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Sample records for acute phase response

  1. Normal Caloric Responses during Acute Phase of Vestibular Neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Uk; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Hyo Jung; Koo, Ja Won; Kim, Ji Soo

    2016-07-01

    We report a novel finding of caloric conversion from normal responses into unilateral paresis during the acute phase of vestibular neuritis (VN). We recruited 893 patients with a diagnosis of VN at Dizziness Clinic of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from 2003 to 2014 after excluding 28 patients with isolated inferior divisional VN (n=14) and those without follow-up tests despite normal caloric responses initially (n=14). We retrospectively analyzed the neurotological findings in four (0.5%) of the patients who showed a conversion from initially normal caloric responses into unilateral paresis during the acute phase. In those four patients, the initial caloric tests were performed within 2 days of symptom onset, and conversion into unilateral caloric paresis was documented 1-4 days later. The clinical and laboratory findings during the initial evaluation were consistent with VN in all four patients except for normal findings in bedside head impulse tests in one of them. Normal findings in caloric tests should be interpreted with caution during the acute phase of suspected VN. Follow-up evaluation should be considered when the findings of the initial caloric test are normal, but VN remains the most plausible diagnosis.

  2. Vaccination elicits a prominent acute phase response in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Susanne A; Petersen, Henrik H; Ersbøll, Annette K; Falk-Rønne, Jørgen; Jacobsen, Stine

    2012-02-01

    European and American guidelines for vaccination against tetanus and influenza in horses recommend annual and annual/semi-annual vaccinations, respectively, against the two pathogens. Too-frequent vaccination may, however, have adverse effects, among other things because an inflammatory response is elicited with subsequent alterations in homeostasis. The objective of the study was to compare the acute phase response (APR) in 10 horses following administration of two different types of vaccines, namely, an inactivated Immune Stimulating COMplex (ISCOM) vaccine and a live recombinant vector vaccine. Blood was sampled before and after vaccination to measure levels of serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen, white blood cell counts (WBC) and iron. Vaccination induced a prominent APR with increased WBC, elevated blood levels of SAA and fibrinogen, and decreased serum iron concentrations. The ISCOM vaccine caused significantly (Phorse owners about convalescence after vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute exercise does not induce an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lena; Buhl, Rikke; Nostell, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether acute strenuous exercise (1600- to 2500-m race) would elicit an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters. Blood levels of several inflammatory markers [serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, fibrinogen, white blood cell count (WBC......), and iron], muscle enzymes [creatinine kinase (CK) and aspartate transaminase (AST)], and hemoglobin were assessed in 58 Standardbred trotters before and after racing. Hemoglobin levels increased and iron levels decreased 12 to 14 h after racing and haptoglobin concentrations, white blood cell counts...

  4. The acute-phase response and serum amyloid A inhibit the inflammatory response to Acinetobacter baumannii Pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renckens, Rosemarijn; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Knapp, Sylvia; de Vos, Alex F.; Florquin, Sandrine; van der Poll, Tom

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging pathogen in nosocomial pneumonia. Trauma and postsurgical patients display a profound acute-phase protein response and are susceptible to pneumonia. METHODS: To study the way in which the acute-phase response induced by sterile tissue injury

  5. Influence of dexamethasone and gamithromycin on the acute phase response in LPS-challenged calves

    OpenAIRE

    Plessers, Elke; Watteyn, Anneleen; Wyns, Heidi; Pardon, Bart; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2012-01-01

    Introduction : Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a potent inducer of the bovine acute phase response and has been widely used in research to provoke acute inflammation. An intravenous challenge with LPS elicits the endogenous synthesis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). These cytokines initiate fever and stimulate the hepatic production of acute phase proteins, such as Serum Amyloid A (SAA). Regarding the fact that immuno...

  6. Rapid and widely disseminated acute phase protein response after experimental bacterial infection of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Boye, Mette

    2009-01-01

    with measurements of interleukin-6 and selected acute phase proteins in serum. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A were clearly induced 14-18 h after infection. Extrahepatic expression of acute phase proteins was found to be dramatically altered as a result of the lung infection with an extrahepatic acute phase...... protein response occurring concomitantly with the hepatic response. This suggests that the acute phase protein response is a more disseminated systemic response than previously thought. The current study provides to our knowledge the first example of porcine extrahepatic expression and regulation of C...... parts of innate host defence reactions remain somewhat elusive. In order to gain new insight into this early host defence response in the context of bacterial infection we studied gene expression changes in peripheral lymphoid tissues as compared to hepatic expression changes, 14-18 h after lung...

  7. Reduced complement activation during cardiopulmonary bypass does not affect the postoperative acute phase response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Goor, J.; Nieuwland, R.; van den Brink, A.; van Oeveren, W.; Rutten, 27818; Tijssen, J.; Eijsman, L.; Rutten, P

    2004-01-01

    Objective: In the present study the relationship was evaluated between perioperative inflammation and the postoperative acute phase response in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) assisted by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). CPB circuits contained either non-coated-

  8. Local and disseminated acute phase response during bacterial respiratory infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2010-01-01

    The acute phase response is playing an important role, aiming to restore the healthy state after tissue injury, inflammation and infection. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other parts of innate defense reactions remain somewhat elusive. Expression of acute phase pr......-types in the organism are involved in production of APP and further supports that extrahepatic APP might be important players of the innate defence system....

  9. Acute phase response induced following tumor treatment by photodynamic therapy: relevance for the therapy outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Merchant, Soroush; Stott, Brandon; Cecic, Ivana; Payne, Peter; Sun, Jinghai

    2006-02-01

    Acute phase response is an effector process orchestrated by the innate immune system for the optimal mobilization of the resources of the organism distant from the local insult site needed in the execution of a host-protecting reaction. Our research has shown that mice bearing tumors treated by photodynamic therapy (PDT) exhibit the three major hallmarks of acute phase response: release of acute phase reactants, neutrophilia, and pituitary/adrenal axis activation. Of particular interest in this study were acute phase proteins that have a pivotal role in the clearance of dead cells, since the occurrence of this process in PDT-treated tumors emerges as a critical event in the course of PDT-associated host response. It is shown that this type of acute phase reactants, including complement proteins (C3, C5, C9, mannose-binding lectin, and ficolin A) and related pentraxins (serum amyloid P component and PTX3), are upregulated following tumor PDT and accumulate in the targeted lesions. Based on the recently accumulated experimental evidence it is definitely established that the acute phase response is manifested in the hosts bearing PDT-treated tumors and it is becoming clear that this effector process is an important element of PDT-associated host response bearing in impact on the eventual outcome of this therapy.

  10. Natural variations in the stress and acute phase responses of cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The initial response of the innate immune system upon activation has been defined as the acute phase response (APR). Activation of the APR results in several responses that include fever, metabolic adaptations, and changes in behavior. The APR can be modulated by many factors, with stress being th...

  11. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response correlates with neutrophil influx linking inhaled particles and cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Lamson, Jacob Stuart; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun

    2013-01-01

    Background Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiovascular disease. Acute phase response is causally linked to cardiovascular disease. Here, we propose that particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response provides an underlying mechanism for particle-induced cardiovascular risk. Methods...... of cardiovascular disease. We propose that the particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response may predict risk for cardiovascular disease......., whereas hepatic Saa3 levels were much less affected. Pulmonary Saa3 expression correlated with the number of neutrophils in BAL across different dosing regimens, doses and time points. Conclusions Pulmonary acute phase response may constitute a direct link between particle inhalation and risk...

  12. The negative acute phase response of serum transthyretin following Streptococcus suis infection in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, F.M.; Waterston, M.; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2005-01-01

    was developed using anti-human TTR antibodies which cross reacted with porcine TTR. The assay had a detection limit of 32 mu g/mL while the mean concentration of transthyretin measured in healthy pig serum was 302 +/- 8 mu g/mL ( n = 63). There was no significant difference in the serum concentration of TTR......Transthyretin (TTR) is a serum protein which is a negative acute phase reactant in humans and levels of TTR are routinely measured as an indicator of health status. Such tests have yet to be established for the pig. In order to measure serum TTR in the pig during an acute phase response an assay...... in three different age groups from 10 to 25 weeks. Following Streptococcus suis type 2 infection transthyretin showed a negative acute phase response with serum concentrations reaching a significantly lower level at two days following infection....

  13. Effects of anabolic steroids on acute phase responses in intra-abdominal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mealy

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute phase response is an important adaptive response to sepsis and injury. As anabolic steroids increase protein synthesis we postulated that these agents might also increase hepatic acute phase protein synthesis. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with testosterone or danazol for 48 h prior to caecal ligation and puncture (CLP. Thirty-six h following surgery the animals were killed and blood taken for full blood count, total protein, albumin, α, β and γ globulin fractions on serum electrophoresis, complement C3 and transferrin levels. Danazol increased the α1, α2 and β1 globulin serum protein fractions in comparison with no surgery and CLP alone groups. These results indicate that danazol increases plasma acute phase proteins, as measured by electrophoresis, in this model of intra-abdominal sepsis.

  14. The Effects of Diesel Exhaust and Stress on the Acute Phase Response and in the Chemically Intolerant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fideler, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    .... The purpose of the proposed study is to test a model for chemical sensitivity in GWV, in which simultaneous acute exposures to DE and psychological stress cause increased symptoms via the acute phase response (APR...

  15. The Effects of Diesel Exhaust and Stress on the Acute Phase Response and Symptoms in the Chemically Intolerant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fiedler, Nancy L; Laumbach, Robert; Kipen, Howard; Lioy, Paul; Zhang, Lunfeng

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The proposed study is designed to test a model of Gulf War Illness, in which simultaneous acute exposures to DE and psychological stress cause increased symptoms via the acute phase response (APR...

  16. The Effects of Diesel Exhaust and Stress on the Acute Phase Response and Symptoms in the Chemically Intolerant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fiedler, Nancy; Leumbach, Robert; Kipen, Howard; Lioy, Paul; Zhang, Jungfeng; Lehrer, Paul

    2006-01-01

    .... The purpose of the proposed study is to test a model for chemical sensitivity in GWV in which simultaneous acute exposures to DE and psychological stress cause increased symptoms via the acute phase response (APR...

  17. The effects of grain-induced subactue ruminal acidosis on interleukin-6 and acute phase response in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shucong; Danscher, Anne Mette; Andersen, Pia Haubro

    2014-01-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) resulting from excessive grain feeding to dairy cows is accompanied by an acute phase response. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) has been proposed as a mediator of this response. We tested if the acute phase response associated with grain-induced SARA is mediated by IL-6. Six...

  18. Modulation of the acute phase response in feedlot steers supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of supplementing feedlot steers with Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1079 (SC) on the acute phase response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Steers (n = 18; 266 ± 4 kilograms body weight) were separated into three treatment groups (n = 6/treatm...

  19. Characterizing the Acute Phase Response in Healthy Patients Following Total Joint Arthroplasty: Predictable and Consistent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelsner, William K; Engstrom, Stephen M; Benvenuti, Michael A; An, Thomas J; Jacobson, Richard A; Polkowski, Gregory G; Schoenecker, Jonathan G

    2017-01-01

    During surgery, trauma to musculoskeletal tissue induces a systemic reaction known as the acute phase response (APR). When excessive or prolonged, the APR has been implicated as an underlying cause of surgical complications. The purpose of this study was to determine the typical APR following total joint arthroplasty in a healthy population defined by the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). This retrospective study identified 180 healthy patients (CCI acute phase reactants may provide an objective means to predict a patient's risk of postoperative dysregulation of the APR and complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute phase response to surgery of varying intensity in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine; Nielsen, Jon Vedding; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the postoperative inflammatory response of horses to elective surgery of varying intensity. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal study. ANIMALS: Horses referred to 2 hospitals for either arthroscopic removal of a unilateral osteochondritic lesion in the tibiotarsal joint...... (WBC) counts and concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen, and iron were assessed in blood samples obtained before, and 1-3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 days after surgery. Differences in levels of the inflammatory markers between the 3 surgical groups were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA...

  1. Estimation of the effect of the acute phase response on indicators of micronutrient status in Indonesian infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, F.T.; Dijkhuizen, M.A.; West, C.E.; Northrop-Clewes, C.A.; Muhilal,

    2002-01-01

    Many indicators of micronutrient status change during infection because of the acute phase response. In this study, relationships between the acute phase response, assessed by measuring concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), α1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), and

  2. The onset of the progression of acute phase response mechanisms induced by extreme impacts can be followed by the decrease in blood levels of positive acute phase proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna

    Studies performed at space flights and earth-based simulation models detected the plasma indices of acute phase reaction (APR), i.e. the increase of APR cytokine mediators and alterations in the production of blood acute phase proteins (APP) at the initial stages of adaptation to altered gravity conditions. Acute phase response is the principal constituent of the functional activity of innate immunity system. Changes in plasma APPs contents are considered to serve the restoration of homeostasis state. According to trends of their concentration shifts at the evolving of acute phase reaction APPs are denoted as positive, neutral, or negative. Plasma concentrations of positive acute phase proteins α1-acid glycoprotein (α1-AGP), α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT), and neutral α2-macroglobulin (α2-M) were measured in human study at 12-hour antiorthostatic position (AOP) with 15° head down tilt and hypoxia experiments at 14% oxygen in pressure chamber. Both of these impacts were shown to produce alterations in the APP levels indicative for acute phase response. Nevertheless, in AOP experiment noticeable decrease in α1-AGP concentration occurred by hour 12, and even more pronounced decline of α1-AGP and α1-AT were found on hypoxia hours 12 and 36. Acute phase proteins α1-AGP and α2-M possess the features of proteinase inhibitors. This function is implemented by the formation of complexes with the molecules of proteolytic enzymes which subsequently are removed from the blood flow. Transient decrease in plasma concentrations of protease inhibitors on early phases of APR development was reported to result from the growth of plasma protease activity due to cathepsin release from activated leukocytes, which had not yet been compensated by enhanced APP synthesis. Being a carrier protein for positively charged and neutral substances, α1-AGP shows pronounced elevation in its blood content during APR development. As assumed, it is required for the transportation of the increased

  3. Acute-phase reactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Singh Grover

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute-phase response (APR is a prominent systemic reaction of the organism to local or systemic disturbances in its homeostasis caused by infection, tissue injury, trauma or surgery, or immunological disorders. The tissue macrophage is most commonly regarded as initiating the APR through direct stimulation and secretion of various cell communicating factors. Proinflammatory cytokines and mediators are significantly elevated with gingival inflammation and during the destructive phase of periodontitis. Cytokines appear to play a major role in the clinical symptoms and tissue destruction associated with progressing periodontitis. Many of these cytokines are derived from activated macrophages and can act both locally and distally to amplify cytokine production from other cell types. The host responses to periodontal disease and cardiovascular diseases were reflected by an increase in the acute-phase proteins (serum amyloid A and C-reactive protein.

  4. Characterizing dynamic interactions between ultradian glucocorticoid rhythmicity and acute stress using the phase response curve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Rankin

    Full Text Available The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis is a dynamic oscillatory hormone signalling system that regulates the pulsatile secretion of glucocorticoids from the adrenal glands. In addition to regulation of basal levels of glucocorticoids, the HPA axis provides a rapid hormonal response to stress that is vitally important for homeostasis. Recently it has become clear that glucocorticoid pulses encode an important biological signal that regulates receptor signalling both in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues. It is therefore important to understand how stressful stimuli disrupt the pulsatile dynamics of this system. Using a computational model that incorporates the crucial feed-forward and feedback components of the axis, we provide novel insight into experimental observations that the size of the stress-induced hormonal response is critically dependent on the timing of the stress. Further, we employ the theory of Phase Response Curves to show that an acute stressor acts as a phase-resetting mechanism for the ultradian rhythm of glucocorticoid secretion. Using our model, we demonstrate that the magnitude of an acute stress is a critical factor in determining whether the system resets via a Type 1 or Type 0 mechanism. By fitting our model to our in vivo stress-response data, we show that the glucocorticoid response to an acute noise stress in rats is governed by a Type 0 phase-resetting curve. Our results provide additional evidence for the concept of a deterministic sub-hypothalamic oscillator regulating the ultradian glucocorticoid rhythm, which constitutes a highly responsive peripheral hormone system that interacts dynamically with hypothalamic inputs to regulate the overall hormonal response to stress.

  5. Evaluation of composite measures of treatment response without acute-phase reactants in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Jeffrey D.; Harrold, Leslie R.; Bentley, Mary J.; Kremer, Joel; Reed, George; Strand, Vibeke

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate composite measures of response without acute-phase reactants in RA patients. Specifically, Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI)-derived response criteria were compared with the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria, and the modified ACR (mACR) response criteria were compared to the ACR response criteria.

  6. Flight performance of western sandpipers, Calidris mauri, remains uncompromised when mounting an acute phase immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, Silke; Buehler, Deborah M; MacMillan, Alexander; Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2013-07-15

    Migratory birds have been implicated in the spread of some zoonotic diseases, but how well infected individuals can fly remains poorly understood. We used western sandpipers, Calidris mauri, to experimentally test whether flight is affected when long-distance migrants are mounting an immune response and whether migrants maintain immune defences during a flight in a wind tunnel. We measured five indicators of innate immunity in 'flown-healthy' birds (flying in a wind tunnel without mounting an immune response), 'flown-sick' birds (flying while mounting an acute phase response, which is part of induced innate immunity), and a non-flying control group ('not-flown'). Voluntary flight duration did not differ between flown-healthy and flown-sick birds, indicating that mounting an acute phase response to simulated infection did not hamper an individual's ability to fly for up to 3 h. However, in comparison to not-flown birds, bacterial killing ability of plasma was significantly reduced after flight in flown-sick birds. In flown-healthy birds, voluntary flight duration was positively correlated with bacterial killing ability and baseline haptoglobin concentration of the blood plasma measured 1-3 weeks before experimental flights, suggesting that high quality birds had strong immune systems and greater flight capacity. Our findings indicate that flight performance is not diminished by prior immune challenge, but that flight while mounting an acute phase response negatively affects other aspects of immune function. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the transmission of avian diseases, as they suggest that birds can still migrate while fighting an infection.

  7. Acute phase response in two consecutive experimentally induced E. coli intramammary infections in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saatsi Johanna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP have suggested to be suitable inflammatory markers for bovine mastitis. The aim of the study was to investigate acute phase markers along with clinical parameters in two consecutive intramammary challenges with Escherichia coli and to evaluate the possible carry-over effect when same animals are used in an experimental model. Methods Mastitis was induced with a dose of 1500 cfu of E. coli in one quarter of six cows and inoculation repeated in another quarter after an interval of 14 days. Concentrations of acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP were determined in serum and milk. Results In both challenges all cows became infected and developed clinical mastitis within 12 hours of inoculation. Clinical disease and acute phase response was generally milder in the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in milk started to increase 12 hours after inoculation and peaked at 60 hours after the first challenge and at 44 hours after the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in serum increased more slowly and peaked at the same times as in milk; concentrations in serum were about one third of those in milk. Hp started to increase in milk similarly and peaked at 36–44 hours. In serum, the concentration of Hp peaked at 60–68 hours and was twice as high as in milk. LBP concentrations in milk and serum started to increase after 12 hours and peaked at 36 hours, being higher in milk. The concentrations of acute phase proteins in serum and milk in the E. coli infection model were much higher than those recorded in experiments using Gram-positive pathogens, indicating the severe inflammation induced by E. coli. Conclusion Acute phase proteins would be useful parameters as mastitis indicators and to assess the severity of mastitis. If repeated experimental intramammary

  8. Acrolein-Induced Dyslipidemia and Acute Phase Response Independenly of HMG-CoA Reductase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Daniel J.; Prough, Russell A.; Juvan, Peter; Rezen, Tadeja; Rozman, Damjana; Haberzettl, Petra; Srivastava, Sanjay; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2012-01-01

    Scope Aldehydes are ubiquitous natural constituents of foods, water and beverages. Dietary intake represents the greatest source of exposure to acrolein and related aldehydes. Oral acrolein induces dyslipidemia acutely and chronically increases atherosclerosis in mice, yet the mechanisms are unknown. Because lipid synthesis and trafficking are largely under hepatic control, we examined hepatic genes in murine models of acute and chronic oral acrolein exposure. Methods and results Changes in hepatic gene expression were examined using a Steroltalk microarray. Acute acrolein feeding modified plasma and hepatic proteins and increased plasma triglycerides within 15 min. By 6h, acrolein altered hepatic gene expression including Insig1, Insig2 and Hmgcr genes and stimulated an acute phase response (APR) with up-regulation of serum amyloid A genes (Saa) and systemic hypoalbuminemia. To test if decreased HMG-CoA reductase activity could modify acrolein-induced dyslipidemia or the APR, mice were pretreated with simvastatin. Statin treatment, however, did not alter acrolein-induced dyslipidemia or hypoalbuminemia associated with an APR. Few hepatic genes were dysregulated by chronic acrolein feeding in apoE-null mice. These studies confirmed that acute acrolein exposure altered expression of hepatic genes involved with lipid synthesis and trafficking and APR, and thus, indicated a hepatic locus of acrolein-induced dyslipidemia and APR that was independent of HMG CoA-reductase. Conclusion Dietary intake of acrolein could contribute to cardiovascular disease risk by disturbing hepatic function. PMID:21812109

  9. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response may be the causal link between particle inhalation and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saber, Anne T.; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Jackson, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of ambient and workplace particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. One proposed mechanism for this association is that pulmonary inflammation induces a hepatic acute phase response, which increases risk of cardiovascular disease. Induction...... epidemiological studies. In this review, we present and review emerging evidence that inhalation of particles (e.g., air diesel exhaust particles and nanoparticles) induces a pulmonary acute phase response, and propose that this induction constitutes the causal link between particle inhalation and risk...

  10. Acute phase reaction and acute phase proteins*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruys, E.; Toussaint, M.J.M.; Niewold, T.A.; Koopmans, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the systemic acute phase reaction with major cytokines involved, and the hepatic metabolic changes, negative and positive acute phase proteins (APPs) with function and associated pathology is given. It appears that APPs represent appropriate analytes for assessment of animal health. Whereas they represent non-specific markers as biological effect reactants, they can be used for assessing nutritional deficits and reactive processes, especially when positive and negative acute phase variables are combined in an index. When such acute phase index is applied to separate healthy animals from animals with some disease, much better results are obtained than with single analytes and statistically acceptable results for culling individual animals may be reached. Unfortunately at present no cheap, comprehensive and easy to use system is available for assessing various acute phase proteins in serum or blood samples at the same time. Protein microarray or fluid phase microchip technology may satisfy this need; and permit simultaneous analysis of numerous analytes in the same small volume sample and enable integration of information derived from systemic reactivity and nutrition with disease specific variables. Applying such technology may help to solve health problems in various countries not only in animal husbandry but also in human populations. PMID:16252337

  11. Does serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D decrease during acute-phase response? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mariana Costa; Furlanetto, Tania Weber

    2015-02-01

    Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, or 25(OH)D, are commonly associated with inflammatory diseases. These associations could be due to an increased prevalence of inflammatory diseases in hypovitaminosis D, although reverse causality cannot be excluded. We aimed to systematically review the longitudinal studies that reported serum 25(OH)D during an acute inflammatory response in humans. Using Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, an electronic search of the literature was conducted from database inception until January 2014 by combining the MeSH terms: vitamin D and acute-phase reactants. Other sources for obtaining articles were used as cross-referencing texts. Based on 670 titles and abstracts, 40 articles were selected for full-text review, and 8 of these studies met the final inclusion criteria. In 6 of the reviewed studies, 25(OH)D dropped after the inflammatory insult; this decrease was abrupt in the studies that measured 25(OH)D early after the insult. In 2 studies, there was no change of 25(OH)D during the course of the disease, but baseline levels were measured in both after days of symptoms onset. One study suggested that hemodilution decreased 25(OH)D, with no effect on inflammation. Serum C-reactive protein concentrations were used as inflammatory markers in almost all studies. The metabolic meaning and the functional importance of these changes are unknown. In light of the current evidence, the 25(OH)D measured during acute-phase response should be interpreted with care. Future research, including other markers of vitamin D adequacy, could help to clarify if hypovitaminosis D might be the cause or the consequence of inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute-phase responses in healthy and diseased rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anne Kirstine Havnsøe; Lundsgaard, Jo F. H.; Bakker, Jaco

    2014-01-01

    Five acute-phase reactants—serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin, albumin, and iron—were measured using commercially available assays in 110 healthy rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and reference intervals were established for future use in health monitoring of this species....... Reference intervals established were as follows: SAA, 29.5–87.7 mg/L; CRP, 0–17.5 mg/L; haptoglobin, 354.3–2,414.7 mg/L; albumin, 36.1–53.0 g/L; and iron, 13.3–40.2 lmol/L. Furthermore, changes in the acute-phase reactants were studied in two additional groups of animals: eight rhesus macaques suffering...... decreases in albumin and iron concentrations were observed. These results show that SAA, CRP, and haptoglobin are positive acute-phase proteins, whereas albumin and iron are negative acute-phase reactants in rhesus macaques....

  13. The porcine acute phase response to infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Haptoglobin, C-reactive protein, major acute phase protein and serum amyloid a protein are sensitive indicators of infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Klausen, Joan; Nielsen, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    , kinetics of induction and normalization were different between these proteins. It is concluded that experimental Ap-infection by the aerosol route induces a typical acute phase reaction in the pig, and that pig Hp, CRP, MAP, and SAA are major acute phase reactants. These findings indicate the possibility......In an experimental infection model mimicking acute Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap) infection in swine (Sus scrofa) by aerosol inoculation, the development of a number of typical clinical signs was accompanied by a prototypic acute phase reaction encompassing fever and an acute phase protein...... response peaking at around 2 days after infection. Haptoglobin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and major acute phase protein (MAP) responded with large increases in serum levels, preceding the development of specific antibodies by 4-5 days. Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) was also strongly induced. The increase...

  14. The effect of oxandrolone on the endocrinologic, inflammatory, and hypermetabolic responses during the acute phase postburn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G; Finnerty, Celeste C; Suman, Oscar E; Kulp, Gabriela; Mlcak, Ronald P; Herndon, David N

    2007-09-01

    Postburn long-term oxandrolone treatment improves hypermetabolism and body composition. The effects of oxandrolone on clinical outcome, body composition, endocrine system, and inflammation during the acute phase postburn in a large prospective randomized single-center trial have not been studied. Burned children (n = 235) with >40% total body surface area burn were randomized (block randomization 4:1) to receive standard burn care (control, n = 190) or standard burn care plus oxandrolone for at least 7 days (oxandrolone 0.1 mg/kg body weight q.12 hours p.o, n = 45). Clinical parameters, body composition, serum hormones, and cytokine expression profiles were measured throughout acute hospitalization. Statistical analysis was performed by Student t test, or ANOVA followed by Bonferroni correction with significance accepted at P < 0.05. Demographics and clinical data were similar in both groups. Length of intensive care unit stay was significantly decreased in oxandrolone-treated patients (0.48 +/- 0.02 days/% burn) compared with controls (0.56 +/- 0.02 days/% burn), (P < 0.05). Control patients lost 8 +/- 1% of their lean body mass (LBM), whereas oxandrolone-treated patients had preserved LBM (+9 +/- 4%), P < 0.05. Oxandrolone significantly increased serum prealbumin, total protein, testosterone, and AST/ALT, whereas it significantly decreased alpha2-macroglobulin and complement C3, P < 0.05. Oxandrolone did not adversely affect the endocrine and inflammatory response as we found no significant differences in the hormone panels and cytokine expression profiles. In this large prospective, double-blinded, randomized single-center study, oxandrolone shortened length of acute hospital stay, maintained LBM, improved body composition and hepatic protein synthesis while having no adverse effects on the endocrine axis postburn, but was associated with an increase in AST and ALT.

  15. Acute-phase responses in healthy and diseased rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Anne K H; Lundsgaard, Jo F H; Bakker, Jaco; Langermans, Jan A M; Verreck, Frank A W; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Jacobsen, Stine; Bertelsen, Mads Frost

    2014-06-01

    Five acute-phase reactants-serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin, albumin, and iron-were measured using commercially available assays in 110 healthy rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and reference intervals were established for future use in health monitoring of this species. Reference intervals established were as follows: SAA, 29.5-87.7 mg/L; CRP, 0-17.5 mg/L; haptoglobin, 354.3-2,414.7 mg/ L; albumin, 36.1-53.0 g/L; and iron, 13.3-40.2 micromol/L. Furthermore, changes in the acute-phase reactants were studied in two additional groups of animals: eight rhesus macaques suffering from acute traumatic injuries and nine rhesus macaques experimentally infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis reflecting a chronic active inflammation. In animals with inflammation, SAA and haptoglobin concentrations were moderately increased, while CRP increased more than 200-fold. In addition, marked decreases in albumin and iron concentrations were observed. These results show that SAA, CRP, and haptoglobin are positive acute-phase proteins, whereas albumin and iron are negative acute-phase reactants in rhesus macaques.

  16. The acute-phase response is not predictive for the development of arthritis in seropositive arthralgia - A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Limper (Maarten); L. van de Stadt (Lotte); W.H. Bos (Wouter); M.D. de Kruif (Martijn); A. van der Spek (Ashley); G.J. Wolbink (Gertjan); D. van Schaardenburg (Dirkjan); E.C.M. van Gorp (Eric)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective. To evaluate whether markers of the acute-phase response in patients presenting with arthralgia and positive anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) and/or immunoglobulin M rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF) could be predictive for the development of arthritis. Methods. In total,

  17. The Acute-phase Response Is Not Predictive for the Development of Arthritis in Seropositive Arthralgia - A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limper, Maarten; van de Stadt, Lotte; Bos, Wouter; de Kruif, Martijn; Spek, Arnold; Wolbink, Gertjan; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; van Gorp, Eric

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether markers of the acute-phase response in patients presenting with arthralgia and positive anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) and/or immunoglobulin M rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF) could be predictive for the development of arthritis. In total, 137 ACPA- and/or IgM-RF-positive

  18. Supplementation of Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product can attenuate the acute phase response following a lipopolysaccharide challenge in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine if feeding a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce stress and acute phase responses (APR) following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n=30; 6.4±0.1 kilograms body weight) were housed individually in pens with ad libi...

  19. Rapid pulmonary expression of acute-phase reactants after local lipopolysaccharide exposure in mice is followed by an interleukin-6 mediated systemic acute-phase response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernooy, Juanita H J; Reynaert, Niki; Wolfs, Tim G A M; Cloots, Roy H E; Haegens, Astrid; de Vries, Bart; Dentener, Mieke A; Buurman, Wim A; Wouters, Emiel M

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated local and systemic innate immune responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung inflammation in mice. Intratracheal LPS exposure resulted in increased pulmonary mRNA expression for acute-phase reactants (APRs) alpha(1)-antitrypsin (alpha(1)-AT), alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP), and LPS-binding protein (LBP) from 4 hours post exposure. Although pulmonary serum amyloid P component (SAP) mRNA was not increased, systemic levels of SAP, AGP, and LBP were elevated from 24 hours post exposure. Systemic APRs increase was associated with hepatic mRNA expression. As in vivo neutralization of interleukin (IL)-6, but not tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, fully ablated hepatic APR mRNA expression, IL-6 may act as signaling molecule between lung and liver. In conclusion, pulmonary LPS exposure induced rapid APR expression in lung, which precedes IL-6-mediated systemic elevation of APRs associated with hepatic APRs expression.

  20. Evaluation of composite measures of treatment response without acute-phase reactants in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jeffrey D; Harrold, Leslie R; Bentley, Mary J; Kremer, Joel; Reed, George; Strand, Vibeke

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate composite measures of response without acute-phase reactants in RA patients. Specifically, Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI)-derived response criteria were compared with the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria, and the modified ACR (mACR) response criteria were compared to the ACR response criteria. Data from 10 108 RA patients enrolled in the Consortium of Rheumatology Researchers of North America registry were examined, including 649 patients initiating DMARD therapy. CDAI cut-off points for disease activity levels and responses were derived using receiver operating characteristic curves with the DAS28 and EULAR response criteria as gold standards. The kappa-statistics were applied to assess agreement between CDAI-derived and EULAR-defined responses, as well as ACR20 and ACR50 with mACR20- and mACR50-defined responses, respectively. For the components of the EULAR response, the derived CDAI cut-off points for DAS28 levels of 3.2 and 5.1 were 7.6 and 19.6, respectively. The derived CDAI cut-off points were 4.3 and 10.0 for DAS28 changes of 0.6 and 1.2, respectively. There were moderate to substantial agreements between CDAI-derived and EULAR responses (kappa = 0.57-0.71). Agreement of ACR20 and ACR50 with mACR20 and mACR50 responses, respectively, was excellent (kappa = 0.88-0.95). Agreement between composite measures of response without acute-phase reactants and standard measures ranged from moderate to excellent. The mACR20 and mACR50 criteria as well as CDAI-derived response criteria, can serve as composite measures of response in clinical practice and research settings without access to acute-phase reactants.

  1. Acute-phase responses in cattle infected with hydatid cysts and microbial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevimli, A; Sevimli, F K; Şeker, E; Ulucan, A; Demirel, H H

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydatid cysts and microbial agents on the acute-phase response in cattle. Twenty-seven cattle with hydatid cysts and eight apparently healthy cattle comprised the study and control groups, respectively. Parasitological, microbiological, histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations of the liver and lungs were undertaken, and 49 of these organs were infected with cysts. In 14 of 31 (45.1%) livers and 10 of 18 (55.5%) lungs microbial growth was observed. The most frequent species occurring in the liver were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium spp. and Campylobacter spp., whereas in the lungs the most common species was Candida spp., followed by Streptococcus spp., Mannheimia haemolytica, Corynebacterium spp., Micrococcus spp. and S. aureus. The concentration of serum interleukin (IL-6) in infected cattle, 455.35 ± 39.68 pg/ml, was significantly higher than that of 83.02 ± 17.87 pg/ml in the control group (P0.05). The highest concentrations of IL-6 were detected in serum of the cattle where microbial growth had been detected, followed by cattle infected with bacteria + Trichostrongylus sp. (P< 0.001). Consequently, SAA showed an important increase in the group infected with hydatid cysts, whereas haptoglobin level decreased. It was noticed that IL-6, like SAA, had a significant role in hydatid cyst infection. Therefore IL-6 and SAA appear to be major markers in the detection of infection of cattle with hydatid cysts.

  2. Effect of smoking on acute phase reactants, stress hormone responses and vitamin C in pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opolot, John O; Theron, Annette J; MacPhail, Patrick; Feldman, Charles; Anderson, Ronald

    2017-06-01

    Chronic inflammation, possibly exacerbated by cigarette smoking, is considered to be the primary cause of pulmonary damage in patients with tuberculosis (TB). However, the mechanisms which underpin these harmful inflammatory responses, have not been well documented. The current study was undertaken to determine possible associations between systemic biomarkers of inflammation (acute phase reactants, stress hormones, leukocyte vitamin C) and smoking status in patients (n=71, 20 smokers) with newly-diagnosed pulmonary TB presenting at a tertiary hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa. Plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine and leukocyte vitamin C were measured using a combination of immunonephelometric, radioimmunoassay, immunochromatographic and spectrophotometric procedures. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data was captured and analysed by parametric and non-parametric analyses where appropriate. Smokers were predominantly males (P<0.0001), of older age (P<0.0003) with a significantly lower body mass index (P<0.03). Plasma levels of CRP, ferritin and dopamine were higher in the group of smokers in the setting of lower levels of epinephrine, and leukocyte vitamin C, with CRP and vitamin C attaining statistical significance (P<0.04 and P<0.02 respectively). Those of cortisol and norepinephrine were comparable to those of non-smokers, as were radiographic changes and clinical indices of disease activity. Cigarette smoking is associated with an exaggerated systemic inflammatory response in pulmonary TB in the setting of decreased concentrations of leukocyte vitamin C. Although no significant associations with radiographic changes and most clinical indices of disease activity were evident on presentation, these pro-inflammatory interactions may have prognostic significance.

  3. Acute-phase proteins: As diagnostic tool

    OpenAIRE

    Sachin Jain; Vidhi Gautam; Sania Naseem

    2011-01-01

    The varied reactions of the host to infection, inflammation, or trauma are collectively known as the acute-phase response and encompass a wide range of pathophysiological responses such as pyrexia, leukocytosis, hormone alterations, and muscle protein depletion combining to minimize tissue damage while enhancing the repair process. The mechanism for stimulation of hepatic production of acute-phase proteins is by proinflammatory cytokines. The functions of positive acute-phase proteins (APP) a...

  4. Markers of acute-phase response in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Martins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Tuberculosis promotes an acute phase response with an increase of blood reactants, such as C-reactive protein (CRP, among others, which are associated with increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR.Objective:Evaluate the ESR and the CRP as markers for diagnosis and monitoring cases of pulmonary tuberculosis.Method:Research on patients with clinical, laboratory, and imaging diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, from Itajaí-SC; in which CRP and ESR were analyzed in three different times: at diagnosis, before starting treatment (T0, after three months of treatment (T1, and at the end of treatment (T2.Results:51 patients were studied at T0 (100%, 43 (84.31% at T1, and 32 (62.74% at T2. ESR and CRP values presented significant differences in the three different times (p < 0.0001***. When analyzing the relationship between negative/positive sputum and altered/normal ESR and CRP at T0, ESR (p = 0.0691, CRP (p = 0.0166*. For chest imaging and sputum smear variables it was observed the following: CRP versus smear (p = 0.0002***, ESR versus smear (p = 0.3810, CRP versus chest imaging (p = 0.0097**, and ESR versus chest imaging (p = 0.0766. The correlation between ESR and CRP was: T0 (p = 0.0033**, T1 (p < 0.0001*** and T2 (p = 0.0015**.Conclusion:ESR and CRP proved to be good markers in the diagnosis and monitoring of tuberculosis cases, however, CRP achieve more significant results than ESR.

  5. Liver genomic responses to ciguatoxin: evidence for activation of phase I and phase II detoxification pathways following an acute hypothermic response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Jeanine S; Ryan, James C; Bottein Dechraoui, Marie-Yasmine; Rezvani, Amir H; Levin, Edward D; Gordon, Christopher J; Ramsdell, John S; Van Dolah, Frances M

    2008-06-01

    Ciguatoxins (CTX) are polyether neurotoxins that target voltage-gated sodium channels and are responsible for ciguatera, the most common fish-borne food poisoning in humans. This study characterizes the global transcriptional response of mouse liver to a symptomatic dose (0.26 ng/g) of the highly potent Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1). At 1 h post-exposure 2.4% of features on a 44K whole genome array were differentially expressed (p or = 1.5 and p < or = 0.0001 in at least one time point) and a trend set of 1550 genes were used for further analysis. Early gene expression was likely influenced prominently by an acute 4 degrees C decline in core body temperature by 1 h, which resolved by 8 h following exposure. An initial downregulation of 32 different solute carriers, many involved in sodium transport, was observed. Differential gene expression in pathways involving eicosanoid biosynthesis and cholesterol homeostasis was also noted. Cytochrome P450s (Cyps) were of particular interest due to their role in xenobiotic metabolism. Twenty-seven genes, mostly members of Cyp2 and Cyp4 families, showed significant changes in expression. Many Cyps underwent an initial downregulation at 1 h but were quickly and strongly upregulated at 4 and 24 h post-exposure. In addition to Cyps, increases in several glutathione S-transferases were observed, an indication that both phase I and phase II metabolic reactions are involved in the hepatic response to CTX in mice.

  6. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response correlates with neutrophil influx linking inhaled particles and cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Thoustrup Saber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiovascular disease. Acute phase response is causally linked to cardiovascular disease. Here, we propose that particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response provides an underlying mechanism for particle-induced cardiovascular risk. METHODS: We analysed the mRNA expression of Serum Amyloid A (Saa3 in lung tissue from female C57BL/6J mice exposed to different particles including nanomaterials (carbon black and titanium dioxide nanoparticles, multi- and single walled carbon nanotubes, diesel exhaust particles and airborne dust collected at a biofuel plant. Mice were exposed to single or multiple doses of particles by inhalation or intratracheal instillation and pulmonary mRNA expression of Saa3 was determined at different time points of up to 4 weeks after exposure. Also hepatic mRNA expression of Saa3, SAA3 protein levels in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid and in plasma and high density lipoprotein levels in plasma were determined in mice exposed to multiwalled carbon nanotubes. RESULTS: Pulmonary exposure to particles strongly increased Saa3 mRNA levels in lung tissue and elevated SAA3 protein levels in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma, whereas hepatic Saa3 levels were much less affected. Pulmonary Saa3 expression correlated with the number of neutrophils in BAL across different dosing regimens, doses and time points. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary acute phase response may constitute a direct link between particle inhalation and risk of cardiovascular disease. We propose that the particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response may predict risk for cardiovascular disease.

  7. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-physicochemical properties predict the systemic acute phase response following pulmonary exposure in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah S Poulsen

    Full Text Available Pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs has been linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease in addition to the well-documented physicochemical-dependent adverse lung effects. A proposed mechanism is through a strong and sustained pulmonary secretion of acute phase proteins to the blood. We identified physicochemical determinants of MWCNT-induced systemic acute phase response by analyzing effects of pulmonary exposure to 14 commercial, well-characterized MWCNTs in female C57BL/6J mice pulmonary exposed to 0, 6, 18 or 54 μg MWCNT/mouse. Plasma levels of acute phase response proteins serum amyloid A1/2 (SAA1/2 and SAA3 were determined on day 1, 28 or 92. Expression levels of hepatic Saa1 and pulmonary Saa3 mRNA levels were assessed to determine the origin of the acute phase response proteins. Pulmonary Saa3 mRNA expression levels were greater and lasted longer than hepatic Saa1 mRNA expression. Plasma SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels were related to time and physicochemical properties using adjusted, multiple regression analyses. SAA3 and SAA1/2 plasma protein levels were increased after exposure to almost all of the MWCNTs on day 1, whereas limited changes were observed on day 28 and 92. SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels did not correlate and only SAA3 protein levels correlated with neutrophil influx. The multiple regression analyses revealed a protective effect of MWCNT length on SAA1/2 protein level on day 1, such that a longer length resulted in lowered SAA1/2 plasma levels. Increased SAA3 protein levels were positively related to dose and content of Mn, Mg and Co on day 1, whereas oxidation and diameter of the MWCNTs were protective on day 28 and 92, respectively. The results of this study reveal very differently controlled pulmonary and hepatic acute phase responses after MWCNT exposure. As the responses were influenced by the physicochemical properties of the MWCNTs, this study provides the first step

  8. Acrolein-induced dyslipidemia and acute-phase response are independent of HMG-CoA reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Daniel J; Prough, Russell A; Juvan, Peter; Rezen, Tadeja; Rozman, Damjana; Haberzettl, Petra; Srivastava, Sanjay; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2011-09-01

    Aldehydes are ubiquitous natural constituents of foods, water and beverages. Dietary intake represents the greatest source of exposure to acrolein and related aldehydes. Oral acrolein induces dyslipidemia acutely and chronically increases atherosclerosis in mice, yet the mechanisms are unknown. Because lipid synthesis and trafficking are largely under hepatic control, we examined hepatic genes in murine models of acute and chronic oral acrolein exposure. Changes in hepatic gene expression were examined using a Steroltalk microarray. Acute acrolein feeding modified plasma and hepatic proteins and increased plasma triglycerides within 15  min. By 6  h, acrolein altered hepatic gene expression including Insig1, Insig2 and Hmgcr genes and stimulated an acute-phase response (APR) with up-regulation of serum amyloid A genes (Saa) and systemic hypoalbuminemia. To test if decreased HMG-CoA reductase activity could modify acrolein-induced dyslipidemia or the APR, mice were pretreated with simvastatin. Statin treatment, however, did not alter acrolein-induced dyslipidemia or hypoalbuminemia associated with an APR. Few hepatic genes were dysregulated by chronic acrolein feeding in apoE-null mice. These studies confirmed that acute acrolein exposure altered expression of hepatic genes involved with lipid synthesis and trafficking and APR, and thus, indicated a hepatic locus of acrolein-induced dyslipidemia and APR that was independent of HMG CoA-reductase. Dietary intake of acrolein could contribute to cardiovascular disease risk by disturbing hepatic function. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Characterization of the contributions of Hp-MMP 9 to the serum acute phase protein response of lipopolysaccharide challenged calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Charles A; Niehaus, Andrew J; Premanandan, Christopher; Rajala-Schultz, Paivi J; Rings, Donald M; Lakritz, Jeffrey

    2014-10-30

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a costly feature of modern cattle production. Early and accurate detection of BRD may prove useful in the successful management of this disease. The primary objective of the study was to define the time course of covalent complexes of neutrophil, haptoglobin (Hp) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (Hp-MMP 9) in serum after intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in comparison to traditional markers. Our hypothesis was that serum concentrations of neutrophil Hp-MMP 9 provides information distinct from traditional acute phase protein markers. To characterize the neutrophil responses to lipopolysaccharide (E. coli; O111:B4; 2.5 μg/kg body weight), nine healthy, Jersey calves (65-82 days of age; 74.5 ± 13.1 kg) were challenged and physiologic parameters, peripheral blood cell counts and serum cortisol (C), Hp-MMP 9, Hp, alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), serum amyloid A (SAA) were obtained starting 24 hours before to 96 hours post-LPS challenge. Physiologic parameters (temperature, pulse, respiratory rate) and attitude assessed at each time point indicated that LPS challenge resulted in rapid onset of depression, tachypnea, leukopenia, neutropenia and lymphopenia within 1 hour. Serum C concentrations were significantly increased by 1 hour post-LPS. Serum Hp-MMP 9 complexes were detectable in serum by 0.5 hours and peaked at 16 h, serum total Hp remained Hp, SAA and AGP remained significantly greater than baseline out to 96 hours post-LPS. The total systemic exposure to traditional makers is significantly greater than from Hp-MMP 9 CONCLUSION: Using a well described model for acute phase protein responses, the data demonstrate that serum neutrophil Hp-MMP 9 complexes appear sooner and decline more rapidly than other acute phase proteins (APP). Since Hp-MMP9 is stored pre-formed, it provides information specifically addressing the LPS-induced activation of bovine neutrophils. Contributions of Hp-MMP 9 to the serum acute phase protein response

  10. Acute-Phase Inflammatory Response to Single-Bout HIIT and Endurance Training: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Felix; Jelinek, Herbert F; Perkins, Steven; Al-Aubaidy, Hayder A; deJong, Bev; Butkowski, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    This study compared acute and late effect of single-bout endurance training (ET) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the plasma levels of four inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein and insulin-like growth factor 1. Cohort study with repeated-measures design. Seven healthy untrained volunteers completed a single bout of ET and HIIT on a cycle ergometer. ET and HIIT sessions were held in random order and at least 7 days apart. Blood was drawn before the interventions and 30 min and 2 days after the training sessions. Plasma samples were analyzed with ELISA for the interleukins (IL), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Statistical analysis was with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. ET led to both a significant acute and long-term inflammatory response with a significant decrease at 30 minutes after exercise in the IL-6/IL-10 ratio (-20%; p = 0.047) and a decrease of MCP-1 (-17.9%; p = 0.03). This study demonstrates that ET affects the inflammatory response more adversely at 30 minutes after exercise compared to HIIT. However, this is compensated by a significant decrease in MCP-1 at two days associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis.

  11. Elevation of intact and proteolytic fragments of acute phase proteins constitutes the earliest systemic antiviral response in HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger B Kramer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The earliest immune responses activated in acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection (AHI exert a critical influence on subsequent virus spread or containment. During this time frame, components of the innate immune system such as macrophages and DCs, NK cells, beta-defensins, complement and other anti-microbial factors, which have all been implicated in modulating HIV infection, may play particularly important roles. A proteomics-based screen was performed on a cohort from whom samples were available at time points prior to the earliest positive HIV detection. The ability of selected factors found to be elevated in the plasma during AHI to inhibit HIV-1 replication was analyzed using in vitro PBMC and DC infection models. Analysis of unique plasma donor panels spanning the eclipse and viral expansion phases revealed very early alterations in plasma proteins in AHI. Induction of acute phase protein serum amyloid A (A-SAA occurred as early as 5-7 days prior to the first detection of plasma viral RNA, considerably prior to any elevation in systemic cytokine levels. Furthermore, a proteolytic fragment of alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT, termed virus inhibitory peptide (VIRIP, was observed in plasma coincident with viremia. Both A-SAA and VIRIP have anti-viral activity in vitro and quantitation of their plasma levels indicated that circulating concentrations are likely to be within the range of their inhibitory activity. Our results provide evidence for a first wave of host anti-viral defense occurring in the eclipse phase of AHI prior to systemic activation of other immune responses. Insights gained into the mechanism of action of acute-phase reactants and other innate molecules against HIV and how they are induced could be exploited for the future development of more efficient prophylactic vaccine strategies.

  12. Predictive role of acute phase reactants in the response to therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Ayten; Atay, Ahmet Engin; Tas, Adnan; Seven, Gulseren; Koruk, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical parameters and acute-phase proteins (APPs) may provide complementary data in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). We aimed to evaluate the predictive role of APPs in the response to antiviral therapy. Forty-five patients underwent antiviral therapy. Serum ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP), transferrin, albumin, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (A1AG), and alpha-2 macroglobulin (A2MG) levels were examined at the initial evaluation and at the 4th, 12th, and 48th weeks. HCV RNA levels were examined at the initial evaluation and at the 12th and 48th weeks. Ferritin, transferrin, A1AG, and A2MG levels were significantly higher in the patient group (pacute-phase reactants may provide supplementary data for evaluating responses to antiviral therapy.

  13. Modulation of the acute phase response following a lipopolysaccharide challenge in pigs supplemented with an all-natural saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine if feeding a Saccharamyces cerevisiae fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce the stress and acute phase responses (APR) following an acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n = 20; 6.4 ± 0.2 kg BW) were obtained and transported to an environment...

  14. Acute Phase Reactants as Novel Predictors of Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, M. S.; Jadhav, A. B.; Hassan, A.; Meng, Qing H.

    2012-01-01

    Acute phase reaction is a systemic response which usually follows a physiological condition that takes place in the beginning of an inflammatory process. This physiological change usually lasts 1-2 days. However, the systemic acute phase response usually lasts longer. The aim of this systemic response is to restore homeostasis. These events are accompanied by upregulation of some proteins (positive acute phase reactants) and downregulation of others (negative acute phase reactants) during inf...

  15. Postpartum Circulating Markers of Inflammation and the Systemic Acute-Phase Response After Early-Onset Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Bas B; Bruinse, Hein W; Veerbeek, Jan H; Post Uiterweer, Emiel D; Koenen, Steven V; van der Bom, Johanna G; Rijkers, Ger T; Roest, Mark; Franx, Arie

    2016-02-01

    Preeclampsia is an inflammatory-mediated hypertensive disorder of pregnancy and seems to be an early indicator of increased cardiovascular risk, but mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. In this study, we identified levels of circulating inflammatory markers and dynamic changes in the systemic acute-phase response in 44 women with a history of severe early-onset preeclampsia, compared with 29 controls with only uneventful pregnancies at 1.5 to 3.5 years postpartum. Models used were in vivo seasonal influenza vaccination and in vitro whole-blood culture with T-cell stimulants and the toll-like receptor-4 ligand lipopolysaccharide. Outcome measures were C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-18, fibrinogen, myeloperoxidase, and a panel of 13 cytokines representative of the innate and adaptive inflammatory response, in addition to established cardiovascular markers. The in vivo acute-phase response was higher for women with previous preeclampsia than that for controls without such a history, although only significant for C-reactive protein (P=0.04). Preeclampsia was associated with higher IL-1β (Ppreeclampsia: an adaptive response cluster associated with increased C-reactive protein and IL-6 before and after vaccination, increased weight, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and a toll-like receptor-4 mediated the cluster associated with increased IL-18 before and after vaccination but not associated with other cardiovascular markers. Furthermore, we found interactions between previous preeclampsia, common TLR4 gene variants, and the IL-18 response to vaccination. In conclusion, preeclampsia is associated with alterations in the inflammatory response postpartum mostly independent of other established cardiovascular risk markers. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Editorial: dose-dependent ZnO particle-induced acute phase response in humans warrants re-evaluation of occupational exposure limits for metal oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Cassee, Flemming R.

    2018-01-01

    expression of ca. 50 different acute phase proteins including C-reactive protein and Serum amyloid A, which are the most differentially up-regulated acute phase response proteins. Blood levels of these two acute phase proteins are closely associated with risk of cardiovascular disease in epidemiological...... studies and SAA has been causally related to the formation of plaques in the aorta in animal studies.In a recent paper in Particle and Fibre Toxicology, Christian Monse et al. provide evidence that inhalation of ZnO nanoparticles induces dose-dependent acute phase response in humans at dose levels well...... below the current mass-based occupational exposure limits in a number of countries including Germany, The Netherlands, UK, Sweden, Denmark and the US.Given the evidence suggesting a causal relationship between increased levels of serum amyloid A and atherosclerosis, the current results call for a re...

  17. Value of acute-phase reactants in monitoring disease activity and treatment response in idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelkmans, Lindsey G; Aarnoudse, Albert-Jan L H; Hendriksz, Tadek R; van Bommel, Eric F H

    2012-07-01

    Prospective evaluation of the value of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in monitoring disease activity and treatment response in patients with idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF). This study included 57 patients with idiopathic RPF receiving tamoxifen monotherapy with at least 8 months follow-up. Clinical, laboratory and radiological investigation was performed at presentation and at repeated follow-up. Remission was defined as significant clinical improvement within 6 weeks of treatment together with stable or decreasing mass size on follow-up computed tomography (CT) scanning at 4 months and definitive decrease in mass size on follow-up CT scanning at 8 months. ESR and CRP levels at presentation and their respective decreases over time correlated strongly with each other (Pacute-phase reactant levels are more symptomatic. Neither acute-phase reactant levels or their initial changes can be taken as a major predictor for treatment success.

  18. Rebound inflammatory response during the acute phase of myocardial infarction after simvastatin withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposito, Andrei C; Carvalho, Luiz Sergio F; Cintra, Riobaldo M R; Araújo, Ana Laura R; Ono, Andre H; Andrade, Joalbo M; Coelho, Otavio Rizzi; Quinaglia e Silva, Jose C

    2009-11-01

    The present study aimed to verify the existence of a rebound inflammatory effect after statin withdrawal in the acute phase of myocardial infarction (MI). In a prospective observational cohort, changes in C-reactive protein (CRP) between the first and the fifth day after MI were evaluated in 249 consecutive patients who were using statins prior to and during MI (SS), statins prior to but not during MI (SN), no statin prior to but during MI (NS), and no statin prior to nor during MI (NN). Data are presented as median (interquartile range). At baseline, statin users presented a trend to lower CRP values as compared with those without this treatment before the MI (NN: 1.0(0.4-1.5)mg/dL vs. NS: 1.0(0.3-2.8)mg/dL vs. SS: 0.5(0.3-1.0)mg/dL vs. SN: 0.6(0.4-1.0)mg/dL; p=0.08). By the fifth day, median CRP was significantly higher in the SN (18.1(16.1-23.2)mg/dL) group as compared with other groups (NN: 10.5(9.3-13.2)mg/dL vs. NS: 2.9(1.5-4.5)mg/dL vs. SS: 1.1(0.8-2.4)mg/dL; p<0.0001). At the fifth day, the median CRP in the NN group was lower than in the SN group (p<0.0001), but higher than the NS and SS groups (p<0.0001). There was no significant correlation between CRP change and the change of LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol or triglycerides. The present study has, for the first time, provided evidence for the existence of a rebound inflammatory effect after statin cessation. This rebound reaction may contribute for the adverse outcome of patients who stop statin treatment during MI.

  19. Acute-phase proteins: As diagnostic tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The varied reactions of the host to infection, inflammation, or trauma are collectively known as the acute-phase response and encompass a wide range of pathophysiological responses such as pyrexia, leukocytosis, hormone alterations, and muscle protein depletion combining to minimize tissue damage while enhancing the repair process. The mechanism for stimulation of hepatic production of acute-phase proteins is by proinflammatory cytokines. The functions of positive acute-phase proteins (APP are regarded as important in optimization and trapping of microorganism and their products, in activating the complement system, in binding cellular remnants like nuclear fractions, in neutralizing enzymes, scavenging free hemoglobin and radicals, and in modulating the host′s immune response. APP can be used as diagnostic tool in many diseases like bovine respiratory syncytial virus, prostate cancer, bronchopneumonia, multiple myeloma, mastitis, Streptococcus suis infection, starvation, or lymphatic neoplasia. Thus, acute-phase proteins may provide an alternative means of monitoring animal health.

  20. Circulating endothelial cell-derived extracellular vesicles mediate the acute phase response and sickness behaviour associated with CNS inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Yvonne; Akbar, Naveed; Roodselaar, Jay; Evans, Matthew C; Gardiner, Chris; Sargent, Ian; Romero, Ignacio A; Bristow, Adrian; Buchan, Alastair M; Haughey, Norman; Anthony, Daniel C

    2017-08-29

    Brain injury elicits a systemic acute-phase response (APR), which is responsible for co-ordinating the peripheral immunological response to injury. To date, the mechanisms responsible for signalling the presence of injury or disease to selectively activate responses in distant organs were unclear. Circulating endogenous extracellular vesicles (EVs) are increased after brain injury and have the potential to carry targeted injury signals around the body. Here, we examined the potential of EVs, isolated from rats after focal inflammatory brain lesions using IL-1β, to activate a systemic APR in recipient naïve rats, as well as the behavioural consequences of EV transfer. Focal brain lesions increased EV release, and, following isolation and transfer, the EVs were sequestered by the liver where they initiated an APR. Transfer of blood-borne EVs from brain-injured animals was also enough to suppress exploratory behaviours in recipient naïve animals. EVs derived from brain endothelial cell cultures treated with IL-1β also activated an APR and altered behaviour in recipient animals. These experiments reveal that inflammation-induced circulating EVs derived from endothelial cells are able to initiate the APR to brain injury and are sufficient to generate the associated sickness behaviours, and are the first demonstration that EVs are capable of modifying behavioural responses.

  1. Immunomodulatory properties of gamithromycin and ketoprofen in lipopolysaccharide-challenged calves with emphasis on the acute-phase response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessers, Elke; Wyns, Heidi; Watteyn, Anneleen; Pardon, Bart; De Baere, Siegrid; Sys, Stanislas U; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2016-03-01

    Macrolide antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been reported to be modulators of the innate immune response, irrespectively of their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory actions. Therefore, it was our objective to evaluate whether the macrolide gamithromycin (GAM) and the NSAID ketoprofen (KETO) attenuate the acute-phase response in calves, and whether their combined administration is beneficial due to synergistic and/or additive effects. To this end, both drugs, as well as their combination, were studied in a previously developed inflammation model, i.e., the induction of an acute-phase response by an intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge (0.5 μg/kg body weight). Sixteen 4-week-old Holstein-Friesian calves were randomized into 4 groups: a positive control (+CONTR) group, receiving LPS but no pharmacological treatment (n=4) and a GAM (n=4), a KETO (n=4) and a GAM-KETO (n=4) group, receiving the respective drugs 1h prior to LPS administration. Clinical scoring and blood collection were performed at regular time points until 72 h post LPS challenge. Plasma concentrations of the selected cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)), acute-phase protein (serum amyloid A (SAA)) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were subsequently quantified. Pre-treatment with GAM had no effect in the inflammation model compared to the +CONTR group. KETO, on the other hand, completely inhibited depression, anorexia and fever. This remarkable influence was associated with a significant reduction of PGE2 synthesis by KETO, while the effect on TNF-α, IL-6 and SAA was not straightforward. The combined administration of GAM and KETO provided no synergistic or additive effects in this model, neither clinically nor regarding the studied inflammatory mediators. In conclusion, KETO entirely inhibited PGE2 synthesis, fever development and depression, while GAM did not exert any effect in this model. These results promote the concomitant

  2. Peripheral Inflammatory Markers and Antioxidant Response during the post-acute and chronic phase after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Licastro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a mechanical insult to the brain caused by external forces and associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. The patients may show different profiles of neurological recovery and a combination of oxidative damage and inflammatory processes can affect their courses. It is known that an over-expression of cytokines can be seen in peripheral blood in the early hours/days after the injury, but little is known about the weeks and months encompassing the post-acute and chronic phases. In addition, no information is available about the antioxidant responses mediated by the major enzymes that regulate ROS levels: superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, peroxidases, and GSH related enzymes. This study investigates the 6-month trends of inflammatory markers and antioxidant responses in 22 severe TBI patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness, consecutively recruited in a dedicated neuro-rehabilitation facility. Patients with a high degree of neurological impairment often show an uncertain outcome. In addition, the profiles of plasma activities were related to the neurological recovery after 12 months.Venous peripheral blood samples were taken blindly as soon as clinical signs and laboratory markers confirmed the absence of infections, 3 and 6 months later. The clinical and neuropsychological assessment continued up to 12 months. Nineteen patients completed the follow up. In the chronic phase, persistent high plasma levels of cytokines can interfere with cognitive functioning and higher post-acute levels of cytokines (IFN-g, TNF-a, IL1b, IL6 are associated with poorer cognitive recoveries 12 months later. Moreover, higher IFN- γ, higher TNF-α and lower glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity are associated with greater disability.The results add evidence of persistent inflammatory response, provide information about long-term imbalance of antioxidant activity and suggest that the over-production of cytokines and

  3. The oxylipin and endocannabidome responses in acute phase Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surowiec, Izabella; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Orikiiriza, Judy; Lindquist, Elisabeth; Bonde, Mari; Magambo, Jimmy; Muhinda, Charles; Bergström, Sven; Normark, Johan; Trygg, Johan

    2017-09-08

    Oxylipins and endocannabinoids are low molecular weight bioactive lipids that are crucial for initiation and resolution of inflammation during microbial infections. Metabolic complications in malaria are recognized contributors to severe and fatal malaria, but the impact of malaria infection on the production of small lipid derived signalling molecules is unknown. Knowledge of immunoregulatory patterns of these molecules in malaria is of great value for better understanding of the disease and improvement of treatment regimes, since the action of these classes of molecules is directly connected to the inflammatory response of the organism. Detection of oxylipins and endocannabinoids from plasma samples from forty children with uncomplicated and severe malaria as well as twenty controls was done after solid phase extraction followed by chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. The stable isotope dilution method was used for compound quantification. Data analysis was done with multivariate (principal component analysis (PCA), orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA ® ) and univariate approaches (receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, t tests, correlation analysis). Forty different oxylipin and thirteen endocannabinoid metabolites were detected in the studied samples, with one oxylipin (thromboxane B2, TXB 2 ) in significantly lower levels and four endocannabinoids (OEA, PEA, DEA and EPEA) at significantly higher levels in infected individuals as compared to controls according to t test analysis with Bonferroni correction. Three oxylipins (13-HODE, 9-HODE and 13-oxo-ODE) were higher in severe compared to uncomplicated malaria cases according to the results from multivariate analysis. Observed changes in oxylipin levels can be connected to activation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) metabolic pathways in malaria infected individuals compared to controls, and related to increased levels of all linoleic acid oxylipins

  4. Effect of different antimicrobial treatments on serum acute phase responses and leukocyte counts in pigs after a primary and a secondary challenge infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjölund, M; Fossum, C; Martin de la Fuente, AJM

    2011-01-01

    counts were monitored in detail after both inoculations. Leucocytosis and acute phase responses in the forms of serum amyloid A, pig-major acute phase protein and haptoglobin were recorded in all of the inoculated groups after the onset of clinical signs following the first inoculation. A porcine mannan......-binding lectin-A response was less evident in the pigs. Acute phase responses resembling those of the first inoculation were observed in the pigs that had not previously been inoculated and in the pigs treated with enrofloxacin. Acute phase responses were not recorded in the other three groups, where the pigs...

  5. Acute phase protein response during subclinical infection of pigs with H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2012-10-12

    In the present study acute phase proteins (APPs) responses in pigs after subclinical infection with H1N1 swine influenza virus (SwH1N1) were evaluated. Fourteen 5 weeks old, seronegative piglets, both sexes were used. Ten of them were infected intranasally with SwH1N1. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and pig major acute phase protein (Pig-MAP) concentrations in serum were measured using commercial ELISAs. No significant clinical signs were observed in any of the infected pigs, however, all infected animals developed specific antibodies against SwH1N1 and viral shedding was observed from 2 to 5 dpi. Only concentrations of Hp and SAA were significantly induced after infection, with mean maximum levels from days 1 to 2 post infection (dpi). The concentrations of CRP and Pig-MAP remained generally unchanged, however in half of infected pigs the concentration of CRP tended to increase at 1 dpi (but without statistical significance). The results of our study confirmed that monitoring of APPs may be useful for detection of subclinically infected pigs. The use of SAA or Hp and Pig-MAP may be a valuable in combination [i.e. Hp (increased concentration) and Pig-MAP (unchanged concentration)] to detect subclinically SIV infected pigs, or to identify pigs actually producing a large amount of virus. Additional studies need to be done in order to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Protein-energy malnutrition induces an aberrant acute-phase response and modifies the circadian rhythm of core temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shari E; Ramos, Rafaela Andrade; Refinetti, Roberto; Farthing, Jonathan P; Paterson, Phyllis G

    2013-08-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), present in 12%-19% of stroke patients upon hospital admission, appears to be a detrimental comorbidity factor that impairs functional outcome, but the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Because ischemic brain injury is highly temperature-sensitive, the objectives of this study were to investigate whether PEM causes sustained changes in temperature that are associated with an inflammatory response. Activity levels were recorded as a possible explanation for the immediate elevation in temperature upon introduction to a low protein diet. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats (7 weeks old) were fed a control diet (18% protein) or a low protein diet (PEM, 2% protein) for either 7 or 28 days. Continuous core temperature recordings from bioelectrical sensor transmitters demonstrated a rapid increase in temperature amplitude, sustained over 28 days, in response to a low protein diet. Daily mean temperature rose transiently by day 2 (p = 0.01), falling to normal by day 4 (p = 0.08), after which mean temperature continually declined as malnutrition progressed. There were no alterations in activity mean (p = 0.3) or amplitude (p = 0.2) that were associated with the early rise in mean temperature. Increased serum alpha-2-macroglobulin (p protein diet had no effect on the signaling pathway of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor, NFκB, in the hippocampus. In conclusion, PEM induces an aberrant and sustained acute-phase response coupled with long-lasting effects on body temperature.

