WorldWideScience

Sample records for acute phase proteins

  1. Acute-phase proteins: As diagnostic tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The varied reactions of the host to infection, inflammation, or trauma are collectively known as the acute-phase response and encompass a wide range of pathophysiological responses such as pyrexia, leukocytosis, hormone alterations, and muscle protein depletion combining to minimize tissue damage while enhancing the repair process. The mechanism for stimulation of hepatic production of acute-phase proteins is by proinflammatory cytokines. The functions of positive acute-phase proteins (APP are regarded as important in optimization and trapping of microorganism and their products, in activating the complement system, in binding cellular remnants like nuclear fractions, in neutralizing enzymes, scavenging free hemoglobin and radicals, and in modulating the host′s immune response. APP can be used as diagnostic tool in many diseases like bovine respiratory syncytial virus, prostate cancer, bronchopneumonia, multiple myeloma, mastitis, Streptococcus suis infection, starvation, or lymphatic neoplasia. Thus, acute-phase proteins may provide an alternative means of monitoring animal health.

  2. Acute phase protein response during acute ruminal acidosis in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, A. M.; Thoefner, M. B.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the acute phase protein and leukocyte responses in dairy heifers during acute, oligofructose-induced ruminal acidosis. The study included 2 trials involving oral oligofructose overload (17g/kg BW) to nonpregnant Danish Holstein heifers. Trial 1 included 12...... performed.Heifers receiving oligofructose developed a profound ruminal and systemic acidosis (in Trial 1 and 2 lowest ruminal pH was 4.3±0.2 and 3.8±0.02, respectively, and minimum SBE was −9.3±4.1 and −8.9±2.8, respectively). In Trial 1, SAA concentrations were higher than baseline concentrations on all...... than control heifers at 18 and 24h after overload (max. 13.7±4.3 billions/L). Feeding had no effect on plasma fibrinogen concentrations or WBC in Trial 1.Acute ruminal and systemic acidosis caused by oligofructose overload resulted in distinct acute phase protein and leukocyte responses in dairy...

  3. Usefulness of acute phase proteins for monitoring development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Serum levels of acute phase proteins (APP) have been used to diagnose and follow up treatment of liver diseases. This study was carried out to determine the usefulness of APP to predict development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among Hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers. Study design: In a prospective ...

  4. Application of acute phase protein measurements in veterinary clinical chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Henning; Nielsen, J. P.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2004-01-01

    The body's early defence in response to trauma, inflammation or infection, the acute phase response, is a complex set of systemic reactions seen shortly after exposure to a triggering event. One of the many components is an acute phase protein response in which increased hepatic synthesis leads t...... A and their possible use as non-specific indicators of health in large animal veterinary medicine such as in the health status surveillance of pigs at the herd level, for the detection of mastitis in dairy cattle and for the prognosis of respiratory diseases in horses....

  5. Acute phase proteins as diagnostic markers in horses with colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina; Scheepers, Elrien; Sanz, Macarena

    2016-01-01

    Objective – To investigate the diagnostic potential of the concentrations of acute-phase proteins serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), and fibrinogen in blood and peritoneal fluid (PF) for differentiating horses within flammatory colic (entero-colitis and peritonitis) from those with surgical...... of the model to correctly differentiate inflammatory from surgical colic was 86% determined as area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Adding blood parameters (WBC, PCV, total plasma protein, lactate, SAA, Hp, and fibrinogen concentrations) to the logistic model based on clinical parameters...... revealed that only WBC and SAA and fibrinogen concentrations improved the model. With SAA included in the model no additional blood parameters improved the model, and the final model had an area under the curve of 90%. Addition of PF parameters (hemolysis, total protein concentration, WBC, SAA, or Hp...

  6. Acute phase proteins in cattle after exposure to complex stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomborg, S. R.; Nielsen, L. R.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Stressors such as weaning, mixing and transportation have been shown to lead to increased blood concentrations of acute phase proteins (APP), including serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin, in calves. This study was therefore undertaken to assess whether SAA and haptoglobin levels...... concentrations of SAA and haptoglobin increased significantly in response to the stressors (P...... in blood mirror stress in adult cattle. Six clinically healthy Holstein cows and two Holstein heifers were transported for four to six hours to a research facility, where each animal was housed in solitary tie stalls. Blood samples for evaluation of leukocyte counts and serum SAA and haptoglobin...

  7. S-40: Acute Phase Protein Increse in High Altitude Mountaineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Saka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available “Erciyes Tigers” are an elite group of high altitude climbers. They have been climbing ErciyesMountain (3500 m, in Kayseri, Turkey once a week at least for ten years. When they climb Erciyes in winter, they also take a snow bath. This study investigated the effects of regular high altitude climbing on the metabolic and hematological responses of mountaineers. Venous blood samples were taken to investigate hematological, biochemical parameters and some hormone values from 21 mountaineers and 16 healthy age-matched sedentary volunteers at resting condition. The neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L ratio was calculated. The N/L was associated with an increased risk of long-term mortality and it could provide a good measure of exercise stress and subsequent recovery. Most of the hematological and biochemical parameters i.e., erythrocyte, leukocyte, hemoglobin and hematocrit values did not change significantly. The neutrophil to lymphocyte (N/L ratio was significantly (p<0.04 decreased in the mountaineer compared with the sedentary group. Total protein (p<0.000 and albumin (0.001 were lower, while ferritin (p<0.04, creatine (p<0.03 and creatine phosphokinase levels (p<0.01 were higher in mountaineers. Our results show that regular high altitude climbing increased serum levels of some acute-phase proteins and these increments were not transient.

  8. ACUTE PHASE PROTEIN INCREASE IN HIGH ALTITUDE MOUNTAINEERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Saka

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Many middle-aged Turks go hiking in mountains to breathe some fresh air or to maintain fitness. Objective: This study investigated the effects of regular high altitude mountain climbing on the metabolic and hematological responses of mountaineers. Methods: Hematological and biochemical parameters were studied, as well as some hormonal values of 21 mountaineers and 16 healthy age-matched sedentary volunteers. Results: The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR was significantly lower (p<0.04 in mountaineers compared with the sedentary group. Total protein (p<0.001 and albumin (p<0.001 were lower, while the levels of ferritin (p<0.04, creatine (p<0.03 and creatine phosphokinase (p<0.01 were higher in mountaineers. Other hematological and biochemical parameters, i.e., erythrocytes, leukocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit, did not change significantly. Conclusion: Our results show that regular exposure to high altitude increased the serum levels of some acute phase proteins with anti-inflammatory properties.

  9. The porcine acute phase protein response to acute clinical and subclinical experimental infection with Streptococcus suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nanna Skall; Tegtmeier, C.; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2006-01-01

    The pig acute phase protein (APP) response to experimental Streptococcus suis (S. suis) infection was mapped by the measurement of the positive APPs C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and major acute phase protein (pig-MAP) and the negative APPs albumin...... and apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I. The aim was to elucidate the differences in the acute phase behaviour of the individual APPs during a typical bacterial septicaemic, infection. Pigs were inoculated subcutaneously with live S. suis serotype 2 and blood was sampled before and on various days post inoculation (p...... the experiment with maximum levels around 10 times the day 0-levels, and pig-MAP was elevated on days 1-12 p.i. with peak levels of around seven times the day 0-levels. Apo A-I was decreased from days 1 to 8 and showed minimum levels of about 40% of day 0-levels around 1-2 days p.i. No clear pattern of changes...

  10. Targeted proteomics as a tool for porcine acute phase proteins measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marco-Ramell, Anna; Bassols, Anna; Bislev, Stine Lønnerup

    2013-01-01

    . Selected reaction monitoring (SRM), a targeted quantitative proteomic technique, may be used as an alternative to commercial kits for the measurement and validation of target proteins. Acute phase proteins (APPs) are widely recognized inflammation and infection biomarkers (Eckersall, 2010...

  11. Acute phase proteins in the diagnosis of bovine subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Shahabeddin; Khoshvaghti, Ameneh; Jafarzadeh, Seyed Reza; Bolourchi, Mahmoud; Nowrouzian, Iradj

    2009-12-01

    The California mastitis test (CMT) and somatic cell count (SCC) are commonly used for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in cattle. Acute phase proteins (APPs), as alternative biomarkers of mastitis, may increase in concentration in the absence of macroscopic changes in the milk, or may precede the onset of clinical signs. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of APPs measured in milk and in serum with bacterial culture for the diagnosis of bovine subclinical mastitis. One hundred and seventy-five Holstein cows were randomly selected from 7 dairy farms. Quarter milk and serum samples were taken from all cows. Milk samples were analyzed using a CMT and SCC, and for haptoglobin (MHp) and amyloid A (MAA) concentrations, and were also submitted for bacterial culture. Serum samples obtained concurrently were analyzed for haptoglobin (SHp) and amyloid A (SAA). Two-sample Wilcoxon (Mann-Whitney) test was used to compare SCC, MAA, MHp, SAA, and SHp concentrations between culture-positive and culture-negative animals. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the performance of each test using bacterial culture as the reference method. MAA concentration was the most accurate of the 5 tests, with a sensitivity of 90.6% and specificity of 98.3% at concentrations >16.4 mg/L. MAA and MHp had significantly larger areas under the curve than the respective serum proteins, SAA and SHp. The results suggest that measuring haptoglobin and amyloid A in milk is more accurate than serum analysis for the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in Holstein cows.

  12. Diagnostical meaning acute phase proteins in cerebrospinal liquid in children with neuroinfections

    OpenAIRE

    L. A. Alekseeva; N. V. Skripchenko; T. V. Bessonova

    2010-01-01

    In the article presented results of the examination of acute phase proteins in cerebrospinal liquid in 237 children with meningitis and encephalitis viral and bacterial etiology. The dependence between the level of acute phase proteins in cerebrospinal liquid and etiology of neuroinfectional process, the severity of brain damage and the process stage was determined. Diagnostic and prognostic efficiency of the acute phase proteins (C-reactive protein, albumin, alpha-1-antitripsin, alpha-2-macr...

  13. Rapid and widely disseminated acute phase protein response after experimental bacterial infection of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Boye, Mette

    2009-01-01

    The acute phase protein response is a well-described generalized early host response to tissue injury, inflammation and infection, observed as pronounced changes in the concentrations of a number of circulating serum proteins. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other...... parts of innate host defence reactions remain somewhat elusive. In order to gain new insight into this early host defence response in the context of bacterial infection we studied gene expression changes in peripheral lymphoid tissues as compared to hepatic expression changes, 14-18 h after lung...... with measurements of interleukin-6 and selected acute phase proteins in serum. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A were clearly induced 14-18 h after infection. Extrahepatic expression of acute phase proteins was found to be dramatically altered as a result of the lung infection with an extrahepatic acute phase...

  14. Type 2 diabetes mellitus with early phase acute inflammatory protein on serum protein electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ET Tuladhar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The onset of Type 2 diabetes has been associated with low grade systemic inflammation. The inflammatory status has been studied by measuring acute phase reactant proteins like hsCRP, α1- antitrypsin, α1-acid glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen. Most of these acute phase reactants form α1 and α2 bands on electropherogram of serum proteins. The aim of this study was to evaluate inflammatory status in controlled and uncontrolled type 2 diabetes using cellulose acetate electrophoresis and to find the impact of glycemic status as indicated by HbA1c on inflammation process. Materials and Methods: Serum protein electrophoresis was done on serum samples of 60 cases of Diabetes [controlled and uncontrolled] using cellulose acetate paper technique. The electropherogram obtained was stained with Ponseu S and then quantitated using densitometer. Glycemic status was studied by HbA1c analysis. The density of α1and α2 bands in electropherogram were correlated with HbA1c level. Result: A significant increase in the percentage of α1 and α2 band proteins (0.765 and 0.716, p<0.001 were found with the increasing level of HbA1c. With cutoff of HbA1c 7% (American Diabetic Association recommended, the α1 and α2 serum proteins concentration are significantly higher (p<0.001 in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus compared to controlled diabetes mellitus Conclusion: Cellulose acetate electrophoresis of serum proteins show early phase acute inflammatory status in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus. The process of systemic inflammation worsens with uncontrolled glycemia as indicated by HbA1c. Inflammatory status should be studied adjunct to glycemic status. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v2i3.6024 JPN 2012; 2(3: 211-214

  15. Acute Phase Proteins and Variables of Protein Metabolism in Dairy Cows during the Pre- and Postpartal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cs. Tóthová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare the concentrations of acute phase proteins and selected variables of protein metabolism in dairy cows of the Slovak Spotted breed from 4 weeks before parturition to 10 weeks after parturition. Acute phase proteins - haptoglobin (Hp and serum amyloid A (SAA - and variables of protein metabolism - total proteins, albumin, urea, creatinine, total immunoglobulins - were evaluated in blood serum. Significant differences were found in average values of the Hp and SAA concentrations in several groups during the monitored period (P P P P P P P P P < 0.001. The above mentioned results indicate that in the time around parturition there are significant changes in concentrations of acute phase proteins, as well as in the whole protein metabolism of dairy cows. These facts suggest that the postparturient period is a critical biological phase, throughout which there is the highest incidence of metabolic disorders.

  16. The porcine acute phase response to infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Haptoglobin, C-reactive protein, major acute phase protein and serum amyloid a protein are sensitive indicators of infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Klausen, Joan; Nielsen, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    response peaking at around 2 days after infection. Haptoglobin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and major acute phase protein (MAP) responded with large increases in serum levels, preceding the development of specific antibodies by 4-5 days. Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) was also strongly induced. The increase......, kinetics of induction and normalization were different between these proteins. It is concluded that experimental Ap-infection by the aerosol route induces a typical acute phase reaction in the pig, and that pig Hp, CRP, MAP, and SAA are major acute phase reactants. These findings indicate the possibility...

  17. Diagnostical meaning acute phase proteins in cerebrospinal liquid in children with neuroinfections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Alekseeva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article presented results of the examination of acute phase proteins in cerebrospinal liquid in 237 children with meningitis and encephalitis viral and bacterial etiology. The dependence between the level of acute phase proteins in cerebrospinal liquid and etiology of neuroinfectional process, the severity of brain damage and the process stage was determined. Diagnostic and prognostic efficiency of the acute phase proteins (C-reactive protein, albumin, alpha-1-antitripsin, alpha-2-macroglobulin, gaptoglobin examination in children with neuroinfections was specified. Developed method of express diagnostics of the severity of inflammatory damage of the brain in bacterial meningitis in children by determination in cerebrospinal liquid alpha-2-macroglobulin is described.

  18. Optimal combinations of acute phase proteins for detecting infectious disease in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Stockmarr, Anders; Piñeiro, Matilde

    2011-01-01

    The acute phase protein (APP) response is an early systemic sign of disease, detected as substantial changes in APP serum concentrations and most disease states involving inflammatory reactions give rise to APP responses. To obtain a detailed picture of the general utility of porcine APPs to detect...... gondii) and one viral (porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus) infection and one aseptic inflammation. Immunochemical analyses of seven APPs, four positive (C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), pig major acute phase protein (pigMAP) and serum amyloid A (SAA)) and three negative...

  19. Serum protein capillary electrophoresis and measurement of acute phase proteins in a captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depauw, Sarah; Delanghe, Joris; Whitehouse-Tedd, Katherine; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Christensen, Michelle; Hesta, Myriam; Tugirimana, Pierrot; Budd, Jane; Dermauw, Veronique; Janssens, Geert P J

    2014-09-01

    Renal and gastrointestinal pathologies are widespread in the captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population but are often diagnosed at a late stage, because diagnostic tools are limited to the evaluation of clinical signs or general blood examination. Presently, no data are available on serum proteins and acute-phase proteins in cheetahs during health or disease, although they might be important to improve health monitoring. This study aimed to quantify serum proteins by capillary electrophoresis in 80 serum samples from captive cheetahs, categorized according to health status and disease type. Moreover, serum amyloid A concentrations were measured via a turbidimetric immunoassay validated in domestic cats, whereas haptoglobin and C-reactive protein were determined by non-species-specific functional tests. Cheetahs classified as healthy had serum protein and acute phase protein concentrations within reference ranges for healthy domestic cats. In contrast, unhealthy cheetahs had higher (P cheetahs suffering from chronic kidney disease were significantly greater compared to the reportedly healthy cheetahs. Our study indicates that serum proteins in the cheetah can be analyzed by routine capillary electrophoresis, whereas acute-phase proteins can be measured using available immunoassays or non-species-specific techniques, which are also likely to be applicable in other exotic felids. Moreover, results suggest that serum amyloid A and haptoglobin are important acute-phase proteins in the diseased cheetah and highlight the need to evaluate their role as early-onset markers for disease.

  20. Pig-MAP, porcine acute phase proteins and standardisation of assays in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alava, M.A.; Gonzalez-Ramon, N.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    1997-01-01

    The pattern of plasma proteins changes greatly following infection, inflammation or tissue injury. The concentration of some proteins referred to as acute phase proteins (APPs) significantly increases within hours or days after the onset of these processes. In contrast, the concentration of other...... during the inflammation. In addition to CRP and Hp, a serum alpha(2)-globulin was observed to be the major acute phase (MAP) protein in pigs. Pig-MAP is a new mammalian plasma protein, which is the pig counterpart of a recently cloned human serum protein denominated PK-120 or MRP. Pig-MAP shows promise...... for the presence of infectious, inflammatory and pathological lesions in animals. The ability to monitor the APP concentration in serum of pigs will improve the quality and safety of the meat produced as well as provide important diagnostic information for animal health and welfare. The serum concentration of APP...

  1. Relationship between Acute Phase Proteins and Serum Fatty Acid Composition in Morbidly Obese Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ricardo; Beserra, Bruna Teles Soares; Cunha, Raphael Salles Granato; Hillesheim, Elaine; Camargo, Carolina de Quadros; Pequito, Danielle Cristina Tonello; de Castro, Isabela Coelho; Fernandes, Luiz Cláudio; Nunes, Everson Araújo; Trindade, Erasmo Benício Santos de Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Background. Obesity is considered a low-grade inflammatory state and has been associated with increased acute phase proteins as well as changes in serum fatty acids. Few studies have assessed associations between acute phase proteins and serum fatty acids in morbidly obese patients. Objective. To investigate the relationship between acute phase proteins (C-Reactive Protein, Orosomucoid, and Albumin) and serum fatty acids in morbidly obese patients. Methods. Twenty-two morbidly obese patients were enrolled in this study. Biochemical and clinical data were obtained before bariatric surgery, and fatty acids measured in preoperative serum. Results. Orosomucoid was negatively correlated with lauric acid (P = 0.027) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (P = 0.037) and positively with arachidonic acid (AA) (P = 0.035), AA/EPA ratio (P = 0.005), and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio (P = 0.035). C-Reactive Protein (CRP) was negatively correlated with lauric acid (P = 0.048), and both CRP and CRP/Albumin ratio were negatively correlated with margaric acid (P = 0.010, P = 0.008, resp.). Albumin was positively correlated with EPA (P = 0.027) and margaric acid (P = 0.008). Other correlations were not statistically significant. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that serum fatty acids are linked to acute phase proteins in morbidly obese patients. PMID:24167354

  2. Serum protein capillary electrophoresis and measurement of acute phase proteins in a captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Depauw, Sarah; Delanghe, Joris; Whitehouse-Tedd, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Renal and gastrointestinal pathologies are widespread in the captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population but are often diagnosed at a late stage, because diagnostic tools are limited to the evaluation of clinical signs or general blood examination. Presently, no data are available on serum...... proteins and acute-phase proteins in cheetahs during health or disease, although they might be important to improve health monitoring. This study aimed to quantify serum proteins by capillary electrophoresis in 80 serum samples from captive cheetahs, categorized according to health status and disease type....... Moreover, serum amyloid A concentrations were measured via a turbidimetric immunoassay validated in domestic cats, whereas haptoglobin and C-reactive protein were determined by non-species-specific functional tests. Cheetahs classified as healthy had serum protein and acute phase protein concentrations...

  3. The effect of chronic ammonia exposure on acute phase proteins, immunoglobulin and cytokines in laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia is a potential health hazard to both humans and animals, causing systemic low-grade inflammation based on its levels and durations. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of 45 weeks of exposure to 30 ppm NH3 on the concentrations of acute phase proteins, immunoglobulins and c...

  4. Bacteraemia and acute phase proteins in Nigerian women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C-reactive protein, alpha–2-macroglobulin, transferrin and bacteraemia were studied in women with recurrent abortion and compared with the pregnant women as well as non-pregnant women with no history of abortion (controls). The results showed a significantly reduced level of transferrin but significantly raised levels of ...

  5. Acute phase proteins in bovine milk in an experimental model of Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckersall, P D; Young, F J; Nolan, A M

    2006-01-01

    and serum amyloid A increase in serum during mastitis. The concentrations of these proteins were determined in an experimental model using a field strain of Staphylococcus aureus to induce subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. The expression of mRNA coding for these proteins was assessed and the presence of M......The objectives were to establish the origin of 2 acute phase proteins in milk during subclinical bovine mastitis and to characterize the relationship between those proteins in milk and blood. Haptoglobin (Hp) and mammary-associated serum amyloid A (M-SAA3) appear in milk during mastitis, whereas Hp...

  6. Effects of montelukast sodium combined with pidotimod on acute phase protein and immune function in children with acute bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effects of montelukast sodium combined with pidotimod on acute phase protein (APP and indexes of immunologic function in pediatric acute bronchitis treatment. Methods: A total of 180 cases children with acute bronchitis acted as research objects were randomly divided into control group (n=65 and observation group (n=63. On the basis of conventional therapy, control group was treated by plus pidotimod. On this base, observation group was treated with montelukast sodium. The changes of acute phase proteins (CRP, HP, a1-AAG and CER and immune function (CD3+ , CD4+ , CD8+ and CD4+ /CD8+ levels before and after treatment were observed after 2 months. Results: Before treatment, CRP, HP, a1-AAG, CER, CD3+ , CD4+ , CD8+ and CD4+ /CD8+ levels of two groups had no statistically significant difference; CRP, HP, a1-AAG, CER, and CD8+ levels of control and observation groups decreased significantly after treatment, the decreases of observation group were more obvious than that of control group, and the levels after treatment were significantly lower than that of control groups. The levels of CD3+ , CD4+ and CD4+ /CD8+ in two groups after treatment were significantly higher than those before treatment. For observation group, the levels of CD3+ , CD4+ and CD4+ /CD8+ increased more significantly after treatment, which were significantly higher than that of the control group. Conclusion: Using Montelukast sodium combined with pidotimod can effectively reduce the children's acute phase protein levels, improve immune function, which has clinical value for the treatment of children with acute bronchitis.

  7. Serum acute phase protein concentrations in female dogs with mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecles, Fernando; Caldín, Marco; Zanella, Anna; Membiela, Francisco; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Subiela, Silvia Martínez; Cerón, José Joaquín

    2009-03-01

    Acute phase proteins (APPs) are proteins whose concentrations in serum change after any inflammatory stimulus or tissue damage. The aim of the current study was to evaluate 3 positive APPs (C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and haptoglobin) and 1 negative APP (albumin) in female dogs with mammary neoplasia. Acute phase proteins were studied in 70 female dogs aged 8-12 years in the following groups: healthy (n = 10); mammary tumors in stages I (n = 19), II (n = 5), III (n = 6), IV (n = 5), and V (n = 7); and with mammary neoplasia plus a concomitant disease (n = 18). In animals with mammary neoplasia, significant increases of positive APPs were only detected in those that had metastasis or a neoplasm with a diameter greater than 5 cm and ulceration. Dogs with mammary neoplasia and a concomitant disease also had high C-reactive protein concentrations. Albumin concentration was decreased in animals with metastasis and with a concomitant disease. The results of the present study indicate that the acute phase response could be stimulated in female dogs with mammary gland tumors because of different factors, such as metastasis, large size of the primary mass, and ulceration or secondary inflammation of the neoplasm.

  8. Circulating microbial products and acute phase proteins as markers of pathogenesis in lymphatic filarial disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Anuradha

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis can be associated with development of serious pathology in the form of lymphedema, hydrocele, and elephantiasis in a subset of infected patients. Dysregulated host inflammatory responses leading to systemic immune activation are thought to play a central role in filarial disease pathogenesis. We measured the plasma levels of microbial translocation markers, acute phase proteins, and inflammatory cytokines in individuals with chronic filarial pathology with (CP Ag+ or without (CP Ag- active infection; with clinically asymptomatic infections (INF; and in those without infection (endemic normal [EN]. Comparisons between the two actively infected groups (CP Ag+ compared to INF and those without active infection (CP Ag- compared to EN were used preliminarily to identify markers of pathogenesis. Thereafter, we tested for group effects among all the four groups using linear models on the log transformed responses of the markers. Our data suggest that circulating levels of microbial translocation products (lipopolysaccharide and LPS-binding protein, acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid protein-A, and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-12, and TNF-α are associated with pathogenesis of disease in lymphatic filarial infection and implicate an important role for circulating microbial products and acute phase proteins.

  9. Acute phase proteins as diagnostic markers in horses with colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg; Scheepers, Elrien; Sanz, Macarena

    and fibrinogen to differentiate between horses with infectious non-surgical colic and surgical colic. Materials & Methods:The performance of the APPs was evaluated individually and in combination with clinical examination, as wells as traditional biomarkers in blood (WCC, PCV, TPP, lactate) and peritoneal fluid...... (PF) (haemolysis, WCC, total protein).Admission data collected prospectively from 148 horses with severe colic in one hospital was used to construct multivariate logistic models to predict if a horse had an infectious non-surgical colic. The models were based on 1) clinical evaluation, 2) clinical...... and blood evaluation and 3) clinical, blood and PF evaluation. Each model was independently validated against admission data from 78 horses in another hospital.Results and Discussion:The variables included in the final ‘clinical model’ were: Lethargy, temperature increase from 38◦C, gastric reflux 5-10L...

  10. Levels of acute phase proteins remain stable after ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paik Myunghee C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and inflammatory biomarkers play an important role in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Little information is available, however, on time course of serum markers of inflammation after stroke. Methods First ischemic stroke patients ≥40 years old had levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, serum amyloid A (SAA, and fibrinogen measured in plasma samples drawn at 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after stroke. Levels were log-transformed as needed, and parametric and non-parametric statistical tests were used to test for evidence of a trend in levels over time. Levels of hsCRP and SAA were also compared with levels in a comparable population of stroke-free participants. Results Mean age of participants with repeated measures (n = 21 was 65.6 ± 11.6 years, and 13 (61.9% were men, and 15 (71.4% were Hispanic. Approximately 75% of patients (n = 15 had mild strokes (NIH Stroke Scale score 0–5. There was no evidence of a time trend in levels of hsCRP, SAA, or fibrinogen for any of the markers during the 28 days of follow-up. Mean log(hsCRP was 1.67 ± 1.07 mg/L (median hsCRP 6.48 mg/L among stroke participants and 1.00 ± 1.18 mg/L (median 2.82 mg/L in a group of 1176 randomly selected stroke-free participants from the same community (p = 0.0252. Conclusion Levels of hsCRP are higher in stroke patients than in stroke-free subjects. Levels of inflammatory biomarkers associated with atherosclerosis, including hsCRP, appear to be stable for at least 28 days after first ischemic stroke.

  11. Use of activated protein C has no avail in the early phase of acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, Sinan; Ozutemiz, Omer; Yenisey, Cigdem; Simsek, Nilufer Genc; Yuce, Gul; Batur, Yucel

    2008-01-01

    Sepsis and acute pancreatitis have similar pathogenetic mechanisms that have been implicated in the progression of multiple organ failure. Drotrecogin alfa, an analogue of endogenous protein C, reduces mortality in clinical sepsis. Our objective was to evaluate the early therapeutic effects of activated protein C (APC) in a rat model of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis was induced by intraductal injection of 5% Na taurocholate. Hourly bolus injections of saline or recombinant human APC (drotrecogin alfa) was commenced via femoral venous catheter four hours after the induction of acute pancreatitis. The experiment was terminated nine hours after pancreatitis induction. Animals in group one (n=20) had a sham operation while animals in group two (n=20) received saline and animals in group three (n=20) received drotrecogin alfa boluses after acute pancreatitis induction. Pancreatic tissue for histopathologic scores and myeloperoxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities were collected, and blood for serum amylase, urea, creatinine, and interleukin-6 measurements was withdrawn. Serum amylase activity was significantly lower in the APC treated group than the untreated group (17,435+/-432 U/L vs. 27,426+/-118 U/L, respectively). While the serum interleukin-6 concentration in the APC untreated group was significantly lower than the treated group (970+/-323 pg/mL vs. 330+/-368 pg/mL, respectively). In the early phase of acute pancreatitis, drotrecogin alfa treatment did not result in a significant improvement in oxidative and inflammatory parameters or renal functions.

