation and cytotoxicity indices. Exposures to Pigment A or R-100 TiO2 particles produced transient inflammatory and cell injury effects at 24 hours postexposure (pe, but these effects were not sustained when compared to quartz-related effects. Exposures to carbonyl iron particles or PBS resulted only in minor, short-term and reversible lung inflammation, likely related to the effects of the instillation procedure. Histopathological analyses of lung tissues revealed that pulmonary exposures to Pigment A TiO2 particles produced minor inflammation at 24 hours postexposure and these effects were not significantly different from exposures to R-100 or carbonyl iron particles. Pigment A-exposed lung tissue sections appeared normal at 1 and 3 months postexposure. In contrast, pulmonary exposures to quartz particles in rats produced a dose-dependent lung inflammatory response characterized by neutrophils and foamy (lipid

  9. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ghadirkhomi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50 of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels.  There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (pConclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg.

  10. ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF RESPIRABLE TIRE PARTICLES AND ASSESSMENT OF CARDIO-PULMONARY TOXICITY IN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elemental Analysis of Respirable Tire Particles and Assessment of Cardio-pulmonary Toxicity in RatsR.R. Gottipolu, PhD1, E. Landa, PhD2, J.K. McGee, MS1, M.C. Schladweiler, BS1, J.G. Wallenborn, MS3, A.D. Ledbetter, BS1, J.E. Richards, MS1 and U.P. Kodavanti, PhD1. 1NHEER...

  11. Computer-Assisted Detection of Acute Pulmonary Embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittenberg, R.

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common and often potentially life threatening disease. Severe morbidity and mortality can be prevented if PE is diagnosed and treated in time. CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has emerged as an effective method for diagnosis of PE, but interpreting a CTPA is complicated

  12. CTPA for the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia; Prokop, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has been suggested by the Fleischner society as the first test following a negative leg ultrasound in pregnant patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. This editorial discusses the use of CTPA as a diagnostic tool in pregnant women and comments on the need for

  13. Pulmonary Toxicity and Modifications in Iron Homeostasis Following Libby Amphibole Asbestos Exposure in Rat Models of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Individuals suffering from cardiovascular disease (CVD) develop iron dysregulation which may influence pulmonary toxicity and injury upon exposure to asbestos. We hypothesized spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and spontaneously hypertensive heart failure (SHHF) rats woul...

  14. Comparison of toxicity of acute overdoses with citalopram and escitalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Bryan D; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy; Clark, Richard F; Muller, Allison A; Miloradovich, Jane E

    2010-07-01

    Seizures and QTc prolongation are associated with citalopram poisoning; however, overdose experience with escitalopram is more limited. The goals of this study were to compare citalopram's vs. escitalopram's clinical effects in overdose, including the incidence of seizures. A retrospective review was conducted for single-substance acute overdoses with citalopram and escitalopram, managed in hospitals, that were reported to six U.S. poison centers from 2002-2005. There were 374 citalopram and 421 escitalopram overdose cases. Gender and ages were similar between the two, with 68-70% females and a median age of 20 years for citalopram and 18 years for escitalopram. Median dose by history was 310 mg for citalopram and 130 mg for escitalopram. More serious outcomes were associated with citalopram overdoses (p escitalopram were tachycardia, drowsiness, hypertension, and vomiting. Seizures (30 vs. 1, respectively, p escitalopram cases (p = 0.109). There was an association between increasing dose and severity of outcome for citalopram (p escitalopram (p = 0.011). In children escitalopram cases experienced toxicity, such as drowsiness, nausea/vomiting, and tachycardia. There were no seizures in this age group. Escitalopram seems to be less toxic than citalopram after an acute overdose; seizures and tremors were more common with citalopram. Initial management of overdoses should include seizure precautions for citalopram and cardiac monitoring for both drugs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute Toxicity from Topical Cocaine for Epistaxis: Treatment with Labetalol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, John R; Laurin, Erik G; Tabish, Nabil; Lange, Richard A

    2017-03-01

    Topical cocaine is sometimes used for the treatment of epistaxis, as it has both potent anesthetic and vasoconstrictive properties. Cocaine has unpredictable cardiovascular effects, such as sudden hypertension, tachycardia, coronary arterial vasoconstriction, and dysrhythmia. We report a case of acute iatrogenic cardiovascular toxicity from the use of topical cocaine in a 56-year-old man presenting to the Emergency Department with profound epistaxis. To prepare for cauterization and nasal packing, the patient received 4% topical cocaine-soaked nasal pledgets. He became hypertensive, tachypneic, tachycardic, and dysphoric immediately after administration. To directly counter these adverse hyperadrenergic effects, the patient was given 10 mg intravenous labetalol, a mixed β- and α-blocker. This instantly normalized his vital signs and adverse subjective effects. His epistaxis was successfully treated, and he was discharged 1 h later. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: We believe that emergency physicians should be aware of the unpredictable acute cardiovascular toxicity of topical cocaine. Labetalol represents an effective first-line treatment, which, unlike benzodiazepines, directly counters the pharmacologic effects of cocaine and has no respiratory or sedative side effects. Labetalol, with its mixed β/α-blocking properties, also mitigates the potential for "unopposed α-stimulation." Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute Toxicity of Tributyltins and Tributyltin Leachates from Marine Antibiofouling Paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-10

    RO-0184 224 ACUTE TOXICITY OF TRIBUTYLTINS AND TRIBUTYLTIN i/I LEACHATES FROM MARINE ANTIBIOFOULING PAINTS(U) CALIFORNIA UNIV OAKLAND NAVAL...Classification) (U) ACUTE TOXICITY OF TRIBUTYLTINS AND TRIBUTYLTIN LEACHATES FROM MARINE ANTIBIOFOULING PAINTS 12, PERSO A UHR Laugin, Koy"., Linden, Olof and...xins causing acute toxicity or two amphipou species at concentrations as low as 10 g/L . Orchestia traskiana was exposed to bis ( tributyltin ) oxide

  17. INTER-SPECIES MODELS FOR ACUTE AQUATIC TOXICITY BASED ON MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will provide interspecies QSARs for acute toxicity to 17 aquatic species, such as fish, snail, tadpole, hydrozoan, crustacean, insect larvae, and bacteria developed using 5,000 toxic effect results for approximately 2400 chemicals.

  18. Acute toxicity of vanadium to the threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravenmier, J.J.; Johnston, D.W.; Arnold, W.R. [Blasland Bouck & Lee Inc, Petaluma, CA (US)

    2005-02-15

    Vanadium is widely distributed, occurring in many types of minerals, coal, and petroleum. Anthropogenic sources of vanadium originate from the production, processing, and wastes of these materials. The aquatic toxicity of vanadium to fish species is not well characterized. This study focused on the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, a small and widely distributed euryhaline species of fish. The three-spined stickleback is used as an effluent-monitoring species in both Canada and the United States. Five 96-h static renewal acute toxicity tests were performed in moderately hard water with adult fish. The geometric mean and range of the five 96-h LC{sup 50}s based on measured concentrations of total vanadium in the test solution were 3.17 and 2.35-4.07 mg V/L, respectively. A conservative estimation of a safe concentration of vanadium that would not affect survival of adult three-spined sticklebacks over a 96-h exposure period in moderately hard water is approximately 0.30 mg V/L. A comparison with other fish species previously tested suggests that the three-spined stickleback is intermediate in sensitivity to vanadium. Information reported from this study may be useful in effluent toxicity identification evaluations and ecological risk assessments related to vanadium.

  19. Acute toxicity assessment of camphor in biopesticides by using and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Chae Yim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives An ecofriendly alternative to chemical pesticides is bio-pesticides, which are derived from natural sources. The interest in bio-pesticides is based on the disadvantages associated with chemical pesticides. Methods We conducted acute toxicity assessments of camphor, a major component of bio-pesticides, by using Daphnia magna (D. magna as well as assessed the morphological abnormalities that occurred in Danio rerio (D. rerio embryos. Results The median effective concentration of camphor on D. magna after 48 hours was 395.0 μM, and the median lethal concentration on D. rerio embryos after 96 hours was 838.6 μM. The no observed effect concentration and predicted no effect concentration of camphor on D. magna, which was more sensitive than D. rerio, were calculated as 55.2 μM and 3.95 μM, respectively. Morphological abnormalities in D. rerio embryos exposed to camphor increased over time. Coagulation, delayed hatching, yolk sac edema, pericardial edema, and pigmentation of embryos mainly appeared between 24 and 48 hours. Further, symptoms of scoliosis and head edema occurred after 72 hours. In addition, bent tails, ocular defects and collapsed symptoms of fertilized embryonic tissue were observed after 96 hours. Conclusions The camphor toxicity results suggest that continuous observations on the ecosystem are necessary to monitor toxicity in areas where biological pesticides containing camphor are sprayed.

  20. Acute toxicity of birch tar oil on aquatic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. HAGNER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Birch tar oil (BTO is a by-product of processing birch wood in a pyrolysis system. Accumulating evidence suggests the suitability of BTO as a biocide or repellent in terrestrial environments for the control of weeds, insects, molluscs and rodents. Once applied as biocide, BTO may end up, either through run-off or leaching, in aquatic systems and may have adverse effects on non-target organisms. As very little is known about the toxicity of BTO to aquatic organisms, the present study investigated acute toxicity (LC50/EC50 of BTO for eight aquatic organisms. Bioassays with the Asellus aquaticus (crustacean, Lumbriculus variegatus (oligochaeta worm, Daphnia magna (crustacean, Lymnea sp. (mollusc, Lemna minor (vascular plant, Danio rerio (fish, Scenedesmus gracilis (algae, and Vibrio fischeri (bacterium were performed according to ISO, OECD or USEPA-guidelines. The results indicated that BTO was practically nontoxic to most aquatic organisms as the median effective BTO concentrations against most organisms were >150 mg L-1. In conclusion, our toxicity tests showed that aquatic organisms are to some extent, invariably sensitive to birch tar oil, but suggest that BTO does not pose a severe hazard to aquatic biota. We deduce that, unless BTOs are not applied in the immediate vicinity of water bodies, no special precaution is required.;

  1. Stereotactic radiotherapy of meningiomas. Symptomatology, acute and late toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzel, M.; Gross, M.W.; Failing, T.; Strassmann, G.; Engenhart-Cabillic, R. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Gisssen (Germany); Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Marburg Univ. (Germany); Hamm, K.; Surber, G.; Kleinert, G. [Dept. of Stereotactic Neurosurgery and Radiosurgery, Helios Klinikum Erfurt (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    Background and purpose: stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is well established in the treatment of skull base meningiomas, but this therapy approach is limited to small tumors only. The fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) offers an alternative treatment option. This study aims at local control, symptomatology, and toxicity. Patients and methods: between 1997-2003, 224 patients were treated with SRT (n= 183), hypofractionated SRT (n = 30), and SRS (n = 11). 95/224 were treated with SRT/SRS alone. 129/224 patients underwent previous operations. Freedom from progression and overall survival, toxicity, and symptomatology were evaluated systematically. Additionally, tumor volume (TV) shrinkage was analyzed three-dimensionally within the planning system. Results: the median follow-up was 36 months (range, 12-100 months). Overall survival and freedom from progression for 5 years were 92.9% and 96.9%. Quantitative TV reduction was 26.2% and 30.3% 12 and 18 months after SRT/SRS (p < 0.0001). 95.9% of the patients improved their symptoms or were stable. Clinically significant acute toxicity (CTC III ) was rarely seen (2.5%). Clinically significant late morbidity (III -IV ) or new cranial nerve palsies did not occur. Conclusion: SRT offers an additional treatment option of high efficacy with only few side effects. In the case of large tumor size (> 4 ml) and adjacent critical structures (< 2 mm), SRT is highly recommended. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of acute toxicity of babassu mesocarp in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S. B. Barroqueiro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The safety of babassu mesocarp (Orbignya phalerata Mart., Arecaceae, which exhibited anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic activities, was evaluated by determining the potential acute toxicity in mice. A lyophilized ethanol extract of babassu mesocarp (BME was administered to C3H/HePas mice (10/group in a single dose of 1000, 3000 and 5000 mg/kg, by gavage. General behavior adverse effects and mortality were determined for up to fourteen days. Selected biochemical parameters including glucose, triacylglyceride, cholesterol, urea, alkaline phosphatase and creatinine were determined by colorimetric assay. The heart, liver, spleen, kidneys and brain were weighted and evaluated macro and microscopically. The median lethal dose (LD50 of BME was greater than 5000 mg/kg. No behavior or body weight alterations were detected after the treatment. The acute treatment with BME has no effect on macroscopic and microscopic aspect of examined organs. Instead, BME increased the alkaline phosphatase and reduced the urea concentration in all groups. A significant increase on triacylglyceride was detected in the group BME1000. In conclusion, the acute treatment with high doses of BME can affect some biochemical parameters with a long lasting effect, although any change was detected at tissue level or body and organ weight.

  3. Differences in inflammation and acute phase response but similar genotoxicity in mice following pulmonary exposure to graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtson, Stefan; Knudsen, Kristina Bram; Kyjovska, Zdenka O.

    2017-01-01

    assessed exposure levels of particulate matter emitted during production of graphene in a clean room and in a normal industrial environment using chemical vapour deposition. Toxicity was evaluated at day 1, 3, 28 and 90 days (18, 54 and 162 μg/mouse), except for GO exposed mice at day 28 and 90 where only......We investigated toxicity of 2-3 layered >1 μm sized graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in mice following single intratracheal exposure with respect to pulmonary inflammation, acute phase response (biomarker for risk of cardiovascular disease) and genotoxicity. In addition, we...

  4. Acute Pulmonary Edema in an Eclamptic Pregnant Patient: A Rare Case of Takotsubo Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamchandani, Kunal; Bortz, Brandon; Vaida, Sonia

    2016-09-23

    BACKGROUND Acute pulmonary edema in a pregnant patient is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Takotsubo syndrome, or stress-induced cardiomyopathy, is a rare cause of acute pulmonary edema in a pregnant patient, especially prior to delivery of the fetus. CASE REPORT We describe a case of a pregnant patient who presented with acute pulmonary edema and eclampsia and was found to have Takotsubo syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, eclampsia as a precipitating factor for Takotsubo syndrome has not been described in literature. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians taking care of pregnant patients should be aware of the potential link between eclampsia and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Prompt correction of the precipitating cause along with supportive management as described is the key to a successful outcome.

  5. Recurrent acute pulmonary oedema after aortic and mitral valve surgery due to trachea malacia and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sankatsing, S. U. C.; Hanselaar, W. E. J. J.; van Steenwijk, R. P.; Van der Sloot, J. A. P.; Broekhuis, E.; Kok, W. E. M.

    2008-01-01

    In this report we describe a patient with recurrent episodes of acute pulmonary oedema after aortic and mitral valve surgery. The first episode of pulmonary oedema was caused by mitral valve dysfunction. The second episode of pulmonary oedema was not clearly associated with a mitral valve problem,

  6. Detection of experimentally produced acute pulmonary arterial occlusion by methyl iodide-131 inhalation imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, Z.D.; McAfee, J.G.; Subramanian, G.

    1981-01-01

    Methyl iodide-131 (CH 3 I-131) is described as an agent for detection of acute experimentally produced pulmonary arterial occlusion in dogs. When gaseous CH 3 I-131 is inhaled, radioactivity passes instantaneously from the alveoli to the lung capillary bed. Where pulmonary blood flow exists, activity is washed out into the systemic circulation, but in areas of blood stasis, a transient pulmonary hot spot remains. CH 3 I-131 is easily produced and inexpensive, but administration is awkward and strict radiation safety precautions are mandatory

  7. CTPA for the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism during pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer-Prokop, C. [Dept. of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Prokop, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Utrecht Medical Center (Netherlands)

    2008-12-15

    CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has been suggested by the Fleischner society as the first test following a negative leg ultrasound in pregnant patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. This editorial discusses the use of CTPA as a diagnostic tool in pregnant women and comments on the need for specifically adapting CT protocols during pregnancy in the light of new research describing a substantial number of non-diagnostic examinations in pregnant women if routine scanning protocols are used for CTA of the pulmonary arteries. Potential reasons for these high numbers of insufficient examinations are physiological changes occurring during pregnancy that lead to a hyperdynamic circulation, which reduces average enhancement of the pulmonary vasculature. In addition, there are possible breathing-related effects that include an increased risk for Valsalva manoeuvre with devastating effects for pulmonary vascular enhancement. Techniques to overcome these problems are discussed: bolus triggering with short start delays, high flow rates or high contrast medium concentration, preferential use of fast CT systems and the use of low kVp CT techniques. CT data acquisition during deep inspiration should be avoided and shallow respiration may be considered as an alternative to suspended breathing in this patient group. All these factors can contribute to optimization of the quality of pulmonary CTA in pregnant patients. It is time now to adapt our protocols and provide optimum care for this sensitive patient group.

  8. Non-infectious chemotherapy-associated acute toxicities during childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjeld Schmiegelow

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available During chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, all organs can be affected by severe acute side effects, the most common being opportunistic infections, mucositis, central or peripheral neuropathy (or both, bone toxicities (including osteonecrosis, thromboembolism, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, endocrinopathies (especially steroid-induced adrenal insufficiency and hyperglycemia, high-dose methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity, asparaginase-associated hypersensitivity, pancreatitis, and hyperlipidemia. Few of the non-infectious acute toxicities are associated with clinically useful risk factors, and across study groups there has been wide diversity in toxicity definitions, capture strategies, and reporting, thus hampering meaningful comparisons of toxicity incidences for different leukemia protocols. Since treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia now yields 5-year overall survival rates above 90%, there is a need for strategies for assessing the burden of toxicities in the overall evaluation of anti-leukemic therapy programs.

  9. Acute in vitro and in vivo toxicity of a commercial grade boron nitride nanotube mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodali, Vamsi K; Roberts, Jenny R; Shoeb, Mohammad; Wolfarth, Michael G; Bishop, Lindsey; Eye, Tracy; Barger, Mark; Roach, Katherine A; Friend, Sherri; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Chen, Bean T; Stefaniak, Aleksandr; Jordan, Kevin C; Whitney, Roy R; Porter, Dale W; Erdely, Aaron D

    2017-10-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are an emerging engineered nanomaterial attracting significant attention due to superior electrical, chemical and thermal properties. Currently, the toxicity profile of this material is largely unknown. Commercial grade BNNTs are composed of a mixture (BNNT-M) of ∼50-60% BNNTs, and ∼40-50% impurities of boron and hexagonal boron nitride. We performed acute in vitro and in vivo studies with commercial grade BNNT-M, dispersed by sonication in vehicle, in comparison to the extensively studied multiwalled carbon nanotube-7 (MWCNT-7). THP-1 wild-type and NLRP3-deficient human monocytic cells were exposed to 0-100 µg/ml and C57BL/6 J male mice were treated with 40 µg of BNNT-M for in vitro and in vivo studies, respectively. In vitro, BNNT-M induced a dose-dependent increase in cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. This was confirmed in vivo following acute exposure increase in bronchoalveolar lavage levels of lactate dehydrogenase, pulmonary polymorphonuclear cell influx, loss in mitochondrial membrane potential and augmented levels of 4-hydroxynonenal. Uptake of this material caused lysosomal destabilization, pyroptosis and inflammasome activation, corroborated by an increase in cathepsin B, caspase 1, increased protein levels of IL-1β and IL-18 both in vitro and in vivo. Attenuation of these effects in NLRP3-deficient THP-1 cells confirmed NLRP3-dependent inflammasome activation by BNNT-M. BNNT-M induced a similar profile of inflammatory pulmonary protein production when compared to MWCNT-7. Functionally, pretreatment with BNNT-M caused suppression in bacterial uptake by THP-1 cells, an effect that was mirrored in challenged alveolar macrophages collected from exposed mice and attenuated with NLRP3 deficiency. Analysis of cytokines secreted by LPS-challenged alveolar macrophages collected after in vivo exposure to dispersions of BNNT-M showed a differential macrophage response. The observed results demonstrated acute

  10. Oxygen therapy in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringbaek, T.; Lange, P.; Mogensen, T.

    2008-01-01

    Acute exacerbation of COPD is a major cause of hospitalisation in Denmark. Most of the patients require supplemental oxygen in the acute phase and some patients continue oxygen therapy at home after discharge. In this paper we discuss the physiological mechanisms of respiratory failure seen...... in acute exacerbations of COPD. The principles for oxygen therapy in the acute phase are described and recommendations for oxygen therapy are suggested Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5/5...

  11. Pulmonary hydatid cyst in a pregnant patient causing acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hijazi Mohammed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year-old primigravida, at 32 weeks of gestation, presented with acute onset of respiratory failure and circulatory shock. Chest imaging showed findings suggestive of ruptured hydatid cyst, which was confirmed by histology post-thoracotomy. Tissue cultures from the removed cyst grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis also. She was successfully managed in the intensive care unit and was then discharged home on antituberculosis medications in addition to albendazole after prolonged hospitalization and a need for chest tube for bronchopleural fistula. Acute respiratory failure and anaphylactic shock secondary to ruptured pulmonary hydatid cyst and superimposed pulmonary tuberculosis in a pregnant lady should be considered in patients living in endemic areas.

  12. Acute Pulmonary Oedema after Removal of Sand Bag at the End of Open Cholecystectomy due to Unknown Cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Gupta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary oedema developes acutely during perioperative period and is usually due to unknown cause,but this life threatening complication if managed on time ,leads to rapid and full recovery. Here a case of 70 year old man is reported who developed acute pulmonary oedema after conclusion of surgery due to unknown cause.

  13. Evaluation of pulmonary and systemic toxicity following lung exposure to graphite nanoplates: a member of the graphene-based nanomaterial family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jenny R; Mercer, Robert R; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Seehra, Mohindar S; Geddam, Usha K; Chaudhuri, Ishrat S; Kyrlidis, Angelos; Kodali, Vamsi K; Sager, Tina; Kenyon, Allison; Bilgesu, Suzan A; Eye, Tracy; Scabilloni, James F; Leonard, Stephen S; Fix, Natalie R; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Farris, Breanne Y; Wolfarth, Michael G; Porter, Dale W; Castranova, Vincent; Erdely, Aaron

    2016-06-21

    Graphene, a monolayer of carbon, is an engineered nanomaterial (ENM) with physical and chemical properties that may offer application advantages over other carbonaceous ENMs, such as carbon nanotubes (CNT). The goal of this study was to comparatively assess pulmonary and systemic toxicity of graphite nanoplates, a member of the graphene-based nanomaterial family, with respect to nanoplate size. Three sizes of graphite nanoplates [20 μm lateral (Gr20), 5 μm lateral (Gr5), and m(2). At the low dose, none of the Gr materials induced toxicity. At the high dose, Gr20 and Gr5 exposure increased indices of lung inflammation and injury in lavage fluid and tissue gene expression to a greater degree and duration than Gr1 and CB. Gr5 and Gr20 showed no or minimal lung epithelial hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and no development of fibrosis by 2 months post-exposure. In addition, the aorta and liver inflammatory and acute phase genes were transiently elevated in Gr5 and Gr20, relative to Gr1. Pulmonary and systemic toxicity of graphite nanoplates may be dependent on lateral size and/or surface reactivity, with the graphite nanoplates > 5 μm laterally inducing greater toxicity which peaked at the early time points post-exposure relative to the 1-2 μm graphite nanoplate.

  14. Metal and pharmaceutical mixtures: Is ion loss the mechanism underlying acute toxicity and widespread additive toxicity in zebrafish?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsop, Derek; Wood, Chris M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Zebrafish larvae were used to test the acute toxicity of contaminant mixtures. •Interactions were observed between metals, ammonia and pharmaceuticals. •Larval Na + loss was observed with exposure to all acutely toxic contaminants tested. •Water quality criteria should recognize the toxic interactions between contaminants. -- Abstract: The acute toxicities and mechanisms of action of a variety of environmental contaminants were examined using zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio; 4–8 days post fertilization). Toxic interactions were observed between metals. For example, the addition of a sublethal level of nickel (15% of the LC 50 , one third of the LC 01 ) to all copper treatments decreased the copper 96 h LC 50 by 58%, while sublethal copper exposure (6% of the copper LC 50 , 13% of the LC 01 ) decreased the cadmium 96 h LC 50 by 47%. Two predictive models were assessed, the concentration addition (CA) model, which assumes similar mechanisms of action, and the independent action (IA) model, which assumes different mechanisms of action. Quantitative comparisons indicated the CA model performed better than the IA model; the latter tended to underestimate combined toxicity to a greater extent. The effects of mixtures with nickel or ammonia were typically additive, while mixtures with copper or cadmium were typically greater than additive. Larvae exposed to cadmium, copper or nickel experienced whole body ion loss. Decreases were greatest for Na + followed by K + (as high as 19% and 9%, respectively, in 24 h). Additive toxicity between copper and other pharmaceutical compounds such as fluoxetine (Prozac™), β-naphthoflavone, estrogen and 17α-ethinylestradiol were also observed. Similar to metals, acutely toxic concentrations of fluoxetine, β-naphthoflavone and ammonia all decreased whole body Na + and K + . Overall, whole body Na + loss showed the greatest correlation with mortality across a variety of toxicants. We theorize that a disruption of

  15. Acute toxicity of heavy metals towards freshwater ciliated protists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madoni, Paolo; Romeo, Maria Giuseppa

    2006-01-01

    The acute toxicity of five heavy metals to four species of freshwater ciliates (Colpidium colpoda, Dexiotricha granulosa, Euplotes aediculatus, and Halteria grandinella) was examined in laboratory tests. After exposing the ciliates to soluble compound of cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and nickel at several selected concentrations, the mortality rate was registered and the LC 5 values (with 95% confidence intervals) were calculated. Large differences appeared in sensitivities of the four species to the metals. H. grandinella showed the highest sensitivity for cadmium (0.07 mg l -1 , LC 5 ) and lead (0.12 mg l -1 , LC 5 ), whilst E. aediculatus showed the highest sensitivity for nickel (0.03 mg l -1 , LC 5 ). The comparison with data obtained with other species indicate that Halteria grandinella and Euplotes aediculatus are excellent and convenient bioindicator for evaluating the toxicity of waters and wastewaters polluted by heavy metals. The short time (24 h) and simplicity of the test procedure enable this test to be used in laboratory studies. - Ciliated protozoa are suitable bioindicators of heavy metal pollution in freshwater environments

  16. Acute toxicity of heavy metals towards freshwater ciliated protists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madoni, Paolo [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 11/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)]. E-mail: paolo.madoni@unipr.it; Romeo, Maria Giuseppa [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 11/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2006-05-15

    The acute toxicity of five heavy metals to four species of freshwater ciliates (Colpidium colpoda, Dexiotricha granulosa, Euplotes aediculatus, and Halteria grandinella) was examined in laboratory tests. After exposing the ciliates to soluble compound of cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and nickel at several selected concentrations, the mortality rate was registered and the LC{sub 5} values (with 95% confidence intervals) were calculated. Large differences appeared in sensitivities of the four species to the metals. H. grandinella showed the highest sensitivity for cadmium (0.07 mg l{sup -1}, LC{sub 5}) and lead (0.12 mg l{sup -1}, LC{sub 5}), whilst E. aediculatus showed the highest sensitivity for nickel (0.03 mg l{sup -1}, LC{sub 5}). The comparison with data obtained with other species indicate that Halteria grandinella and Euplotes aediculatus are excellent and convenient bioindicator for evaluating the toxicity of waters and wastewaters polluted by heavy metals. The short time (24 h) and simplicity of the test procedure enable this test to be used in laboratory studies. - Ciliated protozoa are suitable bioindicators of heavy metal pollution in freshwater environments.

  17. CT and MR manifestations of acute methyl alcohol toxic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Xiaofen; Yang Bo; Ye Gengxin; Zhang Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the CT and MR manifestations of methyl alcohol toxic encephalopathy and to improve the diagnosing value of CT and MRI. Methods: 40 patients with methyl alcohol intoxication were collected in this study, in which CT scan was performed on 40 cases and MRI on 4 cases. All CT and MRI radiological data of brain were retrospectively studied. Results: 13 of 40 cases showed abnormal findings on brain CT and MRI. The most common manifestation (6/13, 46%)was hypodensity in frontal parietal white matter and external capsule-putamen on CT, which showed long or short T1 and long T2 on MR. Hemorrhage in right putamen was found only in 1 patient (1/13,7%). CT showed low density inbilateral external capsule in 4 cases (4/13,31%), in which MR showed long or short T1 and long T2. Low density lesions in subcortical white matter of bilateral frontal and parietal lobes, cingulate gyms and insular lobes were found in 2 patients (2/13,15%). The more severe clinic manifestation, the more obvious brain lesion CT and MRI showed. Conclusion: Brain CT and MR manifestations have great diagnostic value of acute methyl alcohol toxic encephalopathy. MRI was more sensitive and better than CT in finding early brain damage caused by methanol intoxication. (authors)

  18. Effect of age and body weight on toxicity and survival in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhmann, Ditte J A; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Ha, Shau-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Treatment for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia is very toxic and the association between outcome and age and Body Mass Index is unclear. We investigated effect of age and Body Mass Index on toxicity and survival in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. We studied all patients who completed first...

  19. Psychosis associated with acute recreational drug toxicity: a European case series

    OpenAIRE

    Vallersnes, Odd Martin; Dines, Alison M.; Wood, David M.; Yates, Christopher; Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Hovda, Knut Erik; Giraudon, Isabelle; Dargan, Paul I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Psychosis can be associated with acute recreational drug and novel psychoactive substance (NPS) toxicity. However, there is limited data available on how common this is and which drugs are most frequently implicated. We describe a European case series of psychosis associated with acute recreational drug toxicity, and estimate the frequency of psychosis for different recreational drugs. Methods ...

  20. Acute and chronic toxicity studies of the water extract from dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute and chronic toxicities of the water extract from the dried fruits of Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. were assessed in both female and male rats. For the study of acute toxicity, a single oral administration of the water extract at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight (10 female, 10 male) was performed and the results ...

  1. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H. [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2005-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  2. Acute pulmonary and hematological effects of two types of particle surrogates are influenced by their elemental composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, N.; Rivero, D.H.R.F.; Kasahara, D.I.; Saiki, M.; Godleski, J.J.; Koutrakis, P.; Capelozzi, V.L.; Saldiva, P.H.N.; Antonangelo, L.

    2004-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated significant associations between ambient levels of particulate matter and lung injury and cardiovascular events with increased morbidity and mortality. Particle surrogates (PS), such as residual oil fly ash (ROFA), have been widely used in experimental studies aimed at characterizing the mechanisms of particle toxicity. Since PS composition varies depending on its source, studies with different types of PS may provide clues about the relative toxicity of the components generated by high-temperature combustion process. In this work, we have studied the effects of nasal instillation of increasing doses of different PS in mice: saline, carbon, and two types of particle surrogates. PS type A (PSA) was the ROFA collected from the waste incinerator of our university hospital; PS type B (PSB) was collected from the electrostatic precipitator of a large steel company and thus had an elevated metal content. After 24 h, we analyzed hematological parameters, fibrinogen, bronchoalveolar lavage, bone marrow, and pulmonary histology. Nasal instillation of the two types of PS-induced leucopenia. PSB elicited a greater elevation of plasma fibrinogen levels. Bone marrow and pulmonary inflammatory changes were more intense for PSA. We concluded that the PS composition modulates acute inflammatory changes more significantly than the mass for these two types of PS

  3. Pulmonary toxicity after exposure to military-relevant heavy metal tungsten alloy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedel, Erik Q.; Cafasso, Danielle E.; Lee, Karen W.M.; Pierce, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Significant controversy over the environmental and public health impact of depleted uranium use in the Gulf War and the war in the Balkans has prompted the investigation and use of other materials including heavy metal tungsten alloys (HMTAs) as nontoxic alternatives. Interest in the health effects of HMTAs has peaked since the recent discovery that rats intramuscularly implanted with pellets containing 91.1% tungsten/6% nickel/2.9% cobalt rapidly developed aggressive metastatic tumors at the implantation site. Very little is known, however, regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with the effects of inhalation exposure to HMTAs despite the recognized risk of this route of exposure to military personnel. In the current study military-relevant metal powder mixtures consisting of 92% tungsten/5% nickel/3% cobalt (WNiCo) and 92% tungsten/5% nickel/3% iron (WNiFe), pure metals, or vehicle (saline) were instilled intratracheally in rats. Pulmonary toxicity was assessed by cytologic analysis, lactate dehydrogenase activity, albumin content, and inflammatory cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 24 h after instillation. The expression of 84 stress and toxicity-related genes was profiled in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage cells using real-time quantitative PCR arrays, and in vitro assays were performed to measure the oxidative burst response and phagocytosis by lung macrophages. Results from this study determined that exposure to WNiCo and WNiFe induces pulmonary inflammation and altered expression of genes associated with oxidative and metabolic stress and toxicity. Inhalation exposure to both HMTAs likely causes lung injury by inducing macrophage activation, neutrophilia, and the generation of toxic oxygen radicals. -- Highlights: ► Intratracheal instillation of W–Ni–Co and W–Ni–Fe induces lung inflammation in rats. ► W–Ni–Co and W–Ni–Fe alter expression of oxidative stress and toxicity genes. ► W

  4. Predicting Acute Exacerbations in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samp, Jennifer C; Joo, Min J; Schumock, Glen T; Calip, Gregory S; Pickard, A Simon; Lee, Todd A

    2018-03-01

    With increasing health care costs that have outpaced those of other industries, payers of health care are moving from a fee-for-service payment model to one in which reimbursement is tied to outcomes. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease where this payment model has been implemented by some payers, and COPD exacerbations are a quality metric that is used. Under an outcomes-based payment model, it is important for health systems to be able to identify patients at risk for poor outcomes so that they can target interventions to improve outcomes. To develop and evaluate predictive models that could be used to identify patients at high risk for COPD exacerbations. This study was retrospective and observational and included COPD patients treated with a bronchodilator-based combination therapy. We used health insurance claims data to obtain demographics, enrollment information, comorbidities, medication use, and health care resource utilization for each patient over a 6-month baseline period. Exacerbations were examined over a 6-month outcome period and included inpatient (primary discharge diagnosis for COPD), outpatient, and emergency department (outpatient/emergency department visits with a COPD diagnosis plus an acute prescription for an antibiotic or corticosteroid within 5 days) exacerbations. The cohort was split into training (75%) and validation (25%) sets. Within the training cohort, stepwise logistic regression models were created to evaluate risk of exacerbations based on factors measured during the baseline period. Models were evaluated using sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. The base model included all confounding or effect modifier covariates. Several other models were explored using different sets of observations and variables to determine the best predictive model. There were 478,772 patients included in the analytic sample, of which 40.5% had exacerbations during the outcome period. Patients with

  5. Elevated serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) activity in acute pulmonary histoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, S F; Rohrbach, M S; Thelen, V; Kuritsky, J; Gruninger, R; Simpson, M L; DeRemee, R A

    1984-03-01

    Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) levels were measured in 44 subjects six weeks after acute pulmonary histoplasmosis. All patients were infected in a common-source outbreak of histoplasmosis which occurred on one day. All patients had both strictly defined clinical and serologic evidence of infection. The SACE activity was elevated at six weeks compared to normal controls, and seven of the 44 had levels more than 2 SD above the normal mean. SACE levels were also measured at three and 24 weeks after acute infection in a smaller number of the same subjects. Serial observations demonstrated that all subjects (including those with normal and elevated SACE at six weeks) had a rise and fall in SACE activity following symptomatic acute pulmonary histoplasmosis. Our findings suggest that elevated SACE does not reliably separate sarcoidosis from histoplasmosis, although elevations in histoplasmosis are much less common and may occur only briefly following acute pulmonary histoplasmosis. More important, it seems that SACE activity rises acutely in all patients with symptomatic acute histoplasmosis and then falls gradually toward baseline over several months, coinciding temporally with the granulomatous response.

  6. Mitochondrial Complex IV Subunit 4 Isoform 2 Is Essential for Acute Pulmonary Oxygen Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Natascha; Hüttemann, Maik; Pak, Oleg; Scheibe, Susan; Knoepp, Fenja; Sinkler, Christopher; Malczyk, Monika; Gierhardt, Mareike; Esfandiary, Azadeh; Kraut, Simone; Jonas, Felix; Veith, Christine; Aras, Siddhesh; Sydykov, Akylbek; Alebrahimdehkordi, Nasim; Giehl, Klaudia; Hecker, Matthias; Brandes, Ralf P; Seeger, Werner; Grimminger, Friedrich; Ghofrani, Hossein A; Schermuly, Ralph T; Grossman, Lawrence I; Weissmann, Norbert

    2017-08-04

    Acute pulmonary oxygen sensing is essential to avoid life-threatening hypoxemia via hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) which matches perfusion to ventilation. Hypoxia-induced mitochondrial superoxide release has been suggested as a critical step in the signaling pathway underlying HPV. However, the identity of the primary oxygen sensor and the mechanism of superoxide release in acute hypoxia, as well as its relevance for chronic pulmonary oxygen sensing, remain unresolved. To investigate the role of the pulmonary-specific isoform 2 of subunit 4 of the mitochondrial complex IV (Cox4i2) and the subsequent mediators superoxide and hydrogen peroxide for pulmonary oxygen sensing and signaling. Isolated ventilated and perfused lungs from Cox4i2 -/- mice lacked acute HPV. In parallel, pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) from Cox4i2 -/- mice showed no hypoxia-induced increase of intracellular calcium. Hypoxia-induced superoxide release which was detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy in wild-type PASMCs was absent in Cox4i2 -/- PASMCs and was dependent on cysteine residues of Cox4i2. HPV could be inhibited by mitochondrial superoxide inhibitors proving the functional relevance of superoxide release for HPV. Mitochondrial hyperpolarization, which can promote mitochondrial superoxide release, was detected during acute hypoxia in wild-type but not Cox4i2 -/- PASMCs. Downstream signaling determined by patch-clamp measurements showed decreased hypoxia-induced cellular membrane depolarization in Cox4i2 -/- PASMCs compared with wild-type PASMCs, which could be normalized by the application of hydrogen peroxide. In contrast, chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular remodeling were not or only slightly affected by Cox4i2 deficiency, respectively. Cox4i2 is essential for acute but not chronic pulmonary oxygen sensing by triggering mitochondrial hyperpolarization and release of mitochondrial superoxide which, after conversion

  7. Clinical and radiological characterization of the pulmonary commitment for acute toxoplasmosis disseminated in nine immunocompetent patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, Jorge E; Pino, Luis Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    The acute toxoplasmosis in the immunocompetent individual generally has a benign and autoresolutive course. However, in patient coming from wild area severe cases of visceral commitment, the most frequent in them, the pulmonary commitment has been reported. The clinical and radiological description of nine individuals members of the military forces of Colombia, with acute toxoplasmosis and pulmonary commitment was carried. 55% of the cases presented dysnea functional class II/IV; 33% functional class III/IV and only 1/9 patients presented functional class IV/IV. The most common radiological image was the uni focal or multifocal consolidation pulmonary (66%), and in smaller frequency the presence of having infiltrated reticular, reticulo nodular and pleural effusion. The entirety of the patients evolved in satisfactory form, two of them with support with noninvasive ventilation.

  8. High‑risk pulmonary embolism in a patient with acute dissecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the last decades, an increased incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) and acute dissection (AD) of aortic aneurysms has been registered mostly due to increased availability of advanced imaging techniques. They seldom occur concomitantly in the same patient. In this paper, we present the clinical challenges and ...

  9. Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease provide a unique opportunity to take care of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Beghé

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ECOPD identifies the acute phase of COPD. The COPD patient is often frail and elderly with concomitant chronic diseases. This requires the physician not only looks at specific symptoms or organs, but to consider the patient in all his or her complexity.

  10. Pathmorphological investigation of pulmonary infections complications in persons dying from acute radiation sickness after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, P.A.; Kvacheva, Yu.E.

    1993-01-01

    Lungs of 27 persons who participated in liquidation of Chernobyl accident and died from acute radiation sickness were studied histologically. Pulmonary infections were found, including invasion of viral, bacterial and fungal agents. Being depended on hematopoietic function the inflammatory reactions were areactive during postirradiation aplasia and became typical within the recovery beginning

  11. Acute Inhalation Toxicity and Blood Absorption of 2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN) in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-17

    light/dark cycle. A certified pesticide -free rodent chow (Harlan Teklad ® , 8728C Certified Rodent Diet) and drinking quality water were available ad...respiration, toxicity, blood, concentration, alternative, welfare, method, model, in vitro, pain, distress, simulate, video , computer, replacement, refinement...Prevention, Pesticides , and Toxic Substances. December 2002. Health Effects Test Guidelines: OPPTS 870.1000, Acute Toxicity Testing - Background. EPA

  12. [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: 2. Short-term prognostic scores for acute exacerbations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, Alain F

    2014-01-22

    The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD is a slowly progressive disease whose course is frequently the subject of acute episodes, of variable severity, although, in general, reversible, called acute exacerbations. In the past five years (between 2008 and 2013), seven prognostic scores have been published to try to assess the short-term risk of these acute exacerbations. Their components and characteristics are analysed and commented upon. An Internet program with a detailed compilation of the main features of these scores (www.medhyg.ch/scoredoc) supplements this review.