  7. Differences in inflammation and acute phase response but similar genotoxicity in mice following pulmonary exposure to graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtson, Stefan; Knudsen, Kristina Bram; Kyjovska, Zdenka O.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated toxicity of 2-3 layered >1 μm sized graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in mice following single intratracheal exposure with respect to pulmonary inflammation, acute phase response (biomarker for risk of cardiovascular disease) and genotoxicity. In addition, we as...

  8. Administration of LPS three times during gestation alters the postnatal acute phase and metabolic responses to an LPS challenge in weaned beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated whether three administrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) during gestation would alter the acute phase (APR) and metabolic responses to a postnatal LPS challenge in weaned heifers. Pregnant crossbred cows (n=50) were randomized into prenatal immune stimulation (PIS; n=24; admini...

  9. Chromium supplementation enhances the acute phase response of steers to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study examined the effect of chromium supplementation on the response of steers to an LPS challenge. Twenty crossbred steers (235±4 kg BW) received 0 ppb (Control; C) or 200 ppb chromium propionate (CHR) for 55 days. Steers were fitted with jugular catheters and rectal temperature (RT) recording...

  10. Enhancement of the acute phase response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in steers supplemented with chromium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study examined the effect of chromium supplementation on the response of steers to an LPS challenge. Twenty steers received a premix that added 0 (control) or 0.2 mg/kg of chromium (KemTRACE®brandChromiumProprionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) to the total diet on a dry matter basis for 55 d. Steer...

  11. Do acute-phase reactants predict response to glucocorticoid therapy in retroperitoneal fibrosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrey, Marina N; Husni, M Elaine; Kushner, Irving; Calabrese, Leonard H

    2009-05-15

    To determine the value of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and the C-reactive protein (CRP) level at the time of diagnosis for predicting radiographic response to glucocorticoid therapy in patients with retroperitoneal fibrosis (RFP). Data were collected retrospectively for 37 patients with an established diagnosis of RFP (the diagnosis was proven by biopsy in 31 patients), all of whom met the following inclusion criteria: 1) availability of a recorded baseline ESR and/or CRP level and results of computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, 2) availability of followup CRP level and/or ESR with radiographic imaging 12-24 weeks after initiation of therapy, and 3) treatment with prednisone monotherapy at a starting dosage of 40-60 mg daily. Patients were divided into 2 therapeutic response groups: group 1 showed radiographic regression, and group 2 showed no change or radiographic progression. Any progression or regression was determined by an estimated change of > or =25%. The median baseline CRP levels were 2.2 mg/dl (interquartile range [IQR] 1.4-8.0) in group 1 and 1.2 mg/dl (IQR 0.8-4.1) in group 2 (P = 0.35). The median baseline ESR in group 1 was 57.5 mm/hour (IQR 39.2-102.5), which was not statistically different from the median ESR in group 2 (58 mm/hour [IQR 33-66]). The mean CRP level and ESR tended to be higher in patients with radiographic regression, but these differences failed to reach statistical significance. Spearman's correlation coefficient revealed no correlation between the baseline CRP level (r = -0.11, P = 0.51) or ESR (r = -0.06, P = 0.71) and the radiographic response. The ESR and CRP level at baseline are poor predictors of a therapeutic response to glucocorticoid therapy in patients with RPF.

  12. The bovine acute phase response to endotoxin and Gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine

    -induced anorexia and ruminal hypomotility may be detrimental for lactating dairy cows, since these cows are highly dependent on continuous feed intake to avoid severe metabolic disturbances. Furthermore, depression of the cytokine-producing capacity of circulating PBMCs may result in aberrant innate immune...... not undermine this concept as such, but given the significant individual variation in APP response, caution is certainly warranted when absolute concentrations of SAA and haptoglobin are used to interpret disease status in individual cows. In the experimental mastitis model, SAA concentrations in plasma...

  13. Application of acute phase protein measurements in veterinary clinical chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Henning; Nielsen, J. P.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2004-01-01

    The body's early defence in response to trauma, inflammation or infection, the acute phase response, is a complex set of systemic reactions seen shortly after exposure to a triggering event. One of the many components is an acute phase protein response in which increased hepatic synthesis leads t...

  14. The bovine acute phase response to endotoxin and Gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine

    exposure to LPS were employed: 1) intravenous bolus injection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) LPS inducing systemic inflammation (Papers I-III and Reports I and II), and 2) intramammary inoculation with E. coli inducing infection and local inflammation in the mammary gland (Paper IV). Systemic inflammation...... it appeared in the systemic circulation suggests that extrahepatic synthesis of SAA takes place in the inflamed udder. SAA levels in plasma and milk were very low prior to inoculation, increased rapidly and exponentially after inoculation, and returned quickly to the baseline after the infection was cleared...... aimed at containing infections, eliminating bacteria and restoring homeostasis. However, during infections or disease complexes in which LPS and/or Gram-negative bacteria persist, disease and pathological changes may result from the prolonged inflammatory response. For example, protracted LPS...

  15. Distending Pressure Did Not Activate Acute Phase or Inflammatory Responses in the Airways and Lungs of Fetal, Preterm Lambs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Y Petersen

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation at birth causes airway injury and lung inflammation in preterm sheep. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP is being increasingly used clinically to transition preterm infants at birth.To test if distending pressures will activate acute phase reactants and inflammatory changes in the airways of fetal, preterm lambs.The head and chest of fetal lambs at 128±1 day GA were surgically exteriorized. With placental circulation intact, fetal lambs were then randomized to one of five 15 minute interventions: PEEP of 0, 4, 8, 12, or 16 cmH2O. Recruitment volumes were recorded. Fetal lambs remained on placental support for 30 min after the intervention. The twins of each 0 cmH2O animal served as controls. Fetal lung fluid (FLF, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL, right mainstem bronchi and peripheral lung tissue were evaluated for inflammation.Recruitment volume increased from 0.4±0.04 mL/kg at 4 cmH2O to 2.4±0.3 mL/kg at 16 cmH2O. The lambs were surfactant deficient, and all pressures were below the opening inflection pressure on pressure-volume curve. mRNA expression of early response genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines did not increase in airway tissue or lung tissue at any pressure compared to controls. FLF and BAL also did not have increases in early response proteins. No histologic changes or Egr-1 activation was present at the pressures used.Distending pressures as high as 16 cmH2O did not recruit lung volume at birth and did not increase markers of injury in the lung or airways in non-breathing preterm fetal sheep.

  16. Similarities in acute phase protein response during hibernation in black bears and major depression in humans: A response to underlying metabolic depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouris, J.A.; Chauhan, V.P.S.; Sheikh, A.M.; Chauhan, A.; Malik, M.; Vaughan, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hibernation with mild hypothermia and the stress of captivity on levels of six acute-phase proteins (APPs) in serial samples of serum from 11 wild and 6 captive black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) during active and hibernating states. We hypothesize that during hibernation with mild hypothermia, bears would show an APP response similar to that observed in major depression. Enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay was used to measure alpha2-macroglobulin and C-reactive protein, and a nephelometer to measure alpha1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, and transferrin. Levels of all other proteins except ceruloplasmin were significantly elevated during hibernation in both wild and captive bears at the p bears in both active and hibernating states at the p hibernation with mild hypothermia, black bears do not show immunosuppression, but show an increased APP response similar to that in patients with major depression. This APP response is explained as an adaptive response to the underlying metabolic depression in both conditions. Metabolic depression in hibernating bears is suggested as a natural model for research to explain the neurobiology of depression.

  17. Acute energy deprivation in man: effect on serum immunoglobulins antibody response, complement factors 3 and 4, acute phase reactants and interferon-producing capacity of blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmblad, J; Cantell, K; Holm, G; Norberg, R; Strander, H; Sunblad, L

    1977-01-01

    The effects of 10 days of total energy deprivation on serum levels of immunoglobulins, antibodies acute phase reactants and on interferon production were evaluated in fourteen healthy, normal-weight males. A significant depression was noted of the serum levels of complement factor 3, haptoglobin and orosomucoid. The titres of mercaptoethanol-sensitive specific antibodies to flagellin were higher in the subjects inoculated at the end of the starvation period than in controls and those inoculated at the start of the period. The serum levels of IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, alpha-1-antitrypsin and complement factor 4, and the interferon-producing capacity of blood lymphocytes, were not changed. Thus, 10 days of total energy deprivation depresses the serum levels of several acute phase reactants and re-feeding may enhance antibody production. PMID:606438

  18. Protein-energy malnutrition developing after global brain ischemia induces an atypical acute-phase response and hinders expression of GAP-43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shari E; Figley, Sarah A; Schreyer, David J; Paterson, Phyllis G

    2014-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a common post-stroke problem. PEM can independently induce a systemic acute-phase response, and pre-existing malnutrition can exacerbate neuroinflammation induced by brain ischemia. In contrast, the effects of PEM developing in the post-ischemic period have not been studied. Since excessive inflammation can impede brain remodeling, we investigated the effects of post-ischemic malnutrition on neuroinflammation, the acute-phase reaction, and neuroplasticity-related proteins. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to global forebrain ischemia using the 2-vessel occlusion model or sham surgery. The sham rats were assigned to control diet (18% protein) on day 3 after surgery, whereas the rats exposed to global ischemia were assigned to either control diet or a low protein (PEM, 2% protein) diet. Post-ischemic PEM decreased growth associated protein-43, synaptophysin and synaptosomal-associated protein-25 immunofluorescence within the hippocampal CA3 mossy fiber terminals on day 21, whereas the glial response in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subregions was unaltered by PEM. No systemic acute-phase reaction attributable to global ischemia was detected in control diet-fed rats, as reflected by serum concentrations of alpha-2-macroglobulin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin, and albumin. Acute exposure to the PEM regimen after global brain ischemia caused an atypical acute-phase response. PEM decreased the serum concentrations of albumin and haptoglobin on day 5, with the decreases sustained to day 21. Serum alpha-2-macroglobulin concentrations were significantly higher in malnourished rats on day 21. This provides the first direct evidence that PEM developing after brain ischemia exerts wide-ranging effects on mechanisms important to stroke recovery.

  19. Metabolic Cost of the Activation of Immune Response in the Fish-Eating Myotis (Myotis vivesi: The Effects of Inflammation and the Acute Phase Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aída Otálora-Ardila

    Full Text Available Inflammation and activation of the acute phase response (APR are energetically demanding processes that protect against pathogens. Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA and lipopolysaccharide (LPS are antigens commonly used to stimulate inflammation and the APR, respectively. We tested the hypothesis that the APR after an LPS challenge was energetically more costly than the inflammatory response after a PHA challenge in the fish-eating Myotis bat (Myotis vivesi. We measured resting metabolic rate (RMR after bats were administered PHA and LPS. We also measured skin temperature (Tskin after the LPS challenge and skin swelling after the PHA challenge. Injection of PHA elicited swelling that lasted for several days but changes in RMR and body mass were not significant. LPS injection produced a significant increase in Tskin and in RMR, and significant body mass loss. RMR after LPS injection increased by 140-185% and the total cost of the response was 6.50 kJ. Inflammation was an energetically low-cost process but the APR entailed a significant energetic investment. Examination of APR in other bats suggests that the way in which bats deal with infections might not be uniform.

  20. A PAF receptor antagonist inhibits acute airway inflammation and late-phase responses but not chronic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in a primate model of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Gundel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We have examined the effects of a PAF receptor antagonist, WEB 2170, on several indices of acute and chronic airway inflammation and associated changes in lung function in a primate model of allergic asthma. A single oral administration WEB 2170 provided dose related inhibition of the release of leukotriene C4 (LTC4 and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2 recovered and quantified in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid obtained during the acute phase response to inhaled antigen. In addition, oral WEB 2170 treatment in dual responder primates blocked the acute influx of neutrophils into the airways as well as the associated late-phase airway obstruction occurring 6 h after antigen inhalation. In contrast, a multiple dosing regime with WEB 2170 (once a day for 7 consecutive days failed to reduce the chronic airway inflammation (eosinophilic and associated airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine that is characteristic of dual responder monkeys. Thus, we conclude that the generation of PAF following antigen inhalation contributes to the development of lipid mediators, acute airway inflammation and associated late-phase airway obstruction in dual responder primates; however, PAF does not play a significant role in the maintenance of chronic airway inflammation and associated airway hyperresponsiveness in this primate model.

  1. Sin nombre virus (SNV) Ig isotype antibody response during acute and convalescent phases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostik, P; Winter, J; Ksiazek, T G; Rollin, P E; Villinger, F; Zaki, S R; Peters, C J; Ansari, A A

    2000-01-01

    Serum samples from 22 hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) patients were tested for Sin Nombre virus (SNV)-reactive antibodies. In the acute phase of HPS, 100% and 67% of the samples tested positive for SNV-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgA, respectively. Among the virus-specific IgG antibodies, the most prevalent were IgG3 (in 97% of samples), followed by IgG1 (70%), IgG2 (30%), and IgG4 (3%).

  2. Serum acute phase response induced by different vaccination protocols against circovirus type 2 and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Caravaca, Iván; Gourgues, Sebastian Figueras; Rodríguez, Víctor; Estrada, Edgar Díaz; Cerón, José J; Escribano, Damián

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the acute phase reaction (APR) induced by different vaccination protocols used against Porcine Circovirus (PCV) type-2 and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M.hyo), studying two acute phase proteins (APPs) and changes in rectal temperature (RT). In addition, the possible influence of the time of vaccination and breed were analysed. In the first experiment, 40 commercial crossbred piglets were vaccinated, on the day of weaning, with FLEXcombo® (group A, n=20) or Porcilis PCV® and Stellamune® One (group B, n=20). The second experiment was performed on two farms, on which 40 commercial crossbred piglets or 40 Iberian piglets were vaccinated, 7days post-weaning. On each farm one group (A, n=20) was vaccinated with FLEXcombo® and another group (B, n=20) with Porcilis® PCV-M.hyo. Blood samples were taken before, 24h and 48h after vaccination, and RT were recorded before and 8h after vaccination. Significantly higher increases in group B in RT (Pvaccination compared with group A. The vaccines that produced greater increases in RT also produced higher APPs increases but no influence of the day of vaccination or of the breed were found. Therefore, serum APPs concentrations differed according to the vaccine used, which may be useful, along with RT, for choosing the vaccine or protocol that produces APR of lower magnitude. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pulmonary response to surface‐coated nanotitanium dioxide particles includes induction of acute phase response genes, inflammatory cascades, and changes in microRNAs: A toxicogenomic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halappanavar, Sabina; Jackson, Petra; Williams, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    in increased levels of mRNA for acute phase markers serum amyloid A‐1 (Saa1) and serum amyloid A‐3 (Saa3), several C‐X‐C and C‐C motif chemokines, and cytokine tumor necrosis factor genes. Protein analysis of Saa1 and 3 showed selective upregulation of Saa3 in lung tissues. Sixteen miRNAs were induced by more...... on pulmonary global messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) expression in mouse were characterized to provide insight into the molecular response. Female C57BL/6BomTac mice were exposed for 1 hr daily to 42.4 ± 2.9 (SEM) mg surface‐coated nanoTiO2/m3 for 11 consecutive days by inhalation and were sacrificed...... than 1.2‐fold (adjusted P‐value miR‐1, miR‐449a and revealed dramatic induction of miR‐135b (60‐fold). Thus, inhalation of surface‐coated nanoTiO2 results in changes in the expression of genes associated...

  4. Effects of combined liver and udder biopsying on the acute phase response of dairy cows with experimentally induced E. coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khatun, Momena; Sørensen, Peter; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne

    2013-01-01

    A minimally invasive biopsy technique was evaluated for udder tissue collection in dairy cows with Escherichia coli mastitis. Meanwhile, the effect of taking repeated liver and udder biopsies on the systemic and local acute phase response (APR) of the dairy cows was investigated during the disease....... The cows were divided into a biopsy group (B) (n = 16) and a no-biopsy group (NB) (n = 16) and were sampled in the acute disease stage and in the recovery stage. The cows’ pre-disease period served as a control period for establishing baseline values for the investigated parameters. A total of 32 Holstein...... of combined biopsying were investigated by recording production traits, clinical response, and measuring inflammatory milk and blood parameters: E. coli, somatic cell count, milk amyloid A (MAA) levels, white blood cell count, polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocyte numbers and serum amyloid A levels...

  5. The acute phase response induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide modifies the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of florfenicol in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, R; Palma, C; Burgos, R; Jeldres, J A; Espinoza, A; Peñailillo, A K

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute phase response (APR) on the pharmaco-kinetics and biotransformation of florfenicol (FFC) in rabbits. Six rabbits (3.0 ± 0.08 kg body weight (bw)) were distributed through a crossover design with 4 weeks of washout period. Pairs of rabbits similar in bw and sex were assigned to experimental groups: Group 1 (LPS) was treated with three intravenous doses of 1 μg/kg bw of E. coli LPS at intervals of 6 h, and Group 2 (control) was treated with an equivalent volume of saline solution (SS) at the same intervals and frequency of Group 1. At 24 h after the first injection of LPS or SS, an intravenous bolus of 20 mg/kg bw of FFC was administered. Blood samples were collected from the auricular vein before drug administration and at different times between 0.05 and 24.0 h after treatment. FFC and florfenicol-amine (FFC-a) were extracted from the plasma, and their concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. A noncompartmental pharmacokinetic model was used for data analysis, and data were compared using the paired Student t-test. The mean values of AUC0-∞ in the endotoxaemic rabbits (26.3 ± 2.7 μg·h/mL) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than values observed in healthy rabbits (17.2 ± 0.97 μg·h/mL). The total mean plasma clearance (CLT ) decreased from 1228 ± 107.5 mL·h/kg in the control group to 806.4 ± 91.4 mL·h/kg in the LPS-treated rabbits. A significant increase (P < 0.05) in the half-life of elimination was observed in the endotoxaemic rabbits (5.59 ± 1.14 h) compared to the values observed in healthy animals (3.44 ± 0.57 h). In conclusion, the administration of repeated doses of 1 μg/kg E. coli LPS induced an APR in rabbits, producing significant modifications in plasma concentrations of FFC leading to increases in the AUC, terminal half-life and mean residence time (MRT), but a

  6. Feeding common carp Cyprinus carpio with b-glucan supplemented \\ud diet stimulates C-reactive protein and complement immune acute\\ud phase responses following PAMPs injection

    OpenAIRE

    Pionnier, Nicolas; Falco, Alberto; Miest, Joanna J.; Shrive, Annette K.; Hoole, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The effect of β-glucan as a feed additive on the serum and gene profile of C-reactive protein (CRP) and complement acute phase responses was ascertained in common carp Cyprinus carpio. In addition effects of subsequent intraperitoneal injections of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), i.e. LPS or poly(I:C), to mimic bacterial or viral infection respectively, were studied. Carp were first orally fed with β-glucan (MacroGard®) with a daily β-glucan intake of 6 mg per kg body weight o...

  7. Differences in inflammation and acute phase response but similar genotoxicity in mice following pulmonary exposure to graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtson, Stefan; Knudsen, Kristina Bram; Kyjovska, Zdenka O.

    2017-01-01

    assessed exposure levels of particulate matter emitted during production of graphene in a clean room and in a normal industrial environment using chemical vapour deposition. Toxicity was evaluated at day 1, 3, 28 and 90 days (18, 54 and 162 μg/mouse), except for GO exposed mice at day 28 and 90 where only......We investigated toxicity of 2-3 layered >1 μm sized graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in mice following single intratracheal exposure with respect to pulmonary inflammation, acute phase response (biomarker for risk of cardiovascular disease) and genotoxicity. In addition, we...

  8. Analysis of the acute phase responses of Serum Amyloid A, Haptoglobin and Type 1 Interferon in cattle experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Stockmarr, Anders

    2011-01-01

    A series of challenge experiments were performed in order to investigate the acute phase responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle and possible implications for the development of persistently infected "carriers". The host response to infection was investigated through...... periods exceeding 28 days in order to determine the carrier-status of individual animals. The systemic host response to FMDV in infected animals was evaluated in comparison to similar measurements in sera from 6 mock-inoculated control animals.There was a significant increase in serum concentrations...... of both APPs and type 1 IFN in infected animals coinciding with the onset of viremia and clinical disease. The measured parameters declined to baseline levels within 21 days after inoculation, indicating that there was no systemically measurable inflammatory reaction related to the carrier state of FMD...

  9. Analysis of the acute-phase protein response in pigs to clinical and subclinical infection with H3N2 swine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Kwit, Krzysztof; Pejsak, Zygmunt; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona

    2014-03-01

    Swine influenza (SI) is a contagious, important respiratory disease. Diagnosis of SI is based on the clinical signs, confirmed by the detection of viral RNA or specific antibodies. However, the infection is much more frequent than the disease. The aim of study was to investigate the kinetics of acute-phase protein (APP) response during subclinical and clinical influenza in pigs. The utility of APP measurements in identification of infected animals was also evaluated. Twenty-eight piglets were used. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and pig major acute-phase protein (Pig-MAP) concentrations in serum were measured using commercial ELISAs. No relevant clinical signs were observed in intranasally infected pigs. In contrast, coughing, nasal discharge, and fever were observed in pigs infected intratracheally. All infected pigs exhibited specific antibodies in the serum at 10 dpi, and viral shedding was confirmed. The concentrations of CRP, Hp and SAA were significantly increased after infection. The level of Pig-MAP remained constant during subclinical and clinical infection. The concentrations of CRP, Hp and SAA were higher in pigs with clinical disease. Although not specific, strategic APP measurements may reveal ongoing clinical and subclinical infection. A close relationship between the magnitude of serum APP response with the severity of disease, providing an objective tool for validation the severity of infection. The maximum concentration of SAA in serum was closely correlated with lung score and makes this APP potential indicator for disease progress or estimation of treatment strategy.

  10. Acute phase reactants as novel predictors of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M S; Jadhav, A B; Hassan, A; Meng, Qing H

    2012-05-06

    Acute phase reaction is a systemic response which usually follows a physiological condition that takes place in the beginning of an inflammatory process. This physiological change usually lasts 1-2 days. However, the systemic acute phase response usually lasts longer. The aim of this systemic response is to restore homeostasis. These events are accompanied by upregulation of some proteins (positive acute phase reactants) and downregulation of others (negative acute phase reactants) during inflammatory reactions. Cardiovascular diseases are accompanied by the elevation of several positive acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen, white blood cell count, secretory nonpancreatic phospholipase 2-II (sPLA2-II), ferritin, and ceruloplasmin. Cardiovascular disease is also accompanied by the reduction of negative acute phase reactants such as albumin, transferrin, transthyretin, retinol-binding protein, antithrombin, and transcortin. In this paper, we will be discussing the biological activity and diagnostic and prognostic values of acute phase reactants with cardiovascular importance. The potential therapeutic targets of these reactants will be also discussed.

  11. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis and acute phase response link pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes to risk of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sarah S.; Saber, Anne T.; Mortensen, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    has led to concerns that inhalation exposure to MWCNTs might pose similar risks. We analyzed parameters related to cardiovascular disease, including plasma acute phase response (APR) proteins and plasma lipids, in female C57BL/6 mice exposed to a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18,54 or 162 mu......Adverse lung effects following pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are well documented in rodents. However, systemic effects are less understood. Epidemiological studies have shown increased cardiovascular disease risk after pulmonary exposure to airborne particles, which...... hepatic effects. The two MWCNTs induced similar systemic responses despite their different physicochemical properties. APR proteins SAA3 and haptoglobin, plasma total cholesterol and low-density/very low-density lipoprotein were significantly increased following exposure to either MWCNTs. Plasma SAA3...

  12. Lack of acute phase response in the livers of mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles or carbon black by inhalation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saber, Anne T; Halappanavar, Sabina; Folkmann, Janne K

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic and animal studies have shown that particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of lung and cardiovascular diseases. Although the exact mechanisms by which particles induce cardiovascular diseases are not known, studies suggest involvement of systemic acute...

  13. Alterations in acute-phase reactants (CRP, rheumatoid factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    In response to a wide range of homeostatic disturbances, such as trauma, neoplasms, bacterial infection, burn injury ... 2Department of Immunology, University of the Witwatersrand Johannesburg. CORRESPONDENCE: S J Semple ... The human body initiates an acute phase response (APR) in response to a wide range of ...

  14. DNA strand breaks, acute phase response and inflammation following pulmonary exposure by instillation to the diesel exhaust particle NIST1650b in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyjovska, Zdenka O.; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Saber, Anne T.

    2015-01-01

    by the alkaline comet assay as DNA strand breaks in BAL cells, lung and liver tissue. The pulmonary acute phase response was analysed by Saa3 mRNA levels by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Instillation of DEP induced a strong neutrophil influx 1 and 3 days, but not 28 days post-exposure. Saa3 m......RNA levels were increased at all time point for the highest dose and 28 days post-exposure for the middle dose. DEP increased levels of DNA strand breaks in lung tissue for all doses 1 day post-exposure and after 28 days for mid- and high-dose groups. Pulmonary exposure to DEP induced transient inflammation...

  15. High-Resolution Transcriptomic Analysis of the Adaptive Response of Staphylococcus aureus during Acute and Chronic Phases of Osteomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szafranska, Anna K.; Oxley, Andrew P. A.; Chaves-Moreno, Diego; Horst, Sarah A.; Rosslenbroich, Steffen; Peters, Georg; Goldmann, Oliver; Rohde, Manfred; Sinha, Bhanu; Pieper, Dietmar H.; Loeffler, Bettina; Jauregui, Ruy; Wos-Oxley, Melissa L.; Medina, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Osteomyelitis is a difficult-to-eradicate bone infection typically caused by Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, we investigated the in vivo transcriptional adaptation of S. aureus during bone infection. To this end, we determined the transcriptome of S. aureus during the acute (day 7) and chronic

  16. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis and acute phase response link pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes to risk of cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Sarah S., E-mail: spo@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Saber, Anne T., E-mail: ats@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Mortensen, Alicja, E-mail: almo@food.dtu.dk [National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Søborg (Denmark); Szarek, Józef, E-mail: szarek@uwm.edu.pl [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland); Wu, Dongmei, E-mail: dongmei.wu@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Williams, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.williams@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Andersen, Ole, E-mail: oa@ruc.dk [Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Jacobsen, Nicklas R., E-mail: nrj@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Yauk, Carole L., E-mail: carole.yauk@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Wallin, Håkan, E-mail: hwa@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, DK-1014 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Halappanavar, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.halappanavar@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Vogel, Ulla, E-mail: ubv@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-03-15

    Adverse lung effects following pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are well documented in rodents. However, systemic effects are less understood. Epidemiological studies have shown increased cardiovascular disease risk after pulmonary exposure to airborne particles, which has led to concerns that inhalation exposure to MWCNTs might pose similar risks. We analyzed parameters related to cardiovascular disease, including plasma acute phase response (APR) proteins and plasma lipids, in female C57BL/6 mice exposed to a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18, 54 or 162 μg/mouse of small, entangled (CNT{sub Small}, 0.8 ± 0.1 μm long) or large, thick MWCNTs (CNT{sub Large}, 4 ± 0.4 μm long). Liver tissues and plasma were harvested 1, 3 and 28 days post-exposure. In addition, global hepatic gene expression, hepatic cholesterol content and liver histology were used to assess hepatic effects. The two MWCNTs induced similar systemic responses despite their different physicochemical properties. APR proteins SAA3 and haptoglobin, plasma total cholesterol and low-density/very low-density lipoprotein were significantly increased following exposure to either MWCNTs. Plasma SAA3 levels correlated strongly with pulmonary Saa3 levels. Analysis of global gene expression revealed perturbation of the same biological processes and pathways in liver, including the HMG-CoA reductase pathway. Both MWCNTs induced similar histological hepatic changes, with a tendency towards greater response following CNT{sub Large} exposure. Overall, we show that pulmonary exposure to two different MWCNTs induces similar systemic and hepatic responses, including changes in plasma APR, lipid composition, hepatic gene expression and liver morphology. The results link pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs with risk of cardiovascular disease. - Highlights: • Systemic and hepatic alterations were evaluated in female mice following MWCNT instillation. • Despite being physicochemically

  17. Application of acute phase protein measurements in veterinary clinical chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Henning; Nielsen, J. P.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2004-01-01

    The body's early defence in response to trauma, inflammation or infection, the acute phase response, is a complex set of systemic reactions seen shortly after exposure to a triggering event. One of the many components is an acute phase protein response in which increased hepatic synthesis leads t...... A and their possible use as non-specific indicators of health in large animal veterinary medicine such as in the health status surveillance of pigs at the herd level, for the detection of mastitis in dairy cattle and for the prognosis of respiratory diseases in horses....

  18. Use of serum amyloid A and other acute phase reactants to monitor the inflammatory response after castration in horses: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, S; Jensen, J C; Frei, S; Jensen, A L; Thoefner, M B

    2005-11-01

    Early recognition of excessive inflammation and infectious complications after surgery, leading to early institution of therapy, reduces post operative discomfort and facilitates recovery. Because serum amyloid A (SAA) is a highly sensitive marker of inflammation, measurements of SAA and other acute phase reactants in the equine surgical patient may be valuable in assisting clinical assessment of post operative inflammation. To investigate changes in inflammatory markers after castration and to correlate levels of acute phase reactants with clinical severity of inflammation after castration. Leucocyte numbers and blood levels of iron, SAA and fibrinogen were determined before castration and on Days 3 and 8 post operatively in 2 groups of horses; Group 1 (n = 11) had mild post operative inflammation and an uncomplicated recovery and Group 2 (n = 7) had local clinical signs of moderate to severe inflammation. Both groups had elevated serum SAA levels at Day 3 post operatively. In Group 1 concentrations had returned to preoperative levels by Day 8, whereas in Group 2 concentrations remained elevated. Plasma fibrinogen concentrations in serum increased to equal levels in both groups and stayed elevated throughout the study period. Serum iron concentrations of Group 1 did not change in response to castration, whereas concentrations in Group 2 decreased below preoperative levels on Day 8. Leucocyte numbers remained unchanged during the post operative period in both groups. Serum SAA and iron profiles reflected the course of inflammation and their levels correlated with the clinical severity of inflammation. In contrast, fever and changes in leucocyte numbers, which are usually considered to be hallmarks of inflammation and infection, were not useful for monitoring post operative recovery. Measurements of SAA and iron may improve post operative monitoring. As sustained inflammation may indicate that the surgical wound has become infected, SAA and iron measurements may

  19. A prospective phase I/II trial of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib in patients with carcinoma of the cervix - acute toxicity and biomarker response analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, P.; Doll, C.; Oza, A.; Pintilie, M.; Levin, W.; Manchul, L.; Fyles, A.; Milosevic, M.

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the toxicity and biomarker response of celecoxib (C) as a biologic modifier in combination with definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in women with cervix cancer. Fifteen cervix patients were entered into the first phase of this prospective study between March 2001 and January 2002. FIGO stages included IB(2), IIB(8), IIIB(4), and IVA(1), and median age was 51 years (range 26-62). Celecoxib 400mg orally was given b.i.d. 2 weeks prior to, and during the CRT. Toxicity assessments were performed weekly up to 12 weeks following treatment prior to further accrual using the NCIC-CTC. Hypoxia (HP5) and interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) assays were performed at day 0 and 14. Eleven patients completed the prescribed therapy. Only 2 of 4 patients discontinued C due to GI toxicity. In total there were 6 (40%) with grade 3/4 acute toxicity. Four were related to GI, one to skin reaction while the other was haematological. Although it was difficult to distinguish CRT toxicity from C, the proportion of patients with severe acute toxicity was similar to what we previously reported with CRT alone (8/24 (33%), Rodrigues, IJROBP 2001:Vol 51:(3): (Supp 1): 334). GI toxicity was more common in this study whereas haematologic effects were more frequent in the previous study. Evaluating the most recent measurable data set, 6 of 16 patients showed a decrease in HP5, (3.8 - 89.7%) while 10 of 14 patients had a reduction in IFP, (1.3 - 16.2mmHg). Two grade 4 late GI toxicity developed. Celecoxib is tolerated by patients receiving CRT for cervix cancer. Response of microenvironmental biomarkers to C was seen in the majority, suggesting a role as early markers of treatment outcome. Further follow-up is needed to assess the risk of late toxicity. The trial has been re-opened with C reduced to 300 mg b.i.d

  20. Dietary β-glucan stimulate complement and C-reactive protein acute phase responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during an Aeromonas salmonicida infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pionnier, Nicolas; Falco, Alberto; Miest, Joanna; Frost, Patrick; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Shrive, Annette; Hoole, Dave

    2013-03-01

    The effect of β-glucans as feed additive on the profile of C-reactive protein (CRP) and complement acute phase responses was studied in common carp Cyprinus carpio after exposition to a bacterial infection with Aeromonas salmonicida. Carp were orally administered with β-glucan (MacroGard®) for 14 days with a daily β-glucan intake of 6 mg per kg body weight. Fish were then intraperitoneally injected with either PBS or 1 × 10⁸ bacteria per fish and sampled at time 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h post-injection (p.i.) for serum and head kidney, liver and mid-gut tissues. CRP levels and complement activity were determined in the serum samples whilst the gene expression profiles of CRP and complement related genes (crp1, crp2, c1r/s, bf/c2, c3 and masp2) were analysed in the tissues by quantitative PCR. Results obtained showed that oral administration of β-glucan for 14 days significantly increased serum CRP levels up to 2 fold and serum alternative complement activity (ACP) up to 35 fold. The bacterial infection on its own (i.e. not combined with a β-glucan feeding) did have significant effects on complement response whilst CRP was not detectably induced during the carp acute phase reaction. However, the combination of the infection and the β-glucan feeding did show significant effects on both CRP and complement profiles with higher serum CRP levels and serum ACP activity in the β-glucan fed fish than in the control fed fish. In addition, a distinct organ and time dependent expression profile pattern was detected for all the selected genes: a peak of gene expression first occurred in the head kidney tissue (6 h p.i. or 12 h p.i.), then an up-regulation in the liver several hours later (24 h p.i.) and finally up- or down-regulations in the mid-gut at 24 h p.i. and 72 h p.i. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that MacroGard® stimulated CRP and complement responses to A. salmonicida infection in common carp. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  1. Acute-phase response reactants as objective biomarkers of radiation-induced mucositis in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Fazilat F; Poon, Ian; Zhang, Liying; Elliott, Liz; Hodson, Ian D; Sagar, Stephen M; Wright, James

    2012-07-01

    Current evaluation of radiation-induced mucositis in head and neck cancer relies on subjective scoring with interrater variability. We evaluated serum erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as objective markers of radiation-induced mucositis. Weekly serum CRP and ESR levels were measured in patients treated for head and neck cancer with radiation ± chemotherapy. Acute radiation toxicity was evaluated using National Cancer Institute of Canada-Common Toxicity Criteria (NCIC-CTC) version 2.0 and the Head and Neck Radiotherapy Questionnaire (HNRQ). ESR and CRP levels were significantly elevated by 3 weeks (p = .01) and 6 weeks (p = .0002), respectively, and independent of age or pretreatment surgery. ESR was significantly dependent on radiation dose (p = .0004) and significantly higher with chemoradiation (p = .03). Serum ESR and CRP rise reliably in a radiation dose-dependent manner. ESR correlated with clinical symptoms and distinguished patients receiving chemoradiation. ESR and CRP may be an objective and sensitive marker of radiation-induced mucositis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Comparison of acute phase response during attack and attack-free period in children with Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Çakmak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare acutephase reactant (AFR levels at attack period and attackfreeperiod under colchicine treatment in children with FamilialMediterranean Fever (FMF.Methods: The diagnosis of FMF was done based on clinicalcriteria and patients were prospectively followed upfor average of 1.2 years. Symptom-onset age, age at diagnosis,clinical symptoms and features of FMF attackswere recorded. MEFV gene mutations were detected byreverse hybridization (strip assay method. Peripheralblood leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP and blood fibrinogen levelswere measured by standard methods, both at attackperiod and during attack-free period.Results: Totally 105 (55 girls, 50 boys children with FMFwere included. The mean age was 8.9±3.2 years, meansymptom onset age was 5.9 years and mean age at diagnosiswas 8.1 years. MEFV gene mutations were asfollows: E148Q (29.2%, M694V (24.8%, R761H (15.3%and V726A (13.1%. The mean AFR values were overnormal values in attack period and there was at least onehigh AFR level in 80.0% of patients. In attack-free period,although the mean values of all AFRs were within normallimits, 31.4% of patients had at least one high AFR level.Conclusion: Based on these data, one-third of FMF childrenhad a high AFR level, which may be a marker of subclinicalinflammation. In children with continuous inflammationduring attack-free period, a new anti-inflammatorydrug additional to colchicine can be considered in order toprevent complications of chronic inflammation. J Clin ExpInvest 2013; 4 (2: 213-218Key words: Familial Mediterranean Fever, acute phasereactants, children, attack period, attack-free period

  3. Acute sedimentation response to rainfall following the explosive phase of the 2008-2009 eruption of Chaitén volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Thomas C.; Major, Jon J.; Amigo, Álvaro; Moreno, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    The 10-day explosive phase at the start of the 2008–2009 eruption of Chaitén volcano in southern Chile (42.83°S, 72.65°W) blanketed the steep, rain-forest-cloaked, 77-km2 Chaitén River drainage basin with 3 to >100 cm of tephra; predominantly fine to extremely fine rhyolitic ash fell during the latter half of the explosive phase. Rain falling on this ash blanket within days of cessation of major explosive activity generated a hyperconcentrated-flow lahar, followed closely by a complex, multi-day, muddy flood (streamflow bordering on dilute hyperconcentrated flow). Sediment mobilized in this lahar-flood event filled the Chaitén River channel with up to 7 m of sediment, buried the town of Chaitén (10 km downstream of the volcano) in up to 3 m of sediment, and caused the lower 3 km of the channel to avulse through the town. Although neither the nature nor rate of the sedimentation response is unprecedented, they are unusual in several ways: (1) Nearly 70 percent of the aggradation (almost 5 m) in the 50–70-m-wide Chaitén River channel was caused by a lahar, triggered by an estimated 20 mm of rainfall over a span of about 24 h. An additional 2 m of aggradation occurred in the next 24–36 h. (2) Direct damage to the town was accomplished by the sediment-laden water-flood phase of the lahar-flood event, not the lahar phase. (3) The volume of sediment eroded from hillslopes and delivered to the Chaitén River channel was at least 3–8 × 106 m3—roughly 15–40 % of the minimum tephra volume that mantled the Chaitén River drainage basin. (4) The acute sedimentation response to rainfall appears to have been due to the thickness and fineness of the ash blanket (inhibiting infiltration of rain) and the steepness of the basin’s hillslopes. Other possible factors such as the prior formation of an ash crust, development of a hydrophobic surface layer, or large-scale destruction of rain-intercepting vegetation did not play a role.

  4. Inflammasome components ASC and AIM2 modulate the acute phase of biomaterial implant-induced foreign body responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christo, Susan N; Diener, Kerrilyn R; Manavis, Jim; Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Bachhuka, Akash; Vasilev, Krasimir; Hayball, John D

    2016-02-10

    Detailing the inflammatory mechanisms of biomaterial-implant induced foreign body responses (FBR) has implications for revealing targetable pathways that may reduce leukocyte activation and fibrotic encapsulation of the implant. We have adapted a model of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) bead injection to perform an assessment of the mechanistic role of the ASC-dependent inflammasome in this process. We first demonstrate that ASC(-/-) mice subjected to PMMA bead injections had reduced cell infiltration and altered collagen deposition, suggesting a role for the inflammasome in the FBR. We next investigated the NLRP3 and AIM2 sensors because of their known contributions in recognising damaged and apoptotic cells. We found that NLRP3 was dispensable for the fibrotic encapsulation; however AIM2 expression influenced leukocyte infiltration and controlled collagen deposition, suggesting a previously unexplored link between AIM2 and biomaterial-induced FBR.

  5. Acute phase cognitive therapy for recurrent major depressive disorder: who drops out and how much do patient skills influence response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Robin B; Minhajuddin, Abu; Kangas, Julie L; Friedman, Edward S; Callan, Judith A; Thase, Michael E

    2013-05-01

    The aims were to predict cognitive therapy (CT) noncompletion and to determine, relative to other putative predictors, the extent to which the patient skills in CT for recurrent major depressive disorder predicted response in a large, two-site trial. Among 523 outpatients aged 18e70, exposed to 12e14 weeks of CT, 21.6% dropped out. Of the 410 completers, 26.1% did not respond. To predict these outcomes, we conducted logistic regression analyses of demographics, pre-treatment illness characteristics and psychosocial measures, and midtreatment therapeutic alliance. The 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17) scores at entry predicted dropout and nonresponse. Patients working for pay, of non-Hispanic white race, who were older, or had more education were significantly more likely to complete. Controlling for HRSD17, significant predictors of nonresponse included: lower scores on the Skills of Cognitive Therapy-Observer Version (SoCT-O), not working for pay, history of only two depressive episodes, greater pre-treatment social impairment. Midphase symptom reduction was a strong predictor of final outcome. These prognostic indicators forecast which patients tend to be optimal candidates for standard CT, as well as which patients may benefit from changes in therapy, its focus, or from alternate modalities of treatment. Pending replication, the findings underscore the importance of promoting patients’ understanding and use of CT skills, as well as reducing depressive symptoms early. Future research may determine the extent to which these findings generalize to other therapies, providers who vary in competency, and patients with other depressive subtypes or disorders.

  6. Feeding common carp Cyprinus carpio with β-glucan supplemented diet stimulates C-reactive protein and complement immune acute phase responses following PAMPs injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pionnier, Nicolas; Falco, Alberto; Miest, Joanna J; Shrive, Annette K; Hoole, Dave

    2014-08-01

    The effect of β-glucan as a feed additive on the serum and gene profile of C-reactive protein (CRP) and complement acute phase responses was ascertained in common carp Cyprinus carpio. In addition effects of subsequent intraperitoneal injections of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), i.e. LPS or poly(I:C), to mimic bacterial or viral infection respectively, were studied. Carp were first orally fed with β-glucan (MacroGard®) with a daily β-glucan intake of 6 mg per kg body weight or with control food for 25 days and then injected with PBS containing either LPS (4 mg/kg) or poly(I:C) (5 mg/kg) or PBS alone. Fish were sampled during the 25 days of the feeding period and up to 7 days post-PAMPs injections for serum and liver, head kidney and mid-gut tissues. Oral administration of β-glucan for 25 days significantly increased serum CRP levels and alternative complement activity (ACP). In addition, the subsequent LPS and poly(I:C) challenges significantly affected CRP and complement related gene expression profiles (crp1, crp2, c1r/s, bf/c2, c3 and masp2), with the greatest effects observed in the β-glucan fed fish. However, in fish fed β-glucan the PAMPs injections had less effects on CRP levels and complement activity in the serum than in control fed fish, suggesting that the 25 days of β-glucan immunostimulation was sufficient enough to reduce the effects of LPS and poly(I:C) injections. Results suggest that MacroGard® stimulated CRP and complement responses to PAMPs immunological challenges in common carp thus highlighting the beneficial β-glucan immunostimulant properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Heat-tolerant versus heat-sensitive Bos taurus cattle: influence of air temperature and breed on the acute phase response to a provocative immune challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J A; Burdick Sanchez, N C; Chaffin, R; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Spiers, D E

    2013-10-01

    The difference in the acute phase response of a heat-tolerant and a heat-sensitive Bos taurus breed to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge when housed at different air temperatures (Ta) was studied. Angus (ANG; heat-sensitive; n = 11; 306 ± 26 kg BW) and Romosinuano (RO; heat-tolerant; n = 10; 313 ± 32 kg BW) heifers were transported from the USDA Agricultural Research Service SubTropical Agricultural Research Station in Florida to the Brody Environmental Chambers at the University of Missouri, Columbia. Heifers were housed in stanchions in 4 temperature-controlled environmental chambers. Initially, Ta in the 4 chambers was cycling at thermoneutrality (TN; 18.5°C-23.5°C) for a 1-wk adjustment period, followed by an increase in 2 of the 4 chambers to cycling heat stress (HS; 24°C-38°C) for 2 wk. On day 19, heifers were fitted with jugular catheters and rectal temperature (RT) recording devices. On day 20, heifers were challenged with LPS (0.5 μg/kg BW; 0 h), sickness behavior scores (SBSs) were recorded, and blood samples were collected at 0.5-h intervals from -2 to 8 h and again at 24 h relative to LPS challenge at 0 h. Serum was isolated and stored at -80°C until analyzed for cortisol and cytokine concentrations. A breed by Ta interaction (P heat-tolerant RO and heat-sensitive ANG heifers under different Ta which may aid in elucidating differences in productivity, disease resistance, and longevity among cattle breeds. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Fever and acute phase reactants in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, H.; van Gool, J.; Deutz, N. E.

    1988-01-01

    In rats synthesis of some acute phase reactants can be induced by a combination of corticosteroids and adrenaline. During fever both hormones show high plasma levels. We studied the effect of fever induced by intra-cerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of PGE2 on the acute phase response. Fever was continuously recorded and 24 h after induction acute phase reactant (APR) response was measured as indicated by the rise of alpha-macrofetoprotein (alpha M FP, alpha 2 macroglobulin of the rat). Controls received 0.9% saline i.c.v. Controls did not develop fever (dTmax less than or equal to 1 degree C) nor did they show significant APR response. The maximal rise in body temperature after PGE2 (2.6 +/- 0.7 degrees C) correlated significantly with the rise in alpha M FP concentration 24 h later. Adrenalectomy prevented the APR response completely but the magnitude of the fever reaction remained the same (2.1 +/- 0.3 degrees C). alpha-Blockade gave a smaller fever response but had no effect on the APR response. In alpha- and beta-blockade, fever response was normal but no APR response was obtained. Destroying the sympathetic nerve supply to the liver with 6-OH dopamine retarded the fever response but again APR response was not impeded. In order to differentiate between the role of fever as such and the effect of PGE2 on APR synthesis, we used heat exposure to induce hyperthermia in normal rats who showed an APR response comparable with that after i.c.v. PGE2. Pretreatment with sodium salicylate before inducing hyperthermia led to a variable rise in alpha M FP. Fever as such, without tissue injury, induces an APR response. The pathway to this effect probably involves circulating corticosterone and adrenaline, possibly via a beta-receptor mediated stimulation. PMID:2460123

  9. Expression of acute phase proteins and inflammatory cytokines in mouse mammary gland following Staphylococcus aureus challenge and in response to milk accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazemi, Sasan; Aalbæk, Bent; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    We used a mouse model of pathogenic (Staphylococcus aureus) and non-pathogenic (teat sealing) mammary inflammation to investigate mRNA expression of several inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins (APP) in mammary tissue and liver, and the appearance of some of these factors in plasma...... or lesser extent, whilst expression of APP was up-regulated to a much greater extent. The first appearance of increased cytokine and APP concentrations in plasma and of milk amyloid A (MAA) in milk occurred in advance of the measurable up-regulation of expression, hence their origin cannot be stated...

  10. Acute phase serum proteins in diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rema M

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The serum concentration of various acute phase reactants were studied in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus with and without retinopathy and in control subjects. The serum levels of haptoglobin was elevated in diabetics with retinopathy and the levels were highest in those with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The levels of serum albumin, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, alpha-1 antitrypsin and caeruloplasmin were not significantly different between the patients with retinopathy and controls. Haptoglobin increases serum viscosity and this could be the mechanism by which it plays a role in pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. These preliminary observations need to be confirmed by studies based on larger number of patients. Longitudinal studies on acute phase reactants in various stages of development of diabetic retinopathy would also provide valuable information.

  11. Genetics and genomics of hepatic acute phase reactants: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulop, Andras K

    2007-06-01

    Systemic acute phase response is a component of innate immunity and a consequence of local or systemic inflammation. A prominent feature of acute phase reaction is the alteration of gene expression in hepatocytes. The classical acute phase reactants are released into the blood and may be exuded into other body fluids. Generally, they exert anti-inflammatory action and are important players of the homeostasis maintenance. The genetic background influences a person's response to disturbances of homeostasis, including infections, stress and tissue injury. The most frequent and physiologically relevant genetic polymorphisms of the representatives of classical acute phase proteins are discussed herein. The genetic variations of acute phase proteins or their regulators are associated with several pathological conditions. The high-throughput genomic and proteomic technologies combined with bioinformatics give the most recent approaches to the study and analysis of acute phase proteins, thereby widening the scope of the term 'acute phase reactants' or discovering novel ones. Simultaneous testing of numerous analytes, including acute phase proteins from the same, small volume sample may give diagnostic tools for diseases. Accumulating knowledge about acute phase reaction may lead to the development of novel therapies and other prevention alternatives.

  12. Antioxidant responses to an acute ultra-endurance exercise: impact on DNA stability and indications for an increased need for nutritive antioxidants in the early recovery phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Oliver; Reichhold, Stefanie; Nics, Lukas; Hoelzl, Christine; Valentini, Judit; Stadlmayr, Barbara; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2010-10-01

    Antioxidant requirements have neither been defined for endurance nor been defined for ultra-endurance athletes. To verify whether an acute bout of ultra-endurance exercise modifies the need for nutritive antioxidants, we aimed (1) to investigate the changes of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants in response to an Ironman triathlon; (2) to particularise the relevance of antioxidant responses to the indices of oxidatively damaged blood lipids, blood cell compounds and lymphocyte DNA and (3) to examine whether potential time-points of increased susceptibility to oxidative damage are associated with alterations in the antioxidant status. Blood that was collected from forty-two well-trained male athletes 2 d pre-race, immediately post-race, and 1, 5 and 19 d later was sampled. The key findings of the present study are as follows: (1) Immediately post-race, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and levels of the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, the ferric reducing ability of plasma and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays increased significantly. Exercise-induced changes in the plasma antioxidant capacity were associated with changes in uric acid, bilirubin and vitamin C. (2) Significant inverse correlations between ORAC levels and indices of oxidatively damaged DNA immediately and 1 d post-race suggest a protective role of the acute antioxidant responses in DNA stability. (3) Significant decreases in carotenoids and γ-tocopherol 1 d post-race indicate that the antioxidant intake during the first 24 h of recovery following an acute ultra-endurance exercise requires specific attention. Furthermore, the present study illustrates the importance of a diversified and well-balanced diet to maintain a physiological antioxidant status in ultra-endurance athletes in reference to recommendations.

  13. Relationship of granulocyte colony stimulating factor with other acute phase reactants in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noursadeghi, M; Pepys, M B; Gallimore, R; Cohen, J

    2005-04-01

    The non-specific acute phase response in mice is associated with increased resistance to bacterial infection, which is critically mediated by granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), but the behaviour of G-CSF in the human acute phase response is not known. Cardiothoracic surgery is a powerful acute phase stimulus and we show here that this procedure caused increased production of G-CSF, in addition to increases in the circulating concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 and the acute phase plasma proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A protein (SAA). Values of G-CSF correlated positively with IL-6 concentrations and circulating neutrophil counts, but not with CRP values. These results confirm that G-CSF is a physiological component of the acute phase response in humans that shares some of the same regulatory controls as IL-6, but its downstream effects are on neutrophils, not hepatic acute phase protein synthesis. Our observations are compatible with a protective role against bacterial infection for G-CSF in the human acute phase response, and support investigation of the prophylactic use of G-CSF in at-risk patients.

  14. BCL11A expression in acute phase chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiawei; Zhang, Fan; Tao, Huiquan; Ma, Xiao; Su, Guangsong; Xie, Xiaoli; Xu, Zhongjuan; Zheng, Yanwen; Liu, Hong; He, Chao; Mao, Zhengwei Jenny; Wang, Zhiwei; Chang, Weirong; Gale, Robert Peter; Wu, Depei; Yin, Bin

    2016-08-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has chronic and acute phases. In chronic phase myeloid differentiation is preserved whereas in acute phase myeloid differentiation is blocked. Acute phase CML resembles acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Chronic phase CML is caused by BCR-ABL1. What additional mutation(s) cause transition to acute phase is unknown and may differ in different persons with CML. BCL11A encodes a transcription factor and is aberrantly-expressed in several haematological and solid neoplasms. We analyzed BCL11A mRNA levels in subjects with chronic and acute phase CML. BCL11A transcript levels were increased in subjects with CML in acute phase compared with those in normals and in subjects in chronic phase including some subjects studied in both phases. BCL11A mRNA levels were correlated with percent bone marrow blasts and significantly higher in lymphoid versus myeloid blast crisis. Differentiation of K562 with butyric acid, a CML cell line, decreased BCL11A mRNA levels. Cytology and flow cytometry analyses showed that ectopic expression of BCL11A in K562 cells blocked differentiation. These data suggest BCL11A may operate in transformation of CML from chronic to acute phase in some persons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Management of pemphigus vulgaris during acute phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar P

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available We present our experience with 21 patients of pemphigus vulgaris seen over a period of 10 years managed in service hospitals during acute phase of the disease. Age groups of patients ranged from 25-45 years. Eighteen (85.7% were young adults, 30-40 years of age. Fifteen (71.4% were men and 6(28.6% were women. All the cases were hospitalized in ICU, till the acute phase of the disease subsided. Complete hematological profile, urinalysis, serum biochemistry and repeated bacterial cultures from the skin were carried out in all patients at the time of admission and thereafter weekly. The treatment comprised of potassium permanganate lotion bath (1:10000 and 1 framycetin gauze dressing of the denuded areas, maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance. All suspected infections and septicemia were treated with appropriate antibiotics. The corticosteroids were usually administered as a single dose of prednisolone 1 mg/kg/day. Cyclophosphamide was given at an initial dose of 50mg/day and the dose was escalated to 100mg/day. Once the bulk of the lesions were healed, the dose of corticosteroids was gradually lowered by approximately 50% every two weeks and cyclophosphamide was continued till patients were symptomfree. Out of 21 patients receiving corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide and other supportive therapy, 20(95% had undergone clinical resolution of the disease. During follow up study 15(71.4% patients remained symptom-free and undergone clinical remission. Five patients (23.8% had relapse, out of which 4(19% remained symptom free, after subsequent treatment. There was one death (4.7% in our study.

  16. Acute phase proteins in cattle after exposure to complex stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomborg, S. R.; Nielsen, L. R.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Stressors such as weaning, mixing and transportation have been shown to lead to increased blood concentrations of acute phase proteins (APP), including serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin, in calves. This study was therefore undertaken to assess whether SAA and haptoglobin levels...... concentrations of SAA and haptoglobin increased significantly in response to the stressors (P...... in blood mirror stress in adult cattle. Six clinically healthy Holstein cows and two Holstein heifers were transported for four to six hours to a research facility, where each animal was housed in solitary tie stalls. Blood samples for evaluation of leukocyte counts and serum SAA and haptoglobin...

  17. Hyperglycemia in nondiabetic patients during the acute phase of stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Agustin Godoy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine patterns of hyperglycemic (HG control in acute stroke. METHODS: Anonymous survey through Internet questionnaire. Participants included Latin-American physicians specialized in neurocritical care. RESULTS: The response rate was 74%. HG definition varied widely. Fifty per cent considered it when values were >140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L. Intravenous (IV regular insulin was the drug of choice for HG correction. One fifth of the respondents expressed adherence to a protocol. Intensive insulin therapy (IIT was used by 23%. Glucose levels were measured in all participants at admission. Routine laboratory test was the preferred method for monitoring. Reactive strips were more frequently used when monitoring was intensive. Most practitioners (56.7% monitored glucose more than two times daily throughout the Intensive Care Unit stay. CONCLUSIONS: There is considerable variability and heterogeneity in the management of elevated blood glucose during acute phase of stroke by the surveyed Latin-American physicians.

  18. Monitoring health by values of acute phase proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruys, E.; Toussaint, M.J.M.; Niewold, T.A.; Koopmans, S.J.; Dijk, van E.; Meloen, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    A systemic acute phase reaction may develop during infection and inflammation, due to the action of peripherally liberated proinflammatory cytokines. Hepatic metabolism changes, and negative and positive acute phase proteins (APPs) can be measured in the blood: the APPs therefore represent

  19. Acute-phase reactants in periodontal disease: current concepts and future implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, Vilasan; Ambili, Ranjith; Nisha, Krishnavilasam Jayakumary; Seba, Abraham; Preeja, Chandran

    2015-05-01

    Periodontal disease has been linked to adverse cardiovascular events by unknown mechanisms. C-reactive protein is a systemic marker released during the acute phase of an inflammatory response and is a prognostic marker for cardiovascular disease, with elevated serum levels being reported during periodontal disease. Studies also reported elevated levels of various other acute-phase reactants in periodontal disease. It has been reported extensively in the literature that treatment of periodontal infections can significantly lower serum levels of C-reactive protein. Therefore, an understanding of the relationship between acute-phase response and the progression of periodontal disease and other systemic health complications would have a profound effect on the periodontal treatment strategies. In view of this fact, the present review highlights an overview of acute-phase reactants and their role in periodontal disease. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, serum amyloid A and pig major acute phase protein response in pigs simultaneously infected with H1N1 swine influenza virus and Pasteurella multocida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Kwit, Krzysztof; Stępniewska, Katarzyna; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2013-01-18

    Swine influenza (SI) is an acute respiratory disease caused by swine influenza virus (SIV). Swine influenza is generally characterized by acute onset of fever and respiratory symptoms. The most frequent complications of influenza are secondary bacterial pneumonia. The objective of this work was to study the acute phase proteins (APP) responses after coinfection of piglets with H1N1 swine influenza virus (SwH1N1) and Pasteurella multocida (Pm) in order to identify whether the individual APP response correlate with disease severity and whether APP could be used as markers of the health status of coinfected pigs. In all coinfected pigs clinical sings, including fever, coughing and dyspnea, were seen. Viral shedding was observed from 2 to 7 dpi. The mean level of antibodies against Pm dermonecrotoxin in infected piglets increase significantly from 7 dpi. Anti-SwH1N1 antibodies in the serum were detected from 7 dpi. The concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) increased significantly at 1 dpi as compared to control pigs, and remained significantly higher to 3 dpi. Level of serum amyloid A (SAA) was significantly higher from 2 to 3 dpi. Haptoglobin (Hp) was significantly elevated from 3 dpi to the end of study, while pig major acute phase protein (Pig-MAP) from 3 to 7 dpi. The concentrations of CRP, Hp and SAA significantly increased before specific antibodies were detected. Positive correlations were found between serum concentration of Hp and SAA and lung scores, and between clinical score and concentrations of Pig-MAP and SAA. The results of current study confirmed that monitoring of APP may revealed ongoing infection, and in this way may be useful in selecting clinically healthy pigs (i.e. before integration into an uninfected herd). Present results corroborated our previous findings that SAA could be a potentially useful indicator in experimental infection studies (e.g. vaccine efficiency investigations) or as a marker for disease severity, because of correlation

  1. GPCR desensitization: Acute and prolonged phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Sudarshan; Shenoy, Sudha K

    2018-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) transduce a wide array of extracellular signals and regulate virtually every aspect of physiology. While GPCR signaling is essential, overstimulation can be deleterious, resulting in cellular toxicity or uncontrolled cellular growth. Accordingly, nature has developed a number of mechanisms for limiting GPCR signaling, which are broadly referred to as desensitization, and refer to a decrease in response to repeated or continuous stimulation. Short-term desensitization occurs over minutes, and is primarily associated with β-arrestins preventing G protein interaction with a GPCR. Longer-term desensitization, referred to as downregulation, occurs over hours to days, and involves receptor internalization into vesicles, degradation in lysosomes and decreased receptor mRNA levels through unclear mechanisms. Phosphorylation of the receptor by GPCR kinases (GRKs) and the recruitment of β-arrestins is critical to both these short- and long-term desensitization mechanisms. In addition to phosphorylation, both the GPCR and β-arrestins are modified post-translationally in several ways, including by ubiquitination. For many GPCRs, receptor ubiquitination promotes degradation of agonist-activated receptors in the lysosomes. Other proteins also play important roles in desensitization, including phosphodiesterases, RGS family proteins and A-kinase-anchoring proteins. Together, this intricate network of kinases, ubiquitin ligases, and adaptor proteins orchestrate the acute and prolonged desensitization of GPCRs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuropsychological intervention in the acute phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Siert, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the effects of acute neuropsychological intervention for relatives of patients with severe brain injury. Participants were enrolled in an intervention group comprising 39 relatives, and a control group comprising 47 relatives. The intervention consisted of supportive.......0100.30), but also significantly lower Role Emotional scores (= 2.12 = 0.043, = 0.40). In the sub-acute setting, an analysis of covariance model showed a borderline significant difference between the intervention and the control group on the anxiety scale (= 0.066 = 0.59). Any effects of the acute neuropsychological...

  3. Neuropsychological intervention in the acute phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Siert, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study investigated the effects of acute neuropsychological intervention for relatives of patients with severe brain injury. Methods: Participants were enrolled in an intervention group comprising 39 relatives, and a control group comprising 47 relatives. The intervention...... = 0.59). Conclusion: Any effects of the acute neuropsychological intervention were limited. Further research is needed to explore the effects of different interventions in more homogenous and larger groups of relatives....

  4. CANVAS 1 and 2: analysis of clinical response at day 3 in two phase 3 trials of ceftaroline fosamil versus vancomycin plus aztreonam in treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, H David; O'Neal, Tanya; Biek, Donald; Eckburg, Paul B; Rank, Douglas R; Llorens, Lily; Smith, Alex; Witherell, Gary W; Laudano, Joseph B; Thye, Dirk

    2012-05-01

    Scientific and regulatory interest in assessing clinical endpoints after 48 to 72 h of treatment for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) has increased. Historical, pre-antibiotic-era data suggest that a treatment effect relative to untreated controls can be discerned in this time interval. Ceftaroline fosamil, a broad-spectrum bactericidal cephalosporin with activity against Gram-positive organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Gram-negative organisms was efficacious in two phase 3 trials of complicated skin infections (CANVAS 1 and 2) using clinical cure rates at the test-of-cure visit. To assess an early clinical response in the CANVAS trials, a retrospective analysis using a day 3 clinical endpoint was conducted. Adults with ABSSSI received intravenous ceftaroline fosamil at 600 mg every 12 h (q12h) or vancomycin at 1 g plus aztreonam at 1 g (V/A) q12h for 5 to 14 days. Clinical response at day 3, defined as cessation of infection spread and absence of fever, was analyzed in patients with a lesion size of ≥ 75 cm(2) and either deep and/or extensive cellulitis, major abscess, or an infected wound. Day 3 integrated CANVAS clinical response rates were 74.0% (296/400) for ceftaroline and 66.2% (263/397) for V/A (difference, 7.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3% to 14.0%). In the individual studies, absolute treatment differences of 9.4% (CANVAS 1) and 5.9% (CANVAS 2) favoring ceftaroline were observed. For ABSSSI due to MRSA, response rates were 81.7% and 77.4% in the ceftaroline and V/A groups, respectively. In this retrospective analysis, ceftaroline fosamil monotherapy had a numerically higher clinical response than V/A at day 3 in the treatment of ABSSSI.

  5. Dexamethasone treatment differentially alters viral shedding and the antibody and acute phase protein response after multivalent respiratory vaccination in beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to examine immunosuppression induced by dexamethasone (DEX) administration in cattle upon immunological responses to a multivalent respiratory vaccine containing replicating and non-replicating agents. Steers ( n = 32; 209 +/- 8 kg) seronegative to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis...

  6. Vaccination of pigs with attenuated Lawsonia intracellularis induced acute phase protein responses and primed cell-mediated immunity without reduction in bacterial shedding after challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Hvass, Henriette Cordes

    2015-01-01

    achievedby this vaccine. We therefore undertook a detailed characterization of immune responses to L. intracel-lularis infection in vaccinated pigs (VAC) compared to previously infected pigs (RE) in order to pinpointimmunological determinants of protection.Results: The VAC pigs shed L. intracellularis......nomically important diseases in modern pig production worldwide. The Enterisol®Ileitis vaccine havebeen shown to reduce clinical disease and to increase weight gain, however, while the natural infectionwith L. intracellularis can provide complete protection against re-infection, this has not been...... response was diminished and L. intracellularis specific IgG responseswere delayed and reduced compared to non-vaccinated pigs. On the other hand L. intracellularis specificIFN- responses tended to develop faster in the VAC group compared to controls.Conclusion: Although vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs...