  12. The onset of the progression of acute phase response mechanisms induced by extreme impacts can be followed by the decrease in blood levels of positive acute phase proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna

    Studies performed at space flights and earth-based simulation models detected the plasma indices of acute phase reaction (APR), i.e. the increase of APR cytokine mediators and alterations in the production of blood acute phase proteins (APP) at the initial stages of adaptation to altered gravity conditions. Acute phase response is the principal constituent of the functional activity of innate immunity system. Changes in plasma APPs contents are considered to serve the restoration of homeostasis state. According to trends of their concentration shifts at the evolving of acute phase reaction APPs are denoted as positive, neutral, or negative. Plasma concentrations of positive acute phase proteins α1-acid glycoprotein (α1-AGP), α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT), and neutral α2-macroglobulin (α2-M) were measured in human study at 12-hour antiorthostatic position (AOP) with 15° head down tilt and hypoxia experiments at 14% oxygen in pressure chamber. Both of these impacts were shown to produce alterations in the APP levels indicative for acute phase response. Nevertheless, in AOP experiment noticeable decrease in α1-AGP concentration occurred by hour 12, and even more pronounced decline of α1-AGP and α1-AT were found on hypoxia hours 12 and 36. Acute phase proteins α1-AGP and α2-M possess the features of proteinase inhibitors. This function is implemented by the formation of complexes with the molecules of proteolytic enzymes which subsequently are removed from the blood flow. Transient decrease in plasma concentrations of protease inhibitors on early phases of APR development was reported to result from the growth of plasma protease activity due to cathepsin release from activated leukocytes, which had not yet been compensated by enhanced APP synthesis. Being a carrier protein for positively charged and neutral substances, α1-AGP shows pronounced elevation in its blood content during APR development. As assumed, it is required for the transportation of the increased

  13. Emergence of the acute-phase protein hemopexin in jawed vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Dooley, Helen; Buckingham, E. Bryan; Criscitiello, Michael F.; Flajnik, Martin F.

    2010-01-01

    When released from damaged erythrocytes free heme not only provides a source of iron for invading bacteria but is also highly toxic due to its ability to catalyze free radical formation. Hemopexin (Hx) binds free heme with very high affinity and thus protects against heme toxicity, sequesters heme from pathogens, and helps conserve valuable iron. Hx is also an acute-phase serum protein (APP), whose expression is induced by inflammation. To date Hx has been identified as far back in phylogeny ...

  14. A robust quantitative solid phase immunoassay for the acute phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP) based on cytidine 5 '-diphosphocholine coupled dendrimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Pedersen, H. G.; Jensen, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an important acute phase protein, being used as a sensitive indicator of inflammation and infection and is also associated with the risk of cardiovascular problems. The present paper describes a robust and sensitive ELISA for CRP, based on the affinity of CRP for phosp......C-reactive protein (CRP) is an important acute phase protein, being used as a sensitive indicator of inflammation and infection and is also associated with the risk of cardiovascular problems. The present paper describes a robust and sensitive ELISA for CRP, based on the affinity of CRP...... was applied to determination of pig and human CRP using commercially available antibodies against human CRP. The assay was shown to be more sensitive than previously published immunoassays employing albumin-coupled cytidine diphosphocholine. The coating was stable for at least 30 days at room temperature...

  15. Acute Phase Proteins in Response to Dictyocaulus viviparus Infection in Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waller K Persson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out to examine the acute phase response, as measured by the acute phase proteins (APP haptoglobin, serum amyloid A (SAA and fibrinogen, in calves infected with lungworm, Dictyocaulus vivparus. In addition, eosinophil counts were analysed. Three different dose models were used in 3 separate experiments: I 250 D. viviparus infective third stage larvae (L3 once daily for 2 consecutive days, II 100 D. viviparus L3 once daily for 5 consecutive days, and III 2000 L3 once. All 3 dose regimes induced elevated levels of haptoglobin, SAA and fibrinogen, although there was considerable variation both between and within experiments. A significant increase was observed in all 3 APP at one or several time points in experiment I and III, whereas in experiment II, the only significant elevation was observed for fibrinogen at one occasion. The eosinophil numbers were significantly elevated in all 3 experiments. The results show that lungworm infection can induce an acute phase response, which can be monitored by the selected APP. Elevated APP levels in combination with high numbers of eosinophils in an animal with respiratory disease may be used as an indicator of lung worm infection, and help the clinician to decide on treatment. However, high numbers of eosinophils and low levels of APP do not exclude a diagnosis of lungworm. Thus, lungworm infection may not be detected if measurements of APP are used to assess calf health in herds or individual animals.

  16. HIV infection and drugs of abuse: role of acute phase proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samikkannu, Thangavel; Rao, Kurapati V K; Arias, Adriana Y; Kalaichezian, Aarthi; Sagar, Vidya; Yoo, Changwon; Nair, Madhavan P N

    2013-09-17

    HIV infection and drugs of abuse such as methamphetamine (METH), cocaine, and alcohol use have been identified as risk factors for triggering inflammation. Acute phase proteins such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) are the biomarkers of inflammation. Hence, the interactive effect of drugs of abuse with acute phase proteins in HIV-positive subjects was investigated. Plasma samples were utilized from 75 subjects with METH use, cocaine use, alcohol use, and HIV-positive alone and HIV-positive METH, cocaine, and alcohol users, and age-matched control subjects. The plasma CRP and SAA levels were measured by ELISA and western blot respectively and the CD4 counts were also measured. Observed results indicated that the CRP and SAA levels in HIV-positive subjects who are METH, cocaine and alcohol users were significantly higher when compared with either drugs of abuse or HIV-positive alone. The CD4 counts were also dramatically reduced in HIV-positive with drugs of abuse subjects compared with only HIV-positive subjects. These results suggest that, in HIV-positive subjects, drugs of abuse increase the levels of CRP and SAA, which may impact on the HIV infection and disease progression.

  17. Hepatic acute-phase proteins control innate immune responses during infection by promoting myeloid-derived suppressor cell function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sander, L.E.; Sackett, S.D.; Dierssen, U.; Beraza, N.; Linke, R.; Müller, M.R.; Blander, J.M.; Tacke, F.; Trautwein, C.

    2010-01-01

    Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins produced mainly in the liver in response to infection and inflammation. Despite vast pro- and antiinflammatory properties ascribed to individual APPs, their collective function during infections remains poorly defined.

  18. Hepatic acute phase proteins control innate immune responses during infection by promoting myeloid derived suppressor cell function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sander, Leif E.; Dutton Sackett, Sara; Dierssen, Uta; Beraza, Naiara; Linke, Reinhold P.; Muller, Michael; Magarian Blander, Julie; Tacke, Frank; Trautwein, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Acute phase proteins (APPs) are an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins produced mainly in the liver in response to infection and inflammation. Despite vast pro- and anti-inflammatory properties ascribed to individual APPs, their collective function during infections remains poorly defined.

  19. [Examination of acute phase proteins concentrations in children with allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Iwona; Sobieska, Magdalena; Pucher, Beata; Grzegorowski, Michał; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2006-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory disorder of upper respiratory tract (about 15 per cent of the population in industrialized countries suffer from this condition), characterized by frequent sneezing and a runny or stuffy nose sometimes accompanied by watery eyes. As the most common allergic condition, allergic rhinitis affects people of all ages. Boys are twice as likely to get allergic rhinitis than girls. The median age of onset of the condition is 10 years old, meaning that equal numbers of children develop the condition before and after age 10. Symptoms usually appear in childhood first and then lessen by the age of 30 or 40. Seasonal allergic rhinitis usually results from tree, grass or weed pollen. With this type of rhinitis, symptoms will decrease with the arrival of cold weather. Perennial allergic rhinitis can cause year-round symptoms. This allergic reaction is the result of indoor irritants such as feathers, mold spores, animal dander (hair and skin shed by pets) or dust mites. It is often aggravated by a food allergy, the most common being an allergy to milk. Acute phase proteins (APP) belong to the most ancient part of the unspecific immunity and contribute markedly to the keeping of homeostasis. As much as 30 various proteins are for the moment regarded as APP. Being multifunctional regulators and effectors APP stay in multiple relations to practically all types of cells and molecules. Among APP following functional groups may be described: transport proteins (transferrin, ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin), clotting factors (fibrinogen), antiproteases (alpha1-antitrypsin, alpha1-antichymotrypsin, alpha2-macroglobulin), complement components (C3, C4) and several proteins of hardly known function, like C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A, acid alpha1-glycoprotein (AGP) and others. From a group of 32 children, aged from 5 to 14 years, with symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis, and from a control group of 10 healthy children sex and age matched

  20. Emergence of the acute-phase protein hemopexin in jawed vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Helen; Buckingham, E Bryan; Criscitiello, Michael F; Flajnik, Martin F

    2010-01-01

    When released from damaged erythrocytes free heme not only provides a source of iron for invading bacteria but also highly toxic due to its ability to catalyze free radical formation. Hemopexin (Hx) binds free heme with very high-affinity and thus protects against heme toxicity, sequesters heme from pathogens, and helps conserve valuable iron. Hx is also an acute-phase serum protein (APP), whose expression is induced by inflammation. To date Hx has been identified as far back in phylogeny as bony fish where it is called warm-temperature acclimation-related 65 kDa protein (WAP65), as serum protein levels are increased at elevated environmental temperatures as well as by infection. During analysis of nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) plasma we isolated a Ni(2+)-binding serum glycoprotein and characterized it as the APP Hx. We subsequently cloned Hx from nurse shark and another cartilaginous fish species, the little skate Leucoraja erinacea. Functional analysis showed shark Hx, like that of mammals, binds heme but is found at unusually high levels in normal shark serum. As an Hx orthologue could not be found in the genomes of jawless vertebrates or lower deuterostomes it appears to have arisen just prior to the emergence of jawed vertebrates, coincident with the second round of genome-wide duplication and the appearance of tetrameric hemoglobin (Hb). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute phase and transport protein synthesis in simulated infection in undernourished men using uniformly labelled Spirulina Platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeds, P.J.; Opekun, A.; Jahoor, F.; Wong, W.W.; Klein, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    Although it has been known for many years that injury and infection lead to body nitrogen loss, the reason has remained obscure. In this paper, we develop the argument that the processes that are activated during infection demand the provision of specific amino acids which have to be supplied from body protein. In particular, we show that the positive acute phase proteins are very rich in the aromatic amino acids and the exaggerated use of these amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine) in acute phase protein synthesis lead to an endogenous ''amino acid imbalance'' which restricts the use of other amino acids for tissue protein synthesis. Minimally invasive protocols, involving the administration of 15 N and 13 C-labelled amino acids for studying whole body nitrogen turnover, amino acid oxidation and plasma protein synthesis are described. (author). 22 refs, 3 tabs

  2. Acute phase proteins: Biomarkers of infection and inflammation in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckersall, P D; Bell, R

    2010-07-01

    Acute phase proteins (APPs) have been used as biomarkers of inflammation, infection and trauma for decades in human medicine but have been relatively under-utilised in the context of veterinary medicine. However, significant progress has been made in the detection, measurement and application of APPs as biomarkers in both companion and farm animal medicine over recent years. In the dog, C-reactive protein, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A have been identified as significant diagnostic 'markers' of steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis, while in cats and cattle haptoglobin and alpha(1) acid glycoprotein and haptoglobin and serum amyloid A have proved valuable biomarkers of disease, respectively. In dairy cattle, haptoglobin and a mammary-associated serum amyloid A3 isoform, produced by the inflamed mammary gland during episodes of mastitis, have great potential as biomarkers of this economically important disease. Understanding the use of APP as biomarkers of inflammatory conditions of domestic animals has expanded significantly over recent years, and, with the insights provided by ongoing research, it is likely that these compounds will be increasingly used in the future in the diagnosis and prognosis of both companion and farm animal disease. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute phase protein concentrations in serum and milk from healthy cows, cows with clinical mastitis and cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, B.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Andersen, P.H.; Niewold, T.A.; Heegaard, P.M.H.

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of the two acute phase proteins, serum amyloid A and haptoglobin, in serum and milk were compared in 10 cows with clinical mastitis, 11 cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions and 10 clinically healthy control cows. The concentrations of both acute phase proteins were

  4. The role of the acute phase protein PTX3 in the ventilator-induced lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Real

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The pentraxin 3 (PTX3 is an acute phase proinflammatory protein produced by fibroblasts and alveolar epithelial cells. We have previously demonstrated that PTX3 is a key modulator of inflammation. Mechanical ventilation (MV is a life saving therapeutic approach for patients with acute lung injury that, nevertheless could lead to an inflammatory response and tissue injury (ventilator-induced lung injury: VILI, representing a major cause of iatrogenic lung damage in intensive units. Our objective was to investigate the role of PTX3 in VILI. PTX3 transgenic, knockout and Wt control mice (n = 12/group were ventilated (45ml·kg–1 until respiratory system Elastance increased 50% (Ers150%, an indicator of VILI. Histological analysis demonstrated that using a Ers150% was appropriate for our analysis since identical degrees of inflammation were observed in Tg, KO and Wt mice as assessed by leukocyte infiltration, oedema, alveolar collapse and number of breaks in alveolar septa. However, Tg mice reached Ers150% faster than Wt controls (p = 0.0225. We also showed that the lack of PTX3 does not abolish the occurrence of VILI in KOs. Gene expression profile of PTX3, IL-1beta, IL-6, KC, IFNgamma, TGFbeta and PCIII were investigated by QPCR. MV drastically up modulated PTX3 as well as IL-1beta, IL-6, IFNgamma and KC. Alternatively, mice were ventilated for 20, 40 and 60 min. The faster kinetics of Tg mice to reach Ers150% was accompanied by an earlier augmentation of IL-1b and PTX3 expression. The kinetics of local PTX3 expression in the lungs of ventilated mice strongly suggests the involvement of this pentraxin in the pathogenesis of VILI.

  5. Involvement of activated leukocytes in the regulation of plasma levels of acute phase proteins in microgravity simulation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna; Turin-Kuzmin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Earth-based studies of microgravity effects showed the induction of the mechanisms of acute phase reaction (APR). APR comprises the transition of stress-sensitive protein kinases of macrophages and other responsive cells into the active state and the phosphorylation of transcription factors which in turn stimulate the production of acute-phase reaction cytokines. Leukocyte activation is accompanied by the acceleration of the formation of oxygen radicals which can serve a functional indice of leukocyte cell state. The series of events at acute phase response result in selective changes in the synthesis of a number of secretory blood proteins (acute phase proteins, APPs) in liver cells thus contributing the recovery of homeostasis state in the organism. Earlier experiment with head-down tilt showed the increase in plasma concentrations of two cytokine mediators of acute phase response, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) being the outcome of the activation of producer cells, foremost, leukocytes. In experiment with 4-day dry immersion chemiluminescent (ChL) reply of the whole blood samples to a test stimulus were studied along with the measurements of plasma levels of APPs, namely, alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT), alpha1-acid glycoprotein (alpha1-AGP), alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2-M), ceruloplasmin (Cer), haptoglobin (Hp), C3-complement component (C3), C-reactive protein (CRP). Eight individuals aged 21.2 ± 3.2 years were the test subjects in the investigation. Protein studies showed a noticeable increase in the mean plasma levels of all APPs measured in experiment thus producing the evidence of the activation of acute phase response mechanisms while individual patterns revealed variability during the immersion period. The overall trends were similar to these in the previous immersion series. The augment in the strength of signal in stimulated light emission tests was higher after 1- and 2-day of immersion exposure than before the

  6. Impact of Diet Supplemented by Coconut Milk on Corticosterone and Acute Phase Protein Level under High Stocking Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid SHAKERI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of coconut milk supplementation on corticosterone and acute phase protein level under high stocking density. A total 300 Cobb 500 male chicks were placed in cages and stocked as 10 birds/cage (normal stocking density and 15 birds/cage (high stocking density. The treatments were as (i control diet and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage (ii control diet + 3% coconut milk from 1-42 day and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage (iii control diet + 5% coconut milk from 1-42 day and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage. On day 42, 20 birds per treatment were slaughtered to collect blood samples. The results showed higher level of corticosterone and acute phase protein level in control diet compare to other supplemented diets with coconut milk. In conclusion, coconut milk decreased the level of corticosterone and acute phase protein when chicks were subjected to high stocking density.

  7. Acute phase proteins in dogs naturally infected with the Giant Kidney Worm (Dioctophyme renale)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Elizabeth M. S.; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Thomas, Funmilola

    2016-01-01

    of nephrectomy on circulating concentrations of select acute phase proteins (APP) such as serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and haptoglobin(HP). Methods: Nephrectomy was performed in infected dogs and the worms were collected for identification. Blood samples were taken 24 hours before surgery...... the 12 dogs evaluated in this study. Dogs showed significantly increased HP concentrations(P SAA concentrations before surgery, and cortisol concentrations were significantly higher at admission when compared to recovery. No significant correlations were found between the number...

  8. Acute Phase Proteins and their Relation to Energy Metabolites in Dairy Cows during the Pre- and Postpartal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Kováč

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of selected acute phase proteins – haptoglobin (Hp and serum amyloid A (SAA, and selected variables of energy metabolism in blood serum of dairy cows during different stages of the pre- and postpartal period. The analyses were performed in dairy cows of the Slovak spotted breed and its crossbreeds (n = 57. The cows were divided into 9 groups according to the evaluated part of reproduction cycle – from 4 weeks before parturition to 10 weeks after parturition. Significant differences were found in mean Hp and SAA concentrations during the monitored period (P P P P P P P < 0.001. Moreover, significant correlations were found between Hp and non-esterified fatty acids, Hp and β-hydroxybutyrate, as well as between SAA and non-esterified fatty acids. Our results indicate that the acute phase response occurs in cows around parturition, and suggest that there are relationships between mediators of immune response and several indices of energy metabolism. Our results also suggest that in cows with higher concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids, indicating a certain degree of lipid mobilisation, higher values of acute phase proteins may be found.

  9. Cytokine and acute phase protein gene expression in liver biopsies from dairy cows with a lipopolysaccharide - induced mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vels, J; Røntved, Christine M.; Bjerring, Martin

    2009-01-01

    A minimally invasive liver biopsy technique was tested for its applicability to study the hepatic acute phase response (APR) in dairy cows with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis. The hepatic mRNA expression profiles of the inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF......, a minimally invasive liver biopsy technique can be used for studying the hepatic APR in diseased cattle. Lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis resulted in a time-dependent production of inflammatory cytokines and SAA and Hp in the liver of dairy cows.......- ), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, and the acute phase proteins serum amyloid A isoform 3 (SAA3), haptoglobin (Hp), and 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) were determined by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Fourteen primiparous cows in mid lactation were challenged with 200 µg of LPS (n = 8) or NaCl solution (n = 6...

  10. Expression of complement and pentraxin proteins in acute phase response elicited by tumor photodynamic therapy: the engagement of adrenal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Soroush; Huang, Naiyan; Korbelik, Mladen

    2010-12-01

    Treatment of solid tumors by photodynamic therapy (PDT) was recently shown to trigger a strong acute phase response. Using the mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) model, the present study examined complement and pentraxin proteins as PDT-induced acute phase reactants. The results show a distinct pattern of changes in the expression of genes encoding these proteins in the tumor, as well as host liver and spleen, following PDT mediated by photosensitizer Photofrin™. These changes were influenced by glucocorticoid hormones, as evidenced by transcriptional activation of glucocorticoid receptor and the upregulation of gene encoding this receptor. The expression of gene for glucocorticoid-induced zipper (GILZ) protein, whose activity is particularly susceptible to glucocorticoid regulation, was also changed in PDT-treated tumors. A direct demonstration that tumor PDT induces glucocorticoid hormone upregulation is provided by documenting elevated levels of serum corticosterone in mice bearing PDT-treated LLC tumors. Tumor response to PDT was negatively affected by blocking glucocorticoid receptor activity, which suggests that glucocorticoid hormones have a positive impact on the therapeutic outcome with this therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Elevation of intact and proteolytic fragments of acute phase proteins constitutes the earliest systemic antiviral response in HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger B Kramer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The earliest immune responses activated in acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection (AHI exert a critical influence on subsequent virus spread or containment. During this time frame, components of the innate immune system such as macrophages and DCs, NK cells, beta-defensins, complement and other anti-microbial factors, which have all been implicated in modulating HIV infection, may play particularly important roles. A proteomics-based screen was performed on a cohort from whom samples were available at time points prior to the earliest positive HIV detection. The ability of selected factors found to be elevated in the plasma during AHI to inhibit HIV-1 replication was analyzed using in vitro PBMC and DC infection models. Analysis of unique plasma donor panels spanning the eclipse and viral expansion phases revealed very early alterations in plasma proteins in AHI. Induction of acute phase protein serum amyloid A (A-SAA occurred as early as 5-7 days prior to the first detection of plasma viral RNA, considerably prior to any elevation in systemic cytokine levels. Furthermore, a proteolytic fragment of alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT, termed virus inhibitory peptide (VIRIP, was observed in plasma coincident with viremia. Both A-SAA and VIRIP have anti-viral activity in vitro and quantitation of their plasma levels indicated that circulating concentrations are likely to be within the range of their inhibitory activity. Our results provide evidence for a first wave of host anti-viral defense occurring in the eclipse phase of AHI prior to systemic activation of other immune responses. Insights gained into the mechanism of action of acute-phase reactants and other innate molecules against HIV and how they are induced could be exploited for the future development of more efficient prophylactic vaccine strategies.

  12. Protein-energy malnutrition induces an aberrant acute-phase response and modifies the circadian rhythm of core temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shari E; Ramos, Rafaela Andrade; Refinetti, Roberto; Farthing, Jonathan P; Paterson, Phyllis G

    2013-08-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), present in 12%-19% of stroke patients upon hospital admission, appears to be a detrimental comorbidity factor that impairs functional outcome, but the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Because ischemic brain injury is highly temperature-sensitive, the objectives of this study were to investigate whether PEM causes sustained changes in temperature that are associated with an inflammatory response. Activity levels were recorded as a possible explanation for the immediate elevation in temperature upon introduction to a low protein diet. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats (7 weeks old) were fed a control diet (18% protein) or a low protein diet (PEM, 2% protein) for either 7 or 28 days. Continuous core temperature recordings from bioelectrical sensor transmitters demonstrated a rapid increase in temperature amplitude, sustained over 28 days, in response to a low protein diet. Daily mean temperature rose transiently by day 2 (p = 0.01), falling to normal by day 4 (p = 0.08), after which mean temperature continually declined as malnutrition progressed. There were no alterations in activity mean (p = 0.3) or amplitude (p = 0.2) that were associated with the early rise in mean temperature. Increased serum alpha-2-macroglobulin (p protein diet had no effect on the signaling pathway of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor, NFκB, in the hippocampus. In conclusion, PEM induces an aberrant and sustained acute-phase response coupled with long-lasting effects on body temperature.

  13. Increased levels of proteins of the acute inflammatory phase in the peritoneal fluid of women with advanced stages of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Grzegorz; Barczyński, Bartłomiej; Bednarek, Wiesława; Kwaśniewski, Wojciech; Wertell, Iwona; Derewianka-Polak, Magdalena; Makara-Studzińska, Marta; Kotarski, Jan

    2015-06-01

    Most investigators agree that endometriosis is associated with a state of subclinical, non-infectious peritoneal inflammation. The objective of the study was to assess concentrations of two markers of the acute inflammatory phase proteins, haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin, in peritoneal fluid of endometriotic women. 229 women who underwent diagnostic or therapeutic laparoscopy were included in the study Minimal, mild, moderate and severe endometriosis according to ASRM was confirmed in 119 women (study groups), whereas 110 patients suffered from simple serous or dermoid ovarian cysts (reference groups). Haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin concentrations in the peritoneal fluid samples aspirated during laparoscopy were measured using commercially available radial immunodiffusion kits. The concentration of haptoglobin in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis was significantly higher as compared to patients with serous and dermoid ovarian cysts. Significantly higher haptoglobin level was observed in patients with severe and moderate endometriosis as compared to women from both reference groups. No significant difference in the peritoneal fluid ceruloplasmin levels was found between patients with endometriosis and women from reference groups. However, it was noted that ceruloplasmin levels are higher in the subgroup of patients with severe endometriosis as compared to both reference groups and women with mild disease. Our results support the hypothesis that endometriosis is associated with subclinical inflammation within the peritoneal cavity It may be speculated that pro-inflammatory stimuli strong enough to cause an increase in acute inflammatory phase proteins peritoneal fluid concentrations are observed only in the advanced stages of the disease.

  14. The Utility of Acute-Phase Proteins in the Assessment of Treatment Response in Dogs With Bacterial Pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viitanen, S. J.; Lappalainen, A. K.; Christensen, M. B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are sensitive markers of inflammation, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) recently has been shown to be a useful diagnostic marker in dogs with bacterial pneumonia (BP). In humans with community-acquired pneumonia, APPs also have great utility as follow......-up markers aiding in the assessment of treatment response. Objectives: The aim of our study was to investigate the applicability of APPs as markers of treatment response in dogs with BP. Animals: Nineteen dogs diagnosed with BP and 64 healthy dogs. Methods: The study was conducted as a prospective...... longitudinal observational study. Serum CRP, serum amyloid A (SAA), and haptoglobin concentrations were followed during a natural course of BP. Normalization of serum CRP was used to guide the duration of antibiotic treatment (treatment was stopped 5–7 days after CRP normalized) in 8 of 17 dogs surviving...

  15. The diagnostic and prognostic importance of oxidative stress biomarkers and acute phase proteins in Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) in camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Deeb, Wael M; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic importance of oxidative stress biomarkers and acute phase proteins in urinary tract infection (UTI) in camels. We describe the clinical, bacteriological and biochemical findings in 89 camels. Blood and urine samples from diseased (n = 74) and control camels (n = 15) were submitted to laboratory investigations. The urine analysis revealed high number of RBCS and pus cells. The concentrations of serum and erythrocytic malondialdehyde (sMDA & eMDA), Haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), Ceruloplasmin (Cp), fibrinogen (Fb), albumin, globulin and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were higher in diseased camels when compared to healthy ones. Catalase, super oxide dismutase and glutathione levels were lower in diseased camels when compared with control group. Forty one of 74 camels with UTI were successfully treated. The levels of malondialdehyde, catalase, super oxide dismutase, glutathione, Hp, SAA, Fb, total protein, globulin and IL-6 were associated with the odds of treatment failure. The MDA showed a great sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) in predicting treatment failure (Se 85%/Sp 100%) as well as the SAA (Se 92%/Sp 87%) and globulin levels (Se 85%/Sp 100%) when using the cutoffs that maximizes the sum of Se + Sp. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that two models had a high accuracy to predict failure with the first model including sex, sMDA and Hp as covariates (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.92) and a second model using sex, SAA and Hp (AUC = 0.89). Conclusively, the oxidative stress biomarkers and acute phase proteins could be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in camel UTI management. Efforts should be forced to investigate such biomarkers in other species with UTI.

  16. ITIH4 (inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4) is a new acute-phase protein isolated from cattle during experimental infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineiro, M.; Andres, M.; Iturralde, M.

    2004-01-01

    We have isolated from calf serum a protein with an apparent M, of 120,000. The protein was detected by using antibodies against major acute-phase protein in pigs with acute inflammation. The amino acid sequence of an internal fragment revealed that this protein is the bovine counterpart of ITIH4......, and Peptostreptococcus indolicus to induce an acute-phase reaction. All animals developed moderate to severe clinical mastitis and exhibited remarkable increases in ITIH4 concentration in serum (from 3 to 12 times the initial values, peaking at 48 to 72 h after infection) that correlated with the severity of the disease....... Animals with experimental infections with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) also showed increases in ITIH4 concentration (from two- to fivefold), which peaked at around 7 to 8 days after inoculation. Generally, no response was seen after a second infection of the same animals with the virus...

  17. Association between feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) plasma viral RNA load, concentration of acute phase proteins and disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Rebecca K C; Seddon, Jennifer M; Kyaw-Tanner, Myat T; Henning, Joerg; Meers, Joanne

    2014-08-01

    Veterinarians have few tools to predict the rate of disease progression in FIV-infected cats. In contrast, in HIV infection, plasma viral RNA load and acute phase protein concentrations are commonly used as predictors of disease progression. This study evaluated these predictors in cats naturally infected with FIV. In older cats (>5 years), log10 FIV RNA load was higher in the terminal stages of disease compared to the asymptomatic stage. There was a significant association between log10 FIV RNA load and both log10 serum amyloid A concentration and age in unwell FIV-infected cats. This study suggests that viral RNA load and serum amyloid A warrant further investigation as predictors of disease status and prognosis in FIV-infected cats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute phase protein concentrations in serum and milk from healthy cows, cows with clinical mastitis and cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Andersen, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of the two acute phase proteins, serum amyloid A and haptoglobin, in serum and milk were compared in 10 cows with clinical mastitis, 11 cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions and 10 clinically healthy control cows. The concentrations of both acute phase proteins were...... higher in the serum and milk of the cows with mastitis than in the cows in the other two groups. Four of the cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions had serum amyloid A concentrations in serum above 100 mug/ml, but negligible concentrations in milk, indicating that a pathogen must be present...