  13. [Echocardiography in acute pulmonary embolism. Not a routine method but useful in the diagnosis of simultaneous hemodynamic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, A

    1998-08-19

    Echocardiographic diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism as illustrated by three case reports is discussed in the article. Acute pulmonary embolism was diagnosed by demonstration of right heart strain in one case, of long vermiform thrombi floating in the right atrium in another, and in the third case by demonstration of a long thrombus lodged in the foramen ovale, astride the atrial septum, and with its ends floating in either atrium. Thus, as echocardiography enables pulmonary embolism to be diagnosed by demonstration either of right heart strain or of intracardial thrombi, it is a useful diagnostic tool in cases of haemodynamic compromise, though it does not detect minor pulmonary embolism.

  14. Pulmonary toxicity of well-dispersed titanium dioxide nanoparticles following intratracheal instillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshiura, Yukiko; Izumi, Hiroto; Oyabu, Takako; Hashiba, Masayoshi; Kambara, Tatsunori; Mizuguchi, Yohei; Lee, Byeong Woo; Okada, Takami; Tomonaga, Taisuke; Myojo, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Kitajima, Shinichi; Horie, Masanori; Kuroda, Etsushi; Morimoto, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the pulmonary toxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles, we performed an intratracheal instillation study with rats of well-dispersed TiO 2 nanoparticles and examined the pulmonary inflammation and histopathological changes in the lung. Wistar Hannover rats were intratracheally administered 0.2 mg (0.66 mg/kg) and 1.0 mg (3.3 mg/kg) of well-dispersed TiO 2 nanoparticles (P90; diameter of agglomerates: 25 nm), then the pulmonary inflammation responses were examined from 3 days to 6 months after the instillation, and the pathological features were examined up to 24 months. Transient inflammation and the upregulation of chemokines in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid were observed for 1 month. No respiratory tumors or severe fibrosis were observed during the recovery time. These data suggest that transient inflammation induced by TiO 2 may not lead to chronic, irreversible legions in the lung, and that TiO 2 nanoparticles may not have a high potential for lung disorder

  15. Pulmonary toxicity of well-dispersed titanium dioxide nanoparticles following intratracheal instillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiura, Yukiko, E-mail: y-yoshiura@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Izumi, Hiroto [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Occupational Pneumology, Institute of Industrial Ecological Science (Japan); Oyabu, Takako [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences (Japan); Hashiba, Masayoshi; Kambara, Tatsunori [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Occupational Pneumology, Institute of Industrial Ecological Science (Japan); Mizuguchi, Yohei; Lee, Byeong Woo; Okada, Takami [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences (Japan); Tomonaga, Taisuke [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Occupational Pneumology, Institute of Industrial Ecological Science (Japan); Myojo, Toshihiko [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences (Japan); Yamamoto, Kazuhiro [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) (Japan); Kitajima, Shinichi [National Sanatorium Hoshizuka Keiaien (Japan); Horie, Masanori [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Health Research Institute (HRI) (Japan); Kuroda, Etsushi [Osaka University, Laboratory of Vaccine Science, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center (Japan); Morimoto, Yasuo [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Occupational Pneumology, Institute of Industrial Ecological Science (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    In order to investigate the pulmonary toxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles, we performed an intratracheal instillation study with rats of well-dispersed TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and examined the pulmonary inflammation and histopathological changes in the lung. Wistar Hannover rats were intratracheally administered 0.2 mg (0.66 mg/kg) and 1.0 mg (3.3 mg/kg) of well-dispersed TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (P90; diameter of agglomerates: 25 nm), then the pulmonary inflammation responses were examined from 3 days to 6 months after the instillation, and the pathological features were examined up to 24 months. Transient inflammation and the upregulation of chemokines in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid were observed for 1 month. No respiratory tumors or severe fibrosis were observed during the recovery time. These data suggest that transient inflammation induced by TiO{sub 2} may not lead to chronic, irreversible legions in the lung, and that TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles may not have a high potential for lung disorder.

  16. In silico assessment of the acute toxicity of chemicals: recent advances and new model for multitasking prediction of toxic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleandrova, Valeria V; Luan, Feng; Speck-Planche, Alejandro; Cordeiro, M Natália D S

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of acute toxicity is one of the most important stages to ensure the safety of chemicals with potential applications in pharmaceutical sciences, biomedical research, or any other industrial branch. A huge and indiscriminate number of toxicity assays have been carried out on laboratory animals. In this sense, computational approaches involving models based on quantitative-structure activity/toxicity relationships (QSAR/QSTR) can help to rationalize time and financial costs. Here, we discuss the most significant advances in the last 6 years focused on the use of QSAR/QSTR models to predict acute toxicity of drugs/chemicals in laboratory animals, employing large and heterogeneous datasets. The advantages and drawbacks of the different QSAR/QSTR models are analyzed. As a contribution to the field, we introduce the first multitasking (mtk) QSTR model for simultaneous prediction of acute toxicity of compounds by considering different routes of administration, diverse breeds of laboratory animals, and the reliability of the experimental conditions. The mtk-QSTR model was based on artificial neural networks (ANN), allowing the classification of compounds as toxic or non-toxic. This model correctly classified more than 94% of the 1646 cases present in the whole dataset, and its applicability was demonstrated by performing predictions of different chemicals such as drugs, dietary supplements, and molecules which could serve as nanocarriers for drug delivery. The predictions given by the mtk-QSTR model are in very good agreement with the experimental results.

  17. Acute and chronic dissection of pulmonary artery: new challenges in pulmonary arterial hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florczyk, Michał; Wieteska, Maria; Kurzyna, Marcin; Gościniak, Piotr; Pepke-Żaba, Joanna; Biederman, Andrzej; Torbicki, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Right ventricular failure is a leading cause of mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, up to 25% of such patients die unexpectedly, without warning signs of hemodynamical decompensation. We previously documented that pulmonary artery (PA) dilatation significantly increases the risk of those deaths. Some of them may be due to dissection of PA resulting in cardiac tamponade. However, direct confirmation of this mechanism is difficult as most of such deaths occur outside hospitals. We present 4 patients with severe PAH and PA dilatation in whom PA dissection has been confirmed. Three patients had IPAH, one had PAH associated with congenital heart disease. All patients had mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) > 50 mmHg at diagnosis and dissection occurred late in the course of apparently well controlled disease (6 to 14 years). Several clinical elements were common to our patients - high systolic PAP, long lasting PH, progressive dilatation of PA to more than 50 mm with chest pain prior to dissection. However, clinical course followed three different patterns: sudden death due to cardiac tamponade, hemopericarditis caused by blood leaking from dissected aneurysm with imminent but not immediate cardiac tamponade, or chronic asymptomatic PA dissection. Indeed, two of our patients are alive and on lung transplantation waiting list for more than 2 years now. Further research is needed to suggest optimal management strategies for patients with stable PAH but significantly dilated proximal pulmonary arteries or confirmed PA dissection depending on the clinical presentation and expected outcome.

  18. Pulmonary Toxicity, Distribution, and Clearance of Intratracheally Instilled Silicon Nanowires in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny R. Roberts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanowires (Si NWs are being manufactured for use as sensors and transistors for circuit applications. The goal was to assess pulmonary toxicity and fate of Si NW using an in vivo experimental model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with 10, 25, 50, 100, or 250 μg of Si NW (~20–30 nm diameter; ~2–15 μm length. Lung damage and the pulmonary distribution and clearance of Si NW were assessed at 1, 3, 7, 28, and 91 days after-treatment. Si NW treatment resulted in dose-dependent increases in lung injury and inflammation that resolved over time. At day 91 after treatment with the highest doses, lung collagen was increased. Approximately 70% of deposited Si NW was cleared by 28 days with most of the Si NW localized exclusively in macrophages. In conclusion, Si NW induced transient lung toxicity which may be associated with an early rapid particle clearance; however, persistence of Si NW over time related to dose or wire length may lead to increased collagen deposition in the lung.

  19. An analysis of decrements in vital capacity as an index of pulmonary oxygen toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harabin, A L; Homer, L D; Weathersby, P K; Flynn, E T

    1987-09-01

    Decrements in vital capacity (% delta VC) were proposed by the Pennsylvania group in the early 1970s as an index of O2-induced lung damage. These workers used the combined effects of PO2 and time of exposure to develop recommendations to limit expected % delta VC. Adopting this general approach, we fitted human pulmonary O2 toxicity data to the hyperbolic equation % delta VC = Bs.(PO2 - B1).(time)B3 using a nonlinear least squares analysis. In addition to the data considered in 1970, our analysis included new data available from the literature. The best fit was obtained when 1) an individual slope parameter, Bs, was estimated for each subject instead of an average slope; 2) PO2 asymptote B1 = 0.38 ATA; and 3) exponent B3 = 1.0. Wide individual variation imposed large uncertainty on any % delta VC prediction. A 12-h exposure to a PO2 of 1 ATA would be expected to yield a median VC decrement of 4%. The 80% confidence limits, however, included changes from +1.0 and -12% delta VC. Until an improved index of pulmonary O2 toxicity is developed, a simplified expression % delta VC = -0.011.(PO2 - 0.5).time (PO2 in ATA and time in min) can be used to predict a median response with little loss in predictability. The limitations of changes in VC as an index are discussed.

  20. Research on the Relationships between Endogenous Biomarkers and Exogenous Toxic Substances of Acute Toxicity in Radix Aconiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haonan Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Radix Aconiti, a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, has been widely used throughout China for disease treatment due to its various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, and analgesic effects. However, improper use of Radix Aconiti often generated severe acute toxicity. Currently, research on the toxic substances of Radix Aconiti is not rare. In our previous study, acute toxic biomarkers of Radix Aconiti have been found. However, few studies were available to find the relationships between these endogenous biomarkers and exogenous toxic substances. Therefore, in this study, toxic substances of Radix Aconiti have been found using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology. Then, we used biochemical indicators as a bridge to find the relationships between biomarkers and toxic substances of Radix Aconiti through Pearson correlation analysis and canonical correlation analysis (CCA. Finally, the CCA results showed that LysoPC(22:5 is related to 14-acetyl-talatisamine, mesaconitine, talatisamine and deoxyaconitine in varying degrees; l-acetylcarnitine is negatively correlated with deoxyaconitine and demethyl-14-acetylkaracoline; shikimic acid has a good correlation with karacoline, demethyl-14-acetylkaracoline and deoxyaconitine; and valine is correlated with talatisamine and deoxyaconitine. Research on these relationships provides an innovative way to interpret the toxic mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine, and plays a positive role in the overall study of TCM toxicity.

  1. Research on the Relationships between Endogenous Biomarkers and Exogenous Toxic Substances of Acute Toxicity in Radix Aconiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haonan; Zhang, Pengjie; Hou, Zhiguo; Xie, Jiabin; Wang, Yuming; Yang, Bin; Xu, Yanyan; Li, Yubo

    2016-11-25

    Radix Aconiti , a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been widely used throughout China for disease treatment due to its various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, and analgesic effects. However, improper use of Radix Aconiti often generated severe acute toxicity. Currently, research on the toxic substances of Radix Aconiti is not rare. In our previous study, acute toxic biomarkers of Radix Aconiti have been found. However, few studies were available to find the relationships between these endogenous biomarkers and exogenous toxic substances. Therefore, in this study, toxic substances of Radix Aconiti have been found using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology. Then, we used biochemical indicators as a bridge to find the relationships between biomarkers and toxic substances of Radix Aconiti through Pearson correlation analysis and canonical correlation analysis (CCA). Finally, the CCA results showed that LysoPC(22:5) is related to 14-acetyl-talatisamine, mesaconitine, talatisamine and deoxyaconitine in varying degrees; l-acetylcarnitine is negatively correlated with deoxyaconitine and demethyl-14-acetylkaracoline; shikimic acid has a good correlation with karacoline, demethyl-14-acetylkaracoline and deoxyaconitine; and valine is correlated with talatisamine and deoxyaconitine. Research on these relationships provides an innovative way to interpret the toxic mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine, and plays a positive role in the overall study of TCM toxicity.

  2. Value of the ventilation/perfusion scan in acute pulmonary embolism: Results of the prospective investigation of pulmonary embolism diagnosis (PIOPED)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    To determine the sensitivities and specificities of ventilation/perfusion lung scans for acute pulmonary embolism, a random sample of 933 of 1,493 patients was studied prospectively. Nine hundred thirty-one underwent scintigraphy and 755 underwent pulmonary angiography; 251 (33%) of 755 demonstrated pulmonary embolism. Almost all patients with pulmonary embolism had abnormal scans of high, intermediate, or low probability, but so did most without pulmonary embolism. Of 116 patients with high-probability scans and definitive angiograms, 102 (88%) had pulmonary embolism, but only a minority with pulmonary embolism had high-probability scans. Of 322 with intermediate-probability scans and definitive angiograms, 105 (33%) had pulmonary embolism. Follow-up and angiography together suggest pulmonary embolism occurred among 12% of patients with low-probability scans. Clinical assessment combined with the ventilation/perfusion scan established the diagnosis or exclusion of pulmonary embolism only for a minority of patients--those with clear and concordant clinical and ventilation/perfusion scan findings

  3. Polyaluminium chloride (PAX-18) - acute toxicity and toxicity for early development stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mácová, S.; Máchová, J.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Plhalová, L.; Široká, Z.; Dlesková, K.; Doleželová, P.; Svobodová, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 30, Suppl. 1 (2009), s. 192-198 ISSN 0172-780X. [Interdisciplinary Czech-Slovak Toxicological Conference /14./. Brno, 01.06.2009-03.06.2009] R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : fish * acute toxicity test * embryo-larval toxicity test * pH Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 1.047, year: 2009 http://node.nel.edu/?node_id=9497

  4. Mannose-binding lectin deficiency and acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodruff PG

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Richard K Albert,1 John Connett,2 Jeffrey L Curtis,3,4 Fernando J Martinez,3 MeiLan K Han,3 Stephen C Lazarus,5 Prescott G Woodruff51Medicine Service, Denver Health and Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, 2Division of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 3Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 4Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, VA Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI, 5Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, and Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: Mannose-binding lectin is a collectin involved in host defense against infection. Whether mannose-binding lectin deficiency is associated with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is debated.Methods: Participants in a study designed to determine if azithromycin taken daily for one year decreased acute exacerbations had serum mannose-binding lectin concentrations measured at the time of enrollment.Results: Samples were obtained from 1037 subjects (91% in the trial. The prevalence of mannose-binding lectin deficiency ranged from 0.5% to 52.2%, depending on how deficiency was defined. No differences in the prevalence of deficiency were observed with respect to any demographic variable assessed, and no differences were observed in time to first exacerbation, rate of exacerbations, or percentage of subjects requiring hospitalization for exacerbations in those with deficiency versus those without, regardless of how deficiency was defined.Conclusion: In a large sample of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease selected for having an increased risk of experiencing an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, only 1.9% had mannose-binding lectin concentrations below the normal range and we found no association between mannose-binding lectin

  5. Experimental study on acute toxicity of Qingnao tablet to mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guoqi; Wang, Huamin; Ma, Zhenzhen; Hao, Shaojun; Li, Jun; Wang, Hongyu; Wen, Zhonghua; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effect of Qingnao tablets on acute toxicity in mice. Forty mice, half male and half female, were randomly divided into normal saline group and Qingnao tablet group. After fasting for 12 hours, the mice were given 0. 4 ml / 10 g in maximum volume. In 1st, the rats were perfused 3 times (every 8 hours). The rats in the saline group were perfused with the same volume of saline in the same way. The mice were observed continuously within 3 hours and then every hour. The mice were given a normal diet for 14 consecutive days, and the changes of autonomous activity, reaction, diet, stool, secretion, eye and nose were observed daily. The mice fasted on the 13th day and weighed on the 14th day. And then put the mice to death, The changes of the liver, heart, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, intestines, and brain were observed by the naked eye. There was no obvious abnormality in normal saline group. The autonomous activity of mice in the administration group decreased after initial administration, and gradually returned to normal after 2 hours of administration. On the day of administration, the stool of the mice became dark brown, and the feces returned to normal after 1.1 days of normal urination. No other mice had abnormal secretion, reaction, eye nose, diet, etc. On the 14th day, there were no visible heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, gastrointestinal tract in normal saline group and Qingnao tablet group. Abnormal changes in brain and other organs (edema, color, etc.). In the normal saline group and Qingnao tablet group, the initial weight of the mice was: 21.70 ± 0.97N 21.71 ± 1.13, and the weight of the mice on the 7th day was 29.70 ± 2.4c28.65 ± 3.11. On the 14th day, the body weight was 32.38 ± 3.40, 33.77 ± 3.82. Qingnao tablet has no obvious toxicity to the main organs of mice, so it can be considered safe in clinical use.

  6. Acute Toxicity Tests Of Brewery Effluent on the Ostracoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mortality also varied with the concentrations. The toxic effect of brewery effluent on ostracoda, which plays an important role in the aquatic food chain and the possibility that they may be accumulating some of these toxic components, is a matter for concern. Keywords: Toxicity, rewery effluent, Ostracoda, Strandesia, ...

  7. Metal and pharmaceutical mixtures: Is ion loss the mechanism underlying acute toxicity and widespread additive toxicity in zebrafish?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsop, Derek, E-mail: alsopde@mcmaster.ca; Wood, Chris M.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Zebrafish larvae were used to test the acute toxicity of contaminant mixtures. •Interactions were observed between metals, ammonia and pharmaceuticals. •Larval Na{sup +} loss was observed with exposure to all acutely toxic contaminants tested. •Water quality criteria should recognize the toxic interactions between contaminants. -- Abstract: The acute toxicities and mechanisms of action of a variety of environmental contaminants were examined using zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio; 4–8 days post fertilization). Toxic interactions were observed between metals. For example, the addition of a sublethal level of nickel (15% of the LC{sub 50}, one third of the LC{sub 01}) to all copper treatments decreased the copper 96 h LC{sub 50} by 58%, while sublethal copper exposure (6% of the copper LC{sub 50}, 13% of the LC{sub 01}) decreased the cadmium 96 h LC{sub 50} by 47%. Two predictive models were assessed, the concentration addition (CA) model, which assumes similar mechanisms of action, and the independent action (IA) model, which assumes different mechanisms of action. Quantitative comparisons indicated the CA model performed better than the IA model; the latter tended to underestimate combined toxicity to a greater extent. The effects of mixtures with nickel or ammonia were typically additive, while mixtures with copper or cadmium were typically greater than additive. Larvae exposed to cadmium, copper or nickel experienced whole body ion loss. Decreases were greatest for Na{sup +} followed by K{sup +} (as high as 19% and 9%, respectively, in 24 h). Additive toxicity between copper and other pharmaceutical compounds such as fluoxetine (Prozac™), β-naphthoflavone, estrogen and 17α-ethinylestradiol were also observed. Similar to metals, acutely toxic concentrations of fluoxetine, β-naphthoflavone and ammonia all decreased whole body Na{sup +} and K{sup +}. Overall, whole body Na{sup +} loss showed the greatest correlation with mortality across a

  8. The Acute Toxicity of Major Ion Salts to Ceriodaphnia dubia: I. Influence of background water chemistry.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset provides concentration-response data and associated general chemistry conditions for 26 experiments consisting of 149 tests regarding the acute toxicity...

  9. Acute toxicity and genotoxicity of fermented traditional medicine oyaksungi-san

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwayong Park

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: As a whole, no acute toxicity or genotoxicity were observed in all the assays examined. Therefore, fermented OY is considered to be a safe material that can be used for development of complementary and alternative medicine using bioconversion.

  10. Effect of azole antifungal therapy on vincristine toxicity in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schie, R.M. van; Bruggemann, R.J.M.; Hoogerbrugge, P.M.; Loo, D.M. te

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vincristine is one of the cornerstones of the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Constipation, and peripheral and central neurotoxicities are the most common side effects. A comparative study exploring vincristine toxicity in individual patients receiving

  11. The Acute Toxicity of Major Ions to Ceriodaphnia dubia. II. Empirical Relationships in Binary Salt Mixtures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset provides concentration-response data and associated general chemistry conditions for 29 experiments consisting of 209 tests regarding the acute toxicity...

  12. Technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid radioaerosol scintigraphy in organophosphate induced pulmonary toxicity: experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Yucel; Kaya, Eser; Yurumez, Yusuf; Sahin, Onder; Bas, Orhan; Fidan, Huseyin; Sezer, Murat

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to investigate pathological signs of lung damages caused by acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning by using Tc-99m DTPA radioaerosol scintigraphy and histopathological investigation. Fourteen rabbits were divided into two equal groups (n = 7). Group 1 (control group) received normal saline (same volume of fenthion, 2 ml/kg) via orogastric tube. Group 2 (OP toxicity group) received 150 mg/kg of fenthion (diluted fenthion, 2 ml/kg) via orogastric tube. Six hours later, Tc-99m-DTPA aerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy was performed in both groups. Then all rabbits were anesthetized with ketamine hydrochloride (35 mg/kg, i.p.) and xysilazine (5 mg/kg, i.p.), and sacrificed by intracardiac blood discharge. The lungs were then removed. There was a significant difference in T1/2 values of Tc-99m DTPA clearance between control group and OP toxicity group (p = 0.04). Intraparenchymal vascular congestion and thrombosis, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, respiratory epithelial proliferation, number of macrophages in the alveolar, and bronchial lumen, alveolar destruction, emphysematous changes, and bronchoalveolar hemorrhage scores were significantly higher in the rabbits exposed to OP compared with the control group (p < 0.05). This study showed that OP toxicity caused a decrease in the alveolar clearance. Tc-99m DTPA radioaerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy was found to be a sensitive determination of acute lung damage in OP poisoning.

  13. Acute pulmonary edema following inflation of arterial tourniquet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, M C B; Pai, R B; Rao, R P

    2014-10-01

    Arterial tourniquets are used as one of the methods for reducing blood loss and for allowing blood free surgical field. A 20-year-old, 45 kg healthy female with a sphere shaped pendunculated hemangioma in the popliteal fossa of her left lower limb was applied with arterial tourniquet after exsanguination. The procedure was performed under general anesthesia. Soon after exsanguination and tourniquet inflation, the patient developed pulmonary edema which subsided after deflating the tourniquet. The clinical evolution, treatment and pathophysiology of this complication are described. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Value of chest X-ray combined with perfusion scan versus ventilation/perfusion scan in acute pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, M. R.; Turkstra, F.; van Marwijk Kooy, M.; Oostdijk, A. H.; van Beek, E. J.; Büller, H. R.

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of ventilation scanning, as adjunct to perfusion lung scintigraphy, in acute pulmonary embolism is to allow for the classification of segmental perfusion defects as mismatched, which is generally accepted as proof for the presence of pulmonary embolism. We examined whether this

  15. Serial Sonographic Assessment of Pulmonary Edema in Patients With Hypertensive Acute Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Jennifer L; Secko, Michael; Kilpatrick, John F; deSouza, Ian S; Paladino, Lorenzo; Aherne, Andrew; Mehta, Ninfa; Conigiliaro, Alyssa; Sinert, Richard

    2018-02-01

    Objective measures of clinical improvement in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) are lacking. The aim of this study was to determine whether repeated lung sonography could semiquantitatively capture changes in pulmonary edema (B-lines) in patients with hypertensive AHF early in the course of treatment. We conducted a feasibility study in a cohort of adults with acute onset of dyspnea, severe hypertension in the field or at triage (systolic blood pressure ≥ 180 mm Hg), and a presumptive diagnosis of AHF. Patients underwent repeated dyspnea and lung sonographic assessments using a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) and an 8-zone scanning protocol. Lung sonographic assessments were performed at the time of triage, initial VAS improvement, and disposition from the emergency department. Sonographic pulmonary edema was independently scored offline in a randomized and blinded fashion by using a scoring method that accounted for both the sum of discrete B-lines and degree of B-line fusion. Sonographic pulmonary edema scores decreased significantly from initial to final sonographic assessments (P < .001). The median percentage decrease among the 20 included patient encounters was 81% (interquartile range, 55%-91%). Although sonographic pulmonary edema scores correlated with VAS scores (ρ = 0.64; P < .001), the magnitude of the change in these scores did not correlate with each other (ρ = -0.04; P = .89). Changes in sonographic pulmonary edema can be semiquantitatively measured by serial 8-zone lung sonography using a scoring method that accounts for B-line fusion. Sonographic pulmonary edema improves in patients with hypertensive AHF during the initial hours of treatment. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  16. High-voltage zones within the pulmonary vein antra: Major determinants of acute pulmonary vein reconnections after atrial fibrillation ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Koichi; Watanabe, Ichiro; Okumura, Yasuo; Iso, Kazuki; Takahashi, Keiko; Watanabe, Ryuta; Arai, Masaru; Kurokawa, Sayaka; Nakai, Toshiko; Ohkubo, Kimie; Yoda, Shunichi; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2017-08-01

    Recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is mainly due to PV reconnections. Patient-specific tissue characteristics that may contribute remain unidentified. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the bipolar electrogram voltage amplitudes recorded from the PV-left atrial (LA) junction and acute PV reconnection sites. Three-dimensional LA voltage maps created before an extensive encircling PVI in 47 AF patients (31 men; mean age 62 ± 11 years) were examined for an association between the EGM voltage amplitude recorded from the PV-LA junction and acute post-PVI PV reconnections (spontaneous PV reconnections and/or ATP-provoked dormant PV conduction). Acute PV reconnections were observed in 17 patients (36%) and in 24 (3%) of the 748 PV segments (16 segments per patient) and were associated with relatively high bipolar voltage amplitudes (3.26 ± 0.85 vs. 1.79 ± 1.15 mV, p voltage (137 [106, 166] vs. 295 [193, 498] gs/mV, p voltage and FTI/PV-LA bipolar voltage for acute PV reconnections (areas under the curve: 0.86 and 0.89, respectively); the best cutoff values were >2.12 mV and ≤183 gs/mV, respectively. The PV-LA voltage on the PV-encircling ablation line and FTI/PV-LA voltage were related to the acute post-PVI PV reconnections. A more durable ablation strategy is warranted for high-voltage zones.

  17. Nicardipine-induced acute pulmonary edema: a rare but severe complication of tocolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serena, Claire; Begot, Emmanuelle; Cros, Jérôme; Hodler, Charles; Fedou, Anne Laure; Nathan-Denizot, Nathalie; Clavel, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We report four cases of acute pulmonary edema that occurred during treatment by intravenous tocolysis using nicardipine in pregnancy patients with no previous heart problems. Clinical severity justified hospitalization in intensive care unit (ICU) each time. Acute dyspnea has begun at an average of 63 hours after initiation of treatment. For all patients, the first diagnosis suspected was pulmonary embolism. The patients' condition improved rapidly with appropriate diuretic treatment and by modifying the tocolysis. The use of intravenous nicardipine is widely used for tocolysis in France even if its prescription does not have a marketing authorization. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this complication remain unclear. The main reported risk factors are spontaneous preterm labor, multiple pregnancy, concomitant obstetrical disease, association with beta-agonists, and fetal lung maturation corticotherapy. A better knowledge of this rare but serious adverse event should improve the management of patients. Nifedipine or atosiban, the efficiency of which tocolysis was also studied, could be an alternative.

  18. [Acute pulmonary edema in adult caused by tonsillar hypertrophy following removal of laryngeal mask airway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Toru; Shimoyama, Naohito; Notoya, Atsuko

    2010-12-01

    Negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) has been described after acute airway obstruction. In the following case, we observed a rare occurrence of pulmonary edema caused by chronic tonsillar hypertrophy in a woman following removal of laryngeal mask airway (LMA). A 38-year-old woman with breast cancer underwent mastectomy under general anesthesia using the LMA. With the patient fully awake, the LMA was removed. Abruptly 7 minutes afterward, she showed signs of intense dyspnea, generalized rhonchus and progressive desaturation, and obstructive tonsillar hypertrophy was noticed. Acute lung edema was suspected and treatment started with oxygen therapy, bronchodilators, intravenous corticoids and loop diuretics. She was then intubated to secure airway and provide adequate ventilation with PEEP. Fortunately, the symptoms progressively remitted satisfactorily, and she was subsequently extubated 18 hours later with no complications. NPPE is an infrequent medical emergency and its early diagnosis and recognition are likely to lead to successful management of this potentially serious complication.

  19. Nicardipine-Induced Acute Pulmonary Edema: A Rare but Severe Complication of Tocolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Serena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report four cases of acute pulmonary edema that occurred during treatment by intravenous tocolysis using nicardipine in pregnancy patients with no previous heart problems. Clinical severity justified hospitalization in intensive care unit (ICU each time. Acute dyspnea has begun at an average of 63 hours after initiation of treatment. For all patients, the first diagnosis suspected was pulmonary embolism. The patients' condition improved rapidly with appropriate diuretic treatment and by modifying the tocolysis. The use of intravenous nicardipine is widely used for tocolysis in France even if its prescription does not have a marketing authorization. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this complication remain unclear. The main reported risk factors are spontaneous preterm labor, multiple pregnancy, concomitant obstetrical disease, association with beta-agonists, and fetal lung maturation corticotherapy. A better knowledge of this rare but serious adverse event should improve the management of patients. Nifedipine or atosiban, the efficiency of which tocolysis was also studied, could be an alternative.

  20. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response may be the causal link between particle inhalation and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saber, Anne T.; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Jackson, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of ambient and workplace particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. One proposed mechanism for this association is that pulmonary inflammation induces a hepatic acute phase response, which increases risk of cardiovascular disease. Induction...... epidemiological studies. In this review, we present and review emerging evidence that inhalation of particles (e.g., air diesel exhaust particles and nanoparticles) induces a pulmonary acute phase response, and propose that this induction constitutes the causal link between particle inhalation and risk...

  1. Comparison of acute ozone-induced nasal and pulmonary inflammatory responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkiss, J A; Harkema, J R; Sun, J D; Henderson, R F

    1988-12-01

    The present study was designed to compare the effects of acute ozone exposure in the nose and lungs of rats. Rats were exposed to 0.0, 0.12, 0.80, or 1.5 ppm O{sub 3} for 6 h and were sacrificed immediately, 3,18, 42, or 66 h after exposure. Cellular inflammatory responses were assessed by quantitating polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) recovered by nasal lavage (NL) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and morphometric quantitation of PMN within the nasal mucosa and pulmonary centriacinar region. Rats exposed to 0.12 ppm O{sub 3} had a transient nasal PMN response 18 h after exposure but no increase in pulmonary PMN. Rats exposed to 0.8 ppm O{sub 3} had a marked increase in nasal PMN immediately after exposure but the number of PMN within the nasal cavity decreased as the number of pulmonary PMN increased with time after exposure. Rats exposed to 1.5 ppm O{sub 3} had an increase in pulmonary PMN beginning 3 h post-exposure, but no increase in nasal PMN at any time. Our results suggest that at high O{sub 3} concentrations, the acute nasal inflammatory response is attenuated by a simultaneous, competing, inflammatory response within the lung. (author)

  2. Comparison of acute ozone-induced nasal and pulmonary inflammatory responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotchkiss, J.A.; Harkema, J.R.; Sun, J.D.; Henderson, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    The present study was designed to compare the effects of acute ozone exposure in the nose and lungs of rats. Rats were exposed to 0.0, 0.12, 0.80, or 1.5 ppm O 3 for 6 h and were sacrificed immediately, 3,18, 42, or 66 h after exposure. Cellular inflammatory responses were assessed by quantitating polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) recovered by nasal lavage (NL) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and morphometric quantitation of PMN within the nasal mucosa and pulmonary centriacinar region. Rats exposed to 0.12 ppm O 3 had a transient nasal PMN response 18 h after exposure but no increase in pulmonary PMN. Rats exposed to 0.8 ppm O 3 had a marked increase in nasal PMN immediately after exposure but the number of PMN within the nasal cavity decreased as the number of pulmonary PMN increased with time after exposure. Rats exposed to 1.5 ppm O 3 had an increase in pulmonary PMN beginning 3 h post-exposure, but no increase in nasal PMN at any time. Our results suggest that at high O 3 concentrations, the acute nasal inflammatory response is attenuated by a simultaneous, competing, inflammatory response within the lung. (author)

  3. Severe pulmonary compromise in an immunocompetent patient with acute disseminated toxoplasmosis: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, Jorge; Pino, Luis; Lopez Consuelo

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The acute toxoplasmosis in the immunocompetent patient, unlike of the positive HIV patient, it is characterizes for prolonged fever, lymph node and nonspecific infectious symptoms, generally with benign course and without systemic commitment. This pathology acquired a very importance in the pregnancy people, where the primary infection can to derivates in the congenital transmission of the illness with irreversible sequels in newborn. Nevertheless, the travel of the people to inhospitable woodsy areas, and the contact with wild-type strain of toxoplasma gondii, to be permitted a new expression of the illness in the immunocompetent patient, with pulmonary, cardiovascular and central nervous system manifestations. They are a high risk for the patient life's. In this study, one case of severe pulmonary commitment for toxoplasma gondii in immunocompetent patient is review; he is admitted to Internal Medicine Service of the Militar Central Hospital's in Bogota. He has a favorable evolution and adequate survival. Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and follow-up of one patient with severe pulmonary commitment caused by toxoplasma gondii. Design: Case report. Materials and methods: The clinical records of the one patient who was hospitalized in the Militar Central Hospital's in Bogota was reviewed and described. Afterwards, the existing literature on Acute toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patient was reviewed in PubMed, MD consult and OVID databases. Conclusions: The toxoplasma gondii infection's in immunocompetent patient generally has a benign course without systemic manifestations; nevertheless, the exposure to wild-type strain can to be related with severe pulmonary commitment.

  4. Acute pulmonary oedema: clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, and in-hospital management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parissis, John T; Nikolaou, Maria; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Ikonomidis, Ignatios; Delgado, Juan; Vilas-Boas, Fabio; Paraskevaidis, Ioannis; Mc Lean, Antony; Kremastinos, Dimitrios; Follath, Ferenc

    2010-11-01

    Acute pulmonary oedema (APE) is the second, after acutely decompensated chronic heart failure (ADHF), most frequent form of acute heart failure (AHF). This subanalysis examines the clinical profile, prognostic factors, and management of APE patients (n = 1820, 36.7%) included in the Acute Heart Failure Global Survey of Standard Treatment (ALARM-HF). ALARM-HF included a total of 4953 patients hospitalized for AHF in Europe, Latin America, and Australia. The final diagnosis was made at discharge, and patients were classified according to European Society of Cardiology guidelines. Patients with APE had higher in-hospital mortality (7.4 vs. 6.0%, P = 0.057) compared with ADHF patients (n = 1911, 38.5%), and APE patients exhibited higher systolic blood pressures (P chronic renal disease (P renal function, and history may identify high-risk APE patients.

  5. Undiagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases in patients admittet to an acute assessment unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eikhof, Karin Dam; Olsen, Kristine R; Wrengler, NCH

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is very prevalent worldwide, yet underdiagnosed. Aim: This study investigates feasibility of performing spirometry in patients in need of acute hospital admission as well as the prevalence of undiagnosed COPD in the same cohort. Methods....../3 was in GOLD group A. In total, 75% of the patients with airflow obstruction at the initial examination remained obstructive. Conclusion: Performing spirometry in patients in need of acute hospital admission is feasible, abnormal findings are common, and COPD is the most prevalent diagnosis....

  6. Diagnosis and management of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Van; Slack, Donald; McCurdy, Michael T; Shah, Nirav G; Gupta, Nachi; Nusbaum, Jeffrey

    2017-10-20

    Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a clinical diagnosis that is based on changes in dyspnea, cough, and/or sputum production in a COPD patient; however, patients presenting with an acute exacerbation may be undiagnosed or have a variety of comorbid conditions that can complicate diagnosis. This issue presents strategies and algorithms for the early use of evidence-based interventions, including appropriate use of antibiotics, bronchodilators, and corticosteroids, along with noninvasive ventilation with capnography, to minimize morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Emergency Medicine Practice.].

  7. Acute pulmonary edema due to stress cardiomyopathy in a patient with aortic stenosis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Monika F

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Stress cardiomyopathy is a condition of chest pain, breathlessness, abnormal heart rhythms and sometimes congestive heart failure or shock precipitated by intense mental or physical stress. Case presentation A 64-year-old male with a known diagnosis of moderate-to-severe aortic stenosis and advised that valve replacement was not urgent, presented with acute pulmonary edema following extraordinary mental distress. The patient was misdiagnosed as having a "massive heart attack" and...

  8. Paradoxical embolization via a patent foramen ovale following acute pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.V.; Bynevelt, V.; Price, R.

    2005-01-01

    The foramen ovale is usually obliterated following establishment of the adult circulation but remains patent in 25% of individuals. This potential communication between the venous and arterial circulations can allow thromboembolic material to bypass the lungs and enter the systemic circulation. We report two cases of paradoxical embolization through a patent foramen ovale following acute large pulmonary embolism (PE) and discuss the factors that predispose to paradoxical embolization following PE Copyright (2005) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  9. Genetic variation in the bleomycin hydrolase gene and bleomycin-induced pulmonary toxicity in germ cell cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuver, J; Lutke-Holzik, MF; van Zweeden, M; Hoekstra, HJ; Meijer, C; Suurmeijer, AJH; Hofstra, RM; Sluiter, WJ; Sleijfer, D; Gietema, JA; Groen, Hendricus; Groen, Herman

    Objective Use of bleomycin as a cytotoxic agent is limited by its pulmonary toxicity. Bleomycin is mainly excreted by the kidneys, but can also be inactivated by bleomycin hydrolase (BMH). An 1450A > G polymorphic site in the BMH gene results in an amino acid substitution in the C-terminal domain of

  10. Development of thresholds of excess toxicity for environmental species and their application to identification of modes of acute toxic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin J; Zhang, Xu J; Yang, Yi; Huang, Tao; Li, Chao; Su, Limin; Zhao, Yuan H; Cronin, Mark T D

    2018-03-01

    The acute toxicity of organic pollutants to fish, Daphnia magna, Tetrahymena pyriformis, and Vibrio fischeri was investigated. The results indicated that the Toxicity Ratio (TR) threshold of log TR =1, which has been based on the distribution of toxicity data to fish, can also be used to discriminate reactive or specifically acting compounds from baseline narcotics for Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri. A log TR=0.84 is proposed for Tetrahymena pyriformis following investigation of the relationships between the species sensitivity and the absolute averaged residuals (AAR) between the predicted baseline toxicity and the experimental toxicity. Less inert compounds exhibit relatively higher toxicity to the lower species (Tetrahymena pyriformis and Vibrio fischeri) than the higher species (fish and Daphnia magna). A greater number of less inert compounds with log TR greater than the thresholds was observed for Tetrahymena pyriformis and Vibrio fischeri. This may be attributed to the hydrophilic compounds which may pass more easily through cell membranes than the skin or exoskeleton of organisms and have higher bioconcentration factors in the lower species, leading to higher toxicity. Most of classes of chemical associated with excess toxicity to one species also exhibited excess toxicity to other species, however, a few classes with excess toxicity to one species exhibiting narcotic toxicity to other species and thus may have different MOAs between species. Some ionizable compounds have log TR much lower than one because of the over-estimated log K OW . The factors that influence the toxicity ratio calculated from baseline level are discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Essential and toxic metals in serum of individuals with active pulmonary tuberculosis in an endemic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sepehri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements play an important role in tuberculosis infection because their deficiencies can be associated with impaired immunity. Blood samples were collected from a total of 320 active pulmonary tuberculosis patients and healthy individuals. The serum concentrations of Zinc, Iron, Copper, Calcium, lead, Arsenic and Selenium were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The levels of trace elements were measured after 2, 4 and 6 months of anti-TB treatment initiation in TB infected groups. Compared to the control group, the concentrations of Zinc, Selenium, and Iron were significantly lower (P< 0.001 in tuberculosis patients; however, that of Arsenic, Lead, and copper was significantly higher (P< 0.001 in the serum of patients. Cu/Zn and Cu/Se ratios were also significantly higher (P< 0.001 in TB patients compared to the control group. In addition, serum concentration calcium was similar in both TB patients and healthy controls. Our results indicated that trace elements concentrations in tuberculosis patients are related to each element role in immune system. Wherever the element is essential for the pathogenesis of bacteria, its concentration will remain low; and contrariwise, when the element is toxic for the bacteria, its level will be regulated up to provide a perfect condition for bacterial growth. Keywords: Trace elements, Blood, Atomic absorption spectroscopy, Sistan, Pulmonary tuberculosis, Trace elements, Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, Sistan

  12. Consensus definitions of 14 severe acute toxic effects for childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, K.; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Barzilai, Shlomit

    2016-01-01

    Although there are high survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their outcome is often counterbalanced by the burden of toxic effects. This is because reported frequencies vary widely across studies, partly because of diverse definitions of toxic effects. Using the Delphi ...