  7. Limited Access to Food and Physiological Trade-Offs in a Long-Distance Migrant Shorebird. II. Constitutive Immune Function and the Acute-Phase Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buehler, Deborah M.; Encinas-Viso, Francisco; Petit, Magali; Vezina, Francois; Tieleman, B. Irene; Piersma, Theunis

    2009-01-01

    In response to unbalanced energy budgets, animals must allocate resources among competing physiological systems to maximize fitness. Constraints can be imposed on energy availability or energy expenditure, and adjustments can be made via changes in metabolism or trade-offs with competing demands

  8. Inclusion of anti-phospholipase A2 antibody to backgrounding diets on performance, feed efficiency, in vitro fermentation, and the acute-phase response of growing beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, V R G; Waters, K M; Marquezini, G H L; Henry, D D; Ciriaco, F M; Arthington, J D; DiLorenzo, N; Lamb, G C

    2015-01-01

    In Exp. 1, individual performance and daily DMI was measured on 70 crossbred weaned calves during a 70-d period using a GrowSafe system (GrowSafe Systems Ltd., Airdrie, AB, Canada) at the University of Florida North Florida Research and Education Center Feed Efficiency Facility (FEF). Calves were fed a low-concentrate (LC) growing diet, blocked by weight and sex, and then randomly assigned to pens to receive either no additional supplement (CON; n = 35) or receive a supplement of anti-phospholipase A2 antibody (aPLA2) at an inclusion rate of 0.6% of the diet DM (n = 35). After the 70-d feed efficiency (FE) trial (Phase 1), calves were loaded into a commercial livestock trailer and were driven for approximately 1,600 km during 24 h. Upon return to the FEF (Phase 2), calves were relocated to the same pens and groups and received the same diets and treatments for 28 d. Blood samples from each calf were collected on d 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 relative to initiation of transportation and were analyzed for determination of concentrations of plasma ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin. In Phase 1, initial BW (242.0 ± 3.7 kg; P = 0.92), BW at d 70 (313.0 ± 4.1 kg; P = 0.79), and ADG (1.01 ± 0.02 kg; P = 0.95) were similar between treatments. However, daily DMI was greater (P = 0.01) for CON (9.18 ± 0.15 kg) than aPLA2 (8.53 ± 0.15 kg). In addition, residual feed intake was greater (P = 0.002) for CON (0.389 ± 0.110 kg/d) than aPLA2 calves (-0.272 ± 0.110 kg/d). In Phase 2, after transportation, there were no differences between treatments on BW loss due to transportation shrink (26.0 ± 0.6 kg; P = 0.86), BW at d 28 (339.0 ± 4.1 kg; P = 0.72), ADG (1.28 ± 0.03 kg/d; P = 0.72), G:F (0.164 ± 0.004; P = 0.83), and concentrations of plasma haptoglobin (0.08 ± 0.02 mg/mL; P = 0.41). However, concentrations of plasma ceruloplasmin were greater (P calves (14.3 ± 0.3 mg/dL) compared to aPLA2 calves (13.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL). In Exp. 2, the effects of aPLA2 inclusion on LC and

  9. Acute Toxicity and Tumor Response in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer After Preoperative Chemoradiation Therapy With Shortening of the Overall Treatment Time Using Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy With Simultaneous Integrated Boost: A Phase 2 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    But-Hadzic, Jasna, E-mail: jbut@onko-i.si [Division of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Anderluh, Franc [Division of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Brecelj, Erik; Edhemovic, Ibrahim [Division of Surgery, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Secerov-Ermenc, Ajra; Hudej, Rihard; Jeromen, Ana [Division of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kozelj, Miran; Krebs, Bojan [Division of Surgery, University Medical Centre Maribor, Maribor (Slovenia); Oblak, Irena [Division of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Omejc, Mirko [Division of Surgery, University Medical Centre Lubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vogrin, Andrej [Division of Diagnostics, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Velenik, Vaneja [Division of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-12-01

    Background and Purpose: This phase 2 study investigated the efficacy and safety of preoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy with a simultaneous integrated boost (IMRT-SIB) without dose escalation, concomitant with standard capecitabine chemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 2014 and March 2015, 51 patients with operable stage II-III rectal adenocarcinoma received preoperative IMRT with pelvic dose of 41.8 Gy and simultaneously delivered 46.2 Gy to T2/3 and 48.4 Gy to T4 tumor in 22 fractions, concomitant with capecitabine, 825 mg/m{sup 2}/12 hours, including weekends. The primary endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR). Results: Fifty patients completed preoperative treatment according to the protocol, and 47 underwent surgical resection. The sphincter preservation rate for the low rectal tumors was 62%, and the resection margins were free in all but 1 patient. Decrease in tumor and nodal stage was observed in 32 (68%) and 39 (83%) patients, respectively, with pCR achieved in 12 (25.5%) patients. There were only 2 G ≥ 3 acute toxicities, with infectious enterocolitis in 1 patient and dermatitis over the sacral area caused by the bolus effect of the treatment table in the second patient. Conclusions: Preoperative IMRT-SIB without dose escalation is well tolerated, with a low acute toxicity profile, and can achieve a high rate of pCR and downstaging.

  10. Acute phase proteins as diagnostic markers in horses with colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina; Scheepers, Elrien; Sanz, Macarena

    2016-01-01

    Objective – To investigate the diagnostic potential of the concentrations of acute-phase proteins serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), and fibrinogen in blood and peritoneal fluid (PF) for differentiating horses within flammatory colic (entero-colitis and peritonitis) from those with surgical...... colic. Design – Prospective observational multicenter study. Setting – Two university referral hospitals. Animals – Horses referred for severe acute abdominal pain to Hospital 1 (n = 148) or Hospital 2 (n = 78). Intervention – Blood and PF samples collected at admission were used for acute-phase protein...... concentrations) did not improve the model. When validated in Hospital 2 data, the models had good integrity and diagnostic performance. Conclusions – Evaluation of SAA in serum improved the ability to differentiate horses with acute inflammatory colic requiring medical treatment from horses with colic requiring...

  11. Markers of iron status are associated with stage of pregnancy and acute-phase response, but not with parity among pregnant women in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kæstel, Pernille; Aaby, Peter; Ritz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    pregnancy. Using cut-off values for Fe deficiency as established in non-pregnant individuals, 52 % of the women had sTfR levels >2·3 mg/l, while only 25 % had serum ferritin levels 2·3 mg/l decreased to 47 % after adjustment for elevated serum CRP and ACT levels. On the contrary, the proportion of serum...... ferritin cut-offs since increased erythropoiesis is expected in response to increased plasma volume of pregnancy. The present study further underlines the need to adjust...

  12. B cell activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF behaves as an acute phase reactant in acute pancreatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Pongratz

    Full Text Available To determine if B cell activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF acts as an acute phase reactant and predicts severity of acute pancreatitis.40 patients with acute pancreatitis were included in this single center cohort pilot study. Whole blood and serum was analyzed on day of admission and nine consecutive days for BAFF, c-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, procalcitonin (PCT, and leucocyte numbers. Different severity Scores (Ranson, APACHE II, SAPS II, SAPS III and the clinical course of the patient (treatment, duration of stay, duration ICU were recorded.Serum BAFF correlates with CRP, an established marker of severity in acute pancreatitis at day of admission with a timecourse profil similar to IL-6 over the first nine days. Serum BAFF increases with Ranson score (Kruskal-Wallis: Chi2 = 10.8; p = 0.03 similar to CRP (Kruskal-Wallis: Chi2 = 9.4; p = 0.05 . Serum BAFF, IL-6, and CRP levels are elevated in patients that need intensive care for more than seven days and in patients with complicated necrotizing pancreatitis. Discriminant analysis and receiver operator characteristics show that CRP (wilks-lambda = 0.549; ROC: AUC 0.948 and BAFF (wilks-lambda = 0.907; ROC: AUC 0.843 serum levels at day of admission best predict severe necrotizing pancreatitis or death, outperforming IL-6, PCT, and number of leucocytes.This study establishes for the first time BAFF as an acute phase reactant with predictive value for the course of acute pancreatitis. BAFF outperforms established markers in acute pancreatitis, like IL-6 and PCT underscoring the important role of BAFF in the acute inflammatory response.

  13. B cell activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) behaves as an acute phase reactant in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongratz, Georg; Hochrinner, Hannah; Straub, Rainer H; Lang, Stefanie; Brünnler, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    To determine if B cell activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) acts as an acute phase reactant and predicts severity of acute pancreatitis. 40 patients with acute pancreatitis were included in this single center cohort pilot study. Whole blood and serum was analyzed on day of admission and nine consecutive days for BAFF, c-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), procalcitonin (PCT), and leucocyte numbers. Different severity Scores (Ranson, APACHE II, SAPS II, SAPS III) and the clinical course of the patient (treatment, duration of stay, duration ICU) were recorded. Serum BAFF correlates with CRP, an established marker of severity in acute pancreatitis at day of admission with a timecourse profil similar to IL-6 over the first nine days. Serum BAFF increases with Ranson score (Kruskal-Wallis: Chi2 = 10.8; p = 0.03) similar to CRP (Kruskal-Wallis: Chi2 = 9.4; p = 0.05 ). Serum BAFF, IL-6, and CRP levels are elevated in patients that need intensive care for more than seven days and in patients with complicated necrotizing pancreatitis. Discriminant analysis and receiver operator characteristics show that CRP (wilks-lambda = 0.549; ROC: AUC 0.948) and BAFF (wilks-lambda = 0.907; ROC: AUC 0.843) serum levels at day of admission best predict severe necrotizing pancreatitis or death, outperforming IL-6, PCT, and number of leucocytes. This study establishes for the first time BAFF as an acute phase reactant with predictive value for the course of acute pancreatitis. BAFF outperforms established markers in acute pancreatitis, like IL-6 and PCT underscoring the important role of BAFF in the acute inflammatory response.

  14. Systemic acute-phase reactants, C-reactive protein and haptoglobin, in adult periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    EBERSOLE, J L; MACHEN, R L; STEFFEN, M J; WILLMANN, D E

    1997-01-01

    Capture ELISAs with biotinylated monospecific antibodies were developed to detect both C-reactive protein (CRP) and haptoglobin (Hp) in serum of adult periodontitis (AP) patients and normal subjects. Each acute-phase reactant was significantly increased in serum from AP patients with CRP at 9.12 ±1.61 mg/l versus 2.17 ± 0.41 mg/l (P acute-phase reactants. The conclusions are that either these molecules are formed locally and distributed to the serum, or these presumably localized infections impact upon the systemic components of the host protective responses. PMID:9030874

  15. Acute phase proteins in dogs naturally infected with the Giant Kidney Worm (Dioctophyme renale)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Elizabeth M. S.; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Thomas, Funmilola

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dioctophyme renale is a nematode parasite of dogs, usually found in the right kidney, causing severe damage to the renal parenchyma. Objectives: The objective was to evaluate the acute phase response in dogs naturally infected with this Giant Kidney Worm and the possible effects...... of nephrectomy on circulating concentrations of select acute phase proteins (APP) such as serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and haptoglobin(HP). Methods: Nephrectomy was performed in infected dogs and the worms were collected for identification. Blood samples were taken 24 hours before surgery...

  16. Relation of antioxidants and acute-phase reactants in patients receiving hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadian, Fariba; Lessan-Pezeshki, Mahboob; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra; Kadkhodaie, Mehri; Seifi, Sepideh; Ahmadi, Farrokhlagha

    2007-07-01

    To investigate the oxidative stress and its association with antioxidants in patients on hemodialysis, we evaluated the levels of albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, vitamin E, glutathione, and total antioxidant capacity in these patients. In a cross-sectional study, we enrolled 25 patients on maintenance hemodialysis and measured the inflammatory and oxidative stress indicators consisting of the plasma concentrations of glutathione, vitamin E, and total antioxidant capacity. The acute-phase inflammatory response was assessed by determining the serum levels of CRP and albumin as well as the plasma level of ferritin. Antioxidants and acute-phase reactants in men and women and their association with age and their correlations with each other were analyzed. The mean age of the patients was 53.6 +/- 14.1 years (range, 29 to 70 years). They had been on hemodialysis for a mean duration of 4.66 +/- 5.08 years. There were no association of sex or age with the levels of antioxidants and acute-phase reactants. Plasma level of glutathione significantly correlated with CRP (r = 0.48; P = .01) and serum albumin (r = 0.42; P = .04). Duration of dialysis did not correlate with the antioxidants or acute-phase reactants. Although it is reasonable to see an association between acute-phase reactants and levels of antioxidants in patients on hemodialysis, we failed to show such a relation. It is recommended that other biomarkers of oxidative stress and their relation in patients with kidney failure be investigated.

  17. [The nutrition of acute phase in patients with metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Rie; Sebe, Mayu

    2016-03-01

    In this session, we describe the acute phase in patients with metabolic syndrome from two sides; acute disease that occurs higher in patients with metabolic syndrome such as colonary heart disease and stroke, and acute aggravation of diabetes such as diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome. The electrolyte imbalance is frequently detected in critical ill patients. It is reported that the extreme abnormalities of ionized calcium concentrations are independent predictors of mortality. In addition, from clinical database MIMIC-Ⅱ,calcium supplementation improves clinical outcome in intensive care unit patients. Although metabolic syndrome; lifestyle-related disease, is a chronic disease, the possibility of falling into acute disease by having it becomes very high and improvement of electrolyte imbalance, especially hypocalcaemia is expected to effective on clinical outcome.

  18. Usefulness of acute phase proteins for monitoring development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Serum levels of acute phase proteins (APP) have been used to diagnose and follow up treatment of liver diseases. This study was carried out to determine the usefulness of APP to predict development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among Hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers. Study design: In a prospective ...

  19. Effect of smoking on acute phase reactants, stress hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    which a range of circulating markers of inflammatory ac- tivity (acute phase reactants, stress hormones) and oxida- tive stress (vitamin C) have been measured and compared with clinical and radiographic indices of disease activity in newly-diagnosed, hospitalised patients with pulmonary. TB in relation to smoking history.

  20. S-40: Acute Phase Protein Increse in High Altitude Mountaineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Saka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available “Erciyes Tigers” are an elite group of high altitude climbers. They have been climbing ErciyesMountain (3500 m, in Kayseri, Turkey once a week at least for ten years. When they climb Erciyes in winter, they also take a snow bath. This study investigated the effects of regular high altitude climbing on the metabolic and hematological responses of mountaineers. Venous blood samples were taken to investigate hematological, biochemical parameters and some hormone values from 21 mountaineers and 16 healthy age-matched sedentary volunteers at resting condition. The neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L ratio was calculated. The N/L was associated with an increased risk of long-term mortality and it could provide a good measure of exercise stress and subsequent recovery. Most of the hematological and biochemical parameters i.e., erythrocyte, leukocyte, hemoglobin and hematocrit values did not change significantly. The neutrophil to lymphocyte (N/L ratio was significantly (p<0.04 decreased in the mountaineer compared with the sedentary group. Total protein (p<0.000 and albumin (0.001 were lower, while ferritin (p<0.04, creatine (p<0.03 and creatine phosphokinase levels (p<0.01 were higher in mountaineers. Our results show that regular high altitude climbing increased serum levels of some acute-phase proteins and these increments were not transient.

  1. Modulation of task-related cortical connectivity in the acute and subacute phase after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lisbeth Hoejkjaer; Zibrandtsen, Ivan Chrilles; Wienecke, Troels

    2018-01-01

    The functional relevance of cortical reorganisation post-stroke is still not well understood. In this study we investigated task-specific modulation of cortical connectivity between neural oscillations in key motor regions during the early phase after stroke. EEG and EMG recordings were examined...... from 15 patients and 18 controls during a precision grip task using the affected hand. Each patient attended two sessions in the acute and subacute phase (median of 3 & 34 days) post-stroke. Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for induced responses was used to investigate task-specific modulations......). Bayesian model selection favoured a fully connected model. A reduced coupling from SMA and intact M1 in the γ-band (31-48 Hz) to lesioned M1 in the β-band (15-30 Hz) was observed in patients in the acute phase compared to controls. Behavioral performance improved significantly in the subacute phase while...

  2. Acute phase reactants, challenge in the near future of animal production and veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruys, E; Toussaint, M J M; Upragarin, N; Van, Ederen A M; Adewuyi, A A; Candiani, D; Nguyen, T K A; Sabeckiene, J

    2005-10-01

    The future of acute phase proteins (APPs) in science is discussed in this paper. Many functions and associated pathological processes of APPs are unknown. Extrahepatic formation in local tissues needs attention. Local serum amyloid A (SAA) formation may be involved in deposition of AA-amyloid induced by conformational change of SAA resulting in amyloid formation, having tremendous food safety implications. Amyloidogenesis is enhanced in mouse fed beta pleated sheet-rich proteins. The local amyloid in joints of chicken and mammary corpora amylacea is discussed. Differences in glycosylation of glycoproteins among the APPs, as has been shown for alpha1-acid glycoprotein, have to be considered. More knowledge on the reactivity patterns may lead to implication of APPs in the diagnostics and staging of a disease. Calculation of an index from values of several acute phase variables increases the power of APPs in monitoring unhealthy individuals in animal populations. Vaccinations, just as infections in eliciting acute phase response seem to limit the profitability of vaccines because acute phase reactions are contra-productive in view of muscle anabolism. Interest is focused on amino acid patterns and vitamins in view of dietary nutrition effect on sick and convalescing animals. When inexpensive methodology such as liquid phase methods (nephelometry, turbidimetry) or protein array technology for rapid APP measurement is available, APPs have a future in routine diagnostics. Specific groups of patients may be screened or populations monitored by using APP.

  3. Acute phase reactants, challenge in the near future of animal production and veterinary medicine*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruys, E.; Toussaint, M.J.M.; Upragarin, N.; van Ederen, A.M.; Adewuyi, A.A.; Candiani, D.; Nguyen, T.K.A.; Sabeckiene (Balciute), J.

    2005-01-01

    The future of acute phase proteins (APPs) in science is discussed in this paper. Many functions and associated pathological processes of APPs are unknown. Extrahepatic formation in local tissues needs attention. Local serum amyloid A (SAA) formation may be involved in deposition of AA-amyloid induced by conformational change of SAA resulting in amyloid formation, having tremendous food safety implications. Amyloidogenesis is enhanced in mouse fed beta pleated sheet-rich proteins. The local amyloid in joints of chicken and mammary corpora amylacea is discussed. Differences in glycosylation of glycoproteins among the APPs, as has been shown for α1-acid glycoprotein, have to be considered. More knowledge on the reactivity patterns may lead to implication of APPs in the diagnostics and staging of a disease. Calculation of an index from values of several acute phase variables increases the power of APPs in monitoring unhealthy individuals in animal populations. Vaccinations, just as infections in eliciting acute phase response seem to limit the profitability of vaccines because acute phase reactions are contraproductive in view of muscle anabolism. Interest is focused on amino acid patterns and vitamins in view of dietary nutrition effect on sick and convalescing animals. When inexpensive methodology such as liquid phase methods (nephelometry, turbidimetry) or protein array technology for rapid APP measurement is available, APPs have a future in routine diagnostics. Specific groups of patients may be screened or populations monitored by using APP. PMID:16187407

  4. Targeted proteomics as a tool for porcine acute phase proteins measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marco-Ramell, Anna; Bassols, Anna; Bislev, Stine Lønnerup

    2013-01-01

    ) and there is recent evidence that they can be also considered as welfare markers (Giannetto et al., 2011). During an acute stress situation, the levels of some interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) are increased (Elenkov and Chrousos, 2002) and consequently the concentration of the APPs varies dramatically. In pigs...... the most important APPs include haptoglobin (Hp), C-reactive protein (CRP), the inter-α-inhibitor-heavy chain 4 (ITIH4, also called Pig major acute phase protein, or Pig-MAP), serum amyloid A (SAA) and apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I), but also other proteins are well known to mark the acute phase response......, as albumin, transferrin (Heegaard et al., 2011) and fetuin A (Brown et al., 1992)....

  5. Eccentric Exercise: Physiological Characteristics and Acute Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Jamie; Pearson, Simon; Ross, Angus; McGuigan, Mike

    2017-04-01

    An eccentric contraction involves the active lengthening of muscle under an external load. The molecular and neural mechanisms underpinning eccentric contractions differ from those of concentric and isometric contractions and remain less understood. A number of molecular theories have been put forth to explain the unexplained observations during eccentric contractions that deviate from the predictions of the established theories of muscle contraction. Postulated mechanisms include a strain-induced modulation of actin-myosin interactions at the level of the cross-bridge, the activation of the structural protein titin, and the winding of titin on actin. Accordingly, neural strategies controlling eccentric contractions also differ with a greater, and possibly distinct, cortical activation observed despite an apparently lower activation at the level of the motor unit. The characteristics of eccentric contractions are associated with several acute physiological responses to eccentrically-emphasised exercise. Differences in neuromuscular, metabolic, hormonal and anabolic signalling responses during, and following, an eccentric exercise bout have frequently been observed in comparison to concentric exercise. Subsequently, the high levels of muscular strain with such exercise can induce muscle damage which is rarely observed with other contraction types. The net result of these eccentric contraction characteristics and responses appears to be a novel adaptive signal within the neuromuscular system.

  6. Phase-shifted response of plasmonic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerkararyan, Khachatur V.; Yezekyan, Torgom S.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a quantum dipole emitter (QDE) illuminated by a resonant electromagnetic field and placed close to a metal nanostructure, whose response to the incident field is phase shifted by 3π/2 (-π/2). It is found that, due to the phase shift in a field scattered by the nanostruc......We analyze the dynamics of a quantum dipole emitter (QDE) illuminated by a resonant electromagnetic field and placed close to a metal nanostructure, whose response to the incident field is phase shifted by 3π/2 (-π/2). It is found that, due to the phase shift in a field scattered...

  7. Inferring cardiac phase response curve in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikovsky, Arkady; Kralemann, Bjoern; Fruehwirth, Matthias; Rosenblum, Michael; Kenner, Thomas; Schaefer, Jochen; Moser, Maximilian

    2014-03-01

    Characterizing properties of biological oscillators with phase response cirves (PRC) is one of main theoretical tools in neuroscience, cardio-respiratory physiology, and chronobiology. We present a technique that allows the extraction of the PRC from a non-invasive observation of a system consisting of two interacting oscillators, in this case heartbeat and respiration, in its natural environment and under free-running conditions. We use this method to obtain the phase coupling functions describing cardio-respiratory interactions and the phase response curve of 17 healthy humans. We show at which phase the cardiac beat is susceptible to respiratory drive and extract the respiratory-related component of heart rate variability. This non-invasive method of bivariate data analysis for the determination of phase response curves of coupled oscillators may find application in other biological and physical systems.

  8. The value of acute phase reactants in predicting preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, Salih; Ozaksit, Gulnur; Biberoglu, Ebru Hacer; Oskovi, Asli; Kirbas, Ayse

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to determine the potential value of maternal serum levels of acute phase reactants in the prediction of preterm delivery in women with threatened preterm labor (TPL). Ninety-one pregnant women diagnosed with TPL and 83 healthy pregnant women as a control group were included in this prospective controlled study. All the pregnant women were followed until delivery and obstetric data and the serum levels of acute phase reactants were recorded for each participant. The study group was further divided into two groups according to the gestational age at delivery, which include women delivering prematurely and the ones who gave birth at term. Serum albumin levels were significantly lower and mean serum ferritin levels were significantly higher in the study groups when compared the control group. Although an association between decreased serum albumin level and TPL, also between increased serum ferritin levels and preterm birth and low birth weight were demonstrated, more extensive studies are needed to clarify the potential use of the acute phase reactants in the prediction of preterm birth.

  9. Acute hormonal responses in elite junior weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, W J; Fry, A C; Warren, B J; Stone, M H; Fleck, S J; Kearney, J T; Conroy, B P; Maresh, C M; Weseman, C A; Triplett, N T

    1992-02-01

    To date, no published studies have demonstrated resistance exercise-induced increases in serum testosterone in adolescent males. Furthermore, few data are available on the effects of training experience and lifting performance on acute hormonal responses to weightlifting in young males. Twenty-eight junior elite male Olympic-style weightlifters (17.3 +/- 1.4 yrs) volunteered for the study. An acute weightlifting exercise protocol using moderate to high intensity loads and low volume, characteristic of many weightlifting training sessions, was examined. The exercise protocol was directed toward the training associated with the snatch lift weightlifting exercise. Blood samples were obtained from a superficial arm vein at 7 a.m. (for baseline measurements), and again at pre-exercise, 5 min post-, and 15 min post-exercise time points for determination of serum testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone, plasma beta-endorphin, and whole blood lactate. The exercise protocol elicited significant (p less than or equal to 0.05) increases in each of the hormones and whole blood lactate compared to pre-exercise measures. While not being significantly older, subsequent analysis revealed that subjects with greater than 2 years training experience exhibited significant exercise-induced increases in serum testosterone from pre-exercise to 5 min post-exercise (16.2 +/- 6.2 to 21.4 +/- 7.9 nmol.l-1), while those with less than or equal to 2 years training showed no significant serum testosterone differences. None of the other hormones or whole blood lactate appear to be influenced by training experience.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Modeling the Dynamics of Acute Phase Protein Expression in Human Hepatoma Cells Stimulated by IL-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaobin Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is a systemic inflammatory mediator that triggers the human body’s acute phase response to trauma or inflammation. Although mathematical models for IL-6 signaling pathways have previously been developed, reactions that describe the expression of acute phase proteins were not included. To address this deficiency, a recent model of IL-6 signaling was extended to predict the dynamics of acute phase protein expression in IL-6-stimulated HepG2 cells (a human hepatoma cell line. This included reactions that describe the regulation of haptoglobin, fibrinogen, and albumin secretion by nuclear transcription factors STAT3 dimer and C/EBPβ. This new extended model was validated against two different sets of experimental data. Using the validated model, a sensitivity analysis was performed to identify seven potential drug targets to regulate the secretion of haptoglobin, fibrinogen, and albumin. The drug-target binding kinetics for these seven targets was then integrated with the IL-6 kinetic model to rank them based upon the influence of their pairing with drugs on acute phase protein dynamics. It was found that gp80, JAK, and gp130 were the three most promising drug targets and that it was possible to reduce the therapeutic dosage by combining drugs aimed at the top three targets in a cocktail. These findings suggest hypotheses for further experimental investigation.

  11. Occupational exposure levels of bioaerosol components are associated with serum levels of the acute phase protein Serum Amyloid A in greenhouse workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Thilsing, Trine; Bælum, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to particles may be associated with increased inflammation of the airways. Animal experiments suggest that inhaled particles also induce a pulmonary acute phase response, leading to systemic circulation of acute phase proteins. Greenhouse workers are exposed to e...

  12. Acute phase protein response during acute ruminal acidosis in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, A. M.; Thoefner, M. B.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2011-01-01

    acids. In humans, inflammation has been linked to metabolic diseases. In cattle, studies into the possible links between acid-base changes, inflammation/innate immunity and metabolic disease are warranted as this might improve our understanding of the production disease complexes occurring in particular...

  13. Acute phase proteins in bovine milk in an experimental model of Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckersall, P D; Young, F J; Nolan, A M

    2006-01-01

    -SAA3 in mammary tissues was determined using immunocytochemistry. Increases of M-SAA3 and Hp in milk occurred within 12 h of Staphylococcus aureus infusion, with peak concentrations occurring 3 d after infusion of the bacteria. The increase of acute phase proteins in milk (15 h) preceded the increase......, may play a significant role in the early response to invasion of mammary tissues by pathogenic bacteria....

  14. Acute cholecystitis: two-phase spiral CT finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Eung Young; Yoon, Myung Hwan; Yang, Dal Mo; Chun Seok; Bae, Jun Gi; Kim, Hak Soo; Kim, Hyung Sik [Chungang Ghil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    To describe the two-phase spiral CT findings of acute cholecystitis. Materials and Methods : CT scans of nine patients with surgically-proven acute cholecystitis were retrospectively reviewed for wall thickening, enhancement pattern of the wall, attenuation of the liver adjacent to the gallbladder, gallstones,gallbladder distension, gas collection within the gallbladder, pericholecystic fluid and infiltration of pericholecystic fat. Results : In all cases, wall thickening of the gallbladder was seen, though this was more distinct on delayed images, Using high-low-high attenuation, one layer was seen in five cases, nd three layers in four. On arterial images, eight cases showed transient focal increased attenuation of the liver adjacent to the gall bladder;four of these showed curvilinear attenuation and four showed subsegmental attenuation. One case showed curvilinear decreased attenuation between increased attenuation of the liver and the gallbladder, and during surgery, severe adhesion between the liver and gallbladder was confirmed. Additional CT findings were infiltration of pericholecystic fat (n=9), gallstones (n=7), gallbladder distension (n=6), pericholecystic fluid(n=3), and gas collection within the gallbladder (n=2). Conclusion : In patients with acute cholecystitis,two-phase spiral CT revealed wall thickening in one or three layers ; on delayed images this was more distinct. In many cases, arterial images showed transient focal increased attenuation of the liver adjacent to the gallbladder.

  15. Clinical Response of Tedizolid versus Linezolid in Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections by Severity Measure Using a Pooled Analysis from Two Phase 3 Double-Blind Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandison, Taylor; De Anda, Carisa; Fang, Edward; Das, Anita F; Prokocimer, Philippe

    2017-05-01

    Tedizolid phosphate is approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). In a pooled analysis of 1,333 ABSSSI patients from the ESTABLISH clinical trials, treatment with tedizolid or linezolid demonstrated similar early and posttherapy clinical responses in nonsevere and severe disease, irrespective of the parameters used to measure ABSSSI severity. Shorter 6-day treatment of ABSSSI, including those that were severe, with tedizolid phosphate demonstrated efficacy comparable to that of 10-day treatment with linezolid. (The ESTABLISH studies discussed in this paper have been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifiers NCT01170221 and NCT01421511.). Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Acute stress responses in Chinese soldiers performing various military tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Peng; Zhang, Tengxiao; Miao, Danmin; Zhu, Xia

    2014-01-01

    Background To examine Chinese soldiers’ acute stress responses, we did this study. Methods The soldiers completed the Acute Stress Response Scale (ASRS) when engaged in major tasks, such as earthquake rescue in Wenchuan, Sichuan, and maintaining social stability in Urumchi, Xinjiang. The ASRS has good reliability and validity. The study enrolled 1,832 male soldiers. Results The results showed significant differences among five dimensions and the overall response index when comparing four dive...

  17. Acute phase reactants predict mitral regurgitation following mitral valvuloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, S; Rajeev, E; Tharakan, Jaganmohan A; Thomas, Titus; Ajith, Kumar; Sivasankaran, S; Krishnamoorthy, K M; Santhosh, Dora; Krishnakumar, Nair; Namboodiri, K K N

    2006-09-10

    This report evaluated whether acute phase reactants can predict the development of mitral regurgitation following percutaneous mitral valvotomy. 58 patients who developed significant mitral regurgitation following valvotomy were retrospectively compared with 58 age, sex and procedure technique matched control patients, who had valvotomy without mitral regurgitation. ESR and total leucocyte count were significantly higher in the group who developed mitral regurgitation, than in the control group. Higher ESR and total leucocyte count may be indicative of ongoing low grade sub-clinical inflammatory process, which makes the valve tissue friable which can give way during balloon stretch and lead onto mitral regurgitation.

  18. The Acute Phase of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Is Attenuated in 5-Lipoxygenase-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M. C. Canavaci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we examine the contribution of 5-lipoxygenase- (5-LO- derived lipid mediators to immune responses during the acute phase of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in 5-LO gene knockout (5-LO−/− mice and wild-type (WT mice. Compared with WT mice, the 5-LO−/− mice developed less parasitemia/tissue parasitism, less inflammatory cell infiltrates, and a lower mortality. This resistance of 5-LO−/− mice correlated with several differences in the immune response to infection, including reduced PGE2 synthesis; sustained capacity of splenocytes to produce high levels of interleukin (IL-12 early in the infection; enhanced splenocyte production of IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ; rapid T-cell polarization to secrete high quantities of IFN-γ and low quantities of IL-10; and greater numbers of CD8+CD44highCD62Llow memory effector T cells at the end of the acute phase of infection. The high mortality in WT mice was associated with increased production of LTB4/LTC4, T cell bias to produce IFN-γ, high levels of serum nitrite, and marked protein extravasation into the peritoneal cavity, although survival was improved by treatment with a cys-LT receptor 1 antagonist. These data also provide evidence that 5-LO-derived mediators negatively affect host survival during the acute phase of T. cruzi infection.

  19. Circulating microbial products and acute phase proteins as markers of pathogenesis in lymphatic filarial disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Anuradha

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis can be associated with development of serious pathology in the form of lymphedema, hydrocele, and elephantiasis in a subset of infected patients. Dysregulated host inflammatory responses leading to systemic immune activation are thought to play a central role in filarial disease pathogenesis. We measured the plasma levels of microbial translocation markers, acute phase proteins, and inflammatory cytokines in individuals with chronic filarial pathology with (CP Ag+ or without (CP Ag- active infection; with clinically asymptomatic infections (INF; and in those without infection (endemic normal [EN]. Comparisons between the two actively infected groups (CP Ag+ compared to INF and those without active infection (CP Ag- compared to EN were used preliminarily to identify markers of pathogenesis. Thereafter, we tested for group effects among all the four groups using linear models on the log transformed responses of the markers. Our data suggest that circulating levels of microbial translocation products (lipopolysaccharide and LPS-binding protein, acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid protein-A, and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-12, and TNF-α are associated with pathogenesis of disease in lymphatic filarial infection and implicate an important role for circulating microbial products and acute phase proteins.

  20. Acute stress responses in Chinese soldiers performing various military tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peng; Zhang, Tengxiao; Miao, Danmin; Zhu, Xia

    2014-01-01

    To examine Chinese soldiers' acute stress responses, we did this study. The soldiers completed the Acute Stress Response Scale (ASRS) when engaged in major tasks, such as earthquake rescue in Wenchuan, Sichuan, and maintaining social stability in Urumchi, Xinjiang. The ASRS has good reliability and validity. The study enrolled 1,832 male soldiers. The results showed significant differences among five dimensions and the overall response index when comparing four diverse military tasks. Further analysis found that reduced work efficiency and 24 symptom clusters were significantly positively correlated. The acute stress response of soldiers performing various tasks was influenced by many factors, including the task characteristics and external factors. In addition, the acute stress response affected their work efficiency.

  1. Pig-MAP, porcine acute phase proteins and standardisation of assays in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alava, M.A.; Gonzalez-Ramon, N.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    1997-01-01

    for the presence of infectious, inflammatory and pathological lesions in animals. The ability to monitor the APP concentration in serum of pigs will improve the quality and safety of the meat produced as well as provide important diagnostic information for animal health and welfare. The serum concentration of APP......The pattern of plasma proteins changes greatly following infection, inflammation or tissue injury. The concentration of some proteins referred to as acute phase proteins (APPs) significantly increases within hours or days after the onset of these processes. In contrast, the concentration of other...... proteins, such as albumin (Alb), called negative acute phase proteins, decreases. APPs have been extensively studied in man and rat, but less so in other species. In recent work, the APPs have been characterised in pigs in response to inflammation following turpentine injection. The concentrations of C...

  2. Physical anhedonia in the acute phase of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petridou Eleni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current study is to investigate the relationship between physical anhedonia and psychopathological parameters, pharmacological parameters or motor side-effects in a sample of inpatients with schizophrenia in an acute episode of their illness. Method Eighty one patients with schizophrenia, consecutively admitted, with an acute episode of their illness, at the Eginition Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, University of Athens, during a one-year period were investigated regarding possible relationships between physical anhedonia, social-demographic data and clinical parameters as well as motor side-effects, induced by antipsychotic agents. All patients were assessed using the Chapman Revised Physical Anhedonia Scale (RPAS, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, the Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side-Effects (EPSE, the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS. Simple cross tabulations were initially employed. Subsequently, multiple regression analysis was performed. Results Both positive and negative symptoms were associated with physical anhedonia. A positive association between physical anhedonia and the non-paranoid sub-category of schizophrenia was also proved. Conclusion According to these results, it seems that in the acute phase of schizophrenia, physical anhedonia may be a contributing factor to patient's psychopathology.

  3. Impact of Polyphenol Supplementation on Acute and Chronic Response to Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kyle S; Stout, Jeffrey R; Fukuda, David H; Jajtner, Adam R; Townsend, Jeremy R; Church, David D; Wang, Ran; Riffe, Joshua J; Muddle, Tyler W D; Herrlinger, Kelli A; Hoffman, Jay R

    2017-11-01

    Beyer, KS, Stout, JR, Fukuda, DH, Jajtner, AR, Townsend, JR, Church, DD, Wang, R, Riffe, JJ, Muddle, TWD, Herrlinger, KA, and Hoffman, JR. Impact of polyphenol supplementation on acute and chronic response to resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 2945-2954, 2017-This study investigated the effect of a proprietary polyphenol blend (PPB) on acute and chronic adaptations to resistance exercise. Forty untrained men were assigned to control, PPB, or placebo. Participants in PPB or placebo groups completed a 4-week supplementation period (phase I), an acute high-volume exercise bout (phase II), and a 6-week resistance training program (phase III); whereas control completed only testing during phase II. Blood draws were completed during phases I and II. Maximal strength in squat, leg press, and leg extension were assessed before and after phase III. The exercise protocol during phase II consisted of squat, leg press, and leg extension exercises using 70% of the participant's strength. The resistance training program consisted of full-body exercises performed 3 d·wk. After phase I, PPB (1.56 ± 0.48 mM) had greater total antioxidant capacity than placebo (1.00 ± 0.90 mM). Changes in strength from phase III were similar between PPB and placebo. Polyphenol blend supplementation may be an effective strategy to increase antioxidant capacity without limiting strength gains from training.

  4. Phase-shifting response to light in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Jae; Benloucif, Susan; Reid, Kathryn Jean; Weintraub, Sandra; Kennedy, Nancy; Wolfe, Lisa F; Zee, Phyllis C

    2014-01-01

    Age-related changes in circadian rhythms may contribute to the sleep disruption observed in older adults. A reduction in responsiveness to photic stimuli in the circadian timing system has been hypothesized as a possible reason for the advanced circadian phase in older adults. This project compared phase-shifting responses to 2 h of broad-spectrum white light at moderate and high intensities in younger and older adults. Subjects included 29 healthy young (25.1 ± 4.1 years; male to female ratio: 8: 21) and 16 healthy older (66.5 ± 6.0 years; male to female ratio: 5: 11) subjects, who participated in two 4-night and 3-day laboratory stays, separated by at least 3 weeks. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three different time-points, 8 h before (-8), 3 h before (-3) or 3 h after (+3) the core body temperature minimum (CBTmin) measured on the baseline night. For each condition, subjects were exposed in a randomized order to 2 h light pulses of two intensities (2000 lux and 8000 lux) during the two different laboratory stays. Phase shifts were analysed according to the time of melatonin midpoint on the nights before and after light exposure. Older subjects in this study showed an earlier baseline phase and lower amplitude of melatonin rhythm compared to younger subjects, but there was no evidence of age-related changes in the magnitude or direction of phase shifts of melatonin midpoint in response to 2 h of light at either 2000 lux or 8000 lux. These results indicate that the acute phase-shifting response to moderate- or high-intensity broad spectrum light is not significantly affected by age.

  5. Routine exercise alters measures of immunity and the acute phase reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, P L; West, N P; Pyne, D B; Koerbin, G; Lehtinen, S J; Fricker, P A; Cripps, A W

    2015-02-01

    To expand our understanding of the overall anti-inflammatory nature of routine exercise; we compared resting blood values from adults who habitually undertake frequent, moderate levels of exercise to reference interval values assumed to reflect values largely from non-exercisers. This information would be useful for clinicians interpreting blood tests assessing inflammatory, immune and acute phase responses. Blood samples were collected from 119 community adult self-reported routine exercisers (61 males and 58 females aged 18-60 years). Samples were analysed for 20 cellular and non-cellular biomarkers which included 11 immunological and 9 acute phase reactants. These data were compared to reference intervals from the same hospital laboratory that performed the analyses on our participants' samples. Individual analyte values were also compared with participants' self-reported 150 day exercise patterns which included exercise frequency, intensity and duration. In general, mean values for routine exercise participants fell at the lower end of laboratory reference interval for most inflammatory analytes. More than 10 % of participants had numbers of CD19(+), CD8(+) and 16/56(+) NK cells below the low end of the respective reference interval. More than 10 % of observed acute phase reactant values (for C3, haptoglobin and ferritin) were also below the low end of the reference interval. At rest IgM (r = -0.22) and IgG (r = -0.31) values correlated negatively (p acute phase reactants. These wide-ranging systemic effects are presumably adaptive changes, not pathology and collectively confirm the well-reported and clinically important anti-inflammatory effects of exercise.

  6. Serum amyloid A3 is a high density lipoprotein-associated acute-phase protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannock, Lisa R; De Beer, Maria C; Ji, Ailing; Shridas, Preetha; Noffsinger, Victoria P; den Hartigh, Laura; Chait, Alan; De Beer, Frederick C; Webb, Nancy R

    2018-02-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a family of acute-phase reactants. Plasma levels of human SAA1/SAA2 (mouse SAA1.1/2.1) can increase ≥1,000-fold during an acute-phase response. Mice, but not humans, express a third relatively understudied SAA isoform, SAA3. We investigated whether mouse SAA3 is an HDL-associated acute-phase SAA. Quantitative RT-PCR with isoform-specific primers indicated that SAA3 and SAA1.1/2.1 are induced similarly in livers (∼2,500-fold vs. ∼6,000-fold, respectively) and fat (∼400-fold vs. ∼100-fold, respectively) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected mice. In situ hybridization demonstrated that all three SAAs are produced by hepatocytes. All three SAA isoforms were detected in plasma of LPS-injected mice, although SAA3 levels were ∼20% of SAA1.1/2.1 levels. Fast protein LC analyses indicated that virtually all of SAA1.1/2.1 eluted with HDL, whereas ∼15% of SAA3 was lipid poor/free. After density gradient ultracentrifugation, isoelectric focusing demonstrated that ∼100% of plasma SAA1.1 was recovered in HDL compared with only ∼50% of SAA2.1 and ∼10% of SAA3. Thus, SAA3 appears to be more loosely associated with HDL, resulting in lipid-poor/free SAA3. We conclude that SAA3 is a major hepatic acute-phase SAA in mice that may produce systemic effects during inflammation. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Procalcitonin beyond the acute phase: novel biomediator properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, Carolina; Nylen, Eric

    2013-08-28

    Since inflammation has been linked to carcinogenic events, discovery of relevant biomarkers may have important preventative implications. Procalcitonin (ProCT) has been shown to be an important prognostic biomarker in severe inflammatory conditions, but there is no data regarding its biomarker role, if any, beyond the acute phase. In a recent study published in BMC Medicine, Cotoi et al. analyzed whether serum ProCT levels in healthy individuals are associated with mortality outcomes. The results are affirmative in that baseline ProCT was shown to be strongly and independently associated with all-cause and cancer mortality and with the incidence of colon cancer in men. By contrast, the study indicated that high sensitivity C-reactive protein was independently associated with cardiovascular mortality but not with cancer mortality in men. Thus, baseline levels of ProCT appear to have prognostic biomarker implications potentially related to its emerging biomediator action(s).

  8. An accurate two-phase approximate solution to the acute viral infection model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perelson, Alan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    During an acute viral infection, virus levels rise, reach a peak and then decline. Data and numerical solutions suggest the growth and decay phases are linear on a log scale. While viral dynamic models are typically nonlinear with analytical solutions difficult to obtain, the exponential nature of the solutions suggests approximations can be found. We derive a two-phase approximate solution to the target cell limited influenza model and illustrate the accuracy using data and previously established parameter values of six patients infected with influenza A. For one patient, the subsequent fall in virus concentration was not consistent with our predictions during the decay phase and an alternate approximation is derived. We find expressions for the rate and length of initial viral growth in terms of the parameters, the extent each parameter is involved in viral peaks, and the single parameter responsible for virus decay. We discuss applications of this analysis in antiviral treatments and investigating host and virus heterogeneities.

  9. Resposta de fase aguda e níveis séricos de magnésio em pacientes hospitalizados Acute phase response and serum magnesium levels among hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. da Cunha

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A resposta de fase aguda (RFA, caracteriza-se por proteólise, com hipotrofia da massa celular corporal, hiperglicemia, retenção hídrica e disfunção renal, fenômenos que potencialmente afetam os níveis de magnésio (Mg++ sérico. O objetivo do estudo foi comparar os níveis séricos de Mg++ entre pacientes hospitalizados, com ou sem RFA. MÉTODOS: Obteve-se um banco de dados do mainframe do Hospital-Escola contendo informações sobre dosagens bioquímicas simultâneas de creatinina, glicose e magnésio e outros eletrólitos séricos de 214 pacientes internados, sem diabetes mellitus, insuficiência renal crônica ou creatinina sérica > 1,5mg/dl. A presença de RFA foi definida pela presença de febre mais diagnósticos de trauma, cirurgia recente ou infecção, além de leucopenia ou leucocitose. RESULTADOS: Dos casos, 32,2% foram considerados RFAÅ. Não houve diferença entre os grupos quanto à idade, gênero e cor. Houve pareamento entre os grupos RFAÅ e RFAteta quanto à freqüência de uso de diuréticos (10,1 vs 11,7% e presença de edema (3 vs 6%. Hipomagnesemia ocorreu em 154 casos (72% do total, sendo 75,9% no grupo RFAteta e 63,8% no grupo RFAÅ(p=0,06. Os níveis de Mg++ (mediana; faixa de variação foram maiores no grupo RFAÅ: (1,75; 1-3 vs 1,6; 0,9-2,9mg/dl, o mesmo ocorrendo com a glicemia (115; 49-236 vs 99; 61-191mg/dl e creatinina sérica (0,884 ± 0,306 vs 0,803 ± 0,257mg/dl. Hipermagnesemia foi mais comum no grupo RFAÅ: 8,7 vs 2,1%. CONCLUSÕES: Pacientes RFAÅ apresentam maiores níveis de magnésio sérico, fenômeno possivelmente relacionado com aumentos da glicemia, uréia e creatinina séricas.The acute phase response (APR is characterized by proteolysis with decreased body cell mass, hyperglycemia, body water retention and renal dysfunction, which we hypothesised could affect magnesium serum levels. The aim of this study was to compare serum magnesium levels among hospitalized patients with or

  10. The Acute Inflammatory Response in Trauma / Hemorrhage and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traumatic injury/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) elicits an acute inflammatory response that may result in death. Inflammation describes a coordinated series of molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, and systemic responses that drive the pathology of various diseases including T/HS and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Inflammation is a ...

  11. Complete two-dimensional gel electrophoresis pattern of de novo synthesized acute phase reactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluschke, G; Jenni, L; van Alphen, L; Lefkovits, I

    1986-01-01

    The early stages of inflammatory responses are characterized by the rapid synthesis of a heterogenous group of plasma proteins known as acute phase reactants. We show that the complex changes in the serum protein composition of mice in response to infections can easily be analysed by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis, which allows simultaneous analysis of numerous proteins from small volume samples. While changes in the protein composition can be visualized by silver staining, radiofluorography of gels loaded with serum samples from mice that had been labelled in vivo with 35S-methionine allows an analysis of the changes in the pattern of protein synthesis. Thus, these techniques should allow the evaluation of the relative contributions of alterations of protein synthesis and catabolism to the changes in the overall concentration of individual acute phase reactants. Identification of proteins in the 2 D gel pattern can be easily accomplished by co-electrophoresing small serum samples together with immunoprecipitates obtained from in-vivo labelled serum. Using this approach we were able to identify some of the major acute phase reactants of mice. Some of these proteins, like haptoglobin and haemopexin, show concentration increases that are characteristic for type III reactants like C-reactive protein (CRP) or serum amyloid A component (SAA) in man. Results obtained with serum from healthy and infected human newborns indicate that 2D gel electrophoresis could be used to analyse changes in human plasma protein profiles, which would make it a valuable tool for diagnosis and management in certain clinical situations. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:2434273

  12. Involvement of activated leukocytes in the regulation of plasma levels of acute phase proteins in microgravity simulation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna; Turin-Kuzmin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Earth-based studies of microgravity effects showed the induction of the mechanisms of acute phase reaction (APR). APR comprises the transition of stress-sensitive protein kinases of macrophages and other responsive cells into the active state and the phosphorylation of transcription factors which in turn stimulate the production of acute-phase reaction cytokines. Leukocyte activation is accompanied by the acceleration of the formation of oxygen radicals which can serve a functional indice of leukocyte cell state. The series of events at acute phase response result in selective changes in the synthesis of a number of secretory blood proteins (acute phase proteins, APPs) in liver cells thus contributing the recovery of homeostasis state in the organism. Earlier experiment with head-down tilt showed the increase in plasma concentrations of two cytokine mediators of acute phase response, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) being the outcome of the activation of producer cells, foremost, leukocytes. In experiment with 4-day dry immersion chemiluminescent (ChL) reply of the whole blood samples to a test stimulus were studied along with the measurements of plasma levels of APPs, namely, alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT), alpha1-acid glycoprotein (alpha1-AGP), alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2-M), ceruloplasmin (Cer), haptoglobin (Hp), C3-complement component (C3), C-reactive protein (CRP). Eight individuals aged 21.2 ± 3.2 years were the test subjects in the investigation. Protein studies showed a noticeable increase in the mean plasma levels of all APPs measured in experiment thus producing the evidence of the activation of acute phase response mechanisms while individual patterns revealed variability during the immersion period. The overall trends were similar to these in the previous immersion series. The augment in the strength of signal in stimulated light emission tests was higher after 1- and 2-day of immersion exposure than before the

  13. Melatonin modulates the fetal cardiovascular defense response to acute hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakor, Avnesh S; Allison, Beth J; Niu, Youguo; Botting, Kimberley J; Serón-Ferré, Maria; Herrera, Emilio A; Giussani, Dino A

    2015-08-01

    Experimental studies in animal models supporting protective effects on the fetus of melatonin in adverse pregnancy have prompted clinical trials in human pregnancy complicated by fetal growth restriction. However, the effects of melatonin on the fetal defense to acute hypoxia, such as that which may occur during labor, remain unknown. This translational study tested the hypothesis, in vivo, that melatonin modulates the fetal cardiometabolic defense responses to acute hypoxia in chronically instrumented late gestation fetal sheep via alterations in fetal nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Under anesthesia, 6 fetal sheep at 0.85 gestation were instrumented with vascular catheters and a Transonic flow probe around a femoral artery. Five days later, fetuses were exposed to acute hypoxia with or without melatonin treatment. Fetal blood was taken to determine blood gas and metabolic status and plasma catecholamine concentrations. Hypoxia during melatonin treatment was repeated during in vivo NO blockade with the NO clamp. This technique permits blockade of de novo synthesis of NO while compensating for the tonic production of the gas, thereby maintaining basal cardiovascular function. Melatonin suppressed the redistribution of blood flow away from peripheral circulations and the glycemic and plasma catecholamine responses to acute hypoxia. These are important components of the fetal brain sparing response to acute hypoxia. The effects of melatonin involved NO-dependent mechanisms as the responses were reverted by fetal treatment with the NO clamp. Melatonin modulates the in vivo fetal cardiometabolic responses to acute hypoxia by increasing NO bioavailability. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Acute phase inflammatory markers in patients with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)-induced acute urticaria/angioedema and after aspirin challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperska-Zając, A; Grzanka, A; Czecior, E; Misiolek, M; Rogala, B; Machura, E

    2013-08-01

    Active chronic urticaria, identified as a mast cell- and basophil-dependent inflammatory disorder of the skin is able to elicit acute phase response (APR). However, systemic inflammatory response in different types of urticaria is poorly characterized. To determine APR pattern in a clearly defined group of patients with acute urticaria and/or angioedema - induced by NSAIDs. Plasma IL-6 and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations were studied in 17 patients with NSAIDs-induced acute urticaria/angioedema (NSAIDsAU) and in 20 healthy controls. Eleven patients who used NSAIDs were presented at the emergency room with acute urticaria/angioedema while the remaining six manifested the symptoms during the aspirin challenge test. Patients were examined in a dynamic manner: during the acute phase, and next, after subsidence of the symptoms. CRP and IL-6 concentrations increased significantly in patients with NSAIDsAU as compared with their asymptomatic period and the healthy subjects. In addition, NSAIDsAU patients showed elevated concentration of the biomarkers following aspirin provocation with the baseline values recovered in the asymptomatic period. These results indicate that an acute systemic inflammatory response is activated in patients with NSAIDs-induced urticaria and/or angioedema. The study supports the evidence proving that up-regulation of CRP and IL-6 in urticaria/angioedema does not necessarily reflect any concomitant infection or other inflammatory processes, but may be due to the disease itself. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  15. Serum acute phase reactants hallmark healthy individuals at risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlak, Jürgen; Chatterji, Bijon; Londhe, Kishor B; Watkins, Paul B

    2013-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a commonly used analgesic. However, its use is associated with drug-induced liver injury (DILI). It is a prominent cause of acute liver failure, with APAP hepatotoxicity far exceeding other causes of acute liver failure in the United States. In order to improve its safe use this study aimed to identify individuals at risk for DILI prior to drug treatment by searching for non-genetic serum markers in healthy subjects susceptible to APAP-induced liver injury (AILI). Healthy volunteers (n = 36) received either placebo or acetaminophen at the maximum daily dose of 4 g for 7 days. Blood samples were taken prior to and after APAP treatment. Serum proteomic profiling was done by 2D SDS-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry. Additionally, the proteins C-reactive protein, haptoglobin and hemopexin were studied by quantitative immunoassays. One-third of study subjects presented more than four-fold increased alanine transaminase activity to evidence liver injury, while serum proteomics informed on 20 proteins as significantly regulated. These function primarily in acute phase and immune response. Pre-treatment associations included C-reactive protein, haptoglobin isoforms and retinol binding protein being up to six-fold higher in AILI susceptible individuals, whereas alpha1-antitrypsin, serum amyloid A, kininogen and transtyretin were regulated by nearly five-fold in AILI responders. When compared with published findings for steatohepatitis and cases of hepatocellular, cholestatic and mixed DILI, 10 proteins were identified as uniquely associated with risk for AILI, including plasminogen. Notably, this zymogen facilitates macrophage chemotactic migration and inflammatory response as reported for plasminogen-deficient mice shown to be resistant to APAP hepatotoxicity. Finally, analysis of a publicly available database of gene expression profiles of cultures of human hepatocytes treated with drugs

  16. [Acute inflammation phase reactants and interleukin-8 in myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorin, N A; Podkhomutnikov, V M; Iankin, M Iu; Zorina, V N; Arkhipova, S V; Riabicheva, T G

    2009-04-01

    The study was undertaken to search for additional diagnostic criteria allowing the depth of myocardial damage to be estimated in males aged 57.2 +/- 9.6 years. Few interrelated acute phase reaction indices, including the levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), lactoferrin (LF), alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2-MG), plasmin (PL) and alpha2-MG-PL circulating complexes, were studied in serum on days 1, 7, and 17 of the onset of the disease. In small-focal myocardial infarction, the levels of alpha2-MG and PL were decreased on day 1 and those of LF and IL-8 were increased on day 14. On the contrary, in large-focal myocardial infarction, the concentrations of IL-8 and LF rose just on day 1 while those of alpha2-MG and PL remained unchanged. The detected differences may be used as additional criteria in differential diagnosis, particularly when ECG was of no informative value. Further, the concurrent elevation of alpha2-MG, PL, and PL-alpha2MG concentrations in large-focal myocardial infarction is indicative of poor prognosis.

  17. Effect of blonanserin on cognitive and social function in acute phase Japanese schizophrenia compared with risperidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hori H

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hikaru Hori, Kenji Yamada, Dan Kamada, Yuka Shibata, Asuka Katsuki, Reiji Yoshimura, Jun NakamuraDepartment of Psychiatry, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, JapanBackground: This study aims to determine the effectiveness of blonanserin (BNS on the cognitive and social functions of patients with schizophrenia compared with risperidone (RIS during acute-phase (8-week treatment.Methods: A total of 39 schizophrenia inpatients were included in this study. The subjects received either BNS (N=20 or RIS (N=19, and the clinical responses were evaluated periodically. The concomitant use of mood stabilizers was not allowed. Efficacy was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for schizophrenia. Cognition was assessed using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, Japanese-language version. Social function was assessed using the Life Assessment Scale for the Mentally Ill.Results: For both groups, each assessment exhibited a decrease in the mean change from baseline on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The depression subscale was significantly improved in the BNS group compared with the RIS group at 8 weeks after administration. BNS improved verbal fluency and executive function (cognitive function and daily living and work skills (social function. Compared with the RIS group, BNS was observed to improve daily living.Conclusion: BNS may improve psychotic symptoms, cognitive function, and daily living in patients with acute-phase schizophrenia. BNS may be superior to RIS in the improvement of daily living.Keywords: risperidone, blonanserin, schizophrenia, cognitive function, social function, acute-phase

  18. Optimal combinations of acute phase proteins for detecting infectious disease in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Stockmarr, Anders; Piñeiro, Matilde

    2011-01-01

    The acute phase protein (APP) response is an early systemic sign of disease, detected as substantial changes in APP serum concentrations and most disease states involving inflammatory reactions give rise to APP responses. To obtain a detailed picture of the general utility of porcine APPs to detect...... any disease with an inflammatory component seven porcine APPs were analysed in serum sampled at regular intervals in six different experimental challenge groups of pigs, including three bacterial (Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Streptococcus suis, Mycoplasma hyosynoviae), one parasitic (Toxoplasma...... for single APPs and for APP combinations. Combinations of APPs allowed the detection of disease more sensitively than any individual APP and the best three-protein combinations were CRP, apoA1, pigMAP and CRP, apoA1, Hp, respectively, closely followed by the two-protein combinations CRP, pigMAP and apoA1...

  19. Anti-irritants I: Dose-response in acute irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad

    2006-01-01

    acute irritation in healthy volunteers. Each AI was used in 3 concentrations. Acute irritation was induced by occlusive tests with 1% sodium lauryl sulfate and 20% nonanoic acid in N-propanol. The irritant reactions were treated twice daily with AI-containing formulations from the time of removal...... of the patches. Evaluation of skin irritation and efficacy of treatments were performed daily for 4 days using clinical scoring, evaporimetry (transepidermal water loss), hydration measurement and colourimetry. Only glycerol showed dose-response and effects potentially better than no treatment...

  20. Acute In Vivo Response to an Alternative Implant for Urogynecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiniano Roman Regueros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate in vivo the acute host response to an alternative implant designed for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI and pelvic organ prolapse (POP. Methods. A biodegradable scaffold was produced from poly-L-lactic acid (PLA using the electrospinning technique. Human and rat adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs were isolated and characterized by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and differentiation assays. PLA scaffolds were seeded and cultured for 2 weeks with human or rat ADSCs. Scaffolds with and without human or rat ADSCs were implanted subcutaneously on the abdominal wall of rats. After 3 and 7 days, 6 animals from each group were sacrificed. Sections from each sample were analyzed by Haematoxylin and Eosin staining, Sirius red staining, and immunohistochemistry for CD68, PECAM-1, and collagen I and III. Results. Animals responded to the scaffolds with an acute macrophage response. After 7 days of implantation, there was extensive host cell penetration, new blood vessel formation, and new collagen deposition throughout the full thickness of the samples without obvious differences between cell-containing and cell-free scaffolds. Conclusions. The acute in vivo response to an alternative implant (both with and without cells for the treatment of SUI and POP showed good acute integration into the host tissues.

  1. Review of dose-response curves for acute antimigraine drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dose-response curves for efficacy and tolerability are the important determinants for the choice of doses of acute migraine drugs. Areas covered: Dose-response curves for the efficacy of seven triptans (5-HT1B/1D receptor agonists), a 5-HT1F receptor agonist (lasmiditan) and four or......, there are many unmet needs. Although upcoming drugs may not be superior to triptans, migraine patients will potentially benefit greatly from these, especially patients who are triptan non-responders and patients with cardiovascular disease.......INTRODUCTION: Dose-response curves for efficacy and tolerability are the important determinants for the choice of doses of acute migraine drugs. Areas covered: Dose-response curves for the efficacy of seven triptans (5-HT1B/1D receptor agonists), a 5-HT1F receptor agonist (lasmiditan) and four oral......, whereas AEs often increase with increasing doses. The two other groups of drugs also have flat dose-response curves for efficacy. Overall, the triptans still have the most favorable efficacy-tolerability profile. Current acute antimigraine drugs do not fulfill the expectations of the patients, and thus...

  2. Effect of blonanserin on cognitive and social function in acute phase Japanese schizophrenia compared with risperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hikaru; Yamada, Kenji; Kamada, Dan; Shibata, Yuka; Katsuki, Asuka; Yoshimura, Reiji; Nakamura, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effectiveness of blonanserin (BNS) on the cognitive and social functions of patients with schizophrenia compared with risperidone (RIS) during acute-phase (8-week) treatment. A total of 39 schizophrenia inpatients were included in this study. The subjects received either BNS (N=20) or RIS (N=19), and the clinical responses were evaluated periodically. The concomitant use of mood stabilizers was not allowed. Efficacy was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for schizophrenia. Cognition was assessed using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, Japanese-language version. Social function was assessed using the Life Assessment Scale for the Mentally Ill. For both groups, each assessment exhibited a decrease in the mean change from baseline on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The depression subscale was significantly improved in the BNS group compared with the RIS group at 8 weeks after administration. BNS improved verbal fluency and executive function (cognitive function) and daily living and work skills (social function). Compared with the RIS group, BNS was observed to improve daily living. BNS may improve psychotic symptoms, cognitive function, and daily living in patients with acute-phase schizophrenia. BNS may be superior to RIS in the improvement of daily living.

  3. Acute phase protein expression during elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-1 viremia in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jeffrey J; Cray, Carolyn; Rodriguez, Marilyn; Arheart, Kristopher L; Ling, Paul D; Herron, Alan

    2013-09-01

    Infection of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) can be associated with rapid, lethal hemorrhagic disease and has been documented in elephant herds in human care and in the wild. Recent reports describe real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays used to monitor clinically ill elephants and also to detect subclinical EEHV1 infection in apparently healthy Asian elephants. Acute phase proteins have been demonstrated to increase with a variety of infectious etiologies in domesticated mammals but have not yet been described in elephants. In addition, the immune response of Asian elephants to EEHV1 infection has not been described. In this study, whole blood and trunk wash samples representing repeated measures from eight elephants were examined for the presence of EEHV1 using a qPCR assay. Elephants were classified into groups, as follows: whole blood negative and positive and trunk wash negative and positive. Serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (HP) levels were compared between these groups. A significant difference in SAA was observed with nearly a threefold higher mean value during periods of viremia (P=0.011). Higher values of SAA were associated with >10,000 virus genome copies/ml EEHV1 in whole blood. There were no significant differences in HP levels, although some individual animals did exhibit increased levels with infection. These data indicate that an inflammatory process is stimulated during EEHV1 viremia. Acute phase protein quantitation may aid in monitoring the health status of Asian elephants.

  4. Systemic inflammatory response following acute traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jia; Goh, Samantha Jianli; Tng, Priscilla Ying Lei; Deng, Yi Yu; Ling, Eng-Ang; Moochhala, Shabbir

    2009-01-01

    The early, delayed, and systemic effects of acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) are the result of inflammatory mediators which initiate systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), subsequent complement deficits and coagulopathy. Once SIRS is triggered by acute inflammation, it can detrimentally self-propagate. Systemic inflammation causes tissue damage leading to further inflammation and damage, leaving the body in a vicious cycle of hyperinflammation. Therefore, important inflammatory mediators like interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, are targeted in compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS) in an attempt to control the development of SIRS. The hypothalamus-pituitary (HPA)-axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) efferent limbs in CARS provide negative feedback for the production of inflammatory mediators. However, in the case of acute TBI, the activation of CARS often leads to the complication of immunosuppression which may result in multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and mortality. In light of this, the activation of the SIRS following acute TBI does not bode well. If left uncontrolled, multiple systems will be implicated making it difficult to remedy.

  5. Effect of BSA Antigen Sensitization during the Acute Phase of Influenza A Viral Infection on CD11c+ Pulmonary Antigen Presenting Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitaka Sato

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: BSA antigen sensitization during the acute phase of influenza A viral infection enhanced IL-10 production from naive CD4+ T cell interaction with CD11c+ pulmonary APCs. The IL-10 secretion evoked Th2 responses in the lungs with downregulation of Th1 responses and was important for the eosinophil recruitment into the lungs after BSA antigen challenge.

  6. Evaluation of Acute Phase Reactants As Indicators of Activity in Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A P Jain

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute phase reactants i. e. ESR, C-reactive proteins, alpha 1 antitrypsin, complement (C3 and circulation immune complexes were evaluated in relation with the activity of the disease in leprosy. Levels of all the acute phase reactants were significantly raised during the active plase (LL and ENL, while these were normal during the arrested phase of the disease. Appearance of, circulating immune complexes also followed the same pattern. It is concluded that raised levels of ESR (C-reactive proteins, alpha-1 antitrypsin, complement (C3 and circulating immune complexes suggest active phase (LL ENL of the disease in leprosy.

  7. A phase II study of the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deangelo, Daniel J; Neuberg, Donna; Amrein, Philip C; Berchuck, Jacob; Wadleigh, Martha; Sirulnik, L Andres; Galinsky, Ilene; Golub, Todd; Stegmaier, Kimberly; Stone, Richard M

    2014-04-01

    Novel therapies for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia are required to overcome disease resistance and to provide potentially less toxic therapies for older adults. Prior clinical trials involving patients with non-small cell lung cancer have demonstrated the safety and biologic activity of the administration of EGFR inhibitors in carefully selected patients. The potential efficacy of this approach in patients with acute myeloid leukemia is unknown. The effects of gefitinib on differentiation induction and cell viability in AML cell lines and primary patient AML cells were previously reported and cell viability was inhibited in a clinically achievable range. To determine if EGFR inhibitors would be therapeutically efficacious in advanced AML, we performed a phase II trial in which 18 patients with a median age of 72 (range, 57-84 years) were treated with gefitinib (750mg orally daily). While there were no unexpected toxicities, no patients experienced an objective response, though one had stable disease lasting 16 months. We conclude that in spite of pre-clinical activity and anecdotal cases of response to EGFR inhibitors, routine use of the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib as a single agent for advanced AML is not appropriate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Silicon Deprivation Does Not Significantly Modify the Acute White Blood Cell Response but Does Modify Tissue Mineral Distribution Response to an Endotoxin Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment with rats was conducted to determine whether silicon deprivation affects the acute-phase immune response to an endotoxin challenge. Weanling female rats were assigned to two weight-matched groups of 24; one group was fed a basal diet containing about 1.9 µg Si/kg, the other group was f...