  19. Protein C activation during the initial phase of experimental acute pancreatitis in the rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, L H; Bladbjerg, E-M; Osman, M

    2000-01-01

    activity), anticoagulant proteins (protein C, antithrombin) and fibrinolytic factors (tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) were performed for 5 h. RESULTS: ANP was confirmed by elevated serum amylase, development of ascites, and histological changes of the pancreas. A moderate...

  20. Age- and Sex-Associated Effects on Acute-Phase Proteins in Göttingen Minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Berit Ø; Jensen, Søren J.; Ludvigsen, Trine P

    2015-01-01

    , 16, 24 and 40-48 wk) of male and female Göttingen minipigs. In addition, minipigs were tested under 2 housing conditions, after acute LPS challenge, and after diet-induced obesity with and without mild diabetes. Changing the pigs to a new environment induced significant increases in CRP, PMAP...

  1. Protein-energy malnutrition developing after global brain ischemia induces an atypical acute-phase response and hinders expression of GAP-43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shari E; Figley, Sarah A; Schreyer, David J; Paterson, Phyllis G

    2014-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a common post-stroke problem. PEM can independently induce a systemic acute-phase response, and pre-existing malnutrition can exacerbate neuroinflammation induced by brain ischemia. In contrast, the effects of PEM developing in the post-ischemic period have not been studied. Since excessive inflammation can impede brain remodeling, we investigated the effects of post-ischemic malnutrition on neuroinflammation, the acute-phase reaction, and neuroplasticity-related proteins. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to global forebrain ischemia using the 2-vessel occlusion model or sham surgery. The sham rats were assigned to control diet (18% protein) on day 3 after surgery, whereas the rats exposed to global ischemia were assigned to either control diet or a low protein (PEM, 2% protein) diet. Post-ischemic PEM decreased growth associated protein-43, synaptophysin and synaptosomal-associated protein-25 immunofluorescence within the hippocampal CA3 mossy fiber terminals on day 21, whereas the glial response in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subregions was unaltered by PEM. No systemic acute-phase reaction attributable to global ischemia was detected in control diet-fed rats, as reflected by serum concentrations of alpha-2-macroglobulin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin, and albumin. Acute exposure to the PEM regimen after global brain ischemia caused an atypical acute-phase response. PEM decreased the serum concentrations of albumin and haptoglobin on day 5, with the decreases sustained to day 21. Serum alpha-2-macroglobulin concentrations were significantly higher in malnourished rats on day 21. This provides the first direct evidence that PEM developing after brain ischemia exerts wide-ranging effects on mechanisms important to stroke recovery.

  2. Expression of acute phase proteins and inflammatory cytokines in mouse mammary gland following Staphylococcus aureus challenge and in response to milk accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazemi, Sasan; Aalbæk, Bent; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    We used a mouse model of pathogenic (Staphylococcus aureus) and non-pathogenic (teat sealing) mammary inflammation to investigate mRNA expression of several inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins (APP) in mammary tissue and liver, and the appearance of some of these factors in plasma and...

  3. Evaluation of Sialic Acid and Acute Phase Proteins (Haptoglobin and Serum Amyloid A in Clinical and Subclinical Bovine Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nazifi*, M. Haghkhah1, Z. Asadi, M. Ansari-Lari2, M. R. Tabandeh3, Z. Esmailnezhad and M. Aghamiri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of sialic acids (total, lipid bound and protein bound and their correlation with acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in clinical and subclinical mastitis of cattle. Thirty subclinical mastitic cows with positive California mastitis test (CMT test and no clinical signs of mastitis, 10 clinical mastitic cows and 10 healthy cows with negative CMT test and normal somatic cell count were selected. Milk and blood samples were collected after confirmation of clinical and subclinical mastitis by somatic cell count and bacterial identification. Serum haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA, total sialic acid (TSA, lipid bound sialic acid (LBSA and protein bound sialic acid (PBSA were measured by validated standard methods. Haptoglobin and SAA increased significantly in both types of mastitis compared with control group (P<0.001. However, the ratio of HP/SAA was significantly different from the control group only in clinical mastitis. The results showed that TSA and LBSA were significantly different in control group compared with clinical and subclinical mastitis (P<0.001. Protein bound sialic acid did not change in subclinical mastitis in comparison with control group (P=0.86. There was positive correlation between LBSA and PBSA in clinical mastitis (r=0.72, P=0.02 whereas significant negative correlation was observed between LBSA and PBSA in subclinical mastitis (r=-0.62, P<0.001. Results also showed no correlation between Hp and SAA with each other or with any other parameters in study groups.

  4. Identification of Acute Phase Proteins and Assays Applicable in Nondomesticated Mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, M. F.; Kjelgaard-Hansen, M.; Grøndahl, C.

    2009-01-01

    potential APPs-serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and haptoglobin (Hp)-was evaluated in eight species. For SAA, a turbidimetric immunoassay (TIA) demonstrated significant detective abilities ill the Asian elephant (Elaphas maximus), impala (Aepyceros melampus), musk ox (Ovibos moschatus...

  5. Effects of glucocorticoid combined with antibiotics on serum infection indexes, acute phase proteins and stress hormones in patients with severe pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effects of glucocorticoid combined with antibiotics on serum infection indexes, acute phase proteins and stress hormones in patients with severe pneumonia. Methods: a total of 80 patients with severe pneumonia who were hospitalized between August 2014 and January 2017 were retrospectively analyzed and divided into the routine treatment group (n=46 who received conventional antibiotic therapy and the combined treatment group (n=34 who received glucocorticoid combined with antibiotic therapy, and the differences in infection indexes, acute proteins and stress hormones were compared between the two groups of patients before and after treatment. Results: The differences in serum levels of infection indexes, acute phase proteins and stress hormones were not statistically significant between the two groups before treatment. After 1 week of treatment, serum infection indexes CRP and PCT levels of observation group were lower than those of control group; serum acute phase proteins α1-AT, α1-AG and CER levels were lower than those of control group; serum stress hormones Cor, AngⅠ and AngⅡ levels were lower than those of control group. Conclusion: Glucocorticoid combined with antibiotics can effectively inhibit systemic infection and stress and optimize the illness in patients with severe pneumonia.

  6. Assessment of acute phase proteins and oxidative stress status of Nigerians using bleaching agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akibinu, M.O.; Arinola, O.G.; Afolabi, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    The disruption of primary innate immune function of the epidermal layer of the skin accounts for the susceptibility of individuals using bleaching agents to localized or systemic infections. This subverted innate immunity in these people may lead to other pathological conditions. The resultant effects of skin bleaching and phagocytes activation in response to infections have not been studied in Nigerians using bleaching agents. The present study therefore assessed the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, total antioxidant potential (TAP), total plasma peroxides (TPP), oxidative stress index (OSI) and malonaldehyde (MDA) in the users bleaching agents. Thirty (30) people who had used bleaching agents for average of 4.9 + 1.2 years participated in this study. They were recruited from various schools and markets within the city of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Thirty apparently healthy staffs of University College Hospital Ibadan, Ibaadan, Nigeria, who had never used bleaching agents served as controls. All the subjects used for this study had no metabolic abnormality and tested negative to both HIV and hepatitis B infections. The mean value of TAP (p 0.20) when compared with the controls. Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation are possible consequences of skin bleaching. The users of skin bleaching agents may need antioxidant therapies to avert the risks of oxidative stress. (author)

  7. Meat juice: An alternative matrix for assessing animal health by measuring acute phase proteins. Correlations of pig-MAP and haptoglobin concentrations in pig meat juice and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, M; Gymnich, S; Knura, S; Piñeiro, C; Petersen, B

    2009-10-01

    Quantification of acute phase proteins (APPs) in blood can be used for monitoring animal health and welfare on farms, and could be also of interest for the detection of diseased animals during the meat inspection process. However serum or plasma is not always available for end-point analysis at slaughter. Meat juice might provide an adequate, alternative matrix that can be easily obtained for post-mortem analysis at abattoirs. The concentrations of pig Major Acute phase Protein (pig-MAP) and haptoglobin, two of the main APPs in pigs, were determined in approximately 300 paired samples of plasma and meat juice from the diaphragm (pars costalis), obtained after freezing and thawing the muscle. APPs concentrations in meat juice were closely correlated to those in plasma (r=0.695 for haptoglobin, r=0.858 for pig-MAP, panimal health in pig production, with implications for food safety and meat quality.

  8. Pig major acute-phase protein and haptoglobin serum concentrations correlate with PCV2 viremia and the clinical course of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau-Roma, Llorenc; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2009-01-01

    -PMWS affected pigs. In addition, evidence of infection with other pathogens and its relation with variations in APP's concentrations was also assessed. Fourteen independent batches of 100 to 154 pigs were monitored from birth to PMWS outbreak occurrence in 11 PMWS affected farms. Pigs displaying PMWS-like signs......The aim of the present longitudinal study was to assess the evolution of two acute phase proteins (APPs), pig-major acute phase protein (pig-MAP) and haptoglobin (HPT), in serum from pigs that developed postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in comparison to healthy and wasted non...... and age-matched healthy controls were euthanized during the clinical outbreak. PMWS was diagnosed according to internationally accepted creteria and pigs were classified as: i)PMWS cases, ii) wasted non-PMWS cases and iii) healthy pigs. At the moment of PMWS occurrence, pig-MAP and HPT concentration...

  9. The rat acute-phase protein {alpha}{sub 2}-macroglobulin plays a central role in amifostine-mediated radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirjana, Mihailovic; Goran, Poznanovic; Nevena, Grdovic; Melita, Vidakovic; Svetlana, Dinic; Ilijana, Grigorov; Desanka, Bogojevic, E-mail: mista@ibiss.bg.ac.r [Department of Molecular Biology, Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic' , University of Belgrade, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, 11060 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-09-15

    Previously we reported that elevated circulating concentrations of the acute-phase (AP) protein {alpha}{sub 2}-macroglobulin ({alpha}{sub 2}M), either as typically occurring in pregnant female rats or after administration to male rats, provides radioprotection, displayed as 100% survival of experimental animals exposed to total-body irradiation with 6.7 Gy (LD{sub 50/30}) x-rays, that is as effective as that afforded by the synthetic radioprotector amifostine. The finding that amifostine administration induces a 45-fold increase in {alpha}{sub 2}M in the circulation led us to hypothesise that {alpha}{sub 2}M assumes an essential role in both natural and amifostine-mediated radioprotection in the rat. In the present work we examined the activation of cytoprotective mechanisms in rat hepatocytes after the exogenous administration of {alpha}{sub 2}M and amifostine. Our results showed that the IL6/JAK/STAT3 hepatoprotective signal pathway, described in a variety of liver-injury models, upregulated the {alpha}{sub 2}M gene in amifostine-pretreated animals. In both {alpha}{sub 2}M- and amifostine-pretreated rats we observed the activation of the Akt signalling pathways that mediate cellular survival. At the cellular level this was reflected as a significant reduction of irradiation-induced DNA damage that allowed for the rapid and complete restoration of liver mass and ultimately at the level of the whole organism the complete restoration of body weight. We conclude that the selective upregulation of {alpha}{sub 2}M plays a central role in amifostine-provided radioprotection.

  10. Usefulness of acute phase proteins in differentiating between feline infectious peritonitis and other diseases in cats with body cavity effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazuchova, Katarina; Held, Susanne; Neiger, Reto

    2017-08-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the measurement of acute phase proteins (APPs) as a diagnostic tool to differentiate between feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and other diseases in cats with body cavity effusions. Methods Cats with pleural, abdominal or pericardial effusion were prospectively enrolled. Cats were classified as having or not having FIP based on immunohistochemistry (if available) or a sophisticated statistical method using machine learning methodology with concepts from game theory. Cats without FIP were further subdivided into three subgroups: cardiac disease, neoplasia and other diseases. Serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and α 1 -acid glycoprotein (AGP) were measured in serum and effusion, using assays previously validated in cats. Results Serum and effusion samples were available for the measurement of APPs from 88 and 67 cats, respectively. Concentrations of the APPs in serum and effusion were significantly different in cats with and without FIP ( P <0.001 for all three APPs). The best APP to distinguish between cats with and without FIP was AGP in the effusion; a cut-off value of 1550 µg/ml had a sensitivity and specificity of 93% each for diagnosing FIP. Conclusions and relevance AGP, particularly if measured in effusion, was found to be useful in differentiating between FIP and other diseases, while SAA and Hp were not. The concentration of all three APPs in some diseases (eg, septic processes, disseminated neoplasia) was as high as in cats with FIP; therefore, none of these can be recommended as a single diagnostic test for FIP.

  11. Activation of the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 via the interleukin-6 signal transducing receptor protein gp130 requires tyrosine kinase Jak1 and limits acute-phase protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, F; Gendo, C; Eck, M; Schmitz, J; Grimm, C; Anhuf, D; Kerr, I M; Heinrich, P C

    1998-11-01

    Stimulation of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) signalling pathway occurs via the IL-6 receptor-glycoprotein 130 (IL-6R-gp130) receptor complex and results in the regulation of acute-phase protein genes in liver cells. Ligand binding to the receptor complex leads to tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of Janus kinases (Jak), phosphorylation of the signal transducing subunit gp130, followed by recruitment and phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription factors STAT3 and STAT1 and the src homology domain (SH2)-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP2). The tyrosine phosphorylated STAT factors dissociate from the receptor, dimerize and translocate to the nucleus where they bind to enhancer sequences of IL-6 target genes. Phosphorylated SHP2 is able to bind growth factor receptor bound protein (grb2) and thus might link the Jak/STAT pathway to the ras/raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Here we present data on the dose-dependence, kinetics and kinase requirements for SHP2 phosphorylation after the activation of the signal transducer, gp130, of the IL-6-type family receptor complex. When human fibrosarcoma cell lines deficient in Jak1, Jak2 or tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2) were stimulated with IL-6-soluble IL-6R complexes it was found that only in Jak1-, but not in Jak 2- or Tyk2-deficient cells, SHP2 activation was greatly impaired. It is concluded that Jak1 is required for the tyrosine phosphorylation of SHP2. This phosphorylation depends on Tyr-759 in the cytoplasmatic domain of gp130, since a Tyr-759-->Phe exchange abrogates SHP2 activation and in turn leads to elevated and prolonged STAT3 and STAT1 activation as well as enhanced acute-phase protein gene induction. Therefore, SHP2 plays an important role in acute-phase gene regulation.

  12. Immunomodulatory effects of high-protein diet with resveratrol supplementation on radiation-induced acute-phase inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ok; Park, HyunJin; Chun, Mison; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2014-09-01

    We hypothesized that a high-protein diet and/or resveratrol supplementation will improve acute inflammatory responses in rats after receiving experimental abdominal radiation treatment (ART). Based on our previous study, the period of 10 days after ART was used as an acute inflammation model. Rats were exposed to a radiation dose of 17.5 Gy and were supplied with a control (C), 30% high-protein diet (HP), resveratrol supplementation (RES), or HP with RES diet ([HP+RES]). At day 10 after ART, we measured profiles of lipids, proteins, and immune cells in blood. The levels of clusters of differentiating 4(+) (CD4(+)) cells and regulatory T cells, serum proinflammatory cytokines, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in urine were also measured. ART caused significant disturbances of lipid profiles by increasing triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and decreasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The proinflammatroy cytokine levels were also increased by ART. All the experimental diets (HP, RES, and [HP+RES]) significantly decreased levels of TG, monocytes, proinflammatory cytokines, and 8-OHdG, whereas the platelet counts were increased. In addition, the HP and [HP+RES] diets decreased the concentrations of plasma LDL-C and total cholesterol. Also, the HP and RES diets decreased regulatory T cells compared with those of the control diet in ART group. Further, the HP diet led to a significant recovery of white blood cell counts, as well as increased percentages of lymphocyte and decreased percentages of neutrophils. In summary, RES appeared to be significantly effective in minimizing radiation-induced damage to lipid metabolism and immune responses. Our study also demonstrated the importance of dietary protein intake in recovering from acute inflammation by radiation.

  13. Mass-spectrometric identification of T-kininogen I/thiostatin as an acute-phase inflammatory protein suppressed by curcumin and capsaicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Bina; Nagaraju, Anitha; Gowda, Lalitha R; Basrur, Venkatesha; Lokesh, Belur R

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin and capsaicin are dietary xenobiotics with well-documented anti-inflammatory properties. Previously, the beneficial effect of these spice principles in lowering chronic inflammation was demonstrated using a rat experimental model for arthritis. The extent of lowering of arthritic index by the spice principles was associated with a significant shift in macrophage function favoring the reduction of pro-inflammatory molecules such as reactive oxygen species and production and release of anti-inflammatory metabolites of arachidonic acid. Beyond the cellular effects on macrophage function, oral administration of curcumin and capsaicin caused alterations in serum protein profiles of rats injected with adjuvant to develop arthritis. Specifically, a 72 kDa acidic glycoprotein, GpA72, which was elevated in pre-arthritic rats, was significantly lowered by feeding either curcumin or capsaicin to the rats. Employing the tandem mass spectrometric approach for direct sequencing of peptides, here we report the identification of GpA72 as T-kininogen I also known as Thiostatin. Since T-kininogen I is an early acute-phase protein, we additionally tested the efficiency of curcumin and capsaicin to mediate the inflammatory response in an acute phase model. The results demonstrate that curcumin and capsaicin lower the acute-phase inflammatory response, the molecular mechanism for which is, in part, mediated by pathways associated with the lowering of T-kininogen I.

  14. Mass-spectrometric identification of T-kininogen I/thiostatin as an acute-phase inflammatory protein suppressed by curcumin and capsaicin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina Joe

    Full Text Available Curcumin and capsaicin are dietary xenobiotics with well-documented anti-inflammatory properties. Previously, the beneficial effect of these spice principles in lowering chronic inflammation was demonstrated using a rat experimental model for arthritis. The extent of lowering of arthritic index by the spice principles was associated with a significant shift in macrophage function favoring the reduction of pro-inflammatory molecules such as reactive oxygen species and production and release of anti-inflammatory metabolites of arachidonic acid. Beyond the cellular effects on macrophage function, oral administration of curcumin and capsaicin caused alterations in serum protein profiles of rats injected with adjuvant to develop arthritis. Specifically, a 72 kDa acidic glycoprotein, GpA72, which was elevated in pre-arthritic rats, was significantly lowered by feeding either curcumin or capsaicin to the rats. Employing the tandem mass spectrometric approach for direct sequencing of peptides, here we report the identification of GpA72 as T-kininogen I also known as Thiostatin. Since T-kininogen I is an early acute-phase protein, we additionally tested the efficiency of curcumin and capsaicin to mediate the inflammatory response in an acute phase model. The results demonstrate that curcumin and capsaicin lower the acute-phase inflammatory response, the molecular mechanism for which is, in part, mediated by pathways associated with the lowering of T-kininogen I.

  15. Potential of acute phase proteins as predictor of postpartum uterine infections during transition period and its regulatory mechanism in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Manimaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the various systemic reactions against infection or injury, the acute phase response is the cascade of reaction and mostly coordinated by cytokines-mediated acute phase proteins (APPs production. Since APPs are sensitive innate immune molecules, they are useful for early detection of inflammation in bovines and believed to be better discriminators than routine hematological parameters. Therefore, the possibility of using APPs as a diagnostic and prognostic marker of inflammation in major bovine health disorders including postpartum uterine infection has been explored by many workers. In this review, we discussed specifically importance of postpartum uterine infection, the role of energy balance in uterine infections and potential of APPs as a predictor of postpartum uterine infections during the transition period and its regulatory mechanism in dairy cattle.

  16. Feeding common carp Cyprinus carpio with b-glucan supplemented \\ud diet stimulates C-reactive protein and complement immune acute\\ud phase responses following PAMPs injection

    OpenAIRE

    Pionnier, Nicolas; Falco, Alberto; Miest, Joanna J.; Shrive, Annette K.; Hoole, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The effect of β-glucan as a feed additive on the serum and gene profile of C-reactive protein (CRP) and complement acute phase responses was ascertained in common carp Cyprinus carpio. In addition effects of subsequent intraperitoneal injections of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), i.e. LPS or poly(I:C), to mimic bacterial or viral infection respectively, were studied. Carp were first orally fed with β-glucan (MacroGard®) with a daily β-glucan intake of 6 mg per kg body weight o...

  17. Level of the proteins of the acute phase as criterions of the antibacterial therapy effectiveness in the E.coli associated experimental peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Minukhin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Peritonitis is accompanied by increase of acute-phase proteins levels. C – reactive protein (CRP is acutephase protein which is produced in human organism in response to tissue injury, infection or inflammation. CRP is produced in small quantities (<1mg/l under normal conditions. Measurement of CRP levels in serum is used for setting of the diagnosis and diseases monitoring as well as efficacy of their treatment. Seromucoid (orosomucoid, alpha-1 acid glucoprotein is one of acutephase proteins. Levels of serum orosomucoid are elevated since onset of the inflammatory process due to microbial contamination develops in peritonitis. Levels of alpha – 1 acid glucoprotein is elevated during acute phase of inflammation. Alpha – 1 acid glucoprotein is one of main acutephase proteins. Aim of the study. To determinate levels of seromucoid and CRP in serum of experimental animals and to evaluate the duration of the inflammatory process and the efficacy of antimicrobial therapy in mice with experimentally induced peritonitis. Material and methods of study. Levels of CRP were determined with the use of a half – quantitative immunoturbidimetric method. Levels of seromucoids were determined by means of the immunoturbidimetric method. Levels of CRP and seromucoid were determined in serum obtained from mice in which experimental peritonitis were induced by Escherichia coli. Mice were divided into 6 groups depending on methods of treatment: the 1st group: Amikacin; the 2nd group: gatifloxacin; the 3rd group: Amikacin combined with Gatiflocsacin; the 4th group: Amikacin combined with Bacteriophagum Coli-Proteicum; the 5th group: Gatiflocsacin combined with Bacteriophagum Coli-Proteicum; the 6th group: Amikacin combined with Gatiflocsacin and Bacteriophagum Coli-Proteicum; Studies were conducted on the 3rd and the 5th day after the start of antimicrobial therapy. Results of study. Studies showed that the positive CRP test and the

  18. Occupational exposure levels of bioaerosol components are associated with serum levels of the acute phase protein Serum Amyloid A in greenhouse workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Thilsing, Trine; Bælum, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    to elevated levels of bioaerosols. The objective of this study is to assess whether greenhouse workers personal exposure to bioaerosol components was associated with serum levels of the acute phase proteins Serum Amyloid A (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP). METHODS: SAA and CRP levels were determined......-glucan. RESULTS: Serum levels of SAA and CRP were not significantly different in greenhouse workers and a reference group, or on the two work days. In a mixed model, SAA levels were positively associated with endotoxin exposure levels (p = 0.0007). Results for fungi were not clear. CRP levels were positively...... associated with endotoxin exposures (p = 0.022). Furthermore, when workers were categorized into three groups based on SAA and CRP serum levels endotoxin exposure was highest in the group with the highest SAA levels and in the group with middle and highest CRP levels. SAA and CRP levels were elevated...

  19. The steroidogenic response and corpus luteum expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein after human chorionic gonadotropin administration at different times in the human luteal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohen, Paulina; Castro, Olga; Palomino, Alberto; Muñoz, Alex; Christenson, Lane K; Sierralta, Walter; Carvallo, Pilar; Strauss, Jerome F; Devoto, Luigi

    2003-07-01

    This study was designed 1) to assess corpus luteum (CL) steroidogenesis in response to exogenous human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) at different times during the luteal phase, 2) to examine the effect of hCG on steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression within the CL, 3) to correlate StAR expression and luteal steroidogenic responses to hCG, and 4) to determine whether endogenous LH regulates ovarian steroidogenesis in the early luteal phase. Blood was collected before and after hCG treatment for steroid and hCGbeta determinations. CL were obtained at the time of surgery to assess StAR gene and protein expression. During the early luteal phase various women received the GnRH antagonist for 24-48 h; some of them also received hCG 24 h after the GnRH antagonist. A slight steroidogenic response to hCG was observed in early luteal phase; 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, but not progesterone (P4), levels were significantly increased 8 h post-hCG, indicating a differential response by the granulosa and theca-lutein cells. The 1.6- and 4.4-kb StAR transcripts and the 37-kDa preprotein and 30-kDa mature StAR protein did not change post-hCG administration in early luteal phase CL. In contrast, the StAR 4.4- and 1.6-kb transcripts diminished significantly (P < 0.05) after the antagonist treatment. Immunohistochemical staining for StAR protein was weak, particularly in granulosa-lutein cells. Treatment with hCG restored StAR mRNA and protein and plasma P4 levels within 24 h in antagonist-treated women. hCG stimulated the highest plasma concentrations of P4 and estradiol in the midluteal phase, indicating its greatest steroidogenic capacity. Midluteal tissue StAR gene and protein expression increased by 1.6- and 1.4-fold after 24 h of hCG treatment, respectively. Administration of hCG resulted in the greatest increment in plasma P4 (4-fold) and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (3-fold) levels over baseline in the late luteal phase. This was associated with an increase in

  20. Effects of preoperative feeding with a whey protein plus carbohydrate drink on the acute phase response and insulin resistance. A randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dock-Nascimento Diana B

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged preoperative fasting increases insulin resistance and current evidence recommends carbohydrate (CHO drinks 2 hours before surgery. Our hypothesis is that the addition of whey protein to a CHO-based drink not only reduces the inflammatory response but also diminish insulin resistance. Methods Seventeen patients scheduled to cholecystectomy or inguinal herniorraphy were randomized and given 474 ml and 237 ml of water (CO group or a drink containing CHO and milk whey protein (CHO-P group respectively, 6 and 3 hours before operation. Blood samples were collected before surgery and 24 hours afterwards for biochemical assays. The endpoints of the study were the insulin resistance (IR, the prognostic inflammatory and nutritional index (PINI and the C-reactive protein (CRP/albumin ratio. A 5% level for significance was established. Results There were no anesthetic or postoperative complications. The post-operative IR was lower in the CHO-P group when compared with the CO group (2.75 ± 0.72 vs 5.74 ± 1.16; p = 0.03. There was no difference between the two groups in relation to the PINI. The CHO-P group showed a decrease in the both CRP elevation and CRP/albumin ratio (p Conclusions Shortening the pre-operative fasting using CHO and whey protein is safe and reduces insulin resistance and postoperative acute phase response in elective moderate operations. Trial registration ClinicalTrail.gov NCT01354249

  1. Extensive changes in innate immune gene expression in obese Göttingen minipigs do not lead to changes in concentrations of circulating cytokines and acute phase proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Moesgaard, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    not been studied in Göttingen minipigs. Therefore, we studied the expression of innate immune genes in liver and adipose tissues as well as serum concentrations of cytokines and acute phase proteins in obese vs. lean Göttingen minipigs. In the liver, of 35 investigated genes, the expression of nine...... was significantly different in obese pigs (three up-regulated, six down-regulated). Of 33 genes in adipose tissues, obesity was associated with changed expression of 12 genes in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (three up-regulated), 11 in the abdominal retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT) (seven of these up......-regulated) and eight in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from the neck (five of which were up-regulated). Obesity-associated expression changes were observed for three genes in all adipose tissues, namely chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3-like 1 (up-regulated), CD200 molecule (down-regulated) and interleukin 1...

  2. Acute-phase proteins investigation based on lectins affinity capture prior to 2-DE separation: application to serum from multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotti, Andrea; Natale, Massimo; Albo, Alessandra Giuliano; Lis, Katarzyna; Perga, Simona; Marnetto, Fabiana; Gilli, Francesca; Bertolotto, Antonio

    2010-09-01

    Plasma acute-phase proteins (APPs) glyco-isoforms are important biomarkers of inflammatory processes such as those occurring in multiple sclerosis (MS). Specific analysis of these proteins is often hampered by sample biochemical complexity. The aim of our study was to set up a method to accurately visualize, identify and quantify APPs glyco-isoforms in human serum. An enrichment strategy based on affinity chromatography using the carbohydrate-binding proteins concanavalin A (ConA) and erythrina cristagalli lectin (ECL) was applied to pooled serum samples from 15 patients and 9 healthy individuals. Image analysis of 2-DE detected 30 spots with a fold change higher than 1.5. A total of 14 were statistically significant (p valuewell known. Performing galectin-3 binding and Western blotting, we were able to demonstrate a correlation between hybrid type glyco-isoforms of β-haptoglobin and MS. In conclusion, although the patho-physiological role of the identified species still remains unclear and further validations are needed, these findings may have a relevant impact on disease-specific marker identification approaches.

