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Sample records for acute phase response

  1. Normal Caloric Responses during Acute Phase of Vestibular Neuritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Uk; Park, Seong-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Koo, Ja-Won

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose We report a novel finding of caloric conversion from normal responses into unilateral paresis during the acute phase of vestibular neuritis (VN). Methods We recruited 893 patients with a diagnosis of VN at Dizziness Clinic of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from 2003 to 2014 after excluding 28 patients with isolated inferior divisional VN (n=14) and those without follow-up tests despite normal caloric responses initially (n=14). We retrospectively analyzed the neurotological findings in four (0.5%) of the patients who showed a conversion from initially normal caloric responses into unilateral paresis during the acute phase. Results In those four patients, the initial caloric tests were performed within 2 days of symptom onset, and conversion into unilateral caloric paresis was documented 1–4 days later. The clinical and laboratory findings during the initial evaluation were consistent with VN in all four patients except for normal findings in bedside head impulse tests in one of them. Conclusions Normal findings in caloric tests should be interpreted with caution during the acute phase of suspected VN. Follow-up evaluation should be considered when the findings of the initial caloric test are normal, but VN remains the most plausible diagnosis. PMID:26932259

  2. Acute exercise does not induce an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lena; Buhl, Rikke; Nostell, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether acute strenuous exercise (1600- to 2500-m race) would elicit an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters. Blood levels of several inflammatory markers [serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, fibrinogen, white blood cell count (WBC......), and iron], muscle enzymes [creatinine kinase (CK) and aspartate transaminase (AST)], and hemoglobin were assessed in 58 Standardbred trotters before and after racing. Hemoglobin levels increased and iron levels decreased 12 to 14 h after racing and haptoglobin concentrations, white blood cell counts......, and iron levels were decreased 2 and/or 7 d after racing. Concentrations of CK, AST, SAA, and fibrinogen were unaltered in response to racing. Acute strenuous exercise did not elicit an acute phase reaction. The observed acute increase in hemoglobin levels and decreases in haptoglobin and iron levels may...

  3. Acute phase protein response in the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Luis; Feser, Mariane; Martínez-Subiela, Silvia; García-Martínez, Juan D; Cerón, José J; Tecles, Fernando

    2011-10-01

    We evaluated the acute phase protein response in capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris). Three animal groups were used: 1) healthy animals (n=30), 2) a group in which experimental inflammation with turpentine was induced (n=6), and 3) a group affected with sarcoptic scabies (n=14) in which 10 animals were treated with ivermectin. Haptoglobin (Hp), acid-soluble glycoprotein (ASG) and albumin were analyzed in all animals. In those treated with turpentine, Hp reached its maximum value at 2 wk with a 2.7-fold increase, whereas ASG increased 1.75-fold and albumin decreased 0.87-fold 1 wk after the induction of inflammation. Capybaras affected with sarcoptic scabies presented increases in Hp and ASG of 4.98- and 3.18-fold, respectively, and a 0.87-fold decrease in albumin, compared with healthy animals. Haptoglobin and ASG can be considered as moderate, positive acute phase proteins in capybaras because they showed less than 10-fold increases after an inflammatory process and reached their peak concentrations 1 wk after the induction of inflammation. Conversely, albumin can be considered a negative acute phase protein in capybaras because it showed a reduction in concentration after inflammatory stimulus.

  4. Acute phase response in cattle infected with Anaplasma marginale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazifi, S; Razavi, S M; Kaviani, F; Rakhshandehroo, E

    2012-03-23

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the acute phase responses via the assessment of the concentration of serum sialic acids (total, lipid bound and protein bound), inflammatory mediators (IFN-γ and TNF-α) and acute phase proteins (Hp and SAA) in 20 adult crossbred cattle naturally infected by Anaplasma marginale. The infected animals were divided into 2 subgroups on the basis of parasitemia rate (20%). Also, as a control group, 10 clinically healthy cattle from the same farms were sampled. Our data revealed significant decreases in red blood cell count (RBC), hematocrite (PCV) and hemoglobine (Hb) in infected cattle compared to healthy ones. Conversely, the concentrations of Hp, SAA, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen, serum sialic acids and the circulatory IFN-γ and TNF-α were increased in the diseased cattle (P<0.05). In addition, it was evident that the progression of parasitemia in infected cattle did not induce any significant alterations in the hematological indices (RBCs, PCV and Hb) and the concentrations of Hp, SAA, ceruloplasmin and fibrinogen. SAA was the most sensitive factor to change in the diseased cattle. Therefore, increase in SAA concentration may be a good indicator of inflammatory process in cattle naturally infected with Anaplasma marginale.

  5. Acute phase proteins response to feed deprivation in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, P; Zulkifli, I; Soleimani, A F; Goh, Y M

    2016-04-01

    Feed deprivation in poultry farming imposes some degree of stress to the birds, and adversely affects their well -being. Serum levels of acute phase proteins (APP) are potential physiological indicators of stress attributed to feed deprivation. However, it has not been determined how long it takes for a measurable APP response to stressors to occur in avian species. An experiment was designed to delineate the APP and circulating levels of corticosterone responses in commercial broiler chickens to feed deprivation for 30 h. It was hypothesized that feed deprivation would elicit both APP and corticosterone (CORT) reactions within 30 h that is probably associated with stress of hunger. Twenty-one day old birds were subjected to one of 5 feed deprivation periods: 0 (ad libitum, AL), 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 h. Upon completion of the deprivation period, blood samples were collected to determine serum CORT, ovotransferrin (OVT), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), and ceruloplasmin (CP) concentrations. Results showed that feed deprivation for 24 h or more caused a marked elevation in CORT (P=0.002 and Pstressful condition than CORT response in assessing the well-being of broiler chickens.

  6. Reduced complement activation during cardiopulmonary bypass does not affect the postoperative acute phase response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Goor, J.; Nieuwland, R.; van den Brink, A.; van Oeveren, W.; Rutten, 27818; Tijssen, J.; Eijsman, L.; Rutten, P

    2004-01-01

    Objective: In the present study the relationship was evaluated between perioperative inflammation and the postoperative acute phase response in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) assisted by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). CPB circuits contained either non-coated-

  7. Acute-Phase Inflammatory Response in Idiopathic Sudden Deafness: Pathogenic Implications

    OpenAIRE

    López-González, Miguel A.; Antonio Abrante; Carmen López-Lorente; Antonio Gómez; Emilio Domínguez; Francisco Esteban

    2012-01-01

    The acute-phase inflammatory response in the peripheral bloodstream can be an expression of transient cerebral ischaemia in idiopathic sudden deafness. For this, a neurological and otorhinolaryngological examination of each patient, performing tests on audiometry, and tympanometry, haemogram, and cranial magnetic resonance were performed. The acute-phase inflammatory response manifests as an increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio that is detected 48–72 hours after the appearance of sudden deaf...

  8. Local and disseminated acute phase response during bacterial respiratory infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2010-01-01

    The acute phase response is playing an important role, aiming to restore the healthy state after tissue injury, inflammation and infection. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other parts of innate defense reactions remain somewhat elusive. Expression of acute phase pr......-types in the organism are involved in production of APP and further supports that extrahepatic APP might be important players of the innate defence system....

  9. The porcine acute phase protein response to acute clinical and subclinical experimental infection with Streptococcus suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nanna Skall; Tegtmeier, C.; Andresen, Lars Ole;

    2006-01-01

    and apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I. The aim was to elucidate the differences in the acute phase behaviour of the individual APPs during a typical bacterial septicaemic, infection. Pigs were inoculated subcutaneously with live S. suis serotype 2 and blood was sampled before and on various days post inoculation (p...... the experiment with maximum levels around 10 times the day 0-levels, and pig-MAP was elevated on days 1-12 p.i. with peak levels of around seven times the day 0-levels. Apo A-I was decreased from days 1 to 8 and showed minimum levels of about 40% of day 0-levels around 1-2 days p.i. No clear pattern of changes...... signs and no arthritic lesions showed an APP response comparable to that of the other, clinically affected pigs. Thus, both acute clinical and subclinical S. suis infection could be revealed by the measurement of one or more of the APPs CRP, SAA, Hp, pig-MAP and Apo A-I. The combined measurement of two...

  10. Long-term ethanol exposure decreases the endotoxin-induced hepatic acute phase response in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glavind, Emilie; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Grønbaek, Henning

    2017-01-01

    -fed rats showed either no liver histopathological changes or varying degrees of steatosis. Ethanol feeding decreased the spontaneous liver mRNA expression of the prevailing acute phase protein alpha-2-macroglobulin by 30% (Ptumor necrosis factor...... an induced acute phase response is impaired in long-term ethanol-fed rats. METHODS: For six weeks, rats were either fed a Lieber-DeCarli ethanol-containing (36% as calories) liquid diet ad libitum or calorically pair-fed. Then, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with a low-dose of lipopolysaccharide...... (LPS) (0.5 mg/kg) to induce an acute phase response. Two hours after LPS, we measured the plasma concentrations of an array of inflammatory cytokines. Twenty-four hours after LPS, we measured the hepatic mRNA expression and serum concentrations of prominent rat acute phase proteins. RESULTS: Ethanol...

  11. Effects of anabolic steroids on acute phase responses in intra-abdominal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mealy

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute phase response is an important adaptive response to sepsis and injury. As anabolic steroids increase protein synthesis we postulated that these agents might also increase hepatic acute phase protein synthesis. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with testosterone or danazol for 48 h prior to caecal ligation and puncture (CLP. Thirty-six h following surgery the animals were killed and blood taken for full blood count, total protein, albumin, α, β and γ globulin fractions on serum electrophoresis, complement C3 and transferrin levels. Danazol increased the α1, α2 and β1 globulin serum protein fractions in comparison with no surgery and CLP alone groups. These results indicate that danazol increases plasma acute phase proteins, as measured by electrophoresis, in this model of intra-abdominal sepsis.

  12. The effects of grain-induced subactue ruminal acidosis on interleukin-6 and acute phase response in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shucong; Danscher, Anne Mette; Andersen, Pia Haubro

    2014-01-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) resulting from excessive grain feeding to dairy cows is accompanied by an acute phase response. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) has been proposed as a mediator of this response. We tested if the acute phase response associated with grain-induced SARA is mediated by IL-6. Six...

  13. In Utero Exposure to Lipopolysaccharide Alters the Postnatal Acute Phase Response in Beef Heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine the potential effect of prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure on the postnatal acute phase response (APR) to an LPS challenge in heifers. Pregnant crossbred cows (n = 50) were separated into prenatal immune stimulation (PIS; n = 25; administered 0.1 microgr...

  14. Modulation of the acute phase response in feedlot steers supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of supplementing feedlot steers with Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1079 (SC) on the acute phase response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Steers (n = 18; 266 ± 4 kilograms body weight) were separated into three treatment groups (n = 6/treatm...

  15. Anti-CD163-dexamethasone conjugate inhibits the acute phase response to lipopolysaccharide in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Karen Louise; Møller, Holger Jon; Graversen, Jonas Heilskov

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of a new anti-CD163-dexamethasone conjugate targeting activated macrophages on the hepatic acute phase response in rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were injected intravenous with either the CD163 targeted dexamethasone-conjugate (0.02 mg/kg) or free dexamethasone (0.02 or 1 mg/...... the hepatic acute phase response to LPS. This indicates an anti-inflammatory potential of the conjugate in vivo.......AIM: To study the effect of a new anti-CD163-dexamethasone conjugate targeting activated macrophages on the hepatic acute phase response in rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were injected intravenous with either the CD163 targeted dexamethasone-conjugate (0.02 mg/kg) or free dexamethasone (0.02 or 1 mg....../kg) 24 h prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (2.5 mg/kg intraperitoneal). We measured plasma concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) 2 h post-LPS and liver mRNAs and serum concentrations of the rat acute phase protein α-2-macroglobulin (α-2-M) 24 h after LPS. Also...

  16. The bovine acute phase response to endotoxin and Gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine

    The overall aims of the work presented in this thesis were to characterize bovine cytokine and acute phase protein (APP) responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to investigate how LPS-induced clinical and immunoinflammatory responses differed between individual cows. Two kinds of experimental...... from the udder. APP measurements in milk may therefore have great potential as mastitis diagnostics. Milk and plasma SAA concentrations seemed to be higher in cows with severe mastitis than in cows with moderate or mild mastitis, which suggests that SAA levels reflect severity of udder infection (Paper...... the pathogenesis of bovine acute phase response and the biologically relevant functions of central reactants such as cytokines and APPs. Cytokines are known to induce pathophysiological changes and SAA and haptoglobin have also been suggested to be important modulators of the inflammatory response. Success...

  17. Pharm GKB: Acute-Phase Reaction [PharmGKB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Overview Alternate Names: Synonym Acute Phase Reaction; Acute Phase State; Acute-Phase Response; Acute...-Phase State; Reaction, Acute Phase; Reaction, Acute-Phase; Response, Acute Phase; Response, Acute...-Phase; State, Acute-Phase PharmGKB Accession Id: PA443262 External Vocabularies MeSH: Acute-Phase ...Reaction (D000210) UMLS: Acute-Phase Reaction [Disease/Finding] (C0001349) NDFRT: Acute...-Phase Reaction [Disease/Finding] (N0000000303) Common Searches Search Medline Plus Search CTD Pharm GKB: Acute-Phase Reaction ...

  18. Acute phase response to surgery of varying intensity in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine; Nielsen, Jon Vedding; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the postoperative inflammatory response of horses to elective surgery of varying intensity. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal study. ANIMALS: Horses referred to 2 hospitals for either arthroscopic removal of a unilateral osteochondritic lesion in the tibiotarsal joint...... (minimal surgical trauma, n=11), correction of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy by laryngoplasty and ventriculectomy (intermediate surgical trauma, n=10) or removal of an ovarian tumor by laparotomy (major surgical trauma, n=5). METHODS: Horses had a thorough clinical examination every day. White blood cell....... RESULTS: Postoperative concentrations of SAA and fibrinogen were significantly higher in horses that had laparotomy and ovariectomy than in horses that had laryngoplasty and ventriculectomy, or arthroscopy. Iron concentrations decreased to lower levels after intermediate and major surgical trauma than...

  19. Regulation of urea synthesis during the acute phase response in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Karen Louise; Jessen, Niels; Buch Møller, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    of the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced acute-phase response in rats. We used four methods to study the regulation of urea synthesis: We examined urea cycle enzyme mRNA levels in liver tissue, the hepatocyte urea cycle enzyme proteins, the in vivo capacity of urea-N synthesis (CUNS), and known humoral...... regulators of CUNS at 1, 3, 24, and 72 h after TNF-α injection (25 μg/kg iv rrTNF-α) in rats. Serum acute-phase proteins and their liver mRNA levels were also measured. The urea cycle enzyme mRNA levels acutely decreased and then gradually normalized, whereas the urea cycle enzyme proteins remained...

  20. The onset of the progression of acute phase response mechanisms induced by extreme impacts can be followed by the decrease in blood levels of positive acute phase proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna

    Studies performed at space flights and earth-based simulation models detected the plasma indices of acute phase reaction (APR), i.e. the increase of APR cytokine mediators and alterations in the production of blood acute phase proteins (APP) at the initial stages of adaptation to altered gravity conditions. Acute phase response is the principal constituent of the functional activity of innate immunity system. Changes in plasma APPs contents are considered to serve the restoration of homeostasis state. According to trends of their concentration shifts at the evolving of acute phase reaction APPs are denoted as positive, neutral, or negative. Plasma concentrations of positive acute phase proteins α1-acid glycoprotein (α1-AGP), α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT), and neutral α2-macroglobulin (α2-M) were measured in human study at 12-hour antiorthostatic position (AOP) with 15° head down tilt and hypoxia experiments at 14% oxygen in pressure chamber. Both of these impacts were shown to produce alterations in the APP levels indicative for acute phase response. Nevertheless, in AOP experiment noticeable decrease in α1-AGP concentration occurred by hour 12, and even more pronounced decline of α1-AGP and α1-AT were found on hypoxia hours 12 and 36. Acute phase proteins α1-AGP and α2-M possess the features of proteinase inhibitors. This function is implemented by the formation of complexes with the molecules of proteolytic enzymes which subsequently are removed from the blood flow. Transient decrease in plasma concentrations of protease inhibitors on early phases of APR development was reported to result from the growth of plasma protease activity due to cathepsin release from activated leukocytes, which had not yet been compensated by enhanced APP synthesis. Being a carrier protein for positively charged and neutral substances, α1-AGP shows pronounced elevation in its blood content during APR development. As assumed, it is required for the transportation of the increased

  1. Acute-phase inflammatory response in idiopathic sudden deafness: pathogenic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-González, Miguel A; Abrante, Antonio; López-Lorente, Carmen; Gómez, Antonio; Domínguez, Emilio; Esteban, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    The acute-phase inflammatory response in the peripheral bloodstream can be an expression of transient cerebral ischaemia in idiopathic sudden deafness. For this, a neurological and otorhinolaryngological examination of each patient, performing tests on audiometry, and tympanometry, haemogram, and cranial magnetic resonance were performed. The acute-phase inflammatory response manifests as an increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio that is detected 48-72 hours after the appearance of sudden deafness. This study shows that there is an acute-phase response in the peripheral bloodstream with an increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio as an expression of an inflammatory process that can be caused by transient cerebral ischaemia in sudden deafness. In addition, the increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio can rule out a viral origin of sudden deafness, since a viral infection lowers the neutrophil count and increases the lymphocyte count, thus reducing the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio. These findings aid in understanding the pathogenic mechanisms involved in sudden deafness and offer better treatment to the patient.

  2. Acute-Phase Inflammatory Response in Idiopathic Sudden Deafness: Pathogenic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. López-González

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute-phase inflammatory response in the peripheral bloodstream can be an expression of transient cerebral ischaemia in idiopathic sudden deafness. For this, a neurological and otorhinolaryngological examination of each patient, performing tests on audiometry, and tympanometry, haemogram, and cranial magnetic resonance were performed. The acute-phase inflammatory response manifests as an increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio that is detected 48–72 hours after the appearance of sudden deafness. This study shows that there is an acute-phase response in the peripheral bloodstream with an increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio as an expression of an inflammatory process that can be caused by transient cerebral ischaemia in sudden deafness. In addition, the increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio can rule out a viral origin of sudden deafness, since a viral infection lowers the neutrophil count and increases the lymphocyte count, thus reducing the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio. These findings aid in understanding the pathogenic mechanisms involved in sudden deafness and offer better treatment to the patient.

  3. Acute Phase Proteins in Response to Dictyocaulus viviparus Infection in Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waller K Persson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out to examine the acute phase response, as measured by the acute phase proteins (APP haptoglobin, serum amyloid A (SAA and fibrinogen, in calves infected with lungworm, Dictyocaulus vivparus. In addition, eosinophil counts were analysed. Three different dose models were used in 3 separate experiments: I 250 D. viviparus infective third stage larvae (L3 once daily for 2 consecutive days, II 100 D. viviparus L3 once daily for 5 consecutive days, and III 2000 L3 once. All 3 dose regimes induced elevated levels of haptoglobin, SAA and fibrinogen, although there was considerable variation both between and within experiments. A significant increase was observed in all 3 APP at one or several time points in experiment I and III, whereas in experiment II, the only significant elevation was observed for fibrinogen at one occasion. The eosinophil numbers were significantly elevated in all 3 experiments. The results show that lungworm infection can induce an acute phase response, which can be monitored by the selected APP. Elevated APP levels in combination with high numbers of eosinophils in an animal with respiratory disease may be used as an indicator of lung worm infection, and help the clinician to decide on treatment. However, high numbers of eosinophils and low levels of APP do not exclude a diagnosis of lungworm. Thus, lungworm infection may not be detected if measurements of APP are used to assess calf health in herds or individual animals.

  4. Presence of an acute phase response in sheep with clinical classical scrapie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meling Siv

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work with experimental scrapie in sheep has been performed on-site for many years including studies on PrPSc dissemination and histopathology of organs and tissues both at preclinical and clinical stages. In this work serum was sampled at regular intervals from lambs which were infected immediately after birth and from parallel healthy controls, and examined for acute phase proteins. In contrast to earlier experiments, which extensively studied PrPSc dissemination and histopathology in peripheral tissues and brain, this experiment is focusing on examination of serum for non-PrPSc markers that discriminates the two groups, and give insight into other on-going processes detectable in serum samples. Results There was clear evidence of an acute phase response in sheep with clinical scrapie, both experimental and natural. All the three proteins, ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A, were increased at the clinical stage of scrapie. Conclusion There was evidence of a systemic measurable acute phase response at the clinical terminal end-stage of classical scrapie.

  5. Acute phase protein response in an experimental model of ovine caseous lymphadenitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Tamara L

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA is a disease of small ruminants caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. The pathogenesis of CLA is a slow process, and produces a chronic rather than an acute disease state. Acute phase proteins (APP such as haptoglobin (Hp serum amyloid A (SAA and α1 acid glycoprotein (AGP are produced by the liver and released into the circulation in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines. The concentration of Hp in serum increases in experimental CLA but it is not known if SAA and AGP respond in parallel or have differing response profiles. Results The concentration in serum of Hp, SAA and AGP in 6 sheep challenged with 2 × 105 cells of C. pseudotuberculosis showed significant increases (P C. pseudotuberculosis became detectable at 11 days p.i. and continued to rise throughout the experiment. Conclusion The serum concentrations of Hp, SAA and AGP were raised in sheep in an experimental model of CLA. An extended response was found for AGP which occurred at a point when the infection was likely to have been transforming from an acute to a chronic phase. The results suggest that AGP could have a role as a marker for chronic conditions in sheep.

  6. Dose dependency and individual variability of the lipopolysaccharide-induced bovine acute phase protein response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S.; Andersen, P.H.; Tølbøll, T.

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the dose dependency and the individual variability of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute phase protein response in cattle, 8 nonlactating, nonpregnant Danish Holstein cows were challenged 3 times each by intravenous injection of increasing doses (10, 100, and 1000 ng...... for several days after each LPS injection, and their increase or decrease was significantly related to LPS dose. In addition to dose dependency, the response was also dependent on the individual, as APP concentrations differed significantly among cows. To compare APP production in 2 consecutive challenges...

  7. Acute phase response in two consecutive experimentally induced E. coli intramammary infections in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saatsi Johanna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP have suggested to be suitable inflammatory markers for bovine mastitis. The aim of the study was to investigate acute phase markers along with clinical parameters in two consecutive intramammary challenges with Escherichia coli and to evaluate the possible carry-over effect when same animals are used in an experimental model. Methods Mastitis was induced with a dose of 1500 cfu of E. coli in one quarter of six cows and inoculation repeated in another quarter after an interval of 14 days. Concentrations of acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP were determined in serum and milk. Results In both challenges all cows became infected and developed clinical mastitis within 12 hours of inoculation. Clinical disease and acute phase response was generally milder in the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in milk started to increase 12 hours after inoculation and peaked at 60 hours after the first challenge and at 44 hours after the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in serum increased more slowly and peaked at the same times as in milk; concentrations in serum were about one third of those in milk. Hp started to increase in milk similarly and peaked at 36–44 hours. In serum, the concentration of Hp peaked at 60–68 hours and was twice as high as in milk. LBP concentrations in milk and serum started to increase after 12 hours and peaked at 36 hours, being higher in milk. The concentrations of acute phase proteins in serum and milk in the E. coli infection model were much higher than those recorded in experiments using Gram-positive pathogens, indicating the severe inflammation induced by E. coli. Conclusion Acute phase proteins would be useful parameters as mastitis indicators and to assess the severity of mastitis. If repeated experimental intramammary

  8. Dynamics of cellular immune responses in the acute phase of dengue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Saito, Akatsuki; Katakai, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yuki; Kurosawa, Terue; Hamano, Masataka; Higashino, Atsunori; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Kurane, Ichiro; Akari, Hirofumi

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we examined the dynamics of cellular immune responses in the acute phase of dengue virus (DENV) infection in a marmoset model. Here, we found that DENV infection in marmosets greatly induced responses of CD4/CD8 central memory T and NKT cells. Interestingly, the strength of the immune response was greater in animals infected with a dengue fever strain than in those infected with a dengue hemorrhagic fever strain of DENV. In contrast, when animals were re-challenged with the same DENV strain used for primary infection, the neutralizing antibody induced appeared to play a critical role in sterilizing inhibition against viral replication, resulting in strong but delayed responses of CD4/CD8 central memory T and NKT cells. The results in this study may help to better understand the dynamics of cellular and humoral immune responses in the control of DENV infection.

  9. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response may be the causal link between particle inhalation and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saber, Anne T.; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Jackson, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of ambient and workplace particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. One proposed mechanism for this association is that pulmonary inflammation induces a hepatic acute phase response, which increases risk of cardiovascular disease. Induction...... epidemiological studies. In this review, we present and review emerging evidence that inhalation of particles (e.g., air diesel exhaust particles and nanoparticles) induces a pulmonary acute phase response, and propose that this induction constitutes the causal link between particle inhalation and risk...

  10. Acute phase response, inflammation and metabolic syndrome biomarkers of Libby asbestos exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannahan, Jonathan H. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Alzate, Oscar [Systems Proteomics Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Winnik, Witold M.; Andrews, Debora [Proteomics Core, Research Core Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Schladweiler, Mette C. [Cardiopulmonary and Immunotoxicology Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Ghio, Andrew J. [Clinical Research Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Gavett, Stephen H. [Cardiopulmonary and Immunotoxicology Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Kodavanti, Urmila P., E-mail: Kodavanti.Urmila@epa.gov [Cardiopulmonary and Immunotoxicology Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Identification of biomarkers assists in the diagnosis of disease and the assessment of health risks from environmental exposures. We hypothesized that rats exposed to Libby amphibole (LA) would present with a unique serum proteomic profile which could help elucidate epidemiologically-relevant biomarkers. In four experiments spanning varied protocols and temporality, healthy (Wistar Kyoto, WKY; and F344) and cardiovascular compromised (CVD) rat models (spontaneously hypertensive, SH; and SH heart failure, SHHF) were intratracheally instilled with saline (control) or LA. Serum biomarkers of cancer, inflammation, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and the acute phase response (APR) were analyzed. All rat strains exhibited acute increases in α-2-macroglobulin, and α1-acid glycoprotein. Among markers of inflammation, lipocalin-2 was induced in WKY, SH and SHHF and osteopontin only in WKY after LA exposure. While rat strain- and age-related changes were apparent in MetS biomarkers, no LA effects were evident. The cancer marker mesothelin was increased only slightly at 1 month in WKY in one of the studies. Quantitative Intact Proteomic profiling of WKY serum at 1 day or 4 weeks after 4 weekly LA instillations indicated no oxidative protein modifications, however APR proteins were significantly increased. Those included serine protease inhibitor, apolipoprotein E, α-2-HS-glycoprotein, t-kininogen 1 and 2, ceruloplasmin, vitamin D binding protein, serum amyloid P, and more 1 day after last LA exposure. All changes were reversible after a short recovery regardless of the acute or long-term exposures. Thus, LA exposure induces an APR and systemic inflammatory biomarkers that could have implications in systemic and pulmonary disease in individuals exposed to LA. -- Highlights: ► Biomarkers of asbestos exposure are required for disease diagnosis. ► Libby amphibole exposure is associated with increased human mortality. ► Libby amphibole increases circulating proteins involved

  11. Synergistic enhansons located within an acute phase responsive enhancer modulate glucocorticoid induction of angiotensinogen gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasier, A R; Ron, D; Tate, J E; Habener, J F

    1990-12-01

    The hepatic transcription of the angiotensinogen gene is regulated by both glucocorticoids and cytokines generated as products of the acute phase reaction. We have identified a multimodular enhancer in the 5'-flanking region of the rat angiotensinogen gene that mediates these responses and consists of an acute phase response element (APRE) flanked on both sides by adjacent glucocorticoid response element consensus motifs (GREs). Induction of transcription by the cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is glucocorticoid dependent and mediated through the APRE. The APRE binds in a mutually exclusive manner a cytokine/phorbol ester-inducible protein (BPi), indistinguishable from nuclear factor kB, and a family of constitutive liver proteins (BPcs) related to the heat-stable transcription factor C/EBP. Using mutated 5'-flanking sequences of the angiotensinogen gene fused to a firefly luciferase reporter gene transfected into hepatoblastoma (HepG2) cells, we have mapped enhanson sequences required for the transcriptional response to glucocorticoids. Two functionally distinct GREs are identified by deletion and site-directed mutagenesis, both of which mediate glucocorticoid-stimulated transcription in vivo. Glucocorticoid-induced transcription mediated by the angiotensinogen gene enhancer is, furthermore, dependent on the occupancy of the APRE by either the BPi or a member of the BPc family because a mutant APRE that binds neither BPi nor BPc exhibits an attenuated glucocorticoid responsiveness. Mutant APREs that permit exclusive binding of either BPi or BPc synergistically transmit the glucocorticoid response mediated by one or the other of the adjacent GREs. Thus, the induction of angiotensinogen gene transcription involves interaction between the glucocorticoid receptor and either one of the APRE-binding proteins: either the cytokine-inducible NFkB or the constitutive family of C/EBP-like proteins, bound to adjacent enhansons in a mutually synergistic enhancer complex.

  12. Functional diets modulate the acute phase protein response in Oncorhynchus mykiss subjected to chronic stress and challenged with Vibrio anguillarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Osses, Darlyng; Carrera-Naipil, Crisleri; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Gonçalves, Ana Teresa

    2017-07-01

    The acute phase response to pathogens alters the production of proinflammatory cytokines that, in turn, activate the synthesis of acute phase proteins. These proteins neutralize, prevent, and indicate tissue damage, thereby influencing the specific immune response and allowing the organism to regain homeostasis. Functional diets based in pre- and probiotics are used in aquaculture to improve fish health and resistance to diseases, but there is an information gap on the mechanisms involved in these effects and if these diets are efficient when fish are raised under high stocking densities. This study aimed an evaluation of the acute phase response in Oncorhynchus mykiss fed functional diets supplemented with pre- and probiotics (i.e. mannan-oligosaccharides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively) and challenged by either Vibrio anguillarum or chronic stress via maintenance under high stocking densities. For this, the relative expression of acute phase response related genes in liver, and of inflammatory response related genes in head kidney was evaluated by RT-qPCR. The supplemented diets differentially modulated the acute phase protein response to the assessed challenge conditions, specifically evidencing an overexpression of the genes HAPT, SAA, LECT2, and IL-1β under chronic stress and of HAPT, IL-1β, IL8, and LECT2 at 24 h post-challenge with V. anguillarum. The observed early-stage regulation of acute phase proteins and of the immune response by the probiotic S. cerevisiae and by prebiotic mannan-oligosaccharides suggests that both supplements have high immunostimulatory potentials for fish farmed under high stocking densities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of insulin on the inflammatory and acute phase response after burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G; Boehning, Darren F; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N

    2007-09-01

    After a severe burn, the liver plays a pivotal role by modulating inflammatory processes, metabolic pathways, immune functions, and the acute phase response. Therefore, liver integrity and function are important for recovery. A thermal injury, however, causes hepatic damage by inducing hepatic edema, fatty infiltration, hepatocyte apoptosis, and metabolic derangements associated with insulin resistance and impaired insulin signaling. In preliminary studies, we found that these pathophysiological processes are related to hepatic inflammation, altered intracellular signaling, and mitochondrial dysfunction. We hypothesize that modulation of these processes with insulin could improve hepatic structure and function and, therefore, outcome of burned and critically ill patients. Insulin administration improves survival and decreases the rate of infections in severely burned and critically ill patients. Here, we show that insulin administration decreases the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines and signal transcription factors and improves hepatic structure and function after a severe burn injury; insulin also restores hepatic homeostasis and improves hepatic dysfunction postburn via alterations in the signaling cascade.

  14. Acute phase response of selenium status and glutathione peroxidase activity in blood plasma before and after total knee arthroplasty surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defi, Irma Ruslina; Yamazaki, Chiho; Kameo, Satomi; Kobayashi, Kenji; Nakazawa, Minato; Shinya, Yanagisawa; Sato, Naoki; Wada, Naoki; Shirakura, Kenji; Koyama, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    Several studies show the consistent results of the decrease in plasma or serum selenium (Se) after surgery, and the change is suggested to be a negative acute phase response of Se to the surgical inflammation. Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which is included in the acute phase response proteins, is a selenoenzyme. However, previous studies failed to show any changes in GPx activity before and after surgery. In the present study, we investigated the Se- and selenoenzyme responses that accompany the acute inflammatory reactions during and following major surgery. Patients who underwent elective total knee arthroplasty surgery due to knee osteoarthritis at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Gunma University Hospital in Japan were studied. The plasma Se concentration was determined, and the activity of plasma GPx was measured. C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and white blood cell (WBC) count were also analysed. Increases in the inflammatory biomarkers of CRP and WBC showed inflammatory reactions with the surgery. A significant increase in plasma GPx activity (p production of other series of acute phase proteins, the present results suggest that there is a redistribution of plasma Se to GPx that occurs as an acute phase response, and the source of Se for GPx could be, at least partly, from albumin.

  15. Alpha2 macroglobulin elevation without an acute phase response in depressed adults with Down's syndrome: implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouris, J A; Mehta, P D; Patti, P J; Madrid, R E; Raguthu, S; Barshatzky, M R; Cohen, I L; Sersen, E

    2000-12-01

    Studies of immune function during depression in persons without intellectual disability (ID) have revealed elevated levels of alpha2 macroglobulin (alpha2M) and an acute phase protein (APP) response. Clinical observation suggests that people with Down's syndrome (DS) may have associated genetic abnormalities in their immune systems. The APP response and alpha2M changes in depressed versus non-depressed adults with DS was the subject of the present study. The serum pan-proteinase inhibitor alpha2M, and the AP proteins c-reactive protein (CRP), alpha1 antitrypsin (alpha1AT), ceruloplasmin (Cp), beta2 Macroglobulin (beta2M), transthyretin (Trans), serum amyloid protein (SAP), and albumin (Alb) were measured in 38 adults with DS, 19 of whom were diagnosed with and 19 without depression using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The DSM-IV criteria were used for diagnoses. Medical and neurological examinations excluded medical disorders associated with APP response. Only alpha2M and CRP were significantly different in the depressed versus non-depressed groups. The alpha2M was higher, a response similar to one observed in depressed people without ID, but the CRP was lower in the depressed group, especially in those subjects not on psychotropic medications, contrary to the expected APP response to depression. The results suggest that alpha2M elevation in depressed adults with DS is independent of the APP response. An alternative explanation for its elevation is proposed linking the core symptom of depression with the mammalian dormancy/hibernation process. Further studies are needed to confirm that alpha2M elevation is specific to depression and that it might provide a helpful marker for the diagnosis of depression in people with ID.

  16. OmniGen-AF supplementation modulated the physiological and acute phase responses of Brahman heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the physiological and acute phase responses (APR) of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183±5 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton...

  17. Prenatal transportation alters the acute phase response (APR) of bull calves exposed to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine if prenatal transportation influences the acute phase response (APR) to a postnatal Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pregnant Brahman cows (n=96) matched by age and parity were separated into transported (TRANS; n=48; transported for 2 hours on gestational day...

  18. The effects of grain-induced subactue ruminal acidosis on interleukin-6 and acute phase response in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shucong; Danscher, Anne Mette; Andersen, Pia Haubro

    2014-01-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) resulting from excessive grain feeding to dairy cows is accompanied by an acute phase response. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) has been proposed as a mediator of this response. We tested if the acute phase response associated with grain-induced SARA is mediated by IL-6. Six...... 5, and d 3 before SARA induction and during three SARA days. ELISA kits were used for measurement of IL-6, and the acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp), LPS binding protein (LBP), and serum amyloid A (SAA). The SARA challenge tended to increase LBP (7.54 vs. 10.23 mg/L, P = 0.10), and increased...... the SAA (4.24 vs. 11.60 mg/L, P = 0.04) and Hp (3.57 vs. 22.09 mg/L, P = 0.04) in blood plasma, confirming that the challenge caused an acute phase response. Concentrations of IL-6 were not affected by the SARA challenge, and averaged 5.06 ng/mL across treatments. Our data do not confirm that IL-6...

  19. The effect of yeast cell wall supplementation on the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred heifers to endotoxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding yeast cell wall (YCW) products on the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred newly-received heifers to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Heifers (n=24; 218.9+/-2.4 kg) were obtained from commercial sale barns and tra...

  20. Yeast cell wall supplementation alters the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding yeast cell wall (YCW) products on the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred newly-received heifers to an endotoxin challenge. Heifers (n = 24; 219 ± 2.4 kg) were separated into treatment groups receiving a Control diet (n = 8), ...

  1. Dried citrus pulp modulates the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the effect of feeding dried citrus pulp (CP) pellets on the physiological and acute phase responses (APR) of newly-received crossbred heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Heifers (n=24; 218.3±2.4 kg) were obtained from commercial sale barns and transported...

  2. Supplementation of Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product can attenuate the acute phase response following a lipopolysaccharide challenge in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine if feeding a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce stress and acute phase responses (APR) following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n=30; 6.4±0.1 kilograms body weight) were housed individually in pens with ad libi...

  3. Acute-phase responses in healthy and diseased rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anne Kirstine Havnsøe; Lundsgaard, Jo F. H.; Bakker, Jaco

    2014-01-01

    Five acute-phase reactants—serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin, albumin, and iron—were measured using commercially available assays in 110 healthy rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and reference intervals were established for future use in health monitoring of this specie...

  4. The acute phase response of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A (SAA) in cattle undergoing experimental infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Godson, D.L.; Toussaint, M.J.M.;

    2000-01-01

    respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), analysing the induction of the two most dominant bovine acute phase proteins haptoglobin and serum amyloid A (SAA). Strong and reproducible acute phase responses were detected for both proteins, peaking at around 7-8 days after inoculation of BRSV, while no response...... was seen in mock-inoculated control animals. The serum concentrations reached for SAA and haptoglobin during the BRSV-induced acute phase response were generally the same or higher than previously reported for bacterial infections in calves. The magnitude and the duration of the haptoglobin response......The ability of a pure virus infection to induce an acute phase protein response is of interest as viral infections are normally considered to be less efficient in inducing an acute phase protein response than bacterial infections. This was studied in a bovine model for infection with bovine...

  5. Physiological and behavioral responses to an acute-phase response in zebra finches: immediate and short-term effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sköld-Chiriac, Sandra; Nord, Andreas; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the immune system to clear pathogens and mitigate infection is a costly process that might incur fitness costs. When vertebrates are exposed to pathogens, their first line of defense is the acute-phase response (APR), which consists of a suite of physiological and behavioral changes. The dynamics of the APR are relatively well investigated in mammals and domesticated birds but still rather unexplored in passerine birds. In this study, we injected male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) with a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) to assess the potential physiological, immunological, and behavioral responses during the time course of an APR and also to record any potential short-term effects by measuring the birds during the days after the expected APR. We found that LPS-injected zebra finches decreased activity and gained less body mass during the APR, compared to control individuals. In addition, LPS-injected birds increased their production of LPS-reactive antibodies and reduced their metabolic rate during the days after the expected APR. Our results show that zebra finches demonstrate sickness behaviors during an APR but also that physiological effects persist after the expected time course of an APR. These delayed effects might be either a natural part of the progression of an APR, which is probably true for the antibody response, or a short-term carryover effect, which is probably true for the metabolic response.

  6. Acute phase proteins response in cats naturally infected with Hepatozoon felis and Babesia vogeli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhena, Hugo; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Cerón, José J; Vieira, Lisete; Pastor, Josep; Silvestre-Ferreira, Ana C

    2017-03-01

    The measurement of acute phase proteins (APP) is being increasingly used in human and veterinary medicine in diagnosis, prognosis, treatment monitoring, and in general health screening. However, information about the APP response in cats infected with agents of vector-borne diseases is lacking. The purpose of the study was to investigate the concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) in cats naturally infected with Hepatozoon felis and Babesia vogeli. Serum concentrations of SAA, Hp, and PON1 were determined in 19 cats naturally infected with H felis and in 11 cats naturally infected with B vogeli, and compared to concentrations in 10 healthy control cats. Serum Hp concentrations were significantly increased, and PON1 concentrations significantly decreased in symptomatic and asymptomatic cats infected with H felis and B vogeli when compared with healthy noninfected cats. In the H felis-infected population, concentrations of SAA and Hp were significantly increased in symptomatic cats when compared with asymptomatic animals. This study demonstrated differences in APP concentrations in cats infected with H felis and B vogeli. Therefore, Hp and PON1 concentrations could be helpful in discriminating healthy cats from cats with asymptomatic or symptomatic infection by these agents. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  7. Acute phase response and oxidative stress status in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzel, Savas; Andican, Gulnur; Seven, Arzu; Aslan, Mahmure; Bolayirli, Murat; Guzel, Eda Celik; Hamuryudan, Vedat

    2012-06-01

    We aimed to determine acute phase response (APR) and oxidative stress in patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and compare these characteristics with those in healthy controls; 20 patients with FMF and 15 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and leukocyte levels were determined as markers of APR. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated diene, and lipid hydroperoxide levels were measured as markers of lipid peroxidation. Carbonyl group and thiol (T-SH) levels were analyzed to determine the oxidative damage to proteins, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was measured to reflect DNA oxidation. The erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) level, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZn SOD), and catalase activities were measured as markers of antioxidant status. Conjugated diene (p FMF patients compared with controls. FMF patients in the attack period (n = 8) had significantly higher CRP, ESR, fibrinogen, and leukocyte levels (p FMF patients in the attack period. The findings revealed upregulated APR during the attack period in FMF patients and enhanced oxidative stress in the FMF patients as compared to controls.

  8. ACUTE PHASE PROTEIN RESPONSES IN MICE INFECTED WITH RIVER WATER CONTAMINATED BY PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA TYPE B: 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Muqdad Khaleel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals are predisposed to infections through varieties of ways which activate the innate immune systems at the initial phase of acute infections. Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS is a devastating septicemic disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by a particular serotypes of Pasteurella multocida and serotype B: 2 is the most important cause of the disease in Asia. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate on acute phase protein responses in mice infected with river water contaminated by Pasteurella multocida type B: 2. Five infected mice were placed in each tank containing river water for 24, 48 and 72 h. The groups comprise of five mice each made up of the control, intraperitoneal, oral and the aerosol routes. There were increased concentrations of Haptoglobin (Hp in the mice inoculated with infected river water kept for 24 h intraperitoneally (p<0.0454 relative to the control, oral and the aerosol routes. There was significant increased concentration of Serum Amyloid A (SAA in the mice that were inoculated with infected river water kept for 72 h intraperitoneally (p<0.0020 compared to control, orally and the aerosol routes. The intraperitoneal route though most effective in response but practically not feasible for vaccine administration in larger animals and the oral routes was inadequate in eliciting acute phase response in the present study of mice model. Therefore, the aerosol routes could perhaps be a readily available route for effective vaccine administration and heightened immunity in animals considering the progressive responses of APPs through this route.

  9. Lack of acute phase response in the livers of mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles or carbon black by inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic and animal studies have shown that particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of lung and cardiovascular diseases. Although the exact mechanisms by which particles induce cardiovascular diseases are not known, studies suggest involvement of systemic acute phase responses, including C-reactive protein (CRP and serum amyloid A (SAA in humans. In this study we test the hypothesis that diesel exhaust particles (DEP – or carbon black (CB-induced lung inflammation initiates an acute phase response in the liver. Results Mice were exposed to filtered air, 20 mg/m3 DEP or CB by inhalation for 90 minutes/day for four consecutive days; we have previously shown that these mice exhibit pulmonary inflammation (Saber AT, Bornholdt J, Dybdahl M, Sharma AK, Loft S, Vogel U, Wallin H. Tumor necrosis factor is not required for particle-induced genotoxicity and pulmonary inflammation., Arch. Toxicol. 79 (2005 177–182. As a positive control for the induction of an acute phase response, mice were exposed to 12.5 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS intraperitoneally. Quantitative real time RT-PCR was used to examine the hepatic mRNA expression of acute phase proteins, serum amyloid P (Sap (the murine homologue of Crp and Saa1 and Saa3. While significant increases in the hepatic expression of Sap, Saa1 and Saa3 were observed in response to LPS, their levels did not change in response to DEP or CB. In a comprehensive search for markers of an acute phase response, we analyzed liver tissue from these mice using high density DNA microarrays. Globally, 28 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed in response to DEP or CB. The mRNA expression of three of the genes (serine (or cysteine proteinase inhibitor, clade A, member 3C, apolipoprotein E and transmembrane emp24 domain containing 3 responded to both exposures. However, these changes were very subtle and were not confirmed by real time RT

  10. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response correlates with neutrophil influx linking inhaled particles and cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Thoustrup Saber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiovascular disease. Acute phase response is causally linked to cardiovascular disease. Here, we propose that particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response provides an underlying mechanism for particle-induced cardiovascular risk. METHODS: We analysed the mRNA expression of Serum Amyloid A (Saa3 in lung tissue from female C57BL/6J mice exposed to different particles including nanomaterials (carbon black and titanium dioxide nanoparticles, multi- and single walled carbon nanotubes, diesel exhaust particles and airborne dust collected at a biofuel plant. Mice were exposed to single or multiple doses of particles by inhalation or intratracheal instillation and pulmonary mRNA expression of Saa3 was determined at different time points of up to 4 weeks after exposure. Also hepatic mRNA expression of Saa3, SAA3 protein levels in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid and in plasma and high density lipoprotein levels in plasma were determined in mice exposed to multiwalled carbon nanotubes. RESULTS: Pulmonary exposure to particles strongly increased Saa3 mRNA levels in lung tissue and elevated SAA3 protein levels in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma, whereas hepatic Saa3 levels were much less affected. Pulmonary Saa3 expression correlated with the number of neutrophils in BAL across different dosing regimens, doses and time points. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary acute phase response may constitute a direct link between particle inhalation and risk of cardiovascular disease. We propose that the particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response may predict risk for cardiovascular disease.

  11. Treatment response in acute/early infection versus advanced AIDS: equivalent first and second phases of HIV RNA decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilby, J Michael; Lee, Ha Youn; Hazelwood, J Darren; Bansal, Anju; Bucy, R Patterson; Saag, Michael S; Shaw, George M; Acosta, Edward P; Johnson, Victoria A; Perelson, Alan S; Goepfert, Paul A

    2008-05-11

    Compare the initial phases of virologic decay when acute/early and advanced HIV-infected adults are administered the same treatment regimen. Mathematical modeling of a previously completed prospective treatment pilot study involving treatment-naive patients with early and advanced immunosuppression. We analyzed data from a treatment protocol in which 18 individuals with acute or recent HIV-1 seroconversion and six patients with advanced AIDS were administered the same four-drug antiretroviral regimen. Initial treatment responses were compared by fitting a mathematical model to frequent viral load measurements in order to calculate the first and second phase kinetics of viral clearance, and also by comparing viral load suppression over 24 weeks. Patients were also comprehensively compared in terms of protease inhibitor drug levels, HIV-specific immune responses at baseline, and the presence of drug resistance-conferring mutations. There was no statistically meaningful difference in first phase clearance of comparable high-level viremia in the two groups, whether protease inhibitor levels were inserted into the model or 100% antiviral drug effectiveness was assumed. In contrast, acute/early patients had inferior sustained responses than advanced patients, reflecting erratic adherence. Despite many years of intervening immune destruction, the initial virologic decay on therapy appears to be the same at the extremes of the HIV disease spectrum.

  12. Systemic acute phase proteins response in calves experimentally infected with Eimeria zuernii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Brian; Bangoura, Berit; Lepik, Triin; Orro, Toomas

    2015-09-15

    Acute phase proteins (APPs) have been demonstrated to be useful in evaluating general health stress and diseases in cattle. Serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) are APPs that are produced during inflammation, and likely play a role in host immunological defence against Eimeria infection and the associated intestinal tissue damage. We investigated the involvement of SAA and HP in an experimental study, including three groups of calves: a control group (group 0, n=11), and two groups infected with either 150,000 or 250,000 Eimeria zuernii oocysts (group 1 (n=11) and group 2 (n=12), respectively). The calves were monitored for 28 days and data was collected on oocyst excretion, faecal score, animal weight, and SAA and Hp serum concentrations. Generalized linear mixed models showed that the clinical symptoms, indicated by an increase in the number of oocysts in the faeces and severe diarrhoea, manifested at patency for group 1 and 2. Serum Hp and SAA levels also increased during this period. Hp appeared to be a more sensitive marker than SAA, and differences between groups 1 and 2 were observed only for Hp. Linear regression models showed a negative association between weight gain and Hp concentrations, calculated as the area under the curve (AUC) during the overall experimental period and the patency period. A similar result was seen for SAA only during the patency period. This result supports the assumption that reduced weight gain due to E. zuernii infection is an immunologically driven process that involves an increase in APPs. A random intercept regression model of oocyst shedding groups showed that calves shedding 1-500 oocysts had reduced concentrations of Hp, indicating that a different immunological reaction occurs during mild shedding of E. zuernii oocysts than during more intensive shedding. A similar model was used to examine associations between faecal scores and Hp concentrations for each group. Group 2 calves with haemorrhagic diarrhoea displayed

  13. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein and serum amyloid A secretion by human intestinal epithelial cells during the acute phase response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreugdenhil, A C; Dentener, M A; Snoek, A M; Greve, J W; Buurman, W A

    1999-09-01

    The acute phase proteins LPS binding protein (LBP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) are produced by the liver and are present in the circulation. Both proteins have been shown to participate in the immune response to endotoxins. The intestinal mucosa forms a large surface that is continuously exposed to these microbial products. By secretion of antimicrobial and immunomodulating agents, the intestinal epithelium contributes to the defense against bacteria and their products. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of the inflammatory mediators TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1beta on the release of LBP and SAA by intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). In addition, the induction of LBP and SAA release by cell lines of intestinal epithelial cells and hepatic cells was compared. The data obtained show that in addition to liver cells, IEC also expressed LBP mRNA and released bioactive LBP and SAA upon stimulation. Regulation of LBP and SAA release by IEC and hepatocytes was typical for class 1 acute phase proteins, although differences in regulation between the cell types were observed. Endotoxin did not induce LBP and SAA release. Glucocorticoids were demonstrated to strongly enhance the cytokine-induced release of LBP and SAA by IEC, corresponding to hepatocytes. The data from this study, which imply that human IEC can produce LBP and SAA, suggest a role for these proteins in the local defense mechanism of the gut to endotoxin. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that tissues other than the liver are involved in the acute phase response.

  14. Differences in inflammation and acute phase response but similar genotoxicity in mice following pulmonary exposure to graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtson, Stefan; Knudsen, KB; Kyjovska, ZO

    2017-01-01

    the lowest dose was evaluated. GO induced a strong acute inflammatory response together with a pulmonary (Serum-Amyloid A, Saa3) and hepatic (Saa1) acute phase response. rGO induced less acute, but a constant and prolonged inflammation up to day 90. Lung histopathology showed particle agglomerates at day 90...... without signs of fibrosis. In addition, DNA damage in BAL cells was observed across time points and doses for both GO and rGO. In conclusion, pulmonary exposure to GO and rGO induced inflammation, acute phase response and genotoxicity but no fibrosis.......We investigated toxicity of 2-3 layered >1 μm sized graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in mice following single intratracheal exposure with respect to pulmonary inflammation, acute phase response (biomarker for risk of cardiovascular disease) and genotoxicity. In addition, we...

  15. Protein-Energy Malnutrition Developing after Global Brain Ischemia Induces an Atypical Acute-Phase Response and Hinders Expression of GAP-43: e107570

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shari E Smith; Sarah A Figley; David J Schreyer; Phyllis G Paterson

    2014-01-01

      Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a common post-stroke problem. PEM can independently induce a systemic acute-phase response, and pre-existing malnutrition can exacerbate neuroinflammation induced by brain ischemia...

  16. Protein-energy malnutrition developing after global brain ischemia induces an atypical acute-phase response and hinders expression of GAP-43

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Shari E; Figley, Sarah A; Schreyer, David J; Paterson, Phyllis G

    2014-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a common post-stroke problem. PEM can independently induce a systemic acute-phase response, and pre-existing malnutrition can exacerbate neuroinflammation induced by brain ischemia...

  17. Acute-Phase Inflammatory Response to Single-Bout HIIT and Endurance Training: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kaspar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study compared acute and late effect of single-bout endurance training (ET and high-intensity interval training (HIIT on the plasma levels of four inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein and insulin-like growth factor 1. Design. Cohort study with repeated-measures design. Methods. Seven healthy untrained volunteers completed a single bout of ET and HIIT on a cycle ergometer. ET and HIIT sessions were held in random order and at least 7 days apart. Blood was drawn before the interventions and 30 min and 2 days after the training sessions. Plasma samples were analyzed with ELISA for the interleukins (IL, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1, and C-reactive protein (CRP. Statistical analysis was with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results. ET led to both a significant acute and long-term inflammatory response with a significant decrease at 30 minutes after exercise in the IL-6/IL-10 ratio (−20%; p=0.047 and a decrease of MCP-1 (−17.9%; p=0.03. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that ET affects the inflammatory response more adversely at 30 minutes after exercise compared to HIIT. However, this is compensated by a significant decrease in MCP-1 at two days associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis.

  18. Anti-CD163-dexamethasone conjugate inhibits the acute phase response to lipopolysaccharide in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Karen Louise; Møller, Holger Jon; Graversen, Jonas Heilskov;

    2016-01-01

    /kg) 24 h prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (2.5 mg/kg intraperitoneal). We measured plasma concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) 2 h post-LPS and liver mRNAs and serum concentrations of the rat acute phase protein α-2-macroglobulin (α-2-M) 24 h after LPS. Also...... μg/mL, P = 0.04) after LPS compared to low dose dexamethasone treated animals, while none of the free dexamethasone doses had an effect on liver mRNA or serum levels of α-2-M. Also, the conjugate reduced TNF-α (7208 ± 1977 pg/mL vs 21583 ± 7117 pg/mL, P = 0.03) and IL-6 (15685 ± 3779 pg/mL vs 25715...

  19. Elevation of intact and proteolytic fragments of acute phase proteins constitutes the earliest systemic antiviral response in HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger B Kramer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The earliest immune responses activated in acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection (AHI exert a critical influence on subsequent virus spread or containment. During this time frame, components of the innate immune system such as macrophages and DCs, NK cells, beta-defensins, complement and other anti-microbial factors, which have all been implicated in modulating HIV infection, may play particularly important roles. A proteomics-based screen was performed on a cohort from whom samples were available at time points prior to the earliest positive HIV detection. The ability of selected factors found to be elevated in the plasma during AHI to inhibit HIV-1 replication was analyzed using in vitro PBMC and DC infection models. Analysis of unique plasma donor panels spanning the eclipse and viral expansion phases revealed very early alterations in plasma proteins in AHI. Induction of acute phase protein serum amyloid A (A-SAA occurred as early as 5-7 days prior to the first detection of plasma viral RNA, considerably prior to any elevation in systemic cytokine levels. Furthermore, a proteolytic fragment of alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT, termed virus inhibitory peptide (VIRIP, was observed in plasma coincident with viremia. Both A-SAA and VIRIP have anti-viral activity in vitro and quantitation of their plasma levels indicated that circulating concentrations are likely to be within the range of their inhibitory activity. Our results provide evidence for a first wave of host anti-viral defense occurring in the eclipse phase of AHI prior to systemic activation of other immune responses. Insights gained into the mechanism of action of acute-phase reactants and other innate molecules against HIV and how they are induced could be exploited for the future development of more efficient prophylactic vaccine strategies.

  20. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response correlates with neutrophil influx linking inhaled particles and cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Lamson, Jacob Stuart; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun

    2013-01-01

    at a biofuel plant. Mice were exposed to single or multiple doses of particles by inhalation or intratracheal instillation and pulmonary mRNA expression of Saa3 was determined at different time points of up to 4 weeks after exposure. Also hepatic mRNA expression of Saa3, SAA3 protein levels in broncheoalveolar......, whereas hepatic Saa3 levels were much less affected. Pulmonary Saa3 expression correlated with the number of neutrophils in BAL across different dosing regimens, doses and time points. Conclusions Pulmonary acute phase response may constitute a direct link between particle inhalation and risk...

  1. Modulation of the acute phase response following a lipopolysaccharide challenge in pigs supplemented with an all-natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine if feeding a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce the stress and acute phase responses (APR) following an acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n = 20; 6.4 +/- 0.2 kg body weight) were obtained and transported to an ...

  2. Postpartum Circulating Markers of Inflammation and the Systemic Acute-Phase Response After Early-Onset Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Bas B; Bruinse, Hein W; Veerbeek, Jan H; Post Uiterweer, Emiel D; Koenen, Steven V; van der Bom, Johanna G; Rijkers, Ger T; Roest, Mark; Franx, Arie

    2016-02-01

    Preeclampsia is an inflammatory-mediated hypertensive disorder of pregnancy and seems to be an early indicator of increased cardiovascular risk, but mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. In this study, we identified levels of circulating inflammatory markers and dynamic changes in the systemic acute-phase response in 44 women with a history of severe early-onset preeclampsia, compared with 29 controls with only uneventful pregnancies at 1.5 to 3.5 years postpartum. Models used were in vivo seasonal influenza vaccination and in vitro whole-blood culture with T-cell stimulants and the toll-like receptor-4 ligand lipopolysaccharide. Outcome measures were C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-18, fibrinogen, myeloperoxidase, and a panel of 13 cytokines representative of the innate and adaptive inflammatory response, in addition to established cardiovascular markers. The in vivo acute-phase response was higher for women with previous preeclampsia than that for controls without such a history, although only significant for C-reactive protein (P=0.04). Preeclampsia was associated with higher IL-1β (Ppreeclampsia: an adaptive response cluster associated with increased C-reactive protein and IL-6 before and after vaccination, increased weight, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and a toll-like receptor-4 mediated the cluster associated with increased IL-18 before and after vaccination but not associated with other cardiovascular markers. Furthermore, we found interactions between previous preeclampsia, common TLR4 gene variants, and the IL-18 response to vaccination. In conclusion, preeclampsia is associated with alterations in the inflammatory response postpartum mostly independent of other established cardiovascular risk markers. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Effects of glutamine supplementation on gut barrier,glutathione content and acute phase response in malnourished rats during inflammatory shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liliana Belmonte; Philippe Ducrotté; Pierre Déchelotte; Mo(i)se Co(e)ffier; Florence Le Pessot; Olga Miralles-Barrachina; Martine Hiron; Antony Leplingard; Jean-Fran(c)ois Lemeland; Bernadette Hecketsweiler; Maryvonne Daveau

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the effect of glutamine on intestinal mucosa integrity, glutathione stores and acute phase response in protein-depleted rats during an inflammatory shock.METHODS: Plasma acute phase proteins (APP),jejunal APP mRNA levels, liver and jejunal glutathione concentrations were measured before and one, three and seven days after turpentine injection in 4 groups of control, protein-restricted, protein-restricted rats supplemented with glutamine or protein powder.Bacterial translocation in mesenteric lymph nodes and intestinal morphology were also assessed.RESULTS: Protein deprivation and turpentine injection significantly reduced jejunal villus height, and crypt depths. Mucosal glutathione concentration significantly decreased in protein-restricted rats. Before turpentine oil, glutamine supplementation restored villus heights and glutathione concentration (3.24 ± 1.05 vs 1.72 ±0.46 μmol/g tissue, P < 0.05) in the jejunum, whereas in the liver glutathione remained low. Glutamine markedly increased jejunal α1-acid glycoprotein mRNA level after turpentine oil but did not affect its plasma concentration. Bacterial translocation in protein-restricted rats was not prevented by glutamine or protein powder supplementation.CONCLUSION: Glutamine restored gut glutathione stores and villus heights in malnourished rats but had no preventive effect on bacterial translocation in our model.

  4. Acute phase response in the primiparous dairy cows after repeated percutaneous liver biopsy during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawor, P; Brzozowska, A; Słoniewski, K; Kowalski, Z M; Stefaniak, T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute phase response of dairy cows to repeated liver biopsy in order to estimate the safety of this procedure during the transition period. Liver biopsies (up to 1000 mg of liver tissue) were conducted twice a day, 7 days before expected parturition and 3 days after calving. The number of needle insertions for each biopsy was recorded and was dependent on the amount of obtained tissue. Blood samples were taken on day 7 before expected parturition, then on days 3, 4, 7 and 14 after calving. Body temperature was measured daily in all 30 cows from day 3 until day 14 after calving. The concentrations of haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, fibrinogen and interleukin-6 were determined in serum and plasma. In 16.7% of cows, the rectal body temperature rose by ≥ 0.5°C on the day after liver biopsy. Although the concentrations of haptoglobin, serum amyloid A and fibrinogen increased significantly after calving (pbiopsies on the acute phase reaction and repeated biopsy during the transition period had no effect on body temperature. Therefore, the procedure may be regarded as safe for cows during the transition period.

  5. Acute phase protein response during subclinical infection of pigs with H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2012-10-12

    In the present study acute phase proteins (APPs) responses in pigs after subclinical infection with H1N1 swine influenza virus (SwH1N1) were evaluated. Fourteen 5 weeks old, seronegative piglets, both sexes were used. Ten of them were infected intranasally with SwH1N1. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and pig major acute phase protein (Pig-MAP) concentrations in serum were measured using commercial ELISAs. No significant clinical signs were observed in any of the infected pigs, however, all infected animals developed specific antibodies against SwH1N1 and viral shedding was observed from 2 to 5 dpi. Only concentrations of Hp and SAA were significantly induced after infection, with mean maximum levels from days 1 to 2 post infection (dpi). The concentrations of CRP and Pig-MAP remained generally unchanged, however in half of infected pigs the concentration of CRP tended to increase at 1 dpi (but without statistical significance). The results of our study confirmed that monitoring of APPs may be useful for detection of subclinically infected pigs. The use of SAA or Hp and Pig-MAP may be a valuable in combination [i.e. Hp (increased concentration) and Pig-MAP (unchanged concentration)] to detect subclinically SIV infected pigs, or to identify pigs actually producing a large amount of virus. Additional studies need to be done in order to confirm these findings.

  6. Influence of systemic immune and cytokine responses during the acute phase of zoster on the development of postherpetic neuralgia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-mei ZHU; Yong-min LIU; Er-dan AN; Qing-lian CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a severe sequela of herpes zoster (HZ). Until now, only age and pain severity were considered predisposing factors for the development of PHN. We evaluated 49 patients with acute phase HZ, 10 of whom developed PHN (Group A) and 39 of whom did not develop PHN (Group B). Twenty-five healthy volunteers similar in age and gender distribution to the study group were recruited as controls (Group C). Numbers of serum CD3+ (pan-T lymphocytes), CD4+ (helper/inducer), and CD8+ (suppressor/cytotoxic) lymphocytes were decreased significantly in Groups A and B relative to the control group, but there were no statistical differences between Groups A and B. Interleukin (IL)-1β IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-8, and IL-10 were significantly elevated in Groups A and B relative to Group C. IL-6 was significantly higher in Group A than in Group B, and was significantly positively correlated with pain severity scored on a visual analog scale. Therefore, we suggest that the inflammatory response, especially that of IL-6, in the acute phase of HZ may be associated with hyperalgesia and the development of PHN.

  7. Immunomodulatory properties of gamithromycin and ketoprofen in lipopolysaccharide-challenged calves with emphasis on the acute-phase response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessers, Elke; Wyns, Heidi; Watteyn, Anneleen; Pardon, Bart; De Baere, Siegrid; Sys, Stanislas U; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2016-03-01

    Macrolide antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been reported to be modulators of the innate immune response, irrespectively of their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory actions. Therefore, it was our objective to evaluate whether the macrolide gamithromycin (GAM) and the NSAID ketoprofen (KETO) attenuate the acute-phase response in calves, and whether their combined administration is beneficial due to synergistic and/or additive effects. To this end, both drugs, as well as their combination, were studied in a previously developed inflammation model, i.e., the induction of an acute-phase response by an intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge (0.5 μg/kg body weight). Sixteen 4-week-old Holstein-Friesian calves were randomized into 4 groups: a positive control (+CONTR) group, receiving LPS but no pharmacological treatment (n=4) and a GAM (n=4), a KETO (n=4) and a GAM-KETO (n=4) group, receiving the respective drugs 1h prior to LPS administration. Clinical scoring and blood collection were performed at regular time points until 72 h post LPS challenge. Plasma concentrations of the selected cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)), acute-phase protein (serum amyloid A (SAA)) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were subsequently quantified. Pre-treatment with GAM had no effect in the inflammation model compared to the +CONTR group. KETO, on the other hand, completely inhibited depression, anorexia and fever. This remarkable influence was associated with a significant reduction of PGE2 synthesis by KETO, while the effect on TNF-α, IL-6 and SAA was not straightforward. The combined administration of GAM and KETO provided no synergistic or additive effects in this model, neither clinically nor regarding the studied inflammatory mediators. In conclusion, KETO entirely inhibited PGE2 synthesis, fever development and depression, while GAM did not exert any effect in this model. These results promote the concomitant

  8. Predictors of longitudinal outcomes after unstable response to acute-phase cognitive therapy for major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R; Clark, Lee Anna; Thase, Michael E; Jarrett, Robin B

    2015-06-01

    After patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) respond to acute-phase cognitive therapy (CT), continuation-phase treatments may be applied to improve long-term outcomes. We clarified which CT responders experience remission, recovery, relapse, and recurrence by testing baseline demographic, clinical, and personality variables. The sample of CT responders at higher risk of relapse (N = 241) was randomized to 8 months of continuation-phase CT, double-blinded fluoxetine, or pill placebo, and followed 24 months (Jarrett & Thase, 2010). Patients with lower positive emotionality and behavioral activation at the end of acute-phase CT showed increased risk for relapse/recurrence of MDD. In addition, patients with lower positive emotionality and behavioral activation, as well as higher residual depression (including emotional, cognitive, and social facets), showed decreased probability of remission (≥6 continuous weeks of minimal or absent symptoms) after acute-phase CT. Finally, patients with greater residual depression, as well as younger age and earlier MDD onset, showed decreased probability of recovery (≥35 continuous weeks of minimal or absent symptoms) after acute-phase CT. Moderator analyses did not reveal differential prediction across the continuation phase treatment arms. These results may help clinicians gauge the prognoses and need for continuation treatment among MDD patients who respond to acute-phase CT.