  9. Maximal exercise and acute mood response in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, N P; Crouse, S F; Rohack, J J

    1995-01-01

    The present study was designed to characterize and assess the reliability of acute mood responses to maximal exercise in women. All subjects (N = 22; age = 45 +/- 2.5 yr; BMI = 24.3 +/- 0.9 kg/m2) participated in two maximal walking tests spaced approximately one month apart. The abbreviated Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire was administered immediately prior to and within 5 min following maximal exercise at both occasions. Maximal heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, and functional aerobic capacity responses indicated compliance to maximal exertion at both tests. Using repeated measures ANOVA, no significant (p self-esteem subscales while the tension and vigor affects significantly decreased. Because no interactions were found, these effects are concluded to be independent of the order in which the tests were performed. Additionally, intraclass correlations computed for each respective POMS subscale, ranged between 0.69 and 0.81 for fatigue, tension, vigor, self-esteem, confusion, and total mood disturbance. The anger and depression subscales were noted to have intraclass correlations of 0.29 and 0.43, respectively, and may have been influenced by a floor effect in this study population. It is concluded that the abbreviated POMS questionnaire may be reliably used to assess acute mood responses to maximal exercise in women and that even maximal exertion has the potential to acutely benefit mood by decreasing tension and increasing self-esteem.

  10. Lymphocyte Proliferation Response in Patients with Acute and Chronic Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Khosravi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Brucella is an intracellular bacterium that causes chronic infection in humans and domestic animals. The underlying mechanisms that cause prolonged illness are complex and not fully understood. Immune responses may have an important role in the chronicity of infection. Here, we evaluated the lymphocyte proliferation responses in patients with chronic and acute brucellosis. Materials and Methods: This descriptive - analytical study was performed on 22 patients with acute brucellosis, 21 patients with chronic brucellosis and 21 healthy people with the similar age, sex and genetic background as control group. Peripheral lymphocytes were isolated using Ficoll and the cellular proliferation was quantified in presence of antigen and phytohemaglutinin-A by MTT method. Results: The brucella antigen-specific stimulation index in patients with chronic brucellosis was significantly lower than the acute brucellosis patients (p=0.001. Also, stimulating the lymphocytes with phytohemaglutinin-A has shown that proliferative response in patients with chronic brucellosis was lower than the other groups (p=0.04. Conclusion: The results indicated that chronic brucellosis inhibits lymphocyte proliferation. This inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation may be due to the induction of anergy.

  11. Body mass index mediates inflammatory response to acute dietary challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matone, Alice; O'Grada, Colm M; Dillon, Eugene T; Morris, Ciara; Ryan, Miriam F; Walsh, Marianne; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Michael J; Morine, Melissa J; Roche, Helen M

    2015-11-01

    Acute metabolic challenges provide an opportunity to identify mechanisms of metabolic and nutritional health. In this study, we assessed the transcriptomic response to oral glucose and lipid challenges in a cohort of individuals ranging in age and BMI. The main goal is to identify whether BMI can mediate the metabolic and transcriptional response to dietary challenges, and the differences between lipid and glucose tests. Two hundred fourteen healthy adults were assigned to the challenges and twenty-three individuals were selected for further transcriptomic proofing, using microarray analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Through linear-mixed models and network analysis, different sets of transcripts and pathways were identified that responded to the challenges depending on BMI. Different transcripts that responded to the lipid and glucose tests, independently of BMI, were also identified. In the network analysis, inflammatory and adhesion processes were strongly represented for both challenges. Our results indicate that BMI is strongly linked to the transcriptomic and metabolic response to acute challenges. The emerging biological processes are mainly inflammation-related pathways, highlighting an interconnection between obesity, inflammation/adhesion, and response to nutritional challenge. The comparison between lipid and glucose challenges shows how these trigger a substantially different molecular response. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Astrocyte-Derived Pentraxin 3 Supports Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity Under Acute Phase of Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Akihiro; Maki, Takakuni; Mandeville, Emiri T; Liang, Anna C; Egawa, Naohiro; Itoh, Kanako; Itoh, Naoki; Borlongan, Mia; Holder, Julie C; Chuang, Tsu Tshen; McNeish, John D; Tomimoto, Hidekazu; Lok, Josephine; Lo, Eng H; Arai, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is released on inflammatory responses in many organs. However, roles of PTX3 in brain are still mostly unknown. Here we asked whether and how PTX3 contributes to blood-brain barrier dysfunction during the acute phase of ischemic stroke. In vivo, spontaneously hypertensive rats were subjected to focal cerebral ischemia by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. At day 3, brains were analyzed to evaluate the cellular origin of PTX3 expression. Correlations with blood-brain barrier breakdown were assessed by IgG staining. In vitro, rat primary astrocytes and rat brain endothelial RBE.4 cells were cultured to study the role of astrocyte-derived PTX3 on vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated endothelial permeability. During the acute phase of stroke, reactive astrocytes in the peri-infarct area expressed PTX3. There was negative correlation between gradients of IgG leakage and PTX3-positive astrocytes. Cell culture experiments showed that astrocyte-conditioned media increased levels of tight junction proteins and reduced endothelial permeability under normal conditions. Removing PTX3 from astrocyte-conditioned media by immunoprecipitation increased endothelial permeability. PTX3 strongly bound vascular endothelial growth factor in vitro and was able to decrease vascular endothelial growth factor-induced endothelial permeability. Astrocytes in peri-infarct areas upregulate PTX3, which may support blood-brain barrier integrity by regulating vascular endothelial growth factor-related mechanisms. This response in astrocytes may comprise a compensatory mechanism for maintaining blood-brain barrier function after ischemic stroke. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Effects of montelukast sodium combined with pidotimod on acute phase protein and immune function in children with acute bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effects of montelukast sodium combined with pidotimod on acute phase protein (APP and indexes of immunologic function in pediatric acute bronchitis treatment. Methods: A total of 180 cases children with acute bronchitis acted as research objects were randomly divided into control group (n=65 and observation group (n=63. On the basis of conventional therapy, control group was treated by plus pidotimod. On this base, observation group was treated with montelukast sodium. The changes of acute phase proteins (CRP, HP, a1-AAG and CER and immune function (CD3+ , CD4+ , CD8+ and CD4+ /CD8+ levels before and after treatment were observed after 2 months. Results: Before treatment, CRP, HP, a1-AAG, CER, CD3+ , CD4+ , CD8+ and CD4+ /CD8+ levels of two groups had no statistically significant difference; CRP, HP, a1-AAG, CER, and CD8+ levels of control and observation groups decreased significantly after treatment, the decreases of observation group were more obvious than that of control group, and the levels after treatment were significantly lower than that of control groups. The levels of CD3+ , CD4+ and CD4+ /CD8+ in two groups after treatment were significantly higher than those before treatment. For observation group, the levels of CD3+ , CD4+ and CD4+ /CD8+ increased more significantly after treatment, which were significantly higher than that of the control group. Conclusion: Using Montelukast sodium combined with pidotimod can effectively reduce the children's acute phase protein levels, improve immune function, which has clinical value for the treatment of children with acute bronchitis.

  14. MDCT of acute pancreatitis: Intraindividual comparison of single-phase versus dual-phase MDCT for initial assessment of acute pancreatitis using different CT scoring systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avanesov, Maxim, E-mail: m.avanesov@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Weinrich, Julius M.; Kraus, Thomas [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Derlin, Thorsten [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover Medical School (Germany); Adam, Gerhard; Yamamura, Jin [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Karul, Murat [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Objectives: The purpose of the retrospective study was to evaluate the additional value of dual-phase multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) protocols over a single-phase protocol on initial MDCT in patients with acute pancreatitis using three CT-based pancreatitis severity scores with regard to radiation dose. Methods: In this retrospective, IRB approved study MDCT was performed in 102 consecutive patients (73 males; 55years, IQR48–64) with acute pancreatitis. Inclusion criteria were CT findings of interstitial edematous pancreatitis (IP) or necrotizing pancreatitis (NP) and a contrast-enhanced dual-phase (arterial phase and portal-venous phase) abdominal CT performed at ≥72 h after onset of symptoms. The severity of pancreatic and extrapancreatic changes was independently assessed by 2 observers using 3 validated CT-based scoring systems (CTSI, mCTSI, EPIC). All scores were applied to arterial phase and portal venous phase scans and compared to score results of portal venous phase scans, assessed ≥14 days after initial evaluation. For effective dose estimation, volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) were recorded in all examinations. Results: In neither of the CT severity scores a significant difference was observed after application of a dual-phase protocol compared with a single-phase protocol (IP: CTSI: 2.7 vs. 2.5, p = 0.25; mCTSI: 4.0 vs. 4.0, p = 0.10; EPIC: 2.0 vs. 2.0, p = 0.41; NP: CTSI: 8.0 vs. 7.0, p = 0.64; mCTSI: 8.0 vs. 8.0, p = 0.10; EPIC: 3.0 vs. 3.0, p = 0.06). The application of a single-phase CT protocol was associated with a median effective dose reduction of 36% (mean dose reduction 31%) compared to a dual-phase CT scan. Conclusions: An initial dual-phase abdominal CT after ≥72 h after onset of symptoms of acute pancreatitis was not superior to a single-phase protocol for evaluation of the severity of pancreatic and extrapancreatic changes. However, the effective radiation dose may be reduced by 36% using a

  15. MDCT of acute pancreatitis: Intraindividual comparison of single-phase versus dual-phase MDCT for initial assessment of acute pancreatitis using different CT scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanesov, Maxim; Weinrich, Julius M; Kraus, Thomas; Derlin, Thorsten; Adam, Gerhard; Yamamura, Jin; Karul, Murat

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the retrospective study was to evaluate the additional value of dual-phase multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) protocols over a single-phase protocol on initial MDCT in patients with acute pancreatitis using three CT-based pancreatitis severity scores with regard to radiation dose. In this retrospective, IRB approved study MDCT was performed in 102 consecutive patients (73 males; 55years, IQR48-64) with acute pancreatitis. Inclusion criteria were CT findings of interstitial edematous pancreatitis (IP) or necrotizing pancreatitis (NP) and a contrast-enhanced dual-phase (arterial phase and portal-venous phase) abdominal CT performed at ≥72h after onset of symptoms. The severity of pancreatic and extrapancreatic changes was independently assessed by 2 observers using 3 validated CT-based scoring systems (CTSI, mCTSI, EPIC). All scores were applied to arterial phase and portal venous phase scans and compared to score results of portal venous phase scans, assessed ≥14days after initial evaluation. For effective dose estimation, volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) were recorded in all examinations. In neither of the CT severity scores a significant difference was observed after application of a dual-phase protocol compared with a single-phase protocol (IP: CTSI: 2.7 vs. 2.5, p=0.25; mCTSI: 4.0 vs. 4.0, p=0.10; EPIC: 2.0 vs. 2.0, p=0.41; NP: CTSI: 8.0 vs. 7.0, p=0.64; mCTSI: 8.0 vs. 8.0, p=0.10; EPIC: 3.0 vs. 3.0, p=0.06). The application of a single-phase CT protocol was associated with a median effective dose reduction of 36% (mean dose reduction 31%) compared to a dual-phase CT scan. An initial dual-phase abdominal CT after ≥72h after onset of symptoms of acute pancreatitis was not superior to a single-phase protocol for evaluation of the severity of pancreatic and extrapancreatic changes. However, the effective radiation dose may be reduced by 36% using a single-phase protocol. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier

  16. Evaluation of demographic factors that influence acute radiation response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricklin, Daniela; Millage, Kyle

    2012-08-01

    Casualty estimation tools are critical in planning for nuclear event scenarios. Current consequence assessment models based on healthy adult males may not adequately represent the population. To develop an understanding of the impact of demographic variables on casualty estimates, human data was surveyed to identify key demographic factors that affect acute radiation response. Information on in utero exposures, gender, age, and comorbidity status was collected from atomic bomb survivors, radiation accidents, and clinical oncology. Burn and trauma studies were also examined to gain insight into the impact of demographic variables on acute injury outcomes. Fetal radiation sensitivity is well documented; increased mortality or malformations are observed depending on gestational age. A greater incidence of radiation syndrome was observed among male atomic bomb survivors. Trauma data show increased mortality in males, apparently due to immunological differences between genders. Limited data suggest vulnerability in the very young and old due to immunological status and comorbidities, respectively. Certain genetically susceptible subpopulations demonstrate marked increased sensitivity to radiation exposure. Interaction of radiation and comorbid conditions has not been well studied; however, burn and trauma data indicate that comorbidities negatively impact response to acute injury. Key factors evaluated together with their prevalence indicate the importance of modeling demographic variability in casualty estimations. Also they can help identify vulnerable subpopulations and provide insight on treatment requirements.

  17. Acute Phase Proteins and their Relation to Energy Metabolites in Dairy Cows during the Pre- and Postpartal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Kováč

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of selected acute phase proteins – haptoglobin (Hp and serum amyloid A (SAA, and selected variables of energy metabolism in blood serum of dairy cows during different stages of the pre- and postpartal period. The analyses were performed in dairy cows of the Slovak spotted breed and its crossbreeds (n = 57. The cows were divided into 9 groups according to the evaluated part of reproduction cycle – from 4 weeks before parturition to 10 weeks after parturition. Significant differences were found in mean Hp and SAA concentrations during the monitored period (P P P P P P P < 0.001. Moreover, significant correlations were found between Hp and non-esterified fatty acids, Hp and β-hydroxybutyrate, as well as between SAA and non-esterified fatty acids. Our results indicate that the acute phase response occurs in cows around parturition, and suggest that there are relationships between mediators of immune response and several indices of energy metabolism. Our results also suggest that in cows with higher concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids, indicating a certain degree of lipid mobilisation, higher values of acute phase proteins may be found.

  18. The combined effects of menstrual cycle phase and acute stress on reward-related processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banis, Stella; Lorist, Monicque M.

    We investigated the combined effects of menstrual cycle phase and acute stress on reward-related processing, employing a monetary incentive delay task in combination with EEG. Females participated during late follicular and late luteal phases, performing in both control and stress conditions. We

  19. Increased platelet aggregation and turnover in the acute phase of ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Løkke Funck; Dalsgaard, Jens; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2013-01-01

    the antiplatelet effect of aspirin and clopidogrel and evaluate platelet turnover in the acute phase of STEMI compared to a stable phase 3 months later. In this observational follow-up study on 48 STEMI patients transferred for PPCI, loading doses of aspirin (300 mg) and clopidogrel (600 mg) were given orally......Newly produced platelets are present in the acute phase of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This may influence the antiplatelet effect of aspirin and clopidogrel administered prior to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). The aims of this study were to investigate...

  20. Intensive treadmill training in the acute phase after ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømmen, Anna Maria; Christensen, Thomas; Jensen, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to (a) assess the feasibility of intensive treadmill training in patients with acute ischemic stroke, (b) test whether physical activity of the legs during training increases with time, and (c) evaluate to what extent training sessions contribute toward the overall physic...

  1. Changes of Platelet Indices in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in Acute Phase and After Two Months Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Marjan; Ziaee, Vahid; Moradinejad, Mohammad Hassan; Raeeskarami, Seyed Reza; Kompani, Farzad; Rahamooz, Tayebeh

    2016-06-01

    Various indices have been raised as predictors of activity and severity of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. This study was conducted to investigate the changes of platelet indices in acute phase and two months after treatment in these patients. In a cohort study, platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), plateletcrit (PCT) were evaluated in children referred to children's medical center, Tehran due to juvenile idiopathic arthritis from March 2013 to March 2014 during the acute phase and two months after standard treatment. The statistical data were analyzed by SPSS 19 software, and the significance level was set as P acute phase and reached 395418.2 ± 119601.6 two months after treatment (P = 0.01). The mean ± SD PCT in the acute phase of various subtypes of the disease was 0.32 ± 0.11, which reached 0.29 ± 0.10 after treatment (P = 0.09). However, the PDW range in different subtypes of the disease reached 13.4 ± 8.0 from 13.9 ± 2.9 and MPV reached 8.7 ± 0.9 from 8.8 ± 1.1 after treatment, but they were not significantly different from the results in the acute phase (P = 0.5). Platelet count is one of the most remarkable indices in JIA. Evaluation of PCT can also help determine the severity of the inflammatory process in the follow-up and treatment process.

  2. Acute hemodynamic response to vasodilators in primary pulmonary hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni H

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute hemodynamic effects of high flow oxygen (O2 inhalation, sublingual isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN, intravenous aminophylline (AMN and sublingual nifedipine (NIF were studied in 32 patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH. In 30 out of 32 patients the basal ratio of pulmonary to systemic vascular resistance (Rp/Rs was > 0.5 (mean = 0.77 +/- 0.20. Oxygen caused significant decrease in the mean resistance ratio to 0.68 +/- 0.20 (p = 0.005. ISDN, AMN and NIF caused increase in the resistance ratio to 0.79 +/- 0.26; 0.78 +/- 0.26; and 0.80 +/- 0.23 respectively. O2, ISDN, AMN and NIF caused a fall of Rp/Rs in 21 (65.6%, 10 (31.2%, 10(31.2% and 9(28.1% patients respectively. Thus, of the four drugs tested high flow O2 inhalation resulted in fall of Rp/Rs in two thirds of patients whereas ISDN, AMN and NIF caused a mean rise in Rp/Rs. One third of patients did respond acutely to the latter three drugs. Acute hemodynamic studies are useful before prescribing vasodilators in patients with PPH since more of the commonly used drugs like ISDN, AMN, NIF could have detrimental hemodynamic responses in some patients. However, great caution should be exercised before performing hemodynamic study as the procedure has definite mortality and morbidity.

  3. Pituitary dysfunction in traumatic brain injury: Is evaluation in the acute phase worthwhile?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip P Dalwadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI is an under-recognized cause of hypopituitarism. According to recent data, it could be more frequent than previously known. However, there is a scarcity of data in Indian population. Aims: The main aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of pituitary hormone deficiencies in the acute phase of TBI. The secondary objectives were to correlate the severity of trauma with basal hormone levels and to determine whether initial hormone deficiencies predict mortality. Subjects and Methods: Forty-nine TBI patients (41 men and 8 women were included in this study. Pituitary functions were evaluated within 24 h of admission. Results: Gonadotropin deficiency was found in 65.3% patient while 46.9% had low insulin-like growth factor-1, 12.24% had cortisol level <7 mcg/dl. Cortisol and prolactin level were positively correlated with the severity of TBI suggestive of stress response. Free triiodothyronine (fT3 and free thyroxine were significantly lower in patients with increasing severity of tuberculosis. Logistic regression analysis revealed that mortality after TBI was unrelated to the basal pituitary hormone levels except low T3 level, which was found to be positively related to mortality. Conclusions: Pituitary dysfunction is common after TBI and the most commonly affected axes are growth hormone and gonadotropin axis. Low fT3 correlates best with mortality. During the acute phase of TBI, at least an assessment of cortisol is vital as undetected cortisol deficiency can be life-threatening

  4. Timing matters: the interval between acute stressors within chronic mild stress modifies behavioral and physiologic stress responses in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavigelli, Sonia A; Bao, Alexander D; Bourne, Rebecca A; Caruso, Michael J; Caulfield, Jasmine I; Chen, Mary; Smyth, Joshua M

    2018-04-12

    Chronic mild stress can lead to negative health outcomes. Frequency, duration, and intensity of acute stressors can affect health-related processes. We tested whether the temporal pattern of daily acute stressors (clustered or dispersed across the day) affects depression-related physiology. We used a rodent model to keep stressor frequency, duration, and intensity constant, and experimentally manipulated the temporal pattern of acute stressors delivered during the active phase of the day. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to one of three chronic mild stress groups: Clustered: stressors that occurred within 1 hour of each other (n = 21), Dispersed: stressors that were spread out across the active phase (n = 21), and Control: no stressors presented (n = 21). Acute mild stressors included noise, strobe lights, novel cage, cage tilt, wet bedding, and water immersion. Depression-related outcomes included: sucrose preference, body weight, circulating glucocorticoid (corticosterone) concentration after a novel acute stressor and during basal morning and evening times, and endotoxin-induced circulating interleukin-6 concentrations. Compared to control rats, those in the Clustered group gained less weight, consumed less sucrose, had a blunted acute corticosterone response, and an accentuated acute interleukin-6 response. Rats in the Dispersed group had an attenuated corticosterone decline during the active period and after an acute stressor compared to the Control group. During a chronic mild stress experience, the temporal distribution of daily acute stressors affected health-related physiologic processes. Regular exposure to daily stressors in rapid succession may predict more depression-related symptoms, whereas exposure to stressors dispersed throughout the day may predict diminished glucocorticoid negative feedback.

  5. Modeling the effects of estradiol and progesterone on the acute phase proinflammatory axis: Variability in tumor necrosis factor-alpha, nitric oxide, and xanthine oxidase responses to endotoxin challenge in steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The severity of host response in some diseases differs between sexes and this dimorphism has been attributed to the immunomodulating effects of reproductive steroid hormones. In females, susceptibility to disease stress has been associated with reproductive status and attributed to prevailing proge...

  6. Movements Indicate Threat Response Phases in Children at Risk for Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Ellen W; McGinnis, Ryan S; Muzik, Maria; Hruschak, Jessica; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L; Perkins, Noel C; Fitzgerald, Kate; Rosenblum, Katherine L

    2017-09-01

    Temporal phases of threat response, including potential threat (anxiety), acute threat (startle, fear), and post-threat response modulation, have been identified as the underlying markers of anxiety disorders. Objective measures of response during these phases may help identify children at risk for anxiety; however, the complexity of current assessment techniques prevent their adoption in many research and clinical contexts. We propose an alternative technology, an inertial measurement unit (IMU), that enables noninvasive measurement of the movements associated with threat response, and test its ability to detect threat response phases in young children at a heightened risk for developing anxiety. We quantified the motion of 18 children (3-7 years old) during an anxiety-/fear-provoking behavioral task using an IMU. Specifically, measurements from a single IMU secured to the child's waist were used to extract root-mean-square acceleration and angular velocity in the horizontal and vertical directions, and tilt and yaw range of motion during each threat response phase. IMU measurements detected expected differences in child motion by threat phase. Additionally, potential threat motion was positively correlated to familial anxiety risk, startle range of motion was positively correlated with child internalizing symptoms, and response modulation motion was negatively correlated to familial anxiety risk. Results suggest differential theory-driven threat response phases and support previous literature connecting maternal child risk to anxiety with behavioral measures using more feasible objective methods. This is the first study demonstrating the utility of an IMU for characterizing the motion of young children to mark the phases of threat response modulation. The technique provides a novel and objective measure of threat response for mental health researchers.

  7. Contribution of leukocytes to the induction and resolution of the acute inflammatory response in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More Bayona, Juan A; Karuppannan, Anbu Kumar; Barreda, Daniel R

    2017-09-01

    A successful immune response against invading pathogens relies on the efficient activation of host defense mechanisms and a timely return to immune homeostasis. Despite their importance, these mechanisms remain ill-defined in most animal groups. This study focuses on the acute inflammatory response of chickens, important both as an avian model with a unique position in evolution as well as an increasingly notable target of infectious zoonotic diseases. We took advantage of an in vivo self-resolving intra-abdominal challenge model to provide an integrative view of leukocyte responses during the induction and resolution phases of acute inflammation. Our results showed rapid leukocyte infiltration into the abdominal cavity post zymosan challenge (significant increase as early as 4 h), which was dominated by heterophils. Peak leukocyte infiltration and ROS production reached maximum levels at 12 h post challenge, which was significantly earlier than comparative studies in teleost fish and mice. Both heterophils and monocyte/macrophages contributed to ROS production. Local leukocyte infiltration was preceded by an increase in peripheral leukocytes and a drop in the number of bone marrow leukocytes. The proportion of apoptotic leukocytes increased following peak of acute inflammation, rising to significant levels within the abdominal cavity by 48 h, consistent with other indicators for the resolution of inflammation. Importantly, comparison of chicken phagocytic responses with those previously shown in agnathan, teleost and murine models suggested a progressive evolutionary shift towards an increased sensitivity to pro-inflammatory pathogen-derived particles and decreased sensitivity towards homeostatic stimuli. Thus, while significant conservation can be noted across the immune systems of endotherms, this study highlights additional unique features that govern the induction and resolution of acute inflammation in the avian system, which may be relevant to disease

  8. Acute-phase reactants and cytokines in ischemic stroke: do they have any relationship with short-term mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahan, M; Sebe, A; Acikalin, A; Akpinar, O; Koc, F; Ay, M O; Gulen, M; Topal, M; Satar, S

    2013-10-01

    Many unknown risk factors play a role in the etiopathogenesis of stroke. The appearance of inflammatory cells within the damaged tissue after cerebral ischemia suggests that an inflammatory response may play a role in stroke pathogenesis. In our study, we examined whether an association exists between the acute-phase reactants and the levels of cytokines, the volume and diameter of the stroke, and short-term mortality in patients who were diagnosed as acute ischemic a stroke after admission to the Emergency Department. A total of 50 consecutive patients who applied to the Emergency Service with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled in the study. Their stroke volume were calculated and serum samples were obtained as soon as they arrived into the Emergency Service. The patients were evaluated according to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). There was no significant correlations between stroke volume and levels of cytokine and acute-phase reactants in dead patient group or in living patient group. A correlation and statistical significance was found between stroke volume and hospital stay time in living patient group. In addition, GCS and NIHSS scores were correlated with stroke volume and was found a significant statistically. Scales such as GKS and NIHHS, which evaluate the functional state of patients, are the best indicators for defining prognosis in our daily practices. In addition, we found a positive correlation between levels of CRP (C reactive protein) and prognosis. However, we did not observe a statistically significant correlation between prognosis and other acute-phase reactants such as TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, fibrinogen, and leukocytes.

  9. Response-guided induction therapy in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with excellent remission rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsson, Jonas; Forestier, Erik; Heldrup, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the early treatment response in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using a response-guided induction strategy that includes idarubicin in the first course.......To evaluate the early treatment response in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using a response-guided induction strategy that includes idarubicin in the first course....

  10. Immune and inflammatory response in pigs during acute influenza caused by H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Kwit, Krzysztof; Czyżewska, Ewelina; Dors, Arkadiusz; Rachubik, Jarosław; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2014-10-01

    Swine influenza (SI) is an acute respiratory disease of pigs, caused by swine influenza virus (SIV). Little is known about the inflammatory response in the lung during acute SI and its correlation with clinical signs or lung pathology. Moreover, until now there has been a limited amount of data available on the relationship between the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the lungs and the serum concentration of acute-phase proteins (APPs) in SIV-infected pigs. In the present study, the porcine inflammatory and immune responses during acute influenza caused by H1N1 SIV (SwH1N1) were studied. Nine pigs were infected intratracheally, and five served as controls. Antibodies against SIV were measured by haemagglutination inhibition assay, and the influenza-virus-specific T-cell response was measured using a proliferation assay. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), and pig major acute-phase protein (Pig-MAP) the concentrations in serum and concentration of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ in lung tissues were measured using commercial ELISAs.

  11. The inflammatory response plays a major role in the acute radiation syndrome induced by fission radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agay, D.; Chancerelle, Y.; Hirodin, F.; Mathieu, J.; Multon, E.; Van Uye, A.; Mestries, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    At high dose rates, both gamma and neutron irradiation induce an acute inflammatory syndrome with huge intercellular communication disorders. This inflammatory syndrome evolves in two phases, separated by a latency phase. During the prodromal phase, the molecular and cellular lesions induced by free radicals trigger an initial response which associates cellular repair and multicellular interactions involving both humoral and nervous communications. A large part of perturbations constitute a non specific inflammatory syndrome and clinically silent coagulation disorders which are linked by common intercellular mediators. All these perturbations are rapidly reversible and there is no correlation between the radiation dose and the severity of the response. During the manifest-illness phase, both inflammatory and coagulation disorders resume, slightly preceding the clinical symptoms. Biochemical symptoms are moderate in the animals which will survive, but they escape regulatory mechanisms in those which will die, giving rise to a vicious circle. These biochemical disorders are largely responsible for the death. With lower dose rates, it cannot be excluded that great cellular communication disorders take place at the tissue level, with limited blood modifications. This aspect should be taken into account for the optimization of cytokine therapies. (authors)

  12. Inflammatory biomarkers responses after acute whole body vibration in fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G.C. Ribeiro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were 1 to characterize the intensity of the vibration stimulation in women diagnosed with fibromyalgia (FM compared to a control group of healthy women (HW matched by age and anthropometric parameters, and 2 to investigate the effect of a single session of whole body vibration (WBV on inflammatory responses. Levels of adipokines, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors (sTNFr1, sTNFr2, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Oxygen consumption (VO2 was estimated by a portable gas analysis system, heart rate (HR was measured using a HR monitor, and perceived exertion (RPE was evaluated using the Borg scale of perceived exertion. Acutely mild WBV increased VO2 and HR similarly in both groups. There was an interaction (disease vs vibration in RPE (P=0.0078, showing a higher RPE in FM compared to HW at rest, which further increased in FM after acute WBV, whereas it remained unchanged in HW. In addition, there was an interaction (disease vs vibration in plasma levels of adiponectin (P=0.0001, sTNFR1 (P=0.000001, sTNFR2 (P=0.0052, leptin (P=0.0007, resistin (P=0.0166, and BDNF (P=0.0179. In conclusion, a single acute session of mild and short WBV can improve the inflammatory status in patients with FM, reaching values close to those of matched HW at their basal status. The neuroendocrine mechanism seems to be an exercise-induced modulation towards greater adaptation to stress response in these patients.

  13. Multiple Failure Response Procedure System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Currently, flight controllers are often tasked with generating responses to multiple failures when they occur. However, during future space missions, flight...

  14. Acute psychological stress induces short-term variable immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Michael S; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Carlson, Joshua M; Ensign, Wayne Y; Woelk, Christopher H; Rana, Brinda K

    2016-03-01

    In spite of advances in understanding the cross-talk between the peripheral immune system and the brain, the molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid adaptation of the immune system to an acute psychological stressor remain largely unknown. Conventional approaches to classify molecular factors mediating these responses have targeted relatively few biological measurements or explored cross-sectional study designs, and therefore have restricted characterization of stress-immune interactions. This exploratory study analyzed transcriptional profiles and flow cytometric data of peripheral blood leukocytes with physiological (endocrine, autonomic) measurements collected throughout the sequence of events leading up to, during, and after short-term exposure to physical danger in humans. Immediate immunomodulation to acute psychological stress was defined as a short-term selective up-regulation of natural killer (NK) cell-associated cytotoxic and IL-12 mediated signaling genes that correlated with increased cortisol, catecholamines and NK cells into the periphery. In parallel, we observed down-regulation of innate immune toll-like receptor genes and genes of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Correcting gene expression for an influx of NK cells revealed a molecular signature specific to the adrenal cortex. Subsequently, focusing analyses on discrete groups of coordinately expressed genes (modules) throughout the time-series revealed immune stress responses in modules associated to immune/defense response, response to wounding, cytokine production, TCR signaling and NK cell cytotoxicity which differed between males and females. These results offer a spring-board for future research towards improved treatment of stress-related disease including the impact of stress on cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, and identifies an immune mechanism by which vulnerabilities to these diseases may be gender-specific. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Profiles of the acute-phase reactants C-reactive protein and ferritin related to the disease course of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, D. A.; Aarden, L. A.; Swaak, A. J. G.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To obtain insight in the acute-phase response in SLE. METHODS: The clinical history, SLEDAI, CRP and ferritin concentrations were analysed throughout the disease course of 10 SLE patients. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 4.8 years, 10 exacerbations (SLEDAI > or = 11) occurred.

  16. The effects of combined therapy of rheumatoid arthritis on the acute phase reactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexhepi, Sylejman; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Pllana, Ejup; Dragusha, Gani; Gashi, Masar; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of acute phase reactants in the 60 treated patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Patients were divided into two groups, depending on the applied treatment: group I (n = 30) was treated with methotrexate, sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine, and group II (n = 30) with methotrexate. The results of our study shows that there is a statistically significant reduction in the value of acute phase reactants and clinical parameters after treatment in both investigated groups of patients, and also a significant statistical difference between the first and second group of treated patients.

  17. Hemophagocytosis in the Acute Phase of Fatal Kawasaki Disease in a 4 Month-Old Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Vehbi; Karaaslan, Erhan; Özer, Samet; Gümüşer, Rüveyda; Yılmaz, Resul

    2016-07-01

    Kawasaki disease is a systemic vasculitis predominately affecting coronary arteries. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis can complicate the course of Kawasaki disease. Rare cases of secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis occurring during the acute phase of Kawasaki disease have been reported. We report here a 4 month-old girl with diffuse coronary ectasia and secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis occurring during the acute phase of incomplete Kawasaki disease. Due to the large overlap in clinical symptoms, the presence of atypical findings for Kawasaki disease should suggest the possible diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in these patients.

  18. Research on advanced intervention using novel bone marrOW stem cell (RAINBOW): a study protocol for a phase I, open-label, uncontrolled, dose-response trial of autologous bone marrow stromal cell transplantation in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shichinohe, Hideo; Kawabori, Masahito; Iijima, Hiroaki; Teramoto, Tuyoshi; Abumiya, Takeo; Nakayama, Naoki; Kazumata, Ken; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Arato, Teruyo; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2017-09-08

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, and despite intensive research, few treatment options exist. However, a recent breakthrough in cell therapy is expected to reverse the neurological sequelae of stroke. Although some pioneer studies on the use of cell therapy for treating stroke have been reported, certain problems remain unsolved. Recent studies have demonstrated that bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have therapeutic potential against stroke. We investigated the use of autologous BMSC transplantation as a next-generation cell therapy for treating stroke. In this article, we introduce the protocol of a new clinical trial, the Research on Advanced Intervention using Novel Bone marrOW stem cell (RAINBOW). RAINBOW is a phase 1, open-label, uncontrolled, dose-response study, with the primary aim to determine the safety of the autologous BMSC product HUNS001-01 when administered to patients with acute ischemic stroke. Estimated enrollment is 6-10 patients suffering from moderate to severe neurological deficits. Approximately 50 mL of the bone marrow is extracted from the iliac bone of each patient 15 days or later from the onset. BMSCs are cultured with allogeneic human platelet lysate (PL) as a substitute for fetal calf serum and are labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide for cell tracking using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). HUNS001-01 is stereotactically administered around the area of infarction in the subacute phase. Each patient will be administered a dose of 20 or 50 million cells. Neurological scoring, MRI for cell tracking, 18 F-fuorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, and 123 I-Iomazenil single-photon emission computed tomography will be performed for 1 year after the administration. This is a first-in-human trial for HUNS001-01 to the patients with acute ischemic stroke. We expect that intraparenchymal injection can be a more favorable method for cell delivery to the lesion and improvement of the motor function than

  19. Metabolic changes in concussed American football players during the acute and chronic post-injury phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellemberg Dave

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite negative neuroimaging findings many athletes display neurophysiological alterations and post-concussion symptoms that may be attributable to neurometabolic alterations. Methods The present study investigated the effects of sports concussion on brain metabolism using 1H-MR Spectroscopy by comparing a group of 10 non-concussed athletes with a group of 10 concussed athletes of the same age (mean: 22.5 years and education (mean: 16 years within both the acute and chronic post-injury phases. All athletes were scanned 1-6 days post-concussion and again 6-months later in a 3T Siemens MRI. Results Concussed athletes demonstrated neurometabolic impairment in prefrontal and motor (M1 cortices in the acute phase where NAA:Cr levels remained depressed relative to controls. There was some recovery observed in the chronic phase where Glu:Cr levels returned to those of control athletes; however, there was a pathological increase of m-I:Cr levels in M1 that was only present in the chronic phase. Conclusions These results confirm cortical neurometabolic changes in the acute post-concussion phase as well as recovery and continued metabolic abnormalities in the chronic phase. The results indicate that complex pathophysiological processes differ depending on the post-injury phase and the neurometabolite in question.

  20. Multiple Failure Response Procedure System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — When an ISHM module identifies a single failure, an associated response procedure, developed and validated in advance, can be selected for execution to verify the...

  1. Approaches to Improving Cardiac Structure and Function During and After an Acute Myocardial Infarction: Acute and Chronic Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloner, Robert A; Dai, Wangde; Hale, Sharon L; Shi, Jianru

    2016-07-01

    While progress has been made in improving survival following myocardial infarction, this injury remains a major source of mortality and morbidity despite modern reperfusion therapy. While one approach has been to develop therapies to reduce lethal myocardial cell reperfusion injury, this concept has not translated to the clinics, and several recent negative clinical trials raise the question of whether reperfusion injury is important in humans undergoing reperfusion for acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Therapy aimed at reducing myocardial cell death while the myocytes are still ischemic is more likely to further reduce myocardial infarct size. Developing new therapies to further reduce left ventricular remodeling after the acute event is another approach to preserving structure and function of the heart after infarction. Such therapy may include chronic administration of pharmacologic agents and/or therapies developed from the field of regenerative cardiology, including cellular or non-cellular materials such as extracellular matrix. The optimal therapy will be to administer agents that both reduce myocardial infarct size in the acute phase of infarction as well as reduce adverse left ventricular remodeling during the chronic or healing phase of myocardial infarction. Such a dual approach will help optimize the preservation of both cardiac structure and function. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. C-reactive protein, haptoglobin and Pig-Major acute phase protein profiles of pigs infected experimentally by different isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saco, Y; Martínez-Lobo, F; Cortey, M; Pato, R; Peña, R; Segalés, J; Prieto, C; Bassols, A

    2016-02-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV) is the etiologic agent of PRRS, one of the most important diseases in swine worldwide. In the present work, the effects of different PRRSV strains were tested on a piglet experimental model to study the induced acute phase response. For this purpose, pigs (n=15 for each group) were intranasally inoculated with one of five PRRSV strains (isolates EU10, 12, 17, 18 from genotype 1 and isolate JA-142 from genotype 2). The acute phase response was monitored by measuring acute phase proteins (APPs). Specifically, the serum concentration of haptoglobin (Hp), C-reactive protein (CRP) and Pig-Major Acute Protein (Pig-MAP) was determined at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 days p.i. Clinical signs and growth performance were also monitored during the experiment. All animals became viremic after inoculation during the study period. The APP response was heterogeneous and dependent on the strain, being strains EU10, EU 18 and JA-142 those that induced the highest response and the strongest clinical signs. In general, Hp was the most sensitive biomarker for PRRSV infection, CRP behaved as moderate and Pig-MAP was the less responsive during the course of PRRSV experimental infection. Hp and CRP were significantly discriminatory between infected and control pigs, but not Pig-MAP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute-phase reactants and a supplemental diagnostic aid for Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Yii; Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Huang, Joh-Jong; Syu, Fei-Kai; Huang, Teh-Yang

    2010-11-01

    The diagnosis of acute Kawasaki disease (KD) is based on characteristic clinical signs and not on a specific diagnostic test. The authors performed a comprehensive evaluation of acute-phase reactants in KD to determine which of the acute-phase reactants would most accurately distinguish KD from other febrile illnesses. Blood was collected from 218 cases of febrile children with KD (64 cases); bacterial pneumonia (74 cases); hand, foot, and mouth disease (31 cases); and upper respiratory tract infection (49 cases) in acute-stage illness before any therapy. The demographics, body temperature, and laboratory markers including white blood cell count, red blood cell count, and levels of hemoglobin, platelets, C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, apolipoprotein A-I, and apolipoprotein B were evaluated. Using post hoc analysis, the platelet count (10(3)/μl) and haptoglobin/apolipoprotein A-I ratio were significantly higher for the KD patients (404.64 ± 161.68, P = 0.004; 4.74 ± 2.73, P acute phase of KD.

  4. Induction of Gag-Specific CD4 T Cell Responses during Acute HIV Infection Is Associated with Improved Viral Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieffer, Miriam; Jessen, Heiko K.; Oster, Alexander F.; Pissani, Franco; Soghoian, Damien Z.; Lu, Richard; Jessen, Arne B.; Zedlack, Carmen; Schultz, Bruce T.; Davis, Isaiah; Ranasinghe, Srinika; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Alter, Galit; Schumann, Ralf R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Effector CD4 T cell responses have been shown to be critically involved in the containment and clearance of viral pathogens. However, their involvement in the pathogenesis of HIV infection is less clear, given their additional role as preferred viral targets. We previously demonstrated that the presence of HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses is somewhat associated with HIV control and that specific CD4 T cell functions, such as direct cytolytic activity, can contribute to control of HIV viremia. However, little is known about how the induction of HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses during acute HIV infection influences disease progression and whether responses induced during the early phase of infection are preferentially depleted. We therefore longitudinally assessed, in a cohort of 55 acutely HIV-infected individuals, HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses from acute to chronic infection. Interestingly, we found that the breadth, magnitude, and protein dominance of HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses remained remarkably stable over time. Moreover, we found that the epitopes targeted at a high frequency in acute HIV infection were recognized at the same frequency by HIV-specific CD4 T cells in chronic HIV infection. Interestingly the induction of Gag-specific CD4 T cell responses in acute HIV infection was significantly inversely correlated with viral set point in chronic HIV infection (R = −0.5; P = 0.03), while the cumulative contribution of Env-specific CD4 T cell responses showed the reverse effect. Moreover, individuals with HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses dominantly targeting Gag over Env in acute HIV infection remained off antiretroviral therapy significantly longer (P = 0.03; log rank). Thus, our data suggest that the induction of HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses during acute HIV infection is beneficial overall and does not fuel disease progression. IMPORTANCE CD4 T cells are critical for the clearance and control of viral infections. However, HIV

  5. Acute Endocrine Responses to Different Strength Exercise Order in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Conceição Rodrigo Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effects of order of muscle groups’ exercised (larger to smaller muscles vs. smaller to larger muscles on the acute levels of total testosterone, free testosterone and cortisol during resistance training (RT sessions. Healthy male participants (n=8; age: 28.8 ± 6.4 years; body mass: 87.0 ± 10.6 kg; body height: 181.0 ± 0.7 cm; BMI: 26.5 ± 4.1 were randomly separated into two experimental groups. The first group (LG-SM performed an RT session (3 sets of 10 repetitions and a 2 min rest period of the exercises in following order: bench press (BP, lat pulldown (LP, barbell shoulder press (BSP, triceps pushdown (TP and barbell cut (BC. The second group (SM-LG performed an RT session in following order: BC, TP, BSP, LA, BP. Blood was collected at the end of the last repetition of each session. Control samples of blood were taken after 30 min of rest. Significant differences were observed in the concentrations of total testosterone (p < 0.05, free testosterone (p < 0.0001 and cortisol (p < 0.0001 after both RT sessions in comparison to rest. However, when comparing LG-SM and SM-LG, no significant differences were found. The results suggest that, while RT sessions induce an acute change in the levels of testosterone and cortisol, this response is independent of the order of exercising muscle groups.

  6. Acute Endocrine Responses to Different Strength Exercise Order in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Conceição, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Simão, Roberto; Silveira, Anderson Luiz B.; Silva, Gabriel Costa e; Nobre, Marcelo; Salerno, Veronica P.; Novaes, Jefferson

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the effects of order of muscle groups’ exercised (larger to smaller muscles vs. smaller to larger muscles) on the acute levels of total testosterone, free testosterone and cortisol during resistance training (RT) sessions. Healthy male participants (n=8; age: 28.8 ± 6.4 years; body mass: 87.0 ± 10.6 kg; body height: 181.0 ± 0.7 cm; BMI: 26.5 ± 4.1) were randomly separated into two experimental groups. The first group (LG-SM) performed an RT session (3 sets of 10 repetitions and a 2 min rest period) of the exercises in following order: bench press (BP), lat pulldown (LP), barbell shoulder press (BSP), triceps pushdown (TP) and barbell cut (BC). The second group (SM-LG) performed an RT session in following order: BC, TP, BSP, LA, BP. Blood was collected at the end of the last repetition of each session. Control samples of blood were taken after 30 min of rest. Significant differences were observed in the concentrations of total testosterone (p < 0.05), free testosterone (p < 0.0001) and cortisol (p < 0.0001) after both RT sessions in comparison to rest. However, when comparing LG-SM and SM-LG, no significant differences were found. The results suggest that, while RT sessions induce an acute change in the levels of testosterone and cortisol, this response is independent of the order of exercising muscle groups. PMID:25713671

  7. [Application of stroke rehabilitation unit in municipal hospitals during the acute phase of cerebral infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-min; Wang, Peng; Chen, Jie; Luo, Dan-hong; Shen, Wang-ming

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of stroke rehabilitation unit in municipal hospitals during the acute phase of cerebral infarction. 77 acute cerebral infarction patients were randomly assigned to stroke rehabilitation unit group and 73 to ordinary group. The NIH stroke scale (NIHSS), activities of daily living (ADL) Barthel index and average hospitalized time were compared in two groups before and after the treatment. The average NIHSS in two groups before treatment were 9.26 and 9.12 respectively (P > 0.05) but became 2.62 and 7.64 after treatment (P 0.05) but 87.26 and 64.20 after the treatment (P rehabilitation unit being applied in the acute phase of cerebral infarction, it showed positive results in the following aspects as: improving the neurological function, capabilities of managing daily life, and also shortening the days of hospitalization.

  8. The role of the acute phase protein PTX3 in the ventilator-induced lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Real

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The pentraxin 3 (PTX3 is an acute phase proinflammatory protein produced by fibroblasts and alveolar epithelial cells. We have previously demonstrated that PTX3 is a key modulator of inflammation. Mechanical ventilation (MV is a life saving therapeutic approach for patients with acute lung injury that, nevertheless could lead to an inflammatory response and tissue injury (ventilator-induced lung injury: VILI, representing a major cause of iatrogenic lung damage in intensive units. Our objective was to investigate the role of PTX3 in VILI. PTX3 transgenic, knockout and Wt control mice (n = 12/group were ventilated (45ml·kg–1 until respiratory system Elastance increased 50% (Ers150%, an indicator of VILI. Histological analysis demonstrated that using a Ers150% was appropriate for our analysis since identical degrees of inflammation were observed in Tg, KO and Wt mice as assessed by leukocyte infiltration, oedema, alveolar collapse and number of breaks in alveolar septa. However, Tg mice reached Ers150% faster than Wt controls (p = 0.0225. We also showed that the lack of PTX3 does not abolish the occurrence of VILI in KOs. Gene expression profile of PTX3, IL-1beta, IL-6, KC, IFNgamma, TGFbeta and PCIII were investigated by QPCR. MV drastically up modulated PTX3 as well as IL-1beta, IL-6, IFNgamma and KC. Alternatively, mice were ventilated for 20, 40 and 60 min. The faster kinetics of Tg mice to reach Ers150% was accompanied by an earlier augmentation of IL-1b and PTX3 expression. The kinetics of local PTX3 expression in the lungs of ventilated mice strongly suggests the involvement of this pentraxin in the pathogenesis of VILI.

  9. Pig-MAP, porcine acute phase proteins and standardisation of assays in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alava, M.A.; Gonzalez-Ramon, N.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    1997-01-01

    during the inflammation. In addition to CRP and Hp, a serum alpha(2)-globulin was observed to be the major acute phase (MAP) protein in pigs. Pig-MAP is a new mammalian plasma protein, which is the pig counterpart of a recently cloned human serum protein denominated PK-120 or MRP. Pig-MAP shows promise...

  10. Relationship between Acute Phase Proteins and Serum Fatty Acid Composition in Morbidly Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity is considered a low-grade inflammatory state and has been associated with increased acute phase proteins as well as changes in serum fatty acids. Few studies have assessed associations between acute phase proteins and serum fatty acids in morbidly obese patients. Objective. To investigate the relationship between acute phase proteins (C-Reactive Protein, Orosomucoid, and Albumin and serum fatty acids in morbidly obese patients. Methods. Twenty-two morbidly obese patients were enrolled in this study. Biochemical and clinical data were obtained before bariatric surgery, and fatty acids measured in preoperative serum. Results. Orosomucoid was negatively correlated with lauric acid (P=0.027 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA (P=0.037 and positively with arachidonic acid (AA (P=0.035, AA/EPA ratio (P=0.005, and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio (P=0.035. C-Reactive Protein (CRP was negatively correlated with lauric acid (P=0.048, and both CRP and CRP/Albumin ratio were negatively correlated with margaric acid (P=0.010, P=0.008, resp.. Albumin was positively correlated with EPA (P=0.027 and margaric acid (P=0.008. Other correlations were not statistically significant. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that serum fatty acids are linked to acute phase proteins in morbidly obese patients.

  11. Acute phase reactants and complement components as indicators of recurrence in human cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, E.R. te; Berrens, L.; Zegers, B.J.M.; Ballieux, R.E.

    1965-01-01

    Twenty patients with invasive cervical cancer of the squamous cell type were treated by radiotherapy and/or radical hysterectomy. During a follow-up period of approximately 2 yr in 10 of these patients a recurrence was established. Serial determinations of three acute phase reactants (α1-acid

  12. The diagnostic accuracy of acute phase proteins and proinflammatory cytokines in sheep with pneumonic pasteurellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael M. El-Deeb

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of acute phase proteins and proinflammatory cytokines in sheep with pneumonic pasteurellosis. Blood samples were collected from 56 sheep (36 naturally infected with Pasteurella multocida and 20 healthy controls belonging to one farm in Eastern region, Saudi Arabia. Serum samples were evaluated for acute phase proteins (Haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA and fibrinogen (Fb, and the proinflammatory cytokines (interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, and interferon-gamma (IFN-ϒ. Additionally, nasopharyngeal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavages were collected from all animals for bacteriological examinations. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to assess the diagnostic performance of each parameter. All parameters showed moderate to high degree of positive correlation with case-control status. There was no significant difference in the area under the curve (AUC among acute phase proteins; however, both Hp and SAA showed better sensitivity and specificity than Fb. The proinflammatory cytokines (IL1-α, IL1-β, and IL6 showed similar and highly accurate diagnostic performance (AUC > 0.9, whereas IFN-ϒ was moderately accurate (AUC = 0.79. In conclusion, this study confirms the value of acute phase proteins and cytokines as diagnostic biomarkers of naturally occuring pneumonic pasteurellosis in sheep.

  13. The effect of chronic ammonia exposure on acute phase proteins, immunoglobulin and cytokines in laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia is a potential health hazard to both humans and animals, causing systemic low-grade inflammation based on its levels and durations. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of 45 weeks of exposure to 30 ppm NH3 on the concentrations of acute phase proteins, immunoglobulins and c...

  14. Acute and phase-shifting effects of ocular and extraocular light in human circadian physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rüger, Melanie; Gordijn, Marijke C.M.; Beersma, Domien G.M.; de Vries, Bonnie; Daan, Serge

    2003-01-01

    Light can influence physiology and performance of humans in two distinct ways. It can acutely change the level of physiological and behavioral parameters, and it can induce a phase shift in the circadian oscillators underlying variations in these levels. Until recently, both effects were thought to

  15. Bilateral orbital granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma) preceding the blast phase of acute myelogenous leukemia: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulas, R.B.; Laine, F.J.; Das Narla, L.

    1995-01-01

    We report the CT findings of a case of bilateral intraorbital granulocytic sarcoma which preceded the blast phase of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and led to its diagnosis. An awareness of granulocytic sarcoma and its CT appearance may expedite the diagnosis of AML or prompt close monitoring of those cases of granulocytic sarcoma antedating the appearance of AML. (orig.)

  16. Perfusion Computed Tomography in the Acute Phase of Mild Head Injury : Regional Dysfunction and Prognostic Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metting, Zwany; Rodiger, Lars A.; Stewart, Roy E.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; De Keyser, Jacques; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Traumatic brain injury is a major Cause of disability and death. Most patients sustain a mild head injury with a subgroup that experiences disabling symptoms interfering with return to work. Brain imaging in the acute phase is not predictive of outcome, as 20% of noncontrast computed

  17. Acute phase complications following traumatic spinal cord injury in Dutch level 1 trauma centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weert, K.C. van; Schouten, E.J.; Hofstede, J.; Meent, H. van de; Holtslag, H.R.; Berg-Emons, R.J. van den

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the number and nature of complications during the acute phase following traumatic spinal cord injury and to explore the relationship between number of complications and length of hospital stay. DESIGN: Multi-centre prospective cohort study. PATIENTS: A total of 54 patients with

  18. Sympathetic skin response in acute sensory ataxic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunodaya, G R; Taly, A B; Swamy, H S

    1995-05-01

    Sympathetic skin response (SSR) is a recently described objective method of studying sudomotor sympathetic nerve function and has been studied in a variety of peripheral neuropathies. We report SSR changes in nine patients with acute sensory ataxic neuropathy (ASAN). All had severe sensory and mild motor nerve conduction abnormalities; five had dysautonomia. SSR, elicited by electric shock and cough stimuli, was absent in three patients. Latency was normal in all when SSR was present. Two patients had SSR amplitude of 0.2 mV or less. Absence of SSR did not correlate with dysautonomia, absence of sensory nerve action potential or motor nerve conduction abnormalities. Follow up SSR studies revealed return of absent SSR in one patient over a period of 3 months, despite persistence of ataxia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of SSR changes in ASAN.

  19. Glutamate excitoxicity is the key molecular mechanism which is influenced by body temperature during the acute phase of brain stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Francisco; Pérez-Mato, María; Agulla, Jesús; Blanco, Miguel; Barral, David; Almeida, Angeles; Brea, David; Waeber, Christian; Castillo, José; Ramos-Cabrer, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate excitotoxicity, metabolic rate and inflammatory response have been associated to the deleterious effects of temperature during the acute phase of stroke. So far, the association of temperature with these mechanisms has been studied individually. However, the simultaneous study of the influence of temperature on these mechanisms is necessary to clarify their contributions to temperature-mediated ischemic damage. We used non-invasive Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to simultaneously measure temperature, glutamate excitotoxicity and metabolic rate in the brain in animal models of ischemia. The immune response to ischemia was measured through molecular serum markers in peripheral blood. We submitted groups of animals to different experimental conditions (hypothermia at 33°C, normothermia at 37°C and hyperthermia at 39°C), and combined these conditions with pharmacological modulation of glutamate levels in the brain through systemic injections of glutamate and oxaloacetate. We show that pharmacological modulation of glutamate levels can neutralize the deleterious effects of hyperthermia and the beneficial effects of hypothermia, however the analysis of the inflammatory response and metabolic rate, demonstrated that their effects on ischemic damage are less critical than glutamate excitotoxity. We conclude that glutamate excitotoxicity is the key molecular mechanism which is influenced by body temperature during the acute phase of brain stroke.

  20. Acute Cardiovascular Response to Sign Chi Do Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol E. Rogers

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Safe and gentle exercise may be important for older adults overcoming a sedentary lifestyle. Sign Chi Do (SCD, a novel form of low impact exercise, has shown improved balance and endurance in healthy older adults, and there have been no SCD-related injuries reported. Sedentary older adults are known to have a greater cardiovascular (CV response to physical activity than those who regularly exercise. However their CV response to SCD is unknown. This study explored the acute CV response of older adults to SCD. Cross-sectional study of 34 sedentary and moderately active adults over age 55 with no previous experience practicing SCD. Participants completed a 10 min session of SCD. CV outcomes of heart rate, blood pressure, rate pressure product were recorded at 0, 5, 10 min of SCD performance, and after 10 min of rest. HR was recorded every minute. There was no difference in CV scores of sedentary and moderately active older adults after a session of SCD-related activity. All CV scores increased at 5 min, were maintained at 10 min, and returned to baseline within 10 min post SCD (p < 0.05. SCD may be a safe way to increase participation in regular exercise by sedentary older adults.

  1. Measurement of the nonlinear optical phase response of liquefying gallium

    OpenAIRE

    Petropoulos, P.; Kim, H.S.; Richardson, D.J.; Zheludev, N.I.

    2000-01-01

    We report a direct measurement of the nonlinear optical phase response of gallium/silica interface close to the metal's melting point. A reversible phase modulation of ~0.15 radians and ~30% change in reflectivity was observed for 5mW of power at 1549nm.

  2. Stimuli-Responsive Cubosomes Formed from Blue Phase Liquid Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukusoglu, Emre; Wang, Xiaoguang; Martinez-Gonzalez, Jose A; de Pablo, Juan J; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2015-11-18

    Cubosomes formed from blue phase liquid crystals (BPs) dispersed in aqueous media exhibit optical responses to biological amphiphiles. In this study, the formation of aqueous dispersions of BPs is reported, and the effects of confinement and lipids on the phase behavior, optical appearance, and morphology of BP droplets are characterized. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Serum Titers of Acute Phase Proteins and Immunoglobulin Classes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were no significant correlation between duration of smoking, nicotine inhaled, and tar inhaled with any of the humoral factors. Conclusion: This study detected abnormalities in certain aspects of humoral immune responses in Nigerian smokers and this could lead to development of auto-antibodies and cardiovascular ...

  4. Transient nephritis during resolution phase of acute virale hepatitis E

    OpenAIRE

    Arden, Amir David

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis E Virus is a causative agent of hepatitis. Viral E hepatitis is responsible for various clinical manifestations. However, immune reactions due to hepatitis E virus are rarely encountered. A case of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis associated with hepatitis E virus is reported her.

  5. Effect of smoking on acute phase reactants, stress hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic inflammation, possibly exacerbated by cigarette smoking, is considered to be the primary cause of pulmonary damage in patients with tuberculosis (TB). However, the mechanisms which underpin these harmful inflammatory responses, have not been well documented. Objectives: The current study ...

  6. Enhanced response to ozone exposure during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, S.D.; Adams, W.C.; Brookes, K.A.; Lasley, B.L. (Univ. of Calfornia, Davis (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Exposure to ozone (O[sub 3]), a toxic component of photochemical smog, results in significant airway inflammation, respiratory discomfort, and pulmonary function impairment. These effects can be reduced via pretreatment with anti-inflammatory agents. Progesterone, a gonadal steroid, is known to reduce general inflammation in the uterine endometrium. However, it is not known whether fluctuation in blood levels of progesterone, which are experienced during the normal female menstrual cycle, could alter O[sub 3] inflammatory-induced pulmonary responses. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that young, adult females are more responsive to O[sub 3] inhalation with respect to pulmonary function impairment during their follicular (F) menstrual phase when progesterone levels are lowest that during their mid-luteal (ML) phase when progesterone levels are highest. Nine subjects with normal ovarian function were exposed in random order for 1 hour each to filtered air and to 0.30 ppm O[sub 3] in their F and ML menstrual phases. Ozone responsiveness was measured by percent change in pulmonary function from pre- to postexposure. Significant gas concentration effects (filtered air versus O[sub 3]) were observed for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV[sub 1]), and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC (FEF[sub 25-75]), showed a significant menstrual phase and gas concentration interaction effect, with larger decrements observed in the F menstrual phase when progesterone concentrations were significantly lower. We conclude that young, adult females appear to be more responsive to acute O[sub 3] exposure during the F phase than during the ML phase of their menstrual cycles. This difference in pulmonary function response could be related to the anti-inflammatory effects of increased progesterone concentrations during the luteal phase.

  7. Effects of asphalt fume condensate exposure on acute pulmonary responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, J.Y.C.; Barger, M.W.; Castranova, V. [Health Effects Lab. Div., National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States); Kriech, A.J. [Heritage Research Group, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2000-10-01

    The present study was carried out to characterize the effects of in vitro exposure to paving asphalt fume condensate (AFC) on alveolar macrophage (AM) functions and to monitor acute pulmonary responses to in vivo AFC exposure in rats. Methods: For in vitro studies, rat primary AM cultures were incubated with various concentrations of AFC for 24 h at 37 C. AM-conditioned medium was collected and assayed for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as a marker of cytotoxicity. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) production were assayed in AM-conditioned medium to monitor AM function. The effect of AFC on chemiluminescence (CL) generated by resting AM or AM in response to zymosan or PMA stimulation was also determined as a marker of AM activity. For in vivo studies, rats received either (1) a single intratracheal (IT) instillation of saline, or 0.1 mg or 0.5 mg AFC and were killed 1 or 3 days later; or (2) IT instillation of saline, or 0.1, 0.5, or 2 mg AFC for three consecutive days and were killed the following day. Differential counts of cells harvested by bronchoalveolar lavage were measured to monitor inflammation. Acellular LDH and protein content in the first lavage fluid were measured to monitor damage. CL generation, TNF-{alpha} and IL-1 production by AM were assayed to monitor AM function. Results: In vitro AFC exposure at <200 {mu}g/ml did not induce cytotoxicity, oxidant generation, or IL-1 production by AM, but it did cause a small but significant increase in TNF-{alpha} release from AM. In vitro exposure of AM to AFC resulted in a significant decline of CL in response to zymosan or PMA stimulation. The in vivo studies showed that AFC exposure did not induce significant neutrophil infiltration or alter LDH or protein content in acellular lavage samples. Macrophages obtained from AFC-exposed rats did not show significant differences in oxidant production or cytokine secretion at rest or in response to LPS in comparison with control

  8. Augmentation of the acute phase response in vitamin C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To investigate the effects of vitamin C (VC) supplementation on the alterations in systemic markers of inflammation as a result of participation in a 90 km down run from Pietermaritzburg to Durban in 29 subjects who completed the 1999 Comrades Marathon. Interventions. Runners were divided into groups ...

  9. Acinar injury and early cytokine response in human acute biliary pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakkampudi, Aparna; Jangala, Ramaiah; Reddy, Ratnakar; Mitnala, Sasikala; Rao, G Venkat; Pradeep, Rebala; Reddy, D Nageshwar; Talukdar, Rupjyoti

    2017-11-10

    Clinical acute pancreatitis (AP) is marked by an early phase of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) with multiorgan dysfunction (MODS), and a late phase characterized by sepsis with MODS. However, the mechanisms of acinar injury in human AP and the associated systemic inflammation are not clearly understood. This study, for the first time, evaluated the early interactions of bile acid induced human pancreatic acinar injury and the resulting cytokine response. We exposed freshly procured resected human pancreata to taurolithocolic acid (TLCS) and evaluated for acinar injury, cytokine release and interaction with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We observed autophagy in acinar cells in response to TLCS exposure. There was also time-dependent release of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α from the injured acini that resulted in activation of PBMCs. We also observed that cytokines secreted by activated PBMCs resulted in acinar cell apoptosis and further cytokine release from them. Our data suggests that the earliest immune response in human AP originates within the acinar cell itself, which subsequently activates circulating PBMCs leading to SIRS. These findings need further detailed evaluation so that specific therapeutic targets to curb SIRS and resulting early adverse outcomes could be identified and tested.

  10. Identification of acute phase reactants and cytokines useful for monitoring infliximab therapy in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sánchez, Consuelo; Robinson, William H; Tomooka, Beren H; Londoño, John; Valle-Oñate, Rafael; Huang, Feng; Deng, Xiaohu; Zhang, Liyun; Yang, Chunhua; Yu, David Tak Yan

    2008-11-01

    Although most ankylosing spondylitis patients show an apparent clinical response to infliximab therapy, there is considerable individual variation. Because current clinical assessment relies heavily on subjective patient self-evaluation, biomarkers of high sensitivity and specificity are much needed. Here, we assessed potential biomarkers in 47 ankylosing spondylitis patients who received three standard pulses of infliximab. Before each infusion and at week 10, the following were measured: erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), platelet count, serum levels of metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), and 22 different cytokines. We discovered that, 2 weeks after the first infusion, the combination of ESR, CRP, and platelet count distinguished responders from non-responders with 81.3% sensitivity and 72.7% specificity. The distinguishing power was much less when each acute phase reactant was used alone. Among the 22 cytokines, serum IL-1alpha was able to distinguish responders from non-responders at week 6, with sensitivity of 84.9% and specificity of 53.8%. Serum IL-1alpha was probably generated from the joint compartments, as synovial fluid levels were much higher than corresponding serum levels. Although infliximab infusions led to rapid and significant suppression of serum MMP-3 levels, serum MMP-3 levels did not distinguish responders from non-responders. Besides identifying potential biomarkers, our results also demonstrate the usefulness of using sensitivity and specificity to assess usefulness of potential biomarkers.

  11. Acute phase proteins: Biomarkers of infection and inflammation in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckersall, P D; Bell, R

    2010-07-01

    Acute phase proteins (APPs) have been used as biomarkers of inflammation, infection and trauma for decades in human medicine but have been relatively under-utilised in the context of veterinary medicine. However, significant progress has been made in the detection, measurement and application of APPs as biomarkers in both companion and farm animal medicine over recent years. In the dog, C-reactive protein, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A have been identified as significant diagnostic 'markers' of steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis, while in cats and cattle haptoglobin and alpha(1) acid glycoprotein and haptoglobin and serum amyloid A have proved valuable biomarkers of disease, respectively. In dairy cattle, haptoglobin and a mammary-associated serum amyloid A3 isoform, produced by the inflamed mammary gland during episodes of mastitis, have great potential as biomarkers of this economically important disease. Understanding the use of APP as biomarkers of inflammatory conditions of domestic animals has expanded significantly over recent years, and, with the insights provided by ongoing research, it is likely that these compounds will be increasingly used in the future in the diagnosis and prognosis of both companion and farm animal disease. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Controversial results of therapy with mesenchymal stem cells in the acute phase of canine distemper disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, A O; Cardoso, M T; Vidane, A S; Casals, J B; Passarelli, D; Alencar, A L F; Sousa, R L M; Fantinato-Neto, P; Oliveira, V C; Lara, V M; Ambrósio, C E

    2016-05-23

    Distemper disease is an infectious disease reported in several species of domestic and wild carnivores. The high mortality rate of animals infected with canine distemper virus (CDV) treated with currently available therapies has driven the study of new efficacious treatments. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many degenerative, hereditary, and inflammatory diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize stem cells derived from the canine fetal olfactory epithelium and to assess the systemic response of animals infected with CDV to symptomatic therapy and treatment with MSCs. Eight domestic mongrel dogs (N = 8) were divided into two groups: support group (SG) (N = 5) and support group + cell therapy (SGCT) (N = 3), which were monitored over 15 days. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 6, 9, 12, and 15 to assess blood count and serum biochemistry (urea, creatinine, alanine transferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, total protein, albumin, and globulin), and urine samples were obtained on days 0 and 15 for urinary evaluation (urine I). The results showed a high mortality rate (SG = 4 and SGCT = 2), providing inadequate data on the clinical course of CDV infection. MSC therapy resulted in no significant improvement when administered during the acute phase of canine distemper disease, and a prevalence of animals with high mortality rate was found in both groups due to the severity of symptoms.