  3. The acute phase protein ceruloplasmin as a non-invasive marker of pseudopregnancy, pregnancy, and pregnancy loss in the giant panda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L Willis

    Full Text Available After ovulation, non-pregnant female giant pandas experience pseudopregnancy. During pseudopregnancy, non-pregnant females exhibit physiological and behavioral changes similar to pregnancy. Monitoring hormonal patterns that are usually different in pregnant mammals are not effective at determining pregnancy status in many animals that undergo pseudopregnancy, including the giant panda. Therefore, a physiological test to distinguish between pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in pandas has eluded scientists for decades. We examined other potential markers of pregnancy and found that activity of the acute phase protein ceruloplasmin increases in urine of giant pandas in response to pregnancy. Results indicate that in term pregnancies, levels of active urinary ceruloplasmin were elevated the first week of pregnancy and remain elevated until 20-24 days prior to parturition, while no increase was observed during the luteal phase in known pseudopregnancies. Active ceruloplasmin also increased during ultrasound-confirmed lost pregnancies; however, the pattern was different compared to term pregnancies, particularly during the late luteal phase. In four out of the five additional reproductive cycles included in the current study where females were bred but no birth occurred, active ceruloplasmin in urine increased during the luteal phase. Similar to the known lost pregnancies, the temporal pattern of change in urinary ceruloplasmin during the luteal phase deviated from the term pregnancies suggesting that these cycles may have also been lost pregnancies. Among giant pandas in captivity, it has been presumed that there is a high rate of pregnancy loss and our results are the first to provide evidence supporting this notion.

  4. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A as early-phase and prognostic indicators of acute radiation exposure in nonhuman primate total-body irradiation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossetrova, N.I., E-mail: ossetrova@afrri.usuhs.mil [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Sandgren, D.J.; Blakely, W.F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Terrorist radiological attacks or nuclear accidents could expose large numbers of people to ionizing radiation. In mass-casualty radiological incidents early medical-management requires triage tools for first-responders to quantitatively identify individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and for early initiation (i.e., within one day after radiation exposure) of cytokine therapy for treatment of bone marrow acute radiation syndrome. Herein, we present results from 30 rhesus macaques total-body irradiated (TBI) to a broad dose range of 1-8.5 Gy with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays (0.55 Gy min{sup -1}) and demonstrate dose- and time-dependent changes in blood of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CRP and SAA dose-response results are consistent with {approx}1 Gy and {approx}0.2 Gy thresholds for photon-exposure at 24 h after TBI, respectively. Highly significant elevations of CRP and SAA (p = 0.00017 and p = 0.0024, respectively) were found in animal plasma at 6 h after all TBI doses suggesting their potential use as early-phase biodosimeters. Results also show that the dynamics and content of CRP and SAA levels reflect the course and severity of the acute radiation sickness (ARS) and may function as prognostic indicators of ARS outcome. These results demonstrate proof-of-concept that these radiation-responsive proteins show promise as a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposures and may also contribute as diagnostic indices in the medical management of radiation accidents.

  5. Inhibition of post-traumatic septic proteolysis and ureagenesis and stimulation of hepatic acute-phase protein production by branched-chain amino acid TPN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarla, C; Siegel, J H; Kidd, S; Coleman, B; Mora, R; Tacchino, R; Placko, R; Gum, M; Wiles, C E; Belzberg, H

    1988-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that severe sepsis after major trauma results in the reprioritization of release of hepatic acute-phase proteins (APP). They suggest competition for leucine for nutritional utilization may be responsible. To test this hypothesis, a branched-chain enriched (46.6%) amino acid mixture (BCAA) was administered on a prospective randomized basis with standard TPN therapy to 16 septic post-trauma patients. After sepsis was diagnosed, a randomized therapy (control-TPN or BCAA-TPN) was given for 12 days, or until death occurred. Total calories and amino acid nitrogen (N) administered were not different in the two groups (t-test) and q 8 h (347 study periods) amino acid clearances, urinary urea nitrogen excretion, muscle proteolysis from 3-methyl-histidine (3-MH) excretion, and standard indices of sepsis severity and hepatic function were measured, as well as platelets (PLAT), leucocytes (WBC), albumin (ALB), and six acute-phase proteins: C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1TRIP), fibrinogen (FIBRIN), alpha-2-macroglobulin (AMACRO), ceruloplasmin (CERUL), and transferrin (TRANS). Using Scheffé analysis of all contrasts the data showed: BCAA resulted in a fall in 24-hour urea N excretion (24.0 to 20.0 gm/24 hr) and in proteolysis (138 to 126 gm/24 hr) (p less than 0.0001). Prestudy CRP levels were all elevated, but compared to control where APP reprioritization occurred, over the initial 10 days of therapy BCAA patients had a more rapid fall in CRP with a more rapid rise in FIBRIN, TRANS, CERUL, ALBUMIN, AMACRO, and A1TRIP (all p less than 0.0001) relative to CRP. Also, the sepsis-reduced clearances of glutamine and glutamate, alanine, and proline were increased (p less than 0.0001) during BCAA even though urea nitrogen production was reduced (p less than 0.0001). The increase in leucine clearance with BCAA-enriched TPN was positively correlated (r2 = 0.601; p less than 0.0001) with the increase in the sum of all APP and ALB and was

  6. A study of acute phase and transport protein synthesis in undernourished men using simulated infection and uniformly 15N-labelled Spirulina Platenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpad, A.V.; Soares, M.J.; Sekhar, R.V.; Reeds, P.J.; Fjeld, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that acute phase protein synthesis is accelerated and transport protein synthesis is decelerated in adult men in whom the stress of infection is superimposed upon undernutrition. As a pilot study, four chronically undernourished men and two well-nourished controls were studied on two occasions separated by four days; the second session was conducted 24 hours after the administration of typhoid vaccine. Basal urine and blood samples were collected and then subjects were given priming oral doses of 15 N-Spirulina (13.5mg/kg body weight) and oral doses (3.5mg/kg body weight) every 30 min for the next six hours. Meals were aliquoted during the dosing period. Blood samples were collected at four, five and six hours. 15 N enrichment in different fractions of plasma i.e., albumin, non-albumin and amino acids, was measured by combustion GC-IRMS. Total urinary nitrogen was measured by Kjeldahl. 5 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  7. The acute phase response and exercise: court and field sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, K; Fallon, S; Boston, T

    2001-01-01

    Objective—To determine the presence or absence of an acute phase response after training for court and field sports. Participants—All members of the Australian women's soccer team (n = 18) and all members of the Australian Institute of Sport netball team (n = 14). Methods—Twelve acute phase reactants (white blood cell count, neutrophil count, platelet count, serum iron, ferritin, and transferrin, percentage transferrin saturation, α1 antitrypsin, caeruloplasmin, α2 acid glycoprotein, C reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) were measured during a rest period and after moderate and heavy training weeks in members of elite netball and women's soccer teams. Results—Responses consistent with an acute phase response were found in five of 24 tests in the soccer players, and in three of 24 tests in the netball players. Responses in the opposite direction were found in seven of 24 tests in the soccer players and two of 24 tests in the netballers. The most sensitive reactant measured, C reactive protein, did not respond in a manner typical of an acute phase response. Conclusion—An acute phase response does not seem to occur as a consequence of the levels of training typical of elite female netball and soccer teams. This has implications for the interpretation of biochemical variables in these groups. Key Words: acute phase response; iron; plasma proteins; inflammation PMID:11375875

  8. DEXA measures of body fat percentage and acute phase proteins among breast cancer survivors: a Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dee Anne

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background C-reactive protein (CRP and Serum amyloid A protein (SAA increases with systemic inflammation and are related to worse survival for breast cancer survivors. This study examines the association between percent body fat and SAA and CRP and the potential interaction with NSAID use and weight change. Methods Participants included 134 non-Hispanic white and Hispanic breast cancer survivors from the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Study. Body fat percentage, measured with Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometer (DEXA, and circulating levels of CRP and SAA were obtained 30 months after breast cancer diagnosis. Results Circulating concentrations of CRP and SAA were associated with increased adiposity as measured by DEXA after adjustment for age at 24-months, race/ethnicity, dietary energy intake, weight change, and NSAID use. Survivors with higher body fat ≥35% had significantly higher concentrations of CRP (2.01 mg/l vs. 0.85 mg/l and SAA (6.21 mg/l vs. 4.21 mg/l compared to non-obese (body fat  Conclusions Breast cancer survivors with higher body fat had higher mean concentrations of CRP and SAA than women with lower body fat. Further assessment of NSAID use and weight control in reducing circulating inflammatory markers among survivors may be worthwhile to investigate in randomized intervention trials as higher inflammatory markers are associated with worse survival.

  9. DEXA measures of body fat percentage and acute phase proteins among breast cancer survivors: a Cross-Sectional Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dee, Anne; Bernstein, Leslie; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Neuhouser, Marian L; Ulrich, Cornelia; Baumgartner, Richard N; McTiernan, Anne; Baumgartner, Kathy; Alfano, Catherine M; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) increases with systemic inflammation and are related to worse survival for breast cancer survivors. This study examines the association between percent body fat and SAA and CRP and the potential interaction with NSAID use and weight change. Participants included 134 non-Hispanic white and Hispanic breast cancer survivors from the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Study. Body fat percentage, measured with Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometer (DEXA), and circulating levels of CRP and SAA were obtained 30 months after breast cancer diagnosis. Circulating concentrations of CRP and SAA were associated with increased adiposity as measured by DEXA after adjustment for age at 24-months, race/ethnicity, dietary energy intake, weight change, and NSAID use. Survivors with higher body fat ≥35% had significantly higher concentrations of CRP (2.01 mg/l vs. 0.85 mg/l) and SAA (6.21 mg/l vs. 4.21 mg/l) compared to non-obese (body fat < 35%). Women who had gained more than 5% of their body weight since breast cancer diagnosis had non-statistically significant higher geometric mean levels of CRP and SAA. Mean levels of CRP and SAA were higher among obese women who were non-users of NSAIDs compared to current users; the association with SAA reached statistical significance (Mean SAA = 7.24, 95%CI 6.13-8.56 for non-NSAID; vs. 4.87; 95%CI 3.95-6.0 for NSAID users respectively). Breast cancer survivors with higher body fat had higher mean concentrations of CRP and SAA than women with lower body fat. Further assessment of NSAID use and weight control in reducing circulating inflammatory markers among survivors may be worthwhile to investigate in randomized intervention trials as higher inflammatory markers are associated with worse survival

  10. Evaluation of the Effects of Curcumin on Palm Inflammation and Level of Acute Phase Proteins in Arthritic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Aghaei Borashan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesRheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease which is characterized by joint swelling, and synovial inflammation. C reactive protein (CRP and ceruloplasmin (CP are identified as important biomarkers of RA and various inflammatory diseases. Curcumin, a widely used yellow color spice is the most active component of Curcuma longa L (Turmeric. Curcumin contains potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The goal of this study is evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin on arthritic palm of rats and levels of the CRP and CP in the blood samples of arthritis induced male albino Wistar rats.Methods Arthritis was induced by subcutaneous injection of Freund’s Complete Adjuvant (FCA into the palm of right rear foot of 8 different male albino Wistar rats. The rats were randomly divided into five groups after the injection. These groups were as follow: Group Ι, control normal rats Group II, carrier arthritic rats Group III, arthritic rats which were given 30mg/ kg of curcumin orally seven days prior to FCA injectionGroup IV, arthritic rats treated with 30mg/kg of curcumin Group V, arthritic rats treated with 3 mg/kg of indomethacin.All the groups except group III received oral treatment with curcumin seven days after FCA injection and the treatment was continued fourteen days thereafter. The rear foot thicknesses of all the rats were measured on days 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 after FCA injection. The rats were destroyed after 20th day and their blood samples were collected.ResultsThe results of this study indicate that curcumin significantly decreases swelling of the rats rear foot (p<0.05, and levels of the CRP and CP as compared to carrier arthritic rats (p<0.05. One-way variance analysis by ANOVA program and post test analysis by Tukey were used for analysis of the collected data. ConclusionEvaluation of the results of this experiment supports the anti-inflammatory, and possibly anti

  11. Dietary β-glucan stimulate complement and C-reactive protein acute phase responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during an Aeromonas salmonicida infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pionnier, Nicolas; Falco, Alberto; Miest, Joanna; Frost, Patrick; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Shrive, Annette; Hoole, Dave

    2013-03-01

    The effect of β-glucans as feed additive on the profile of C-reactive protein (CRP) and complement acute phase responses was studied in common carp Cyprinus carpio after exposition to a bacterial infection with Aeromonas salmonicida. Carp were orally administered with β-glucan (MacroGard®) for 14 days with a daily β-glucan intake of 6 mg per kg body weight. Fish were then intraperitoneally injected with either PBS or 1 × 10⁸ bacteria per fish and sampled at time 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h post-injection (p.i.) for serum and head kidney, liver and mid-gut tissues. CRP levels and complement activity were determined in the serum samples whilst the gene expression profiles of CRP and complement related genes (crp1, crp2, c1r/s, bf/c2, c3 and masp2) were analysed in the tissues by quantitative PCR. Results obtained showed that oral administration of β-glucan for 14 days significantly increased serum CRP levels up to 2 fold and serum alternative complement activity (ACP) up to 35 fold. The bacterial infection on its own (i.e. not combined with a β-glucan feeding) did have significant effects on complement response whilst CRP was not detectably induced during the carp acute phase reaction. However, the combination of the infection and the β-glucan feeding did show significant effects on both CRP and complement profiles with higher serum CRP levels and serum ACP activity in the β-glucan fed fish than in the control fed fish. In addition, a distinct organ and time dependent expression profile pattern was detected for all the selected genes: a peak of gene expression first occurred in the head kidney tissue (6 h p.i. or 12 h p.i.), then an up-regulation in the liver several hours later (24 h p.i.) and finally up- or down-regulations in the mid-gut at 24 h p.i. and 72 h p.i. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that MacroGard® stimulated CRP and complement responses to A. salmonicida infection in common carp. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  12. Presence of the acute phase protein, bikunin, in the endometrium of gilts during estrous cycle and early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinger, A M; Allen, M R; Zhang, B R; Goad, D W; Malayer, J R; Geisert, R D

    2001-08-01

    Noninvasive, epitheliochorial placental attachment in the pig is regulated through endometrial production of protease inhibitors. The objective of the present study was to determine if the light-chain serine protease inhibitor of the inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor family, bikunin, is produced by the porcine endometrium during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of bikunin in uterine flushings of gilts collected during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy (Days 12-18). However, bikunin unbound to the inter-alpha-trypsin heavy chains was detected only in endometrial explant culture medium obtained from estrus and pregnant (Days 12, 15, and 18) gilts. Endometrial bikunin gene expression was lowest on Day 10 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy, followed by a 30- to 77-fold increase on Day 15 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Bikunin gene expression decreased on Day 18 of the estrous cycle, whereas endometrial bikunin gene expression continued to increase in pregnant gilts. Bikunin mRNA was localized to the uterine glands between Days 15 and 18 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. In addition to its role as a protease inhibitor, bikunin functions in stabilization of the extracellular matrix, which suggests that bikunin could be involved with facilitating placental attachment to the uterine epithelial surface in the pig.

  13. Echocardiography, spirometry, and systemic acute-phase inflammatory proteins in smokers with COPD or CHF: an observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Beghé

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and chronic heart failure (CHF may coexist in elderly patients with a history of smoking. Low-grade systemic inflammation induced by smoking may represent the link between these 2 conditions. In this study, we investigated left ventricular dysfunction in patients primarily diagnosed with COPD, and nonreversible airflow limitation in patients primarily diagnosed with CHF. The levels of circulating high-sensitive C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP, pentraxin 3 (PTX3, interleukin-1β (IL-1 β, and soluble type II receptor of IL-1 (sIL-1RII were also measured as markers of systemic inflammation in these 2 cohorts. Patients aged ≥ 50 years and with ≥ 10 pack years of cigarette smoking who presented with a diagnosis of stable COPD (n=70 or stable CHF (n=124 were recruited. All patients underwent echocardiography, N-terminal pro-hormone of brain natriuretic peptide measurements, and post-bronchodilator spirometry. Plasma levels of Hs-CRP, PTX3, IL-1 β, and sIL-1RII were determined by using a sandwich enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay in all patients and in 24 healthy smokers (control subjects. Although we were unable to find a single COPD patient with left ventricular dysfunction, we found nonreversible airflow limitation in 34% of patients with CHF. On the other hand, COPD patients had higher plasma levels of Hs-CRP, IL1 β, and sIL-1RII compared with CHF patients and control subjects (p < 0.05. None of the inflammatory biomarkers was different between CHF patients and control subjects. In conclusion, although the COPD patients had no evidence of CHF, up to one third of patients with CHF had airflow limitation, suggesting that routine spirometry is warranted in patients with CHF, whereas echocardiography is not required in well characterized patients with COPD. Only smokers with COPD seem to have evidence of systemic inflammation.

  14. Evaluation of the Effects of Curcumin on Palm Inflammation and Level of Acute Phase Proteins in Arthritic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Aghaei Borashan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease which is characterized by joint swelling, and synovial inflammation. C reactive protein (CRP and ceruloplasmin (CP are identified as important biomarkers of RA and various inflammatory diseases. Curcumin, a widely used yellow color spice is the most active component of Curcuma longa L (Turmeric. Curcumin contains potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The goal of this study is evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin on arthritic palm of rats and levels of the CRP and CP in the blood samples of arthritis induced male albino Wistar rats.

     

    Methods

    Arthritis was induced by subcutaneous injection of Freund’s Complete Adjuvant (FCA into the palm of right rear foot of 8 different male albino Wistar rats. The rats were randomly divided into five groups after the injection. These groups were as follow:

    Group Ι, control normal rats

    Group II, carrier arthritic rats

    Group III, arthritic rats which were given 30mg/ kg of curcumin orally seven days prior to FCA injection

    Group IV, arthritic rats treated with 30mg/kg of curcumin

    Group V, arthritic rats treated with 3 mg/kg of indomethacin.

    All the groups except group III received oral treatment with curcumin seven days after FCA injection and the treatment was continued fourteen days thereafter. The rear foot thicknesses of all the rats were measured on days 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 after FCA injection. The rats were destroyed after 20th day and their blood samples were collected.

     

    Results

    The results of this study indicate that curcumin significantly decreases swelling of the rats rear foot (p<0.05, and levels of the CRP and CP as compared to carrier arthritic rats (p<0.05.

    One-way variance analysis

  15. Feeding common carp Cyprinus carpio with β-glucan supplemented diet stimulates C-reactive protein and complement immune acute phase responses following PAMPs injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pionnier, Nicolas; Falco, Alberto; Miest, Joanna J; Shrive, Annette K; Hoole, Dave

    2014-08-01

    The effect of β-glucan as a feed additive on the serum and gene profile of C-reactive protein (CRP) and complement acute phase responses was ascertained in common carp Cyprinus carpio. In addition effects of subsequent intraperitoneal injections of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), i.e. LPS or poly(I:C), to mimic bacterial or viral infection respectively, were studied. Carp were first orally fed with β-glucan (MacroGard®) with a daily β-glucan intake of 6 mg per kg body weight or with control food for 25 days and then injected with PBS containing either LPS (4 mg/kg) or poly(I:C) (5 mg/kg) or PBS alone. Fish were sampled during the 25 days of the feeding period and up to 7 days post-PAMPs injections for serum and liver, head kidney and mid-gut tissues. Oral administration of β-glucan for 25 days significantly increased serum CRP levels and alternative complement activity (ACP). In addition, the subsequent LPS and poly(I:C) challenges significantly affected CRP and complement related gene expression profiles (crp1, crp2, c1r/s, bf/c2, c3 and masp2), with the greatest effects observed in the β-glucan fed fish. However, in fish fed β-glucan the PAMPs injections had less effects on CRP levels and complement activity in the serum than in control fed fish, suggesting that the 25 days of β-glucan immunostimulation was sufficient enough to reduce the effects of LPS and poly(I:C) injections. Results suggest that MacroGard® stimulated CRP and complement responses to PAMPs immunological challenges in common carp thus highlighting the beneficial β-glucan immunostimulant properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental temperature and stocking density effects on acute phase proteins, heat shock protein 70, circulating corticosterone and performance in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Pardis; Zulkifli, Idrus; Amat Jajuli, Nurfarahin; Farjam, Abdoreza Soleimani; Ramiah, Suriya Kumari; Amir, Anna Aryani; O'Reily, Emily; Eckersall, David

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different stocking densities on serum corticosterone (CORT), ovotransferrin (OVT), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and ceruloplasmin (CP) concentrations, brain heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression and performance in broiler chickens exposed to unheated and heated conditions. Day-old chicks were stocked at 0.100 m2/bird (low density (LD)) or 0.063 m2/bird (high density (HD)), in battery cages and housed in environmentally controlled rooms. From 21 to 35 days of age, birds from each stocking density group were exposed to either 24 or 32 °C. Growth performance was recorded during the heat treatment period, and blood and brain samples were collected to determine CORT, OVT, AGP, CP and HSP 70 levels on day 35. Heat treatment but not stocking density was detrimental to growth performance. There were significant temperature × density interactions for CORT, CP and OVT on day 35. Although HD elevated CORT, CP and OVT when compared to LD, the effects of the former were more obvious under heated condition. Both temperature and density had significant effect on AGP and HSP 70. In conclusion, irrespective of temperature, high stocking density was physiologically stressful to broiler chickens, as indicated by CORT, AGP, CP, OVT and HSP 70, but not detrimental to growth performance and survivability. As it was shown in the present study, AGP, CP and OVT could be useful biomarkers to determine the effect of overcrowding and high temperature on the welfare of broiler chickens.

  17. Concentrations of the acute phase reactants high-sensitive C-reactive protein and YKL-40 and of interleukin-6 before and after treatment in patients with acromegaly and growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Vestergaard, Henrik; Kristensen, Lars Østergaard

    2007-01-01

    Acromegaly is accompanied by increased cardiovascular mortality and a cluster of proatherogenic risk factors. In the general population, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is associated with elevated levels of inflammatory markers. The acute phase reactant (APR) C-reactive protein (CRP) has been...... reported to be reduced in acromegaly and increase after treatment, suggesting that excess of GH/IGF-I could have anti-inflammatory effects. This is in accordance with results obtained in patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), where increased levels of CRP have been reported....

  18. The use of acute phase proteins for monitoring animal health and welfare in the pig production chain: the validation of an immunochromatographic method for the detection of elevated levels of pig-MAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Matilde; Morales, Joaquín; Vizcaíno, Elena; Murillo, José Alberto; Klauke, Thorsten; Petersen, Brigitte; Piñeiro, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    The serum concentration of acute phase proteins (APPs) increases in the presence of disease or stress, which makes APPs notable parameters for the global assessment of animal health and welfare. A rapid, immunochromatographic test (ICT) for the detection of elevated levels of pig Major Acute-phase Protein (pig-MAP), one of the main APPs in pigs, was evaluated in more than 1400 pig serum samples obtained from commercial farms. The ICT showed a good performance with a relative sensitivity (Sn) and specificity (Sp) of 94 and 97%, respectively, for a threshold of 1.5mg/mL (comparison with ELISA). Differences in the pig-MAP levels and the number of positive samples with the ICT were observed within the season of sampling, farms, and age groups at one farm, according to the presence of disease or lesions. The ICT was also evaluated in blood samples obtained at slaughter in association with the carcase inspection. The results from this study indicate that the ICT may be used for the evaluation of groups of pigs, after analysing one sub-sample of these pigs, and might be a useful tool in routine health and welfare monitoring programmes aimed to improve the quality of pig production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ação do prebiótico sobre as proteínas de fase aguda de pacientes com neoplasia hematológica Action of prebiotics on proteins in the acute phase of hematologic neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Búrigo

    2007-06-01

    developed in the Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit of the Oncology Research Center in Florianopolis and was aimed at studying the action of prebiotic agents on protein response in the acute phase of hematologic neoplastic patients submitted to chemotherapy. A double-blind randomized clinical trial was performed involving 25 patients divided into two groups. Patients received 12 g FOS (n=14 or placebo (maltdextrine (n=11 over 15 days. All the variables were determined before and after supplementation. The serum levels of negative acute phase proteins, albumin and pre-albumin, and positive acute phase proteins, C-reactive protein, were evaluated. The presence of diarrhea and constipation are reported, as are the quantity of bifidobacteria and fecal pH measurements. Reductions in the serum levels of negative acute phase proteins (albumin and pre-albumin show intense proteic catabolism thereby, favoring the synthesis of protein in the positive acute phase. The supplemented group presented with a significant increase in the quantity of bifidobacteria. The fecal pH levels were affected in both groups. The serum levels of positive acute phase proteins were statistically higher in the control group indicating the occurrence of inflammatory processes and a higher metabolic demand suggesting that the quantity of bifidobacteria may favor a reduction of these adverse conditions in the supplemented group as was confirmed by the negative correlation between variables.

  20. Effects of anabolic steroids on acute phase responses in intra-abdominal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mealy

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute phase response is an important adaptive response to sepsis and injury. As anabolic steroids increase protein synthesis we postulated that these agents might also increase hepatic acute phase protein synthesis. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with testosterone or danazol for 48 h prior to caecal ligation and puncture (CLP. Thirty-six h following surgery the animals were killed and blood taken for full blood count, total protein, albumin, α, β and γ globulin fractions on serum electrophoresis, complement C3 and transferrin levels. Danazol increased the α1, α2 and β1 globulin serum protein fractions in comparison with no surgery and CLP alone groups. These results indicate that danazol increases plasma acute phase proteins, as measured by electrophoresis, in this model of intra-abdominal sepsis.

  1. Acute-phase reactants in periodontal disease: current concepts and future implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, Vilasan; Ambili, Ranjith; Nisha, Krishnavilasam Jayakumary; Seba, Abraham; Preeja, Chandran

    2015-05-01

    Periodontal disease has been linked to adverse cardiovascular events by unknown mechanisms. C-reactive protein is a systemic marker released during the acute phase of an inflammatory response and is a prognostic marker for cardiovascular disease, with elevated serum levels being reported during periodontal disease. Studies also reported elevated levels of various other acute-phase reactants in periodontal disease. It has been reported extensively in the literature that treatment of periodontal infections can significantly lower serum levels of C-reactive protein. Therefore, an understanding of the relationship between acute-phase response and the progression of periodontal disease and other systemic health complications would have a profound effect on the periodontal treatment strategies. In view of this fact, the present review highlights an overview of acute-phase reactants and their role in periodontal disease. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Management of pemphigus vulgaris during acute phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar P

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available We present our experience with 21 patients of pemphigus vulgaris seen over a period of 10 years managed in service hospitals during acute phase of the disease. Age groups of patients ranged from 25-45 years. Eighteen (85.7% were young adults, 30-40 years of age. Fifteen (71.4% were men and 6(28.6% were women. All the cases were hospitalized in ICU, till the acute phase of the disease subsided. Complete hematological profile, urinalysis, serum biochemistry and repeated bacterial cultures from the skin were carried out in all patients at the time of admission and thereafter weekly. The treatment comprised of potassium permanganate lotion bath (1:10000 and 1 framycetin gauze dressing of the denuded areas, maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance. All suspected infections and septicemia were treated with appropriate antibiotics. The corticosteroids were usually administered as a single dose of prednisolone 1 mg/kg/day. Cyclophosphamide was given at an initial dose of 50mg/day and the dose was escalated to 100mg/day. Once the bulk of the lesions were healed, the dose of corticosteroids was gradually lowered by approximately 50% every two weeks and cyclophosphamide was continued till patients were symptomfree. Out of 21 patients receiving corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide and other supportive therapy, 20(95% had undergone clinical resolution of the disease. During follow up study 15(71.4% patients remained symptom-free and undergone clinical remission. Five patients (23.8% had relapse, out of which 4(19% remained symptom free, after subsequent treatment. There was one death (4.7% in our study.

  3. The acute-phase response and serum amyloid A inhibit the inflammatory response to Acinetobacter baumannii Pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renckens, Rosemarijn; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Knapp, Sylvia; de Vos, Alex F.; Florquin, Sandrine; van der Poll, Tom

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging pathogen in nosocomial pneumonia. Trauma and postsurgical patients display a profound acute-phase protein response and are susceptible to pneumonia. METHODS: To study the way in which the acute-phase response induced by sterile tissue injury

  4. Regulation of urea synthesis during the acute phase response in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Karen Louise; Jessen, Niels; Buch Møller, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The acute-phase response is a catabolic event involving increased waste of amino-nitrogen (N) via hepatic urea synthesis, despite an increased need for amino-N incorporation into acute-phase proteins. This study aimed to clarify the regulation of N elimination via urea during different phases...... of the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced acute-phase response in rats. We used four methods to study the regulation of urea synthesis: We examined urea cycle enzyme mRNA levels in liver tissue, the hepatocyte urea cycle enzyme proteins, the in vivo capacity of urea-N synthesis (CUNS), and known humoral...... regulators of CUNS at 1, 3, 24, and 72 h after TNF-α injection (25 μg/kg iv rrTNF-α) in rats. Serum acute-phase proteins and their liver mRNA levels were also measured. The urea cycle enzyme mRNA levels acutely decreased and then gradually normalized, whereas the urea cycle enzyme proteins remained...