  13. Safety assessment of hydroethanolic rambutan rind extract: acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinkratok, Aree; Suwannaprapha, Parin; Srisawat, Rungrudee

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the safety of rambutan rind extract (RRE) in male Wistar rats. While acute toxicity was evaluated by feeding the rats with single doses of RRE (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 mg/kg) and its sub-chronic toxicity was observed in rats orally administered with RRE (500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg) daily for 30 days. In acute toxicity study, the LD50 was found to be greater than 5000 mg/kg of RRE. In sub-chronic toxicity study, no mortality and sign of toxicity was found up to 1000 mg/kg/day of RRE. At 2000 mg/kg/day dose, the mortality rate was 12.5%. Significant decreases in body weight gain and food consumption were found in both acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies. In acute toxicity study, all the studied doses of RRE did not alter serum levels of triglyceride (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) andalanine aminotransferase (ALT). In sub-chronic toxicity study, all studied doses of RRE significantly decreased plasma levels of TG and blood urea nitrogen, but did not alter plasma levels of AST and ALT. TC levels did not show any significant change in both the studies. The obtained results provide basic information for in vivo experimental studies of the pharmacological potentiality of RRE.

  14. Acute methaemoglobinaemia initially treated as organophosphate poisoning leading to atropine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakhandki, Srinivas; Yahya, Mohammed; Praveen, Mudalgi

    2012-07-01

    A case of unknown compound poisoning is presented. It was initially treated as organophosphate poisoning with lack of response. A timely diagnosis of acute methaemoglobinaemia and iatrogenic atropine toxicity was made based on clinical evaluation. Treatment of methaemoglobinaemia using oral methylene blue and of atropine toxicity with supportive measures could save the patient.

  15. Acute toxicity and bio-accumulation of mercury and copper in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acute toxicity of Mercury and Copper on C. africanus and T. fuscatus and the bio-accumulation potentials of the metals were investigated in laboratory experiments employing standard bio–assay techniques. On the basis of LC50 values, both metals had similar magnitudes of toxicity against C. africanus. However ...

  16. Organising pneumonia presenting as acute life threatening pulmonary haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhaiah, Damodhara Honnavally; Chakravorty, Indranil; Swamy, Rajiv; Prakash, Doraiswamy

    2011-11-08

    Organising pneumonia, previously called bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia is a clinicopathological entity of unknown aetiology, which has been reported with increasing frequency. Various modes of presentation have been described such as cough, fever, weight loss and alveolar opacities on chest radiograph. Haemoptysis as primary presenting symptom has only rarely been reported. The authors report a case in which massive life-threatening haemoptysis was the major presenting symptom. No aetiology was identified for the haemoptysis and the diagnosis was confirmed on postmortem histology. This case highlights the importance of considering organising pneumonia in the differential diagnosis of acute severe haemoptysis.

  17. Acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos to embryo and larvae of banded gourami Trichogaster fasciata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumon, Kizar Ahmed; Saha, Sampa; Brink, van den Paul J.; Peeters, Edwin T.H.M.; Bosma, Roel H.; Rashid, Harunur

    2017-01-01

    This study elucidated the acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos on the early life stages of banded gourami (Trichogaster fasciata). To determine the acute effects of chlorpyrifos on their survival and development, we exposedthe embryos and two-day-old larvae to six concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.10, 1.0, 10

  18. Acute and Sub-chronic (28-day) Oral Toxicity Studies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    was to investigate the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of A. conyzoides leaves in Wistar rats. Methods: In the acute test, the ... associated with navel in children [4], and in the treatment of ... Ethical Committee for Teaching and. Research (ref no.

  19. Ecotoxicological evaluation of leachate from the Limeira sanitary landfill with a view to identifying acute toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani; Ronaldo Teixeira Pelegrini; Núbia Natália de Brito Pelegrini

    2007-01-01

    Final disposal of solid waste is still a cause for serious impacts on the environment. In sanitary landfills, waste undergoes physical, chemical, and biological decomposition, generating biogas and leachate. Leachate is a highly toxic liquid with a very high pollution potential. The purpose of this work is to evaluate toxicity of in natura leachate samples collected from Limeira Sanitary Landfill, in Limeira, SP. The ecotoxicological evaluation comprised acute toxicity assays using as test or...

  20. Acute lethal toxicity following passive immunization for treatment of murine cryptococcosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Savoy, A C; Lupan, D M; Manalo, P B; Roberts, J S; Schlageter, A M; Weinhold, L C; Kozel, T R

    1997-01-01

    Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the major capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans alters the course of murine cryptococcosis. During studies of passive immunization for treatment of murine cryptococcosis, we noted the occurrence of an acute, lethal toxicity. Toxicity was characterized by scratching, lethargy, respiratory distress, collapse, and death within 20 to 60 min after injection of antibody. The toxic effect was observed only in mice with ...

  1. Acute toxicity of pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin to Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shane A; McMurry, Scott T; Smith, Loren M; Belden, Jason B

    2013-07-01

    Fungicide application rates on row crop agriculture have increased across the United States, and subsequently, contamination of adjacent wetlands can occur through spray drift or field runoff. To investigate fungicide toxicity, Hyalella azteca amphipods were exposed to 2 fungicide formulations, Headline and Stratego, and their active strobilurin ingredients, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin. Water-only exposures resulted in similar median lethal concentration (LC50; 20-25 µg/L) values for formulations and strobilurin ingredients, suggesting that toxicity is due to strobilurin ingredients. These values were below concentrations that could occur following spray drift over embedded cropland wetlands. When fungicides were added to overlying water of sediment-water microcosms, toxicity was reduced by 500% for Headline and 160% for Stratego, compared with water-only exposures, based on the total amount of fungicide added to the systems. In addition, when fungicides were added to sediment prior to the addition of water, the reduction in toxicity was even greater, with no toxicity occurring at environmentally relevant levels. Differences in toxicity among exposure groups were explained by dissipation from water as toxicity values based on measured water concentrations were within 20% between all systems. The present study reinforces previous studies that Headline and Stratego are toxic to nontarget aquatic organisms. However, the presence of sediment is likely to ameliorate some toxicity of fungicide formulations, especially if spraying occurs prior to wetland inundation. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  2. Sarcoidosis-associated pulmonary hypertension: acute vasoresponsiveness to inhaled nitric oxide and the relation to long-term effect of sildenafil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Svendsen, Claus Bo; Iversen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background: Severe pulmonary sarcoidosis is often complicated by pulmonary hypertension (PH) caused by different pathophysiological mechanisms. Objectives: To assess the acute vasoresponsiveness in patients with sarcoidosis and PH and the relation to the therapeutic effect of sildenafil...

  3. Carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin levels as prognostic markers in acute pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakavas, Sotirios; Papanikolaou, Aggeliki; Ballis, Evangelos; Tatsis, Nikolaos; Goga, Christina; Tatsis, Georgios

    2015-04-01

    Carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and methemoglobin (MetHb) levels have been associated with a poor outcome in patients with various pathological conditions including cardiovascular diseases. Our aim was to retrospectively assess the prognostic value of arterial COHb and MetHb in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). We conducted a retrospective study of 156 patients admitted in a pulmonary clinic due to acute PE. Measured variables during emergency department evaluation that were retrospectively analyzed included the ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood to the fraction of oxygen in inspired gas, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, risk stratification indices, and arterial blood gases. The association between arterial COHb and MetHb levels and disease severity or mortality was evaluated using bivariate tests and logistic regression analysis. Arterial COHb and MetHb levels correlated with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and pulmonary severity index scores. Furthermore, arterial COHb and MetHb levels were associated with troponin T and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels. In univariate logistic regression analysis, COHb and MetHb levels were both significantly associated with an increased risk of death. However, in multivariate analysis, only COHb remained significant as an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality. Our preliminary data suggest that arterial COHb and MetHb levels reflect the severity of acute PE, whereas COHb levels are independent predictors of in hospital death in patients in this clinical setting. These findings require further prospective validation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prostate hypofractionated radiation therapy with injection of hyaluronic acid: acute toxicities in a phase 2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-03-15

    Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity

  6. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.chapet@chu-lyon.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); EMR3738, Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie [Pole Information Médicale Evaluation Recherche, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); EA SIS, Université de Lyon, Lyon (France); Faix, Antoine [Department of Urology, Clinique Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Ruffion, Alain [Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Department of Urology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Jalade, Patrice [Department of Medical Physics, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  7. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Radiotherapy, and the Risk of Acute and Chronic Toxicity: The Mayo Clinic Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinn, Melva E.; Gold, Douglas G. M.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Osborn, Thomas G.; Brown, Paul D.; Miller, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the acute and chronic toxic effects of radiotherapy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods and Materials: Medical records of 21 consecutive patients with SLE, who had received 34 courses of external beam radiotherapy and one low-dose-rate prostate implant, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with discoid lupus erythematosus were excluded. Results: Median survival was 2.3 years and median follow-up 5.6 years. Eight (42%) of 19 patients evaluable for acute toxicity during radiotherapy experienced acute toxicity of Grade 1 or greater, and 4 (21%) had acute toxicity of Grade 3 or greater. The 5- and 10-year incidence of chronic toxicity of Grade 1 or greater was 45% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22-72%) and 56% (95% CI, 28-81%), respectively. The 5- and 10-year incidence of chronic toxicity of Grade 3 or greater was 28% (95% CI, 18-60%) and 40% (95% CI, 16-72%), respectively. Univariate analysis showed that chronic toxicity of Grade 1 or greater correlated with SLE renal involvement (p < 0.006) and possibly with the presence of five or more American Rheumatism Association criteria (p < 0.053). Chronic toxicity of Grade 3 or greater correlated with an absence of photosensitivity (p < 0.02), absence of arthritis (p < 0.03), and presence of a malar rash (p < 0.04). Conclusions: The risk of acute and chronic toxicity in patients with SLE who received radiotherapy was moderate but was not prohibitive of the use of radiotherapy. Patients with more advanced SLE may be at increased risk for chronic toxicity

  8. Alterations in welding process voltage affect the generation of ultrafine particles, fume composition, and pulmonary toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, James M; Keane, Michael; Chen, Bean T; Stone, Samuel; Roberts, Jenny R; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Andrews, Ronnee N; Frazer, David G; Sriram, Krishnan

    2011-12-01

    The goal was to determine if increasing welding voltage changes the physico-chemical properties of the fume and influences lung responses. Rats inhaled 40 mg/m³ (3 h/day × 3 days) of stainless steel (SS) welding fume generated at a standard voltage setting of 25 V (regular SS) or at a higher voltage (high voltage SS) of 30 V. Particle morphology, size and composition were characterized. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed at different times after exposures to assess lung injury. Fumes collected from either of the welding conditions appeared as chain-like agglomerates of nanometer-sized primary particles. High voltage SS welding produced a greater number of ultrafine-sized particles. Fume generated by high voltage SS welding was higher in manganese. Pulmonary toxicity was more substantial and persisted longer after exposure to the regular SS fume. In summary, a modest raise in welding voltage affected fume size and elemental composition and altered the temporal lung toxicity profile.

  9. Acute and chronic toxicity of boron to a variety of freshwater organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy; Koch, Brian T

    2011-08-01

    Boron enters the aquatic environment from various sources, including weathering of borates, sewage effluents, coal combustion, use of cleaning compounds, and agrochemicals. The present study was designed to generate data on acute and chronic boron toxicity in support of an update of water quality standards in Illinois, USA. We examined the acute toxicity of boron to eight different freshwater organisms including a fish, an insect, two crustaceans, and four bivalve mollusks. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present data on the toxicity of boron to freshwater mollusks. We also sought to clarify whether hardness or pH affect boron toxicity to aquatic life, and to quantify chronic effect levels in two freshwater species. Sensitivity among the various species ranged widely, with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) being the most sensitive. Neither pH nor hardness had a consistent effect on acute boron toxicity to two crustaceans (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca), but we observed evidence that chloride reduces boron toxicity to H. azteca. The fathead minnow, while more acutely sensitive than the other species, had a lower acute to chronic ratio than did H. azteca, which had reduced reproduction at 13 mg/L. While we do not know the extent to which the eight tested species represent the range of sensitivities of native but untested species in Illinois, the current water quality standard for Illinois (1 mg/L) is conservative with regard to the native species tested thus far. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  10. Variation in the HFE gene is associated with the development of bleomycin-induced pulmonary toxicity in testicular cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schoot, Gabriela G F; Westerink, Nico-Derk L; Lubberts, Sjoukje; Nuver, Janine; Zwart, Nynke; Walenkamp, Annemiek M E; Wempe, Johan B; Meijer, Coby; Gietema, Jourik A

    2016-05-01

    Bleomycin and cisplatin are of key importance in testicular cancer treatment. Known potential serious adverse effects are bleomycin-induced pulmonary toxicity (BIP) and cisplatin-induced renal toxicity. Iron handling may play a role in development of this toxicity. Carriage of allelic variants of the HFE gene induces altered iron metabolism and may contribute to toxicity. We investigated the association between two common allelic variants of the HFE gene, H63D and C282Y, with development of pulmonary and renal toxicity during and after treatment with bleomycin- and cisplatin-containing chemotherapy. In 369 testicular cancer patients treated with bleomycin and cisplatin at the University Medical Center Groningen between 1978 and 2006, H63D and/or C282Y genotypes were determined with an allelic discrimination assay. Data were collected on development of BIP, pulmonary function parameters, renal function, and survival. BIP developed more frequently in patients who were heterozygote (16 in 75, 21%) and homozygote (2 in 4, 50%) for the H63D variant, compared with those who had the HFE wild-type gene (31 in 278, 11%) (p = 0.012). Overall survival, testicular cancer-related survival, and change in renal function were not associated with the H63D variant. We observed an association between presence of one or both H63D alleles and development of BIP in testicular cancer patients treated with bleomycin combination chemotherapy. In patients heterozygote and homozygote for the H63D variant, BIP occurred more frequently compared with wild-type patients. When validated and confirmed, HFE H63D genotyping may be used to identify patients with increased risk for pulmonary bleomycin toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prediction of acute inhalation toxicity using in vitro lung surfactant inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørli, Jorid B; Huang, Yishi; Da Silva, Emilie; Hansen, Jitka S; Zuo, Yi Y; Frederiksen, Marie; Nørgaard, Asger W; Ebbehøj, Niels E; Larsen, Søren T; Hougaard, Karin S

    2018-01-01

    Private consumers and professionals may experience acute inhalation toxicity after inhaling aerosolized impregnation products. The distinction between toxic and non-toxic products is difficult to make for producers and product users alike, as there is no clearly described relationship between the chemical composition of the products and induction of toxicity. The currently accepted method for determination of acute inhalation toxicity is based on experiments on animals; it is time-consuming, expensive and causes stress for the animals. Impregnation products are present on the market in large numbers and amounts and exhibit great variety. Therefore, an alternative method to screen for acute inhalation toxicity is needed. The aim of our study was to determine if inhibition of lung surfactant by impregnation products in vitro could accurately predict toxicity in vivo in mice. We tested 21 impregnation products using the constant flow through set-up of the constrained drop surfactometer to determine if the products inhibited surfactant function or not. The same products were tested in a mouse inhalation bioassay to determine their toxicity in vivo. The sensitivity was 100%, i.e., the in vitro method predicted all the products that were toxic for mice to inhale. The specificity of the in vitro test was 63%, i.e., the in vitro method found three false positives in the 21 tested products. Six of the products had been involved in accidental human inhalation where they caused acute inhalation toxicity. All of these six products inhibited lung surfactant function in vitro and were toxic to mice.

  12. Investigation of Acute Pulmonary Deficits Associated with Biomass Fuel Cookstove Emissions in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N. Medgyesi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of solid biomass fuels in cookstoves has been associated with chronic health impacts that disproportionately affect women worldwide. Solid fuel stoves that use wood, plant matter, and cow dung are commonly used for household cooking in rural Bangladesh. This study investigates the immediate effects of acute elevated cookstove emission exposures on pulmonary function. Pulmonary function was measured with spirometry before and during cooking to assess changes in respiratory function during exposure to cookstove emissions for 15 females ages 18–65. Cookstove emissions were characterized using continuous measurements of particulate matter (PM2.5—aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm concentrations at a 1 s time resolution for each household. Several case studies were observed where women ≥40 years who had been cooking for ≥25 years suffered from severe pulmonary impairment. Forced expiratory volume in one second over forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC was found to moderately decline (p = 0.06 during cooking versus non-cooking in the study cohort. The study found a significant (α < 0.05 negative association between 3- and 10-min maximum PM2.5 emissions during cooking and lung function measurements of forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, and FEV1/FVC obtained during cooking intervals. This study found that exposure to biomass burning emissions from solid fuel stoves- associated with acute elevated PM2.5 concentrations- leads to a decrease in pulmonary function, although further research is needed to ascertain the prolonged (e.g., daily, for multiple years impacts of acute PM2.5 exposure on immediate and sustained respiratory impairment.

  13. Acute toxicity and antispasmodic activities of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Niaz; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Ahmed, Ghayour; Shah, Ismail; Shoaib, Mohammad; Junaid, Muhammad; Ali, Waqar

    2014-03-01

    Since Achillea wilhelmsii is used as antispasmodic in traditional medicine, we conducted our current work to investigate its rationale on scientific grounds. Acute toxicity studies of crude methanol extract of Achillea wilhelmsii (Aw. CMeOH) is also performed. Effect of Aw. CMeOH and its fractions were tested on isolated sections of rabbits' jejunum at test concentrations 0.01, 0.03, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10mg/ml. The test extracts, in similar concentrations, were also tested on KCl-induced contractions. Calcium chloride curves were constructed for those fractions which relaxed KCl induced contractions in the absence and presence of the test samples to investigate its possible mode of action through calcium channels. Aw. CMeOH tested positive for flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, terpenoids, sterols, phenols, carbohydrates and proteins. LD(50) for acute toxicity studies is 2707±12.6 mg/kg. Mean EC(50) values for Aw. CMeOH on spontaneous and KCl-induced contractions are 3.41±0.18 (2.56-3.8, n=6) and 0.68±0.05 (0.6-0.85, n=6) mg/ml, respectively. Respective EC(50) values for n-hexane fraction on spontaneous and KCl-induced contractions are 3.06±0.08 (2.8-3.3, n=6) and 1.68±0.8 (1.4-1.9, n=6) mg/ml, respectively. Corresponding EC(50) (mg/ml) values for chloroformic, ethylacetate and aqueous fractions of Achillea wilhelmsii on spontaneous rabbits' jejunum preparations are 4.8±0.2 (4.41-5.63, n=6), 5.07±0.15 (4.7-5.58, n=6) and 5.2±0.13 (4.91-5.64, n=4), respectively. Constructing calcium chloride curves, in the presence of 0.1 mg/ml of Aw. CMeOH, mean EC(50) value (log molar [Ca(++)]) is-1.98±0.03 (-1.89-2.05, n=6) vs. control EC(50) (log molar [Ca(++)])-2.41±0.02 (-2.32-2.44, n=6). Mean EC(50) value (log molar [Ca(++)]) for 0.3 mg/ml n-hexane fraction is-1.76±0.05 (-1.70 -1.93, n=6) vs. control EC(50) (log molar [Ca(++)]) value-2.18±0.07 (-2.0-2.46, n=6). While in the presence of chloroformic fraction (3 mg/ml), mean EC(50) (log molar [Ca(++)]) value

  14. Cardiovascular parameters to assess the severity of acute pulmonary embolism with computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dian-Jiang Zhao; Da-Qing Ma; Wen He; Jian-Jun Wang; Yan Xu; Chun-Shuang Guan (Dept. of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China)), e-mail: madaqing@263.net

    2010-05-15

    Background: Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has been established as a first-line test in the acute pulmonary embolism (APE) diagnostic algorithm, but the assessment of the severity of APE by this method remains to be explored. Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and severity in patients with APE without underlying cardiopulmonary disease using helical computed tomography (CT). Material and Methods: Seventy-three patients (35 men and 38 women) were divided into two groups according to the clinical findings: severe APE (n=22) and non-severe APE (n=51). Pulmonary artery CT obstruction index was calculated according to the location and degree of clots in the pulmonary arteries. Cardiovascular parameters including RV short axis and left ventricular (LV) short axis, RV short axis to LV short axis (RV/LV) ratio, main pulmonary artery, azygous vein, and superior vena cava diameters were measured. Leftward bowing of the interventricular septum, reflux of contrast medium into the inferior vena cava and azygous vein, and bronchial artery dilatation were also recorded. The results were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test, x2 test, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az). Results: CT obstruction index in patients with severe APE (median 43%) was higher than that of patients with non-severe APE (median 20%). Comparison of cardiovascular parameters between patients with severe and non-severe pulmonary embolism showed significant differences in RV short axis, LV short axis, RV/LV ratio, RV wall thickness, main pulmonary artery diameter, azygous vein diameter, leftward bowing of the interventricular septum, and bronchial artery dilatation. The correlation between CT obstruction indexes and cardiovascular parameters was significant. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was highest between RV/LV ratio and CT obstruction index. Az values were

  15. Impacts of acute severe pulmonary regurgitation on right ventricular geometry and contractility assessed by tissue-Doppler echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Jesper; K. Iversen, Kasper; G Vejlstrup, Niels

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: Little is known of the impact of acute right ventricular (RV) volume overload on RV function. We assessed the impact of acute severe pulmonary regurgitation (PR) on global and regional RV function by applying novel quantitative echocardiographic markers of myocardial performance in an animal...

  16. Impacts of acute severe pulmonary regurgitation on right ventricular geometry and contractility assessed by tissue-Doppler echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Jesper; Iversen, Kasper K; Vejlstrup, Niels G

    2010-01-01

    Little is known of the impact of acute right ventricular (RV) volume overload on RV function. We assessed the impact of acute severe pulmonary regurgitation (PR) on global and regional RV function by applying novel quantitative echocardiographic markers of myocardial performance in an animal model....

  17. OECD validation study to assess intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for acute aquatic toxicity testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busquet, F.; Strecker, R.; Rawlings, J.M.; Belanger, S.E.; Braunbeck, T.; Carr, G.J.; Cenijn, P.H.; Fochtman, P.; Gourmelon, A.; Hübler, N.; Kleensang, A.; Knöbel, M.; Kussatz, C.; Legler, J.; Lillicrap, A.; Martínez-Jerónimo, F.; Polleichtner, C.; Rzodeczko, H.; Salinas, E.; Schneider, K.E.; Scholz, S.; van den Brandhof, E.J.; van der Ven, L.T.; Walter-Rohde, S.; Weigt, S.; Witters, H.; Halder, M.

    2014-01-01

    A The OECD validation study of the zebrafish embryo acute toxicity test (ZFET) for acute aquatic toxicity testing evaluated the ZFET reproducibility by testing 20 chemicals at 5 different concentrations in 3 independent runs in at least 3 laboratories. Stock solutions and test concentrations were

  18. Prediction of acute inhalation toxicity using in vitro lung surfactant inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørli, Jorid Birkelund; Huang, Yishi; Da Silva, Emilie

    2018-01-01

    impregnation products using the constant flow through set-up of the constrained drop surfactometer to determine if they inhibited LS function or not. The same products were tested in a mouse inhalation bioassay to determine their toxicity in vivo. The sensitivity was 100%, i.e. the in vitro method predicted...... the chemical composition of the products and induction of toxicity. The currently accepted method for determination of acute inhalation toxicity is based on experiments on animals; it is time-consuming, expensive and causes stress for the animals. Impregnation products are present on the market in large...... numbers and amounts and exhibit great variety. Therefore, an alternative method to screen for acute inhalation toxicity is needed. The aim of our study was to determine if inhibition of lung surfactant by impregnation products in vitro could accurately predict toxicity in vivo in mice. We tested 21...

  19. Comparison of Acute Toxicity of Algal Metabolites Using Bioluminescence Inhibition Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansa Jeswani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are reported to degrade hazardous compounds. However, algae, especially cyanobacteria are known to produce secondary metabolites which may be toxic to flora, fauna and human beings. The aim of this study was selection of an appropriate algal culture for biological treatment of biomass gasification wastewater based on acute toxicity considerations. The three algae that were selected were Spirulina sp., Scenedesmus abundans and a fresh water algal consortium. Acute toxicity of the metabolites produced by these algal cultures was tested at the end of log phase using the standard bioluminescence inhibition assay based on Vibrio fischeri NRRLB 11174. Scenedesmus abundans and a fresh water algal consortium dominated by cyanobacteria such as Phormidium, Chroococcus and Oscillatoria did not release much toxic metabolites at the end of log phase and caused only about 20% inhibition in bioluminescence. In comparison, Spirulina sp. released toxic metabolites and caused 50% bioluminescence inhibition at 3/5 times dilution of the culture supernatant (EC50.

  20. Dual energy CT pulmonary blood volume assessment in acute pulmonary embolism - correlation with D-dimer level, right heart strain and clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Ralf W.; Frellesen, Claudia; Schell, Boris; Lehnert, Thomas; Jacobi, Volkmar; Vogl, Thomas J.; Kerl, J.M.; Renker, Matthias; Ackermann, Hanns; Schoepf, U.J.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the role of perfusion defect (PD) size on dual energy CT pulmonary blood volume assessment as predictor of right heart strain and patient outcome and its correlation with d-dimer levels in acute pulmonary embolism (PE). 53 patients with acute PE who underwent DECT pulmonary angiography were retrospectively analyzed. Pulmonary PD size caused by PE was measured on DE iodine maps and quantified absolutely (VolPD) and relatively to the total lung volume (RelPD). Signs of right heart strain (RHS) on CT were determined. Information on d-dimer levels and readmission for recurrent onset of PE and death was collected. D-dimer level was mildly (r = 0.43-0.47) correlated with PD size. Patients with RHS had significantly higher VolPD (215 vs. 73 ml) and RelPD (9.9 vs. 2.9%) than patients without RHS (p 5% RelPD, while no such events were found for patients with <5% RelPD. Pulmonary blood volume on DECT in acute PE correlates with RHS and appears to be a predictor of patient outcome in this pilot study. (orig.)

  1. Dual energy CT pulmonary blood volume assessment in acute pulmonary embolism - correlation with D-dimer level, right heart strain and clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Ralf W.; Frellesen, Claudia; Schell, Boris; Lehnert, Thomas; Jacobi, Volkmar; Vogl, Thomas J.; Kerl, J.M. [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Renker, Matthias [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Medical University of South Carolina, Heart and Vascular Center, Ashley River Tower, Charleston, SC (United States); Ackermann, Hanns [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Biostatistics and Mathematical Modelling, Frankfurt (Germany); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Heart and Vascular Center, Ashley River Tower, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2011-09-15

    To investigate the role of perfusion defect (PD) size on dual energy CT pulmonary blood volume assessment as predictor of right heart strain and patient outcome and its correlation with d-dimer levels in acute pulmonary embolism (PE). 53 patients with acute PE who underwent DECT pulmonary angiography were retrospectively analyzed. Pulmonary PD size caused by PE was measured on DE iodine maps and quantified absolutely (VolPD) and relatively to the total lung volume (RelPD). Signs of right heart strain (RHS) on CT were determined. Information on d-dimer levels and readmission for recurrent onset of PE and death was collected. D-dimer level was mildly (r = 0.43-0.47) correlated with PD size. Patients with RHS had significantly higher VolPD (215 vs. 73 ml) and RelPD (9.9 vs. 2.9%) than patients without RHS (p < 0.003). There were 2 deaths and 1 readmission due of PE in 18 patients with >5% RelPD, while no such events were found for patients with <5% RelPD. Pulmonary blood volume on DECT in acute PE correlates with RHS and appears to be a predictor of patient outcome in this pilot study. (orig.)

  2. Diagnóstico por imagem do tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo Imaging of acute pulmonary thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Isabela S. Silva

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico do tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo é baseado na probabilidade clínica, uso do dímero D (quando disponível e na avaliação por imagem. Os principais métodos de imagem utilizados no diagnóstico são representados por cintilografia ventilação-perfusão, angiografia pulmonar e tomografia computadorizada (TC. Na última década vários estudos têm demonstrado que a TC espiral apresenta elevada sensibilidade e especificidade no diagnóstico de tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo. Uma melhor avaliação das artérias pulmonares tornou-se possível com a recente introdução dos equipamentos de TC espirais com multidetectores. Vários pesquisadores têm sugerido que a angiografia pulmonar por TC espiral deve substituir a cintilografia na avaliação de pacientes com suspeita clinica de tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo. Os autores discutem os principais métodos de imagem utilizados no diagnóstico de tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo enfatizando o papel da TC espiral.The diagnosis of acute pulmonary thromboembolism is based on the clinical probability, use of D-dimer (when available and imaging. The main imaging modalities used in the diagnosis are ventilation-perfusion (V/Q, scintigraphy, angiography, and computed tomography (CT. In the last decade several studies have demonstrated that spiral CT has a high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of acute pulmonary thromboembolism. The evaluation of the pulmonary arteries has further improved with the recent introduction of multidetector spiral CT scanners. Various investigators have suggested that spiral CT pulmonary angiography should replace scintigraphy in the assessment of patients whose symptoms are suggestive of acute PE. This article discusses the role of the various imaging modalities in the diagnosis of acute pulmonary thromboembolism with emphasis on the role of spiral CT.

  3. Early invasive pulmonary aspergillosis with fatal outcome in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspar, M.; Poczova, M.; Sladekova, M.; Drgona, L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this publication is to highlight the complexity of the issue of care for patients with hemato-oncological disease, with a focus on infectious complication - invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Case: We present a case report of a 49-year-old patient treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In the early post-transplant period, in spite of combined antimicrobial treatment, an onset of fever and dyspnoea occurred. Because of the clinical condition of our immunosuppressed patient, as well as radiological finding of suspected inflammatory changes in the lung, antibiotic and antifungal therapy was changed. Respiratory symptoms progressed and the state extorted artificial ventilation. Realized bronchoscopy showed structural changes in bronchial mucosa. The results of laboratory analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage testified to fungal infection - pulmonary aspergillosis, with the cultures of Aspergillus flavus. Despite intensive complex treatment, the patient's condition led to multiple organ failure and on the Day D +27 after transplantation physicians stated exitus letalis. Autopsy confirmed invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Conclusion: Acute leukemia and its treatment is an increased risk of systemic fungal infections in those patients - especially invasive aspergillosis. The fatality rate for invasive aspergillosis in this risk group represents on average 50 %. With this in mind, it is necessary for life-saving to diagnose the infection in time and treat it appropriately. (author)

  4. phytochemical composition and acute toxicity evaluation of aqueous

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... based upon single chemicals, many medicinal and aromatic plants exert their ... metaphorically used to describe toxic effects on larger and more complex ..... Chemical Industries. Branch, Division of Industrial Operations,.

  5. Acute toxicity of potassium permanganate to fingerlings of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... soft waters where other chemicals, such as copper sulphate, were too toxic ... mined by the KMnO4 demand of the water being treated. (Marecaux, 2006). ..... hatchery disease by treating the water supply. New York Conserva-.

  6. Poor Baseline Pulmonary Function May Not Increase the Risk of Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingbo [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Cao, Jianzhong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Yuan, Shuanghu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ji, Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Arenberg, Douglas [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Dai, Jianrong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Stanton, Paul; Tatro, Daniel; Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Wang, Luhua, E-mail: wlhwq@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Kong, Feng-Ming, E-mail: fengkong@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Poor pulmonary function (PF) is often considered a contraindication to definitive radiation therapy for lung cancer. This study investigated whether baseline PF was associated with radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving conformal radiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients treated with CRT and tested for PF at baseline were eligible. Baseline predicted values of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were analyzed. Additional factors included age, gender, smoking status, Karnofsky performance status, coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tumor location, histology, concurrent chemotherapy, radiation dose, and mean lung dose (MLD) were evaluated for RILT. The primary endpoint was symptomatic RILT (SRILT), including grade ≥2 radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Results: There was a total of 260 patients, and SRILT occurred in 58 (22.3%) of them. Mean FEV1 values for SRILT and non-SRILT patients were 71.7% and 65.9% (P=.077). Under univariate analysis, risk of SRILT increased with MLD (P=.008), the absence of COPD (P=.047), and FEV1 (P=.077). Age (65 split) and MLD were significantly associated with SRILT in multivariate analysis. The addition of FEV1 and age with the MLD-based model slightly improved the predictability of SRILT (area under curve from 0.63-0.70, P=.088). Conclusions: Poor baseline PF does not increase the risk of SRILT, and combining FEV1, age, and MLD may improve the predictive ability.

  7. Alternative approaches for identifying acute systemic toxicity: Moving from research to regulatory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jon; Sullivan, Kristie; Clippinger, Amy J; Strickland, Judy; Bell, Shannon; Bhhatarai, Barun; Blaauboer, Bas; Casey, Warren; Dorman, David; Forsby, Anna; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Gehen, Sean; Graepel, Rabea; Hotchkiss, Jon; Lowit, Anna; Matheson, Joanna; Reaves, Elissa; Scarano, Louis; Sprankle, Catherine; Tunkel, Jay; Wilson, Dan; Xia, Menghang; Zhu, Hao; Allen, David

    2017-06-01

    Acute systemic toxicity testing provides the basis for hazard labeling and risk management of chemicals. A number of international efforts have been directed at identifying non-animal alternatives for in vivo acute systemic toxicity tests. A September 2015 workshop, Alternative Approaches for Identifying Acute Systemic Toxicity: Moving from Research to Regulatory Testing, reviewed the state-of-the-science of non-animal alternatives for this testing and explored ways to facilitate implementation of alternatives. Workshop attendees included representatives from international regulatory agencies, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and industry. Resources identified as necessary for meaningful progress in implementing alternatives included compiling and making available high-quality reference data, training on use and interpretation of in vitro and in silico approaches, and global harmonization of testing requirements. Attendees particularly noted the need to characterize variability in reference data to evaluate new approaches. They also noted the importance of understanding the mechanisms of acute toxicity, which could be facilitated by the development of adverse outcome pathways. Workshop breakout groups explored different approaches to reducing or replacing animal use for acute toxicity testing, with each group crafting a roadmap and strategy to accomplish near-term progress. The workshop steering committee has organized efforts to implement the recommendations of the workshop participants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A case of acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis after proton beam therapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Tatsuya; Kotani, Yoshikazu; Fujii, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    There have been no reports describing acute exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis after particle radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. The present study describes the case of a 76-year-old Japanese man with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung that relapsed in the left upper lobe 1 year after right upper lobectomy. He had been treated with oral prednisolone 20 mg/day every 2 days for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and the relapsed lung cancer was treated by proton beam therapy, which was expected to cause the least adverse effects on the idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Fifteen days after the initiation of proton beam therapy, the idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis exacerbated, centered on the left upper lobe, for which intensive steroid therapy was given. About 3 months later, the acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis had improved, and the relapsed lung cancer became undetectable. Clinicians should be aware that an acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis may occur even in proton beam therapy, although proton beam therapy appears to be an effective treatment option for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. (author)

  9. Identification of the cause of weak acute toxicity to rainbow trout at a petroleum refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, W.R.; Zaleski, R.T.; Biddinger, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    The refinery in question performs flow through acute toxicity tests on its effluent four times per month using three fish species: fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus oculeatus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Several months of monitoring data indicated a transient low level acute toxicity to rainbow trout. In most cases, several days were required for mortality to occur in the flow through tests and numerous attempts to reproduce toxicity in static and static renewal tests were unsuccessful. A decision was made to manipulate the effluent in an attempt to enhance the toxic effect in the static mode so that conventional methods could be used to identify the cause. these tests indicated that toxicity was pH dependent. Additional testing, using EPA's Phase 1 Toxicity Identification Evaluation methods suggested that the cause of toxicity was probably an organic acid. Experiments were subsequently begun to identify the specific cause and source of toxicity. This paper reviews the problems confronted during the various phases of the study and the decisions that were made that eventually led to an understanding of the basis of toxicity

  10. Is the OECD acute worm toxicity test environmentally relevant? The effect of mineral form on calculated lead toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, N.A.Nicola A.; Hodson, M.E.Mark E.; Black, S.Stuart

    2003-01-01

    The current OECD acute worm toxicity test does not relate well to ambient conditions. - In a series of experiments the toxicity of lead to worms in soil was determined following the draft OECD earthworm reproduction toxicity protocol except that lead was added as solid lead nitrate, carbonate and sulphide rather than as lead nitrate solution as would normally be the case. The compounds were added to the test soil to give lead concentrations of 625-12500 μg Pb g -1 of soil. Calculated toxicities of the lead decreased in the order nitrate>carbonate>sulphide, the same order as the decrease in the solubility of the metal compounds used. The 7-day LC 50 (lethal concentration when 50% of the population is killed) for the nitrate was 5321±275 μg Pb g -1 of soil and this did not change with time. The LC 50 values for carbonate and sulphide could not be determined at the concentration ranges used. The only parameter sensitive enough to distinguish the toxicities of the three compounds was cocoon (egg) production. The EC 50 s for cocoon production (the concentration to produce a 50% reduction in cocoon production) were 993, 8604 and 10246 μg Pb g -1 of soil for lead nitrate, carbonate and sulphide, respectively. Standard toxicity tests need to take into account the form in which the contaminant is present in the soil to be of environmental relevance

  11. Association of Admission Glucose Level and Improvement in Pulmonary Artery Pressure in Patients with Submassive-type Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohbara, Masaomi; Hayakawa, Keigo; Hayakawa, Azusa; Akazawa, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Yukihiro; Furihata, Shuta; Kondo, Ai; Fukushima, Yusuke; Tomari, Sakie; Mitsuhashi, Takayuki; Endo, Tsutomu; Kimura, Kazuo

    2018-03-01

    Objective The admission glucose level is a predictor of mortality even in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE). However, whether or not the admission glucose level is associated with the severity of APE itself or the underlying disease of APE is unclear. Methods This study was a retrospective observational study. A pulmonary artery (PA) catheter was used to accurately evaluate the severity of APE. The percentage changes in the mean PA pressure (PAPm) upon placement and removal of the inferior vena cava filter (IVCF) were evaluated. We hypothesized that the admission glucose level was associated with the improvement in the PA pressure in patients with APE. Patients A total of consecutive 22 patients with submassive APE who underwent temporary or retrievable IVCF insertion on admission and repetitive PA catheter measurements upon placement and removal of IVCFs were enrolled. Results There was a significant positive correlation between the admission glucose levels and the percentage changes in the PAPm (r=0.543, p=0.009). A univariate linear regression analysis showed that the admission glucose level was the predictor of the percentage change in PAPm (β coefficient=0.169 per 1 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, 0.047-0.291; p=0.009). A multivariate linear regression analysis with the forced inclusion model showed that the admission glucose level was the predictor of the percentage change in PAPm independent of diabetes mellitus, PAPm on admission, troponin positivity, and brain natriuretic peptide level (all plevel was associated with the improvement in the PAPm in patients with submassive-type APE.

  12. Clinical and echocardiographic findings of patients with suspected acute pulmonary thromboembolism who underwent computed tomography pulmonary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoosa Adibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between clinical and echocardiographic findings and risk factors of patients with suspected acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE who underwent computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 310 hospitalized patients aged >18 years with high clinical suspicion of PTE referred to imaging center of our hospital from different wards for CTPA were enrolled. The frequency of different clinical presentations, risk factors, items of Wells' criteria, and echocardiographic findings was compared in patients with and without PTE, which have been diagnosed according to the CTPA results. Results: PTE was diagnosed in 53 (17.1% of patients with suspected PTE. From clinical manifestations, tachypnea, pleuritic chest pain, and edema of lower extremities were significantly more frequent among patients with PTE (P < 0.05. Major surgery was the risk factor which was significantly more prevalent among patients with PTE (P < 0.05. Frequency of all criteria of Wells' criteria, except hemoptysis, was significantly higher in patients with PTE (P < 0.05. The frequency of all studied echocardiographic variables was significantly higher in patients with PTE (P < 0.05. Conclusion: It is suggested that we could use the results of this study for utilizing the diagnostic process of PTE in patients with highly clinical suspicion of PTE and providing more validated decision. Using the results of this study, we could identify high-risk patients and made appropriate risk assessment for better management of patients with suspected PTE as well as reduce the rate of unnecessary CTPA and its related adverse consequences.