  13. Sustained CD8+ T-cell responses induced after acute parvovirus B19 infection in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norbeck, Oscar; Isa, Adiba; Pöhlmann, Christoph

    2005-01-01

    Murine models have suggested that CD8+ T-cell responses peak early in acute viral infections and are not sustained, but no evidence for humans has been available. To address this, we longitudinally analyzed the CD8+ T-cell response to human parvovirus B19 in acutely infected individuals. We...... observed striking CD8+ T-cell responses, which were sustained or even increased over many months after the resolution of acute disease, indicating that CD8+ T cells may play a prominent role in the control of parvovirus B19 and other acute viral infections of humans, including potentially those generated...

  14. The acute hormonal response to the kettlebell swing exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnar, Ronald G; Duplanty, Anthony A; Hill, David W; McFarlin, Brian K; Vingren, Jakob L

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute hormonal response to the kettlebell swing exercise. Ten recreationally resistance trained men (age, 24 ± 4 years; height, 175 ± 6 cm; body mass, 78.7 ± 9.9 kg) performed 12 rounds of 30 seconds of 16 kg kettlebell swings alternated with 30 seconds of rest. Blood samples were collected before (PRE), immediately after (IP), and 15 (P15) and 30 minutes after exercise (P30) and analyzed for testosterone (T), immunoreactive growth hormone, cortisol (C), and lactate concentrations. Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion were measured at the end of each round. Testosterone was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) at IP than at PRE, P15, or P30 (PRE: 28 ± 3; IP: 32 ± 4; P15: 29 ± 3; P30: 27 ± 3 nmol·L). Growth hormone was higher at IP, P15, and P30 than at PRE (PRE: 0.1 ± 0.1; IP: 1.8 ± 1.2; P15: 2.1 ± 1.1; P30: 1.6 ± 1.3 μg·L). Cortisol was higher at IP and P15 than at PRE and P30 (PRE: 617 ± 266; IP: 894 ± 354; P15: 875 ± 243; P30: 645 ± 285 nmol·L). Lactate was higher at IP, P15, and P30 than at PRE (PRE: 1.1 ± 0.5; IP: 7.0 ± 3.0; P15: 4.0 ± 2.7; P30: 2.5 ± 1.8 mmol·L). Heart rate increased progressively from 57 ± 12 at PRE to 170 ± 10 at IP. The exercise protocol produced an acute increase in hormones involved in muscle adaptations. Thus, the kettlebell swing exercise might provide a good supplement to resistance training programs.

  15. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Buechel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/ stress hormone/ allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation, and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 mo. and aged (21 mo. male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress groups (n = 9-12/ group. We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the three hour restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 hours after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors.

  16. How easy is it to contact the duty medical doctor responsible for acute admissions?

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhai, A; Goodman, F; Juchniewichz, H; Martin, A; Porter, G; White, C; Williams, L; Hopkins, A

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To ascertain ease or difficulty of contacting duty junior doctors responsible for acute medical admissions by telephone. DESIGN--Telephone survey of hospitals in six health regions in England and Wales. SETTING--70 Randomly selected hospitals, 15 of which were excluded because of non-acceptance of acute medical admissions. PARTICIPANTS--71 Duty doctors (duty house physicians, senior house officers, or registrars responsible for acute medical admissions) in 48 hospitals; seven duty ...

  17. The relationship between personality and the response to acute psychological stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xin, Yuanyuan; Wu, Jianhui; Yao, Zhuxi; Guan, Qing; Aleman, Andre; Luo, Yuejia

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality traits and the response to acute psychological stress induced by a standardized laboratory stress induction procedure (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). The stress response was measured with a combination of cardiovascular

  18. Tricuspid and mitral regurgitation detected by color flow Doppler in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, A.; Kamiya, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Sato, I.; Arakaki, Y.; Kohata, T.; Ono, Y.

    1988-02-01

    Valvular lesions in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease were studied in 19 children. The patients were intensively observed by color flow Doppler every day from the day of hospitalization up to 12 days after the onset of the disease and 2 or more times a week thereafter, for up to 28 days. Mitral regurgitation (MR) was found in 9 patients (47%) and tricuspid regurgitation (TR) in 10 (53%). MRs were of transient type and confirmed from 7.5 +/- 1.6 (mean +/- standard deviation) to 13.1 +/- 6.5 days after the onset of the disease. Both types of valvular regurgitation were mild. The direction of regurgitation was from the center of valvular coaptation toward the posterior wall of the atrium. Neither valvular prolapse nor valvular deformity was noted. In patients with MR, left ventricular ejection fraction on M-mode echocardiography was significantly lower in the acute phase than in the convalescent phase of the disease (p less than 0.05). Using gallium-67 scintigram, the positive uptake of the isotope was noted in 7 (88%) of 8 patients with MR, but not found at all in 8 patients free of MR. These results suggest that MR and TR are often transient in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease and could be attributed to myocarditis.

  19. Host Transcriptional Response to Influenza and Other Acute Respiratory Viral Infections – A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yijie; Franco, Luis M.; Atmar, Robert L.; Quarles, John M.; Arden, Nancy; Bucasas, Kristine L.; Wells, Janet M.; Niño, Diane; Wang, Xueqing; Zapata, Gladys E.; Shaw, Chad A.; Belmont, John W.; Couch, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the systemic response to naturally acquired acute respiratory viral infections, we prospectively enrolled 1610 healthy adults in 2009 and 2010. Of these, 142 subjects were followed for detailed evaluation of acute viral respiratory illness. We examined peripheral blood gene expression at 7 timepoints: enrollment, 5 illness visits and the end of each year of the study. 133 completed all study visits and yielded technically adequate peripheral blood microarray gene expression data. Seventy-three (55%) had an influenza virus infection, 64 influenza A and 9 influenza B. The remaining subjects had a rhinovirus infection (N = 32), other viral infections (N = 4), or no viral agent identified (N = 24). The results, which were replicated between two seasons, showed a dramatic upregulation of interferon pathway and innate immunity genes. This persisted for 2-4 days. The data show a recovery phase at days 4 and 6 with differentially expressed transcripts implicated in cell proliferation and repair. By day 21 the gene expression pattern was indistinguishable from baseline (enrollment). Influenza virus infection induced a higher magnitude and longer duration of the shared expression signature of illness compared to the other viral infections. Using lineage and activation state-specific transcripts to produce cell composition scores, patterns of B and T lymphocyte depressions accompanied by a major activation of NK cells were detected in the acute phase of illness. The data also demonstrate multiple dynamic gene modules that are reorganized and strengthened following infection. Finally, we examined pre- and post-infection anti-influenza antibody titers defining novel gene expression correlates. PMID:26070066

  20. Host Transcriptional Response to Influenza and Other Acute Respiratory Viral Infections--A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijie Zhai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the systemic response to naturally acquired acute respiratory viral infections, we prospectively enrolled 1610 healthy adults in 2009 and 2010. Of these, 142 subjects were followed for detailed evaluation of acute viral respiratory illness. We examined peripheral blood gene expression at 7 timepoints: enrollment, 5 illness visits and the end of each year of the study. 133 completed all study visits and yielded technically adequate peripheral blood microarray gene expression data. Seventy-three (55% had an influenza virus infection, 64 influenza A and 9 influenza B. The remaining subjects had a rhinovirus infection (N = 32, other viral infections (N = 4, or no viral agent identified (N = 24. The results, which were replicated between two seasons, showed a dramatic upregulation of interferon pathway and innate immunity genes. This persisted for 2-4 days. The data show a recovery phase at days 4 and 6 with differentially expressed transcripts implicated in cell proliferation and repair. By day 21 the gene expression pattern was indistinguishable from baseline (enrollment. Influenza virus infection induced a higher magnitude and longer duration of the shared expression signature of illness compared to the other viral infections. Using lineage and activation state-specific transcripts to produce cell composition scores, patterns of B and T lymphocyte depressions accompanied by a major activation of NK cells were detected in the acute phase of illness. The data also demonstrate multiple dynamic gene modules that are reorganized and strengthened following infection. Finally, we examined pre- and post-infection anti-influenza antibody titers defining novel gene expression correlates.

  1. Aripiprazole in the acute and maintenance phase of bipolar I disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zupancic M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanie Zupancic1, Misty L Gonzalez2,31Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, 2Division of Medicine Psychiatry, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, 3Southern Illinois University Edwardsville School of Pharmacy, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Springfield, IL, USAAbstract: Bipolar affective disorder is a disabling illness with substantial morbidity and many management challenges. Traditional mood stabilizers such as lithium, valproate, and carbamazepine are often inadequate in controlling symptoms both during the acute and maintenance phase of treatment. Aripiprazole is a second-generation antipsychotic with a unique mechanism of action. Evidence suggests that it is effective in acute manic and mixed states. There are limited data to suggest its efficacy as a maintenance agent. Future studies will be needed to better define the role of aripiprazole relative to other traditional pharmacologic agents.Keywords: aripiprazole, bipolar disorder, acute treatment, maintenance treatment

  2. An exploratory phase 2 study of investigational Aurora A kinase inhibitor alisertib (MLN8237 in acute myelogenous leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart L. Goldberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alisertib (MLN8237 is an investigational, oral, selective, Aurora A kinase (AAK inhibitor. In this phase 2 trial, 57 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML or high-grade myelodysplastic syndrome received alisertib 50 mg BID for 7 days in 21-day cycles. Responses in 6/35 AML patients (17% response rate with an additional 49% stable disease, 34% transfusion independence included 1 complete response lasting >1 year. No responses were observed in MDS patients. Adverse events >30% included diarrhea, fatigue, nausea, febrile neutropenia, and stomatitis. Results suggest modest activity in AML, supporting further research to better understand how AAK inhibition may induce leukemic cell senescence.

  3. [Echocardiographic indices related with acute coronary anatomy in acute phase of myocardial infarction: our experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belluzzi, Fabio; Ciocca, Anna; Grosso Di Palma, Lucia; Cattaneo, Mattia; Conti, Caterina; Magrini, Fabio

    2011-11-01

    Inferior acute myocardial infarction (IAMI) is often associated with right ventricle involvement (RVAMI). Echocardiogram (Echo) shows the ischemic involvement of the right ventricle with an initial dilatation (RVD) and segmental cinetic abnormalities (RVSCS). During RVAMI the normal convexity of the interatrial septum (IAS) toward right atrium is inverted (IASI). 53 patients with IAMI were studied with ECG, echo and hemodinamic monitoring by a Swan-Ganz catheter. Echo was early performed and patients were subdivided into three groups: 1. IAMI with RVSCS and/or RVD with IASI (12 patients); 2. IAMI with RVSCS and/or RVD without IASI (8 patients); 3. IAMI without VSCS, RVD IASI (33 patients). ECG showed RV involvement only in A and B groups (ST-T segment elevation more than 2 mm in V3 r - V5 r). Echo-Doppler showed no statistically differences between the two groups on RV protodiastolic pression; no hemodinamic differences between the two groups (p = n.s.); no statistically differences in central venous pressure, right ventricular pressure, cardiac output, wedge pressure. Complications (arrhytmias, heart failure, ipotension, pericarditis, 3rd A-V block) were so subdivided: group A: 6 patients (50%); group B: 2 patients (24%); group C: 4 patients (12%) with statistical significance (p41 % in group A (5 patients); 20 % in group B (2 patients); 6 % in group C (2 patients), with p<0.01 between all three groups. Echo after six months showed IASI only in two patients of group A. Patients with IASI revealed complications (residual angina, ventricular ipercinetic arrytmias). IASI in patients with IAMI and RVAMI seems to identify a group with higher risk in developing complications and with a more adverse prognosis.

  4. Biventricular pacing-induced acute response in baroreflex sensitivity has predictive value for midterm response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gademan, Maaike G. J.; van Bommel, Rutger J.; Borleffs, C. Jan Willem; Man, Sumche; Haest, Joris C. W.; Schalij, Martin J.; van der Wall, Ernst E.; Bax, Jeroen J.; Swenne, Cees A.

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study we demonstrated that the institution of biventricular pacing in chronic heart failure (CHF) acutely facilitates the arterial baroreflex. The arterial baroreflex has important prognostic value in CHF. We hypothesized that the acute response in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) after

  5. Enzyme activity and acute phase proteins in milk utilized as indicators of acute clinical E. coli LPS-induced mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Røntved, Christine M.; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne

    2010-01-01

    .9% NaCl solution. Somatic cell counts (SCCs), the acute phase proteins (APP), that is, milk amyloid A (MAA) and haptoglobin (Hp), and the enzymes N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AP) and acid phosphatase (AcP) were measured at fixed intervals...... and developed a monophasic response, except Hp and MAA that developed biphasic response. SCC, LDH, NAGase and Hp peaked at 21 h followed by AP, AcP and MAA peaking at 31 h with the highest fold changes seen for MAA (23 780×), LDH (126×), NAGase (50×) and Hp (16×). In the recovery phase, AP, AcP and Hp reached...... for a limited time frame for AP and AcP. Hence, when tested in an LPS mastitis model, the enzymes LDH, NAGase and AP in several aspects performed equally with SCC and APP as inflammatory milk indicators of mastitis. Furthermore, these enzymes appear potent in the assessment of a valuable time sequence...

  6. Imaging of Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoeni, Ruedi F

    2015-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammation of the pancreas. Several classification systems have been used in the past but were considered unsatisfactory. A revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was published that assessed the clinical course and severity of disease; divided acute pancreatitis into interstitial edematous pancreatitis and necrotizing pancreatitis; discerned an early phase (first week) from a late phase (after the first week); and focused on systemic inflammatory response syndrome and organ failure. This article focuses on the revised classification of acute pancreatitis, with emphasis on imaging features, particularly on newly-termed fluid collections and implications for the radiologist. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Proliferating resident microglia express the stem cell antigen CD34 in response to acute neural injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladeby, Rune; Wirenfeldt, Martin; Dalmau, Ishar

    2005-01-01

    Reactive microgliosis is a highly characteristic response to neural injury and disease, which may influence neurodegenerative processes and neural plasticity. We have investigated the origin and characteristics of reactive microglia in the acute phase of their activation in the dentate gyrus...... CD34(+) cells co-expressed Mac-1, and decreased sharply toward day 5, unlike Mac-1, which was maximally expressed at day 5. Approximately 80% of the CD34(+) cells in the denervated dentate gyrus had incorporated BrdU into their nuclei at day 3. We also showed that CD34 is upregulated on early...... following transection of the entorhino-dentate perforant path projection. To investigate the possible link between microglia and hematopoietic precursors, we analyzed the expression of the stem cell marker CD34 by lesion-reactive microglia in conjunction with the proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine (Brd...

  8. 'Living a life in shades of grey': experiencing depressive symptoms in the acute phase after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouwenhoven, Siren E; Kirkevold, Marit; Engedal, Knut; Kim, Hesook S

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the lived experience of stroke survivors suffering from depressive symptoms in the acute phase; addressing the following questions: (a) what is the nature of depression as experienced by post-stroke patients in the acute phase? (b) what is it like to live with depression within the first weeks following stroke? Post-stroke depression occurs in at least one quarter of stroke survivors and is linked to poorer outcomes. This qualitative study is methodologically grounded in hermeneutic phenomenology, influenced by van Manen and Ricoeur. A descriptive, qualitative design was used applying in-depth interviews as the method of data collection with nine participants. The data collection took place in 2008. The material revealed two main themes that generate the feeling and description of 'living a life in shades of grey': (a) being trapped and (b) losing oneself. 'Shades of grey' could be understood as being confined in a new life-world and losing oneself as the person one knew. The participants confirmed suffering from depressive symptoms, but depression was not seen as meaningful on its own. They related their experiences of post-stroke depression in the acute phase to the losses they experienced. Nurses ought to take into account the depth of the life changes that stroke survivors may experience. There is a need for continued empirical research on how nurses may help and support stroke survivors dealing with depressive symptoms in the acute phase after stroke and how depressive symptoms develop over time. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Serum levels of macrophage colony stimulating factor and other acute phase reactants after open heart surgery

    OpenAIRE

    近清, 裕一

    1996-01-01

    To clarify the phathophysiological role of macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) in the healing processes of inflammation, we studied chronological changes in serum concentrations of M-CSF and other reactants during the acute phase of inflammation in patients who underwent open heart surgery, since these patients showed a precise point of tissue damage. The number of neutrophilic leukocytes increased in the very early postoperative stage, reached a peak 48 h after surgery and declined ...

  10. The effect of histamine on ciliary beat frequency in the acute phase of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung-Chul; Kim, Dae Woo; Kim, Dong-Young; Rhee, Chae-Seo

    2011-01-01

    There have been few studies about the effect of histamine on ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in the acute phase of allergic rhinitis. The present study was designed to investigate CBF in the acute phase of allergic rhinitis and the effect of histamine on CBF. Nasal septal mucosae were obtained from 13 mice that had been systemically immunized and locally challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) (group A), 11 OVA immunized and phosphate-buffered saline-challenged mice (group B), and 12 nontreated negative control mice (group C). The CBFs were observed within 20 minutes of local challenge with OVA. Ciliary beat frequencies were measured before and after treatment with 10(-5), 10(-3), and 10(-1) mol/L histamine and after administering antihistamine or Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium to histamine-exposed mucosa. The baseline CBF in group A was higher than in groups B and C. After treatment with 10(-1) mol/L histamine, CBF in all groups decreased to 0 within 5 to 7 minutes, whereas treatment with 10(-5) or 10(-3) mol/L histamine had no effect. The application of 100 μmol/L fexofenadine or Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium solution restored histamine-induced ciliostasis to near baseline CBF after 10 minutes. Ciliary beat frequency increased in the acute phase of a mouse model of allergic rhinitis. Physiologic concentrations of histamine had no effect on CBF, and thus, it appears that other mechanisms control CBF in the acute phase of allergic rhinitis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Treatment of bone marrow aplasia in phase I of acute lymphatic leukemia treatment in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiefenbach, A; Konja, J; Potkonjak-Sekso, M

    1979-01-01

    In the first phase of treatment of acute lymphatic leukemia in children (ALL) with aggresive cytostatic protocols, the doctor is, in some patients, forced to modify the antitumor therapy over a certain period of time because of bone marrow depression. The authors attempted to pull patients with ALL through this critical phase of the disease - by administering "profilactically" Lithium Carbonate (Li2CO3) ( in order to stimulate granulopoiesis) or, if anaemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia had already occurred, by administering concentrates of erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets - without discontinuing the administration of cytostatics. The results of these attempts are reported.

  12. Association of acute-phase reactants with arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Masuda, Hiroshi

    2006-03-01

    The relationship between chronic low-grade inflammation and atherosclerotic progress in patients with diabetes mellitus has not been confirmed. We determined whether acute-phase reactants are associated with arterial stiffness in diabetic patients. Relationships of blood inflammatory markers [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), amyloid A protein (SAA), sialic acid, fibrinogen and white blood cells (WBC)] with atherosclerosis were investigated in a cross-sectional study using 114 subjects with type 2 diabetes. The degree of atherosclerosis was evaluated by arterial stiffness measured using cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), a new index of arterial stiffness, which is compatible with conventional aortic pulse-wave velocity. CRP, SAA, sialic acid, fibrinogen and WBC showed significant correlations with CAVI. CAVI was significantly higher in the highest tertile of sialic acid, fibrinogen and WBC compared with the lowest tertile or lowest and middle tertiles. This association was independent of age, sex and smoking. By logistic regression analysis, the highest levels of these acute-phase reactants showed increased risk of high CAVI, while CRP and SAA were not associated with an increased risk in this analysis. CAVI was also significantly correlated with duration of diabetes, blood pressure and serum total cholesterol. Acute-phase reactants, such as CRP, SAA, sialic acid, fibrinogen and WBC, are associated with arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. Relationship of total serum sialic acid to sialylglycoprotein acute-phase reactants in malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, H. K.; Karim, K. A.; Salinas, F. A.

    1980-01-01

    Reported elevations of total serum sialic acid may be a result of shed tumour-related membrane sialyglycoprotein and/or concurrent elevation of non-specific, acute-phase reactant sialoglycoprotein. To clarify further the specificity and sensitivity of serum sialic acid monitoring, analyses of sialic acid by the thiobarbituric acid method and acute-phase reactants by radial immunodiffusion were made using the same malignant melanoma patients' sera. Preliminary studies of IgG, IgA, IgM, ceruloplasmin and C-reactive protein suggested that these would not be valuable monitors of tumour burden. Single serum samples from 59 melanoma patients and age- and sex-matched controls were further examined for sialic acid, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, alpha 1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, and alpha 2-macroglobulin. Patients were grouped according to tumour burden. In pairwise statistical tests, differences between groups tended to be greater for sialic acid than for acute-phase reactants. On discriminant analysis , sialic acid was clearly the most significant single discriminator between groups, with an F statistic of P < 0.00005. Although alpha 1-acid glycoprotein was quite strongly correlated with sialic acid, it was not such a good discriminator and did not add significantly to the predictive power of sialic acid alone. PMID:6158966

  14. Acute Phase Reactants in Infections: Evidence-Based Review and a Guide for Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markanday, Anurag

    2015-09-01

    Acute-phase reactants such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein have traditionally been used as markers for inflammation and as a measure of "sickness index" in infectious and noninfectious conditions. In the last decade, more data have become available on the wider and more specific role for these markers in the management of complex infections. This includes the potential role in early diagnosis, in differentiating infectious from noninfectious causes, as a prognostic marker, and in antibiotic guidance strategies. A better defined role for biological markers as a supplement to clinical assessment may lead to more judicious antibiotic prescriptions, and it has the potential for a long-term favorable impact on antimicrobial stewardship and antibiotic resistance. Procalcitonin as a biological marker has been of particular interest in this regard. This review examines the current published evidence and summarizes the role of various acute-phase markers in infections. A MEDLINE search of English-language articles on acute-phase reactants and infections published between 1986 and March 2015 was conducted. Additional articles were also identified through a search of references from the retrieved articles, published guidelines, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses.

  15. Quantifying factors determining the rate of CTL escape and reversion during acute and chronic phases of HIV infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganusov, Vitaly V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perelson, Alan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often evades cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses by generating variants that are not recognized by CTLs. However, the importance and quantitative details of CTL escape in humans are poorly understood. In part, this is because most studies looking at escape of HIV from CTL responses are cross-sectional and are limited to early or chronic phases of the infection. We use a novel technique of single genome amplification (SGA) to identify longitudinal changes in the transmitted/founder virus from the establishment of infection to the viral set point at 1 year after the infection. We find that HIV escapes from virus-specific CTL responses as early as 30-50 days since the infection, and the rates of viral escapes during acute phase of the infection are much higher than was estimated in previous studies. However, even though with time virus acquires additional escape mutations, these late mutations accumulate at a slower rate. A poor correlation between the rate of CTL escape in a particular epitope and the magnitude of the epitope-specific CTL response suggests that the lower rate of late escapes is unlikely due to a low efficacy of the HIV-specific CTL responses in the chronic phase of the infection. Instead, our results suggest that late and slow escapes are likely to arise because of high fitness cost to the viral replication associated with such CTL escapes. Targeting epitopes in which virus escapes slowly or does not escape at all by CTL responses may, therefore, be a promising direction for the development of T cell based HIV vaccines.

  16. [Vertical transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in Wistar rats during the acute phase of infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Elio A; Rivera, Ivón M; Moreno, Stelliana C; Alarcón, Maritza E; Lugo-Yarbuh, Ana

    2003-09-01

    Research on this form of transmission was carried out on female rats intradermally injected, before mating, with 1 x 10(4) metacyclic trypomastigotes of T. cruzi strains from dog (Pr) and human (YBM). The infected rats, as well as their offspring, were given parasitological, immunological and histopathological examinations during and after gestation. Healthy gestating rats were used as controls. Rats infected with T. cruzi strains showed clear signs of infection between 18 and 45 days post-inoculation (pi). Of 44 offspring from mothers infected with Pr, 4 males (9.1%) showed high parasitemia (432 and 240 tryps./mm3 of blood) at 30 and 40 days after birth, while direct blood examination, hemoculture and xenodiagnosis showed no infection in the other 40, or in the 52 offspring of rats infected with YBM. Anti-T. cruzi antibodies were found in appreciable quantities in infected mothers and in 44 out of 92 (47.8%) of the offspring, with titers that fluctuated between 1:32 and 1:2048 respectively. Histopathological studies of rats sacrificed at the end of gestation showed acute myocarditis and myositis of varying intensity and extent, characterized by abundant inflammatory infiltrate, in some cases associated with nests of amastigotes. The placentas showed moderate cellular infiltrate without parasites in the vascular stroma and amniotic fluid. The offspring of mothers infected with Chagas' disease were reinoculated and showed an acute phase characterized by low parasitemia (p < 0.05); after 60 days, the beginnings of chronic myocarditis and myositis could be observed, of a similar intensity to that observed in offspring born to infected mothers that were subsequently infected. These results confirm that T. cruzi can be transmitted vertically in Wistar rats; that a small number of offspring contract Chagasic infection congenitally; that anti-T. cruzi antibodies can pass from the mother and that these can modify the immune response in the offspring; that the pathogenicity

  17. [Significance of acute-phase inflammatory reactants as an indicator of prognosis after acute myocardial infarction: which is the most useful predictor?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Toshiro; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Yonekura, Tsuyoshi; Honda, Yukiharu; Suzuki, Shin; Yano, Katsusuke

    2003-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between representative acute-phase inflammatory reactants [highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), serum amyloid A protein (SAA) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and the severity of acute myocardial infarction and patient prognosis, and to identify the most useful predictor of the three. This study investigated 132 consecutive patients admitted within 8 hr of onset of first acute myocardial infarction and successfully reperfused with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Acute-phase (= 24 hr from onset) blood samples were taken for evaluation of inflammatory reactants (hsCRP, SAA and IL-6), and peak creatine phosphokinase levels were measured every 4 hr after admission for 48 hr to assess myocardial infarction infarct size. Left ventriculography was performed in the chronic stage (20 +/- 9 days post-admission) to analyze left ventricular ejection fraction and regional wall motion, using Killip's classification to determine acute myocardial infarction severity. Logistic regression analysis was used to quantify the usefulness of the reactants as predictors of patient prognosis. Both hsCRP and SAA showed significant positive correlations with peak creatine phosphokinase. hsCRP and SAA showed significant inverse correlations with left ventricular ejection fraction and regional wall motion in the chronic stage. Multivariate analysis identified SAA as the best predictor of severe heart failure (Killip's classification III, IV). SAA was the best predictor of a major cardiac event (shock, cardiac death). These results suggest a strong correlation between acute-phase SAA and the clinical course of patient outcomes after acute myocardial infarction, such as cardiac function, heart failure and cardiac death. SAA may be the most useful acute-phase inflammatory reactant for predicting the prognosis after acute myocardial infarction.

  18. Guadecitabine (SGI-110) in treatment-naive patients with acute myeloid leukaemia: phase 2 results from a multicentre, randomised, phase 1/2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarjian, Hagop M; Roboz, Gail J; Kropf, Patricia L; Yee, Karen W L; O'Connell, Casey L; Tibes, Raoul; Walsh, Katherine J; Podoltsev, Nikolai A; Griffiths, Elizabeth A; Jabbour, Elias; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Rizzieri, David; Stock, Wendy; Savona, Michael R; Rosenblat, Todd L; Berdeja, Jesus G; Ravandi, Farhad; Rock, Edwin P; Hao, Yong; Azab, Mohammad; Issa, Jean-Pierre J

    2017-10-01

    The hypomethylating drugs azacitidine and decitabine have shown efficacy in myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukaemia, but complete tumour responses are infrequent and of short duration, possibly because of the short half-lives and suboptimal bone marrow exposure of the drugs. Guadecitabine, a next-generation hypomethylating drug, has a longer half-life and exposure than its active metabolite decitabine. A phase 1 study established 60 mg/m 2 guadecitabine for 5 days as an effective treatment schedule. In this phase 2 study, we aimed to assess the safety and activity of two doses and schedules of guadecitabine in older (≥65 years) patients with treatment-naive acute myeloid leukaemia who were not candidates for intensive chemotherapy. We did a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 1/2 study of guadecitabine in cohorts of patients with treatment-naive acute myeloid leukaemia, relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukaemia, and myelodysplastic syndromes; here we report the phase 2 results from the cohort of treatment-naive patients with acute myeloid leukaemia. We included patients aged at least 65 years from 14 US medical centres (hospitals and specialist cancer clinics) who were not candidates for intensive chemotherapy and randomly assigned them (1:1) using a computer algorithm (for dynamic randomisation) to guadecitabine 60 or 90 mg/m 2 on days 1-5 (5-day schedule) of a 28-day treatment cycle. Treatment allocation was not masked. We also assigned additional patients to guadecitabine 60 mg/m 2 in a 10-day schedule in a 28-day treatment cycle after a protocol amendment. The primary endpoint was composite complete response (complete response, complete response with incomplete platelet recovery, or complete response with incomplete neutrophil recovery regardless of platelets). Response was assessed in all patients (as-treated) who received at least one dose of guadecitabine. We present the final analysis, although at the time of the database lock

  19. Nomothetic and idiographic symptom change trajectories in acute-phase cognitive therapy for recurrent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R; Clark, Lee Anna; Thase, Michael E; Jarrett, Robin B

    2013-08-01

    We tested nomothetic and idiographic convergence and change in 3 symptom measures during acute-phase cognitive therapy (CT) for depression and compared outcomes among patients showing different change patterns. Outpatients (N = 362; 69% women; 85% White; age M = 43 years) with recurrent major depressive disorder according to criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) completed the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Hamilton, 1960), Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, Ward, Mendelson, Mock, & Erbaugh, 1961), and Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (Rush, Gullion, Basco, Jarrett, & Trivedi, 1996) on 14 occasions as well as pre/post-CT measures of social-interpersonal functioning and negative cognitive content. The 3 symptom measures marked the same severity and change constructs, and we offer improved formulas for intermeasure score conversions via their common factor. Pre/post-CT symptom reductions were large (ds = 1.71-1.92), and nomothetic symptom curves were log-linear (larger improvements earlier and smaller improvements later in CT). Nonetheless, only 30% of individual patients showed clear log-linear changes, whereas other patients showed linear (e.g., steady decreases; 20%), 1-step (e.g., a quick drop; 16%), and unclassified (34%) patterns. Log-linear, linear, and 1-step patients were generally similar to one another and superior to unclassified patients post-CT in symptom levels, response and stable remission rates, social-interpersonal functioning, and cognitive content (median d = 0.69). Reaching a low-symptom "destination" at the end of CT via any coherent "path" is more important in the short term than which path patients take. We discuss implications for theories of change, clinical monitoring of individuals' progress in CT, and the need to investigate long-term outcomes of patients with differing patterns of symptom change. PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Changing patterns of acute phase proteins and inflammatory mediators in experimental caprine coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemnia, Mohammad; Khodakaram-Tafti, Azizollah; Razavi, Seyed Mostafa; Nazifi, Saeed

    2011-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to assess the changing patterns and relative values of acute phase proteins and inflammatory cytokines in experimental caprine coccidiosis. Eighteen newborn kids were allocated to 3 equal groups. Two groups, A and B, were inoculated with a single dose of 1×10(3) and1×10(5) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria arloingi, respectively. The third group, C, received distilled water as the control. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of each kid in both groups before inoculation and at days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 post-inoculation (PI), and the levels of haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), TNF-α, and IFN-γ were measured. For histopathological examinations, 2 kids were selected from each group, euthanized, and necropsied on day 42 PI. Mean Hp concentrations in groups A and B (0.34 and 0.68 g/L) at day 7 PI were 3.2 and 6.3 times higher than the levels before inoculation. The mean SAA concentrations in groups A and B (25.6 and 83.5 µg/ml) at day 7 PI were 4.2 and 13.7 times higher than the levels before inoculation. The magnitude and duration of the Hp and SAA responses correlated well with the inoculation doses and the severity of the clinical signs and diarrhea in kids. These results were consistent with the histopathological features, which showed advanced widespread lesions in group B. In both groups, significant correlations were observed for TNF-α and IFN-γ with SAA and Hp, respectively. In conclusion, Hp and SAA can be useful non-specific diagnostic indicators in caprine coccidiosis.

  1. Acute somatomedin response to growth hormone: radioreceptor assay versus radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, S.F.; Rosenfeld, R.G.; Liu, F.; Gaspich, S.; Hintz, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The acute somatomedin (SM) response to GH therapy has been examined in 21 GH-deficient children using a placental membrane radioreceptor assay (RRA) which measures a variety of SMs and a RIA specific for SM-C and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Plasma for determination of SM peptide content was obtained before initiation of therapy and 13 h after each of four daily injections of GH (0.1 U/kg). An additional SM determination was performed after 6 weeks of GH therapy (0.1 U/kg, three times per week) in seven of the subjects. RRA and RIA SM determiations were performed on the same acid-chromatographed sample and were compared to an acid chromatographed pooled plasma standard. The 4 days of GH therapy resulted in an increase in SM levels from 0.39+/- 0.24 to 1.18 +/- 0.62 (+/- SD) U/ml, determined by RIA. A single injection of GH resulted in a significant rise in plasma SM levels, measured by either RRA or RIA (P less than 0.001). Subjects who responded poorly to two injections of GH also had low SM levels after 4 days and even after 6 weeks of GH therapy. The RRA resulted in consistently higher value than the RIA. This difference was even greater when results were compared to a pure IGF-I/SM-C standard. The SM peptide contents determined by RRA and RIA were strongly correlated, not only for the group, but also among the determinations for each individual subject. However, the consistently higher values observed when the SM peptide content was measured by RRA compared to that measured by RIA and the variability in the RRA to RIA ratio among individual subjects suggest that the IGFI/SM-C RIA measures only one of a number of GH-dependent SM peptides

  2. Acute hormonal, immunological and enzymatic responses to a basketball game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Foschini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the acute hormonal, immunological and enzymatic responses of professional basketball players to a basketball game. The sample was composed of eight basketball athletes, with a minimum of 4 years’ experience in basketball. A real game was simulated with a total duration of 40 minutes, divided into two halves of 20 minutes each and an interval of 10 minutes between halves. Blood samples were collected before andimmediately after the game (20 ml, vacuum tube system. The variables analyzed were: testosterone and cortisol hormones, total leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and the enzymes creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Statistical analysis was with descriptive statistics and the Student’s t test for paired samples to p≤0.05. The pre (13.34 nmol/L and 301.97 nmol/L and post game (17.34 nmol/L and 395.91 nmol/L levels of testosterone and cortisol were statistically different, with higher levels after the game for both hormones. The immune cell counts exhibited significant differences for total leukocytes (6393.75 nmol/L and 9158.75 nmol/L and neutrophils (3532.5 nmol/L and 6392.62 nmol/L, with levels being higher after the game. No statistical differences were observed for the enzymatic variables. Therefore, based on the markers analyzed, testosterone and cortisol exhibited pronounced increases after the game and the samebehavior was observed for total leukocytes and neutrophils.

  3. Pegivirus avoids immune recognition but does not attenuate acute-phase disease in a macaque model of HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L Bailey

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Human pegivirus (HPgV protects HIV+ people from HIV-associated disease, but the mechanism of this protective effect remains poorly understood. We sequentially infected cynomolgus macaques with simian pegivirus (SPgV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV to model HIV+HPgV co-infection. SPgV had no effect on acute-phase SIV pathogenesis-as measured by SIV viral load, CD4+ T cell destruction, immune activation, or adaptive immune responses-suggesting that HPgV's protective effect is exerted primarily during the chronic phase of HIV infection. We also examined the immune response to SPgV in unprecedented detail, and found that this virus elicits virtually no activation of the immune system despite persistently high titers in the blood over long periods of time. Overall, this study expands our understanding of the pegiviruses-an understudied group of viruses with a high prevalence in the global human population-and suggests that the protective effect observed in HIV+HPgV co-infected people occurs primarily during the chronic phase of HIV infection.

  4. Inhibition of the activity of pro-inflammatory secretory phospholipase A2 by acute phase proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Pruzanski

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Pro-Inflammatory non-pancreatic phospholipase A2 (sPLA2 is markedly over-expressed in acute systemic and chronic local inflammatory processes. Since in acute phase reaction sPLA2 is often over-expressed simultaneously with acute phase proteins (APP, it is important to determine whether APP interacts with sPLA2. We tested ten APPs for interaction with sPLA2 using as a substrate multilamellar Hposomes composed either of PC:Lyso PC or PE:Lyso PE. Using PC:Lyso PC substrate, CRP, lactoferrin and SAP were found to inhibit sPLA2 activity with an IC50 of 25 μg/ml, 7.5 μg/ml and 50 μg/ml, respectively, corresponding to 0.21 μM, 0.1 μM and 0.21 μM respectively. Using PE:Lyso PE substrate only SAP was inhibitory, with an IC50 of 10 μg/ml (0.04 μM. Phosphorylcholine abolished the inhibitory activity of CRP but not of SAP or lactoferrin. Addition of phosphorylethanolamine or of excess calcium had no effect on the inhibitory activity of APP. Limulin, lysozyme, transferrin, β2-microglobulin, α2-macroglobulin, human and bovine albumins had no effect on sPLA2 activity. Therefore neither the structure of pentraxins, or ironbinding, bacteriostatic property or amyloidogenic property preclude whether APP modulates sPLA2 activity. Inhibition of pro-inflammatory sPLA2 by APP may be one of the protective mechanisms of the acute phase reaction.

  5. Acute Lung Function Response to Dust in Street Sweepers

    OpenAIRE

    Johncy S., Smilee; G., Dhanyakumar; Samuel T., Vivian; K.T., Ajay; Bondade, Suresh Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sweepers are chronically exposed to dust raised during sweeping. Dust is regarded as the most influential agent and it is perceived as a frequent cause of respiratory system illness and may cause acute and chronic lung function impairment.

  6. Response of two-phase droplets to intense electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James F.; Maloney, Daniel J.; Lawson, William F.; Casleton, Kent H.

    1993-01-01

    The response of two-phase droplets to intense radiant heating is studied to determine the incident power that is required for causing explosive boiling in the liquid phase. The droplets studied consist of strongly absorbing coal particles dispersed in a weakly absorbing water medium. Experiments are performed by confining droplets (radii of 37, 55, and 80 microns) electrodynamically and irradiating them from two sides with pulsed laser beams. Emphasis is placed on the transition region from accelerated droplet vaporization to droplet superheating and explosive boiling. The time scale observed for explosive boiling is more than 2 orders of magnitude longer than published values for pure liquids. The delayed response is the result of energy transfer limitations between the absorbing solid phase and the surrounding liquid.

  7. Trajectories of sleep changes during the acute phase of traumatic brain injury: A 7-day actigraphy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Yean Chiu

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Poor sleep efficiency and longer sleep duration are common symptoms in acute TBI patients. Both head injury severity and age predicted the trajectories of daytime and 24-hour sleep duration during the acute phase of TBI, whereas gender predicted the trajectories of 24-hour sleep duration in the mild TBI subgroup.

  8. Phase developments and dielectric responses of barium substituted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Phase developments and dielectric responses of barium substituted four-layer CaBi4Ti4O15 Aurivillius. HUILING DU. ∗. , XIANG SHI and HUILU LI. College of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi'an University of Science and Technology, Xi'an 710054, China. MS received 26 December 2010; revised 8 February 2011.

  9. Acute stress responses: A review and synthesis of ASD, ASR, and CSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isserlin, Leanna; Zerach, Gadi; Solomon, Zahava

    2008-10-01

    Toward the development of a unifying diagnosis for acute stress responses this article attempts to find a place for combat stress reaction (CSR) within the spectrum of other defined acute stress responses. This article critically compares the diagnostic criteria of acute stress disorder (ASD), acute stress reaction (ASR), and CSR. Prospective studies concerning the predictive value of ASD, ASR, and CSR are reviewed. Questions, recommendations, and implications for clinical practice are raised concerning the completeness of the current acute stress response diagnoses, the heterogeneity of different stressors, the scope of expected outcomes, and the importance of decline in function as an indicator of future psychological, psychiatric, and somatic distress. PsycINFO Database Record 2009 APA.

  10. Acute Vasodilator Response in Pediatric Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension : Current Clinical Practice From the TOPP Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douwes, Johannes M.; Humpl, Tilman; Bonnet, Damien; Beghetti, Maurice; Ivy, D. Dunbar; Berger, Rolf M. F.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), acute vasodilator response testing (AVT) is considered important to identify adult patients with favorable prognosis using calcium-channel blocker (CCB) therapy. However, in pediatric PAH, criteria used to identify acute responders and CCB use are

  11. Complement lysis activity in autologous plasma is associated with lower viral loads during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Huber

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the possibility that antibody-mediated complement lysis contributes to viremia control in HIV-1 infection, we measured the activity of patient plasma in mediating complement lysis of autologous primary virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sera from two groups of patients-25 with acute HIV-1 infection and 31 with chronic infection-were used in this study. We developed a novel real-time PCR-based assay strategy that allows reliable and sensitive quantification of virus lysis by complement. Plasma derived at the time of virus isolation induced complement lysis of the autologous virus isolate in the majority of patients. Overall lysis activity against the autologous virus and the heterologous primary virus strain JR-FL was higher at chronic disease stages than during the acute phase. Most strikingly, we found that plasma virus load levels during the acute but not the chronic infection phase correlated inversely with the autologous complement lysis activity. Antibody reactivity to the envelope (Env proteins gp120 and gp41 were positively correlated with the lysis activity against JR-FL, indicating that anti-Env responses mediated complement lysis. Neutralization and complement lysis activity against autologous viruses were not associated, suggesting that complement lysis is predominantly caused by non-neutralizing antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively our data provide evidence that antibody-mediated complement virion lysis develops rapidly and is effective early in the course of infection; thus it should be considered a parameter that, in concert with other immune functions, steers viremia control in vivo.

  12. Delirium in the acute phase after stroke: comparison between methods of detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Maria Teresa; Pardini, Matteo; Balestrino, Maurizio; Finocchi, Cinzia; Malfatto, Laura; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Mancardi, Giovanni Luigi; Gandolfo, Carlo; Serrati, Carlo

    2017-06-01

    Delirium is an acute neuropsychiatric syndrome, very common in hospitalized people with medical and neurological conditions. The identification of delirium after stroke is not an easy task and validated psychometric instruments are needed to correctly identify it. We decided to verify if (1) formal training in DSM-V criteria is needed to correctly identify post-stroke delirium, (2) if the use of a brief psychometric instrument such as 4AT improves its identification, (3) the applicability of these scales in the stroke setting. In the first phase of this study we retrospectively studied 102 acute stroke patients in Stroke Units of San Martino Hospital (Genova, Italy) to evaluate delirium with clinical criteria, first by a neurologist without a formal training in DSM-V criteria and after training. Then, we enrolled 100 new acute stroke patients who underwent screening for delirium using 4AT scale and DSM-V criteria. In the first phase, DSM-V criteria training significantly increased the ability to capture delirium (5 vs. 15%). In the second phase, the 4AT was used for delirium screening revealing a 52% of cases of delirium, the same observed by the consensus diagnosis of two senior neurologists (that was 50%). In the second phase, the use of 4AT scale allowed to capture post-stroke delirium as well as the consensus diagnosis by two neurologists. The identification of post-stroke delirium is not an easy task and requires both formal training in DSM-V criteria as well as the application of brief scales, such as the 4AT.

  13. Selected acute phase CSF factors in ischemic stroke: findings and prognostic value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intskirveli Nino

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Study aimed at investigation of pathogenic role and prognostic value of several selected cerebrospinal fluid acute phase factors that can reflect the severity of ischemic brain damage. Methods Ninety five acute ischemic stroke patients were investigated. Ischemic region visualized at the twenty fourth hour by conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Stroke severity evaluated by National Institute Health Stroke Scale. One month outcome of disease was assessed by Barthel Index. Cerebrospinal fluid was taken at the sixth hour of stroke onset. CSF pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were studied by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Nitric Oxide and Lipoperoxide radical were measured by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. CSF Nitrate levels were detected using the Griess reagent. Statistics performed by SPSS-11.0. Results At the sixth hour of stroke onset, cerebrospinal fluid cytokine levels were elevated in patients against controls. Severe stroke patients had increased interleukin-6 content compared to less severe strokes (P Conclusion According to present study the cerebrospinal fluid contents of interleukin-6 and nitrates seem to be the most reliable prognostic factors in acute phase of ischemic stroke.

  14. [Pulmonary function of children with acute leukemia in maintenance phase of chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macêdo, Thalita Medeiros Fernandes; Campos, Tania Fernandes; Mendes, Raquel Emanuele de França; França, Danielle Corrêa; Chaves, Gabriela Suéllen da Silva; de Mendonça, Karla Morganna Pereira Pinto

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the pulmonary function of children with acute leukemia. Cross-sectional observational analytical study that enrolled 34 children divided into groups A (17 with acute leukemia in the maintenance phase of chemotherapy) and B (17 healthy children). The groups were matched for sex, age and height. Spirometry was measured using a spirometer Microloop Viasys(®) in accordance with American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society guidelines. Maximal respiratory pressures were measured with an MVD300 digital manometer (Globalmed(®)). Maximal inspiratory pressures and maximal expiratory pressures were measured from residual volume and total lung capacity, respectively. Group A showed a significant decrease in maximal inspiratory pressures when compared to group B. No significant difference was found between the spirometric values of the two groups, nor was there any difference between maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure values in group A compared to the lower limit values proposed as reference. Children with acute leukemia, myeloid or lymphoid, during the maintenance phase of chemotherapy exhibited unchanged spirometric variables and maximal expiratory pressure; However, there was a decrease in inspiratory muscle strength. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Pulmonary function of children with acute leukemia in maintenance phase of chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Medeiros Fernandes de Macêdo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the pulmonary function of children with acute leukemia.METHODS: Cross-sectional observational analytical study that enrolled 34 children divided into groups A (17 with acute leukemia in the maintenance phase of chemotherapy and B (17 healthy children. The groups were matched for sex, age and height. Spirometry was measured using a spirometer Microloop Viasys(r in accordance with American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society guidelines. Maximal respiratory pressures were measured with an MVD300 digital manometer (Globalmed(r. Maximal inspiratory pressures and maximal expiratory pressures were measured from residual volume and total lung capacity, respectively.RESULTS: Group A showed a significant decrease in maximal inspiratory pressures when compared to group B. No significant difference was found between the spirometric values of the two groups, nor was there any difference between maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure values in group A compared to the lower limit values proposed as reference.CONCLUSION: Children with acute leukemia, myeloid or lymphoid, during the maintenance phase of chemotherapy exhibited unchanged spirometric variables and maximal expiratory pressure; However, there was a decrease in inspiratory muscle strength.

  16. Are there differences in acute phase inflammation markers regarding the type of heart failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Agüero-Ramón-Llin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine if there are differences in inflammatory markers in the acute phase between systolic heart failure and heart failure with preserved systolic function. One hundred and thirty-one patients with acute heart failure were recruited consecutively. At admission, plasma fibrinogen, Creactive protein, sialic acid, von Willebrand factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin-6 and NTproBNP were all evaluated. If the ejection fraction was 45% or over patients were included in the HF-PSF group; the remaining patients were included in the SHF group. The HF-PSF patients were older (72±10 vs 63±12 years, P<0.001, presented a higher rate of atrial fibrillation (56.1 vs 21.3%, P<0.001, and had a lower rate of hemoglobin (12.2±2 vs 13.3±2.1 g/dL, P<0.01. No significant differences were observed in the inflammation markers analyzed among SHF and HFPSF groups. In the acute phase of heart failure there is a marked elevation of inflammatory markers but there are no differences in the inflammatory markers analyzed between the two different types of heart failure

  17. Dynamic Characterization and Impulse Response Modeling of Amplitude and Phase Response of Silicon Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleary, Ciaran S.; Ji, Hua; Dailey, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Amplitude and phase dynamics of silicon nanowires were measured using time-resolved spectroscopy. Time shifts of the maximum phase change and minimum amplitude as a function of pump power due to saturation of the free-carrier density were observed. A phenomenological impulse response model used...

  18. Acute Serum Cartilage Biomarker Response following Walking and Drop-Landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkey, Matthew S; Blackburn, J Troy; Hackney, Anthony C; Lewek, Michael D; Schmitz, Randy J; Pietrosimone, Brian

    2018-02-21

    An in depth understanding of the healthy cartilage response to activities of daily living is needed to better understand the complex relationship between cartilage health and loading. The purpose was to assess the role of loading on the acute serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) response in recreationally active individuals. 40 individuals without previous lower extremity injury participated in this repeated measures study in which each participant completed all conditions during independent data collection sessions separated by at least one week. An antecubital blood draw was performed before and after walking, drop-landing, and control (i.e., sitting) conditions. Commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays measured COMP concentration. The acute COMP response was quantified as the percent change of COMP concentration from before to after each condition. A one-way, repeated measures ANOVA compared the acute COMP response between conditions. Post hoc Pearson product moment correlation and chi square analysis determined the relationship between the walking and drop-landing acute COMP response within individuals. Acute COMP response was greater following walking (+4.2, p=0.008) and drop-landing (+4.6%, p=0.002) compared to control (-2.3%), but did not differ between the walking and drop-landing conditions (p=0.596). The magnitudes of the acute COMP response during walking and drop-landing were correlated (r=0.56, p<0.001). However, the direction (i.e.; either increase or decrease) of COMP was not the same following the walking and drop-landing conditions (χ1=0.870, p=0.351). Walking and drop-landing produced a greater acute COMP response when compared to a control condition in healthy individuals, but the acute COMP response was similar between the two physical activity conditions even though the conditions differed in magnitude and frequency of loading.

  19. The Acute Inflammatory Response to Absorbed Collagen Sponge Is Not Enhanced by BMP-2

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    Hairong Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Absorbed collagen sponge (ACS/bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 are widely used in clinical practise for bone regeneration. However, the application of this product was found to be associated with a significant pro-inflammatory response, particularly in the early phase after implantation. This study aimed to clarify if the pro-inflammatory activities, associated with BMP-2 added to ACS, were related to the physical state of the carrier itself, i.e., a wet or a highly dehydrated state of the ACS, to the local degree of vascularisation and/or to local biomechanical factors. ACS (0.8 cm diameter/BMP-2 were implanted subcutaneously in the back of 12 eight-week-old Sprague Dawley rats. Two days after surgery, the implanted materials were retrieved and analysed histologically and histomorphometrically. The acute inflammatory response following implantation of ACS was dependent of neither the presence or absence of BMP-2 nor the degree of vascularization in the surrounding tissue nor the hydration state (wet versus dry of the ACS material at the time of implantation. Differential micro biomechanical factors operating at the implantation site appeared to have an influence on the thickness of inflammation. We conclude that the degree of the early inflammatory response of the ACS/BMP-2 may be associated with the physical and chemical properties of the carrier material itself.

  20. A Potent Virus-Specific Antibody-Secreting Cell Response to Acute Enterovirus 71 Infection in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuan-Ying Arthur; Lin, Jainn-Jim; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Yang, Shuan; Tsao, Kuo-Chien; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Lin, Tzou-Yien

    2015-09-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) remains a leading pathogen for acute infectious diseases in children, especially in Asia. The cellular basis for establishing a virus-specific antibody response to acute EV71 infections is unclear in children. We studied the magnitude of virus-specific antibody-secreting B cells (ASCs) and its relationship with serological response, clinical parameters, and virological parameters among children with laboratory-confirmed EV71 infection. A potent EV71 genogroup B- and virus-specific ASC response was detected in the first week of illness among genotype B5 EV71-infected children. The cross-reactive EV71-specific ASC response to genogroup C viral antigens composed about 10% of the response. The EV71-specific ASC response in children aged ≥3 years produced immunoglobulin G predominantly, but immunoglobulin M was predominant in younger children. Proliferation marker was expressed by the majority of circulating ASCs in the acute phase of EV71 infection. Virus-specific ASC responses significantly correlated with throat viral load, fever duration, and serological genogroup-specific neutralization titer. The presence of a virus-specific ASC response serves an early cellular marker of an EV71-specific antibody response. Further detailed study of EV71-specific ASCs at the monoclonal level is crucial to delineate the specificity and function of antibody immunity in children. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Different pain responses to chronic and acute pain in various ethnic/racial groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahavard, Behnoosh B; Candido, Kenneth D; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick

    2017-09-01

    Our goal in this study was to review the similarities and differences among ethnic groups and their respective responses to acute and chronic clinically related and experimentally induced pain. In this review, the PUBMED and Google-Scholar databases were searched to analyze articles that have assessed the variations in both acute and chronic pain responses among different ethnic/racial groups. According to the results from 42 reviewed articles, significant differences exist among ethnic-racial groups for pain prevalence as well as responses to acute and chronic pain. Compared with Caucasians, other ethnic groups are more susceptible to acute pain responses to nociceptive stimulation and to the development of long-term chronic pain. These differences need to be addressed and assessed more extensively in the future in order to minimize the pain management disparities among various ethnic-racial groups and also to improve the relationship between pain management providers and their patients.

  2. Acute metabolic response to fasted and postprandial exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima FD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Filipe Dinato de Lima,1,2 Ana Luiza Matias Correia,1 Denilson da Silva Teixeira,2 Domingos Vasco da Silva Neto,2 Ítalo Sávio Gonçalves Fernandes,2 Mário Boratto Xavier Viana,2 Mateus Petitto,2 Rodney Antônio da Silva Sampaio,2 Sandro Nobre Chaves,2 Simone Teixeira Alves,2 Renata Aparecida Elias Dantas,2 Márcio Rabelo Mota2 1University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil; 2Universitary Center of Brasília (UniCEUB, Brasília, DF, BrazilAbstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the acute metabolic response to exercise in fasting and postprandial. For this, ten individuals were submitted to an incremental treadmill test, with an initial speed of 5 and 1 km/h increments every minute, with no inclination, and a body composition assessment. After this 1st day, all volunteers were submitted to two experimental procedures (fasting and postprandial, with an aerobic exercise performed for 36 minutes at 65% of maximal oxygen consumption. At postprandial procedure, all subjects ingested a breakfast containing 59.3 g of carbohydrate (76.73%, 9.97 g of protein (12.90%, 8.01 g of lipids (10.37%, with a total energy intake of 349.17 kcal. An analysis of plasma concentration of triglycerides, lactate, and glucose was performed in two stages: before and after exercise. The Shapiro–Wilk test was used to verify the normality of the data. For analysis of glucose concentration, plasma lactate, and triglycerides, we used a repeated measures analysis of variance factorial 2×2, with Bonferroni multiple comparison test. The significance level of P<0.05 was adopted. The results indicated a maintenance level of glucose at fasting and a decrease in glucose concentration at postprandial exercise. Both conditions increase plasma lactate. Triglycerides also increased in the two experimental conditions; however, after exercise fasting, the increase was significantly higher than in the postprandial exercise. These data suggest that both exercises could increase

  3. Role of lysosomal enzymes released by alveolar macrophages in the pathogenesis of the acute phase of hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Pérez-Arellano

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolytic enzymes are the major constituents of alveolar macrophages (AM and have been shown to be involved in many aspects of the inflammatory pulmonary response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of lysosomal enzymes in the acute phase of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HPs. An experimental study on AM lysosomal enzymes of an HP-guinea-pig model was performed. The results obtained both in vivo and in vitro suggest that intracellular enzymatic activity decrease is, at least partly, due to release of lysosomal enzymes into the medium. A positive but slight correlation was found between extracellular lysosomal activity and four parameters of lung lesion (lung index, bronchoalveolar fluid total (BALF protein concentration, BALF LDH and BALF alkaline phosphatase activities. All the above findings suggest that the AM release of lysosomal enzymes during HP is a factor involved, although possibly not the only one, in the pulmonary lesions appearing in this disease.

  4. Scintigraphic evaluation of digital circulation during the developmental and acute phases of equine laminitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trout, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Using nuclear isotopic imaging, digital circulation was sequentially evaluated at 24-hour intervals in 11 control horses and in 9 horses affected with acute laminitis, created by administration of a high-starch ration. Following intra-arterial injection of /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated albumin into the brachiocephalic trunk, a gamma camera and dedicated nuclear medicine computer were used to acquire static images of the right front foot. Dynamic vascular-phase and static interstitial-phase images were also obtained after jugular vein injection of /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid. These procedures were performed on standing horses, using either minimal or no tranquilization. The images were quantitatively analyzed for parameters indicative of circulation to the foot as a whole and to specific regions of interest within the foot. There was no evidence of reduced total blood flow to the lamellae during either the developmental or acute phases of laminitis. Although total flow tended to increase throughout the peripheral/external regions of the foot, statistically significant elevations were consistently present only within the lamellae. Changes indicative of decreased total blood flow were noted in the central/internal regions of the foot. These alterations usually occurred coincident with or after the onset of clinical lameness.

  5. Scintigraphic evaluation of digital circulation during the developmental and acute phases of equine laminitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trout, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Using nuclear isotopic imaging, digital circulation was sequentially evaluated at 24-hour intervals in 11 control horses and in 9 horses affected with acute laminitis, created by administration of a high-starch ration. Following intra-arterial injection of /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated albumin into the brachiocephalic trunk, a gamma camera and dedicated nuclear medicine computer were used to acquire static images of the right front foot. Dynamic vascular-phase and static interstitial-phase images were also obtained after jugular vein injection of /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid. These procedures were performed on standing horses, using either minimal or no tranquilization. The images were quantitatively analyzed for parameters indicative of circulation to the foot as a whole and to specific regions of interest within the foot. There was no evidence of reduced total blood flow to the lamellae during either the developmental or acute phases of laminitis. Although total flow tended to increase throughout the peripheral/external regions of the foot, statistically significant elevations were consistently present only within the lamellae. Changes indicative of decreased total blood flow were noted in the central/internal regions of the foot. These alterations usually occurred coincident with or after the onset of clinical lameness

  6. Thrombus length discrepancy on dual-phase CT can predict clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Mina; Kim, Kyung-eun; Lee, Seung-Koo; Shin, Na-Young; Lim, Soo Mee; Song, Dongbeom; Heo, Ji Hoe; Kim, Jin Woo; Oh, Se Won

    2016-01-01

    The thrombus length may be overestimated on early arterial computed tomography angiography (CTA) depending on the collateral status. We evaluated the value of a grading system based on the thrombus length discrepancy on dual-phase CT in outcome prediction. Forty-eight acute ischemic stroke patients with M1 occlusion were included. Dual-phase CT protocol encompassed non-contrast enhanced CT, CTA with a bolus tracking technique, and delayed contrast enhanced CT (CECT) performed 40s after contrast injection. The thrombus length discrepancy between CTA and CECT was graded by using a three-point scale: G0 = no difference; G1 = no difference in thrombus length, but in attenuation distal to thrombus; G2 = difference in thrombus length. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to define independent predictors of poor clinical outcome at 3 months. The thrombus discrepancy grade showed significant linear relationships with both the collateral status (P = 0.008) and the presence of antegrade flow on DSA (P = 0.010) with good interobserver agreement (κ = 0.868). In a multivariate model, the presence of thrombus length discrepancy (G2) was an independent predictor of poor clinical outcome [odds ratio = 11.474 (1.350-97.547); P =0.025]. The presence of thrombus length discrepancy on dual-phase CT may be a useful predictor of unfavourable clinical outcome in acute M1 occlusion patients. (orig.)

  7. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Acute Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is ... of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for ...

  8. Correlation between the dizziness handicap inventory and balance performance during the acute phase of unilateral vestibulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Eun Jin; Lee, Dong-Hee; Oh, Jeong-Hoon; Seo, Jae-Hyun; Jeon, Eun-Ju

    2015-01-01

    The dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) is widely used to evaluate self-perceived handicap due to dizziness, and is known to correlate with vestibular function tests in chronic dizziness. However, whether DHI reflects subjective symptoms during the acute phase has not been studied. This study aims to investigate the correlations of subjective and objective measurements to highlight parameters that reflect the severity of dizziness during the first week of acute unilateral vestibulopathy. Thirty-seven patients with acute unilateral vestibulopathy were examined. Patients' subjective perceptions of dizziness were measured using the DHI, Vertigo Visual Analog Scale (VVAS), Disability Scale (DS), and Activity-Specific Balance Scale (ABC). Additionally, the oculomotor tests, Romberg and sharpened Romberg tests, functional reach test, and dynamic visual acuity tests were performed. The correlation between the DHI and other tests was evaluated. DHI-total scores exhibited a moderately positive correlation with VVAS and DS, and a moderately negative correlation with ABC. However, DHI-total score did not correlate with results of the Romberg, sharpened Romberg, or functional reach tests. When compared among four groups divided according to DHI scores, VVAS and DS scores exhibited statistically significant differences, but no significant differences were detected for other test results. Our findings revealed that the DHI correlated significantly with self-perceived symptoms measured by VVAS and DS, but not ABC. There was no significant correlation with other balance function tests during the first week of acute vestibulopathy. The results suggest that DHI, VVAS and DS may be more useful to measure the severity of acute dizziness symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prostate hypofractionated radiation therapy with injection of hyaluronic acid: acute toxicities in a phase 2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-03-15

    Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.chapet@chu-lyon.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); EMR3738, Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie [Pole Information Médicale Evaluation Recherche, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); EA SIS, Université de Lyon, Lyon (France); Faix, Antoine [Department of Urology, Clinique Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Ruffion, Alain [Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Department of Urology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Jalade, Patrice [Department of Medical Physics, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  11. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity

  12. Dominant cross-reactive B cell response during secondary acute dengue virus infection in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Zompi

    Full Text Available The four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV cause dengue fever (DF and dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS. Severe disease has been associated with heterotypic secondary DENV infection, mediated by cross-reactive antibodies (Abs and/or cross-reactive T cells. The role of cross-reactive immunity in mediating enhanced disease versus cross-protection against secondary heterotypic DENV infection is not well defined. A better understanding of the cross-reactive immune response in natural infections is critical for development of safe and effective tetravalent vaccines. We studied the B cell phenotype of circulating B cells in the blood of pediatric patients suspected of dengue during the 2010-2011 dengue season in Managua, Nicaragua (n  =  216, which was dominated by the DENV-3 serotype. We found a markedly larger percentage of plasmablast/plasma cells (PB/PCs circulating in DENV-positive patients as compared to patients with Other Febrile Illnesses (OFIs. The percentage of DENV-specific PB/PCs against DENV-3 represented 10% of the circulating antibody-producing cells (ASCs in secondary DENV-3 infections. Importantly, the cross-reactive DENV-specific B cell response was higher against a heterotypic serotype, with 46% of circulating PB/PCs specific to DENV-2 and 10% specific to DENV-3 during acute infection. We also observed a higher cross-reactive DENV-specific IgG serum avidity directed against DENV-2 as compared to DENV-3 during acute infection. The neutralization capacity of the serum was broadly cross-reactive against the four DENV serotypes both during the acute phase and at 3 months post-onset of symptoms. Overall, the cross-reactive B cell immune response dominates during secondary DENV infections in humans. These results reflect our recent findings in a mouse model of DENV cross-protection. In addition, this study enabled the development of increased technical and research capacity of Nicaraguan scientists and the

  13. Role of Adrenal Glucocorticoid Signaling in Prefrontal Cortex Gene Expression and Acute Behavioral Responses to Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, Blair N.; Wolen, Aaron R.; Fitting, Sylvia; Shelton, Keith L.; Miles, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Glucocorticoid hormones modulate acute and chronic behavioral and molecular responses to drugs of abuse including psychostimulants and opioids. There is growing evidence that glucocorticoids might also modulate behavioral responses to ethanol. Acute ethanol activates the HPA axis, causing release of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones. Our prior genomic studies suggest glucocorticoids play a role in regulating gene expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of DBA2/J (D2) mice following acute ethanol administration. However, few studies have analyzed the role of glucocorticoid signaling in behavioral responses to acute ethanol. Such work could be significant, given the predictive value for level of response to acute ethanol in the risk for alcoholism. Methods We studied whether the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist, RU-486, or adrenalectomy (ADX) altered male D2 mouse behavioral responses to acute (locomotor activation, anxiolysis or loss-of-righting reflex (LORR)) or repeated (sensitization) ethanol treatment. Whole genome microarray analysis and bioinformatics approaches were used to identify PFC candidate genes possibly responsible for altered behavioral responses to ethanol following ADX. Results ADX and RU-486 both impaired acute ethanol (2 g/kg) induced locomotor activation in D2 mice without affecting basal locomotor activity. However, neither ADX nor RU-486 altered initiation of ethanol sensitization (locomotor activation or jump counts), ethanol-induced anxiolysis or LORR. ADX mice showed microarray gene expression changes in PFC that significantly overlapped with acute ethanol-responsive gene sets derived by our prior microarray studies. Q-rtPCR analysis verified that ADX decreased PFC expression of Fkbp5 while significantly increasing Gpr6 expression. In addition, high dose RU-486 pre-treatment blunted ethanol-induced Fkbp5 expression. Conclusions Our studies suggest that ethanol’s activation of adrenal glucocorticoid release and subsequent

  14. A modified rheumatoid arthritis disease activity score without acute-phase reactants (mDAS28) for epidemiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Mary J; Greenberg, Jeffrey D; Reed, George W

    2010-08-01

    To develop and validate a modified version of the Disease Activity Score with 28 joint count (mDAS28), for use in epidemiological research, when acute-phase reactant values are unavailable. In a cross-sectional development cohort (5729 patients), statistically significant predictors of the logarithm of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (lnESR) were identified. After computation of the mDAS28, a cross-sectional validation cohort (5578 patients) was used to evaluate internal, criterion, and construct validities. The ability of the mDAS28 to discriminate between disease states was also assessed. A second validation cohort (longitudinal, 336 pairs of patient visits) was used to assess sensitivity to change. Significant predictors of lnESR included tender and swollen joints with 28 counts, patient's and physician's assessments of global health, and patient's assessment of pain (visual analog scale 0-100 mm) and a physical function (modified Health Assessment Questionnaire 0-3; mHAQ). Satisfactory internal validity (alpha = 0.72) and strong criterion validity compared to the DAS28, the Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI), and the Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) (r = 0.87-0.96) were found. Predictive validity was demonstrated by good correlation with the mHAQ (r = 0.58). The mDAS28 showed substantial agreement with the DAS28, SDAI, and CDAI in discriminating between disease states (kappa = 0.70-0.77) and moderate to substantial agreement between response levels (kappa = 0.52-0.73). Both mDAS28 and DAS28 measures classified patients similarly in remission compared to the SDAI and CDAI. The mDAS28 was superior in detecting change (standardized response mean = 0.58) followed by the DAS28, CDAI, and SDAI. The mDAS28 is a valid and sensitive tool to assess disease activity in epidemiological research, as an alternative to the DAS28, when acute-phase reactant values are unavailable.