  5. Effects of dietary energy level and intake of corn by-product-based diets on newly received growing cattle: antibody production, acute phase protein response, stress, and immunocompetency of healthy and morbid animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spore, Tyler J; Montgomery, Sean P; Titgemeyer, Evan C; Hanzlicek, Gregg A; Vahl, Chris I; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Cavalli, Kevin T; Hollenbeck, William R; Wahl, Ross A; Blasi, Dale A

    2018-04-14

    Effects of dietary energy level and intake of corn by-product-based diets on antibody production, acute phase protein response, stress, and immunocompetency of healthy and morbid newly received growing cattle were evaluated. Four dietary treatments were formulated to supply 0.99, 1.10, 1.21, and 1.32 Mcal NEg/ kg DM and were offered at 100%, 95%, 90%, and 85% of ad libitum based on 0.99/100 treatment intake, respectively. Thirty-two pens were utilized with approximately 12 animals/pen. Four animals from each pen (32/dietary treatment) were randomly selected and used to serve as a subset to monitor immune function and acute phase proteins following a split-plot design. In addition, two animals were randomly and independently selected from each pen (16/dietary treatment) and used to measure fecal cortisol metabolite. Additionally, animals removed from the pen one (M1), two (M2), or three (M3) times and classified as morbid were bled in conjunction with a healthy control (H) removed at the same time and the serum analyzed for the same parameters. A quadratic response to time (P bovine viral diarrhea type 1 (BVD-I) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR; P levels by day 27. Titer levels for BVD-I and IBR were lowest on arrival, higher on day 14, and significantly higher on day 27. Titers for bovine viral diarrhea type 2 (BVD-II) responded linearly (P levels on arrival and highest levels on day 27. Haptoglobin was elevated in morbid animals compared to healthy pen mates (P levels for BVD-I and IBR were also higher in healthy animals compared to animals pulled for morbidity (P energy receiving diets based on fermentable fiber from by-products can be fed to newly received growing cattle without negative effects on antibody production toward vaccines, inflammation, or overall stress. In addition, haptoglobin concentrations and titer levels for BVD-I and IBR viruses are higher in healthy animals compared to sick animals.

  6. Acute phase protein mRNA expressions and enhancement of antioxidant defense system in Black-meated Silkie Fowls supplemented with clove (Eugenia caryophyllus extracts under the influence of chronic heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhassan Usman Bello

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study investigates the anti-stress effects of clove (Eugenia caryophyllus extracts (0, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg on serum antioxidant biomarkers, immune response, immunological organ growth index, and expression levels of acute phase proteins (APPs; ovotransferrin (OVT, ceruloplasmin (CP, ceruloplasmin (AGP, C-reactive protein (CRP, and serum amyloid-A (SAA mRNA in the immunological organs of 63-d-old male black-meated Silkie fowls subjected to 21 d chronic heat stress at 35 ± 2 °C. Results The results demonstrated that clove extract supplementation in the diet of Silkie fowls subjected to elevated temperature (ET improve growth performance, immune responses, and suppressed the activities of glutathion peroxidase (GSH-Px, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and thioredoxin reductase (TXNRD; reduced serum malonaldehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH concentrations when compared with fowls raised under thermoneutral condition (TC. Upon chronic heat stress and supplementation of clove extracts, the Silkie fowls showed a linear increase in GSH-Px, SOD, CAT, and TXNRD activities (P = 0.01 compared with fowls fed diets without clove extract. ET decreased (P < 0.05 the growth index of the liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus. However, the growth index of the liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus increased significantly (P < 0.05 which corresponded to an increase in clove supplemented levels. The expression of OVT, CP, AGP, CRP, and SAA mRNA in the liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus were elevated (P < 0.01 by ET compared with those maintained at TC. Nevertheless, clove mitigates heat stress-induced overexpression of OVT, CP, AGP, CRP and SAA mRNA in the immune organs of fowls fed 400 mg clove/kg compared to other groups. Conclusions The results showed that clove extracts supplementation decreased oxidative stress in the heat-stressed black-meated fowls by alleviating

  7. Preoperative Regular Diet of 900 kcal/day vs Balanced Energy High-Protein Formula vs Immunonutrition Formula: Effect on Preoperative Weight Loss and Postoperative Pain, Complications and Analytical Acute Phase Reactants After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Zubiaga, Lorea; Diez, Maria; Murcia, Ana; Boix, Evangelina; Muñoz, José Luis; Llavero, Carolina

    2016-06-01

    Between 2 and 8 weeks before surgery, most bariatric surgery groups establish strict dietary treatments with a total caloric intake of less than 1,000 kcal/day in order to maximize weight loss during this period of time. A prospective randomized clinical trial of all the patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) was performed. Patients were randomly assigned into 3 groups: those patients receiving a preoperative regular diet of 900 kcal/day (group 1), those receiving a preoperative balanced energy high-protein formula (group 2) and those receiving preoperative Immunonutrition (group 3). Preoperative weight loss, postoperative pain, complications and analytical acute phase reactants were investigated. Sixty patients were included in the study, 20 in each group. Preoperative excess weight loss was 7.7 % in group 1, 12.3 % in group 2 and 15.3 % in group 3 (p = 0.014). Median postoperative pain was 3.5 in group 1, 3 in group 2 and 2 in group 3 (p = 0.048). C-reactive protein determined 24 h after surgery was significantly lower in group 3 than in the other groups. AST and ALT values were significantly lower in group 3 than in the other groups, without significant differences between groups 1 and 2. Preoperative diet with Immunonutrition formulas during 2 weeks achieves a greater preoperative weight loss, lower postoperative pain and lower values of CRP and liver enzymes than high-protein formulas or regular diet, all of them with similar caloric intake.

  8. Association of peripheral arterial disease with periodontal disease: analysis of inflammatory cytokines and an acute phase protein in gingival crevicular fluid and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalapkorur, M Unlu; Alkan, B A; Tasdemir, Z; Akcali, Y; Saatçi, E

    2017-06-01

    Inflammation is a common feature of both peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PAD and periodontal disease by examining the levels of inflammatory cytokines (pentraxin 3 and interleukin 1β) and high sensitive C-reactive protein from gingival crevicular fluid and serum. A total of 60 patients were included in this cross-sectional study. Patients were divided into two groups based on ankle-brachial index values: with PAD (test group) and non-PAD (control group). Demographic evaluations, clinical periodontal examinations and biochemical analysis for pentraxin 3, interleukin 1β and high sensitive C-reactive protein were performed to compare the two groups. There were no significant differences with respect to gender, age, body mass index, or smoking history (duration, amount) between the two groups (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of clinical periodontal parameters (p > 0.05). Neither gingival crevicular fluid nor serum levels of the cytokines showed differences between the two groups. Logistic regression analysis revealed that, after adjusting for confounding factors (age, gender, diabetes, hypertension and body mass index), periodontitis raised the odds ratio for having PAD to 5.842 (95% confidence interval: 1.558-21.909). Although there were no significant differences with respect to clinical periodontal parameters and biochemical analyses between the study group and control, periodontitis did raise the odds ratio for having PAD. To clarify this possible relationship, future prospective studies are needed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Neuropsychological intervention in the acute phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Siert, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the effects of acute neuropsychological intervention for relatives of patients with severe brain injury. Participants were enrolled in an intervention group comprising 39 relatives, and a control group comprising 47 relatives. The intervention consisted of supportive......-acute rehabilitation. Outcome measures included selected scales from the Symptom Checklist Revised 90 (SCL-90-R), the Short Form 36 (SF-36), and a visual analogue quality of life scale. The intervention group showed a significant decrease in anxiety scores from the acute to the sub-acute setting (= 2.70 = 0.......0100.30), but also significantly lower Role Emotional scores (= 2.12 = 0.043, = 0.40). In the sub-acute setting, an analysis of covariance model showed a borderline significant difference between the intervention and the control group on the anxiety scale (= 0.066 = 0.59). Any effects of the acute neuropsychological...

  10. Hepatic expression of the GH/JAK/STAT/IGF pathway, acute-phase response signalling and complement system are affected in mouse offspring by prenatal and early postnatal exposure to maternal high-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanselow, Jens; Kucia, Marzena; Langhammer, Martina; Koczan, Dirk; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Metges, Cornelia C

    2011-12-01

    Effects of pre- and early postnatal exposure to maternal high-protein diets are not well understood. Transcription profiling was performed in male mouse offspring exposed to maternal high-protein diet during pregnancy and/or lactation to identify affected hepatic molecular pathways. Dams were fed isoenergetic diets with control (20% w/w) or high protein levels (40%). The hepatic expression profiles were evaluated by differential microarray analysis 3 days (d3) and 3 weeks (d21) after birth. Offspring from three different high-protein dietary groups, HP (d3, high-protein diet during pregnancy), HPHP (d21, high-protein diet during pregnancy and lactation) and CHP (d21, control diet during pregnancy and high-protein diet during lactation), were compared with age-matched offspring from dams fed control diet. Offspring body and liver mass of all high-protein groups were decreased. Prenatal high-protein diet affected hepatic expression of genes mapping to the acute response/complement system and the GH/JAK/STAT/IGF signalling pathways. Maternal exposure to high-protein diet during lactation affected hepatic gene expression of the same pathways but additionally affected genes mapping to protein, fatty acid, hexose and pyruvate metabolism. (1) Genes of the acute response/complement system and GH/JAK/STAT/IGF pathways were down-regulated in offspring of dams exposed to high-protein diets during pregnancy and/or lactation. (2) Genes related to nutrient and energy metabolism, however, were only affected when high-protein diet was administered during lactation. (3) Modulation of the GH/JAK/STAT/IGF pathway might be responsible for reduced body and liver masses by maternal high-protein diet.

  11. A meta-analysis of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids effects on circulating acute-phase protein and cytokines in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Michel C; Fernandes, Ricardo; Chagas, Thayz R; Trindade, Erasmo B S M

    2018-06-01

    Chronic inflammation is related with cancer and leads to worsening prognosis in cancer patients. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) supplementation has been proposed as adjuvant treatment in cancer due anti-inflammatory properties. In the present meta-analysis, we pooled randomized clinical trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of n-3 PUFAs (from fish oil isolated or added in an immunonutrition formula) on inflammatory markers in gastric cancer. A comprehensive literature search was performed in Medline, Scopus, Cochrane library, Science Direct and Web of Science, besides GOOGLE Scholar and a hand searching of reference lists, through July 2016. We pooled the effect size from individual studies using a random-effect model and carried out heterogeneity and sensitivity analyses. Nine trials (698 patients) fulfilled the entry criteria and were included in the synthesis of the systematic review. Eight were carried out in surgical patients and one in patients that received chemotherapy. Four used only fish oil as intervention and five used an immunonutrition formula. Global meta-analysis demonstrated higher albumin (7 studies, SMD 0.28; 95% CI 0.07, 0.48) and prealbumin (4 studies, SMD 0.56; 95% CI 0.12, 1.00) concentrations, and lower IL-6 (2 studies, SMD -0.71; 95% CI -1.15, -0.27) and TNF-α (2 studies, SMD -0.92; 95% CI -1.58, -0.26) concentrations in patients of the intervention group as compared to control group. However, total protein, transferrin and CRP concentrations were not improved by n-3 PUFAs supplementation. This study provides evidence that n-3 PUFAs supplementation from fish oil or added an immunonutrition formula has favorable effects on inflammatory markers in gastric cancer patients undergoing surgical procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuropsychological intervention in the acute phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Siert, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the effects of acute neuropsychological intervention for relatives of patients with severe brain injury. Participants were enrolled in an intervention group comprising 39 relatives, and a control group comprising 47 relatives. The intervention consisted of supportive.......0100.30), but also significantly lower Role Emotional scores (= 2.12 = 0.043, = 0.40). In the sub-acute setting, an analysis of covariance model showed a borderline significant difference between the intervention and the control group on the anxiety scale (= 0.066 = 0.59). Any effects of the acute neuropsychological...

  13. Coexistence of Phases in a Protein Heterodimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krokhotin, Andrey; Liwo, Adam; Niemi, Antti J.; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2012-07-01

    A heterodimer consisting of two or more different kinds of proteins can display an enormous number of distinct molecular architectures. The conformational entropy is an essential ingredient in the Helmholtz free energy and, consequently, these heterodimers can have a very complex phase structure. Here, it is proposed that there is a state of proteins, in which the different components of a heterodimer exist in different phases. For this purpose, the structures in the protein data bank (PDB) have been analyzed, with radius of gyration as the order parameter. Two major classes of heterodimers with their protein components coexisting in different phases have been identified. An example is the PDB structure 3DXC. This is a transcriptionally active dimer. One of the components is an isoform of the intra-cellular domain of the Alzheimer-disease related amyloid precursor protein (AICD), and the other is a nuclear multidomain adaptor protein in the Fe65 family. It is concluded from the radius of gyration that neither of the two components in this dimer is in its own collapsed phase, corresponding to a biologically active protein. The UNRES energy function has been utilized to confirm that, if the two components are separated from each other, each of them collapses. The results presented in this work show that heterodimers whose protein components coexist in different phases, can have intriguing physical properties with potentially important biological consequences.

  14. The bovine acute phase response to endotoxin and Gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine

    The overall aims of the work presented in this thesis were to characterize bovine cytokine and acute phase protein (APP) responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to investigate how LPS-induced clinical and immunoinflammatory responses differed between individual cows. Two kinds of experimental e...

  15. Effect of scaling and root planing on gingival crevicular fluid level of YKL-40 acute phase protein in chronic periodontitis patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus: A clinico-biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sini Damodar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF levels of YKL-40 acute phase protein in chronic periodontitis (CP with and without type 2 diabetes and also to assess the effect of periodontal therapy (scaling and root planing [SRP] on this GCF biomarker and the clinical parameters. YKL-40 is derived from tyrosine (Y, lysine (K, and leucine (L with a molecular weight of 40 kDa. Materials and Methods: A total of 105 individuals (30–60 years were grouped as 35 individuals each in three groups (Group I – healthy; Group II – CP with diabetes mellitus [DM]; and Group III – CP. Clinical parameters including plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level followed by GCF sample collection from test sites were done at baseline and 6 weeks after SRP (among Group II and Group III patients. GCF YKL-40 level was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The mean GCF YKL-40 level at baseline was significantly lower for Group I (309.81 ± 124.93 pg/ml as compared to Group II (924.88 ± 415.28 pg/ml and Group III (834.08 ± 270.42 pg/ml, respectively (P < 0.001. The level reduced significantly 6 weeks after SRP for Group II (507.6 ± 265.03 pg/ml and Group III (499.54 ± 293.38 pg/ml (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The level of GCF YKL-40 in CP patients with or without DM is higher than healthy individuals and the level reduced 6 weeks post-SRP among Group II and Group III. Hence, YKL-40 can be considered as an important biomarker in the diagnosis of CP.

  16. Implications of protein polymorphism on protein phase behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegen, J.; Schoot, van der P.P.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The phase behaviour of small globular proteins is often modeled by approximating them as spherical particles with fixed internal structure. However, changes in the local environment of a protein can lead to changes in its conformation rendering this approximation invalid. We present a simple

  17. Acute phase response in two consecutive experimentally induced E. coli intramammary infections in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saatsi Johanna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP have suggested to be suitable inflammatory markers for bovine mastitis. The aim of the study was to investigate acute phase markers along with clinical parameters in two consecutive intramammary challenges with Escherichia coli and to evaluate the possible carry-over effect when same animals are used in an experimental model. Methods Mastitis was induced with a dose of 1500 cfu of E. coli in one quarter of six cows and inoculation repeated in another quarter after an interval of 14 days. Concentrations of acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP were determined in serum and milk. Results In both challenges all cows became infected and developed clinical mastitis within 12 hours of inoculation. Clinical disease and acute phase response was generally milder in the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in milk started to increase 12 hours after inoculation and peaked at 60 hours after the first challenge and at 44 hours after the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in serum increased more slowly and peaked at the same times as in milk; concentrations in serum were about one third of those in milk. Hp started to increase in milk similarly and peaked at 36–44 hours. In serum, the concentration of Hp peaked at 60–68 hours and was twice as high as in milk. LBP concentrations in milk and serum started to increase after 12 hours and peaked at 36 hours, being higher in milk. The concentrations of acute phase proteins in serum and milk in the E. coli infection model were much higher than those recorded in experiments using Gram-positive pathogens, indicating the severe inflammation induced by E. coli. Conclusion Acute phase proteins would be useful parameters as mastitis indicators and to assess the severity of mastitis. If repeated experimental intramammary

  18. Acute exercise does not induce an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lena; Buhl, Rikke; Nostell, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    ), and iron], muscle enzymes [creatinine kinase (CK) and aspartate transaminase (AST)], and hemoglobin were assessed in 58 Standardbred trotters before and after racing. Hemoglobin levels increased and iron levels decreased 12 to 14 h after racing and haptoglobin concentrations, white blood cell counts......, and iron levels were decreased 2 and/or 7 d after racing. Concentrations of CK, AST, SAA, and fibrinogen were unaltered in response to racing. Acute strenuous exercise did not elicit an acute phase reaction. The observed acute increase in hemoglobin levels and decreases in haptoglobin and iron levels may...

  19. Effect of smoking on acute phase reactants, stress hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    smoking, vitamin C status, and the acute phase and stress hormone responses in ... the longest symptom for the groups of non-smokers and smokers were 6.8 and ..... N, Nestorovic V (2013) Changes in vitamin C and oxi- dative stress status ...

  20. Activated Protein C Drives the Hyperfibrinolysis of Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Ross A; Guerreiro, Maria; Frith, Daniel; Rourke, Claire; Platton, Sean; Cohen, Mitchell; Pearse, Rupert; Thiemermann, Chris; Brohi, Karim

    2017-01-01

    Major trauma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with hemorrhage accounting for 40% of deaths. Acute traumatic coagulopathy exacerbates bleeding, but controversy remains over the degree to which inhibition of procoagulant pathways (anticoagulation), fibrinogen loss, and fibrinolysis drive the pathologic process. Through a combination of experimental study in a murine model of trauma hemorrhage and human observation, the authors' objective was to determine the predominant pathophysiology of acute traumatic coagulopathy. First, a prospective cohort study of 300 trauma patients admitted to a single level 1 trauma center with blood samples collected on arrival was performed. Second, a murine model of acute traumatic coagulopathy with suppressed protein C activation via genetic mutation of thrombomodulin was used. In both studies, analysis for coagulation screen, activated protein C levels, and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) was performed. In patients with acute traumatic coagulopathy, the authors have demonstrated elevated activated protein C levels with profound fibrinolytic activity and early depletion of fibrinogen. Procoagulant pathways were only minimally inhibited with preservation of capacity to generate thrombin. Compared to factors V and VIII, proteases that do not undergo activated protein C-mediated cleavage were reduced but maintained within normal levels. In transgenic mice with reduced capacity to activate protein C, both fibrinolysis and fibrinogen depletion were significantly attenuated. Other recognized drivers of coagulopathy were associated with less significant perturbations of coagulation. Activated protein C-associated fibrinolysis and fibrinogenolysis, rather than inhibition of procoagulant pathways, predominate in acute traumatic coagulopathy. In combination, these findings suggest a central role for the protein C pathway in acute traumatic coagulopathy and provide new translational opportunities for management of

  1. Local and disseminated acute phase response during bacterial respiratory infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2010-01-01

    The acute phase response is playing an important role, aiming to restore the healthy state after tissue injury, inflammation and infection. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other parts of innate defense reactions remain somewhat elusive. Expression of acute phase...... locations of the infected lung (necrotic areas, areas bordering on necrotic areas, and from visually unaffected areas). Expression differences was also studied in the liver and in peripheral lymphoid tissue (tracheobronchial lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils) of infected (n=10) and non-infected (n=5) pigs using......-phase proteins was found 14-18h after experimental infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. This firmly establishes that expression of APPs is widely disseminated, involving changes in the expression of APPs at a dynamic scale comparable to the hepatic response. These results suggest that many different cell...

  2. Acute phase response and plasma carotenoid concentrations in older women: findings from the nun study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosalis, M G; Snowdon, D A; Tully, C L; Gross, M D

    1996-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated whether the acute phase response was associated with suppressed circulating levels of antioxidants in a population of 85 Catholic sisters (nuns) ages 77-99 y. Fasting blood was drawn to determine the presence of an acute phase response, as defined by an elevation in the serum concentration of C-reactive protein. Serum concentrations of albumin, thyroxine-binding prealbumin, zinc, copper, and fibrinogen were determined as were plasma concentrations of carotenoids and alpha tocopherol. Results showed that the presence of an acute phase response was associated with (1) an expected significant decrease in the serum concentrations of albumin (p < 0.001) and thyroxine-binding prealbumin (p < 0.001); (2) an expected significant increase in copper (p < 0.001) and fibrinogen (p = 0.003); and (3) a significant decrease in the plasma concentrations of lycopene (p = 0.03), alpha carotene (p = 0.02), beta carotene (p = 0.02), and total carotenoids (p = 0.01). The acute phase response was associated with decreased plasma levels of the antioxidants lycopene, alpha carotene, and beta carotene. This decrease in circulating antioxidants may further compromise antioxidant status and increase oxidative stress and damage in elders.

  3. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-physicochemical properties predict the systemic acute phase response following pulmonary exposure in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sarah Søs; Knudsen, Kristina Bram; Jackson, Petra

    2017-01-01

    of acute phase proteins to the blood. We identified physicochemical determinants of MWCNT-induced systemic acute phase response by analyzing effects of pulmonary exposure to 14 commercial, well-characterized MWCNTs in female C57BLI6J mice pulmonary exposed to 0, 6, 18 or 54 lag MWCNT/mouse. Plasma levels...... of acute phase response proteins serum amyloid A1/2 (SAA1/2) and SAA3 were determined on day 1, 28 or 92. Expression levels of hepatic Saal and pulmonary Saa3 mRNA levels were assessed to determine the origin of the acute phase response proteins. Pulmonary Saa3 mRNA expression levels were greater...... limited changes were observed on day 28 and 92. SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels did not correlate and only SAA3 protein levels correlated with neutrophil influx. The multiple regression analyses revealed a protective effect of MWCNT length on SAA1/2 protein level on day 1, such that a longer length...

  4. Clinical neurological characteristics of ischemic stroke subtypes in acute phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Shkrobot

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the present study was to clarify clinical neurological characteristics and different ischemic stroke subtypes unfavorable course predictors in acute phase. Material and Methods. 482 patients with different ischemic stroke subtypes were observed. Among them there were 125 (25.9 % with cardioembolic infarct (CEI, 119 (24.7 % with large artery atherosclerosis (LAAS infarct, 122 (25.3 % with lacunar stroke (LAC, 116 (24.1 % with stroke of undetermined etiology (UDE. The comparative analysis of clinical picture was performed. The predictors of unfavorable course of acute phase were established. Results. We have found out that severe neurological deficit, high mortality and the worst functional outcome during the first 14 days were observed in patients with CEI and LAAS. The highest frequency of early neurological deterioration (END was detected at LAC (in 22.7 % of patients. There was a relationship between END and presence of transient ischemic attack (TIA in past medical history, the level of systolic blood pressure (SBP at the beginning of the disease and the degree of carotid arteries stenosis on the side of lesion. The patients with LAC had mild neurological deficit and better prognosis compared with other ischemic stroke subtypes. Among the clinical factors that have impact on the CEI, LAAS and UDE acute phase course were: the size of lesion, the level of consciousness on the 1st day, the baseline SBP, patient’s age. At LAAS, the presence of transient ischemic attack (TIA in past medical history and low SBP in the onset of the disease (less than140 mm Hg has an additional prognostic value for an unfavorable functional outcome. The severity of LAC in acute period depended on its localization and size. Localization of LAC in the internal capsule, thalamus and pons were characterized by the highest severity. Conclusions. Clinical neurological features of ischemic stroke depend on its subtype and have some prognostic value

  5. Acute Phase Hyperglycemia among Patients Hospitalized with Acute Coronary Syndrome: Prevalence and Prognostic Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Laftah Wanoose

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: Regardless of diabetes status, hyperglycemia on arrival for patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome, has been associated with adverse outcomes including death. The aim of this study is to look at the frequency and prognostic significance of acute phase hyperglycemia among patients attending the coronary care unit with acute coronary syndrome over the in-hospital admission days.Methods: The study included 287 consecutive patients in the Al- Faiha Hospital in Basrah (Southern Iraq during a one year period from December 2007 to November 2008. Patients were divided into two groups with respect to admission plasma glucose level regardless of their diabetes status (those with admission plasma glucose of <140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L and those equal to or more than that. Acute phase hyperglycemia was defined as a non-fasting glucose level equal to or above 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L regardless of past history of diabetes.Results: Sixty one point seven percent (177 of patients were admitted with plasma glucose of ≥140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L. There were no differences were found between both groups regarding the mean age, qualification, and smoking status, but males were predominant in both groups. A family history of diabetes, and hypertension, were more frequent in patients with plasma glucose of ≥140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L. There were no differences between the two groups regarding past history of ischemic heart disease, stroke, lipid profile, troponin-I levels or type of acute coronary syndrome. Again heart failure was more common in the admission acute phase hyperglycemia group, but there was no difference regarding arrhythmia, stroke, or death. Using logistic regression with heart failure as the dependent variable we found that only the admission acute phase hyperglycemia (OR=2.1344, 95�0CI=1.0282-4.4307; p=0.0419 was independently associated with heart failure. While male gender, family history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and

  6. Chromosome abnormalities in the acute phase of CML

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, J D

    1978-01-01

    Additional chromosome changes are superimposed on the Ph/sup 1/ positive cell line in approximately 80% of patients in the acute phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). These changes may precede the onset of blast crisis by several months. They are nonrandom and frequently involve an extra No. 8, an isochromosome for the long arm of No. 17, an extra No. 19, and a second Ph/sup 1/ chromosome. Since such changes may occur in combination, modal numbers frequently range between 47 and 57 chromosomes. Although present evidence suggests that abnormal clones originate, or at least proliferate, in the spleen, similar changes have been observed in patients who underwent splenectomy during the chronic phase of their disease. The question of particular clinical-chromosomal correlations has been discussed in only one study. It appeared that patients whose karyotype did not change might have a longer median survival than those whose karyotype showed additional abnormalities. Tests for levels of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TDT) and response to anti-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) serum suggest that some, but not all patients react as do patients with ALL. Those who are similar to ALL have high levels of TDT and are anti-ALL serum-positive; the others have low levels of TDT and are anti-ALL serum-negative. In the future, correlations of these more sophisticated tests with the blast morphology, clinical course, and karyotype pattern should provide significant new insights into the acute phase of CML.

  7. Serum protein concentrations, including acute phase proteins, in calves with hepatogenous photosensitization Teores séricos de proteínas, inclusive proteínas de fase aguda, em bovinos com fotossensibilização hepatógena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Fagliari

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred 6- to 12-month-old Nelore calves were allotted into control group (G1; 50 healthy calves and photosensitization group (G2; n= 50. Blood samples were collected 12 to 24 hours after the onset of dermatitis (M1, and 15 to 30 days after that (M2, at time of resolution of clinical signs. Serum protein electrophoresis was performed by means of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Eighteen serum proteins with molecular weights ranging from 16,000 to 189,000 daltons (Da were identified in all calves. In M1 and M2 serum concentrations of proteins with molecular weights of 115,000Da (ceruloplasmin, 61,000Da (a1-antitrypsin, 45,000Da (haptoglobin, and 40,000Da (acid glycoprotein were significantly increased in calves. In conclusion, measurement of serum acute phase protein concentrations may be useful in monitoring the progression of bovine hepatogenous photosensitization, including guide probable alteration on therapeutic procedures.Foram examinados 100 bezerros da raça Nelore com 6 a 12 meses de idade, distribuídos em: grupo controle (G1; 50 bezerros sadios e grupo fotossensibilização (G2; n= 50. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas 12 a 24 horas após o início da dermatite (M1 e 15 a 30 dias após (M2, época da cura das lesões cutâneas. O proteinograma sérico foi obtido por eletroforese em gel de acrilamida. Em todos os bezerros foram identificadas 18 proteínas com pesos moleculares (PM entre 16.000 a 189.000 dáltons (Da. Em M1 e M2, as concentrações séricas das proteínas de PM 115.000Da (ceruloplasmina, 61.000Da (1-antitripsina, 45.000Da (haptoglobina e 40.000Da (glicoproteína ácida foram significativamente maiores em bezerros com fotossensibilização hepatógena em comparação com aquelas dos animais do grupo-controle. A determinação dos teores séricos de proteínas de fase aguda pode ser útil no monitoramento da progressão da fotossensibilização hepatógena em bovinos, inclusive orientando

  8. Three-Phase Bone Scintigraphic Diagnosis of Acute Transient Synovitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Soo Kyo; Lee, Myung Hee; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1985-01-01

    Acute transient synovitis of the hip presents clinically pain and limping. But in the majority of the cases, definite positive findings are not manifest in roentgenogram in its early phase. However radionuclide bone imaging combines with the assessment of vascularization and bone tracer uptake is of great value in solving this diagnostic problem. The materials for this study consisted of 29 children with acute transient synovitis of the hip, characterized by symptoms and physical signs of an arthritis, negative X-ray findings and disappearance of all symptoms and signs within a short period of time. They were twenty males and 9 females and age ranged from 1 to 12 years. We took pelvic roentgenogram in AP and frog-leg views. After intravenous bolus injection of 10 to 15 mCi of 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate, 24 sequential image of the pelvis was taken at 2-second interval for blood flow study. The scintigrams were made using a gamma camera with high resolution parallel hole collimator. Blood pool imaging was obtained at 2 minutes after tracer administration. After 3 hours, static images were taken and then close-up image of the hip using pin-hole collimator was followed. The results were as follows: 1) Bone scintigram was much more sensitive than conventional roentgenogram in diagnosis of acute transient synovitis of the hip. 2) Three-phase imagings showed increased vascular activities in blood pool scintigrams in 96%. 3) Pin-hole imaging showed increased tracer uptake in the regional bones of the hip, particularly in the medial aspect of femoral head and acetabulum. 4) We confirmed that three-phase imaging reinforced with pin-hale technique were very useful in diagnose of acute transient synovitis of the hip.