  9. Bladder response to acute sacral neuromodulation while treating rats in different phases of complete spinal cord injury: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Shi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Compared to conventional therapies, sacral neuromodulation (SNM may offer an alternative, non-destructive treatment for SCI patients with bladder dysfunction. Understanding bladder response to SNM treatment for SCI in different phases may yield new insights for innovative use of this promising technique. Materials and Methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study to examine the effects of acute SNM on bladder reflex in complete SCI rats. All rats were anesthetized and set up for continuous saline infusion. Acute SNM treatment was implemented for about 6 hours for each rat. Cystometric parameters, including time between contractions, contraction duration, bladder peak pressure, and number of uninhibited contractions, were analyzed and compared within rats before and after SNM treatment. Results: For the spinally transected rats during early phase (less than two weeks post spinalization, the time between contractions and contraction duration both increased after SNM treatments, yet the increased amplitude was about or less than 20%. For the spinally transected rats with a longer days survival (about two to four weeks post spinalization, the time between contractions and contraction duration substantially increased after SNM treatment and the changes for their average values were more than 90%. For the spinally transected rats with a much longer days survival (more than five weeks post spinalization, the time between contractions and contraction duration increased after SNM treatments, yet the magnitude of changes were less than 30%. Conclusion: The present study suggested that the significant effectiveness of SNM for complete SCI played its role after the spinal shock phase and prior to the development of detrusor overactivity. It indicated that the time point of SNM treatment is necessary to be paid attention.

  10. The porcine acute phase response to infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Haptoglobin, C-reactive protein, major acute phase protein and serum amyloid a protein are sensitive indicators of infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Klausen, Joan; Nielsen, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    In an experimental infection model mimicking acute Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap) infection in swine (Sus scrofa) by aerosol inoculation, the development of a number of typical clinical signs was accompanied by a prototypic acute phase reaction encompassing fever and an acute phase protein ...

  11. Infection dynamics and acute phase response of an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae field isolate of moderate virulence in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Laguna, Jaime; Islas, Armando; Muñoz, Dennis; Ruiz, Alvaro; Villamil, Aura; Carrasco, Librado; Quezada, Manuel

    2014-10-10

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia (PCP), causes significant economic losses associated mainly with growth stunting of animals. Although serotypes can be distinguished according to their virulence, most of the studies are focused in A. pleuropneumoniae infections with virulent serotypes. There is little information regarding the role of acute phase proteins (APPs) and proinflammatory cytokines in infections with isolates of mild or moderate virulence. Thus, the present study aims to evaluate the kinetics of infection with an A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 6 (Ap6) field isolate of moderate virulence and the changes in the serum concentration of specific antibodies and different APPs and proinflammatory cytokines. Control animals showed no clinical signs or lesions throughout the study. Infected animals showed increased rectal temperature, respiratory distress and depression from 24hpi, and typical gross and microscopic lesions of PCP from 6hpi onwards. Ap6 was isolated from nasal swabs of four out of five inoculated animals at 24hpi, and from nasal swabs, tonsil and lung samples from all inoculated animals at 72hpi. Specific antibodies against Ap6 or changes in the serum concentration of IL-1β, IL-10 and TNF-α were not detected throughout the study. The serum concentration of IL-6 increased from 6hpi as well as serum A amyloid, C-reactive protein and haptoglobin from 24hpi onwards. Our results highlight the onset of the acute phase response after the infection with a field isolate of A. pleuropneumoniae of moderate virulence from 24hpi onwards which may be of interest in the study of the pathogenesis of this disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Attenuation of Acute Phase Injury in Rat Intracranial Hemorrhage by Cerebrolysin that Inhibits Brain Edema and Inflammatory Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhaotao; Wang, Shanshan; Gao, Mou; Xu, Ruxiang; Liang, Chunyang; Zhang, Hongtian

    2016-04-01

    The outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is mainly determined by the volume of the hemorrhage core and the secondary brain damage to penumbral tissues due to brain swelling, microcirculation disturbance and inflammation. The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of cerebrolysin on brain edema and inhibition of the inflammation response surrounding the hematoma core in the acute stage after ICH. The ICH model was induced by administration of type VII bacterial collagenase into the stratum of adult rats, which were then randomly divided into three groups: ICH + saline; ICH + Cerebrolysin (5 ml/kg) and sham. Cerebrolysin or saline was administered intraperitoneally 1 h post surgery. Neurological scores, extent of brain edema content and Evans blue dye extravasation were recorded. The levels of pro-inflammatory factors (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6) were assayed by Real-time PCR and Elisa kits. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and tight junction proteins (TJPs; claudin-5, occludin and zonula occluden-1) expression were measured at multiple time points. The morphological and intercellular changes were characterized by Electron microscopy. It is found that cerebrolysin (5 ml/kg) improved the neurological behavior and reduced the ipsilateral brain water content and Evans blue dye extravasation. After cerebrolysin treated, the levels of pro-inflammatory factors and AQP4 in the peri-hematomal areas were markedly reduced and were accompanied with higher expression of TJPs. Electron microscopy showed the astrocytic swelling and concentrated chromatin in the ICH group and confirmed the cell junction changes. Thus, early cerebrolysin treatment ameliorates secondary injury after ICH and promotes behavioral performance during the acute phase by reducing brain edema, inflammatory response, and blood-brain barrier permeability.

  13. Review: Acute phase reaction and acute phase proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GRUYS E.; TOUSSAINT M.J.M.; NIEWOLD T.A.; KOOPMANS S.J.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the systemic acute phase reaction with major cytokines involved, and the hepatic metabolic changes,negative and positive acute phase proteins (APPs) with function and associated pathology is given. It appears that APPs represent appropriate analytes for assessment of animal health. Whereas they represent non-specific markers as biological effect reactants,they can be used for assessing nutritional deficits and reactive processes, especially when positive and negative acute phase variables are combined in an index. When such acute phase index is applied to separate healthy animals from animals with some disease, much better results are obtained than with single analytes and statistically acceptable results for culling individual animals may be reached.Unfortunately at present no cheap, comprehensive and easy to use system is available for assessing various acute phase proteins in serum or blood samples at the same time. Protein microarray or fluid phase microchip technology may satisfy this need;and permit simultaneous analysis of numerous analytes in the same small volume sample and enable integration of information derived from systemic reactivity and nutrition with disease specific variables. Applying such technology may help to solve health problems in various countries not only in animal husbandry but also in human populations.

  14. Effect of surgical castration of bull calves at different stages of maturity with or without analgesia on the acute phase response (APR) and complete blood count (CBC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study objective was to determine if surgical castration at birth or weaning impacts the acute phase response (APR) or complete blood counts (CBC) and whether concurrent administration of an oral analgesic (meloxicam) ameliorates inflammation. Bull calves (n=29) from the University of Arkansas re...

  15. DNA strand breaks, acute phase response and inflammation following pulmonary exposure by instillation to the diesel exhaust particle NIST1650b in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyjovska, Zdenka O.; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Saber, Anne T.

    2015-01-01

    by the alkaline comet assay as DNA strand breaks in BAL cells, lung and liver tissue. The pulmonary acute phase response was analysed by Saa3 mRNA levels by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Instillation of DEP induced a strong neutrophil influx 1 and 3 days, but not 28 days post-exposure. Saa3 m...

  16. Factors associated with acute-phase response of bisphosphonate-naïve or pretreated women with osteoporosis receiving an intravenous first dose of zoledronate or ibandronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, A W; Senn, R; Curkovic, I; Senn, C; Buffat, H; Popp, P F; Lippuner, K

    2017-03-15

    A first intravenous dose of bisphosphonates may be associated with an acute-phase response (APR). In bisphosphonate-naïve women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, the characteristics and frequency of APR may differ by compound. Prior bisphosphonate exposure was predictive of APR risk and severity.

  17. Altered apolipoprotein A-V expression during the acute phase response is independent of plasma triglyceride levels in mice and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, S.; Schomburg, L.; Renko, K.; Tolle, M.; van der Giet, M.; Tietge, U.J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma triglyceride (TG) levels are altered during the acute phase response (APR). Plasma levels of the recently discovered apolipoprotein AN (apoA-V) are inversely associated with plasma TG. The aim of this study was to investigate the change of apoA-V plasma levels and hepatic apoA-V expression

  18. Differential acute phase immune responses by Angus and Romosinuano steers following an endotoxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our primary objective was to evaluate potential genetic differences between two diverse Bos taurus breeds (Angus (AG) and Romosinuano (RO)) in response to an endotoxin. The RO is a tropically adaptive Bos taurus breed developed in the Sinú valley of northern Colombia. Eighteen steers (n = 9 steers/b...

  19. Alterations in oxidant/antioxidant balance, high-mobility group box 1 protein and acute phase response in cross-bred suckling piglets suffering from rotaviral enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar De, Ujjwal; Mukherjee, Reena; Nandi, Sukdeb; Patel, Bhimnere Hanumatnagouda Manjunatha; Dimri, Umesh; Ravishankar, Chintu; Verma, Ashok Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Rotaviral enteritis has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in piglets during their post-natal life. The present study was carried out to examine high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, acute phase response and oxidative stress indices in the serum of suckling piglets suffering from enteritis with or without association of porcine group A rotavirus infection. The present investigation utilized 23 clinical cases with signs of acute enteritis and 12 more healthy piglets of a similar age group as control animals. Out of 23 enteritis cases, 12 cases were found to be positive for porcine group A rotavirus infection as confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers for group A rotavirus, and the rest were found negative. The acute enteritis cases in piglets were associated with an elevated level of HMGB1 protein and serum haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin suggestive of an acute phase response. Among the oxidative stress indices, the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in serum were significantly increased. A pronounced drop of total antioxidant capacity and the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and superoxide dismutase in the serum of piglets suffering from acute enteritis compared to healthy ones were also noticed. The alterations in HMGB1 protein, acute phase response and oxidative stress indices were more pronounced in cases with the involvement of porcine rotavirus as compared to rotavirus-negative cases. It is concluded that HMGB1 protein, markers of oxidative stress and acute phase proteins might play an important role in the aetiopathogenesis of porcine diarrhoea caused by rotavirus and might be true markers in diagnosing the conditions leading to the extension of the prompt and effective therapeutic care.

  20. The acute phase response and soman-induced status epilepticus: temporal, regional and cellular changes in rat brain cytokine concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Robert K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroinflammation occurs following brain injury, including soman (GD induced status epilepticus (SE, and may contribute to loss of neural tissue and declined behavioral function. However, little is known about this important pathological process following GD exposure. Limited transcriptional information on a small number of brain-expressed inflammatory mediators has been shown following GD-induced SE and even less information on protein upregulation has been elucidated. The purpose of this study is to further characterize the regional and temporal progression of the neuroinflammatory process following acute GD-induced SE. Methods The protein levels of 10 cytokines was quantified using bead multiplex immunoassays in damaged brain regions (i.e., piriform cortex, hippocampus and thalamus up to 72 hours following seizure onset. Those factors showing significant changes were then localized to neural cells using fluorescent IHC. Results A significant concentration increase was observed in all injured brain regions for four acute phase response (APR induction cytokines: interleukin (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. Increases in these APR cytokines corresponded both temporally and regionally to areas of known seizure damage and neuronal death. Neurotoxic cytokines IL-1α and IL-1β were primarily expressed by activated microglia whereas the potentially neuroprotective cytokine IL-6 was expressed by neurons and hypertrophic astrocytes. Conclusions Increases in neurotoxic cytokines likely play an active role in the progression of GD-induced SE neuropathology though the exact role that these and other cytokines play in this process require further study.

  1. Effects of different antimicrobial treatments on serum acute phase responses and leucocyte counts in pigs after a primary and a secondary challenge infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjölund, M; Fossum, C; Martín de la Fuente, A J; Alava, M; Juul-Madsen, H R; Lampreave, F; Wallgren, P

    2011-07-16

    The susceptibility to an initial challenge and a re-challenge inoculation with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was analysed in pigs that were treated with antimicrobials of different efficacies following the first exposure to A pleuropneumoniae. In brief, 30 nine-week-old specific pathogen-free pigs were allocated to five groups of six. After acclimatisation, four groups were inoculated with A pleuropneumoniae serotype 2. At the onset of clinical signs, three of the groups of pigs were treated with enrofloxacin, tetracycline or penicillin. A fourth group served as the inoculated control and the fifth group as a control group that had not been inoculated. On day 28, all five groups were re-challenged with the same strain of A pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 as had been used in the first inoculation. No treatments were carried out at this time. The acute phase responses and differential leucocyte counts were monitored in detail after both inoculations. Leucocytosis and acute phase responses in the forms of serum amyloid A, pig-major acute phase protein and haptoglobin were recorded in all of the inoculated groups after the onset of clinical signs following the first inoculation. A porcine mannan-binding lectin-A response was less evident in the pigs. Acute phase responses resembling those of the first inoculation were observed in the pigs that had not previously been inoculated and in the pigs treated with enrofloxacin. Acute phase responses were not recorded in the other three groups, where the pigs had seroconverted to A pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 following the first inoculation.

  2. Immune and acute phase response in pigs experimentally infected with H1N2 swine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Kwit, Krzysztof

    2012-12-01

    Acute phase proteins (APPs) and immune responses in pigs after experimental infection with H1N2 swine influenza virus (SwH1N2) were studied. Eight piglets were infected intranasally with SwH1N2. Four served as controls. Antibodies against swine influenza virus (SIV)s were measured by hemagglutination inhibition assay. The proliferation assay was used to measure influenza-specific cell-mediated response. Hematological parameters were measured on a hematology analyzer. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and pig major APP (Pig-MAP) concentrations in serum were measured using commercial ELISAs. Antibodies against SwH1N2 in the serum of infected pigs were detected from 7 dpi. SwH1N2-specific T-cell response was observed from 5 dpi. A significant drop in lymphocyte numbers and an increase in medium-sized cell (MID) counts with no accompanying leukopenia was observed in all infected pigs from 3 to 7 dpi. In infected pigs, concentrations of CRP, Hp and SAA increased significantly when the greatest amounts of virus were shed (from 1 to 3 dpi). The level of Pig-MAP remained unchanged during study. The significant positive correlation found between maximum concentrations of SAA in serum and lung scores, makes SAA a potentially useful indicator in experimental infection studies (e.g. vaccine efficiency investigations) or as a marker for disease severity, but to confirm this hypothesis more studies are needed.

  3. The relationship among acute-phase response proteins, cytokines and hormones in cachectic patients with colon cancer

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    Dulger Ahmet

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgraund Acute-phase response proteins (APRP, cytokines and hormones have been claimed to be an independent prognostic factor of malignancies, however the basis for their association with prognosis remains unexplained. We suggest that in colon malignancies, as similar to pancreatic and lung cancers, changes in APRP are associated with angiogenesis. Methods C-reactive protein (CRP, albumin, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, midkine, VEGF-A, VEGF-C, leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin serum levels are studied in 126 colon cancer patients and 36 healthy subjects. Results We found statistically significant difference and correlations between two groups. We found significantly higher serum CRP, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, VEGF-A, VEGF-C and leptin concentrations in patients relative to controls (p Conclusions Cachexia in patients with colon cancers is associated with changes in APRP, cytokines and hormone concentrations. These biomarkers and cachexia together have a direct relationship with accelerated angiogenesis. This may lead to a connection between the outcomes in malignancies and the biomarkers.

  4. Antibiotics increase gut metabolism and antioxidant proteins and decrease acute phase response and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates.

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    Pingping Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The appropriate use of antibiotics for preterm infants, which are highly susceptible to develop necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC, is not clear. While antibiotic therapy is commonly used in neonates with NEC symptoms and sepsis, it remains unknown how antibiotics may affect the intestine and NEC sensitivity. We hypothesized that broad-spectrum antibiotics, given immediately after preterm birth, would reduce NEC sensitivity and support intestinal protective mechanisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Preterm pigs were treated with antibiotics for 5 d (oral and systemic doses of gentamycin, ampicillin and metrodinazole; AB group and compared with untreated pigs. Only the untreated pigs showed evidence of NEC lesions and reduced digestive function, as indicated by lowered villus height and activity of brush border enzymes. In addition, 53 intestinal and 22 plasma proteins differed in expression between AB and untreated pigs. AB treatment increased the abundance of intestinal proteins related to carbohydrate and protein metabolism, actin filaments, iron homeostasis and antioxidants. Further, heat shock proteins and the complement system were affected suggesting that all these proteins were involved in the colonization-dependent early onset of NEC. In plasma, acute phase proteins (haptoglobin, complement proteins decreased, while albumin, cleaved C3, ficolin and transferrin increased. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Depressed bacterial colonization following AB treatment increases mucosal integrity and reduces bacteria-associated inflammatory responses in preterm neonates. The plasma proteins C3, ficolin, and transferrin are potential biomarkers of the colonization-dependent NEC progression in preterm neonates.

  5. Acute-phase responses in transgenic mice with CNS overexpression of IL-1 receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundkvist, J; Sundgren-Andersson, A K; Tingsborg, S; Ostlund, P; Engfors, C; Alheim, K; Bartfai, T; Iverfeldt, K; Schultzberg, M

    1999-03-01

    The interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) is an endogenous antagonist that blocks the effects of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1alpha and IL-1beta by occupying the type I IL-1 receptor. Here we describe transgenic mice with astrocyte-directed overexpression of the human secreted IL-1ra (hsIL-1ra) under the control of the murine glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter. Two GFAP-hsIL-1ra strains have been generated and characterized further: GILRA2 and GILRA4. These strains show a brain-specific expression of the hsIL-1ra at the mRNA and protein levels. The hsIL-1ra protein was approximated to approximately 50 ng/brain in cytosolic fractions of whole brain homogenates, with no differences between male and female mice or between the two strains. Furthermore, the protein is secreted, inasmuch as the concentration of hsIL-1ra in the cerebrospinal fluid was 13 (GILRA2) to 28 (GILRA4) times higher in the transgenic mice than in the control animals. To characterize the transgenic phenotype, GILRA mice and nontransgenic controls were injected with recombinant human IL-1beta (central injection) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, peripheral injection). The febrile response elicited by IL-1beta (50 ng/mouse icv) was abolished in hsIL-1ra-overexpressing animals, suggesting that the central IL-1 receptors were occupied by antagonist. The peripheral LPS injection (25 micrograms/kg ip) triggered a fever in overexpressing and control animals. Moreover, no differences were found in LPS-induced (100 and 1,000 micrograms/kg ip; 1 and 6 h after injection) IL-1beta and IL-6 serum levels between GILRA and wild-type mice. On the basis of these results, we suggest that binding of central IL-1 to central IL-1 receptors is not important in LPS-induced fever or LPS-induced IL-1beta and IL-6 plasma levels.

  6. The acute phase of inflammatory response involved in the wound-healing process after excimer laser treatment

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    Resan M

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mirko Resan,1,2 Miroslav Vukosavljevic,1,2 Danilo Vojvodic,2,3 Brigitte Pajic-Eggspuehler,4 Bojan Pajic2,4–6 1Eye Clinic, Military Medical Academy, Belgrade, Serbia; 2Faculty of Medicine of the Military Medical Academy, University of Defense, Belgrade, Serbia; 3Department for Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Institute for Medical Research, Military Medical Academy, Belgrade, Serbia; 4Eye Clinic ORASIS, Swiss Eye Research Foundation, Reinach AG, Switzerland; 5Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia; 6Division of Ophthalmology, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland Purpose: To evaluate the participation of proinflammatory cytokines in the acute phase of corneal wound-healing response after excimer laser treatment. Methods: The study included 68 myopic eyes up to -3.0 diopters divided into two groups: 1 eyes treated with laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK (n=31 and 2 eyes treated with photorefractive keratectomy (PRK (n=37. Each group was then divided into three subgroups based on tear sampling times: before (0 hours, 1 hour after, and 24 hours after treatment. The tear fluid was sampled from lower lateral tear meniscus using a cellulose microsurgical sponge. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 in tear fluid were determined by flow cytometry method. Results: Statistical significance was observed in the concentrations of TNF-α (P=0.0421 and IL-1β (P=0.0225 between samples collected 1 and 24 hours after PRK treatment in favor of samples collected 1 hour after treatment. IL-6 concentration changes showed a significant increase in the PRK group in both time intervals following treatment compared to pretreatment (0 hour/1 hour, P=0.0031; 0 hour/24 hours, P=0.0059. For IL-8 concentrations, significant differences were observed between control and experimental groups in samples collected 1 hour after LASIK and 1

  7. Distending Pressure Did Not Activate Acute Phase or Inflammatory Responses in the Airways and Lungs of Fetal, Preterm Lambs.

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    Rebecca Y Petersen

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation at birth causes airway injury and lung inflammation in preterm sheep. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP is being increasingly used clinically to transition preterm infants at birth.To test if distending pressures will activate acute phase reactants and inflammatory changes in the airways of fetal, preterm lambs.The head and chest of fetal lambs at 128±1 day GA were surgically exteriorized. With placental circulation intact, fetal lambs were then randomized to one of five 15 minute interventions: PEEP of 0, 4, 8, 12, or 16 cmH2O. Recruitment volumes were recorded. Fetal lambs remained on placental support for 30 min after the intervention. The twins of each 0 cmH2O animal served as controls. Fetal lung fluid (FLF, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL, right mainstem bronchi and peripheral lung tissue were evaluated for inflammation.Recruitment volume increased from 0.4±0.04 mL/kg at 4 cmH2O to 2.4±0.3 mL/kg at 16 cmH2O. The lambs were surfactant deficient, and all pressures were below the opening inflection pressure on pressure-volume curve. mRNA expression of early response genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines did not increase in airway tissue or lung tissue at any pressure compared to controls. FLF and BAL also did not have increases in early response proteins. No histologic changes or Egr-1 activation was present at the pressures used.Distending pressures as high as 16 cmH2O did not recruit lung volume at birth and did not increase markers of injury in the lung or airways in non-breathing preterm fetal sheep.

  8. Similarities in acute phase protein response during hibernation in black bears and major depression in humans: A response to underlying metabolic depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouris, J.A.; Chauhan, V.P.S.; Sheikh, A.M.; Chauhan, A.; Malik, M.; Vaughan, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hibernation with mild hypothermia and the stress of captivity on levels of six acute-phase proteins (APPs) in serial samples of serum from 11 wild and 6 captive black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) during active and hibernating states. We hypothesize that during hibernation with mild hypothermia, bears would show an APP response similar to that observed in major depression. Enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay was used to measure alpha2-macroglobulin and C-reactive protein, and a nephelometer to measure alpha1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, and transferrin. Levels of all other proteins except ceruloplasmin were significantly elevated during hibernation in both wild and captive bears at the p neurobiology of depression.

  9. Protein-energy malnutrition developing after global brain ischemia induces an atypical acute-phase response and hinders expression of GAP-43.

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    Shari E Smith

    Full Text Available Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM is a common post-stroke problem. PEM can independently induce a systemic acute-phase response, and pre-existing malnutrition can exacerbate neuroinflammation induced by brain ischemia. In contrast, the effects of PEM developing in the post-ischemic period have not been studied. Since excessive inflammation can impede brain remodeling, we investigated the effects of post-ischemic malnutrition on neuroinflammation, the acute-phase reaction, and neuroplasticity-related proteins. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to global forebrain ischemia using the 2-vessel occlusion model or sham surgery. The sham rats were assigned to control diet (18% protein on day 3 after surgery, whereas the rats exposed to global ischemia were assigned to either control diet or a low protein (PEM, 2% protein diet. Post-ischemic PEM decreased growth associated protein-43, synaptophysin and synaptosomal-associated protein-25 immunofluorescence within the hippocampal CA3 mossy fiber terminals on day 21, whereas the glial response in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subregions was unaltered by PEM. No systemic acute-phase reaction attributable to global ischemia was detected in control diet-fed rats, as reflected by serum concentrations of alpha-2-macroglobulin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin, and albumin. Acute exposure to the PEM regimen after global brain ischemia caused an atypical acute-phase response. PEM decreased the serum concentrations of albumin and haptoglobin on day 5, with the decreases sustained to day 21. Serum alpha-2-macroglobulin concentrations were significantly higher in malnourished rats on day 21. This provides the first direct evidence that PEM developing after brain ischemia exerts wide-ranging effects on mechanisms important to stroke recovery.

  10. Protein-energy malnutrition developing after global brain ischemia induces an atypical acute-phase response and hinders expression of GAP-43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shari E; Figley, Sarah A; Schreyer, David J; Paterson, Phyllis G

    2014-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a common post-stroke problem. PEM can independently induce a systemic acute-phase response, and pre-existing malnutrition can exacerbate neuroinflammation induced by brain ischemia. In contrast, the effects of PEM developing in the post-ischemic period have not been studied. Since excessive inflammation can impede brain remodeling, we investigated the effects of post-ischemic malnutrition on neuroinflammation, the acute-phase reaction, and neuroplasticity-related proteins. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to global forebrain ischemia using the 2-vessel occlusion model or sham surgery. The sham rats were assigned to control diet (18% protein) on day 3 after surgery, whereas the rats exposed to global ischemia were assigned to either control diet or a low protein (PEM, 2% protein) diet. Post-ischemic PEM decreased growth associated protein-43, synaptophysin and synaptosomal-associated protein-25 immunofluorescence within the hippocampal CA3 mossy fiber terminals on day 21, whereas the glial response in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subregions was unaltered by PEM. No systemic acute-phase reaction attributable to global ischemia was detected in control diet-fed rats, as reflected by serum concentrations of alpha-2-macroglobulin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin, and albumin. Acute exposure to the PEM regimen after global brain ischemia caused an atypical acute-phase response. PEM decreased the serum concentrations of albumin and haptoglobin on day 5, with the decreases sustained to day 21. Serum alpha-2-macroglobulin concentrations were significantly higher in malnourished rats on day 21. This provides the first direct evidence that PEM developing after brain ischemia exerts wide-ranging effects on mechanisms important to stroke recovery.

  11. Metabolic Cost of the Activation of Immune Response in the Fish-Eating Myotis (Myotis vivesi): The Effects of Inflammation and the Acute Phase Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otálora-Ardila, Aída; Herrera M., L. Gerardo; Flores-Martínez, José Juan; Welch, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and activation of the acute phase response (APR) are energetically demanding processes that protect against pathogens. Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are antigens commonly used to stimulate inflammation and the APR, respectively. We tested the hypothesis that the APR after an LPS challenge was energetically more costly than the inflammatory response after a PHA challenge in the fish-eating Myotis bat (Myotis vivesi). We measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) after bats were administered PHA and LPS. We also measured skin temperature (Tskin) after the LPS challenge and skin swelling after the PHA challenge. Injection of PHA elicited swelling that lasted for several days but changes in RMR and body mass were not significant. LPS injection produced a significant increase in Tskin and in RMR, and significant body mass loss. RMR after LPS injection increased by 140–185% and the total cost of the response was 6.50 kJ. Inflammation was an energetically low-cost process but the APR entailed a significant energetic investment. Examination of APR in other bats suggests that the way in which bats deal with infections might not be uniform. PMID:27792729

  12. Analysis of the acute phase responses of Serum Amyloid A, Haptoglobin and Type 1 Interferon in cattle experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O

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    Stenfeldt Carolina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A series of challenge experiments were performed in order to investigate the acute phase responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV infection in cattle and possible implications for the development of persistently infected "carriers". The host response to infection was investigated through measurements of the concentrations of the acute phase proteins (APPs serum amyloid A (SAA and haptoglobin (HP, as well as the bioactivity of type 1 interferon (IFN in serum of infected animals. Results were based on measurements from a total of 36 infected animals of which 24 were kept for observational periods exceeding 28 days in order to determine the carrier-status of individual animals. The systemic host response to FMDV in infected animals was evaluated in comparison to similar measurements in sera from 6 mock-inoculated control animals. There was a significant increase in serum concentrations of both APPs and type 1 IFN in infected animals coinciding with the onset of viremia and clinical disease. The measured parameters declined to baseline levels within 21 days after inoculation, indicating that there was no systemically measurable inflammatory reaction related to the carrier state of FMD. There was a statistically significant difference in the HP response between carriers and non-carriers with a lower response in the animals that subsequently developed into FMDV carriers. It was concluded that the induction of SAA, HP and type 1 IFN in serum can be used as markers of acute infection by FMDV in cattle.

  13. A PAF receptor antagonist inhibits acute airway inflammation and late-phase responses but not chronic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in a primate model of asthma

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    R. H. Gundel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We have examined the effects of a PAF receptor antagonist, WEB 2170, on several indices of acute and chronic airway inflammation and associated changes in lung function in a primate model of allergic asthma. A single oral administration WEB 2170 provided dose related inhibition of the release of leukotriene C4 (LTC4 and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2 recovered and quantified in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid obtained during the acute phase response to inhaled antigen. In addition, oral WEB 2170 treatment in dual responder primates blocked the acute influx of neutrophils into the airways as well as the associated late-phase airway obstruction occurring 6 h after antigen inhalation. In contrast, a multiple dosing regime with WEB 2170 (once a day for 7 consecutive days failed to reduce the chronic airway inflammation (eosinophilic and associated airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine that is characteristic of dual responder monkeys. Thus, we conclude that the generation of PAF following antigen inhalation contributes to the development of lipid mediators, acute airway inflammation and associated late-phase airway obstruction in dual responder primates; however, PAF does not play a significant role in the maintenance of chronic airway inflammation and associated airway hyperresponsiveness in this primate model.

  14. Alteration of immunologic responses on peripheral blood in the acute phase of ischemic stroke: blood genomic profiling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung-Hun; Kim, Ok-Joon; Shin, Dong-Ah; Song, Jihwan; Yoo, Hanna; Kim, Yu-Kyung; Kim, Jin-Kyeoung

    2012-08-15

    Peripheral blood cells and inflammatory mediators have a detrimental effect on brain during cerebral ischemia. We investigated the immunologic changes on peripheral blood in the acute phase of ischemic stroke using RNA microarray. mRNA microarray and real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for genes of interest in microarray data were analyzed in 12 stroke patients and 12 controls. Plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) concentrations were measured in 120 stroke patients and 82 controls. In microarray analysis, a total of 11 genes of interest showed different expression in patients with ischemic stroke. The three most highly expressed genes were C19orf59 (chromosome 19 open reading frame 59), MMP9 and IL18RAP (interleukin-18 receptor accessory protein), whereas gene with the lowest expression was GNLY (granulysin). The expression patterns of three selected genes (MMP9, IL18RAP and GNLY) were validated by RT-PCR. The plasma concentration of MMP-9 was significantly elevated in the stroke patients, and showed a weakly positive correlation with infarct volume. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed that gene sets related to immunity and defense, signal transduction, transport and cell adhesion were significant in acute ischemic stroke. In the peripheral blood, numerous genes of inflammatory mediators, including MMP9, IL18RAP and GNLY, are altered in the acute phase of ischemic stroke. This stroke-specific gene expression profiling provides valuable information about the role of peripheral inflammation to the pathophysiological mechanism of ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Leptin role in advanced lung cancer. A mediator of the acute phase response or a marker of the status of nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, María Remedios; Santolaria, Francisco; Batista, Norberto; de La Vega, María; González-Reimers, Emilio; Milena, Antonio; Llanos, Marta; Gómez-Sirvent, Juan Luis

    2002-07-07

    Leptin is an anorexia inductor peptide produced by adipocytes and related to fat mass. Leptin is also produced by fat under proinflammatory cytokine action. Our objective is to study serum leptin levels in relation to nutritional status and acute phase response in advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer.Seventy-six patients newly diagnosed of non surgical non-small cell lung cancer before chemotherapy treatment and 30 healthy controls were included. BMI, serum leptin and cholesterol levels and lymphocyte count were decreased in lung cancer patients. Cytokine IL-6, TNF-alpha, sTNF-RII, sIL-2R, IL-12, IL-10 and IFN-gamma, and other acute phase reactants as alpha1 antitrypsin, ferritin, CRP and platelets were all raised in patients, whereas the IL-2 was decreased. We found a direct relationship between leptin and other indicators of the status of nutrition, especially total fat mass. We also found a close relationship between the status of nutrition and the performance status (Karnofsky index). However, serum leptin and nutritional status were inversely correlated with acute phase proteins and proinflammatory cytokines, suggesting a stress-type malnutrition. Although serum leptin levels, nutritional status and Karnofsky index are related to survival, at multivariate analysis they all were displaced by the acute phase reaction markers. These results suggest that cancer anorexia and cachexia are not due to a dysregulation of leptin production. Circulating leptin concentrations are not elevated in weight-losing cancer patients and are inversely related to the intensity of the inflammatory response. In advanced lung cancer patients serum leptin concentrations only depend on the total amount of fat.

  16. Lack of acute phase response in the livers of mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles or carbon black by inhalation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saber, Anne T; Halappanavar, Sabina; Folkmann, Janne K

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic and animal studies have shown that particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of lung and cardiovascular diseases. Although the exact mechanisms by which particles induce cardiovascular diseases are not known, studies suggest involvement of systemic acute...... analyzed liver tissue from these mice using high density DNA microarrays. Globally, 28 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed in response to DEP or CB. The mRNA expression of three of the genes (serine (or cysteine) proteinase inhibitor, clade A, member 3C, apolipoprotein E...

  17. Analysis of the acute phase responses of Serum Amyloid A, Haptoglobin and Type 1 Interferon in cattle experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Stockmarr, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    periods exceeding 28 days in order to determine the carrier-status of individual animals. The systemic host response to FMDV in infected animals was evaluated in comparison to similar measurements in sera from 6 mock-inoculated control animals.There was a significant increase in serum concentrations...... of both APPs and type 1 IFN in infected animals coinciding with the onset of viremia and clinical disease. The measured parameters declined to baseline levels within 21 days after inoculation, indicating that there was no systemically measurable inflammatory reaction related to the carrier state of FMD......A series of challenge experiments were performed in order to investigate the acute phase responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle and possible implications for the development of persistently infected "carriers". The host response to infection was investigated through...

  18. Acute Phase Cognitive Therapy for Recurrent Major Depressive Disorder: Who Drops Out and How Much do Patient Skills Influence Response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Robin B.; Minhajuddin, Abu; Kangas, Julie L.; Friedman, Edward S.; Callan, Judith A.; Thase, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aims were to predict cognitive therapy (CT) noncompletion and to determine, relative to other putative predictors, the extent to which the patient skills in CT for recurrent major depressive disorder predicted response in a large, two-site trial. Method Among 523 outpatients aged 18-70, exposed to 12-14 weeks of CT, 21.6% dropped out. Of the 410 completers, 26.1% did not respond. To predict these outcomes, we conducted logistic regression analyses of demographics, pre-treatment illness characteristics and psychosocial measures, and mid-treatment therapeutic alliance. Results The 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17) scores at entry predicted drop-out and nonresponse. Patients working for pay, of non-Hispanic white race, who were older, or had more education were significantly more likely to complete. Controlling for HRSD17, significant predictors of nonresponse included: lower scores on the Skills of Cognitive Therapy-Observer Version (SoCT-O), not working for pay, history of only two depressive episodes, greater pre-treatment social impairment. Mid-phase symptom reduction was a strong predictor of final outcome. Conclusions These prognostic indicators forecast which patients tend to be optimal candidates for standard CT, as well as which patients may benefit from changes in therapy, its focus, or from alternate modalities of treatment. Pending replication, the findings underscore the importance of promoting patients’ understanding and use of CT skills, as well as reducing depressive symptoms early. Future research may determine the extent to which these findings generalize to other therapies, providers who vary in competency, and patients with other depressive subtypes or disorders. PMID:23485420

  19. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis and acute phase response link pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes to risk of cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Sarah S., E-mail: spo@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Saber, Anne T., E-mail: ats@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Mortensen, Alicja, E-mail: almo@food.dtu.dk [National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Søborg (Denmark); Szarek, Józef, E-mail: szarek@uwm.edu.pl [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland); Wu, Dongmei, E-mail: dongmei.wu@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Williams, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.williams@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Andersen, Ole, E-mail: oa@ruc.dk [Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Jacobsen, Nicklas R., E-mail: nrj@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Yauk, Carole L., E-mail: carole.yauk@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Wallin, Håkan, E-mail: hwa@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, DK-1014 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Halappanavar, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.halappanavar@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Vogel, Ulla, E-mail: ubv@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-03-15

    Adverse lung effects following pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are well documented in rodents. However, systemic effects are less understood. Epidemiological studies have shown increased cardiovascular disease risk after pulmonary exposure to airborne particles, which has led to concerns that inhalation exposure to MWCNTs might pose similar risks. We analyzed parameters related to cardiovascular disease, including plasma acute phase response (APR) proteins and plasma lipids, in female C57BL/6 mice exposed to a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18, 54 or 162 μg/mouse of small, entangled (CNT{sub Small}, 0.8 ± 0.1 μm long) or large, thick MWCNTs (CNT{sub Large}, 4 ± 0.4 μm long). Liver tissues and plasma were harvested 1, 3 and 28 days post-exposure. In addition, global hepatic gene expression, hepatic cholesterol content and liver histology were used to assess hepatic effects. The two MWCNTs induced similar systemic responses despite their different physicochemical properties. APR proteins SAA3 and haptoglobin, plasma total cholesterol and low-density/very low-density lipoprotein were significantly increased following exposure to either MWCNTs. Plasma SAA3 levels correlated strongly with pulmonary Saa3 levels. Analysis of global gene expression revealed perturbation of the same biological processes and pathways in liver, including the HMG-CoA reductase pathway. Both MWCNTs induced similar histological hepatic changes, with a tendency towards greater response following CNT{sub Large} exposure. Overall, we show that pulmonary exposure to two different MWCNTs induces similar systemic and hepatic responses, including changes in plasma APR, lipid composition, hepatic gene expression and liver morphology. The results link pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs with risk of cardiovascular disease. - Highlights: • Systemic and hepatic alterations were evaluated in female mice following MWCNT instillation. • Despite being physicochemically

  20. Application of acute phase protein measurements in veterinary clinical chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Henning; Nielsen, J. P.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2004-01-01

    The body's early defence in response to trauma, inflammation or infection, the acute phase response, is a complex set of systemic reactions seen shortly after exposure to a triggering event. One of the many components is an acute phase protein response in which increased hepatic synthesis leads t...... A and their possible use as non-specific indicators of health in large animal veterinary medicine such as in the health status surveillance of pigs at the herd level, for the detection of mastitis in dairy cattle and for the prognosis of respiratory diseases in horses....

  1. Application of acute phase protein measurements in veterinary clinical chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Henning; Nielsen, J. P.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2004-01-01

    The body's early defence in response to trauma, inflammation or infection, the acute phase response, is a complex set of systemic reactions seen shortly after exposure to a triggering event. One of the many components is an acute phase protein response in which increased hepatic synthesis leads t...... A and their possible use as non-specific indicators of health in large animal veterinary medicine such as in the health status surveillance of pigs at the herd level, for the detection of mastitis in dairy cattle and for the prognosis of respiratory diseases in horses....

  2. Effects of preoperative feeding with a whey protein plus carbohydrate drink on the acute phase response and insulin resistance. A randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dock-Nascimento Diana B

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged preoperative fasting increases insulin resistance and current evidence recommends carbohydrate (CHO drinks 2 hours before surgery. Our hypothesis is that the addition of whey protein to a CHO-based drink not only reduces the inflammatory response but also diminish insulin resistance. Methods Seventeen patients scheduled to cholecystectomy or inguinal herniorraphy were randomized and given 474 ml and 237 ml of water (CO group or a drink containing CHO and milk whey protein (CHO-P group respectively, 6 and 3 hours before operation. Blood samples were collected before surgery and 24 hours afterwards for biochemical assays. The endpoints of the study were the insulin resistance (IR, the prognostic inflammatory and nutritional index (PINI and the C-reactive protein (CRP/albumin ratio. A 5% level for significance was established. Results There were no anesthetic or postoperative complications. The post-operative IR was lower in the CHO-P group when compared with the CO group (2.75 ± 0.72 vs 5.74 ± 1.16; p = 0.03. There was no difference between the two groups in relation to the PINI. The CHO-P group showed a decrease in the both CRP elevation and CRP/albumin ratio (p Conclusions Shortening the pre-operative fasting using CHO and whey protein is safe and reduces insulin resistance and postoperative acute phase response in elective moderate operations. Trial registration ClinicalTrail.gov NCT01354249

  3. Acute pre-learning stress and declarative memory: impact of sex, cortisol response and menstrual cycle phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espin, Laura; Almela, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Gomez-Amor, Jesus

    2013-05-01

    This study explores the influence of pre-learning stress on performance on declarative memory tasks in healthy young adults in relation to sex and menstrual cycle phase. The sample was composed of 119 students (32 men and 87 women) from 18 to 25 years of age. The women were tested in different hormonal stages (30 in follicular phase, 34 in luteal phase, and 23 using oral contraceptives). The participants were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) or a control condition. Afterwards, their memory performance was measured using a standardized memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). In the control condition, all groups of women recalled more words than men, but these differences disappeared in the group exposed to TSST because men's performance on the memory test improved, but only to the level of women. In addition, our data suggest that in women the relationship between cortisol and memory can be modulated by sex hormone levels, since in luteal women a negative relationship was found between memory performance and peak cortisol level. These results confirm that sex differences need to be considered in the relationship between pre-learning stress and memory performance.

  4. Kinetics and mechanisms of hepatic acute phase response to subtotal partial hepatectomy and cultural impact on environmental hepatic end-stage liver injury in the homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, F M; Mamer, O A; Sauriol, F; Ruhenstroth-Bauer, G

    2001-06-01

    Intoxication and liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), aflatoxin B1, diabetes, and subtotal partial hepatectomy (PH(90)) in rats in which approximately 90% of the total hepatic tissue mass is surgically removed produces an acute-phase response (APR) whose initial stage prior to regression closely mimics the APRs associated with the life-threatening hepatic failure seen in the homeless. Rats treated by PH(90)were either healthy, CCl(4)-intoxicated, diabetic, or alflatoxin B1 (AFB1) intoxicated to the point of 75% liver insufficiency. It is well documented that high rates of mortality following PH(90)in aseptic rats could be minimized by supplementing drinking water with 20% glucose, organic components of L-15 medium and housing animals in cages maintained at 33-35;C. Aseptic rats showed a mild 20-30% decrease in APR proteins during the first 4-5 days following PH(90), while a maximal APR was noted 9-12 days post PH(90)and lasted for ~30 days when it returned to values close to those of healthy controls. This delay in hepatic APR of the remnant caudate lobe favoured replacement of lost basophilic clumps and ribosomes. The newly synthesized ribosomes of the nascent hepatocytes quantitatively maintained the APR signals of the injured caudate hepatocytes, and biosynthesized and released a typical spectrum of APR proteins. We suggest that massively injured liver has decoded an already stored and irreversible DNA-biochemical sequence of events in which priority is given to recovery of lost tissues by delaying an APR response to injury. In PH(90)of diabetic and CCl(4)-intoxicated rats, the hepatic dual functions of regeneration and APR processes associated with intoxication-initiated catabolic signals, created a heavy metabolic burden on the remnant caudate lobe leading to higher rates of mortality. APR of healthy rats to AFB1 parallels that of alpha-amanitin-induced intoxication. Similarly, within shorter time scale proportional to the severity of surgery

  5. 急性期应答与胆固醇逆向转运%The relationship between acute phase response and reverse cholesterol transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤石林; 唐朝克

    2011-01-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), the process during which accumulated cholesterol is transported from the vessel wall to the liver for excretion, is an important mechanism of preventing atherosclerosis-related diseases. Recent studies have shown that infection, inflammation and trauma-induced acute phase response (APR) can affect the structure and function of high density lipoprotein, and inhibit cellular cholesterol efflux, plasma cholesterol transport and hepatic cholesterol metabolism, therefore inhibiting the RCT in vivo. Short-term inhibition of RCT by APR may help the body to fight against infections or tissue injuries. However, the further suppression of the RCT by APR will contribute to the accumulation of cholesterol in peripheral tissue, thus leading to the metabolism disorders that may be the key factors for positive correlation between infection autoimmune disease, atherosclerosis, and metabolic disease. This review describes the advance about the relationship between APR and RCT.%胆固醇逆向转运(reverse cholesterol transport,RCT)是促进外周胆固醇从细胞内流出,然后转运到肝脏进行代谢的过程,是机体抗动脉粥样硬化相关疾病的重要机制.研究表明,感染、炎症及创伤等诱导的急性期应答(acute phase response,APR)影响高密度脂蛋白的结构和功能,抑制细胞内胆固醇流出,血浆胆固醇转运及肝脏胆固醇代谢和排泌等环节,因此抑制体内RCT.APR短期抑制RCT有利于机体抗感染和组织损伤,然而,APR对RCT的进一步抑制将促进外周组织胆固醇蓄积及代谢紊乱,可能是多种感染免疫性疾病,代谢性疾病与动脉粥样硬化呈正相关的关键因素.本文就APR调节机体RCT的最新研究进展作一综述.

  6. Comparison of acute phase response during attack and attack-free period in children with Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Çakmak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare acutephase reactant (AFR levels at attack period and attackfreeperiod under colchicine treatment in children with FamilialMediterranean Fever (FMF.Methods: The diagnosis of FMF was done based on clinicalcriteria and patients were prospectively followed upfor average of 1.2 years. Symptom-onset age, age at diagnosis,clinical symptoms and features of FMF attackswere recorded. MEFV gene mutations were detected byreverse hybridization (strip assay method. Peripheralblood leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP and blood fibrinogen levelswere measured by standard methods, both at attackperiod and during attack-free period.Results: Totally 105 (55 girls, 50 boys children with FMFwere included. The mean age was 8.9±3.2 years, meansymptom onset age was 5.9 years and mean age at diagnosiswas 8.1 years. MEFV gene mutations were asfollows: E148Q (29.2%, M694V (24.8%, R761H (15.3%and V726A (13.1%. The mean AFR values were overnormal values in attack period and there was at least onehigh AFR level in 80.0% of patients. In attack-free period,although the mean values of all AFRs were within normallimits, 31.4% of patients had at least one high AFR level.Conclusion: Based on these data, one-third of FMF childrenhad a high AFR level, which may be a marker of subclinicalinflammation. In children with continuous inflammationduring attack-free period, a new anti-inflammatorydrug additional to colchicine can be considered in order toprevent complications of chronic inflammation. J Clin ExpInvest 2013; 4 (2: 213-218Key words: Familial Mediterranean Fever, acute phasereactants, children, attack period, attack-free period

  7. Acute sedimentation response to rainfall following the explosive phase of the 2008-2009 eruption of Chaitén volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Thomas C.; Major, Jon J.; Amigo, Álvaro; Moreno, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    The 10-day explosive phase at the start of the 2008–2009 eruption of Chaitén volcano in southern Chile (42.83°S, 72.65°W) blanketed the steep, rain-forest-cloaked, 77-km2 Chaitén River drainage basin with 3 to >100 cm of tephra; predominantly fine to extremely fine rhyolitic ash fell during the latter half of the explosive phase. Rain falling on this ash blanket within days of cessation of major explosive activity generated a hyperconcentrated-flow lahar, followed closely by a complex, multi-day, muddy flood (streamflow bordering on dilute hyperconcentrated flow). Sediment mobilized in this lahar-flood event filled the Chaitén River channel with up to 7 m of sediment, buried the town of Chaitén (10 km downstream of the volcano) in up to 3 m of sediment, and caused the lower 3 km of the channel to avulse through the town. Although neither the nature nor rate of the sedimentation response is unprecedented, they are unusual in several ways: (1) Nearly 70 percent of the aggradation (almost 5 m) in the 50–70-m-wide Chaitén River channel was caused by a lahar, triggered by an estimated 20 mm of rainfall over a span of about 24 h. An additional 2 m of aggradation occurred in the next 24–36 h. (2) Direct damage to the town was accomplished by the sediment-laden water-flood phase of the lahar-flood event, not the lahar phase. (3) The volume of sediment eroded from hillslopes and delivered to the Chaitén River channel was at least 3–8 × 106 m3—roughly 15–40 % of the minimum tephra volume that mantled the Chaitén River drainage basin. (4) The acute sedimentation response to rainfall appears to have been due to the thickness and fineness of the ash blanket (inhibiting infiltration of rain) and the steepness of the basin’s hillslopes. Other possible factors such as the prior formation of an ash crust, development of a hydrophobic surface layer, or large-scale destruction of rain-intercepting vegetation did not play a role.

  8. Effects of a concentrated lidocaine solution on the acute phase stress response to dehorning in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, T J; Kattesh, H G; Adcock, R J; Welborn, M G; Saxton, A M; Morrow, J L; Dailey, J W

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to more fully define the surgical stress response to dehorning by heat cauterization in dairy calves by measuring behavioral, hormonal, inflammatory, and immunological markers of stress and to determine whether a nerve block of the surgical site with a concentrated solution of lidocaine (5%) reduces the degree of stress. Thirty-two 10- to 12-wk-old female Holstein calves were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments: 5% lidocaine followed by dehorning, 2% lidocaine followed by dehorning, saline followed by dehorning, or 5% lidocaine followed by sham dehorning. Plasma cortisol concentration was measured in blood samples collected via a jugular catheter at -0.5, 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Various other blood constituents were measured in samples collected at -0.5, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Feeding, drinking, scratching, grooming, rubbing, licking, and inactivity behaviors were observed in the standing and recumbent positions using a 10-min scan sampling method analyzed on a time period and daily basis for 72 h following the dehorning procedure. The frequency of vocalization, kicking, and lying in the chute during the dehorning procedure were also assessed. The overall plasma cortisol concentrations were higher in calves subjected to dehorning than in control calves. Compared with the control group, the saline-treated calves had a higher cortisol concentration at 30 and 60 min postdehorning. Plasma cortisol concentrations were higher in all groups at 30 min postdehorning than at other sampling times. The percentage of circulating neutrophils and the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio were increased in the saline and 2% lidocaine group. Total plasma protein, fibrinogen, and alpha1-acid glycoprotein concentrations were similar among treatments. The behavioral response to dehorning, as manifested by kicking while in the chute, was greater in the saline and 2% lidocaine group than in the control or 5% lidocaine

  9. Markers of iron status are associated with stage of pregnancy and acute-phase response, but not with parity among pregnant women in Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kæstel, Pernille; Aaby, Peter; Ritz, Christian; Friis, Henrik

    2015-10-14

    While prenatal Fe supplementation prevents maternal Fe deficiency and anaemia, it is uncertain whether it improves infant health outcomes, at least when taken by Fe-replete women. Inflammation as well as physiological changes complicates the assessment of Fe status during pregnancy. In the present study, we measured the concentrations of serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), Hb and the acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and α1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) in a cross-sectional study among 738 pregnant women attending antenatal care in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of Fe status markers. The mean gestational age was 23 (sd 7) weeks. Serum ferritin values were lower with progressing gestation, from 27% lower during weeks 16-20 of gestation up to 59% lower after 29 weeks of gestation compared with early pregnancy. Using cut-off values for Fe deficiency as established in non-pregnant individuals, 52% of the women had sTfR levels >2·3 mg/l, while only 25% had serum ferritin levels 2·3 mg/l decreased to 47% after adjustment for elevated serum CRP and ACT levels. On the contrary, the proportion of serum ferritin < 12 μg/l increased to 33% after adjustment for ACT and CRP. The high proportion of elevated serum sTfR calls for pregnancy-specific cut-offs since increased erythropoiesis is expected in response to increased plasma volume of pregnancy. The present study further underlines the need to adjust for inflammation when serum sTfR and serum ferritin are used to assess Fe status in pregnancy.

  10. Heat-tolerant versus heat-sensitive Bos taurus cattle: influence of air temperature and breed on the acute phase response to a provocative immune challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J A; Burdick Sanchez, N C; Chaffin, R; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Spiers, D E

    2013-10-01

    The difference in the acute phase response of a heat-tolerant and a heat-sensitive Bos taurus breed to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge when housed at different air temperatures (Ta) was studied. Angus (ANG; heat-sensitive; n = 11; 306 ± 26 kg BW) and Romosinuano (RO; heat-tolerant; n = 10; 313 ± 32 kg BW) heifers were transported from the USDA Agricultural Research Service SubTropical Agricultural Research Station in Florida to the Brody Environmental Chambers at the University of Missouri, Columbia. Heifers were housed in stanchions in 4 temperature-controlled environmental chambers. Initially, Ta in the 4 chambers was cycling at thermoneutrality (TN; 18.5°C-23.5°C) for a 1-wk adjustment period, followed by an increase in 2 of the 4 chambers to cycling heat stress (HS; 24°C-38°C) for 2 wk. On day 19, heifers were fitted with jugular catheters and rectal temperature (RT) recording devices. On day 20, heifers were challenged with LPS (0.5 μg/kg BW; 0 h), sickness behavior scores (SBSs) were recorded, and blood samples were collected at 0.5-h intervals from -2 to 8 h and again at 24 h relative to LPS challenge at 0 h. Serum was isolated and stored at -80°C until analyzed for cortisol and cytokine concentrations. A breed by Ta interaction (P heat-tolerant RO and heat-sensitive ANG heifers under different Ta which may aid in elucidating differences in productivity, disease resistance, and longevity among cattle breeds. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Use of dicarboxylic acids and polyphenols to attenuate reticular pH drop and acute phase response in dairy heifers fed a high grain diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardi, Roberta; Marchesini, Giorgio; Plaizier, Jan C; Li, Shucong; Khafipour, Ehsan; Ricci, Rebecca; Andrighetto, Igino; Segato, Severino

    2014-11-26

    The aim of this study was to determine the ability of two feed additives, a fumarate-malate (FM) and a polyphenol-essential oil mixture (PM), in attenuating the drop of ruminal pH and the metabolic and immune response resulting from an excessively high grain diet. Six heifers were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square experiment and fed a low starch (LS) diet for 14 d, followed by a high starch (HS) diet for 8 d (NDF 33.6%, starch 30.0% DM). In the last 5 days of each period, barley meal was added to decrease rumen pH. During HS feeding all animals were randomly assigned to one of the following three dietary treatments: no supplement/control (CT), a daily dose of 60 g/d of FM, or 100 g/d of PM. Reticular pH was continuously recorded using wireless boluses. On d 21 of each period, rumen fluid was collected by rumenocentesis (1400 h), together with blood (0800 h) and fecal samples (0800, 1400, and 2100 h). The correlation coefficient of pH values obtained using the boluses and rumenocentesis was 0.83. Compared with CT and PM, the FM treatment led to a lower DMI. Nadir pH was lowest during CT (5.40, 5.69, and 5.62 for CT, FM and PM, respectively), confirming the effectiveness of both supplements in reducing the pH drop caused by high grain feeding. This result was confirmed by the highest average time spent daily below 5.6 pH (199, 16 and 18 min/d) and by the highest acetate to propionate ratio of the CT fed heifers. The PM decreased the concentrations of neutrophils (2.9, 3.2, and 2.8 10(9)/L) and acute phase proteins: SAA (37.1, 28.6 and 20.1 μg/mL), LBP (4.1, 3.8, and 2.9 μg/mL), and Hp (675, 695 and 601 μg/mL). Free lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were detected in blood and feces, but their concentrations were not affected by treatments, as the remaining blood variables. Data suggest that both additives could be useful in attenuating the effects of excessive grain feeding on rumen pH, but the PM supplement was more effective than FM in reducing the inflammatory response

  12. Antioxidant responses to an acute ultra-endurance exercise: impact on DNA stability and indications for an increased need for nutritive antioxidants in the early recovery phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Oliver; Reichhold, Stefanie; Nics, Lukas; Hoelzl, Christine; Valentini, Judit; Stadlmayr, Barbara; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2010-10-01

    Antioxidant requirements have neither been defined for endurance nor been defined for ultra-endurance athletes. To verify whether an acute bout of ultra-endurance exercise modifies the need for nutritive antioxidants, we aimed (1) to investigate the changes of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants in response to an Ironman triathlon; (2) to particularise the relevance of antioxidant responses to the indices of oxidatively damaged blood lipids, blood cell compounds and lymphocyte DNA and (3) to examine whether potential time-points of increased susceptibility to oxidative damage are associated with alterations in the antioxidant status. Blood that was collected from forty-two well-trained male athletes 2 d pre-race, immediately post-race, and 1, 5 and 19 d later was sampled. The key findings of the present study are as follows: (1) Immediately post-race, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and levels of the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, the ferric reducing ability of plasma and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays increased significantly. Exercise-induced changes in the plasma antioxidant capacity were associated with changes in uric acid, bilirubin and vitamin C. (2) Significant inverse correlations between ORAC levels and indices of oxidatively damaged DNA immediately and 1 d post-race suggest a protective role of the acute antioxidant responses in DNA stability. (3) Significant decreases in carotenoids and γ-tocopherol 1 d post-race indicate that the antioxidant intake during the first 24 h of recovery following an acute ultra-endurance exercise requires specific attention. Furthermore, the present study illustrates the importance of a diversified and well-balanced diet to maintain a physiological antioxidant status in ultra-endurance athletes in reference to recommendations.

  13. Effects of combined liver and udder biopsying on the acute phase response of dairy cows with experimentally induced E. coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khatun, Momena; Sørensen, Peter; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne

    2013-01-01

    of combined biopsying were investigated by recording production traits, clinical response, and measuring inflammatory milk and blood parameters: E. coli, somatic cell count, milk amyloid A (MAA) levels, white blood cell count, polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocyte numbers and serum amyloid A levels......, but affected the daily milk yield and some milk parameters transiently, that is, the presence of blood in milk, increased E. coli counts and MAA levels during the acute disease stage. Combined biopsying had no effect on the parameters in the recovery stage apart from the presence of blood in the milk...

  14. Management of Acute Hypertensive Response in Patients With Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Adnan I.

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure (BP) >140/90 mm Hg is seen in 75% of patients with acute ischemic stroke and in 80% of patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhages and is independently associated with poor functional outcome. While BP reduction in patients with chronic hypertension remains one of the most important factors in primary and secondary stroke prevention, the proper management strategy for acute hypertensive response within the first 72 hours of acute ischemic stroke has been a matter of debate. Recent guidelines recommend clinical trials to ascertain whether antihypertensive therapy in the acute phase of stroke is beneficial. This review summarizes the current data on acute hypertensive response or elevated BP management during the first 72 hours after an acute ischemic stroke. Based on the potential deleterious effect of lowering BP observed in some clinical trials in patients with acute ischemic stroke and because of the lack of convincing evidence to support acute BP lowering in those situations, aggressive BP reduction in patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke is currently not recommended. While the early use of angiotensin receptor antagonists may help reduce cardiovascular events, this benefit is not necessarily related to BP reduction. PMID:27366297

  15. Management of Acute Hypertensive Response in Patients With Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSibai, Ahmad; Qureshi, Adnan I

    2016-07-01

    High blood pressure (BP) >140/90 mm Hg is seen in 75% of patients with acute ischemic stroke and in 80% of patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhages and is independently associated with poor functional outcome. While BP reduction in patients with chronic hypertension remains one of the most important factors in primary and secondary stroke prevention, the proper management strategy for acute hypertensive response within the first 72 hours of acute ischemic stroke has been a matter of debate. Recent guidelines recommend clinical trials to ascertain whether antihypertensive therapy in the acute phase of stroke is beneficial. This review summarizes the current data on acute hypertensive response or elevated BP management during the first 72 hours after an acute ischemic stroke. Based on the potential deleterious effect of lowering BP observed in some clinical trials in patients with acute ischemic stroke and because of the lack of convincing evidence to support acute BP lowering in those situations, aggressive BP reduction in patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke is currently not recommended. While the early use of angiotensin receptor antagonists may help reduce cardiovascular events, this benefit is not necessarily related to BP reduction.

  16. Expression of acute phase proteins and inflammatory cytokines in mouse mammary gland following Staphylococcus aureus challenge and in response to milk accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazemi, Sasan; Aalbæk, Bent; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    We used a mouse model of pathogenic (Staphylococcus aureus) and non-pathogenic (teat sealing) mammary inflammation to investigate mRNA expression of several inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins (APP) in mammary tissue and liver, and the appearance of some of these factors in plasma...... in combination might provide a tool for diagnostic discrimination between mastitis caused by pathogenic invasion and milk accumulation, and hence allow for better targeting of antibiotic therapy. In comparison with mammary expression, expression of cytokines in liver tissue was up-regulated to a similar...... or lesser extent, whilst expression of APP was up-regulated to a much greater extent. The first appearance of increased cytokine and APP concentrations in plasma and of milk amyloid A (MAA) in milk occurred in advance of the measurable up-regulation of expression, hence their origin cannot be stated...

  17. Management of pemphigus vulgaris during acute phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar P

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available We present our experience with 21 patients of pemphigus vulgaris seen over a period of 10 years managed in service hospitals during acute phase of the disease. Age groups of patients ranged from 25-45 years. Eighteen (85.7% were young adults, 30-40 years of age. Fifteen (71.4% were men and 6(28.6% were women. All the cases were hospitalized in ICU, till the acute phase of the disease subsided. Complete hematological profile, urinalysis, serum biochemistry and repeated bacterial cultures from the skin were carried out in all patients at the time of admission and thereafter weekly. The treatment comprised of potassium permanganate lotion bath (1:10000 and 1 framycetin gauze dressing of the denuded areas, maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance. All suspected infections and septicemia were treated with appropriate antibiotics. The corticosteroids were usually administered as a single dose of prednisolone 1 mg/kg/day. Cyclophosphamide was given at an initial dose of 50mg/day and the dose was escalated to 100mg/day. Once the bulk of the lesions were healed, the dose of corticosteroids was gradually lowered by approximately 50% every two weeks and cyclophosphamide was continued till patients were symptomfree. Out of 21 patients receiving corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide and other supportive therapy, 20(95% had undergone clinical resolution of the disease. During follow up study 15(71.4% patients remained symptom-free and undergone clinical remission. Five patients (23.8% had relapse, out of which 4(19% remained symptom free, after subsequent treatment. There was one death (4.7% in our study.

  18. Acute-phase reactants in periodontal disease: current concepts and future implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, Vilasan; Ambili, Ranjith; Nisha, Krishnavilasam Jayakumary; Seba, Abraham; Preeja, Chandran

    2015-05-01

    Periodontal disease has been linked to adverse cardiovascular events by unknown mechanisms. C-reactive protein is a systemic marker released during the acute phase of an inflammatory response and is a prognostic marker for cardiovascular disease, with elevated serum levels being reported during periodontal disease. Studies also reported elevated levels of various other acute-phase reactants in periodontal disease. It has been reported extensively in the literature that treatment of periodontal infections can significantly lower serum levels of C-reactive protein. Therefore, an understanding of the relationship between acute-phase response and the progression of periodontal disease and other systemic health complications would have a profound effect on the periodontal treatment strategies. In view of this fact, the present review highlights an overview of acute-phase reactants and their role in periodontal disease. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Maintenance or Emergence of Chronic Phase Secondary Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses after Loss of Acute Phase Immunodominant Responses Does Not Protect SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques from Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shannon Keckler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The simian immunodeficiency virus- (SIV- infected rhesus macaque is the preferred animal model for vaccine development, but the correlates of protection in this model are not completely understood. In this paper, we document the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL response to SIV and its effects on viral evolution in an effort to identify events associated with disease progression regardless of MHC allele expression. We observed the evolution of epitopes targeted by CTLs in a group of macaques that included long-term nonprogressing (LTNP, slowly progressing (SP, normally progressing (NP, and rapidly progressing (RP animals. Collectively, our data (1 identify novel CTL epitopes from an SP animal that are not restricted by known protective alleles, (2 illustrate that, in this small study, RP and NP animals accrue more mutations in CTL epitopes than in SP or LTNP macaques, and (3 demonstrate that the loss of CTL responses to immunodominant epitopes is associated with viral replication increases, which are not controlled by secondary CTL responses. These findings provide further evidence for the critical role of the primary cell-mediated immune responses in the control of retroviral infections.