  15. Type 2 diabetes mellitus with early phase acute inflammatory protein on serum protein electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ET Tuladhar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The onset of Type 2 diabetes has been associated with low grade systemic inflammation. The inflammatory status has been studied by measuring acute phase reactant proteins like hsCRP, α1- antitrypsin, α1-acid glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen. Most of these acute phase reactants form α1 and α2 bands on electropherogram of serum proteins. The aim of this study was to evaluate inflammatory status in controlled and uncontrolled type 2 diabetes using cellulose acetate electrophoresis and to find the impact of glycemic status as indicated by HbA1c on inflammation process. Materials and Methods: Serum protein electrophoresis was done on serum samples of 60 cases of Diabetes [controlled and uncontrolled] using cellulose acetate paper technique. The electropherogram obtained was stained with Ponseu S and then quantitated using densitometer. Glycemic status was studied by HbA1c analysis. The density of α1and α2 bands in electropherogram were correlated with HbA1c level. Result: A significant increase in the percentage of α1 and α2 band proteins (0.765 and 0.716, p<0.001 were found with the increasing level of HbA1c. With cutoff of HbA1c 7% (American Diabetic Association recommended, the α1 and α2 serum proteins concentration are significantly higher (p<0.001 in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus compared to controlled diabetes mellitus Conclusion: Cellulose acetate electrophoresis of serum proteins show early phase acute inflammatory status in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus. The process of systemic inflammation worsens with uncontrolled glycemia as indicated by HbA1c. Inflammatory status should be studied adjunct to glycemic status. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v2i3.6024 JPN 2012; 2(3: 211-214

  16. Determinants of fatigue after first-ever ischemic stroke during acute phase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Shan Wang

    Full Text Available Fatigue after stroke is common and has a negative impact on rehabilitation and survival. However, its pathogenesis and contributing factors remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing the occurrence of fatigue after first-ever ischemic stroke in acute phase.We examined 265 consecutive patients with first-ever ischemic stroke during acute phase (within 2 weeks in two tertiary stroke care hospitals in Henan, China. We documented patients' demographic and clinical characteristics through face-to-face interviews using structured questionnaires and reviews of medical records. Post-stroke fatigue was defined as a score of ≥4 using the Fatigue Severity Scale. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine post-stroke fatigue in relation to socio-demographic, lifestyle, clinical characteristics and family function.About 40% first-ever ischemic stroke patients experienced post-stroke fatigue in acute phase. Post-stroke fatigue was associated with lack of exercise before stroke (adjusted odds ratio 4.01, 95% CI 1.95-8.24, family dysfunction (2.63, 1.20-5.80, depression (2.39, 1.02-5.58, the presence of pre-stroke fatigue (4.89, 2.13-11.21, use of sedative medications (4.14, 1.58-10.88, coronary heart disease (3.38, 1.46-7.79 and more severe Modified Rankin Scale (2.55, 1.65-3.95.The causes of post-stroke fatigue are multifaceted. More physical exercise, improving family function, reducing depression and appropriate use of sedative medications may be helpful in preventing post-stroke fatigue.

  17. Value of dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI in the acute phase of transient global amnesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Förster

    Full Text Available Transient global amnesia (TGA is a transitory, short-lasting neurological disorder characterized by a sudden onset of antero- and retrograde amnesia. Perfusion abnormalities in TGA have been evaluated mainly by use of positron emission tomography (PET or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. In the present study we explore the value of dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI in TGA in the acute phase.From a MRI report database we identified TGA patients who underwent MRI including PWI in the acute phase and compared these to control subjects. Quantitative perfusion maps (cerebral blood flow (CBF and volume (CBV were generated and analyzed by use of Signal Processing In NMR-Software (SPIN. CBF and CBV values in subcortical brain regions were assessed by use of VOI created in FIRST, a model-based segmentation tool in the Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain (FMRIB Software Library (FSL.Five TGA patients were included (2 men, 3 women. On PWI, no relevant perfusion alterations were found by visual inspection in TGA patients. Group comparisons for possible differences between TGA patients and control subjects showed significant lower rCBF values bilaterally in the hippocampus, in the left thalamus and globus pallidus as well as bilaterally in the putamen and the left caudate nucleus. Correspondingly, significant lower rCBV values were observed bilaterally in the hippocampus and the putamen as well as in the left caudate nucleus. Group comparisons for possible side differences in rCBF and rCBV values in TGA patients revealed a significant lower rCBV value in the left caudate nucleus.Mere visual inspection of PWI is not sufficient for the assessment of perfusion changes in TGA in the acute phase. Group comparisons with healthy control subjects might be useful to detect subtle perfusion changes on PWI in TGA patients. However, this should be confirmed in larger data sets and serial PWI

  18. Turbine flow meter response in two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, W.J.; Dougherty, T.J.; Cheh, H.Y.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest a simple method of calibrating turbine flow meters to measure the flow rates of each phase in a two-phase flow. The response of two 50.8 mm (2 inch) turbine flow meters to air-water, two-phase mixtures flowing vertically in a 57 mm I.D. (2.25 inch) polycarbonate tube has been investigated for both upflow and downflow. The flow meters were connected in series with an intervening valve to provide an adjustable pressure difference between them. Void fractions were measured by two gamma densitometers, one upstream of the flow meters and the other downstream. The output signal of the turbine flow meters was found to depend only on the actual volumetric flow rate of the gas, F G , and liquid, F L , at the location of the flow meter

  19. Temporal response of positive and negative regulators in response to acute and chronic exercise training in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenich, Sara A; Gutierrez-Reed, Navarre; Audet, Gerald N; Olfert, I Mark

    2013-10-15

    Angiogenesis is controlled by a balance between positive and negative angiogenic factors, but temporal protein expression of many key angiogenic regulators in response to exercise are still poorly defined. In C57BL/6 mice, we evaluated the temporal protein expression of several pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors in response to (1) a single acute bout of exercise and (2) chronic exercise training resulting from 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days of voluntary wheel running. Following acute exercise, protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF), endostatin and nucleolin were increased at 2-4 h (P responsiveness of VEGF to exercise in untrained mice (i.e. 161% increase, P angiogenesis is controlled by a balance between positive and negative mitogens, and reveals a complex, highly-coordinated, temporal scheme whereby these factors can differentially influence capillary growth in response to acute versus chronic exercise.

  20. 10 original article dynamics of germs responsible for acute bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    The aim of this study was to analyze ten (10) years of epidemiological surveillance data of meningitis in Burkina Faso for high risk germs patterns identification in order to contribute to the strengthening of prevention strategies. A retrospective study of the past decade (2005- 2014) of cases of acute bacterial meningitis ...

  1. Dynamics of germs responsible for acute bacterial meningitis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to analyze ten (10) years of epidemiological surveillance data of meningitis in Burkina Faso for high risk germs patterns identification in order to contribute to the strengthening of prevention strategies. A retrospective study of the past decade (2005- 2014) of cases of acute bacterial meningitis ...

  2. Acute and session RPE responses during resistance training: Bouts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On separate days in a counterbalanced order, subjects performed 3 sets of each exercise to volitional failure at a low intensity (LI) and a high intensity (HI) with 2 minutes rest between sets and exercises. At the end of each set, subjects estimated acute RPE for that set using a 10-point numerical scale. Thirty minutes after the ...

  3. The inflammatory response in myocarditis and acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmens, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is about myocarditis and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). These are two cardiac diseases in which inflammation of the cardiac muscle occurs. In myocarditis, inflammation results in the elimination of a viral infection of the heart. During AMI, one of the coronary arteries is occluded,

  4. [Antipsychotic Treatment of the Adult Patient in the Acute Phase of Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana; Gómez Restrepo, Carlos; García Valencia, Jenny; Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo; de la Hoz, Ana María; Arenas, Álvaro; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of different antipsychotic drugs in the management of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in the acute phase. To formulate evidence-based recommendations on the antipsychotic (AP) drug management strategies for the treatment of the adult diagnosed with schizophrenia in the acute phase. Clinical practice guidelines were prepared, using the guidelines of the Methodology Guide of the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, in order to identify, synthesise, and evaluate the evidence and formulate recommendations as regards the management and follow-up of adult patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. The evidence of the NICE 82 guideline was adopted and updated, which answered the question on the management of the acute phase of adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The evidence and its level were presented to the Guideline Development Group (GDG) in order to formulate recommendations following the methodology proposed by the GRADE approach. Clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, ziprasidone, amisulpride, paliperidone, haloperidol, quetiapine, and aripiprazole were more effective than placebo for the majority of psychotic symptoms and the abandonment of treatment, but asenapine was not. Paliperidone, risperidone, quetiapine, clozapine, and olanzapine showed significant increases in weight compared to placebo. Haloperidol, risperidone, ziprasidone, and paliperidone had a higher risk of extrapyramidal symptoms than placebo. There was a significant risk of sedation or drowsiness with, risperidone, haloperidol, ziprasidone, quetiapine, olanzapine, and clozapine in the comparisons with placebo. Of the results of the comparisons between AP, it was shown that clozapine and paliperidone had a clinically significant effect compared to haloperidol and quetiapine, respectively. Olanzapine and risperidone had a lower risk of abandoning the treatment in general, and due to adverse reactions in two comparisons of each one, haloperidol was the

  5. Affective symptoms and cognitive functions in the acute phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Elberling, Tina V; Hørding, Merete

    2007-01-01

    . No significant differences between the patient and the control group on neuropsychological test performances were found. Thyroid levels did not correlate with the neuropsychological test performances or psychiatric ratings. After reaching euthyroidism the level of affective symptoms (including reports......In the acute phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis patients often have subjective cognitive complaints. Continuing controversy exists about the nature of these symptoms and whether they persist after treatment. This prospective study included 31 consecutively referred, newly diagnosed, and untreated....... Reports of cognitive dysfunction may reflect affective and somatic manifestations of thyrotoxicosis and in most patients these symptoms disappear after treatment of Graves' thyrotoxicosis....

  6. Nonlinearity response correction in phase-shifting deflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Manh The; Kang, Pilseong; Ghim, Young-Sik; Rhee, Hyug-Gyo

    2018-04-01

    Owing to the nonlinearity response of digital devices such as screens and cameras in phase-shifting deflectometry, non-sinusoidal phase-shifted fringe patterns are generated and additional measurement errors are introduced. In this paper, a new deflectometry technique is described for overcoming these problems using a pre-distorted pattern combined with an advanced iterative algorithm. The experiment results show that this method can reconstruct the 3D surface map of a sample without fringe print-through caused by the nonlinearity response of digital devices. The proposed technique is verified by measuring the surface height variations in a deformable mirror and comparing them with the measurement result obtained using a coordinate measuring machine. The difference between the two measurement results is estimated to be less than 13 µm.

  7. Rapid Response Team activation for pediatric patients on the acute pain service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Maxwell; Tumin, Dmitry; Walia, Hina; Stevens, Jenna; Wrona, Sharon; Martin, David; Bhalla, Tarun; Tobias, Joseph D

    2017-11-01

    Untreated pain or overly aggressive pain management may lead to adverse physiologic consequences and activation of the hospital's Rapid Response Team. This study is a quality improvement initiative that attempts to identify patient demographics and patterns associated with Rapid Response Team consultations for patients on the acute pain service. A retrospective review of all patients on the acute pain service from February 2011 until June 2015 was cross-referenced with inpatients requiring consultation from the Rapid Response Team. Two independent practitioners reviewed electronic medical records to determine which events were likely associated with pain management interventions. Over a 4-year period, 4872 patients were admitted to the acute pain service of whom 135 unique patients required Rapid Response Team consults. There were 159 unique Rapid Response Team activations among 6538 unique acute pain service consults. A subset of 27 pain management-related Rapid Response Team consultations was identified. The largest percentage of patients on the acute pain service were adolescents aged 12-17 (36%). Compared to this age group, the odds of Rapid Response Team activation were higher among infants Rapid Response Team consultations may help to identify patients at risk for clinical decompensation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Elastic Properties and Enhanced Piezoelectric Response at Morphotropic Phase Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The search for improved piezoelectric materials is based on the morphotropic phase boundaries (MPB) between ferroelectric phases with different crystal symmetry and available directions for the spontaneous polarization. Such regions of the composition x−T phase diagrams provide the conditions for minimal anisotropy with respect to the direction of the polarization, so that the polarization can easily rotate maintaining a substantial magnitude, while the near verticality of the TMPBx boundary extends the temperature range of the resulting enhanced piezoelectricity. Another consequence of the quasi-isotropy of the free energy is a reduction of the domain walls energies, with consequent formation of domain structures down to nanoscale. Disentangling the extrinsic and intrinsic contributions to the piezoelectricity in such conditions requires a high level of sophistication from the techniques and analyses for studying the structural, ferroelectric and dielectric properties. The elastic characterization is extremely useful in clarifying the phenomenology and mechanisms related to ferroelectric MPBs. The relationship between dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric responses is introduced in terms of relaxation of defects with electric dipole and elastic quadrupole, and extended to the response near phase transitions in the framework of the Landau theory. An account is provided of the anelastic experiments, from torsional pendulum to Brillouin scattering, that provided new important information on ferroelectric MPBs, including PZT, PMN-PT, NBT-BT, BCTZ, and KNN-based systems. PMID:28793707

  9. Elastic Properties and Enhanced Piezoelectric Response at Morphotropic Phase Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cordero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The search for improved piezoelectric materials is based on the morphotropic phase boundaries (MPB between ferroelectric phases with different crystal symmetry and available directions for the spontaneous polarization. Such regions of the composition x − T phase diagrams provide the conditions for minimal anisotropy with respect to the direction of the polarization, so that the polarization can easily rotate maintaining a substantial magnitude, while the near verticality of the TMPB(x boundary extends the temperature range of the resulting enhanced piezoelectricity. Another consequence of the quasi-isotropy of the free energy is a reduction of the domain walls energies, with consequent formation of domain structures down to nanoscale. Disentangling the extrinsic and intrinsic contributions to the piezoelectricity in such conditions requires a high level of sophistication from the techniques and analyses for studying the structural, ferroelectric and dielectric properties. The elastic characterization is extremely useful in clarifying the phenomenology and mechanisms related to ferroelectric MPBs. The relationship between dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric responses is introduced in terms of relaxation of defects with electric dipole and elastic quadrupole, and extended to the response near phase transitions in the framework of the Landau theory. An account is provided of the anelastic experiments, from torsional pendulum to Brillouin scattering, that provided new important information on ferroelectric MPBs, including PZT, PMN-PT, NBT-BT, BCTZ, and KNN-based systems.

  10. SEPSIS CHRONICALLY IN MARS: SYSTEMIC CYTOKINE RESPONSES ARE ALWAYS MIXED REGARDLESS OF THE OUTCOME, MAGNITUDE OR PHASE OF SEPSIS 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuchowski, Marcin F.; Craciun, Florin; Weixelbaumer, Katrin; Duffy, Elizabeth R.; Remick, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    The paradigm of SIRS-to-CARS transition implies that hyperinflammation triggers acute sepsis mortality, while hypoinflammation (release of anti-inflammatory cytokines) in late sepsis induces chronic deaths. However, the exact humoral inflammatory mechanisms attributable to sepsis outcomes remain elusive. In part I of the study, we characterized the systemic dynamics of the chronic inflammation in dying (DIE) and surviving (SUR) mice suffering from CLP sepsis (days 6-28). In part II, we combined the current chronic and previous acute/chronic sepsis data to compare the outcome-dependent inflammatory signatures between these two phases. To compare global inflammatory responses, a composite cytokine score (CCS) was calculated. Mice were never sacrificed but sampled daily (20μl) for blood. Part I: parameters from chronic DIE mice were clustered into the 72h, 48h and 24h prior-to-death time-points and compared to SUR of the same post-CLP day. Cytokine increases were mixed and never preceded chronic deaths earlier than 48h (3 to 180-fold increase). CCS demonstrated simultaneous and similar upregulation of pro-and anti-inflammatory compartments at 24h prior to chronic death (DIE 80 and 50-fold higher vs. SUR). Part II: cytokine ratios across sepsis phases/outcomes indicated steady pro-vs. anti-inflammatory balance. CCS showed the inflammatory response in chronic DIE was 5-fold lower versus acute DIE mice, yet identical to acute SUR. Concluding, the systemic MARS-like pattern (concurrent release of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines) occurs irrespectively of the sepsis phase, response magnitude and/or outcome. Although different in magnitude, neither acute nor chronic septic mortality is associated with a predominating pro-and/or anti-inflammatory signature in the blood. PMID:23008446

  11. Acute response and chronic stimulus for cardiac structural and functional adaptation in a professional boxer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxborough, David; George, Keith; Utomi, Victor; Lord, Rachel; Morton, James; Jones, Nigel; Somauroo, John

    2014-06-01

    The individual response to acute and chronic changes in cardiac structure and function to intense exercise training is not fully understood and therefore evidence in this setting may help to improve the timing and interpretation of pre-participation cardiac screening. The following case report highlights an acute increase in right ventricular (RV) size and a reduction in left ventricular (LV) basal radial function with concomitant increase at the mid-level in response to a week's increase in training volume in a professional boxer. These adaptations settle by the second week; however, chronic physiological adaptation occurs over a 12-week period. Electrocardiographic findings demonstrate an acute lateral T-wave inversion at 1 week, which revert to baseline for the duration of training. It appears that a change in training intensity and volume generates an acute response within the RV that acts as a stimulus for chronic adaptation in this professional boxer.

  12. ITIH4 (inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4) is a new acute-phase protein isolated from cattle during experimental infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineiro, M.; Andres, M.; Iturralde, M.

    2004-01-01

    , the heavy chain 4 of the inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor family. The response of this protein in the sera was determined for animals during experimental bacterial and viral infections. In the bacterial model, animals were inoculated with a mixture of Actinomyces pyogenes, Fusobacterium necrophorum......, and Peptostreptococcus indolicus to induce an acute-phase reaction. All animals developed moderate to severe clinical mastitis and exhibited remarkable increases in ITIH4 concentration in serum (from 3 to 12 times the initial values, peaking at 48 to 72 h after infection) that correlated with the severity of the disease....... Because of the significant induction of the protein in the animals in the mastitis and BRSV infection models, we can conclude that ITIH4 is a new positive acute-phase protein in cattle....

  13. The course of acute-phase proteins and serum cortisol in mastitis metritis agalactia (MMA) of the sow and sow performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelder, K N; Bilkei, G

    2005-01-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in acute-phase proteins (APPs) during mastitis metritis agalactia (MMA) in sows. Sows with MMA (group one, n=15) and healthy sows (group two, n = 15) were evaluated at days 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 postpartum. Number of total born, liveborn, stillborn, and mummified pigs did not differ significantly between the groups. Preweaning mortality was higher (P MMA sows than among healthy control animals. The offspring of healthy sows had higher (P MMA sows. Mean serum alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations were higher in MMA sows on the days 1 (P MMA sows on days 1, 5 (P MMA sows than in healthy sows. AGP was negatively correlated with litter weight, indicating that activation of the cellular immune response in sows negatively affects the growth rate of suckling piglets. Correlations were found between the overall means for weight, acute-phase proteins, and serum cortisol concentration.

  14. Potential of acute phase proteins as predictor of postpartum uterine infections during transition period and its regulatory mechanism in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Manimaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the various systemic reactions against infection or injury, the acute phase response is the cascade of reaction and mostly coordinated by cytokines-mediated acute phase proteins (APPs production. Since APPs are sensitive innate immune molecules, they are useful for early detection of inflammation in bovines and believed to be better discriminators than routine hematological parameters. Therefore, the possibility of using APPs as a diagnostic and prognostic marker of inflammation in major bovine health disorders including postpartum uterine infection has been explored by many workers. In this review, we discussed specifically importance of postpartum uterine infection, the role of energy balance in uterine infections and potential of APPs as a predictor of postpartum uterine infections during the transition period and its regulatory mechanism in dairy cattle.

  15. Optical properties of acute kidney injury measured by quantitative phase imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Sungbea; Min, Eunjung; Baek, Songyee; Kwon, Hyug Moo; Popescu, Gabriel

    2018-01-01

    The diagnosis of acute kidney disease (AKI) has been examined mainly by histology, immunohistochemistry and western blot. Though these approaches are widely accepted in the field, it has an inherent limitation due to the lack of high-throughput and quantitative information. For a better understanding of prognosis in AKI, we present a new approach using quantitative phase imaging combined with a wide-field scanning platform. Through the phase-delay information from the tissue, we were able to predict a stage of AKI based on various optical properties such as light scattering coefficient and anisotropy. These optical parameters quantify the deterioration process of the AKI model of tissue. Our device would be a very useful tool when it is required to deliver fast feedback of tissue pathology or when diseases are related to mechanical properties such as fibrosis. PMID:29541494

  16. Acute Phase Proteins and Variables of Protein Metabolism in Dairy Cows during the Pre- and Postpartal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cs. Tóthová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare the concentrations of acute phase proteins and selected variables of protein metabolism in dairy cows of the Slovak Spotted breed from 4 weeks before parturition to 10 weeks after parturition. Acute phase proteins - haptoglobin (Hp and serum amyloid A (SAA - and variables of protein metabolism - total proteins, albumin, urea, creatinine, total immunoglobulins - were evaluated in blood serum. Significant differences were found in average values of the Hp and SAA concentrations in several groups during the monitored period (P P P P P P P P P < 0.001. The above mentioned results indicate that in the time around parturition there are significant changes in concentrations of acute phase proteins, as well as in the whole protein metabolism of dairy cows. These facts suggest that the postparturient period is a critical biological phase, throughout which there is the highest incidence of metabolic disorders.

  17. A study on the predictability of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia response to treatment using a hybrid oncosimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounoglou, Eleftherios; Kolokotroni, Eleni; Stanulla, Martin; Stamatakos, Georgios S

    2018-02-06

    Efficient use of Virtual Physiological Human (VPH)-type models for personalized treatment response prediction purposes requires a precise model parameterization. In the case where the available personalized data are not sufficient to fully determine the parameter values, an appropriate prediction task may be followed. This study, a hybrid combination of computational optimization and machine learning methods with an already developed mechanistic model called the acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) Oncosimulator which simulates ALL progression and treatment response is presented. These methods are used in order for the parameters of the model to be estimated for retrospective cases and to be predicted for prospective ones. The parameter value prediction is based on a regression model trained on retrospective cases. The proposed Hybrid ALL Oncosimulator system has been evaluated when predicting the pre-phase treatment outcome in ALL. This has been correctly achieved for a significant percentage of patient cases tested (approx. 70% of patients). Moreover, the system is capable of denying the classification of cases for which the results are not trustworthy enough. In that case, potentially misleading predictions for a number of patients are avoided, while the classification accuracy for the remaining patient cases further increases. The results obtained are particularly encouraging regarding the soundness of the proposed methodologies and their relevance to the process of achieving clinical applicability of the proposed Hybrid ALL Oncosimulator system and VPH models in general.

  18. Dynamic changes in bioelectrical impedance vector analysis and phase angle in acute decompensated heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Fernanda Donner; Souza, Gabriela Corrêa; Aliti, Graziella Badin; Rabelo-Silva, Eneida Rejane; Clausell, Nadine; Biolo, Andréia

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether changes in hydration status (reflecting fluid retention) would be detected by bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) and phase angle during hospitalization for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) and after clinical stabilization. Patients admitted to ADHF were evaluated at admission, discharge and after clinical stabilization (3 mo after discharge) for dyspnea, weight, brain natriuretic peptide, bioelectrical impedance resistance, reactance, and phase angle. Generalized estimating equations and chi-square detected variations among the three time points of evaluation. Were included 57 patients: Mean age was 61 ± 13 y, 65% were male, LVEF was 25 ± 8%. During hospitalization there were improvements in clinical parameters and increase in resistance/height (from 250 ± 72 to 302 ± 59 Ohms/m, P < 0.001), reactance/height (from 24 ± 10 to 31 ± 9 Ohms/m, P < 0.001), and phase angle (from 5.3 ± 1.6 to 6 ± 1.6°, P = 0.007). From discharge to chronic stability, both clinical and BIVA parameters remained stable. At admission, 61% of patients had significant congestion by BIVA, and they lost more weight and had higher improvement in dyspnea during hospitalization (P < 0.05). At discharge, more patients were in the upper half of the graph (characterizing some degree of dehydration) while at chronic stability normal hydration status was more prevalent (P < 0.001). BIVA and phase angle were able to detect significant changes in hydration status during ADHF, which paralleled the clinical course of recompensation, both acutely and chronically. The classification of congestion by BIVA at admission identified patients with more pronounced changes in weight and dyspnea during compensation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Acute Chagas' disease: transmission routes, clinical aspects and response to specific therapy in diagnosed cases in an urban center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikanai-Yasuda, M A; Lopes, M H; Tolezano, J E; Umezawa, E; Amato Neto, V; Barreto, A C; Higaki, Y; Moreira, A A; Funayama, G; Barone, A A

    1990-01-01

    The authors report clinical features and therapeutic response of 24 outpatients with acute Chagas' disease, and 3 in the initial chronic phase, referred to the Clinic for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases of the FMUSP "Clínicas" Hospital between 1974 and 1987. The following transmission routes were involved: triatominae in 7 cases, blood transfusion in 9, kidney transplantation and/or blood transfusion in 4, accidental in 1, oral route in 3, probably breast feeding in 1, congenital or breast feeding in 1, and congenital or blood transfusion in 1. Six patients infected by triatominac acquired the disease between 1974 and 1980 and one in 1987. The blood transfusion infected patients acquired the disease in Greater São Paulo, seven of whom after 1983. The acute phase Chagas' disease was oligosymptomatic in 4 patients: three of such patients being immunocompromised by drugs or other diseases. Another two adult immunocompromised patients developed myocarditis and congestive heart failure. Clinical features were severe in 5 from 6 children under two years, irrespective of the transmission route. Evaluation of the acute phase patients treated with benznidazol (4-10 mg/kg/day) showed: therapeutic failure in 4/16 (25.0%); possible cure in 9/16 (53.2%) and inconclusive results in 3/16 (18.8%). The antibody and complement-mediated lysis reaction was in keeping with the xenodiagnosis in 18/22 cases, having shown negative results after treatment earlier than classical serological reactions. One aplastic anaemia patient receiving corticosteroid presented lymphoproliferative disease 6 years after being treated with benznidazol for acute Chagas' disease.

  20. Acute lung function response to dust in street sweepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johncy S, Smilee; G, Dhanyakumar; Samuel T, Vivian; K T, Ajay; Bondade, Suresh Y

    2013-10-01

    Sweepers are chronically exposed to dust raised during sweeping. Dust is regarded as the most influential agent and it is perceived as a frequent cause of respiratory system illness and may cause acute and chronic lung function impairment. The aim of this study was to determine the acute lung function changes in sweepers exposed to dust generated from street sweeping. This study was conducted in central Karnataka, India, on 25 female sweepers and 25 healthy female control subjects who were comparable in age, height and weight. The pulmonary function test was performed in controls, sweepers before and after sweeping, by using RMS medspiror and results were compared by Student's unpaired 't' test. The results showed a significant reduction in percent predicted values and mean values of FVC, FEV1, PEFR, FEF25-75% and FEF 200-1200 between sweepers and their matched controls. Pulmonary function after sweeping also showed a significant decrease. On comparing the pulmonary functions of sweepers before and after sweeping, it was concluded that inhalation of dust acutely affected the lung function of sweepers in India and that sweepers were at a risk of developing occupation related lung function impairment. We recommend that the workers should use protective face masks and do wet sweeping instead of dry sweeping during sweeping activity.

  1. Leukocytosis in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Nakayama, H

    1999-01-01

    Leukocytosis is a common finding in the acute phase of stroke. A detrimental effect of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has been suggested, and trials aiming at reducing the leukocyte response in acute stroke are currently being conducted. However, the influence of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has...

  2. Association between clinical condition and F-waves changes in the acute phase of stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo José Luvizutto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To relate F-waves with clinical and laboratory exams in the acute phase of stroke. Methods Inclusion criteria for this cross-sectional study were: hemiplegia, absence of previous cranial trauma, myopathy, diabetes, alcoholism or other known causes of peripheral neuropathy, and normal sensory and motor conduction. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS score, glycemia, glucosilate hemoglobin, and CPK were obtained at admission by routine blood exams. After hospital admission, the F-wave latencies and persistence were obtained from the deep peroneal nerve using symmetrical techniques. Results Evaluation of 20 individuals – mean age 66 years, 50% male and 85% Caucasian – showed association of F-wave persistence with glycemia (r = 0.71; p < 0.001 and NIHSS categorized (NIHSS 1-7 = 65.0 x NIHSS 9-23 = 100; p = 0.004. Multivariate analysis found only association of F-wave persistence with glycemia β = 0.59 (0.44–0.74; p < 0.001. Conclusion The increase in the persistence of F-waves are associated with hyperglycemia in the acute phase of stroke.

  3. Acute phase reactants predict the risk of amputation in diabetic foot infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci, Baris; Yener, Serkan; Yesil, Sena; Yapar, Nur; Kucukyavas, Yasin; Bayraktar, Firat

    2011-01-01

    prediction of amputation would aid clinicians in the management of diabetic foot infections. We aimed to assess the predictive value of baseline and post-treatment levels of acute phase reactants in the outcome of patients with diabetic foot infections. we collected data prospectively during minimum follow-up of 6 months in patients with infected diabetic foot ulcers hospitalized in Dokuz Eylul University Hospital between January 1, 2003, and January 1, 2008. After excluding patients who did not attend the hospital for follow-up visits regularly (n = 36), we analyzed data from 165 foot ulcer episodes. limb ischemia and osteomyelitis were much more frequent in patients who underwent amputation. Wagner grade, which assesses ulcer depth and the presence of osteomyelitis or gangrene, was higher in patients who needed amputation. Ulcer size was slightly larger in the amputation group. Baseline and post-treatment C-reactive protein levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rates, white blood cell counts, and platelet counts were significantly elevated in patients who underwent amputation. Albumin levels were significantly suppressed in the amputation group. Univariate analysis showed that a 1-SD increase in baseline and post-treatment C-reactive protein levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rates, and white blood cell counts and a 1-SD decrease in post-treatment albumin levels were significantly associated with increased risk of amputation. Post-treatment C-reactive protein level was strongly associated with amputation risk. circulating levels of acute phase reactants were associated with amputation risk in diabetic foot infections.

  4. Motor performance in children and adolescents with cancer at the end of acute treatment phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götte, Miriam; Kesting, Sabine V; Winter, Corinna C; Rosenbaum, Dieter; Boos, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    Reduced motor performance may particularly limit reintegration into normal life after cessation of treatment in pediatric cancer patients. This study aimed at analyzing motor performance at the end of the acute treatment phase and reveals potential risk factors for motor deficits. A childhood cancer population with different tumor entities was assessed with the MOON test, which allows for comparison with age- and gender-matched reference values of healthy children, at the end of the acute treatment phase. Forty-seven patients were tested at 7.0 ± 2.6 months after diagnosis. Significant reductions of motor performance affected muscular explosive strength (P hand-eye coordination (P coordination did not achieve statistical significance. Associations between single motor deficits and the tumor entity, age, body mass index, and inactivity during treatment were revealed, whereas no associations were found for gender and vincristine application. Overall, motor performance was low in the patient group studied. We recommend that individualized exercise interventions to attenuate motor deficits and promote physical activity are needed during cancer treatment in order to enhance motor performance and improve social participation during and after cancer therapy.

  5. HIV infection and drugs of abuse: role of acute phase proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samikkannu, Thangavel; Rao, Kurapati V K; Arias, Adriana Y; Kalaichezian, Aarthi; Sagar, Vidya; Yoo, Changwon; Nair, Madhavan P N

    2013-09-17

    HIV infection and drugs of abuse such as methamphetamine (METH), cocaine, and alcohol use have been identified as risk factors for triggering inflammation. Acute phase proteins such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) are the biomarkers of inflammation. Hence, the interactive effect of drugs of abuse with acute phase proteins in HIV-positive subjects was investigated. Plasma samples were utilized from 75 subjects with METH use, cocaine use, alcohol use, and HIV-positive alone and HIV-positive METH, cocaine, and alcohol users, and age-matched control subjects. The plasma CRP and SAA levels were measured by ELISA and western blot respectively and the CD4 counts were also measured. Observed results indicated that the CRP and SAA levels in HIV-positive subjects who are METH, cocaine and alcohol users were significantly higher when compared with either drugs of abuse or HIV-positive alone. The CD4 counts were also dramatically reduced in HIV-positive with drugs of abuse subjects compared with only HIV-positive subjects. These results suggest that, in HIV-positive subjects, drugs of abuse increase the levels of CRP and SAA, which may impact on the HIV infection and disease progression.

  6. Interrelationship between Somatic Cell Count and Acute Phase Proteins in Serum and Milk of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kováč

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the concentrations of two acute phase proteins, haptoglobin (Hp and serum amyloid A (SAA, in serum and milk of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows grouped according to somatic cell count thresholds ( 400,000 cells/ml compared to groups with lower SCC thresholds in composite milk samples. In contrast, significant differences were not demonstrated between the groups in Hp and SAA concentrations determined in serum. The concentrations of Hp in serum and milk were found to be correlated (r = 0.69, P = 0.0003, whereas there was a lower correlation trend in the case of serum versus milk concentrations of SAA (r = 0.43, P = 0.0478. High significant correlations were observed either between milk haptoglobin values and SCC or milk serum amyloid A concentrations and SCC (r = 0.83, r = 0.81, P P = 0.0014 and poorly correlated with SAA values determined in serum (r = 0.43, P = 0.0478. According to the results obtained in this study we can conclude that measurements of the acute phase proteins, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A predominantly in milk, may be a useful tool in diagnosing mastitis and may be a useful marker of milk quality.

  7. Low haemoglobin levels increase unilateral spatial neglect in acute phase of stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo José Luvizutto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between unilateral spatial neglect (USN and haemoglobin (Hb level in acute phase of stroke. Method Cross-sectional study was performed after right hemisphere ischemic stroke. Independent variable: Hb level (mg/dL; Outcome: USN; Potential confounding factors: Age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS, and glycaemia (mg/dL; Characterization variables were obtained from electronic medical records, Hb, mean corpuscular volume (MCV and glycaemia by laboratory exams, and USN by cancellation and bisection tasks. The relationship between Hb and USN was assessed by Spearman correlation and linear regression model. Results 40 individuals were evaluated; it was observed that the higher the Hb level, the better the USN test performance, with the two being negatively correlated. There was no significant correlation between VCM level and USN performance. Conclusion Low hemoglobin levels may indicate a worse performance in USN cancellation and bissection tests in acute phase of stroke.

  8. Cortisol evaluation during the acute phase of traumatic brain injury-A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalah, Meriem; Donaldson, Malcolm; Aribi, Yamina; Iabassen, Malek; Cherfi, Lyes; Nebbal, Mustapha; Medjaher, Meriem; Haffaf, ElMehdi; Abdennebi, Benaissa; Guenane, Kamel; Djermane, Adel; Kemali, Zahra; OuldKablia, Samia

    2018-05-01

    Biochemical diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency (AI) is difficult in the context of traumatic brain injury (TBI). To assess the frequency and predictive factors of AI in victims of TBI from Algiers. Between November 2009 and December 2013, TBI victims had a single 8-9 am serum cortisol measurement during the acute postinjury period (0-7 days). AI was defined according to basal cortisol levels of 83, 276 and 414 nmol/L. Variables studied were TBI severity according to Glasgow coma scale, duration of intubation and coma, pupillary status, hypotension, anaemia, brain imaging findings, diabetes insipidus and medication. Insulin tolerance test was performed during the recovery phase, defining AI as peak cortisol 414 nmol/L. Hydrocortisone replacement is advised in TBI patients with morning cortisol <276 nmol/L or those <414 nmol/L with additional risk factors for AI. As acute and subsequent AI are poorly correlated, patients with moderate/severe TBI require adrenal re-evaluation during the recovery phase. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on motor response inhibition: An ERP study using the stop-signal task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Heng Chu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Acute exercise has a selective and beneficial effect on cognitive function, specifically affecting the motor response inhibition aspect of executive function. Furthermore, acute exercise predominately impacts later stages of information processing during motor response inhibition, which may lead to an increase in attentional resource allocation and confer the ability to successfully withhold a response to achieve motor response inhibition.

  10. A phase II clinical trial to assess the safety of clonidine in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunatilake Harindra

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 2–3 million people are acutely poisoned by organophosphorus pesticides each year, mostly in the developing world. There is a pressing need for new affordable antidotes and clonidine has been shown to be effective in animal studies. Our aim was to determine the safety of clonidine given as an antidote in adult patients presenting with signs or symptoms of acute organophosphate ingestion. Methods This study was a dose finding, open-label, multicentre, phase II trial. Forty eight patients with acute organophosphate poisoning were randomized to receive either clonidine or placebo: Four to receive placebo and twelve to receive clonidine at each dose level. The first dose level was an initial loading dose of 0.15 mg followed by an infusion of 0.5 mg of clonidine over 24 hours. The initial loading dose was increased to 0.3 mg, 0.45 and 0.6 mg. at all dosing levels however the subsequent infusion remained at 0.5 mg of clonidine over 24 hours. Results The baseline characteristics of both groups were similar. The trial was stopped after completion of the 3rd dosing level. At the 1st and 2nd dosing level there were no reported adverse drug reactions. At the 3rd dosing level 5 patients (42% developed significant hypotension during clonidine treatment that responded to intravenous fluids. There were no statistical differences in ventilation rate, pre and post GCS, and mortality rates over all levels. Conclusion Our findings suggest use of moderate doses of clonidine in acute organophosphate poisoning can be used without causing frequent clinical problems but that higher doses are associated with a high incidence of hypotension requiring intervention. Further studies are needed to study the efficacy of clonidine as an antidote in organophosphate poisoning. Trial registration Current Controlled Trial ISRCTN89917816.

  11. Prenatal and acute cocaine exposure affects neural responses and habituation to visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Elizabeth; Kopotiyenko, Konstantin; Zhdanova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants have many effects on visual function, from adverse following acute and prenatal exposure to therapeutic on attention deficit. To determine the impact of prenatal and acute cocaine exposure on visual processing, we studied neuronal responses to visual stimuli in two brain regions of a transgenic larval zebrafish expressing the calcium indicator GCaMP-HS. We found that both red light (LF) and dark (DF) flashes elicited similar responses in the optic tectum neuropil (TOn), while the dorsal telencephalon (dTe) responded only to LF. Acute cocaine (0.5 μM) reduced neuronal responses to LF in both brain regions but did not affect responses to DF. Repeated stimulus presentation (RSP) led to habituation of dTe neurons to LF. Acute cocaine prevented habituation. TOn habituated to DF, but not LF, and DF habituation was not modified by cocaine. Remarkably, prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) prevented the effects of acute cocaine on LF response amplitude and habituation later in development in both brain regions, but did not affect DF responses. We discovered that, in spite of similar neural responses to LF and DF in the TO (superior colliculus in mammals), responses to LF are more complex, involving dTe (homologous to the cerebral cortex), and are more vulnerable to cocaine. Our results demonstrate that acute cocaine exposure affects visual processing differentially by brain region, and that PCE modifies zebrafish visual processing in multiple structures in a stimulus-dependent manner. These findings are in accordance with the major role that the optic tectum and cerebral cortex play in sustaining visual attention, and support the hypothesis that modification of these areas by PCE may be responsible for visual deficits noted in humans. This model offers new methodological approaches for studying the adverse and therapeutic effects of psychostimulants on attention, and for the development of new pharmacological interventions.

  12. Prenatal and acute cocaine exposure affects neural responses and habituation to visual stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Brooke Riley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulants have many effects on visual function, from adverse, following acute and prenatal exposure to therapeutic, on attention deficit. To determine the impact of prenatal and acute cocaine exposure on visual processing, we studied neuronal responses to visual stimuli in two brain regions of a transgenic larval zebrafish expressing the calcium indicator GCaMP-HS. We found that both red light (LF and dark (DF flashes elicited similar responses in the optic tectum neuropil (TOn, while the dorsal telencephalon (dTe responded only to LF. Acute cocaine (0.5 μM reduced neuronal responses to LF in both brain regions but did not affect responses to DF. Repeated stimulus presentation led to habituation of dTe neurons to LF. Acute cocaine prevented habituation. TOn habituated to DF, but not LF, and DF habituation was not modified by cocaine. Remarkably, prenatal cocaine exposure prevented the effects of acute cocaine on LF response amplitude and habituation later in development in both brain regions, but did not affect DF responses. We discovered that, in spite of similar neural responses to LF and DF in the TO (superior colliculus in mammals, responses to LF are more complex, involving dTe (homologous to the cerebral cortex, and are more vulnerable to cocaine. Our results demonstrate that acute cocaine exposure affects visual processing differentially by brain region, and that prenatal cocaine exposure modifies zebrafish visual processing in multiple structures in a stimulus-dependent manner. These findings are in accordance with the major role that the optic tectum and cerebral cortex play in sustaining visual attention, and support the hypothesis that modification of these areas by prenatal cocaine exposure may be responsible for visual deficits noted in humans. This model offers new methodological approaches for studying the adverse and therapeutic effects of psychostimulants on attention, and for the development of new pharmacological

  13. Role of Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK in apoptosis of cavernosal tissue during acute phase after cavernosal nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Hoon Song

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to identify which mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 or Jun amino-terminal kinase [JNK] was involved in cavernosal apoptosis during the acute phase after cavernosal nerve crush injury (CNCI in rats to ameliorate apoptosis of cavernosal tissue, such as smooth muscle (SM. A total of twenty 10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into two groups: sham surgery (S and CNCI (I. The I group approximated the clinical situation of men undergoing radical prostatectomy using two 60-second compressions of both CNs with a microsurgical vascular clamp. At 2-week postinjury, erectile response was assessed using electrostimulation. Penile tissues were harvested for immunohistochemistry analysis of alpha-SM actin (α-SMA, western blot analysis, and double immunofluorescence analysis of α-SMA and phosphorylated p38 or JNK, as well as double immunofluorescent of TUNEL and phosphorylated p38 or JNK. At 2-week postinjury, the I group had a significantly lower intracavernous pressure (ICP/mean arterial pressure (MAP and a lower area under the curve (AUC/MAP than the S group. The I group also exhibited decreased immunohistochemical staining of α-SMA, an increase in the number of SM cells positive for phosphorylated JNK, an increased number of apoptotic cells positive for phosphorylated JNK, and increased JNK phosphorylation compared with the S group. However, there was no significant difference in p38 phosphorylation expression or the number of SM cells positive for phosphorylated p38 between the two groups. In conclusion, our data suggest that JNK, not p38, is involved in cavernosal apoptosis during the acute phase after partial CN damage.

  14. Two opposite extremes of adiposity similarly reduce inflammatory response of antigen-induced acute joint inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, M.C.; Silveira, A.L.; Tavares, L.P.; Rodrigues, D.F.; Loo, F.A.J. van de; Sousa, L.P.; Teixeira, M.M.; Amaral, F.A.; Ferreira, A.V.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Acute inflammation is a normal response of tissue to an injury. During this process, inflammatory mediators are produced and metabolic alterations occur. Adipose tissue is metabolically activated, and upon food consumption, it disrupts the inflammatory response. However, little is known

  15. Phase response curves for models of earthquake fault dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franović, Igor; Kostić, Srdjan; Perc, Matjaž; Klinshov, Vladimir; Nekorkin, Vladimir; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    We systematically study effects of external perturbations on models describing earthquake fault dynamics. The latter are based on the framework of the Burridge-Knopoff spring-block system, including the cases of a simple mono-block fault, as well as the paradigmatic complex faults made up of two identical or distinct blocks. The blocks exhibit relaxation oscillations, which are representative for the stick-slip behavior typical for earthquake dynamics. Our analysis is carried out by determining the phase response curves of first and second order. For a mono-block fault, we consider the impact of a single and two successive pulse perturbations, further demonstrating how the profile of phase response curves depends on the fault parameters. For a homogeneous two-block fault, our focus is on the scenario where each of the blocks is influenced by a single pulse, whereas for heterogeneous faults, we analyze how the response of the system depends on whether the stimulus is applied to the block having a shorter or a longer oscillation period.

  16. Evaluation of the prevalence of stress and its phases in acute myocardial infarction in patients active in the labor market

    OpenAIRE

    Luciane Boreki Lucinda; Ana Claudia Merchan Giaxa Prosdócimo; Katherine Athayde Teixeira de Carvalho; Julio Cesar Francisco; Cristina Pellegrino Baena; Marcia Olandoski; Vivian Ferreira do Amaral; José Rocha Faria-Neto; Luiz César Guarita-Souza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acute myocardial infarction is a social health problem of epidemiological relevance, with high levels of morbidity and mortality. Stress is one of the modifiable risk factors that triggers acute myocardial infarction. Stress is a result of a set of physiological reactions, which when exaggerated in intensity or duration can lead to imbalances in one's organism, resulting in vulnerability to diseases. Objective: To identify the presence of stress and its phases in hospitalized an...

  17. Predictors of acute stress disorder in response to bank robbery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that robberies in the workplace, in particular those in the bank sector are traumatising events for many employees. However, research in the acute sequelae of bank robberies is limited. The present study explores the prevalence and predictors of acute stress disorder (ASD) in a questionnaire survey of bank employees following a bank robbery. Results show that 14.5% (n=22) of participants (N=152) suffered from probable ASD, which is similar to the ASD prevalence found in other interpersonal assault studies. In addition, a number of associations were found between ASD severity, gender, age, social support, previous trauma, and trauma severity. In the final hierarchical multiple regression model, which included 12 variables, 66% of the variance in ASD symptom level was accounted for by two peri-trauma variables (perceived helplessness and perceived life threat) and one post-trauma variable (perceived safety after the robbery). The present study yielded some promising results with regards to the influential role of peri-traumatic and post-traumatic variables in predicting ASD after a bank robbery-in particular perceived safety. Although there may be different paths to developing ASD and PTSD, a common core feature may be perceived safety. Furthermore, the results also supported the inclusion of perceived helplessness in the A2 criterion of the DSM-IV ASD diagnosis.

  18. [Short-term prognosis of patients admitted for probable acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation. Role of new myocardial damage markers and acute-phase reactants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodí, Vicent; Facila, Lorenzo; Sanchis, Juan; Llácer, Angel; Núñez, Julio; Mainar, Luis; Gómez-Aldaraví, Ricardo; Monmeneu, José V; Blasco, María L; Sanjuan, Rafael; Insa, Luis; Chorro, Francisco J

    2002-08-01

    The relative value of classic markers, myocardial damage variables, and levels of acute-phase reactants in establishing the pre-discharge prognosis of acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation was analyzed. We prospectively studied 385 consecutive patients admitted from our chest pain unit with a high-probability diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation. The clinical and electrocardiographic data, myocardial damage markers (troponin I, CK-Mb mass, myoglobin), and acute-phase reactants (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fibrinogen) were recorded. During admission, 15 deaths (3.9%) and 16 complicative infarctions (4.2%) occurred, for a total of 31 major events (death and/or infarction: 8.1%). Age (p = 0.03), insulin-dependent diabetes (p = 0.009), and C-reactive protein (p = 0.05) were independently related to death. Fibrinogen was related to infarction (p = 0.01); by fibrinogen quartiles: 1.4%; 1.4%; 2.9%, and 11.7% (p = 0.02). Age (p = 0.01), insulin-dependent diabetes (p = 0.02), and C-reactive protein (p = 0.04) were independent predictors of major events; by C-reactive protein quartiles: 1.4%; 5.5%; 5.4%, and 16.7% (p = 0.004). Troponin I was related to major events (p = 0.03), but it was not an independent predictor. Acute-phase reactants add independent information to clinical variables in the short-term risk stratification of patients with an acute coronary syndrome. The predictive power of troponins is lower than that of other variables.

  19. Lipoprotein(a), ferritin, and albumin in acute phase reaction predicts severity and mortality of acute ischemic stroke in North Indian Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Baidarbhi; Vishnoi, Gaurav; Goswami, Binita; Gowda, Srinivas H; Chowdhury, Debashish; Agarwal, Sarita

    2013-10-01

    Inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis and prognosis of stroke. We studied the behavior of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], ferritin, and albumin as acute phase reactants and their roles in the severity and mortality of stroke. We recruited 100 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and 120 controls. Blood samples were drawn on days 1 and 7 and at both 3 and 6 months. Stroke was classified using Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification. Stroke severity was assessed using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Prognosis at 6 months was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale, and mortality was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier analysis. Serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), Lp(a), ferritin, and albumin were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoturbidimetry, and chemiluminescence commercial kits, respectively. Levels of IL-6, Lp(a), and ferritin were consistently higher among cases than controls (P acute phase reactant while albumin acted as a negative acute phase reactant. There was no association between Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment subtype and elevated serum levels of Lp(a), albumin, and ferritin. Lp(a) and ferritin were high in patients with severe stroke. Albumin was negatively correlated with stroke severity. Serum levels of Lp(a) ≥ 77 mg/dL, albumin ≤ 3.5 g/dL, and ferritin ≥ 370 ng/dL is associated with a significantly increased risk of having a poorer outcome in stroke. Serum levels of Lp(a) >77 mg/dL and albumin 77 mg/dL and albumin <3.5 g/dL had increased mortality. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The porcine acute phase protein response to acute clinical and subclinical experimental infection with Streptococcus suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nanna Skall; Tegtmeier, C.; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2006-01-01

    .i.), until the pigs were killed and autopsied on day 14 p.i. Clinical signs (fever and lameness) were observed in four of the five inoculated pigs from day 2 p.i., and these pigs also had arthritic lesions at autopsy. CRP and SAA showed fast increases in serum concentrations, CRP being elevated from days 1...

  1. Donepezil, Anti-Alzheimer's Disease Drug, Prevents Cardiac Rupture during Acute Phase of Myocardial Infarction in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawa, Mikihiko; Kakinuma, Yoshihiko; Handa, Takemi; Yamasaki, Fumiyasu; Sato, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    Background We have previously demonstrated that the chronic intervention in the cholinergic system by donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, plays a beneficial role in suppressing long-term cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). In comparison with such a chronic effect, however, the acute effect of donepezil during an acute phase of MI remains unclear. Noticing recent findings of a cholinergic mechanism for anti-inflammatory actions, we tested the hypothesis that donepezil attenuates an acute inflammatory tissue injury following MI. Methods and Results In isolated and activated macrophages, donepezil significantly reduced intra- and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). In mice with MI, despite the comparable values of heart rate and blood pressure, the donepezil-treated group showed a significantly lower incidence of cardiac rupture than the untreated group during the acute phase of MI. Immunohistochemistry revealed that MMP-9 was localized at the infarct area where a large number of inflammatory cells including macrophages infiltrated, and the expression and the enzymatic activity of MMP-9 at the left ventricular infarct area was significantly reduced in the donepezil-treated group. Conclusion The present study suggests that donepezil inhibits the MMP-9-related acute inflammatory tissue injury in the infarcted myocardium, thereby reduces the risk of left ventricular free wall rupture during the acute phase of MI. PMID:21750701

  2. Donepezil, anti-Alzheimer's disease drug, prevents cardiac rupture during acute phase of myocardial infarction in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikihiko Arikawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that the chronic intervention in the cholinergic system by donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, plays a beneficial role in suppressing long-term cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI. In comparison with such a chronic effect, however, the acute effect of donepezil during an acute phase of MI remains unclear. Noticing recent findings of a cholinergic mechanism for anti-inflammatory actions, we tested the hypothesis that donepezil attenuates an acute inflammatory tissue injury following MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: In isolated and activated macrophages, donepezil significantly reduced intra- and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9. In mice with MI, despite the comparable values of heart rate and blood pressure, the donepezil-treated group showed a significantly lower incidence of cardiac rupture than the untreated group during the acute phase of MI. Immunohistochemistry revealed that MMP-9 was localized at the infarct area where a large number of inflammatory cells including macrophages infiltrated, and the expression and the enzymatic activity of MMP-9 at the left ventricular infarct area was significantly reduced in the donepezil-treated group. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that donepezil inhibits the MMP-9-related acute inflammatory tissue injury in the infarcted myocardium, thereby reduces the risk of left ventricular free wall rupture during the acute phase of MI.

  3. Multidetector row computed tomography of acute pancreatitis: Utility of single portal phase CT scan in short-term follow up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Yongwonn [Department of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, 4-12, Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-729 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee Sun, E-mail: heesun.park@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, 4-12, Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-729 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Jun; Jung, Sung Il; Jeon, Hae Jeong [Department of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, 4-12, Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-729 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the question of whether nonenhanced CT or contrast enhanced portal phase CT can replace multiphasic pancreas protocol CT in short term monitoring in patients with acute pancreatitis. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. From April 2006 to May 2010, a total of 52 patients having acute pancreatitis who underwent initial dual phase multidetector row CT (unenhanced, arterial, and portal phase) at admission and a short term (within 30 days) follow up dual phase CT (mean interval 10.3 days, range 3-28 days) were included. Two abdominal radiologists performed an independent review of three sets of follow up CT images (nonenhanced scan, single portal phase scan, and dual phase scan). Interpretation of each image set was done with at least 2-week interval. Radiologists evaluated severity of acute pancreatitis with regard to pancreatic inflammation, pancreatic necrosis, and extrapancreatic complication, based on the modified CT severity index. Scores of each image set were compared using a paired t-test and interobserver agreement was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient statistics. Results: Mean scores of sum of CT severity index on nonenhanced scan, portal phase scan, and dual phase scan were 5.7, 6.6, and 6.5 for radiologist 1, and 5.0, 5.6, and 5.8 for radiologist 2, respectively. In both radiologists, contrast enhanced scan (portal phase scan and dual phase scan) showed significantly higher severity score compared with that of unenhanced scan (P < 0.05), while portal phase and dual phase scan showed no significant difference each other. The trend was similar regarding pancreatic inflammation and extrapancreatic complications, in which contrast enhanced scans showed significantly higher score compared with those of unenhanced scan, while no significant difference was observed between portal phase scan and dual phase scan. In pancreatic necrosis

  4. A phase 1 clinical trial of vorinostat in combination with decitabine in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Mark; Gojo, Ivana; Goldberg, Stuart L; Bredeson, Christopher; Kujawski, Lisa A; Yang, Allen; Marks, Peter; Frankel, Paul; Sun, Xing; Tosolini, Alessandra; Eid, Joseph E; Lubiniecki, Gregory M; Issa, Jean-Pierre

    2014-10-01

    Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) may respond to treatment with epigenetic-modifying agents. Histone deacetylase inhibitors may synergize with hypomethylating agents. This phase 1 dose-escalation study was designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose, recommended phase 2 dose, safety and tolerability of vorinostat plus decitabine in patients with relapsed/refractory AML, newly-diagnosed AML, or intermediate- to high-grade MDS. Thirty-four patients received concurrent therapy with decitabine plus vorinostat and 37 received sequential therapy with decitabine followed by vorinostat. Twenty-nine patients had relapsed/refractory AML, 31 had untreated AML and 11 had MDS. The target maximum administered dose (MAD) of decitabine 20 mg/m(2) daily for 5 d plus vorinostat 400 mg/d for 14 d was achieved for concurrent and sequential schedules, with one dose-limiting toxicity (Grade 3 QTc prolongation) reported in the sequential arm. Common toxicities were haematological and gastrointestinal. Responses were observed more frequently at the MAD on the concurrent schedule compared with the sequential schedule in untreated AML (46% vs. 14%), relapsed/refractory AML (15% vs. 0%) and MDS (60% vs. 0%). Decitabine plus vorinostat given concurrently or sequentially appears to be safe and well-tolerated. Concurrent therapy shows promising clinical activity in AML or MDS, warranting further investigation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Virtual histology study of atherosclerotic plaque composition in patients with stable angina and acute phase of acute coronary syndromes without ST segment elevation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is the cause of most acute coronary syndromes (ACS. Postmortem studies which compared stable coronary lesions and atherosclerotic plaques in patients who have died because of ACS indicated high lipid-core content as one of the major determinants of plaque vulnerability. Objective. Our primary goal was to assess the potential relations of plaque composition determined by IVUS-VH (Intravascular Ultrasound - Virtual Histology in patients with stable angina and subjects in acute phase of ACS without ST segment elevation. Methods. The study comprised of 40 patients who underwent preintervention IVUS examination. Tissue maps were reconstructed from radio frequency data using IVUS-VH software. Results. We analyzed 53 lesions in 40 patients. Stable angina was diagnosed in 24 patients (29 lesions, while acute phase of ACS without ST elevation was diagnosed in 16 patients (24 lesions. In the patients in acute phase of ACS without ST segment elevation IVUS-VH examination showed a significantly larger area of the necrotic core at the site of minimal lumen area and a larger mean of the necrotic core volume in the entire lesion comparing to stable angina subjects (1.84±0.90 mm2 vs. 0.96±0.69 mm2; p<0.001 and 20.94±15.79 mm3 vs. 11.54±14.15 mm3; p<0.05 respectively. Conclusion. IVUS-VH detected that the necrotic core was significantly larger in atherosclerotic lesions in patients in acute phase of ACS without ST elevation comparing to the stable angina subjects and that it could be considered as a marker of plaque vulnerability.

  6. ACCURACY OF RAPID TEST OF STORED ACUTE PHASE SERUM FOR DIAGNOSE JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Subanada

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Japanese encephalitis (JE is common viral encephalitis with high sequele and mortality. With some limitations, there are several diagnostic tool to diagnose of JE. The objecive of this study was to know the accuracy of rapid test of stored acute phase serum for diagnose of JE. We conducted diagnostic test of stored acute phase serum of encephalitis patients with MAC ELISA of cerebrospinal fluid as a gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value NPV, positive likelihood ratio (PLR, negative likelihood ratio (NLR, and post-test probability were calculated. This study found the prevalence of JE was 42.1%, sensitivity 15.7 % (95% CI 9.2 to 22.2%, specificity 95.7% (95% CI 92.1 to 99.3%, PPV 72.7% (95% CI 64.8 to 80.6%, NPV 60.9% (95% CI 52.2 to 69.6%, PLR 3.7, NLR 0.9, and post-test probability was 0.73. We concluded that rapid test of acute phase stored serum was insensitive but specific to diagnose of JE. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  7. Dose-response relationships of acute exposure to sulfur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englehardt, F.R.; Holliday, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    Acute toxicity effects of sulphur dioxide are reviewed, and the derivation of a dose-lethality curve (presented as LC 50 vs. time) for human exposure to sulphur dioxide is attempted for periods ranging from ten seconds to two hours. As an aid to assessment of the hazards involved in operating heavy water manufacturing facilities, the fact that sulphur dioxide would be produced by the combustion of hydrogen sulphide was briefly considered in an appendix. It is suggested that sulphuric acid, a much more toxic substance than sulphur dioxide, may also be formed in such an event. It is concluded, therefore, that an overall hazard evaluation may have to address the contributory effects of sulphuric acid. (author)

  8. Responses of Hyalella azteca to acute and chronic microplastic exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Sarah Y; Bruce, Terri F; Bridges, William C; Klaine, Stephen J

    2015-11-01

    Limited information is available on the presence of microplastics in freshwater systems, and even less is known about the toxicological implications of the exposure of aquatic organisms to plastic particles. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of microplastic ingestion on the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca. Hyalella azteca was exposed to fluorescent polyethylene microplastic particles and polypropylene microplastic fibers in individual 250-mL chambers to determine 10-d mortality. In acute bioassays, polypropylene microplastic fibers were significantly more toxic than polyethylene microplastic particles; 10-d lethal concentration 50% values for polyethylene microplastic particles and polypropylene microplastic fibers were 4.64 × 10(4) microplastics/mL and 71.43 microplastics/mL, respectively. A 42-d chronic bioassay using polyethylene microplastic particles was conducted to quantify effects on reproduction, growth, and egestion. Chronic exposure to polyethylene microplastic particles significantly decreased growth and reproduction at the low and intermediate exposure concentrations. During acute exposures to polyethylene microplastic particles, the egestion times did not significantly differ from the egestion of normal food materials in the control; egestion times for polypropylene microplastic fibers were significantly slower than the egestion of food materials in the control. Amphipods exposed to polypropylene microplastic fibers also had significantly less growth. The greater toxicity of microplastic fibers than microplastic particles corresponded with longer residence times for the fibers in the gut. The difference in residence time might have affected the ability to process food, resulting in an energetic effect reflected in sublethal endpoints. © 2015 SETAC.

  9. A Fatal Case of Acute Steroid Responsive Meningitis Arteritis in a Dog

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    Kwiatkowska Miłosława*, Andrzej Pomianowski and Zbigniew Adamiak1

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nine years old female boxer was evaluated for progressive tetraparesis, cranial nerve deficits, lethargy and stupor. Serum biochemistry revealed elevated liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT 379 u/l, asparaginian aminotransferase (AST 55 u/l, alkaline phosphatase (ALP 685 u/l and creatinine kinase (CK 511 u/l, and elevated acute phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP 70 mg/ml. The cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed a mixed pleocytosis, protein content elevation (315 mg/dl and positive Pandy reaction. Immunoglobulin A (IgA in CSF was elevated (357 µg/ml, CRP was characteristic for a presentation period of disease (70 mg/ml. MRI examination revealed multifocal, diffused lesions in grey matter of frontal, occipital lobes. The white matter lesions were detected in cranial fossa region, thalamus, medulla oblongata and pons. The lesions were enhanced after contrast administration. Ventricular system was compressed; sediment was present in both of them. The biochemistry CSF results and MRI image were characteristic for steroid responsive meningitis arteritis (SRMA.

  10. A Multiscale Computational Model of the Response of Swine Epidermis After Acute Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaowen; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure from Solar Particle Events can lead to very high skin dose for astronauts on exploration missions outside the protection of the Earth s magnetic field [1]. Assessing the detrimental effects to human skin under such adverse conditions could be predicted by conducting territorial experiments on animal models. In this study we apply a computational approach to simulate the experimental data of the radiation response of swine epidermis, which is closely similar to human epidermis [2]. Incorporating experimentally measured histological and cell kinetic parameters into a multiscale tissue modeling framework, we obtain results of population kinetics and proliferation index comparable to unirradiated and acutely irradiated swine experiments [3]. It is noted the basal cell doubling time is 10 to 16 days in the intact population, but drops to 13.6 hr in the regenerating populations surviving irradiation. This complex 30-fold variation is proposed to be attributed to the shortening of the G1 phase duration. We investigate this radiation induced effect by considering at the sub-cellular level the expression and signaling of TGF-beta, as it is recognized as a key regulatory factor of tissue formation and wound healing [4]. This integrated model will allow us to test the validity of various basic biological rules at the cellular level and sub-cellular mechanisms by qualitatively comparing simulation results with published research, and should lead to a fuller understanding of the pathophysiological effects of ionizing radiation on the skin.

  11. Response inhibition and cognitive appraisal in clients with acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolghasemi, Abass; Bakhshian, Fereshteh; Narimani, Mohammad

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare response inhibition and cognitive appraisal in clients with acute stress disorder, clients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and normal individuals. This was a comparative study. The sample consisted of 40 clients with acute stress disorder, 40 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and 40 normal individuals from Mazandaran province selected through convenience sampling method. Data were collected using Composite International Diagnostic Interview, Stroop Color-Word Test, Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory, and the Impact of Event Scale. Results showed that individuals with acute stress disorder are less able to inhibit inappropriate responses and have more impaired cognitive appraisals compared to those with posttraumatic stress disorder. Moreover, results showed that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal explain 75% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and 38% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. The findings suggest that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal are two variables that influence the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder symptoms. Also, these results have important implications for pathology, prevention, and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder.

  12. Procalcitonin and other acute phase reactants in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil Civelek

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between procalcitonin and other acute phase reactants, and also analyze their relationship with clinical situation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD acute exacerbations.Materials and methods: The study was made with 122 acute COPD exacerbated patients, who were admitted to emergency service. Patients with below 0.25 ng/ml PCT value included Group 1, and the patients with PCT values ≥ 0.25 ng/ml Group 2. Serum procalcitonin levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP values and white blood cell (WBC counts were measured. Also, patients hospitalization time and mortality rates were recorded and compared with PCT.Results: Patients were divided in 3 groups according to their clinical diagnosis; Pneumonia (n=27, Mycoplasma-Chlamydia pneumonia (n=11 and the patients with only COPD exacerbation(n=84. Mean PCT values according to the groups were 9.47 ± 8.1 ng/ml, 0.41 ± 0.2 ng/ml, and 0.21 ± 0.05 ng/ml respectively. The relationship between PCT with CRP and white blood cell has been found between significiant (p=0.001, p=0.005 respectively, whereas the relationship between PCT and ESR was nonsignificant (p=0.55. Procalcitonin and CRP had a positive correlation with the hospitalization time (p=0.034, p=0.022 respectively. The mean ± standard error of PCT for the patients who died was 28.3 ± 27.5 ng/ml, and the difference between patients who died or were discharged was statistically significant (p= 0.012.Conclusion: PCT can be a useful indicator for morbidity and prognosis in COPD patients.

  13. Profile of Infections in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Acute Leukemia During the Induction Phase of Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, H.A.; Talaat, S.M.; El-Mahallawy, H.A.; Kaddah, A.M.; Ismael, H.T.