  9. Alterations of proteins in MDCK cells during acute potassium deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peerapen, Paleerath; Ausakunpipat, Nardtaya; Chanchaem, Prangwalai; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-06-01

    Chronic K(+) deficiency can cause hypokalemic nephropathy associated with metabolic alkalosis, polyuria, tubular dilatation, and tubulointerstitial injury. However, effects of acute K(+) deficiency on the kidney remained unclear. This study aimed to explore such effects by evaluating changes in levels of proteins in renal tubular cells during acute K(+) deficiency. MDCK cells were cultivated in normal K(+) (NK) (K(+)=5.3 mM), low K(+) (LK) (K(+)=2.5 mM), or K(+) depleted (KD) (K(+)=0 mM) medium for 24 h and then harvested. Cellular proteins were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and visualized by SYPRO Ruby staining (5 gels per group). Spot matching and quantitative intensity analysis revealed a total 48 protein spots that had significantly differential levels among the three groups. Among these, 46 and 30 protein spots had differential levels in KD group compared to NK and LK groups, respectively. Comparison between LK and NK groups revealed only 10 protein spots that were differentially expressed. All of these differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified by Q-TOF MS and/or MS/MS analyses. The altered levels of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), ezrin, lamin A/C, tubulin, chaperonin-containing TCP1 (CCT1), and calpain 1 were confirmed by Western blot analysis. Global protein network analysis showed three main functional networks, including 1) cell growth and proliferation, 2) cell morphology, cellular assembly and organization, and 3) protein folding in which the altered proteins were involved. Further investigations on these networks may lead to better understanding of pathogenic mechanisms of low K(+)-induced renal injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. STAT3 Activation in Skeletal Muscle Links Muscle Wasting and the Acute Phase Response in Cancer Cachexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzevitzky, Noelia; Guttridge, Denis C.; Khuri, Sawsan; Koniaris, Leonidas G.; Zimmers, Teresa A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cachexia, or weight loss despite adequate nutrition, significantly impairs quality of life and response to therapy in cancer patients. In cancer patients, skeletal muscle wasting, weight loss and mortality are all positively associated with increased serum cytokines, particularly Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the presence of the acute phase response. Acute phase proteins, including fibrinogen and serum amyloid A (SAA) are synthesized by hepatocytes in response to IL-6 as part of the innate immune response. To gain insight into the relationships among these observations, we studied mice with moderate and severe Colon-26 (C26)-carcinoma cachexia. Methodology/Principal Findings Moderate and severe C26 cachexia was associated with high serum IL-6 and IL-6 family cytokines and highly similar patterns of skeletal muscle gene expression. The top canonical pathways up-regulated in both were the complement/coagulation cascade, proteasome, MAPK signaling, and the IL-6 and STAT3 pathways. Cachexia was associated with increased muscle pY705-STAT3 and increased STAT3 localization in myonuclei. STAT3 target genes, including SOCS3 mRNA and acute phase response proteins, were highly induced in cachectic muscle. IL-6 treatment and STAT3 activation both also induced fibrinogen in cultured C2C12 myotubes. Quantitation of muscle versus liver fibrinogen and SAA protein levels indicates that muscle contributes a large fraction of serum acute phase proteins in cancer. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that the STAT3 transcriptome is a major mechanism for wasting in cancer. Through IL-6/STAT3 activation, skeletal muscle is induced to synthesize acute phase proteins, thus establishing a molecular link between the observations of high IL-6, increased acute phase response proteins and muscle wasting in cancer. These results suggest a mechanism by which STAT3 might causally influence muscle wasting by altering the profile of genes expressed and translated in muscle such

  11. Hyperglycemia in nondiabetic patients during the acute phase of stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Agustin Godoy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine patterns of hyperglycemic (HG control in acute stroke. METHODS: Anonymous survey through Internet questionnaire. Participants included Latin-American physicians specialized in neurocritical care. RESULTS: The response rate was 74%. HG definition varied widely. Fifty per cent considered it when values were >140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L. Intravenous (IV regular insulin was the drug of choice for HG correction. One fifth of the respondents expressed adherence to a protocol. Intensive insulin therapy (IIT was used by 23%. Glucose levels were measured in all participants at admission. Routine laboratory test was the preferred method for monitoring. Reactive strips were more frequently used when monitoring was intensive. Most practitioners (56.7% monitored glucose more than two times daily throughout the Intensive Care Unit stay. CONCLUSIONS: There is considerable variability and heterogeneity in the management of elevated blood glucose during acute phase of stroke by the surveyed Latin-American physicians.

  12. Acrolein-Induced Dyslipidemia and Acute Phase Response Independenly of HMG-CoA Reductase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Daniel J.; Prough, Russell A.; Juvan, Peter; Rezen, Tadeja; Rozman, Damjana; Haberzettl, Petra; Srivastava, Sanjay; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2012-01-01

    Scope Aldehydes are ubiquitous natural constituents of foods, water and beverages. Dietary intake represents the greatest source of exposure to acrolein and related aldehydes. Oral acrolein induces dyslipidemia acutely and chronically increases atherosclerosis in mice, yet the mechanisms are unknown. Because lipid synthesis and trafficking are largely under hepatic control, we examined hepatic genes in murine models of acute and chronic oral acrolein exposure. Methods and results Changes in hepatic gene expression were examined using a Steroltalk microarray. Acute acrolein feeding modified plasma and hepatic proteins and increased plasma triglycerides within 15 min. By 6h, acrolein altered hepatic gene expression including Insig1, Insig2 and Hmgcr genes and stimulated an acute phase response (APR) with up-regulation of serum amyloid A genes (Saa) and systemic hypoalbuminemia. To test if decreased HMG-CoA reductase activity could modify acrolein-induced dyslipidemia or the APR, mice were pretreated with simvastatin. Statin treatment, however, did not alter acrolein-induced dyslipidemia or hypoalbuminemia associated with an APR. Few hepatic genes were dysregulated by chronic acrolein feeding in apoE-null mice. These studies confirmed that acute acrolein exposure altered expression of hepatic genes involved with lipid synthesis and trafficking and APR, and thus, indicated a hepatic locus of acrolein-induced dyslipidemia and APR that was independent of HMG CoA-reductase. Conclusion Dietary intake of acrolein could contribute to cardiovascular disease risk by disturbing hepatic function. PMID:21812109

  13. Bcl-2 Protein Expression in Egyptian Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shakankiry, N.; El-Sayed, Gh.M.M.; El-Maghraby, Sh.; Moneer, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The primary cause of treatment failure in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the emergence of both resistant disease and early relapse. The bcl-2 gene encodes a 26-kDa protein that promotes cell survival by blocking programmed cell death (apoptosis). In the present study, bcl-2 protein expression was evaluated in newly diagnosed AML patients and correlated with the induction of remission and overall survival (OS), in an attempt to define patients who might benefit from modified therapeutic strategies. Patients and methods: Pretreatment cellular bcl-2 protein expression was measured in bone marrow samples obtained from 68 patients of newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia and 10 healthy controls by western blotting. Results: The mean bcl-2 protein expression was significantly higher in patients (0.68610.592) compared to controls (0.313±0.016) (p=0.002). The overall survival for patients with mean bcl-2 expression of less, and more than or equal to 0.315, was 67% and 56%, respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups 0»=0.86). Conclusion: Even though we did not observe a significant difference in overall survival between patients with high and low levels of bcl-2, modulation of this protein might still be considered as an option for enhancing the effectiveness of conventional chemotherapy.

  14. The Acute Phase of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Is Attenuated in 5-Lipoxygenase-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M. C. Canavaci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we examine the contribution of 5-lipoxygenase- (5-LO- derived lipid mediators to immune responses during the acute phase of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in 5-LO gene knockout (5-LO−/− mice and wild-type (WT mice. Compared with WT mice, the 5-LO−/− mice developed less parasitemia/tissue parasitism, less inflammatory cell infiltrates, and a lower mortality. This resistance of 5-LO−/− mice correlated with several differences in the immune response to infection, including reduced PGE2 synthesis; sustained capacity of splenocytes to produce high levels of interleukin (IL-12 early in the infection; enhanced splenocyte production of IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ; rapid T-cell polarization to secrete high quantities of IFN-γ and low quantities of IL-10; and greater numbers of CD8+CD44highCD62Llow memory effector T cells at the end of the acute phase of infection. The high mortality in WT mice was associated with increased production of LTB4/LTC4, T cell bias to produce IFN-γ, high levels of serum nitrite, and marked protein extravasation into the peritoneal cavity, although survival was improved by treatment with a cys-LT receptor 1 antagonist. These data also provide evidence that 5-LO-derived mediators negatively affect host survival during the acute phase of T. cruzi infection.

  15. Acute phase response, inflammation and metabolic syndrome biomarkers of Libby asbestos exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannahan, Jonathan H. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Alzate, Oscar [Systems Proteomics Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Winnik, Witold M.; Andrews, Debora [Proteomics Core, Research Core Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Schladweiler, Mette C. [Cardiopulmonary and Immunotoxicology Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Ghio, Andrew J. [Clinical Research Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Gavett, Stephen H. [Cardiopulmonary and Immunotoxicology Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Kodavanti, Urmila P., E-mail: Kodavanti.Urmila@epa.gov [Cardiopulmonary and Immunotoxicology Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Identification of biomarkers assists in the diagnosis of disease and the assessment of health risks from environmental exposures. We hypothesized that rats exposed to Libby amphibole (LA) would present with a unique serum proteomic profile which could help elucidate epidemiologically-relevant biomarkers. In four experiments spanning varied protocols and temporality, healthy (Wistar Kyoto, WKY; and F344) and cardiovascular compromised (CVD) rat models (spontaneously hypertensive, SH; and SH heart failure, SHHF) were intratracheally instilled with saline (control) or LA. Serum biomarkers of cancer, inflammation, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and the acute phase response (APR) were analyzed. All rat strains exhibited acute increases in α-2-macroglobulin, and α1-acid glycoprotein. Among markers of inflammation, lipocalin-2 was induced in WKY, SH and SHHF and osteopontin only in WKY after LA exposure. While rat strain- and age-related changes were apparent in MetS biomarkers, no LA effects were evident. The cancer marker mesothelin was increased only slightly at 1 month in WKY in one of the studies. Quantitative Intact Proteomic profiling of WKY serum at 1 day or 4 weeks after 4 weekly LA instillations indicated no oxidative protein modifications, however APR proteins were significantly increased. Those included serine protease inhibitor, apolipoprotein E, α-2-HS-glycoprotein, t-kininogen 1 and 2, ceruloplasmin, vitamin D binding protein, serum amyloid P, and more 1 day after last LA exposure. All changes were reversible after a short recovery regardless of the acute or long-term exposures. Thus, LA exposure induces an APR and systemic inflammatory biomarkers that could have implications in systemic and pulmonary disease in individuals exposed to LA. -- Highlights: ► Biomarkers of asbestos exposure are required for disease diagnosis. ► Libby amphibole exposure is associated with increased human mortality. ► Libby amphibole increases circulating proteins involved

  16. Physical anhedonia in the acute phase of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petridou Eleni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current study is to investigate the relationship between physical anhedonia and psychopathological parameters, pharmacological parameters or motor side-effects in a sample of inpatients with schizophrenia in an acute episode of their illness. Method Eighty one patients with schizophrenia, consecutively admitted, with an acute episode of their illness, at the Eginition Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, University of Athens, during a one-year period were investigated regarding possible relationships between physical anhedonia, social-demographic data and clinical parameters as well as motor side-effects, induced by antipsychotic agents. All patients were assessed using the Chapman Revised Physical Anhedonia Scale (RPAS, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, the Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side-Effects (EPSE, the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS. Simple cross tabulations were initially employed. Subsequently, multiple regression analysis was performed. Results Both positive and negative symptoms were associated with physical anhedonia. A positive association between physical anhedonia and the non-paranoid sub-category of schizophrenia was also proved. Conclusion According to these results, it seems that in the acute phase of schizophrenia, physical anhedonia may be a contributing factor to patient's psychopathology.

  17. Corticomuscular coherence in the acute and subacute phase after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lisbeth Hoejkjaer; Zibrandtsen, Ivan Chrilles; Wienecke, Troels

    2017-01-01

    –6 weeks after stroke, but no change was observed in CMC or IMC. Conclusions CMC and IMC were reduced in patients in the early phase after stroke. However, changes in coherence do not appear to be an efficient marker for early recovery of hand function following stroke. Significance This is the first study......Objective Stroke is one of the leading causes of physical disability due to damage of the motor cortex or the corticospinal tract. In the present study we set out to investigate the role of adaptations in the corticospinal pathway for motor recovery during the subacute phase after stroke. Methods...... We examined 19 patients with clinically diagnosed stroke and 18 controls. The patients had unilateral mild to moderate weakness of the hand. Each patient attended two sessions at approximately 3 days (acute) and 38 days post stroke (subacute). Task-related changes in the communication between motor...

  18. Dietary supplementation with aromatic amino acids increases protein synthesis in children wHh severe acute malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although 2 earlier studies reported that aromatic amino acid (AAA) supplementation of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) improved whole-body protein anabolism during the early postadmission (maintenance) phase of rehabilitation, it is not known whether this positive effect was maintained ...

  19. Undernutrition, the Acute Phase Response to Infection, and Its Effects on Micronutrient Status Indicators12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresnahan, Kara A.; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Infection and undernutrition are prevalent in developing countries and demonstrate a synergistic relation. Undernutrition increases infection-related morbidity and mortality. The acute phase response (APR) is an innate, systemic inflammatory reaction to a wide array of disruptions in a host’s homeostasis, including infection. Released from immune cells in response to deleterious stimuli, proinflammatory cytokines act on distant tissues to induce behavioral (e.g., anorexia, weakness, and fatigue) and systemic effects of the APR. Cytokines act to increase energy and protein requirements to manifest fever and support hepatic acute phase protein (APP) production. Blood concentrations of glucose and lipid are augmented to provide energy to immune cells in response to cytokines. Additionally, infection decreases intestinal absorption of nutrients and can cause direct loss of micronutrients. Traditional indicators of iron, zinc, and vitamin A status are altered during the APR, leading to inaccurate estimations of deficiency in populations with a high or unknown prevalence of infection. Blood concentrations of APPs can be measured in nutrition interventions to assess the time stage and severity of infection and correct for the APR; however, standardized cutoffs for nutrition applications are needed. Protein-energy malnutrition leads to increased gut permeability to pathogens, abnormal immune cell populations, and impaired APP response. Micronutrient deficiencies cause specific immune impairments that affect both innate and adaptive responses. This review describes the antagonistic interaction between the APR and nutritional status and emphasizes the need for integrated interventions to address undernutrition and to reduce disease burden in developing countries. PMID:25398733

  20. Nasopharyngeal Protein Biomarkers of Acute Respiratory Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W. Burke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Infection of respiratory mucosa with viral pathogens triggers complex immunologic events in the affected host. We sought to characterize this response through proteomic analysis of nasopharyngeal lavage in human subjects experimentally challenged with influenza A/H3N2 or human rhinovirus, and to develop targeted assays measuring peptides involved in this host response allowing classification of acute respiratory virus infection. Unbiased proteomic discovery analysis identified 3285 peptides corresponding to 438 unique proteins, and revealed that infection with H3N2 induces significant alterations in protein expression. These include proteins involved in acute inflammatory response, innate immune response, and the complement cascade. These data provide insights into the nature of the biological response to viral infection of the upper respiratory tract, and the proteins that are dysregulated by viral infection form the basis of signature that accurately classifies the infected state. Verification of this signature using targeted mass spectrometry in independent cohorts of subjects challenged with influenza or rhinovirus demonstrates that it performs with high accuracy (0.8623 AUROC, 75% TPR, 97.46% TNR. With further development as a clinical diagnostic, this signature may have utility in rapid screening for emerging infections, avoidance of inappropriate antibacterial therapy, and more rapid implementation of appropriate therapeutic and public health strategies.

  1. Acute-phase responses in healthy and diseased rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anne Kirstine Havnsøe; Lundsgaard, Jo F. H.; Bakker, Jaco

    2014-01-01

    Five acute-phase reactants—serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin, albumin, and iron—were measured using commercially available assays in 110 healthy rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and reference intervals were established for future use in health monitoring of this species....... Reference intervals established were as follows: SAA, 29.5–87.7 mg/L; CRP, 0–17.5 mg/L; haptoglobin, 354.3–2,414.7 mg/L; albumin, 36.1–53.0 g/L; and iron, 13.3–40.2 lmol/L. Furthermore, changes in the acute-phase reactants were studied in two additional groups of animals: eight rhesus macaques suffering...... from acute traumatic injuries and nine rhesus macaques experimentally infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis reflecting a chronic active inflammation. In animals with inflammation, SAA and haptoglobin concentrations were moderately increased, while CRP increased more than 200-fold. In addition, marked...

  2. Are there differences in acute phase inflammation markers regarding the type of heart failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Agüero-Ramón-Llin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine if there are differences in inflammatory markers in the acute phase between systolic heart failure and heart failure with preserved systolic function. One hundred and thirty-one patients with acute heart failure were recruited consecutively. At admission, plasma fibrinogen, Creactive protein, sialic acid, von Willebrand factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin-6 and NTproBNP were all evaluated. If the ejection fraction was 45% or over patients were included in the HF-PSF group; the remaining patients were included in the SHF group. The HF-PSF patients were older (72±10 vs 63±12 years, P<0.001, presented a higher rate of atrial fibrillation (56.1 vs 21.3%, P<0.001, and had a lower rate of hemoglobin (12.2±2 vs 13.3±2.1 g/dL, P<0.01. No significant differences were observed in the inflammation markers analyzed among SHF and HFPSF groups. In the acute phase of heart failure there is a marked elevation of inflammatory markers but there are no differences in the inflammatory markers analyzed between the two different types of heart failure

  3. Acute myotube protein synthesis regulation by IL-6-related cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Durstine, J Larry; Koh, Ho-Jin; Carver, Wayne E; Frizzell, Norma; Carson, James A

    2017-11-01

    IL-6 and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), members of the IL-6 family of cytokines, play recognized paradoxical roles in skeletal muscle mass regulation, being associated with both growth and atrophy. Overload or muscle contractions can induce a transient increase in muscle IL-6 and LIF expression, which has a regulatory role in muscle hypertrophy. However, the cellular mechanisms involved in this regulation have not been completely identified. The induction of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-dependent myofiber protein synthesis is an established regulator of muscle hypertrophy, but the involvement of the IL-6 family of cytokines in this process is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the acute effects of IL-6 and LIF administration on mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis in C2C12 myotubes. The role of glycoprotein 130 (gp130) receptor and downstream signaling pathways, including phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-mTORC1 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), was investigated by administration of specific siRNA or pharmaceutical inhibitors. Acute administration of IL-6 and LIF induced protein synthesis, which was accompanied by STAT3 activation, Akt-mTORC1 activation, and increased SOCS3 expression. This induction of protein synthesis was blocked by both gp130 siRNA knockdown and Akt inhibition. Interestingly, STAT3 inhibition or Akt downstream mTORC1 signaling inhibition did not fully block the IL-6 or LIF induction of protein synthesis. SOCS3 siRNA knockdown increased basal protein synthesis and extended the duration of the protein synthesis induction by IL-6 and LIF. These results demonstrate that either IL-6 or LIF can activate gp130-Akt signaling axis, which induces protein synthesis via mTORC1-independent mechanisms in cultured myotubes. However, IL-6- or LIF-induced SOCS3 negatively regulates the activation of myotube protein synthesis. Copyright © 2017 the

  4. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-physicochemical properties predict the systemic acute phase response following pulmonary exposure in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah S Poulsen

    Full Text Available Pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs has been linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease in addition to the well-documented physicochemical-dependent adverse lung effects. A proposed mechanism is through a strong and sustained pulmonary secretion of acute phase proteins to the blood. We identified physicochemical determinants of MWCNT-induced systemic acute phase response by analyzing effects of pulmonary exposure to 14 commercial, well-characterized MWCNTs in female C57BL/6J mice pulmonary exposed to 0, 6, 18 or 54 μg MWCNT/mouse. Plasma levels of acute phase response proteins serum amyloid A1/2 (SAA1/2 and SAA3 were determined on day 1, 28 or 92. Expression levels of hepatic Saa1 and pulmonary Saa3 mRNA levels were assessed to determine the origin of the acute phase response proteins. Pulmonary Saa3 mRNA expression levels were greater and lasted longer than hepatic Saa1 mRNA expression. Plasma SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels were related to time and physicochemical properties using adjusted, multiple regression analyses. SAA3 and SAA1/2 plasma protein levels were increased after exposure to almost all of the MWCNTs on day 1, whereas limited changes were observed on day 28 and 92. SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels did not correlate and only SAA3 protein levels correlated with neutrophil influx. The multiple regression analyses revealed a protective effect of MWCNT length on SAA1/2 protein level on day 1, such that a longer length resulted in lowered SAA1/2 plasma levels. Increased SAA3 protein levels were positively related to dose and content of Mn, Mg and Co on day 1, whereas oxidation and diameter of the MWCNTs were protective on day 28 and 92, respectively. The results of this study reveal very differently controlled pulmonary and hepatic acute phase responses after MWCNT exposure. As the responses were influenced by the physicochemical properties of the MWCNTs, this study provides the first step

  5. Vaccination elicits a prominent acute phase response in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Susanne A; Petersen, Henrik H; Ersbøll, Annette K; Falk-Rønne, Jørgen; Jacobsen, Stine

    2012-02-01

    European and American guidelines for vaccination against tetanus and influenza in horses recommend annual and annual/semi-annual vaccinations, respectively, against the two pathogens. Too-frequent vaccination may, however, have adverse effects, among other things because an inflammatory response is elicited with subsequent alterations in homeostasis. The objective of the study was to compare the acute phase response (APR) in 10 horses following administration of two different types of vaccines, namely, an inactivated Immune Stimulating COMplex (ISCOM) vaccine and a live recombinant vector vaccine. Blood was sampled before and after vaccination to measure levels of serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen, white blood cell counts (WBC) and iron. Vaccination induced a prominent APR with increased WBC, elevated blood levels of SAA and fibrinogen, and decreased serum iron concentrations. The ISCOM vaccine caused significantly (Phorse owners about convalescence after vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Measurement of serum amyloid A1 (SAA1), a major isotype of acute phase SAA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Yamada, Toshiyuki; Satoh, Takahiko; Okuda, Yasuaki

    2006-01-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA), a plasma precursor of reactive amyloid deposits, is a multigene product. SAA1 and SAA2, with primary structures that are 93% identical (98 of 104 amino acids), behave as acute phase proteins, as demonstrated by their increasing levels in plasma. Heretofore, it has been understood that SAA1 predominates and functions as an isotype in plasma. However, accurate measurements differentiating the two isotypes have not been reported. In this study, using monoclonal antibodies specific for SAA1, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for SAA1. The levels and ratios of SAA1 in total SAA (TSAA) were investigated in healthy subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The SAA1/TSAA ratio was 74 +/- 12% and 77 +/- 12% in healthy subjects and RA patients, respectively. In RA patients, the ratios were not influenced by SAA1 genotype, which has been proposed to affect plasma SAA values. The kinetics of SAA1 in inflamed patients undergoing hemodialysis was found to be parallel with total SAA and C-reactive protein. Finally, this study confirmed that SAA1 is a major isotype of acute phase SAA and may determine total SAA values. This specific assay could be used in the evaluation of SAA behavior in several clinical conditions.

  7. Chemotherapeutic treatment reduces circulating levels of surfactant protein-D in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Sorensen, Grith L; Skov Wehner, Peder

    2017-01-01

    with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). PROCEDURE: In a prospective study, 43 children receiving treatment for ALL were monitored for mucosal toxicity from diagnosis through the induction phase of treatment. Serial blood draws were taken to determine the levels of SP-D, interleukin-6 (IL-6), C......BACKGROUND: Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a host defense molecule of the innate immune system that enhances pathogen clearance and modulates inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that circulating SP-D levels are associated with chemotherapy-induced mucositis and infectious morbidity in children...

  8. Acute phase proteins: a potential approach for diagnosing chronic infection by Trypanosoma vivax Proteínas de fase aguda: uma possível abordagem para diagnóstico de infecção crônica por Trypanosoma vivax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katyane de Sousa Almeida

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess potential changes in acute phase proteins in sheep experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax. There were studied eight male sheep, four used as controls and four infected with 10(5 T. vivax trypomastigotes. Blood samples were collected at two points times before infection and then at 5,7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 days post-infection (dpi. Blood samples were centrifuged and allotted, and acute phase proteins were then separated by electrophoresis on acrylamide gel containing sodium dodecyl sulfate. Protein concentrations were determined by computer-assisted densitometry. Total protein was determined by colorimetric biuret method. Trypanosomes were counted daily using a 5 mL aliquot of blood smear on a glass slide under a 22 × 22 mm coverslip. Parasites were counted in 100 microscopic fields (40× magnification, and then multiplied by a correction factor. The results were expressed as parasites per mL of blood. For statistical analyses, we used the Wilcoxon test at 5% significance level. There was found a reduction in several acute phase proteins and increase in antitrypsin and transferrin. This finding can be used for the diagnosis of T. vivax infection, especially in chronic infection.O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar possíveis alterações nas proteínas de fase aguda em ovinos infectados experimentalmente com Trypanosoma vivax. Para tanto, foram utilizados oito ovinos machos, sendo quatro usados como controle e quatro infectados com 10(5 tripomastigotas de T. vivax. Colheram-se amostras de sangue em dois tempos antes da infecção e, posteriormente, aos 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 e 120 dias após a infecção (dpi; após centrifugação e aliquotização das amostras. As proteínas de fase aguda foram separadas por eletroforese em gel de acrilamida, contendo dodecil sulfato de sódio, e suas concentrações foram determinadas através de

  9. Relationship between Acute Phase of Chronic Periodontitis and Meteorological Factors in the Maintenance Phase of Periodontal Treatment: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Noriko; Ekuni, Daisuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Morita, Manabu

    2015-08-05

    The acute phase of chronic periodontitis may occur even in patients during supportive periodontal therapy. However, the details are not fully understood. Since the natural environment, including meteorology affects human health, we hypothesized that weather conditions may affect occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between weather conditions and acute phase of chronic periodontitis in patients under supportive periodontal therapy. Patients who were diagnosed with acute phase of chronic periodontitis under supportive periodontal therapy during 2011-2013 were selected for this study. We performed oral examinations and collected questionnaires and meteorological data. Of 369 patients who experienced acute phase of chronic periodontitis, 153 had acute phase of chronic periodontitis without direct-triggered episodes. When using the autoregressive integrated moving average model of time-series analysis, the independent covariant of maximum hourly range of barometric pressure, maximum hourly range of temperature, and maximum daily wind speed were significantly associated with occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis (p chronic periodontitis.