  20. C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, serum amyloid A and pig major acute phase protein response in pigs simultaneously infected with H1N1 swine influenza virus and Pasteurella multocida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomorska-Mól Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swine influenza (SI is an acute respiratory disease caused by swine influenza virus (SIV. Swine influenza is generally characterized by acute onset of fever and respiratory symptoms. The most frequent complications of influenza are secondary bacterial pneumonia. The objective of this work was to study the acute phase proteins (APP responses after coinfection of piglets with H1N1 swine influenza virus (SwH1N1 and Pasteurella multocida (Pm in order to identify whether the individual APP response correlate with disease severity and whether APP could be used as markers of the health status of coinfected pigs. Results In all coinfected pigs clinical sings, including fever, coughing and dyspnea, were seen. Viral shedding was observed from 2 to 7 dpi. The mean level of antibodies against Pm dermonecrotoxin in infected piglets increase significantly from 7 dpi. Anti-SwH1N1 antibodies in the serum were detected from 7 dpi. The concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP increased significantly at 1 dpi as compared to control pigs, and remained significantly higher to 3 dpi. Level of serum amyloid A (SAA was significantly higher from 2 to 3 dpi. Haptoglobin (Hp was significantly elevated from 3 dpi to the end of study, while pig major acute phase protein (Pig-MAP from 3 to 7 dpi. The concentrations of CRP, Hp and SAA significantly increased before specific antibodies were detected. Positive correlations were found between serum concentration of Hp and SAA and lung scores, and between clinical score and concentrations of Pig-MAP and SAA. Conclusions The results of current study confirmed that monitoring of APP may revealed ongoing infection, and in this way may be useful in selecting clinically healthy pigs (i.e. before integration into an uninfected herd. Present results corroborated our previous findings that SAA could be a potentially useful indicator in experimental infection studies (e.g. vaccine efficiency investigations or as a

  1. Dasatinib induces rapid hematologic and cytogenetic responses in adult patients with Philadelphia chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia with resistance or intolerance to imatinib: interim results of a phase 2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottmann, Oliver; Dombret, Hervé; Martinelli, Giovanni; Simonsson, Bengt; Guilhot, Francois; Larson, Richard A; Rege-Cambrin, Giovanna; Radich, Jerald; Hochhaus, Andreas; Apanovitch, Anne Marie; Gollerkeri, Ashwin; Coutre, Steven

    2007-10-01

    Patients with Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have a rapid disease course and a poor prognosis. Dasatinib, a novel, oral, multitargeted kinase inhibitor of BCR-ABL and SRC family kinases, has previously induced responses in patients with imatinib-resistant or -intolerant Ph-positive ALL. We present the interim results of a phase 2 study designed to further assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of dasatinib 140 mg in this patient population (n = 36). With a minimum follow-up of 8 months, treatment with dasatinib resulted in substantial hematologic and cytogenetic response rates. Major hematologic responses were achieved in 42% (15/36) of patients, 67% of whom remained progression-free. Complete cytogenetic responses were attained by 58% (21/36) of patients. The presence of BCR-ABL mutations conferring imatinib resistance did not preclude a response to dasatinib. Dasatinib was also tolerable, with 6% (2/36) of patients discontinuing therapy as a result of study-drug toxicity. Most adverse events (AEs) were grade 1 or 2; febrile neutropenia was the most frequent severe AE, but this and other cytopenias were manageable with dose reduction. Dasatinib represents a safe and effective treatment option and an important therapeutic advance for patients with Ph-positive ALL. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #CA180015.

  2. Polyphasic innate immune responses to acute and chronic LCMV infection: Innate immunity to acute & chronic viral infection

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, Brian A; Uebelhoer, Luke S.; Nakaya, Helder I.; Price, Aryn A; Grakoui, Arash; Pulendran, Bali

    2013-01-01

    Resolution of acute and chronic viral infections requires activation of innate cells to initiate and maintain adaptive immune responses. Here we report that infection with acute Armstrong (ARM) or chronic Clone 13 (C13) strains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) led to two distinct phases of innate immune response. During the first 72hr of infection, dendritic cells upregulated activation markers, and stimulated anti-viral CD8+ T cells, independent of viral strain. Seven days after ...

  3. Neuropsychological intervention in the acute phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Siert, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the effects of acute neuropsychological intervention for relatives of patients with severe brain injury. Participants were enrolled in an intervention group comprising 39 relatives, and a control group comprising 47 relatives. The intervention consisted of supportive.......0100.30), but also significantly lower Role Emotional scores (= 2.12 = 0.043, = 0.40). In the sub-acute setting, an analysis of covariance model showed a borderline significant difference between the intervention and the control group on the anxiety scale (= 0.066 = 0.59). Any effects of the acute neuropsychological...

  4. Neuropsychological intervention in the acute phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Siert, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study investigated the effects of acute neuropsychological intervention for relatives of patients with severe brain injury. Methods: Participants were enrolled in an intervention group comprising 39 relatives, and a control group comprising 47 relatives. The intervention...... = 0.59). Conclusion: Any effects of the acute neuropsychological intervention were limited. Further research is needed to explore the effects of different interventions in more homogenous and larger groups of relatives....

  5. Dexamethasone treatment differentially alters viral shedding and the antibody and acute phase protein response after multivalent respiratory vaccination in beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to examine immunosuppression induced by dexamethasone (DEX) administration in cattle upon immunological responses to a multivalent respiratory vaccine containing replicating and non-replicating agents. Steers ( n = 32; 209 +/- 8 kg) seronegative to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis...

  6. Vaccination of pigs with attenuated Lawsonia intracellularis induced acute phase protein responses and primed cell-mediated immunity without reduction in bacterial shedding after challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Hvass, Henriette Cordes;

    2015-01-01

    nomically important diseases in modern pig production worldwide. The Enterisol®Ileitis vaccine havebeen shown to reduce clinical disease and to increase weight gain, however, while the natural infectionwith L. intracellularis can provide complete protection against re-infection, this has not been...... achievedby this vaccine. We therefore undertook a detailed characterization of immune responses to L. intracel-lularis infection in vaccinated pigs (VAC) compared to previously infected pigs (RE) in order to pinpointimmunological determinants of protection.Results: The VAC pigs shed L. intracellularis...... response was diminished and L. intracellularis specific IgG responseswere delayed and reduced compared to non-vaccinated pigs. On the other hand L. intracellularis specificIFN- responses tended to develop faster in the VAC group compared to controls.Conclusion: Although vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs...

  7. Systemic inflammatory response following acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lu; Moore, Xiao-Lei; Dart, Anthony M; Wang, Le-Min

    2015-05-01

    Acute cardiomyocyte necrosis in the infarcted heart generates damage-associated molecular patterns, activating complement and toll-like receptor/interleukin-1 signaling, and triggering an intense inflammatory response. Inflammasomes also recognize danger signals and mediate sterile inflammatory response following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Inflammatory response serves to repair the heart, but excessive inflammation leads to adverse left ventricular remodeling and heart failure. In addition to local inflammation, profound systemic inflammation response has been documented in patients with AMI, which includes elevation of circulating inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and cell adhesion molecules, and activation of peripheral leukocytes and platelets. The excessive inflammatory response could be caused by a deregulated immune system. AMI is also associated with bone marrow activation and spleen monocytopoiesis, which sustains a continuous supply of monocytes at the site of inflammation. Accumulating evidence has shown that systemic inflammation aggravates atherosclerosis and markers for systemic inflammation are predictors of adverse clinical outcomes (such as death, recurrent myocardial infarction, and heart failure) in patients with AMI.

  8. Systemic inflammatory response following acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu FANG; Xiao-Lei Moore; Anthony M Dart; Le-Min WANG

    2015-01-01

    Acute cardiomyocyte necrosis in the infarcted heart generates damage-associated molecular patterns, activating complement and toll-like receptor/interleukin-1 signaling, and triggering an intense inflammatory response. Inflammasomes also recognize danger signals and mediate sterile inflammatory response following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Inflammatory response serves to repair the heart, but excessive inflammation leads to adverse left ventricular remodeling and heart failure. In addition to local inflammation, profound systemic inflammation response has been documented in patients with AMI, which includes elevation of circulating inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and cell adhesion molecules, and activation of peripheral leukocytes and platelets. The excessive inflammatory response could be caused by a deregulated immune system. AMI is also associated with bone marrow activation and spleen monocytopoiesis, which sustains a continuous supply of monocytes at the site of inflammation. Accumulating evidence has shown that systemic inflammation aggravates atherosclerosis and markers for systemic inflammation are predictors of adverse clinical outcomes (such as death, recurrent myocardial in-farction, and heart failure) in patients with AMI.

  9. Portal and systemic serum growth factor and acute-phase response after laparotomy or partial hepatectomy in patients with colorectal liver metastases : A prognostic role for C-reactive protein and hepatocyte growth factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, KP; Hoedemakers, RMJ; Fidler, [No Value; Bijzet, J; Limburg, PC; Peeters, PMJG; de Vries, EGE; Slooff, MJH

    2004-01-01

    Background: Growth factors play a role in wound healing and tumour growth. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of partial hepatectomy (PH) and laparotomy on serum levels of growth factors and acute-phase proteins in patients with colorectal liver metastases and to correlate these levels

  10. In Vitro Activity of Delafloxacin and Microbiological Response against Fluoroquinolone-Susceptible and Nonsusceptible Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Two Phase 3 Studies of Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, S; Lawrence, L; Quintas, M; Woosley, L; Flamm, R; Tseng, C; Cammarata, S

    2017-09-01

    Delafloxacin is an investigational anionic fluoroquinolone antibiotic with broad-spectrum in vitro activity, including activity against Gram-positive organisms, Gram-negative organisms, atypical organisms, and anaerobes. The in vitro activity of delafloxacin and the percent microbiological response in subjects infected with fluoroquinolone-susceptible and nonsusceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates were determined from two global phase 3 studies of delafloxacin versus vancomycin plus aztreonam in patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). Patients from 23 countries, predominately the United States but also Europe, South America, and Asia, were enrolled. The microbiological intent-to-treat (MITT) population included 1,042 patients from which 685 S. aureus isolates were submitted for identification and susceptibility testing per CLSI guidelines at the central laboratory (JMI Laboratories, North Liberty, IA). The comparator fluoroquinolone antibiotics included levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Nonsusceptibility to these antibiotics was determined using CLSI breakpoints. S. aureus isolates were 33.7% levofloxacin nonsusceptible (LVX-NS). The delafloxacin MIC90 values against levofloxacin-nonsusceptible S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates were all 0.25 μg/ml. Delafloxacin demonstrated high rates of microbiological response against LVX-NS isolates as well as isolates with documented mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR). S. aureus was eradicated or presumed eradicated in 98.4% (245/249) of delafloxacin-treated patients. Similar eradication rates were observed for delafloxacin-treated subjects with levofloxacin-nonsusceptible S. aureus isolates (80/81; 98.8%) and MRSA isolates (70/71; 98.6%). Microbiological response rates of 98.6% were observed with delafloxacin-treated subjects with S. aureus isolates with the S84L mutation in gyrA and the S80Y

  11. Comparison of the acute-phase response after laparoscopic versus open aortobifemoral bypass surgery: a substudy of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krog AH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Anne H Krog,1,2 Mehdi Sahba,3 Erik M Pettersen,4 Irene Sandven,5 Per M Thorsby,1,6 Jørgen J Jørgensen,1,2 Jon O Sundhagen,2 Syed SS Kazmi2 1Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, 2Department of Vascular Surgery, Division of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, 3Department of Vascular Surgery, Østfold Central Hospital, Fredrikstad, 4Department of Vascular Surgery, Sørlandet Hospital HF, Kristiansand, 5Oslo Center for Biostatistics and Epidemiology (OCBE, 6Hormone Laboratory, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway Purpose: Minimally invasive surgical techniques have been shown to reduce the inflammatory response related to a surgical procedure. The main objective of our study was to measure the inflammatory response in patients undergoing a totally laparoscopic versus open aortobifemoral bypass surgery. This is the first randomized trial on subjects in this population.Patients and methods: This is a substudy of a larger randomized controlled multicenter trial (Norwegian Laparoscopic Aortic Surgery Trial. Thirty consecutive patients with severe aortoiliac occlusive disease eligible for aortobifemoral bypass surgery were randomized to either a totally laparoscopic (n=14 or an open surgical procedure (n=16. The inflammatory response was measured by perioperative monitoring of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-8, and C-reactive protein (CRP at six different time points.Results: The inflammatory reaction caused by the laparoscopic procedure was reduced compared with open surgery. IL-6 was significantly lower after the laparoscopic procedure, measured by comparing area under the curve (AUC, and after adjusting for the confounding effect of coronary heart disease (P=0.010. The differences in serum levels of IL-8 and CRP did not reach statistical significance.Conclusion: In this substudy of a randomized controlled trial comparing laparoscopic and open aortobifemoral bypass

  12. Acute phase proteins in dogs naturally infected with the Giant Kidney Worm (Dioctophyme renale)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Elizabeth M. S.; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Thomas, Funmilola

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dioctophyme renale is a nematode parasite of dogs, usually found in the right kidney, causing severe damage to the renal parenchyma. Objectives: The objective was to evaluate the acute phase response in dogs naturally infected with this Giant Kidney Worm and the possible effects of ne...... of parasites and APP concentrations. Conclusion: There is a particular acute phase response profile in dogs with kidney worm infection. Nephrectomy induced a short-term inflammatory process....

  13. Markers of iron status are associated with stage of pregnancy and acute-phase response, but not with parity among pregnant women in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kæstel, Pernille; Aaby, Peter; Ritz, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    While prenatal Fe supplementation prevents maternal Fe deficiency and anaemia, it is uncertain whether it improves infant health outcomes, at least when taken by Fe-replete women. Inflammation as well as physiological changes complicates the assessment of Fe status during pregnancy. In the present...... pregnancy. Using cut-off values for Fe deficiency as established in non-pregnant individuals, 52 % of the women had sTfR levels >2·3 mg/l, while only 25 % had serum ferritin levels 2·3 mg/l decreased to 47 % after adjustment for elevated serum CRP and ACT levels. On the contrary, the proportion of serum...... ferritin pregnancy-specific cut-offs since increased erythropoiesis is expected in response to increased plasma volume of pregnancy. The present study further underlines the need to adjust...

  14. Fluid therapy for severe acute pancreatitis in acute response stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO En-qiang; TANG Yao-qing; FEI Jian; QIN Shuai; WU Jun; LI Lei; MIN Dong; ZHANG Sheng-dao

    2009-01-01

    Background Fluid therapy for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) should not only resolve deficiency of blood volume, but also prevent fluid sequestration in acute response stage. Up to date, there has not a strategy for fluid therapy dedicated to SAP. So, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of fluid therapy treatment on prognosis of SAP. Methods Seventy-six patients were admitted prospectively according to the criteria within 72 hours of SAP onset. They were randomly assigned to a rapid fluid expansion group (Group I, n=36) and a controlled fluid expansion group (Group Ⅱ, n=40). Hemodynamic disorders were either quickly (fluid infusion rate was 10-15 ml·kg-1·h-1, Group Ⅰ) or gradually improved (fluid infusion rate was 5-10 ml·kg-1·h-1, Group Ⅱ) through controlling the rate of fluid infusion. Parameters of fluid expansion, blood lactate concentration were obtained when meeting the criteria for fluid expansion. And APACHE Ⅱ scores were obtained serially for 72 hours. Rate of mechanical ventilation, incidence of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS), sepsis, and survival rate were obtained. Results The two groups had statistically different (P 0.05). Total amount of fluid sequestration within 4 days was higher in Group Ⅰ ((5378±2751)ml) than in Group Ⅱ ((4215±1998)ml, P<0.05). APACHE Ⅱ scores were higher in Group Ⅰ on days 1,2, and 3 (P<0.05). Rate of mechanical ventilation was higher in group Ⅰ (94.4%) than in group Ⅱ (65%, P<0.05). The incidences of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and sepsis were significantly lower in Group Ⅱ (P <0.05). Survival rate was remarkably lower in Group Ⅰ (69.4%) than in Group Ⅱ (90%, P <0.05). Conclusions Controlled fluid resuscitation offers better prognosis in patients with severe volume deficit within 72 hours of SAP onset.

  15. Identification of Acute Phase Proteins and Assays Applicable in Nondomesticated Mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, M. F.; Kjelgaard-Hansen, M.; Grøndahl, C.

    2009-01-01

    The serum concentration of acute phase proteins (APPs) increases dramatically in response to inflammation and tissue injury. APPs are clinically useful in a range of domesticated mammals; however, knowledge is limited in nondomesticated mammals. The detective ability of two assays for each of thr...

  16. Impact of tyloxapol to combat acute phase response in comparison with betamethasone and flunixin meglumine following an ovine experimentally induced endotoxemia model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Mehdi Heidari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammatory responses to circulating lipopolysaccharide lead to high mortality rates in affected animals and thus effective treatments of this situation are crucial. However, despite different endotoxemia therapeutic regimens, the lack of an effective treatment still remains a clinical problem in sheep. Tyloxapol is a potential pro- and anti-inflammatory molecule to treat endotoxemia in farm animals. Hence, the present study was an attempt to clarify the antiendotoxic effects of tyloxapol in comparison with betamethasone and flunixin meglumine in experimentally induced endotoxemia in sheep. Thirty clinically healthy 1-year old Iranian fat-tailed ewes were randomly divided into 6 equal experimental (n=5 groups, comprising Negative and Positive control, Flunixin meglumine, Betamethasone, Tyloxapol 1 and Tyloxapol 2. Phenol extracted lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli serotype O55:B5 was infused at 2 μg/kg intravenously. Ninety min after endotoxemia induction, Flunixin meglumine (2.2 mg/kg, betamethasone (1 mg/kg and tyloxapol (200 and 400 mg/kg were injected to respective groups, over 60 min along with intravenous fluids. Blood samples were collected from all ewes prior and 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6, 24 and 48 hours after lipopolysaccharide injection and sera and plasmas were separated, subsequently. Haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in all samples. Serum concentrations of haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferongamma in Flunixin meglumine group were found to be lower than other experimental ones after hour 3. Serum levels of haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma in Tyloxapol groups were significantly lower and higher than Betamethasone and Flunixin meglumine ones, respectively. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in Flunixin meglumine group were

  17. Complete Hematologic and Molecular Response in Adult Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Philadelphia Chromosome-Positive B-Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Following Treatment With Blinatumomab: Results From a Phase II, Single-Arm, Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Giovanni; Boissel, Nicolas; Chevallier, Patrice; Ottmann, Oliver; Gökbuget, Nicola; Topp, Max S; Fielding, Adele K; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Ritchie, Ellen K; Papayannidis, Cristina; Sterling, Lulu Ren; Benjamin, Jonathan; Stein, Anthony

    2017-06-01

    Purpose Few therapeutic options are available for patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who progress after failure of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) -based therapy. Here, we evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of blinatumomab in patients with relapsed or refractory Ph(+) ALL. Patients and Methods This open-label phase II study enrolled adults with Ph(+) ALL who had relapsed after or were refractory to at least one second-generation or later TKI or were intolerant to second-generation or later TKIs and intolerant or refractory to imatinib. Blinatumomab was administered in 28-day cycles by continuous intravenous infusion. The primary end point was complete remission (CR) or CR with partial hematologic recovery (CRh) during the first two cycles. Major secondary end points included minimal residual disease response, rate of allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, relapse-free survival, overall survival, and adverse events (AEs). Results Of 45 patients, 16 (36%; 95% CI, 22% to 51%) achieved CR/CRh during the first two cycles, including four of 10 patients with the T315I mutation; 88% of CR/CRh responders achieved a complete minimal residual disease response. Seven responders (44%) proceeded to allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, including 55% (six of 11) of transplantation-naïve responders. Median relapse-free survival and overall survival were 6.7 and 7.1 months, respectively. The most frequent AEs were pyrexia (58%), febrile neutropenia (40%), and headache (31%). Three patients had cytokine release syndrome (all grade 1 or 2), and three patients had grade 3 neurologic events, one of which (aphasia) required temporary treatment interruption. There were no grade 4 or 5 neurologic events. Conclusion Single-agent blinatumomab showed antileukemia activity in high-risk patients with Ph(+) ALL who had relapsed or were refractory to TKIs. AEs were consistent with previous

  18. Effect of pre-weaning concentrate supplementation on peripheral distribution of leukocytes, functional activity of neutrophils, acute phase protein and behavioural responses of abruptly weaned and housed beef calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch Eilish M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of pre-weaning concentrate supplementation on peripheral distribution of leukocytes, functional activity of neutrophils, acute phase protein response, metabolic and behavioural response, and performance of abruptly weaned and housed beef calves was investigated. Calves were grazed with their dams until the end of the grazing season when they were weaned and housed (day (d 0 in a concrete slatted floor shed, and offered grass silage ad libitum plus supplementary concentrates. Twenty-six days prior to weaning and housing, 20 singled suckled, pure-bred Simmental male (non-castrated, (n = 10, m and female (n = 10, f calves were assigned to one of two treatments (i concentrate supplement (CS: n = 10 (5 m and 5 f, mean age (s.d. 201 (12.8 d, mean weight (s.d. 258 (20.2 kg or (ii no concentrate supplement (controls (NCS: n = 10, (5 m and 5 f, mean age (s.d. 201 (13.4 d, mean weight (s.d. 257 (19.6 kg pre-weaning. Results There was a treatment × sampling time interaction (P + and WC1+ (γδ T cells lymphocytes and concentration of plasma globulin. On d 2, percentage CD4+ lymphocytes decreased (P + lymphocytes increased (P + lymphocytes in NCS did not differ (P > 0.05 from d 0. On d 2, WC1+ lymphocytes decreased (P P 0.05 in NCS than CS. Subsequently, percentages did not differ (P > 0.05 from pre-weaning baseline. On d 2, the increase in concentration of globulin was greater (P Conclusions Calves supplemented with concentrate prior to weaning had a lesser reduction in WC1+ lymphocytes, increased percentage CD4+ lymphocytes and concentration of total protein, and spent more time lying post-weaning, compared with non-supplemented calves.

  19. Acute phase proteins as diagnostic markers in horses with colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina; Scheepers, Elrien; Sanz, Macarena

    2016-01-01

    colic. Design – Prospective observational multicenter study. Setting – Two university referral hospitals. Animals – Horses referred for severe acute abdominal pain to Hospital 1 (n = 148) or Hospital 2 (n = 78). Intervention – Blood and PF samples collected at admission were used for acute-phase protein...... revealed that only WBC and SAA and fibrinogen concentrations improved the model. With SAA included in the model no additional blood parameters improved the model, and the final model had an area under the curve of 90%. Addition of PF parameters (hemolysis, total protein concentration, WBC, SAA, or Hp......Objective – To investigate the diagnostic potential of the concentrations of acute-phase proteins serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), and fibrinogen in blood and peritoneal fluid (PF) for differentiating horses within flammatory colic (entero-colitis and peritonitis) from those with surgical...

  20. Carvedilol versus metoprolol in the acute phase of myocardial infarction:.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Ortak, Jasmin; Tölg, Ralph; Witt, Maren; Schmidt, Jörg; Wiegand, Uwe K H; Bode, Frank; Schunkert, Heribert; Richardt, Gert

    2005-01-01

    Beta-adrenergic blockers provide significant cardioprotection during acute ischemia and reperfusion. To further explore the effects of additional alpha-1-adrenoceptor blockade on autonomic modulation in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), carvedilol was compared with metoprolol in the setting of primary percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). In a prospective study, 100 consecutive patients (61.1 +/- 11 years; 23 females) undergoing primary PCI for AMI were randomly assigned to metoprolol 200 mg/day vs carvedilol 25 mg/day. The first oral dose of study drug was administered upon hospital admission, and a 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram was recorded. A total of 40 recordings of patients assigned to metoprolol and 39 of patients assigned to carvedilol were eligible for analysis of heart rate turbulence. Turbulence onset (TO), turbulence slope (TS), and turbulence timing were measured after ventricular premature beats (VPBs). The mean value of the 10 preceding RR intervals (mean RR) before VPBs was also measured. There were no significant differences in mean age, gender distributions, TIMI perfusion grades, left ventricular ejection fraction, site and size of infarction, duration of ischemia, and mean 24-hour heart rate between the two groups. Though the mean RR were not significantly different (metoprolol 863.1 +/- 157 ms; carvedilol 839.6 +/- 151 ms), there was a trend toward lower values of TO in the carvedilol group (-0.015 +/- 0.016 vs -0.012 +/- 0.023%; P = NS) and significantly higher values for TS in the metoprolol group (6.96 +/- 5.8 vs 5.6 +/- 4.22; P metoprolol 5.8 +/- 2.4 vs carvedilol 6.1 +/- 2.1). In patients undergoing direct PCI for AMI, treatment with carvedilol, in contrast to metoprolol, was associated with a higher early acceleration and a lower deceleration of heart rate after VPBs, indicating differing effects on baroreceptor response due to additional alpha-1-adrenoceptor blockade. These data offer new insights into effects of a broader

  1. Acute apnea swimming: metabolic responses and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimard, Alexandre; Prieur, Fabrice; Zorgati, Houssem; Morin, David; Lasne, Françoise; Collomp, Katia

    2014-04-01

    Competitive swimmers regularly perform apnea series with or without fins as part of their training, but the ergogenic and metabolic repercussions of acute and chronic apnea have not been examined. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the cardiovascular, lactate, arterial oxygen saturation and hormonal responses to acute apnea in relation to performance in male swimmers. According to a randomized protocol, 15 national or regional competitive swimmers were monitored while performing four 100-m freestyle trials, each consisting of four 25-m segments with departure every 30 seconds at maximal speed in the following conditions: with normal frequency breathing with fins (F) and without fins (S) and with complete apnea for the four 25-m segments with (FAp) and without fins (SAp). Heart rate (HR) was measured continuously and arterial oxygen saturation, blood, and saliva samples were assessed after 30 seconds, 3 minutes, and 10 minutes of recovery, respectively. Swimming performance was better with fins than without both with normal frequency breathing and apnea (p swimming performance in SAp (p swimming.

  2. Eccentric Exercise: Physiological Characteristics and Acute Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Jamie; Pearson, Simon; Ross, Angus; McGuigan, Mike

    2017-04-01

    An eccentric contraction involves the active lengthening of muscle under an external load. The molecular and neural mechanisms underpinning eccentric contractions differ from those of concentric and isometric contractions and remain less understood. A number of molecular theories have been put forth to explain the unexplained observations during eccentric contractions that deviate from the predictions of the established theories of muscle contraction. Postulated mechanisms include a strain-induced modulation of actin-myosin interactions at the level of the cross-bridge, the activation of the structural protein titin, and the winding of titin on actin. Accordingly, neural strategies controlling eccentric contractions also differ with a greater, and possibly distinct, cortical activation observed despite an apparently lower activation at the level of the motor unit. The characteristics of eccentric contractions are associated with several acute physiological responses to eccentrically-emphasised exercise. Differences in neuromuscular, metabolic, hormonal and anabolic signalling responses during, and following, an eccentric exercise bout have frequently been observed in comparison to concentric exercise. Subsequently, the high levels of muscular strain with such exercise can induce muscle damage which is rarely observed with other contraction types. The net result of these eccentric contraction characteristics and responses appears to be a novel adaptive signal within the neuromuscular system.

  3. Acute phase reactants, challenge in the near future of animal production and veterinary medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The future of acute phase proteins (APPs) in science is discussed in this paper. Many functions and associated pathological processes of APPs are unknown. Extrahepatic formation in local tissues needs attention. Local serum amyloid A (SAA) formation may be involved in deposition of AA-amyloid induced by conformational change of SAA resulting in amyloid formation, having tremendous food safety implications. Amyloidogenesis is enhanced in mouse fed beta pleated sheet-rich proteins. The local amyloid in joints of chicken and mammary corpora amylacea is discussed. Differences in glycosylation of glycoproteins among the APPs, as has been shown for α1-acid glycoprotein, have to be considered. More knowledge on the reactivity patterns may lead to implication of APPs in the diagnostics and staging of a disease. Calculation of an index from values of several acute phase variables increases the power of APPs in monitoring unhealthy individuals in animal populations.Vaccinations, just as infections in eliciting acute phase response seem to limit the profitability of vaccines because acute phase reactions are contraproductive in view of muscle anabolism. Interest is focused on amino acid patterns and vitamins in view of dietary nutrition effect on sick and convalescing animals.When inexpensive methodology such as liquid phase methods (nephelometry, turbidimetry) or protein array technology for rapid APPs measurement is available, APPs have a future in routine diagnostics. Specific groups of patients may be screened or populations monitored by using APPs.

  4. Relatively spared central multifocal electroretinogram responses in acute quinine toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Muhammad Usman; Noonan, Carmel; Hagan, Richard; Brown, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    A 71-year-old man was investigated with electrodiagnostic testing 4 months after a deliberate quinine overdose. Initially he was admitted to intensive care unit with visual acuity (VA) of perception of light in both eyes. VA recovered to 6/6 right eye and 6/12 left eye, though severely constricted fields were noted. Slow stimulus (base period of 83 ms) multifocal electroretinogram (ERG) showed electronegative responses outside the inner 5 degrees, with a reduced but electropositive response seen in this central area. It appears that in this case of bilaterally negative ERGs that the macula/fovea (which has a vascular supply through the choroid) is relatively spared as is seen in bilateral vascular electronegative ERGs. This may indicate that quinine toxicity to the retina may be secondary to effects similar to vascular occlusion or severe ischemia during the acute phase of quinine poisoning. PMID:22693278

  5. Acute hormonal responses in elite junior weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, W J; Fry, A C; Warren, B J; Stone, M H; Fleck, S J; Kearney, J T; Conroy, B P; Maresh, C M; Weseman, C A; Triplett, N T

    1992-02-01

    To date, no published studies have demonstrated resistance exercise-induced increases in serum testosterone in adolescent males. Furthermore, few data are available on the effects of training experience and lifting performance on acute hormonal responses to weightlifting in young males. Twenty-eight junior elite male Olympic-style weightlifters (17.3 +/- 1.4 yrs) volunteered for the study. An acute weightlifting exercise protocol using moderate to high intensity loads and low volume, characteristic of many weightlifting training sessions, was examined. The exercise protocol was directed toward the training associated with the snatch lift weightlifting exercise. Blood samples were obtained from a superficial arm vein at 7 a.m. (for baseline measurements), and again at pre-exercise, 5 min post-, and 15 min post-exercise time points for determination of serum testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone, plasma beta-endorphin, and whole blood lactate. The exercise protocol elicited significant (p less than or equal to 0.05) increases in each of the hormones and whole blood lactate compared to pre-exercise measures. While not being significantly older, subsequent analysis revealed that subjects with greater than 2 years training experience exhibited significant exercise-induced increases in serum testosterone from pre-exercise to 5 min post-exercise (16.2 +/- 6.2 to 21.4 +/- 7.9 nmol.l-1), while those with less than or equal to 2 years training showed no significant serum testosterone differences. None of the other hormones or whole blood lactate appear to be influenced by training experience.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Acute Phase Hyperglycemia among Patients Hospitalized with Acute Coronary Syndrome: Prevalence and Prognostic Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Laftah Wanoose

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: Regardless of diabetes status, hyperglycemia on arrival for patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome, has been associated with adverse outcomes including death. The aim of this study is to look at the frequency and prognostic significance of acute phase hyperglycemia among patients attending the coronary care unit with acute coronary syndrome over the in-hospital admission days.Methods: The study included 287 consecutive patients in the Al- Faiha Hospital in Basrah (Southern Iraq during a one year period from December 2007 to November 2008. Patients were divided into two groups with respect to admission plasma glucose level regardless of their diabetes status (those with admission plasma glucose of <140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L and those equal to or more than that. Acute phase hyperglycemia was defined as a non-fasting glucose level equal to or above 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L regardless of past history of diabetes.Results: Sixty one point seven percent (177 of patients were admitted with plasma glucose of ≥140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L. There were no differences were found between both groups regarding the mean age, qualification, and smoking status, but males were predominant in both groups. A family history of diabetes, and hypertension, were more frequent in patients with plasma glucose of ≥140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L. There were no differences between the two groups regarding past history of ischemic heart disease, stroke, lipid profile, troponin-I levels or type of acute coronary syndrome. Again heart failure was more common in the admission acute phase hyperglycemia group, but there was no difference regarding arrhythmia, stroke, or death. Using logistic regression with heart failure as the dependent variable we found that only the admission acute phase hyperglycemia (OR=2.1344, 95�0CI=1.0282-4.4307; p=0.0419 was independently associated with heart failure. While male gender, family history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and

  7. Optimal combinations of acute phase proteins for detecting infectious disease in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Stockmarr, Anders; Piñeiro, Matilde

    2011-01-01

    gondii) and one viral (porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus) infection and one aseptic inflammation. Immunochemical analyses of seven APPs, four positive (C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), pig major acute phase protein (pigMAP) and serum amyloid A (SAA)) and three negative......The acute phase protein (APP) response is an early systemic sign of disease, detected as substantial changes in APP serum concentrations and most disease states involving inflammatory reactions give rise to APP responses. To obtain a detailed picture of the general utility of porcine APPs to detect...... for single APPs and for APP combinations. Combinations of APPs allowed the detection of disease more sensitively than any individual APP and the best three-protein combinations were CRP, apoA1, pigMAP and CRP, apoA1, Hp, respectively, closely followed by the two-protein combinations CRP, pigMAP and apoA1...

  8. Acute phase protein response during acute ruminal acidosis in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, A. M.; Thoefner, M. B.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.;

    2011-01-01

    acids. In humans, inflammation has been linked to metabolic diseases. In cattle, studies into the possible links between acid-base changes, inflammation/innate immunity and metabolic disease are warranted as this might improve our understanding of the production disease complexes occurring in particular...

  9. Elimination Half-Lives of Acute Phase Proteins in Rats and Beagle Dogs During Acute Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi, Takashi; Seita, Tetsuro; Momotani, Eiichi; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Hagimori, Kohei; Yamamoto, Shizuo

    2015-08-01

    The half-lives of typical acute phase proteins in rats and beagle dogs during acute inflammation were investigated. Acute inflammation was induced by injection of turpentine oil in rats and administration of indomethacin in beagle dogs. Serum concentrations of α2-macroglobulin (α2M) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and α1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) was measured by single radial immunodiffusion. Half-life was calculated as 0.693/elimination rate constant (K). The mean half-lives in the terminal elimination phase of α2M and AAG were 68.1 and 164.8 h, respectively. The half-life of AAG was significantly longer than that of α2M. Mean half-lives in the terminal elimination phase of CRP and AAG were 161.9 and 304.4 h, respectively. The half-life of AAG was significantly longer than that of CRP in beagle dogs. No significant differences in the half-life of AAG were observed between rats and beagle dogs. Furthermore, serum concentrations in the terminal elimination phase could be simulated with the K data acquired in this study.

  10. Relationship between Acute Phase of Chronic Periodontitis and Meteorological Factors in the Maintenance Phase of Periodontal Treatment: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Noriko Takeuchi; Daisuke Ekuni; Takaaki Tomofuji; Manabu Morita

    2015-01-01

    The acute phase of chronic periodontitis may occur even in patients during supportive periodontal therapy. However, the details are not fully understood. Since the natural environment, including meteorology affects human health, we hypothesized that weather conditions may affect occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between weather conditions and acute phase of chronic periodontitis in patients under supportive periodonta...

  11. Acute cholecystitis: two-phase spiral CT finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Eung Young; Yoon, Myung Hwan; Yang, Dal Mo; Chun Seok; Bae, Jun Gi; Kim, Hak Soo; Kim, Hyung Sik [Chungang Ghil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    To describe the two-phase spiral CT findings of acute cholecystitis. Materials and Methods : CT scans of nine patients with surgically-proven acute cholecystitis were retrospectively reviewed for wall thickening, enhancement pattern of the wall, attenuation of the liver adjacent to the gallbladder, gallstones,gallbladder distension, gas collection within the gallbladder, pericholecystic fluid and infiltration of pericholecystic fat. Results : In all cases, wall thickening of the gallbladder was seen, though this was more distinct on delayed images, Using high-low-high attenuation, one layer was seen in five cases, nd three layers in four. On arterial images, eight cases showed transient focal increased attenuation of the liver adjacent to the gall bladder;four of these showed curvilinear attenuation and four showed subsegmental attenuation. One case showed curvilinear decreased attenuation between increased attenuation of the liver and the gallbladder, and during surgery, severe adhesion between the liver and gallbladder was confirmed. Additional CT findings were infiltration of pericholecystic fat (n=9), gallstones (n=7), gallbladder distension (n=6), pericholecystic fluid(n=3), and gas collection within the gallbladder (n=2). Conclusion : In patients with acute cholecystitis,two-phase spiral CT revealed wall thickening in one or three layers ; on delayed images this was more distinct. In many cases, arterial images showed transient focal increased attenuation of the liver adjacent to the gallbladder.

  12. Action of Antiproteases on the Inflammatory Response in Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chia Chen

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of acute pancreatitis ranges from mild edematous disease to a severe necrotizing process which is usually accompanied by local or systemic complications and even mortality. Early deaths (within the first week due to severe acute pancreatitis are generally caused by massive inflammatory responses which result in multiple organ failure. Although the exact mechanisms which trigger the inflammatory and necrotizing processes are not completely understood, it is generally accepted that autodigestion and activated leukocytes play important roles in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. Proinflammatory cytokines are associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ failure syndrome in acute pancreatitis. A compensatory anti-inflammatory response occurs in parallel with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Trypsin secreted by the pancreatic acinar cells activates proteaseactivated receptor-2 which can result in the production of cytokines. Protease inhibitors such as aprotinin, gabexate mesilate, nafamostat mesilate, ulinastatin, etc. can inhibit the various enzymes and inflammatory response in experimental and clinical studies. Thus, protease inhibitors have been considered as a potential treatment to inhibit the pancreatic inflammation in acute pancreatitis. The beneficial effects of antiproteases on experimental severe acute pancreatitis may be, in part, due to the modulation of inflammatory cytokine responses. The effect of protease inhibitors on the inflammatory response in human acute pancreatitis deserves further study.

  13. Early phase of acute pancreatitis: Assessment and management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Veit; Phillip; Jrg; M; Steiner; Hana; Algül

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis(AP) is a potentially life-threatening disease with a wide spectrum of severity. The overall mortality of AP is approximately 5%. According to the revised Atlanta classification system, AP can be classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Severe AP often takes a clinical course with two phases, an early and a late phase, which should both be considered separately. In this review article, we first discuss general aspects of AP, including incidence, pathophysiology, etiology, and grading of severity, then focus on the assessment of patients with suspected AP, including diagnosis and risk stratification, followed by the management of AP during the early phase, with special emphasis on fluid therapy, pain management, nutrition, and antibiotic prophylaxis.

  14. [Bradyarrhythmias in the acute phase of myocardial infarct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto Montero, J M; Lemus, J M; Marín-Huerta, E; Gorodezky, M; Cárdenas, M

    1975-01-01

    The functioning of the Intensive Care Units has permitted a better study and treatment of the arrhythmias which complicate the acute phase of myocardial infarction. 1,100 charts of patients admitted to the Coronary Unit of the National Institute of Cardiology of Mexico were reviewed. Acute myocardial infarction was demonstrated in 819 of them by the usual methods. The frequency and characteristics of the following bradiarrhythmias were studied: sinus bradicardia, sinus stoppage, seno-atrial block, migration of the atrial pacing, union rhythm and slow ventricular tachycardia. Sinus bradicardia was presented in 23.7% of the infarctions, sinus stoppage in 2.4%, migration of the atrial pacing in 9.4%, nodal rhythm in 7.2% and slow ventricular tachycardia in 7.8%. Bradiarrhythmias, generally considered as "lesser" arrhythmias, favor the appearance of lethal arrhythmias, regardless of the degree of mechanical failure, and thus should be treated actively.

  15. Age- and sex-associated effects on acute-phase proteins in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Berit Ø.; Jensen, Søren Juel; Ludvigsen, Trine P.;

    2015-01-01

    Göttingen minipigs are a useful model for diseases having an inflammatory component, and the associated use of acute-phase proteins (APP) as biomarkers of inflammation warrants establishment of their reference ranges. The objective of this study was to establish reference values for selected APP......, haptoglobin and PAGP and a decrease in albumin. An acute LPS stimulus increased CRP, PMAP, haptoglobin, and SAA; PAGP was unchanged and albumin decreased. Obese pigs with and without diabetes showed increases in CRP and PAGP, albumin decreased, and haptoglobin and SAA were unchanged. PMAP was increased only...... and interpreting studies including aspects of inflammation. In addition, an APP response was verified after both acute and chronic stimuli....

  16. Age- and Sex-Associated Effects on Acute-Phase Proteins in Göttingen Minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Berit Ø; Jensen, Søren J.; Ludvigsen, Trine P;

    2015-01-01

    Göttingen minipigs are a useful model for diseases having an inflammatory component, and the associated use of acute-phase proteins (APP) as biomarkers of inflammation warrants establishment of their reference ranges. The objective of this study was to establish reference values for selected APP......, haptoglobin and PAGP and a decrease in albumin. An acute LPS stimulus increased CRP, PMAP, haptoglobin, and SAA; PAGP was unchanged and albumin decreased. Obese pigs with and without diabetes showed increases in CRP and PAGP, albumin decreased, and haptoglobin and SAA were unchanged. PMAP was increased only...... and interpreting studies including aspects of inflammation. In addition, an APP response was verified after both acute and chronic stimuli....

  17. Circulating microbial products and acute phase proteins as markers of pathogenesis in lymphatic filarial disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Anuradha

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis can be associated with development of serious pathology in the form of lymphedema, hydrocele, and elephantiasis in a subset of infected patients. Dysregulated host inflammatory responses leading to systemic immune activation are thought to play a central role in filarial disease pathogenesis. We measured the plasma levels of microbial translocation markers, acute phase proteins, and inflammatory cytokines in individuals with chronic filarial pathology with (CP Ag+ or without (CP Ag- active infection; with clinically asymptomatic infections (INF; and in those without infection (endemic normal [EN]. Comparisons between the two actively infected groups (CP Ag+ compared to INF and those without active infection (CP Ag- compared to EN were used preliminarily to identify markers of pathogenesis. Thereafter, we tested for group effects among all the four groups using linear models on the log transformed responses of the markers. Our data suggest that circulating levels of microbial translocation products (lipopolysaccharide and LPS-binding protein, acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid protein-A, and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-12, and TNF-α are associated with pathogenesis of disease in lymphatic filarial infection and implicate an important role for circulating microbial products and acute phase proteins.

  18. The Acute Phase of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Is Attenuated in 5-Lipoxygenase-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M. C. Canavaci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we examine the contribution of 5-lipoxygenase- (5-LO- derived lipid mediators to immune responses during the acute phase of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in 5-LO gene knockout (5-LO−/− mice and wild-type (WT mice. Compared with WT mice, the 5-LO−/− mice developed less parasitemia/tissue parasitism, less inflammatory cell infiltrates, and a lower mortality. This resistance of 5-LO−/− mice correlated with several differences in the immune response to infection, including reduced PGE2 synthesis; sustained capacity of splenocytes to produce high levels of interleukin (IL-12 early in the infection; enhanced splenocyte production of IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ; rapid T-cell polarization to secrete high quantities of IFN-γ and low quantities of IL-10; and greater numbers of CD8+CD44highCD62Llow memory effector T cells at the end of the acute phase of infection. The high mortality in WT mice was associated with increased production of LTB4/LTC4, T cell bias to produce IFN-γ, high levels of serum nitrite, and marked protein extravasation into the peritoneal cavity, although survival was improved by treatment with a cys-LT receptor 1 antagonist. These data also provide evidence that 5-LO-derived mediators negatively affect host survival during the acute phase of T. cruzi infection.

  19. Physical anhedonia in the acute phase of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petridou Eleni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current study is to investigate the relationship between physical anhedonia and psychopathological parameters, pharmacological parameters or motor side-effects in a sample of inpatients with schizophrenia in an acute episode of their illness. Method Eighty one patients with schizophrenia, consecutively admitted, with an acute episode of their illness, at the Eginition Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, University of Athens, during a one-year period were investigated regarding possible relationships between physical anhedonia, social-demographic data and clinical parameters as well as motor side-effects, induced by antipsychotic agents. All patients were assessed using the Chapman Revised Physical Anhedonia Scale (RPAS, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, the Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side-Effects (EPSE, the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS. Simple cross tabulations were initially employed. Subsequently, multiple regression analysis was performed. Results Both positive and negative symptoms were associated with physical anhedonia. A positive association between physical anhedonia and the non-paranoid sub-category of schizophrenia was also proved. Conclusion According to these results, it seems that in the acute phase of schizophrenia, physical anhedonia may be a contributing factor to patient's psychopathology.

  20. T Helper Subsets, Peripheral Plasticity, and the Acute Phase Protein, α1-Antitrypsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris M. Baranovski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional model of T helper differentiation describes the naïve T cell as choosing one of several subsets upon stimulation and an added reciprocal inhibition aimed at maintaining the chosen subset. However, to date, evidence is mounting to support the presence of subset plasticity. This is, presumably, aimed at fine-tuning adaptive immune responses according to local signals. Reprograming of cell phenotype is made possible by changes in activation of master transcription factors, employing epigenetic modifications that preserve a flexible mode, permitting a shift between activation and silencing of genes. The acute phase response represents an example of peripheral changes that are critical in modulating T cell responses. α1-antitrypsin (AAT belongs to the acute phase responses and has recently surfaced as a tolerogenic agent in the context of adaptive immune responses. Nonetheless, AAT does not inhibit T cell responses, nor does it shutdown inflammation per se; rather, it appears that AAT targets non-T cell immunocytes towards changing the cytokine environment of T cells, thus promoting a regulatory T cell profile. The present review focuses on this intriguing two-way communication between innate and adaptive entities, a crosstalk that holds important implications on potential therapies for a multitude of immune disorders.

  1. Microheterogeneity of acute phase proteins in patients with ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marian Grzymis(l)awski; Katarzyna Derc; Magdalena Sobieska; Krzysztof Wiktorowicz

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the serum α1-antichymotrypsin (ACT),α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and transferrin (Tf) concentrations and to evaluate the microheterogeneity of these acute phase proteins in patients with ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 17 healthy control subjects were studied. The patients were categorised as severe (n = 9), moderate (n = 10) and mild groups (n = 8) using Truelove and Witts'classification of ulcerative colitis. Microheterogeneity of ACT, AGP and Tf was analysed by crossed immunoaffinity electrophoresis (CIAE) with concanavalin A. In all serum samples standard electrophoresis of serum proteins was performed, iron (Fe) concentration, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were also measured.RESULTS: Our patients suffering from ulcerative colitis had significantly higher serum ACT and AGP concentrations and lower serum transferrin concentration in comparison to healthy subjects. Changes in concentrationsof acute phase proteins were dependent on the activityof the inflammatory process. The glycosylation patterns of transferrin were related to the inflammation status. We also observed the correlation between ACT and AGP concentrations, patterns of transferrin glycosylation and changes in standard protein electrophoresis or blood cell count.CONCLUSION: The glycosylation patterns of transferrin obtained from patients suffering from ulcerative colitis are highly branched and sialylated compared with those obtained from healthy subjects. In contrast, the glycosylation patterns of transferrin do not differ according to the activity index of ulcerative colitis. The microheterogeneity patterns of AGP and ACT are similar in ulcerative colitis patients and healthy subjects.

  2. Acute Stress Response in Critically Ill Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. den Brinker (Marieke)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe understanding of the endocrine changes in critically ill children is important, as it provides insights in the pathophysiology of the acute stress in children and its differences compared with adults. Furthermore, it delineates prognostic factors for survival and supports the rati

  3. Caerulin-induced pancreatitis in rats: Histological and genetic expression changes from acute phase to recuperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier Maga(n)a-Gómez; Guillermo López-Cervantes; Ana María Calderón de la Barca

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the histological and pancreatitis-associated protein mRNA accumulation changes of pancreas from acute phase of caerulin-induced pancreatitis to recuperation in rats.METHODS: Acute pancreatitis was induced by caerulein in male Wistar rats and followed up for 90 d by histologicai and mRNA analyses of pancreas. Pancreases were dissected at 0, 9, 24 h and 3, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90 d post-induction. Edema (E), polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) infiltration, cytoplasmic vacuolization (V), zymogen granule depletion (ZD) and acinar disorganization (AD) were microscopically evaluated. Accumulation of pancreatitisassociated protein (PAP) and L13A mRNAs were quantifled by real-time PCR.RESULTS: The main histological changes appeared at 9 h post-induction for PMN infiltration and cytoplasmic V, while at 24 h and 3 d for E and ZD, respectively. All the parameters were recovered after 5 d, except for ZD which delayed more than 30 d. The main AD was observed after 15 d and values returned to normal after 30 d. Similarly to histological changes, accumulation of the PAP mRNA was increased at 9 h with the highest accumulation at 24 h and differences disappeared after 5 d.CONCLUSION: From the acute phase to recuperation of pancreatitis, regeneration and re-differentiation of pancreas occur and PAP expression is exclusively an acute response of pancreatitis.

  4. Salivary SIgA responses to acute moderate-vigorous exercise in monophasic oral contraceptive users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Harumi; Dolan, Nicola J; Hounsome, Charlotte; Alajmi, Nawal; Bishop, Nicolette C

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of oral contraceptive (OC) use on salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels at rest and in response to an acute bout of moderate-vigorous exercise during 2 phases of the 4-week OC cycle corresponding to different phases of the synthetic menstrual cycle. Ten healthy active females completed a cycling at 70% peak oxygen uptake for 45 min at 2 time points of an OC cycle: during the equivalent in time to the mid-follicular phase (day 8 ± 2) and the mid-luteal phase (day 20 ± 2). Timed unstimulated saliva samples were obtained before, immediately postexercise, and 1 h postexercise and analyzed for salivary SIgA. Salivary SIgA secretion rate was 26% (95% confidence limits (CI) 6-46) lower at postexercise compared with pre-exercise during the synthetic follicular phase (p = 0.019) but no differences were observed during the synthetic luteal trial. Saliva flow rate was 11% (95% CI, 8-30) lower at postexercise compared with pre-exercise (main effect for time; p = 0.025). In conclusion, the pattern of salivary SIgA secretion rate response to moderate-vigorous exercise varies across the early and late phases of a monophasic OC cycle, with a transient reduction in salivary SIgA responses during the synthetic follicular phase. These findings indicate that monophasic OC use should be considered when assessing mucosal immune responses to acute exercise.

  5. Changes of hepatic lactoferrin gene expression in two mouse models of the acute phase reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ghayyor; Sial, Gull Zareen Khan; Ramadori, Pierluigi; Dudas, Jozsef; Batusic, Danko S; Ramadori, Giuliano

    2011-12-01

    Lactoferrin (Ltf), an iron binding glycoprotein, is a pleiotropic molecule whose serum concentration increases under acute phase conditions. The physiological roles of this protein have been well elucidated, but the source and serum regulation of Ltf gene expression have not been investigated in detail as part of the acute phase reaction (APR). In the current work, the changes in hepatic Ltf-gene-expression during turpentine oil- (TO-) or LPS-induced APR were investigated. Ltf was upregulated at both the mRNA and protein levels in the liver of TO- and LPS-treated wild type (WT) mice. The pattern of induction however was different in both animal models indicating distinctive signalling patterns resulting in an acute phase reaction. Cytokines are the core regulators of APR. Among the major cytokines, IL-6 is an important signalling molecule, which also regulates iron homeostasis in response to an inflammatory situation. In this study, the administration of IL-6 induced Ltf gene expression in the liver of WT mice, in murine hepatocytes and in hepa 1-6 cells. Ltf-gene-expression was upregulated also in the liver of TO- and LPS-treated IL-6 knockout (KO) mice. The increase in serum Ltf after LPS injection was greater than after TO-injection both in WT and IL-6-KO mice. To evaluate the contribution of other acute phase cytokines in the regulation of Ltf-gene-expression in the liver, both in vitro and in vivo studies with IL-1β, TNF-α, or IFN-γ were performed. The results demonstrate that TNF-α and IFN-γ also upregulated Ltf-gene-expression, while IL-1β has no role in the regulation of Ltf-gene-expression.

  6. Acute phase proteins in cattle after exposure to complex stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomborg, S. R.; Nielsen, L. R.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Stressors such as weaning, mixing and transportation have been shown to lead to increased blood concentrations of acute phase proteins (APP), including serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin, in calves. This study was therefore undertaken to assess whether SAA and haptoglobin levels...... in blood mirror stress in adult cattle. Six clinically healthy Holstein cows and two Holstein heifers were transported for four to six hours to a research facility, where each animal was housed in solitary tie stalls. Blood samples for evaluation of leukocyte counts and serum SAA and haptoglobin...... concentrations were obtained before (0-sample) and at 8, 24 and 48 hours after the start of transportation. Upon arrival the animals gave the impression of being anxious, and they appeared to have difficulty coping with isolation and with being tied on the slippery floors of the research stable. Serum...

  7. Relationship between Acute Phase of Chronic Periodontitis and Meteorological Factors in the Maintenance Phase of Periodontal Treatment: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Noriko; Ekuni, Daisuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Morita, Manabu

    2015-08-05

    The acute phase of chronic periodontitis may occur even in patients during supportive periodontal therapy. However, the details are not fully understood. Since the natural environment, including meteorology affects human health, we hypothesized that weather conditions may affect occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between weather conditions and acute phase of chronic periodontitis in patients under supportive periodontal therapy. Patients who were diagnosed with acute phase of chronic periodontitis under supportive periodontal therapy during 2011-2013 were selected for this study. We performed oral examinations and collected questionnaires and meteorological data. Of 369 patients who experienced acute phase of chronic periodontitis, 153 had acute phase of chronic periodontitis without direct-triggered episodes. When using the autoregressive integrated moving average model of time-series analysis, the independent covariant of maximum hourly range of barometric pressure, maximum hourly range of temperature, and maximum daily wind speed were significantly associated with occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis (p chronic periodontitis.

  8. An accurate two-phase approximate solution to the acute viral infection model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perelson, Alan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    During an acute viral infection, virus levels rise, reach a peak and then decline. Data and numerical solutions suggest the growth and decay phases are linear on a log scale. While viral dynamic models are typically nonlinear with analytical solutions difficult to obtain, the exponential nature of the solutions suggests approximations can be found. We derive a two-phase approximate solution to the target cell limited influenza model and illustrate the accuracy using data and previously established parameter values of six patients infected with influenza A. For one patient, the subsequent fall in virus concentration was not consistent with our predictions during the decay phase and an alternate approximation is derived. We find expressions for the rate and length of initial viral growth in terms of the parameters, the extent each parameter is involved in viral peaks, and the single parameter responsible for virus decay. We discuss applications of this analysis in antiviral treatments and investigating host and virus heterogeneities.

  9. Pig α1-Acid Glycoprotein: Characterization and First Description in Any Species as a Negative Acute Phase Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Miller, Ingrid; Sørensen, Nanna Skall;

    2013-01-01

    concentrations of pig AGP were in the range of 1-3 mg/ml in a number of conventional pig breeds while it was lower in Göttingen and Ossabaw minipigs (in the 0.3 to 0.6 mg/ml range) and higher in young (2-5 days old) conventional pigs (mean: 6.6 mg/ml). Surprisingly, pig AGP was found to behave as a negative...... acute phase protein during a range of experimental infections and aseptic inflammation with significant decreases in serum concentration and in hepatic ORM1 expression during the acute phase response. To our knowledge this is the first description in any species of AGP being a negative acute phase...

  10. Review of dose-response curves for acute antimigraine drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dose-response curves for efficacy and tolerability are the important determinants for the choice of doses of acute migraine drugs. Areas covered: Dose-response curves for the efficacy of seven triptans (5-HT1B/1D receptor agonists), a 5-HT1F receptor agonist (lasmiditan) and four oral...... calcitonin-gene related peptide receptor antagonists (telcagepant, MK-3207, BI 44370 TA and BMS-927711) in placebo-controlled trials were reviewed. In addition, dose-response curves for adverse events (AEs) were reviewed. Expert opinion: For most triptans, the dose-response curve for efficacy is flat......, whereas AEs often increase with increasing doses. The two other groups of drugs also have flat dose-response curves for efficacy. Overall, the triptans still have the most favorable efficacy-tolerability profile. Current acute antimigraine drugs do not fulfill the expectations of the patients, and thus...

  11. Defined symptom-change trajectories during acute-phase cognitive therapy for depression predict better longitudinal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R; Clark, Lee Anna; Thase, Michael E; Jarrett, Robin B

    2016-12-01

    Acute-phase cognitive therapy (CT) is an efficacious treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD), but responders experience varying post-acute outcomes (e.g., relapse vs. recovery). Responders' symptom-change trajectories during response to acute-phase CT may predict longer term outcomes. We studied adult outpatients (N = 220) with recurrent MDD who responded to CT but had residual symptoms. Responders with linear (steady improvement), log-linear (quicker improvement earlier and slower later), one-step (a single, relatively large, stable improvement between adjacent assessments), or undefined (not linear, log-linear, or one-step) symptom trajectories were assessed every 4 months for 32 additional months. Defined (linear, log-linear, one-step) versus undefined acute-phase trajectories predicted lower depressive symptoms (d = 0.36), lower weekly probability of being in a major depressive episode (OR = 0.46), higher weekly probabilities of remission (OR = 1.93) and recovery (OR = 2.35), less hopelessness (d = 0.41), fewer dysfunctional attitudes (d = 0.31), and better social adjustment (d = 0.32) for 32 months after acute-phase CT. Differences among defined trajectory groups were nonsignificant. Responding to acute-phase CT with a defined trajectory (orderly pattern) of symptom reduction predicts better longer term outcomes, but which defined trajectory (linear, log-linear, or one-step) appears unimportant. Frequent measurement of depressive symptoms to identify un/defined CT response trajectories may clarify need for continued clinical monitoring and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Specific responses of monoamine neurotransmitters to various acute stressors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rongrong He; Guanyu Lin; Yifang Li; Keiich Abe; Xinsheng Yao; Hiroshi Kurihara

    2011-01-01

    This study determined the composition of histamine, serotonin and dopamine using high performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection, and compared the changes in monoamine levels in plasma, the cortex and midbrain of mice exposed to acute stressors, such as blood-drawing stimulation or restraint. Results demonstrated that plasma histamine levels were markedly increased when mice were exposed to blood-drawing stimulation and restraint stress. However, serotonin levels decreased in plasma of mice treated with restraint stress, and dopamine levels in plasma had no significant response to the two acute stressors. The three monoamines (histamine, serotonin and dopamine) increased at different degrees in restraint mice, but not in brain regions of blood-drawing stressed mice. Results indicated that histaminergic, serotonergic or dopaminergic systems have their own specific response to different acute stressors.

  13. Involvement of activated leukocytes in the regulation of plasma levels of acute phase proteins in microgravity simulation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna; Turin-Kuzmin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Earth-based studies of microgravity effects showed the induction of the mechanisms of acute phase reaction (APR). APR comprises the transition of stress-sensitive protein kinases of macrophages and other responsive cells into the active state and the phosphorylation of transcription factors which in turn stimulate the production of acute-phase reaction cytokines. Leukocyte activation is accompanied by the acceleration of the formation of oxygen radicals which can serve a functional indice of leukocyte cell state. The series of events at acute phase response result in selective changes in the synthesis of a number of secretory blood proteins (acute phase proteins, APPs) in liver cells thus contributing the recovery of homeostasis state in the organism. Earlier experiment with head-down tilt showed the increase in plasma concentrations of two cytokine mediators of acute phase response, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) being the outcome of the activation of producer cells, foremost, leukocytes. In experiment with 4-day dry immersion chemiluminescent (ChL) reply of the whole blood samples to a test stimulus were studied along with the measurements of plasma levels of APPs, namely, alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT), alpha1-acid glycoprotein (alpha1-AGP), alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2-M), ceruloplasmin (Cer), haptoglobin (Hp), C3-complement component (C3), C-reactive protein (CRP). Eight individuals aged 21.2 ± 3.2 years were the test subjects in the investigation. Protein studies showed a noticeable increase in the mean plasma levels of all APPs measured in experiment thus producing the evidence of the activation of acute phase response mechanisms while individual patterns revealed variability during the immersion period. The overall trends were similar to these in the previous immersion series. The augment in the strength of signal in stimulated light emission tests was higher after 1- and 2-day of immersion exposure than before the

  14. Acute khat use reduces response conflict in habitual users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Sellaro, Roberta; Ruiz, Manuel J; Sikora, Katarzyna; Hommel, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Khat consumption has become a worldwide phenomenon broadening from Eastern Africa and the south west of the Arabian Peninsula to ethnic communities in the rest of the world. So far, the cognitive effects of khat use are poorly understood and no studies have looked into the relation between acute khat use and cognitive control functions, the way we control our thoughts and goal directed behavior. We studied how acute khat use affects the emergence and the resolution of response conflict, a central cognitive control function. Khat users (n = 11) and khat-free controls (n = 18) were matched in terms of education, sex, alcohol, and cannabis consumption. Groups were tested on response conflict, as measured by the Simon task. In one single session, participants worked through two task blocks: the khat group chewed exclusively khat whereas the khat-free group chewed solely a gum. Results showed that in the second block, which reflects the acute impact of khat, the khat group was better than controls in resolving stimulus-induced response conflict as indexed by a smaller Simon effect. These results suggest that the acute intake of khat may improve participants' ability of handling response conflict.

  15. Cerebrovascular response to acute metabolic acidosis in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, M.T.P. van de; Colier, W.N.J.M.; Kersten, B.T.P.; Oeseburg, B.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the cerebrovascular response (delta CBV/delta PaCO2) during baseline metabolic conditions and acute metabolic acidosis. METHODS: 15 healthy subjects, 5 m, 10 f, 56 +/- 10 yrs were investigated. For acidification, NH4Cl was given orally. CBV was measured using Near Infrared

  16. A nonequilibrium phase transition in immune response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wei; Qi An-Shen

    2004-01-01

    The dynamics of immune response correlated to signal transduction in immune thymic cells (T cells) is studied.In particular, the problem of the phosphorylation of the immune-receptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM) is explored. A nonlinear model is established on the basis of experimental observations. The behaviours of the model can be well analysed using the concepts of nonequilibrium phase transitions. In addition, the Riemann-Hugoniot cusp catastrophe is demonstrated by the model. Due to the application of the theory of nonequilibrium phase transitions,the biological phenomena can be clarified more precisely. The results can also be used to further explain the signal transduction and signal discrimination of an important type of immune T cell.

  17. Proteomic approach for acute-phase proteins of hemolymph and muscles in Scylla serrata challenged by a pathogenic bactedum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wenjie; SU Jing; WANG Guizhong; WANG Sanying

    2006-01-01

    Acute-phase response is documented to be a significant mechanism of innate immunity in vertebrates and invertebrates.In this study,proteomic methodologies were applied for different protein expressions in hemolymph of Scylla serrata challenged by Vibrio parahaemolyticus after immunization,and in muscles of the crabs separately challenged by V.parahaemolyticus.V.anguillarum and Aeromonas hydrophila.Up-regulated cryptocyanin is documented in the hemolymph and up-regulated calexcitin,wingless(fragment)and tachykinin-related peptide in the muscle as acute-phase proteins.All the four altered proteins were responsible for bacterial stress,but cryptocyanin seemed to be a memory response protein against the challenge by a live bacterium after immunization of the live cells.These up-regulated proteins can be indicative of an understanding of immunity of a crab.

  18. Gp130-dependent release of acute phase proteins is linked to the activation of innate immune signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Luchtefeld

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of acute phase proteins (APP are often found in patients with cardiovascular diseases. In a previous study, we demonstrated the importance of the IL-6-gp130 axis -as a key regulator of inflammatory acute phase signaling in hepatocytes-for the development of atherosclerosis. BACKGROUND/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gp130-dependent gene expression was analyzed in a previously established hepatocyte-specific gp130 knockout mouse model. We performed whole transcriptome analysis in isolated hepatocytes to measure tissue specific responses after proinflammatory stimulus with IL-6 across different time points. Our analyses revealed an unexpected small gene cluster that requires IL-6 stimulus for early activation. Several of the genes in this cluster are involved in different cell defense mechanisms. Thus, stressors that trigger both general stress and inflammatory responses lead to activation of a stereotypic innate cellular defense response. Furthermore, we identified a potential biomarker Lipocalin (LCN 2 for the gp130 dependent early inflammatory response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest a complex network of tightly linked genes involved in the early activation of different parts of the innate immune response including acute phase proteins, complement and coagulation cascade.

  19. Acute In Vivo Response to an Alternative Implant for Urogynecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiniano Roman Regueros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate in vivo the acute host response to an alternative implant designed for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI and pelvic organ prolapse (POP. Methods. A biodegradable scaffold was produced from poly-L-lactic acid (PLA using the electrospinning technique. Human and rat adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs were isolated and characterized by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and differentiation assays. PLA scaffolds were seeded and cultured for 2 weeks with human or rat ADSCs. Scaffolds with and without human or rat ADSCs were implanted subcutaneously on the abdominal wall of rats. After 3 and 7 days, 6 animals from each group were sacrificed. Sections from each sample were analyzed by Haematoxylin and Eosin staining, Sirius red staining, and immunohistochemistry for CD68, PECAM-1, and collagen I and III. Results. Animals responded to the scaffolds with an acute macrophage response. After 7 days of implantation, there was extensive host cell penetration, new blood vessel formation, and new collagen deposition throughout the full thickness of the samples without obvious differences between cell-containing and cell-free scaffolds. Conclusions. The acute in vivo response to an alternative implant (both with and without cells for the treatment of SUI and POP showed good acute integration into the host tissues.