  13. Effect of delay in hospital presentation on clinical and imaging findings in acute pulmonary thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenab, Yaser; Alemzadeh-Ansari, Mohammad Javad; Fehri, Seyedeh Arezoo; Ghaffari-Marandi, Neda; Jalali, Arash

    2014-04-01

    There is limited information on the extent and clinical importance of the delay in hospital presentation of acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). The aim of this study was to investigate the delay in hospital presentation of PTE and its association with clinical and imaging findings in PTE. This prospective study was conducted on patients admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of acute PTE between September 2007 and September 2011. Relationships between delay in hospital presentation and clinical findings, risk factors, imaging findings, and in-hospital mortality were analyzed. Of the 195 patients enrolled, 84 (43.1%) patients presented 3 days after the onset of symptoms. Patients with chest pain, history of immobility for more than 3 days, recent surgery, and estrogen use had significantly less delayed presentation. Right ventricular dysfunction was significantly more frequent in patients with delayed presentation (odds ratio [OR] = 2.38; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-4.44; p = 0.006); however, no relationship was found between delay in presentation and pulmonary computed tomographic angiography or color Doppler sonography findings. Patients with delayed presentation were at higher risk of in-hospital mortality (OR = 4.32; 95% CI 1.12-16.49; p = 0.021). Our study showed that a significant portion of patients with acute PTE had delayed presentation. Also, patients with delayed presentation had worse echocardiographic findings and higher in-hospital mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The CRASH report: emergency management dilemmas facing acute physicians in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Laura C; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Marino, Philip; Alonso-Gonzalez, Rafael; McCabe, Colm; Kemnpy, Aleksander; Swan, Lorna; Boutsikou, Maria; Al Zahrani, Ahmed; Coghlan, Gerry J; Schreiber, Benjamin E; Howard, Luke S; Davies, Rachel; Toshner, Mark; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna; Church, Alistair C; Peacock, Andrew; Corris, Paul A; Lordan, James L; Gaine, Sean; Condliffe, Robin; Kiely, David G; Wort, Stephen John

    2017-11-01

    Treatment of acute emergencies in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) can be challenging. In the UK and Ireland, management of adult patients with PAH is centred in eight nationally designated pulmonary hypertension (PH) centres. However, many patients live far from these centres and physicians in local hospitals are often required to manage PAH emergencies. A committee of physicians from nationally designated PH centres identified the 'most common' emergency clinical scenarios encountered in patients with PAH. Thereafter, a review of the literature was performed centred on these specified topics and a management approach was developed based on best available evidence and expert consensus. Management protocols were developed on the following PAH emergencies: chest pain (including myocardial ischaemia), right ventricular failure, arrhythmias, sepsis, haemoptysis ('CRASH'), as well as considerations relevant to surgery, anaesthesia and pregnancy. Emergencies are not uncommon in PAH. While expertise in PAH management is essential, all physicians involved in acute care should be aware of the principles of acute management of PAH emergencies. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary, with physicians from tertiary PH centres supporting care locally and planning safe transfer of patients to PH centres when appropriate. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Acute toxicity of Headline® fungicide to Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusaac, J Patrick W; Morrison, Shane A; Belden, Jason B; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T

    2016-04-01

    Previous laboratory studies have suggested that pyraclostrobin-containing fungicide formulations are toxic to amphibians at environmentally relevant concentrations. However, it is unknown if all pyraclostrobin formulations have similar toxicity and if toxicity occurs in different amphibian species. We investigated the acute toxicity of two formulations, Headline(®) fungicide and Headline AMP(®) fungicide, to Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi) based on a direct overspray scenario. In addition, we examined body residues of fungicide active ingredients in A. blanchardi following direct exposure to Headline AMP fungicide. Headline fungicide and Headline AMP fungicide had similar toxicity to A. blanchardi with calculated median lethal doses of 2.1 and 1.7 µg pyraclostrobin/cm(2), respectively, which are similar to the suggested maximum label rate in North American corn (2.2 and 1.52 µg pyraclostrobin/cm(2), respectively). Tissue concentrations of pyraclostrobin were lower than predicted based on full uptake of a direct dose, and did not drop during the first 24 h after exposure. Headline fungicides at corn application rates are acutely toxic to cricket frogs, but acute toxicity in the field will depend on worst-case exposure.

  16. Novel view on predicting acute toxicity: Decomposing toxicity data in species vulnerability and chemical potency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D.T.; Posthuma, L.; Zwart, D.D.; van de Meent, D.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical risk assessment usually applies empirical methods to predict toxicant effects on different species. We propose a more mechanism-oriented approach, and introduce a method to decompose toxicity data in a contribution from the chemical (potency) and from the exposed species (vulnerability). We

  17. January 2015 Phoenix pulmonary journal club: noninvasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation has expanded its role in the treatment of both chronic and acute respiratory failure. Its initial use in conditions such as obstructive sleep apnea, neuromuscular disease and tracheobronchomalacia, have been shown to improve quality of life and reduce mortality. Over the past 20 years studies have looked at using noninvasive ventilation in the management of acute respiratory failure from pulmonary edema, asthma and COPD exacerbations. During this month's journal club we reviewed 3 articles evaluating the efficacy of noninvasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure. Gupta D, Nath A, Agarwal R, Behera D. A prospective randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of noninvasive ventilation in severe acute asthma. Respir Care. 2010;55(5:536-43. [PubMed] This was a small unblinded randomized controlled trial (RCT looking at the efficacy using noninvasive ventilation (NIV in acute asthma. A total of 53 patients were included and divided into 2 groups of 28 patients ...

  18. Paramedic identification of acute pulmonary edema in a metropolitan ambulance service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Teresa A; Finn, Judith; Celenza, Antonio; Teng, Tiew-Hwa; Jacobs, Ian G

    2013-01-01

    Acute pulmonary edema (APE) is a common cause of acute dyspnea. In the prehospital setting, it is often difficult to differentiate APE from other causes of shortness of breath (SOB). Radiography and echocardiography aid in the identification of APE but are often not available. There is little information on how accurately ambulance paramedics identify patients with APE. Objectives. This study aimed to 1) describe the prehospital clinical presentation and management of patients with a clinical diagnosis of APE and 2) compare the accuracy of coding of APE by paramedics against the emergency department (ED) medical discharge diagnosis. This study included a retrospective cohort of all patients who had episodes identified as APE by ambulance paramedics and were transported to a metropolitan hospital ED in 2011. Two databases were used: an ambulance database and the Emergency Department Information System. The ED medical discharge diagnosis (using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Problems, 10th Revision, Australian Modification [ICD-10-AM] codes) was used as the comparator with paramedic-assigned problem codes for APE. The outcomes for the study were the positive predictive value, i.e., the proportion of patients identified as having APE in the ambulance database who also had an ED discharge diagnosis of APE, and the sensitivity of paramedic identification of APE, i.e., the proportion of patients with an ED discharge diagnosis of APE that were correctly identified as APE by the ambulance paramedics. Four hundred ninety-five patients were transported to an ED with APE identified by the paramedics as the primary problem code. Shortness of breath, crepitations, high systolic blood pressure, and chest pain were the most common presenting signs and symptoms. Pink frothy sputum was rare (3% of patient episodes of APE). One hundred eighty-six patients received an ED discharge diagnosis of APE, i.e., a positive predictive value of 41%. Of 631 ED

  19. Metal uptake and acute toxicity in zebrafish: Common mechanisms across multiple metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsop, Derek, E-mail: alsopde@mcmaster.ca [Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1 (Canada); Wood, Chris M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    All metals tested reduced calcium uptake in zebrafish larvae. However, it was whole body sodium loss that was functionally related to toxicity. The zebrafish larvae acute toxicity assay save time, space and resources. - Abstract: Zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio) were used to examine the mechanisms of action and acute toxicities of metals. Larvae had similar physiological responses and sensitivities to waterborne metals as adults. While cadmium and zinc have previously been shown to reduce Ca{sup 2+} uptake, copper and nickel also decreased Ca{sup 2+} uptake, suggesting that the epithelial transport of all these metals is through Ca{sup 2+} pathways. However, exposure to cadmium, copper or nickel for up to 48 h had little or no effect on total whole body Ca{sup 2+} levels, indicating that the reduction of Ca{sup 2+} uptake is not the acute toxic mechanism of these metals. Instead, mortalities were effectively related to whole body Na{sup +}, which decreased up to 39% after 48 h exposures to different metals around their respective 96 h LC50s. Decreases in whole body K{sup +} were also observed, although they were not as pronounced or frequent as Na{sup +} losses. None of the metals tested inhibited Na{sup +} uptake in zebrafish (Na{sup +} uptake was in fact increased with exposure) and the observed losses of Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} were proportional to the ionic gradients between the plasma and water, indicating diffusive ion loss with metal exposure. This study has shown that there is a common pathway for metal uptake and a common mechanism of acute toxicity across groups of metals in zebrafish. The disruption of ion uptake accompanying metal exposure does not appear to be responsible for the acute toxicity of metals, as has been previously suggested, but rather the toxicity is instead due to total ion loss (predominantly Na{sup +}).

  20. Acute toxicity of selected heavy metals to Oreochromis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copper was more toxic than lead and iron to both life stages. The species sensitivity distributions of O. mossambicus, as well as those of freshwater fish species from the ECOTOX database and literature, were closely predicted by the models for all three metals. The sensitivity of O. mossambicus to copper, iron and lead ...

  1. Acute toxicity effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Anogeissus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the intraperitoneal route, the rats showed dose-dependent signs of toxicity ranging from inappetence, depression, unsteady gait, tremors, and respiratory distress to death. The I/P LD50 was 1400 mg/kg body weight. No gross changes were observed in the organs of rats that died following extract administration.

  2. Evaluation of Antibacterial Properties, Acute Toxicity and Immuno ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Scoparia dulcis is a medicinal plant widely used for the traditional remedy of ... The extract was found to be non toxic with LD50 of 3807(mg//kg body weight). The plant .... The first lowest concentration that showed no visible growth of the inoculated test organism was recorded as the .... Indian Journal of Medicinal. Research.

  3. 40 CFR 797.1930 - Mysid shrimp acute toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... test organisms and eliminating loss of organisms in outflow water. (6) “Static system” means a test..., procedures, and mysids from the same population or culture container, except that none of the chemical is... in chronic toxicity tests should originate from laboratory cultures in order to ensure the...

  4. Towards Global QSAR Model Building for Acute Toxicity: Munro Database Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Chavan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of 436 Munro database chemicals were studied with respect to their corresponding experimental LD50 values to investigate the possibility of establishing a global QSAR model for acute toxicity. Dragon molecular descriptors were used for the QSAR model development and genetic algorithms were used to select descriptors better correlated with toxicity data. Toxic values were discretized in a qualitative class on the basis of the Globally Harmonized Scheme: the 436 chemicals were divided into 3 classes based on their experimental LD50 values: highly toxic, intermediate toxic and low to non-toxic. The k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classification method was calibrated on 25 molecular descriptors and gave a non-error rate (NER equal to 0.66 and 0.57 for internal and external prediction sets, respectively. Even if the classification performances are not optimal, the subsequent analysis of the selected descriptors and their relationship with toxicity levels constitute a step towards the development of a global QSAR model for acute toxicity.

  5. Clinical and neuropathological findings of acute carbon monoxide toxicity in chihuahuas following smoke inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Marc; Creevy, Kate E; Delahunta, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Three adult Chihuahuas were presented for evaluation after smoke inhalation during a house fire. All three dogs received supportive care and supplemental oxygen. After initial improvement, the dogs developed seizures. Despite anticonvulsant therapy and supportive care, the dogs died. The brains of two dogs were examined. Lesions were identified that were compatible with acute carbon monoxide (CO) toxicity. Lesions were confined to the caudate nucleus, the globus pallidus, and the substantia nigra bilaterally, as well as the cerebellum, cerebral cortex, and dorsal thalamus. This case report describes the clinicopathological sequelae in acute CO toxicity.

  6. Animal Testing for Acute Inhalation Toxicity: A Thing of the Past?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Silva, Emilie; Sørli, Jorid Birkelund

    2018-01-01

    According to REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals), testing for acute inhalation toxicity is required for chemicals manufactured or imported at tonnages ≥ 10 tons per year. Three OECD test guidelines for acute inhalation toxicity in vivo are adopted (TG 403......, TG 436, and TG 433). Since animal testing is ethically, scientifically and economically questionable, adoption of alternative methods by the European Union and the OECD is needed. An in vitro system based on the study of lung surfactant function is introduced....

  7. Hypofractionated IMRT of the Prostate Bed After Radical Prostatectomy: Acute Toxicity in the PRIAMOS-1 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Sonja, E-mail: sonja.katayama@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Striecker, Thorbjoern; Kessel, Kerstin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Sterzing, Florian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Habl, Gregor [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Edler, Lutz [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Herfarth, Klaus [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy as primary treatment for prostate cancer is currently being investigated in large phase 3 trials. However, there are few data on postoperative hypofractionation. The Radiation therapy for the Prostate Bed With or Without the Pelvic Lymph Nodes (PRIAMOS 1) trial was initiated as a prospective phase 2 trial to assess treatment safety and toxicity of a hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of the prostate bed. Methods and Materials: From February to September 2012, 40 patients with indications for adjuvant or salvage radiation therapy were enrolled. One patient dropped out before treatment. Patients received 54 Gy in 18 fractions to the prostate bed with IMRT and daily image guidance. Gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities (according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0) were recorded weekly during treatment and 10 weeks after radiation therapy. Results: Overall acute toxicity was favorable, with no recorded adverse events grade ≥3. Acute GI toxicity rates were 56.4% (grade 1) and 17.9% (grade 2). Acute GU toxicity was recorded in 35.9% of patients (maximum grade 1). Urinary stress incontinence was not influenced by radiation therapy. The incidence of grade 1 urinary urge incontinence increased from 2.6% before to 23.1% 10 weeks after therapy, but grade 2 urge incontinence remained unchanged. Conclusions: Postoperative hypofractionated IMRT of the prostate bed is tolerated well, with no severe acute side effects.

  8. Acute Toxicity and Cytotoxicity of Pereskia aculeata, a Highly Nutritious Cactaceae Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Debora O; Seifert, Mauricio; Nora, Fabiana R; Bobrowski, Vera L; Freitag, Rogerio A; Kucera, Heidi R; Nora, Leonardo; Gaikwad, Nilesh W

    2017-04-01

    Pereskia aculeata is a Cactaceae plant with valuable nutritional properties, including terrific amounts of protein, minerals, vitamins, and fiber. However, P. aculeata is reported to contain antinutrients and alkaloids in its leaves. In addition, in a study on growth and development, Wistar rats fed with P. aculeata and casein as protein source grew less than the control group (fed with casein only). Therefore, in this study, we evaluated, for the first time, the oral acute toxicity of P. aculeata in rats and also the cytotoxicity behavior of the plant on lettuce seeds. The acute toxicity research was carried out using dried P. aculeata ethanolic extract, in three different doses, administered by gavage to 24 female Wistar rats. The rats were then examined for signs of toxicity, food intake, body weight, and fecal excretion fluctuations, as well as histopathological alterations, using eight different body tissues. The acute toxicity study did not show any difference among the groups in either clinical evaluation or histopathological analyses. For the cytotoxicity study, dried P. aculeata ethanolic extract was applied on lettuce seeds in five different concentrations. These seeds were evaluated for germination, root and shoot length, and mitotic index. The results show that P. aculeata extract affects lettuce root and shoot growth, but not germination or mitotic index. In conclusion, the acute toxicity on rats and the cytogenotoxicity on lettuce of P. aculeata are neglectable, validating the potential of this plant to be used as a functional food.

  9. Acute Toxicity of Opuntia Ficus Indica and Pistacia Lentiscus Seed Oils in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Pacha, Y Hamdi

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD50 values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opunti...

  10. Acute oral toxicity and cytotoxicological evaluation of the ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucas Nicolau

    2015-02-02

    Feb 2, 2015 ... Piauí, Brazil. 2Medicinal .... at 24 ± 1°C and 12 h light dark cycle with water and food (FRI-LAB .... (OECD, 2001), acute treatment with distilled water and .... Farm. 2:50-. 53. OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and ...

  11. Acute selenium toxicity in lambs following intramuscular injection of sodium selenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravaggi, C; Clark, F L; Jackson, A R.B.

    1970-01-01

    The LD50 in lambs from a farm where selenium deficiency has not been recorded was found to be 45..mu..g. of Se/kg. body weight when sodium selenite was administered as a single intramuscular injection. Marked pulmonary congestion and oedema were constantly present with degenerative changes in liver and kidney. A similarity was noted between the autopsy findings of acute selenosis and those described for enterotoxaemia. 13 references, 4 figures.

  12. Pulmonary complications of induction therapy for acute myeloid leukemia in adults. Findings of chest X-rays and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, J.; Huettmann, C.; Jacobi, V.; Boehme, A.

    1998-01-01

    To exclude pulmonary complications, 359 chest radiographs and 50 computed tomographs of the lung were performed in 95 patients suffering from acute myeloid leukemia. The radiological findings were registered, described and correlated with clinical findings in the present study on 2395 days of observation. Results: In summary, 52 patients showed alterations of the lung. Pulmonary hyperhydration was seen in 21 cases, bacterial pneumonia was found in 18 cases, invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was documented in 14 cases, and 5 cases of severe haemorrhage were seen. An unexplained pulmonary edema in 13 patients with interstitial and alveolar infiltrates is considered to be a complication of treatment with cytosine-arabinoside. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that chest X-ray and computed tomography have a high impact in detection and treatment of pulmonary complications following intensive chemotherapy. We may expect the development of diffuse opacity following administration of cytosine-arabinoside in medium-sized doses. (orig.) [de

  13. Acute and subchronic toxicity of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil in mallards and ferrets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, W.A.; Hancock, G.A.; Ford, W.H.; Ringer, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    The toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil (WEVC) were assessed in a battery of acute and subchronic toxicity tests using mallards, Anas platyrhynchos, and European ferrets, Mustela putorius. Adult mallard acute oral toxicity study results indicated no mortalities or signs o toxicity, i.e., no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) and median lethal dose (LD50) > 5,000 mg/kg. Acute oral feeding and food avoidance tests with ducklings also indicated no toxicity (NOAEL and LC50 > 50,000 mg/kg diet) with no evidence of food avoidance (FAC50 > 20,000 mg/kg diet). No mortalities or toxic signs were noted in a 14-d feeding study with adult birds at dietary concentrations up to 100,000 mg WEVC/kg diet. Among clinical and physiological end points evaluated, the only significant difference noted was an increase in liver: body weight ratios in the 100,000-mg WEVC/kg diet dose group. No differences in clinical chemistry or hematological parameters were noted, and there were no consistent differences in histological evaluations of organ tissues. Daily oral doses of up to 5,000 mg/kg of WEVC over 5 d resulted in minimal effects on ferrets. Increased serum albumin concentrations were observed in the 5,000-mg/kg dose group females and decreased spleen weights were noted in females of all WEVC treatment groups. No other significant observations were noted

  14. Regulation of S1P receptors and sphingosine kinases expression in acute pulmonary endothelial cell injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiying Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS is a severe clinical syndrome with mortality rate as high as 30–40%. There is no treatment yet to improve pulmonary endothelial barrier function in patients with severe pulmonary edema. Developing therapies to protect endothelial barrier integrity and stabilizing gas exchange is getting more and more attention. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P is able to enhance the resistance of endothelial cell barrier. S1P at physiological concentrations plays an important role in maintaining endothelial barrier function. Proliferation, regeneration and anti-inflammatory activity that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs exhibit make it possible to regulate the homeostatic control of S1P. Methods By building a pulmonary endothelial cell model of acute injury, we investigated the regulation of S1P receptors and sphingosine kinases expression by MSCs during the treatment of acute lung injury using RT-PCR, and investigated the HPAECs Micro-electronics impedance using Real Time Cellular Analysis. Results It was found that the down-regulation of TNF-α expression was more significant when MSC was used in combination with S1P. The combination effection mainly worked on S1PR2, S1PR3 and SphK2. The results show that when MSCs were used in combination with S1P, the selectivity of S1P receptors was increased and the homeostatic control of S1P concentration was improved through regulation of expression of S1P metabolic enzymes. Discussions The study found that, as a potential treatment, MSCs could work on multiple S1P related genes simultaneously. When it was used in combination with S1P, the expression regulation result of related genes was not simply the superposition of each other, but more significant outcome was obtained. This study establishes the experimental basis for further exploring the efficacy of improving endothelial barrier function in acute lung injury, using MSCs in combination with S1

  15. Regulation of S1P receptors and sphingosine kinases expression in acute pulmonary endothelial cell injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiying; Zhang, Zili; Li, Puyuan; Yuan, Xin; Zheng, Jing; Liu, Jinwen; Bai, Changqing; Niu, Wenkai

    2016-01-01

    Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is a severe clinical syndrome with mortality rate as high as 30-40%. There is no treatment yet to improve pulmonary endothelial barrier function in patients with severe pulmonary edema. Developing therapies to protect endothelial barrier integrity and stabilizing gas exchange is getting more and more attention. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is able to enhance the resistance of endothelial cell barrier. S1P at physiological concentrations plays an important role in maintaining endothelial barrier function. Proliferation, regeneration and anti-inflammatory activity that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit make it possible to regulate the homeostatic control of S1P. By building a pulmonary endothelial cell model of acute injury, we investigated the regulation of S1P receptors and sphingosine kinases expression by MSCs during the treatment of acute lung injury using RT-PCR, and investigated the HPAECs Micro-electronics impedance using Real Time Cellular Analysis. It was found that the down-regulation of TNF- α expression was more significant when MSC was used in combination with S1P. The combination effection mainly worked on S1PR2, S1PR3 and SphK2. The results show that when MSCs were used in combination with S1P, the selectivity of S1P receptors was increased and the homeostatic control of S1P concentration was improved through regulation of expression of S1P metabolic enzymes. The study found that, as a potential treatment, MSCs could work on multiple S1P related genes simultaneously. When it was used in combination with S1P, the expression regulation result of related genes was not simply the superposition of each other, but more significant outcome was obtained. This study establishes the experimental basis for further exploring the efficacy of improving endothelial barrier function in acute lung injury, using MSCs in combination with S1P and their possible synergistic mechanism.

  16. The Study on Acute Subacute Toxicity and Anti-cancer Effect of K-herbal-acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ho, Kim

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate Acute· Subacute Toxicity and Anti-cancer Effect of K-Herbal-acupuncture in mice and rats. Methods : Balb/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with K- herbal-acupuncture for LD50 and acute toxicity test. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with K-herbal-acupuncture for subacute toxicity test. K-Herbal-acupuncture was injected on abdomen of mice with S-180 cancer cell line. Result : 1. LD50 of K-Herbal-acupuncture was limited 4×10-3ml/kg~2×10-3ml/kg by the test. 2. In acute toxicity test, all of mice were down to the moving reflex, but the weight of mice was increased in treatment group, compared with the normal group. (p<0.05 3. In acute toxicity test of serum biochemical values of mice, glucose was increased in treatment II group, total cholesterol was increased both treatments.(p<0.05 4. In subacute toxicity test, the clinical signs of toxication was down to the moving reflex, but it is not severe like acute toxicity test, and observed weight loss at the treatments. 5. In subacute toxicity test, liver weight was decreased compared with the normal group. (p<0.05 6. In subacute toxicity test of complete blood count test (CBC of rat, HCT was decreased in treatments, compared with the normal group.(p<0.05 7. In subacute toxicity test of serum biochemical values of rat, uric acid and triglyceride were decreased, and glucose was increased in treatment groups compared with the control group. (p<0.05 8. Median survival time was increased about 45% in treatment groups compared with the control group.(p<0.05 9. Natural killer cell activity was increased in B16F10 lung cancer model, but it was not in sarcoma-180 abdomen cancer. 10. In interleukin-2 productivity test, treatment groups didn't show significant change in lung cancer and abdomen cancer, compared with the normal group.(p<0.005 11. In making an examination of metastatic cancer with the naked eye, melanoma

  17. Acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. stem bark hydroalcoholic extract on Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard A. Toudji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pithecellobium dulce (PD is an annual herbaceous plant commonly used in African traditional medicine as a purgative, antipyretic, anti-ulcer and wound dressing agent. Aims: To evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of P. dulce stem bark hydroethanolic extract in Wistar rats. Methods: In the acute test, a single dose of 5 g/kg body weight was administered to Wistar rats afterwards they were observed individually 4 hours post-dosing, and at least once daily for 14 consecutive days. The sub-acute toxicity was evaluated by daily oral administration of 0.5 and 1 g/kg extract, for 28 days. Biochemical and hematological parameters assessment as well as body and organ weights of the rats were carried out. Results: The limit dose of 5 g/kg did not cause any mortality or signs of acute toxicity on the rats during the experimentation period. In the sub-acute test, uterus-ovary-trompe (UOT weight decreased dose-dependently: Control group (0.82 ± 0.03 g; Extract 0.5 g/kg (0.57 ± 0.06 g; Extract 1g/kg (0.48 ± 0.01 g (p ˂ 0.01. Extract lowered urea values in female group treated with 1 g/kg (p < 0.01. Lymphocytes percentage was dose dependently increased in treated male groups: Control group (53.00 ± 0.58%; extract 0.5 g/kg (58.67 ± 0.67% and extract 1 g/kg (60.67 ± 2.41%. Conclusions: These findings suggest that PD is relatively safe when administered orally in rats but is slightly atrophic for female reproductive organs.

  18. Can a chronic disease management pulmonary rehabilitation program for COPD reduce acute rural hospital utilization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasekaba, T M; Williams, E; Hsu-Hage, B

    2009-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) imposes a costly burden on healthcare. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is the best practice to better manage COPD to improve patient outcomes and reduce acute hospital care utilization. To evaluate the impact of a once-weekly, eight-week multidisciplinary PR program as an integral part of the COPD chronic disease management (CDM) Program at Kyabram District Health Services. The study compared two cohorts of COPD patients: CDM-PR Cohort (4-8 weeks) and Opt-out Cohort (0-3 weeks) between February 2006 and March 2007. The CDM-PR Program involved multidisciplinary patient education and group exercise training. Nonparametric statistical tests were used to compare acute hospital care utilization 12 months before and after the introduction of CDM-PR. The number of patients involved in the CDM-PR Cohort was 29 (n = 29), and that in the Opt-out Cohort was 24 (n = 24). The CDM-PR Cohort showed significant reductions in cumulative acute hospital care utilization indicators (95% emergency department presentations, 95% inpatient admissions, 99% length of stay; effect sizes = 0.62-0.66, P 0.05). Total costs associated with the hospital care utilization decreased from $130,000 to $7,500 for the CDM-PR Cohort and increased from $77,700 to $101,200 for the Opt-out Cohort. Participation in the CDM-PR for COPD patients can significantly reduce acute hospital care utilization and associated costs in a small rural health service.

  19. The relation between international normalized ratio and mortality in acute pulmonary embolism: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kırış, Tuncay; Yazıcı, Selcuk; Durmuş, Gündüz; Çanga, Yiğit; Karaca, Mustafa; Nazlı, Cem; Dogan, Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a serious clinical disease characterized by a high mortality rate. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of international normalized ratio (INR) in acute PE patients not on anticoagulant therapy. The study included 244 hospitalized acute PE patients who were not receiving previous anticoagulant therapy. Based on their 30-day mortality, patients were categorized as survivors or non-survivors. INR was measured during the patients' admission, on the same day as the diagnosis of PE but before anticoagulation started. Thirty-day mortality occurred in 39 patients (16%). INR was higher in non-survivors than in survivors (1.3±0.4 vs 1.1±0.3, P=.003). In multivariate analysis, INR (HR: 3.303, 95% CI: 1.210-9.016, P=.020) was independently associated with 30-day mortality from PE. Inclusion of INR in a model with simplified pulmonary embolism severity index (sPESI) score improved the area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve from 0.736 (95% CI: 0.659-0.814) to 0.775 (95% CI: 0.701-0.849) (P=.028). Also, the addition of INR to sPESI score enhanced the net reclassification improvement (NRI=8.8%, P<.001) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI=0.043, P=.027). Elevated INR may have prognostic value for 30-day mortality in acute PE patients not on anticoagulation. Combining INR with sPESI score improved the predictive value for all-cause mortality. However, further large-scale studies are needed to confirm it's prognostic role. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Acute radiotherapy toxicity in 57 dogs with gross and microscopic mast cell tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, L; Tanis, J B; Harper, A; Amores-Fuster, I; Killick, D R; Finotello, R

    2018-05-15

    Mast cell tumours (MCTs) are commonly treated with radiation therapy, most often in a microscopic disease setting. Poorer outcomes are expected in patients with gross disease, and irradiation of gross disease may be associated with greater toxicity. The aim of this study was to compare acute radiation adverse events (AE) in dogs with gross and microscopic MCTs receiving radiotherapy. Fifty-seven dogs were included, 28 with gross disease and 29 with microscopic. In order to assess mucosal and skin toxicity, patients were assigned to 2 groups: head (29 patients, 14 patients with gross and 15 microscopic) and other sites (28 patients, 14 each). All were treated with external beam radiotherapy, and toxicity assessed at the end of treatment and 10 to 14 days later (first recheck). All patients developed some acute radiation toxicity by the end of the course. However, there was no difference in the severity of toxicity between gross and microscopic disease in either site group at either time point. The only variable associated with an increased frequency of grade 2 or 3 toxicity at the first recheck was the use of prednisolone prior to radiotherapy (P = .05). No other factors were identified which were associated with increased toxicity. For the head group, the site of highest grade toxicity was mucosa or, if included in the field, nasal planum, which was often more severely affected than the mucosa. No significant late toxicity was identified. Two dogs developed acute haematemesis during the radiotherapy course, but both completed the course without further events. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Severe pulmonary hypertension associated with the acute motor sensory axonal neuropathy subtype of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Kris A; Thomas, Neal J

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate pulmonary hypertension associated with acute motor sensory axonal neuropathy subtype of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Guillain-Barré syndrome consists of a group of autoimmune disorders that generally manifest as symmetric, progressive, ascending paralysis. There are five subtypes of Guillain-Barré syndrome, and autonomic involvement has been described in all subtypes, including cardiovascular, vasomotor, or pseudomotor dysfunction of both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. Case report. Tertiary care pediatric intensive care unit. Three-yr-old female patient. None. Serial measurements of pulmonary artery pressure. We report the case of a young girl with acute motor sensory axonal neuropathy who presented with severe cardiovascular collapse secondary to severe pulmonary hypertension. In this patient, multiple factors may have played a role in the development of pulmonary hypertension including autonomic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and immobility as a risk for thrombosis and pulmonary emboli. It is possible that many other individuals suffering from severe forms of Guillain-Barré syndrome, especially those with significant autonomic dysfunction, may actually have undiagnosed and therefore untreated pulmonary hypertension. Therefore, it is recommended that clinicians caring for critically ill children with Guillain-Barré syndrome have a high index of suspicion for pulmonary hypertension and consider echocardiography if there are clinical signs of this potentially fatal process.

  2. Acute Toxicity of Intravenously Administered Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jiaying; Shi, Hongbo; Ruth, Magaye; Yu, Hongsheng; Lazar, Lissy; Zou, Baobo; Yang, Cui; Wu, Aiguo; Zhao, Jinshun

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With a wide range of applications, titanium dioxide (TiO₂) nanoparticles (NPs) are manufactured worldwide in large quantities. Recently, in the field of nanomedicine, intravenous injection of TiO₂ nanoparticulate carriers directly into the bloodstream has raised public concerns on their toxicity to humans. METHODS: In this study, mice were injected intravenously with a single dose of TiO₂ NPs at varying dose levels (0, 140, 300, 645, or 1387 mg/kg). Animal mortality, blood biochem...

  3. Benefits and complications of noninvasive mechanical ventilation for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Eduardo; Carneiro, Elida Mara

    2008-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined as a syndrome characterized by usually progressive chronic airflow limitation which is associated to a bronchial hyperresponsiveness and is partially reversible. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation is an alternative treatment for patients with COPD exacerbations. The objective of the literature reviews was to verify noninvasive mechanical ventilation benefits and complications in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients. This national and international's scientific literature review was developed according to criteria established for documentary research in the MedLine, LILACS, SciElo, PubMed and Cochrane, databases using the key words: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and noninvasive mechanical ventilation. Inclusion criteria were articles published from 1995 to 2007; in English, Spanish and Portuguese; studies in the human model and with no gender restriction. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation can reduce partial pressure of carbon dioxide, improve gas exchange, alleviate symptoms as dyspnea caused by fatigue of the respiratory muscles, reduce duration of hospitalization, decrease need for invasive mechanical ventilation, reduce number of complications and also lessen hospital mortality. The main complications found were: facial skin erythema, claustrophobia, nasal congestion, face pain, eye irritation, aspiration pneumonia, hypotension, pneumothorax, aerophagia, hypercapnia, gastric insufflation, vomit, bronchoaspiration, morning headaches, face injuries, air embolism and, last but not least, discomfort of the patient. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation can be more effective in patients with moderate-severe exacerbations of COPD and these complications can be minimized by an adequate interface also by the contribution of the physiotherapist experience.

  4. Pulmonary arachidonic acid metabolism following acute exposures to ozone and nitrogen dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, R.B.; Driscoll, K.E.; Gunnison, A.F.; Zelikoff, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    Ozone (O 3 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) are common air pollutants, and exposure to these gases has been shown to affect pulmonary physiology, biochemistry, and structure. This study examined their ability to modulate arachidonic acid metabolites (eicosanoids) in the lungs. Rabbits were exposed for 2 h to O 3 at 0.1, 0.3, or 1 ppm; NO 2 at 1, 3, or 10 ppm; or to a mixture of 0.3 ppm O 3 and 3 ppm NO 2 . Groups of animals sacrificed either immediately or 24 h after each exposure underwent broncho-pulmonary lavage. Selected eicosanoids were assessed in lavage fluid by radioimmunoassay. Increases in prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) and F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) were found immediately after exposure to 1 ppm O 3 . Exposure to 10 ppm NO 2 resulted in a depression of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, while thromboxane B2 (TxB2) was elevated after exposure to 1 ppm NO 2 and depressed following 3 and 10 ppm. The O 3 /NO 2 mixture resulted in synergistic increases in PGE2 and PGF2 alpha, with the response appearing to be driven by O 3 . This study has demonstrated that acute exposure to either O 3 or NO 2 can alter pulmonary arachidonic acid metabolism and that the responses to these oxidants differ, both quantitatively and qualitatively

  5. Modulation of pulmonary defense mechanisms by acute exposures to nitrogen dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakab, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of acute exposures to NO 2 on the antibacterial defenses of the murine lung was assessed following inhalation challenges with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella pneumotropica. With S. aureus pulmonary antibacterial defenses were suppressed at NO 2 levels of 4.0 ppm and greater. Exposure to 10.0 ppm enhanced the intrapulmonary killing of P. mirabilis which correlated with an increase in the phagocytic cell populations lavaged from the lungs; at 20.0 ppm bactericidal activity against P. mirabilis was impaired. Pulmonary antibacterial defenses against P. pneumotropica were impaired at 10.0 ppm which correlated with a decrease in the retrieved phagocytic lung cell population. Reversing the order of treatment (ie., NO 2 exposure prior to bacterial challenge) raised the threshold concentration for NO 2 -induced impairment of intrapulmonary bacterial killing. With S. aureus the effect was not observed at 5.0 ppm but at 10.0 ppm and with P. mirabilis not at 20.0 ppm but at 30.0 ppm intrapulmonary killing was enhanced. Exposures up to 20.0 ppm of NO 2 did not effect the physical translocation mechanisms of the lung as quantitated by declines in pulmonary radiotracer activity following aerogenic challenge with 32 P-labeled staphylococci

  6. Role of ventilation scintigraphy in diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism: an evaluation using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evander, Eva; Holst, Holger; Jaerund, Andreas; Wollmer, Per; Edenbrandt, Lars; Ohlsson, Mattias; Aastroem, Karl

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of the ventilation study in the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism using a new automated method. Either perfusion scintigrams alone or two different combinations of ventilation/perfusion scintigrams were used as the only source of information regarding pulmonary embolism. A completely automated method based on computerised image processing and artificial neural networks was used for the interpretation. Three artificial neural networks were trained for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Each network was trained with 18 automatically obtained features. Three different sets of features originating from three sets of scintigrams were used. One network was trained using features obtained from each set of perfusion scintigrams, including six projections. The second network was trained using features from each set of (joint) ventilation and perfusion studies in six projections. A third network was trained using features from the perfusion study in six projections combined with a single ventilation image from the posterior view. A total of 1,087 scintigrams from patients with suspected pulmonary embolism were used for network training. The test group consisted of 102 patients who had undergone both scintigraphy and pulmonary angiography. Performances in the test group were measured as area under the receiver operation characteristic curve. The performance of the neural network in interpreting perfusion scintigrams alone was 0.79 (95% confidence limits 0.71-0.86). When one ventilation image (posterior view) was added to the perfusion study, the performance was 0.84 (0.77-0.90). This increase was statistically significant (P=0.022). The performance increased to 0.87 (0.81-0.93) when all perfusion and ventilation images were used, and the increase in performance from 0.79 to 0.87 was also statistically significant (P=0.016). The automated method presented here for the interpretation of lung scintigrams shows a significant

  7. Acute Liver Toxicity due to Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmee Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fixed-dose combination of Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir is a first-line agent for the treatment of HIV; however few cases have reported hepatotoxicity associated with the drug. We report a case of Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir-associated hepatotoxicity presenting mainly with hepatocellular injury characterized by extremely elevated aminotransferase levels, which resolved without acute liver failure or need for liver transplant referral.

  8. Risk of acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia after pulmonary resection for lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis based on preoperative high-resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hidemi; Sekine, Yasuo; Yoshida, Shigetoshi

    2011-01-01

    In patients with lung cancer accompanied by idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), acute exacerbation of the IPF often occurs after pulmonary resection; however, few studies have been done to identify its preexisting risk factors. We analyzed the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of IPF to identify the radiological characteristics of IPF susceptible to acute exacerbation after lung cancer surgery. We reviewed retrospectively 28 lung cancer patients with IPF who underwent pulmonary resection. Clinical data, respiratory function, HRCT findings, and historical features were compared between the acute exacerbation (n=9) and nonexacerbation (n=19) groups. The classification of radiological findings of IPF on HRCT was done using a scoring system of seven factors related to the interstitial shadow, including fibrosis, ground-glass opacity, and low-attenuation area. There were no significant differences in clinical background, respiratory function, composite physiologic index, or pathological features between the groups; however, the degree of fibrosis on preoperative HRCT was significantly higher in the exacerbation group (P<0.003). The fibrosis score was higher on the opposite side to the lung cancer in the exacerbation group (P<0.05). Although it is difficult to predict postoperative acute IPF exacerbation, the degree and laterality of co-existing fibrosis seem to be predictors. (author)

  9. Acute Toxicity in Definitive Versus Postprostatectomy Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jonathan C.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Nguyen, Khanh H.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the incidence of acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) injury and the dose-volume response in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with image-guided radiotherapy using helical tomotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between November 2004 and March 2007, 146 consecutive patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with helical tomotherapy at the City of Hope Medical Center. Of the 146 patients, 70 had undergone prostatectomy. Acute GI and GU toxicities were evaluated using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Cancer of Medical scoring system. Events were scored for patients developing Grade 2 or greater morbidity within 90 days after the end of radiotherapy (RT). The dosimetric parameters included the minimal dose received by the highest 10%, 20%, 50%, 80%, and 90% of the target volume, the mean rectal dose, minimal rectal dose, maximal rectal dose, and the volume receiving ≥45, ≥65, and ≥70 Gy. These variables, plus the status of radical prostatectomy, hormonal therapy, RT techniques, and medical conditions, were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. A goodness-of-fit evaluation was done using the Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic. Results: A dose-response function for acute GI toxicity was elicited. The acute GI Grade 2 or greater toxicity was lower in the definitive RT group than in the postoperative RT group (25% vs. 41%, p <0.05). Acute GU Grade 2 or greater toxicity was comparable between the two groups. No grade 3 or greater complications were observed. No dosimetric variable was significant for GU toxicity. For acute GI toxicity, the significant dosimetric parameters were the minimal dose received by 10%, 20%, and 50% of the target volume and the mean rectal dose; the most predictive parameter was the minimal dose received by 10% of the target volume. The dose-modifying factor was 1.2 for radical prostatectomy. Conclusion: The results of our

  10. Reproducibility of multi-detector spiral computed tomography in detection of sub-segmental acute pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunot, S.; Corneloup, O.; Latrabe, V.; Montaudon, M.; Laurent, F.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the inter-observer and intra-observer agreement of the diagnosis of sub-segmental acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in an inpatient population explored by 16 slice multi-detector spiral computed tomography (MDCT). Four hundred consecutive inpatients were referred for MDCT for the clinical suspicion of acute PE. One hundred and seventy seven (44.2%) had a known cardio-respiratory disease at the time of examination. Inter-observer and intra-observer agreements for the diagnosis of acute PE and of sub-segmental acute PE were assessed blind and independently by three experienced readers and by kappa statistics. Seventy-five patients were diagnosed as having acute PE findings (19.5%), and clots were located exclusively within sub-segmental arteries in nine patients (12%). When clots were limited to sub-segmental or more distal branches of the pulmonary arteries, kappa values were found to be moderate (0.56) to very good (0.85) for the diagnosis of sub-segmental acute PE, whereas for the diagnosis of acute PE in the whole population, kappa values ranged from 0.84 to 0.97. Intra-observer agreement was found to be perfect (kappa=1). MDCT is a reproducible technique for the diagnosis of sub-segmental acute PE as well as for acute PE. In this inpatient population, sub-segmental acute PE was not a rare event. (orig.)