  10. Anti-thrombin III, Protein C, and Protein S deficiency in acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasnan Ismail

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The final most common pathway for the majority of coronary artery disease is occlusion of a coronary vessel. Under normal conditions, antithrombin III (AT III, protein C, and protein S as an active protein C cofactor, are natural anticoagulants (hemostatic control that balances procoagulant activity (thrombin antithrombin complex balance to prevent thrombosis. If the condition becomes unbalanced, natural anticoagulants and the procoagulants can lead to thrombosis. Thirty subjects with acute coronary syndrome (ACS were studied for the incidence of antithrombin III (AT III, protein C, and protein S deficiencies, and the result were compare to the control group. Among patients with ACS, the frequency of distribution of AT-III with activity < 75% were 23,3% (7 of 30, and only 6,7% ( 2 of 30 in control subject. No one of the 30 control subject have protein C activity deficient, in ACS with activity < 70% were 13,3% (4 of 30. Fifteen out of the 30 (50% control subjects had protein S activity deficiency, while protein S deficiency activity < 70% was found 73.3.% (22 out of 30. On linear regression, the deterministic coefficient of AT-III activity deficiency to the development ACS was 13,25 %, and the deterministic coefficient of protein C activity deficient to the development of ACS was 9,06 %. The cut-off point for AT-III without protein S deficiency expected to contribute to the development of vessel disease was 45%. On discriminant analysis, protein C activity deficiency posed a risk for ACS of 4,5 greater than non deficient subjects, and AT-III activity deficiency posed a risk for ACS of 3,5 times greater than non deficient subjects. On binary logistic regression, protein S activity acted only as a reinforcing factor of AT-III activity deficiency in the development of ACS. Protein C and AT III deficiency can trigger ACS, with determinant coefficients of 9,06% and 13,25% respectively. Low levels of protein C posed a greater risk of

  11. Leucogram and serum acute phase protein concentrations in queens submitted to conventional or videolaparoscopic ovariectomy Leucograma e concentrações séricas de proteínas de fase aguda de gatas submetidas à ovariectomia convencional ou por videolaparoscopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Alves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirty health queens were submitted to ovariectomy by conventional technique or by videolaparoscopy. In order to study the intensity of inflammatory response by means of acute phase protein analysis and white blood cell count, serum samples were taken before and until 144 hours after the surgical procedures. The protein concentrations that were significantly increased 24 hours after surgical procedures were: ceruloplasmin, hemopexin, haptoglobin, and α1-acid glycoprotein, 69.8%, 103.5%, 117.3%, and 199.0%, respectively, for conventional ovariectomy; and 22.3%, 46.1%, 79.8%, and 74.6%, respectively, for laparoscopic ovariectomy. Therefore, inflammatory response was more intense in queens submitted to conventional ovariectomy. Results indicate that the increase or decrease in acute phase proteins, as well as in white blood cells count, may be useful in the evaluation of inflammatory response induced by these surgical procedures.Trinta gatas, saudáveis, foram submetidas à ovariectomia pela técnica convencional e por videolaparoscopia. Amostras de sangue foram obtidas com o objetivo de verificar a intensidade da resposta inflamatória por meio da análise das concentrações de proteinas de fase aguda e contagem de leucócitos antes e até 144 horas após procedimento cirúrgico. As proteínas que apresentaram aumento significativo 24 horas após a cirurgia foram: ceruloplasmina, hemopexina, haptoglobina e α1-glicoproteína ácida, 69,8%, 103,5%, 117,3% e 199,0%, respectivamente, para ovariectomia convencional, e 22,3%, 46,1%, 79,8% e 74,6%, respectivamente, para ovariectomia por videolaparoscopia. A resposta inflamatória foi mais evidente nas gatas submetidas à ovariectomia convencional. Os resultados mostram aumento e diminuição na concentração de proteínas de fase aguda e na contagem de leucócitos, podendo ser utilizados na avaliação da resposta inflamatória induzida por procedimentos cirúrgicos.

  12. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-physicochemical properties predict the systemic acute phase response following pulmonary exposure in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sarah Søs; Knudsen, Kristina Bram; Jackson, Petra

    2017-01-01

    of acute phase response proteins serum amyloid A1/2 (SAA1/2) and SAA3 were determined on day 1, 28 or 92. Expression levels of hepatic Saal and pulmonary Saa3 mRNA levels were assessed to determine the origin of the acute phase response proteins. Pulmonary Saa3 mRNA expression levels were greater...... and lasted longer than hepatic Saal mRNA expression. Plasma SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels were related to time and physicochemical properties using adjusted, multiple regression analyses. SAA3 and SAA1/2 plasma protein levels were increased after exposure to almost all of the MWCNTs on day 1, whereas...... limited changes were observed on day 28 and 92. SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels did not correlate and only SAA3 protein levels correlated with neutrophil influx. The multiple regression analyses revealed a protective effect of MWCNT length on SAA1/2 protein level on day 1, such that a longer length...

  13. C-reactive protein as a marker of infection in children with severe acute malnutrition in Khartoum state, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmoneim E.M. Kheir

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Severe acute malnutrition and acute systemic infection are often synergistic in children and lead to considerable mortality. The main aim of this research was to determine whether children with severe acute malnutrition can mount an acute phase reactant response measured by C-reactive protein. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional, hospital-based study that was carried out in the five main children hospitals in Khartoum state, from November 1st, 2012 to March 1st, 2013. 132 children with severe acute malnutrition were included in the study. Data collection included history, examination and C-reactive protein measurement. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS for descriptive and inferential statistics. The main results revealed that 93(70.5% children between 12-23 months of age and most of them had marasmus. Diarrhoea was the commonest presenting symptoms in 86.4%, followed by fever and vomiting. Most of the children (82.6% had positive C-reactive protein with variable levels. In conclusion malnourished children are able to synthesize C-reactive protein in response to an infectious process and the magnitude of this response is increased in those with severe infections.

  14. Peptide-tagged proteins in aqueous two-phase systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Anna

    2002-01-01

    This thesis deals with proteins containing peptide tags for improved partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems. Qualitatively the peptide-tagged protein partitioning could be predicted from peptide data, i.e. partitioning trends found for peptides were also found for the peptide-tagged proteins. However, full effect of the tag as expected from peptide partitioning was not found in the tagged protein. When alkyl-ethylene oxide surfactant was included in a two-polymer system, almost full effect...

  15. Additional phase information from UV damage of selenomethionine labelled proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanctis, Daniele de [ESRF, Structural Biology Group, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Tucker, Paul A.; Panjikar, Santosh, E-mail: panjikar@embl-hamburg.de [EMBL Hamburg Outstation, c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-05-01

    Successful examples of ultraviolet radiation-damage-induced phasing with anomalous scattering from selenomethionine protein crystals have been demonstrated. Currently, selenium is the most widely used phasing vehicle for experimental phasing, either by single anomalous scattering or multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) procedures. The use of the single isomorphous replacement anomalous scattering (SIRAS) phasing procedure with selenomethionine containing proteins is not so commonly used, as it requires isomorphous native data. Here it is demonstrated that isomorphous differences can be measured from intensity changes measured from a selenium labelled protein crystal before and after UV exposure. These can be coupled with the anomalous signal from the dataset collected at the selenium absorption edge to obtain SIRAS phases in a UV-RIPAS phasing experiment. The phasing procedure for two selenomethionine proteins, the feruloyl esterase module of xylanase 10B from Clostridium thermocellum and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis chorismate synthase, have been investigated using datasets collected near the absorption edge of selenium before and after UV radiation. The utility of UV radiation in measuring radiation damage data for isomorphous differences is highlighted and it is shown that, after such measurements, the UV-RIPAS procedure yields comparable phase sets with those obtained from the conventional MAD procedure. The results presented are encouraging for the development of alternative phasing approaches for selenomethionine proteins in difficult cases.

  16. Oxidative stress and acute-phase response in patients with pressure sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Maria Bernarda Cavalcanti; Antonelli, Elida Juliana; da Cunha, Daniel Ferreira; Júnior, Alceu Afonso Jordão; Júnior, Virmondes Rodrigues; Vannucchi, Helio

    2005-09-01

    We investigated the relation between oxidative stress and the occurrence of the acute-phase response with serum ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol levels in patients with pressure sores. The following groups of patients were studied: 1) those who had patients with pressure sores, 2) those who had pneumonia, and 3) those who did not develop pressure sores or any type of infection (control). Concentrations of total proteins, albumin, creatinine, iron, ferritin, transferrin, C-reactive protein, alpha1-acid glycoprotein, total iron-binding capacity, ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and malondialdehyde were measured during the first days of hospitalization. Albumin concentrations were significantly lower (P pressure sores compared with controls. Concentrations of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol were significantly decreased (P pressure sores or infection, whereas malondialdehyde concentrations were significantly increased (P pressure sores and 10 of 12 patients (83.33%) with pneumonia presented serum ascorbic acid concentrations below the reference value (34 to 91 micromol/L). Concentrations of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol versus malondialdehyde were significantly correlated in the three patient groups (r = -0.44, P pressure sores and acute infection present a systemic inflammatory response accompanied by an increase in lipid peroxidation that is associated with decreased serum ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol levels, suggesting that these patients may be at risk for important nutritional deficiencies.

  17. Phase II trial of vindesine in patients with acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklaroff, R B; Arlin, Z; Young, C W

    1979-01-01

    Vindesine was administered to 18 patients with acute leukemia who had failed conventional chemotherapy. Each course of therapy consisted of an iv bolus infusion at a dose of 1-2 mg/m2 given daily x 5-10 days. Of 13 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, two had partial remissions which lasted 2 and 3 months and five had minor responses. One of three patients with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia and one of two patients with blastic crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia each had a minor response. The data suggest that vindesine has activity in the treatment of acute leukemia.

  18. Acute and "chronic" phase reaction-a mother of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengmark, Stig

    2004-12-01

    The world is increasingly threatened by a global epidemic of chronic diseases. Almost half of the global morbidity and almost two thirds of global mortality is due to these diseases-approximately 35 million die each year from chronic diseases. And they continue to increase. Increasing evidence suggest that these diseases are associated with lifestyle, stress, lack of physical exercise, over-consumption of calorie-condensed foods rich in saturated fat, sugar and starch, but also under-consumption of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables. As a result the function of the innate immune system is severe impaired. This review discusses the changes induced in response to mental and physical stress and their association with the subsequent development of metabolic syndrome, and its association with various chronic diseases. The endothelial cells and their function appears to be of great importance, and the function of their cellular membranes of special importance to the function of the underlying cells; their ability to obtain nutrients and antioxidants and to eliminate waste products. The abdominal adipocytes seen to play a key role, as they have the ability to in stressful situations release much of proinflammatory cytokines, PAI-1 and free fatty acids compared to elsewhere in the body. The load on the liver of these various substances in often of greater magnitude than the liver can handle. Some of the most common chronic diseases and their potential association with acute and "chronic" phase response, and with metabolic syndrome are discussed separately. The need for studies with lifestyle modifications is especially emphasized.

  19. The acute phase response of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A (SAA) in cattle undergoing experimental infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Godson, D.L.; Toussaint, M.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), analysing the induction of the two most dominant bovine acute phase proteins haptoglobin and serum amyloid A (SAA). Strong and reproducible acute phase responses were detected for both proteins, peaking at around 7-8 days after inoculation of BRSV, while no response...... was seen in mock-inoculated control animals. The serum concentrations reached for SAA and haptoglobin during the BRSV-induced acute phase response were generally the same or higher than previously reported for bacterial infections in calves. The magnitude and the duration of the haptoglobin response...... was found to correlate well with the severity of clinical signs (fever) and with the extent of lung consolidation while SAA responded most rapidly to infection....

  20. Reassessment of HIV-1 Acute Phase Infectivity: Accounting for Heterogeneity and Study Design with Simulated Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Steve E.; Dushoff, Jonathan; Galvani, Alison P.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2015-01-01

    Background The infectivity of the HIV-1 acute phase has been directly measured only once, from a retrospectively identified cohort of serodiscordant heterosexual couples in Rakai, Uganda. Analyses of this cohort underlie the widespread view that the acute phase is highly infectious, even more so than would be predicted from its elevated viral load, and that transmission occurring shortly after infection may therefore compromise interventions that rely on diagnosis and treatment, such as antiretroviral treatment as prevention (TasP). Here, we re-estimate the duration and relative infectivity of the acute phase, while accounting for several possible sources of bias in published estimates, including the retrospective cohort exclusion criteria and unmeasured heterogeneity in risk. Methods and Findings We estimated acute phase infectivity using two approaches. First, we combined viral load trajectories and viral load-infectivity relationships to estimate infectivity trajectories over the course of infection, under the assumption that elevated acute phase infectivity is caused by elevated viral load alone. Second, we estimated the relative hazard of transmission during the acute phase versus the chronic phase (RHacute) and the acute phase duration (d acute) by fitting a couples transmission model to the Rakai retrospective cohort using approximate Bayesian computation. Our model fit the data well and accounted for characteristics overlooked by previous analyses, including individual heterogeneity in infectiousness and susceptibility and the retrospective cohort's exclusion of couples that were recorded as serodiscordant only once before being censored by loss to follow-up, couple dissolution, or study termination. Finally, we replicated two highly cited analyses of the Rakai data on simulated data to identify biases underlying the discrepancies between previous estimates and our own. From the Rakai data, we estimated RHacute = 5.3 (95% credibility interval [95% CrI]: 0

  1. Pathophysiological aspects of the acute phase response and the anaemia of chronic disease : with a focus on iron metabolism: With a focus on iron metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Feelders (Richard)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe acute phase response refers to a coordinated series of reactions in response to a variety of stimuli and involves all major body systems. This generalized host response is characterized by fever, changes in local vascular permeability, modulation of hepatic protein synthesis

  2. Acute differential effects of dietary protein quality on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Mortensen, Lene Sundahl; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Non-fasting triglyceridemia is much closer associated to cardiovascular risk compared to fasting triglyceridemia. We hypothesized that there would be acute differential effects of four common dietary proteins (cod protein, whey isolate, gluten, and casein) on postprandial lipemia in obese non......-diabetic subjects. To test the hypothesis we conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study with crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins i.e. cod protein, whey protein, gluten or casein. Eleven obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, body mass index: 30...... concentration in the chylomicron rich fraction (P = .0293). Thus, we have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial metabolism of four dietary proteins supplemented to a fat rich mixed meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Supplementation with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia compared...

  3. Effects of balneotherapy on the reactants of acute inflammation phase in Ankylosing spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Bojana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects sacroiliac joints, spinal column and peripheral joints. Beside medication therapy, physical and balneotherapy play an important role in its complex treatment. Objective. The aim of the research was to establish serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP, α 1-acid glycoprotein (α 1-AGP, ceruloplasmine (CP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (SE before and after the balneotherapy in ankylosing spondylitis. Methods. The research included 50 AS patients according to the revised New York criteria, of mean age 43 years, who were treated for 14 days on the average at the Clinic for Rheumatology of the Institute 'Niška Banja'. All the patients received medications and balneotherapy (radioactive oligomineral baths, peloid, massage, kinesitherapy; the serum concentrations of CRP, α1-AGP, CP and SE were measured before and after balneotherapy. Serum proteins were determined using original Nor Partigen plates Boehringer. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was measured by Westergreen method. Balneotherapy was applied individually, intensively or mildly, depending on the AS stage and activity phase. Results. After dosed balneotherapy, a significant decrease in the concentrations of CP (p<0.05, α1-AGP (p<0.01 and CRP (p<0.05 was registered in the serums of AS patients. ESR was not significantly reduced. Conclusion. The research proved that α 1-acid glycoprotein, ceruloplasmine and C-reactive protein represent more sensitive inflammation markers as compared to erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The identification of acute phase reactants is important in the evaluation of dosed balneotherapy efficiency in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis.

  4. Reassessment of HIV-1 acute phase infectivity: accounting for heterogeneity and study design with simulated cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve E Bellan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The infectivity of the HIV-1 acute phase has been directly measured only once, from a retrospectively identified cohort of serodiscordant heterosexual couples in Rakai, Uganda. Analyses of this cohort underlie the widespread view that the acute phase is highly infectious, even more so than would be predicted from its elevated viral load, and that transmission occurring shortly after infection may therefore compromise interventions that rely on diagnosis and treatment, such as antiretroviral treatment as prevention (TasP. Here, we re-estimate the duration and relative infectivity of the acute phase, while accounting for several possible sources of bias in published estimates, including the retrospective cohort exclusion criteria and unmeasured heterogeneity in risk.We estimated acute phase infectivity using two approaches. First, we combined viral load trajectories and viral load-infectivity relationships to estimate infectivity trajectories over the course of infection, under the assumption that elevated acute phase infectivity is caused by elevated viral load alone. Second, we estimated the relative hazard of transmission during the acute phase versus the chronic phase (RHacute and the acute phase duration (dacute by fitting a couples transmission model to the Rakai retrospective cohort using approximate Bayesian computation. Our model fit the data well and accounted for characteristics overlooked by previous analyses, including individual heterogeneity in infectiousness and susceptibility and the retrospective cohort's exclusion of couples that were recorded as serodiscordant only once before being censored by loss to follow-up, couple dissolution, or study termination. Finally, we replicated two highly cited analyses of the Rakai data on simulated data to identify biases underlying the discrepancies between previous estimates and our own. From the Rakai data, we estimated RHacute = 5.3 (95% credibility interval [95% CrI]: 0.79-57 and dacute

  5. Intensive treadmill training in the acute phase after ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømmen, Anna Maria; Christensen, Thomas; Jensen, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to (a) assess the feasibility of intensive treadmill training in patients with acute ischemic stroke, (b) test whether physical activity of the legs during training increases with time, and (c) evaluate to what extent training sessions contribute toward the overall physical...... activity of these patients. Twenty hospitalized patients with acute ischemic stroke trained on a treadmill twice daily for 30 min for 5 days and on day 30. Physical activity was measured as activity counts (AC) from accelerometers. A total of 196 of 224 initiated training sessions were completed. Training...... with increasing number of days, with the median AC being 133% higher on day 5 than on day 1. AC in the paretic leg during 60 min of training constituted median 53% of the daytime AC. Early intensive treadmill training in acute ischemic stroke patients is thus feasible and contributes considerably toward...

  6. Influência da resposta inflamatória de fase aguda nos níveis séricos de retinol e da proteína de ligação do retinol em pacientes com AIDS Influence of acute-phase inflammatory response on serum levels of retinol and retinol binding protein in HIV/AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Fernandes Neves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a hiporretinolemia constitui fator prognóstico independente em pacientes com AIDS, e a atividade inflamatória causa redução dos níveis séricos deste nutriente na população em geral. Entretanto, faltam estudos que avaliem o impacto da atividade inflamatória sobre o nível sérico do retinol em pacientes com AIDS. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados transversalmente 41 pacientes internados por complicações da AIDS, que tiveram quantificados alguns marcadores de inflamação (proteína C reativa e fator de necrose tumoral alfa e concentrações séricas de retinol e da proteína de ligação do retinol. RESULTADOS: apesar da baixa (14,6% prevalência de hiporretinolemia evidenciou-se correlação negativa dos marcadores de inflamação com os níveis séricos de retinol e de sua proteína de ligação nos pacientes com AIDS. CONCLUSÕES: a atividade inflamatória de fase aguda está associada a baixos níveis séricos de retinol em indivíduos com AIDS.INTRODUCTION: Hyporetinolemia is an independent prognostic factor in AIDS patients. Inflammatory activity causes a reduction in the serum levels of this nutrient in the general population. However, there are no studies assessing the impact of inflammatory activity on the serum retinol level in AIDS patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional assessment was conducted on 41 patients hospitalized due to AIDS complications. Inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and serum retinol and retinol binding protein concentrations were quantified. RESULTS: Despite the low (14.6% prevalence of hyporetinolemia, a significant negative correlation was observed between the inflammatory markers and the serum retinol and retinol binding protein levels in AIDS patients. CONCLUSIONS: Acute-phase inflammatory activity is associated with low serum retinol levels in individuals with AIDS.

  7. MDCT of acute pancreatitis: Intraindividual comparison of single-phase versus dual-phase MDCT for initial assessment of acute pancreatitis using different CT scoring systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avanesov, Maxim, E-mail: m.avanesov@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Weinrich, Julius M.; Kraus, Thomas [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Derlin, Thorsten [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover Medical School (Germany); Adam, Gerhard; Yamamura, Jin [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Karul, Murat [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Objectives: The purpose of the retrospective study was to evaluate the additional value of dual-phase multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) protocols over a single-phase protocol on initial MDCT in patients with acute pancreatitis using three CT-based pancreatitis severity scores with regard to radiation dose. Methods: In this retrospective, IRB approved study MDCT was performed in 102 consecutive patients (73 males; 55years, IQR48–64) with acute pancreatitis. Inclusion criteria were CT findings of interstitial edematous pancreatitis (IP) or necrotizing pancreatitis (NP) and a contrast-enhanced dual-phase (arterial phase and portal-venous phase) abdominal CT performed at ≥72 h after onset of symptoms. The severity of pancreatic and extrapancreatic changes was independently assessed by 2 observers using 3 validated CT-based scoring systems (CTSI, mCTSI, EPIC). All scores were applied to arterial phase and portal venous phase scans and compared to score results of portal venous phase scans, assessed ≥14 days after initial evaluation. For effective dose estimation, volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) were recorded in all examinations. Results: In neither of the CT severity scores a significant difference was observed after application of a dual-phase protocol compared with a single-phase protocol (IP: CTSI: 2.7 vs. 2.5, p = 0.25; mCTSI: 4.0 vs. 4.0, p = 0.10; EPIC: 2.0 vs. 2.0, p = 0.41; NP: CTSI: 8.0 vs. 7.0, p = 0.64; mCTSI: 8.0 vs. 8.0, p = 0.10; EPIC: 3.0 vs. 3.0, p = 0.06). The application of a single-phase CT protocol was associated with a median effective dose reduction of 36% (mean dose reduction 31%) compared to a dual-phase CT scan. Conclusions: An initial dual-phase abdominal CT after ≥72 h after onset of symptoms of acute pancreatitis was not superior to a single-phase protocol for evaluation of the severity of pancreatic and extrapancreatic changes. However, the effective radiation dose may be reduced by 36% using a

  8. Acute phase proteins and immunoglobulin classes in newly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: No single organic cause has been found for schizophrenia and its management has been difficult. More so, there are few data on the immune parameters of Nigerian schizophrenic patients on drug treatment and those that are not on treatment. Methodology: This study determines the levels of immunoglobulin

  9. Acute-phase proteins in pregnant goats: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czopowicz, Michał; Szaluś-Jordanow, Olga; Mickiewicz, Marcin; Witkowski, Lucjan; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Reczyńska, Daria; Bagnicka, Emilia; Kaba, Jarosław

    2017-11-01

    We documented changes in serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) concentration in goats during pregnancy, as measured by competitive ELISAs. Fifteen does (pregnant group) and 20 castrated males (control group) were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were collected on the same day from all 35 goats, 7 times throughout the study period: at mating, then once every month, during the week preceding kidding, and 1 mo after kidding. Baseline SAA and Hp concentrations at mating were identical in the 2 groups. In the pregnant group, SAA concentration rose significantly in the second month and remained elevated until the end of pregnancy, with the peak concentration at kidding. In the control group, SAA concentration remained unchanged compared to the baseline concentration throughout the study. SAA concentration was significantly higher in the pregnant than control group only at the end of the fourth month of pregnancy and at kidding. Hp concentration did not change during pregnancy or between groups. SAA concentration at kidding was affected only by parity of does - it was highest in does in the third and fourth pregnancy and gradually lower in older does.

  10. Serum Titers of Acute Phase Proteins and Immunoglobulin Classes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were no significant correlation between duration of smoking, nicotine inhaled, and tar inhaled with any of the humoral factors. Conclusion: This study detected abnormalities in certain aspects of humoral immune responses in Nigerian smokers and this could lead to development of auto-antibodies and cardiovascular ...

  11. The Effects of Diesel Exhaust and Stress on the Acute Phase Response and Symptoms in the Chemically Intolerant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fiedler, Nancy; Leumbach, Robert; Kipen, Howard; Lioy, Paul; Zhang, Jungfeng; Lehrer, Paul

    2006-01-01

    .... The purpose of the proposed study is to test a model for chemical sensitivity in GWV in which simultaneous acute exposures to DE and psychological stress cause increased symptoms via the acute phase response (APR...

  12. The Effects of Diesel Exhaust and Stress on the Acute Phase Response and Symptoms in the Chemically Intolerant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fiedler, Nancy L; Laumbach, Robert; Kipen, Howard; Lioy, Paul; Zhang, Lunfeng

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The proposed study is designed to test a model of Gulf War Illness, in which simultaneous acute exposures to DE and psychological stress cause increased symptoms via the acute phase response (APR...

  13. Impact of protein D-containing pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae acute otitis media and carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Christopher; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Ruiz-Guiñazú, Javier; Borys, Dorota; Mrkvan, Tomas

    2017-07-01

    Protein D-containing vaccines may decrease acute otitis media (AOM) burden and nasopharyngeal carriage of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Protein D-containing pneumococcal conjugate vaccine PHiD-CV (Synflorix, GSK Vaccines) elicits robust immune responses against protein D. However, the phase III Clinical Otitis Media and PneumoniA Study (COMPAS), assessing PHiD-CV efficacy against various pneumococcal diseases, was not powered to demonstrate efficacy against NTHi; only trends of protective efficacy against NTHi AOM in children were shown. Areas covered: This review aims to consider all evidence available to date from pre-clinical and clinical phase III studies together with further evidence emerging from post-marketing studies since PHiD-CV has been introduced into routine clinical practice worldwide, to better describe the clinical utility of protein D in preventing AOM due to NTHi and its impact on NTHi nasopharyngeal carriage. Expert commentary: Protein D is an effective carrier protein in conjugate vaccines and evidence gathered from pre-clinical, clinical and observational studies suggest that it also elicits immune response that can help to reduce the burden of AOM due to NTHi. There remains a need to develop improved vaccines for prevention of NTHi disease, which could be achieved by combining protein D with other antigens.

  14. Solid-phase immunoradiometric assay for serum amyloid A protein using magnetisable cellulose particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Beer, F.C.; Dyck, R.F.; Pepys, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay for human serum amyloid A protein (SAA) was developed using magnetisable cellulose particles as the solid phase. Rabbit antiserum to SAA was raised by immunization with SAA isolated from acute-phase serum by gel filtration in formic acid. The antiserum was rendered monospecific for SAA by solid-phase immunoabsorption with normal human serum, which contains only traces of SAA, and some was coupled covalently to the cellulose particles. Immunopurified anti-SAA antibodies were isolated from the monospecific anti-SAA serum by binding to, and elution from insolubilized acute-phase serum and were radiolabelled with 125 I. The assay was calibrated with an acute phase serum which contained 6000 times more SAA than normal sera with the lowest detectable level of SAA, and an arbitrary value of 6000 U/l was assigned to this standard. Sera were tested in the native, undenatured state and there was no increase in SAA immunoreactivity following alkali treatment or heating. The assay range was from 1-2000 U/l so that all SAA levels above 6 U/l could be measured on a single (1:6) dilution of serum. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 11.7 and 15.0% respectively. Among 100 healthy normal subjects (50 male, 50 female) the median SAA level was 9 U/l, range <1-100, with 93% below 20 U/l and only 2% below the lower limit of sensitivity of the assay (1 U/l). (Auth.)

  15. The MASP family of Trypanosoma cruzi: changes in gene expression and antigenic profile during the acute phase of experimental infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lopes dos Santos

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease, a debilitating illness that affects millions of people in the Americas. A major finding of the T. cruzi genome project was the discovery of a novel multigene family composed of approximately 1,300 genes that encode mucin-associated surface proteins (MASPs. The high level of polymorphism of the MASP family associated with its localization at the surface of infective forms of the parasite suggests that MASP participates in host-parasite interactions. We speculate that the large repertoire of MASP sequences may contribute to the ability of T. cruzi to infect several host cell types and/or participate in host immune evasion mechanisms.By sequencing seven cDNA libraries, we analyzed the MASP expression profile in trypomastigotes derived from distinct host cells and after sequential passages in acutely infected mice. Additionally, to investigate the MASP antigenic profile, we performed B-cell epitope prediction on MASP proteins and designed a MASP-specific peptide array with 110 putative epitopes, which was screened with sera from acutely infected mice.We observed differential expression of a few MASP genes between trypomastigotes derived from epithelial and myoblast cell lines. The more pronounced MASP expression changes were observed between bloodstream and tissue-culture trypomastigotes and between bloodstream forms from sequential passages in acutely infected mice. Moreover, we demonstrated that different MASP members were expressed during the acute T. cruzi infection and constitute parasite antigens that are recognized by IgG and IgM antibodies. We also found that distinct MASP peptides could trigger different antibody responses and that the antibody level against a given peptide may vary after sequential passages in mice. We speculate that changes in the large repertoire of MASP antigenic peptides during an infection may contribute to the evasion of host immune responses during the

  16. Reverse Phase Protein Arrays for High-throughput Toxicity Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marlene Lemvig; Block, Ines; List, Markus

    High-throughput screening is extensively applied for identification of drug targets and drug discovery and recently it found entry into toxicity testing. Reverse phase protein arrays (RPPAs) are used widespread for quantification of protein markers. We reasoned that RPPAs also can be utilized...... beneficially in automated high-throughput toxicity testing. An advantage of using RPPAs is that, in addition to the baseline toxicity readout, they allow testing of multiple markers of toxicity, such as inflammatory responses, which do not necessarily cumulate in cell death. We used transfection of si......RNAs with known killing effects as a model system to demonstrate that RPPA-based protein quantification can serve as substitute readout of cell viability, hereby reliably reflecting toxicity. In terms of automation, cell exposure, protein harvest, serial dilution and sample reformatting were performed using...