  20. Isolation of a lipopolysaccharide-binding acute phase reactant from rabbit serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, P S; Soldau, K; Ulevitch, R J

    1986-09-01

    This report describes the purification of an acute phase reactant from acute phase rabbit serum, which endows normal serum with the properties of acute phase serum, insofar as LPS is concerned. The acute phase reactant is referred to as LPS-binding protein, or LBP. LBP was purified approximately 2,000-fold by chromatography of acute phase serum on Bio-Rex 70 and Mono-Q resins. The resulting preparation consisted of two glycoproteins having molecular weights of 60,500 and 58,000; the two were obtained in a variable ratio, usually near 10:1, respectively. After separation by SDS-PAGE, the N-terminal 36 amino acid sequences of the two proteins were identical. From the N-terminal sequence, as well as other properties of LBP, LBP appears to be unrelated to any known acute phase reactants. The direct interaction of LPS and LBP was inferred from two types of evidence: first, immunoprecipitation of [3H]LPS from APRS by anti-LBP sera; and second, by the 125I-labeling of LBP when APRS-containing 125I-labeled 2-(p-azidosalicylamido)ethyl 1,3'-dithiopropionyl-LPS was photolysed. The data presented here support the concept that the 60-kD glycoprotein we have termed LBP is a newly recognized acute phase reactant that may modulate the biochemical and biologic properties of LPS in vivo.

  1. Effect of blonanserin on cognitive and social function in acute phase Japanese schizophrenia compared with risperidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hori H

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hikaru Hori, Kenji Yamada, Dan Kamada, Yuka Shibata, Asuka Katsuki, Reiji Yoshimura, Jun NakamuraDepartment of Psychiatry, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, JapanBackground: This study aims to determine the effectiveness of blonanserin (BNS on the cognitive and social functions of patients with schizophrenia compared with risperidone (RIS during acute-phase (8-week treatment.Methods: A total of 39 schizophrenia inpatients were included in this study. The subjects received either BNS (N=20 or RIS (N=19, and the clinical responses were evaluated periodically. The concomitant use of mood stabilizers was not allowed. Efficacy was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for schizophrenia. Cognition was assessed using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, Japanese-language version. Social function was assessed using the Life Assessment Scale for the Mentally Ill.Results: For both groups, each assessment exhibited a decrease in the mean change from baseline on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The depression subscale was significantly improved in the BNS group compared with the RIS group at 8 weeks after administration. BNS improved verbal fluency and executive function (cognitive function and daily living and work skills (social function. Compared with the RIS group, BNS was observed to improve daily living.Conclusion: BNS may improve psychotic symptoms, cognitive function, and daily living in patients with acute-phase schizophrenia. BNS may be superior to RIS in the improvement of daily living.Keywords: risperidone, blonanserin, schizophrenia, cognitive function, social function, acute-phase

  2. Acute phase proteins in the diagnosis of bovine subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Shahabeddin; Khoshvaghti, Ameneh; Jafarzadeh, Seyed Reza; Bolourchi, Mahmoud; Nowrouzian, Iradj

    2009-12-01

    The California mastitis test (CMT) and somatic cell count (SCC) are commonly used for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in cattle. Acute phase proteins (APPs), as alternative biomarkers of mastitis, may increase in concentration in the absence of macroscopic changes in the milk, or may precede the onset of clinical signs. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of APPs measured in milk and in serum with bacterial culture for the diagnosis of bovine subclinical mastitis. One hundred and seventy-five Holstein cows were randomly selected from 7 dairy farms. Quarter milk and serum samples were taken from all cows. Milk samples were analyzed using a CMT and SCC, and for haptoglobin (MHp) and amyloid A (MAA) concentrations, and were also submitted for bacterial culture. Serum samples obtained concurrently were analyzed for haptoglobin (SHp) and amyloid A (SAA). Two-sample Wilcoxon (Mann-Whitney) test was used to compare SCC, MAA, MHp, SAA, and SHp concentrations between culture-positive and culture-negative animals. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the performance of each test using bacterial culture as the reference method. MAA concentration was the most accurate of the 5 tests, with a sensitivity of 90.6% and specificity of 98.3% at concentrations >16.4 mg/L. MAA and MHp had significantly larger areas under the curve than the respective serum proteins, SAA and SHp. The results suggest that measuring haptoglobin and amyloid A in milk is more accurate than serum analysis for the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in Holstein cows.

  3. [Management of coronary artery disease at the acute phase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatot, Marion; Schiele, François

    2015-03-01

    In patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), early management is of prime importance. However, the median time taken by the patient to call the emergency services is often very long, up to 2 hours. The presence of a physician as first responder ensures good quality resuscitation in case of cardiac arrest, and allows recording of a first ECG, which can be very informative, especially in ACS without ST segment elevation. Treatment at this stage is limited to sublingual nitroglycerin and aspirin. If the first ECG shows ST segment elevation, the patient should be immediately oriented for reperfusion, usually by percutaneous coronary intervention. in the absence of ST segment elevation, the diagnosis of ACS remains unconfirmed. This does not imply that the risk is lesser, but rather that the risk cannot be evaluated accurately in the pre-hospital setting. The use of risk scores can guide the choice of management towards an invasive strategy, including coronary angiography (immediately, or within 24-72 hours). Low-risk patients are candidates for an invasive strategy, provided non-invasive tests demonstrate the presence of ischemia. During the hospital phase, antiplatelet treatment should be initiated and must be adapted to the patient bleeding and thrombotic risk. Clopidogrel is recommended only in patients who are not amenable to prasugrel or ticagrelor. Statin therapy should be initiated from day one, regardless of the initial cholesterol level, preferably with 80 mg atorvastatin. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers should also be prescribed to complete the medical prescription both in-hospital and in the long term.

  4. Physiological responses to an acute bout of sprint interval cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Eric C; Gist, Nicholas H; Cureton, Kirk J

    2013-10-01

    Sprint interval training has been shown to improve skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and health outcomes. However, the acute physiological responses to 4-7 maximal effort intervals have not been determined. To determine the V[Combining Dot Above]O2, cardiorespiratory responses, and energy expenditure during an acute bout of sprint interval cycling (SIC), health, college-aged subjects, 6 men and 6 women, completed 2 SIC sessions with at least 7 days between trials. Sprint interval cycling was performed on a cycle ergometer and involved a 5-minute warm-up followed by four 30-second all-out sprints with 4-minute active recovery. Peak oxygen uptake (ml·kg·min) during the 4 sprints were 35.3 ± 8.2, 38.8 ± 10.1, 38.8 ± 10.6, and 36.8 ± 9.3, and peak heart rate (b·min) were 164 ± 17, 172 ± 10, 177 ± 12, and 175 ± 22. We conclude that an acute bout of SIC elicits submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and cardiorespiratory responses during each interval that are above 80% of estimated maximal values. Although the duration of exercise in SIC is very short, the high level of V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and cardiorespiratory responses are sufficient to potentially elicit adaptations to training associated with elevated aerobic energy demand.

  5. Enhanced depth imaging OCT (EDI-OCT) findings in acute phase of sympathetic ophthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behdad, Bahareh; Rahmani, Safa; Montahaei, Talieh; Soheilian, Roham; Soheilian, Masoud

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the EDI-OCT findings in an acute phase of sympathetic ophthalmia (SO). A 24-year-old gentleman was referred to clinic complaining of progressive blurry vision of his right eye within last 3 days. He had a history of repaired corneoscleral laceration in his left eye followed by lensectomy and anterior vitrectomy approximately 1 month before his recent right eye discomfort. Physical examination revealed a granulomatous uveitis with an exudative RD of the right eye consistent with SO. EDI-OCT was done at initial exam and repeated 1 and 15 months after therapy. EDI-OCT 1 month following therapy showed significant improvement in choroidal thickening and outer retinal cell layers. The choroidal thickness in the right sympathizing eye decreased from 617 to 568 μm and in the left exciting eye from 539 to 521 μm. After 15 month follow-up, choroidal thickness that is reported in EDI-OCT is 436 μm in the right and 382 μm in the left eye. SO should be added to the list of choroidopathies that cause an increase in choroidal thickness in acute phase of disorder with subsequent decrease after therapy, so help us in assessing and estimation of response to treatment.

  6. Acute phase protein expression during elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-1 viremia in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jeffrey J; Cray, Carolyn; Rodriguez, Marilyn; Arheart, Kristopher L; Ling, Paul D; Herron, Alan

    2013-09-01

    Infection of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) can be associated with rapid, lethal hemorrhagic disease and has been documented in elephant herds in human care and in the wild. Recent reports describe real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays used to monitor clinically ill elephants and also to detect subclinical EEHV1 infection in apparently healthy Asian elephants. Acute phase proteins have been demonstrated to increase with a variety of infectious etiologies in domesticated mammals but have not yet been described in elephants. In addition, the immune response of Asian elephants to EEHV1 infection has not been described. In this study, whole blood and trunk wash samples representing repeated measures from eight elephants were examined for the presence of EEHV1 using a qPCR assay. Elephants were classified into groups, as follows: whole blood negative and positive and trunk wash negative and positive. Serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (HP) levels were compared between these groups. A significant difference in SAA was observed with nearly a threefold higher mean value during periods of viremia (P=0.011). Higher values of SAA were associated with >10,000 virus genome copies/ml EEHV1 in whole blood. There were no significant differences in HP levels, although some individual animals did exhibit increased levels with infection. These data indicate that an inflammatory process is stimulated during EEHV1 viremia. Acute phase protein quantitation may aid in monitoring the health status of Asian elephants.

  7. Effect of blonanserin on cognitive and social function in acute phase Japanese schizophrenia compared with risperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hikaru; Yamada, Kenji; Kamada, Dan; Shibata, Yuka; Katsuki, Asuka; Yoshimura, Reiji; Nakamura, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effectiveness of blonanserin (BNS) on the cognitive and social functions of patients with schizophrenia compared with risperidone (RIS) during acute-phase (8-week) treatment. A total of 39 schizophrenia inpatients were included in this study. The subjects received either BNS (N=20) or RIS (N=19), and the clinical responses were evaluated periodically. The concomitant use of mood stabilizers was not allowed. Efficacy was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for schizophrenia. Cognition was assessed using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, Japanese-language version. Social function was assessed using the Life Assessment Scale for the Mentally Ill. For both groups, each assessment exhibited a decrease in the mean change from baseline on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The depression subscale was significantly improved in the BNS group compared with the RIS group at 8 weeks after administration. BNS improved verbal fluency and executive function (cognitive function) and daily living and work skills (social function). Compared with the RIS group, BNS was observed to improve daily living. BNS may improve psychotic symptoms, cognitive function, and daily living in patients with acute-phase schizophrenia. BNS may be superior to RIS in the improvement of daily living.

  8. Acute caffeine administration affects zebrafish response to a robotic stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladu, Fabrizio; Mwaffo, Violet; Li, Jasmine; Macrì, Simone; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-08-01

    Zebrafish has been recently proposed as a valid animal model to investigate the fundamental mechanisms regulating emotional behavior and evaluate the modulatory effects exerted by psychoactive compounds. In this study, we propose a novel methodological framework based on robotics and information theory to investigate the behavioral response of zebrafish exposed to acute caffeine treatment. In a binary preference test, we studied the response of caffeine-treated zebrafish to a replica of a shoal of conspecifics moving in the tank. A purely data-driven information theoretic approach was used to infer the influence of the replica on zebrafish behavior as a function of caffeine concentration. Our results demonstrate that acute caffeine administration modulates both the average speed and the interaction with the replica. Specifically, zebrafish exposed to elevated doses of caffeine show reduced locomotion and increased sensitivity to the motion of the replica. The methodology developed in this study may complement traditional experimental paradigms developed in the field of behavioral pharmacology.

  9. Early Biventricular Molecular Responses to an Acute Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Erdal, Cenk; Karakülah, Gökhan; Fermancı, Emel; Kunter, İmge; Silistreli, Erdem; Tülay CANDA; Erdal, Esra; Hepaguslar, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains as one of the most common lethal diseases in the world and therefore it is necessary to understand its effect on molecular basis. Genome-wide microarray analysis provides us to predict potential biomarkers and signaling pathways for this purpose. Objectives: The aim of this study is to understand the molecular basis of the immediate right ventricular cellular response to left ventricular AMI. Material and Methods: A rat model of left anter...

  10. Immunoadsorption therapy for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders long after the acute phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masatake; Nanri, Kazunori; Taguchi, Takeshi; Ishiko, Tomoko; Yoshida, Masaharu; Yoshikawa, Noriko; Sugisaki, Kentaro; Tanaka, Nobuyuki

    2015-02-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe inflammatory demyelinating disease with exacerbations involving recurrent or bilateral optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Pulse steroid therapy is recommended as the initial, acute-phase treatment for NMO. If ineffective, treatment with plasma exchange (PE) should commence. However, no evidence exists to support the effectiveness of PE long after the acute phase. Immunoadsorption therapy (IA) eliminates pathogenic antibodies while sparing other plasma proteins. With IA, side effects of PE resulting from protein substitution can be avoided. However, whether IA is effective for NMO remains unclear. We describe a patient with anti-aquaporin-4-positive myelitis who responded to IA using a tryptophan polyvinyl alcohol gel column that was begun 52 days after disease onset following the acute phase. Even long after the acute phase when symptoms appear to be stable, IA may be effective and should not be excluded as a treatment choice.

  11. Affective symptoms and cognitive functions in the acute phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Elberling, Tina V; Hørding, Merete

    2007-01-01

    In the acute phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis patients often have subjective cognitive complaints. Continuing controversy exists about the nature of these symptoms and whether they persist after treatment. This prospective study included 31 consecutively referred, newly diagnosed, and untreated pa...

  12. IMMUNO-INFLAMATORY RESPONSES IN ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Oganov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the role of immuno-inflammatory responses in the development of acute coronary syndrome (ACS.Material and methods. 93 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, including 60 patients with unstable angina (UA and 33 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI were involved in the study. Comparison group included 83 patients with stable angina and control group - 25 healthy persons. The diagnosis of ischemic heart disease (IHD was verified on the basis of clinical and instrumental data. For assessment of immuno-inflammatory responses levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, pro-inflammatory (interleukins [IL-1β, IL-6], tumor necrosis factor [TNF-α] and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10 cytokines we determined by ELISA method.Results. There were high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, high CRP level and low levels of anti-inflammatory IL-4, IL-10 cytokines in UA and AMI patients. Insignificant immunological shifts were found in stable angina patients.Conclusion. Destabilization in the IHD course is characterized with more active immuno-inflammatory responses. Activity of these reactions is associated with ACS severity.

  13. IMMUNO-INFLAMATORY RESPONSES IN ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Oganov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the role of immuno-inflammatory responses in the development of acute coronary syndrome (ACS.Material and methods. 93 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, including 60 patients with unstable angina (UA and 33 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI were involved in the study. Comparison group included 83 patients with stable angina and control group - 25 healthy persons. The diagnosis of ischemic heart disease (IHD was verified on the basis of clinical and instrumental data. For assessment of immuno-inflammatory responses levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, pro-inflammatory (interleukins [IL-1β, IL-6], tumor necrosis factor [TNF-α] and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10 cytokines we determined by ELISA method.Results. There were high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, high CRP level and low levels of anti-inflammatory IL-4, IL-10 cytokines in UA and AMI patients. Insignificant immunological shifts were found in stable angina patients.Conclusion. Destabilization in the IHD course is characterized with more active immuno-inflammatory responses. Activity of these reactions is associated with ACS severity.

  14. Role of acid-sensing ion channel 3 in sub-acute-phase inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chien-Ju

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation-mediated hyperalgesia involves tissue acidosis and sensitization of nociceptors. Many studies have reported increased expression of acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3 in inflammation and enhanced ASIC3 channel activity with pro-inflammatory mediators. However, the role of ASIC3 in inflammation remains inconclusive because of conflicting results generated from studies of ASIC3 knockout (ASIC3-/- or dominant-negative mutant mice, which have shown normal, decreased or increased hyperalgesia during inflammation. Results Here, we tested whether ASIC3 plays an important role in inflammation of subcutaneous tissue of paw and muscle in ASIC3-/- mice induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA or carrageenan by investigating behavioral and pathological responses, as well as the expression profile of ion channels. Compared with the ASIC3+/+ controls, ASIC3-/- mice showed normal thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia with acute (4-h intraplantar CFA- or carrageenan-induced inflammation, but the hyperalgesic effects in the sub-acute phase (1–2 days were milder in all paradigms except for thermal hyperalgesia with CFA-induced inflammation. Interestingly, carrageenan-induced primary hyperalgesia was accompanied by an ASIC3-dependent Nav1.9 up-regulation and increase of tetrodotoxin (TTX-resistant sodium currents. CFA-inflamed muscle did not evoke hyperalgesia in ASIC3-/- or ASIC3+/+ mice, whereas carrageenan-induced inflammation in muscle abolished mechanical hyperalgesia in ASIC3-/- mice, as previously described. However, ASIC3-/- mice showed attenuated pathological features such as less CFA-induced granulomas and milder carrageenan-evoked vasculitis as compared with ASIC3+/+ mice. Conclusion We provide a novel finding that ASIC3 participates in the maintenance of sub-acute-phase primary hyperalgesia in subcutaneous inflammation and mediates the process of granuloma formation and vasculitis in intramuscular inflammation.

  15. Effect of BSA Antigen Sensitization during the Acute Phase of Influenza A Viral Infection on CD11c+ Pulmonary Antigen Presenting Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitaka Sato

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: BSA antigen sensitization during the acute phase of influenza A viral infection enhanced IL-10 production from naive CD4+ T cell interaction with CD11c+ pulmonary APCs. The IL-10 secretion evoked Th2 responses in the lungs with downregulation of Th1 responses and was important for the eosinophil recruitment into the lungs after BSA antigen challenge.

  16. Physical anhedonia in the acute phase of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Petridou Eleni; Stamouli Sophia S; Margariti Maria M; Havaki-Kontaxaki Beata J; Kollias Costas T; Kontaxakis Vassilis P; Christodoulou George N.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of the current study is to investigate the relationship between physical anhedonia and psychopathological parameters, pharmacological parameters or motor side-effects in a sample of inpatients with schizophrenia in an acute episode of their illness. Method Eighty one patients with schizophrenia, consecutively admitted, with an acute episode of their illness, at the Eginition Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, University of Athens, during a one-year period were inv...

  17. Silicon Deprivation Does Not Significantly Modify the Acute White Blood Cell Response but Does Modify Tissue Mineral Distribution Response to an Endotoxin Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment with rats was conducted to determine whether silicon deprivation affects the acute-phase immune response to an endotoxin challenge. Weanling female rats were assigned to two weight-matched groups of 24; one group was fed a basal diet containing about 1.9 µg Si/kg, the other group was f...

  18. Human physiological responses to cold exposure: Acute responses and acclimatization to prolonged exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, John W; Young, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Cold exposure in humans causes specific acute and chronic physiological responses. This paper will review both the acute and long-term physiological responses and external factors that impact these physiological responses. Acute physiological responses to cold exposure include cutaneous vasoconstriction and shivering thermogenesis which, respectively, decrease heat loss and increase metabolic heat production. Vasoconstriction is elicited through reflex and local cooling. In combination, vasoconstriction and shivering operate to maintain thermal balance when the body is losing heat. Factors (anthropometry, sex, race, fitness, thermoregulatory fatigue) that influence the acute physiological responses to cold exposure are also reviewed. The physiological responses to chronic cold exposure, also known as cold acclimation/acclimatization, are also presented. Three primary patterns of cold acclimatization have been observed, a) habituation, b) metabolic adjustment, and c) insulative adjustment. Habituation is characterized by physiological adjustments in which the response is attenuated compared to an unacclimatized state. Metabolic acclimatization is characterized by an increased thermogenesis, whereas insulative acclimatization is characterized by enhancing the mechanisms that conserve body heat. The pattern of acclimatization is dependent on changes in skin and core temperature and the exposure duration.

  19. Predicting response to antimicrobial therapy in children with acute sinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Nader; Wald, Ellen R.; Jeong, Jong H.; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Bowen, A’Delbert; Flom, Lynda L.; Hoberman, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine prognostic factors that independently predict response to antimicrobial therapy in children with acute sinusitis. Study design 206 children meeting a priori clinical criteria for acute sinusitis who were given antimicrobial therapy by their primary care provider were included. The severity of symptoms in the 8 to 12 days after treatment was initiated was followed using a validated scale. We examined the univariate and multivariate association between factors present at the time of diagnosis (symptoms, signs, nasopharyngeal culture result, radiograph results) and time to resolution of symptoms. This study was conducted 8 to 10 years after 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination was introduced, but before introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination. Results Children with proven nasopharyngeal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae improved more rapidly (6.5 vs. 8.5 median days to symptom resolution) than those who were not colonized with S. pneumoniae. Age and radiograph findings did not predict time to symptom resolution. Conclusions In children with acute sinusitis, proven nasopharyngeal colonization with S. pneumoniae at presentation independently predicted time to symptom resolution. Future randomized, placebo-controlled trials could investigate the usefulness of testing for the presence of nasopharyngeal pathogens as a predictor of response to treatment. PMID:24367985

  20. Serum amyloid A: an acute phase apolipoprotein and precursor of AA amyloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhaug, G; Dowton, S B

    1994-08-01

    Serum amyloid A is an acute phase protein complexed to HDL as an apoprotein. The molecular weight is 11.4-12.5 kDa in different species and the protein has from 104 to 112 amino acids, without or with an insertion of eight amino acids at position 72. The protein is very well conserved throughout evolution, indicating an important biological function. The N-terminal part of the molecule is hydrophobic and probably responsible for the lipid binding properties. The most conserved part is from position 38 to 52 and this part is therefore believed to be responsible for the until now unknown biological function. The protein is coded on chromosome 11p in man, and chromosome 7 in mice, and found in all mammals until now investigated, and also in the Peking duck. In the rat a truncated SAA mRNA has been demonstrated, but no equivalent serum protein has been reported. Acute phase SAA is first of all produced in hepatocytes after induction by cytokines, but extrahepatic expression of both acute phase and constitutive SAA proteins have been demonstrated. Several cytokines, first of all IL-1, IL-6 and TNF are involved in the induction of SAA synthesis, but the mutual importance of these cytokines seems to be cell-type specific and to vary in various experimental settings. The role of corticosteroids in SAA induction is somewhat confusing. In most in vitro studies corticosteroids show an enhancing or synergistic effect with cytokines on SAA production in cultured cell. However, in clinical studies and in vivo studies in animals an inhibitory effect of corticosteroids is evident, probably due to the all over anti-inflammatory effect of the drug. Until now no drug has been found that selectively inhibits SAA production by hepatocytes. Effective anti-inflammatory or antibacterial treatment is the only tool for reducing SAA concentration in serum and reducing the risk of developing secondary amyloidosis. The function of SAA is still unclear. Interesting theories, based on current

  1. Safety and Efficacy of Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum in the Treatment of Acute-Phase Peyronie's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoang Minh Tue; Anaissie, James; DeLay, Kenneth J; Yafi, Faysal A; Sikka, Suresh C; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2017-09-02

    Peyronie's disease (PD), defined as the abnormal formation of fibrous plaque(s) in the tunica albuginea of the penis, is a chronic condition that afflicts 3% to 13% of the US male population; there is no current research on the efficacy and safety of collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) in the treatment of acute phase PD. To examine the efficacy and safety of CCH in the treatment of acute-phase PD. We retrospectively reviewed the records for all patients treated with CCH for PD from April 2014 through April 2017. Patients who reported penile pain and duration of PD no longer than 12 months at presentation qualified as being in the acute phase of PD. The primary outcomes of interest were final changes in curvature after CCH treatment regardless of the number of CCH cycles received and frequency of treatment-related adverse events. Parameters of efficacy and safety were compared between acute- and stable-phase PD. A total of 162 patients were included in the study, of which 36 (22%) qualified as having acute-phase PD (group 1) and the remaining 126 (78%) qualified as having stable-phase PD (group 2). Median duration of PD was 8.5 months (range = 1-12) for group 1 and 18 months (range = 1-492) for group 2. There was no significant difference in final change in curvature between the acute and stable phases of PD (16.7° vs 15.6°; P = .654). There was no statistically significant difference in frequency of treatment-related adverse events between the acute phase (4 patients, 11%) and the stable phase (12 patients, 10%; P = .778). CCH therapy is as safe and efficacious in acute-phase PD as it is in stable-phase PD. This is the first report that assesses the safety and efficacy of CCH therapy focusing on acute-phase PD. This study was composed of a large cohort of patients receiving CCH therapy in acute- and stable-phase PD. Limitations include bias associated with retrospective studies, a small sample, and a single-center setting. Although CCH is not clearly

  2. Intensive treadmill training in the acute phase after ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømmen, Anna Maria; Christensen, Thomas; Jensen, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to (a) assess the feasibility of intensive treadmill training in patients with acute ischemic stroke, (b) test whether physical activity of the legs during training increases with time, and (c) evaluate to what extent training sessions contribute toward the overall physical...... activity of these patients. Twenty hospitalized patients with acute ischemic stroke trained on a treadmill twice daily for 30 min for 5 days and on day 30. Physical activity was measured as activity counts (AC) from accelerometers. A total of 196 of 224 initiated training sessions were completed. Training...... with increasing number of days, with the median AC being 133% higher on day 5 than on day 1. AC in the paretic leg during 60 min of training constituted median 53% of the daytime AC. Early intensive treadmill training in acute ischemic stroke patients is thus feasible and contributes considerably toward...

  3. Optimal combinations of acute phase proteins for detecting infectious disease in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heegaard Peter MH

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The acute phase protein (APP response is an early systemic sign of disease, detected as substantial changes in APP serum concentrations and most disease states involving inflammatory reactions give rise to APP responses. To obtain a detailed picture of the general utility of porcine APPs to detect any disease with an inflammatory component seven porcine APPs were analysed in serum sampled at regular intervals in six different experimental challenge groups of pigs, including three bacterial (Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Streptococcus suis, Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, one parasitic (Toxoplasma gondii and one viral (porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus infection and one aseptic inflammation. Immunochemical analyses of seven APPs, four positive (C-reactive protein (CRP, haptoglobin (Hp, pig major acute phase protein (pigMAP and serum amyloid A (SAA and three negative (albumin, transthyretin, and apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1 were performed in the more than 400 serum samples constituting the serum panel. This was followed by advanced statistical treatment of the data using a multi-step procedure which included defining cut-off values and calculating detection probabilities for single APPs and for APP combinations. Combinations of APPs allowed the detection of disease more sensitively than any individual APP and the best three-protein combinations were CRP, apoA1, pigMAP and CRP, apoA1, Hp, respectively, closely followed by the two-protein combinations CRP, pigMAP and apoA1, pigMAP, respectively. For the practical use of such combinations, methodology is described for establishing individual APP threshold values, above which, for any APP in the combination, ongoing infection/inflammation is indicated.

  4. Dynamics of telomerase activity in response to acute psychological stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epel, Elissa S.; Lin, Jue; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Puterman, E; Karan, Lori; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase activity plays an essential role in cel0l survival, by lengthening telomeres and promoting cell growth and longevity. It is now possible to quantify the low levels of telomerase activity in human leukocytes. Low basal telomerase activity has been related to chronic stress in people and to chronic glucocorticoid exposure in vitro. Here we test whether leukocyte telomerase activity changes under acute psychological stress. We exposed 44 elderly women, including 22 high stress dementia caregivers and 22 matched low stress controls, to a brief laboratory psychological stressor, while examining changes in telomerase activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). At baseline, caregivers had lower telomerase activity levels than controls, but during stress telomerase activity increased similarly in both groups. Across the entire sample, subsequent telomerase activity increased by 18% one hour after the end of the stressor (p<0.01). The increase in telomerase activity was independent of changes in numbers or percentages of monocytes, lymphocytes, and specific T cell types, although we cannot fully rule out some potential contribution from immune cell redistribution in the change in telomerase activity. Telomerase activity increases were associated with greater cortisol increases in response to the stressor. Lastly, psychological response to the tasks (greater threat perception) was also related to greater telomerase activity increases in controls. These findings uncover novel relationships of dynamic telomerase activity with exposure to an acute stressor, and with two classic aspects of the stress response -- perceived psychological stress and neuroendocrine (cortisol) responses to the stressor. PMID:20018236

  5. PS-341 in Treating Patients With Refractory or Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Blast Phase, or Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

  6. PLASMA PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS AND SELECT ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS IN HEALTHY BONNETHEAD SHARKS (SPHYRNA TIBURO) UNDER MANAGED CARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Michael W; Field, Cara L; Clauss, Tonya M; Arheart, Kristopher L; Cray, Carolyn

    2016-12-01

    Preventative health care of elasmobranchs is an important but understudied field of aquatic veterinary medicine. Evaluation of inflammation through the acute phase response is a valuable tool in health assessments. To better assess the health of bonnethead sharks ( Sphyrna tiburo ) under managed care, normal reference intervals of protein electrophoresis (EPH) and the acute phase proteins, C-reactive protein (CRP) and haptoglobin (HP), were established. Blood was collected from wild caught, captive raised bonnethead sharks housed at public aquaria. Lithium heparinized plasma was either submitted fresh or stored at -80°C prior to submission. Electrophoresis identified protein fractions with migration characteristics similar to other animals with albumin, α-1 globulin, α-2 globulin, β globulin, and γ globulin. These fractions were classified as fractions 1-5 as fractional contents are unknown in this species. Commercial reagents for CRP and HP were validated for use in bonnethead sharks. Reference intervals were established using the robust method recommended by the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology for the calculation of 90% reference intervals. Once established, the diagnostic and clinical applicability of these reference intervals was used to assess blood from individuals with known infectious diseases that resulted in systemic inflammation and eventual death. Unhealthy bonnethead sharks had significantly decreased fraction 2, fraction 3, and fraction 3:4 ratio and significantly increased fraction 5, CRP, and HP. These findings advance our understanding of elasmobranch acute phase inflammatory response and health and aid clinicians in the diagnosis of inflammatory disease in bonnethead sharks.

  7. Reference intervals for acute phase protein and serum protein electrophoresis values in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaza, Ramiro; Wiedner, Ellen; Hiser, Sarah; Cray, Carolyn

    2014-09-01

    Acute phase protein (APP) immunoassays and serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) are assays for evaluating the inflammatory response and have use as diagnostic tools in a variety of species. Acute phase proteins are markers of inflammation that are highly conserved across different species while SPEP separates and quantifies serum protein fractions based on their physical properties. In the current study, serum samples from 35 clinically healthy Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were analyzed using automated assays for C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and haptoglobin and SPEP. Robust methods were used to generate reference intervals for the APPs: C-reactive protein (1.3-12.8 mg/l), serum amyloid A (0-47.5 mg/l), and haptoglobin (0-1.10 mg/ml). In addition, SPEP was performed on these samples to establish reference intervals for each protein fraction. A combination of APPs and SPEP measurements are valuable adjunctive diagnostic tools in elephant health care.

  8. Rest energy expenditure is decreased during the acute as compared to the recovery phase of sepsis in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Carvalho Tatiana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known with respect to the metabolic response and the requirements of infected newborns. Moreover, the nutritional needs and particularly the energy metabolism of newborns with sepsis are controversial matter. In this investigation we aimed to evaluate the rest energy expenditure (REE of newborns with bacterial sepsis during the acute and the recovery phases. Methods We studied nineteen neonates (27.3 ± 17.2 days old with bacterial sepsis during the acute phase and recovery of their illness. REE was determined by indirect calorimetry and VO2 and VCO2 measured by gas chromatography. Results REE significantly increased from 49.4 ± 13.1 kcal/kg/day during the acute to 68.3 ± 10.9 kcal/kg/day during recovery phase of sepsis (P 2 (7.4 ± 1.9 vs 10 ± 1.5 ml/kg/min and VCO2 (5.1 ± 1.7 vs 7.4 ± 1.5 ml/kg/min were also increased during the course of the disease (P Conclusion REE was increased during recovery compared to the sepsis phase. REE of septic newborns should be calculated on individualized basis, bearing in mind their metabolic capabilities.

  9. Palliative care in the acute phase after a severe stroke: experiences of relatives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M.E. de; Depla, M.; Woijtkwiak, J.; Francke, A.; Visser, M.C.; Widdershoven, G.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Palliative care has potentially a lot to offer to patients in the acute phase after a severe stroke, but its deliberation and decisions towards palliative care are limited in this phase. This study aims at providing insight into the experiences of relatives of stroke patients with the care

  10. Vaccination-induced noncytolytic effects in the acute phase of SHIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janka Petravic

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown that vaccines inducing CD8+ T cell responses can reduce viral loads and preserve CD4+ T cell numbers in monkey models of HIV infection. The mechanism of viral control by the vaccine-induced CD8+ T cells is usually assumed to be cytolysis of infected cells. However, in addition to cytolysis of infected cells, CD8+ T cells secrete a range of soluble factors that suppress viral replication. We have studied the dynamics of virus and CD4+ T cells in a successful vaccination-challenge model of SHIV infection. We find that better viral control in the acute phase of infection is associated with slower decay of peak viral load. Comparing viral and CD4+ T cell dynamics in acute infection, we find that a cytolytic mode of viral control with direct killing of infected cells is inconsistent with the observed trends. On the other hand, comparison of the predicted effects of noncytolytic CD8+ effector function with the experimental data shows that non-cytolytic control provides a better explanation of the experimental results. Our analysis suggests that vaccine-induced CD8+ T cells control SHIV infection by non-cytolytic means.

  11. Increased platelet aggregation and turnover in the acute phase of ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Løkke Funck; Dalsgaard, Jens; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2013-01-01

    fraction, and immature platelet count) were increased in the acute phase of STEMI compared to 3 months after PPCI (p-values STEMI despite dual antiplatelet treatment with aspirin and clopidogrel. Increased platelet......Newly produced platelets are present in the acute phase of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This may influence the antiplatelet effect of aspirin and clopidogrel administered prior to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). The aims of this study were to investigate...... the antiplatelet effect of aspirin and clopidogrel and evaluate platelet turnover in the acute phase of STEMI compared to a stable phase 3 months later. In this observational follow-up study on 48 STEMI patients transferred for PPCI, loading doses of aspirin (300 mg) and clopidogrel (600 mg) were given orally...

  12. Acute hemodynamic response to vasodilators in primary pulmonary hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni H

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute hemodynamic effects of high flow oxygen (O2 inhalation, sublingual isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN, intravenous aminophylline (AMN and sublingual nifedipine (NIF were studied in 32 patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH. In 30 out of 32 patients the basal ratio of pulmonary to systemic vascular resistance (Rp/Rs was > 0.5 (mean = 0.77 +/- 0.20. Oxygen caused significant decrease in the mean resistance ratio to 0.68 +/- 0.20 (p = 0.005. ISDN, AMN and NIF caused increase in the resistance ratio to 0.79 +/- 0.26; 0.78 +/- 0.26; and 0.80 +/- 0.23 respectively. O2, ISDN, AMN and NIF caused a fall of Rp/Rs in 21 (65.6%, 10 (31.2%, 10(31.2% and 9(28.1% patients respectively. Thus, of the four drugs tested high flow O2 inhalation resulted in fall of Rp/Rs in two thirds of patients whereas ISDN, AMN and NIF caused a mean rise in Rp/Rs. One third of patients did respond acutely to the latter three drugs. Acute hemodynamic studies are useful before prescribing vasodilators in patients with PPH since more of the commonly used drugs like ISDN, AMN, NIF could have detrimental hemodynamic responses in some patients. However, great caution should be exercised before performing hemodynamic study as the procedure has definite mortality and morbidity.

  13. Is leptin related to systemic inflammatory response in acute pancreatitis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrés Duarte-Rojo; Ana Lezama-Barreda; Mar(i)a Teresa Ram(i)rez-lglesias; Mario Peláez Luna; Guillermo Robles-Diaz

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the relationship between leptin and systemic inflammation in acute pancreatitis.METHODS: Consecutive patients with acute pancreatitis were included. Body mass index and serum samples were obtained at admission. Leptin, TNF-α, IL-6, -8and -10 levels were determined by ELISA. Severity was defined according to Atlanta criteria.RESULTS: Fifty-two (29 females) patients were studied.Overall body mass index was similar between mild and severe cases, although women with severe pancreatitis had lower body mass index (P = 0.04) and men showed higher body mass index (P = 0.05). No difference was found in leptin levels regarding the severity of pancreatitis, but higher levels tended to appear in male patients with increased body mass index and severe pancreatitis (P = 0.1). A multivariate analysis showed no association between leptin levels and severity. The strongest cytokine associated with severity was IL-6.Correlations of leptin with another cytokines only showed a trend for IL-8 (P = 0.058).CONCLUSION: High body mass index was associated with severity only in males, which may be related to android fat distribution. Serum leptin seems not to play a role on the systemic inflammatory response in acute pancreatitis and its association with severe outcome in males might represent a marker of increased adiposity.

  14. System response in passively phased fiber amplifier arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Sami A.; Culver, Bill; Nelson, Burke; Starcher, Yuji; Bates, George M.; Hedrick, Jerry W., Jr.

    2008-08-01

    System temporal response in passively phased fiber amplifier arrays dictates how fast a passively phased system can correct for phase fluctuations due to thermal and mechanical effects. The system response time was measured by employing a variable-speed mechanical chopper in the feedback loop of a passively phased system then measuring the on-axis output intensity of the system as a function of time. Observed relaxation oscillations are compared to theory. The system response time was measured to be about 20 μsec. We also find that passive phasing improved the system's beam stability and extraction efficiency.

  15. Dissecting the Phase Response of a Model Bursting Neuron

    CERN Document Server

    Sherwood, William Erik

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the phase response properties of the Hindmarsh-Rose model of neuronal bursting using burst phase response curves (BPRCs) computed with an infinitesimal perturbation approximation and by direct simulation of synaptic input. The resulting BPRCs have a significantly more complicated structure than the usual Type I and Type II PRCs of spiking neuronal models, and they exhibit highly timing-sensitive changes in the number of spikes per burst that lead to large magnitude phase responses. We use fast-slow dissection and isochron calculations to analyze the phase response dynamics in both weak and strong perturbation regimes.

  16. Response-guided induction therapy in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with excellent remission rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsson, Jonas; Forestier, Erik; Heldrup, Jesper;

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the early treatment response in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using a response-guided induction strategy that includes idarubicin in the first course.......To evaluate the early treatment response in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using a response-guided induction strategy that includes idarubicin in the first course....

  17. [cerebral Hemometabolism: Variability In The Acute Phase Of Traumatic Coma].

    OpenAIRE

    Falcão,A. L.; Araújo, S; Dragosavac, D; Terzi, R G; Thiesen, R A; Cintra, E A; Sardinha, L A; Capone Neto, A; Dantas Filho, V P; Quagliato, E M

    2015-01-01

    to evaluate the interrelationships between cerebral and systemic hemometabolic alterations in patients with severe traumatic brain injury managed according to a standardized therapeutic protocol. prospective, interventional study in patients with traumatic coma. a general Intensive Care Unit in a teaching hospital. twenty-seven patients (21M e 6F), aging 14 - 58 years, with severe acute brain trauma, presenting with three to eight points on the Glasgow Coma Scale, were prospectively evaluated...

  18. Full-Breadth Analysis of CD8+ T-Cell Responses in Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Early Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Georg M.; Lucas, Michaela; Timm, Joerg; Ouchi, Kei; Kim, Arthur Y.; Day, Cheryl L.; zur Wiesch, Julian Schulze; Paranhos-Baccala, Glaucia; Sheridan, Isabelle; Casson, Deborah R.; Reiser, Markus; Gandhi, Rajesh T.; Li, Bin; Allen, Todd M.; Chung, Raymond T.; Klenerman, Paul; Walker, Bruce D.

    2005-01-01

    Multispecific CD8+ T-cell responses are thought to be important for the control of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but to date little information is actually available on the breadth of responses at early time points. Additionally, the influence of early therapy on these responses and their relationships to outcome are controversial. To investigate this issue, we performed comprehensive analysis of the breadth and frequencies of virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses on the single epitope level in eight acutely infected individuals who were all started on early therapy. During the acute phase, responses against up to five peptides were identified. During therapy, CD8+ T-cell responses decreased rather than increased as virus was controlled, and no new specificities emerged. A sustained virological response following completion of treatment was independent of CD8+ T-cell responses, as well as CD4+ T-cell responses. Rapid recrudescence also occurred despite broad CD8+ T-cell responses. Importantly, in vivo suppression of CD3+ T cells using OKT3 in one subject did not result in recurrence of viremia. These data suggest that broad CD8+ T-cell responses alone may be insufficient to contain HCV replication, and also that early therapy is effective independent of such responses. PMID:16189000

  19. Renal cell therapy is associated with dynamic and individualized responses in patients with acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humes, H David; Weitzel, William F; Bartlett, Robert H; Swaniker, Fresca C; Paganini, Emil P

    2003-01-01

    Renal cell therapy in conjunction with continuous hemofiltration techniques may provide important cellular metabolic activities to patients with acute renal failure (ARF) and may thereby change the natural history of this disorder. The development of a tissue-engineered bioartificial kidney consisting of a conventional hemofiltration cartridge in series with a renal tubule assist device (RAD) containing 10(9) human renal proximal tubule cells provides an opportunity to evaluate this form of therapy in patients with ARF in the intensive care unit. Nine patients with ARF and multi-organ systems failure (MOSF) have been treated so far with a tissue-engineered kidney in an FDA-approved Phase I/II clinical study currently underway. Acute physiologic parameters and serum cytokine levels were assessed before, during and after treatment with a bioartificial kidney. Use of the RAD in this clinical setting demonstrates maintenance of cell viability and functionality. Cardiovascular stability appears to be maintained during RAD treatment. Human tubule cells in the RAD demonstrated differentiated metabolic and endocrinologic activity. Acute physiologic and plasma cytokine data demonstrate that renal cell therapy is associated with rapid and variable responses in patients with ARF and MOSF. The initial clinical experience with the bioartificial kidney and the RAD suggests that renal tubule cell therapy may provide a dynamic and individualized treatment program as assessed by acute physiologic and biochemical indices. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Modeling the effects of estradiol and progesterone on the acute phase proinflammatory axis: Variability in tumor necrosis factor-alpha, nitric oxide, and xanthine oxidase responses to endotoxin challenge in steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The severity of host response in some diseases differs between sexes and this dimorphism has been attributed to the immunomodulating effects of reproductive steroid hormones. In females, susceptibility to disease stress has been associated with reproductive status and attributed to prevailing proge...

  1. Pituitary dysfunction in traumatic brain injury: Is evaluation in the acute phase worthwhile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalwadi, Pradip P.; Bhagwat, Nikhil M.; Tayde, Parimal S.; Joshi, Ameya S.; Varthakavi, Premlata K.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an under-recognized cause of hypopituitarism. According to recent data, it could be more frequent than previously known. However, there is a scarcity of data in Indian population. Aims: The main aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of pituitary hormone deficiencies in the acute phase of TBI. The secondary objectives were to correlate the severity of trauma with basal hormone levels and to determine whether initial hormone deficiencies predict mortality. Subjects and Methods: Forty-nine TBI patients (41 men and 8 women) were included in this study. Pituitary functions were evaluated within 24 h of admission. Results: Gonadotropin deficiency was found in 65.3% patient while 46.9% had low insulin-like growth factor-1, 12.24% had cortisol level <7 mcg/dl. Cortisol and prolactin level were positively correlated with the severity of TBI suggestive of stress response. Free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine were significantly lower in patients with increasing severity of tuberculosis. Logistic regression analysis revealed that mortality after TBI was unrelated to the basal pituitary hormone levels except low T3 level, which was found to be positively related to mortality. Conclusions: Pituitary dysfunction is common after TBI and the most commonly affected axes are growth hormone and gonadotropin axis. Low fT3 correlates best with mortality. During the acute phase of TBI, at least an assessment of cortisol is vital as undetected cortisol deficiency can be life-threatening PMID:28217503

  2. Pituitary dysfunction in traumatic brain injury: Is evaluation in the acute phase worthwhile?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip P Dalwadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI is an under-recognized cause of hypopituitarism. According to recent data, it could be more frequent than previously known. However, there is a scarcity of data in Indian population. Aims: The main aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of pituitary hormone deficiencies in the acute phase of TBI. The secondary objectives were to correlate the severity of trauma with basal hormone levels and to determine whether initial hormone deficiencies predict mortality. Subjects and Methods: Forty-nine TBI patients (41 men and 8 women were included in this study. Pituitary functions were evaluated within 24 h of admission. Results: Gonadotropin deficiency was found in 65.3% patient while 46.9% had low insulin-like growth factor-1, 12.24% had cortisol level <7 mcg/dl. Cortisol and prolactin level were positively correlated with the severity of TBI suggestive of stress response. Free triiodothyronine (fT3 and free thyroxine were significantly lower in patients with increasing severity of tuberculosis. Logistic regression analysis revealed that mortality after TBI was unrelated to the basal pituitary hormone levels except low T3 level, which was found to be positively related to mortality. Conclusions: Pituitary dysfunction is common after TBI and the most commonly affected axes are growth hormone and gonadotropin axis. Low fT3 correlates best with mortality. During the acute phase of TBI, at least an assessment of cortisol is vital as undetected cortisol deficiency can be life-threatening

  3. Effects of competition on acute phase proteins and lymphocyte subpopulations - oxidative stress markers in eventing horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, E; Zanatta, R; Odetti, P; Traverso, N; Furfaro, A; Bergero, D; Badino, P; Girardi, C; Miniscalco, B; Bergagna, S; Tarantola, M; Intorre, L; Odore, R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate markers of the acute phase response (APR) in eventing horses by measuring acute phase proteins (APP) (haptoglobin, Hp, and serum amyloid A, SAA), lysozyme, protein adducts such as pentosidine-like adducts (PENT), malondialdehyde adducts (MDA), hydroxynonenal adducts (HNE) and total advanced glycation/glycoxidation end products (AGEs), complete blood count and lymphocyte subpopulations (CD4+, CD8+ and CD21+) both at rest and at the end of an eventing competition. Blood samples were collected from eight Warmblood horses (medium age 10 ± 3) during an official national 2-day event competition at rest (R) and 10 min after the arrival of the cross-country test on the second day. Exercise caused a significant increase in red blood cell number, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, neutrophils, white blood cell and lymphocyte number; however, these values remained within the normal range. The CD4+ and CD8+ cells significantly increased, whereas the CD21+ lymphocytes decreased; a significant increase in serum SAA, lysozyme and protein carbonyl derivates was also observed. Two-day event causes significant changes in APR markers such as lysozyme, protein carbonyl derivates (HNE, AGEs, PENT) and lymphocyte subpopulations. The data support the hypothesis that 2-day event may alter significantly APR markers. Limitations of the study were the relatively small sample size and sampling time conditioned by the official regulations of the event. Therefore, further studies are needed to investigate the time required for recovery to basal values in order to define the possible effects on the immune function of the athlete horse.

  4. Immune and inflammatory response in pigs during acute influenza caused by H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Kwit, Krzysztof; Czyżewska, Ewelina; Dors, Arkadiusz; Rachubik, Jarosław; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2014-10-01

    Swine influenza (SI) is an acute respiratory disease of pigs, caused by swine influenza virus (SIV). Little is known about the inflammatory response in the lung during acute SI and its correlation with clinical signs or lung pathology. Moreover, until now there has been a limited amount of data available on the relationship between the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the lungs and the serum concentration of acute-phase proteins (APPs) in SIV-infected pigs. In the present study, the porcine inflammatory and immune responses during acute influenza caused by H1N1 SIV (SwH1N1) were studied. Nine pigs were infected intratracheally, and five served as controls. Antibodies against SIV were measured by haemagglutination inhibition assay, and the influenza-virus-specific T-cell response was measured using a proliferation assay. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), and pig major acute-phase protein (Pig-MAP) the concentrations in serum and concentration of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ in lung tissues were measured using commercial ELISAs.

  5. Acute stress responses: A review and synthesis of ASD, ASR, and CSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isserlin, Leanna; Zerach, Gadi; Solomon, Zahava

    2008-10-01

    Toward the development of a unifying diagnosis for acute stress responses this article attempts to find a place for combat stress reaction (CSR) within the spectrum of other defined acute stress responses. This article critically compares the diagnostic criteria of acute stress disorder (ASD), acute stress reaction (ASR), and CSR. Prospective studies concerning the predictive value of ASD, ASR, and CSR are reviewed. Questions, recommendations, and implications for clinical practice are raised concerning the completeness of the current acute stress response diagnoses, the heterogeneity of different stressors, the scope of expected outcomes, and the importance of decline in function as an indicator of future psychological, psychiatric, and somatic distress.

  6. Autonomic nervous system modulation affects the inflammatory immune response in mice with acute Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marcus Paulo Ribeiro; Rocha, Aletheia Moraes; de Oliveira, Lucas Felipe; de Cuba, Marília Beatriz; de Oliveira Loss, Igor; Castellano, Lucio Roberto; Silva, Marcus Vinicius; Machado, Juliana Reis; Nascentes, Gabriel Antonio Nogueira; Paiva, Luciano Henrique; Savino, Wilson; Junior, Virmondes Rodrigues; Brum, Patricia Chakur; Prado, Vania Ferreira; Prado, Marco Antonio Maximo; Silva, Eliane Lages; Montano, Nicola; Ramirez, Luis Eduardo; Dias da Silva, Valdo Jose

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of changes to the autonomic nervous system in mice during the acute phase of Chagas disease, which is an infection caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The following types of mice were inoculated with T. cruzi (CHG): wild-type (WT) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter knockdown (KDVAChT) C57BL/6j mice; wild-type non-treated (NT) FVB mice; FVB mice treated with pyridostigmine bromide (PYR) or salbutamol (SALB); and β(2)-adrenergic receptor knockout (KOβ2) FVB mice. During infection and at 18-21 days after infection (acute phase), the survival curves, parasitaemia, electrocardiograms, heart rate variability, autonomic tonus and histopathology of the animals were evaluated. Negative control groups were matched for age, genetic background and treatment. The KDVAChT-CHG mice exhibited a significant shift in the electrocardiographic, autonomic and histopathological profiles towards a greater inflammatory immune response that was associated with a reduction in blood and tissue parasitism. In contrast, the CHG-PYR mice manifested reduced myocardial inflammation and lower blood and tissue parasitism. Similar results were observed in CHG-SALB animals. Unexpectedly, the KOβ2-CHG mice exhibited less myocardial inflammation and higher blood and tissue parasitism, which were associated with reduced mortality. These findings could have been due to the increase in vagal tone observed in the KOβ2 mice, which rendered them more similar to the CHG-PYR animals. In conclusion, our results indicate a marked immunomodulatory role for the parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic nervous systems, which inhibit both the inflammatory immune response and parasite clearance during the acute phase of experimental Chagas heart disease in mice.

  7. Diagnostical meaning acute phase proteins in cerebrospinal liquid in children with neuroinfections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Alekseeva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article presented results of the examination of acute phase proteins in cerebrospinal liquid in 237 children with meningitis and encephalitis viral and bacterial etiology. The dependence between the level of acute phase proteins in cerebrospinal liquid and etiology of neuroinfectional process, the severity of brain damage and the process stage was determined. Diagnostic and prognostic efficiency of the acute phase proteins (C-reactive protein, albumin, alpha-1-antitripsin, alpha-2-macroglobulin, gaptoglobin examination in children with neuroinfections was specified. Developed method of express diagnostics of the severity of inflammatory damage of the brain in bacterial meningitis in children by determination in cerebrospinal liquid alpha-2-macroglobulin is described.

  8. Sorafenib in Treating Patients With Refractory or Relapsed Acute Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndromes, or Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-27

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); PML-RARA; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Blastic Phase; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndrome

  9. Default in plasma and intestinal IgA responses during acute infection by simian immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoul Nada

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conflicting results regarding changes in mucosal IgA production or in the proportions of IgA plasma cells in the small and large intestines during HIV-infection have been previously reported. Except in individuals repeatedly exposed to HIV-1 but yet remaining uninfected, HIV-specific IgAs are frequently absent in mucosal secretions from HIV-infected patients. However, little is known about the organization and functionality of mucosal B-cell follicles in acute HIV/SIV infection during which a T-dependent IgA response should have been initiated. In the present study, we evaluated changes in B-cell and T-cell subsets as well as the extent of apoptosis and class-specific plasma cells in Peyer’s Patches, isolated lymphoid follicles, and lamina propria. Plasma levels of IgA, BAFF and APRIL were also determined. Results Plasma IgA level was reduced by 46% by 28 days post infection (dpi, and no IgA plasma cells were found within germinal centers of Peyer’s Patches and isolated lymphoid follicles. This lack of a T-dependent IgA response occurs although germinal centers remained functional with no sign of follicular damage, while a prolonged survival of follicular CD4+ T-cells and normal generation of IgG plasma cells is observed. Whereas the average plasma BAFF level was increased by 4.5-fold and total plasma cells were 1.7 to 1.9-fold more numerous in the lamina propria, the relative proportion of IgA plasma cells in this effector site was reduced by 19% (duodemun to 35% (ileum at 28 dpi. Conclusion Our data provide evidence that SIV is unable to initiate a T-dependent IgA response during the acute phase of infection and favors the production of IgG (ileum or IgM (duodenum plasma cells at the expense of IgA plasma cells. Therefore, an early and generalized default in IgA production takes place during the acute of phase of HIV/SIV infection, which might impair not only the virus-specific antibody response but also IgA responses

  10. In vitro microarray analysis identifies genes in acute-phase response pathways that are down-regulated in the liver of chicken embryos exposed in ovo to PFUdA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jason M; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L; Crump, Doug; Kennedy, Sean W

    2013-09-01

    Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUdA) is one of the most highly detected perfluoroalkyl compounds in wild bird tissues and eggs. Although PFUdA does not affect hatching success, many PFCs are known to impair post-hatch development and survival. Here we use microarrays to survey the transcriptional response of cultured chicken embryonic hepatocytes (CEH) to PFUdA for potential targets of PFUdA action that could lead to developmental deficiencies in exposed birds. At 1 μM and 10 μM PFUdA significantly altered the expression of 346 and 676 transcripts, respectively (fold-change>1.5, pfgg), thrombin (f2), plasminogen (plg), and protein C (proC), in the liver of chicken embryos exposed in ovo to PFUdA. The expression of fga, f2, and proC were down-regulated in embryo livers (100 or 1000 ng/g, pfgg) was up-regulated and plg was not significantly affected. Our results demonstrate the utility of CEH coupled with transcriptome analysis as an in vitro screening tool for identifying novel effects of toxicant exposure. Additionally, we identified APR suppression as a potentially important and environmentally relevant target of PFUdA. These findings suggest in ovo exposure of birds to PFUdA may lead to post-hatch developmental deficiencies, such as impaired inflammatory response.

  11. Whole blood viscosity assessment issues IV: Prevalence in acute phase inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel Uba Nwose

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperviscosity syndrome has been suggested as not simply an acute reaction. Yet, erythrocyte sedimentation rate is associated with whole blood viscosity and it is an indirect acute phase inflammation marker. Aims: This work investigates the prevalence of hyperviscosity in acute phase inflammation. Materials and Methods: Archived clinical pathology data for the period of 1999 to 2008 were utilized. 40,632-cases tested for C-reactive protein and/or erythrocyte sedimentation rate from five alternate years, which were concomitantly tested for haematocrit and total proteins, were extracted. The prevalence of abnormal viscosity associated with positive results of C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were evaluated. Results: Hyperviscosity is infrequently associated with positive C-reactive protein (2.9% and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (2.7% sub-populations, and are not statistically different from their respective negative sub-populations. Normoviscosity is significantly more prevalent in the positive sub-populations (p < 0.01. Further analyses indicate that prevalence of acute phase inflammation is statistically significantly less in hyperviscosity compared to normoviscosity sub-population (p < 0.00001. Actual blood viscosity level increases with level of inflammation though. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that although blood viscosity level may increase with inflammation, hyperviscosity is not frequent in, or sensitive to acute phase inflammation. It portends that whole blood viscosity is not unspecific as acute phase inflammation markers. It calls for clinicians to consider utilizing whole blood viscosity in disease conditions where stasis is implicated, in which it is specific and valuable. It would also benefit to establish whether hyperviscosity is a chronic phase inflammation marker.

  12. Hemophagocytosis in the Acute Phase of Fatal Kawasaki Disease in a 4 Month-Old Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Vehbi; Karaaslan, Erhan; Özer, Samet; Gümüşer, Rüveyda; Yılmaz, Resul

    2016-07-01

    Kawasaki disease is a systemic vasculitis predominately affecting coronary arteries. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis can complicate the course of Kawasaki disease. Rare cases of secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis occurring during the acute phase of Kawasaki disease have been reported. We report here a 4 month-old girl with diffuse coronary ectasia and secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis occurring during the acute phase of incomplete Kawasaki disease. Due to the large overlap in clinical symptoms, the presence of atypical findings for Kawasaki disease should suggest the possible diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in these patients.

  13. Phase I and Phase II Therapies for Acute Ischemic Stroke: An Update on Currently Studied Drugs in Clinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Cesar; Akyol, Onat; Ho, Wing Mann; Araujo, Camila; Huang, Lei; Applegate II, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke is a devastating cause of death and disability, consequences of which depend on the time from ischemia onset to treatment, the affected brain region, and its size. The main targets of ischemic stroke therapy aim to restore tissue perfusion in the ischemic penumbra in order to decrease the total infarct area by maintaining blood flow. Advances in research of pathological process and pathways during acute ischemia have resulted in improvement of new treatment strategies apart from restoring perfusion. Additionally, limiting the injury severity by manipulating the molecular mechanisms during ischemia has become a promising approach, especially in animal research. The purpose of this article is to review completed and ongoing phases I and II trials for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, reviewing studies on antithrombotic, thrombolytic, neuroprotective, and antineuroinflammatory drugs that may translate into more effective treatments. PMID:28286764

  14. Phase I and Phase II Therapies for Acute Ischemic Stroke: An Update on Currently Studied Drugs in Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Cesar; Akyol, Onat; Ho, Wing Mann; Araujo, Camila; Huang, Lei; Applegate, Richard; Zhang, John H

    2017-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke is a devastating cause of death and disability, consequences of which depend on the time from ischemia onset to treatment, the affected brain region, and its size. The main targets of ischemic stroke therapy aim to restore tissue perfusion in the ischemic penumbra in order to decrease the total infarct area by maintaining blood flow. Advances in research of pathological process and pathways during acute ischemia have resulted in improvement of new treatment strategies apart from restoring perfusion. Additionally, limiting the injury severity by manipulating the molecular mechanisms during ischemia has become a promising approach, especially in animal research. The purpose of this article is to review completed and ongoing phases I and II trials for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, reviewing studies on antithrombotic, thrombolytic, neuroprotective, and antineuroinflammatory drugs that may translate into more effective treatments.

  15. Phase I and Phase II Therapies for Acute Ischemic Stroke: An Update on Currently Studied Drugs in Clinical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Reis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute ischemic stroke is a devastating cause of death and disability, consequences of which depend on the time from ischemia onset to treatment, the affected brain region, and its size. The main targets of ischemic stroke therapy aim to restore tissue perfusion in the ischemic penumbra in order to decrease the total infarct area by maintaining blood flow. Advances in research of pathological process and pathways during acute ischemia have resulted in improvement of new treatment strategies apart from restoring perfusion. Additionally, limiting the injury severity by manipulating the molecular mechanisms during ischemia has become a promising approach, especially in animal research. The purpose of this article is to review completed and ongoing phases I and II trials for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, reviewing studies on antithrombotic, thrombolytic, neuroprotective, and antineuroinflammatory drugs that may translate into more effective treatments.

  16. Adiabatic geometric phases and response functions

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, S R; Jain, Sudhir R.; Pati, Arun K.

    1998-01-01

    Treating a many-body Fermi system in terms of a single particle in a deforming mean field. We relate adiabatic geometric phase to susceptibility for the noncyclic case, and to its derivative for the cyclic case. Employing the semiclassical expression of susceptibility, the expression for geometric phase for chaotic quantum system immediately follows. Exploiting the well-known association of the absorptive part of susceptibility with dissipation, our relations may provide a quantum mechanical origin of the damping of collective excitations in Fermi systems.

  17. Acute Endocrine Responses to Different Strength Exercise Order in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Conceição Rodrigo Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effects of order of muscle groups’ exercised (larger to smaller muscles vs. smaller to larger muscles on the acute levels of total testosterone, free testosterone and cortisol during resistance training (RT sessions. Healthy male participants (n=8; age: 28.8 ± 6.4 years; body mass: 87.0 ± 10.6 kg; body height: 181.0 ± 0.7 cm; BMI: 26.5 ± 4.1 were randomly separated into two experimental groups. The first group (LG-SM performed an RT session (3 sets of 10 repetitions and a 2 min rest period of the exercises in following order: bench press (BP, lat pulldown (LP, barbell shoulder press (BSP, triceps pushdown (TP and barbell cut (BC. The second group (SM-LG performed an RT session in following order: BC, TP, BSP, LA, BP. Blood was collected at the end of the last repetition of each session. Control samples of blood were taken after 30 min of rest. Significant differences were observed in the concentrations of total testosterone (p < 0.05, free testosterone (p < 0.0001 and cortisol (p < 0.0001 after both RT sessions in comparison to rest. However, when comparing LG-SM and SM-LG, no significant differences were found. The results suggest that, while RT sessions induce an acute change in the levels of testosterone and cortisol, this response is independent of the order of exercising muscle groups.

  18. Acute and chronic response to CRT in narrow QRS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Tim; Niazi, Imran; Leon, Angel; Stucky, Michael; Herrmann, Keith

    2012-04-01

    Previous studies suggest that CRT may benefit narrow QRS patients with mechanical dyssynchrony (MD). We conducted an acute and chronic study, evaluating the response of heart failure patients with a narrow QRS to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). ESTEEM-CRT was a multi-center, single-arm, feasibility study that evaluated ICD-indicated, medically-optimized patients with EF ≤ 35%, NYHA class III heart failure, QRS duration <120 ms, and MD as defined by the standard deviation of time to peak systolic velocity of 12 segments (Ts-SD). Sixty-eight patients received a CRT defibrillator, exercise testing, and echo exams, and 47 of these patients underwent invasive hemodynamic testing at implant. Follow-up was at 6 and 12 months. The average maximal improvement in LV dP/dt(max) was minor (2 ± 2%). NYHA and quality of life scores were substantially improved at 6 and 12 months (P < 0.001), while exercise capacity and LV volumes were unchanged. The echo indices of MD were difficult to collect, discordant, and failed to predict clinical outcomes. ESTEEM-CRT patients with a narrow QRS and MD as defined in this study did not improve as measured by acute hemodynamics, chronic exercise performance, or reverse remodeling. These multi-center results support the notion that dyssynchrony indices are ineffective or at least require greater refinement for the selection of narrow QRS patients for CRT.

  19. Acute Cardiovascular Response to Sign Chi Do Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol E. Rogers

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Safe and gentle exercise may be important for older adults overcoming a sedentary lifestyle. Sign Chi Do (SCD, a novel form of low impact exercise, has shown improved balance and endurance in healthy older adults, and there have been no SCD-related injuries reported. Sedentary older adults are known to have a greater cardiovascular (CV response to physical activity than those who regularly exercise. However their CV response to SCD is unknown. This study explored the acute CV response of older adults to SCD. Cross-sectional study of 34 sedentary and moderately active adults over age 55 with no previous experience practicing SCD. Participants completed a 10 min session of SCD. CV outcomes of heart rate, blood pressure, rate pressure product were recorded at 0, 5, 10 min of SCD performance, and after 10 min of rest. HR was recorded every minute. There was no difference in CV scores of sedentary and moderately active older adults after a session of SCD-related activity. All CV scores increased at 5 min, were maintained at 10 min, and returned to baseline within 10 min post SCD (p < 0.05. SCD may be a safe way to increase participation in regular exercise by sedentary older adults.

  20. The role of the acute phase protein PTX3 in the ventilator-induced lung injury

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    JM Real

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The pentraxin 3 (PTX3 is an acute phase proinflammatory protein produced by fibroblasts and alveolar epithelial cells. We have previously demonstrated that PTX3 is a key modulator of inflammation. Mechanical ventilation (MV is a life saving therapeutic approach for patients with acute lung injury that, nevertheless could lead to an inflammatory response and tissue injury (ventilator-induced lung injury: VILI, representing a major cause of iatrogenic lung damage in intensive units. Our objective was to investigate the role of PTX3 in VILI. PTX3 transgenic, knockout and Wt control mice (n = 12/group were ventilated (45ml·kg–1 until respiratory system Elastance increased 50% (Ers150%, an indicator of VILI. Histological analysis demonstrated that using a Ers150% was appropriate for our analysis since identical degrees of inflammation were observed in Tg, KO and Wt mice as assessed by leukocyte infiltration, oedema, alveolar collapse and number of breaks in alveolar septa. However, Tg mice reached Ers150% faster than Wt controls (p = 0.0225. We also showed that the lack of PTX3 does not abolish the occurrence of VILI in KOs. Gene expression profile of PTX3, IL-1beta, IL-6, KC, IFNgamma, TGFbeta and PCIII were investigated by QPCR. MV drastically up modulated PTX3 as well as IL-1beta, IL-6, IFNgamma and KC. Alternatively, mice were ventilated for 20, 40 and 60 min. The faster kinetics of Tg mice to reach Ers150% was accompanied by an earlier augmentation of IL-1b and PTX3 expression. The kinetics of local PTX3 expression in the lungs of ventilated mice strongly suggests the involvement of this pentraxin in the pathogenesis of VILI.