  11. Acute pulmonary emphysema in death by hanging: a morphometric digital study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglioni, Claudia; Baumann, Pia; Fracasso, Tony

    2016-09-01

    Acute pulmonary emphysema (APE) has been described in cases of mechanical asphyxia such as ligature or manual strangulation but not in cases of hanging. In this study, we wanted to verify by morphometric digital analysis of lung tissue whether APE occurs in death by hanging.We investigated 16 cases of hanging (eight complete, eight incomplete), 10 cases of freshwater drowning (positive control group), and 10 cases of acute external bleeding (negative control group). Tissue sections were obtained from each pulmonary lobe. For each slide, five fields were randomly selected. The area of every alveolar space was measured by image analysis software. The mean alveolar area (MAA) was calculated for each group.In incomplete hanging, MAA was significantly higher than that observed in complete hanging and similar to the one observed in freshwater drowning.APE in cases of incomplete hanging can be considered as a sign of vitality. The high number of conditions that can cause alveolar distension (that were excluded in this study) limits the applicability of this vital sign in the routine forensic practice.

  12. [Unilateral acute pulmonary edema and ischemic myocardial process: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentaleb, A; Tagu, P; Vascaut, L

    2008-08-01

    Unilateral acute pulmonary oedema (APO) is a rare radioclinical finding. It occurs secondary to multiple specific and rare pathological processes. Functional ischemic mitral regurgitation (FIMR) secondary to myocardial necrosis is one of the rare aetiologies involved in its pathogenesis. This concerns a 94-year-old male patient with a history of myocardial infarction who presented with a clinical picture of unilateral APO secondary to functional mitral regurgitation as a complication of myocardial necrosis. In addition to the clinical presentation and unilateral radiological findings, the diagnosis was based essentially on the electrocardiographic tracing, as well as changes in cardiac enzyme levels and transthoracic echocardiogram coupled with Doppler tissue imaging. This resulted after ruling out many differential diagnoses. Unilateral APO secondary to functional mitral regurgitation often presents diagnostic challenges and problems of initial management for the clinician. There are multiple aetiologies of acute unilateral pulmonary oedema, namely mechanical (re-expansion), lesional, vascular, bronchial obstructions, as well as iatrogenic causes, as is the case with some lung transplantations. As with all cases of APO, the treatment is based mainly on diuretics with high-flow oxygen therapy in association with an anticoagulant, which is usually effectively combined with a platelet aggregation inhibiting drug and sometimes with vasodilators and beta-blockers. Surgical treatment with valvuloplasty or valvular replacement appears to be the most effective means for preventing relapse.

  13. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO as salvage treatment for pulmonary Echinococcus granulosus infection with acute cyst rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sören L. Becker

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO has been used successfully for the treatment of patients with respiratory failure due to severe infections. Although rare, parasites can also cause severe pulmonary disease. Tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus give rise to the development of cystic structures in the liver, lungs, and other organs. Acute cyst rupture leads to potentially life-threatening infection, and affected patients may deteriorate rapidly. The case of a young woman from Bulgaria who was admitted to hospital with severe dyspnoea, progressive chest pain, and haemoptysis is described. Computed tomography of the chest was pathognomonic for cystic echinococcosis with acute cyst rupture. Following deterioration on mechanical ventilation, she was cannulated for veno-venous ECMO. The patient’s condition improved considerably, and she was weaned successfully from ECMO and mechanical ventilation. Following lobectomy of the affected left lower lobe, the patient was discharged home in good condition. This appears to be the first report of the successful use of ECMO as salvage treatment for a severe manifestation of a helminthic disease. Due to recent migration to Western Europe, the number of patients presenting with respiratory failure due to pulmonary echinococcosis with cyst rupture is likely to increase. Keywords: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO, Infection, Echinococcosis, Echinococcus granulosus, Hydatid disease, Infection

  14. Correlations between electrocardiogram and biomarkers in acute pulmonary embolism: Analysis of ZATPOL-2 Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Piotr; Kosior, Dariusz A; Tomaszewski, Andrzej; Ptaszyńska-Kopczyńska, Katarzyna; Widejko, Katarzyna; Długopolski, Robert; Skrzyński, Andrzej; Błaszczak, Piotr; Fijorek, Kamil; Kurzyna, Marcin

    2017-07-01

    Electrocardiography (ECG) is still one of the first tests performed at admission, mostly in patients (pts) with chest pain or dyspnea. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between electrocardiographic abnormalities and cardiac biomarkers as well as echocardiographic parameter in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. We performed a retrospective analysis of 614 pts. (F/M 334/280; mean age of 67.9 ± 16.6 years) with confirmed acute pulmonary embolism (APE) who were enrolled to the ZATPOL-2 Registry between 2012 and 2014. Elevated cardiac biomarkers were observed in 358 pts (74.4%). In this group the presence of atrial fibrillation (p = .008), right axis deviation (p = .004), S 1 Q 3 T 3 sign (p electrocardiogram" were as follows: increased heart rate (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.17, p = .012), elevated troponin concentration (OR 3.33, 95% CI 1.94-5.72, p = .000), and right ventricular overload (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.17-4.53, p = .016). Electrocardiographic signs of right ventricular strain are strongly related to elevated cardiac biomarkers and echocardiographic signs of right ventricular overload. ECG may be used in preliminary risk stratification of patient with intermediate- or high-risk forms of APE. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Prognostic stratification of acute pulmonary embolism: Focus on clinical aspects, imaging, and biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Masotti

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Luca Masotti1, Marc Righini2, Nicolas Vuilleumier3, Fabio Antonelli4, Giancarlo Landini5, Roberto Cappelli6, Patrick Ray71Internal Medicine, 4Clinical Chemistry, Cecina Hospital, Cecina, Italy; 2Division of Angiology and Haemostasis, Department of Internal Medicine, Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland; 3Division of Laboratory Medicine, Department of Genetics and Laboratory Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals and University of Geneva, Switzerland; 5Internal Medicine, Santa Maria Nuova Hospital, Florence, Italy; 6Thrombosis Center, University of Siena, Siena, Italy; 7Department of Emergency Medicine, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Pitié-Salpêtrière, UPMC Paris 6, Paris, FranceAbstract: Pulmonary embolism (PE represents a common disease in emergency medicine and guidelines for diagnosis and treatment have had wide diffusion. However, PE morbidity and mortality remain high, especially when associated to hemodynamic instability or right ventricular dysfunction. Prognostic stratification to identify high risk patients needing to receive more aggressive pharmacological and closer monitoring is of utmost importance. Modern guidelines for management of acute PE are based on risk stratification using either clinical, radiological, or laboratory findings. This article reviews the modern treatment of acute PE, which is customized upon patient prognosis. Accordingly the current risk stratification tools described in the literature such as clinical scores, echocardiography, helical computer tomography, and biomarkers will be reviewed.Keywords: pulmonary embolism, prognosis, troponin, BNP, NT-proBNP, echocardiography, computer tomography

  16. Acute lyme infection presenting with amyopathic dermatomyositis and rapidly fatal interstitial pulmonary fibrosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Hanh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Dermatomyositis has been described in the setting of lyme infection in only nine previous case reports. Although lyme disease is known to induce typical clinical findings that are observed in various collagen vascular diseases, to our knowledge, we believe that our case is the first presentation of acute lyme disease associated with amyopathic dermatomyositis, which was then followed by severe and fatal interstitial pulmonary fibrosis only two months later. Case presentation We present a case of a 64-year-old African-American man with multiple medical problems who was diagnosed with acute lyme infection after presenting with the pathognomonic rash and confirmatory serology. In spite of appropriate antimicrobial therapy for lyme infection, he developed unexpected amyopathic dermatomyositis and then interstitial lung disease. Conclusions This case illustrates a potential for lyme disease to produce clinical syndromes that may be indistinguishable from primary connective tissue diseases. An atypical and sequential presentation (dermatomyositis and interstitial lung disease of a common disease (lyme infection is discussed. This case illustrates that in patients who are diagnosed with lyme infection who subsequently develop atypical muscular, respiratory or other systemic complaints, the possibility of severe rheumatological and pulmonary complications should be considered.

  17. A 64-year old man who sustained many episodes of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema successfully treated with Boussignac continuous positive airway pressure : A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieperink, Willem; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Nannenberg-Koops, Jaqueline W.; Brouwer, Henk W.; Jaarsma, T.; Nieuwland, Wybe; Zijlstra, Felix; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.

    2007-01-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is standard treatment for patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. We describe a patient who had 21 episodes of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema due to very poor patient compliance. This 64-year old man had end-stage congestive heart failure based

  18. Risk-Adapted Management of Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Recent Evidence, New Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Käberich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE, the third most frequent acute cardiovascular syndrome, may cause life-threatening complications and imposes a substantial socio-economic burden. During the past years, several landmark trials paved the way towards novel strategies in acute and long-term management of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE. Risk stratification is increasingly recognized as a cornerstone for an adequate diagnostic and therapeutic management of the highly heterogeneous population of patients with acute PE. Recently published European Guidelines emphasize the importance of clinical prediction rules in combination with imaging procedures (assessment of right ventricular function and laboratory biomarkers (indicative of myocardial stress or injury for identification of normotensive PE patients at intermediate risk for an adverse short-term outcome. In this patient group, systemic full-dose thrombolysis was associated with a significantly increased risk of intracranial bleeding, a complication which discourages its clinical application unless hemodynamic decompensation occurs. A large-scale clinical trial program evaluating new oral anticoagulants in the initial and long-term treatment of venous thromboembolism showed at least comparable efficacy and presumably increased safety of these drugs compared to the current standard treatment. Research is continuing on catheter-directed, ultrasound-assisted, local, low-dose thrombolysis in the management of intermediate-risk PE.

  19. Static and dynamic hyperinflation during severe acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Geffen WH

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Wouter H van Geffen,1,2 Huib AM Kerstjens2 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Medical Centre Leeuwarden, Leeuwarden, the Netherlands; 2Department of Pulmonary Diseases, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands Background: Static hyperinflation is known to be increased during moderate acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (AECOPD, but few data exist in patients with severe exacerbations of COPD. The role of dynamic hyperinflation during exacerbations is unclear. Methods: In a prospective, observational cohort study, we recruited patients admitted to hospital for AECOPD. The following measurements were performed upon admission and again after resolution (stable state at least 42 days later: inspiratory capacity (IC, body plethysmography, dynamic hyperinflation by metronome-paced IC measurement, health-related quality of life and dyspnea. Results: Forty COPD patients were included of whom 28 attended follow-up. The IC was low at admission (2.05±0.11 L and increased again during resolution by 15.6%±23.1% or 0.28±0.08 L (mean ± standard error of the mean, p<0.01. Testing of metronome-paced changes in IC was feasible, and it decreased by 0.74±0.06 L at admission, similarly to at stable state. Clinical COPD Questionnaire score was 3.7±0.2 at admission and improved by 1.7±0.2 points (p<0.01, and the Borg dyspnea score improved by 2.2±0.5 points from 4.4±0.4 at admission (p<0.01. Conclusion: Static hyperinflation is increased during severe AECOPD requiring hospitalization compared with stable state. We could measure metronome-paced dynamic hyperinflation during severe AECOPD but found no increase. Keywords: COPD, exacerbations of COPD, static hyperinflation, dynamic hyperinflation, severe acute exacerbations of COPD, COPD exacerbation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  20. An Unusual Aneurysm of the Main Pulmonary Artery Presenting as Acute Coronary Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholeif, Mona A.; El Tahir, Mohamed; Kholeif, Yasser A.; El Watidy, Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    A 70-year old man presented with retrosternal chest pain. His electrocardiogram showed nonspecific T wave changes. Cardiac-specific troponin I (cTnI) was elevated. His condition was managed as acute coronary syndrome, following which he had two minor episodes of hemoptysis. A CT pulmonary angiogram showed no evidence of pulmonary embolism, but a large mass lesion was seen in the mediastinum. Echocardiography and cardiac MRI demonstrated a large solid mass, arising from the right ventricular outflow tract and causing compression of the main pulmonary artery (MPA). The differential diagnosis included pericardial and myocardial tumors and clotted aneurysm of the MPA. At surgery, a clotted aneurysmal sac was identified originating from the MPA and the defect was healed. Aneurysms of the MPA are rare. They most commonly present with dyspnea and chest pain. Compression of surrounding structures produces protean manifestations. A high index of suspicion coupled with imaging modalities establishes the diagnosis. Blunt trauma to the chest, at the time of an accident 4 years previously, may explain this aneurysm. The patient's presentation with chest pain was probably due to compression and/or stretching of surrounding structures. Coronary artery compression simulating acute coronary syndrome has been documented in the literature. The rise in cTnI may have been due to right ventricular strain, as a result of right ventricular outflow obstruction by the aneurysm. This has not been reported previously in the literature. The saccular morphology and narrow neck of the aneurysm predisposed to stagnation leading to clotting of the lumen and healing of the tear, which caused the diagnostic difficulty

  1. Nebulization of the acidified sodium nitrite formulation attenuates acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surber Mark W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Generalized hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV occurring during exposure to hypoxia is a detrimental process resulting in an increase in lung vascular resistance. Nebulization of sodium nitrite has been shown to inhibit HPV. The aim of this project was to investigate and compare the effects of nebulization of nitrite and different formulations of acidified sodium nitrite on acute HPV. Methods Ex vivo isolated rabbit lungs perfused with erythrocytes in Krebs-Henseleit buffer (adjusted to 10% hematocrit and in vivo anesthetized catheterized rabbits were challenged with periods of hypoxic ventilation alternating with periods of normoxic ventilation. After baseline hypoxic challenges, vehicle, sodium nitrite or acidified sodium nitrite was delivered via nebulization. In the ex vivo model, pulmonary arterial pressure and nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled gas were monitored. Nitrite and nitrite/nitrate were measured in samples of perfusion buffer. Pulmonary arterial pressure, systemic arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood gases were monitored in the in vivo model. Results In the ex vivo model, nitrite nebulization attenuated HPV and increased nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled gas and nitrite concentrations in the perfusate. The acidified forms of sodium nitrite induced higher levels of nitric oxide in exhaled gas and had longer vasodilating effects compared to nitrite alone. All nitrite formulations increased concentrations of circulating nitrite to the same degree. In the in vivo model, inhaled nitrite inhibited HPV, while pulmonary arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood gases were not affected. All nitrite formulations had similar potency to inhibit HPV. The tested concentration of appeared tolerable. Conclusion Nitrite alone and in acidified forms effectively and similarly attenuates HPV. However, acidified nitrite formulations induce a more pronounced increase in nitric oxide exhalation.

  2. Predictive factors for acute and late urinary toxicity after permanent interstitial brachytherapy in Japanese patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Ryuta; Bekku, Kensuke; Katayama, Norihisa

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the frequency of and to determine predictive factors associated with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group urinary toxicity in prostate brachytherapy patients. From January 2004 to April 2011, 466 consecutive Japanese patients underwent permanent iodine-125-seed brachytherapy (median follow up 48 months). International Prostate Symptom Score and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group toxicity data were prospectively collected. Prostate volume, International Prostate Symptom Score before and after brachytherapy, and postimplant analysis were examined for an association with urinary toxicity, defined as Radiation Therapy Oncology Group urinary toxicity of Grade 1 or higher. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with urinary toxicity. The rate of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group urinary toxicity grade 1 or higher at 1, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months was 67%, 40%, 21%, 31%, 27% and 28%, respectively. Grade 2 or higher urinary toxicity was less than 1% at each time-point. International Prostate Symptom Score was highest at 3 months and returned to normal 12 months after brachytherapy. On multivariate analysis, patients with a larger prostate size, greater baseline International Prostate Symptom Score, higher prostate V100, higher prostate V150, higher prostate D90 and a greater number of seeds had more acute urinary toxicities at 1 month and 12 months after brachytherapy. On multivariate analysis, significant predictors for urinary toxicity at 1 month and 12 months were a greater baseline International Prostate Symptom Score and prostate V100. Most urinary symptoms are tolerated and resolved within 12 months after prostate brachytherapy. Acute and late urinary toxicity after brachytherapy is strongly related to the baseline International Prostate Symptom Score and prostate V100. (author)

  3. Temporary interventional pneumonectomy used as an emergency treatment for acute massive pulmonary embolism: the initial experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Yong; Liu Yang; Wu Qi; Li Ping; Tian Jing; Bao Guijun; He Nengshu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate regional airway obstruction with balloon catheter in stabilizing the vital signs in experimental animals suffered from acute massive pulmonary embolism. Methods: Pulmonary embolism of right lung artery by using auto-blood clots or detachable latex balloons was established in 27 healthy sheep. When the blood oxygen saturation decreased by 25% compared to that before the procedure, the placement of balloon catheter in corresponding right main bronchus was carried out in 18 sheep (study group). Five sheep were used as control group. The blood oxygen saturation in the remaining four sheep did not reach the intervention level. The pulmonary arterial pressure, the peripheral arterial pressure, the central venous pressure, the heart rate, the blood oxygen saturation, the arterial partial pressure of oxygen as well as of carbon dioxide were invasively determined. Results: The experimental model of acute massive pulmonary embolism was successfully established in 23 sheep. After the establishment of pulmonary embolism, increased heart rate, tachypnea, a decrease of ≥ 25% in blood oxygen saturation within 30 minutes and a rise in pulmonary arterial pressure were detected. After the placement of balloon catheter in study group, a reduction of the pulmonary arterial pressure and an elevation of the blood oxygen saturation as well as the arterial partial pressure of oxygen rose were observed.The difference between study group and control group was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: The result of this animal experiment indicates that obstruction of airway with balloon can be served as a first aid for acute massive pulmonary embolism, which can stabilizes the animal's vital signs and, therefore, can help gain precious time for the follow-up thrombolysis treatment. (authors)

  4. Acute Toxicity Effect of the Leaf Extract of Leptadenia Hastata (Pers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the LD50 of the aqueous extract of the Leptadenia hastata was calculated using arithmetic method. The acute toxicity signs observed were inappetence, weakness, unsteady gait, polypnoea and asthenia in all the groups; having unsteady gait and polypnoea being more prominent in 800 to 3200mg/Kg bwt treated groups.

  5. Sub-acute toxicity and biochemical effects of extracts of Anaphe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ataxia syndrome which is characterized by sudden onset of severe muscular tremor and gait ataxia has been shown to be associated with the consumption of the larvae of Anaphe venata in South Western part of Nigeria. In this report, the sub -acute toxicity and biochemical effects of polar and nonpolar extracts of Anaphe ...

  6. Reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine (Prozac) submitted to ionizing radiation to Vibrio fischeri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Dymes R.A.; Garcia, Vanessa S.G.; Vilarrubia, Anna C.S.; Borrely, Sueli I., E-mail: vanessagarcia@usp.br, E-mail: sborrely@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The constant use of pharmaceutical drugs by great part of the population and its continuous input into the environment creates a growing need of investigating its presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat wastewater containing such substances. The fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH) present in the drug Prozac is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Generally, these compounds enter the aquatic environment by sewage collectors systems after undergoing prior treatment in sewage treatment plants (STPs) or without any treatment. This study focused on evaluating the reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical FH, under its manipulated formula, for the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It was also evaluated the acute toxicity of the aqueous solution containing the FH after its exposition to ionizing radiation from industrial electron accelerator. It was performed acute toxicity tests lasting 15 minutes, where the average EC (50) of the non-irradiated CF water solution was approximately 0.68 mg L-1. While the CF water solution irradiated with 1 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy, presented an average EC(50) 1.63 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.34 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.35 mg.L{sup -1} and 1.80 mg.L{sup -1}, respectively, showing a notable reduction of the acute toxicity for this organism. (author)

  7. Acute and chronic aquatic toxicity of aromatic extracts. Summary of relevant test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Leon Paumen, M.; Dmytrasz, B.; Del Castillo, F.

    2013-09-15

    This report describes the experimental procedures and the results obtained in acute and chronic ecotoxicity tests on several aromatic extracts samples. The samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter, Daphnia magna and the algae, Selenastrum capricornutum using water accommodated fractions. These results assist in determining the environmental hazard posed by aromatic extracts.

  8. Acute aquatic toxicity of heavy fuel oils. Summary of relevant test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Paumen, M.L.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2011-12-15

    This report describes the experimental procedures and results obtained in acute ecotoxicity tests on several heavy fuel oil (HFO) samples. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of these samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter (Daphnia magna) and green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum). These results assist in determining the environmental hazard from heavy fuel oil.

  9. Evaluation the protective effect of diphenhydramine against acute toxicity induced by levamisole in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Y. Matti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of different doses of diphenhydramine against acute toxicosis with Levamisole. The Mechanism of levamisole induced acute toxicity and that of protective effect of diphenhydramine against Levamisole toxicosis also examined on the level of cholinesterase (ChE activity. Subcutanous injection of 100mg/kg levamisole in male mice with induced cholinergic over stimulation and death in 100% of animals. The Toxicosis was not related to the significantly decreased in plasma, red blood cells and brain ChE activity. Injection low dose of diphenhydramin 2.5mg/kg S.C. 15 min before levamisole produced protective effect against acute toxicity with levamisole. Significantly decreased the severity of toxicosis and increased survival rates to 100%. Diphenhydramine at low dose alone or with acute dose of levamisole did not Produced Significantly inhibition in ChE activity.The data suggested that the toxic effect of Levamisole was not related to inhibition of ChE. The low dose of diphenhydramine protected mice from Levamisole toxicity. The antidoatal effect of diphenhydramine not at the level of protection from ChE inhibition. There was no adverse interaction between two drugs.

  10. ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF BREVETOXIN TO OYSTERS AND GRASS SHRIMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Calvin C., James T. Winstead, Steven S. Foss, Janis C. Kurtz, James Watts, Jeanne E. Scott and William S. Fisher. In press. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Brevetoxin to Oysters and Grass Shrimp (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November ...

  11. Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of methanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of methanol extract of Clinacanthus nutans in mice. Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria, Mohammad Hafiz Abdul Rahim, Norhafizah Mohtarrudin, Arifah Abdul Kadir, Manraj Singh Cheema, Zuraini Ahmad, Ching Siew Mooi, Siti Farah Md. Tohid ...

  12. Large Dataset of Acute Oral Toxicity Data Created for Testing in Silico Models (ASCCT meeting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute toxicity data is a common requirement for substance registration in the US. Currently only data derived from animal tests are accepted by regulatory agencies, and the standard in vivo tests use lethality as the endpoint. Non-animal alternatives such as in silico models are ...

  13. Assessment of acute toxicity of water soluble fraction of diesel on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity of water soluble fraction (WSF) of diesel fuel was assessed by evaluating its effects on growth of two marine microalgae, Isochrysis and Chaetoceros. Pure cultures of each of the two microalgae were exposed to concentrations of 0% (controls), 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of diesel WSF (in triplicates) and allowed ...

  14. Reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine (Prozac) submitted to ionizing radiation to Vibrio fischeri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Dymes R.A.; Garcia, Vanessa S.G.; Vilarrubia, Anna C.S.; Borrely, Sueli I.

    2011-01-01

    The constant use of pharmaceutical drugs by great part of the population and its continuous input into the environment creates a growing need of investigating its presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat wastewater containing such substances. The fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH) present in the drug Prozac is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Generally, these compounds enter the aquatic environment by sewage collectors systems after undergoing prior treatment in sewage treatment plants (STPs) or without any treatment. This study focused on evaluating the reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical FH, under its manipulated formula, for the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It was also evaluated the acute toxicity of the aqueous solution containing the FH after its exposition to ionizing radiation from industrial electron accelerator. It was performed acute toxicity tests lasting 15 minutes, where the average EC (50) of the non-irradiated CF water solution was approximately 0.68 mg L-1. While the CF water solution irradiated with 1 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy, presented an average EC(50) 1.63 mg.L -1 , 2.34 mg.L -1 , 2.35 mg.L -1 and 1.80 mg.L -1 , respectively, showing a notable reduction of the acute toxicity for this organism. (author)

  15. Development of a standard acute dietary toxicity test for the silkworm (Bombyx mori L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.; Valk, H.; Jiang, H.; Wang, X.; Yuan, S.; Zhang, Y.; Roessink, I.; Gao, X.

    2012-01-01

    Larvae of the silkworm (Bombyx mod L.) may be exposed to pesticide residues on the leaves of their food plant, the mulberry tree (Morus spp.), which can lead to adverse effects on silk production. A new acute dietary toxicity test method was evaluated as the basis for pesticide risk assessment. A

  16. Sub-acute toxicity evaluation of ethanol extract of rheumatic tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub-acute toxicity profile of Rheumatic Tea Formula (RTF), a polyherbal tea consisting of Salix alba, Eucalyptus globulus and Albizia chevalieri was investigated in wistar rats of both sexes. Wistar rats were orally administered three different doses of ethanol extract of RTF for 28 days after which the effect on body weight, ...

  17. Acute aquatic toxicity of heavy fuel oils. Summary of relevant test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Paumen, M.L.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the experimental procedures and results obtained in acute ecotoxicity tests on several heavy fuel oil (HFO) samples. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of these samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter (Daphnia magna) and green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum). These results assist in determining the environmental hazard from heavy fuel oil.

  18. Acute Toxicity of Castor Oil Bean Extract and Tolerance Level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was carried out to determine the acute toxicity of raw castor oil bean (Ricinus communis) extract and the tolerance level of raw castor oil bean by broilers. The seeds were ground, defatted with petroleum ether and the residue was subjected to extraction with phosphate-buffered saline. The extract volume ...

  19. TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN AGING BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental stressors is poorly understood. To investigate the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of acute exposure by oral gavage of the volatile organic solvent toluene (0.00, 0.3...

  20. AGE-RELATED TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental exposures is poorly understood. To investigate-the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of an acute exposure to the volatile organic compound, toluene (0.0 or 1.0 g/kg), i...

  1. WEB-BASED INTERSPECIES CORRELATION ESTIMATION (WEB-ICE) FOR ACUTE TOXICITY: USER MANUAL V2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive toxicological models are integral to environmental risk Assessment where data for most species are limited. Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) models are least square regressions that predict acute toxicity (LC50/LD50) of a chemical to a species, ...

  2. A re-evaluation of PETROTOX for predicting acute and chronic toxicity of petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Aaron D; Parkerton, Thomas F; Leon Paumen, Miriam; Butler, Josh D; Letinski, Daniel J; den Haan, Klass

    2017-08-01

    The PETROTOX model was developed to perform aquatic hazard assessment of petroleum substances based on substance composition. The model relies on the hydrocarbon block method, which is widely used for conducting petroleum substance risk assessments providing further justification for evaluating model performance. Previous work described this model and provided a preliminary calibration and validation using acute toxicity data for limited petroleum substance. The objective of the present study was to re-evaluate PETROTOX using expanded data covering both acute and chronic toxicity endpoints on invertebrates, algae, and fish for a wider range of petroleum substances. The results indicated that recalibration of 2 model parameters was required, namely, the algal critical target lipid body burden and the log octanol-water partition coefficient (K OW ) limit, used to account for reduced bioavailability of hydrophobic constituents. Acute predictions from the updated model were compared with observed toxicity data and found to generally be within a factor of 3 for algae and invertebrates but overestimated fish toxicity. Chronic predictions were generally within a factor of 5 of empirical data. Furthermore, PETROTOX predicted acute and chronic hazard classifications that were consistent or conservative in 93 and 84% of comparisons, respectively. The PETROTOX model is considered suitable for the purpose of characterizing petroleum substance hazard in substance classification and risk assessments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2245-2252. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  3. Acute toxicity of double-walled carbon nanotubes to three aquatic organisms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lukhele, LP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available , respectively. In the presence of humic acid high DWCNTs acute toxicity towards D. pulex and P. reticulata was observed but ionic strength led to opposite effect irrespective of DWCNTs form. Both humic acid and ionic strength shielded the P. subcapitata from...

  4. Acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadre, Shruti K; Duggal, Abhijit; Mireles-Cabodevila, Eduardo; Krishnan, Sudhir; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zell, Katrina; Guzman, Jorge

    2018-04-01

    There are limited data on the epidemiology of acute respiratory failure necessitating mechanical ventilation in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The prognosis of acute respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation is believed to be grim in this population. The purpose of this study was to illustrate the epidemiologic characteristics and outcomes of patients with underlying severe COPD requiring mechanical ventilation.A retrospective study of patients admitted to a quaternary referral medical intensive care unit (ICU) between January 2008 and December 2012 with a diagnosis of severe COPD and requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure.We evaluated 670 patients with an established diagnosis of severe COPD requiring mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure of whom 47% were male with a mean age of 63.7 ± 12.4 years and Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) III score of 76.3 ± 27.2. Only seventy-nine (12%) were admitted with a COPD exacerbation, 27(4%) had acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), 78 (12%) had pneumonia, 78 (12%) had sepsis, and 312 (47%) had other causes of respiratory failure, including pulmonary embolism, pneumothorax, etc. Eighteen percent of the patients received a trial of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. The median duration of mechanical ventilation was 3 days (interquartile range IQR 2-7); the median duration for ICU length of stay (LOS) was 5 (IQR 2-9) days and the median duration of hospital LOS was 12 (IQR 7-22) days. The overall ICU mortality was 25%. Patients with COPD exacerbation had a shorter median duration of mechanical ventilation (2 vs 4 days; P = .04), ICU (3 vs 5 days; P = .01), and hospital stay (10 vs 13 days; P = .01). The ICU mortality (9% vs 27%; P respiratory failure. A 1-unit increase in the APACHE III score was associated with a 1% decrease and having an active cancer was associated

  5. Human solvent exposure. Factors influencing the pharmacokinetics and acute toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper

    1991-01-01

    visual perception, colour vision, vigilance as well as the psychomotor functions. However, the influence on the performance tests was not seen in all studies. Variations in the air concentration of toluene with peaks op to 300 ppm causes fluctuation in the alveolar concentrations, but no acute effect...... of printers occupationally exposed to mixtures of solvents were compared with a matched unexposed control group. There was no difference between printers and controls in the performance in the psychological test, but in two of the tests there were tendencies to increased sensitivity to toluene in the group...

  6. Soil ingestion: a concern for acute toxicity in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Calabrese, E J; Stanek, E J; James, R C; Roberts, S M

    1997-01-01

    Several soil ingestion studies have indicated that some children ingest substantial amounts of soil on given days. Although the EPA has assumed that 95% of children ingest 200 mg soil/day or less for exposure assessment purposes, some children have been observed to ingest up to 25-60 g soil during a single day. In light of the potential for children to ingest such large amounts of soil, an assessment was made of the possibility for soil pica episodes to result in acute intoxication from conta...

  7. Normobaric pulmonary oxygen toxicity : experimental studies on the mechanism of the protective role of endotoxin and the role of surfactant.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Klein (Jan)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractAdministration of above-ambient oxygen tensions, necessary for treatment of severe hypoxemia caused by respiratory failure or acute lung injury, is potentially toxic for the lungs. This thesis is based on six articles dealing with this topic: one review article and five articles

  8. Acute and subchronic toxicity studies of the original drug FS-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assem Kalykova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in iodine complexes has increased significantly in recent years because of their wide spectrum of biological activity. The FS-1 is an ion nanostructured complex formed by proteins and/or polypeptides, carbohydrates, salts of alkali and alkaline earth metals with intercalated iodine. Patented in 2014, it is intended for the treatment of infectious diseases of bacterial origin including nosocomial infections and multidrug resistant tuberculosis. The aim of the study was to determine its acute and subchronic toxicity. The study of acute and subchronic toxicity was performed on adult Wistar rats according to OECD guidelines. The data on acute toxicity showed LD50 > 2,000 mg/kg after a single intragastric administration. Twenty-eight days of FS-1 administration at a dose of 500 mg/kg resulted in toxic effects. At a dose of 250 mg/kg, the toxic effects were temporary and a return to normal followed after the recovery period. Doses of 100 mg/kg had no adverse effects on the rats.

  9. The acute toxicity of ethanol extract from irradiated Temulawak (curcuma xanthorrizha roxb.) which have anticancer activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermin Katrin; Susanto; Hendig Winarno

    2011-01-01

    Pasteurization of herbs and herbal medicinal products have been carried out by several herbal industries, but information about the safety of irradiated herbal medicine is still a little, even the influence of gamma irradiation for pasteurization purpose on the toxicity of crude Temulawak has never been investigated. The ethanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrizha Roxb. has cytotoxic activity which potential as an anticancer. In this research, the acute toxicity tests were carried out to the ethanol extract from Curcuma xanthorrizha without irradiation and irradiated with doses of 5 and 10 kGy. The acute toxicity tests of ethanol extract were conducted in mice by observing the effect of extracts on animal behavior (pharmacologic profile) after a single dose of test material, the development of animal body weight and death every day for 14 days and observed several organ weights on day 14. Acute toxicity test results after administration of extracts on male and female mice a dose up to 7500 mg/kg body weight (BW) showed that no deaths and no significant toxic effect, so that the ethanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrizha without irradiation and irradiated with doses of 5 and 10 kGy can be declared safe. Thus LD 50 from ethanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrizha without irradiation and irradiated (5 and 10 kGY) in mice was greater than 7500 mg/kg body weight. (author)

  10. Acute toxicity profile in prostate cancer with conventional and hypofractionated treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viani, Gustavo Arruda; Zulliani, Giseli Correa; Stefano, Eduardo Jose; Silva, Lucas Bernardes Godoy da; Silva, Bruna Bueno da; Crempe, Yuri Bonicelli; Martins, Vinicius Spazzapan; Ferrari, Ricardo Jose Rambaiolo; Pólo, Mariana Colbachini; Rossi, Bruno Thiago; Suguikawa, Elton

    2013-01-01

    To compare the acute toxicities in radical treatment of prostate cancer between conventional schedule (C-ARM) with 78 Gy/39 fractions and hypofractionation conformal treatment (H-ARM) with 69 Gy/23 fractions. This prospective double arm study consisted of 217 patients with prostate cancer, 112 in H-ARM and 105 in C-ARM arm. C-ARM received conventional six- field conformal radiotherapy with 78 Gy in 39 fractions while H-ARM received hypofractionation with 69 Gy in 23 fractions. Weekly assessment of acute reactions was done during treatment and with one, and 3 months using RTOG scale. Univariated analysis was performed to evaluate differences between the incidences of acute reaction in the treatment arms. Variables with p value less than 0.1 were included in the multivariated logistic regression. There was no difference between H-ARM versus C-ARM for severity and incidence in genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) acute toxicity. During the treatment comparing H-ARM with C-ARM no differences was observed for GI toxicity (grade 0–3; H-ARM = 45.5%, 34%, 18.7% and 1.8% versus C-ARM = 47.6%, 35.2%, 17.2% and 0). For acute GU toxicity no difference was detected between H-ARM (grade 0–3; 22.3%, 54.5%, 18.7% and 4.5%) and C-ARM (grade 0–3; 25.8%, 53.3%, 17.1% and 3.8%). At the 3- months follow-up, persistent Grade > =2 acute GU and GI toxicity were 2.5% and 1.8% in H-ARM versus 5.7% and 3% in C-ARM (p > 0.05). In univariated and multivariated analyses, there was not any dosimetric predictor for GI and GU toxicity. Our data demonstrate that hypofractionated radiotherapy achieving high biological effective dose using conformal radiotherapy is feasible for prostate cancer, being well tolerated with minimal severe acute toxicity

  11. Pulmonary Hypertension and Pulmonary Vasodilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Roberta L

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension in the perinatal period can present acutely (persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn) or chronically. Clinical and echocardiographic diagnosis of acute pulmonary hypertension is well accepted but there are no broadly validated criteria for echocardiographic diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension later in the clinical course, although there are significant populations of infants with lung disease at risk for this diagnosis. Contributing cardiovascular comorbidities are common in infants with pulmonary hypertension and lung disease. It is not clear who should be treated without confirmation of pulmonary vascular disease by cardiac catheterization, with concurrent evaluation of any contributing cardiovascular comorbidities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The value of brain CT findings in acute methanol toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri, Morteza Sanei; Moghaddam, Hossein Hassanian; Moharamzad, Yashar; Dadgari, Shahrzad; Nahvi, Vahideh

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Due to depressant effects of methanol on the central nervous system, brain computed tomography (CT) scan has been introduced as a diagnostic device in methanol intoxication. The authors aimed to present brain CT findings in patients with acute methanol intoxication and to determine signs associated with death. Materials and methods: This cohort study involved 42 consecutive patients with acute methanol intoxication. Inclusion criteria were consisted of characteristic clinical presentation of methanol poisoning, and metabolic acidosis with increased anion and osmolar gaps. Brain CT scans without contrast medium were obtained. To determine the association between the CT findings and death, the chi-square test or the Fisher's exact test, odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. Results: Twenty-eight patients (66.6%) had a total of 55 abnormal findings on brain CT, in which bilateral putaminal hypodense lesions was the most common manifestation (27 cases, 96.4%). Putaminal hemorrhage with varying degrees was observed in 7 patients (25%). Six patients (21.4%) had low attenuation lesions in the subcortical white matter of the insula. A significant association was observed between putaminal hemorrhage (OR = 8, 95% CI = 1.187-53.93, P = 0.018) and subcortical necrosis of the insula (OR = 11, 95% CI = 1.504-80.426, P = 0.007) with death. Conclusion: In addition to clinical and laboratory findings, presence of putaminal hemorrhage and insular subcortex white matter necrosis are associated with a poor clinical outcome in patients with methanol poisoning.

  13. Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L. powder: acute toxicity, 90 days oral toxicity study and micronucleus assay in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idania Rodeiro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Sacha Inchi has been consumed for years by indigenous peoples. Meanwhile, its toxicological potential has not been sufficiently studied. Aims: To assess the acute, sub-chronic toxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of Sacha Inchi powder obtained from Plukenetia volubilis L. Methods: A dose of 2000 mg/kg was orally administered to rats and mice and toxicity symptoms for 14 days were observed. In repeated dose study, the product was orally administered to Sprague Dawley rats of both sexes. Animals received 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of the product for 90 days. At the end, animals were sacrificed and samples were done for hematological and biochemical analysis, organ weighs and histopathological examination. Genotoxicity potential of Sacha Inchi powder was evaluated through micronucleus test in mice. Negative controls received the vehicle (carboxymethyl cellulose, 0.5% used. Results: No morbidity or mortality at 2000 mg/kg of the product were found. Sacha Inchi powder oral administration during 90 days to rats did not lead to death, body weight gain, food consumption, or adverse events. No significant changes on hematological or biochemical parameters, organ weights or histopathological findings were observed. Induction of micronucleus formation attributable to the product was not found in mice. Conclusions: No toxicity effects after oral acute exposure of Sacha Inchi power to rats and mice were observed. Neither toxicity attributable to oral doses of the product up to 500 mg/kg during 90 days to rats were found. Results suggested Sacha Inchi powder does not have genotoxicity potential under our experimental conditions.