    2009-01-01

    Acute leukemia is the most common pediatric malignancy. Despite the significant progress in the treatment of infectious complications, infection-related morbidity and mortality continue to be of great importance. Prompt initiation of the appropriate empiric antibiotic treatment has improved infection outcome. The aim of the present study is to assess the type, frequency, and severity of infectious complications in a cohort of pediatric cancer patients treated at a single medical institution. We also aim to identify factors affecting bloodstream infections in newly diagnosed ALL and AML pediatric patients during the induction phase of treatment. Patients and Methods: This study was carried out at the Department of Pediatric Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, during the time period from January 1st to June 30th 2007. Inclusion criteria were pediatric age group (from 0-16 years), newly diagnosed acute leukemia, positive blood culture and documented site of infection. Data were analyzed using the SPSS package version 15. A p-value £0.05 was considered significant. Results: This is a retrospective study including 100 newly diagnosed cases of acute leukemia. Fifty-four patients had ALL, and 46 patients had AML. 348 infectious episodes were recorded. Blood stream infections (BSI) occurred once or twice in 32%, 3-4 episodes in 58%, and five or more episodes in 10% of the cases. Gram-positive cocci were the most frequently observed cause of BSI, accounting for 77.9% of the total isolates followed by Gram negative organisms seen in 18.9% and mixed infections in 8%. The majority of the episodes (n= 208, 58.4%) responded to first-line empirical antibiotic therapy. Conclusion: Clinical and laboratory risk factors could be identified and can help prediction of serious BSI.

  14. Acute phase reactants in Sudanese children with severe protein-energy malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Omer S M; Salih, Mustafa A M; Karrar, Zein A; Mohammed, Abdelrahim O; Helsing, Chrestover

    2011-01-01

    The pre-dietary rehabilitation levels of acute phase proteins (APP) namely, alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), orosomucoid (ORO), haptoglobin (HAP), fibrinogen (FIB) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the plasma of Sudanese children with severe protein energy malnutrition (PEM) were compared with those of normal controls, and with the levels after dietary rehabilitation. Eighty one children were included in the study; 49 with severe PEM (23 with marasmus, 17 with marasmic-kwashiorkor and 9 with kwashiorkor), 13 with tuberculosis (TB) and 19 healthy children as controls. The study showed a high incidence of infections, especially acute respiratory infection (ARI), diarrhoeal diseases and intestinal parasites in the malnourished children. The mean plasma level of albumin was significantly lower in the malnourished children compared to controls (P<0.001), with kwashiorkor children showing the lowest mean level. This hypoalbuminaemia was significantly associated with the presence of ARI and intestinal parasites. The mean plasma levels of the APP, except FIB, were significantly higher in malnourished children than in controls, with higher levels associated with ARI and the presence of fever. Malnourished children with TB had significantly higher mean levels of the APP (AAT, HAP, FIB, CRP) compared to those without TB. The mean levels of HAP and AAT were significantly lower in the presence of diarrhoea, suggesting their loss in the stool. The mean levels of the APP after two weeks dietary rehabilitation and antimicrobial treatment showed a significant drop in only two of the APP, namely CRP, ORO, while FIB showed a significant rise.

  15. Global aphasia as a predictor of mortality in the acute phase of a first stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F F Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To establish whether vascular aphasic syndromes can predict stroke outcomes. METHOD: Thirty-seven adults were evaluated for speech and language within 72 hours after a single first-ever ischemic brain lesion, in blind association to CT and/or MR. RESULTS: Speech or language disabilities were found in seven (87.5% of the eight deceased patients and twenty-six (89.7% of the twenty-nine survivors. Global aphasia was identified in eleven patients, all with left hemisphere lesions (nine mute; five deceased, consisting on a risk factor for death in the acute stroke phase (ρ=0.022. Age (z=1.65; ρ>0.09, thrombolysis (ρ=0.591, infarct size (ρ=0.076 and side (ρ=0.649 did not significantly influence survival. Absence of aphasia did not predict a better evolution, regardless of the affected hemisphere. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was similar for all patient groups. CONCLUSION: Global aphasia in acute stroke can adversely affect prognosis, translated into impairment of dominant perisylvian vascular territories, with mutism as an important semiological element.

  16. Changes in plasma homocyst(e)ine in the acute phase after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Virginia J; Sides, Elizabeth G; Newman, George C; Cohen, Stanley N; Howard, George; Malinow, M Rene; Toole, James F

    2002-02-01

    Elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine [H(e)] concentration has been associated with an increased risk of stroke. Although the literature suggests that H(e) increases from the acute to the convalescent phase after a stroke, it is not known whether H(e) changes within the acute period. A prospective, multicenter study was conducted to examine changes in H(e) during the 2 weeks after an incident stroke. Blood samples were collected at days 1, 3, 5, 7, and between 10 and 14 days after the stroke. Seventy-six participants (51 men) were enrolled from 9 sites from February 1997 through June 1998. Mean age was 65.6 years, and subjects had at least two H(e) measurements. The estimated mean H(e) level at baseline was 11.3+/-0.5 micromol/L, which increased consistently to a mean of 12.0+/-0.05, 12.4+/-0.5, 13.3+/-0.5, and 13.7+/-0.7 micromol/L at days 3, 5, 7, and 10 to 14, respectively. The magnitude of the change in H(e) was not affected by age, sex, smoking status, alcohol use, history of hypertension or diabetes, or Rankin Scale Score. ; These data suggest that the clinical interpretation of H(e) after stroke and the eligibility for clinical trials assessing treatment for elevated H(e) levels require an adjustment in time since stroke to properly interpret the observed H(e) levels.

  17. Use of escitalopram to prevent depression and cognitive impairments in the acute phase of stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Rustemovna Khasanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to comparatively analyze the rate of post-stroke depression and cognitive impairments in escitalopram (cipralex-treated and untreated (control patients. Emotional and affective cognitive symptoms, neurological deficit, and day-to-day activity were evaluated over time 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. The results of the study indicated that escitalopram used to prevent depression in the acute phase of stroke provided a good effect. This drug caused a prompter recovery of cognitive impairments and reduced the pace of development of neurodegenerative disorders underlying the post-stroke 2D (depression and dementia syndrome. The study group was recorded to have more favorable functional outcomes of stroke and patient mobility indicators associated with lower disability rates.

  18. Oxidative status and acute phase reactants in patients with environmental asbestos exposure and mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgi, Cengizhan; Taylan, Mahsuk; Sen, Hadice Selimoglu; Evliyaoğlu, Osman; Kaya, Halide; Abakay, Ozlem; Abakay, Abdurrahman; Tanrıkulu, Abdullah Cetin; Senyiğit, Abdurrahman

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate inflammatory indicators and oxidative status in patients with asbestos exposure with and without mesothelioma and to compare results with data from healthy subjects. Eighty people with exposure to environmental asbestos and without any disease, 46 mesothelioma patients, and a control group of 50 people without exposure to environmental asbestos were enrolled in this prospective study. Serum total oxidant level (TOL), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative stress index (OSI), CRP, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, α-1 antitrypsin, ferritin, and copper levels were measured. Mesothelioma group exhibited higher TOL, OSI, α1-antitrypsin, ferritin and copper levels as compared to the other groups (P acute phase reactants and oxidative stress markers (TOL and OSI) in the mesothelioma group can be used as predictive markers for the development of asbestos-related malignancy.

  19. Chediak-Higashi syndrome in accelerated phase masquerading as severe acute malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karande, Sunil; Agarwal, Shruti; Gandhi, Bhaumik; Muranjan, Mamta

    2014-03-31

    A toddler presented with poor appetite, weight loss and frequent respiratory tract infections for the past 6 months, fever and increasing paleness for the past 2 months and bilateral pedal oedema for the past 1 month. Anthropometry confirmed severe acute malnutrition. Clinical and laboratory evaluation revealed that the child also had hypopigmented hair and skin, splenohepatomegaly, pancytopenia and hypoalbuminaemia. The coexistence of hypopigmentation and suspected low immunity prompted us to investigate the child's hair, peripheral blood smear and bone marrow. Hair under light microscopy showed evenly distributed, large melanin granules, suggestive of Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS). Peripheral blood smear and bone marrow aspirate examinations revealed abnormal large intracytoplasmic granules, which was diagnostic of CHS. The child's investigations revealed coexistent hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, confirming the diagnosis of CHS in 'accelerated phase', which is fatal if not treated. The parents prematurely took the child home against medical advice, before definitive therapy could be instituted.

  20. The effect of selenium supplementation on acute phase reactants and thyroid function tests in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani, Hamid Reza; Rahimi, Mehrali; Nikseresht, Kanan

    2015-03-01

    Selenium deficiency is a common problem in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This micronutrient has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Selenium is also found in high concentrations in the thyroid gland. To determine the effect of selenium supplementation on thyroid function tests and acute phase reactants in hemodialysis patients. In this double-blinded randomized clinical in 3 months, 64 hemodialysis patients with selenium deficiency were divided into experimental (received selenium supplementation; 32 cases) or control group (received placebo; 32 cases). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), ferritin, quantitative C-reactive protein (CRP) and thyroid function tests (TFTs) including thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), T3 resin uptake (T3RU), and free T4 were measured before and after the intervention and compared between experimental and control groups. At baseline, no significant difference was found between experimental and control groups regarding CRP, ESR and ferritin serum levels. Likewise, after intervention, no significant difference was found between experimental and control groups for CRP (14.77 ± 17.93 vs. 18.29 ± 21.56 mg/L), ESR (32.90 ± 32.62 vs. 33.91 ± 31.15 mm/h) and ferritin (528.6 ± 423.07 vs. 519.52 ± 345.59 ng/mL). At baseline, no significant difference was found between experimental and control groups regarding TFTs. Likewise, after intervention, no significant difference was found between experimental and control groups for TSH (3.7 ± 2.22 vs. 2.84 ± 1.88 µU/mL), free T4 (7.19 ± 1.98 vs. 7.02 ± 1.87 µg/dL) and T3RU (30.04 ± 2.28% vs. 29.2 ± 1.98%). Oral selenium supplementation for three months did not have any significant effect on thyroid function tests or acute phase reactants.

  1. High plasma HDL-C attenuates stress hyperglycemia during acute phase of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luiz Sergio F; Cintra, Riobaldo M R; Moura, Filipe A; Martins, Naiara V G; Quinaglia E Silva, Jose C; Coelho, Otavio R; Sposito, Andrei C

    2012-01-01

    During myocardial infarction (MI), a transient decrease of both insulin sensitivity and secretion triggers stress hyperglycemia, which is followed by a substantial increase in mortality. Recent findings in cellular models indicate that HDL may act on glucose homeostasis by improving insulin sensitivity and secretion. In this study, we explored this potential effect in patients during the acute phase of MI. Plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide were measured at admission in the first 24h and on the fifth day after MI with ST-segment elevation in 183 consecutive non-diabetic patients. Patients were divided into HDL-C quartiles for the analyses (Q1: 47mg/dL). The Homeostasis Model Assessment version 2 was used to assess insulin sensitivity (HOMA2S) and beta-cell function (HOMA2B). On admission, no difference was found between the quartiles in glucose (p=0.6), insulin (p=0.6) or C-peptide (p=0.5) levels, HOMA2S (p=0.9) or HOMA2B (p=1.0). On the fifth day there was a reduction in glucose levels whose intensity was directly proportional to the HDL-C quartile (p<0.001). At the same time, there was a reduction in plasma insulin (p<0.001) and C-peptides (p<0.001) whose magnitude was inversely proportional to the HDL-C quartile. Consistently, the increase of HOMA2S (p<0.001) and HOMA2B (p=0.01) were also positively associated with HDL-C levels. Furthermore, plasma HDL-C levels were inversely and independently associated with blood glucose change during the acute phase. This study demonstrates the association between low plasma HDL-C levels and increased duration of stress hyperglycemia during MI and suggests in humans the interaction between HDL and insulin secretion and sensitivity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute phase protein changes in calves during an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by bovine respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orro, Toomas; Pohjanvirta, Tarja; Rikula, Ulla; Huovilainen, Anita; Alasuutari, Sakari; Sihvonen, Liisa; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Soveri, Timo

    2011-01-01

    Bovine acute phase proteins (APPs), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) were evaluated as inflammatory markers during an outbreak of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) caused by bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Calves (n = 10) presented mild to moderate signs of respiratory disease. Secondary bacterial infections, Pasteurella multocida and Mycoplasma dispar as major species, were detected in tracheobronchial lavage samples. Concentrations of SAA and LBP increased at week 1 had the highest values at week 3 and decreased at week 4 of outbreak. Some calves had high Hp concentrations at week 3, but AGP concentrations did not rise during respiratory disease. Higher SAA, LBP and Hp concentrations at a later stage of BRD (week 3) were associated with the low BRSV-specific IgG(1) production, suggesting that these calves had enhanced inflammatory response to the secondary bacterial infection. In conclusion, APPs (especially SAA and LBP) are sensitive markers of respiratory infection, and they may be useful to explore host response to the respiratory infections in clinical research. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Phase 2 study of the JAK kinase inhibitor ruxolitinib in patients with refractory leukemias, including postmyeloproliferative neoplasm acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghtedar, Alireza; Verstovsek, Srdan; Estrov, Zeev; Burger, Jan; Cortes, Jorge; Bivins, Carol; Faderl, Stefan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Borthakur, Gautam; George, Solly; Scherle, Peggy A; Newton, Robert C; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Ravandi, Farhad

    2012-05-17

    We conducted a phase 2 study of ruxolitinib in patients with relapsed/refractory leukemias. Patients with acceptable performance status (0-2), adequate organ function, and no active infection, received ruxolitinib 25 mg orally twice a day for 4 weeks (1 cycle). Response was assessed after every 2 cycles of treatment, and patients who completed 2 cycles were allowed to continue treatment until disease progression. Dose escalation to 50 mg twice daily was permitted in patients demonstrating a benefit. Thirty-eight patients, with a median age of 69 years (range, 45-88), were treated. The median number of prior therapies was 2 (range, 1-6). Twelve patients had JAK2V617F mutation. Patients received a median of 2 cycles of therapy (range, 1-22). Three of 18 patients with postmyeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) showed a significant response; 2 achieved complete remission (CR) and one achieved a CR with insufficient recovery of blood counts (CRi). The responding patients with palpable spleens also had significant reductions in spleen size. Overall, ruxolitinib was very well tolerated with only 4 patients having grade 3 or higher toxicity. Ruxolitinib has modest antileukemic activity as a single agent, particularly in patients with post-MPN AML. The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00674479.

  4. The miRNA Plasma Signature in Response to Acute Aerobic Exercise and Endurance Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Rinnov, Anders

    2014-01-01

    MiRNAs are potent intracellular posttranscriptional regulators and are also selectively secreted into the circulation in a cell-specific fashion. Global changes in miRNA expression in skeletal muscle in response to endurance exercise training have been reported. Therefore, our aim was to establish...... the miRNA signature in human plasma in response to acute exercise and chronic endurance training by utilizing a novel methodological approach. RNA was isolated from human plasma collected from young healthy men before and after an acute endurance exercise bout and following 12 weeks of endurance training...

  5. Polyporus and Bupleuri radix effectively alter peripheral circadian clock phase acutely in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Hiroaki; Sukigara, Haruna; Tahara, Yu; Saito, Keisuke; Yamazaki, Mayu; Shiraishi, Takuya; Kikuchi, Yosuke; Haraguchi, Atsushi; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2017-07-01

    In mammals, daily physiological events are precisely regulated by an internal circadian clock system. An important function of this system is to readjust the phase of the clock daily. In Japan, traditional herb medicines, so-called crude drugs (Shoyaku), are widely used for many diseases, and some are reported to affect circadian clock impairment, suggesting that some of them might have an ability to modify clock gene expression rhythms. Therefore, from selected 40 crude drugs, finding candidates that control the circadian clock phases was the first purpose of this study. As there are several crude drugs used for liver- and/or kidney-related diseases, the second aim of the present study was to find some crude drugs affecting liver/kidney circadian clock in vivo. To assess phase changes in the daily circadian rhythm, bioluminescence from the core clock gene product Period 2 was continuously monitored in mouse embryonic fibroblasts in vitro and in some peripheral tissues (kidney, liver, and submandibular gland) of PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE knock-in mice in vivo. In our screening, Polyporus and Bupleuri radix were found to be good candidates to effectively manipulate the peripheral circadian clock phase acutely, with stimulation time-of-day dependency in vitro as well as in vivo. Interestingly, Polyporus and Bupleuri radix are traditional herb medicines use for treating edema and promoting diuresis, and for chronic hepatitis, respectively. These crude drugs may be therefore good modulators of the circadian peripheral clocks including liver and kidney, and circadian clock genes become new molecular targets for these crude drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute low-level alcohol consumption reduces phase locking of event-related oscillations in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Leslie R; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2017-07-14

    Event-related oscillations (EROs) are rhythmic changes that are evoked by a sensory and/or cognitive stimulus that can influence the dynamics of the EEG. EROs are defined by the decomposition of the EEG signal into magnitude (energy) and phase information and can be elicited in both humans and animals. EROs have been linked to several relevant genes associated with ethanol dependence phenotypes in humans and are altered in selectively bred alcohol-preferring rats. However, pharmacological studies are only beginning to emerge investigating the impact low intoxicating doses of ethanol can have on event-related neural oscillations. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of low levels of voluntary consumption of ethanol, in rats, on phase locking of EROs in order to give further insight into the acute intoxicating effects of ethanol on the brain. To this end, we allow rats to self-administer unsweetened 20% ethanol over 15 intermittent sessions. This method results in a stable low-dose consumption of ethanol. Using an auditory event-related potential "oddball" paradigm, we investigated the effects of alcohol on the phase variability of EROs from electrodes implanted into the frontal cortex, dorsal hippocampus, and amygdala. We found that intermittent ethanol self-administration was sufficient to produce a significant reduction in overall intraregional synchrony across all targeted regions. These data suggest that phase locking of EROs within brain regions known to be impacted by alcohol may represent a sensitive biomarker of low levels of alcohol intoxication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Acute response of the thyroid to external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holten, I.

    1983-01-01

    The study showed that the thyroid gland to a measurable degree is acutely influenced by external radiation. Animal experimental studies suggest that the functional reduction mainly is determined by cell loss in mitosis. The transitory fall in RAIU demonstrated in the present study is hardly explainable by cell death or changes in the TSH concentration alone. Part of the explanation could by vascular changes, which may reduce the iodine uptake, but a direct influence on the enzyme systems of the cells may play a role, too. The fall in TSH concentration in the patients irradiated to the neck apparently is not explainable by cell destruction alone either, and the fine-needle aspirates revealed no signs of any essential cell degeneration or destruction. Thus, it must be concluded that the cause of the early fall in TSH concentration is still unexplained. The changes during and immediately after radiotherpy in the thyroid hormone levels suggested a - possibly transient - damage to the thyroid. However, the follow-up study demonstrated that the thyroid function continued its slow decrease. The study tells little about the genesis of the functional changes. In all essentials, the findings are compatible with cell loss due to mitotic death being the main cause of the functional reduction. The fall in the radioiodine uptake and the transient dises in the TSH concentration can hardly be explained by cell loss alone, and the rise in the TSH concentration during the first four months of the study period, too, suggested the possibility of contributory mechanisms. (author)

  8. Temporal thrombospondin-1 mRNA response in skeletal muscle exposed to acute and chronic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfert, I Mark; Breen, Ellen C; Gavin, Timothy P; Wagner, Peter D

    2006-12-01

    Thrombospondin-l (TSP-1) is believed to be an endogenous angiogenic inhibitor. In this study, we report that a single 1 h bout of treadmill running increases TSP-1 mRNA 3-4-fold (p response of TSP-1 mRNA to exercise was ablated after 3 days. Following long-term training (8 weeks, 1 h/day, 5 d/wk), in either normoxia or chronic hypoxia, the TSP-1 mRNA response to an acute bout of exercise was restored and increased 3-4-fold (p response to a single acute exercise bout, its temporal response to repetitive exercise bouts, and the putative role of TSP-1 in the angiogenic process, we speculate that TSP-1 may play a role in regulating the onset of skeletal muscle angiogenesis in response to exercise.

  9. Flattening postprandial blood glucose responses with guar gum: acute effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIvor, M E; Cummings, C C; Leo, T A; Mendeloff, A I

    1985-01-01

    It has been proposed that high-carbohydrate, high-fiber (HCF) diets might serve as useful therapeutic modality in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). One problem in evaluating clinical trials of this therapy is that, by their very nature, the trials cannot be double blinded. We have developed HCF and placebo granola-type bars using complex absorbable carbohydrate and guar gum fiber to circumvent this methodologic problem. The HCF bars, when consumed with an ad lib. diet, assure an HCF intake without imposing other dietary restrictions. To test the short-term efficacy of the bars, 9 normal adult volunteers, 2 women with impaired glucose tolerance, and 20 patients with NIDDM consumed the bars alone or with meals. Blood glucose responses when HCF bars were consumed alone were blunted when compared with the placebo response (P less than 0.0005 to P less than 0.002), with the most marked suppression occurring in the early postprandial period. In contrast, when the bars were consumed along with breakfast, HCF and placebo responses were virtually identical in the early postprandial period, but showed a progressively greater difference from 90 to 240 min (P less than 0.02 to P less than 0.0005). When consumed with lunch as well as breakfast, the HCF bars caused flattening of blood glucose responses during the late postprandial period after breakfast and maintained flattened responses during the early and late postprandial periods after lunch (P less than 0.05 to P less than 0.005). It is concluded that these HCF bars can be used to blunt postprandial blood glucose responses, in subjects with either normal or abnormal carbohydrate metabolism.

  10. Molecular Diagnosis of Chagas Disease in Colombia: Parasitic Loads and Discrete Typing Units in Patients from Acute and Chronic Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Carolina; Cucunubá, Zulma; Flórez, Carolina; Olivera, Mario; Valencia, Carlos; Zambrano, Pilar; León, Cielo; Ramírez, Juan David

    2016-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of Chagas disease is complex due to the dynamics of parasitemia in the clinical phases of the disease. The molecular tests have been considered promissory because they detect the parasite in all clinical phases. Trypanosoma cruzi presents significant genetic variability and is classified into six Discrete Typing Units TcI-TcVI (DTUs) with the emergence of foreseen genotypes within TcI as TcIDom and TcI Sylvatic. The objective of this study was to determine the operating characteristics of molecular tests (conventional and Real Time PCR) for the detection of T. cruzi DNA, parasitic loads and DTUs in a large cohort of Colombian patients from acute and chronic phases. Methodology/Principal Findings Samples were obtained from 708 patients in all clinical phases. Standard diagnosis (direct and serological tests) and molecular tests (conventional PCR and quantitative PCR) targeting the nuclear satellite DNA region. The genotyping was performed by PCR using the intergenic region of the mini-exon gene, the 24Sa, 18S and A10 regions. The operating capabilities showed that performance of qPCR was higher compared to cPCR. Likewise, the performance of qPCR was significantly higher in acute phase compared with chronic phase. The median parasitic loads detected were 4.69 and 1.33 parasite equivalents/mL for acute and chronic phases. The main DTU identified was TcI (74.2%). TcIDom genotype was significantly more frequent in chronic phase compared to acute phase (82.1% vs 16.6%). The median parasitic load for TcIDom was significantly higher compared with TcI Sylvatic in chronic phase (2.58 vs.0.75 parasite equivalents/ml). Conclusions/Significance The molecular tests are a precise tool to complement the standard diagnosis of Chagas disease, specifically in acute phase showing high discriminative power. However, it is necessary to improve the sensitivity of molecular tests in chronic phase. The frequency and parasitemia of TcIDom genotype in chronic

  11. Acute-phase predictors of 6-month functional outcome in Italian stroke patients eligible for In-Hospital Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Marco; Fugazzaro, Stefania; Agosti, Maurizio; Sola, Carlotta; Di Carlo, Antonio; Cecconi, Lorenzo; Ferro, Salvatore

    2018-01-23

    to assess early post-stroke prognostic factors in patients admitted for post-acute phase rehabilitation. a one-year multicenter prospective project was conducted in four Italian regions on 352 patients who were hospitalized after a first stroke and were eligible for post-acute rehabilitation. Clinical data were collected in the Stroke or Acute Care Units (acute phase), then in Rehabilitation Units (post-acute phase) and, subsequently, after a 6-month post-stroke period (follow-up). Clinical outcome measures were represented using the Barthel Index (BI) and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the most important prognostic index. mRS score, minor neurologic impairment and early out-of-bed mobilization (within 2 days after the stroke) proved to be important factors related to a better recovery according to BI (power of prediction = 37%). Similarly, age, pre-morbid mRS score and early out-of-bed mobilization were seen to be significant factors in achieving better overall participation and activity according to the mRS (power of prediction = 48%). BI at admission and certain comorbidities were also significant prognostic factors correlated with a better outcome. according to the BI and mRS, early mobilization is an early predictor of favorable outcome.

  12. Rapid and deep control of inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis with infliximab and its correlation with acute-phase reactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scali, J J; Visentini, S; Salomón, J; Sevilla, D; Ju, Y C; Morales, E; Ugarte, L; Tachdjian, A; Pacheco, G; Veiga, S

    2007-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease with predominant joint involvement and possible systemic compromise, which leads to a handicapped status and poor quality of life. An optimal approach to treat RA requires early and intensive intervention with close monitoring of treatment response. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockers are recommended in cases of active RA after the unsuccessful use of effective disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs); even adding them to treatment or replacing these drugs. Anti-TNF therapies have been demonstrated to reduce significant joint damage and to relieve symptoms during a prolonged time (see Scott and Kingsley, 2006). The efficacy of infliximab in an open-label trial is summarized with respect to speed of onset of action, durability of response, and its correlation between clinical and laboratory parameters. Safety for long-term treatment is also summarized. We studied 105 RA patients with more than 3 years' history of disease during 24 months on i.v. infliximab (75 completed study). We evaluated ACR responses at base line, and at 1, 6, 12, 16, 52, 77, and 104 weeks. Morning stiffness, swollen and tender joints, HAQ, SF-36% (PCS/MCS), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), erythrosedimentation rate (ESR), transaminases, rheumatoid factor (RF) levels, hemogram, and adverse events profile were all assessed. The treatment offered rapid and sustained clinical improvements as revealed by ACR responses and marked changes in the parameters previously described. Important changes were made in functional status and acute-phase reactants. Finally, infliximab was considered well tolerated and did not affect the safety profile of this trial.

  13. Mechanism of cigarette smoke condensate-induced acute inflammatory response in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohapatra Shyam S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To demonstrate the involvement of tobacco smoking in the pathophysiology of lung disease, the responses of pulmonary epithelial cells to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC — the particulate fraction of tobacco smoke — were examined. Methods The human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 and normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEs were exposed to 0.4 μg/ml CSC, a concentration that resulted in >90% cell survival and Results NHBEs exposed to CSC showed increased expression of the inflammatory mediators sICAM-1, IL-1β, IL-8 and GM-CSF, as determined by RT-PCR. CSC-induced IL-1β expression was reduced by PD98059, a blocker of mitogen-actived protein kinase (MAPK kinase (MEK, and by PDTC, a NFκB inhibitor. Analysis of intracellular signaling pathways, using antibodies specific for phosphorylated MAPKs (extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK]-1/2, demonstrated an increased level of phosphorylated ERK1/2 with increasing CSC concentration. Nuclear localization of phosphorylated ERK1/2 was seen within 30 min of CSC exposure and was inhibited by PD98059. Increased phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IκB was also seen after CSC exposure. A549 cells transfected with a luciferase reporter plasmid containing a NFκB-inducible promoter sequence and exposed to CSC (0.4 μg/ml or TNF-α (50 ng/ml had an increased reporter activity of approximately 2-fold for CSC and 3.5-fold for TNF-α relative to untreated controls. Conclusion The acute phase response of NHBEs to cigarette smoke involves activation of both MAPK and NFκB.

  14. High-response piezoelectricity modeled quantitatively near a phase boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newns, Dennis M.; Kuroda, Marcelo A.; Cipcigan, Flaviu S.; Crain, Jason; Martyna, Glenn J.

    2017-01-01

    Interconversion of mechanical and electrical energy via the piezoelectric effect is fundamental to a wide range of technologies. The discovery in the 1990s of giant piezoelectric responses in certain materials has therefore opened new application spaces, but the origin of these properties remains a challenge to our understanding. A key role is played by the presence of a structural instability in these materials at compositions near the "morphotropic phase boundary" (MPB) where the crystal structure changes abruptly and the electromechanical responses are maximal. Here we formulate a simple, unified theoretical description which accounts for extreme piezoelectric response, its observation at compositions near the MPB, accompanied by ultrahigh dielectric constant and mechanical compliances with rather large anisotropies. The resulting model, based upon a Landau free energy expression, is capable of treating the important domain engineered materials and is found to be predictive while maintaining simplicity. It therefore offers a general and powerful means of accounting for the full set of signature characteristics in these functional materials including volume conserving sum rules and strong substrate clamping effects.

  15. Modification of Acute Radiation Response in Different Demographic Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-25

    humans is taken into consideration together with the available experimental data in animals to provide quantitative estimates of dose modification...among experimental animals . Physical aspects of irradiation can impact the response to radiation as well. Furthermore, the quality of radiation...associated with radiation exposure, has been studied extensively in experimental animal studies and human populations exposed to radiation. From

  16. 4 acute nicotine induced pressor response is in part due

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. Arterial baro-reception is regarded as one of the most powerful rapidly acting homeostatic mechanism regulating blood pressure. Investigation had suggested that nicotine may interact with aortic baro-receptors to produce its sustained presser response, an effect that had received little attention. Anaesthetized ...

  17. Factors modulating the inflammatory response in acute gouty arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleophas, M.C.P.; Crisan, T.O.; Joosten, L.A.B.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gout is a common debilitating form of arthritis and despite our extensive knowledge on the pathogenesis its prevalence is still rising quickly. In the current review, we provide a concise overview of recent discoveries in factors tuning the inflammatory response to soluble uric

  18. The value of the levels of acute phase reactants for the prediction of familial Mediterranean fever associated amyloidosis: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçinkaya, F; Cakar, N; Acar, B; Tutar, E; Güriz, H; Elhan, A H; Oztürk, S; Kansu, A; Ince, E; Atalay, S; Girgin, N; Doğru, U; Aysev, D; Ekim, M

    2007-04-01

    In order to determine the role of levels of acute phase proteins (APPs) for the development of amyloidosis in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) patients, the levels of serum amyloid A (SAA), C reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were measured in paired sera of 36 FMF patients during and in between acute attacks, 39 of their healthy parents (obligate heterozgotes), and 15 patients with FMF associated amyloidosis. To compare the levels of APPs, 39 patients with chronic infections or inflammatory diseases who may develop secondary amyloidosis, 20 patients with acute infections who are known to have elevated acute phase response but will never develop amyloidosis and 19 healthy controls were included. The median levels of all APPs are increased in the patients with FMF during attacks and a significant decrease was observed after the attack was over. The level of SAA was above reference range in all FMF patients during the attack free period and the level of at least one other APP was also above normal in 64% of the patients. Both CRP and SAA levels were found to be higher in obligate heterozygotes compared to controls. The levels of SAA in patients with FMF during the attack-free period, obligate heterozygotes and patients with FMF-amyloidosis were found to be similar. The levels in each group were found to be higher than SAA levels found in healthy controls yet lower than the levels measured in the patients with acute infections and patients with chronic inflammation or chronic infections. In conclusion, our results show that SAA level reflects subclinical inflammation with high sensitivity but its value for the prediction of amyloid formation process seems to be low.

  19. Episodes of Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with the acute phase of HIV-1 infection and with recurrence of viremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Gleusa de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a severe case of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS characterized by flaccid areflexive tetraplegia and signs of autonomic instability related to acute HIV-1 infection, and the occurrence of relapse episodes coinciding with the detection of HIV-1 RNA in blood during the phase of irregular treatment with antiretroviral agents. The patient has been asymptomatic for 3 years and has an HIV-1 load below the limit of detection. The recurrence of GBS in this case may be related to alterations of the immunologic response caused by disequilibrium in the host-HIV relationship due to the increase in HIV-1 viremia.

  20. Relationship of Acute Phase Reactants and Fat Accumulation during Treatment for Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Alejandro; Azen, Colleen; Jones, Brenda; Louie, Stan; Sattler, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Background. Tuberculosis causes inflammation and muscle wasting. We investigated how attenuation of inflammation relates to repletion of body composition during treatment in an underserved population. Design. Twenty-four patients (23 to 79 years old) with pulmonary tuberculosis and inflammation (pretreatment albumin = 2.96 ± 0.13 g/dL, C-reactive protein [CRP] = 6.71 ± 1.34 μg/dL, and beta-2-microglobulin = 1.68 ± 0.10 μg/L) were evaluated and had BIA over 24 weeks. Results. Weight increased by 3.02 ± 0.81 kg (5.5%; P = 0.007) at week 4 and by 8.59 ± 0.97 kg (15.6%; P phase angle did not increase until study week 8. Albumin rose to 3.65 ± 0.14 g/dL by week 4 (P acute phase reactants returned towards normal. The predominant accrual of fat mass probably reflects ongoing, low levels of inflammation.

  1. [Effects of balneotherapy on the reactants of acute inflammation phase in ankylosing spondylitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects sacroiliac joints, spinal column and peripheral joints. Beside medication therapy, physical and balneotherapy play an important role in its complex treatment. The aim of the research was to establish serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (alpha 1-AGP), ceruloplasmine (CP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (SE) before and after the balneotherapy in ankylosing spondylitis. The research included 50 AS patients according to the revised New York criteria, of mean age 43 years, who were treated for 14 days on the average at the Clinic for Rheumatology of the Institute "Niska Banja". All the patients received medications and balneotherapy (radioactive oligomineral baths, peloid, massage, kinesitherapy); the serum concentrations of CRP, al-AGP, CP and SE were measured before and after balneotherapy. Serum proteins were determined using original Nor Partigen plates Boehringer. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was measured by Westergreen method. Balneotherapy was applied individually, intensively or mildly, depending on the AS stage and activity phase. After dosed balneotherapy, a significant decrease in the concentrations of CP (p acute phase reactants is important in the evaluation of dosed balneotherapy efficiency in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis.

  2. Elevated CETP activity during acute phase of myocardial infarction is independently associated with endothelial dysfunction and adverse clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luiz Sergio F; Virginio, Vitor W M; Panzoldo, Natalia B; Figueiredo, Valeria N; Santos, Simone N; Modolo, Rodrigo G P; Andrade, Joalbo M; Quinaglia E Silva, Jose C; Nadruz-Junior, Wilson; de Faria, Eliana C; Sposito, Andrei C

    2014-12-01

    Recent data suggests that cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity may interact with acute stress conditions via inflammatory-oxidative response and thrombogenesis. We investigated this assumption in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Consecutive patients with STEMI (n = 116) were enrolled <24-h of symptoms onset and were followed for 180 days. Plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-2 (IL-2), tumor necrosis factor (TNFα), 8-isoprostane, nitric oxide (NOx) and CETP activity were measured at enrollment (D1) and at fifth day (D5). Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was assessed by ultrasound and coronary thrombus burden (CTB) was evaluated by angiography. Neither baseline nor the change of CETP activity from D1 to D5 was associated with CRP, IL-2, TNFα, 8-isoprostane levels or CTB. The rise in NOx from D1 to D5 was inferior [3.5(-1; 10) vs. 5.5(-1; 12); p < 0.001] and FMD was lower [5.9(5.5) vs. 9.6(6.6); p = 0.047] in patients with baseline CETP activity above the median value than in their counterparts. Oxidized HDL was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in isolated HDL particles and increased from D1 to D5, and remaining elevated at D30. The change in TBARS content in HDL was associated with CETP activity (r = 0.72; p = 0.014) and FMD (r = -0.61; p = 0.046). High CETP activity at admission was associated with the incidence of sudden death and recurrent MI at 30 days (OR 12.8; 95% CI 1.25-132; p = 0.032) and 180 days (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.03-10.7; p = 0.044). An enhanced CETP activity during acute phase of STEMI is independently associated with endothelial dysfunction and adverse clinical outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Microglial depletion alters the brain neuroimmune response to acute binge ethanol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, T Jordan; Crews, Fulton T

    2017-04-20

    Recent studies have implicated microglia-the resident immune cells of the brain-in the pathophysiology of alcoholism. Indeed, post-mortem alcoholic brains show increased microglial markers and increased immune gene expression; however, the effects of ethanol on microglial functioning and how this impacts the brain remain unclear. In this present study, we investigate the effects of acute binge ethanol on microglia and how microglial depletion changes the brain neuroimmune response to acute binge ethanol withdrawal. C57BL/6J mice were treated intragastrically with acute binge ethanol for time course and dose-response studies. Cultured mouse BV2 microglia-like cells were treated with ethanol in vitro for time course studies. Mice were also administered the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) inhibitor PLX5622 to deplete microglia from the brain. These mice were subsequently treated with acute binge ethanol and sacrificed during withdrawal. Brain and BV2 mRNA were isolated and assessed using RT-PCR to examine expression of microglial and neuroimmune genes. Acute binge ethanol biphasically changed microglial (e.g., Iba1, CD68) gene expression, with initial decreases during intoxication and subsequent increases during withdrawal. Acute ethanol withdrawal dose dependently increased neuroimmune gene (e.g., TNFα, Ccl2, IL-1ra, IL-4) expression beginning at high doses. BV2 cells showed biphasic changes in pro-inflammatory (e.g., TNFα, Ccl2) gene expression following ethanol treatment in vitro. Administration of PLX5622 depleted microglia from the brains of mice. Although some neuroimmune genes were reduced by microglial depletion, many others were unchanged. Microglial depletion blunted pro-inflammatory (e.g., TNFα, Ccl2) gene expression and enhanced anti-inflammatory (e.g., IL-1ra, IL-4) gene expression during acute binge ethanol withdrawal. These studies find acute binge ethanol withdrawal increases microglial and neuroimmune gene expression. Ethanol exposure

  4. Diagnostic and predictive value of acute-phase reactants in adult undifferentiated peripheral inflammatory arthritis: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vercoutere, Ward; Thevissen, Kristof; Bombardier, Claire; Landewé, Robert B. M.

    2011-01-01

    To review the available literature on the diagnostic and predictive value of acute-phase reactants in adult undifferentiated peripheral inflammatory arthritis (UPIA) as an evidence base for generating multinational clinical practice recommendations in the 3e Initiative in Rheumatology. A systematic

  5. Serum protein capillary electrophoresis and measurement of acute phase proteins in a captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depauw, Sarah; Delanghe, Joris; Whitehouse-Tedd, Katherine; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Christensen, Michelle; Hesta, Myriam; Tugirimana, Pierrot; Budd, Jane; Dermauw, Veronique; Janssens, Geert P J

    2014-09-01

    Renal and gastrointestinal pathologies are widespread in the captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population but are often diagnosed at a late stage, because diagnostic tools are limited to the evaluation of clinical signs or general blood examination. Presently, no data are available on serum proteins and acute-phase proteins in cheetahs during health or disease, although they might be important to improve health monitoring. This study aimed to quantify serum proteins by capillary electrophoresis in 80 serum samples from captive cheetahs, categorized according to health status and disease type. Moreover, serum amyloid A concentrations were measured via a turbidimetric immunoassay validated in domestic cats, whereas haptoglobin and C-reactive protein were determined by non-species-specific functional tests. Cheetahs classified as healthy had serum protein and acute phase protein concentrations within reference ranges for healthy domestic cats. In contrast, unhealthy cheetahs had higher (P cheetahs suffering from chronic kidney disease were significantly greater compared to the reportedly healthy cheetahs. Our study indicates that serum proteins in the cheetah can be analyzed by routine capillary electrophoresis, whereas acute-phase proteins can be measured using available immunoassays or non-species-specific techniques, which are also likely to be applicable in other exotic felids. Moreover, results suggest that serum amyloid A and haptoglobin are important acute-phase proteins in the diseased cheetah and highlight the need to evaluate their role as early-onset markers for disease.

  6. Acute Decompensation in Pediatric Cardiac Patients: Outcomes After Rapid Response Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavare, Aarti C; Rafie, Kimia S; Bastero, Patricia X; Hagan, Joseph L; Checchia, Paul A

    2017-05-01

    We studied rapid response events after acute clinical instability outside ICU settings in pediatric cardiac patients. Our objective was to describe the characteristics and outcomes after rapid response events in this high-risk cohort and elucidate the cardiac conditions and risk factors associated with worse outcomes. A retrospective single-center study was carried out over a 3-year period from July 2011 to June 2014. Referral high-volume pediatric cardiac center located within a tertiary academic pediatric hospital. All rapid response events that occurred during the study period were reviewed to identify rapid response events in cardiac patients. None. We reviewed 1,906 rapid response events to identify 152 rapid response events that occurred in 127 pediatric cardiac patients. Congenital heart disease was the baseline diagnosis in 74% events (single ventricle, 28%; biventricle physiology, 46%). Seventy-four percent had a cardiac surgery before rapid response, 37% had ICU stay within previous 7 days, and acute kidney injury was noted in 41% post rapid response. Cardiac and/or pulmonary arrest occurred during rapid response in 8.5%. Overall, 81% were transferred to ICU, 22% had critical deterioration (ventilation or vasopressors within 12 hr of transfer), and 56% received such support and/or invasive procedures within 72 hours. Mortality within 30 days post event was 14%. Significant outcome associations included: single ventricle physiology-increased need for invasive procedures and mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 2.58; p = 0.02); multiple rapid response triggers-increased ICU transfer and interventions at 72 hours; critical deterioration-cardiopulmonary arrest and mortality; and acute kidney injury-cardiopulmonary arrest and need for hemodynamic support. Congenital heart disease, previous cardiac surgery, and recent discharge from ICU were common among pediatric cardiac rapid responses. Progression to cardiopulmonary arrest during rapid response, need for ICU

  7. Response in the late phase to a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: This paper will look at the key issues that need to be addressed during the transition from the emergency phase to the recovery phase, and the development of the initial recovery strategy. It will then discuss the extent to which current national plans and international advice address the needs of decision makers following contamination of inhabited areas and food production systems. Since the events of September 11 th 2001, attention is becoming increasingly focussed on the response to the deliberate dispersal of radioactive material, eg so called 'dirty bombs' or deliberate contamination of the food supply. Whilst some aspects of the response to a dirty bomb will be similar to those for a nuclear accident, in other respects such deliberate dispersal will pose additional challenges (e.g. identification of the radionuclide(s) involved, likely dispersion from within an urban area for dirty bombs, identification of the geographical spread of foods contaminated). This papers also considers the extent to which existing arrangements and assessments underpinning nuclear accident response would need modification/upgrading for response to deliberate dispersal. In the transition from the emergency phase to the recovery phase, decision makers will be under pressure to make rapid decisions concerning the lifting of countermeasures implemented during the emergency phase and the need for further measures. A failure to respond promptly will leave an information void in which other, self-styled, experts will advertise their solutions, thereby adding to the pressure. This may then lead to a loss of confidence by the public, and make it more difficult to develop a practicable recovery strategy that is also acceptable to those affected. However, if decisions are made without a full understanding of the contamination pattern and its likely future impact, then it is possible that promises or actions taken early on will need to be reversed as a fuller understanding of the

  8. Phase dependent impedance and temperature dependent response of microwave SQUID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callegari, A.C.

    1978-01-01

    We report measurements of the microwave impedance of superconducting point contacts as a function of the quantum mechanical phase difference phi. They yield a conductance of the form G(phi) = G/sub o/(1+alpha cos phi) where alpha is a dimensionless parameter reflecting an interference between the Cooper pairs and the quasiparticles. Experimental results agree with a negative alpha approximately equal to -.5 which can be interpreted in terms of a phenomenological model that follows essentially the Time Dependent Landau Ginzburg theory (TDLG). In the second part we report measurements of the response of a microwave SQUID using a Ta point contact at various temperatures. They give a progression of operating conditions from the non-hysteretic to the hysteretic mode. The responses calculated by Soerensen and by Burhman and Jackel are in qualitative agreement with the measurements. We also present a theory based on a calculation of the reflection coefficient from the point contact. This theory reproduces the results of Bunhman and Jackel and Soerensen and is directly adaptable to our microwave geometry. In the last chapter we present a calculation that exhibits explicitly the dependence of the response on OMEGA = PHI/sub o/nu/I/sub X sub/R where nu is the microwave frequency, I/sub c/ and R the critical current and resistance of the junction and PHI/sub o/ fluxoid quantum, and that agrees with their data and their interpretation of it in terms of a limiting time tau for the supercurrent response with tau varies as DELTA(T)/sup -1/ where DELTA (T) is the BCS gap parameter

  9. Differential effects of mild chronic stress on cortisol and S-IgA responses to an acute stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viena, Tatiana D; Banks, Jonathan B; Barbu, Isabelle M; Schulman, Allan H; Tartar, Jaime L

    2012-10-01

    While acute stress is adaptive in the short term, chronic stress may interfere with HPA axis functioning and self-regulation that can, in turn, alter the body's immune response. Several studies suggest that acute and chronic stress consistently increase cortisol levels; however, the same cannot be said about S-IgA levels. We tested the effects of a mild chronic stress (an academic exam period), on cortisol and S-IgA responses to an acute stress. Exposure to an acute stressor significantly increases cortisol levels during periods of no-stress, but not during mild chronic stress, while S-IgA levels consistently increase during both sessions. Furthermore, we find that during the period of chronic mild stress, the perception of stress is related to increased cortisol response to an acute stressor. Combined, these findings shed light on the impact of increased background stress on acute stress responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Renal response to acute acid loading--an organ physiological approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Engel, K; Kildeberg, P

    2004-01-01

    , as the extracellular acid-base status would be expected to be the key physiological trigger for renal NAE. The object of this study was to investigate the renal response to acute non-carbonic acid loading using a quantitative organ physiological approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five-h NH4Cl loading studies were...

  11. Israeli acute paralysis virus affects sucrose responsiveness and homing ability of forager bees, Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    The honeybee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), may be one of the most common stressors that are responsible for the colony losses reported worldwide in recent years. IAPV was found to be tightly correlated with honeybee Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) in the recent outbreak of CCD in the ...

  12. Glucose intolerance induced by blockade of central FGF receptors is linked to an acute stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Rojas

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: The effect of acute inhibition of central FGFR signaling to impair glucose tolerance likely involves a stress response associated with pronounced, but transient, sympathoadrenal activation and an associated reduction of insulin secretion. Whether this effect is a true consequence of FGFR blockade or involves an off-target effect of the FGFR inhibitor requires additional study.

  13. Chronic stress affects immunologic but not cardiovascular responsiveness to acute psychological stress in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, R. J.; Brosschot, J. F.; Godaert, G. L.; de Smet, M. B.; Geenen, R.; Olff, M.; Heijnen, C. J.; Ballieux, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    This study deals with the effect of chronic stress on physiological responsiveness to an acute psychological stressor in male high school teachers. Chronic stress was operationalized as the self-reported number of everyday problems. Twenty-seven subjects reporting extremely low or high numbers of

  14. Effect of thrombolytic therapy on exercise response during early recovery from acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, J H; Madsen, J K; Saunamäki, K I

    1992-01-01

    Several studies have shown that infarct size is reduced following thrombolytic treatment in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Exercise test variables, such as an impaired heart rate response during exercise, are known to be related to left ventricular function and patient prognosis follo...

  15. Opioid activity in behavorial and heart rate responses of tethered pigs to acute stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loijens, L.W.S.; Janssens, C.J.J.G.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Wiegant, V.M.

    2002-01-01

    In a longitudinal experiment, effects of long-term tether housing on heart rate and behavioral responses to an acute stressor (a 15-min challenge with a nosesling) were investigated in pigs. The animals were challenged during loose housing and again after 10–11 weeks of tether housing. To detect

  16. Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, K.P.G.; Saris, W.H.M.; Senden, J.M.G.; Menheere, P.P.C.A.; Blaak, E.E.; van Baak, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects. Kempen KP, Saris WH, Senden JM, Menheere PP, Blaak EE, van Baak MA. Department of Human Biology, University of Limburg, Maastricht, The Netherlands. This study was intended to investigate the

  17. Increased stocking density influences the acute physiological stress response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio (L.))

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruane, N.M.; Carballo, E.C.; Komen, J.

    2002-01-01

    The physiological response of common carp, Cyprinus carpio (L.) to increased stocking density and an additional acute net confinement stressor was investigated. Stocking densities were increased from 28.4 to 56.8 or 113.6 kg m¿3 by the use of crowding screens and fish were sampled from the crowded

  18. Acute MUS81 depletion leads to replication fork slowing and a constitutive DNA damage response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, Meichun; Wang, Xiaohui; Palmai-Pallag, Timea

    2015-01-01

    have investigated the role of MUS81 in human cells by acutely depleting the protein using shRNAs. We found that MUS81 depletion from human fibroblasts leads to accumulation of ssDNA and a constitutive DNA damage response that ultimately activates cellular senescence. Moreover, we show that MUS81...

  19. Clinical value of MRI and acute madopar responsiveness test in diagnosing progressive supranuclear palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xiao-hong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the MRI abnormalities and acute madopar responsiveness test in diagnosing progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP and Parkinson's disease (PD. Methods Seventeen patients with PSP and 17 gender and age matched patients with PD were studied with cranial MRI examinations and results of acute madopar responsiveness test, and the clinical manifestations of PSP were summarized. Results The atrophy of the midbrain tegmentum and hummingbird sign was demonstrated in all of the PSP patients in our study, but was not observed in the PD patients. The areas of the midbrain on mid-sagittal MRI in PSP patients [(77.35 ± 15.30 mm2] were significantly smaller than that in those with PD [(142.35 ± 31.49 mm2]. The average ratio of the area of the midbrain to the area of pons in the patients with PSP [(14.31 ± 2.47%] was significantly smaller than that in those with PD [(24.08 ± 4.73%; P = 0.000, for all]. According to the result of acute madopar responsiveness test, the maximum Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS Ⅲ improvement rate of 2 patients with PSP and 16 patients with PD was more than 30% (χ2 = 23.142, P = 0.000. Conclusion The assessment of the mid-sagittal MRI and acute madopar responsiveness test may be a useful method to differentiate PSP from PD.

  20. Lay Public's Knowledge and Decisions in Response to Symptoms of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytryn, Kayla N.; Yoskowitz, Nicole A.; Cimino, James J.; Patel, Vimla L.

    2009-01-01

    Despite public health initiatives targeting rapid action in response to symptoms of myocardial infarction (MI), people continue to delay in going to a hospital when experiencing these symptoms due to lack of recognition as cardiac-related. The objective of this research was to characterize lay individuals' knowledge of symptoms of acute myocardial…

  1. Progress in Global Surveillance and Response Capacity 10 Years After Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-10

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases' synopsis, Progress in Global Surveillance and Response Capacity 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome.  Created: 4/10/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/11/2013.

  2. Case Comparison of Response To Aquatic Exercise: Acute versus Chronic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobily, Kenneth E.; Mobily, Paula R.; Lessard, Kerry A.; Berkenpas, Molly S.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the effects of individualized aquatic exercise programs on people with knee impairments. An adolescent athlete with an acute injury demonstrated significant functional improvement. A 33-year-old with arthritis demonstrated only marginal progress. Comparison of cases relative to valid data collection methods and response to aquatic…

  3. Acute GH and IGF-I responses to short vs. long rest period between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to examine the effects of different rest intervals between the sets on acute growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) responses, ten recreationally resistance trained men served as subjects (Mean ± SD, age=22 ± 2 years, body mass= 84 ± 8 kg). Subjects performed two heavy-resistance training ...

  4. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I). Project IV. Structural building response; Structural Building Response Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healey, J.J.; Wu, S.T.; Murga, M.

    1980-02-01

    As part of the Phase I effort of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) being performed by the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the basic objective of Subtask IV.1 (Structural Building Response Review) is to review and summarize current methods and data pertaining to seismic response calculations particularly as they relate to the objectives of the SSMRP. This material forms one component in the development of the overall computational methodology involving state of the art computations including explicit consideration of uncertainty and aimed at ultimately deriving estimates of the probability of radioactive releases due to seismic effects on nuclear power plant facilities

  5. Diagnostic and predictive value of acute-phase reactants in adult undifferentiated peripheral inflammatory arthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercoutere, Ward; Thevissen, Kristof; Bombardier, Claire; Landewé, Robert B M

    2011-03-01

    To review the available literature on the diagnostic and predictive value of acute-phase reactants in adult undifferentiated peripheral inflammatory arthritis (UPIA) as an evidence base for generating multinational clinical practice recommendations in the 3e Initiative in Rheumatology. A systematic literature search was carried out using Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and abstracts presented at the 2007 and 2008 meetings of the American College of Rheumatology and European League Against Rheumatism, searching for prognostic and diagnostic markers of acute-phase reactants in adult UPIA. Articles that fulfilled predefined inclusion criteria were systematically reviewed, and the quality was appraised. Likelihood ratios (LR), sensitivity, and specificity for diagnostic and prognostic outcomes were calculated. A total of 18 publications out of 3699 identified references were included in the review. Only a small number of studies with significant heterogeneity, including different outcome measures and different cutoff values, were eligible for review, so pooling data was not possible. Overall, LR showed poor diagnostic and prognostic performance for most investigated acute-phase reactants. Available data showed some value for erythrocyte sedimentation rate in establishing a diagnosis in patients with undifferentiated arthritis; some prognostic and diagnostic value for C-reactive protein; some prognostic value for plasma viscosity in predicting persistence of arthritis; and some diagnostic value for sulfhydryl levels and matrix metalloproteinase-3 in establishing a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. There is little published evidence concerning the diagnostic and predictive value of acute-phase reactants in patients with UPIA. Studies were heterogeneous, and "undifferentiated arthritis" was not well defined or was equivocally defined. The role of acute-phase reactants in diagnosing and predicting outcome in patients presenting with undifferentiated arthritis is

  6. Anti-irritants I: Dose-response in acute irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad

    2006-01-01

    The term 'anti-irritant' (AI) was coined in 1965 by Goldemberg to describe a diverse group of topical product ingredients, which were able to reduce the irritation potential of other more irritating ingredients in the same product. 'AIs' are being added to cosmetic formulations in order, allegedly...... of the patches. Evaluation of skin irritation and efficacy of treatments were performed daily for 4 days using clinical scoring, evaporimetry (transepidermal water loss), hydration measurement and colourimetry. Only glycerol showed dose-response and effects potentially better than no treatment...

  7. Adaptations in responsiveness of brainstem pain-modulating neurons in acute compared to chronic inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Daniel R.; Heinricher, Mary M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite similar behavioral hypersensitivity, acute and chronic pain have distinct neural bases. Here we used intraplantar injection of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) to directly compare activity of pain-modulating neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) in acute versus chronic inflammation. Heat- and von Frey-evoked withdrawal reflexes and corresponding RVM neuronal activity were recorded in lightly anesthetized animals either during the first hour after CFA injection (acute) or 3–10 days later (chronic). Thermal and modest mechanical hyperalgesia during acute inflammation were associated with increases in the spontaneous activity of pain-facilitating ON-cells and suppression of pain-inhibiting OFF-cells. Acute hyperalgesia was reversed by RVM block, showing that the increased activity of RVM ON-cells is necessary for acute behavioral hypersensitivity. In chronic inflammation, thermal hyperalgesia had resolved, but mechanical hyperalgesia had become pronounced. The spontaneous discharges of ON- and OFF-cells were not different from controls, but the mechanical response thresholds for both cell classes were reduced into the innocuous range. RVM block in the chronic condition worsened mechanical hyperalgesia. These studies identify distinct contributions of RVM ON- and OFF-cells to acute and chronic inflammatory hyperalgesia. During early immune-mediated inflammation, ON-cell spontaneous activity promotes hyperalgesia. After inflammation is established, the anti-nociceptive influence of OFF-cells is dominant, yet the lowered threshold for the OFF-cell pause allows behavioral responses to stimuli that would normally be considered innocuous. The efficacy of OFF-cells in counteracting sensitization of ascending transmission pathways could therefore be an important determining factor in development of chronic inflammatory pain. PMID:23588008

  8. Adaptations in responsiveness of brainstem pain-modulating neurons in acute compared with chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Daniel R; Heinricher, Mary M

    2013-06-01

    Despite similar behavioral hypersensitivity, acute and chronic pain have distinct neural bases. We used intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant to directly compare activity of pain-modulating neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) in acute vs chronic inflammation. Heat-evoked and von Frey-evoked withdrawal reflexes and corresponding RVM neuronal activity were recorded in lightly anesthetized animals either during the first hour after complete Freund's adjuvant injection (acute) or 3 to 10 days later (chronic). Thermal and modest mechanical hyperalgesia during acute inflammation were associated with increases in the spontaneous activity of pain-facilitating ON-cells and suppression of pain-inhibiting OFF-cells. Acute hyperalgesia was reversed by RVM block, showing that the increased activity of RVM ON-cells is necessary for acute behavioral hypersensitivity. In chronic inflammation, thermal hyperalgesia had resolved but mechanical hyperalgesia had become pronounced. The spontaneous discharges of ON- and OFF-cells were not different from those in control subjects, but the mechanical response thresholds for both cell classes were reduced into the innocuous range. RVM block in the chronic condition worsened mechanical hyperalgesia. These studies identify distinct contributions of RVM ON- and OFF-cells to acute and chronic inflammatory hyperalgesia. During early immune-mediated inflammation, ON-cell spontaneous activity promotes hyperalgesia. After inflammation is established, the antinociceptive influence of OFF-cells is dominant, yet the lowered threshold for the OFF-cell pause allows behavioral responses to stimuli that would normally be considered innocuous. The efficacy of OFF-cells in counteracting sensitization of ascending transmission pathways could therefore be an important determining factor in development of chronic inflammatory pain. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  9. Aerobic Fitness Level Affects Cardiovascular and Salivary Alpha Amylase Responses to Acute Psychosocial Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Thomas; Boesch, Maria; Roos, Lilian; Tschopp, Céline; Frei, Klaus M; Annen, Hubert; La Marca, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Good physical fitness seems to help the individual to buffer the potential harmful impact of psychosocial stress on somatic and mental health. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of physical fitness levels on the autonomic nervous system (ANS; i.e. heart rate and salivary alpha amylase) responses to acute psychosocial stress, while controlling for established factors influencing individual stress reactions. The Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) was executed with 302 male recruits during their first week of Swiss Army basic training. Heart rate was measured continuously, and salivary alpha amylase was measured twice, before and after the stress intervention. In the same week, all volunteers participated in a physical fitness test and they responded to questionnaires on lifestyle factors and personal traits. A multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to determine ANS responses to acute psychosocial stress from physical fitness test performances, controlling for personal traits, behavioural factors, and socioeconomic data. Multiple linear regression revealed three variables predicting 15 % of the variance in heart rate response (area under the individual heart rate response curve during TSST-G) and four variables predicting 12 % of the variance in salivary alpha amylase response (salivary alpha amylase level immediately after the TSST-G) to acute psychosocial stress. A strong performance at the progressive endurance run (high maximal oxygen consumption) was a significant predictor of ANS response in both models: low area under the heart rate response curve during TSST-G as well as low salivary alpha amylase level after TSST-G. Further, high muscle power, non-smoking, high extraversion, and low agreeableness were predictors of a favourable ANS response in either one of the two dependent variables. Good physical fitness, especially good aerobic endurance capacity, is an important protective factor against health

  10. Progress in global surveillance and response capacity 10 years after severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Christopher R; Dowell, Scott F; Jernigan, Daniel B; Hughes, James M

    2013-06-01

    Ten years have elapsed since the World Health Organization issued its first global alert for an unexplained illness named severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The anniversary provides an opportunity to reflect on the international response to this new global microbial threat. While global surveillance and response capacity for public health threats have been strengthened, critical gaps remain. Of 194 World Health Organization member states that signed on to the International Health Regulations (2005), challenges.

  11. Cord Blood Acute Phase Reactants Predict Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis in Preterm Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena B Mithal

    Full Text Available Early onset sepsis (EOS is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants, yet diagnosis remains inadequate resulting in missed cases or prolonged empiric antibiotics with adverse consequences. Evaluation of acute phase reactant (APR biomarkers in umbilical cord blood at birth may improve EOS detection in preterm infants with intrauterine infection.In this nested case-control study, infants (29.7 weeks gestation, IQR: 27.7-32.2 were identified from a longitudinal cohort with archived cord blood and placental histopathology. Patients were categorized using culture, laboratory, clinical, and antibiotic treatment data into sepsis groups: confirmed sepsis (cEOS, n = 12; presumed sepsis (PS, n = 30; and no sepsis (controls, n = 30. Nine APRs were measured in duplicate from cord blood using commercially available multiplex immunoassays (Bio-Plex Pro™. In addition, placental histopathologic data were linked to biomarker results.cEOS organisms were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Proteus mirabilis, Haemophilus influenzae and Listeria monocytogenes. C-reactive protein (CRP, serum amyloid A (SAA, haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid P and ferritin were significantly elevated in cEOS compared to controls (p<0.01. SAA, CRP, and Hp were elevated in cEOS but not in PS (p<0.01 and had AUCs of 99%, 96%, and 95% respectively in predicting cEOS. Regression analysis revealed robust associations of SAA, CRP, and Hp with EOS after adjustment for covariates. Procalcitonin, fibrinogen, α-2-macroglobulin and tissue plasminogen activator were not significantly different across groups. Placental acute inflammation was associated with APR elevation and was present in all cEOS, 9 PS, and 17 control infants.This study shows that certain APRs are elevated in cord blood of premature infants with EOS of intrauterine origin. SAA, CRP, and Hp at birth have potential diagnostic utility for risk stratification and identification of infants with EOS.

  12. Acute phase reactants in Sudanese children with severe protein-energy malnutrition*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Mustafa A. M.; Karrar, Zein A.; Mohammed, Abdelrahim O.; Helsing, Chrestover

    2011-01-01

    The pre-dietary rehabilitation levels of acute phase proteins (APP) namely, alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), orosomucoid (ORO), haptoglobin (HAP), fibrinogen (FIB) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the plasma of Sudanese children with severe protein energy malnutrition (PEM) were compared with those of normal controls, and with the levels after dietary rehabilitation. Eighty one children were included in the study; 49 with severe PEM (23 with marasmus, 17 with marasmic-kwashiorkor and 9 with kwashiorkor), 13 with tuberculosis (TB) and 19 healthy children as controls. The study showed a high incidence of infections, especially acute respiratory infection (ARI), diarrhoeal diseases and intestinal parasites in the malnourished children. The mean plasma level of albumin was significantly lower in the malnourished children compared to controls (P<0.001), with kwashiorkor children showing the lowest mean level. This hypoalbuminaemia was significantly associated with the presence of ARI and intestinal parasites. The mean plasma levels of the APP, except FIB, were significantly higher in malnourished children than in controls, with higher levels associated with ARI and the presence of fever. Malnourished children with TB had significantly higher mean levels of the APP (AAT, HAP, FIB, CRP) compared to those without TB. The mean levels of HAP and AAT were significantly lower in the presence of diarrhoea, suggesting their loss in the stool. The mean levels of the APP after two weeks dietary rehabilitation and antimicrobial treatment showed a significant drop in only two of the APP, namely CRP, ORO, while FIB showed a significant rise. PMID:27493306

  13. Cytokine responses in acute and persistent human parvovirus B19 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isa, A; Lundqvist, A; Lindblom, A

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the proinflammatory and T helper (Th)1/Th2 cytokine responses during acute parvovirus B19 (B19) infection and determine whether an imbalance of the Th1/Th2 cytokine pattern is related to persistent B19 infection. Cytokines were quantified by multiplex beads...... immunoassay in serum from B19-infected patients and controls. The cytokine responses were correlated with B19 serology, quantitative B19 DNA levels and clinical symptoms. In addition to a proinflammatory response, elevated levels of the Th1 type of cytokines interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12 and IL-15 were evident...... at time of the initial peak of B19 viral load in a few patients during acute infection. This pattern was seen in the absence of an interferon (IFN)-gamma response. During follow-up (20-130 weeks post-acute infection) some of these patients had a sustained Th1 cytokine response. The Th1 cytokine response...

  14. Acute morbidity reduction using 3DCRT for prostate carcinoma; a randomised phase III study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koper, P.; Putten, W. van; Stroom, J.; Korevaar, G.; Heijmen, B.; Wijnmaalen, A.; Jansen, P.; Hanssens, P.; Griep, C.; Krol, A.; Samson, M.; Levendag, P.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: A randomised phase III toxicity study (conventional vs conformal radiotherapy) was performed for prostatic carcinoma to study the effects on the (acute) morbidity of intestinal/rectosigmoid and bladder. The observed toxicity was compared with Dose Volume Histograms to reveal possible volume (reduction) effects. Methods: In the phase III study 266 T1-4 N0M0 prostate cancer patients were entered. Patients were randomised for conventional and conformal radiotherapy (total dose 66 Gy, minimum PTV dose 95% ICRU and a CTV-PTV margin of 10 mm in both study arms). The GTV was limited to the prostate only in T1 tumors. In all other patients the GTV was defined to be prostate and seminal vesicles for the complete treatment course. The CTV-PTV margin (10mm) was created by a automated program to ensure the minimum prescribed margin. The rectosigmoid was defined to be the rectum including the sigmoid within the Treatment Volume (ICRU). Acute toxicity was evaluated using the EORTC/RTOG morbidity score and weekly quality of life questionnaires. The radiation technique comparison was done by Dose volume Histogram analysis using the Area Under The Curve (AUC) for different dose levels. In this preliminary DVH analysis we present the data for the first 100 patients. Results: Patient and tumor characteristics were evenly distributed between both study groups. The maximum toxicity is reached at 75% of the tumordose (TD) (rectal grade I 59% grade II 26%, bladder grade I 48%, grade II 16% and grade III 1% [catheter for urinary retention]). Comparing both study arms there seems to be a reduction in intestinal morbidity (grade II and higher resp. 32% vs 19% p=0.02). Further analysis revealed a marked reduction in medication for anal symptoms; this accounts for a large part of the significant difference in intestinal toxicity (grade II conventional vs conformal rectosigmoid 18% vs 14% and anal 16% vs 8%). For bladder morbidity no difference for mobidity higher than grade I is

  15. Self-esteem and coping responses of athletes with acute versus chronic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasley, D; Lox, C L

    1998-06-01

    Self-esteem and coping strategies have been important factors in athletes' response to injury and subsequent rehabilitation. Specifically, athletic injury has been negatively associated with self-esteem, while certain coping strategies may enhance adherence to rehabilitation (1, 4). Little is known, however, concerning the effect of acute (sudden specific event) versus chronic injury (repetitive injury over a prolonged period of time) on self-esteem and coping strategies. The Rosenberg Self-esteem Inventory (3), selected subscales of the Ways of Coping Questionnaire (2), and a demographic questionnaire were administered. The subscales of Ways of Coping Questionnaire employed were Seeking Social Support, Accepting Responsibility for the injury, and Escape Avoidance of the injury. To assess the influence of acute versus chronic injury status, effect sizes (ES) were calculated. Although no difference was found for Accepting Responsibility, chronically injured athletes scored higher on Escape/Avoidance (M = 2.4 vs 1.9, SD = 1.2 vs .6, ES = .52) and lower on Seeking Social Support (M = 2.5 vs 2.8, SD = .6 vs .4, ES = .47) than athletes with acute injuries. Those with chronic injuries also second more negatively on self-esteem (M = 6.2 vs 4.4, SD = 1.2 vs 1.2, ES = 1.30) than acutely injured athletes. These preliminary results suggest the type of injury may differentially affect self-esteem and coping behavior. As self-esteem is theorized to be relatively stable construct, it is perhaps not surprising that chronic injuries have a greater effect than acute injuries. Chronically injured athletes also sought social support less and engaged in more escape/avoidance behavior, suggesting that they cope with injury differently than those with acute injuries.