  1. [Application of stroke rehabilitation unit in municipal hospitals during the acute phase of cerebral infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-min; Wang, Peng; Chen, Jie; Luo, Dan-hong; Shen, Wang-ming

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of stroke rehabilitation unit in municipal hospitals during the acute phase of cerebral infarction. 77 acute cerebral infarction patients were randomly assigned to stroke rehabilitation unit group and 73 to ordinary group. The NIH stroke scale (NIHSS), activities of daily living (ADL) Barthel index and average hospitalized time were compared in two groups before and after the treatment. The average NIHSS in two groups before treatment were 9.26 and 9.12 respectively (P > 0.05) but became 2.62 and 7.64 after treatment (P 0.05) but 87.26 and 64.20 after the treatment (P stroke rehabilitation unit being applied in the acute phase of cerebral infarction, it showed positive results in the following aspects as: improving the neurological function, capabilities of managing daily life, and also shortening the days of hospitalization.

  2. Effects of asphalt fume condensate exposure on acute pulmonary responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, J.Y.C.; Barger, M.W.; Castranova, V. [Health Effects Lab. Div., National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States); Kriech, A.J. [Heritage Research Group, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2000-10-01

    The present study was carried out to characterize the effects of in vitro exposure to paving asphalt fume condensate (AFC) on alveolar macrophage (AM) functions and to monitor acute pulmonary responses to in vivo AFC exposure in rats. Methods: For in vitro studies, rat primary AM cultures were incubated with various concentrations of AFC for 24 h at 37 C. AM-conditioned medium was collected and assayed for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as a marker of cytotoxicity. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) production were assayed in AM-conditioned medium to monitor AM function. The effect of AFC on chemiluminescence (CL) generated by resting AM or AM in response to zymosan or PMA stimulation was also determined as a marker of AM activity. For in vivo studies, rats received either (1) a single intratracheal (IT) instillation of saline, or 0.1 mg or 0.5 mg AFC and were killed 1 or 3 days later; or (2) IT instillation of saline, or 0.1, 0.5, or 2 mg AFC for three consecutive days and were killed the following day. Differential counts of cells harvested by bronchoalveolar lavage were measured to monitor inflammation. Acellular LDH and protein content in the first lavage fluid were measured to monitor damage. CL generation, TNF-{alpha} and IL-1 production by AM were assayed to monitor AM function. Results: In vitro AFC exposure at <200 {mu}g/ml did not induce cytotoxicity, oxidant generation, or IL-1 production by AM, but it did cause a small but significant increase in TNF-{alpha} release from AM. In vitro exposure of AM to AFC resulted in a significant decline of CL in response to zymosan or PMA stimulation. The in vivo studies showed that AFC exposure did not induce significant neutrophil infiltration or alter LDH or protein content in acellular lavage samples. Macrophages obtained from AFC-exposed rats did not show significant differences in oxidant production or cytokine secretion at rest or in response to LPS in comparison with control

  3. Perfusion Computed Tomography in the Acute Phase of Mild Head Injury : Regional Dysfunction and Prognostic Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metting, Zwany; Rodiger, Lars A.; Stewart, Roy E.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; De Keyser, Jacques; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Traumatic brain injury is a major Cause of disability and death. Most patients sustain a mild head injury with a subgroup that experiences disabling symptoms interfering with return to work. Brain imaging in the acute phase is not predictive of outcome, as 20% of noncontrast computed tomo

  4. The effect of chronic ammonia exposure on acute phase proteins, immunoglobulin and cytokines in laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia is a potential health hazard to both humans and animals, causing systemic low-grade inflammation based on its levels and durations. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of 45 weeks of exposure to 30 ppm NH3 on the concentrations of acute phase proteins, immunoglobulins and c...

  5. Is visuospatial hemineglect really a determinant of postural control following stroke? An acute-phase study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, I.J.W. van; Linden, S. van der; Hendricks, H.T.; Kuijk, A.A. van; Rulkens, M.; Verhagen, W.I.; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the independent contribution of visuospatial hemineglect to impaired postural control in the acute phase (<2 weeks) of stroke compared with other possible clinical and biological determinants. METHODS: This study was conducted in 4 hospitals i

  6. Acute and phase-shifting effects of ocular and extraocular light in human circadian physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruger, M; Gordijn, MCM; Beersma, DGM; de Vries, B; Daan, S

    2003-01-01

    Light can influence physiology and performance of humans in two distinct ways. It can acutely change the level of physiological and behavioral parameters, and it can induce a phase shift in the circadian oscillators underlying variations in these levels. Until recently, both effects were thought to

  7. Renal infarct volume and renal function decline in acute and chronic phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagaya, Saeko; Yoshie, Ojima; Fukami, Hirotaka; Sato, Hiroyuki; Saito, Ayako; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Matsuda, Ken; Nagasawa, Tasuku

    2017-03-10

    Acute renal infarction (ARI) is a rare disease. ARI causes decline in renal function in both the acute and chronic phases. However, the correlation between the volume of the infarction and degree of renal function decline has not been fully investigated. Therefore, we aimed to examine the relationship between the volume of the infarction and degree of renal function decline. We performed a single-center, retrospective, observational study investigating clinical parameters and the volume of the infarction. The volume of the infarction was measured using reconstructed computed tomography data. A total of 39 patients (mean age, 72.6 ± 13.2 years; men, 59%) were enrolled. The median infarction volume was 45 mL (interquartile range, 14-91 mL). The volume of the infarction was significantly associated with the peak lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level (median, 728 IU/L; interquartile range, 491-1227 U/L) (r = 0.58, p function decline in both acute and chronic phases (r = -0.44, -0.38, respectively, p LDH level was significantly correlated with the degree of renal function decline in the acute phase but not in the chronic phase (r = -0.35, -0.21; p function decline in ARI. Therefore, assessment of infarct volume in ARI is important.

  8. Procalcitonin behaves as a fast responding acute phase protein in vivo and in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsten, MWN; Olinga, P; The, TH; de Vries, EGE; Groothuis, GMM; Limburg, PC; ten Duis, HJ; Moshage, H; Hoekstra, HJ; Bijzet, J; Zwaveling, JH; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: Procalcitonin (PCT) is a 13 kD protein of which plasma concentrations are strongly increased in inflammatory states, PCT concentrations are claimed to have a more powerful discriminatory value for bacterial infection than the acute phase proteins serum amyloid A (SAA) or C-reactive prote

  9. The MASP family of Trypanosoma cruzi: changes in gene expression and antigenic profile during the acute phase of experimental infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lopes dos Santos

    the evasion of host immune responses during the acute phase of Chagas disease.

  10. Immune Responses in Acute and Convalescent Patients with Mild, Moderate and Severe Disease during the 2009 Influenza Pandemic in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, Kristin G-I; Cox, Rebecca Jane; Tunheim, Gro; Berdal, Jan Erik; Hauge, Anna Germundsson; Jul-Larsen, Åsne; Peters, Bjoern; Oftung, Fredrik; Jonassen, Christine Monceyron; Mjaaland, Siri

    2015-01-01

    Increased understanding of immune responses influencing clinical severity during pandemic influenza infection is important for improved treatment and vaccine development. In this study we recruited 46 adult patients during the 2009 influenza pandemic and characterized humoral and cellular immune responses. Those included were either acute hospitalized or convalescent patients with different disease severities (mild, moderate or severe). In general, protective antibody responses increased with enhanced disease severity. In the acute patients, we found higher levels of TNF-α single-producing CD4+T-cells in the severely ill as compared to patients with moderate disease. Stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from a subset of acute patients with peptide T-cell epitopes showed significantly lower frequencies of influenza specific CD8+ compared with CD4+ IFN-γ T-cells in acute patients. Both T-cell subsets were predominantly directed against the envelope antigens (HA and NA). However, in the convalescent patients we found high levels of both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells directed against conserved core antigens (NP, PA, PB, and M). The results indicate that the antigen targets recognized by the T-cell subsets may vary according to the phase of infection. The apparent low levels of cross-reactive CD8+ T-cells recognizing internal antigens in acute hospitalized patients suggest an important role for this T-cell subset in protective immunity against influenza.

  11. Acute hormonal responses following different velocities of eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libardi, Cleiton A; Nogueira, Felipe R D; Vechin, Felipe C; Conceição, Miguel S; Bonganha, Valéria; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patricia T

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the acute hormonal responses following two different eccentric exercise velocities. Seventeen healthy, untrained, young women were randomly placed into two groups to perform five sets of six maximal isokinetic eccentric actions at slow (30° s(-1) ) and fast (210° s(-1) ) velocities with 60-s rest between sets. Growth hormone, cortisol, free and total testosterone were assessed by blood samples collected at baseline, immediately postexercise, 5, 15 and 30 min following eccentric exercise. Changes in hormonal responses over time were compared between groups, using a mixed model followed by a Tukey's post hoc test. The main findings of the present study were that the slow group showed higher growth hormone values immediately (5·08 ± 2·85 ng ml(-1) , P = 0·011), 5 (5·54 ± 3·01 ng ml(-1) , P = 0·004) and 15 min (4·30 ± 2·87 ng ml(-1) , P = 0·021) posteccentric exercise compared with the fast group (1·39 ± 2·41 ng ml(-1) , 1·34 ± 1·97 ng ml(-1) and 1·24 ± 1·87 ng ml(-1) , respectively), and other hormonal responses were not different between groups (P>0·05). In conclusion, slow eccentric exercise velocity enhances more the growth hormone(GH) response than fast eccentric exercise velocity without cortisol and testosterone increases. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Sustained CD8+ T-cell responses induced after acute parvovirus B19 infection in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norbeck, Oscar; Isa, Adiba; Pöhlmann, Christoph

    2005-01-01

    Murine models have suggested that CD8+ T-cell responses peak early in acute viral infections and are not sustained, but no evidence for humans has been available. To address this, we longitudinally analyzed the CD8+ T-cell response to human parvovirus B19 in acutely infected individuals. We...... observed striking CD8+ T-cell responses, which were sustained or even increased over many months after the resolution of acute disease, indicating that CD8+ T cells may play a prominent role in the control of parvovirus B19 and other acute viral infections of humans, including potentially those generated...

  13. Changes of Platelet Indices in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in Acute Phase and After Two Months Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Vakili

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Various indices have been raised as predictors of activity and severity of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Objectives This study was conducted to investigate the changes of platelet indices in acute phase and two months after treatment in these patients. Patients and Methods In a cohort study, platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV, platelet distribution width (PDW, plateletcrit (PCT were evaluated in children referred to children’s medical center, Tehran due to juvenile idiopathic arthritis from March 2013 to March 2014 during the acute phase and two months after standard treatment. The statistical data were analyzed by SPSS 19 software, and the significance level was set as P < 0.05. Results In this study, 55 children (24 boys and 31 girls with mean ± SD age of 7.50 ± 3.35 years were studied. The mean ± SD value of platelet count was 441872.7 ± 151836.9 in the acute phase and reached 395418.2 ± 119601.6 two months after treatment (P = 0.01. The mean ± SD PCT in the acute phase of various subtypes of the disease was 0.32 ± 0.11, which reached 0.29 ± 0.10 after treatment (P = 0.09. However, the PDW range in different subtypes of the disease reached 13.4 ± 8.0 from 13.9 ± 2.9 and MPV reached 8.7 ± 0.9 from 8.8 ± 1.1 after treatment, but they were not significantly different from the results in the acute phase (P = 0.5. Conclusions Platelet count is one of the most remarkable indices in JIA. Evaluation of PCT can also help determine the severity of the inflammatory process in the follow-up and treatment process.

  14. Acute serotonin depletion releases motivated inhibition of response vigour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Ouden, Hanneke E M; Swart, Jennifer C; Schmidt, Kristin; Fekkes, Durk; Geurts, Dirk E M; Cools, Roshan

    2015-04-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin has long been implicated in the motivational control of behaviour. Recent theories propose that the role of serotonin can be understood in terms of an interaction between a motivational and a behavioural activation axis. Experimental support for these ideas, however, has been mixed. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the role of serotonin (5HT) in behavioural vigour as a function of incentive motivation. We employed dietary acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) to lower the 5HT precursor tryptophan during the performance of a speeded visual discrimination task. Feedback valence and feedback probability were manipulated independently and cued prior to target onset. On feedback trials, fast correct responses led to either reward or avoidance of punishment, while slow or incorrect responses led to reward omission or punishment. We show that behavioural responding is inhibited under high incentive motivation (i.e. high-feedback probability) at baseline 5HT levels and that lowering these leads to behavioural disinhibition, while leaving accuracy unaffected. Surprisingly, there were no differential effects of motivational valence, with 5HT depletion releasing behavioural inhibition under both appetitive and aversive motivation. Our findings extend current theories on the role of 5HT in behavioural inhibition by showing that reductions in serotonin lead to increased behavioural vigour only if there is a motivational drive to inhibit behaviour at baseline.

  15. Divergent mucosal and systemic responses in children in response to acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, D; Pichichero, M E

    2014-10-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM), induced by respiratory bacteria, is a significant cause of children seeking medical attention worldwide. Some children are highly prone to AOMs, suffering three to four recurrent infections per year (prone). We previously determined that this population of children could have diminished anti-bacterial immune responses in peripheral blood that could fail to limit bacterial colonization in the nasopharynx (NP). Here, we examined local NP and middle ear (ME) responses and compared them to peripheral blood to examine whether the mucosa responses were similar to the peripheral blood responses. Moreover, we examined differences in effector cytokine responses between these two populations in the NP, ME and blood compartments at the onset of an AOM caused by either Streptococcus pneumoniae or non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. We found that plasma effector cytokines patterned antigen-recall responses of CD4 T cells, with lower responses detected in prone children. ME cytokine levels did not mirror blood, but were more similar to the NP. Interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-17 in the NP were similar in prone and non-prone children, while IL-2 production was higher in prone children. The immune responses diverged in the mucosal and blood compartments at the onset of a bacterial ME infection, thus highlighting differences between local and systemic immune responses that could co-ordinate anti-bacterial immune responses in young children.

  16. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Buechel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/ stress hormone/ allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation, and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 mo. and aged (21 mo. male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress groups (n = 9-12/ group. We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the three hour restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 hours after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors.

  17. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechel, Heather M; Popovic, Jelena; Staggs, Kendra; Anderson, Katie L; Thibault, Olivier; Blalock, Eric M

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/stress hormone/allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation), and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 month) and aged (21 month) male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress) groups (n = 9-12/group). We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the 3 h restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 h after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors.

  18. Nilotinib and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Philadelphia Chromosome-Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-29

    B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  19. Controversial results of therapy with mesenchymal stem cells in the acute phase of canine distemper disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, A O; Cardoso, M T; Vidane, A S; Casals, J B; Passarelli, D; Alencar, A L F; Sousa, R L M; Fantinato-Neto, P; Oliveira, V C; Lara, V M; Ambrósio, C E

    2016-05-23

    Distemper disease is an infectious disease reported in several species of domestic and wild carnivores. The high mortality rate of animals infected with canine distemper virus (CDV) treated with currently available therapies has driven the study of new efficacious treatments. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many degenerative, hereditary, and inflammatory diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize stem cells derived from the canine fetal olfactory epithelium and to assess the systemic response of animals infected with CDV to symptomatic therapy and treatment with MSCs. Eight domestic mongrel dogs (N = 8) were divided into two groups: support group (SG) (N = 5) and support group + cell therapy (SGCT) (N = 3), which were monitored over 15 days. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 6, 9, 12, and 15 to assess blood count and serum biochemistry (urea, creatinine, alanine transferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, total protein, albumin, and globulin), and urine samples were obtained on days 0 and 15 for urinary evaluation (urine I). The results showed a high mortality rate (SG = 4 and SGCT = 2), providing inadequate data on the clinical course of CDV infection. MSC therapy resulted in no significant improvement when administered during the acute phase of canine distemper disease, and a prevalence of animals with high mortality rate was found in both groups due to the severity of symptoms.

  20. The effects of sex and hormonal status on the physiological response to acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajantie, Eero; Phillips, David I W

    2006-02-01

    Whether one is male or female is one of the most important determinants of human health. While males are more susceptible to cardiovascular and infectious disease, they are outnumbered by women for many autoimmune disorders, fibromyalgia and chronic pain. Recently, individual differences in the physiological response to stress have emerged as a potentially important risk factor for these disorders. This raises the possibility that sex differences in prevalence of disease could at least in part be explained by sex differences in the nature of the physiological response to stress. In a psychophysiological laboratory, the autonomic nervous system response can be provoked by many different stressors including physical, mental and psychosocial tasks, while the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) response seems to be more specific to a psychosocial challenge incorporating ego involvement. The responses of both systems to different psychosocial challenges have been subject to extensive research, although in respect of sex differences the HPAA response has probably been more systematically studied. In this review, we focus on sex differences in HPAA and autonomic nervous system responses to acute psychosocial stress. Although some differences are dependent on the stressor used, the responses of both systems show marked and consistent differences according to sex, with the phase of the menstrual cycle, menopausal status and pregnancy having marked effects. Between puberty and menopause, adult women usually show lower HPAA and autonomic responses than men of same age. However, the HPAA response is higher in the luteal phase, when for example post stress free cortisol levels approach those of men. After menopause, there is an increase in sympathoadrenal responsiveness, which is attenuated during oral hormone replacement therapy, with most evidence suggesting that HPAA activity shows the same trends. Interestingly, pregnancy is associated with an attenuated response of

  1. Effect of fluid ingestion on orthostatic responses following acute exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. E.; Fortney, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Orthostatic tolerance is impaired following an acute bout of exercise. This study examined the effect of fluid ingestion following treadmill exercise in restoring the cardiovascular responses to an orthostatic stress. Five men (age, 29.6 +/- 3.4 yrs) were exposed to a graded lower body negative (LBNP) pressure protocol (0 to -50 mmHg) during euhydration without exercise (C), 20 minutes after exercise dehydration (D), 20 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI20), and 60 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI60). Fluid ingestion (mean +/- SE) consisted of water-ingestion equivalent to 50% of the body weight lost during exercise (520 +/- 15 ml). Exercise dehydration resulted in significantly higher heart rates (119 +/- 8 vs 82 +/- 7 bpm), lower systolic blood pressures (95 +/- 1.7 vs 108 +/- 2.3 mmHg), a smaller increase in leg circumference (3.7 +/- 4 vs 6.9 +/- 1.0 mm), and an attenuated increase in total peripheral resistance (2.58 +/- 1.2 vs 4.28 +/- 0.9 mmHg/L/min) at -50 mmHg LBNP compared to the C condition. Fluid ingestion (both 20 and 60), partially restored the heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance responses to LBNP, but did not influence the change in leg circumference during LBNP (4 +/- 0.3 for R20 and 2.8 +/- 0.4 mm for R60). These data illustrate the effectiveness of fluid ingestion on improving orthostatic responses following exercise, and suggest that dehydration is a contributing factor to orthostatic intolerance following exercise.

  2. Synthesis of flat-top gain response in fiber phase sensitive amplifiers with improved phase noise regeneration tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Ning; Seoane, Jorge; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Flat-top gain responses can be obtained together with two-level flat phase responses in fiber phase sensitive amplifiers by introducing moderate saturation together with dispersion engineering, resulting in an improved phase regeneration performance.......Flat-top gain responses can be obtained together with two-level flat phase responses in fiber phase sensitive amplifiers by introducing moderate saturation together with dispersion engineering, resulting in an improved phase regeneration performance....

  3. Aripiprazole in the acute and maintenance phase of bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Melanie; Gonzalez, Misty L

    2012-01-01

    Bipolar affective disorder is a disabling illness with substantial morbidity and many management challenges. Traditional mood stabilizers such as lithium, valproate, and carbamazepine are often inadequate in controlling symptoms both during the acute and maintenance phase of treatment. Aripiprazole is a second-generation antipsychotic with a unique mechanism of action. Evidence suggests that it is effective in acute manic and mixed states. There are limited data to suggest its efficacy as a maintenance agent. Future studies will be needed to better define the role of aripiprazole relative to other traditional pharmacologic agents.

  4. Acute inflammation reduces kisspeptin immunoreactivity at the arcuate nucleus and decreases responsiveness to kisspeptin independently of its anorectic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellano, J M; Bentsen, A H; Romero, M;

    2010-01-01

    of hypothalamic kisspeptin immunoreactivity (IR) and hormonal responses to kisspeptin during the acute inflammatory phase. LPS injections induced a dramatic but transient drop of serum LH and testosterone levels. Suppression of gonadotropic function was associated with a significant decrease in kisspeptin......-IR in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) that was not observed under conditions of metabolic stress induced by 48-h fasting. In addition, absolute responses to kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10), in terms of LH and testosterone secretion, were significantly attenuated in LPS-treated males that also displayed a decrease in food intake...... and body weight. Yet pair-fed males did not show similar alterations in LH and testosterone secretory responses to Kp-10, whose magnitude was preserved, if not augmented, during food restriction. In summary, our data document the impact of acute inflammation on kisspeptin content at the ARC as key center...

  5. Analysis of LFP phase predicts sensory response of barrel cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslinger, R; Ulbert, I; Moore, C I; Brown, E N; Devor, A

    2006-09-01

    Several previous studies have shown the existence of Up and Down states and have linked their magnitude (e.g., depolarization level) to the size of sensory-evoked responses. Here, we studied how the temporal dynamics of such states influence the sensory-evoked response to vibrissa deflection. Under alpha-chloralose anesthesia, barrel cortex exhibits strong quasi-periodic approximately 1-Hz local field potential (LFP) oscillations generated by the synchronized fluctuation of large populations of neurons between depolarized (Up) and hyperpolarized (Down) states. Using a linear depth electrode array, we recorded the LFP and multiunit activity (MUA) simultaneously across multiple layers of the barrel column and used the LFP to approximate the subthreshold Up-Down fluctuations. Our central finding is that the MUA response is a strong function of the LFP oscillation's phase. When only ongoing LFP magnitude was considered, the response was largest in the Down state, in agreement with previous studies. However, consideration of the LFP phase revealed that the MUA response varied smoothly as a function of LFP phase in a manner that was not monotonically dependent on LFP magnitude. The LFP phase is therefore a better predictor of the MUA response than the LFP magnitude is. Our results suggest that, in the presence of ongoing oscillations, there can be a continuum of response properties and that each phase may, at times, need to be considered a distinct cortical state.

  6. Host Transcriptional Response to Influenza and Other Acute Respiratory Viral Infections – A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yijie; Franco, Luis M.; Atmar, Robert L.; Quarles, John M.; Arden, Nancy; Bucasas, Kristine L.; Wells, Janet M.; Niño, Diane; Wang, Xueqing; Zapata, Gladys E.; Shaw, Chad A.; Belmont, John W.; Couch, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the systemic response to naturally acquired acute respiratory viral infections, we prospectively enrolled 1610 healthy adults in 2009 and 2010. Of these, 142 subjects were followed for detailed evaluation of acute viral respiratory illness. We examined peripheral blood gene expression at 7 timepoints: enrollment, 5 illness visits and the end of each year of the study. 133 completed all study visits and yielded technically adequate peripheral blood microarray gene expression data. Seventy-three (55%) had an influenza virus infection, 64 influenza A and 9 influenza B. The remaining subjects had a rhinovirus infection (N = 32), other viral infections (N = 4), or no viral agent identified (N = 24). The results, which were replicated between two seasons, showed a dramatic upregulation of interferon pathway and innate immunity genes. This persisted for 2-4 days. The data show a recovery phase at days 4 and 6 with differentially expressed transcripts implicated in cell proliferation and repair. By day 21 the gene expression pattern was indistinguishable from baseline (enrollment). Influenza virus infection induced a higher magnitude and longer duration of the shared expression signature of illness compared to the other viral infections. Using lineage and activation state-specific transcripts to produce cell composition scores, patterns of B and T lymphocyte depressions accompanied by a major activation of NK cells were detected in the acute phase of illness. The data also demonstrate multiple dynamic gene modules that are reorganized and strengthened following infection. Finally, we examined pre- and post-infection anti-influenza antibody titers defining novel gene expression correlates. PMID:26070066

  7. Host Transcriptional Response to Influenza and Other Acute Respiratory Viral Infections--A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijie Zhai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the systemic response to naturally acquired acute respiratory viral infections, we prospectively enrolled 1610 healthy adults in 2009 and 2010. Of these, 142 subjects were followed for detailed evaluation of acute viral respiratory illness. We examined peripheral blood gene expression at 7 timepoints: enrollment, 5 illness visits and the end of each year of the study. 133 completed all study visits and yielded technically adequate peripheral blood microarray gene expression data. Seventy-three (55% had an influenza virus infection, 64 influenza A and 9 influenza B. The remaining subjects had a rhinovirus infection (N = 32, other viral infections (N = 4, or no viral agent identified (N = 24. The results, which were replicated between two seasons, showed a dramatic upregulation of interferon pathway and innate immunity genes. This persisted for 2-4 days. The data show a recovery phase at days 4 and 6 with differentially expressed transcripts implicated in cell proliferation and repair. By day 21 the gene expression pattern was indistinguishable from baseline (enrollment. Influenza virus infection induced a higher magnitude and longer duration of the shared expression signature of illness compared to the other viral infections. Using lineage and activation state-specific transcripts to produce cell composition scores, patterns of B and T lymphocyte depressions accompanied by a major activation of NK cells were detected in the acute phase of illness. The data also demonstrate multiple dynamic gene modules that are reorganized and strengthened following infection. Finally, we examined pre- and post-infection anti-influenza antibody titers defining novel gene expression correlates.

  8. The acute phase protein Serum Amyloid A induces lipolysis and inflammation in human adipocytes through distinct pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Faty

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The acute phase response (APR is characterized by alterations in lipid and glucose metabolism leading to an increased delivery of energy substrates. In adipocytes, there is a coordinated decrease in Free Fatty acids (FFAs and glucose storage, in addition to an increase in FFAs mobilization. Serum Amyloid A (SAA is an acute phase protein mainly associated with High Density Lipoproteins (HDL. We hypothesized that enrichment of HDL with SAA, during the APR, could be implicated in the metabolic changes occurring in adipocytes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In vitro differentiated human adipocytes (hMADS were treated with SAA enriched HDL or recombinant SAA and the metabolic phenotype of the cells analyzed. In hMADS, SAA induces an increased lipolysis through an ERK dependent pathway. At the molecular level, SAA represses PPARγ2, C/EBPα and SREBP-1c gene expression, three transcription factors involved in adipocyte differentiation or lipid synthesis. In addition, the activation of the NF-κB pathway by SAA leads to the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as in the case of immune cells. These latter findings were replicated in freshly isolated mature human adipocytes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Besides its well-characterized role in cholesterol metabolism, SAA has direct metabolic effects on human adipocytes. These metabolic changes could be at least partly responsible for alterations of adipocyte metabolism observed during the APR as well as during pathophysiological conditions such as obesity and conditions leading to insulin resistant states.

  9. Acute phase proteins in Andalusian horses infected with Theileria equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Rocío; Cerón, José J; Riber, Cristina; Castejón, Francisco; Gómez-Díez, Manuel; Serrano-Rodríguez, Juan M; Muñoz, Ana

    2014-10-01

    Clinical and laboratory findings were determined in 23 Andalusian horses in southern Spain that were positive for Theileria equi by PCR, including 16 mares at pasture (group A1) and seven stabled stallions (group B1). Five healthy mares at pasture (group A2) and five stabled stallions (group B2), all of which were negative for T. equi in Giemsa stained blood smears and by PCR, were used as controls. The most frequent clinical signs were anorexia, anaemia, depression and icterus (group A1), along with loss of performance or failure to train and depression (group B1). Thrombocytopoenia was evident in 5/7 horses in group B1. Lower serum iron concentrations were observed in both diseased groups compared with their respective control groups. There were no significant differences in APP concentrations between diseased and control groups; all affected horses had APP concentrations within reference limits. Serum haptoglobin, serum amyloid A and plasma fibrinogen concentrations were higher than the reference limits in 5/23, 3/23 and 1/23 diseased horses, respectively. It was concluded that horses with theileriosis exhibited only a mild systemic inflammatory response.

  10. ITIH4 (inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4) is a new acute-phase protein isolated from cattle during experimental infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineiro, M.; Andres, M.; Iturralde, M.;

    2004-01-01

    We have isolated from calf serum a protein with an apparent M, of 120,000. The protein was detected by using antibodies against major acute-phase protein in pigs with acute inflammation. The amino acid sequence of an internal fragment revealed that this protein is the bovine counterpart of ITIH4......, the heavy chain 4 of the inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor family. The response of this protein in the sera was determined for animals during experimental bacterial and viral infections. In the bacterial model, animals were inoculated with a mixture of Actinomyces pyogenes, Fusobacterium necrophorum....... Because of the significant induction of the protein in the animals in the mastitis and BRSV infection models, we can conclude that ITIH4 is a new positive acute-phase protein in cattle....

  11. Acute Hematological Responses to a Maximal Incremental Treadmill Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Dinato de Lima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to study acute hematologic responses in individuals undergoing a  cardiopulmonary maximum incremental treadmill test without inclination. Were analyzed 23 individuals, 12 men and 11 women, with a mean age of 30.2 (± 8.4 years, mean weight of 68.1 (± 18.1 kg, mean height of 170.2 (± 9.8 cm, and mean BMI of 23.2 (±3.7 kg/m², physically active, with a minimum practice of 3.5 hours per week of exercise for at least 6 months. The subjects were submitted to a maximal incremental treadmill test, with venous blood collection for analysis before and immediately after completion of the test. Was used Wilcoxon test for analysis of pre and post test variables. Was adopted p < 0.05 as significance level. There was a significant increase in leukocyte count (69.23%; p = 0.005, lymphocytes (17.56%; p = 0.043, monocytes (85.41%; p = 0.012 and granulocytes (28.21%; p = 0.011. It was also observed a significant increase in erythrocytes (3,42%; p = 0,042, hematocrit (5.39%; p = 0.038 and hemoglobin (5.58%; p = 0.013. With this study, was concluded that performing a maximal test of treadmill running can significantly raise blood levels of leukocytes and respective sub-populations, as well as red blood cells and hemoglobin.

  12. Profiles of acute cytokine and antibody responses in patients infected with avian influenza A H7N9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Huang

    Full Text Available The influenza A H7N9 virus outbreak in Eastern China in the spring of 2013 represented a novel, emerging avian influenza transmission to humans. While clinical and microbiological features of H7N9 infection have been reported in the literature, the current study investigated acute cytokine and antibody responses in acute H7N9 infection. Between March 27, 2013 and April 23, 2013, six patients with confirmed H7N9 influenza infection were admitted to Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing, China. Acute phase serum cytokine profiles were determined using a high-throughput multiplex assay. Daily H7 hemagglutinin (HA-specific IgG, IgM, and IgA responses were monitored by ELISA. Neutralizing antibodies specific for H7N9 viruses were determined against a pseudotyped virus expressing the novel H7 subtype HA antigen. Five cytokines (IL-6, IP-10, IL-10, IFNγ, and TNFα were significantly elevated in H7N9-infected patients when compared to healthy volunteers. Serum H7 HA-specific IgG, as well as IgM and IgA responses, were detected within 8 days of disease onset and increased in a similar pattern during acute infection. Neutralizing antibodies developed shortly after the appearance of binding antibody responses and showed similar kinetics as a fraction of the total H7 HA-specific IgG responses. H7N9 infection resulted in hallmark serum cytokine increases, which correlated with fever and disease persistence. The novel finding of simultaneous development of IgG, IgM, and IgA responses in acute H7N9 infection points to the potential for live influenza viruses to elicit fast and potent protective antibodies to limit the infection.

  13. Acquisition of a Biomedical Database of Acute Responses to Space Flight during Commercial Personal Suborbital Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Richard, Elizabeth E.

    2010-01-01

    There is currently too little reproducible data for a scientifically valid understanding of the initial responses of a diverse human population to weightlessness and other space flight factors. Astronauts on orbital space flights to date have been extremely healthy and fit, unlike the general human population. Data collection opportunities during the earliest phases of space flights to date, when the most dynamic responses may occur in response to abrupt transitions in acceleration loads, have been limited by operational restrictions on our ability to encumber the astronauts with even minimal monitoring instrumentation. The era of commercial personal suborbital space flights promises the availability of a large (perhaps hundreds per year), diverse population of potential participants with a vested interest in their own responses to space flight factors, and a number of flight providers interested in documenting and demonstrating the attractiveness and safety of the experience they are offering. Voluntary participation by even a fraction of the flying population in a uniform set of unobtrusive biomedical data collections would provide a database enabling statistical analyses of a variety of acute responses to a standardized space flight environment. This will benefit both the space life sciences discipline and the general state of human knowledge.

  14. Aripiprazole in the acute and maintenance phase of bipolar I disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zupancic M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanie Zupancic1, Misty L Gonzalez2,31Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, 2Division of Medicine Psychiatry, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, 3Southern Illinois University Edwardsville School of Pharmacy, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Springfield, IL, USAAbstract: Bipolar affective disorder is a disabling illness with substantial morbidity and many management challenges. Traditional mood stabilizers such as lithium, valproate, and carbamazepine are often inadequate in controlling symptoms both during the acute and maintenance phase of treatment. Aripiprazole is a second-generation antipsychotic with a unique mechanism of action. Evidence suggests that it is effective in acute manic and mixed states. There are limited data to suggest its efficacy as a maintenance agent. Future studies will be needed to better define the role of aripiprazole relative to other traditional pharmacologic agents.Keywords: aripiprazole, bipolar disorder, acute treatment, maintenance treatment

  15. Relapsing steroid-responsive idiopathic acute interstitial nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, R; Gonzalez, C; Cabezuelo, J B; Lacueva, J; Ruiz, J A; Tovar, J V; Niembro, E

    1993-01-01

    A 49-year-old woman developed acute renal failure secondary to interstitial nephritis. Her clinical history, complementary studies and two renal biopsies could not establish the etiology. She showed signs of incomplete Fanconi syndrome. Treatment with corticosteroids was very effective, though she tended to relapse. We comment briefly on some aspects of idiopathic acute interstitial nephritis.

  16. Anti-irritants I: Dose-response in acute irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad

    2006-01-01

    acute irritation in healthy volunteers. Each AI was used in 3 concentrations. Acute irritation was induced by occlusive tests with 1% sodium lauryl sulfate and 20% nonanoic acid in N-propanol. The irritant reactions were treated twice daily with AI-containing formulations from the time of removal...

  17. Imaging of Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoeni, Ruedi F

    2015-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammation of the pancreas. Several classification systems have been used in the past but were considered unsatisfactory. A revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was published that assessed the clinical course and severity of disease; divided acute pancreatitis into interstitial edematous pancreatitis and necrotizing pancreatitis; discerned an early phase (first week) from a late phase (after the first week); and focused on systemic inflammatory response syndrome and organ failure. This article focuses on the revised classification of acute pancreatitis, with emphasis on imaging features, particularly on newly-termed fluid collections and implications for the radiologist.

  18. Cylindrical PVF2 film based fiber optic phase modulator - Phase shift nonlinearity and frequency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshanam, V. S.; Claus, Richard O.

    1993-03-01

    A new cylindrical coil configuration for polyvinylidene flouride (PVF2) film based fiber optic phase modulator is studied for the frequency response and nonlinearity of phase shift at the resonance frequency. This configuration, hitherto unapproached for PVF2 film modulators, offers resonance at well defined, controllable and higher frequencies than possible for the flat-strip configuration. Two versions of this configuration are presented that differ strongly in both the resonance frequency and the phase shift nonlinearity coefficient.

  19. An exploratory phase 2 study of investigational Aurora A kinase inhibitor alisertib (MLN8237 in acute myelogenous leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart L. Goldberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alisertib (MLN8237 is an investigational, oral, selective, Aurora A kinase (AAK inhibitor. In this phase 2 trial, 57 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML or high-grade myelodysplastic syndrome received alisertib 50 mg BID for 7 days in 21-day cycles. Responses in 6/35 AML patients (17% response rate with an additional 49% stable disease, 34% transfusion independence included 1 complete response lasting >1 year. No responses were observed in MDS patients. Adverse events >30% included diarrhea, fatigue, nausea, febrile neutropenia, and stomatitis. Results suggest modest activity in AML, supporting further research to better understand how AAK inhibition may induce leukemic cell senescence.

  20. Adaptive optics and phase diversity imaging for responsive space applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Mark William; Wick, David Victor

    2004-11-01

    The combination of phase diversity and adaptive optics offers great flexibility. Phase diverse images can be used to diagnose aberrations and then provide feedback control to the optics to correct the aberrations. Alternatively, phase diversity can be used to partially compensate for aberrations during post-detection image processing. The adaptive optic can produce simple defocus or more complex types of phase diversity. This report presents an analysis, based on numerical simulations, of the efficiency of different modes of phase diversity with respect to compensating for specific aberrations during post-processing. It also comments on the efficiency of post-processing versus direct aberration correction. The construction of a bench top optical system that uses a membrane mirror as an active optic is described. The results of characterization tests performed on the bench top optical system are presented. The work described in this report was conducted to explore the use of adaptive optics and phase diversity imaging for responsive space applications.

  1. Acute-phase protein α1-antitrypsin--a novel regulator of angiopoietin-like protein 4 transcription and secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Eileen; Wrenger, Sabine; Immenschuh, Stephan; Koczulla, Rembert; Mahadeva, Ravi; Deeg, H Joachim; Dinarello, Charles A; Welte, Tobias; Marcondes, A Mario Q; Janciauskiene, Sabina

    2014-06-01

    The angiopoietin-like protein 4 (angptl4, also known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [PPAR]γ-induced angiopoietin-related protein) is a multifunctional protein associated with acute-phase response. The mechanisms accounting for the increase in angptl4 expression are largely unknown. This study shows that human α1-antitrypsin (A1AT) upregulates expression and release of angplt4 in human blood adherent mononuclear cells and in primary human lung microvascular endothelial cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Mononuclear cells treated for 1 h with A1AT (from 0.1 to 4 mg/ml) increased mRNA of angptl4 from 2- to 174-fold, respectively, relative to controls. In endothelial cells, the maximal effect on angptl4 expression was achieved at 8 h with 2 mg/ml A1AT (11-fold induction versus controls). In 10 emphysema patients receiving A1AT therapy (Prolastin), plasma angptl4 levels were higher relative to patients without therapy (nanograms per milliliter, mean [95% confidence interval] 127.1 [99.5-154.6] versus 76.8 [54.8-98.8], respectively, p = 0.045) and correlated with A1AT levels. The effect of A1AT on angptl4 expression was significantly diminished in cells pretreated with a specific inhibitor of ERK1/2 activation (UO126), irreversible and selective PPARγ antagonist (GW9662), or genistein, a ligand for PPARγ. GW9662 did not alter the ability of A1AT to induce ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting that PPARγ is a critical mediator in the A1AT-driven angptl4 expression. In contrast, the forced accumulation of HIF-1α, an upregulator of angptl4 expression, enhanced the effect of A1AT. Thus, acute-phase protein A1AT is a physiological regulator of angptl4, another acute-phase protein.

  2. Acute MUS81 depletion leads to replication fork slowing and a constitutive DNA damage response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, Meichun; Wang, Xiaohui; Palmai-Pallag, Timea;

    2015-01-01

    The MUS81 protein belongs to a conserved family of DNA structure-specific nucleases that play important roles in DNA replication and repair. Inactivation of the Mus81 gene in mice has no major deleterious consequences for embryonic development, although cancer susceptibility has been reported. We...... have investigated the role of MUS81 in human cells by acutely depleting the protein using shRNAs. We found that MUS81 depletion from human fibroblasts leads to accumulation of ssDNA and a constitutive DNA damage response that ultimately activates cellular senescence. Moreover, we show that MUS81...... is required for efficient replication fork progression during an unperturbed S-phase, and for recovery of productive replication following replication stalling. These results demonstrate essential roles for the MUS81 nuclease in maintenance of replication fork integrity....

  3. Age- and Sex-Associated Effects on Acute-Phase Proteins in Göttingen Minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Berit Ø; Jensen, Søren J.; Ludvigsen, Trine P

    2015-01-01

    Göttingen minipigs are a useful model for diseases having an inflammatory component, and the associated use of acute-phase proteins (APP) as biomarkers of inflammation warrants establishment of their reference ranges. The objective of this study was to establish reference values for selected APP...... in Göttingen minipigs and to investigate the effects of age, sex, and various stimuli on these ranges. Serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, pig major acute-phase protein (PMAP), albumin, and porcine α-1 acid glycoprotein (PAGP) were evaluated in 4 age groups (6...... in obese pigs without diabetes. In conclusion, reference values for CRP, PMAP, haptoglobin, SAA, PAGP and albumin were established for male and female Göttingen minipigs of different ages. These APP were influenced by age and sex, underlining the importance of considering these factors when designing...

  4. Acute phase proteins in bovine milk in an experimental model of Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckersall, P D; Young, F J; Nolan, A M

    2006-01-01

    The objectives were to establish the origin of 2 acute phase proteins in milk during subclinical bovine mastitis and to characterize the relationship between those proteins in milk and blood. Haptoglobin (Hp) and mammary-associated serum amyloid A (M-SAA3) appear in milk during mastitis, whereas Hp...... and serum amyloid A increase in serum during mastitis. The concentrations of these proteins were determined in an experimental model using a field strain of Staphylococcus aureus to induce subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. The expression of mRNA coding for these proteins was assessed and the presence of M......-SAA3 in mammary tissues was determined using immunocytochemistry. Increases of M-SAA3 and Hp in milk occurred within 12 h of Staphylococcus aureus infusion, with peak concentrations occurring 3 d after infusion of the bacteria. The increase of acute phase proteins in milk (15 h) preceded the increase...

  5. Acute overactive endocannabinoid signaling induces glucose intolerance, hepatic steatosis, and novel cannabinoid receptor 1 responsive genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell A Ruby

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids regulate energy balance and lipid metabolism by stimulating the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1. Genetic deletion and pharmacological antagonism have shown that CB1 signaling is necessary for the development of obesity and related metabolic disturbances. However, the sufficiency of endogenously produced endocannabinoids to cause hepatic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance, independent of food intake, has not been demonstrated. Here, we show that a single administration of isopropyl dodecylfluorophosphonate (IDFP, perhaps the most potent pharmacological inhibitor of endocannabinoid degradation, increases hepatic triglycerides (TG and induces insulin resistance in mice. These effects involve increased CB1 signaling, as they are mitigated by pre-administration of a CB1 antagonist (AM251 and in CB1 knockout mice. Despite the strong physiological effects of CB1 on hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism, little is known about the downstream targets responsible for these effects. To elucidate transcriptional targets of CB1 signaling, we performed microarrays on hepatic RNA isolated from DMSO (control, IDFP and AM251/IDFP-treated mice. The gene for the secreted glycoprotein lipocalin 2 (lcn2, which has been implicated in obesity and insulin resistance, was among those most responsive to alterations in CB1 signaling. The expression pattern of IDFP mice segregated from DMSO mice in hierarchal cluster analysis and AM251 pre-administration reduced (>50% the majority (303 of 533 of the IDFP induced alterations. Pathway analysis revealed that IDFP altered expression of genes involved in lipid, fatty acid and steroid metabolism, the acute phase response, and amino acid metabolism in a CB1-dependent manner. PCR confirmed array results of key target genes in multiple independent experiments. Overall, we show that acute IDFP treatment induces hepatic TG accumulation and insulin resistance, at least in part through the CB1 receptor, and

  6. 'Living a life in shades of grey': experiencing depressive symptoms in the acute phase after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouwenhoven, Siren E; Kirkevold, Marit; Engedal, Knut; Kim, Hesook S

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the lived experience of stroke survivors suffering from depressive symptoms in the acute phase; addressing the following questions: (a) what is the nature of depression as experienced by post-stroke patients in the acute phase? (b) what is it like to live with depression within the first weeks following stroke? Post-stroke depression occurs in at least one quarter of stroke survivors and is linked to poorer outcomes. This qualitative study is methodologically grounded in hermeneutic phenomenology, influenced by van Manen and Ricoeur. A descriptive, qualitative design was used applying in-depth interviews as the method of data collection with nine participants. The data collection took place in 2008. The material revealed two main themes that generate the feeling and description of 'living a life in shades of grey': (a) being trapped and (b) losing oneself. 'Shades of grey' could be understood as being confined in a new life-world and losing oneself as the person one knew. The participants confirmed suffering from depressive symptoms, but depression was not seen as meaningful on its own. They related their experiences of post-stroke depression in the acute phase to the losses they experienced. Nurses ought to take into account the depth of the life changes that stroke survivors may experience. There is a need for continued empirical research on how nurses may help and support stroke survivors dealing with depressive symptoms in the acute phase after stroke and how depressive symptoms develop over time. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Correlation of oral health of children with acute leukemia during the induction phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan P. Dholam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of acute leukemia′s- a common childhood malignancy, involves intensive and powerful multi-drug chemotherapeutic regime. Oral lesions are a common complication in these patients affecting oral health status. Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate and assess the oral health status of newly diagnosed leukemic pediatric patients during induction phase and its correlation to outcome of induction therapy. Material Methods: Oral examinations was done in 33 children between the age group of 5-15 years with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and acute myloblastic leukemia (AML, who were undergoing chemotherapy. Oral Hygiene Index- Simplified, (OHI-S decayed missing filled teeth index (def/DMFT, Loe and Sillness index for gingiva, and complete blood count at first and fourth week of induction phase were recorded for each patient. The changes in the oral health status were analyzed with Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: During an induction phase it was observed that level of OHI-S (P = 0.002, Loe and Sillness index (P = 0.003, def/DMFT index (P = 0.076, platelet count (P = 0.00 increased significantly and no significant difference was noted in hemoglobin (P = 0.4 and total leucocytes count (P = 0.11. Conclusion: It was observed that, although oral health status had significantly worsened, the induction outcome was not affected.

  8. The effect of lunar phases on the occurrence of acute cardiovascular diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertoprud, V. E.; Gurfinkel', Yu. I.; Goncharova, E. E.; Ivanov-Kholodnyi, G. S.; Kanonidi, H. D.; Mitrofanova, T. A.; Trubina, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    This paper analyzes the possible impact of lunar phases on the dynamics of acute cardiovascular diseases: acute myocardial infarctions (MIs) and acute brain strokes (BSs) at different levels of heliogeomagnetic activity. The superposed epoch analysis (SEA) has been applied with dates of the new moon and full moon used as reference days. A statistical analysis of a 14-year-long (1992 to 2005) series of everyday medical data from the Central Clinical Hospital no. 1 of Russian Railways (Moscow) and the parameters of heliogeomagnetic activity was carried out. It was found that daily occurrences of MIs and BSs vary with the phase of the moon. These variations are significant; they continue at different levels of heliogeomagnetic activity and are not related to the variations in geomagnetic activity identified by the same method. The effect of lunar phases on MIs and BSs is quite different. New moons and full moons have qualitatively the same effect on MIs; however, there are significant differences in the incidence of BSs during new moons and full moons.

  9. Manifestation of Latent Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction in the Acute Phase of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Kazuyuki; Okubo, Takeshi; Tanaka, Komei; Hosaka, Yukio; Tsuchida, Keiichi; Takahashi, Kazuyoshi; Oda, Hirotaka; Minamino, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Objective Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction is a complication in 15-25% of patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and sometimes leads to catastrophic outcomes, such as cardiogenic shock or cardiac rupture. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been clarified. Methods and Results We experienced 22 cases of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy during 3 years, and 4 of these 22 cases were complicated with LVOT obstruction in the acute phase (mean age 79±5 years, 1 man, 21 women). The LVOT pressure gradient in the acute phase was 100±17 mmHg. Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) revealed left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in one case and sigmoid-shaped septum without LVH in three cases. The complete resolution of the LVOT obstruction was achieved in a few days with normalization of the left ventricular wall motion following administration of beta-blockers. A dobutamine provocation test after normalization of the left ventricular wall motion reproduced the LVOT obstruction in all cases and revealed the presence of latent LVOT obstruction. Conclusion The manifestation of latent LVOT obstruction in the acute phase of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is one potential reason for the complication of LVOT obstruction with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. PMID:27904102

  10. A phase 3 randomized trial comparing inolimomab vs usual care in steroid-resistant acute GVHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socié, Gérard; Vigouroux, Stéphane; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Bay, Jacques-Olivier; Fürst, Sabine; Bilger, Karin; Suarez, Felipe; Michallet, Mauricette; Bron, Dominique; Gard, Philippe; Medeghri, Zakaria; Lehert, Philippe; Lai, Chinglin; Corn, Tim; Vernant, Jean-Paul

    2017-02-02

    Treatment of steroid-resistant acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains an unmet clinical need. Inolimomab, a monoclonal antibody to CD25, has shown encouraging results in phase 2 trials. This phase 3 randomized, open-label, multicenter trial compared inolimomab vs usual care in adult patients with steroid-refractory acute GVHD. Patients were randomly selected to receive treatment with inolimomab or usual care (the control group was treated with antithymocyte globulin [ATG]). The primary objective was to evaluate overall survival at 1 year without changing baseline allocated therapy. A total of 100 patients were randomly placed: 49 patients in the inolimomab arm and 51 patients in the ATG arm. The primary criteria were reached by 14 patients (28.5%) in the inolimomab and 11 patients (21.5%) in the ATG arms, with a hazard ratio of 0.874 (P = .28). With a minimum follow-up of 1 year, 26 (53%) and 31 (60%) patients died in the inolimomab and ATG arms, respectively. Adverse events were similar in the 2 arms, with fewer viral infections in the inolimomab arm compared with the ATG arm. The primary end point of this randomized phase 3 trial was not achieved. The lack of a statistically significant effect confirms the need for development of more effective treatments for acute GVHD. This trial is registered to https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/search as EUDRACT 2007-005009-24.

  11. Quantifying factors determining the rate of CTL escape and reversion during acute and chronic phases of HIV infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganusov, Vitaly V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perelson, Alan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often evades cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses by generating variants that are not recognized by CTLs. However, the importance and quantitative details of CTL escape in humans are poorly understood. In part, this is because most studies looking at escape of HIV from CTL responses are cross-sectional and are limited to early or chronic phases of the infection. We use a novel technique of single genome amplification (SGA) to identify longitudinal changes in the transmitted/founder virus from the establishment of infection to the viral set point at 1 year after the infection. We find that HIV escapes from virus-specific CTL responses as early as 30-50 days since the infection, and the rates of viral escapes during acute phase of the infection are much higher than was estimated in previous studies. However, even though with time virus acquires additional escape mutations, these late mutations accumulate at a slower rate. A poor correlation between the rate of CTL escape in a particular epitope and the magnitude of the epitope-specific CTL response suggests that the lower rate of late escapes is unlikely due to a low efficacy of the HIV-specific CTL responses in the chronic phase of the infection. Instead, our results suggest that late and slow escapes are likely to arise because of high fitness cost to the viral replication associated with such CTL escapes. Targeting epitopes in which virus escapes slowly or does not escape at all by CTL responses may, therefore, be a promising direction for the development of T cell based HIV vaccines.

  12. Phase resetting for a network of oscillators via phase response curve approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimov, D

    2015-02-01

    The problem of phase regulation for a population of oscillating systems is considered. The proposed control strategy is based on a phase response curve (PRC) model of an oscillator (the first-order reduced model obtained for linearized system and inputs with infinitesimal amplitude). It is proven that the control provides phase resetting for the original nonlinear system. Next, the problem of phase resetting for a network of oscillators is considered when applying a common control input. Performance of the obtained solutions is demonstrated via computer simulation for three different models of circadian/neural oscillators.

  13. Dynamic phase response and amplitude-phase coupling of self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingnau, Benjamin; Herzog, Bastian; Kolarczik, Mirco; Woggon, Ulrike; Lüdge, Kathy; Owschimikow, Nina

    2017-06-01

    The optical excitation of semiconductor gain media introduces both gain and refractive index changes, commonly referred to as amplitude-phase coupling. Quantum-confined structures with an energetically well separated carrier reservoir usually exhibit a decreased amplitude-phase coupling compared to bulk materials. However, its magnitude and definition is still controversially discussed. We investigate the fundamental processes influencing the amplitude-phase coupling in semiconductor quantum-dot media using a coupled-carrier rate-equation model. We are able to analyze the dependence on the electronic structure and suggest routes towards an optimization of the dynamic phase response of the gain material.

  14. Acute hormonal, immunological and enzymatic responses to a basketball game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Foschini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the acute hormonal, immunological and enzymatic responses of professional basketball players to a basketball game. The sample was composed of eight basketball athletes, with a minimum of 4 years’ experience in basketball. A real game was simulated with a total duration of 40 minutes, divided into two halves of 20 minutes each and an interval of 10 minutes between halves. Blood samples were collected before andimmediately after the game (20 ml, vacuum tube system. The variables analyzed were: testosterone and cortisol hormones, total leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and the enzymes creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Statistical analysis was with descriptive statistics and the Student’s t test for paired samples to p≤0.05. The pre (13.34 nmol/L and 301.97 nmol/L and post game (17.34 nmol/L and 395.91 nmol/L levels of testosterone and cortisol were statistically different, with higher levels after the game for both hormones. The immune cell counts exhibited significant differences for total leukocytes (6393.75 nmol/L and 9158.75 nmol/L and neutrophils (3532.5 nmol/L and 6392.62 nmol/L, with levels being higher after the game. No statistical differences were observed for the enzymatic variables. Therefore, based on the markers analyzed, testosterone and cortisol exhibited pronounced increases after the game and the samebehavior was observed for total leukocytes and neutrophils.

  15. The miRNA Plasma Signature in Response to Acute Aerobic Exercise and Endurance Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Rinnov, Anders

    2014-01-01

    the miRNA signature in human plasma in response to acute exercise and chronic endurance training by utilizing a novel methodological approach. RNA was isolated from human plasma collected from young healthy men before and after an acute endurance exercise bout and following 12 weeks of endurance training...

  16. Effects of chronic kidney disease on platelet response to antiplatelet therapy in acute myocardial infarction patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓捷

    2012-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the effects of dual antiplatelet therapy on platelet response in acute myocardial infarction patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods From September 2011 to June 2012,a total of 195 acute myocardial infarction patients with drug eluting stent implanting were enrolled. Among them,133 cases had normal

  17. The acute phase of mild traumatic brain injury is characterized by a distance-dependent neuronal hypoactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Victoria P A; Shultz, Sandy R; Yan, Edwin B; O'Brien, Terence J; Rajan, Ramesh

    2014-11-15

    The consequences of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) on neuronal functionality are only now being elucidated. We have now examined the changes in sensory encoding in the whisker-recipient barrel cortex and the brain tissue damage in the acute phase (24 h) after induction of TBI (n=9), with sham controls receiving surgery only (n=5). Injury was induced using the lateral fluid percussion injury method, which causes a mixture of focal and diffuse brain injury. Both population and single cell neuronal responses evoked by both simple and complex whisker stimuli revealed a suppression of activity that decreased with distance from the locus of injury both within a hemisphere and across hemispheres, with a greater extent of hypoactivity in ipsilateral barrel cortex compared with contralateral cortex. This was coupled with an increase in spontaneous output in Layer 5a, but only ipsilateral to the injury site. There was also disruption of axonal integrity in various regions in the ipsilateral but not contralateral hemisphere. These results complement our previous findings after mild diffuse-only TBI induced by the weight-drop impact acceleration method where, in the same acute post-injury phase, we found a similar depth-dependent hypoactivity in sensory cortex. This suggests a common sequelae of events in both diffuse TBI and mixed focal/diffuse TBI in the immediate post-injury period that then evolve over time to produce different long-term functional outcomes.

  18. Comparison of the outcome of burn patients using acute-phase plasma base deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, S H; As'adi, K; Mousavi, J

    2011-12-31

    Background. In recent years, plasma base deficit has been used as a marker to determine the status of tissue perfusion in trauma patients and also to predict the outcome of these patients. This study was performed to investigate the effect of plasma base deficit in predicting burn patient outcome. Methods. This prospective cohort study was performed from October 2009 to October 2010 in the acute phase of burn patients who were admitted within 6 h post-injury to Motahari Burn Hospital in Iran. The patients were divided into two groups based on the plasma base deficit in the first 24 h post-injury: group A, in which the mean plasma base deficit was less than or equal to -6 (more negative), and group B, in which the mean plasma base deficit greater than -6. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v.16 software. Results. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled in each group. The mean plasma base deficit in group A (-7.76 ± 2.18 mmol) was significantly less than that in group B (-1.19 ± 2.82) mmol (p 0.05) and despite removal of interfering factors, there were significant differences between the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome score and the percentage of sepsis between the two groups (p 0.05). Conclusion. The plasma base deficit can be used as a valuable marker in the resuscitation of burn patients, along with clinical criteria. Physiological indicators (burn percentage, age, and mucosal burns) are not sufficient to predict mortality and morbidity in burn patients, and it is necessary to investigate the role of biochemical markers such as base deficit in determining the final outcome of burn patients.

  19. Changing patterns of acute phase proteins and inflammatory mediators in experimental caprine coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemnia, Mohammad; Khodakaram-Tafti, Azizollah; Razavi, Seyed Mostafa; Nazifi, Saeed

    2011-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to assess the changing patterns and relative values of acute phase proteins and inflammatory cytokines in experimental caprine coccidiosis. Eighteen newborn kids were allocated to 3 equal groups. Two groups, A and B, were inoculated with a single dose of 1×10(3) and1×10(5) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria arloingi, respectively. The third group, C, received distilled water as the control. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of each kid in both groups before inoculation and at days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 post-inoculation (PI), and the levels of haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), TNF-α, and IFN-γ were measured. For histopathological examinations, 2 kids were selected from each group, euthanized, and necropsied on day 42 PI. Mean Hp concentrations in groups A and B (0.34 and 0.68 g/L) at day 7 PI were 3.2 and 6.3 times higher than the levels before inoculation. The mean SAA concentrations in groups A and B (25.6 and 83.5 µg/ml) at day 7 PI were 4.2 and 13.7 times higher than the levels before inoculation. The magnitude and duration of the Hp and SAA responses correlated well with the inoculation doses and the severity of the clinical signs and diarrhea in kids. These results were consistent with the histopathological features, which showed advanced widespread lesions in group B. In both groups, significant correlations were observed for TNF-α and IFN-γ with SAA and Hp, respectively. In conclusion, Hp and SAA can be useful non-specific diagnostic indicators in caprine coccidiosis.

  20. Guadecitabine (SGI-110) in treatment-naive patients with acute myeloid leukaemia: phase 2 results from a multicentre, randomised, phase 1/2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarjian, Hagop M; Roboz, Gail J; Kropf, Patricia L; Yee, Karen W L; O'Connell, Casey L; Tibes, Raoul; Walsh, Katherine J; Podoltsev, Nikolai A; Griffiths, Elizabeth A; Jabbour, Elias; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Rizzieri, David; Stock, Wendy; Savona, Michael R; Rosenblat, Todd L; Berdeja, Jesus G; Ravandi, Farhad; Rock, Edwin P; Hao, Yong; Azab, Mohammad; Issa, Jean-Pierre J

    2017-08-24

    The hypomethylating drugs azacitidine and decitabine have shown efficacy in myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukaemia, but complete tumour responses are infrequent and of short duration, possibly because of the short half-lives and suboptimal bone marrow exposure of the drugs. Guadecitabine, a next-generation hypomethylating drug, has a longer half-life and exposure than its active metabolite decitabine. A phase 1 study established 60 mg/m(2) guadecitabine for 5 days as an effective treatment schedule. In this phase 2 study, we aimed to assess the safety and activity of two doses and schedules of guadecitabine in older (≥65 years) patients with treatment-naive acute myeloid leukaemia who were not candidates for intensive chemotherapy. We did a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 1/2 study of guadecitabine in cohorts of patients with treatment-naive acute myeloid leukaemia, relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukaemia, and myelodysplastic syndromes; here we report the phase 2 results from the cohort of treatment-naive patients with acute myeloid leukaemia. We included patients aged at least 65 years from 14 US medical centres (hospitals and specialist cancer clinics) who were not candidates for intensive chemotherapy and randomly assigned them (1:1) using a computer algorithm (for dynamic randomisation) to guadecitabine 60 or 90 mg/m(2) on days 1-5 (5-day schedule) of a 28-day treatment cycle. Treatment allocation was not masked. We also assigned additional patients to guadecitabine 60 mg/m(2) in a 10-day schedule in a 28-day treatment cycle after a protocol amendment. The primary endpoint was composite complete response (complete response, complete response with incomplete platelet recovery, or complete response with incomplete neutrophil recovery regardless of platelets). Response was assessed in all patients (as-treated) who received at least one dose of guadecitabine. We present the final analysis, although at the time of the database lock

  1. Trajectories of sleep changes during the acute phase of traumatic brain injury: A 7-day actigraphy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Yean Chiu

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Poor sleep efficiency and longer sleep duration are common symptoms in acute TBI patients. Both head injury severity and age predicted the trajectories of daytime and 24-hour sleep duration during the acute phase of TBI, whereas gender predicted the trajectories of 24-hour sleep duration in the mild TBI subgroup.

  2. The role and importance of glycosylation of acute phase proteins with focus on alpha-1 antitrypsin in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Cormac; Saldova, Radka; Wormald, Mark R; Rudd, Pauline M; McElvaney, Noel G; Reeves, Emer P

    2014-07-03

    Acute phase proteins (APPs) are a group of circulating plasma proteins which undergo changes quantitatively or qualitatively at the time of inflammation. Many of these APPs are glycosylated, and it has been shown that alterations in glycosylation may occur in inflammatory and malignant conditions. Changes in glycosylation have been studied as potential biomarkers in cancer and also in chronic inflammatory conditions and have been shown to correlate with disease severity in certain conditions. Serine protease inhibitors (serpins), many of which are also APPs, are proteins involved in the control of proteases in numerous pathways. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin (AAT) is the most abundant serpin within the circulation and is an APP which has been shown to increase in response to inflammation. The primary role of AAT is maintaining the protease/antiprotease balance in the lung, but it also possesses important anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating properties. Several glycoforms of AAT exist, and they possess differing properties in regard to plasma half-life and stability. Glycosylation may also be important in determining the immune modulatory properties of AAT. The review will focus on the role and importance of glycosylation in acute phase proteins with particular attention to AAT and its use as a biomarker of disease. The review describes the processes involved in glycosylation, how glycosylation changes in differing disease states, and the alterations that occur to glycans of APPs with disease and inflammation. Finally, the review explores the importance of changes in glycosylation of AAT at times of inflammation and in malignant conditions and how this may impact upon the functions of AAT.

  3. Acute, regional inflammatory response after traumatic brain injury: Implications for cellular therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Harting, Matthew T.; jimenez, fernando; Adams, Sasha D.; Mercer, David W.; Cox, Charles S.

    2008-01-01

    While cellular therapy has shown promise in the management of traumatic brain injury (TBI), microenvironment interactions between the intracerebral milieu and therapeutic stem cells are poorly understood. We sought to characterize the acute, regional inflammatory response after TBI.

  4. A combined clinical and biomarker approach to predict diuretic response in acute heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Maaten, Jozine M; Valente, Mattia A E; Metra, Marco; Bruno, Noemi; O'Connor, Christopher M; Ponikowski, Piotr; Teerlink, John R; Cotter, Gad; Davison, Beth; Cleland, John G; Givertz, Michael M; Bloomfield, Daniel M; Dittrich, Howard C; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Hillege, Hans L; Damman, Kevin; Voors, Adriaan A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Poor diuretic response in acute heart failure is related to poor clinical outcome. The underlying mechanisms and pathophysiology behind diuretic resistance are incompletely understood. We evaluated a combined approach using clinical characteristics and biomarkers to predict diuretic resp

  5. Complement lysis activity in autologous plasma is associated with lower viral loads during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection.

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    Michael Huber

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the possibility that antibody-mediated complement lysis contributes to viremia control in HIV-1 infection, we measured the activity of patient plasma in mediating complement lysis of autologous primary virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sera from two groups of patients-25 with acute HIV-1 infection and 31 with chronic infection-were used in this study. We developed a novel real-time PCR-based assay strategy that allows reliable and sensitive quantification of virus lysis by complement. Plasma derived at the time of virus isolation induced complement lysis of the autologous virus isolate in the majority of patients. Overall lysis activity against the autologous virus and the heterologous primary virus strain JR-FL was higher at chronic disease stages than during the acute phase. Most strikingly, we found that plasma virus load levels during the acute but not the chronic infection phase correlated inversely with the autologous complement lysis activity. Antibody reactivity to the envelope (Env proteins gp120 and gp41 were positively correlated with the lysis activity against JR-FL, indicating that anti-Env responses mediated complement lysis. Neutralization and complement lysis activity against autologous viruses were not associated, suggesting that complement lysis is predominantly caused by non-neutralizing antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively our data provide evidence that antibody-mediated complement virion lysis develops rapidly and is effective early in the course of infection; thus it should be considered a parameter that, in concert with other immune functions, steers viremia control in vivo.

  6. Selected acute phase CSF factors in ischemic stroke: findings and prognostic value

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    Intskirveli Nino

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Study aimed at investigation of pathogenic role and prognostic value of several selected cerebrospinal fluid acute phase factors that can reflect the severity of ischemic brain damage. Methods Ninety five acute ischemic stroke patients were investigated. Ischemic region visualized at the twenty fourth hour by conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Stroke severity evaluated by National Institute Health Stroke Scale. One month outcome of disease was assessed by Barthel Index. Cerebrospinal fluid was taken at the sixth hour of stroke onset. CSF pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were studied by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Nitric Oxide and Lipoperoxide radical were measured by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. CSF Nitrate levels were detected using the Griess reagent. Statistics performed by SPSS-11.0. Results At the sixth hour of stroke onset, cerebrospinal fluid cytokine levels were elevated in patients against controls. Severe stroke patients had increased interleukin-6 content compared to less severe strokes (P Conclusion According to present study the cerebrospinal fluid contents of interleukin-6 and nitrates seem to be the most reliable prognostic factors in acute phase of ischemic stroke.