  14. Dose-response of acute urinary toxicity of long-course preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L.; Bentzen, Søren M.; Jakobsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-course preoperative chemoradiotherapy (chemo-RT) improves outcomes for rectal cancer patients, but acute side effects during treatment may cause considerable patient discomfort and may compromise treatment compliance. We developed a dose-response model for acute urinary toxicity...... based on a large, single-institution series. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In total 345 patients were treated with (chemo-)RT for primary rectal cancer from January 2007 to May 2012. Urinary toxicity during RT was scored prospectively using the CTCAE v 3.0 cystitis score (grade 0-5). Clinical variables...... and radiation dose to the bladder were related to graded toxicity using multivariate ordinal logistic regression. Three models were optimized, each containing all available clinical variables and one of three dose metrics: Mean dose (Dmean), equivalent uniform dose (EUD), or relative volume given x Gy or above...

  15. Pulmonary toxicity and kinetic study of Cy5.5-conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by optical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Wan-Seob; Cho, Minjung; Kim, Seoung Ryul; Choi, Mina; Lee, Jeong Yeon; Han, Beom Seok; Park, Sue Nie; Yu, Mi Kyung; Jon, Sangyong; Jeong, Jayoung

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in the development of nanotechnology and devices now make it possible to accurately deliver drugs or genes to the lung. Magnetic nanoparticles can be used as contrast agents, thermal therapy for cancer, and be made to concentrate to target sites through an external magnetic field. However, these advantages may also become problematic when taking into account safety and toxicological factors. This study demonstrated the pulmonary toxicity and kinetic profile of anti-biofouling polymer coated, Cy5.5-conjugated thermally cross-linked superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (TCL-SPION) by optical imaging. Negatively charged, 36 nm-sized, Cy5.5-conjugated TCL-SPION was prepared for optical imaging probe. Cy5.5-conjugated TCL-SPION was intratracheally instilled into the lung by a non-surgical method. Cy5.5-conjugated TCL-SPION slightly induced pulmonary inflammation. The instilled nanoparticles were distributed mainly in the lung and excreted in the urine via glomerular filtration. Urinary excretion was peaked at 3 h after instillation. No toxicity was found under the concentration of 1.8 mg/kg and the half-lives of nanoparticles in the lung and urine were estimated to be about 14.4 ± 0.54 h and 24.7 ± 1.02 h, respectively. Although further studies are required, our results showed that Cy5.5-conjugated TCL-SPION can be a good candidate for use in pulmonary delivery vehicles and diagnostic probes.

  16. What Can We Apply to Manage Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease with Acute Respiratory Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deog Kyeom; Lee, Jungsil; Park, Ju Hee; Yoo, Kwang Ha

    2018-04-01

    Acute exacerbation(s) of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) tend to be critical and debilitating events leading to poorer outcomes in relation to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment modalities, and contribute to a higher and earlier mortality rate in COPD patients. Besides pro-active preventative measures intended to obviate acquisition of AECOPD, early recovery from severe AECOPD is an important issue in determining the long-term prognosis of patients diagnosed with COPD. Updated GOLD guidelines and recently published American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society clinical recommendations emphasize the importance of use of pharmacologic treatment including bronchodilators, systemic steroids and/or antibiotics. As a non-pharmacologic strategy to combat the effects of AECOPD, noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is recommended as the treatment of choice as this therapy is thought to be most effective in reducing intubation risk in patients diagnosed with AECOPD with acute respiratory failure. Recently, a few adjunctive modalities, including NIV with helmet and helium-oxygen mixture, have been tried in cases of AECOPD with respiratory failure. As yet, insufficient documentation exists to permit recommendation of this therapy without qualification. Although there are too few findings, as yet, to allow for regular andr routine application of those modalities in AECOPD, there is anecdotal evidence to indicate both mechanical and physiological benefits connected with this therapy. High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy is another supportive strategy which serves to improve the symptoms of hypoxic respiratory failure. The therapy also produced improvement in ventilatory variables, and it may be successfully applied in cases of hypercapnic respiratory failure. Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal has been successfully attempted in cases of adult respiratory distress syndrome, with protective hypercapnic ventilatory strategy. Nowadays, it is

  17. Biocompatible lutein-polymer-lipid nanocapsules: Acute and subacute toxicity and bioavailability in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, Arunkumar; Hindupur, Ravi; Vallikannan, Baskaran, E-mail: baskaranv@cftri.res.in

    2016-12-01

    Lutein-poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-phospholipid (PL) nanocapsules were prepared (henceforth referred as lutein nanocapsules) and studied for acute, subacute oral toxicity and bioavailability of lutein in mice. Prior to examining the safety of lutein nanocapsules, particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology and interaction between lutein, PLGA and PL were studied. In acute study, mice were gavaged with a single dose of lutein nanocapsules at 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight (BW) and examined for 2 weeks, while in subacute study, daily mice were gavaged with a dose of 1 and 10 mg/kg BW for 4 weeks. Results revealed that mean size and zeta value of lutein nanocapsules were 140 nm and − 44 mV, respectively. Acute and subacute toxicity studies did not show any mortality or treatment related adverse effect in clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body and organ weights. No toxicity related findings were observed in hematology, histopathology and other blood and tissue clinical chemistry parameters. In subacute study, no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of lutein nanocapsules was found to be at a dose of 10 mg/kg BW. Feeding lutein nanocapsules resulted in a significant (p < 0.01) increase in lutein level in plasma and tissue compared to the control group. Lutein nanocapsules did not cause toxicity in mice. However, human trials are warranted. - Highlights: • Acute and subacute toxicity studies of lutein-PLGA-PL showed no toxicity. • PLGA-PL nanocapsules were safe carriers for oral delivery of lutein. • Oral gavage of lutein-PLGA-PL nanocapsule improves plasma lutein levels.

  18. The acute toxicity of clove oil to fish Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Doleželová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Clove oil (active substance eugenol is an anaesthetic used in aquaculture for stress prevention and prevention of mechanical damage during veterinary procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of clove oil in two aquarium fish species - zebrafish (Danio rerio and guppy (Poecilia reticulata, which are considered the most commonly used model organisms in toxicity testing. The semi-static method according to OECD no. 203 (Fish, Acute toxicity test was used for testing the toxicity of clove oil for juvenile fish. A series of 5 acute toxicity tests was performed, with 10 fish of both species used for each concentration and for the control. The results obtained (number of dead individuals at particular test concentrations were subjected to a probit analysis using the EKO-TOX 5.2 program in order to determine 96hLC50 clove oil values. The significance of the difference between 96hLC50 values in D. rerio and P. reticulata was tested using the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test. The 96hLC50 mean value for clove oil was 18.2 ± 5.52 mg·l–1 in juvenile D. rerio and 21.7 ± 0.8 mg·l–1 in P. reticulata. In spite of variability in clove oil composition, acute toxicity values of clove oil for juvenile stages of both fish species were comparable. The results did not show different sensitivities to clove oil in tested fish species. This is the first similar study in these fish species.

  19. Hospital-at-Home Programs for Patients With Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, BR

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions. After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses. The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive

  20. Acute and joint toxicity of three agrochemicals to Chinese tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li; Shao, Wei-Wei; Ding, Guo-Hua; Fan, Xiao-Li; Yu, Miao-Ling; Lin, Zhi-Hua

    2014-07-01

    We studied acute and joint toxicity of three different agrochemicals (chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam) to Chinese tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles with the method of stability water tests. Results showed that the three agrochemicals increased tadpole mortality. For acute toxicity, the LC50 values after 24, 48 and 72 h of chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam exposure were 5.37, 4.90 and 4.68 mg/L; 0.035, 0.025 and 0.021 mg/L; 1.74, 1.45 and 1.29 mg/L, respectively. The safety concentrations (SC) of chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam to the tadpoles were 1.23, 0.30 and 0.003 mg/L, respectively. Based on these findings, chlorantraniliprole and penoxsulam were moderately toxic, while flubendiamide-abamectin was highly toxic. All pairwise joint toxicity tests showed moderate toxicity. The LC50 values after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure were 7.08, 6.61 and 6.03 mg/L for chlorantraniliprole+penoxsulam, with corresponding values of 2.455, 2.328 and 2.183 mg/L for chlorantraniliprole+flubendiamide-abamectin, and 1.132, 1.084 and 1.050 mg/L for penoxsulam+flubendiamide-abamectin, with safe concentrations of 1.73, 0.63 and 0.30 mg/L, respectively. For toxic evaluations of pairwise combinations of the three agrochemicals, only the joint toxicity of chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide-abamectin after 24 h was found to be synergistic, whereas all other tests were antagonistic. Our findings provide valuable information on the toxic effects of agrochemicals on amphibians and how various types of agrochemicals can be reasonably used in agricultural areas.

  1. Acute aquatic toxicity of tire and road wear particles to alga, daphnid, and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwood, Christopher; McAtee, Britt; Kreider, Marisa; Ogle, R Scott; Finley, Brent; Sweet, Len; Panko, Julie

    2011-11-01

    Previous studies have indicated that tire tread particles are toxic to aquatic species, but few studies have evaluated the toxicity of such particles using sediment, the likely reservoir of tire wear particles in the environment. In this study, the acute toxicity of tire and road wear particles (TRWP) was assessed in Pseudokirchneriella subcapita, Daphnia magna, and Pimephales promelas using a sediment elutriate (100, 500, 1000 or 10000 mg/l TRWP). Under standard test temperature conditions, no concentration response was observed and EC/LC(50) values were greater than 10,000 mg/l. Additional tests using D. magna were performed both with and without sediment in elutriates collected under heated conditions designed to promote the release of chemicals from the rubber matrix to understand what environmental factors may influence the toxicity of TRWP. Toxicity was only observed for elutriates generated from TRWP leached under high-temperature conditions and the lowest EC/LC(50) value was 5,000 mg/l. In an effort to identify potential toxic chemical constituent(s) in the heated leachates, toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies and chemical analysis of the leachate were conducted. The TIE coupled with chemical analysis (liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry [LC/MS/MS] and inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry [ICP/MS]) of the leachate identified zinc and aniline as candidate toxicants. However, based on the high EC/LC(50) values and the limited conditions under which toxicity was observed, TRWP should be considered a low risk to aquatic ecosystems under acute exposure scenarios.

  2. Acute lethal toxicity following passive immunization for treatment of murine cryptococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, A C; Lupan, D M; Manalo, P B; Roberts, J S; Schlageter, A M; Weinhold, L C; Kozel, T R

    1997-01-01

    Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the major capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans alters the course of murine cryptococcosis. During studies of passive immunization for treatment of murine cryptococcosis, we noted the occurrence of an acute, lethal toxicity. Toxicity was characterized by scratching, lethargy, respiratory distress, collapse, and death within 20 to 60 min after injection of antibody. The toxic effect was observed only in mice with a cryptococcal infection and was reduced or absent in the early and late stages of disease. The clinical course and histopathology were consistent with those for shock. There was considerable variation between mouse strains in susceptibility to toxicity. Swiss Webster mice from the Charles River colony were most susceptible, followed by C3H/He, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice. DBA/2 mice and Swiss Webster mice from the Simonsen colony were resistant. Acute toxicity was mimicked by injection of preformed complexes of MAb and purified polysaccharide. The toxic effect was also produced by injection of MAbs into mice that were preloaded with polysaccharide. The toxic effect was not blocked by treatment of mice with chloropheniramine or anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibodies or by depletion of complement components via pretreatment with cobra venom factor. Toxicity was reduced by treatment of mice with high doses of epinephrine, dexamethasone, or chlorpromazine. Finally, the toxic effect was completely blocked by treatment of mice with the platelet-activating factor antagonist WEB 2170 BS or by pretreatment of mice with the liposome-encapsulated drug dichloromethylene diphosphonate, a procedure which depletes macrophages from the spleen and liver. PMID:9125564

  3. The Acute Oral Toxicity of Commonly Used Pesticides in Iran, to Honeybees (Apis Mellifera Meda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasuli Farhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The honey bee is credited with approximately 85% of the pollinating activity necessary to supply about one-third of the world’s food supply. Well over 50 major crops depend on these insects for pollination. The crops produce more abundantly when honey bees are plentiful. Worker bees are the ones primarily affected by pesticides. Poisoning symptoms can vary depending on the developmental stage of the individual bee, and the kind of chemical employed. The oral toxicity of these insecticides: (phosalone and pirimicarb, acaricide (propargite, insecticide and acaricide (fenpropathrin, fungicides, and bactericides (copper oxychloride and the Bordeaux mixture, were evaluated for the purposes of this research. The results showed that fenpropathrin had high acute oral toxicity (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 0.54 and 0.3 ppm, respectively. Propargite had 7785 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-24h and 6736 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-48h in honeybees and is therefore, non-toxic to Apis mellifera. On the other hand, copper oxychloride had minimum acute oral toxicity to honeybees (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 4591.5 and 5407.9 ppm, respectively and was therefore considered non-toxic. Also, the Bordeaux mixture was safe to use around honeybees. Phosalone and primicarb were considered highly and moderately toxic to honeybees, respectively.

  4. Acute and subchronic toxicity studies of methanol extract of Polygonum minus leaves in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christapher, Parayil Varghese; Parasuraman, Subramani; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran

    2017-06-01

    Medicinal plant preparations may contain high levels of toxic chemical constituents to potentially cause serious harm to animals and/or humans. Thus, toxicity studies are important to assess the toxic effects of plant derived products. Polygonum minus is used traditionally for different ailments in Southeast Asia. This study was conducted to establish the acute and subchronic toxicity profile of the methanol extract of P. minus leaves. The acute toxicity study showed that the methanol extract of P. minus is safe even at the highest dose tested of 2000 mg/kg in female Sprague Dawley rats. There were no behavioural or physiological changes and gross pathological abnormalities observed. The subchronic toxicity study of methanol extract of P. minus at 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg were conducted in both sexes of Sprague Dawley rats. There were no changes observed in the extract treated animal's body weight, food and water intake, motor coordination, behaviour and mental alertness. The values of haematological and biochemical parameters were not different between the treated and control animals. The relative organ weights of extract-treated animals did not differ with that of control animals. Based on the present findings, the methanol extract of P. minus leaves could be considered safe up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of Cardiovascular Disease-associated iron overload in Libby amphibole-induced acute pulmonary injury and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary toxicity induced by asbestos is thought to be mediated through redox-cycling of fiber-bound and bioavailable iron (Fe). We hypothesized that Libby amphibole (LA)-induced cute lung injury will be exacerbated in rat models of cardiovascular disease (CVD)-associated Fe-ove...

  6. Logistic regression model for identification of right ventricular dysfunction in patients with acute pulmonary embolism by means of computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staskiewicz, Grzegorz; Czekajska-Chehab, Elżbieta; Uhlig, Sebastian; Przegalinski, Jerzy; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Drop, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Diagnosis of right ventricular dysfunction in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is known to be associated with increased risk of mortality. The aim of the study was to calculate a logistic regression model for reliable identification of right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) in patients diagnosed with computed tomography pulmonary angiography. Material and methods: Ninety-seven consecutive patients with acute pulmonary embolism were divided into groups with and without RVD basing upon echocardiographic measurement of pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP). PE severity was graded with the pulmonary obstruction score. CT measurements of heart chambers and mediastinal vessels were performed; position of interventricular septum and presence of contrast reflux into the inferior vena cava were also recorded. The logistic regression model was prepared by means of stepwise logistic regression. Results: Among the used parameters, the final model consisted of pulmonary obstruction score, short axis diameter of right ventricle and diameter of inferior vena cava. The calculated model is characterized by 79% sensitivity and 81% specificity, and its performance was significantly better than single CT-based measurements. Conclusion: Logistic regression model identifies RVD significantly better, than single CT-based measurements

  7. The Promise of Pharmacogenomics in Reducing Toxicity During Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Maintenance Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoshana Rudin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL affects a substantial number of children every year and requires a long and rigorous course of chemotherapy treatments in three stages, with the longest phase, the maintenance phase, lasting 2–3 years. While the primary drugs used in the maintenance phase, 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP and methotrexate (MTX, are necessary for decreasing risk of relapse, they also have potentially serious toxicities, including myelosuppression, which may be life-threatening, and gastrointestinal toxicity. For both drugs, pharmacogenomic factors have been identified that could explain a large amount of the variance in toxicity between patients, and may serve as effective predictors of toxicity during the maintenance phase of ALL treatment. 6-MP toxicity is associated with polymorphisms in the genes encoding thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT, nudix hydrolase 15 (NUDT15, and potentially inosine triphosphatase (ITPA, which vary between ethnic groups. Moreover, MTX toxicity is associated with polymorphisms in genes encoding solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 (SLCO1B1 and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR. Additional polymorphisms potentially associated with toxicities for MTX have also been identified, including those in the genes encoding solute carrier family 19 member 1 (SLC19A1 and thymidylate synthetase (TYMS, but their contributions have not yet been well quantified. It is clear that pharmacogenomics should be incorporated as a dosage-calibrating tool in pediatric ALL treatment in order to predict and minimize the occurrence of serious toxicities for these patients.

  8. OECD validation study to assess intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for acute aquatic toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, François; Strecker, Ruben; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Braunbeck, Thomas; Carr, Gregory J; Cenijn, Peter; Fochtman, Przemyslaw; Gourmelon, Anne; Hübler, Nicole; Kleensang, André; Knöbel, Melanie; Kussatz, Carola; Legler, Juliette; Lillicrap, Adam; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Polleichtner, Christian; Rzodeczko, Helena; Salinas, Edward; Schneider, Katharina E; Scholz, Stefan; van den Brandhof, Evert-Jan; van der Ven, Leo T M; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Weigt, Stefan; Witters, Hilda; Halder, Marlies

    2014-08-01

    The OECD validation study of the zebrafish embryo acute toxicity test (ZFET) for acute aquatic toxicity testing evaluated the ZFET reproducibility by testing 20 chemicals at 5 different concentrations in 3 independent runs in at least 3 laboratories. Stock solutions and test concentrations were analytically confirmed for 11 chemicals. Newly fertilised zebrafish eggs (20/concentration and control) were exposed for 96h to chemicals. Four apical endpoints were recorded daily as indicators of acute lethality: coagulation of the embryo, lack of somite formation, non-detachment of the tail bud from the yolk sac and lack of heartbeat. Results (LC50 values for 48/96h exposure) show that the ZFET is a robust method with a good intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility (CV30%) for some very toxic or volatile chemicals, and chemicals tested close to their limit of solubility. The ZFET is now available as OECD Test Guideline 236. Considering the high predictive capacity of the ZFET demonstrated by Belanger et al. (2013) in their retrospective analysis of acute fish toxicity and fish embryo acute toxicity data, the ZFET is ready to be considered for acute fish toxicity for regulatory purposes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A comparative assessment of the acute inhalation toxicity of vanadium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, N; Seagrave, J C; Plunkett, L M; MacGregor, J A

    2016-11-01

    Vanadium compounds have become important in industrial processes, resulting in workplace exposure potential and are present in ambient air as a result of fossil fuel combustion. A series of acute nose-only inhalation toxicity studies was conducted in both rats and mice in order to obtain comparative data on the acute toxicity potential of compounds used commercially. V 2 O 3 , V 2 O 4 , and V 2 O 5 , which have different oxidation states (+3, +4, +5, respectively), were delivered as micronized powders; the highly water-soluble and hygroscopic VOSO 4 (+4) could not be micronized and was instead delivered as a liquid aerosol from an aqueous solution. V 2 O 5 was the most acutely toxic micronized powder in both species. Despite its lower overall percentage vanadium content, a liquid aerosol of VOSO 4 was more toxic than the V 2 O 5 particles in mice, but not in rats. These data suggest that an interaction of characteristics, i.e., bioavailability, solubility and oxidation state, as well as species sensitivity, likely affect the toxicity potential of vanadium compounds. Based on clinical observations and gross necropsy findings, the lung appeared to be the target organ for all compounds. The level of hazard posed will depend on the specific chemical form of the vanadium. Future work to define the inhalation toxicity potential of vanadium compounds of various oxidation states after repeated exposures will be important in understanding how the physico-chemical and biological characteristics of specific vanadium compounds interact to affect toxicity potential and the potential risks posed to human health.

  10. Studying the effect of CO2-induced acidification on sediment toxicity using acute amphipod toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basallote, M Dolores; De Orte, Manoela R; DelValls, T Ángel; Riba, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage is increasingly being considered one of the most efficient approaches to mitigate the increase of CO2 in the atmosphere associated with anthropogenic emissions. However, the environmental effects of potential CO2 leaks remain largely unknown. The amphipod Ampelisca brevicornis was exposed to environmental sediments collected in different areas of the Gulf of Cádiz and subjected to several pH treatments to study the effects of CO2-induced acidification on sediment toxicity. After 10 days of exposure, the results obtained indicated that high lethal effects were associated with the lowest pH treatments, except for the Ría of Huelva sediment test. The mobility of metals from sediment to the overlying seawater was correlated to a pH decrease. The data obtained revealed that CO2-related acidification would lead to lethal effects on amphipods as well as the mobility of metals, which could increase sediment toxicity.

  11. [Electrophysiological study on rat conduit pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells under normoxia and acute hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying; Zou, Fei; Cai, Chun-Qing; Wu, Hang-Yu; Yun, Hai-Xia; Chen, Yun-Tian; Jin, Guo-En; Ge, Ri-Li

    2006-10-25

    The present study was designed to investigate the electrophysiological characteristics of rat conduit pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and the response to acute hypoxia. PASMCs of the 1st to 2nd order branches in the conduit pulmonary arteries were obtained by enzymatic isolation. The PASMCs were divided into acute hypoxia preconditioned group and normoxia group. Hypoxia solutions were achieved by bubbling with 5% CO2 plus 95% N2 for at least 30 min before cell perfusion. Potassium currents were compared between these two groups using whole-cell patch clamp technique. The total outward current of PASMCs was measured under normoxia condition when iBTX [specific blocking agent of large conductance Ca-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channel] and 4-AP [specific blocking agent of delayed rectifier K(+) (K(DR)) channel] were added consequently into bath solution. PASMCs were classified into three types according to their size, shape and electrophysiological characteristics. Type I cells are the smallest with spindle shape, smooth surface and discrete perinuclear bulge. Type II cells show the biggest size with banana-like appearance. Type III cells have the similar size with type I, and present intermediary shape between type I and type II. iBTX had little effect on the total outward current in type I cells, while 4-AP almost completely blocked it. Most of the total outward current in type II cells was inhibited by iBTX, and the remaining was sensitive to 4-AP. In type III cells, the total outward current was sensitive to both iBTX and 4-AP. Acute hypoxia reduced the current in all three types of cells: (1614.8+/-62.5) pA to (892.4+/-33.6) pA for type I cells (Ppotassium current and improves the E(m) in PASMCs. These effects may be involved in the modulation of constriction/relaxation of conduit artery under acute hypoxia. Different distribution of K(DR) and BK(Ca) channels in these three types of PASMCs might account for their different constriction

  12. ECG-gated multislice spiral CT for diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marten, K.; Engelke, C.; Funke, M.; Obenauer, S.; Baum, F.; Grabbe, E.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of echocardiogram (ECG)-gated multi-slice CT angiography (MCTA) in patients with clinical suspicion of acute venous thromboembolism (VTE), to investigate the effect of ECG-gating on cardiac motion artefacts, and to determine the diagnostic reader agreement of ECG-gated MCTA in comparison with conventional MCTA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight consecutive patients were prospectively enrolled and randomly underwent ECG-gated (n=25, group 1) or non-ECG-gated (n=23, group 2) eight-slice pulmonary MCTA. Image data were evaluated by three independent chest radiologists with respect to the presence or absence of emboli at different arterial levels (main, lobar, segmental, and subsegmental arteries), and with regard to cardiac motion artefacts. Statistical tests used to calculate inter-observer agreement were weighted κ statistics, extended κ statistics and confidence indices indicating three-reader agreement accuracy. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients (56.3%) were diagnosed to have pulmonary embolism (13 from group 1, 14 from group 2). Cardiac motion artefacts were significantly more frequent in group 2 (70% in group 2 versus 13% in group 1, p=0.0001). The overall diagnostic agreement was excellent with both MCTA techniques (three-reader confidence index for all vascular territories: 0.76 and 0.84 for groups 1 and 2, respectively (extended κ=0.69 and 0.78, respectively); three-reader confidence index for diagnosis of VTE: 0.94 and 0.85 for groups 1 and 2, respectively (extended κ=0.91 and 0.73, respectively), weighted κ=0.81-0.83 and 0.92-0.95 for groups 1 and 2, respectively, and did not differ significantly between the two groups. In addition there was no significant difference of inter-observer agreement in either group at any assessed pulmonary arterial level. CONCLUSION: ECG-gated pulmonary MCTA is feasible in patients with clinical suspicion of VTE. However, ECG-gated image acquisition did not

  13. 77 FR 43089 - Evaluation of an Up-and-Down Procedure for Acute Dermal Systemic Toxicity Testing: Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... vivo acute dermal systemic toxicity tests. Corresponding acute oral LD 50 data for the same compounds....), estimated LD 50 , and incidence of death and other adverse effects. Background Information on ICCVAM and... tests. DATES: Nominations and test method data for the acute dermal and oral tests should be submitted...

  14. Helical tomotherapy in the treatment of pediatric malignancies: a preliminary report of feasibility and acute toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrán César

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation therapy plays a central role in the management of many childhood malignancies and Helical Tomotherapy (HT provides potential to decrease toxicity by limiting the radiation dose to normal structures. The aim of this article was to report preliminary results of our clinical experience with HT in pediatric malignancies. Methods In this study 66 consecutive patients younger than 14 years old, treated with HT at our center between January 2006 and April 2010, have been included. We performed statistical analyses to assess the relationship between acute toxicity, graded according to the RTOG criteria, and several clinical and treatment characteristics such as a dose and irradiation volume. Results The median age of patients was 5 years. The most common tumor sites were: central nervous system (57%, abdomen (17% and thorax (6%. The most prevalent histological types were: medulloblastoma (16 patients, neuroblastoma (9 patients and rhabdomyosarcoma (7 patients. A total of 52 patients were treated for primary disease and 14 patients were treated for recurrent tumors. The majority of the patients (72% were previously treated with chemotherapy. The median prescribed dose was 51 Gy (range 10-70 Gy. In 81% of cases grade 1 or 2 acute toxicity was observed. There were 11 cases (16,6% of grade 3 hematological toxicity, two cases of grade 3 skin toxicity and one case of grade 3 emesis. Nine patients (13,6% had grade 4 hematological toxicity. There were no cases of grade 4 non-hematological toxicities. On the univariate analysis, total dose and craniospinal irradiation (24 cases were significantly associated with severe toxicity (grade 3 or more, whereas age and chemotherapy were not. On the multivariate analysis, craniospinal irradiation was the only significant independent risk factor for grade 3-4 toxicity. Conclusion HT in pediatric population is feasible and safe treatment modality. It is characterized by an acceptable level of

  15. Helical tomotherapy in the treatment of pediatric malignancies: a preliminary report of feasibility and acute toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesbah, Latifa; Marsiglia, Hugo; Matute, Raúl; Usychkin, Sergey; Marrone, Immacolata; Puebla, Fernando; Mínguez, Cristina; García, Rafael; García, Graciela; Beltrán, César

    2011-01-01

    Radiation therapy plays a central role in the management of many childhood malignancies and Helical Tomotherapy (HT) provides potential to decrease toxicity by limiting the radiation dose to normal structures. The aim of this article was to report preliminary results of our clinical experience with HT in pediatric malignancies. In this study 66 consecutive patients younger than 14 years old, treated with HT at our center between January 2006 and April 2010, have been included. We performed statistical analyses to assess the relationship between acute toxicity, graded according to the RTOG criteria, and several clinical and treatment characteristics such as a dose and irradiation volume. The median age of patients was 5 years. The most common tumor sites were: central nervous system (57%), abdomen (17%) and thorax (6%). The most prevalent histological types were: medulloblastoma (16 patients), neuroblastoma (9 patients) and rhabdomyosarcoma (7 patients). A total of 52 patients were treated for primary disease and 14 patients were treated for recurrent tumors. The majority of the patients (72%) were previously treated with chemotherapy. The median prescribed dose was 51 Gy (range 10-70 Gy). In 81% of cases grade 1 or 2 acute toxicity was observed. There were 11 cases (16,6%) of grade 3 hematological toxicity, two cases of grade 3 skin toxicity and one case of grade 3 emesis. Nine patients (13,6%) had grade 4 hematological toxicity. There were no cases of grade 4 non-hematological toxicities. On the univariate analysis, total dose and craniospinal irradiation (24 cases) were significantly associated with severe toxicity (grade 3 or more), whereas age and chemotherapy were not. On the multivariate analysis, craniospinal irradiation was the only significant independent risk factor for grade 3-4 toxicity. HT in pediatric population is feasible and safe treatment modality. It is characterized by an acceptable level of acute toxicity that we have seen in this highly

  16. Clinical and pulmonary thin-section CT findings in acute Klebsiella Pneumoniae pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Fumito [Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Oita (Japan); Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oita (Japan); Ando, Yumiko; Honda, Koichi; Nakayama, Tomoko; Kiyonaga, Maki; Ono, Asami; Tanoue, Shuichi; Maeda, Toru; Mori, Hiromu [Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Oita (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and pulmonary thin-section CT findings in patients with acute Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia. We retrospectively evaluated thin-section CT examinations performed between January 1991 and December 2007 from 962 patients with acute Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia. Seven hundred and sixty-four cases with concurrent infectious diseases were excluded. Thus, our study group comprised 198 patients (118 male, 80 female; age range 18-97 years, mean age 61.5). Underlying diseases and clinical findings were assessed. Parenchymal abnormalities were evaluated along with the presence of enlarged lymph nodes and pleural effusion. CT findings in patients with acute Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia consisted mainly of ground-glass attenuation (100%), consolidation (91.4%), and intralobular reticular opacity (85.9%), which were found in the periphery (96%) of both sides of the lungs (72.2%) and were often associated with pleural effusion (53%). The underlying conditions in patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia were alcoholism or smoking habit. (orig.)

  17. [Pulmonary function of children with acute leukemia in maintenance phase of chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macêdo, Thalita Medeiros Fernandes; Campos, Tania Fernandes; Mendes, Raquel Emanuele de França; França, Danielle Corrêa; Chaves, Gabriela Suéllen da Silva; de Mendonça, Karla Morganna Pereira Pinto

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the pulmonary function of children with acute leukemia. Cross-sectional observational analytical study that enrolled 34 children divided into groups A (17 with acute leukemia in the maintenance phase of chemotherapy) and B (17 healthy children). The groups were matched for sex, age and height. Spirometry was measured using a spirometer Microloop Viasys(®) in accordance with American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society guidelines. Maximal respiratory pressures were measured with an MVD300 digital manometer (Globalmed(®)). Maximal inspiratory pressures and maximal expiratory pressures were measured from residual volume and total lung capacity, respectively. Group A showed a significant decrease in maximal inspiratory pressures when compared to group B. No significant difference was found between the spirometric values of the two groups, nor was there any difference between maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure values in group A compared to the lower limit values proposed as reference. Children with acute leukemia, myeloid or lymphoid, during the maintenance phase of chemotherapy exhibited unchanged spirometric variables and maximal expiratory pressure; However, there was a decrease in inspiratory muscle strength. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical and pulmonary thin-section CT findings in acute Klebsiella Pneumoniae pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Fumito; Ando, Yumiko; Honda, Koichi; Nakayama, Tomoko; Kiyonaga, Maki; Ono, Asami; Tanoue, Shuichi; Maeda, Toru; Mori, Hiromu

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and pulmonary thin-section CT findings in patients with acute Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia. We retrospectively evaluated thin-section CT examinations performed between January 1991 and December 2007 from 962 patients with acute Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia. Seven hundred and sixty-four cases with concurrent infectious diseases were excluded. Thus, our study group comprised 198 patients (118 male, 80 female; age range 18-97 years, mean age 61.5). Underlying diseases and clinical findings were assessed. Parenchymal abnormalities were evaluated along with the presence of enlarged lymph nodes and pleural effusion. CT findings in patients with acute Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia consisted mainly of ground-glass attenuation (100%), consolidation (91.4%), and intralobular reticular opacity (85.9%), which were found in the periphery (96%) of both sides of the lungs (72.2%) and were often associated with pleural effusion (53%). The underlying conditions in patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia were alcoholism or smoking habit. (orig.)

  19. Causes and correlates of anemia in 200 patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovellini, Angelo; Graziadei, Giovanna; Folli, Christian; Brambilla, Anna Maria; Cosentini, Roberto; Canetta, Ciro; Monzani, Valter

    2012-12-01

    Acute heart failure has a poor prognosis and the presence of anemia may increase the risk of adverse outcomes. However, the clinical and laboratory characteristics of anemia in acute heart failure are poorly known. We aimed to assess the causes and the clinical and laboratory correlates of anemia in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE). This observational study, performed in an Emergency Unit, enrolled 200 patients treated with medical therapy and continuous positive airway pressure. Anemia was found in 36% of patients (38.5% of females and 32.5% of males) and was severe (hemoglobin <9 g/dL) in 6.9% of cases. The most frequent causes of anemia were chronic renal failure (27.8%), chronic inflammatory states (27.8%) and the clustering of multiple factors (18.1%). A wider spectrum of etiological factors was found in females than in males. Microcytic anemia was observed only in females (20% of those anemic), mainly due to iron deficiency/chronic blood loss. Glomerular filtration rate, serum iron, serum albumin, total cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure were independently associated with hemoglobin levels. The etiology of anemia in ACPE is heterogeneous, with several causal factors besides impaired renal function. The pattern of anemia is different between genders, suggesting that sex-specific diagnostic and therapeutic targets should be implemented. Copyright © 2012 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A prospective validation of the Bova score in normotensive patients with acute pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bova, Carlo; Vanni, Simone; Prandoni, Paolo; Morello, Fulvio; Dentali, Francesco; Bernardi, Enrico; Mumoli, Nicola; Bucherini, Eugenio; Barbar, Sofia; Picariello, Claudio; Enea, Iolanda; Pesavento, Raffaele; Bottino, Fabrizio; Jiménez, David

    2018-05-01

    The Bova score has shown usefulness in the identification of intermediate-high risk patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE), but lacks prospective validation. The aim of this study was to prospectively validate the Bova score in different settings from the original derivation cohort. Consecutive, normotensive patients with acute PE recruited at 13 academic or general hospitals were stratified, using their baseline data, into the three Bova risk stages (I-III). The primary outcome was the 30-day composite of PE-related mortality, hemodynamic collapse and non-fatal PE recurrences in the three risk categories. In the study period, 639 patients were enrolled. The primary end point occurred in 45 patients (7.0%; 95% Confidence Intervals, 5.2%-9.3%). Risk stage correlated with the PE-related complication rate (stage I, 2.9%; stage II, 17%; stage III, 27%). Patients classified as stage III by the Bova score had a 6.5-fold increased risk for adverse outcomes (3.1-13.5, p < 0.001) compared with stages I and II combined. Rescue thrombolysis increased from stage I to stage III (0.6%, 12% and 15% respectively). All-cause mortality (5.3%) did not substantially differ among the stages. The Bova score accurately stratifies normotensive patients with acute PE into stages of increasing risk of 30-day PE-related complications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Always expect the unexpected: lung abscess due to pseudomonas aeruginosa mimicking pulmonary aspergilloma in acute B-cell leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieks, J-K; von Bueren, A O; Schaefer, I-M; Menke, J; Lex, C; Krause, U; Zenker, D; Kühnle, I; Kramm, C M

    2013-11-01

    We report on a case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis and consecutive lung abscess in a 13-year-old patient with acute B-cell leukemia. At first, radiographic findings strongly suggested presence of pulmonary aspergilloma and only microbiological testing of the surgically enucleated mass revealed the correct underlying pathogen and confirmed final diagnosis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Treatment of presumed acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema in an ambulance system by nurses using Boussignac continuous positive airway pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieperink, Willem; Weelink, E. E. M.; van der Horst, I. C. C.; de Vos, R.; Jaarsma, T.; Aarts, L. P. H. J.; Zijlstra, F.; Nijsten, M. W. N.

    Background: Early initiation of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) applied by face mask benefits patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema (ACPE). The simple disposable Boussignac CPAP (BCPAP) has been used in ambulances by physicians. In the Netherlands, ambulances are manned by

  3. Practical use, effects and complications of prehospital treatment of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema using the Boussignac CPAP system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.E. Spijker (Eva Eiske); M. De Bont (Maarten); M. Bax (Matthijs); M. Sandel (Maro)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Early use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been shown to be beneficial within the setting of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE). The Boussignac CPAP system (BCPAP) was therefore introduced into the protocols of emergency medical services (EMS) in a

  4. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-physicochemical properties predict the systemic acute phase response following pulmonary exposure in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sarah Søs; Knudsen, Kristina Bram; Jackson, Petra

    2017-01-01

    of acute phase proteins to the blood. We identified physicochemical determinants of MWCNT-induced systemic acute phase response by analyzing effects of pulmonary exposure to 14 commercial, well-characterized MWCNTs in female C57BLI6J mice pulmonary exposed to 0, 6, 18 or 54 lag MWCNT/mouse. Plasma levels...... of acute phase response proteins serum amyloid A1/2 (SAA1/2) and SAA3 were determined on day 1, 28 or 92. Expression levels of hepatic Saal and pulmonary Saa3 mRNA levels were assessed to determine the origin of the acute phase response proteins. Pulmonary Saa3 mRNA expression levels were greater...... limited changes were observed on day 28 and 92. SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels did not correlate and only SAA3 protein levels correlated with neutrophil influx. The multiple regression analyses revealed a protective effect of MWCNT length on SAA1/2 protein level on day 1, such that a longer length...

  5. Toxicity of aerosol propellants in the respiratory and circulatory systems. VII. Influence of pulmonary emphysema and anesthesia in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, T; Aviado, D M

    1975-01-01

    Experimental induction of pulmonary emphysema caused an increase in sensitivity of the rat to toxicity from inhalation of propellants. The emphysematous rat showed an exaggerated reduction in pulmonary compliance in response to inhalation of trichlorofluoromethane (FC 11). In emphysematous and non emphysematous rats without anesthesia the inhalation of FC 11 caused tachycardia, arrhythmias and other abnormalities in the electrocardiogram. The tachycardiac response was eliminated by induction of barbiturate anesthesia, which increased the sensitivity of the heart to occurrence of abnormalities in the electrocardiogram in response to inhalation of FC 11 as well as of dichlorodifluoromethane (FC 12) and difluoroethane (FC 152a). The acceleration in heart rate in response to inhalation of FC 11, hypoxia or hypercapnea was prevented by prior treatment with a beta-blocking drug.

  6. Heavy metals toxicity after acute exposure of cultured renal cells. Intracellular accumulation and repartition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodja, Hicham; Carriere, Marie; Avoscan, Laure; Gouget, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and uranium (U) present no known biological function but are toxic in various concentration ranges. Pb and Cd lead generally to nephrotoxicity consisting in proximal renal tubular dysfunction and accumulation while U has been reported to induce chemical kidney toxicity, functional and histological damages being as well mainly observed in proximal tubule cells. This work address the question of Cd, Pb, and U cytotoxicity, intracellular accumulation and repartition after acute intoxication of renal proximal tubule epithelial cells. After cells exposure to different concentrations of metals for various times, morphological changes were observed and intracellular concentrations and distributions of toxic metals were specified by PIXE coupled to RBS. Cell viability, measured by biochemical tests, was used as toxicity indicator. A direct correlation between cytotoxicity and intracellular accumulation in renal epithelial cells have been established. Finally, intracellular Pb and U localizations were detected while Cd was found to be uniformly distributed in renal cells. (author)

  7. Predicting in-hospital death during acute presentation with pulmonary embolism to facilitate early discharge and outpatient management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerrett K Lau

    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism continues to be a significant cause of death. The aim was to derive and validate a risk prediction model for in-hospital death after acute pulmonary embolism to identify low risk patients suitable for outpatient management.A confirmed acute pulmonary embolism database of 1,426 consecutive patients admitted to a tertiary-center (2000-2012 was analyzed, with odd and even years as derivation and validation cohorts respectively. Risk stratification for in-hospital death was performed using multivariable logistic-regression modelling. Models were compared using receiver-operating characteristic-curve and decision curve analyses.In-hospital mortality was 3.6% in the derivation cohort (n = 693. Adding day-1 sodium and bicarbonate to simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (sPESI significantly increased the C-statistic for predicting in-hospital death (0.71 to 0.86, P = 0.001. The validation cohort yielded similar results (n = 733, C-statistic 0.85. The new model was associated with a net reclassification improvement of 0.613, and an integrated discrimination improvement of 0.067. The new model also increased the C-statistic for predicting 30-day mortality compared to sPESI alone (0.74 to 0.83, P = 0.002. Decision curve analysis demonstrated superior clinical benefit with the use of the new model to guide admission for pulmonary embolism, resulting in 43 fewer admissions per 100 presentations based on a risk threshold for admission of 2%.A risk model incorporating sodium, bicarbonate, and the sPESI provides accurate risk prediction of acute in-hospital mortality after pulmonary embolism. Our novel model identifies patients with pulmonary embolism who are at low risk and who may be suitable for outpatient management.