  16. Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome (FIRES) in the Acute and Chronic Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofshteyn, Jacqueline S; Wilfong, Angus; Devinsky, Orrin; Bluvstein, Judith; Charuta, Joshi; Ciliberto, Michael A; Laux, Linda; Marsh, Eric D

    2017-01-01

    Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a devastating epilepsy affecting normal children after a febrile illness. FIRES presents with an acute phase with super-refractory status epilepticus and all patients progress to a chronic phase with persistent refractory epilepsy. The typical outcome is severe encephalopathy or death. The authors present 7 children from 5 centers with FIRES who had not responded to antiepileptic drugs or other therapies who were given cannabadiol (Epidiolex, GW Pharma) on emergency or expanded investigational protocols in either the acute or chronic phase of illness. After starting cannabidiol, 6 of 7 patients' seizures improved in frequency and duration. One patient died due to multiorgan failure secondary to isoflourane. An average of 4 antiepileptic drugs were weaned. Currently 5 subjects are ambulatory, 1 walks with assistance, and 4 are verbal. While this is an open-label case series, the authors add cannabidiol as a possible treatment for FIRES.

  17. Comparison of parasite loads in serum and blood samples from patients in acute and chronic phases of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Carolina; Teherán, Aníbal; Flórez, Carolina; Ramírez, Juan David

    2018-04-17

    Molecular methods have been developed for the detection and quantification of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in blood samples from patients with Chagas disease. However, aspects of sample processing necessary for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), such as the addition of guanidine hydrochloride to whole blood samples, may limit timely access to molecular diagnosis. We analysed 169 samples from serum and guanidine-EDTA blood (GEB) obtained from patients in acute and chronic phases of Chagas disease. We applied qPCR targeted to the satellite DNA region. Finally, we compared the parasite loads and cycle of threshold values of the qPCR. The results confirmed the usefulness of serum samples for the detection and quantification of parasite DNA in patients with Chagas disease, especially in the acute phase. However, the parasite loads detected in serum samples from patients in the chronic phase were lower than those detected in GEB samples. The epidemiological implications of the findings are herein discussed.

  18. Children's biological responsivity to acute stress predicts concurrent cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Leslie E; Beauchamp, Kathryn G; Giuliano, Ryan; Zalewski, Maureen; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2018-04-10

    Although prior research has characterized stress system reactivity (i.e. hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, HPAA; autonomic nervous system, ANS) in children, it has yet to examine the extent to which biological reactivity predicts concurrent goal-directed behavior. Here, we employed a stressor paradigm that allowed concurrent assessment of both stress system reactivity and performance on a speeded-response task to investigate the links between biological reactivity and cognitive function under stress. We further investigated gender as a moderator given previous research suggesting that the ANS may be particularly predictive of behavior in males due to gender differences in socialization. In a sociodemographically diverse sample of young children (N = 58, M age = 5.38 yrs; 44% male), individual differences in sociodemographic covariates (age, household income), HPAA (i.e. cortisol), and ANS (i.e. respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA, indexing the parasympathetic branch; pre-ejection period, PEP, indexing the sympathetic branch) function were assessed as predictors of cognitive performance under stress. We hypothesized that higher income, older age, and greater cortisol reactivity would be associated with better performance overall, and flexible ANS responsivity (i.e. RSA withdrawal, PEP shortening) would be predictive of performance for males. Overall, females performed better than males. Two-group SEM analyses suggest that, for males, greater RSA withdrawal to the stressor was associated with better performance, while for females, older age, higher income, and greater cortisol reactivity were associated with better performance. Results highlight the relevance of stress system reactivity to cognitive performance under stress. Future research is needed to further elucidate for whom and in what situations biological reactivity predicts goal-directed behavior.

  19. Platelet-activating factor: an inflammatory mediator in the acute phase of allergic conjunctivitis in a guinea-pig model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Meijer

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of platelet-activating factor (PAF as a mediator of increased conjunctival vascular permeability was investigated in a guinea-pig model of immediate hypersensitivity. Vascular permeability of the conjunctiva was determined by measuring the albumin content in lavage fluid (LF after topical challenge with either PAF or ovalbumin. PAF produced a dose-dependent increase of the vascular permeability within minutes. Topical pretreatment with levocabastine, a potent histamine H1-antagonist demonstrated no effect towards the vascular permeability in response to PAF provocation. Pretreatment with eyedrops containing the specific PAF antagonist BN 52021 (1% showed a significant inhibition of the vascular permeability (60.2% and the clinical score (27.5% after PAF challenge. In sensitized guinea-pigs, levocabastine showed a marked inhibition of both the vascular permeability (80.5% and the clinical score (70% after topical challenge with ovalbumin. BN 2021, although to a lesser extent, showed a similar effect towards the vascular permeability (26.8% and the clinical score (28% after antigen provocation. When BN 52021 and levocabastine were administered in combination, the vascular permeability was significantly decreased after antigen challenge in comparison with eyes pretreated with levocabastine alone. These results indicate that PAF plays a role in the acute phase of allergic conjunctivitis in the guinea-pig.

  20. Acute and sub-lethal response to mercury in Arctic and boreal calanoid copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overjordet, Ida Beathe; Altin, Dag; Berg, Torunn; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik

    2014-10-01

    Acute lethal toxicity, expressed as LC50 values, is a widely used parameter in risk assessment of chemicals, and has been proposed as a tool to assess differences in species sensitivities to chemicals between climatic regions. Arctic Calanus glacialis and boreal Calanus finmarchicus were exposed to mercury (Hg(2+)) under natural environmental conditions including sea temperatures of 2° and 10°C, respectively. Acute lethal toxicity (96 h LC50) and sub-lethal molecular response (GST expression; in this article gene expression is used as a synonym of gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that gene expression is also regulated, e.g., at translation and protein stability level) were studied. The acute lethal toxicity was monitored for 96 h using seven different Hg concentrations. The sub-lethal experiment was set up on the basis of nominal LC50 values for each species using concentrations equivalent to 50, 5 and 0.5% of their 96 h LC50 value. No significant differences were found in acute lethal toxicity between the two species. The sub-lethal molecular response revealed large differences both in response time and the fold induction of GST, where the Arctic species responded both faster and with higher mRNA levels of GST after 48 h exposure. Under the natural exposure conditions applied in the present study, the Arctic species C. glacialis may potentially be more susceptible to mercury exposure on the sub-lethal level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cumulative exposure to prior collective trauma and acute stress responses to the Boston marathon bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2015-06-01

    The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metropolitan Boston (n = 846) and New York City (n = 941) completed Internet-based surveys shortly after the Boston Marathon bombings. Cumulative direct exposure and indirect exposure to prior community trauma and acute stress symptoms were assessed. Acute stress levels did not differ between Boston and New York metropolitan residents. Cumulative direct and indirect, live-media-based exposure to 9/11, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook shooting were positively associated with acute stress responses in the covariate-adjusted model. People who experience multiple community-based traumas may be sensitized to the negative impact of subsequent events, especially in communities previously exposed to similar disasters. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. The serial changes in plasma homocysteine levels and it's relationship with acute phase reactants in early postmyocardial infarction period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucu, M Murat; Karadede, Abdulaziz; Toprak, Gülten; Toprak, Nizamettin Arat

    2005-03-01

    We aimed to study the change in the plasma homocysteine concentration in the early stage of acute myocardial infarction and its relationship with the acute phase reactants. We included into the study 33 patients who were admitted to the hospital with acute myocardial infarction within the first three hours after the onset of symptoms. The plasma samples were obtained on admission (within 3 hours onset of symptom) and at 6, 12, 24 hours and 2, 4, 7, 30 and 90th day after admission. The serial homocysteine measurements were as following: 11.87+/-0.71 micromol/L, 11.89+/-0.62 micromol/L, 11.37+/-0.83 micromol/L, 10.96+/-0.93 micromol/L, 11.37+/-0.89 micromol/L, 11.24+/-0.66 micromol/L, 13.09+/-0.64 micromol/L, 12.85+/-0.71 micromol/L, and 12.19+/-0.91 micromol/L, respectively (p=0.05). Statistically significant difference was found only between the hour 24 and the day 7 (p=0.04). However, there was no statistically significant difference between the admission level and none of the other time points. No correlation was identified between acute phase reactants and lipid parameters that were measured serially at the same time periods and homocysteine levels. Although homocysteine plasma values obtained during the sixth and twelfth hours of acute myocardial infarction provide reliable results as a risk markers, timing of blood sampling during the myocardial infarction does not have significant role since plasma values of homocysteine did not affect acute phase reactants.

  3. Acute injury in the peripheral nervous system triggers an alternative macrophage response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ydens Elke

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The activation of the immune system in neurodegeneration has detrimental as well as beneficial effects. Which aspects of this immune response aggravate the neurodegenerative breakdown and which stimulate regeneration remains an open question. To unravel the neuroprotective aspects of the immune system we focused on a model of acute peripheral nerve injury, in which the immune system was shown to be protective. Methods To determine the type of immune response triggered after axotomy of the sciatic nerve, a model for Wallerian degeneration in the peripheral nervous system, we evaluated markers representing the two extremes of a type I and type II immune response (classical vs. alternative using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Results Our results showed that acute peripheral nerve injury triggers an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive response, rather than a pro-inflammatory response. This was reflected by the complete absence of classical macrophage markers (iNOS, IFNγ, and IL12p40, and the strong up-regulation of tissue repair markers (arginase-1, Ym1, and Trem2. The signal favoring the alternative macrophage environment was induced immediately after nerve damage and appeared to be established within the nerve, well before the infiltration of macrophages. In addition, negative regulators of the innate immune response, as well as the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were induced. The strict regulation of the immune system dampens the potential tissue damaging effects of an over-activated response. Conclusions We here demonstrate that acute peripheral nerve injury triggers an inherent protective environment by inducing the M2 phenotype of macrophages and the expression of arginase-1. We believe that the M2 phenotype, associated with a sterile inflammatory response and tissue repair, might explain their neuroprotective capacity. As such, shifting the

  4. Acute responses of American kestrels to methyl parathion and fenvalerate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Franson, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Physiological and toxicological effects of p.o, methyl parathion (0.375-3.0 mg/kg) or fenvalerate (1000-4000 mg/kg) were examined over a 10 h period in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) maintained in thermoneutral (22?.C) and cold (-5?.C) environments. Methyl parathion was highly toxic (LD50=3.08 mg/kg, 95% confidence limits=2.29-4.l4 mg/kg, producing overt intoxication (abnormal posture, ataxia, paresis), dose-dependent inhibition (26-67%) of brain acetylcholinesterase activity, hyperglycemia, and elevated plasma corticosterone concentration. Transient but pronounced hypothermia was associated with plasma cholinesterase inhibition in excess of 50% (2 h after intubation), although this response was highly variable (plasma ChE inhibition vs. A cloacal temperature, r=-0.60). Fenvalerate, at doses far exceeding those encountered in the environment, caused mild intoxication (irregular head movement) and elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase activity, but did not alter cloacal temperature, plasma activities of CK, U-HBDH, and LDK, or concentrations of corticosterone, glucose, triiodothyronine, and uric acid. Cold exposure intensified methyl parathion toxicity, but did not affect that of fenvalerate. It would thus appear that the organophosphorus insecticide methyl parathion poses far greater hazard than the pyrethroid fenvalerate to raptorial birds.

  5. Effects of acute physical exercise in the light phase of sleep in rats with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Cristiano; Arida, Ricardo Mario; Andersen, Monica Levy; Polesel, Daniel Ninello; de Alvarenga, Tathiana Aparecida Fernandes; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; Matos, Gabriela; Tufik, Sergio

    2017-10-01

    Our aim was to investigate the influence of an acute exercise session on sleep pattern in rats with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: control (C); acute exercise (EX); epilepsy (E) and epilepsy acute exercise (EEX). Two sleep electrocorticography recordings were performed during the light phase [baseline and day 2 (after the acute physical exercise session)]. After baseline recording, the exercise groups (EX and EEX) were submitted to an exercise session on a motor-driven treadmill at 12m/min for 30min. Twelve hours later, the rats were submitted to the second sleep recording. At baseline, the E group showed a higher wakefulness and a lower Total sleep time, Slow Wave Sleep and REM sleep compared with the C group. After acute exercise, there was an increase in Total sleep time and Slow Wave Sleep and a decrease of wakefulness in EEX (+11.10%, +20.29% and -11.25%, respectively) and EX (+5.20%, +11.60% and -8.12%, respectively) groups. These findings suggest that acute physical exercise positively impacts the sleep pattern of rats with TLE, inducing a more consolidated sleep. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute responses to exercise training and relationship with exercise adherence in moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Amanda K; Wardini, Rima; Chan-Thim, Emilie; Bacon, Simon L; Lavoie, Kim L; Pepin, Véronique

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of our study were to (i) compare, in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, acute responses to continuous training at high intensity (CTHI), continuous training at ventilatory threshold (CTVT) and interval training (IT); (ii) examine associations between acute responses and 12-week adherence; and (iii) investigate whether the relationship between acute responses and adherence is mediated/moderated by affect/vigour. Thirty-five COPD patients (forced expiratory volume in 1 second = 60.2 ± 15.8% predicted), underwent baseline assessments, were randomly assigned to CTHI, CTVT or IT, were monitored throughout about before training, and underwent 12 weeks of exercise training during which adherence was tracked. Compared with CTHI, CTVT was associated with lower respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate and respiratory rate (RR), while IT induced higher [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]maximal voluntary ventilation, RR and lower pulse oxygen saturation. From pre- to post-exercise, positive affect increased (F = 9.74, p exercise vigour compared to CTHI (p = 0.01) and IT (p = 0.02). IT exhibited lowest post-exercise vigour (p = 0.04 versus CTHI, p = 0.02 versus CTVT) and adherence rate (F = 6.69, p = 0.004). Mean [Formula: see text] (r = -0.466, p = 0.007) and end-exercise vigour (r = 0.420, p = 0.017) were most strongly correlated with adherence. End-exercise vigour moderated the relationship between [Formula: see text] and adherence (β = 2.74, t(32) = 2.32, p = 0.03). In summary, CTHI, CTVT and IT improved affective valence from rest to post-exercise and induced a significant 12-week exercise training effect. However, they elicited different acute physiological responses, which in turn were associated with differences in 12-week adherence to the target training intensity. This association was moderated by acute end-exercise vigour. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. The influence of acute and chronic alcohol consumption on response time distribution in adolescent rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, M Jerry; Vandewater, Sophia A; Taffe, Michael A

    2013-07-01

    Analysis of the distribution of reaction times (RTs) in behavioral tasks can illustrate differences attributable to changes in attention, even when no change in mean RT is observed. Detrimental attentional effects of both acute and chronic exposure to alcohol may therefore be revealed by fitting RT data to an ex-Gaussian probability density function which identifies the proportion of long-RT responses. Adolescent male rhesus macaques completed a 5-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRT) after acute alcohol consumption (up to 0.0, 1.0 and 1.5 g/kg). Monkeys were next divided into chronic alcohol (N = 5) and control groups (N = 5); the experimental group consumed 1.5-3.0 g/kg alcohol for 200 drinking sessions. Unintoxicated performance in the 5CSRT task was determined systematically across the study period and the effect of acute alcohol was redetermined after the 180th drinking session. The effect of extended abstinence from chronic alcohol was determined across 90 days. Acute alcohol exposure dose-dependently reduced the probability of longer RT responses without changing the mean or the standard deviation of the RT distribution. The RT distribution of control monkeys tightened across 10 months whereas that of the chronic alcohol group was unchanged. Discontinuation from chronic alcohol increased the probability of long RT responses with a difference from control animals observed after 30 days of discontinuation. Alcohol consumption selectively affected attention as reflected in the probability of long RT responses. Acute alcohol consumption focused attention, chronic alcohol consumption impaired the maturation of attention across the study period and alcohol discontinuation impaired attention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Microbial endogenous response to acute inhibitory impact of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala-Ozkok, I; Kor-Bicakci, G; Çokgör, E U; Jonas, D; Orhon, D

    2017-06-13

    Enhanced endogenous respiration was observed as the significant/main response of the aerobic microbial culture under pulse exposure to antibiotics: sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and erythromycin. Peptone mixture and acetate were selected as organic substrates to compare the effect of complex and simple substrates. Experiments were conducted with microbial cultures acclimated to different sludge ages of 10 and 2 days, to visualize the effect of culture history. Evaluation relied on modeling of oxygen uptake rate profiles, reflecting the effect of all biochemical reactions associated with substrate utilization. Model calibration exhibited significant increase in values of endogenous respiration rate coefficient with all antibiotic doses. Enhancement of endogenous respiration was different with antibiotic type and initial dose. Results showed that both peptone mixture and acetate cultures harbored resistance genes against the tested antibiotics, which suggests that biomass spends cellular maintenance energy for activating the required antibiotic resistance mechanisms to survive, supporting higher endogenous decay rates. [Formula: see text]: maximum growth rate for X H (day -1 ); K S : half saturation constant for growth of X H (mg COD/L); b H : endogenous decay rate for X H (day -1 ); k h : maximum hydrolysis rate for S H1 (day -1 ); K X : hydrolysis half saturation constant for S H1 (mg COD/L); k hx : maximum hydrolysis rate for X S1 (day -1 ); K XX : hydrolysis half saturation constant for X S1 (mg COD/L); k STO : maximum storage rate of PHA by X H (day -1 ); [Formula: see text]: maximum growth rate on PHA for X H (day -1 ); K STO : half saturation constant for storage of PHA by X H (mg COD/L); X H1 : initial active biomass (mg COD/L).

  9. Relationship of Acute Phase Reactants and Fat Accumulation during Treatment for Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Sanchez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tuberculosis causes inflammation and muscle wasting. We investigated how attenuation of inflammation relates to repletion of body composition during treatment in an underserved population. Design. Twenty-four patients (23 to 79 years old with pulmonary tuberculosis and inflammation (pretreatment albumin =2.96±0.13 g/dL, C-reactive protein [CRP] =6.71±1.34 μg/dL, and beta-2-microglobulin =1.68±0.10 μg/L were evaluated and had BIA over 24 weeks. Results. Weight increased by 3.02±0.81 kg (5.5%; =0.007 at week 4 and by 8.59±0.97 kg (15.6%; <0.0001 at week 24. Repletion of body mass was primarily fat, which increased by 2.09±0.52 kg at week 4 and 5.05±0.56 kg at week 24 (=0.004 and <0.0001 versus baseline. Fat-free mass (FFM, body cell mass (BCM, and phase angle did not increase until study week 8. Albumin rose to 3.65±0.14 g/dL by week 4 (<0.001 and slowly increased thereafter. CRP levels declined by ~50% at each interval visit. Conclusions. During the initial treatment, acute phase reactants returned towards normal. The predominant accrual of fat mass probably reflects ongoing, low levels of inflammation.

  10. Muscle Contraction Induces Acute Hydroxymethylation of the Exercise-Responsive Gene Nr4a3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pattamaprapanont, Pattarawan; Garde, Christian; Fabre, Odile

    2016-01-01

    promoters. Exercise induces dynamic DNA demethylation at gene promoters; however, the contribution of the demethylation precursor hydroxymethylcytosine is unknown. Given the evanescent nature of hydroxymethylcytosine, a muscle contraction model that allows for the collection of samples that are repeatedly...... stimulated over time is required to determine whether contraction-induced demethylation is preceded by changes in the hydroxymethylcytosine level. Here, we established an acute skeletal muscle contraction model to mimic the effects of acute exercise on gene expression. We used this model to investigate...... the effect of muscle contraction on DNA demethylation and hydroxymethylation. First, we performed an acute exercise study in healthy humans to identify an exercise-responsive gene that we could study in culture. We identified the nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3 (Nr4a3) gene with the highest...

  11. C-reactive protein and complement as acute phase reactants in common carp Cyprinus carpio during CyHV-3 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pionnier, Nicolas; Adamek, Mikołaj; Miest, Joanna J; Harris, Sarah J; Matras, Marek; Rakus, Krzysztof Ł; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Hoole, Dave

    2014-07-03

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a highly virulent and lethal disease of common carp Cyprinus carpio and its ornamental koi varieties. However, specific knowledge about immune mechanisms behind the infection process is very limited. We aimed to evaluate the effect of the CyHV-3 infection on the profile of 2 major components of the common carp immune acute phase response: the C-reactive protein (CRP) and the complement system. Common carp were infected with CyHV-3 by bath immersion. Fish were sampled before the infection and at 6, 12, 24, 72, 120 and 336 h post-infection for serum and head kidney, liver, gill and spleen tissues. CRP levels and complement activity were determined from the serum, whereas CRP- and complement-related genes (crp1, crp2, c1rs, bf/c2, c3, masp2) expression profiles were analysed in the tissues by quantitative PCR. Both CRP levels and complement activity increased significantly up to 10- and 3-fold, respectively, in the serum of infected fish during the challenge. Analysis revealed distinct organ- and time-dependent expression profile patterns for all selected genes. These results suggest that CRP and complement behave as acute phase reactants to CyHV-3 infection in common carp with an organ- and time-dependent response.

  12. [Examination of acute phase proteins concentrations in children with allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Iwona; Sobieska, Magdalena; Pucher, Beata; Grzegorowski, Michał; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2006-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory disorder of upper respiratory tract (about 15 per cent of the population in industrialized countries suffer from this condition), characterized by frequent sneezing and a runny or stuffy nose sometimes accompanied by watery eyes. As the most common allergic condition, allergic rhinitis affects people of all ages. Boys are twice as likely to get allergic rhinitis than girls. The median age of onset of the condition is 10 years old, meaning that equal numbers of children develop the condition before and after age 10. Symptoms usually appear in childhood first and then lessen by the age of 30 or 40. Seasonal allergic rhinitis usually results from tree, grass or weed pollen. With this type of rhinitis, symptoms will decrease with the arrival of cold weather. Perennial allergic rhinitis can cause year-round symptoms. This allergic reaction is the result of indoor irritants such as feathers, mold spores, animal dander (hair and skin shed by pets) or dust mites. It is often aggravated by a food allergy, the most common being an allergy to milk. Acute phase proteins (APP) belong to the most ancient part of the unspecific immunity and contribute markedly to the keeping of homeostasis. As much as 30 various proteins are for the moment regarded as APP. Being multifunctional regulators and effectors APP stay in multiple relations to practically all types of cells and molecules. Among APP following functional groups may be described: transport proteins (transferrin, ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin), clotting factors (fibrinogen), antiproteases (alpha1-antitrypsin, alpha1-antichymotrypsin, alpha2-macroglobulin), complement components (C3, C4) and several proteins of hardly known function, like C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A, acid alpha1-glycoprotein (AGP) and others. From a group of 32 children, aged from 5 to 14 years, with symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis, and from a control group of 10 healthy children sex and age matched

  13. Oxidative Status and Acute Phase Reactants in Patients with Environmental Asbestos Exposure and Mesothelioma

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    Cengizhan Sezgi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate inflammatory indicators and oxidative status in patients with asbestos exposure with and without mesothelioma and to compare results with data from healthy subjects. Methods. Eighty people with exposure to environmental asbestos and without any disease, 46 mesothelioma patients, and a control group of 50 people without exposure to environmental asbestos were enrolled in this prospective study. Serum total oxidant level (TOL, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, and oxidative stress index (OSI, CRP, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, α-1 antitrypsin, ferritin, and copper levels were measured. Results. Mesothelioma group exhibited higher TOL, OSI, α1-antitrypsin, ferritin and copper levels as compared to the other groups (P<0.001, P=0.007, P<0.0001, P<0.001, and P<0.001, resp.. Transferrin was lower in the mesothelioma group than in the other two groups (P<0.001. The asbestos group had higher TOL, TAC, α1-antitrypsin, and transferrin levels (P<0.001, P<0.001, P<0.001, and P<0.001, resp., as well as lower OSI and ferritin levels as compared to the control group (P<0.001 and P<0.001. Conclusions. We believe that elevated acute phase reactants and oxidative stress markers (TOL and OSI in the mesothelioma group can be used as predictive markers for the development of asbestos-related malignancy.

  14. Cord Blood Acute Phase Reactants Predict Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithal, Leena B; Palac, Hannah L; Yogev, Ram; Ernst, Linda M; Mestan, Karen K

    2017-01-01

    Early onset sepsis (EOS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants, yet diagnosis remains inadequate resulting in missed cases or prolonged empiric antibiotics with adverse consequences. Evaluation of acute phase reactant (APR) biomarkers in umbilical cord blood at birth may improve EOS detection in preterm infants with intrauterine infection. In this nested case-control study, infants (29.7 weeks gestation, IQR: 27.7-32.2) were identified from a longitudinal cohort with archived cord blood and placental histopathology. Patients were categorized using culture, laboratory, clinical, and antibiotic treatment data into sepsis groups: confirmed sepsis (cEOS, n = 12); presumed sepsis (PS, n = 30); and no sepsis (controls, n = 30). Nine APRs were measured in duplicate from cord blood using commercially available multiplex immunoassays (Bio-Plex Pro™). In addition, placental histopathologic data were linked to biomarker results. cEOS organisms were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Proteus mirabilis, Haemophilus influenzae and Listeria monocytogenes. C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid P and ferritin were significantly elevated in cEOS compared to controls (pacute inflammation was associated with APR elevation and was present in all cEOS, 9 PS, and 17 control infants. This study shows that certain APRs are elevated in cord blood of premature infants with EOS of intrauterine origin. SAA, CRP, and Hp at birth have potential diagnostic utility for risk stratification and identification of infants with EOS.

  15. [Various acute phase reactants in different types of proliferative diseases of the uterine appendages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorina, V N; Kozlov, I G; Tret'iakova, T V; Promzeleva, N V; Bazhenova, L G; Zorina, R M; Riabicheva, T G; Zorin, N A

    2009-10-01

    The authors examined serum in patients with ovarian cancer (OC; a disseminated process), ovarian cystadenoma (OCA), or external endometriosis (EM) before treatment and in apparently healthy females (a control) for the content of some acute-phase proteins and cytokines to clarify the specific features of changes in their concentrations in relation to the type of the proliferative process. It was shown that in OC, there were significant reductions in the levels of alpha2-macroglobulin (MG), plasmin (PL), alpha1-antitrypsin (AT) and statistically significantly increases in the content of lactoferrin (LF), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, Ig, and the regulatory transport complex of P--M. In M, the concentrations of AT were lower and those of IL-6, IL-8, and PL-MG were higher (to a lesser degree than those in OC). In OCA, the levels of MG and IgA were increased; those of IL-8 and PL-MG were decreased. The concentrations of interferon and IgM were unchanged in all groups. The findings suggest that difefrent proliferative processes initially provoke a number of changes of varying magnitude and even directions in the serum levels of inflammation reactants, which should be borne in mind when conducting clinical tests in the intraoperative and, probably, postoperative periods.

  16. Combined measurement of multiple acute phase reactants to predict relapse of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Fang; Song, Li-Jun; Li, Xing-Fu

    2015-09-01

    Acute phase reactants (APRs), such as serum C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, plasma fibrinogen and platelet count, are common biomarkers used to monitor the status of inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to determine whether APRs are predictive markers of relapse in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We analyzed forty RA patients in clinical remission (disease activity score [DAS28] < 2.6; baseline [t(0)]) or with low disease activity (DAS28 score ≤ 3.2; t(0)). The pre-existing therapeutic regimens were retained for each patient during a 4-week study period. APRs and patient characteristics were analyzed for normality of distribution by using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and correlations were assessed by Pearson's or Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. APR levels were found to be significantly correlated with DAS28 score of RA, and serum CRP was the most strongly correlated APR for both the clinical remission and high disease activity groups. For all APRs, the correlation strength paralleled the increase in disease activity. Measurement of multiple APRs in remission or low disease activity RA patients may predict relapse to active disease, thereby facilitating more timely clinical management and promoting efficacy of therapeutic intervention. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. The relationship between visfatin, liver inflammation, and acute phase reactants in chronic viral hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Enver; Akbal, Erdem; Koçak, Erdem; Akyürek, Ömer; Köklü, Seyfettin; Ekiz, Fuat; Yılmaz, Barış

    2016-09-01

    Chronic viral hepatitis B (CHB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Adipokine stimulation might play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum visfatin concentrations and the relationship between visfatin, fibrosis, liver inflammation, and acute phase reactants in CHB patients.The sampling universe of the study consisted of 41 CHB patients and 25 healthy controls. All patients had positive hepatitis B surface antigen (Hepatitis e antigen (HBeAg) positive n: 7, n: 34 HBeAg negative) for at least 6 months and detectable serum HBV DNA. Serum visfatin concentrations were significantly higher in the CHB patients [18.0 ± 10.9 ng dL(-1)] than in the healthy controls [9.4 ± 1.6 ng dL(-1)] [P < 0.001]. On the other hand, fibrinogen and haptoglobin concentrations were significantly lower in CHB patients. A strong negative correlation was observed between serum visfatin concentration, haptoglobin, and fibrinogen levels; however, there was no significant correlation between visfatin, glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, BMI, Knodell score, fibrosis score, hepatitis B virus DNA, sedimentation, and C-reactive protein. Visfatin concentrations were elevated and visfatin was negatively correlated with haptoglobin and fibrinogen levels in CHB patients.

  18. Acute-phase protein behavior in dairy cattle herd naturally infected with Trypanosoma vivax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Paulo Henrique; Fidelis Junior, Otavio Luiz; Marques, Luiz Carlos; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Barnabé, Patrícia de Athayde; André, Marcos Rogério; Balbuena, Tiago Santana; Cadioli, Fabiano Antonio

    2015-07-30

    Trypanosoma vivax is a hemoprotozoon that causes disease in cattle and is difficult to diagnose. The host-parasite relationship in cattle that are infected by T. vivax has only been poorly studied. In the present study, a total of 429 serum proteinograms were produced from naturally infected animals (NIF) and were compared with 50 samples from control animals (C). The total protein, IgA band, complement C3 β chain band, albumin band, antitrypsin band, IgG band, haptoglobin band, complement C3c α chain band and protein HP-20 band presented higher levels in the serum proteinograms of the NIF group. Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4, α2-macroglobulin, complement C6, ceruloplasmin, transferrin band and apolipoprotein A1 band presented lower levels in this group. There was no significant difference (pNIF and C groups. Acute phase proteins may be useful for understanding the host-parasite relationship, since the antitrypsin band was only present in the NIF group. This can be used as an indicator for infection in cattle that are naturally infected by T. vivax. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of the Effects of Honey on Acute-Phase Deep Burn Wounds

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    Yukari Nakajima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the effects of honey on acute-phase deep burn wounds. Two deep burn wounds were created on mice which were divided into four groups: no treatment, silver sulfadiazine, manuka honey, and Japanese acacia honey. Wound sizes were calculated as expanded wound areas and sampled 30 minutes and 1–4 days after wounding for histological observation. The wound sections were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistological staining to detect necrotic cells, apoptotic cells, neutrophils, and macrophages. The no treatment group formed a scar. The redness around the wound edges in the silver sulfadiazine group was the most intense. All groups exhibited increased wound areas after wounding. The proportions of necrotic cells and the numbers of neutrophils in the manuka and acacia honey groups were lower than those in the no treatment and silver sulfadiazine groups until day 3; however, there were no significant differences between all groups on day 4. These results show that honey treatment on deep burn wounds cannot prevent wound progression. Moreover, comparing our observations with those of Jackson, there are some differences between humans and animals in this regard, and the zone of hyperemia and its surrounding area fall into necrosis, which contributes to burn wound progression.

  20. Evaluation of acute phase proteins in cows affected by Traumatic Reticuloperitonitis

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    Ali Rezaei

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic Reticuloperitonitis is one of the most important diseases of the bovine digestive system which if diagnosed in early stage and before severe adhesions develop, more effective treatments leading to better prognosis could be under taken. In the course of accurate and timely diagnosis                            of these diseases, acute phase proteins of the affected animals were evaluated. For this purpose,                       blood samples were taken form jugular vein of 25 Holstein cows in which the presence of disease         clinically and confirmed with laparatomy and their sera separated. Blood sample were also collected from 20 healthy cows as the control group. After preparing serum sample, total protein haptoglobin, serum amyloid A and ceruloplasmin were measured in both groups. Total protein was determined by the Biuret method, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A by ELISA and ceruloplasmin through determination of the oxidative activity. Statistical analysis indicated significant difference in the amounts of total protein, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A between the two groups (p

  1. Neuroprotective effect of progesterone on acute phase changes induced by partial global cerebral ischaemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Raman; Medhi, Bikash; Pathak, Ashis; Dhawan, Veena; Chakrabarti, Amitava

    2008-06-01

    The possible neuroprotective effect of progesterone, a steroid hormone, on acute phase changes in a mouse model of cerebral ischaemia induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) was studied. A total of 72 male mice were included in the study. The BCAO model was used to induce partial global cerebral ischaemia. Morphological assessment included measurement of infarct size and brain oedema. Post-ischaemic seizure susceptibility was assessed using a subconvulsive dose of pentylenetetrazole (30 mgkg(-1) i.p.). Biochemical estimations included tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels and enzyme parameters such as lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and protein estimation. BCAO induced a significant infarct size and oedema in the saline-treated control group, along with an increase in oxidative stress, indicated by increased lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Progesterone (15 mgkg(-1) i.p.) administration showed a neuro-protective effect by significantly reducing the cerebral infarct size as compared with the control group. Post-ischaemic seizure susceptibility was also reduced as the number of positive responders decreased. Brain oedema subsided, but not significantly. Progesterone significantly reduced TNF-alpha levels compared with the ischaemia group. Progesterone improved levels of all the antioxidants, indicating activity against oxidative stress induced by BCAO. The results demonstrate the neuroprotective effect of progesterone against ischaemic insult, suggesting a role for the steroid as a neuroprotective agent.

  2. Professional Soccer Player Neuromuscular Responses and Perceptions to Acute Whole Body Vibration Differ from Amateur Counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloak, Ross; Lane, Andrew; Wyon, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Acute whole body vibration (WBV) is an increasingly popular training technique amongst athletes immediately prior to performance and during scheduled breaks in play. Despite its growing popularity, evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness on acute neuromuscular responses is unclear, and suggestions that athlete ability impacts effectiveness warrant further investigation. The purpose of this study was to compare the neuromuscular effects of acute WBV and perceptions of whether WBV is an effective intervention between amateur and professional soccer players. Participants were 44 male soccer players (22 professional and 22 amateur; age: 23.1 ± 3.7 years, body mass: 75.6 ± 8.8 kg and height: 1.77 ± 0.05 m). Participants in each group were randomly assigned to either an intervention of 3 x 60 s of WBV at 40 Hz (8mm peak-to-peak displacement) or control group. Peak knee isometric force, muscle activation and post activation potentiation (PAP) of the knee extensors along with self-report questionnaire of the perceived benefits of using the intervention were collected. A three-way ANOVA with repeated measures revealed professional players demonstrated a significant 10.6% increase (p amateur players. A significant difference (p amateur players were reported across measurements. Results also indicated professional players reported significantly stronger positive beliefs in the effectiveness of the WBV intervention (p amateur players. Acute WBV elicited a positive neuromuscular response amongst professional players identified by PAP and improvements in knee isometric peak force as well as perceived benefits of the intervention, benefits not found among amateur players. Key pointsAcute WBV improves knee extensor peak isometric force output and PAP amongst professional and not amateur soccer playersProfessional players perceived acute WBV as more beneficial to performance than amateur playersIsometric strength,vibration intensity and duration appear to influence results

  3. Acute inflammatory responses of nanoparticles in an intra-tracheal instillation rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstead, Andrea L; Minarchick, Valerie C; Porter, Dale W; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; Li, Bingyun

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to hard metal tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) "dusts" in enclosed industrial environments is known to contribute to the development of hard metal lung disease and an increased risk for lung cancer. Currently, the influence of local and systemic inflammation on disease progression following WC-Co exposure remains unclear. To better understand the relationship between WC-Co nanoparticle (NP) exposure and its resultant effects, the acute local pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses caused by WC-Co NPs were explored using an intra-tracheal instillation (IT) model and compared to those of CeO2 (another occupational hazard) NP exposure. Sprague-Dawley rats were given an IT dose (0-500 μg per rat) of WC-Co or CeO2 NPs. Following 24-hr exposure, broncho-alveolar lavage fluid and whole blood were collected and analyzed. A consistent lack of acute local pulmonary inflammation was observed in terms of the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid parameters examined (i.e. LDH, albumin, and macrophage activation) in animals exposed to WC-Co NP; however, significant acute pulmonary inflammation was observed in the CeO2 NP group. The lack of acute inflammation following WC-Co NP exposure contrasts with earlier in vivo reports regarding WC-Co toxicity in rats, illuminating the critical role of NP dose and exposure time and bringing into question the potential role of impurities in particle samples. Further, we demonstrated that WC-Co NP exposure does not induce acute systemic effects since no significant increase in circulating inflammatory cytokines were observed. Taken together, the results of this in vivo study illustrate the distinct differences in acute local pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses to NPs composed of WC-Co and CeO2; therefore, it is important that the outcomes of pulmonary exposure to one type of NPs may not be implicitly extrapolated to other types of NPs.

  4. Acute Inflammatory Responses of Nanoparticles in an Intra-Tracheal Instillation Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstead, Andrea L.; Minarchick, Valerie C.; Porter, Dale W.; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.; Li, Bingyun

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to hard metal tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) “dusts” in enclosed industrial environments is known to contribute to the development of hard metal lung disease and an increased risk for lung cancer. Currently, the influence of local and systemic inflammation on disease progression following WC-Co exposure remains unclear. To better understand the relationship between WC-Co nanoparticle (NP) exposure and its resultant effects, the acute local pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses caused by WC-Co NPs were explored using an intra-tracheal instillation (IT) model and compared to those of CeO2 (another occupational hazard) NP exposure. Sprague-Dawley rats were given an IT dose (0-500 μg per rat) of WC-Co or CeO2 NPs. Following 24-hr exposure, broncho-alveolar lavage fluid and whole blood were collected and analyzed. A consistent lack of acute local pulmonary inflammation was observed in terms of the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid parameters examined (i.e. LDH, albumin, and macrophage activation) in animals exposed to WC-Co NP; however, significant acute pulmonary inflammation was observed in the CeO2 NP group. The lack of acute inflammation following WC-Co NP exposure contrasts with earlier in vivo reports regarding WC-Co toxicity in rats, illuminating the critical role of NP dose and exposure time and bringing into question the potential role of impurities in particle samples. Further, we demonstrated that WC-Co NP exposure does not induce acute systemic effects since no significant increase in circulating inflammatory cytokines were observed. Taken together, the results of this in vivo study illustrate the distinct differences in acute local pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses to NPs composed of WC-Co and CeO2; therefore, it is important that the outcomes of pulmonary exposure to one type of NPs may not be implicitly extrapolated to other types of NPs. PMID:25738830

  5. A multicenter phase I/II study of obatoclax mesylate administered as a 3- or 24-hour infusion in older patients with previously untreated acute myeloid leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D Schimmer

    Full Text Available An open-label phase I/II study of single-agent obatoclax determined a maximum tolerated dose (MTD and schedule, safety, and efficacy in older patients (≥ 70 yr with untreated acute myeloid leukemia (AML.Phase I evaluated the safety of obatoclax infused for 3 hours on 3 consecutive days (3 h × 3 d in 2-week cycles. Initial obatoclax dose was 30 mg/day (3 h × 3 d; n = 3. Obatoclax was increased to 45 mg/day (3 h × 3 d if ≤ 1 patient had a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT and decreased to 20 mg/day (3 h × 3 d if DLT occurred in ≥ 2 patients. In the phase II study, 12 patients were randomized to receive obatoclax at the dose identified during phase I (3 h × 3 d or 60 mg/day administered by continuous infusion over 24 hours for 3 days (24 h × 3 d to determine the morphologic complete response rate.In phase I, two of three patients receiving obatoclax 30 mg/day (3 h × 3 d experienced grade 3 neurologic DLTs (confusion, ataxia, and somnolence. Obatoclax was decreased to 20 mg/day (3 h × 3 d. In phase II, no clinically relevant safety differences were observed between the 20 mg/day (3 h × 3 d; n = 7 and 60 mg/day (24 h × 3 d; n = 5 arms. Neurologic and psychiatric adverse events were most common and were generally transient and reversible. Complete response was not achieved in any patient.Obatoclax 20 mg/day was the MTD (3 h × 3 d in older patients with AML. In the schedules tested, single-agent obatoclax was not associated with an objective response. Evaluation in additional subgroups or in combination with other chemotherapy modalities may be considered for future study.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00684918.

  6. A multicenter phase I/II study of obatoclax mesylate administered as a 3- or 24-hour infusion in older patients with previously untreated acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmer, Aaron D; Raza, Azra; Carter, Thomas H; Claxton, David; Erba, Harry; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Tallman, Martin S; Goard, Carolyn; Borthakur, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    An open-label phase I/II study of single-agent obatoclax determined a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and schedule, safety, and efficacy in older patients (≥ 70 yr) with untreated acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Phase I evaluated the safety of obatoclax infused for 3 hours on 3 consecutive days (3 h × 3 d) in 2-week cycles. Initial obatoclax dose was 30 mg/day (3 h × 3 d; n = 3). Obatoclax was increased to 45 mg/day (3 h × 3 d) if ≤ 1 patient had a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and decreased to 20 mg/day (3 h × 3 d) if DLT occurred in ≥ 2 patients. In the phase II study, 12 patients were randomized to receive obatoclax at the dose identified during phase I (3 h × 3 d) or 60 mg/day administered by continuous infusion over 24 hours for 3 days (24 h × 3 d) to determine the morphologic complete response rate. In phase I, two of three patients receiving obatoclax 30 mg/day (3 h × 3 d) experienced grade 3 neurologic DLTs (confusion, ataxia, and somnolence). Obatoclax was decreased to 20 mg/day (3 h × 3 d). In phase II, no clinically relevant safety differences were observed between the 20 mg/day (3 h × 3 d; n = 7) and 60 mg/day (24 h × 3 d; n = 5) arms. Neurologic and psychiatric adverse events were most common and were generally transient and reversible. Complete response was not achieved in any patient. Obatoclax 20 mg/day was the MTD (3 h × 3 d) in older patients with AML. In the schedules tested, single-agent obatoclax was not associated with an objective response. Evaluation in additional subgroups or in combination with other chemotherapy modalities may be considered for future study. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00684918.

  7. Analysis of the phase 3 ESTABLISH trials of tedizolid versus linezolid in acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorr, Andrew F; Lodise, Thomas P; Corey, G Ralph; De Anda, Carisa; Fang, Edward; Das, Anita F; Prokocimer, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    Tedizolid, a novel oxazolidinone with activity against a wide range of Gram-positive pathogens, was evaluated in two noninferiority phase 3 acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection trials. The data from individual trials showed its noninferior efficacy compared to that of linezolid and a favorable tolerability profile. To evaluate potential differences, the pooled data were analyzed. The patients received 200 mg of tedizolid once daily for 6 days or 600 mg of linezolid twice daily for 10 days. Efficacy was evaluated at 48 to 72 h (primary endpoint), on days 11 to 13 (end of therapy [EOT]), and 7 to 14 days after the EOT (posttherapy evaluation). Treatment-emergent adverse events and hematologic and clinical laboratory parameters were collected. The baseline characteristics were comparable between the treatment groups: 852/1,333 (64%) patients were from North America, and the majority of infections were caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Tedizolid was noninferior to linezolid (early clinical responses, 81.6% versus 79.4%, respectively). The early responses remained relatively consistent across various host/disease factors and severity measures. Nausea was the most frequently reported adverse event (tedizolid, 8.2%; linezolid, 12.2%; P=0.02), with onset occurring primarily during the first 6 days. Fewer tedizolid than linezolid patients had platelet counts of tedizolid, 4.9%; linezolid, 10.8%; P=0.0003) and during the postbaseline period through the last day of active drug visit (tedizolid, 6.4%; linezolid, 12.6%; P=0.0016). Efficacy was achieved with a 6-day once-daily course of therapy with the option of an intravenous/oral regimen, and fewer low platelet counts and gastrointestinal side effects were reported with tedizolid than with linezolid, all of which aligns well with antimicrobial stewardship principles. (These studies have been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01170221 and NCT01421511.). Copyright © 2015, American Society

  8. Does Fasciola hepatica infection modify the response of acute hepatitis C virus infection to IFN-α treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet; Isler, Mehmet; Senol, Altug; Demirci, Mustafa; Aydın, Zeynep Dilek

    2005-01-01

    Immunologic response to acute hepatitis C is mainly a Th1 response, whereas fasciolopsiasis is associated with a diverse T-cell response. Interferon-alpha has immunomodulatory effects and enhances Th1 immune response. Fasciola infection could theoretically interfere with the Th1 immune response, even when acquired after an initial response to interferon-alpha treatment for acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We report here the case of a male patient who acquired Fasciola hepatica infection after an initial response to IFN-alpha therapy with a favorable outcome PMID:16437701

  9. The mortality and response rate after FLANG regimen in patients with refractory/relapsed acute leukemia

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    Vali A Mehrzad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oncologists today are greatly concerned about the treatment of relapsed/refractory acute leukemia. FLANG regimen, combination of novantron, cytarabine, fludarabine, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, has been used in treatment of refractory/relapsed acute leukemia since 1990s. The present study has evaluated mortality and response rate of this regimen. Materials and Methods: In this study, 25 patients with refractory/relapsed acute leukemia aged 15-55 years underwent FLANG regimen at Seyed-Al-Shohada Hospital, Isfahan, Iran during 2008-2009. One month later, bone marrow samples were taken to evaluate the responsiveness to treatment. Participants were followed for a year. The data was analyzed by student-t and chi-square tests, logistic, and Cox regression analysis, and Kaplan-Meier curves in SPSS 19. Results: Out of the 25 patients, 8 patients (32% had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (5 refractory and 3 relapsed cases and 17 subjects had acute myeloid leukemia (7 refractory and 10 relapsed cases. According to the bone marrow biopsies taken one month after FLANG regimen, 10 patients (40% had responded to treatment. Five patients of the 10 responders underwent successful bone marrow transplantation (BMT. On the other hand, 13 patients (52%, who had not entered the CR period, died during the follow-up. Logistic regression analysis did not reveal any significant associations between disease type and responsiveness to treatment. Conclusion: This study indicated higher rates of unresponsiveness to treatment while its mortality rate was comparable with other studies. Overall, according to limitations for BMT (as the only chance for cure in Iran, it seems that FLANG therapy is an acceptable choice for these patients.

  10. How easy is it to contact the duty medical doctor responsible for acute admissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhai, A; Goodman, F; Juchniewichz, H; Martin, A; Porter, G; White, C; Williams, L; Hopkins, A

    1990-09-15

    To ascertain ease or difficulty of contacting duty junior doctors responsible for acute medical admissions by telephone. Telephone survey of hospitals in six health regions in England and Wales. 70 Randomly selected hospitals, 15 of which were excluded because of non-acceptance of acute medical admissions. 71 Duty doctors (duty house physicians, senior house officers, or registrars responsible for acute medical admissions) in 48 hospitals; seven duty doctors in seven hospitals were excluded (four declined to participate and three required a written explanation of the survey). 67 Doctors gave full information to all questions. Time taken for hospital switchboards and duty doctors to reply to telephone call, diagnoses of patients recently admitted, and on call rotas and hours of sleep of duty doctors. Hospital switchboards responded within 30 seconds in 87 (74%) calls, and in 76 calls (64%) the duty doctor requested was contacted within a further two minutes. Chest pain, possibly due to myocardial infarction, was the most common reason for acute medical admissions. Nearly half (48%) of the duty doctors in larger hospitals reported having 4-5 hours sleep or less on their nights on call. Most (30) were on a one in three rota; two were on a one in two rota. Despite impressions to the contrary contacting the duty medical team by telephone seemed fairly easy. Although most junior doctors were on a rota of one in three or better, insufficient recognition may be given to their deprivation of sleep during nights on duty.

  11. Effects of age on metabolic responses to acute and chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odio, M R; Brodish, A

    1988-05-01

    The effect of age on the capacity of an organism to mobilize glucose and free fatty acids during stress and to adapt these responses from an acute to a chronic stress situation is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine whether aging impaired the capacity to 1) raise glucose and free fatty acid levels and suppress insulin release in acute stress situations and 2) develop adaptation of these responses to exposure to chronic stress. Our results indicate that 6-mo-old rats (young) trained to escape electric shock (short-term modulation) showed greater acute stress-induced hyperglycemic, hypoinsulinemic, and lipolytic responses than untrained young rats. By contrast, in 22-mo-old rats (old), responses of trained and untrained animals were not different. In the chronic stress (long-term adaptation) experiments, it was found that 1) adaptation of stress-induced hyperglycemia occurred at a faster rate in young than in old animals; 2) in young but not in aged rats, a strong positive correlation was observed between adaptation of stress-induced hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia; and 3) in young rats, stress-induced lipolytic responses declined proportionately to the duration of chronic stress exposure, whereas by contrast in chronically stressed aged rats steady-state levels of free fatty acids were not raised during exposure to stress. Thus we conclude that 1) glucose intolerance may play a key role in the altered stress-induced metabolic responses of aged rats; 2) with age, there is a loss of plasticity in physiological adaptive response mechanisms associated with metabolic responses to stress.

  12. Critical role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor-1 phosphorylation in regulating acute responses to PTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Akira; Okazaki, Makoto; Baron, David M.; Dean, Thomas; Khatri, Ashok; Mahon, Mathew; Segawa, Hiroko; Abou-Samra, Abdul B.; Jüppner, Harald; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Potts, John T.; Gardella, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Agonist-induced phosphorylation of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor 1 (PTHR1) regulates receptor signaling in vitro, but the role of this phosphorylation in vivo is uncertain. We investigated this role by injecting “knock-in” mice expressing a phosphorylation-deficient (PD) PTHR1 with PTH ligands and assessing acute biologic responses. Following injection with PTH (1–34), or with a unique, long-acting PTH analog, PD mice, compared with WT mice, exhibited enhanced increases in cAMP levels in the blood, as well as enhanced cAMP production and gene expression responses in bone and kidney tissue. Surprisingly, however, the hallmark hypercalcemic and hypophosphatemic responses were markedly absent in the PD mice, such that paradoxical hypocalcemic and hyperphosphatemic responses were observed, quite strikingly with the long-acting PTH analog. Spot urine analyses revealed a marked defect in the capacity of the PD mice to excrete phosphate, as well as cAMP, into the urine in response to PTH injection. This defect in renal excretion was associated with a severe, PTH-induced impairment in glomerular filtration, as assessed by the rate of FITC-inulin clearance from the blood, which, in turn, was explainable by an overly exuberant systemic hypotensive response. The overall findings demonstrate the importance in vivo of PTH-induced phosphorylation of the PTHR1 in regulating acute ligand responses, and they serve to focus attention on mechanisms that underlie the acute calcemic response to PTH and factors, such as blood phosphate levels, that influence it. PMID:23533279

  13. Psychophysical estimates of cochlear phase response: masking by harmonic complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, J J; Leek, M R

    2001-12-01

    Harmonic complexes with identical component frequencies and amplitudes but different phase spectra may be differentially effective as maskers. Such harmonic waveforms, constructed with positive or negative Schroeder phases, have similar envelopes and identical long-term power spectra, but the positive Schroeder-phase waveform is typically a less effective masker than the negative Schroeder-phase waveform. These masking differences have been attributed to an interaction between the masker phase spectrum and the phase characteristic of the basilar membrane. To explore this relationship, the gradient of stimulus phase change across masker bandwidth was varied by systematically altering the Schroeder-phase algorithm. Observers detected a signal tone added in-phase to a single component of a masker whose frequencies ranged from 200 to 5000 Hz, with a fundamental frequency of 100 Hz. For signal frequencies of 1000-4000 Hz, differences in masking across the harmonic complexes could be as large as 5-10 dB for phase gradients changing by only 10%. The phase gradient that resulted in a minimum amount of masking varied with signal frequency, with low frequencies masked least effectively by stimuli with rapidly changing component phases and high frequencies masked by stimuli with more shallow phase gradients. A gammachirp filter was implemented to model these results, predicting the qualitative changes in curvature of the phase-byfrequency function estimated from the empirical data: In some cases, small modifications to the gammachirp filter produced better quantitative predictions of curvature changes across frequency, but this filter, as implemented here, was unable to accurately represent all the data.

  14. Minimax passband group delay nonlinear FIR filter design without imposing desired phase response

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Charlotte Yuk-Fan; Ling, Wing-Kuen; Dam, Hai Huyen; Yeo, Kok-Lay

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear phase finite impulse response (FIR) filter is designed without imposing a desired phase response. The maximum passband group delay of the filter is minimized subject to a positivity constraint on the passband group delay response of the filter as well as a specification on the maximum absolute difference between the desired magnitude square response and the designed magnitude square response over both the passband and the stopband. This filter design problem is a no...

  15. Influência da resposta inflamatória de fase aguda nos níveis séricos de retinol e da proteína de ligação do retinol em pacientes com AIDS Influence of acute-phase inflammatory response on serum levels of retinol and retinol binding protein in HIV/AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Fernandes Neves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a hiporretinolemia constitui fator prognóstico independente em pacientes com AIDS, e a atividade inflamatória causa redução dos níveis séricos deste nutriente na população em geral. Entretanto, faltam estudos que avaliem o impacto da atividade inflamatória sobre o nível sérico do retinol em pacientes com AIDS. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados transversalmente 41 pacientes internados por complicações da AIDS, que tiveram quantificados alguns marcadores de inflamação (proteína C reativa e fator de necrose tumoral alfa e concentrações séricas de retinol e da proteína de ligação do retinol. RESULTADOS: apesar da baixa (14,6% prevalência de hiporretinolemia evidenciou-se correlação negativa dos marcadores de inflamação com os níveis séricos de retinol e de sua proteína de ligação nos pacientes com AIDS. CONCLUSÕES: a atividade inflamatória de fase aguda está associada a baixos níveis séricos de retinol em indivíduos com AIDS.INTRODUCTION: Hyporetinolemia is an independent prognostic factor in AIDS patients. Inflammatory activity causes a reduction in the serum levels of this nutrient in the general population. However, there are no studies assessing the impact of inflammatory activity on the serum retinol level in AIDS patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional assessment was conducted on 41 patients hospitalized due to AIDS complications. Inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and serum retinol and retinol binding protein concentrations were quantified. RESULTS: Despite the low (14.6% prevalence of hyporetinolemia, a significant negative correlation was observed between the inflammatory markers and the serum retinol and retinol binding protein levels in AIDS patients. CONCLUSIONS: Acute-phase inflammatory activity is associated with low serum retinol levels in individuals with AIDS.

  16. Comparing the Levels of Acute-Phase Reactants Between Smoker and Nonsmoker Diabetic Patients: More Predicted Risk for Cardiovascular Diseases in Smoker Compared to Nonsmoker Diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei-Adl, Sepideh; Ghahroudi Tali, Arash; Saffar, Hiva; Rajabiani, Afsaneh; Abdollahi, Alireza

    2017-09-01

     Due to a close link between cardiovascular disorders and increased acute phase responses, it is now proposed the relation of total sialic acid (TSA) and C Reactive Protein (CRP) as main components of acute phase proteins and cardiovascular risk profiles such as diabetes mellitus and smoking. We hypothesized that the elevation in the level of TSA along with other prototype acute phase reactants such as CRP is expected more in the coexistence of diabetes and smoking than in diabetes mellitus alone. Ninety diabetic patients were randomly selected and entered into this case-control study. Using block randomization method, the patients were randomly assigned into smokers (n=45) and nonsmokers (n=45). A group of ten healthy individuals was also included as the control. The serum levels of TSA, CRP, iron, and hemoglobin were measured by the specific techniques. Comparing laboratory parameters across the three groups indicated significantly higher levels of TSA and CRP in smoker diabetics as compared to non-smoker diabetics and the healthy controls, while there was no difference in other parameters including serum iron and hemoglobin. A significant positive correlation was also revealed between TCA and CRP (r=0.324, P=0.030), but no significant association was found between other parameters. In the background of smoking, increasing the level of both TSA and CRP is predicted more than the existence of diabetes mellitus alone. In fact, the increase in these biomarkers is more predictable in smoker than in nonsmoker diabetics. This finding emphasizes the increased risk for cardiovascular disorders in smoker compared to non-smoker diabetics.

  17. Impact of acute-phase complications and interventions on 6-month survival after stroke. A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, Antonio; Lamassa, Maria; Franceschini, Marco; Bovis, Francesca; Cecconi, Lorenzo; Pournajaf, Sanaz; Paravati, Stefano; Biggeri, Annibale; Inzitari, Domenico; Ferro, Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    The outcome of stroke patients is complex and multidimensional. We evaluated the impact of acute-phase variables, including clinical state, complications, resource use and interventions, on 6-month survival after first-ever stroke, taking into account baseline conditions exerting a possible effect on outcome. As part of a National Research Program, we performed a prospective observational study of acute stroke patients in four Italian Regions. Consecutive patients admitted for a period of 3 months to the emergency rooms of participating hospitals were included. A total of 1030 patients were enrolled (median age 76.0 years, 52.1% males). At 6 months, 816 (79.2%) were alive, and 164 (15.9%) deceased. Survival status at the 6-month follow-up was missing for 50 (4.9%). Neurological state in the acute phase was significantly worse in patients deceased at 6 months, who showed also higher frequency of acute-phase complications. Cox regression analysis adjusted for demographics, pre-stroke function, baseline diseases and risk factors, indicated as significant predictors of 6-month death altered consciousness (HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.14-2.53), total anterior circulation infarct (HR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.44-3.15), hyperthermia (HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.18-2.45), pneumonia (HR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.18-2.61), heart failure (HR, 2.87; 95% CI, 1.34-6.13) and nasogastric feeding (HR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.53-3.60), while antiplatelet therapy during acute phase (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.39-0.79), and early mobilisation (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.36-0.84) significantly increased 6-month survival. In a prospective observational study, stroke severity and some acute-phase complications, potentially modifiable, significantly increased the risk of 6-month death, independently of baseline variables. Early mobilisation positively affected survival, highlighting the role of early rehabilitation after stroke.

  18. Changes in Serum Acute Phase Reactants, Inflammatory Mediators and Gangliosides in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica with Retained Yolk Sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mosleh, S. Nazifi* and A. Alaeddini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two 2-week-old Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica with retained yolk sac have been assessed using validated standard procedures to quantify the serum concentration of the acute phase reactants (haptoglobin and serum amyloid A, inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, gamma interferon and gangliosides (total sialic acid, lipid bound sialic acid and protein bound sialic acid. The present findings show that the concentrations of all measured parameters in diseased birds were significantly higher than the control group. Inflammation following yolk sac infection/retention leads to stimulation of the synthesis of inflammatory mediators, acute phase reactants and gangliosides. Among the study variables, lipid bound sialic acid had the most obvious change, so it is the most sensitive parameter.

  19. Serum protein capillary electrophoresis and measurement of acute phase proteins in a captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Depauw, Sarah; Delanghe, Joris; Whitehouse-Tedd, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Renal and gastrointestinal pathologies are widespread in the captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population but are often diagnosed at a late stage, because diagnostic tools are limited to the evaluation of clinical signs or general blood examination. Presently, no data are available on serum...... proteins and acute-phase proteins in cheetahs during health or disease, although they might be important to improve health monitoring. This study aimed to quantify serum proteins by capillary electrophoresis in 80 serum samples from captive cheetahs, categorized according to health status and disease type....... Moreover, serum amyloid A concentrations were measured via a turbidimetric immunoassay validated in domestic cats, whereas haptoglobin and C-reactive protein were determined by non-species-specific functional tests. Cheetahs classified as healthy had serum protein and acute phase protein concentrations...

  20. Examination of the findings on 201Tl, 123I-BMIPP dual cardiac SPECT in acute phase of Kawasaki disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Yutaka; Ishizuka, Takehiro; Otabe, Hiroyuki; Kori, Takeo; Ota, Toshiko; Suzuki, Kazushige

    1999-01-01

    In 42 cases with acute phase of Kawasaki disease (3-27 days since pathopoiesis), 201 Tl, 123 I-BMIPP dual cardiac SPECT was performed and the reduction of the isotope-uptake was macroscopically assessed. On cardiac SPECT, 28 of 42 cases (67%), and 19 of 30 cases (63%) who were normal on electrocardiogram, echocardiogram and blood CK levels showed abnormal images. In a part of cases showing abnormal cardiac SPECT, coronary arteriography was performed, and constrictive lesions with more than 25% were not observed. In acute phase of Kawasaki disease, the risk of cardiac complication was thought to be low. But these results suggest that there are cardiac complications detectable by 201 Tl, 123 I-BMIPP dual cardiac SPECT. This cardiac lesions were thought to be intramyocardinal microangiitis or abnormal coronary micro circulation cased by myocarditis associating microangiitis. (K.H.)

  1. Acute phase and transport protein synthesis in simulated infection in undernourished men using uniformly labelled Spirulina Platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeds, P.J.; Opekun, A.; Jahoor, F.; Wong, W.W.; Klein, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    Although it has been known for many years that injury and infection lead to body nitrogen loss, the reason has remained obscure. In this paper, we develop the argument that the processes that are activated during infection demand the provision of specific amino acids which have to be supplied from body protein. In particular, we show that the positive acute phase proteins are very rich in the aromatic amino acids and the exaggerated use of these amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine) in acute phase protein synthesis lead to an endogenous ''amino acid imbalance'' which restricts the use of other amino acids for tissue protein synthesis. Minimally invasive protocols, involving the administration of 15 N and 13 C-labelled amino acids for studying whole body nitrogen turnover, amino acid oxidation and plasma protein synthesis are described. (author). 22 refs, 3 tabs

  2. Severe acute dehydration in a desert rodent elicits a transcriptional response that effectively prevents kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacManes, Matthew David

    2017-08-01

    Animals living in desert environments are forced to survive despite severe heat, intense solar radiation, and both acute and chronic dehydration. These animals have evolved phenotypes that effectively address these environmental stressors. To begin to understand the ways in which the desert-adapted rodent Peromyscus eremicus survives, reproductively mature adults were subjected to 72 h of water deprivation, during which they lost, on average, 23% of their body weight. The animals reacted via a series of changes in the kidney, which included modulating expression of genes responsible for reducing the rate of transcription and maintaining water and salt balance. Extracellular matrix turnover appeared to be decreased, and apoptosis was limited. In contrast to the canonical human response, serum creatinine and other biomarkers of kidney injury were not elevated, suggesting that changes in gene expression related to acute dehydration may effectively prohibit widespread kidney damage in the cactus mouse. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Evolution of IgG antibody response against Toxoplasma gondii tissue cyst in acute and chronic human infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita VILLAVEDRA

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The recognition profile of the tissue cysts antigens by IgG antibodies was studied during acute and chronic human toxoplasmic infection. Thus the IgG response against Toxoplasma gondii was investigated by immunoblotting in two patients accidentally infected with the RH strain as well as in group of naturally infected patients at acute and chronic phase. There was an overall coincidence of molecular mass among antigens of tachyzoites and tissue cysts recognized by these sera, however, they appear not to be the same molecules. The response against tissue cysts starts early during acute infection, and the reactivity of antibodies is strong against a wide range of antigens. Six bands (between 82 and 151 kDa were exclusively recognized by chronic phase sera but only the 132 kDa band was positive in more than 50% of the sera analysed. A mixture of these antigens could be used to discriminate between the two infection phases. The most important antigens recognized by the acute and the chronic phase sera were 4 clusters in the ranges 20-24 kDa, 34-39 kDa, 58-80 kDa and 105-130 kDa as well as two additional antigens of 18 and 29 kDa. Both accidentally infected patients and some of the naturally infected patients showed a weak specific response against tissue cyst antigens.O reconhecimento do perfil dos antígenos de cistos tissulares pelos anticorpos IgG foi estudado durante a infecção toxoplasmótica aguda e crônica. Assim a resposta de IgG contra Toxoplasma gondii foi investigada pelo "immunoblotting" em dois pacientes acidentalmente infectados com a variedade RH bem como em grupos de pacientes naturalmente infectados nas fases aguda e crônica. Houve uma coincidência global da massa molecular entre antígenos de taquizoitas e cistos tissulares reconhecidos por estes soros, todavia, eles parecem não ser as mesmas moléculas. A resposta contra cistos tissulares começa precocemente durante a infecção aguda e a reatividade de anticorpos é forte