  7. [Pulmonary function of children with acute leukemia in maintenance phase of chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macêdo, Thalita Medeiros Fernandes; Campos, Tania Fernandes; Mendes, Raquel Emanuele de França; França, Danielle Corrêa; Chaves, Gabriela Suéllen da Silva; de Mendonça, Karla Morganna Pereira Pinto

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the pulmonary function of children with acute leukemia. Cross-sectional observational analytical study that enrolled 34 children divided into groups A (17 with acute leukemia in the maintenance phase of chemotherapy) and B (17 healthy children). The groups were matched for sex, age and height. Spirometry was measured using a spirometer Microloop Viasys(®) in accordance with American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society guidelines. Maximal respiratory pressures were measured with an MVD300 digital manometer (Globalmed(®)). Maximal inspiratory pressures and maximal expiratory pressures were measured from residual volume and total lung capacity, respectively. Group A showed a significant decrease in maximal inspiratory pressures when compared to group B. No significant difference was found between the spirometric values of the two groups, nor was there any difference between maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure values in group A compared to the lower limit values proposed as reference. Children with acute leukemia, myeloid or lymphoid, during the maintenance phase of chemotherapy exhibited unchanged spirometric variables and maximal expiratory pressure; However, there was a decrease in inspiratory muscle strength. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Are there differences in acute phase inflammation markers regarding the type of heart failure?

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    Jaime Agüero-Ramón-Llin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine if there are differences in inflammatory markers in the acute phase between systolic heart failure and heart failure with preserved systolic function. One hundred and thirty-one patients with acute heart failure were recruited consecutively. At admission, plasma fibrinogen, Creactive protein, sialic acid, von Willebrand factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin-6 and NTproBNP were all evaluated. If the ejection fraction was 45% or over patients were included in the HF-PSF group; the remaining patients were included in the SHF group. The HF-PSF patients were older (72±10 vs 63±12 years, P<0.001, presented a higher rate of atrial fibrillation (56.1 vs 21.3%, P<0.001, and had a lower rate of hemoglobin (12.2±2 vs 13.3±2.1 g/dL, P<0.01. No significant differences were observed in the inflammation markers analyzed among SHF and HFPSF groups. In the acute phase of heart failure there is a marked elevation of inflammatory markers but there are no differences in the inflammatory markers analyzed between the two different types of heart failure

  9. Dexmedetomidine and haemodynamic responses to acute central hypovolaemia in conscious rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, D W; Ludbrook, J; Van Leeuwen, A F

    2000-10-01

    1. Effects of the alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine on vasoconstrictor and heart rate (HR) responses to acute central hypovolaemia were studied in eight chronically instrumented rabbits. We compared intravenous (i.v.) and fourth ventricular (V4) dexmedetomidine (0.1-10 microg/kg) and the reversal of effects by the alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan and the opioid agonist alfentanil. 2. Gradual inflation of an inferior vena cava (IVC) cuff reduced cardiac index (CI) by 8%/min, with progressive vasoconstriction and increased HR. In control rabbits, at approximately 40% baseline CI, there was sudden decompensation with failure of vasoconstriction and a fall in mean arterial pressure (MAP). 3. Dexmedetomidine (i.v. and V4) reduced resting MAP and HR and caused an earlier decompensation during central hypovolaemia. Intravenous dexmedetomidine (3 and 10 microg/kg) also reduced the slope of the initial vasoconstrictor response and the maximum HR. 4. The effects of dexmedetomidine were reversed by the antagonist idazoxan, which prevented the decompensation phase. Intravenous alfentanil was also effective in restoring the vasoconstrictor response and delaying decompensation with hypovolaemia after dexmedetomidine. Combining dexmedetomidine with an opioid, such as alfentanil, may provide the benefit of reduced sympathetic tone without increased risk of cardiovascular collapse.

  10. Acute and chronic response of skeletal muscle to resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, P J; Jürimäe, J; Logan, P A; Taylor, A W; Thayer, R E

    1994-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue is sensitive to the acute and chronic stresses associated with resistance training. These responses are influenced by the structure of resistance activity (i.e. frequency, load and recovery) as well as the training history of the individuals involved. There are histochemical and biochemical data which suggest that resistance training alters the expression of myosin heavy chains (MHCs). Specifically, chronic exposure to bodybuilding and power lifting type activity produces shifts towards the MHC I and IIb isoforms, respectively. However, it is not yet clear which training parameters trigger these differential expressions of MHC isoforms. Interestingly, many programmes undertaken by athletes appear to cause a shift towards the MHC I isoform. Increments in the cross-sectional area of muscle after resistance training can be primarily attributed to fibre hypertrophy. However, there may be an upper limit to this hypertrophy. Furthermore, significant fibre hypertrophy appears to follow the sequence of fast twitch fibre hypertrophy preceding slow twitch fibre hypertrophy. Whilst some indirect measures of fibre number in living humans suggest that there is no interindividual variation, postmortem evidence suggests that there is. There are also animal data arising from investigations using resistance training protocols which suggest that chronic exercise can increase fibre number. Furthermore, satellite cell activity has been linked to myotube formation in the human. However, other animal models (i.e. compensatory hypertrophy) do not support the notion of fibre hyperplasia. Even if hyperplasia does occur, its effect on the cross-sectional area of muscle appears to be small. Phosphagen and glycogen metabolism, whilst important during resistance activity appear not to normally limit the performance of resistance activity. Phosphagen and related enzyme adaptations are affected by the type, structure and duration of resistance training. Whilst endogenous

  11. Alterations in cytokines and haematological parameters during the acute and convalescent phases of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections

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    Rodrigo Nunes Rodrigues-da-Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Haematological and cytokine alterations in malaria are a broad and controversial subject in the literature. However, few studies have simultaneously evaluated various cytokines in a single patient group during the acute and convalescent phases of infection. The aim of this study was to sequentially characterise alterations in haematological patters and circulating plasma cytokine and chemokine levels in patients infected with Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium falciparum from a Brazilian endemic area during the acute and convalescent phases of infection. During the acute phase, thrombocytopaenia, eosinopaenia, lymphopaenia and an increased number of band cells were observed in the majority of the patients. During the convalescent phase, the haematologic parameters returned to normal. During the acute phase, P. vivax and P. falciparum patients had significantly higher interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, interferon-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α, macrophage inflammatory protein-1β and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor levels than controls and maintained high levels during the convalescent phase. IL-10 was detected at high concentrations during the acute phase, but returned to normal levels during the convalescent phase. Plasma IL-10 concentration was positively correlated with parasitaemia in P. vivax and P. falciparum-infected patients. The same was true for the TNF-α concentration in P. falciparum-infected patients. Finally, the haematological and cytokine profiles were similar between uncomplicated P. falciparum and P. vivax infections.

  12. The longitudinal changes of BOLD response and cerebral hemodynamics from acute to subacute stroke. A fMRI and TCD study

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    Hamzei Farsin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By mapping the dynamics of brain reorganization, functional magnetic resonance imaging MRI (fMRI has allowed for significant progress in understanding cerebral plasticity phenomena after a stroke. However, cerebro-vascular diseases can affect blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal. Cerebral autoregulation is a primary function of cerebral hemodynamics, which allows to maintain a relatively constant blood flow despite changes in arterial blood pressure and perfusion pressure. Cerebral autoregulation is reported to become less effective in the early phases post-stroke. This study investigated whether any impairment of cerebral hemodynamics that occurs during the acute and the subacute phases of ischemic stroke is related to changes in BOLD response. We enrolled six aphasic patients affected by acute stroke. All patients underwent a Transcranial Doppler to assess cerebral autoregulation (Mx index and fMRI to evaluate the amplitude and the peak latency (time to peak-TTP of BOLD response in the acute (i.e., within four days of stroke occurrence and the subacute (i.e., between five and twelve days after stroke onset stroke phases. Results As patients advanced from the acute to subacute stroke phase, the affected hemisphere presented a BOLD TTP increase (p = 0.04 and a deterioration of cerebral autoregulation (Mx index increase, p = 0.046. A similar but not significant trend was observed also in the unaffected hemisphere. When the two hemispheres were grouped together, BOLD TTP delay was significantly related to worsening cerebral autoregulation (Mx index increase (Spearman's rho = 0.734; p = 0.01. Conclusions The hemodynamic response function subtending BOLD signal may present a delay in peak latency that arises as patients advance from the acute to the subacute stroke phase. This delay is related to the deterioration of cerebral hemodynamics. These findings suggest that remodeling the fMRI hemodynamic response function in the

  13. Response of two-phase droplets to intense electromagnetic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spann, J.F. (Morgantown Energy Technology Center, U.S. Department of Energy, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, West Virginia 26507-0880 (United States)); Maloney, D.J.; Lawson, W.F.; Casleton, K.H. (Morgantown Energy Technology Center, U.S. Department of Energy, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, West Virginia 26507-0880 (United States))

    1993-04-20

    The response of two-phase droplets to intense radiant heating is studied to determine the incident power that is required for causing explosive boiling in the liquid phase. The droplets studied consist of strongly absorbing coal particles dispersed in a weakly absorbing water medium. Experiments are performed by confining droplets (radii = 37, 55, and 80 [mu]m) electrodynamically and irradiating them from two sides with pulsed laser beams. Emphasis is placed on the transition region from accelerated droplet vaporization to droplet superheating and explosive boiling. The time scale observed for explosive boiling is more than 2 orders of magnitude longer than published values for pure liquids. The delayed response is the result of energy transfer limitations between the absorbing solid phase and the surrounding liquid.

  14. Ultrafast response of phase-change memory materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberg, Aaron

    2015-03-01

    We describe recent experiments probing the first steps in the amorphous-to-crystalline transition that underlies the behavior of phase-change materials, examining both electric-field-driven and optically-driven responses in GeSbTe and AgInSbTe alloys. First measurements using femtosecond x-ray pulses at the Linac Coherent Light Source will be described which enable direct snapshots of these transitions and associated intermediate states. We will also describe studies using single-cycle terahertz pulses as an all-optical means of biasing phase-change materials on femtosecond time-scales in order to examine the threshold-switching response on microscopically relevant time-scales. These studies indicate nonlinear scaling with the applied electric field and field-induced crystallization as evidenced by ultrafast optical reflectivity and conductivity measurements, from which a mechanistic understanding of these phase transitions can be obtained.

  15. Response of two-phase droplets to intense electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James F.; Maloney, Daniel J.; Lawson, William F.; Casleton, Kent H.

    1993-01-01

    The response of two-phase droplets to intense radiant heating is studied to determine the incident power that is required for causing explosive boiling in the liquid phase. The droplets studied consist of strongly absorbing coal particles dispersed in a weakly absorbing water medium. Experiments are performed by confining droplets (radii of 37, 55, and 80 microns) electrodynamically and irradiating them from two sides with pulsed laser beams. Emphasis is placed on the transition region from accelerated droplet vaporization to droplet superheating and explosive boiling. The time scale observed for explosive boiling is more than 2 orders of magnitude longer than published values for pure liquids. The delayed response is the result of energy transfer limitations between the absorbing solid phase and the surrounding liquid.

  16. Immune-Manipulation of the Inflammatory Response in Acute Pancreatitis. What Can Be Expected?

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    Corinaldesi R

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Severe acute pancreatitis still has a high mortality rate and multiple organ failure is considered to be a severe complication of the disease. Activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes have an important role in the development of multiple organ failure which may result from acute pancreatitis and they are an important pathogenetic factor in the severity of this disease. Therefore, a logical therapeutic approach is to limit the organ damage by selective suppression of inflammatory mediators involved in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and protect against systemic complication. In this paper, we review the recent literature data on the possible manipulation of the immune response in acute pancreatitis.

  17. Are the unenhanced and excretory CT phases necessary for the evaluation of acute pyelonephritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Lincoln S; Torres, Ulysses S; Souza, Saulo M; Torres, Lucas R; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2017-05-01

    Background The most widely accepted computed tomography (CT) protocol for diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis (APN) includes at least a pre- and post-contrast scan, which may expose patients to higher doses of ionizing radiation. Purpose To establish the accuracy, reproducibility, and degree of confidence in CT diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis (APN) and urolithiasis using only images obtained during the nephrographic phase. Material and Methods A retrospective study of 100 consecutive patients (88 women; age range, 19-70 years) with clinical and laboratory suspicion of APN and who underwent triphasic abdominal CT scans (non-contrast, nephrographic, and excretory phases) was performed. Two readers first evaluated independently only the nephrographic phase of scans, and, in a second session, the entire study. The diagnostic reference standard was settled by a third experienced radiologist who reviewed all triphasic scans and clinical data. Results The accuracy of only nephrographic phase for diagnosis of APN and urolithiasis was in the range of 90.3-91.78% and 96.27-99.25%, respectively. There was no significant difference in comparison with the triphasic reading (z: -0.4 - 0.2; P = 0.34-0.83). The average degree of confidence for APN also showed no significant variation for both readers ( P = 0.4 and 0.08). Almost perfect inter-observer agreements for the diagnosis of APN (k = 0.86, P < 0.001) and for urolithiasis (k = 0.84, P < 0.001) were observed when considering only the nephrographic phase. Conclusion CT assessment of APN and urolithiasis can be accurately performed using only the late nephrographic phase, with consequent dose reduction.

  18. [Modeling and simulation of responses from ultrasonic linear phased array].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenjing; Zhu, Yuanzhong; Wang, Yufeng; He, Lingli; Lai, Siyu

    2012-10-01

    Phased array transducers are very attractive because the beam generated by the arrays can be electronically focused and steered. The present work characterizes far-field 2D properties of phased array system by functions that are deduced from rectangle source, rectangle line array and phased array based on point source. Results are presented for the distribution of ultrasound intensity on plane xoz and on x-axis by simulation using numerical calculation. It is shown that the shape of response of rectangle line array is modulated by the single array element. It is also demonstrated that the delay time of phased array is the key to steer the beam, sacrificing the value of main lobe and increasing the number of side lobes.

  19. Phase responses of harmonics reflected from radio-frequency electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzaro, Gregory J.; McGowan, Sean F.; Gallagher, Kyle A.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.; Martone, Anthony F.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2016-05-01

    The phase responses of nonlinear-radar targets illuminated by stepped frequencies are studied. Data is presented for an experimental radar and two commercial electronic targets at short standoff ranges. The amplitudes and phases of harmonics generated by each target at each frequency are captured over a 100-MHz-wide transmit band. As in the authors' prior work, target detection is demonstrated by receiving at least one harmonic of at least one transmit frequency. In the present work, experiments confirm that the phase of a harmonic reflected from a radio-frequency electronic target at a standoff distance is linear versus frequency. Similar to traditional wideband radar, the change of the reflected phase with respect to frequency indicates the range to the nonlinear target.

  20. Serum acute phase proteins in cows with SARA (Subacute Ruminal Acidosis suspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cannizzo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the variations of Acute Phase Proteins (APPs and other blood constituents during the onset of the sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA pathological status. A total of 108 cows from 12 dairy herds were randomly selected and divided into three Groups of 36 animals each. All animals were subjected to a rumenocentesis. Group A was composed by subjects with a rumen pH>5.8, Group B was composed by subjects with a rumen pH ≤5.5≤5.8 and Group C was composed by subjects with a rumen pH<5.5. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture and Haptoglobin (Hp, Serum Amyloid A (SAA, Total Proteins, Albumin and White Blood Cells (WBC were determined. One-way ANOVA showed a statistical significance on Rumen pH, Hp, SAA. SARA seems not stimulate the APPs production from liver.

  1. Risk factors for and impact of respiratory failure on mortality in the early phase of acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Tilde; Kristensen, Marlene Østermark; Rysgaard, Sisse

    2016-01-01

    : Retrospective cohort study including 359 patients admitted with acute pancreatitis. Information was gathered from electronic patient records. We defined respiratory failure based on the modified Marshall scoring system in the revised Atlanta criteria. Predictors of respiratory failure were evaluated......, or pneumonia may develop respiratory failure, suggests that acute lung injury, possibly associated with systemic inflammation, may be important.......BACKGROUND: The incidence of respiratory failure and other respiratory complications in the early phase of acute pancreatitis (AP) is not well investigated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of respiratory failure, and its impact on mortality in the early phase AP. METHODS...

  2. Lactoferrin acute-phase protein and proteinase inhibitors in blood of patients with Q-wave myocardial infraction complicated by acute heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Belokoneva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 153 patients with Q-wave noncomplicated and complicated myocardial infraction have been examined. Blood serum was studied for acute-phase proteins (alfa-2-macroglobulin (MG, alfa-1-antitrypsin (ATr, and lactoferrin (LF in 97 patients ((57.9 ± 1.06 years old. Blood was sampled at the 1st, 7th, and 14th days after myocardial infraction. The decrease of MG in acute phase was observed in patients with cardiogenic shock. Increased concentrations of LF and unchanged MG level at the 1—7 days were observed at pulmonary edema.

  3. The inflammatory response in myocarditis and acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmens, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is about myocarditis and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). These are two cardiac diseases in which inflammation of the cardiac muscle occurs. In myocarditis, inflammation results in the elimination of a viral infection of the heart. During AMI, one of the coronary arteries is occluded,

  4. Cellular Immune Responses and Viral Diversity in Individuals Treated during Acute and Early HIV-1 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altfeld, Marcus; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Shankarappa, Raj; Mukherjee, Joia S.; Hecht, Frederick M.; Eldridge, Robert L.; Addo, Marylyn M.; Poon, Samuel H.; Phillips, Mary N.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Sax, Paul E.; Boswell, Steve; Kahn, James O.; Brander, Christian; Goulder, Philip J.R.; Levy, Jay A.; Mullins, James I.; Walker, Bruce D.

    2001-01-01

    Immune responses induced during the early stages of chronic viral infections are thought to influence disease outcome. Using HIV as a model, we examined virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), T helper cells, and viral genetic diversity in relation to duration of infection and subsequent response to antiviral therapy. Individuals with acute HIV-1 infection treated before seroconversion had weaker CTL responses directed at fewer epitopes than persons who were treated after seroconversion. However, treatment-induced control of viremia was associated with the development of strong T helper cell responses in both groups. After 1 yr of antiviral treatment initiated in acute or early infection, all epitope-specific CTL responses persisted despite undetectable viral loads. The breadth and magnitude of CTL responses remained significantly less in treated acute infection than in treated chronic infection, but viral diversity was also significantly less with immediate therapy. We conclude that early treatment of acute HIV infection leads to a more narrowly directed CTL response, stronger T helper cell responses, and a less diverse virus population. Given the need for T helper cells to maintain effective CTL responses and the ability of virus diversification to accommodate immune escape, we hypothesize that early therapy of primary infection may be beneficial despite induction of less robust CTL responses. These data also provide rationale for therapeutic immunization aimed at broadening CTL responses in treated primary HIV infection. PMID:11148221

  5. [Characteristics of the acute phase reaction in humans with various types of autonomic nervous system regulation during simulated hyperthermia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannikov, A V; Dorofeĭkov, V V; Freĭdlin, T S; Freĭdlin, I S; Shustov, E B; Shcherbak, I G; Iastrebov, D Iu

    2000-01-01

    Depending on the type of autonomous regulation, differences in basic levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) were revealed under conditions of hyperthermia in healthy subjects aged 19-21. A parasympathetic type of autonomous regulation corresponded to higher initial levels of proinflammatory cytokinesis, whereas a dominating sympathetic type corresponded to lower levels of the IL-1 beta and TNF alpha. The subjects with the latter type of regulation revealed an increase in the IL-1 beta TNF alpha combined with a higher heat tolerance. The subjects with the former type of regulation revealed a lower heat tolerance. The increase in the alpha2-macroglobulin appeared to be a most typical acute phase response of the human body to hyperthermia.

  6. Role of lysosomal enzymes released by alveolar macrophages in the pathogenesis of the acute phase of hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Pérez-Arellano

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolytic enzymes are the major constituents of alveolar macrophages (AM and have been shown to be involved in many aspects of the inflammatory pulmonary response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of lysosomal enzymes in the acute phase of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HPs. An experimental study on AM lysosomal enzymes of an HP-guinea-pig model was performed. The results obtained both in vivo and in vitro suggest that intracellular enzymatic activity decrease is, at least partly, due to release of lysosomal enzymes into the medium. A positive but slight correlation was found between extracellular lysosomal activity and four parameters of lung lesion (lung index, bronchoalveolar fluid total (BALF protein concentration, BALF LDH and BALF alkaline phosphatase activities. All the above findings suggest that the AM release of lysosomal enzymes during HP is a factor involved, although possibly not the only one, in the pulmonary lesions appearing in this disease.

  7. Strong associations among rumen endotoxin and acute phase proteins with plasma minerals in lactating cows fed graded amounts of concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebeli, Q; Dunn, S M; Ametaj, B N

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine associations among rumen endotoxin, plasma serum amyloid A (SAA), and C-reactive protein (CRP) with plasma Ca, Fe, Zn, and Cu in lactating cows challenged with graded amounts of rolled barley grain in the diet (i.e., 0, 15, 30, and 45% of DMI). Correlative relationships among variables were determined by linear and nonlinear regression procedures adjusted for the effects of day, animal, and experimental period. Increasing the amount of grain in the diet was successful in inducing an acute phase response, as assessed by augmentation of rumen endotoxin and plasma CRP and SAA (P minerals. Results suggest that new feeding strategies should be developed to curb the release of endotoxin in the rumen fluid to prevent perturbing minerals in the plasma.

  8. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.chapet@chu-lyon.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); EMR3738, Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie [Pole Information Médicale Evaluation Recherche, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); EA SIS, Université de Lyon, Lyon (France); Faix, Antoine [Department of Urology, Clinique Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Ruffion, Alain [Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Department of Urology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Jalade, Patrice [Department of Medical Physics, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  9. Dynamic Characterization and Impulse Response Modeling of Amplitude and Phase Response of Silicon Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleary, Ciaran S.; Ji, Hua; Dailey, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Amplitude and phase dynamics of silicon nanowires were measured using time-resolved spectroscopy. Time shifts of the maximum phase change and minimum amplitude as a function of pump power due to saturation of the free-carrier density were observed. A phenomenological impulse response model used...

  10. Executive function and endocrinological responses to acute resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Liang eTsai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study had the following two aims: First, to explore the effects of acute resistance exercise (RE, i.e., using exercise machines to contract and stretch muscles on behavioral and electrophysiological performance when performing a cognitive task involving executive functioning in young male adults; Second, to investigate the potential biochemical mechanisms of such facilitative effects using two neurotrophic factors [i.e., growth hormone (GH and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1] and the cortisol levels elicited by such an exercise intervention mode with two different exercise intensities. Sixty young male adults were recruited and randomly assigned to a high-intensity (HI exercise group, moderate-intensity (MI exercise group, and non-exercise-intervention (NEI group. Blood samples were taken, and the behavioral and electrophysiological indices were simultaneously measured when individuals performed a Go/No-Go task combined with the Erikson Flanker paradigm at baseline and after either an acute bout of 30 minutes of moderate- or high-intensity RE or a control period. The results showed that the acute RE could not only benefit the subjects’ behavioral (i.e., RTs and accuracy performance, as found in previous studies, but also increase the P3 amplitude. Although the serum GH and IGF-1 levels were significantly increased via moderate or high intensity RE in both the MI and HI groups, the increased serum levels of neurotrophic factors were significantly decreased about 20 minutes after exercise. In addition, such changes were not correlated with the changes in cognitive (i.e., behavioral and electrophysiological performance. In contrast, the serum levels of cortisol in the HI and MI groups were significantly lower after acute RE, and the changes in cortisol levels were significantly associated with the changes in electrophysiological (i.e., P3 amplitude performance. The findings suggest the beneficial effects of acute RE on executive

  11. Short term response of insulin, glucose, growth hormone and corticosterone to acute vibration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolkas, C. B.; Leon, H. A.; Chackerian, M.

    1971-01-01

    Study carried out to obtain some notion of the initial phasing and interactive effects among some hormones known to be responsive to vibration stress. Sprague-Dawley derived rats were exposed to the acute effects of confinement and confinement with lateral (plus or minus G sub y) vibration. The coincident monitoring of glucose, insulin, growth hormone, and corticosterone plasma levels, during and immediately subsequent to exposure to brief low level vibration, exhibits the effects of inhibition of insulin release by epinephrine. The ability of insulin (IRI) to return rapidly to basal levels, from appreciably depressed levels during vibration, in the face of elevated levels of glucose is also shown. Corticosterone responds with almost equal rapidity, but in opposite phase to the IRI. The immuno-assayable growth hormone (IGH) dropped from a basal level of 32 ng/ml to 7.3 ng/ml immediately subsequent to vibration and remained at essentially that level throughout the experiment (60 min). Whether these levels represent a real fall in the rat or whether they merely follow the immuno-logically deficient form is still in question.

  12. Determinants of fatigue after first-ever ischemic stroke during acute phase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Shan Wang

    Full Text Available Fatigue after stroke is common and has a negative impact on rehabilitation and survival. However, its pathogenesis and contributing factors remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing the occurrence of fatigue after first-ever ischemic stroke in acute phase.We examined 265 consecutive patients with first-ever ischemic stroke during acute phase (within 2 weeks in two tertiary stroke care hospitals in Henan, China. We documented patients' demographic and clinical characteristics through face-to-face interviews using structured questionnaires and reviews of medical records. Post-stroke fatigue was defined as a score of ≥4 using the Fatigue Severity Scale. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine post-stroke fatigue in relation to socio-demographic, lifestyle, clinical characteristics and family function.About 40% first-ever ischemic stroke patients experienced post-stroke fatigue in acute phase. Post-stroke fatigue was associated with lack of exercise before stroke (adjusted odds ratio 4.01, 95% CI 1.95-8.24, family dysfunction (2.63, 1.20-5.80, depression (2.39, 1.02-5.58, the presence of pre-stroke fatigue (4.89, 2.13-11.21, use of sedative medications (4.14, 1.58-10.88, coronary heart disease (3.38, 1.46-7.79 and more severe Modified Rankin Scale (2.55, 1.65-3.95.The causes of post-stroke fatigue are multifaceted. More physical exercise, improving family function, reducing depression and appropriate use of sedative medications may be helpful in preventing post-stroke fatigue.

  13. Value of dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI in the acute phase of transient global amnesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Förster

    Full Text Available Transient global amnesia (TGA is a transitory, short-lasting neurological disorder characterized by a sudden onset of antero- and retrograde amnesia. Perfusion abnormalities in TGA have been evaluated mainly by use of positron emission tomography (PET or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. In the present study we explore the value of dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI in TGA in the acute phase.From a MRI report database we identified TGA patients who underwent MRI including PWI in the acute phase and compared these to control subjects. Quantitative perfusion maps (cerebral blood flow (CBF and volume (CBV were generated and analyzed by use of Signal Processing In NMR-Software (SPIN. CBF and CBV values in subcortical brain regions were assessed by use of VOI created in FIRST, a model-based segmentation tool in the Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain (FMRIB Software Library (FSL.Five TGA patients were included (2 men, 3 women. On PWI, no relevant perfusion alterations were found by visual inspection in TGA patients. Group comparisons for possible differences between TGA patients and control subjects showed significant lower rCBF values bilaterally in the hippocampus, in the left thalamus and globus pallidus as well as bilaterally in the putamen and the left caudate nucleus. Correspondingly, significant lower rCBV values were observed bilaterally in the hippocampus and the putamen as well as in the left caudate nucleus. Group comparisons for possible side differences in rCBF and rCBV values in TGA patients revealed a significant lower rCBV value in the left caudate nucleus.Mere visual inspection of PWI is not sufficient for the assessment of perfusion changes in TGA in the acute phase. Group comparisons with healthy control subjects might be useful to detect subtle perfusion changes on PWI in TGA patients. However, this should be confirmed in larger data sets and serial PWI

  14. Hypocortisolism in noncomatose patients during the acute phase of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanterna, Luigi A; Spreafico, Veronica; Gritti, Paolo; Prodam, Flavia; Signorelli, Antonio; Biroli, Francesco; Aimaretti, Gianluca

    2013-10-01

    Hypopituitarism represents a common long-term complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The incidence of hypocortisolism may be higher during the acute phase of SAH. Although hypocortisolism may be harmful in critically ill SAH patients, data are still lacking. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the incidence of hypocortisolism during the acute phase of SAH (15 days). Secondary objectives included an analysis of the relationship between hypocortisolism and outcome and the computation of the cortisol-time secretion curve. Clinical data of a consecutive series of 26 noncomatose patients with aneurysmal SAH were collected prospectively. The sample size was calculated considering an expected proportion of hypocortisolism of 30%, a confidence level of 95%, and a total width of confidence interval of 0.35. The definition of hypocortisolism (as taken from a statement from the critical care medicine task forces) includes random total cortisol Hypocortisolism was diagnosed in 11 patients (42.3%). Cortisol increment after stimulation test was always >9 μg/dl, suggesting a hypothalamic-pituitary impairment. Hypocortisolism was independently associated with a higher risk of poor outcome (P = .046) even after adjusting for age and Hunt and Hess grade. The cortisol-time secretion curve showed a peak at day 5 and a minimum at day 8. The peak at day 5 correlated with the risk of delayed cerebral ischemia (P = .001), and the cortisol concentration slope between days 1 and 8 correlated with the risk of poor outcome (P = .033). Patients with SAH are at high risk of secondary hypocortisolism during the first 15 days after bleeding. Hypocortisolism independently increases the risk of poor outcome. The acute phase of hypothalamo-pituitary dysfunction, as reflected by an abnormal day-by-day cortisol secretion pattern, may affect the risk of delayed cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Thromboembolism in the Sub-Acute Phase of Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belci, Maurizio; Van Middendorp, Joost J; Al Halabi, Ahmed; Meagher, Tom M

    2016-01-01

    To review the evidence of thromboembolism incidence and prophylaxis in the sub-acute phase of spinal cord injury (SCI) 3–6 months post injury. All observational and experimental studies with any length of follow-up and no limitations on language or publication status published up to March 2015 were included. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion and extracted data. Outcomes studied were incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the sub-acute phase of SCI. The secondary outcome was type of thromboprophylaxis. Our search identified 4305 references and seven articles that met the inclusion criteria. Five papers reported PE events and three papers reported DVT events in the sub-acute phase of SCI. Studies were heterogeneous in populations, design and outcome reporting, therefore a meta-analysis was not performed. The included studies report a PE incidence of 0.5%–6.0% and DVT incidence of 2.0%–8.0% in the sub-acute phase of SCI. Thromboprophylaxis was poorly reported. Spinal patients continue to have a significant risk of PE and DVT after the acute period of their injury. Clinicians are advised to have a low threshold for suspecting venous thromboembolism in the sub-acute phase of SCI and to continue prophylactic anticoagulation therapy for a longer period of time.

  16. Prestimulation phase predicts the TMS-evoked response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Bornali; Johnson, Jeffrey S; Postle, Bradley R

    2014-10-15

    Prestimulation oscillatory phase and power in particular frequency bands predict perception of at-threshold visual stimuli and of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-induced phosphenes. These effects may be due to changes in cortical excitability, such that certain ranges of power and/or phase values result in a state in which a particular brain area is more receptive to input, thereby biasing behavior. However, the effects of trial-by-trial fluctuations in phase and power of ongoing oscillations on the brain's electrical response to TMS itself have thus far not been addressed. The present study adopts a combined TMS and electroencepalography (EEG) approach to determine whether the TMS-evoked response is sensitive to momentary fluctuations in prestimulation phase and/or power in different frequency bands. Specifically, TMS was applied to superior parietal lobule while subjects performed a short-term memory task. Results showed that the prestimulation phase, particularly within the beta (15-25 Hz) band, predicted pulse-by-pulse variations in the global mean field amplitude. No such relationship was observed between prestimulation power and the global mean field amplitude. Furthermore, TMS-evoked power in the beta band fluctuated with prestimulation phase in the beta band in a manner that differed from spontaneous brain activity. These effects were observed in areas at and distal to the stimulation site. Together, these results confirm the idea that fluctuating phase of ongoing neuronal oscillations create "windows of excitability" in the brain, and they give insight into how TMS interacts with ongoing brain activity on a pulse-by-pulse basis.

  17. [Antipsychotic Treatment of the Adult Patient in the Acute Phase of Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana; Gómez Restrepo, Carlos; García Valencia, Jenny; Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo; de la Hoz, Ana María; Arenas, Álvaro; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of different antipsychotic drugs in the management of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in the acute phase. To formulate evidence-based recommendations on the antipsychotic (AP) drug management strategies for the treatment of the adult diagnosed with schizophrenia in the acute phase. Clinical practice guidelines were prepared, using the guidelines of the Methodology Guide of the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, in order to identify, synthesise, and evaluate the evidence and formulate recommendations as regards the management and follow-up of adult patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. The evidence of the NICE 82 guideline was adopted and updated, which answered the question on the management of the acute phase of adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The evidence and its level were presented to the Guideline Development Group (GDG) in order to formulate recommendations following the methodology proposed by the GRADE approach. Clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, ziprasidone, amisulpride, paliperidone, haloperidol, quetiapine, and aripiprazole were more effective than placebo for the majority of psychotic symptoms and the abandonment of treatment, but asenapine was not. Paliperidone, risperidone, quetiapine, clozapine, and olanzapine showed significant increases in weight compared to placebo. Haloperidol, risperidone, ziprasidone, and paliperidone had a higher risk of extrapyramidal symptoms than placebo. There was a significant risk of sedation or drowsiness with, risperidone, haloperidol, ziprasidone, quetiapine, olanzapine, and clozapine in the comparisons with placebo. Of the results of the comparisons between AP, it was shown that clozapine and paliperidone had a clinically significant effect compared to haloperidol and quetiapine, respectively. Olanzapine and risperidone had a lower risk of abandoning the treatment in general, and due to adverse reactions in two comparisons of each one, haloperidol was the

  18. Control of lipopolysaccharide-high density lipoprotein binding by acute phase protein(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, P S; Ulevitch, R J

    1983-10-01

    When Salmonella minnesota R595 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is mixed with serum, the LPS eventually forms a complex with high density lipoprotein (HDL). Complex formation is conveniently followed by CsCl equilibrium density gradient centrifugation. When mixing 10 micrograms LPS with normal rabbit serum (NRS) at 37 degrees C in the presence of 20 mM EDTA, the half-life for LPS binding to HDL is typically 2 to 3 min. When the same experiment is performed with the use of acute phase rabbit serum (APRS; collected 24 hr post-induction with silver nitrate), the half-life for LPS binding to HDL is typically 40 to 100 min. Thus LPS binding to HDL occurs some 20- to 40-fold slower in APRS than in NRS. Two other phenomena have been found, the time dependencies of which correlate well with the time dependency of LPS binding to HDL in APRS. If LPS-APRS reaction mixtures are cooled to 4 degrees C shortly after mixing and are dialyzed against 2.5 mM HEPES, 15 mM NaCl, pH 7.4 buffer, LPS is recovered in the washed precipitates ("euglobulin precipitate") if, and only if, the LPS-HDL binding reaction is not complete. The amount of LPS in the precipitate correlates well with the amount of LPS that has not bound to HDL. The second phenomenon we observe is that the LPS-containing euglobulin precipitate prepared from LPS-acute phase serum reaction mixtures shortly after mixing also contains a protein, gp60, the concentration of which in the euglobulin precipitate correlates well with the amount of LPS in the precipitate. Thus three phenomena are kinetically well correlated in APRS: the degree of binding of LPS to HDL, the degree of appearance of LPS in a euglobulin fraction, and the concentration of protein gp60 in the euglobulin fraction. We were unable to precipitate gp60 from APRS in the absence of LPS, from APRS after the LPS has fully bound to HDL, or from normal serum in the presence or absence of LPS. The known properties of gp60 are not reminiscent of any other known acute phase

  19. The Acute-Phase Proteins Serum Amyloid A and C Reactive Protein in Transudates and Exudates

    OpenAIRE

    Okino, Alessandra M; Cristiani Bürger; Cardoso, Jefferson R.; Edson L. Lavado; Lotufo, Paulo A; Ana Campa

    2006-01-01

    The distinction between exudates and transudates is very important in the patient management. Here we evaluate whether the acute-phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA), in comparison with C reactive protein (CRP) and total protein (TP), can be useful in this discrimination. CRP, SAA, and TP were determined in 36 exudate samples (27 pleural and 9 ascitic) and in 12 transudates (9 pleural and 3 ascitic). CRP, SAA, and TP were measured. SAA present in the exudate corresponded to 10% of the amount f...

  20. Isoforms of human C4b-binding protein. II. Differential modulation of the C4BPA and C4BPB genes by acute phase cytokines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, O.C.; Sanchez-Corral, P.; Rodriguez de Cordoba, S. [Center for Biological Investigations (CSIC), Velazquez, Madrid (Spain)

    1995-10-15

    Human C4b-binding protein (C4BP) controls activation of the complement system and inactivates the anticoagulant vitamin K-dependent protein S using two distinct polypeptides known as C4BP{alpha} and C4BP{beta}, respectively. C4BP presents three isoforms, {alpha}7{beta}1, {alpha}7{beta}0, and {alpha}6{beta}1, the proportion of which depends on the relative levels of C4BP{alpha} and C4BP{beta}. To better understand the regulation of C4BP during the acute phase response we analyzed the C4BP isoforms in 23 serial samples of acute phase patients and characterized the effect of various acute phase cytokines on the expression of the C4BPA and C4BPB genes using Hep3B cells. We show that the elevation of C4BP during acute phase response leads to changes in the proportion of the C4BP isoforms. However, there are striking differences among acute phase individuals. Some of them present a pattern of induction that primarily affects the {alpha}7{beta}0 isoform, whereas others present the opposite situation, increasing the C4BP{beta}-containing isoforms. In vitro studies demonstrate that IL-6, IL-1{beta}, and INF-{gamma} increase the levels of both C4BP{alpha} and C4BP{beta}-mRNAs, whereas TNF-{alpha} down-regulates these mRNAs. INF-{gamma} shows, in addition, a differential effect on the C4BP{alpha} and C4BP{beta}-mRNAs. Differential modulation of the C4BPA and C4BPB genes has been postulated as an efficient mechanism to maintain steady concentrations of C4BP{beta} when C4BP is induced. A synergistic 10-fold induction of C4BP{alpha}-mRNA, but a marginal increase of C4BP{beta}-mRNA, was observed when INF-{gamma} was used together with TNF-{alpha}, suggesting that association of these cytokines is critical to avoid elevation of C4BP{beta} during the acute phase induction of C4BP. 33 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Mass-spectrometric identification of T-kininogen I/thiostatin as an acute-phase inflammatory protein suppressed by curcumin and capsaicin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina Joe

    Full Text Available Curcumin and capsaicin are dietary xenobiotics with well-documented anti-inflammatory properties. Previously, the beneficial effect of these spice principles in lowering chronic inflammation was demonstrated using a rat experimental model for arthritis. The extent of lowering of arthritic index by the spice principles was associated with a significant shift in macrophage function favoring the reduction of pro-inflammatory molecules such as reactive oxygen species and production and release of anti-inflammatory metabolites of arachidonic acid. Beyond the cellular effects on macrophage function, oral administration of curcumin and capsaicin caused alterations in serum protein profiles of rats injected with adjuvant to develop arthritis. Specifically, a 72 kDa acidic glycoprotein, GpA72, which was elevated in pre-arthritic rats, was significantly lowered by feeding either curcumin or capsaicin to the rats. Employing the tandem mass spectrometric approach for direct sequencing of peptides, here we report the identification of GpA72 as T-kininogen I also known as Thiostatin. Since T-kininogen I is an early acute-phase protein, we additionally tested the efficiency of curcumin and capsaicin to mediate the inflammatory response in an acute phase model. The results demonstrate that curcumin and capsaicin lower the acute-phase inflammatory response, the molecular mechanism for which is, in part, mediated by pathways associated with the lowering of T-kininogen I.

  2. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on motor response inhibition: An ERP study using the stop-signal task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Heng Chu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Acute exercise has a selective and beneficial effect on cognitive function, specifically affecting the motor response inhibition aspect of executive function. Furthermore, acute exercise predominately impacts later stages of information processing during motor response inhibition, which may lead to an increase in attentional resource allocation and confer the ability to successfully withhold a response to achieve motor response inhibition.

  3. Trypanosoma cruzi: dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and immune response during the chronic phase of the experimental Chagas' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Leony Cristina; Santello, Fabricia Helena; Del Vecchio Filipin, Marina; Brazão, Vânia; Caetano, Luana Naiara; Toldo, Miriam Paula Alonso; Caldeira, Jerri C; do Prado Júnior, José Clóvis

    2009-07-07

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has long been considered as a precursor for many steroid hormones. It also enhances the immune responses against a wide range of viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens. The aims of this work were to evaluate the influences of exogenous DHEA treatment on Wistar rats infected with the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi during the acute and its influence on the chronic phase of infection. Animals were subcutaneous treated with 40 mg/kg body weight/day of DHEA. DHEA treatment promoted increased lymphoproliferative responses as well as enhanced concentrations of NO and IL-12. So, we point in the direction that our results validate the utility of the use of DHEA as an alternative therapy candidate against T. cruzi.

  4. Potential of acute phase proteins as predictor of postpartum uterine infections during transition period and its regulatory mechanism in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Manimaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the various systemic reactions against infection or injury, the acute phase response is the cascade of reaction and mostly coordinated by cytokines-mediated acute phase proteins (APPs production. Since APPs are sensitive innate immune molecules, they are useful for early detection of inflammation in bovines and believed to be better discriminators than routine hematological parameters. Therefore, the possibility of using APPs as a diagnostic and prognostic marker of inflammation in major bovine health disorders including postpartum uterine infection has been explored by many workers. In this review, we discussed specifically importance of postpartum uterine infection, the role of energy balance in uterine infections and potential of APPs as a predictor of postpartum uterine infections during the transition period and its regulatory mechanism in dairy cattle.

  5. Evaluation of the Phase-Dependent Rhythm Control of Human Walking Using Phase Response Curves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Funato

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Humans and animals control their walking rhythms to maintain motion in a variable environment. The neural mechanism for controlling rhythm has been investigated in many studies using mechanical and electrical stimulation. However, quantitative evaluation of rhythm variation in response to perturbation at various timings has rarely been investigated. Such a characteristic of rhythm is described by the phase response curve (PRC. Dynamical simulations of human skeletal models with changing walking rhythms (phase reset described a relation between the effective phase reset on stability and PRC, and phase reset around touch-down was shown to improve stability. A PRC of human walking was estimated by pulling the swing leg, but such perturbations hardly influenced the stance leg, so the relation between the PRC and walking events was difficult to discuss. This research thus examines human response to variations in floor velocity. Such perturbation yields another problem, in that the swing leg is indirectly (and weakly perturbed, so the precision of PRC decreases. To solve this problem, this research adopts the weighted spike-triggered average (WSTA method. In the WSTA method, a sequential pulsed perturbation is used for stimulation. This is in contrast with the conventional impulse method, which applies an intermittent impulsive perturbation. The WSTA method can be used to analyze responses to a large number of perturbations for each sequence. In the experiment, perturbations are applied to walking subjects by rapidly accelerating and decelerating a treadmill belt, and measured data are analyzed by the WSTA and impulse methods. The PRC obtained by the WSTA method had clear and stable waveforms with a higher temporal resolution than those obtained by the impulse method. By investigation of the rhythm transition for each phase of walking using the obtained PRC, a rhythm change that extends the touch-down and mid-single support phases is found to occur.

  6. Evaluation of the Phase-Dependent Rhythm Control of Human Walking Using Phase Response Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funato, Tetsuro; Yamamoto, Yuki; Aoi, Shinya; Imai, Takashi; Aoyagi, Toshio; Tomita, Nozomi; Tsuchiya, Kazuo

    2016-05-01

    Humans and animals control their walking rhythms to maintain motion in a variable environment. The neural mechanism for controlling rhythm has been investigated in many studies using mechanical and electrical stimulation. However, quantitative evaluation of rhythm variation in response to perturbation at various timings has rarely been investigated. Such a characteristic of rhythm is described by the phase response curve (PRC). Dynamical simulations of human skeletal models with changing walking rhythms (phase reset) described a relation between the effective phase reset on stability and PRC, and phase reset around touch-down was shown to improve stability. A PRC of human walking was estimated by pulling the swing leg, but such perturbations hardly influenced the stance leg, so the relation between the PRC and walking events was difficult to discuss. This research thus examines human response to variations in floor velocity. Such perturbation yields another problem, in that the swing leg is indirectly (and weakly) perturbed, so the precision of PRC decreases. To solve this problem, this research adopts the weighted spike-triggered average (WSTA) method. In the WSTA method, a sequential pulsed perturbation is used for stimulation. This is in contrast with the conventional impulse method, which applies an intermittent impulsive perturbation. The WSTA method can be used to analyze responses to a large number of perturbations for each sequence. In the experiment, perturbations are applied to walking subjects by rapidly accelerating and decelerating a treadmill belt, and measured data are analyzed by the WSTA and impulse methods. The PRC obtained by the WSTA method had clear and stable waveforms with a higher temporal resolution than those obtained by the impulse method. By investigation of the rhythm transition for each phase of walking using the obtained PRC, a rhythm change that extends the touch-down and mid-single support phases is found to occur.

  7. Leukocytosis in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Nakayama, H

    1999-01-01

    Leukocytosis is a common finding in the acute phase of stroke. A detrimental effect of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has been suggested, and trials aiming at reducing the leukocyte response in acute stroke are currently being conducted. However, the influence of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has...

  8. Chikungunya Disease: Infection-Associated Markers from the Acute to the Chronic Phase of Arbovirus-Induced Arthralgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis-Maguiraga, Laurence; Noret, Marion; Brun, Sonia; Le Grand, Roger; Gras, Gabriel; Roques, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    At the end of 2005, an outbreak of fever associated with joint pain occurred in La Réunion. The causal agent, chikungunya virus (CHIKV), has been known for 50 years and could thus be readily identified. This arbovirus is present worldwide, particularly in India, but also in Europe, with new variants returning to Africa. In humans, it causes a disease characterized by a typical acute infection, sometimes followed by persistent arthralgia and myalgia lasting months or years. Investigations in the La Réunion cohort and studies in a macaque model of chikungunya implicated monocytes-macrophages in viral persistence. In this Review, we consider the relationship between CHIKV and the immune response and discuss predictive factors for chronic arthralgia and myalgia by providing an overview of current knowledge on chikungunya pathogenesis. Comparisons of data from animal models of the acute and chronic phases of infection, and data from clinical series, provide information about the mechanisms of CHIKV infection–associated inflammation, viral persistence in monocytes-macrophages, and their link to chronic signs. PMID:22479654

  9. Measurement of infinitesimal phase response curves from noisy real neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Keisuke; Omori, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Shigeo; Miyakawa, Hiroyoshi; Okada, Masato; Aonishi, Toru

    2011-10-01

    We sought to measure infinitesimal phase response curves (iPRCs) from rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. It is difficult to measure iPRCs from noisy neurons because of the dilemma that either the linearity or the signal-to-noise ratio of responses to external perturbations must be sacrificed. To overcome this difficulty, we used an iPRC measurement model formulated as the Langevin phase equation (LPE) to extract iPRCs in the Bayesian scheme. We then simultaneously verified the effectiveness of the measurement model and the reliability of the estimated iPRCs by demonstrating that LPEs with the estimated iPRCs could predict the stochastic behaviors of the same neurons, whose iPRCs had been measured, when they were perturbed by periodic stimulus currents. Our results suggest that the LPE is an effective model for real oscillating neurons and that many theoretical frameworks based on it may be applicable to real nerve systems.

  10. Response of phase Doppler anemometer systems to nonspherical droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaschke, N; Gouesbet, G; Gréhan, G; Mignon, H; Tropea, C

    1998-04-01

    The Phase Doppler Anemometer (PDA) technique measures particle diameter assuming sphericity. A means for detecting nonsphericity has usually been implemented in commercial PDA systems to avoid sizing errors if the sphericity assumption is not valid. In the present research the response of standard and planar PDA systems is examined experimentally in more detail by passing nonspherical droplets of known shape through the measurement volume. The effectiveness of nonsphericity detection schemes can be evaluated, and furthermore the influence of the droplet oscillations on the frequency and phase evolution of individual signals can be quantified. The light scattering from such particles has been simulated by using geometric optics, and the computed response of standard and planar PDA systems agrees well with the experimental observations. We conclude with some remarks concerning the possibilities of characterizing the nonsphericity with PDA systems.

  11. Prenatal and acute cocaine exposure affects neural responses and habituation to visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Elizabeth; Kopotiyenko, Konstantin; Zhdanova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants have many effects on visual function, from adverse following acute and prenatal exposure to therapeutic on attention deficit. To determine the impact of prenatal and acute cocaine exposure on visual processing, we studied neuronal responses to visual stimuli in two brain regions of a transgenic larval zebrafish expressing the calcium indicator GCaMP-HS. We found that both red light (LF) and dark (DF) flashes elicited similar responses in the optic tectum neuropil (TOn), while the dorsal telencephalon (dTe) responded only to LF. Acute cocaine (0.5 μM) reduced neuronal responses to LF in both brain regions but did not affect responses to DF. Repeated stimulus presentation (RSP) led to habituation of dTe neurons to LF. Acute cocaine prevented habituation. TOn habituated to DF, but not LF, and DF habituation was not modified by cocaine. Remarkably, prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) prevented the effects of acute cocaine on LF response amplitude and habituation later in development in both brain regions, but did not affect DF responses. We discovered that, in spite of similar neural responses to LF and DF in the TO (superior colliculus in mammals), responses to LF are more complex, involving dTe (homologous to the cerebral cortex), and are more vulnerable to cocaine. Our results demonstrate that acute cocaine exposure affects visual processing differentially by brain region, and that PCE modifies zebrafish visual processing in multiple structures in a stimulus-dependent manner. These findings are in accordance with the major role that the optic tectum and cerebral cortex play in sustaining visual attention, and support the hypothesis that modification of these areas by PCE may be responsible for visual deficits noted in humans. This model offers new methodological approaches for studying the adverse and therapeutic effects of psychostimulants on attention, and for the development of new pharmacological interventions.

  12. Prenatal and acute cocaine exposure affects neural responses and habituation to visual stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Brooke Riley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulants have many effects on visual function, from adverse, following acute and prenatal exposure to therapeutic, on attention deficit. To determine the impact of prenatal and acute cocaine exposure on visual processing, we studied neuronal responses to visual stimuli in two brain regions of a transgenic larval zebrafish expressing the calcium indicator GCaMP-HS. We found that both red light (LF and dark (DF flashes elicited similar responses in the optic tectum neuropil (TOn, while the dorsal telencephalon (dTe responded only to LF. Acute cocaine (0.5 μM reduced neuronal responses to LF in both brain regions but did not affect responses to DF. Repeated stimulus presentation led to habituation of dTe neurons to LF. Acute cocaine prevented habituation. TOn habituated to DF, but not LF, and DF habituation was not modified by cocaine. Remarkably, prenatal cocaine exposure prevented the effects of acute cocaine on LF response amplitude and habituation later in development in both brain regions, but did not affect DF responses. We discovered that, in spite of similar neural responses to LF and DF in the TO (superior colliculus in mammals, responses to LF are more complex, involving dTe (homologous to the cerebral cortex, and are more vulnerable to cocaine. Our results demonstrate that acute cocaine exposure affects visual processing differentially by brain region, and that prenatal cocaine exposure modifies zebrafish visual processing in multiple structures in a stimulus-dependent manner. These findings are in accordance with the major role that the optic tectum and cerebral cortex play in sustaining visual attention, and support the hypothesis that modification of these areas by prenatal cocaine exposure may be responsible for visual deficits noted in humans. This model offers new methodological approaches for studying the adverse and therapeutic effects of psychostimulants on attention, and for the development of new pharmacological

  13. Human Adolescent Phase Response Curves to Bright White Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Stephanie J; Eastman, Charmane I

    2017-08-01

    Older adolescents are particularly vulnerable to circadian misalignment and sleep restriction, primarily due to early school start times. Light can shift the circadian system and could help attenuate circadian misalignment; however, a phase response curve (PRC) to determine the optimal time for receiving light and avoiding light is not available for adolescents. We constructed light PRCs for late pubertal to postpubertal adolescents aged 14 to 17 years. Participants completed 2 counterbalanced 5-day laboratory sessions after 8 or 9 days of scheduled sleep at home. Each session included phase assessments to measure the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) before and after 3 days of free-running through an ultradian light-dark (wake-sleep) cycle (2 h dim [~20 lux] light, 2 h dark). In one session, intermittent bright white light (~5000 lux; four 20-min exposures) was alternated with 10 min of dim room light once per day for 3 consecutive days. The time of light varied among participants to cover the 24-h day. For each individual, the phase shift to bright light was corrected for the free-run derived from the other laboratory session with no bright light. One PRC showed phase shifts in response to light start time relative to the DLMO and another relative to home sleep. Phase delay shifts occurred around the hours corresponding to home bedtime. Phase advances occurred during the hours surrounding wake time and later in the afternoon. The transition from delays to advances occurred at the midpoint of home sleep. The adolescent PRCs presented here provide a valuable tool to time bright light in adolescents.

  14. In search of a phase response curve for lithium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Readey, M.A.; Groh, K.R.; Ehret, C.F.

    1987-01-01

    Male rats were free-run, and one day later were exposed to a single, punctate dose of 5 mM LiCl/kg body weight by injection at one of eight equally spaced times throughout the 24-h period. For each of the six days following injection, a separate phase response curve was derived from core-temperature chronograms. Unlike the classical response induced by chronobiotics such as dexamethasone, alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine, and theophylline, statistically significant phase shifts for lithium were observed only on the first day following injection. These induced phase changes were not permanent, but instead were transient. By the sixth day of free-run, all experimental rats had drifted to the control acrophase; i.e., by the end of the experiment, most of the treated rats again had phase and confidence arcs not significantly different from their controls. The confidence arcs of the acrophases of the individual animals on the subsequent days post injection reveal that in this experiment, lithium was transiently dyschronogenic rather than definitively chronobiotic. The results suggest that punctate rather than chronic administration of lithium, followed by strict orthochronal administration of traditional zeitgebers, would be an effective way of restoring circadian synchrony in an internally desynchronized system. 122 refs.

  15. Elastic Properties and Enhanced Piezoelectric Response at Morphotropic Phase Boundaries

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    Francesco Cordero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The search for improved piezoelectric materials is based on the morphotropic phase boundaries (MPB between ferroelectric phases with different crystal symmetry and available directions for the spontaneous polarization. Such regions of the composition x − T phase diagrams provide the conditions for minimal anisotropy with respect to the direction of the polarization, so that the polarization can easily rotate maintaining a substantial magnitude, while the near verticality of the TMPB(x boundary extends the temperature range of the resulting enhanced piezoelectricity. Another consequence of the quasi-isotropy of the free energy is a reduction of the domain walls energies, with consequent formation of domain structures down to nanoscale. Disentangling the extrinsic and intrinsic contributions to the piezoelectricity in such conditions requires a high level of sophistication from the techniques and analyses for studying the structural, ferroelectric and dielectric properties. The elastic characterization is extremely useful in clarifying the phenomenology and mechanisms related to ferroelectric MPBs. The relationship between dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric responses is introduced in terms of relaxation of defects with electric dipole and elastic quadrupole, and extended to the response near phase transitions in the framework of the Landau theory. An account is provided of the anelastic experiments, from torsional pendulum to Brillouin scattering, that provided new important information on ferroelectric MPBs, including PZT, PMN-PT, NBT-BT, BCTZ, and KNN-based systems.

  16. A phase II clinical trial to assess the safety of clonidine in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

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    Karunatilake Harindra

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 2–3 million people are acutely poisoned by organophosphorus pesticides each year, mostly in the developing world. There is a pressing need for new affordable antidotes and clonidine has been shown to be effective in animal studies. Our aim was to determine the safety of clonidine given as an antidote in adult patients presenting with signs or symptoms of acute organophosphate ingestion. Methods This study was a dose finding, open-label, multicentre, phase II trial. Forty eight patients with acute organophosphate poisoning were randomized to receive either clonidine or placebo: Four to receive placebo and twelve to receive clonidine at each dose level. The first dose level was an initial loading dose of 0.15 mg followed by an infusion of 0.5 mg of clonidine over 24 hours. The initial loading dose was increased to 0.3 mg, 0.45 and 0.6 mg. at all dosing levels however the subsequent infusion remained at 0.5 mg of clonidine over 24 hours. Results The baseline characteristics of both groups were similar. The trial was stopped after completion of the 3rd dosing level. At the 1st and 2nd dosing level there were no reported adverse drug reactions. At the 3rd dosing level 5 patients (42% developed significant hypotension during clonidine treatment that responded to intravenous fluids. There were no statistical differences in ventilation rate, pre and post GCS, and mortality rates over all levels. Conclusion Our findings suggest use of moderate doses of clonidine in acute organophosphate poisoning can be used without causing frequent clinical problems but that higher doses are associated with a high incidence of hypotension requiring intervention. Further studies are needed to study the efficacy of clonidine as an antidote in organophosphate poisoning. Trial registration Current Controlled Trial ISRCTN89917816.

  17. ACUTE PHASE PROTEIN AND ELECTROPHORESIS PROTEIN FRACTION VALUES FOR CAPTIVE AMERICAN FLAMINGOS (PHOENICOPTERUS RUBER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delk, Katie W; Wack, Raymund F; Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Kass, Philip H; Cray, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    Protein electrophoresis has recognized applications in determining the health status of various species. While reference intervals for electrophoresis have been determined for psittacine and raptor species, there are none reported for Phoenicopteriformes species. Reference intervals for haptoglobin and protein fractions obtained by electrophoresis were determined for the American flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) based on plasma samples from 39 captive birds. The reference intervals were as follows: haptoglobin, 0.17-0.8 mg/ml; total protein, 3.65-6.38 g/dl; prealbumin, 0.26-1.9 g/dl; albumin, 1.51-3.12 g/dl; α-1 globulin, 0.06-0.38 g/dl; α-2 globulin, 0.17-0.67 g/dl; β globulin, 0.38-1.33 g/dl; γ globulin, 0.26-0.68 g/dl; albumin : globulin ratio, 0.93-2.17. As captive flamingos often suffer from pododermatitis, feet of all flamingos were scored to determine if pododermatitis would be reflected in the acute phase proteins. Spearman rank correlation was performed on each of the protein fractions and pododermatitis scores, and only albumin had a significant correlation. This indicates that albumin, as a negative acute phase protein, may be a marker for this disease process.

  18. Interactions with insulin and dexamethasone in net synthesis of albumin and acute-phase proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    The isolated rat liver perfused for 12 hours at pH 7.10 with a suspension of bovine erythrocytes in Krebs--Ringer bicarbonate buffer containing 3% bovine serum albumin has been used as a test system to study effects of glucagon and of dexamethasone in the presence and absence of insulin on net biosynthesis of rat serum albumin, fibrinogen, ..cap alpha../sub 1/-acid glycoprotein, ..cap alpha../sub 2/-(acute phase) globulin, and haptoglobin. Quantitative measurement of perfusate glucose, amino acid nitrogen, and urea affords a basis for determining net glucose and nitrogen balance in the perfusion system. Although the dose of dexamethasone (total 1.0 ..mu..g) used was insufficient to induce synthesis of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-acute phase globulin, net syntheses of albumin, fibrinogen, ..cap alpha../sub 1/-acid glycoprotein, and haptoglobin were increased. Glucagon given with dexamethasone depressed albumin and haptoglobin synthesis markedly, but not that of fibrinogen and ..cap alpha../sub 1/-acid glycoprotein. Glucagon with dexamethasone markedly enhanced ureogenesis and glycogenolysis and elicited an exaggerated negative nitrogen balance. The unfavorable effects of glucagon on albumin and haptoglobin synthesis and on nitrogen balance were reversed by giving insulin simultaneously. It is emphasized that insulin is essential for positive nitrogen balance.

  19. Association between clinical condition and F-waves changes in the acute phase of stroke

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    Gustavo José Luvizutto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To relate F-waves with clinical and laboratory exams in the acute phase of stroke. Methods Inclusion criteria for this cross-sectional study were: hemiplegia, absence of previous cranial trauma, myopathy, diabetes, alcoholism or other known causes of peripheral neuropathy, and normal sensory and motor conduction. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS score, glycemia, glucosilate hemoglobin, and CPK were obtained at admission by routine blood exams. After hospital admission, the F-wave latencies and persistence were obtained from the deep peroneal nerve using symmetrical techniques. Results Evaluation of 20 individuals – mean age 66 years, 50% male and 85% Caucasian – showed association of F-wave persistence with glycemia (r = 0.71; p < 0.001 and NIHSS categorized (NIHSS 1-7 = 65.0 x NIHSS 9-23 = 100; p = 0.004. Multivariate analysis found only association of F-wave persistence with glycemia β = 0.59 (0.44–0.74; p < 0.001. Conclusion The increase in the persistence of F-waves are associated with hyperglycemia in the acute phase of stroke.

  20. Two opposite extremes of adiposity similarly reduce inflammatory response of antigen-induced acute joint inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, M.C.; Silveira, A.L.; Tavares, L.P.; Rodrigues, D.F.; Loo, F.A.J. van de; Sousa, L.P.; Teixeira, M.M.; Amaral, F.A.; Ferreira, A.V.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Acute inflammation is a normal response of tissue to an injury. During this process, inflammatory mediators are produced and metabolic alterations occur. Adipose tissue is metabolically activated, and upon food consumption, it disrupts the inflammatory response. However, little is known a

  1. Acute effects of cocaine and cannabis on response inhibition in humans: an ERP investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spronk, D.B.; De Bruijn, E.R.; van Wel, J.H.; Ramaekers, J.G.; Verkes, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse has often been associated with alterations in response inhibition in humans. Not much research has examined how the acute effects of drugs modify the neurophysiological correlates of response inhibition, or how these effects interact with individual variation in trait levels of impul

  2. A phase I/II trial of Erlotinib in higher risk myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia after azacitidine failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepot, Sylvain; Boehrer, Simone; Seegers, Valérie; Prebet, Thomas; Beyne-Rauzy, Odile; Wattel, Eric; Delaunay, Jacques; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Hunault, Mathilde; Jourdan, Eric; Chermat, Fatiha; Sebert, Marie; Kroemer, Guido; Fenaux, Pierre; Adès, Lionel

    2014-12-01

    Survival after azacitidine (AZA) failure in higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is poor and new treatment options are needed. Erlotinib, an oral inhibitor of the epidermal-growth-factor-receptor (EGFR), has shown in preclinical models some efficacy in higher risk MDS and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this phase I/II trial, 30 patients received 100mg/day (n=5) or 150mg/day (n=25) of Erlotinib orally after primary or secondary resistance to AZA treatment. Eighteen MDS and 12 AML patients were treated. This outpatient treatment was well tolerated with limited grade III-IV extra hematological toxicities (skin (n=1), and diarrhea (n=3). Response was observed in 6 patients (20%) including 1 complete remission (CR), 1 marrow CR and 4 hematological improvement (2 erythroid and 2 on platelets). Median duration of response was 5 months. Erlotinib appears to induce a significant number of responses in higher risk MDS/AML having failed AZA treatment. Given the good safety profile of Erlotinib, its combination with other drugs could be tested in the future in MDS and AML.

  3. Assessing the utility of the ventilation phase in ventilation-perfusion imaging for acute pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Lars J; Coleman, Ralph E

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to identify patient characteristics that allow the exclusion of the ventilation phase in ventilation-perfusion imaging for the evaluation of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). A total of 500 consecutive ventilation-perfusion reports with an indication for possible acute PE were retrospectively reviewed. Information on ventilation abnormalities, perfusion defects, PIOPED classification, age, sex, chest radiograph results, and presence of respiratory disease was recorded. Patients with moderate and large perfusion defects were analyzed to assess the utility of the ventilation phase on the final PIOPED classification. Moderate (n=39) or large (n=26) perfusion defects were seen in 65 (13%) studies. Of these, 46 studies (70.8%) had defects unmatched on ventilation and three (4.6%) had triple-match defects, resulting in 49 reports (75.4%) classified as intermediate (n=28) or high (n=21) probability for PE. There was a statistically significant association between unmatched defects and a clear chest radiograph (P=0.03) and an association approaching statistical significance with younger age (P=0.05). There was a strong association with respiratory disease (P=0.12) and no association with patient sex (P=0.82). The percentage of studies with unmatched defects increased from 70.8 to 76.7% (33/43, P=0.39) if patients with respiratory disease were excluded, to 82.4% (28/34, P=0.14) if abnormal chest radiographs were excluded, and to 95.7% (22/23, P=0.01) if both were excluded. There may be a subset of patients - younger patients with clear chest radiographs and no respiratory disease - for whom the ventilation phase can be excluded and the determination of a PE is based solely on perfusion abnormalities.