  8. Acute ecological toxicity and environmental persistence of simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Li, S.W.; Van Voris, P.; Wentsel, R.S.

    1988-06-01

    The objectives of these studies are to establish the comparative environmental behavior and chemical fate of chemical simulants. Laboratory studies were undertaken to establish: (1) deposition efficiency (deposition velocities, Vd) for receptor surfaces including plant foliage and soils; (2) dose/response relationships for important environmental components including plants and soil microflora; and (3) the environmental persistence of the simulants. Chemical agent simulants are employed for a range of testing and training activities where use of chemical agents is less than suitable from a safety and environmental standpoint. A variety of chemical simulant materials are used to simulate either nerve agents or blister agents. The following research describes the environmental effects and persistence of four simulants. These are the nerve agent stimulants diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), and bis (2-ethylhexyl) phosphonate (BIS), and the mustard stimulant 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). The vapor pressures for DIMP, DFP, and CEES are relatively high, reported to be 0.17, 0.58 and 3.4 mm Hg, respectively; while that of BIS is substantially less at 5.8 /times/ 10/sup /minus/5/ mm Hg at 25/degree/C. The chemical characteristics of DFP and CEES are very similar to G/VX-agents and mustard, respectively, and are employed for materials evaluation under controlled conditions. However, their toxicity precludes their use in the environment. DIMP and BIS are currently used for testing in the open air. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. The acute toxicity and teratogenicity of nickel in pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mas, A.; Holt, D.; Webb, M.

    1985-01-01

    The increased susceptibility of the pregnant rat to intraperitoneally administered nickel (Ni) is apparent at 12 and 19 days of pregnancy and cannot be due, therefore, to the increase in total body weight. Teratogenic malformations occur when Ni is administered during organogenesis and are maximal at dose levels that are toxic for the dam. The yolk sac and chorioallantoic placentas accumulate Ni, but this does not prevent the transport of the metal to the embryo or foetus. The Ni concentrations in the conceptuses decrease more slowly with time than those in the maternal organs. In the foetuses, the decrease in concentration is due to the increase in weight, since the content of Ni increases between 4 h and 24 h. Foetal uptake of ( 14 C)thymidine, ( 3 H)leucine and 65 Zn is unaffected at 3 h after the injection of the dam with 4 mg Ni/kg body wt. Incorporation of ( 3 H)leucine into foetal protein, but not the incorporation of ( 14 C)thymidine into DNA, is decreased at this time. A major effect of treatment with this teratogenic dose is an increase in the maternal plasma glucose concentration which, in turn, alters the supply of the sugar to the foetus. The possible relevance of temporary foetal hyperglycaemia to teratogenesis is discussed. (author)

  10. Acute Toxicity Grade 3 and 4 After Irradiation in Children and Adolescents: Results From the IPPARCA Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pixberg, Caroline [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Koch, Raphael [Institute of Biostatistics and Clinical Research, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Eich, Hans Theodor, E-mail: Hans.Eich@ukmuenster.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Koeln, Koeln (Germany); Martinsson, Ulla [Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Kristensen, Ingrid [Department of Radiation Physics, Skåne University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Matuschek, Christiane [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Pohl, Fabian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Elsayad, Khaled [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Christiansen, Hans [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Willich, Normann [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Lindh, Jack [Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå (Sweden); Steinmann, Diana [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: In the context of oncologic therapy for children, radiation therapy is frequently indicated. This study identified the frequency of and reasons for the development of high-grade acute toxicity and possible sequelae. Materials and Methods: Irradiated children have been prospectively documented since 2001 in the Registry for the Evaluation of Side Effects After Radiation in Childhood and Adolescence (RiSK) database in Germany and since 2008 in the registry for radiation therapy toxicity (RADTOX) in Sweden. Data were collected using standardized, published forms. Toxicity classification was based on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria. Results: As of June 2013, 1500 children have been recruited into the RiSK database and 485 into the RADTOX registry leading to an analysis population of 1359 patients (age range 0-18). A total of 18.9% (n=257) of all investigated patients developed high-grade acute toxicity (grades 3/4). High-grade toxicity of the bone marrow was documented for 63.8% (n=201) of those patients, oral mucositis for 7.6% (n=24), and dermatitis for 7.6% (n=24). Patients with high-grade acute toxicity received concomitant chemotherapy more frequently (56%) than patients with no or lower acute toxicity (31.5%). In multivariate analyses, concomitant chemotherapy, diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma, and total radiation dose showed a statistically noticeable effect (P≤.05) on acute toxicity, whereas age, concomitant chemotherapy, Hodgkin lymphoma, Ewing sarcoma, total radiation dose, and acute toxicity influenced the time until maximal late toxicity. Conclusions: Generally, high-grade acute toxicity after irradiation in children and adolescence occurs in a moderate proportion of patients (18.9%). As anticipated, the probability of acute toxicity appeared to depend on the prescribed dose as well as concomitant chemotherapy. The occurrence of chronic toxicity correlates with the prior acute

  11. Evaluation of acute toxicity of genabilic acid (menbutone 10% in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. El Okle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A complete investigation of the acute toxicity of a choleretic compound, menbutone, was performed in rabbits, including lethal dose for 50% of rabbits determination, clinical signs observation and in vivo and post-mortem examinations. Haematological, biochemical and histopathological changes resulting from intramuscular injection of menbutone were also investigated at dose 400 mg/kg body weight. Acute toxicity of menbutone at dose of 400 mg/kg BW induced interstitial myocarditis and multifocal necrosis, whereas serum creatine phosphokinase, creatinine phosphokinase-MB isoenzyme and aspartate aminotransferase activities were significantly increased. Elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities and total bilirubin level associated with lowered albumin content was consistent with histopathological changes of hepatic tissues; hepatic necrosis and fatty infiltration were pronounced indicators of injuries. Renal tubular necrosis and interstitial nephritis were also observed in intoxicated rabbits. Menbutone also induced variations in some haematological parameters. We concluded that acute toxicity of menbutone in rabbits occurred at accidental high doses, as the lethal dose was about 50 fold over the recommended therapeutic dose for other animals. Cardiac muscle, liver and kidneys are the main target organs for menbutone toxicity. Menbutone is not recommended for use in rabbits suffering from any cardiacand hepatic disorders, especially in overdosing situations.

  12. Relative oral efficacy and acute toxicity of hydroxypyridin-4-one iron chelators in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.B.; Morgan, J.; Hoyes, K.P.; Burke, L.C.; Huehns, E.R.; Hider, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between the oral efficacy and the acute toxicity of hydroxypyridin-4-one iron chelators has been investigated to clarify structure-function relationships of these compounds in vivo and to identify compounds with the maximum therapeutic safety margin. By comparing 59Fe excretion following oral or intraperitoneal administration of increasing doses of each chelator to iron-overloaded mice, the most effective compounds have been identified. These have partition coefficients (Kpart) above 0.3 in the iron-free form with a trend of increasing oral efficacy with increasing Kpart values (r = .6). However, this is achieved at a cost of increasing acute toxicity, as shown by a linear correlation between 59Fe excretion increase per unit dose and 1/LD50 (r = .83). A sharp increase in the LD50 values is observed for compounds with Kpart values above 1.0, suggesting that such compounds are unlikely to possess a sufficient therapeutic safety margin. Below a Kpart of 1.0, acute toxicity is relatively independent of lipid solubility. All the compounds are less toxic by the oral route than by the intraperitoneal route, although iron excretion is not significantly different by these two routes. At least five compounds (CP51, CP94, CP93, CP96, and CP21) are more effective orally than the same dose of intraperitoneal desferrioxamine (DFO) (P less than or equal to .02) or orally administered L1(CP20) (P less than or equal to .02)

  13. Acute and subacute toxicity evaluation of ethanolic extract from fruits of Schinus molle in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Adriana; Minetti, Alejandra; Bras, Cristina; Zanetti, Noelia

    2007-09-25

    Ethanolic and hexanic extracts from fruits and leaves of Schinus molle showed ability to control several insect pests. Potential vertebrate toxicity associated with insecticidal plants requires investigation before institutional promotion. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of ethanolic extracts from fruits of Schinus molle in rats. The plant extract was added to the diet at 2g/kg body weight/day during 1 day to evaluate acute toxicity and at 1g/kg body weight/day during 14 days to evaluate subacute toxicity. At the end of the exposure and after 7 days, behavioral and functional parameters in a functional observational battery and motor activity in an open field were assessed. Finally, histopathological examinations were conducted on several organs. In both exposures, an increase in the arousal level was observed in experimental groups. Also, the landing foot splay parameter increased in the experimental group after acute exposure. Only the subacute exposure produced a significant increase in the motor activity in the open field. All these changes disappeared after 7 days. None of the exposures affected the different organs evaluated. Our results suggest that ethanolic extracts from fruits and leaves of Schinus molle should be relatively safe to use as insecticide.

  14. Acute toxicity and genotoxicity of fermented traditional medicine oyaksungi-san.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwayong; Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2017-06-01

    The traditional medicine oyaksungi-san (OY) has been prescribed in East Asia for hundreds of years for the treatment of stroke, paralysis, and ataxia. OY also has therapeutic effects on arthralgia, myalgia, and rheumatoid arthritis, and recent studies have shown its protective effects against apoptosis of hippocampal cells and its anti-inflammatory effects on the peripheral blood cells of patient with cerebral infarction. Many studies have explored the use of traditional medicine and herb materials in the development of safe, novel, and effective pharmaceuticals with fewer side effects. These efforts commonly adopt a bioconversion tool for fermentation with beneficial microbes. However, only pharmaceuticals with high levels of safety and low levels of toxicity can be used in healthcare system. OY water extract was fermented with Lactobacillus and assayed for acute toxicity and genotoxicity. Single dose acute toxicity, bacterial reverse mutation, chromosome aberrations, and micronucleus were observed and assayed in rats, histidine/tryptophan auxotrophic bacteria, Chinese hamster ovary fibroblast cells, and mice bone marrow cells, respectively. All the experimental animals showed no abnormal behavior, clinical signs, body weight increases, or mortality. In the bacterial cultures, no revertant colonies were observed. Morphological and numerical chromosomal aberrations were not found in all metaphases examined. Frequency of induced micronuclei was not significantly increased in all doses applied. As a whole, no acute toxicity or genotoxicity were observed in all the assays examined. Therefore, fermented OY is considered to be a safe material that can be used for development of complementary and alternative medicine using bioconversion.

  15. The primary experimental study of self-made percutaneous catheterized thrombectomy device for acute massive pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Junliang; Yang Ning; Zhao Shijun; Ma Junshan; Yang Jianping

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate efficacy, feasibility and safety of the self-made percutaneous catheterized thrombectomy divice in animal model for thrombus removal. Methods: Seven dogs were selected, with acute massive pulmonary embolism animal models created by injecting thrombi into the pulmonary arterial trunk via percutaneous femoral vein approach. After half an hours the catheter sheath was inserted into the occluded pulmonary artery through right femoral vein in 5 dogs, left femoral vein in 1 dog and right internal jugular vein in another one. The procedure began to remove the thrombi with simultaneous recording the thrombectomy time and the blood volume drainage. Blood gass was tested before and after embolization together with those of thrombi removement, continuously monitored pulmonary arterial pressure and intermittently performed angiography. The mean time form vascular recanalization to euthanasia was 2 hours, and then the lung specimens were resected for histological examination. Results: One animal died of pulmonary arterial penetration during thrombi removal, but others were all alive by the end of the test. Mean time of removing thrombi was 2.4 minutes with mean volume blood drainage of 84 ml. Angiograms showed the approximately complete patency of the pulmonary arterial trunk after reopening of occlusion but still with remnont thrombi within distal branches and arterial pressure with blood gas returned to normal level. Pathology revealed the recanalization of pulmonary arterial trunk but with thromi still staying in the distal branches, and effusion around the arteries. Conclusions: The self-made percutaneous catheterized thrombectomy device is effective, feasible and comparatively safe in the treatment of acute massive pulmonary embolism in this primary test. (authors)

  16. Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Nauclea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research January 2014; 13 (1): 109-115 ... Purpose: To determine the dose – toxicity profile of the aqueous extract of Nauclea latifolia stem bark. (AQE). ... cause single-strand breaks in liver, kidney and.

  17. Acute and Sub-acute Toxicity Profile of Aqueous Leaf Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    information on the safety/toxicity of the aqueous extract of Nymphaea .... automatic chemistry analyzer (Abaxis Inc. Union. City, CA .... play central role in gaseous exchange and inter- compartmental .... OECD guidelines for testing of chemicals ...

  18. In vivo dosimetry and acute toxicity in breast cancer patients undergoing intraoperative radiotherapy as boost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jason Joon Bock; Choi, Jin Hyun; Lee, Ik Jae; Park, Kwang Woo; Kim, Kang Pyo; Kim, Jun Won [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sung Gwe; Jeong, Joon [Dept. of Surgery, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To report the results of a correlation analysis of skin dose assessed by in vivo dosimetry and the incidence of acute toxicity. This is a phase 2 trial evaluating the feasibility of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) as a boost for breast cancer patients. Eligible patients were treated with IORT of 20 Gy followed by whole breast irradiation (WBI) of 46 Gy. A total of 55 patients with a minimum follow-up of 1 month after WBI were evaluated. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSLD) detected radiation dose delivered to the skin during IORT. Acute toxicity was recorded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0. Clinical parameters were correlated with seroma formation and maximum skin dose. Median follow-up after IORT was 25.9 weeks (range, 12.7 to 50.3 weeks). Prior to WBI, only one patient developed acute toxicity. Following WBI, 30 patients experienced grade 1 skin toxicity and three patients had grade 2 skin toxicity. Skin dose during IORT exceeded 5 Gy in two patients: with grade 2 complications around the surgical scar in one patient who received 8.42 Gy. Breast volume on preoperative images (p = 0.001), ratio of applicator diameter and breast volume (p = 0.002), and distance between skin and tumor (p = 0.003) showed significant correlations with maximum skin dose. IORT as a boost was well-tolerated among Korean women without severe acute complication. In vivo dosimetry with OSLD can help ensure safe delivery of IORT as a boost.

  19. Pulmonary Mechanics and Mortality in Mechanically Ventilated Patients Without Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Brian M; Page, David; Stephens, Robert J; Roberts, Brian W; Drewry, Anne M; Ablordeppey, Enyo; Mohr, Nicholas M; Kollef, Marin H

    2018-03-01

    Driving pressure has been proposed as a major determinant of outcome in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but there is little data examining the association between pulmonary mechanics, including driving pressure, and outcomes in mechanically ventilated patients without ARDS. Secondary analysis from 1,705 mechanically ventilated patients enrolled in a clinical study that examined outcomes associated with the use of early lung-protective mechanical ventilation. The primary outcome was mortality and the secondary outcome was the incidence of ARDS. Multivariable models were constructed to: define the association between pulmonary mechanics (driving pressure, plateau pressure, and compliance) and mortality; and evaluate if driving pressure contributed information beyond that provided by other pulmonary mechanics. The mortality rate for the entire cohort was 26.0%. Compared with survivors, non-survivors had significantly higher driving pressure [15.9 (5.4) vs. 14.9 (4.4), P = 0.005] and plateau pressure [21.4 (5.7) vs. 20.4 (4.6), P = 0.001]. Driving pressure was independently associated with mortality [adjusted OR, 1.04 (1.01-1.07)]. Models related to plateau pressure also revealed an independent association with mortality, with similar effect size and interval estimates as driving pressure. There were 152 patients who progressed to ARDS (8.9%). Along with driving pressure and plateau pressure, mechanical power [adjusted OR, 1.03 (1.00-1.06)] was also independently associated with ARDS development. In mechanically ventilated patients, driving pressure and plateau pressure are risk factors for mortality and ARDS, and provide similar information. Mechanical power is also a risk factor for ARDS.

  20. Diagnostic value of dual section helical CT in suspected acute pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marangoni, Alberto A.; Torrecillas, Maria D.; Marchegiani, Silvio H.; Surur, Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To asses the role of Dual Section Helical Computed Tomography (DSHCT) in patients with clinically suspected acute pulmonary embolism (APE). Material and Methods: A retrospective evaluation of 102 patients (57 male, 45 female; age range: 30-83 years; mean: 56 years) with high suspicion of APE studied by DSHCT, was carried out. From the medical records we analyzed clinical parameters, blood gases, D-dimer, risk factors and other imaging examinations. US Doppler of the inferior limbs was performed in 58/102 patients (57%). Results. 52 patients (51%) had APE on DSHCT. Scans of the other 50 patients (49%) were negative for APE. In 39/50 cases (78%) without evidence of APE, DSHCT detected ancillary thoracic findings such as atelectasia (n=11), pulmonary consolidation/edema (n=10), interstitial lung disease (n=8), pleural effusion (n=6), emphysema (n=2), nodules (n=2). 11 cases (22%) DSHCT showed no abnormal features. In this group, with persistent clinical symptoms, angio MRI showed 2 additional cases of APE (false negatives on DSHCT). On DSHCT 51/52 patients (98%) with APE showed satisfactory filling of iodinate contrast in segmental pulmonary arteries, and 45/52 patients (87%) in sub segmental arteries. On DSHCT 36 patients showed bilateral APE, and 7 had isolated peripheral APE. In 7/12 patients DSHCT demonstrated deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the inferior limbs. In other 27/58 cases (47%) US Doppler was positive for DVT. Conclusion: DSHCT can be effectively used to rule out suspected APE and also provides additional information in patients without APE. In addition DSHCT also contributes to demonstrate deep venous thrombosis. (author)

  1. Transfusion-related acute lung injury: a dangerous and underdiagnosed noncardiogenic pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Krzysztof; Maślanka, Krystyna; Kosior, Dariusz A

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is one of the leading causes of death associated with transfusion of blood and blood components. The understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of this syndrome has much improved during the last decades, nevertheless numerous issues are still unresolved and symptomatic treatment remains the cornerstone of medical management. Consequently more attention is directed at primary as well as secondary prevention. The awareness of the problem within the medical society is still unsatisfactory which results in a high number of unrecognized cases or of inaccurate diagnoses one of which is cardiogenic pulmonary edema. The aim of this review is to make the TRALI syndrome more familiar to clinicians and to emphasize how significant proper medical management is both for the patients presenting TRALI symptoms as well as for future recipients of blood components.

  2. Treatment of acute massive pulmonary embolism by streptokinase during labour and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R J; Young, C; Sutton, G C; Cambell, S

    1972-12-16

    A 29-year-old woman sustained an acute massive pulmonary embolism in the 32nd week of pregnancy. Rapid clinical improvement followed the use of streptokinase. Treatment was continued for 41 hours, including labour and the first three hours after delivery. There was slow but severe postpartum haemorrhage. Partial uterine atony occurred, and may have been due, at least in part, to fibrin degradation products arising from thrombolysis. No adverse effects were noted in the baby.Our experience suggests that streptokinase may be given during labour but that an oxytocic agent may be needed; and that reversal of fibrinolysis before delivery is best achieved by the use of aprotinin (Trasylol) rather than aminocaproic acid.

  3. Bacteriology in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients admitted to hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette V; Janner, Julie H; Nielsen, Susanne D

    2009-01-01

    patients admitted to Hvidovre hospital with the diagnosis AECOPD during 2004. A total of 118 patients were included. Microscopy, culture and sensitivity testing investigated their sputums. Clinical and paraclinical features were collected from the patients' files. Among the 118 patients, 59 (50%) had....... pneumonia, mostly H. influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Patients with low FEV(1)sensitivity patterns of the bacteria showed that the majority were resistant to penicillin. If antibiotics are initiated empirically......We investigated the bacterial flora and antimicrobial sensitivity in sputum from patients admitted to hospital with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) in order to recommend the best empirical treatment for these patients. The survey was a retrospective study of all...

  4. Pulseless electrical activity in acute massive pulmonary embolism during thrombolytic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Hua Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of acute pulmonary embolism with hemodynamic instability diagnosed by a computed tomography pulmonary angiogram. The patient developed pulseless electrical activity during systemic thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. Successful return of spontaneous circulation was achieved after immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation with chest compressions for 6 min. His electrocardiogram (ECG on arrival in the emergency department displayed sinus tachycardia, an S wave in lead I, a Q wave in lead III, incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB, T-wave inversion (TWI in leads V1–V3, ST elevation in leads aVR and V1, and ST depression in leads I, II, III, aVF, and V4–V6. These characteristic ECG changes might have prognostic value for clinical deterioration. He recovered after treatment. After discharge, the ECG showed resolution of TWI in leads V1–V3 and incomplete RBBB, suggesting recovery from right ventricular dysfunction, which was confirmed by an echocardiogram on follow in the outpatient department.

  5. Endovascular Treatment for Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage with Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema in the Acute Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Toshinari; Tanabe, Tomoyuki; Muraoka, Kenichiro; Terada, Kinya; Hirotsune, Nobuyuki; Nishino, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Severe neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) can occur in a variety of brain insults, including subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and severe case of NPE can cause devastating consequences. But the literature on the treatment strategy about aneurysmal SAH with NPE is very scant. We present that SAH patients with severe NPE, who were treated first by embolization of aneurysm followed by insertion of lumbar spinal drainage, had comparatively good outcome. We present 12 consecutive cases of aneurysmal SAH with NPE in the acute stage, which were treated by endovascular treatment between April 2002 and December 2012. We classified the patients according to the Hunt and Hess grading system as follows: grade-3 (1 patient), grade-4 (4 patients), and grade-5 (7 patients). All patients needed respiratory management, with the assistance of a ventilator, and underwent endovascular treatment for the ruptured aneurysms within 72 hours from onset. For all the patients, immediately after the endovascular treatment, we performed lumbar spinal drainage. The pulmonary edema disappeared rapidly after respiratory management and endovascular treatment. The outcomes were as follows: good recovery (GR; 3 patients), moderate disability (MD; 4 patients), severe disability (SD; 3 patients), and death (D; 2 patients). Five patients (42%) developed pneumonia, and we postponed extubation until recovery from pneumonia. The cause for severe disability and death was symptomatic vasospasm and primary brain damage. No patients had rebleeding from ruptured aneurysms. Endovascular treatment for ruptured aneurysm and placement of lumbar spinal drainage is an excellent treatment option for severe SAH with NPE.

  6. Adenoviral transfer of HSP-70 into pulmonary epithelium ameliorates experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Yoram G; Maloyan, Alina; Tazelaar, John; Raj, Nichelle; Deutschman, Clifford S

    2002-09-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) provokes three pathologic processes: unchecked inflammation, interstitial/alveolar protein accumulation, and destruction of pulmonary epithelial cells. The highly conserved heat shock protein HSP-70 can limit all three responses but is not appropriately expressed in the lungs after cecal ligation and double puncture (2CLP), a clinically relevant model of ARDS. We hypothesize that restoring expression of HSP-70 using adenovirus-mediated gene therapy will limit pulmonary pathology following 2CLP. We administered a vector containing the porcine HSP-70 cDNA driven by a CMV promoter (AdHSP) into the lungs of rats subjected to 2CLP or sham operation. Administration of AdHSP after either sham operation or 2CLP increased HSP-70 protein expression in lung tissue, as determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot hybridization. Administration of AdHSP significantly attenuated interstitial and alveolar edema and protein exudation and dramatically decreased neutrophil accumulation, relative to a control adenovirus. CLP-associated mortality at 48 hours was reduced by half. Modulation of HSP-70 production reduces pathologic changes and may improve outcome in experimental ARDS.

  7. Acute effects of inspiratory muscle warm-up on pulmonary function in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdal, Mustafa

    2016-06-15

    The acute effects of inspiratory muscle warm-up on pulmonary functions were examined in 26 healthy male subjects using the pulmonary function test (PFT) in three different trials. The control trial (CON) did not involve inspiratory muscle warm-up, while the placebo (IMWp) and experimental (IMW) trials involved inspiratory muscle warm-up. There were no significant changes between the IMWp and CON trials (p>0.05). All the PFT measurements, including slow vital capacity, inspiratory vital capacity, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, maximal voluntary ventilation, and maximal inspiratory pressure were significantly increased by 3.55%, 12.52%, 5.00%, 2.75%, 2.66%, and 7.03% respectively, in the subjects in the IMW trial than those in the CON trial (pcooperation of the upper thorax, neck, and respiratory muscles, and increased level of reactive O2 species in muscle tissue, and potentially improvement of muscle O2 delivery-to-utilization. However, further investigation is required to determine the precise mechanisms responsible from among these candidates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Recovery of right and left ventricular function after acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klok, F.A., E-mail: f.a.klok@lumc.nl [Section of Vascular Medicine, Department of General Internal Medicine-Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Romeih, S. [Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Kroft, L.J.M.; Westenberg, J.J.M. [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Huisman, M.V. [Section of Vascular Medicine, Department of General Internal Medicine-Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Roos, A. de [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    Aim: To evaluate recovery of cardiac function after acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Materials and methods: Routine breath-held computed tomography (CT)-pulmonary angiography was performed in patients with suspected PE to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of PE at initial presentation. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggered cardiac CT was performed to assess biventricular function. After 6 months, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed. In total, 15 consecutive patients with PE and 10 without were studied. A significant change in ventricular volume was defined as a >15% change in end-diastolic or -systolic volumes (EDV, ESV), and significant ventricular function improvement as a >5% increase in ejection fraction (EF) as based on reported cut-off values. Results: Right and left ventricular (RV and LV) EDV and ESV changed non-significantly (<1.3%) in the patients without PE, indicating good comparability of those values measured by CT and MRI. PE patients with baseline normal RV function (RVEF {>=}47%) revealed a >5% improvement in the RVEF (+5.4 {+-} 3.1%) due to a decrease in the RVESV. Patients with baseline abnormal RV function showed a >5% improvement in the RVEF (+14 {+-} 15%) due to decreases in both the RVESV and RVEDV. Furthermore, the LVEDV increased in this latter patient group. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated an improvement in RV function in the majority of patients with PE, independent of baseline RV function. The degree of RV and LV recovery was dependent on the severity of baseline RV dysfunction.

  9. TBHQ Alleviated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress by PERK-Nrf2 Crosstalk in Methamphetamine-Induced Chronic Pulmonary Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (MA leads to cardiac and pulmonary toxicity expressed as increases in inflammatory responses and oxidative stress. However, some interactions may exist between oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS. The current study is designed to investigate if both oxidative stress and ERS are involved in MA-induced chronic pulmonary toxicity and if antioxidant tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ alleviated ERS-apoptosis and oxidative stress by PERK-Nrf2 crosstalk. In this study, the rats were randomly divided into control group, MA-treated group (MA, and MA plus TBHQ-treated group (MA + TBHQ. Chronic exposure to MA resulted in slower growth of weight and pulmonary toxicity of the rats by increasing the pulmonary arterial pressure, promoting the hypertrophy of right ventricle and the remodeling of pulmonary arteries. MA inhibited the Nrf2-mediated antioxidative stress by downregulation of Nrf2, GCS, and HO-1 and upregulation of SOD2. MA increased GRP78 to induce ERS. Overexpression and phosphorylation of PERK rapidly phosphorylated eIF2α, increased ATF4, CHOP, bax, caspase 3, and caspase 12, and decreased bcl-2. These changes can be reversed by antioxidant TBHQ through upregulating expression of Nrf2. The above results indicated that TBHQ can alleviate MA-induced oxidative stress which can accelerate ERS to initiate PERK-dependent apoptosis and that PERK/Nrf2 is likely to be the key crosstalk between oxidative stress and ERS in MA-induced chronic pulmonary toxicity.

  10. Applicability of the fish embryo acute toxicity (FET) test (OECD 236) in the regulatory context of Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobanska, Marta; Scholz, Stefan; Nyman, Anna-Maija; Cesnaitis, Romanas; Gutierrez Alonso, Simon; Klüver, Nils; Kühne, Ralph; Tyle, Henrik; de Knecht, Joop; Dang, Zhichao; Lundbergh, Ivar; Carlon, Claudio; De Coen, Wim

    In 2013 the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline (236) for fish embryo acute toxicity (FET) was adopted. It determines the acute toxicity of chemicals to embryonic fish. Previous studies show a good correlation of FET with the standard acute fish toxicity

  11. Reduced Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelian, Jason M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Callister, Matthew D., E-mail: Callister.matthew@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Ashman, Jonathan B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Young-Fadok, Tonia M. [Division of Colorectal Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Borad, Mitesh J. [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Gunderson, Leonard L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. Results: From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced {>=}Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, {>=}Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions: In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a

  12. Ecotoxicological effect of ketamine: Evidence of acute, chronic and photolysis toxicity to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shih-Wei; Wang, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Angela Yu-Chen

    2017-09-01

    Ketamine has been increasingly used in medicine and has the potential for abuse or illicit use around the world. Ketamine cannot be removed by conventional wastewater treatment plants. Although ketamine and its metabolite norketamine have been detected to a significant degree in effluents and aquatic environments, their ecotoxicity effects in aquatic organisms remain undefined. In this study, we investigated the acute toxicity of ketamine and its metabolite, along with the chronic reproductive toxicity of ketamine (5-100μg/L) to Daphnia magna. Multiple environmental scenarios were also evaluated, including drug mixtures and sunlight irradiation toxicity. Ketamine and norketamine caused acute toxicity to D. magna, with half lethal concentration (LC 50 ) values of 30.93 and 25.35mg/L, respectively, after 48h of exposure. Irradiated solutions of ketamine (20mg/L) significantly increased the mortality of D. magna; pre-irradiation durations up to 2h rapidly increased the death rate to 100%. A new photolysis byproduct (M.W. 241) of norketamine that accumulates during irradiation was identified for the first time. The relevant environmental concentration of ketamine produced significant reproductive toxicity effects in D. magna, as revealed by the reduction of the number of total live offspring by 33.6-49.8% (p ketamine concentration cannot be ignored and warrant further examination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Small Microbial Three-Electrode Cell Based Biosensor for Online Detection of Acute Water Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dengbin; Zhai, Junfeng; Liu, Changyu; Zhang, Xueping; Bai, Lu; Wang, Yizhe; Dong, Shaojun

    2017-11-22

    The monitoring of toxicity of water is very important to estimate the safety of drinking water and the level of water pollution. Herein, a small microbial three-electrode cell (M3C) biosensor filled with polystyrene particles was proposed for online monitoring of the acute water toxicity. The peak current of the biosensor related with the performance of the bioanode was regarded as the toxicity indicator, and thus the acute water toxicity could be determined in terms of inhibition ratio by comparing the peak current obtained with water sample to that obtained with nontoxic standard water. The incorporation of polystyrene particles in the electrochemical cell not only reduced the volume of the samples used, but also improved the sensitivity of the biosensor. Experimental conditions including washing time with PBS and the concentration of sodium acetate solution were optimized. The stability of the M3C biosensor under optimal conditions was also investigated. The M3C biosensor was further examined by formaldehyde at the concentration of 0.01%, 0.03%, and 0.05% (v/v), and the corresponding inhibition ratios were 14.6%, 21.6%, and 36.4%, respectively. This work provides a new insight into the development of an online toxicity detector based on M3C biosensor.

  14. Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2011-05-01

    From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides") occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

  15. Acute and Subchronic Toxic Effects of the Fruits of Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Ozlem Perk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit of Physalis peruviana L. (PPL has been traditionally used as antispasmodic, diuretic, antiseptic, sedative, and analgesic all over the world. We aimed to perform qualitative content analysis of the fruits of PPL and to clarify the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo acute and subchronic toxicity of the fruit. Lyophilized fruit juice does not induce genetic damage. In the acute toxicity studies, LD50 value of the fruit was found to be more than 5000 mg kg−1 for both sexes. According to the subchronic toxicity studies, hepatic, renal, and hematological toxic effects were not induced in both sexes. Plasma troponin I (only in the group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice and troponin T levels were significantly increased in male groups treated with lyophilized fruit juice compared to the control group. Furthermore, potassium level was significantly increased in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice. These findings were considered to indicate the myocardial damage particularly in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice. In conclusion, lyophilized fruit juice of PPL is shown to induce cardiac toxicity only at high doses and in male gender.

  16. Acute and Subchronic Toxic Effects of the Fruits of Physalis peruviana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perk, Basak Ozlem; Ilgin, Sinem; Atli, Ozlem; Duymus, Hale Gamze; Sirmagul, Basar

    2013-01-01

    The fruit of Physalis peruviana L. (PPL) has been traditionally used as antispasmodic, diuretic, antiseptic, sedative, and analgesic all over the world. We aimed to perform qualitative content analysis of the fruits of PPL and to clarify the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo acute and subchronic toxicity of the fruit. Lyophilized fruit juice does not induce genetic damage. In the acute toxicity studies, LD50 value of the fruit was found to be more than 5000 mg kg(-1) for both sexes. According to the subchronic toxicity studies, hepatic, renal, and hematological toxic effects were not induced in both sexes. Plasma troponin I (only in the group treated with 5000 mg kg(-1) of lyophilized fruit juice) and troponin T levels were significantly increased in male groups treated with lyophilized fruit juice compared to the control group. Furthermore, potassium level was significantly increased in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg(-1) of lyophilized fruit juice. These findings were considered to indicate the myocardial damage particularly in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg(-1) of lyophilized fruit juice. In conclusion, lyophilized fruit juice of PPL is shown to induce cardiac toxicity only at high doses and in male gender.

  17. Frequency and clinical relevance of human bocavirus infection in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix C Ringshausen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Felix C Ringshausen1, Ai-Yui M Tan1, Tobias Allander2, Irmgard Borg1, Umut Arinir1, Juliane Kronsbein1, Barbara M Hauptmeier1, Gerhard Schultze-Werninghaus1, Gernot Rohde11Clinical Research Group “Significance of viral infections in chronic respiratory diseases of children and adults,” University Hospital Bergmannsheil, Department of Internal Medicine III–Pneumology, Allergology and Sleep Medicine, Bochum, Germany; 2Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, and Department of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, SwedenObjective: Human bocavirus (HBoV is a recently discovered parvovirus associated with acute respiratory tract infections in children. The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency and clinical relevance of HBoV infection in adult patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD.Methods: We retrospectively tested 212 COPD patients, 141 (66.5% with AE-COPD and 71 (33.5% with stable disease, of whom nasal lavage and induced sputum had been obtained for the presence of HBoV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA. The specificity of positive polymerase chain reaction results was confirmed by sequencing.Results: Two hundred two of 212 patients for whom PCR results were available both for nasal lavage and induced sputum samples were eligible for data analysis. HBoV DNA was detected in three patients (1.5%. Of those, only one patient had AE-COPD. Thus, the frequency of HBoV infection demonstrated to be low in both AE-COPD (0.8% and stable COPD (2.9%. HBoV was found in two sputum and one nasal lavage sample in different patients, respectively. Sequencing revealed >99% sequence identity with the reference strain.Conclusion: HBoV detection was infrequent. Since we detected HBoV in both upper and lower respiratory tract specimens and in AE-COPD as well as stable disease, a major role of HBoV infection in adults with AE-COPD is unlikely

  18. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor agonist Compound 21 attenuates pulmonary inflammation in a model of acute lung injury

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    Menk M

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Mario Menk, Jan Adriaan Graw, Clarissa von Haefen, Hendrik Steinkraus, Burkhard Lachmann, Claudia D Spies, David Schwaiberger Department of Anesthesiology and Operative Intensive Care Medicine, Charité – University Medicine Berlin, FreieUniversität Berlin, Humboldt-Universitätzu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Germany Purpose: Although the role of the angiotensin II type 2 (AT2 receptor in acute lung injury is not yet completely understood, a protective role of this receptor subtype has been suggested. We hypothesized that, in a rodent model of acute lung injury, stimulation of the AT2 receptor with the direct agonist Compound 21 (C21 might have a beneficial effect on pulmonary inflammation and might improve pulmonary gas exchange. Materials and methods: Male adult rats were divided into a treatment group that received pulmonary lavage followed by mechanical ventilation (LAV, n=9, a group receiving pulmonary lavage, mechanical ventilation, and direct stimulation of the AT2 receptor with C21 (LAV+C21, n=9, and a control group that received mechanical ventilation only (control, n=9. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed every 30 min throughout the 240-min observation period. Lung tissue and plasma samples were obtained at 240 min after the start of mechanical ventilation. Protein content and surface activity of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were assessed and the wet/dry-weight ratio of lungs was determined. Transcriptional and translational regulation of pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-4 was determined in lungs and in plasma. Results: Pulmonary lavage led to a significant impairment of gas exchange, the formation of lung edema, and the induction of pulmonary inflammation. Protein content of lavage fluid was increased and contained washed-out surfactant. Direct AT2 receptor stimulation with C21 led to a significant inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-6

  19. Effectiveness of prehospital continuous positive airway pressure in the management of acute pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubble, Michael W; Richards, Michael E; Jarvis, Roger; Millikan, Tori; Young, Dwayne

    2006-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) with standard pharmacologic treatment in the management of prehospital acute pulmonary edema. Using a nonrandomized control group design, all consecutive patients presenting to two participating emergency medical services (EMS) systems with a field impression of acute pulmonary edema between July 1, 2004, and June 30, 2005, were included in the study. The control EMS system patients received standard treatment with oxygen, nitrates, furosemide, morphine, and, if indicated, endotracheal intubation. The intervention EMS system patients received CPAP via face mask at 10 cm H2O in addition to standard therapy. Ninety-five patients received standard therapy, and 120 patients received CPAP and standard therapy. Intubation was required in 8.9% of CPAP-treated patients compared with 25.3% in the control group (p = 0.003), and mortality was lower in the CPAP group than in the control group (5.4% vs. 23.2%; p = 0.000). When compared with the control group, the CPAP group had more improvement in respiratory rate (-4.55 vs. -1.81; p = 0.001), pulse rate (-4.77 vs. 0.82; p = 0.013), and dyspnea score (-2.11 vs. -1.36; p = 0.008). Using logistic regression to control for potential confounders, patients receiving standard treatment were more likely to be intubated (odds ratio, 4.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.64 to 9.95) and more likely to die (odds ratio, 7.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.96 to 28.54) than those receiving standard therapy and CPAP. The prehospital use of CPAP is feasible, may avert the need for endotracheal intubation, and may reduce short-term mortality.

  20. Clinical presentation and in-hospital death in acute pulmonary embolism: does cancer matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Franco; Becattini, Cecilia; Rulli, Eliana; Pacchetti, Ilaria; Floriani, Irene; Biancardi, Marco; Scardovi, Angela Beatrice; Enea, Iolanda; Bongarzoni, Amedeo; Pignataro, Luigi; Agnelli, Giancarlo

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is one of the most common risk factors for acute pulmonary embolism (PE), but only few studies report on the short-term outcome of patients with PE and a history of cancer. The aim of the study was to assess whether a cancer diagnosis affects the clinical presentation and short-term outcome in patients hospitalized for PE who were included in the Italian Pulmonary Embolism Registry. All-cause and PE-related in-hospital deaths were also analyzed. Out of 1702 patients, 451 (26.5 %) of patients had a diagnosis of cancer: cancer was known at presentation in 365, or diagnosed during the hospital stay for PE in 86 (19 % of cancer patients). Patients with and without cancer were similar concerning clinical status at presentation. Patients with cancer less commonly received thrombolytic therapy, and more often had an inferior vena cava filter inserted. Major or intracranial bleeding was not different between groups. In-hospital all-cause death occurred in 8.4 and 5.9 % of patients with and without cancer, respectively. At multivariate analysis, cancer (OR 2.24, 95 % CI 1.27-3.98; P = 0.006) was an independent predictor of in-hospital death. Clinical instability, PE recurrence, age ≥75 years, recent bed rest ≥3 days, but not cancer, were independent predictors of in-hospital death due to PE. Cancer seems a weaker predictor of all-cause in-hospital death compared to other factors; the mere presence of cancer, without other risk factors, leads to a probability of early death of 2 %. In patients with acute PE, cancer increases the probability of in-hospital all-cause death, but does not seem to affect the clinical presentation or the risk of in-hospital PE-related death.