  4. Response Inhibition and Cognitive Appraisal in Clients with Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

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    Abass Abolghasemi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to compare response inhibition and cognitive appraisal in clients with acute stress disorder, clients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and normal individuals .Method:This was a comparative study. The sample consisted of 40 clients with acute stress disorder, 40 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and 40 normal individuals from Mazandaran province selected through convenience sampling method. Data were collected using Composite International Diagnostic Interview, Stroop Color-Word Test, Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory, and the Impact of Event Scale. Results:Results showed that individuals with acute stress disorder are less able to inhibit inappropriate responses and have more impaired cognitive appraisals compared to those with posttraumatic stress disorder. Moreover, results showed that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal explain 75% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and 38% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms .Conclusion:The findings suggest that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal are two variables that influence the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder symptoms. Also, these results have important implications for pathology, prevention, and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder

  5. Pulmonary vascular responses during acute and sustained respiratory alkalosis or acidosis in intact newborn piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J B; Rehorst-Paea, L A; Hoffman, G M; Nelin, L D

    1999-12-01

    Acute alkalosis-induced pulmonary vasodilation and acidosis-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction have been well described, but responses were generally measured within 5-30 min of changing pH. In contrast, several in vitro studies have found that relatively brief periods of sustained alkalosis can enhance, and sustained acidosis can decrease, vascular reactivity. In this study of intact newborn piglets, effects of acute (20 min) and sustained (60-80 min) alkalosis or acidosis on baseline (35% O2) and hypoxic (12% O2) pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were compared with control piglets exposed only to eucapnia. Acute alkalosis decreased hypoxic PVR, but sustained alkalosis failed to attenuate either baseline PVR or the subsequent hypoxic response. Acute acidosis did not significantly increase hypoxic PVR, but sustained acidosis markedly increased both baseline PVR and the subsequent hypoxic response. Baseline PVR was similar in all piglets after resumption of eucapnic ventilation, but the final hypoxic response was greater in piglets previously exposed to alkalosis than in controls. Thus, hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction was not attenuated during sustained alkalosis, but was accentuated during sustained acidosis and after the resumption of eucapnia in alkalosis-treated piglets. Although extrapolation of data from normal piglets to infants and children with pulmonary hypertension must be done with caution, this study suggests that sustained alkalosis may be of limited efficacy in treating acute hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and the risks of pulmonary hypertension must be considered when using ventilator strategies resulting in permissive hypercapnic acidosis.

  6. Donepezil, anti-Alzheimer's disease drug, prevents cardiac rupture during acute phase of myocardial infarction in mice.

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    Mikihiko Arikawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that the chronic intervention in the cholinergic system by donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, plays a beneficial role in suppressing long-term cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI. In comparison with such a chronic effect, however, the acute effect of donepezil during an acute phase of MI remains unclear. Noticing recent findings of a cholinergic mechanism for anti-inflammatory actions, we tested the hypothesis that donepezil attenuates an acute inflammatory tissue injury following MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: In isolated and activated macrophages, donepezil significantly reduced intra- and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9. In mice with MI, despite the comparable values of heart rate and blood pressure, the donepezil-treated group showed a significantly lower incidence of cardiac rupture than the untreated group during the acute phase of MI. Immunohistochemistry revealed that MMP-9 was localized at the infarct area where a large number of inflammatory cells including macrophages infiltrated, and the expression and the enzymatic activity of MMP-9 at the left ventricular infarct area was significantly reduced in the donepezil-treated group. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that donepezil inhibits the MMP-9-related acute inflammatory tissue injury in the infarcted myocardium, thereby reduces the risk of left ventricular free wall rupture during the acute phase of MI.

  7. Responses of Hyalella azteca to acute and chronic microplastic exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Sarah Y; Bruce, Terri F; Bridges, William C; Klaine, Stephen J

    2015-11-01

    Limited information is available on the presence of microplastics in freshwater systems, and even less is known about the toxicological implications of the exposure of aquatic organisms to plastic particles. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of microplastic ingestion on the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca. Hyalella azteca was exposed to fluorescent polyethylene microplastic particles and polypropylene microplastic fibers in individual 250-mL chambers to determine 10-d mortality. In acute bioassays, polypropylene microplastic fibers were significantly more toxic than polyethylene microplastic particles; 10-d lethal concentration 50% values for polyethylene microplastic particles and polypropylene microplastic fibers were 4.64 × 10(4) microplastics/mL and 71.43 microplastics/mL, respectively. A 42-d chronic bioassay using polyethylene microplastic particles was conducted to quantify effects on reproduction, growth, and egestion. Chronic exposure to polyethylene microplastic particles significantly decreased growth and reproduction at the low and intermediate exposure concentrations. During acute exposures to polyethylene microplastic particles, the egestion times did not significantly differ from the egestion of normal food materials in the control; egestion times for polypropylene microplastic fibers were significantly slower than the egestion of food materials in the control. Amphipods exposed to polypropylene microplastic fibers also had significantly less growth. The greater toxicity of microplastic fibers than microplastic particles corresponded with longer residence times for the fibers in the gut. The difference in residence time might have affected the ability to process food, resulting in an energetic effect reflected in sublethal endpoints.

  8. Virtual histology study of atherosclerotic plaque composition in patients with stable angina and acute phase of acute coronary syndromes without ST segment elevation

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    Ivanović Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is the cause of most acute coronary syndromes (ACS. Postmortem studies which compared stable coronary lesions and atherosclerotic plaques in patients who have died because of ACS indicated high lipid-core content as one of the major determinants of plaque vulnerability. Objective. Our primary goal was to assess the potential relations of plaque composition determined by IVUS-VH (Intravascular Ultrasound - Virtual Histology in patients with stable angina and subjects in acute phase of ACS without ST segment elevation. Methods. The study comprised of 40 patients who underwent preintervention IVUS examination. Tissue maps were reconstructed from radio frequency data using IVUS-VH software. Results. We analyzed 53 lesions in 40 patients. Stable angina was diagnosed in 24 patients (29 lesions, while acute phase of ACS without ST elevation was diagnosed in 16 patients (24 lesions. In the patients in acute phase of ACS without ST segment elevation IVUS-VH examination showed a significantly larger area of the necrotic core at the site of minimal lumen area and a larger mean of the necrotic core volume in the entire lesion comparing to stable angina subjects (1.84±0.90 mm2 vs. 0.96±0.69 mm2; p<0.001 and 20.94±15.79 mm3 vs. 11.54±14.15 mm3; p<0.05 respectively. Conclusion. IVUS-VH detected that the necrotic core was significantly larger in atherosclerotic lesions in patients in acute phase of ACS without ST elevation comparing to the stable angina subjects and that it could be considered as a marker of plaque vulnerability.

  9. Menstrual cycle phase effects free testosterone responses to prolonged aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, A R; O'Leary, C B; Hackney, A C

    2015-09-01

    Research has shown that total testosterone (tT) levels in women increase acutely during a prolonged bout of aerobic exercise. Few studies, however, have considered the impact of the menstrual cycle phase on this response or have looked at the biologically active free testosterone (fT) form responses. Therefore, this study examined the fT concentration response independently and as a percentage (fT%) of tT to prolonged aerobic exercise during phases of the menstrual cycle with low estrogen-progesterone (L-EP; i.e., follicular phase) and high estrogen-progesterone (H-EP; i.e., luteal phase). Ten healthy, recreationally trained, eumennorrheic women (X ± SD: age = 20 ± 2 y, mass = 58.7 ± 8.3 kg, body fat = 22.3 ± 4.9 %, VO(2max) = 50.7 ± 9.0 ml/kg/min) participated in a laboratory based study and completed a 60-minute treadmill run during the L-EP and H-EP menstrual phases at ~70% of VO(2max). Blood was drawn prior to (PRE), immediately after (POST) and following 30 minutes of recovery (30POST) with each 60-minute run. During H-EP, there was a significant increase in fT concentrations from PRE to POST (p exercise sampling time. There was, however, a main effect for exercise where fT% POST was a greater proportion of tT than at PRE (p exercise bout; specifically, there being higher levels under H-EP conditions. This suggests more biologically active T is available during exercise in this phase. This response may be a function of the higher core temperatures found with H-EP causing greater sex hormone binding protein release of T, or could be a function of greater degrees of glandular production. Further work is warranted to elucidate the mechanism of this occurrence. It is recommended that researchers examining T responses to exercise in women look at both tT and fT forms in order to have an accurate endocrine assessment in women.

  10. High temporal resolution parametric MRI monitoring of the initial ischemia/reperfusion phase in experimental acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, Andreas; Hentschel, Jan; Fechner, Mandy; Hoff, Uwe; Bubalo, Gordana; Arakelyan, Karen; Cantow, Kathleen; Seeliger, Erdmann; Flemming, Bert; Waiczies, Helmar; Waiczies, Sonia; Schunck, Wolf-Hagen; Dragun, Duska; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2013-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, a consequence of kidney hypoperfusion or temporary interruption of blood flow is a common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). There is an unmet need to better understand the mechanisms operative during the initial phase of ischemic AKI. Non-invasive in vivo parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may elucidate spatio-temporal pathophysiological changes in the kidney by monitoring the MR relaxation parameters T2* and T2, which are known to be sensitive to blood oxygenation. The aim of our study was to establish the technical feasibility of fast continuous T2*/T2 mapping throughout renal I/R. MRI was combined with a remotely controlled I/R model and a segmentation model based semi-automated quantitative analysis. This technique enabled the detailed assessment of in vivo changes in all kidney regions during ischemia and early reperfusion. Significant changes in T2* and T2 were observed shortly after induction of renal ischemia and during the initial reperfusion phase. Our study demonstrated for the first time that continuous and high temporal resolution parametric MRI is feasible for in-vivo monitoring and characterization of I/R induced AKI in rats. This technique may help in the identification of the timeline of key events responsible for development of renal damage in hypoperfusion-induced AKI.

  11. High temporal resolution parametric MRI monitoring of the initial ischemia/reperfusion phase in experimental acute kidney injury.

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    Andreas Pohlmann

    Full Text Available Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury, a consequence of kidney hypoperfusion or temporary interruption of blood flow is a common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI. There is an unmet need to better understand the mechanisms operative during the initial phase of ischemic AKI. Non-invasive in vivo parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI may elucidate spatio-temporal pathophysiological changes in the kidney by monitoring the MR relaxation parameters T2* and T2, which are known to be sensitive to blood oxygenation. The aim of our study was to establish the technical feasibility of fast continuous T2*/T2 mapping throughout renal I/R. MRI was combined with a remotely controlled I/R model and a segmentation model based semi-automated quantitative analysis. This technique enabled the detailed assessment of in vivo changes in all kidney regions during ischemia and early reperfusion. Significant changes in T2* and T2 were observed shortly after induction of renal ischemia and during the initial reperfusion phase. Our study demonstrated for the first time that continuous and high temporal resolution parametric MRI is feasible for in-vivo monitoring and characterization of I/R induced AKI in rats. This technique may help in the identification of the timeline of key events responsible for development of renal damage in hypoperfusion-induced AKI.

  12. A Multiscale Computational Model of the Response of Swine Epidermis After Acute Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaowen; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure from Solar Particle Events can lead to very high skin dose for astronauts on exploration missions outside the protection of the Earth s magnetic field [1]. Assessing the detrimental effects to human skin under such adverse conditions could be predicted by conducting territorial experiments on animal models. In this study we apply a computational approach to simulate the experimental data of the radiation response of swine epidermis, which is closely similar to human epidermis [2]. Incorporating experimentally measured histological and cell kinetic parameters into a multiscale tissue modeling framework, we obtain results of population kinetics and proliferation index comparable to unirradiated and acutely irradiated swine experiments [3]. It is noted the basal cell doubling time is 10 to 16 days in the intact population, but drops to 13.6 hr in the regenerating populations surviving irradiation. This complex 30-fold variation is proposed to be attributed to the shortening of the G1 phase duration. We investigate this radiation induced effect by considering at the sub-cellular level the expression and signaling of TGF-beta, as it is recognized as a key regulatory factor of tissue formation and wound healing [4]. This integrated model will allow us to test the validity of various basic biological rules at the cellular level and sub-cellular mechanisms by qualitatively comparing simulation results with published research, and should lead to a fuller understanding of the pathophysiological effects of ionizing radiation on the skin.

  13. Immunoglobulin G antibody response in children and adults with acute dengue 3 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Susana; Acosta, Nadia; Ruiz, Didye; Calzada, Naifi; Alvarez, Angel M; Guzman, Maria G

    2009-07-01

    Using a serological test, different criteria have been established for classifying a case as primary or secondary dengue virus infection. Considering the dengue epidemiological situation in Cuba, IgG antibody response to dengue virus infection in serum samples from children and adults with a dengue 3 infection, in Havana city during the 2001-2002 epidemic was evaluated. Samples were collected on days 5-7 of fever onset and tested by an ELISA inhibition. A total of 713 serum samples positive for IgM antibody, 93 from children and 620 from adult patients were studied. Serum samples collected from healthy blood donors and patients not infected with dengue were included as controls. An IgG primary infection pattern was observed in sera collected from children, with titers of or =1280 (83.9%), respectively. These results permitted the definition of a primary or secondary case of dengue virus infection in serum samples collected during the acute phase of dengue virus infection.

  14. NANOG Expression as a Responsive Biomarker during Treatment with Hedgehog Signal Inhibitor in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Kakiuchi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway is involved in the maintenance of leukemic stem cell (LSCs populations. PF-0444913 (PF-913 is a novel inhibitor that selectively targets Smoothened (SMO, which regulates the Hh pathway. Treatment with PF-913 has shown promising results in an early phase study of acute myeloid leukemia (AML. However, a detailed mode of action for PF-913 and relevant biomarkers remain to be elucidated. In this study, we examined bone marrow samples derived from AML patients under PF-913 monotherapy. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA revealed that PF-913 treatment affected the self-renewal signature and cell-cycle regulation associated with LSC-like properties. We then focused on the expression of a pluripotency factor, NANOG, because previous reports showed that a downstream effector in the Hh pathway, GLI, directly binds to the NANOG promoter and that the GLI-NANOG axis promotes stemness and growth in several cancers. In this study, we found that a change in NANOG transcripts was closely associated with GLI-target genes and NANOG transcripts can be a responsive biomarker during PF-913 therapy. Additionally, the treatment of AML with PF-913 holds promise, possibly through inducing quiescent leukemia stem cells toward cell cycling.

  15. Circulating FGF23 levels in response to acute changes in plasma Ca(2+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravesen, Eva; Mace, Maria L; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Olgaard, Klaus; Lewin, Ewa

    2014-07-01

    The regulation of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) synthesis and secretion is still incompletely understood. FGF23 is an important regulator of renal phosphate excretion and has regulatory effects on the calciotropic hormones calcitriol and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Calcium (Ca) and phosphate homeostasis are closely interrelated, and it is therefore likely that Ca is involved in FGF23 regulation. It has recently been reported that dietary Ca influenced FGF23 levels, with high Ca increasing FGF23. The mechanism remains to be clarified. It remains unknown whether acute changes in plasma Ca influence FGF23 levels and whether a close relationship, similar that known for Ca and PTH, exists between Ca and FGF23. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine whether acute hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia regulate FGF23 levels in the rat. Acute hypercalcemia was induced by an intravenous Ca infusion and hypocalcemia by infusion of ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) in normal and acutely parathyroidectomized rats. Intact plasma FGF23 and intact plasma PTH and plasma Ca(2+) and phosphate were measured. Acute hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia resulted as expected in adequate PTH secretory responses. Plasma FGF23 levels remained stable at all plasma Ca(2+) levels; acute parathyroidectomy did not affect FGF23 secretion. In conclusion, Ca is not a regulator of acute changes in FGF23 secretion.

  16. Phase response curves for models of earthquake fault dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Franović, Igor; Perc, Matjaz; Klinshov, Vladimir; Nekorkin, Vladimir; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    We systematically study effects of external perturbations on models describing earthquake fault dynamics. The latter are based on the framework of the Burridge-Knopoff spring-block system, including the cases of a simple mono-block fault, as well as the paradigmatic complex faults made up of two identical or distinct blocks. The blocks exhibit relaxation oscillations, which are representative for the stick-slip behavior typical for earthquake dynamics. Our analysis is carried out by determining the phase response curves of first and second order. For a mono-block fault, we consider the impact of a single and two successive pulse perturbations, further demonstrating how the profile of phase response curves depends on the fault parameters. For a homogeneous two-block fault, our focus is on the scenario where each of the blocks is influenced by a single pulse, whereas for heterogeneous faults, we analyze how the response of the system depends on whether the stimulus is applied to the block having a shorter or a ...

  17. Phase response curves for models of earthquake fault dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franović, Igor; Kostić, Srdjan; Perc, Matjaž; Klinshov, Vladimir; Nekorkin, Vladimir; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    We systematically study effects of external perturbations on models describing earthquake fault dynamics. The latter are based on the framework of the Burridge-Knopoff spring-block system, including the cases of a simple mono-block fault, as well as the paradigmatic complex faults made up of two identical or distinct blocks. The blocks exhibit relaxation oscillations, which are representative for the stick-slip behavior typical for earthquake dynamics. Our analysis is carried out by determining the phase response curves of first and second order. For a mono-block fault, we consider the impact of a single and two successive pulse perturbations, further demonstrating how the profile of phase response curves depends on the fault parameters. For a homogeneous two-block fault, our focus is on the scenario where each of the blocks is influenced by a single pulse, whereas for heterogeneous faults, we analyze how the response of the system depends on whether the stimulus is applied to the block having a shorter or a longer oscillation period.

  18. ACCURACY OF RAPID TEST OF STORED ACUTE PHASE SERUM FOR DIAGNOSE JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Subanada

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Japanese encephalitis (JE is common viral encephalitis with high sequele and mortality. With some limitations, there are several diagnostic tool to diagnose of JE. The objecive of this study was to know the accuracy of rapid test of stored acute phase serum for diagnose of JE. We conducted diagnostic test of stored acute phase serum of encephalitis patients with MAC ELISA of cerebrospinal fluid as a gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value NPV, positive likelihood ratio (PLR, negative likelihood ratio (NLR, and post-test probability were calculated. This study found the prevalence of JE was 42.1%, sensitivity 15.7 % (95% CI 9.2 to 22.2%, specificity 95.7% (95% CI 92.1 to 99.3%, PPV 72.7% (95% CI 64.8 to 80.6%, NPV 60.9% (95% CI 52.2 to 69.6%, PLR 3.7, NLR 0.9, and post-test probability was 0.73. We concluded that rapid test of acute phase stored serum was insensitive but specific to diagnose of JE. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  19. Calcium-dependent behavioural responses to acute copper exposure in Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, S.B.; Svendsen, Jon Christian; Aarestrup, Kim;

    2014-01-01

    Using rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, the present study demonstrated that: (1) calcium (Ca) increased the range of copper (Cu) concentrations that O. mykiss avoided; (2) Ca conserved the maintenance of pre-exposure swimming activity during inescapable acute (10 min) Cu exposure. Data showed...... their spontaneous swimming speed, whereas no response was observed in O. mykiss acclimated and tested at high Ca concentration. Collectively, the data support the conclusion that in O. mykiss the behavioural responses to acute Cu exposure are Ca-dependent....

  20. Multidetector row computed tomography of acute pancreatitis: Utility of single portal phase CT scan in short-term follow up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Yongwonn [Department of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, 4-12, Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-729 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee Sun, E-mail: heesun.park@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, 4-12, Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-729 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Jun; Jung, Sung Il; Jeon, Hae Jeong [Department of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, 4-12, Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-729 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the question of whether nonenhanced CT or contrast enhanced portal phase CT can replace multiphasic pancreas protocol CT in short term monitoring in patients with acute pancreatitis. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. From April 2006 to May 2010, a total of 52 patients having acute pancreatitis who underwent initial dual phase multidetector row CT (unenhanced, arterial, and portal phase) at admission and a short term (within 30 days) follow up dual phase CT (mean interval 10.3 days, range 3-28 days) were included. Two abdominal radiologists performed an independent review of three sets of follow up CT images (nonenhanced scan, single portal phase scan, and dual phase scan). Interpretation of each image set was done with at least 2-week interval. Radiologists evaluated severity of acute pancreatitis with regard to pancreatic inflammation, pancreatic necrosis, and extrapancreatic complication, based on the modified CT severity index. Scores of each image set were compared using a paired t-test and interobserver agreement was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient statistics. Results: Mean scores of sum of CT severity index on nonenhanced scan, portal phase scan, and dual phase scan were 5.7, 6.6, and 6.5 for radiologist 1, and 5.0, 5.6, and 5.8 for radiologist 2, respectively. In both radiologists, contrast enhanced scan (portal phase scan and dual phase scan) showed significantly higher severity score compared with that of unenhanced scan (P < 0.05), while portal phase and dual phase scan showed no significant difference each other. The trend was similar regarding pancreatic inflammation and extrapancreatic complications, in which contrast enhanced scans showed significantly higher score compared with those of unenhanced scan, while no significant difference was observed between portal phase scan and dual phase scan. In pancreatic necrosis

  1. Skeletal muscle PGC-1a is required for maintaining an acute LPS-induced TNFa response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jesper; Larsson, Signe; Iversen, Ninna;

    2012-01-01

    Many lifestyle-related diseases are associated with low-grade inflammation and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ¿ coactivator (PGC)-1a has been suggested to be protective against low-grade inflammation. However, whether these anti-inflammatory properties affect acute inflammation...... does not exert anti-inflammatory effects during acute inflammation. Lack of skeletal muscle PGC-1a seems however to impair the acute TNFa response, which may reflect a phenotype more susceptible to infections as also observed in type 2 diabetes patients....... is not known. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the role of muscle PGC-1a in acute inflammation. Quadriceps muscles were removed from 10-week old whole body PGC-1a knockout (KO), muscle specific PGC-1a KO (MKO) and muscle-specific PGC-1a overexpression mice (TG), 2 hours after...

  2. Phase II study of profiromycin vs mitomycin-C utilizing acute intermittent schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, L H; Izbicki, R M; Vaitkevicius, V K

    1976-01-01

    A randomized prosective study of Mitomycin-C and its N-methyl derivative, Porfiromycin, was conducted. Thirty-two patients with disseminated gastrointestinal cancer or other disseminated abdominal adenocarcinoma were treated with Mitomycin-C; 31 patients received Porfiromycin. Both drugs were given by acute intermittent bolus schedule (Mitomucin-C , 22.5 mg/M2 or Porfiromycin, 75 mg/M2 every 6--8 weeks as a single bolus i.v. injection). Eleven patients (34%) who received Mitomycin-C entered into partial remission. In 10 of the 31 patients (32%) receiving Porfiromycin, partial remission occured. Analysis by tumor type demonstrated that in the Mitomycin-C treated group responses occured in 4 of 12 patients with colorectal carcinoma, in 4 of 9 with upper GI cancers, and in 3 of 11 with ovarian cancer. Correspondingly in Porfiromycin group responses occured in 2 of 12 colorectal carcinoma patients, in 3 of 7 upper GI cancer patients, and in 5 of 12 ovarian cancer patients. Both drugs produced significant myelosuppression; however, Porfiromycin toxicity appeared more cumulative. Further clinical trial of Mitomycin in an acute intermittent bolus schedule appears justified.

  3. Acute coagulopathy of trauma: balancing progressive catecholamine induced endothelial activation and damage by fluid phase anticoagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, P I; Ostrowski, S R

    2010-01-01

    .e., the circulating blood and the vascular endothelium. There appears to be a dose-dependency with regards to injury severity and the hemostatic response to trauma evaluated in whole blood by viscoelastic assays like thrombelastography (TEG), changing from normal to hypercoagulable, to hypocoagulable and finally......Acute coagulopathy of trauma predicts a poor clinical outcome. Tissue trauma activates the sympathoadrenal system resulting in high circulating levels of catecholamines that influence hemostasis dose-dependently through immediate effects on the two major compartments of hemostasis, i......, is an evolutionary developed response that counterbalances the injury and catecholamine induced endothelial activation and damage. Given this, the rise in circulating catecholamines in trauma patients may favor a switch from hyper- to hypocoagulability in the blood to keep the progressively more procoagulant...

  4. Behavioral and neurochemical changes in response to acute stressors: influence of previous chronic exposure to immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, O; Campmany, L; Gil, M; Armario, A

    1992-07-01

    The effect of daily (2 h) exposure to immobilization (IMO) for 15 days on the behavioral and neurochemical responses of adult male rats to acute stress caused by 2-h IMO or 2-h tail-shock was studied. The brain areas studied were frontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, midbrain, and pons plus medulla. Chronic exposure to IMO did not alter noradrenaline (NA), 3-methoxy,4-hydroxyphenyletileneglycol-SO4 (MHPG-SO4), serotonin, or 5-hydroxindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations in any brain area as measured approximately 20 h after the last exposure to IMO. Exposure to behavioral tests did not modify neurochemical variables except NA levels in the hypothalamus of nonchronically stressed (control) rats. Both exposure to 2-h IMO or 2-h shock significantly decreased NA levels in hypothalamus and midbrain of nonchronically stressed rats. These decreases in response to the two acute stressors were not observed in chronically stressed rats. However, MHPG-SO4 levels increased to the same extent in control and chronically stressed rats after exposure to the acute stressors. Likewise, increased 5-HIAA concentrations observed in response to acute stressors were similar in control and chronically stressed rats. The inhibition of activity (areas crossed and rearing) in the holeboard caused by acute IMO was less marked in rats previously exposed to the same stressor than in control rats, but the response to shock was similar. In the forced swim test, acute IMO decreased struggling in control rats but tended to increase it in chronically stressed rats. The response to shock followed the same pattern as that to IMO, although it was slight.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Global aphasia as a predictor of mortality in the acute phase of a first stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F F Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To establish whether vascular aphasic syndromes can predict stroke outcomes. METHOD: Thirty-seven adults were evaluated for speech and language within 72 hours after a single first-ever ischemic brain lesion, in blind association to CT and/or MR. RESULTS: Speech or language disabilities were found in seven (87.5% of the eight deceased patients and twenty-six (89.7% of the twenty-nine survivors. Global aphasia was identified in eleven patients, all with left hemisphere lesions (nine mute; five deceased, consisting on a risk factor for death in the acute stroke phase (ρ=0.022. Age (z=1.65; ρ>0.09, thrombolysis (ρ=0.591, infarct size (ρ=0.076 and side (ρ=0.649 did not significantly influence survival. Absence of aphasia did not predict a better evolution, regardless of the affected hemisphere. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was similar for all patient groups. CONCLUSION: Global aphasia in acute stroke can adversely affect prognosis, translated into impairment of dominant perisylvian vascular territories, with mutism as an important semiological element.

  6. [Glycosylation profile of selected acute phase proteins in children with chronic tonsillitis and allergic symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieska, Magdalena; Steiner, Iwona; Pucher, Beata; Grzegorowski, Michał; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2006-01-01

    Acute phase proteins may be regarded as laboratory markers of inflammatory processes of various origin, but they also play several important biological roles. As majority of them are glycoproteins alterations in glycosylations profiles form additional sign of disturbances in the cytokines network during inflammation and allow to distinguish between acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. A group of 25 children, aged from 6 to 13 years, admitted due to tonsillectomy was examined using skin tests towards specific allergens. Fifteen children out of the whole group showed reaction to pollens, whereas in ten children no allergen was detected despite clear allergic symptoms. In sera samples from every child concentrations of C-reactive protein, alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and alpha1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) were measured using rocket immunoelectrophoresis acc. to Laurell, and glycosylations profiles of AGP and ACT were determined, using crossed affino-immunoelectrophoresis acc. to Bøg-Hansen. Lower concentration of AGP and higher of ACT was shown for children allergic to pollens. Glycosylation profile of both proteins was altered towards higher reactivity with ConA for children allergic to pollens, whereas rather chronic image was observed in children allergic to unknown allergen. The latter image was similar to previously described in children with food allergies. The presence of allergic reaction may alter the cytokine network activity in children, thus affecting also the immune status, independently from chronic inflammatory process in tonsillitis.

  7. [Myocardial infarct after the acute phase--the risk of arrhythmia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, S G

    1989-03-01

    Upon the development, divulgation and improvement of the Ambulatory Electrocardiographic Monitoring (AEM) techniques, the problem of the arrhythmias after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has acquired a new acuteness. Its importance becomes clearly evident from the fact today recognized that about 10% of the patients die within the first year after AMI and that the great majority of them dies suddenly. The prognostic value of certain types of ventricular arrhythmias is now well proved to be an independent risk factor respecting to the late complications of AMI, namely the sudden death issue. In this paper, after referring the prognostic criteria for the ventricular arrhythmias, the Author proposes an AEM execution calendar for the AMI patients, since the late hospital phase (hospital discharge). Afterwards, the controversial therapeutic problem of the ventricular arrhythmias is approached, quoting the pharmacological set-backs and pointing out the AEM limitations in regard to the selection and efficacy confirmation of the anti-arrhythmic drugs. At last, a few conclusions of the "Cardiac Arrhythmia Pilot Study" (CAPS, 1986) are mentioned and an other ongoing multicenter study is referred, whose conclusions will be of capital importance to define the anti-arrhythmic therapy utility in the setting of the post-AMI patients.

  8. Phase I Study of Valspodar (PSC-833) with Mitoxantrone and Etoposide in Refractory and Relapsed Pediatric Acute Leukemia: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Maureen M.; Lacayo, Norman J.; Lum, Bert L.; Kshirsagar, Smita; Buck, Steven; Ravindranath, Yaddanapudi; Bernstein, Mark; Weinstein, Howard; Chang, Myron N.; Arceci, Robert J.; Sikic, Branimir I.; Dahl, Gary V.

    2009-01-01

    Background Valspodar, a non-immunosuppressive analog of cylosporine, is a potent P-glycoprotein (MDR1) inhibitor. As MDR1-mediated efflux of chemotherapeutic agents from leukemic blasts may contribute to drug resistance, a phase 1 study of valspodar combined with mitoxantrone and etoposide in pediatric patients with relapsed or refractory leukemias was performed. Procedure Patients received a valspodar loading dose (2 mg/kg) followed by a five-day continuous valspodar infusion (8, 10, 12.5 or 15 mg/kg/day) combined with lower than standard doses of mitoxantrone and etoposide. The valspodar dose was escalated using a standard 3 + 3 phase I design. Results 21 patients were evaluable for toxicity and 20 for response. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of valspodar was 12.5 mg/kg/day, combined with 50% dose-reduced mitoxantrone and etoposide. The clearance of mitoxantrone and etoposide was decreased by 64% and 60%, respectively, when combined with valspodar. Dose-limiting toxicities included stomatitis, ataxia, and bone marrow aplasia. Three of 11 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) had complete responses while no patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) had an objective response. In vitro studies demonstrated P-glycoprotein expression on the blasts of five of 14 patients, although only one had inhibition of rhodamine efflux by valspodar. Conclusions While this regimen was tolerable, responses in this heavily pretreated population were limited to a subset of patients with ALL. PMID:20209646

  9. Acute phase proteins in serum and cerebrospinal fluid in the course of bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowski, M; Lobos, M; Kuydowicz, J; Krakowiak, M; Kubasiewicz-Ujma, B

    1995-08-01

    We carried out estimations of the following acute phase proteins: C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AAG), alpha-2-ceruloplasmin (CER), and alpha-2-haptoglobin (HPT) in serum and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with bacterial meningitis (BM, n = 30) and viral meningitis (VM, n = 30). We have shown that determinations of concentrations of AAG and CRP in serum and CER in CSF are useful in differentiation between BM and VM. The diagnostic power of these three tests (the areas under their ROC curves equal 0.942, 0.929, and 0.931, respectively) is bigger, though statistically not significantly, than that of traditional parameters of BM in CSF, i.e., total protein concentration and white blood cell count. Determination of AAG, CRP, and AAT in serum is a valuable monitoring marker in the course of BM treatment. Convenience of serum sampling constitutes an advantage over traditional BM parameters in CSF.

  10. Use of escitalopram to prevent depression and cognitive impairments in the acute phase of stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Rustemovna Khasanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to comparatively analyze the rate of post-stroke depression and cognitive impairments in escitalopram (cipralex-treated and untreated (control patients. Emotional and affective cognitive symptoms, neurological deficit, and day-to-day activity were evaluated over time 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. The results of the study indicated that escitalopram used to prevent depression in the acute phase of stroke provided a good effect. This drug caused a prompter recovery of cognitive impairments and reduced the pace of development of neurodegenerative disorders underlying the post-stroke 2D (depression and dementia syndrome. The study group was recorded to have more favorable functional outcomes of stroke and patient mobility indicators associated with lower disability rates.

  11. Acupuncture as a primary and independent treatment in the acute phases of sudden sensorineural hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuanyuan; Lu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) is an otological emergency defined as a rapid hearing loss, seriously affects patient's social life. To data, no study has reported the treatment by acupuncture alone in the acute phase. In this report, Acupuncture and Moxibustion therapy of excitation-focus transfer is outlined. The patient was a 26-year-old young woman who had an SSHL coupled with ear fullness. The patient had no past medical history, but she had undergone variable emotions and had a history of excessive noise exposure. The patient refused to receive any medicine especially steroids and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. She just only received acupuncture treatment. Her symptoms and outcome measurements were improved every week and completely recovered after the last week. Even though the article presents a single case and is based on self-reports, there are very clear trends on how patients with SSHL responded to acupuncture treatments. PMID:27368045

  12. Swimming Exercise in the Acute or Late Phase after Sciatic Nerve Crush Accelerates Nerve Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Macher Teodori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no consensus about the best time to start exercise after peripheral nerve injury. We evaluated the morphological and functional characteristics of the sciatic nerves of rats that began to swim immediately after crush nerve injury (CS1, those that began to swim 14 days after injury (CS14, injured rats not submitted to swimming (C, and uninjured rats submitted to swimming (S. After 30 days the number of axons in CS1 and CS14 was lower than in C (P0.05. Swimming exercise applied during the acute or late phase of nerve injury accelerated nerve regeneration and synaptic elimination after axonotmesis, suggesting that exercise may be initiated immediately after injury.

  13. Pig-MAP, porcine acute phase proteins and standardisation of assays in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alava, M.A.; Gonzalez-Ramon, N.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.;

    1997-01-01

    reactive protein (CRP) and haptoglobin (Hp) increase 5-7 times 48 h after the injection. Porcine Alb, alpha-lipoprotein, fetuin and transferrin were negative APP. Finally, the concentration of alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein and alpha(1)-protease inhibitor (alpha(1)-antitrypsin) did not change significantly......The pattern of plasma proteins changes greatly following infection, inflammation or tissue injury. The concentration of some proteins referred to as acute phase proteins (APPs) significantly increases within hours or days after the onset of these processes. In contrast, the concentration of other...... for the presence of infectious, inflammatory and pathological lesions in animals. The ability to monitor the APP concentration in serum of pigs will improve the quality and safety of the meat produced as well as provide important diagnostic information for animal health and welfare. The serum concentration of APP...

  14. Body composition and phase angle in Russian children in remission from acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, G. Ja; Khomyakova, I. A.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Konovalova, M. V.; Vashura, A. Yu; Tretyak, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Rudnev, S. G.

    2010-04-01

    Elevated degree of body fatness and changes in other body composition parameters are known to be common effects of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children. In order to study peculiarities of somatic growth and development in ALL survivors, we describe the results of BIA body composition analysis of 112 boys and 108 girls aged 5-18 years in remission from ALL (remission time range 1-13 years) compared to data from the same number of age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n=220). Detrimental effect on height in ALL boys was observed, whereas girls experienced additional weight gain compared to healthy subjects. In ALL patients, resistance, body fat, and percent body fat were significantly increased. The reactance, phase angle, absolute and relative values of skeletal muscle and body cell mass were significantly decreased. Principal component analysis revealed an early prevalence of adiposity traits in the somatic growth and development of ALL girls compared to healthy controls.

  15. Swimming Exercise in the Acute or Late Phase after Sciatic Nerve Crush Accelerates Nerve Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodori, Rosana Macher; Betini, Joice; de Oliveira, Larissa Salgado; Sobral, Luciane Lobato; Takeda, Sibele Yoko Mattozo; Montebelo, Maria Imaculada de Lima

    2011-01-01

    There is no consensus about the best time to start exercise after peripheral nerve injury. We evaluated the morphological and functional characteristics of the sciatic nerves of rats that began to swim immediately after crush nerve injury (CS1), those that began to swim 14 days after injury (CS14), injured rats not submitted to swimming (C), and uninjured rats submitted to swimming (S). After 30 days the number of axons in CS1 and CS14 was lower than in C (P 0.05). Swimming exercise applied during the acute or late phase of nerve injury accelerated nerve regeneration and synaptic elimination after axonotmesis, suggesting that exercise may be initiated immediately after injury. PMID:21876821

  16. Interplay between the acute inflammatory response and heart rate variability in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kox, Matthijs; Ramakers, Bart P; Pompe, Jan C; van der Hoeven, Johannes G; Hoedemaekers, Cornelia W; Pickkers, Peter

    2011-08-01

    The autonomic nervous system and the inflammatory response are intimately linked. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a widely used method to assess cardiac autonomic nervous system activity, and changes in HRV indices may correlate with inflammatory markers. Here, we investigated whether baseline HRV predicts the acute inflammatory response to endotoxin. Second, we investigated whether the magnitude of the inflammatory response correlated with HRV alterations. Forty healthy volunteers received a single intravenous bolus of 2 ng/kg endotoxin (LPS, derived from Escherichia coli O:113). Of these, 12 healthy volunteers were administered LPS again 2 weeks later. Heart rate variability was determined at baseline (just before LPS administration) and hourly thereafter until 8 h after LPS administration. Plasma cytokine levels were determined at various time points. Baseline HRV indices did not correlate with the magnitude of the LPS-induced inflammatory response. Despite large alterations in HRV after LPS administration, the extent of the inflammatory response did not correlate with the magnitude of HRV changes. In subjects who were administered LPS twice, inflammatory cytokines were markedly attenuated after the second LPS administration, whereas LPS-induced HRV alterations were similar. Heart rate variability indices do not predict the acute inflammatory response in a standardized model of systemic inflammation. Although the acute inflammatory response results in HRV changes, no correlations with inflammatory cytokines were observed. Therefore, the magnitude of endotoxemia-related HRV changes does not reflect the extent of the inflammatory response.

  17. Influence of acute stress on response inhibition in healthy men: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierolf, Angelika Margarete; Fechtner, Julia; Böhnke, Robina; Wolf, Oliver T; Naumann, Ewald

    2017-02-07

    The current study investigated the influence of acute stress and the resulting cortisol increase on response inhibition and its underlying cortical processes, using EEG. Before and after an acute stressor or a control condition, 39 healthy men performed a go/no-go task while ERPs (N2, P3), reaction times, errors, and salivary cortisol were measured. Acute stress impaired neither accuracy nor reaction times, but differentially affected the neural correlates of response inhibition; namely, stress led to enhanced amplitudes of the N2 difference waves (N2d, no-go minus go), indicating enhanced response inhibition and conflict monitoring. Moreover, participants responding to the stressor with an acute substantial rise in cortisol (high cortisol responders) showed reduced amplitudes of the P3 of the difference waves (P3d, no-go minus go) after the stressor, indicating an impaired evaluation and finalization of the inhibitory process. Our findings indicate that stress leads to a reallocation of cognitive resources to the neural subprocesses of inhibitory control, strengthening premotor response inhibition and the detection of response conflict, while concurrently diminishing the subsequent finalization process within the stream of processing.

  18. Endocrine responses in the rhesus monkey during acute cold exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotz, W.G.; Saxton, J.L. (Naval Aerospace Medical Research Lab., Pensacola, FL (United States))

    1991-03-11

    The authors studied five young male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), 3.4 to 6.7 kg, to determine the relationship between fluid balance hormones and urine production during acute, dry cold exposure. Each monkey served as its own control in duplicate experimental sessions at 6C or 26C. A 6-h experimental session consisted of 120 min equilibration at 26C, 120 min experimental exposure, and 120 min recovery at 26C. Urinary and venous catheters were inserted on the morning of a session. Rectal (Tre) and skin temperatures were monitored continuously. Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min of exposure, and at 60 min postexposure. Plasma was analyzed for arginine vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone (PA), and osmolality. Urine samples were analyzed for osmolality, electrolytes, and creatinine. Mean Tre was 1.6C lower after 120 min at 6C than at 26C. Urine volume and osmolality were not altered by cold exposure, as they are in humans and rats. Vasopressin and PA increased sharply, with mean plasma levels in monkeys exposed to cold more than threefold and tenfold, respectively, the levels in monkeys exposed at 26C. In contrast, ANF, PRA, and plasma osmolality were not significantly changed by cold exposure. The absence of a cold-induced diuresis in the monkey may be related to the marked increase in plasma AVP level.

  19. Phase 2 study of the JAK kinase inhibitor ruxolitinib in patients with refractory leukemias, including postmyeloproliferative neoplasm acute myeloid leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghtedar, Alireza; Verstovsek, Srdan; Estrov, Zeev; Burger, Jan; Cortes, Jorge; Bivins, Carol; Faderl, Stefan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Borthakur, Gautam; George, Solly; Scherle, Peggy A.; Newton, Robert C.; Kantarjian, Hagop M.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a phase 2 study of ruxolitinib in patients with relapsed/refractory leukemias. Patients with acceptable performance status (0-2), adequate organ function, and no active infection, received ruxolitinib 25 mg orally twice a day for 4 weeks (1 cycle). Response was assessed after every 2 cycles of treatment, and patients who completed 2 cycles were allowed to continue treatment until disease progression. Dose escalation to 50 mg twice daily was permitted in patients demonstrating a benefit. Thirty-eight patients, with a median age of 69 years (range, 45-88), were treated. The median number of prior therapies was 2 (range, 1-6). Twelve patients had JAK2V617F mutation. Patients received a median of 2 cycles of therapy (range, 1-22). Three of 18 patients with postmyeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) showed a significant response; 2 achieved complete remission (CR) and one achieved a CR with insufficient recovery of blood counts (CRi). The responding patients with palpable spleens also had significant reductions in spleen size. Overall, ruxolitinib was very well tolerated with only 4 patients having grade 3 or higher toxicity. Ruxolitinib has modest antileukemic activity as a single agent, particularly in patients with post-MPN AML. The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00674479. PMID:22422826

  20. Phase 2 study of the JAK kinase inhibitor ruxolitinib in patients with refractory leukemias, including postmyeloproliferative neoplasm acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghtedar, Alireza; Verstovsek, Srdan; Estrov, Zeev; Burger, Jan; Cortes, Jorge; Bivins, Carol; Faderl, Stefan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Borthakur, Gautam; George, Solly; Scherle, Peggy A; Newton, Robert C; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Ravandi, Farhad

    2012-05-17

    We conducted a phase 2 study of ruxolitinib in patients with relapsed/refractory leukemias. Patients with acceptable performance status (0-2), adequate organ function, and no active infection, received ruxolitinib 25 mg orally twice a day for 4 weeks (1 cycle). Response was assessed after every 2 cycles of treatment, and patients who completed 2 cycles were allowed to continue treatment until disease progression. Dose escalation to 50 mg twice daily was permitted in patients demonstrating a benefit. Thirty-eight patients, with a median age of 69 years (range, 45-88), were treated. The median number of prior therapies was 2 (range, 1-6). Twelve patients had JAK2V617F mutation. Patients received a median of 2 cycles of therapy (range, 1-22). Three of 18 patients with postmyeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) showed a significant response; 2 achieved complete remission (CR) and one achieved a CR with insufficient recovery of blood counts (CRi). The responding patients with palpable spleens also had significant reductions in spleen size. Overall, ruxolitinib was very well tolerated with only 4 patients having grade 3 or higher toxicity. Ruxolitinib has modest antileukemic activity as a single agent, particularly in patients with post-MPN AML. The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00674479.

  1. Acute inflammation reduces kisspeptin immunoreactivity at the arcuate nucleus and decreases responsiveness to kisspeptin independently of its anorectic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellano, J M; Bentsen, A H; Romero, M;

    2010-01-01

    Severe inflammatory challenges are frequently coupled to decreased food intake and disruption of reproductive function, the latter via deregulation of different signaling pathways that impinge onto GnRH neurons. Recently, the hypothalamic Kiss1 system, a major gatekeeper of GnRH function...... of hypothalamic kisspeptin immunoreactivity (IR) and hormonal responses to kisspeptin during the acute inflammatory phase. LPS injections induced a dramatic but transient drop of serum LH and testosterone levels. Suppression of gonadotropic function was associated with a significant decrease in kisspeptin...... for the neuroendocrine control of reproduction. Our results also suggest that suppressed gonadotropic function following inflammatory challenges might involve a reduction in absolute responsiveness to kisspeptin that is independent of the anorectic effects of inflammation....

  2. Acute responses to inhalation of Iloprost in patients with pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Liang; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Yong; Xiong, Chang-Ming; Ni, Xin-Hai; He, Jian-Guo; Luo, Qin; Zhao, Zhi-Hui; Zhao, Qing; Sun, Xing-Guo

    2012-08-01

    Iloprost has been used to test acute pulmonary vasoreactivity in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We aimed to investigate the acute hemodynamic and oxygenation responses and tolerability to 20 µg aerosolized Iloprost in Chinese patients with pulmonary hypertension. Between March 2005 and May 2010, 212 pulmonary hypertension patients inhaled a single dose of 20 µg Iloprost over 10 - 15 minutes for vasoreactivity testing. The acute hemodynamic and oxygenation responses and adverse events were recorded. Iloprost decreased total pulmonary resistance ((1747 ± 918) dyn×s×cm(-5) vs. (1581 ± 937) dyn×s×cm(-5), P Iloprost. No adverse events requiring medical care or leading to termination of inhalation occurred. Inhalation of 20 µg Iloprost showed potent and selective pulmonary hemodynamic effects and was well tolerated in the Chinese pulmonary hypertension patients. Patients with idiopathic PAH and less severe pulmonary hypertension responded more favorably to inhalation of Iloprost.

  3. Proximal tubule Na transporter responses are the same during acute and chronic hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magyar, C E; Zhang, Y; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    2000-01-01

    ) vs. adult SD and SHR. In adult hypertensive SHR NHE3 was shifted to membranes of higher densities, analogous to SD with acute hypertension, and there were no further changes with a further increase or decrease in arterial pressure. There was no change in total pool size of NHE3 in cortex in YSHR vs......% greater in YSHR than YSD and decreased to SD levels in adults. We conclude that there are persistent changes in Na(+) transporter distributions and activity in response to chronic hypertension in SHR that mimic the responses to acute hypertension seen in SD rats and that elevated sodium pump activity per......Acute hypertension in Sprague-Dawley rats (SD) provokes a decrease in renal proximal tubule (PT) salt and fluid reabsorption, redistribution of apical Na/H exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) and Na-P(i) cotransporter type 2 (NaPi2) out of the brush border into higher density membranes, and inhibition...

  4. Pulmonary Inflammatory Responses to Acute Meteorite Dust Exposures - to Acute Meteorite Dust Exposures - Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, A. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Kaur, J.; Smirnov, A.; Galdanes, K.; Schoonen, M. A. A.; Chen, L. C.; Tsirka, S. E.; Gordon, T.

    2017-01-01

    New initiatives to begin lunar and martian colonization within the next few decades are illustrative of the resurgence of interest in space travel. One of NASA's major concerns with extended human space exploration is the inadvertent and repeated exposure to unknown dust. This highly interdisciplinary study evaluates both the geochemical reactivity (e.g. iron solubility and acellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation) and the relative toxicity (e.g. in vitro and in vivo pulmonary inflammation) of six meteorite samples representing either basalt or regolith breccia on the surface of the Moon, Mars, and Asteroid 4Vesta. Terrestrial mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) is also used for comparison. The MORB demonstrated higher geochemical reactivity than most of the meteorite samples but caused the lowest acute pulmonary inflammation (API). Notably, the two martian meteorites generated some of the highest API but only the basaltic sample is significantly reactive geochemically. Furthermore, while there is a correlation between a meteorite's soluble iron content and its ability to generate acellular ROS, there is no direct correlation between a particle's ability to generate ROS acellularly and its ability to generate API. However, assorted in vivo API markers did demonstrate strong positive correlations with increasing bulk Fenton metal content. In summary, this comprehensive dataset allows for not only the toxicological evaluation of astromaterials but also clarifies important correlations between geochemistry and health.

  5. Physiological Responses to Acute Exercise-Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    environment is the most primitive of the thermoregulatory responses. and is seen in all vertebrates, including fish and reptiles which, given the... thermoregulation involves conscious willed activity, it is more complex than physiological temperature regulation. and is less well characterized. Thermal...sensation and thermal discomfort presumably represent the motivation for behavioral thermoregulation . and in human subjects. can be measured by

  6. Factors modulating the inflammatory response in acute gouty arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleophas, M.C.P.; Crisan, T.O.; Joosten, L.A.B.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gout is a common debilitating form of arthritis and despite our extensive knowledge on the pathogenesis its prevalence is still rising quickly. In the current review, we provide a concise overview of recent discoveries in factors tuning the inflammatory response to soluble uric

  7. Domestication effects on behavioural and hormonal responses to acute stress in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Maria; Fallahsharoudi, Amir; Bergquist, Jonas; Kushnir, Mark M; Jensen, Per

    2014-06-22

    Comparative studies have shown that alterations in physiology, morphology and behaviour have arisen due to the domestication. A driving factor behind many of the changes could be a shift in stress responses, with modified endocrine and behavioural profiles. In the present study we compared two breeds of chicken (Gallus gallus), the domestic White Leghorn (WL) egg laying breed and its ancestor, the Red Junglefowl (RJF). Birds were exposed to an acute stress event, invoked by 3 or 10 min of physical restraint. They were then continuously monitored for the effects on a wide range of behaviours during a 60 min recovery phase. Blood samples were collected from the chicken at baseline, and after 10 and 60 min following a similar restraint stress, and the samples were analyzed for nine endogenous steroids of the HPA and HPG axes. Concentration of the steroids was determined using validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods. In RJF, an immediate behavioural response was observed after release from restraint in several behaviours, with a relatively fast return to baseline within 1h. In WL, some behaviours were affected for a longer period of time, and others not at all. Concentrations of corticosterone increased more in RJF, but returned faster to baseline compared to WL. A range of baseline levels for HPG-related steroids differed between the breeds, and they were generally more affected by the stress in WL than in RJF. In conclusion, RJF reacted stronger both behaviourally and physiologically to the restraint stress, but also recovered faster. This would appear to be adaptive under natural conditions, whereas the stress recovery of domesticated birds has been altered by domestication and breeding for increased reproductive output.

  8. Acute response to barefoot running in habitually shod males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, N; Walters, J; Grounds, J; Fife, L; Finch, A

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the immediate effects of barefoot (BF) running on lower limb kinematics and muscle activity in a group of habitually shod runners. Ten male runners with no prior BF or minimalist running experience performed 1-min bouts of treadmill running at 3 velocities in both shod and BF conditions. 2D video data were recorded in order to quantify ankle, knee and hip kinematics. Synchronous kinetic data were recorded from a force plate supporting the treadmill in order to quantify spatiotemporal variables. EMG data were collected from 6 lower limb muscles, quantifying recruitment patterns during discrete phases of the gait cycle. BF running resulted in significantly higher stride frequency and shorter ground contact times (P < .001). Additionally, BF running significantly reduced knee and hip range of motion but increased ankle range of motion during the absorptive phase of the stance. Alterations in ankle kinematics during BF running resulted from increased pre-activation of the medial (P < .05) and lateral (P < .01) gastrocnemius in addition to reductions in pre-activation of the tibialis anterior (P < .05). The results highlight that recruitment patterns and kinematics can change in as little as 30-s of BF running in individuals with no previous BF running experience.

  9. Acute Decompensation in Pediatric Cardiac Patients: Outcomes After Rapid Response Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavare, Aarti C; Rafie, Kimia S; Bastero, Patricia X; Hagan, Joseph L; Checchia, Paul A

    2017-05-01

    We studied rapid response events after acute clinical instability outside ICU settings in pediatric cardiac patients. Our objective was to describe the characteristics and outcomes after rapid response events in this high-risk cohort and elucidate the cardiac conditions and risk factors associated with worse outcomes. A retrospective single-center study was carried out over a 3-year period from July 2011 to June 2014. Referral high-volume pediatric cardiac center located within a tertiary academic pediatric hospital. All rapid response events that occurred during the study period were reviewed to identify rapid response events in cardiac patients. None. We reviewed 1,906 rapid response events to identify 152 rapid response events that occurred in 127 pediatric cardiac patients. Congenital heart disease was the baseline diagnosis in 74% events (single ventricle, 28%; biventricle physiology, 46%). Seventy-four percent had a cardiac surgery before rapid response, 37% had ICU stay within previous 7 days, and acute kidney injury was noted in 41% post rapid response. Cardiac and/or pulmonary arrest occurred during rapid response in 8.5%. Overall, 81% were transferred to ICU, 22% had critical deterioration (ventilation or vasopressors within 12 hr of transfer), and 56% received such support and/or invasive procedures within 72 hours. Mortality within 30 days post event was 14%. Significant outcome associations included: single ventricle physiology-increased need for invasive procedures and mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 2.58; p = 0.02); multiple rapid response triggers-increased ICU transfer and interventions at 72 hours; critical deterioration-cardiopulmonary arrest and mortality; and acute kidney injury-cardiopulmonary arrest and need for hemodynamic support. Congenital heart disease, previous cardiac surgery, and recent discharge from ICU were common among pediatric cardiac rapid responses. Progression to cardiopulmonary arrest during rapid response, need for ICU

  10. Acute effects of cocaine and cannabis on response inhibition in humans: an ERP investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronk, Desirée B; De Bruijn, Ellen R A; van Wel, Janelle H P; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Verkes, Robbert J

    2016-11-01

    Substance abuse has often been associated with alterations in response inhibition in humans. Not much research has examined how the acute effects of drugs modify the neurophysiological correlates of response inhibition, or how these effects interact with individual variation in trait levels of impulsivity and novelty seeking. This study investigated the effects of cocaine and cannabis on behavioural and event-related potential (ERP) correlates of response inhibition in 38 healthy drug using volunteers. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized three-way crossover design was used. All subjects completed a standard Go/NoGo task after administration of the drugs. Compared with a placebo, cocaine yielded improved accuracy, quicker reaction times and an increased prefrontal NoGo-P3 ERP. Cannabis produced opposing results; slower reaction times, impaired accuracy and a reduction in the amplitude of the prefrontal NoGo-P3. Cannabis in addition decreased the amplitude of the parietally recorded P3, while cocaine did not affect this. Neither drugs specifically affected the N2 component, suggesting that pre-motor response inhibitory processes remain unaffected. Neither trait impulsivity nor novelty seeking interacted with drug-induced effects on measures of response inhibition. We conclude that acute drug effects on response inhibition seem to be specific to the later, evaluative stages of response inhibition. The acute effects of cannabis appeared less specific to response inhibition than those of cocaine. Together, the results show that the behavioural effects on response inhibition are reflected in electrophysiological correlates. This study did not support a substantial role of vulnerability personality traits in the acute intoxication stage. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Error consciousness predicts physiological response to an acute psychosocial stressor in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianhui; Sun, Xiaofang; Wang, Li; Zhang, Liang; Fernández, Guillén; Yao, Zhuxi

    2017-09-01

    There are substantial individual differences in the response towards acute stressor. The aim of the current study was to examine how the neural activity after an error response during a non-stressful state, prospectively predicts the magnitude of physiological stress response (e.g., cortisol response and heart rate) and negative affect elicited by a laboratory stress induction procedure in nonclinical participants. Thirty-seven healthy young male adults came to the laboratory for the baseline neurocognitive measurement on the first day during which they performed a Go/Nogo task with their electroencephalogram recorded. On the second day, they came again to be tested on their stress response using an acute psychosocial stress procedure (i.e., the Trier Social Stress Test, the TSST). Results showed that the amplitude of error positivity (Pe) significantly predicted both the heart rate and cortisol response towards the TSST. Our results suggested that baseline cognitive neural activity reflecting error consciousness could be used as a biological predictor of physiological response to an acute psychological stressor in men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Patterns of response to acute naloxone infusion in Tourette's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wattum, P J; Chappell, P B; Zelterman, D; Scahill, L D; Leckman, J F

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate findings from an earlier pilot study in which we found a dose-related effect of the opioid antagonist naloxone on tic behavior in patients with Tourette's syndrome (TS). Fifteen subjects with TS were challenged with randomized doses (30 and 300 microg/kg) of naloxone at 3-day intervals. Videotaped recordings of tic behavior were counted in a "blind" fashion. We found that naloxone had opposite effects on tics at different dosages. The low dose caused a significant decrease in tics, whereas the high dose caused a significant increase in tics. Therefore, activity at opioid receptors appears to influence the expression of TS, and the difference in response to naloxone in TS subjects may be based on a dose-response effect.

  13. Cytokine responses in acute and persistent human parvovirus B19 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isa, A; Lundqvist, A; Lindblom, A

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the proinflammatory and T helper (Th)1/Th2 cytokine responses during acute parvovirus B19 (B19) infection and determine whether an imbalance of the Th1/Th2 cytokine pattern is related to persistent B19 infection. Cytokines were quantified by multiplex beads...

  14. Effects of hyperflexion on acute stress responses in ridden dressage horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, J.W.; Beekmans, M; van Dalum, M; van Dierendonck, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of hyperflexion on the welfare of dressage horses have been debated. This study aimed to investigate acute stress responses of dressage horses ridden in three different Head-and-Neck-positions (HNPs). Fifteen dressage horses were ridden by their usual rider in a standardised 10-min dress

  15. Salsa dance and Zumba fitness: Acute responses during community-based classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo A. Domene

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The acute responses to classes of partnered Latin dance and non-partnered Latin-themed aerobic dance suggest that in physically inactive women participation is indeed efficacious in terms of community-based physical activity and psychosocial health promotion.

  16. Acute dissociation predicts rapid habituation of skin conductance responses to aversive auditory probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbrecht, T.; Merckelbach, H.L.G.J.; Burg, L. ter; Cima, M.; Simeon, D.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined how acute dissociation, trait-like dissociative symptoms, and physiological reactivity relate to each other. Sixty-nine undergraduate students were exposed to 14 aversive auditory probes, while their skin conductance responses were measured. A combination of self-reported

  17. Case Comparison of Response To Aquatic Exercise: Acute versus Chronic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobily, Kenneth E.; Mobily, Paula R.; Lessard, Kerry A.; Berkenpas, Molly S.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the effects of individualized aquatic exercise programs on people with knee impairments. An adolescent athlete with an acute injury demonstrated significant functional improvement. A 33-year-old with arthritis demonstrated only marginal progress. Comparison of cases relative to valid data collection methods and response to aquatic…

  18. Lay Public's Knowledge and Decisions in Response to Symptoms of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytryn, Kayla N.; Yoskowitz, Nicole A.; Cimino, James J.; Patel, Vimla L.

    2009-01-01

    Despite public health initiatives targeting rapid action in response to symptoms of myocardial infarction (MI), people continue to delay in going to a hospital when experiencing these symptoms due to lack of recognition as cardiac-related. The objective of this research was to characterize lay individuals' knowledge of symptoms of acute myocardial…

  19. Progress in Global Surveillance and Response Capacity 10 Years After Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-10

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases' synopsis, Progress in Global Surveillance and Response Capacity 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome.  Created: 4/10/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/11/2013.

  20. Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, K.P.G.; Saris, W.H.M.; Senden, J.M.G.; Menheere, P.P.C.A.; Blaak, E.E.; van Baak, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects. Kempen KP, Saris WH, Senden JM, Menheere PP, Blaak EE, van Baak MA. Department of Human Biology, University of Limburg, Maastricht, The Netherlands. This study was intended to investigate the e

  1. Israeli acute paralysis virus affects sucrose responsiveness and homing ability of forager bees, Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    The honeybee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), may be one of the most common stressors that are responsible for the colony losses reported worldwide in recent years. IAPV was found to be tightly correlated with honeybee Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) in the recent outbreak of CCD in the ...

  2. Glucose intolerance induced by blockade of central FGF receptors is linked to an acute stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Rojas

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: The effect of acute inhibition of central FGFR signaling to impair glucose tolerance likely involves a stress response associated with pronounced, but transient, sympathoadrenal activation and an associated reduction of insulin secretion. Whether this effect is a true consequence of FGFR blockade or involves an off-target effect of the FGFR inhibitor requires additional study.

  3. Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, K.P.G.; Saris, W.H.M.; Senden, J.M.G.; Menheere, P.P.C.A.; Blaak, E.E.; van Baak, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects. Kempen KP, Saris WH, Senden JM, Menheere PP, Blaak EE, van Baak MA. Department of Human Biology, University of Limburg, Maastricht, The Netherlands. This study was intended to investigate the e

  4. Lay Public's Knowledge and Decisions in Response to Symptoms of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytryn, Kayla N.; Yoskowitz, Nicole A.; Cimino, James J.; Patel, Vimla L.

    2009-01-01

    Despite public health initiatives targeting rapid action in response to symptoms of myocardial infarction (MI), people continue to delay in going to a hospital when experiencing these symptoms due to lack of recognition as cardiac-related. The objective of this research was to characterize lay individuals' knowledge of symptoms of acute myocardial…

  5. Clinical value of MRI and acute madopar responsiveness test in diagnosing progressive supranuclear palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xiao-hong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the MRI abnormalities and acute madopar responsiveness test in diagnosing progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP and Parkinson's disease (PD. Methods Seventeen patients with PSP and 17 gender and age matched patients with PD were studied with cranial MRI examinations and results of acute madopar responsiveness test, and the clinical manifestations of PSP were summarized. Results The atrophy of the midbrain tegmentum and hummingbird sign was demonstrated in all of the PSP patients in our study, but was not observed in the PD patients. The areas of the midbrain on mid-sagittal MRI in PSP patients [(77.35 ± 15.30 mm2] were significantly smaller than that in those with PD [(142.35 ± 31.49 mm2]. The average ratio of the area of the midbrain to the area of pons in the patients with PSP [(14.31 ± 2.47%] was significantly smaller than that in those with PD [(24.08 ± 4.73%; P = 0.000, for all]. According to the result of acute madopar responsiveness test, the maximum Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS Ⅲ improvement rate of 2 patients with PSP and 16 patients with PD was more than 30% (χ2 = 23.142, P = 0.000. Conclusion The assessment of the mid-sagittal MRI and acute madopar responsiveness test may be a useful method to differentiate PSP from PD.

  6. Molecular Diagnosis of Chagas Disease in Colombia: Parasitic Loads and Discrete Typing Units in Patients from Acute and Chronic Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Carolina; Cucunubá, Zulma; Flórez, Carolina; Olivera, Mario; Valencia, Carlos; Zambrano, Pilar; León, Cielo; Ramírez, Juan David

    2016-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of Chagas disease is complex due to the dynamics of parasitemia in the clinical phases of the disease. The molecular tests have been considered promissory because they detect the parasite in all clinical phases. Trypanosoma cruzi presents significant genetic variability and is classified into six Discrete Typing Units TcI-TcVI (DTUs) with the emergence of foreseen genotypes within TcI as TcIDom and TcI Sylvatic. The objective of this study was to determine the operating characteristics of molecular tests (conventional and Real Time PCR) for the detection of T. cruzi DNA, parasitic loads and DTUs in a large cohort of Colombian patients from acute and chronic phases. Methodology/Principal Findings Samples were obtained from 708 patients in all clinical phases. Standard diagnosis (direct and serological tests) and molecular tests (conventional PCR and quantitative PCR) targeting the nuclear satellite DNA region. The genotyping was performed by PCR using the intergenic region of the mini-exon gene, the 24Sa, 18S and A10 regions. The operating capabilities showed that performance of qPCR was higher compared to cPCR. Likewise, the performance of qPCR was significantly higher in acute phase compared with chronic phase. The median parasitic loads detected were 4.69 and 1.33 parasite equivalents/mL for acute and chronic phases. The main DTU identified was TcI (74.2%). TcIDom genotype was significantly more frequent in chronic phase compared to acute phase (82.1% vs 16.6%). The median parasitic load for TcIDom was significantly higher compared with TcI Sylvatic in chronic phase (2.58 vs.0.75 parasite equivalents/ml). Conclusions/Significance The molecular tests are a precise tool to complement the standard diagnosis of Chagas disease, specifically in acute phase showing high discriminative power. However, it is necessary to improve the sensitivity of molecular tests in chronic phase. The frequency and parasitemia of TcIDom genotype in chronic

  7. Episodes of Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with the acute phase of HIV-1 infection and with recurrence of viremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Gleusa de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a severe case of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS characterized by flaccid areflexive tetraplegia and signs of autonomic instability related to acute HIV-1 infection, and the occurrence of relapse episodes coinciding with the detection of HIV-1 RNA in blood during the phase of irregular treatment with antiretroviral agents. The patient has been asymptomatic for 3 years and has an HIV-1 load below the limit of detection. The recurrence of GBS in this case may be related to alterations of the immunologic response caused by disequilibrium in the host-HIV relationship due to the increase in HIV-1 viremia.

  8. Aerobic Fitness Level Affects Cardiovascular and Salivary Alpha Amylase Responses to Acute Psychosocial Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Thomas; Boesch, Maria; Roos, Lilian; Tschopp, Céline; Frei, Klaus M; Annen, Hubert; La Marca, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Good physical fitness seems to help the individual to buffer the potential harmful impact of psychosocial stress on somatic and mental health. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of physical fitness levels on the autonomic nervous system (ANS; i.e. heart rate and salivary alpha amylase) responses to acute psychosocial stress, while controlling for established factors influencing individual stress reactions. The Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) was executed with 302 male recruits during their first week of Swiss Army basic training. Heart rate was measured continuously, and salivary alpha amylase was measured twice, before and after the stress intervention. In the same week, all volunteers participated in a physical fitness test and they responded to questionnaires on lifestyle factors and personal traits. A multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to determine ANS responses to acute psychosocial stress from physical fitness test performances, controlling for personal traits, behavioural factors, and socioeconomic data. Multiple linear regression revealed three variables predicting 15 % of the variance in heart rate response (area under the individual heart rate response curve during TSST-G) and four variables predicting 12 % of the variance in salivary alpha amylase response (salivary alpha amylase level immediately after the TSST-G) to acute psychosocial stress. A strong performance at the progressive endurance run (high maximal oxygen consumption) was a significant predictor of ANS response in both models: low area under the heart rate response curve during TSST-G as well as low salivary alpha amylase level after TSST-G. Further, high muscle power, non-smoking, high extraversion, and low agreeableness were predictors of a favourable ANS response in either one of the two dependent variables. Good physical fitness, especially good aerobic endurance capacity, is an important protective factor against health

  9. Improved oxygen uptake efficiency slope in acute myocardial infarction patients after early phase I cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yun-Jeng; Li, Min-Hui; Chen, Chia-Hsin; Tuan, Sheng-Hui; Chen, Yi-Jen; Lin, Ko-Long

    2017-09-01

    A predischarge submaximal exercise test is often recommended after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) as part of phase I cardiac rehabilitation. In this study, a submaximal exercise parameter, oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), was used to monitor the benefit of early mobilization within 48 h after AMI. An early mobilization protocol within 48 h after AMI has been initiated since 1 September 2012 in our center. Patients with onset time of AMI within 1 year before and 1 year after initiation of the early mobilization protocol were recruited for comparisons. Sixty patients were analyzed on the basis of this criterion, and were subjected to predischarge submaximal exercise tests. The OUES calculated with 100% exercise duration (OUES100) and calculated with the first 50% of exercise duration (OUES50) were obtained and analyzed. Both OUES100 and OUES50 of the AMI patients with early mobilization were significantly higher than those without early mobilization (P=0.025 and 0.007, respectively). The OUES100 and OUES50 were also highly correlated (r=0.891, P<0.001). The subgroup analysis using patients within 3 months before and 3 months after initiation of the protocol also showed a significant difference. OUES could be used to measure the exercise capacity and monitor the effect of phase I cardiac rehabilitation in patients soon after AMI. Early mobilization within 48 h following AMI significantly enhanced the patient's exercise capacity.

  10. [Conduction disorders at multiple levels during the acute phase of a myocardial infarct: an electrophysiological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Burgos, A; Rangel Abundis, A; Castaño, R; Ramos, M A; Badui, E

    1993-01-01

    Forty patients with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (anterior 24, and inferior 16) were studied. Of these patients, 37.5% manifested second and third degree atrioventricular (AV) block as a complication; another 30% showed complete right bundle branch and left anterior hemiblock. Right bundle branch and left posterior hemiblock were evidenced in 12.5% of the subjects. There was 20% with complete left bundle branch block. Electrophysiologic studies were performed in all patients to assess the site of block. A direct relation was found between the surface ECG and the His bundle electrogram studies in patients with an inferior myocardial infarction and AV block, both procedures located the conduction disturbances at the AV node (suprahisian block), in contrast to patients with anteroseptal myocardial infarction whose surface ECG only showed bundle branch block or fascicular block. The His bundle electrogram registered multiple levels of AV block, 70% with troncular and infrahisian block that gave way to sudden AV block. The mechanism responsible for this block was considered to be a functional longitudinal dissociation of conduction system due to an acute ischemic injury of the His bundle, more than a sudden and simultaneous failure of all the bundle branch of His. We conclude that electrophysiologic studies are a useful procedure for identification of a group of patients with multiple AV conduction disturbances that have a less favorable prognosis than those with only suprahisian level of block.

  11. In vivo response to methotrexate forecasts outcome of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and has a distinct gene expression profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Sorich

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is the most common cancer in children, and can now be cured in approximately 80% of patients. Nevertheless, drug resistance is the major cause of treatment failure in children with ALL. The drug methotrexate (MTX, which is widely used to treat many human cancers, is used in essentially all treatment protocols worldwide for newly diagnosed ALL. Although MTX has been extensively studied for many years, relatively little is known about mechanisms of de novo resistance in primary cancer cells, including leukemia cells. This lack of knowledge is due in part to the fact that existing in vitro methods are not sufficiently reliable to permit assessment of MTX resistance in primary ALL cells. Therefore, we measured the in vivo antileukemic effects of MTX and identified genes whose expression differed significantly in patients with a good versus poor response to MTX.We utilized measures of decreased circulating leukemia cells of 293 newly diagnosed children after initial "up-front" in vivo MTX treatment (1 g/m(2 to elucidate interpatient differences in the antileukemic effects of MTX. To identify genomic determinants of these effects, we performed a genome-wide assessment of gene expression in primary ALL cells from 161 of these newly diagnosed children (1-18 y. We identified 48 genes and two cDNA clones whose expression was significantly related to the reduction of circulating leukemia cells after initial in vivo treatment with MTX. This finding was validated in an independent cohort of children with ALL. Furthermore, this measure of initial MTX in vivo response and the associated gene expression pattern were predictive of long-term disease-free survival (p < 0.001, p = 0.02.Together, these data provide new insights into the genomic basis of MTX resistance and interpatient differences in MTX response, pointing to new strategies to overcome MTX resistance in childhood ALL.Total XV, Therapy for Newly Diagnosed

  12. Serum protein capillary electrophoresis and measurement of acute phase proteins in a captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depauw, Sarah; Delanghe, Joris; Whitehouse-Tedd, Katherine; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Christensen, Michelle; Hesta, Myriam; Tugirimana, Pierrot; Budd, Jane; Dermauw, Veronique; Janssens, Geert P J

    2014-09-01

    Renal and gastrointestinal pathologies are widespread in the captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population but are often diagnosed at a late stage, because diagnostic tools are limited to the evaluation of clinical signs or general blood examination. Presently, no data are available on serum proteins and acute-phase proteins in cheetahs during health or disease, although they might be important to improve health monitoring. This study aimed to quantify serum proteins by capillary electrophoresis in 80 serum samples from captive cheetahs, categorized according to health status and disease type. Moreover, serum amyloid A concentrations were measured via a turbidimetric immunoassay validated in domestic cats, whereas haptoglobin and C-reactive protein were determined by non-species-specific functional tests. Cheetahs classified as healthy had serum protein and acute phase protein concentrations within reference ranges for healthy domestic cats. In contrast, unhealthy cheetahs had higher (P cheetahs suffering from chronic kidney disease were significantly greater compared to the reportedly healthy cheetahs. Our study indicates that serum proteins in the cheetah can be analyzed by routine capillary electrophoresis, whereas acute-phase proteins can be measured using available immunoassays or non-species-specific techniques, which are also likely to be applicable in other exotic felids. Moreover, results suggest that serum amyloid A and haptoglobin are important acute-phase proteins in the diseased cheetah and highlight the need to evaluate their role as early-onset markers for disease.

  13. Cytokine and acute phase protein gene expression in liver biopsies from dairy cows with a lipopolysaccharide - induced mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vels, J; Røntved, Christine M.; Bjerring, Martin

    2009-01-01

    - ), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, and the acute phase proteins serum amyloid A isoform 3 (SAA3), haptoglobin (Hp), and 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) were determined by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Fourteen primiparous cows in mid lactation were challenged with 200 µg of LPS (n = 8) or NaCl solution (n = 6...

  14. CD26: A Prognostic Marker of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Children in the Post Remission Induction Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehde, Atheer Awad; Yusof, Faridah; Adel Mehdi, Wesen; Zainulabdeen, Jwan Abdulmohsin

    2015-01-01

    ALL is an irredeemable disease due to the resistance to treatment. There are several influences which are involved in such resistance to chemotherapy, including oxidative stress as a result of the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and presence of hypodiploid cells. Cluster of differentiation 26 (CD26), also known as dipeptidyl peptidase-4, is a 110 kDa, multifunctional, membrane-bound glycoprotein. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of serum CD26 in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients in the post remission induction phase, as well as the relationship between CD26 activity and the oxidative stress status. CD26, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI), in addition to activity of related enzymes myeloperoxidase, glutathione- s-transferase and xanthine oxidase, were analysed in sixty children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the post remission induction phase. The study showed significant elevation in CD26, TOS and OSI levels in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the post remission induction phase in comparison to healthy control samples. In contrast, myeloperoxidase, glutathione-s-transferase and xanthine oxidase activities were decreased significantly. A significant correlation between CD26 concentration and some oxidative stress parameters was evident in ALL patients. Serum levels of CD26 appear to be useful as a new biomarker of oxidative stress in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the post remission induction phase, and levels of antioxidants must be regularly estimated during the treatment of children with ALL.

  15. High-response piezoelectricity modeled quantitatively near a phase boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newns, Dennis M.; Kuroda, Marcelo A.; Cipcigan, Flaviu S.; Crain, Jason; Martyna, Glenn J.

    2017-01-01

    Interconversion of mechanical and electrical energy via the piezoelectric effect is fundamental to a wide range of technologies. The discovery in the 1990s of giant piezoelectric responses in certain materials has therefore opened new application spaces, but the origin of these properties remains a challenge to our understanding. A key role is played by the presence of a structural instability in these materials at compositions near the "morphotropic phase boundary" (MPB) where the crystal structure changes abruptly and the electromechanical responses are maximal. Here we formulate a simple, unified theoretical description which accounts for extreme piezoelectric response, its observation at compositions near the MPB, accompanied by ultrahigh dielectric constant and mechanical compliances with rather large anisotropies. The resulting model, based upon a Landau free energy expression, is capable of treating the important domain engineered materials and is found to be predictive while maintaining simplicity. It therefore offers a general and powerful means of accounting for the full set of signature characteristics in these functional materials including volume conserving sum rules and strong substrate clamping effects.

  16. Acute phase protein concentrations in serum and milk from healthy cows, cows with clinical mastitis and cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, B.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Andersen, P.H.; Niewold, T.A.; Heegaard, P.M.H.

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of the two acute phase proteins, serum amyloid A and haptoglobin, in serum and milk were compared in 10 cows with clinical mastitis, 11 cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions and 10 clinically healthy control cows. The concentrations of both acute phase proteins were highe

  17. Acute and Long-term Responses to Different Rest Intervals in Low-load Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Julius Etienne; Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Kikuchi, Naoki; Nakazato, Koichi

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the effects of low-load resistance training to failure performed with different rest intervals on acute hormonal responses and long-term muscle and strength gains. In the acute study, 14 participants were assigned to either a short rest (S, 30 s) or long rest (L, 150 s) protocol at 40% one-repetition maximum. Blood samples were taken before and after the workout. Both groups showed significant (prest interval length. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Acute Exercise Modulates Feature-selective Responses in Human Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Tom; Elliott, James C; Serences, John T; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2017-04-01

    An organism's current behavioral state influences ongoing brain activity. Nonhuman mammalian and invertebrate brains exhibit large increases in the gain of feature-selective neural responses in sensory cortex during locomotion, suggesting that the visual system becomes more sensitive when actively exploring the environment. This raises the possibility that human vision is also more sensitive during active movement. To investigate this possibility, we used an inverted encoding model technique to estimate feature-selective neural response profiles from EEG data acquired from participants performing an orientation discrimination task. Participants (n = 18) fixated at the center of a flickering (15 Hz) circular grating presented at one of nine different orientations and monitored for a brief shift in orientation that occurred on every trial. Participants completed the task while seated on a stationary exercise bike at rest and during low- and high-intensity cycling. We found evidence for inverted-U effects; such that the peak of the reconstructed feature-selective tuning profiles was highest during low-intensity exercise compared with those estimated during rest and high-intensity exercise. When modeled, these effects were driven by changes in the gain of the tuning curve and in the profile bandwidth during low-intensity exercise relative to rest. Thus, despite profound differences in visual pathways across species, these data show that sensitivity in human visual cortex is also enhanced during locomotive behavior. Our results reveal the nature of exercise-induced gain on feature-selective coding in human sensory cortex and provide valuable evidence linking the neural mechanisms of behavior state across species.

  19. Measuring perceptual centers using the phase correction response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villing, Rudi C; Repp, Bruno H; Ward, Tomas E; Timoney, Joseph M

    2011-07-01

    The perceptual center (P-center) is fundamental to the timing of heterogeneous event sequences, including music and speech. Unfortunately, there is currently no comprehensive and reliable model of P-centers in acoustic events, so P-centers must instead be measured empirically. This study reviews existing measurement methods and evaluates two methods in detail-the rhythm adjustment method and a new method based on the phase correction response (PCR) in a synchronous tapping task. The two methods yielded consistent P-center estimates and showed no evidence of P-center context dependence. The PCR method appears promising because it is accurate and efficient and does not require explicit perceptual judgments. As a secondary result, the magnitude of the PCR is shown to vary systematically with the onset complexity of speech sounds, which presumably reflects the perceived clarity of a sound's P-center.

  20. Value of oral glucose tolerance test in the acute phase of myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabczewska Zofia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although European guidelines advise oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI before or shortly after hospital discharge, data supporting this recommendation are inconclusive. We aimed to analyze whether disturbances in glucose metabolism diagnosed before hospital discharge in AMI patients represents a latent pre-existing condition or rather temporary finding. Additionally, we planned to investigate the value of pre-selected glycemic control parameters as predictors of long-term glucometabolic state. Methods We assessed admission glycemia, glycated hemoglobin, mean blood glucose concentration on days 1 and 2 in 200 patients with a first AMI but without overt disturbances of glucose metabolism. We also performed OGTT at discharge and 3 months after discharge. Results The prevalence of disturbances in glucose metabolism (as assessed by OGTT at 3 months was significantly lower than at discharge (29% vs. 48%, p = 0.0001. Disturbances in glucose metabolism were not confirmed in 63% of patients with impaired glucose tolerance and in 36% of patients with diabetes mellitus diagnosed during the acute phase of AMI. Age >77 years, glucose ≥12.06 mmol/l at 120 minutes during OGTT before discharge and mean blood glucose level on day 2 >7.5 mmol/l were identified as independent predictors of disturbances in glucose metabolism at the 3-month follow-up. Conclusions Disturbances in glucose metabolism observed in patients with a first AMI are predominantly transient. Elderly age, high plasma glucose concentration at 120 minutes during OGTT at discharge and elevated mean blood glucose level on day 2 were associated with sustained disturbances in glucose metabolism.

  1. Cord Blood Acute Phase Reactants Predict Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis in Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palac, Hannah L.; Yogev, Ram; Ernst, Linda M.; Mestan, Karen K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Early onset sepsis (EOS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants, yet diagnosis remains inadequate resulting in missed cases or prolonged empiric antibiotics with adverse consequences. Evaluation of acute phase reactant (APR) biomarkers in umbilical cord blood at birth may improve EOS detection in preterm infants with intrauterine infection. Methods In this nested case-control study, infants (29.7 weeks gestation, IQR: 27.7–32.2) were identified from a longitudinal cohort with archived cord blood and placental histopathology. Patients were categorized using culture, laboratory, clinical, and antibiotic treatment data into sepsis groups: confirmed sepsis (cEOS, n = 12); presumed sepsis (PS, n = 30); and no sepsis (controls, n = 30). Nine APRs were measured in duplicate from cord blood using commercially available multiplex immunoassays (Bio-Plex Pro™). In addition, placental histopathologic data were linked to biomarker results. Results cEOS organisms were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Proteus mirabilis, Haemophilus influenzae and Listeria monocytogenes. C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid P and ferritin were significantly elevated in cEOS compared to controls (p<0.01). SAA, CRP, and Hp were elevated in cEOS but not in PS (p<0.01) and had AUCs of 99%, 96%, and 95% respectively in predicting cEOS. Regression analysis revealed robust associations of SAA, CRP, and Hp with EOS after adjustment for covariates. Procalcitonin, fibrinogen, α-2-macroglobulin and tissue plasminogen activator were not significantly different across groups. Placental acute inflammation was associated with APR elevation and was present in all cEOS, 9 PS, and 17 control infants. Conclusion This study shows that certain APRs are elevated in cord blood of premature infants with EOS of intrauterine origin. SAA, CRP, and Hp at birth have potential diagnostic utility for risk stratification and

  2. Preventive effect of the microalga Chlamydomonas debaryana on the acute phase of experimental colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Román, Javier; Talero, Elena; Alcaide, Antonio; Reyes, Carolina de Los; Zubía, Eva; García-Mauriño, Sofía; Motilva, Virginia

    2014-10-14

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterised by chronic uncontrolled inflammation of intestinal mucosa. Diet and nutritional factors have emerged as possible interventions for IBD. Microalgae are rich sources of n-3 PUFA and derived oxylipins. Oxylipins are lipid mediators involved in the resolution of many inflammatory disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the oxylipin-containing biomass of the microalga Chlamydomonas debaryana and its major oxylipin constituent, (9Z,11E,13S,15Z)-13-hydroxyoctadeca-9,11,15-trienoic acid ((13S)-HOTE), on acute 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Lyophilised microalgal biomass and (13S)-HOTE were administered by oral route 48, 24 and 1 h before the induction of colitis and 24 h later, and the rats were killed after 48 h. The treatment with the lyophilised microalga and (13S)-HOTE improved body-weight loss and colon shortening, as well as attenuated the extent of colonic damage and increased mucus production. Cellular neutrophil infiltration, with the subsequent increase in myeloperoxidase levels induced by TNBS, were also reduced after the administration of the lyophilised microalga or (13S)-HOTE. The anti-inflammatory effects of these treatments were confirmed by the inhibition of colonic TNF-α production. Moreover, lyophilised microalga or (13S)-HOTE down-regulated cyclo-oxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. The present study was the first to show the prophylactic effects of a lyophilised biomass sample of the microalga C. debaryana and the oxylipin (13S)-HOTE on TNBS-induced acute colitis in rats. Our findings suggest that the microalga C. debaryana or derived oxylipins could be used as nutraceuticals in the treatment of the active phase of IBD.

  3. Cord Blood Acute Phase Reactants Predict Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithal, Leena B; Palac, Hannah L; Yogev, Ram; Ernst, Linda M; Mestan, Karen K

    2017-01-01

    Early onset sepsis (EOS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants, yet diagnosis remains inadequate resulting in missed cases or prolonged empiric antibiotics with adverse consequences. Evaluation of acute phase reactant (APR) biomarkers in umbilical cord blood at birth may improve EOS detection in preterm infants with intrauterine infection. In this nested case-control study, infants (29.7 weeks gestation, IQR: 27.7-32.2) were identified from a longitudinal cohort with archived cord blood and placental histopathology. Patients were categorized using culture, laboratory, clinical, and antibiotic treatment data into sepsis groups: confirmed sepsis (cEOS, n = 12); presumed sepsis (PS, n = 30); and no sepsis (controls, n = 30). Nine APRs were measured in duplicate from cord blood using commercially available multiplex immunoassays (Bio-Plex Pro™). In addition, placental histopathologic data were linked to biomarker results. cEOS organisms were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Proteus mirabilis, Haemophilus influenzae and Listeria monocytogenes. C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid P and ferritin were significantly elevated in cEOS compared to controls (p<0.01). SAA, CRP, and Hp were elevated in cEOS but not in PS (p<0.01) and had AUCs of 99%, 96%, and 95% respectively in predicting cEOS. Regression analysis revealed robust associations of SAA, CRP, and Hp with EOS after adjustment for covariates. Procalcitonin, fibrinogen, α-2-macroglobulin and tissue plasminogen activator were not significantly different across groups. Placental acute inflammation was associated with APR elevation and was present in all cEOS, 9 PS, and 17 control infants. This study shows that certain APRs are elevated in cord blood of premature infants with EOS of intrauterine origin. SAA, CRP, and Hp at birth have potential diagnostic utility for risk stratification and identification of infants with EOS.

  4. Acute marijuana effects on response-reinforcer relations under multiple variable-interval schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, S D; Cherek, D R; Pietras, C J; Tcheremissine, O V

    2004-07-01

    Acute marijuana administration may alter response-reinforcer relationships via a change in reinforcer efficacy, but may also impair coordination and motor function. One approach to evaluating drug effects on both motor function and reinforcer efficacy involves fitting the matching law equation to data obtained under multiple variable interval (VI) schedules. The present report describes an experiment that examined the effects of acute marijuana on response properties using this approach. Six human subjects responded under a multiple VI schedule for monetary reinforcers after smoking placebo and two active doses of marijuana. The low marijuana dose produced unsystematic changes in responding. As measured by the matching law equation parameters (k and rB), at the high dose five subjects showed a decrease-motor-related properties of response rate and four subjects' responding indicated a decrease in reinforcer efficacy. These data raise the possibility that, at high doses, marijuana administration alters both motor function and reinforcer efficacy.

  5. The effect of acute bilateral adrenalectomy on vasopressor responses to catecholamines in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopde, C T; Brahmankar, D M; Sheorey, R V; Udhoji, A G; Dorle, A K

    1975-04-01

    The effect of acute bilateral adrenalectomy on the pressor responses to adrenaline, noradrenaline and isoprenaline was studied in anaesthetized dogs. The responses to all the three catecholamines were reduced by adrenalectomy. Treatment with cortisone, cyclic AMP partially restored the responsiveness. Desocycorticosterone, aldosterone, hydrocortisone, phenylbutazone or infusion of either saline and noradrenaline failed to improve the impaired pressor responses seen in adrenalectomized dogs. Treatment with corticosterone alone. combined administration of aldosterone and hydrocortisone or cortisone followed by cyclic 3',5'-AMP also restored catecholamine responses amost to normal. The pressor responses to catecholmaines in dogs were also reduced by metyrapone-induced cortical insufficiency. Administration of corticosterone, cortisone or cyclic AMP slightly improved these responses; the recovery was not, however, as effective as that noted in the adrenalectomized condition.

  6. Design of Second Order Recursive Digital Integrators with Matching Phase and Magnitude Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Garg

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Location of poles and zeroes greatly affect phase response and magnitude response of a system. Recently, pole-zero optimization emerged as an effective approach to approximately match magnitude response of a system with that of an ideal one. In this brief, a methodology for the design of linear phase integrators and ones with constant phase of -90 degree is proposed. The aim of this method is to simultaneously attain multiple objectives of magnitude and phase optimization. In this method, magnitude response error is minimized under the constraint that the maximum passband phase-response error is below a prescribed level. Examples are included to illustrate the proposed design technique.

  7. Effect of thrombolytic therapy on exercise response during early recovery from acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, J H; Madsen, J K; Saunamäki, K I

    1992-01-01

    Several studies have shown that infarct size is reduced following thrombolytic treatment in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Exercise test variables, such as an impaired heart rate response during exercise, are known to be related to left ventricular function and patient prognosis...... following acute myocardial infarction. The present study was performed to compare exercise test variables in acute myocardial infarction patients following either intravenous thrombolysis or placebo. Symptom-limited bicycle ergometer tests, carried out 1-2 weeks from the infarction, were performed in 85...... heart rate than controls (136 vs. 126 b.min-1, P less than 0.01) but only a trend towards higher systolic blood pressure was seen (175 vs. 163 mmHg, P = 0.09). Rate-pressure product at maximal exercise was 23,620 vs. 20,100 mmHg.b.min-1 respectively, (P less than 0.01). Total exercise time, ST...

  8. Muscle Contraction Induces Acute Hydroxymethylation of the Exercise-Responsive Gene Nr4a3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pattamaprapanont, Pattarawan; Garde, Christian; Fabre, Odile

    2016-01-01

    promoters. Exercise induces dynamic DNA demethylation at gene promoters; however, the contribution of the demethylation precursor hydroxymethylcytosine is unknown. Given the evanescent nature of hydroxymethylcytosine, a muscle contraction model that allows for the collection of samples that are repeatedly...... stimulated over time is required to determine whether contraction-induced demethylation is preceded by changes in the hydroxymethylcytosine level. Here, we established an acute skeletal muscle contraction model to mimic the effects of acute exercise on gene expression. We used this model to investigate...... the effect of muscle contraction on DNA demethylation and hydroxymethylation. First, we performed an acute exercise study in healthy humans to identify an exercise-responsive gene that we could study in culture. We identified the nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3 (Nr4a3) gene with the highest...

  9. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I). Project IV. Structural building response; Structural Building Response Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healey, J.J.; Wu, S.T.; Murga, M.

    1980-02-01

    As part of the Phase I effort of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) being performed by the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the basic objective of Subtask IV.1 (Structural Building Response Review) is to review and summarize current methods and data pertaining to seismic response calculations particularly as they relate to the objectives of the SSMRP. This material forms one component in the development of the overall computational methodology involving state of the art computations including explicit consideration of uncertainty and aimed at ultimately deriving estimates of the probability of radioactive releases due to seismic effects on nuclear power plant facilities.

  10. Acute phase protein haptoglobin as inflammatory marker in serum and synovial fluid in an equine model of arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrachina, Laura; Remacha, Ana Rosa; Soler, Lourdes; García, Natalia; Romero, Antonio; Vázquez, Francisco José; Vitoria, Arantza; Álava, María Ángeles; Lamprave, Fermín; Rodellar, Clementina

    2016-12-01

    Acute phase proteins are useful inflammatory markers in horses. Haptoglobin (Hp) serum level is increased in horses undergoing different inflammatory processes, including arthritis. However, Hp concentration has not been assessed in inflammatory synovial fluid (SF). The aim of the present study was to investigate the Hp response in serum and SF in horses undergoing experimentally induced arthritis. For this purpose, serum and SF samples were collected from 12 animals before amphotericin B-induced arthritis was created (T0, healthy) and 15days after the lesion induction (T1, joint inflammation) and Hp was determined by single radial immunodiffusion. The Hp increase between T0 and T1 was significant in both serum and SF, and serum Hp concentration at T0 was significantly higher than in SF, but significant differences were not found at T1, indicating a higher Hp increase in SF. A significant positive correlation for Hp concentration between serum and SF samples was found. These results highlight the potential usefulness of Hp as inflammatory marker in horses, showing for the first time the increase of Hp in SF from joint inflammation in the horse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome (FIRES) in the Acute and Chronic Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofshteyn, Jacqueline S; Wilfong, Angus; Devinsky, Orrin; Bluvstein, Judith; Charuta, Joshi; Ciliberto, Michael A; Laux, Linda; Marsh, Eric D

    2017-01-01

    Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a devastating epilepsy affecting normal children after a febrile illness. FIRES presents with an acute phase with super-refractory status epilepticus and all patients progress to a chronic phase with persistent refractory epilepsy. The typical outcome is severe encephalopathy or death. The authors present 7 children from 5 centers with FIRES who had not responded to antiepileptic drugs or other therapies who were given cannabadiol (Epidiolex, GW Pharma) on emergency or expanded investigational protocols in either the acute or chronic phase of illness. After starting cannabidiol, 6 of 7 patients' seizures improved in frequency and duration. One patient died due to multiorgan failure secondary to isoflourane. An average of 4 antiepileptic drugs were weaned. Currently 5 subjects are ambulatory, 1 walks with assistance, and 4 are verbal. While this is an open-label case series, the authors add cannabidiol as a possible treatment for FIRES.

  12. Acute mechano-electronic responses in twisted phosphorene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Woosun; Kang, Kisung; Soon, Aloysius

    2016-08-01

    Many different forms of mechanical and structural deformations have been employed to alter the electronic structure of various modern two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials. Given the recent interest in the new class of 2D nanomaterials - phosphorene, here we investigate how the rotational strain-dependent electronic properties of low-dimensional phosphorene may be exploited for technological gain. Here, using first-principles density-functional theory, we investigate the mechanical stability of twisted one-dimensional phosphorene nanoribbons (TPNR) by measuring their critical twist angle (θc) and shear modulus as a function of the applied mechanical torque. We find a strong anisotropic, chirality-dependent mechano-electronic response in the hydrogen-passivated TPNRs upon vortical deformation, resulting in a striking difference in the change in the carrier effective mass as a function of torque angle (and thus, the corresponding change in carrier mobility) between the zigzag and armchair directions in these TPNRs. The accompanied tunable band-gap energies for the hydrogen-passivated zigzag TPNRs may then be exploited for various key opto-electronic nanodevices.Many different forms of mechanical and structural deformations have been employed to alter the electronic structure of various modern two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials. Given the recent interest in the new class of 2D nanomaterials - phosphorene, here we investigate how the rotational strain-dependent electronic properties of low-dimensional phosphorene may be exploited for technological gain. Here, using first-principles density-functional theory, we investigate the mechanical stability of twisted one-dimensional phosphorene nanoribbons (TPNR) by measuring their critical twist angle (θc) and shear modulus as a function of the applied mechanical torque. We find a strong anisotropic, chirality-dependent mechano-electronic response in the hydrogen-passivated TPNRs upon vortical deformation, resulting in a

  13. Monocytes in systematic inflammatory response syndrome: Differences between sepsis and acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vassilios Koussoulas; Michalis Tzivras; Vassiliki Karagianni; Ekaterini Spyridaki; Diamantis Plachouras; Helen Giamarellou; Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To unravel the differences between systematic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) of acute pancreatitis compared to the same syndrome in sepsis.METHODS: Twenty-five patients were enrolled, 12 with sepsis and 13 acute pancreatitis. After diagnosis 20 mL blood was sampled. Half were assayed for isolation of monocytes and 10 mL was centrifuged for serum test of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-6(IL-6). Half of monocytes were incubated in the presence of patients' serum and supernatants were collected. The other half was treated for estimation of optical photometry under caspase-3 inhibition. TNFα and IL-6 were estimated by an enzyme immunoassay.RESULTS: median ± SE of serum IL-6 in septic patients and acute pancreatitis patients was 192.30 ± 35.40 ng/L and 21.00 ± 16.05 ng/L, respectively (P < 0.01). Respective values of caspase-3 were 0.94 ± 0.17 pmol/min 104 cells and 0.34 ± 0.09 pmol/min 104 cells (P < 0.05).IL-6 of monocyte supernatants of patients with sepsis was significantly increased after addition of patients' serum, while that of patients with acute pancreatitis did not show significant difference.CONCLUSION: The data have shown that monocyte activity is different between acute pancreatitis and sepsis. This phenomenon might be explained as a different pathway to the pro-inflammatory cytokines release or could be a novel anti-inflammatory response in acute pancreatitis.

  14. Impaired cardiovascular responsiveness to an acute cold wind stress in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, R D; Williams, P A

    1994-03-01

    In vivo cardiovascular responses were measured using modified impedance cardiographic techniques in urethane-anesthetized (1.5 g/kg) streptozotocin-diabetic (STZ; 65 mg/kg) rats during acute (30 min) cold wind (0 degree C, 1 m/s) exposure. Both control (CON) and diabetic (STZ) groups experienced significant decreases (P wind stress as evidenced by the impaired responsiveness of the cardiovascular system to hypothermia. The pattern of responses for both the thermoregulatory and cardiovascular systems could be partially explained by beta-receptor insensitivity to catecholamine stimulation.

  15. Does Fasciola hepatica infection modify the response of acute hepatitis C virus infection to IFN-α treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet; Isler, Mehmet; Senol, Altug; Demirci, Mustafa; Aydın, Zeynep Dilek

    2005-01-01

    Immunologic response to acute hepatitis C is mainly a Th1 response, whereas fasciolopsiasis is associated with a diverse T-cell response. Interferon-alpha has immunomodulatory effects and enhances Th1 immune response. Fasciola infection could theoretically interfere with the Th1 immune response, even when acquired after an initial response to interferon-alpha treatment for acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We report here the case of a male patient who acquired Fasciola hepatica infection after an initial response to IFN-alpha therapy with a favorable outcome PMID:16437701

  16. Does Fasciola hepatica infection modify the response of acute hepatitis C virus infection to IFN-α treatment?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Sahin; Mehmet Isler; Altug Senol; Mustafa Demirci; Zeynep Dilek Aydin

    2005-01-01

    Immunologic response to acute hepatitis C is mainly a Th1 response, whereas fasciolopsiasis is associated with a diverse T-cell response. Interferon-alpha has immunomodulatory effects and enhances Th1 immune response. Fasciola infection could theoretically interfere with the Th1 immune response, even when acquired after an initial response to interferon-alpha treatment for acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We report here the case of a male patient who acquired Fasciola hepatica infection after an initial response to IFN-alpha therapy with a favorable outcome

  17. The mortality and response rate after FLANG regimen in patients with refractory/relapsed acute leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vali A Mehrzad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oncologists today are greatly concerned about the treatment of relapsed/refractory acute leukemia. FLANG regimen, combination of novantron, cytarabine, fludarabine, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, has been used in treatment of refractory/relapsed acute leukemia since 1990s. The present study has evaluated mortality and response rate of this regimen. Materials and Methods: In this study, 25 patients with refractory/relapsed acute leukemia aged 15-55 years underwent FLANG regimen at Seyed-Al-Shohada Hospital, Isfahan, Iran during 2008-2009. One month later, bone marrow samples were taken to evaluate the responsiveness to treatment. Participants were followed for a year. The data was analyzed by student-t and chi-square tests, logistic, and Cox regression analysis, and Kaplan-Meier curves in SPSS 19. Results: Out of the 25 patients, 8 patients (32% had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (5 refractory and 3 relapsed cases and 17 subjects had acute myeloid leukemia (7 refractory and 10 relapsed cases. According to the bone marrow biopsies taken one month after FLANG regimen, 10 patients (40% had responded to treatment. Five patients of the 10 responders underwent successful bone marrow transplantation (BMT. On the other hand, 13 patients (52%, who had not entered the CR period, died during the follow-up. Logistic regression analysis did not reveal any significant associations between disease type and responsiveness to treatment. Conclusion: This study indicated higher rates of unresponsiveness to treatment while its mortality rate was comparable with other studies. Overall, according to limitations for BMT (as the only chance for cure in Iran, it seems that FLANG therapy is an acceptable choice for these patients.

  18. Effects of balneotherapy on the reactants of acute inflammation phase in Ankylosing spondylitis

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    Stamenković Bojana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects sacroiliac joints, spinal column and peripheral joints. Beside medication therapy, physical and balneotherapy play an important role in its complex treatment. Objective. The aim of the research was to establish serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP, α 1-acid glycoprotein (α 1-AGP, ceruloplasmine (CP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (SE before and after the balneotherapy in ankylosing spondylitis. Methods. The research included 50 AS patients according to the revised New York criteria, of mean age 43 years, who were treated for 14 days on the average at the Clinic for Rheumatology of the Institute 'Niška Banja'. All the patients received medications and balneotherapy (radioactive oligomineral baths, peloid, massage, kinesitherapy; the serum concentrations of CRP, α1-AGP, CP and SE were measured before and after balneotherapy. Serum proteins were determined using original Nor Partigen plates Boehringer. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was measured by Westergreen method. Balneotherapy was applied individually, intensively or mildly, depending on the AS stage and activity phase. Results. After dosed balneotherapy, a significant decrease in the concentrations of CP (p<0.05, α1-AGP (p<0.01 and CRP (p<0.05 was registered in the serums of AS patients. ESR was not significantly reduced. Conclusion. The research proved that α 1-acid glycoprotein, ceruloplasmine and C-reactive protein represent more sensitive inflammation markers as compared to erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The identification of acute phase reactants is important in the evaluation of dosed balneotherapy efficiency in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis.

  19. Relationship of Acute Phase Reactants and Fat Accumulation during Treatment for Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Sanchez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tuberculosis causes inflammation and muscle wasting. We investigated how attenuation of inflammation relates to repletion of body composition during treatment in an underserved population. Design. Twenty-four patients (23 to 79 years old with pulmonary tuberculosis and inflammation (pretreatment albumin =2.96±0.13 g/dL, C-reactive protein [CRP] =6.71±1.34 μg/dL, and beta-2-microglobulin =1.68±0.10 μg/L were evaluated and had BIA over 24 weeks. Results. Weight increased by 3.02±0.81 kg (5.5%; =0.007 at week 4 and by 8.59±0.97 kg (15.6%; <0.0001 at week 24. Repletion of body mass was primarily fat, which increased by 2.09±0.52 kg at week 4 and 5.05±0.56 kg at week 24 (=0.004 and <0.0001 versus baseline. Fat-free mass (FFM, body cell mass (BCM, and phase angle did not increase until study week 8. Albumin rose to 3.65±0.14 g/dL by week 4 (<0.001 and slowly increased thereafter. CRP levels declined by ~50% at each interval visit. Conclusions. During the initial treatment, acute phase reactants returned towards normal. The predominant accrual of fat mass probably reflects ongoing, low levels of inflammation.

  20. Establishment of Allergic Airway Inflammation Model in Late- phase Response of Sprague- Dawley Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱敏敏; 傅诚章; 周钦海

    2002-01-01

    Objective To establish allergic airway inflammation model in late-phase airwayreaction of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods Thirty-six SD rats were randomly divided intothree groups: control group (Group Ⅰ),single challenge group (Group Ⅱ),consecutive challenge group(Group Ⅲ). The rats in Group Ⅱ and Group Ⅲ were sensitized twice by injection of ovalbumin (OA) to-gether with aluminum hydroxide and Bordetella pertussis as adjuvants, followed by challenge withaerosolized OA for 20 min once in Group Ⅱ or one time on each day for one week in Group Ⅲ . Therats in Group Ⅰ received 0.9 % saline by injection and inhalation. Results Conpared uith groupⅠ , there were positive symptoms observed in the group Ⅱ and group Ⅲ; the amount of total leucocytesand eosinophil percentage in brochoalveolar lauage fluid (BALF) significantly increased (P<0.05 orP <0.01 respectively) in Group Ⅱ or Ⅲ; histopathologic changes of lung showed acute allergic inflam-mation changes in Group Ⅱ : Disrupted epithelium damaged subepithelial structure and eosinophil infiltra-tion the in the airway wall. As for the Group Ⅲ , there were allergen-induced characteristic features ofchronic allergic airways inflammation: hypertrophy and hyperplasia of bronchial smooth muscle, gobletcell hyperplasia , basement membrane thickening, eosinophil infiltration, edema. Conclusion The mod-el of allergic airway inflammation in late-phase response of SD rats was successfully established by OAsensitization (twice) and consecutive challenge.

  1. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy test Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  2. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  3. The effect of transport stress on turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) liver acute phase proteins gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Andreia Tomás; Lecchi, Cristina; Grilli, Guido; Giudice, Chiara; Nodari, Sara Rota; Vinco, Leonardo J; Ceciliani, Fabrizio

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of transport-related stress on the liver gene expression of four acute phase proteins (APP), namely α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Serum Amyloid A (SAA) and PIT54, in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). A group of seven BUT BIG 6 commercial hens was subjected to a two-hour long road transportation and the quantitative gene expression of APP in the liver was compared to that of a non transported control group. The expression of AGP and CRP mRNA was found to be increased in animals slaughtered after road transport. The presence of AGP protein was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The results of this study showed that road-transport may induce the mRNA expression of immune related proteins. The finding that AGP and CRP can be upregulated during transport could suggest their use as for the assessment of turkey welfare during transport.

  4. The Acute-Phase Proteins Serum Amyloid A and C Reactive Protein in Transudates and Exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okino, Alessandra M.; Bürger, Cristiani; Cardoso, Jefferson R.; Lavado, Edson L.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Campa, Ana

    2006-01-01

    The distinction between exudates and transudates is very important in the patient management. Here we evaluate whether the acute-phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA), in comparison with C reactive protein (CRP) and total protein (TP), can be useful in this discrimination. CRP, SAA, and TP were determined in 36 exudate samples (27 pleural and 9 ascitic) and in 12 transudates (9 pleural and 3 ascitic). CRP, SAA, and TP were measured. SAA present in the exudate corresponded to 10% of the amount found in serum, that is, the exudate/serum ratio (E/S) was 0.10 ± 0.13. For comparison, the exudate/serum ratio for CRP and TP was 0.39 ± 0.37 and 0.68 ± 0.15, respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between serum and exudate SAA concentration (r = 0.764;p < 0.0001). The concentration of SAA in transudates was low and did not overlap with that found in exudates (0.02-0.21 versus 0.8–360.5 g/mL). SAA in pleural and ascitic exudates results mainly from leakage of the serum protein via the inflamed membrane. A comparison of the E/S ratio of SAA and CRP points SAA as a very good marker in discriminating between exudates and transudates. PMID:16864904

  5. Acute-phase protein behavior in dairy cattle herd naturally infected with Trypanosoma vivax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Paulo Henrique; Fidelis Junior, Otavio Luiz; Marques, Luiz Carlos; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Barnabé, Patrícia de Athayde; André, Marcos Rogério; Balbuena, Tiago Santana; Cadioli, Fabiano Antonio

    2015-07-30

    Trypanosoma vivax is a hemoprotozoon that causes disease in cattle and is difficult to diagnose. The host-parasite relationship in cattle that are infected by T. vivax has only been poorly studied. In the present study, a total of 429 serum proteinograms were produced from naturally infected animals (NIF) and were compared with 50 samples from control animals (C). The total protein, IgA band, complement C3 β chain band, albumin band, antitrypsin band, IgG band, haptoglobin band, complement C3c α chain band and protein HP-20 band presented higher levels in the serum proteinograms of the NIF group. Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4, α2-macroglobulin, complement C6, ceruloplasmin, transferrin band and apolipoprotein A1 band presented lower levels in this group. There was no significant difference (pNIF and C groups. Acute phase proteins may be useful for understanding the host-parasite relationship, since the antitrypsin band was only present in the NIF group. This can be used as an indicator for infection in cattle that are naturally infected by T. vivax.

  6. Preprocedural serum levels of acute-phase reactants and prognosis after percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahel, Braim M; Visseren, Frank L J; Suttorp, Maarten-Jan; Plokker, Thijs H W; Kelder, Johannes C; de Jongh, Bartelt M; Bouter, K Paul; Diepersloot, Rob J A

    2003-10-15

    In this study we evaluate the value of baseline concentrations of acute-phase reactants on prognosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Blood samples were drawn immediately before PCI to measure baseline concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), and fibrinogen. Follow-up data were collected at 8 months. Repeat PCI, CABG, myocardial infarction, and death were recorded as major adverse clinical events (MACE). Furthermore the recurrence of angina pectoris was noted. The study included 600 consecutive patients after a successful PCI. Sixty-four percent of the patients were stented. The mean age was 61.6 years and 68.9% were male. CRP levels were significantly higher in patients who were to have repeat angina as compared with those who were not (P=0.0322). IL-6 levels were not correlated with angina or MACE. Lp(a) and fibrinogen concentrations were both significantly related to MACE (P=0.0337 and P=0.0253, respectively). Our study clearly supports the role of inflammation in restenosis after PCI as measured in statistically higher levels of Lp(a) and fibrinogen in patients with MACE and CRP in patients with repeat angina.

  7. Determination of ceruloplasmin, some other acute phase proteins, and biochemical parameters in cows with endometritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine serum ceruloplasmin levels in cows with endometritis of varying degrees of severity and to establish whether or not there is a correlation between acute phase protein (APP levels and biochemical parameters. Material and Methods: The study was conducted with 100 Brown Swiss cows (3-8 years of age on days 28-32 postpartum. Cows were divided into endometritis (mild, moderate, and severe endometriosis and healthy groups based on ultrasonography, vaginoscopy, and cytological examination. Blood samples were collected from all cows. Levels of haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA, ceruloplasmin, albumin, and some biochemical parameters were analyzed. Results: Hp, SAA, and ceruloplasmin levels were higher in cows with endometritis than in healthy cows (p=0.001, and the levels of these APPs increased as endometritis became more severe (p=0.001. Some significant correlations were found between APPs and the biochemical parameters that were analyzed. In conclusion, it was determined that ceruloplasmin levels increase significantly in the presence of endometritis and proportionate to the severity of endometritis. A significant correlation was found between ceruloplasmin levels and Hp and SAA levels. Conclusion: It was concluded that ceruloplasmin levels can be used in the diagnosis of endometritis as an alternative to Hp and SAA levels.

  8. Plasma cholesterol homeostasis, HDL remodeling and function during the acute phase reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimetti, Francesca; De Vuono, Stefano; Gomaraschi, Monica; Adorni, Maria Pia; Favari, Elda; Ronda, Nicoletta; Ricci, Maria Anastasia; Veglia, Fabrizio; Calabresi, Laura; Lupattelli, Graziana

    2017-10-01

    Acute phase reaction (APR) is a systemic inflammation triggered by several conditions associated with lipid profile alterations. We evaluated whether APR also associates with changes in cholesterol synthesis and absorption, HDL structure, composition, and cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC). We analyzed 59 subjects with APR related to infections, oncologic causes, or autoimmune diseases and 39 controls. We detected no difference in markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption. Conversely, a significant reduction of LpA-I- and LpAI:AII-containing HDL (-28% and -44.8%, respectively) and of medium-sized HDL (-10.5%) occurred in APR. Total HDL CEC was impaired in APR subjects (-18%). Evaluating specific CEC pathways, we found significant reductions in CEC by aqueous diffusion and by the transporters scavenger receptor B-I and ABCG1 (-25.5, -41.1 and -30.4%, respectively). ABCA1-mediated CEC was not affected. Analyses adjusted for age and gender provided similar results. In addition, correcting for HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the differences in aqueous diffusion total and ABCG1-CEC remained significant. APR subjects displayed higher levels of HDL serum amyloid A (+20-folds; P = 0.003). In conclusion, APR does not associate with cholesterol synthesis and absorption changes but with alterations of HDL composition and a marked impairment of HDL CEC, partly independent of HDL-C serum level reduction. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. The Acute-Phase Proteins Serum Amyloid A and C Reactive Protein in Transudates and Exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The distinction between exudates and transudates is very important in the patient management. Here we evaluate whether the acute-phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA, in comparison with C reactive protein (CRP and total protein (TP, can be useful in this discrimination. CRP, SAA, and TP were determined in 36 exudate samples (27 pleural and 9 ascitic and in 12 transudates (9 pleural and 3 ascitic. CRP, SAA, and TP were measured. SAA present in the exudate corresponded to 10 % of the amount found in serum, that is, the exudate/serum ratio (E/S was 0.10 ± 0.13 . For comparison, the exudate/serum ratio for CRP and TP was 0.39 ± 0.37 and 0.68 ± 0.15 , respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between serum and exudate SAA concentration ( r = 0.764 ; p < 0.0001 . The concentration of SAA in transudates was low and did not overlap with that found in exudates (0.02-0.21 versus 0.8–360.5un g/mL. SAA in pleural and ascitic exudates results mainly from leakage of the serum protein via the inflamed membrane. A comparison of the E/S ratio of SAA and CRP points SAA as a very good marker in discriminating between exudates and transudates

  10. The acute-phase proteins serum amyloid A and C reactive protein in transudates and exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okino, Alessandra M; Bürger, Cristiani; Cardoso, Jefferson R; Lavado, Edson L; Lotufo, Paulo A; Campa, Ana

    2006-01-01

    The distinction between exudates and transudates is very important in the patient management. Here we evaluate whether the acute-phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA), in comparison with C reactive protein (CRP) and total protein (TP), can be useful in this discrimination. CRP, SAA, and TP were determined in 36 exudate samples (27 pleural and 9 ascitic) and in 12 transudates (9 pleural and 3 ascitic). CRP, SAA, and TP were measured. SAA present in the exudate corresponded to 10% of the amount found in serum, that is, the exudate/serum ratio (E/S) was 0.10 +/- 0.13. For comparison, the exudate/serum ratio for CRP and TP was 0.39 +/- 0.37 and 0.68 +/- 0.15, respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between serum and exudate SAA concentration (r = 0.764; p transudates was low and did not overlap with that found in exudates (0.02-0.21 versus 0.8-360.5 g/mL). SAA in pleural and ascitic exudates results mainly from leakage of the serum protein via the inflamed membrane. A comparison of the E/S ratio of SAA and CRP points SAA as a very good marker in discriminating between exudates and transudates.

  11. Specific immune responses against epitopes derived from Aurora kinase A and B in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Vanessa; Egenrieder, Stephanie; Götz, Marlies; Herbst, Cornelia; Greiner, Jochen; Hofmann, Susanne

    2013-07-01

    Aurora kinases are serine/threonine kinases which play an important role in the process of mitosis and cell cycle regulation. Aurora kinase inhibitors are described to sensitize malignant cells to cytosine arabinoside and specific antibodies by mediating apoptosis. Aurora kinases are overexpressed in most acute leukemias but also in solid tumors. In this study we investigated whether epitopes derived from Aurora kinase A and B are able to elicit cellular immune responses in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) to investigate their role as potential targets for specific immunotherapy. Samples of eight patients with AML were analyzed in enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assays and compared with immune responses of nine healthy volunteers (HVs). Specific CD8 + T cell responses were detected against the epitopes Aura A1, A2, B1, B2, B3, B4 and B5. Immune responses for epitopes derived from Aura B were induced more frequently compared to Aura A. The antigens with the most frequent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses were Aura B3, B4 and B5, although the number of patients tested for these antigens was low. Aura B5 did not elicit specific CTL responses in HVs. For epitope Aura B6 no immune response was detected in HVs or patients. Taken together, with the combination of Aurora kinase inhibitors and an immunotherapeutic approach, an effective blast and minimal residual disease elimination might be achieved.

  12. A Phase 1 Study of the PARP Inhibitor Veliparib in Combination with Temozolomide in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojo, Ivana; Beumer, Jan H; Pratz, Keith W; McDevitt, Michael A; Baer, Maria R; Blackford, Amanda L; Smith, B Douglas; Gore, Steven D; Carraway, Hetty E; Showel, Margaret M; Levis, Mark J; Dezern, Amy E; Gladstone, Douglas E; Ji, Jiuping Jay; Wang, Lihua; Kinders, Robert J; Pouquet, Marie; Ali-Walbi, Ismail; Rudek, Michelle A; Poh, Weijie; Herman, James G; Karnitz, Larry M; Kaufmann, Scott H; Chen, Alice; Karp, Judith E

    2017-02-01

    In preclinical studies, the PARP inhibitor veliparib enhanced the antileukemic action of temozolomide through potentiation of DNA damage. Accordingly, we conducted a phase 1 study of temozolomide with escalating doses of veliparib in patients with relapsed, refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or AML arising from aggressive myeloid malignancies. Patients received veliparib [20-200 mg once a day on day 1 and twice daily on days 4-12 in cycle 1 (days 1-8 in cycle ≥2)] and temozolomide [150-200 mg/m(2) daily on days 3-9 in cycle 1 (days 1-5 in cycle ≥2)] every 28 to 56 days. Veliparib pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics [ability to inhibit poly(ADP-ribose) polymer (PAR) formation and induce H2AX phosphorylation] were assessed. Pretreatment levels of MGMT and PARP1 protein, methylation of the MGMT promoter, and integrity of the Fanconi anemia pathway were also examined. Forty-eight patients were treated at seven dose levels. Dose-limiting toxicities were oral mucositis and esophagitis lasting >7 days. The MTD was veliparib 150 mg twice daily with temozolomide 200 mg/m(2) daily. The complete response (CR) rate was 17% (8/48 patients). Veliparib exposure as well as inhibition of PAR polymer formation increased dose proportionately. A veliparib-induced increase in H2AX phosphorylation in CD34(+) cells was observed in responders. Three of 4 patients with MGMT promoter methylation achieved CR. Veliparib plus temozolomide is well tolerated, with activity in advanced AML. Further evaluation of this regimen and of treatment-induced phosphorylation of H2AX and MGMT methylation as potential response predictors appears warranted. Clin Cancer Res; 23(3); 697-706. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Perceived stress at work is associated with attenuated DHEA-S response during acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Theorell, Töres; Kushnir, Mark M; Bergquist, Jonas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2013-09-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) have been suggested to play a protective role during acute psychosocial stress, because they act as antagonists to the effects of the stress hormone cortisol. This study aims to investigate whether prolonged psychosocial stress, measured as perceived stress at work during the past week, is related to the capacity to produce DHEA and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress. It also aims to investigate whether prolonged perceived stress affects the balance between production of cortisol and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress. Thirty-six healthy subjects (19 men and 17 women, mean age 37 years, SD 5 years), were included. Perceived stress at work during the past week was measured by using the Stress-Energy (SE) Questionnaire. The participants were divided into three groups based on their mean scores; Low stress, Medium stress and High stress. The participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and blood samples were collected before, directly after the stress test, and after 30 min of recovery. General Linear Models were used to investigate if the Medium stress group and the High stress group differ regarding stress response compared to the Low stress group. Higher perceived stress at work was associated with attenuated DHEA-S response during acute psychosocial stress. Furthermore, the ratio between the cortisol production and the DHEA-S production during the acute stress test were higher in individuals reporting higher perceived stress at work compared to individuals reporting low perceived stress at work. There was no statistical difference in DHEA response between the groups. This study shows that prolonged stress, measured as perceived stress at work during the past week, seems to negatively affect the capacity to produce DHEA-S during acute stress. Given the protective functions of DHEA-S, attenuated DHEA-S production during acute stress may lead to higher risk for adverse

  14. [Diagnosis and management of ENT conditions responsible for acute community acquired bacterial meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klossek, J-M

    2009-01-01

    Only few epidemiological studies evaluate the role of ENT infections in meningitis. A retrospective review of data shows that the frequency of ENT infections is estimated at 25% in adults and children. Meningitis may occur during otological and nasosinusal infections. Acute otitis media and mastoiditis are the most common ear infections responsible for meningitis. Chronic otitis (cholesteatoma) are rarely involved. In case of acute rhinosinusitis, frequently responsible frontal and ethmoidal locations are investigated by nasal endoscopy and CT scan. A CSF leak originating mostly from anterior skull base or middle ear, either posttraumatic or spontaneous, may also be associated with meningitis. The management of ENT infections begins with antibiotics. Drainage may be discussed when identification of the bacteria is needed or if the medical treatment seems inefficient. In case of a CSF leak, closure of the defect is performed according to its location and size after evaluation by imaging (CT scan, MRI).

  15. Flecainide Improve Sepsis Induced Acute Lung Injury by Controlling Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Song

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flecainide is an antiarrhythmic agent that is used primarily in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Some evidences also suggest that flecainide can participate in alveolar fluid clearance and inflammatory responses. This experiment was aimed to evaluate the effects of flecainide on sepsis induced acute lung injury in a rat model. Methods: Rats were treated with subcutaneous infusion of saline or flecainide (0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg/hr by a mini-osmotic pump. Subcutaneous infusion was started 3 hours before and continued until 8 hours after intraperitoneal injection of saline or endotoxin. Animals were sacrificed for analyses of severity of acute lung injury with wet to dry (W/D ratio and lung injury score (LIS in lung and inflammatory responses with level of leukocyte, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs and inteleukin-8 (IL-8 in bronchoalveolar lavages fluid (BALF. Results: Flecainide markedly improved dose dependently sepsis induced acute lung injury as analysed by W/D ratio (from 2.24 ± 0.11 to 1.76 ± 0.09, p < 0.05 and LIS (from 3 to 1, p < 0.05, and inflammatory response as determined by leukocyte (from 443 ± 127 to 229 ± 95, p < 0.05, PMNs (from 41.43 ± 17.63 to 2.43 ± 2.61, p < 0.05 and IL-8 (from 95.00 ± 15.28 to 40.00 ± 10.21, p < 0.05 in BALF. Conclusions: Flecanide improve sepsis induced acute lung injury in rats by controlling inflammatory responses.

  16. Divergent responses of inflammatory mediators within the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex to acute psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiarelli, Haley A; Gandhi, Chaitanya P; Gray, J Megan; Morena, Maria; Hassan, Kowther I; Hill, Matthew N

    2016-01-01

    There is now a growing body of literature that indicates that stress can initiate inflammatory processes, both in the periphery and brain; however, the spatiotemporal nature of this response is not well characterized. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an acute psychological stress on changes in mRNA and protein levels of a wide range of inflammatory mediators across a broad temporal range, in key corticolimbic brain regions involved in the regulation of the stress response (amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, medial prefrontal cortex). mRNA levels of inflammatory mediators were analyzed immediately following 30min or 120min of acute restraint stress and protein levels were examined 0h through 24h post-termination of 120min of acute restraint stress using both multiplex and ELISA methods. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that exposure to acute psychological stress results in an increase in the protein level of several inflammatory mediators in the amygdala while concomitantly producing a decrease in the protein level of multiple inflammatory mediators within the medial prefrontal cortex. This pattern of changes seemed largely restricted to the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex, with stress producing few changes in the mRNA or protein levels of inflammatory mediators within the hippocampus or hypothalamus. Consistent with previous research, stress resulted in a general elevation in multiple inflammatory mediators within the circulation. These data indicate that neuroinflammatory responses to stress do not appear to be generalized across brain structures and exhibit a high degree of spatiotemporal specificity. Given the impact of inflammatory signaling on neural excitability and emotional behavior, these data may provide a platform with which to explore the importance of inflammatory signaling within the prefrontocortical-amygdala circuit in the regulation of the neurobehavioral responses to stress.

  17. Acute stress response and recovery after whiplash injuries. A one-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Bendix, Tom; Qerama, Erisela

    2007-01-01

    Chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) represents a major medical and psycho-social problem. The typical symptomatology presented in WAD is to some extent similar to symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder. In this study we examined if the acute stress reaction following a whiplash injury ...... be important to consider in the early management of whiplash injury. However, the emotional response did not predict chronicity in individuals....

  18. Clinical features and early treatment response of central nervous system involvement in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Mette; Taskinen, Mervi; Abrahamsson, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains a therapeutic challenge. PROCEDURE: To explore leukemia characteristics of patients with CNS involvement at ALL diagnosis, we analyzed clinical features and early treatment response of 744...... leukemia and patients without such characteristics (0.50 vs. 0.61; P = 0.2). CONCLUSION: CNS involvement at diagnosis is associated with adverse prognostic features but does not indicate a less chemosensitive leukemia....

  19. Effects of repetitive stress during the acute phase of Trypanosoma cruzi infection on chronic Chagas' disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Leony Cristina; Brazão, Vânia; Filipin, Marina Del Vecchio; Santello, Fabricia Helena; Caetano, Luana Naiara; Toldo, Miriam Paula Alonso; Caldeira, Jerri C; do Prado, José Clóvis

    2009-03-01

    The effect of repetitive stress during acute infection with Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) on the chronic phase of ensuing Chagas' disease was the focus of this investigation. The aim of this study was to evaluate in Wistar rats the influence of repetitive stress during the acute phase of infection (7 days) with the Y strain of T. cruzi on the chronic phase of the infection (at 180 days). Exposure to ether vapor for 1 min twice a day was used as a stressor. Repetitive stress enhanced the number of circulating parasites and cardiac tissue disorganization, from a moderate to a severe diffuse mononuclear inflammatory process and the presence of amastigote burden in the cardiac fibers. Immunological parameters revealed that repetitive stress triggered a reduced concanavalin A induced splenocyte proliferation in vitro with major effects on the late chronic phase. Serum interleukin-12 concentration decreased in both stressed and infected rats in the early phase of infection although it was higher on 180 days post-infection. These results suggest that repetitive stress can markedly impair the host's immune system and enhance the pathological process during the chronic phase of Chagas' disease.

  20. Influência da resposta inflamatória de fase aguda nos níveis séricos de retinol e da proteína de ligação do retinol em pacientes com AIDS Influence of acute-phase inflammatory response on serum levels of retinol and retinol binding protein in HIV/AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Fernandes Neves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a hiporretinolemia constitui fator prognóstico independente em pacientes com AIDS, e a atividade inflamatória causa redução dos níveis séricos deste nutriente na população em geral. Entretanto, faltam estudos que avaliem o impacto da atividade inflamatória sobre o nível sérico do retinol em pacientes com AIDS. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados transversalmente 41 pacientes internados por complicações da AIDS, que tiveram quantificados alguns marcadores de inflamação (proteína C reativa e fator de necrose tumoral alfa e concentrações séricas de retinol e da proteína de ligação do retinol. RESULTADOS: apesar da baixa (14,6% prevalência de hiporretinolemia evidenciou-se correlação negativa dos marcadores de inflamação com os níveis séricos de retinol e de sua proteína de ligação nos pacientes com AIDS. CONCLUSÕES: a atividade inflamatória de fase aguda está associada a baixos níveis séricos de retinol em indivíduos com AIDS.INTRODUCTION: Hyporetinolemia is an independent prognostic factor in AIDS patients. Inflammatory activity causes a reduction in the serum levels of this nutrient in the general population. However, there are no studies assessing the impact of inflammatory activity on the serum retinol level in AIDS patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional assessment was conducted on 41 patients hospitalized due to AIDS complications. Inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and serum retinol and retinol binding protein concentrations were quantified. RESULTS: Despite the low (14.6% prevalence of hyporetinolemia, a significant negative correlation was observed between the inflammatory markers and the serum retinol and retinol binding protein levels in AIDS patients. CONCLUSIONS: Acute-phase inflammatory activity is associated with low serum retinol levels in individuals with AIDS.

  1. Adipocytokine responses to acute exercise in athletes with different body fat content and sedentary controls

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    Mirjana Sumarac Dumanovic

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent research in the biology of adipose tissue indicates that it is far more than a simply an energy storage organ, and it is in fact an active endocrine organ secreting numerous bioactive mediators, called adipokines, including leptin, adiponectin and visfatin (Galic, 2010. To date, less attention has been focused on the kinetics of adipokines levels during and after high intensity exercise. Several reports pointed at the metabolic role of adipokines during exercise in elite athletes, but the data are currently equivocal (Bouassida et al., 2010; Jürimäe et al., 2011. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate adipocytokine responses to a single bout acute exercise in elite athletes with low percentage of body fat, elite athletes with a high percentage of body fat and sedentary controls. Methods: Sixteen athletes with low percentage of body fat (volleyball players, low fat athletes group, LFAG, fifteen athletes with high percentage of body fat (water polo players, high fat athletes group, HFAG and fifteen sedentary subjects participated in this study (age [years] 20±2; 20±2; 20±1, respectively. All subjects were exposed to: anthropometric measurements; exercise test on treadmill in order to examine acute changes of adipocytokines; blood samples were obtained at baseline levels, immediately after the exercise test and 30 minutes after recovery. Separated serum or plasma were used for hormone (leptin, adiponectin and visfatin ELISA analysis. Results: In athletes in LFAG, baseline leptin concentration was significantly lower, but adiponectin and visfatin concentrations were significantly higher, compared to sedentary controls and athletes in HFAG (p0.05. Conclusions: Our findings show leptin and visfatin levels, but not adiponectin respond to acute exercise. Acute exercise elicited an inverse visfatin response in athletes in HFAG and controls. Also, these results suggest that leptin is altered after acute exercise

  2. Evolution of IgG antibody response against Toxoplasma gondii tissue cyst in acute and chronic human infections

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    Margarita VILLAVEDRA

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The recognition profile of the tissue cysts antigens by IgG antibodies was studied during acute and chronic human toxoplasmic infection. Thus the IgG response against Toxoplasma gondii was investigated by immunoblotting in two patients accidentally infected with the RH strain as well as in group of naturally infected patients at acute and chronic phase. There was an overall coincidence of molecular mass among antigens of tachyzoites and tissue cysts recognized by these sera, however, they appear not to be the same molecules. The response against tissue cysts starts early during acute infection, and the reactivity of antibodies is strong against a wide range of antigens. Six bands (between 82 and 151 kDa were exclusively recognized by chronic phase sera but only the 132 kDa band was positive in more than 50% of the sera analysed. A mixture of these antigens could be used to discriminate between the two infection phases. The most important antigens recognized by the acute and the chronic phase sera were 4 clusters in the ranges 20-24 kDa, 34-39 kDa, 58-80 kDa and 105-130 kDa as well as two additional antigens of 18 and 29 kDa. Both accidentally infected patients and some of the naturally infected patients showed a weak specific response against tissue cyst antigens.O reconhecimento do perfil dos antígenos de cistos tissulares pelos anticorpos IgG foi estudado durante a infecção toxoplasmótica aguda e crônica. Assim a resposta de IgG contra Toxoplasma gondii foi investigada pelo "immunoblotting" em dois pacientes acidentalmente infectados com a variedade RH bem como em grupos de pacientes naturalmente infectados nas fases aguda e crônica. Houve uma coincidência global da massa molecular entre antígenos de taquizoitas e cistos tissulares reconhecidos por estes soros, todavia, eles parecem não ser as mesmas moléculas. A resposta contra cistos tissulares começa precocemente durante a infecção aguda e a reatividade de anticorpos é forte

  3. Plasma-exchange as a "rescue therapy" for dermato/polymyositis in acute phase. Experience in three young patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Franco; Marson, Piero; Pigatto, Erika; Tison, Tiziana; Polito, Pamela; Galozzi, Paola; De Silvestro, Giustina; Punzi, Leonardo

    2015-12-01

    There are few data in the literature supporting the efficacy of plasma-exchange in dermato/polymyositis. The authors report three cases of patients with acute disease phase showing severe pharyngo-esophageal muscle weakness unresponsive to conventional therapy (corticosteroids and immunosuppressant agents) who were treated with plasma-exchange. As the patients were at high risk of "aspiration pneumonia", tracheostomy and PEG tubes were placed. The patients underwent a series of plasma-exchange for a mean of 15 weeks, during which time they progressively recovered muscle strength, their serum muscle enzyme values returned to normal levels, and MRI showed resolution of muscle edema. The tracheostomy and PEG tubes could be removed. Our findings suggest that plasma-exchange in association with immunosuppressant agents could play a relevant role in the management of dermato/polymyositis in acute phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hyperhomocysteinemia, a biochemical tool for differentiating ischemic and nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion during the early acute phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Kapil Deb; Mukherjee, Somnath; Ghosh, Sambuddha; Mukherjee, Suman; Dutta, Jayanta; Datta, Himadri; Das, Harendra Nath

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to differentiate ischemic central retinal