  1. Arginase 1: an unexpected mediator of pulmonary capillary barrier dysfunction in models of acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf eLucas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The integrity of epithelial and endothelial barriers in the lower airspaces of the lungs has to be tightly regulated, in order to prevent leakage and to assure efficient gas exchange between the alveoli and capillaries. Both G- and G+ bacterial toxins, such as LPS and pneumolysin, respectively, can be released in high concentrations within the pulmonary compartments upon antibiotic treatment of patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS or severe pneumonia. These toxins are able to impair endothelial barrier function, either directly, or indirectly, by induction of pro-inflammatory mediators and neutrophil sequestration. Toxin-induced endothelial hyperpermeability can involve myosin light chain phosphorylation and/or microtubule rearrangement. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS was proposed to be a guardian of basal barrier function, since eNOS knock-out mice display an impaired expression of inter-endothelial junction proteins and as such an increased vascular permeability, as compared to wild type mice. The enzyme arginase, the activity of which can be regulated by the redox status of the cell, exists in two isoforms - arginase 1 (cytosolic and arginase 2 (mitochondrial - both of which can be expressed in lung microvascular endothelial cells. Upon activation, arginase competes with eNOS for the substrate L-arginine, as such impairing eNOS-dependent NO generation and promoting ROS generation by the enzyme. This mini-review will discuss recent findings regarding the interaction between bacterial toxins and arginase during acute lung injury and will as such address the role of arginase in bacterial toxin-induced pulmonary endothelial barrier dysfunction.

  2. Acute, massive pulmonary embolism with right heart strain and hypoxia requiring emergent tissue plasminogen activator (TPA infusion

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    Jonathan Patane

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 63-year-old male presented to the emergency department with shortness of breath. He had a history of prostate cancer and two previous pulmonary embolisms, but was not currently on blood thinners. He had no associated chest pain at the time of presentation, but endorsed hemoptysis. Vital signs were significant for a heart rate of 88, blood pressure 145/89, oxygen saturation in the mid-70’s on room air which increased to mid-80’s on 15L facemask. His exam was significant for clear lung sounds bilaterally. He immediately underwent chest x-ray which showed no acute abnormalities. A bedside ultrasound was performed which showed evidence of right ventricular and atrial dilation, consistent with right heart strain. Given that the patient’s oxygen saturations improved to 88% on 15L facemask, the patient was felt to be stable enough for CT angiography. Significant findings: CT angiogram showed multiple large acute pulmonary emboli, most significantly in the distal right main pulmonary artery (image 1 and 2. Additional pulmonary emboli were noted in the bilateral lobar, segmental, and subsegmental levels of all lobes. There was a peripheral, wedge-shaped consolidation surrounded by groundglass changes in the posterolateral basal right lower lobe that was consistent with a small lung infarction (image 3. Discussion: The patient underwent in the Emergency Department a tissue plasminogen activator (TPA infusion of alteplase 100 mg over 2 hours for his massive acute pulmonary embolisms. Throughout his TPA infusion his oxygen saturations became improved to mid-90’s and his shortness of breath symptoms began improving. His troponin returned at 0.15 ng/mL, suggesting right heart strain. He was admitted to the ICU for continued monitoring and treatment. An acute, massive pulmonary embolism is described as having more than 50% occlusion of pulmonary blood flow.1 The main causes of hypoxia includes ventilation

  3. Prognostic role of alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure difference in acute pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu Jente; Chang Shihtai; Cheng Huiwen; Chung Changmin; Chu, Chiming; Cheng Nyejan; Ho Wanching

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the utility of the alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure difference (AaDO 2 ) in predicting the short-term prognosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). This study retrospectively enrolled 114 consecutive patients with acute PE, diagnosed by either spiral computed tomography or high probability ventilation-perfusion lung scans. During the first 24 h of admission, all patients had initial artery blood gas collected under room air. Patient exclusion criteria were chronic lung disease, septic emboli, and moderate and low probability lung scans. Patients were assigned to 2 groups based on either 30-day death or a 30-day composite event. Receiver operating characteristic analyses was used to determine the AaDO 2 cut-off value for predicting primary and composite endpoints. Statistical analysis demonstrated significant differences in AaDO 2 between the 30-day composite endpoint group and the 30-day composite event-free survival group (p=0.012). The AaDO 2 had a strong trend between the 30-day death group and the survival group (p=0.062). The best cut-off value for AaDO 2 was 53 mmHg and using this, the positive predictive value for 30-day death was 25% and the negative predictive value was 92%. For the 30-day composite endpoint, the positive predictive value for AaDO 2 was 35%, and the negative predictive value was 84%. In this study, thrombocytopenia was also an indicator of poor prognosis for patients with acute PE. The AaDO 2 measurement is a highly useful and simple measurement for predicting short-term prognosis in patients with acute PE. It has high negative predictive value and moderate positive predictive value for 30-day death and 30-day composite event. Aggressive thrombolytic treatment strategies should be considered for patients with an initial poor prognostic parameter (ie, AaDO 2 ≥53 mmHg). (author)

  4. Enhanced pulmonary toxicity with bleomycin and radiotherapy in oat cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einhorn, L.; Krause, M.; Hornback, N.; Furnas, B.

    1976-01-01

    In a recently completed study, combination chemotherapy consisting of bleomycin, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, and vincristine was given to 29 patients with oat cell lung cancer. There were no cases of pulmonary fibrosis in these 29 patients. Although several of these patients had prior radiotherapy, none had concomitant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This same four-drug chemotherapy regimen was combined with concomitant radiotherapy in 13 patients with oat cell lung cancer. There were three cases of fatal pulmonary fibrosis and two other cases of clinically significant pulmonary fibrosis. All five cases of pulmonary fibrosis occurred several weeks after completion of a six-week course of bleomycin (total dosage 90 units). It is concluded that bleomycin cannot be safely administered while patients are receiving radiotherapy of the lung

  5. Acute and chronic toxicity of buprofezin on Daphnia magna and the recovery evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Qi, Suzhen; Zhang, Wen; Li, Xuefeng; Qiu, Lihong; Wang, Chengju

    2012-11-01

    The toxic effects of buprofezin on Daphnia magna after both chronic and acute exposures were evaluated according to OECD guidelines. A 48-h acute exposure of buprofezin resulted in daphnid immobility at an EC(50) of 0.44 mg/L. In a 14 days chronic exposure of buprofezin (0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 mg/L), the development and reproduction of daphnids were all significantly affected and the body length was more sensitive than other observed parameters. However, the adverse effects of buprofezin on parental daphnids can be passed on to their offspring and cannot be recovered in a short time.

  6. Does computer-assisted detection of pulmonary emboli enhance severity assessment and risk stratification in acute pulmonary embolism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelke, C.; Schmidt, S.; Auer, F.; Rummeny, E.J.; Marten, K.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To prospectively assess the value of computer-aided detection (CAD) for the computed tomography (CT) severity assessment of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Materials and methods: CT angiographic scans of 58 PE-positive patients (34-89 years, mean 66 years) were analysed by four observers for PE severity using the Mastora index, and by CAD. Patients were stratified to three PE risk groups and results compared to an independent reference standard. Interobserver agreement was tested by Bland and Altman and extended kappa (Ke) statistics. Mastora index changes after CAD data review were tested by Wilcoxon signed ranks. Results: CAD detected 343 out of 1118 emboli within given arterial segments and a total of 155 out of 218 polysegmental emboli (segmental vessel-based sensitivity = 30.7%, embolus-based sensitivity = 71.2% false-positive rate = 4.1/scan). Interobserver agreement on PE severity [95% limits of agreement (LOA) = -19.7-7.5% and-5.5-3% for reader pairs 1 versus 2 and 3 versus 4, respectively was enhanced by consensus with CAD data (LOA = -6.5-5.4% and-3.7-2% for reader pairs 1 versus 2 and 3 versus 4, respectively). Simultaneously, the percentual scoring errors (PSE) were significantly decreased (PSE = 35.4 ± 31.8% and 5.1 ± 8.9% for readers1/2 and 2/3, respectively, and PSE = 27.6 ± 31% and 3.8 ± 6.2%, respectively, after CAD consensus; p ≤ 0.005). Misclassifications to PE risk groups occurred in 27.6, 24.1, 5.2, and 5.2% of patients for readers 1-4, respectively, (Ke = 0.74) and were corrected by CAD consensus in 56.3, 36, 33.3, and 33.3% of misclassified patients, respectively (Ke = 0.83; p < 0.05). Conclusion: Radiologists may benefit from consensus with CAD data that improve PE severity scores and stratification to PE risk groups.

  7. Prevalence of acute epiglottitis and its association with pulmonary tuberculosis in adults in a tertiary care hospital of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thapa, Narmaya

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute epiglottitis is a relatively uncommon disease in both children and adults. It can be a serious life threatening disease because of its potential for sudden upper airway obstruction. Objective: To determine the prevalence of acute epiglottitis and to find out its association with Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Methods: All cases of acute epiglottitis admitted in ENT and Head and Neck Surgery ward of TUTH, Kathmandu, Nepal, from April 2001 to September 2007, were enrolled. Routine investigations including x-rays and blood cultures were done. The patients were further investigated to rule out the presence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis.The standard treatment protocol we used included Injection Ampicillin 500 mg intravenously six hourly for 72 hours followed by oral Ampicillin 500mg for 7 days, with analgesics and intravenous steroid (Hydrocortisone 200mg if required. Study Design: Prospective longitudinal study. Results: Majority of the patients presented with a history sore throat (83.3%, dysphagia (78.6% and odynophagia (78.6%. On examination all the patients were found to have swollen and congested epiglottis. Positive "Thumb sign" on plain X-ray soft tissue neck lateral view was found in almost all the patients (95.2%. Four patients presented with stridor and patient needed emergency tracheostomy. None of the investigations done to detect Pulmonary Tuberculosis was found to be positive. Conclusion: Acute epiglottitis is a rare disease which now occurs more commonly in adults. The annual prevalence of Acute Epiglottitis in adult in TUTH is 4.8 per 1000. This study did not find any association of acute epiglottitis with pulmonary tuberculosis.

  8. Acute oral toxicity of chemicals in terrestrial life stages of amphibians: Comparisons to birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Mark; Finnegan, Meaghean; Weltje, Lennart; Kosmala-Grzechnik, Sylwia; Gross, Melanie; Wheeler, James R

    2016-10-01

    Amphibians are currently the most threatened and rapidly declining group of vertebrates and this has raised concerns about their potential sensitivity and exposure to plant protection products and other chemicals. Current environmental risk assessment procedures rely on surrogate species (e.g. fish and birds) to cover the risk to aquatic and terrestrial life stages of amphibians, respectively. Whilst a recent meta-analysis has shown that in most cases amphibian aquatic life stages are less sensitive to chemicals than fish, little research has been conducted on the comparative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages. Therefore, in this paper we address the questions "What is the relative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages to acute chemical oral exposure when compared with mammals and birds?" and "Are there correlations between oral toxicity data for amphibians and data for mammals or birds?" Identifying a relationship between these data may help to avoid additional vertebrate testing. Acute oral amphibian toxicity data collected from the scientific literature and ecotoxicological databases were compared with toxicity data for mammals and birds. Toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages are generally sparse, as noted in previous reviews. Single-dose oral toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages were available for 26 chemicals and these were positively correlated with LD50 values for mammals, while no correlation was found for birds. Further, the data suggest that oral toxicity to terrestrial amphibian life stages is similar to or lower than that for mammals and birds, with a few exceptions. Thus, mammals or birds are considered adequate toxicity surrogates for use in the assessment of the oral exposure route in amphibians. However, there is a need for further data on a wider range of chemicals to explore the wider applicability of the current analyses and recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cumulative toxicity of neonicotinoid insecticide mixtures to Chironomus dilutus under acute exposure scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin M; Morrissey, Christy A; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Liber, Karsten

    2017-11-01

    Extensive agricultural use of neonicotinoid insecticide products has resulted in the presence of neonicotinoid mixtures in surface waters worldwide. Although many aquatic insect species are known to be sensitive to neonicotinoids, the impact of neonicotinoid mixtures is poorly understood. In the present study, the cumulative toxicities of binary and ternary mixtures of select neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam) were characterized under acute (96-h) exposure scenarios using the larval midge Chironomus dilutus as a representative aquatic insect species. Using the MIXTOX approach, predictive parametric models were fitted and statistically compared with observed toxicity in subsequent mixture tests. Single-compound toxicity tests yielded median lethal concentration (LC50) values of 4.63, 5.93, and 55.34 μg/L for imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam, respectively. Because of the similar modes of action of neonicotinoids, concentration-additive cumulative mixture toxicity was the predicted model. However, we found that imidacloprid-clothianidin mixtures demonstrated response-additive dose-level-dependent synergism, clothianidin-thiamethoxam mixtures demonstrated concentration-additive synergism, and imidacloprid-thiamethoxam mixtures demonstrated response-additive dose-ratio-dependent synergism, with toxicity shifting from antagonism to synergism as the relative concentration of thiamethoxam increased. Imidacloprid-clothianidin-thiamethoxam ternary mixtures demonstrated response-additive synergism. These results indicate that, under acute exposure scenarios, the toxicity of neonicotinoid mixtures to C. dilutus cannot be predicted using the common assumption of additive joint activity. Indeed, the overarching trend of synergistic deviation emphasizes the need for further research into the ecotoxicological effects of neonicotinoid insecticide mixtures in field settings, the development of better toxicity models for neonicotinoid mixture

  10. Acute toxicity induced by 2-aryl-N-methylsuccinimides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, G O; Shih, H C; Teets, V J; Nicoll, D W; Brown, P I

    1990-04-01

    , kidneys from rats treated with phenobarbital plus DPMS (1.0 mmol kg-1) exhibited extensive proximal tubular necrosis and numerous glomeruli with thickened membranes. Hepatotoxicity was more pronounced than with phenobarbital plus DPMS (0.4 mmol kg-1) at 48 h and urinary bladders had focal areas of erythrocytes pooling below the epithelial lining. These results demonstrate that although NPS and PSX are structural analogs, chemical substitutions that enhance the nephrotoxic potential of NPS do not have a similar effect on PSX. In addition, DPMS can induce urotoxicity in a manner similar to that observed for PSX and probably induces toxicity via one or more metabolites.

  11. A fatal case of acute pulmonary embolism caused by right ventricular masses of acute lymphoblastic lymphoma-leukemia in a 13 year old girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Mi Ko Ko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 13-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic lymphoma- leukemia, who presented with a cardiac metastasis in the right ventricle, resulting in a pulmonary embolism. At the time of her leukemia diagnosis, a cardiac mass was incidentally found. The differential diagnosis for this unusual cardiac mass included cardiac tumor, metastasis, vegetation, and thrombus. Empirical treatment was initiated, including anticoagulation and antibiotics. She underwent plasmapheresis and was administered oral prednisolone for her leukemia. Five days later, she experienced sudden hemodynamic collapse and required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation insertion and emergency surgery. These interventions proved futile, and the patient died. Pathology revealed that the cardiac mass comprised an aggregation of small, round, necrotic cells consistent with leukemia. This is the first known case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting as a right ventricular mass, with consequent fatal acute pulmonary embolism. A cardiac mass in a child with acute leukemia merits investigation to rule out every possible etiology, including vegetation, thrombus, and even a mass of leukemic cells, which could result in the fatal complication of pulmonary embolism.

  12. Pharmacogenetics predictive of response and toxicity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Ontiveros, Evelena P; Griffiths, Elizabeth A; Thompson, James E; Wang, Eunice S; Wetzler, Meir

    2015-07-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a relatively rare disease in adults accounting for no more than 20% of all cases of acute leukemia. By contrast with the pediatric population, in whom significant improvements in long term survival and even cure have been achieved over the last 30years, adult ALL remains a significant challenge. Overall survival in this group remains a relatively poor 20-40%. Modern research has focused on improved pharmacokinetics, novel pharmacogenetics and personalized principles to optimize the efficacy of the treatment while reducing toxicity. Here we review the pharmacogenetics of medications used in the management of patients with ALL, including l-asparaginase, glucocorticoids, 6-mercaptopurine, methotrexate, vincristine and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Incorporating recent pharmacogenetic data, mainly from pediatric ALL, will provide novel perspective of predicting response and toxicity in both pediatric and adult ALL therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute silver toxicity in aquatic animals is a function of sodium uptake rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchini, A.; Grosell, Martin Hautopp; Gregory, S.

    2002-01-01

    -specific surface area of the gills depends on animal body mass; and (iv) the gill surface is also the major site of Na+ loss by diffusion, we hypothesized that whole body Na+ uptake rate (i.e., turnover rate) and secondarily body mass would be good predictors of acute silver toxicity. Results obtained from...... toxicological (LC50 of AgNO3) and physiological (22Na uptake rate) tests performed on juvenile fish (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss), early juvenile and adult crayfish (Cambarus diogenes diogenes), and neonate and adult daphnids (Daphnia magna) in moderately hard water of constant quality support the above...... hypothesis. Therefore, sensitivity to AgNO3, in terms of either total measured silver or free Ag+, was reliably predicted from the whole body Na+ uptake rate in animals with body mass ranging over 6 orders of magnitude (from micrograms to grams). A positive log-log correlation between acute AgNO3 toxicity...

  14. Chemical composition, acute toxicity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Moroccan Tetraclinis articulata L.

    OpenAIRE

    El Jemli, Meryem; Kamal, Rabie; Marmouzi, Ilias; Doukkali, Zouhra; Bouidida, El Houcine; Touati, Driss; Nejjari, Rachid; El Guessabi, Lahcen; Cherrah, Yahia; Alaoui, Katim

    2016-01-01

    Hydro-distilled essential oil (EO) from the leaves of the western Mediterranean and Moroccan endemic plant Tetraclinis articulata was analyzed by GC/MS and examined for its acute toxicity on mice, in order to establish the safe doses. Furthermore, the anti-Inflammatory activity was evaluated based on carrageenan and trauma induced rats paw edema and the antioxidant potential has been investigated using different methods including DPPH radical-scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant ca...

  15. A proposal of classification for acute toxicity; Una scala di tossicita`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oddo, N. [Ecotox srl, Pregnana Milanese (Italy)

    1998-05-01

    A classification for acute toxicity is proposed, including the effects to low level exposures (Hormesis). The criteria, the measurement units and the correlations to chronic and to genotoxicity of the proposed classification are discussed. [Italiano] Viene proposta una scala per la tossicita` acuta, comprendendovi gli effetti deboli (Ormesi). Vengono discussi i criteri di formulazione della scala, le unita` di misura adottate, e le relazioni con la tossicita` cronica e con la genotossicita`.

  16. [Severe toxic liver failure after acute poisoning with paracetamol, ferrous sulphate and naproxen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamek, Robert; Wilczek, Lech; Krupiński, Bogusław

    2004-01-01

    We present the case of 20-year-old woman intoxicated with mixed drugs, composed of paracetamol (acetaminophen), ferrous sulphate, naproxen and benzodiazepines. Acute toxic liver damage with clinical symptoms of coma resolved at the patient. Lack of the past history doesn't let to specific therapy and systemic complications. In this data we confirm, that past history, clinical symptoms and laboratory results are needed in designing a treatment strategy.

  17. Bioconcentration and acute toxicity of polycyclic musks in two benthic organisms (Chironomus riparius and Lumbriculus variegatus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artola-Garicano, E.; Sinnige, T.L.; Holsteijn, I. van; Vaes, W.H.J.; Hermens, J.L.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, the bioconcentration behavior and acute toxicity of two polycyclic musks, Tonalide® 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6,-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4,-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) and Galaxolide® 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexa-methyl-cyclopenta[γ]-2- benzopyran (HHCB), were studied in two

  18. Acute Toxicity of Delsate® Herbicide (Glyphosate) On Albumin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some biochemical metabolism [albumin and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)] were monitored in the serum of fresh water adult African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus exposed to acute concentrations of Delsate herbicide for 96 hours. The concentrations of the toxicant tested were 0.5 mgL-1, 1.0 mgL-1, 1.5 mgL-1, 2.0 mgL-1 and 2.5 ...

  19. Acute and additive toxicity of ten photosystem-II herbicides to seagrass

    OpenAIRE

    Adam D. Wilkinson; Catherine J. Collier; Florita Flores; Andrew P. Negri

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II herbicides are transported to inshore marine waters, including those of the Great Barrier Reef, and are usually detected in complex mixtures. These herbicides inhibit photosynthesis, which can deplete energy reserves and reduce growth in seagrass, but the toxicity of some of these herbicides to seagrass is unknown and combined effects of multiple herbicides on seagrass has not been tested. Here we assessed the acute phytotoxicity of 10 PSII herbicides to the seagrass Halophila ...

  20. Acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of three potential biofuels also used as flavor or solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluhm, Kerstin; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Environmental Research, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Anders, Nico [RWTH Aachen University, Aachener Verfahrenstechnik — Enzyme Process Technology, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Klankermayer, Jürgen [RWTH Aachen University, Institut für Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Schaeffer, Andreas [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Environmental Research, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Chongqing University, College of Resources and Environmental Science, Chongqing 400715 (China); Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing 210093 (China); Hollert, Henner, E-mail: Henner.Hollert@bio5.rwth-aachen.de [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Environmental Research, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Chongqing University, College of Resources and Environmental Science, Chongqing 400715 (China); Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing 210093 (China); Tongji University, College of Environmental Science and Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2016-10-01

    The demand for biofuels increases due to concerns regarding greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of fossil oil reserves. Many substances identified as potential biofuels are solvents or already used as flavors or fragrances. Although humans and the environment may be readily exposed little is known regarding their (eco)toxicological effects. In this study, the three potential biofuels ethyl levulinate (EL), 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) and 2-methylfuran (2-MF) were investigated for their acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity using the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test to identify unknown hazard potentials and to allow focusing further research on substances with low toxic potentials. In addition, two fossil fuels (diesel and gasoline) and an established biofuel (rapeseed oil methyl ester) were investigated as references. The FET test is widely accepted and used in (eco)toxicology. It was performed using the zebrafish Danio rerio, a model organism useful for the prediction of human teratogenicity. Testing revealed a higher acute toxicity for EL (LC{sub 50}: 83 mg/L) compared to 2-MTHF (LC{sub 50}: 2980 mg/L), 2-MF (LC{sub 50}: 405 mg/L) and water accommodated fractions of the reference fuels including gasoline (LC{sub 50}: 244 mg DOC/L). In addition, EL caused a statistically significant effect on head development resulting in elevated head lengths in zebrafish embryos. Results for EL reduce its likelihood of use as a biofuel since other substances with a lower toxic potential are available. The FET test applied at an early stage of development might be a useful tool to avoid further time and money requiring steps regarding research on unfavorable biofuels. - Highlights: • The demand for biofuels increases but their (eco)toxicological effects are unknown. • Acute fish embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of potential biofuels were evaluated. • Ethyl levulinate induced a higher acute toxicity compared to WAFs of gasoline. • Ethyl levulinate caused

  1. Acute and subacute oral toxicity evaluation of Tephrosia purpurea extract in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib Hussain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of 50% ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (T. purpurea in rodents. Methods: The acute toxicity test was conducted in Swiss albino mice. The extract of T. purpurea was administrated in single doses of 50, 300 and 2000 mg/ kg and observed for behavioral changes and mortality, if any. In subacute toxicity study, Wistar rats of either sex were administered two doses of T. purpurea i.e., 200 and 400 mg/kg (One-tenth and one-fifth of the maximum tolerated dose, p.o. for 4 weeks. During 28 days of treatment, rats were observed weekly for any change in their body weight, food and water intake. At the end of 28 days, rats were sacrificed for hematological, biochemical and histopathology study. Results: In the acute toxicity study, T. purpurea was found to be well tolerated upto 2 000 mg/kg, produced neither mortality nor changes in behavior in mice. In subacute toxicity study, T. purpurea at dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg did not produce any significant difference in their body weight, food and water intake when compared to vehicle treated rats. It also showed no significant alteration in hematological and biochemical parameters in experimental groups of rats apart from a decrease in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphate content at the dose of 400 mg/kg. Histopathological study revealed normal architecture of kidney and liver of T. purpurea treated rats. Conclusions: These results demonstrated that there is a wide margin of safety for the therapeutic use of T. purpurea and further corroborated the traditional use of this extract as an anti hepatocarcinogenic agent

  2. Acute toxicity and genotoxicity study of fermented traditional herb formula Guibi-tang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwayong; Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Yang, Hye Jin; Kim, Hyun-Kyu; Song, Kyung Seuk; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2014-10-28

    Guibi-tang (Guipi-tang in Chinese and Kihi-to in Japanese) is a multi-herb traditional medicine commonly prescribed to treat psychoneurosis in East Asia. Although this medicine has been widely used, there is little available information on the safety and toxicity of Guibi-tang, especially on the fermented one. Guibi-tang, composed of 12 herbs, was fermented with bacteria and lyophilized. Single dose acute toxicity in rats was observed for 14 days after administration. Genetic toxicity of fermented Guibi-tang was evaluated on bacterial reverse mutation in Salmonella and Escherichia spp., chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and micronucleus formation in mice. Ingredients in FGBT were identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In acute oral toxicity study, behavior, clinical signs and body weight changes were normal observing in all experimental animals. No revertant colonies were found in any bacterial cultures examined. Morphological or numerical anomalies and significant increased number of aberrant metaphases were not observed. Micronucleus assay showed no significant increases in the frequency of inducing micronuclei in any dose examined. Decursinol, decursin, glycyrrhizin, and 6-gingerol in fermented Guibi-tang were identified and quantitated. As a whole, no acute and genotoxic effects were found in all the assays and parameters analyzed. Fermented Guibi-tang was recognized as safe and non-toxic, and therefore can be used for applications of traditional medicine in modern complementary and alternative therapeutics and health care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute toxicity of fire-retardant and foam-suppressant chemicals to yalella azteca (Saussure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Susan F.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Heisinger, James F.

    1997-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted with Hyalella azteca Saussure (an amphipod) exposed in soft and hard waters to three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two foam suppressants (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex). The chemicals were slightly to moderately toxic to amphipods. The most toxic chemical to amphipods in soft and hard water was Phos-Chek WD-881 (96-h mean lethal concentration [LC50] equal to 10 mg/L and 22 mg/L, respectively), and the least toxic chemical to amphipods in soft water was Fire-Trol GTS-R (96-h LC50 equal to 127 mg/L) and in hard water was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-h LC50 equal to 535 mg/L). Concentrations of ammonia in tests with the three fire retardants and both water types were greater than reported LC50 values and probably were the major toxic component. Estimated un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the LC50 were frequently less than the reported LC50 ammonia concentrations for amphipods. The three fire retardants were more toxic in soft water than in hard water even though ammonia and un-ionized ammonia concentrations were higher in hard water tests than in soft water tests. The accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect aquatic invertebrates, thereby disrupting ecosystem function.

  4. Acute toxicity tests and meta-analysis identify gaps in tropical ecotoxicology for amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Sonia L; Donnelly, Maureen A; Kerby, Jacob; Whitfield, Steven M

    2014-09-01

    Amphibian populations are declining worldwide, particularly in tropical regions where amphibian diversity is highest. Pollutants, including agricultural pesticides, have been identified as a potential contributor to decline, yet toxicological studies of tropical amphibians are very rare. The present study assesses toxic effects on amphibians of 10 commonly used commercial pesticides in tropical agriculture using 2 approaches. First, the authors conducted 8-d toxicity assays with formulations of each pesticide using individually reared red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas) tadpoles. Second, they conducted a review of available data for the lethal concentration to kill 50% of test animals from the US Environmental Protection Agency's ECOTOX database to allow comparison with their findings. Lethal concentration estimates from the assays ranged over several orders of magnitude. The nematicides terbufos and ethoprophos and the fungicide chlorothalonil were very highly toxic, with evident effects within an order of magnitude of environmental concentrations. Acute toxicity assays and meta-analysis show that nematicides and fungicides are generally more toxic than herbicides yet receive far less research attention than less toxic herbicides. Given that the tropics have a high diversity of amphibians, the findings emphasize the need for research into the effects of commonly used pesticides in tropical countries and should help guide future ecotoxicological research in tropical regions. © 2014 SETAC.

  5. Treatment of Acute Tacrolimus Toxicity with Phenytoin in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arin S. Jantz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus are influenced by many factors, including genetic variability, acute infections, liver dysfunction, and interacting medications, which can result in elevated concentrations. The most appropriate management of acute tacrolimus toxicity has not been defined though case reports exist describing the therapeutic use of enzyme inducers to increase tacrolimus metabolism and decrease concentrations. We are reporting on the utilization of phenytoin to assist in decreasing tacrolimus concentrations in a case series of four solid organ transplant recipients with acute, symptomatic tacrolimus toxicity presenting with elevated serum creatinine, potassium, and tacrolimus trough concentrations greater than 30 ng/mL. All four patients had the potential causative agents stopped or temporarily held and were given 300 to 400 mg/day of phenytoin for two to three days. Within three days of beginning phenytoin, all four patients had a decrease in tacrolimus concentration to less than 15 ng/mL, a return to or near baseline creatinine concentration, and lack of phenytoin-related side effects. Therefore, phenytoin appears to be a safe and potentially beneficial treatment option in patients with symptomatic tacrolimus toxicity.

  6. Analysis of acute and late toxicity of adjuvant radiotherapy in women with cervical and endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warenczak-Florczak, Z.; Roszak, A.; Wlodarczyk, H.; Wojciechowska-Lacka, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In case of pure prognostic factors women with cervical and endometrial cancer after surgical operation need to be treated with radiotherapy . Every radiation treatment may be involved with toxicity, acute and late. Material and methods: Performed was detailed analysis of 173 patients with cervical (38) and endometrial (135) cancer. We evaluated early and late post radiation reactions in all patients. Results: Acute reactions were found in 48.5% and late toxicity was found in 9.8% of patients. Women with endometrial cancer were significantly older then patients with cervical cancer (p < 0.002). Higher percentage of acute and late toxicity was observed from the bowel tah urinary tract (26% and 22.5% - acute; 8.1% and 1.73% - late). Higher percentage of acute side effects was observed in patients with cervical than with endometrial cancer (60.5% and 33.7%). Late post radiation reaction predominate also in patient with cervical cancer (13.2% and 8.9%). The adverse effects were associated with prolonged time of treatment due to breaks in radiotherapy. Higher percentage of breaks was found in older patients, more frequent in patient with endometrial than in cervical cancer group (7.4% and 2.6%).To conclude early postradiation reaction appeared more frequently, than late post radiation reactions. It was stated that early and late post radiation reaction appear more frequently in women with cervical than in endometrial cancer. Interruption in radiation delivery was longer than seven days in group with endometrial cancer that leads to extension of complete radiation treatment. (authors)

  7. Regional pulmonary edema caused by acute mitral insufficiency after rupture of chordae tendinae with prolaps of the posterior mitral valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauser, M.; Wiedemer, B.; Fleischmann, D.; Billmann, P.; Ennker, J.

    2003-01-01

    An unilateral or predominantly lobar pulmonary edema is an unusual clinical or radiological finding, often misdiagnosed as one of the more common causes of focal lung disease. We report 2 cases of a regional pulmonary edema caused by the acute onset of a severe mitral insufficiency after the rupture of chordae tendinae resulting in a prolaps of the posterior mitral leaflet. In both cases the regional pulmonary edema was initially misdiagnosed as a pneumonic infiltration, which delayed the cardiological diagnostical procedures and the surgical intervention. The mechanism of the regional edema is an excentric regurgitation jet into the left atrium, which is usually directed to the orifice of the right upper lobe pulmonary vein which increases the hydrostatic vascular pressure in the corresponding lung segment. For the confirmation of the diagnosis, transesophageal echogradiographye is helpful in documenting the direction of the regurgitant flow and detecting differential gradients between the right and left pulmonary venous systems. The pulmonary infiltrations, which persisted for several weeks, dissappeared within a few days after surgical mitral-valve-reconstruction in both cases. (orig.) [de

  8. Acute toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated with and without image-guided radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Scott

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT increases the accuracy of treatment delivery through daily target localisation. We report on toxicity symptoms experienced during radiotherapy treatment, with and without IGRT in prostate cancer patients treated radically. Methods Between 2006 and 2009, acute toxicity data for ten symptoms were collected prospectively onto standardized assessment forms. Toxicity was scored during radiotherapy, according to the Common Terminology Criteria Adverse Events V3.0, for 275 prostate cancer patients before and after the implementation of a fiducial marker IGRT program and dose escalation from 74Gy in 37 fractions, to 78Gy in 39 fractions. Margins and planning constraints were maintained the same during the study period. The symptoms scored were urinary frequency, cystitis, bladder spasm, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, proctitis, anal skin discomfort and fatigue. Analysis was conducted for the maximum grade of toxicity and the median number of days from the onset of that toxicity to the end of treatment. Results In the IGRT group, 14228 toxicity scores were analysed from 249 patients. In the non-IGRT group, 1893 toxicity scores were analysed from 26 patients. Urinary frequency ≥G3 affected 23% and 7% in the non-IGRT and IGRT group respectively (p = 0.0188. Diarrhoea ≥G2 affected 15% and 3% of patients in the non-IGRT and IGRT groups (p = 0.0174. Fatigue ≥G2 affected 23% and 8% of patients in the non-IGRT and IGRT groups (p = 0.0271. The median number of days with a toxicity was higher for ≥G2 (p = 0.0179 and ≥G3 frequency (p = 0.0027, ≥G2 diarrhoea (p = 0.0033 and ≥G2 fatigue (p = 0.0088 in the non-IGRT group compared to the IGRT group. Other toxicities were not of significant statistical difference. Conclusions In this study, prostate cancer patients treated radically with IGRT had less severe urinary frequency, diarrhoea and fatigue during treatment

  9. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-physicochemical properties predict the systemic acute phase response following pulmonary exposure in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah S Poulsen

    Full Text Available Pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs has been linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease in addition to the well-documented physicochemical-dependent adverse lung effects. A proposed mechanism is through a strong and sustained pulmonary secretion of acute phase proteins to the blood. We identified physicochemical determinants of MWCNT-induced systemic acute phase response by analyzing effects of pulmonary exposure to 14 commercial, well-characterized MWCNTs in female C57BL/6J mice pulmonary exposed to 0, 6, 18 or 54 μg MWCNT/mouse. Plasma levels of acute phase response proteins serum amyloid A1/2 (SAA1/2 and SAA3 were determined on day 1, 28 or 92. Expression levels of hepatic Saa1 and pulmonary Saa3 mRNA levels were assessed to determine the origin of the acute phase response proteins. Pulmonary Saa3 mRNA expression levels were greater and lasted longer than hepatic Saa1 mRNA expression. Plasma SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels were related to time and physicochemical properties using adjusted, multiple regression analyses. SAA3 and SAA1/2 plasma protein levels were increased after exposure to almost all of the MWCNTs on day 1, whereas limited changes were observed on day 28 and 92. SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels did not correlate and only SAA3 protein levels correlated with neutrophil influx. The multiple regression analyses revealed a protective effect of MWCNT length on SAA1/2 protein level on day 1, such that a longer length resulted in lowered SAA1/2 plasma levels. Increased SAA3 protein levels were positively related to dose and content of Mn, Mg and Co on day 1, whereas oxidation and diameter of the MWCNTs were protective on day 28 and 92, respectively. The results of this study reveal very differently controlled pulmonary and hepatic acute phase responses after MWCNT exposure. As the responses were influenced by the physicochemical properties of the MWCNTs, this study provides the first step

  10. Study on acute toxicity of anti-vertigo granule on mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhonghua; Hao, Shaojun; Xie, Guoqi; Li, Jun; Su, Feng; Liu, Xiaobin; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To observe the effect of anti - glare particles on acute toxicity of mice. Methods: 40 male and female mice weighing 18 - 21 g were randomly divided into anti - glare granule group and normal saline control group. The maximum volume of anti - glare particles (0.94 g/ml) was administered before the experiment. Results: the oral toxicity of the suspension was very small. The maximal concentration of mice was given at the maximum volume of gastric perfusion, and it was given three times in 1st. The cumulative maximum tolerance dose was 112.8g/kg per day. The dose was 226 times of clinical dosage and no death was found in mice. Conclusion: the toxicity of Kangxuan granules is very small and it can be considered safe in clinical use.

  11. Acute toxicity assessment of Osthol content in bio-pesticides using two aquatic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Chae Yim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study focused on the assessment of acute toxicity caused by Osthol, a major component of environment-friendly biological pesticides, by using two aquatic organisms. Methods The assessment of acute toxicity caused by Osthol was conducted in Daphnia magna and by examining the morphological abnormalities in Danio rerio embryos. Results The median effective concentration value of Osthol in D. magna 48 hours after inoculation was 19.3 μM. The median lethal concentration of D. rerio embryo at 96 hours was 30.6 μM. No observed effect concentration and predicted no effect concentration values of Osthol in D. magna and D. rerio were calculated as 5.4 and 0.19 μM, respectively. There was an increase in the morphological abnormalities in D. rerio embryo due to Osthol over time. Coagulation, delayed hatching, yolk sac edema, pericardial edema, and pigmentation were observed in embryos at 24–48 hours. Symptoms of scoliosis and head edema occurred after 72 hours. In addition, bent tails, ocular defects, and symptoms of collapse were observed in fertilized embryo tissue within 96 hours. Ocular defects and pigmentation were the additional symptoms observed in this study. Conclusions Because Osthol showed considerable toxicity levels continuous toxicity evaluation in agro-ecosystems is necessary when bio-pesticides containing Osthol are used.

  12. Acute and chronic toxicity and antimicrobial activity of the extract of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity and acute or chronic toxicity of the extract of Stryphnodendron adstringens. The stem bark dry extract was obtained by static maceration with ethanol. Quantification of tannins was performed by the Folin-Denis method, which indicated a total tannin content of 32.7%. The antimicrobial activity of the dry extract of S. adstringens was evaluated by agar-based disk diffusion assay with Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 in the concentration of 200, 400 and 600μL/mL. The results indicated that 600μL/mL inhibited microbial growth, i.e. had antimicrobial activity against these species. Acute and chronic toxic effects of S. adstringens was evaluated in Wistar rats treated with 200, 400, 600 and 800mg/kg of extract, administrated by gavage. Liver degeneration was observed in the group of rats receiving 800mg/kg in chronic exposure, what may indicate some degree of toxicity at this concentration. However, no systemic toxicity was observed at lower doses. Considering the broad use of S. adstringens as a phytotherapeutic agent for various human and animal diseases and the livertoxicity observed at high concentrations, attention should be paid to the possible adverse effect of using the extract from this plant at high concentration.

  13. Toxicity levels to humans during acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride - An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halton, D M

    1995-09-01

    In March 1993, the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) commissioned and update of a 1984 review on the acute toxicity of hydrogen fluoride (HF). The study places particular emphasis on the effects of inhalation of gaseous HF and is divided into two main parts: a literature review and a lethal concentration (LC) estimation. The literature review summarizes data under four categories: animal studies, controlled human studies, community exposure, and industrial exposure. Data in these areas were critically reviewed for their relevance to lethal concentrations at LC{sub LO}, LC{sub 10} and LC{sub 50} levels that were derived in the 1984 report. In the last ten years, only one relevant animal study has been published. No new controlled human studies were found but a community exposure incident was reported. There were three new industrial/accidental exposures reported since 1984. Evaluation of new data does not change the lethal concentration estimates made in the 1984 report, but does indicate the absence of appropriate models to estimate the lethality of irritant and corrosive gases. In the last 10 years, much literature on the evaluation of major hazards has been published and suggests that such assessments are of growing political, economic and social importance. Numerous articles have been published on the acute toxicity of HF from skin contact and chronic toxicity from repeated airborne exposure. These publications offer important insights into the nature of HF toxicity. Several avenues of investigative research are suggested. (author). 55 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. Toxicity levels to humans during acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride - An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halton, D.M.

    1995-09-01

    In March 1993, the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) commissioned and update of a 1984 review on the acute toxicity of hydrogen fluoride (HF). The study places particular emphasis on the effects of inhalation of gaseous HF and is divided into two main parts: a literature review and a lethal concentration (LC) estimation. The literature review summarizes data under four categories: animal studies, controlled human studies, community exposure, and industrial exposure. Data in these areas were critically reviewed for their relevance to lethal concentrations at LC LO , LC 10 and LC 50 levels that were derived in the 1984 report. In the last ten years, only one relevant animal study has been published. No new controlled human studies were found but a community exposure incident was reported. There were three new industrial/accidental exposures reported since 1984. Evaluation of new data does not change the lethal concentration estimates made in the 1984 report, but does indicate the absence of appropriate models to estimate the lethality of irritant and corrosive gases. In the last 10 years, much literature on the evaluation of major hazards has been published and suggests that such assessments are of growing political, economic and social importance. Numerous articles have been published on the acute toxicity of HF from skin contact and chronic