  17. Cord Blood Acute Phase Reactants Predict Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis in Preterm Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena B Mithal

    Full Text Available Early onset sepsis (EOS is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants, yet diagnosis remains inadequate resulting in missed cases or prolonged empiric antibiotics with adverse consequences. Evaluation of acute phase reactant (APR biomarkers in umbilical cord blood at birth may improve EOS detection in preterm infants with intrauterine infection.In this nested case-control study, infants (29.7 weeks gestation, IQR: 27.7-32.2 were identified from a longitudinal cohort with archived cord blood and placental histopathology. Patients were categorized using culture, laboratory, clinical, and antibiotic treatment data into sepsis groups: confirmed sepsis (cEOS, n = 12; presumed sepsis (PS, n = 30; and no sepsis (controls, n = 30. Nine APRs were measured in duplicate from cord blood using commercially available multiplex immunoassays (Bio-Plex Pro™. In addition, placental histopathologic data were linked to biomarker results.cEOS organisms were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Proteus mirabilis, Haemophilus influenzae and Listeria monocytogenes. C-reactive protein (CRP, serum amyloid A (SAA, haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid P and ferritin were significantly elevated in cEOS compared to controls (p<0.01. SAA, CRP, and Hp were elevated in cEOS but not in PS (p<0.01 and had AUCs of 99%, 96%, and 95% respectively in predicting cEOS. Regression analysis revealed robust associations of SAA, CRP, and Hp with EOS after adjustment for covariates. Procalcitonin, fibrinogen, α-2-macroglobulin and tissue plasminogen activator were not significantly different across groups. Placental acute inflammation was associated with APR elevation and was present in all cEOS, 9 PS, and 17 control infants.This study shows that certain APRs are elevated in cord blood of premature infants with EOS of intrauterine origin. SAA, CRP, and Hp at birth have potential diagnostic utility for risk stratification and identification of infants with EOS.

  18. Malnutrition in the acutely ill patient: is it more than just protein and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Article: Malnutrition in the acutely ill patient: is it more than just protein and energy? 2011;24(3) ... illness/injury, significant mortality occurs after critically ill patients are discharged from ... a manner similar to that of administering an antibiotic or drug. .... delivery (median of 0.8 g/kg/day protein (after day 3) for the study.

  19. Acute differential effects of milk-derived dietary proteins on postprandial lipaemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Hartvigsen, Merete; Mortensen, L.S.

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial lipaemia is an established risk factor for atherosclerosis. To investigate the acute effect of four milk-derived dietary proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, whey isolate, caseinoglycomacropeptide and whey hydrolysate) on postprandial lipaemia, we have conducted a randomized, acute, single...

  20. The effects of combined therapy of rheumatoid arthritis on the acute phase reactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexhepi, Sylejman; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Pllana, Ejup; Dragusha, Gani; Gashi, Masar; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of acute phase reactants in the 60 treated patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Patients were divided into two groups, depending on the applied treatment: group I (n = 30) was treated with methotrexate, sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine, and group II (n = 30) with methotrexate. The results of our study shows that there is a statistically significant reduction in the value of acute phase reactants and clinical parameters after treatment in both investigated groups of patients, and also a significant statistical difference between the first and second group of treated patients.

  1. Controversial results of therapy with mesenchymal stem cells in the acute phase of canine distemper disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, A O; Cardoso, M T; Vidane, A S; Casals, J B; Passarelli, D; Alencar, A L F; Sousa, R L M; Fantinato-Neto, P; Oliveira, V C; Lara, V M; Ambrósio, C E

    2016-05-23

    Distemper disease is an infectious disease reported in several species of domestic and wild carnivores. The high mortality rate of animals infected with canine distemper virus (CDV) treated with currently available therapies has driven the study of new efficacious treatments. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many degenerative, hereditary, and inflammatory diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize stem cells derived from the canine fetal olfactory epithelium and to assess the systemic response of animals infected with CDV to symptomatic therapy and treatment with MSCs. Eight domestic mongrel dogs (N = 8) were divided into two groups: support group (SG) (N = 5) and support group + cell therapy (SGCT) (N = 3), which were monitored over 15 days. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 6, 9, 12, and 15 to assess blood count and serum biochemistry (urea, creatinine, alanine transferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, total protein, albumin, and globulin), and urine samples were obtained on days 0 and 15 for urinary evaluation (urine I). The results showed a high mortality rate (SG = 4 and SGCT = 2), providing inadequate data on the clinical course of CDV infection. MSC therapy resulted in no significant improvement when administered during the acute phase of canine distemper disease, and a prevalence of animals with high mortality rate was found in both groups due to the severity of symptoms.

  2. Characterization of the local immune response to cyst antigens during the acute and elimination phases of primary murine giardiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Wahid, Aws; Faubert, Gaétan

    2008-05-01

    During the course of a giardial infection, the host's immune system is presented with a variety of Giardia antigens as trophozoites differentiate, through encysting cells, to form the infective cysts. Previous studies examining the host's immune response during giardial infections have focused on trophozoite-derived antigens (Ags). In this study, we were interested to determine if the host's immune system reacts to cyst Ags during the acute and elimination phases, when there is cyst shedding. For this purpose, we used antigenic extracts from trophozoites (Troph), encysting cells (ENC), and purified giardial cyst walls (PCW), as well as purified recombinant cyst wall protein 2 (rCWP2). Comparative analysis of the parasite extracts using SDS-PAGE analysis and surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry resulted in the detection of 175 protein entities, of which 26 were Troph-specific proteins, 17 ENC-specific proteins, and 31 were PCW-specific proteins. On the other hand, we detected 34 proteins shared between Troph and ENC, 19 proteins that were shared between ENC and PCW, and 29 proteins that were common to Troph and PCW. Finally, we detected 19 proteins that were shared by all three extract samples. BALB/c mice were infected with 10(5)Giardia muris cysts and sacrificed either at the acute or elimination phases of infection (days 12 and 40, respectively), and lymphocytes were isolated from the Peyer's patches (PP). Using flow cytometry, we detected significant increases in the number of PP-derived CD4(+) and CD19(+), but not CD8(+) lymphocytes. Quantification of the number of mucosal IL-4 and IFN-gamma secreting T-lymphocytes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay showed that these cells reacted by secreting similar levels of IL-4 and IFN-gamma, regardless of the Ag or the phase of infection. Analysis of intestinal humoral immune responses by ELISA resulted in the detection of Ag-specific IgA and IgG intestinal antibodies

  3. Modulation of the acute phase response in feedlot steers supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of supplementing feedlot steers with Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1079 (SC) on the acute phase response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Steers (n = 18; 266 ± 4 kilograms body weight) were separated into three treatment groups (n = 6/treatm...

  4. Acute and phase-shifting effects of ocular and extraocular light in human circadian physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rüger, Melanie; Gordijn, Marijke C.M.; Beersma, Domien G.M.; de Vries, Bonnie; Daan, Serge

    2003-01-01

    Light can influence physiology and performance of humans in two distinct ways. It can acutely change the level of physiological and behavioral parameters, and it can induce a phase shift in the circadian oscillators underlying variations in these levels. Until recently, both effects were thought to

  5. Gene expression profiling of porcine skeletal muscle in the early recovery phase following acute physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeanette; Conley, Lene; Hedegaard, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Acute physical activity elicits changes in gene expression in skeletal muscles to promote metabolic changes and to repair exercise-induced muscle injuries. In the present time-course study, pigs were submitted to an acute bout of treadmill running until near exhaustion to determine the impact...... associated with proteolytic events, such as the muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase atrogin-1, were significantly upregulated, suggesting that protein breakdown, prevention of protein aggregation and stabilization of unfolded proteins are important processes for restoration of cellular homeostasis. We also...... detected an upregulation of genes that are associated with muscle cell proliferation and differentiation, including MUSTN1, ASB5 and CSRP3, possibly reflecting activation, differentiation and fusion of satellite cells to facilitate repair of muscle damage. In addition, exercise increased expression...

  6. PROTEOSE INTOXICATIONS AND INJURY OF BODY PROTEIN : V. THE INCREASE IN NON-PROTEIN NITROGEN OF THE BLOOD IN ACUTE INFLAMMATORY PROCESSES AND ACUTE INTOXICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, J V; Whipple, G H

    1918-08-01

    Sterile abscess formation in the dog is accompanied by a large increase in output of urinary nitrogen and also by a small but definite increase in the blood non-protein nitrogen. All this nitrogenous material of course is derived from body protein injury and autolysis. Septic inflammation in the dog (pleurisy, pneumonia, peritonitis, etc.) likewise shows a distinct rise in the blood non-protein nitrogen. This rise is not often so great as that frequently observed in the intoxication of intestinal obstruction. Many acute infections in man (septicemia, peritonitis, pneumonia, etc.) show a definite rise in the non-protein nitrogen and urea nitrogen of the blood; some cases show a very great rise above normal (over 100 mg. of non-protein nitrogen per 100 cc. of blood). There may be no anatomical change in the kidney beyond the familiar picture of cloudy swelling. This does not exclude the possibility of some transient functional derangement of the kidney epithelium. Certain obscure intoxications in man may show a considerable rise in the non-protein nitrogen of the blood, indicating a large amount of protein disintegration. These findings must be taken into account in any clinical analysis and interpretation of high non-protein nitrogen of the blood in pathological conditions.

  7. Influence of Acute High Glucose on Protein Abundance Changes in Murine Glomerular Mesangial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle T. Barati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of acute exposure to high glucose levels as experienced by glomerular mesangial cells in postprandial conditions and states such as in prediabetes were investigated using proteomic methods. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry methods were used to identify protein expression patterns in immortalized rat mesangial cells altered by 2 h high glucose (HG growth conditions as compared to isoosmotic/normal glucose control (NG⁎ conditions. Unique protein expression changes at 2 h HG treatment were measured for 51 protein spots. These proteins could be broadly grouped into two categories: (1 proteins involved in cell survival/cell signaling and (2 proteins involved in stress response. Immunoblot experiments for a protein belonging to both categories, prohibitin (PHB, supported a trend for increased total expression as well as significant increases in an acidic PHB isoform. Additional studies confirmed the regulation of proteasomal subunit alpha-type 2 and the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone and oxidoreductase PDI (protein disulfide isomerase, suggesting altered ER protein folding capacity and proteasomal function in response to acute HG. We conclude that short term high glucose induces subtle changes in protein abundances suggesting posttranslational modifications and regulation of pathways involved in proteostasis.

  8. Postpartum Circulating Markers of Inflammation and the Systemic Acute-Phase Response After Early-Onset Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Bas B; Bruinse, Hein W; Veerbeek, Jan H; Post Uiterweer, Emiel D; Koenen, Steven V; van der Bom, Johanna G; Rijkers, Ger T; Roest, Mark; Franx, Arie

    2016-02-01

    Preeclampsia is an inflammatory-mediated hypertensive disorder of pregnancy and seems to be an early indicator of increased cardiovascular risk, but mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. In this study, we identified levels of circulating inflammatory markers and dynamic changes in the systemic acute-phase response in 44 women with a history of severe early-onset preeclampsia, compared with 29 controls with only uneventful pregnancies at 1.5 to 3.5 years postpartum. Models used were in vivo seasonal influenza vaccination and in vitro whole-blood culture with T-cell stimulants and the toll-like receptor-4 ligand lipopolysaccharide. Outcome measures were C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-18, fibrinogen, myeloperoxidase, and a panel of 13 cytokines representative of the innate and adaptive inflammatory response, in addition to established cardiovascular markers. The in vivo acute-phase response was higher for women with previous preeclampsia than that for controls without such a history, although only significant for C-reactive protein (P=0.04). Preeclampsia was associated with higher IL-1β (Ppreeclampsia: an adaptive response cluster associated with increased C-reactive protein and IL-6 before and after vaccination, increased weight, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and a toll-like receptor-4 mediated the cluster associated with increased IL-18 before and after vaccination but not associated with other cardiovascular markers. Furthermore, we found interactions between previous preeclampsia, common TLR4 gene variants, and the IL-18 response to vaccination. In conclusion, preeclampsia is associated with alterations in the inflammatory response postpartum mostly independent of other established cardiovascular risk markers. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Solid phase radioimmunoassays for human C-reactive protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shine, B.; Beer, F.C. de; Pepys, M.B.

    1981-01-01

    Two new, rapid and sensitive radioimmunoassays for human C-reactive protein (CRP) have been established using antiserum coupled to magnetizable cellulose particles, which facilitate phase separation. A single antibody method, using solid phase anti-CRP, provides a sensitivity of 50 μg/l with a 1-h incubation time and intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation of 10%. A double antibody method, using fluid phase rabbit anti-CRP serum and solid phase sheep anti-rabbit IgG serum, provides a sensitivity of 3 μg/l with an overnight incubation and intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation of 10%. Among 468 sera from normal adult volunteer blood donors the median CRP concentration was 800 μg/l, interquartile range 340-1700 μg/l and range 70-29,000 μg/l. Ninety percent of samples contained less than 3 mg/l and 99% less than 10 mg/l. Low levels (14-650 μg/l) of CRP were detected both in amniotic fluids and in cerebrospinal fluids. (Auth.)

  10. Acute fluoride poisoning alters myocardial cytoskeletal and AMPK signaling proteins in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerselvam, Lakshmikanthan; Raghunath, Azhwar; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2017-02-15

    Our previous findings revealed that increased oxidative stress, apoptosis and necrosis were implicated in acute fluoride (F - ) induced cardiac dysfunction apart from hypocalcemia and hyperkalemia. Cardiac intermediate filaments (desmin and vimentin) and cytoskeleton linker molecule vinculin plays an imperative role in maintaining the architecture of cardiac cytoskeleton. In addition, AMPK is a stress activated kinase that regulates the energy homeostasis during stressed state. The present study was aimed to examine the role of cytoskeletal proteins and AMPK signaling molecules in acute F - induced cardiotoxicity in rats. In order to study this, male Wistar rats were treated with single oral doses of 45 and 90mg/kgF - for 24h. Acute F - intoxicated rats showed declined cytoskeletal protein expression of desmin, vimentin and vinculin in a dose dependent manner compared to control. A significant increase in phosphorylation of AMPKα (Thr172), AMPKß1 (Ser108) and Acetyl-coA carboxylase (ACC) (Ser79) in the myocardium and associated ATP deprivation were found in acute F - intoxicated rats. Further, ultra-structural studies confirmed myofibril lysis with interruption of Z lines, dilated sarcoplasmic reticulum and damaged mitochondrion were observed in both the groups of F - intoxicated rats. Taken together, these findings reveal that acute F - exposure causes sudden heart failure by altering the expression of cytoskeletal proteins and AMPK signaling molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential expression of myocardial heat shock proteins in rats acutely exposed to fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerselvam, Lakshmikanthan; Raghunath, Azhwar; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2017-09-01

    Acute fluoride (F - ) toxicity is known to cause severe cardiac complications and leads to sudden heart failure. Previously, we reported that increased myocardial oxidative damage, apoptosis, altered cytoskeleton and AMPK signaling proteins associated with energy deprivation in acute F - induced cardiac dysfunction. The present study was aimed to decipher the status of myocardial heat shock proteins (Hsps-Hsp27, Hsp32, Hsp40, Hsp60, Hsp70, Hsp90) and heat shock transcription factor 1 (Hsf1) in acute F - -intoxicated rats. In order to study the expression of myocardial Hsps, male Wistar rats were treated with single oral doses of 45 and 90 mg/kg F - for 24 h. The expression levels of myocardial Hsps were determined using RT-PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemical studies. Acute F - -intoxicated rats showed elevated levels of both the transcripts and protein expression of Hsf1, Hsp27, Hsp32, Hsp60, and Hsp70 when compared to control. In addition, the expression levels of Hsp40 and Hsp90 were significantly declined in a dose-dependent fashion in F - -treated animals. Our result suggests that differential expression of Hsps in the rat myocardium could serve as a balance between pro-survival and death signal during acute F - -induced heart failure.

  12. Increased platelet aggregation and turnover in the acute phase of ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Løkke Funck; Dalsgaard, Jens; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2013-01-01

    Newly produced platelets are present in the acute phase of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This may influence the antiplatelet effect of aspirin and clopidogrel administered prior to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). The aims of this study were to investigate the anti...... turnover may partly explain the reduced efficacy of antiplatelet drugs in the acute phase of STEMI....... the antiplatelet effect of aspirin and clopidogrel and evaluate platelet turnover in the acute phase of STEMI compared to a stable phase 3 months later. In this observational follow-up study on 48 STEMI patients transferred for PPCI, loading doses of aspirin (300 mg) and clopidogrel (600 mg) were given orally...... in the ambulance. Blood samples were obtained immediately prior to PPCI, at 4 and 12 hours after administration of bolus doses and at follow-up after 3 months. Residual platelet aggregation was evaluated by Multiplate® and VerifyNow® aggregometry. Platelet turnover was evaluated by automated flow cytometry...

  13. [Echocardiographic indices related with acute coronary anatomy in acute phase of myocardial infarction: our experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belluzzi, Fabio; Ciocca, Anna; Grosso Di Palma, Lucia; Cattaneo, Mattia; Conti, Caterina; Magrini, Fabio

    2011-11-01

    Inferior acute myocardial infarction (IAMI) is often associated with right ventricle involvement (RVAMI). Echocardiogram (Echo) shows the ischemic involvement of the right ventricle with an initial dilatation (RVD) and segmental cinetic abnormalities (RVSCS). During RVAMI the normal convexity of the interatrial septum (IAS) toward right atrium is inverted (IASI). 53 patients with IAMI were studied with ECG, echo and hemodinamic monitoring by a Swan-Ganz catheter. Echo was early performed and patients were subdivided into three groups: 1. IAMI with RVSCS and/or RVD with IASI (12 patients); 2. IAMI with RVSCS and/or RVD without IASI (8 patients); 3. IAMI without VSCS, RVD IASI (33 patients). ECG showed RV involvement only in A and B groups (ST-T segment elevation more than 2 mm in V3 r - V5 r). Echo-Doppler showed no statistically differences between the two groups on RV protodiastolic pression; no hemodinamic differences between the two groups (p = n.s.); no statistically differences in central venous pressure, right ventricular pressure, cardiac output, wedge pressure. Complications (arrhytmias, heart failure, ipotension, pericarditis, 3rd A-V block) were so subdivided: group A: 6 patients (50%); group B: 2 patients (24%); group C: 4 patients (12%) with statistical significance (p41 % in group A (5 patients); 20 % in group B (2 patients); 6 % in group C (2 patients), with p<0.01 between all three groups. Echo after six months showed IASI only in two patients of group A. Patients with IASI revealed complications (residual angina, ventricular ipercinetic arrytmias). IASI in patients with IAMI and RVAMI seems to identify a group with higher risk in developing complications and with a more adverse prognosis.

  14. Mitogen-activated protein kinases in the acute diabetic myocardium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strnisková, M.; Barančík, M.; Neckář, Jan; Ravingerová, T.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 249, 1-2 (2003), s. 59-65 ISSN 0300-8177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A069 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/2063/22 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : experimental diabetes * ischemia * mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.763, year: 2003

  15. Role of CC chemokines (macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, RANTES) in acute lung injury in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bless, N M; Huber-Lang, M; Guo, R F

    2000-01-01

    The role of the CC chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1 beta), monocyte chemotactic peptide-1 (MCP-1), and RANTES, in acute lung inflammatory injury induced by intrapulmonary deposition of IgG immune complexes injury in rats was determined. Rat MIP-1 beta, MCP-1, and RANTES...... were cloned, the proteins were expressed, and neutralizing Abs were developed. mRNA and protein expression for MIP-1 beta and MCP-1 were up-regulated during the inflammatory response, while mRNA and protein expression for RANTES were constitutive and unchanged during the inflammatory response....... Treatment of rats with anti-MIP-1 beta Ab significantly decreased vascular permeability by 37% (p = 0.012), reduced neutrophil recruitment into lung by 65% (p = 0.047), and suppressed levels of TNF-alpha in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids by 61% (p = 0.008). Treatment of rats with anti-rat MCP-1 or anti...

  16. Complement lysis activity in autologous plasma is associated with lower viral loads during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Huber

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the possibility that antibody-mediated complement lysis contributes to viremia control in HIV-1 infection, we measured the activity of patient plasma in mediating complement lysis of autologous primary virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sera from two groups of patients-25 with acute HIV-1 infection and 31 with chronic infection-were used in this study. We developed a novel real-time PCR-based assay strategy that allows reliable and sensitive quantification of virus lysis by complement. Plasma derived at the time of virus isolation induced complement lysis of the autologous virus isolate in the majority of patients. Overall lysis activity against the autologous virus and the heterologous primary virus strain JR-FL was higher at chronic disease stages than during the acute phase. Most strikingly, we found that plasma virus load levels during the acute but not the chronic infection phase correlated inversely with the autologous complement lysis activity. Antibody reactivity to the envelope (Env proteins gp120 and gp41 were positively correlated with the lysis activity against JR-FL, indicating that anti-Env responses mediated complement lysis. Neutralization and complement lysis activity against autologous viruses were not associated, suggesting that complement lysis is predominantly caused by non-neutralizing antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively our data provide evidence that antibody-mediated complement virion lysis develops rapidly and is effective early in the course of infection; thus it should be considered a parameter that, in concert with other immune functions, steers viremia control in vivo.

  17. Role of lysosomal enzymes released by alveolar macrophages in the pathogenesis of the acute phase of hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Pérez-Arellano

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolytic enzymes are the major constituents of alveolar macrophages (AM and have been shown to be involved in many aspects of the inflammatory pulmonary response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of lysosomal enzymes in the acute phase of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HPs. An experimental study on AM lysosomal enzymes of an HP-guinea-pig model was performed. The results obtained both in vivo and in vitro suggest that intracellular enzymatic activity decrease is, at least partly, due to release of lysosomal enzymes into the medium. A positive but slight correlation was found between extracellular lysosomal activity and four parameters of lung lesion (lung index, bronchoalveolar fluid total (BALF protein concentration, BALF LDH and BALF alkaline phosphatase activities. All the above findings suggest that the AM release of lysosomal enzymes during HP is a factor involved, although possibly not the only one, in the pulmonary lesions appearing in this disease.

  18. Transcriptional profiling of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae during the acute phase of a natural infection in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harel Josée

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a respiratory disease which causes great economic losses worldwide. Many virulence factors are involved in the pathogenesis, namely capsular polysaccharides, RTX toxins, LPS and many iron acquisition systems. In order to identify genes that are expressed in vivo during a natural infection, we undertook transcript profiling experiments with an A. pleuropneumoniae DNA microarray, after recovery of bacterial mRNAs from serotype 5b-infected porcine lungs. AppChip2 contains 2033 PCR amplicons based on the genomic sequence of App serotype 5b strain L20, representing more than 95% of ORFs greater than 160 bp in length. Results Transcriptional profiling of A. pleuropneumoniae recovered from the lung of a pig suffering from a natural infection or following growth of the bacterial isolate in BHI medium was performed. An RNA extraction protocol combining beadbeating and hot-acid-phenol was developed in order to maximize bacterial mRNA yields and quality following total RNA extraction from lung lesions. Nearly all A. pleuropneumoniae transcripts could be detected on our microarrays, and 150 genes were deemed differentially expressed in vivo during the acute phase of the infection. Our results indicate that, for example, gene apxIVA from an operon coding for RTX toxin ApxIV is highly up-regulated in vivo, and that two genes from the operon coding for type IV fimbriae (APL_0878 and APL_0879 were also up-regulated. These transcriptional profiling data, combined with previous comparative genomic hybridizations performed by our group, revealed that 66 out of the 72 up-regulated genes are conserved amongst all serotypes and that 3 of them code for products that are predicted outer membrane proteins (genes irp and APL_0959, predicted to code for a TonB-dependent receptor and a filamentous hemagglutinin/adhesin respectively or lipoproteins (gene APL_0920. Only 4

  19. 'Living a life in shades of grey': experiencing depressive symptoms in the acute phase after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouwenhoven, Siren E; Kirkevold, Marit; Engedal, Knut; Kim, Hesook S

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the lived experience of stroke survivors suffering from depressive symptoms in the acute phase; addressing the following questions: (a) what is the nature of depression as experienced by post-stroke patients in the acute phase? (b) what is it like to live with depression within the first weeks following stroke? Post-stroke depression occurs in at least one quarter of stroke survivors and is linked to poorer outcomes. This qualitative study is methodologically grounded in hermeneutic phenomenology, influenced by van Manen and Ricoeur. A descriptive, qualitative design was used applying in-depth interviews as the method of data collection with nine participants. The data collection took place in 2008. The material revealed two main themes that generate the feeling and description of 'living a life in shades of grey': (a) being trapped and (b) losing oneself. 'Shades of grey' could be understood as being confined in a new life-world and losing oneself as the person one knew. The participants confirmed suffering from depressive symptoms, but depression was not seen as meaningful on its own. They related their experiences of post-stroke depression in the acute phase to the losses they experienced. Nurses ought to take into account the depth of the life changes that stroke survivors may experience. There is a need for continued empirical research on how nurses may help and support stroke survivors dealing with depressive symptoms in the acute phase after stroke and how depressive symptoms develop over time. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. PROGRESSIVE ALTERATION OF SERUM PROTEINS IN RATS SEVERAL MONTHS AFTER AN ACUTE OR PROTRACTED IRRADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghys, R.; Reuter, A.

    1963-06-15

    Delayed changes of the serum proteins in male Sprague Dawley rats that survived the acute radiation syndrome were investigated. Doses of Co/sup 60/ gamma ranging from LD/sub O/ to LD/sub 50/ were given to rats six to eight weeks of age. Paper electrophoreses and microdosage of proteins by the buiret method were performed on plasma proteins for 206 rats: 29 with acute irradiation; 73 chronic irradiation; 44 acute irradiation following cold acclimatization; and 80 normal animals. No significant variations in the total serum proteins were found in andy one group. Alpha globulins were found to be slightly above normal in some irradiated rats, but there was no significant variation in the BETA globulin fraction. Gamma globulins showed a marked and consistent increase following irradiation. Thus for observed protein chandges in irradiated rats have not proven to be dose dependent. It is suggested that the changes may provide a link between early irradiation syndrome and late effects. (H.M.G.)

  1. Differing results of direct and indirect solid phase radioimmunoassay for HBsAg in acute hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohm, W.D.; Legler, K.; Gerlich, W.; Stamm, B.; Zimmer, S.; Biotest-Serum-Institut G.m.b.H., Frankfurt am Main; Goettingen Univ.

    1978-01-01

    In 54 patients suffering from active viral hepatitis the indirect solid phase radioimmunoassay (ind-SPRIA) for HBsAg was positive in 9 cases the direct solid phase radioimmunoassay (d-SPRIA) being negative. In 2 further cases ind-SPRIA was positive during several weeks but d-SPRIA only once. AntiHBc could be detected in 9 of these patients. In 7 patients the usual decrease of the transaminase activity was followed by a second elavation with prolongation of the disease. The unknown factor detected by ind-SPRIA suggests a special of acute hepatitis. (orig.) [de

  2. Differing results of direct and indirect solid phase radioimmunoassay for HBsAg in acute hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohm, W D; Legler, K; Gerlich, W; Stamm, B; Zimmer, S [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Gastroenterologie; Biotest-Serum-Institut G.m.b.H., Frankfurt am Main (Germany, F.R.); Goettingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Hygiene-Institut)

    1978-09-01

    In 54 patients suffering from active viral hepatitis the indirect solid phase radioimmunoassay (ind-SPRIA) for HBsAg was positive in 9 cases the direct solid phase radioimmunoassay (d-SPRIA) being negative. In 2 further cases ind-SPRIA was positive during several weeks but d-SPRIA only once. AntiHBc could be detected in 9 of these patients. In 7 patients the usual decrease of the transaminase activity was followed by a second elavation with prolongation of the disease. The unknown factor detected by ind-SPRIA suggests a special of acute hepatitis.

  3. Protein metabolism in malnourished children with acute lower respiratory infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manary, M.; Broadhead, R.

    1996-01-01

    We studied 19 subjects and 15 controls from November 1994 to February 1995. HIV infection is common among this population and HIV testing was done by ELISA of most subjects and controls in the course of their routine clinical care. To determine how HIV infection effects protein metabolism all HIV infected subjects and controls were grouped into a third category and compared to the subjects and controls. After the HIV subgrouping we were left with 13 subjects, 13 controls, and 8 HIV positive patients. KIC enrichments were used to calculate protein synthesis and breakdown, as KIC is believed to reflect intracellular leucine concentrations. Of note in Table 2 is the KIC/Leucine ratio is consistently greater than 1, averaging 1.3 over 16 samples. This is an unexpected finding as the KIC/Leucine ratio has been shown to be constant with a value of about 0.75 over a wide range of conditions. Samples for these eight patients have been evaluated under six different GCMS conditions to verify this unexpected observation. This ratio > 1.0 has been consistently found under all of these conditions. We are not certain what biological phenomenon can explain this, but it calls into question the validity of the four compartment model upon which these calculations are based. It is not unreasonable to expect that children with kwashiorkor metabolize ketoacids differently, and this difference could account for the increased KIC/Leucine ratio. 19 refs, 4 tabs

  4. Physiologic and systemic acute phase inflammatory responses in young horses repeatedly infected with cyathostomins and Strongylus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, U V; Reinemeyer, C R; Toft, N; Olsen, S N; Jacobsen, S; Nielsen, M K

    2014-03-17

    Migrating Strongylus vulgaris and encysted cyathostomin larvae cause a localized inflammatory response in horses. It is unknown whether these larvae elicit a systemic acute phase response (APR), evidenced by changes in serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), iron (Fe), albumin, or albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio. In this study, 28 horses were randomly allocated to receive either pyrantel tartrate or a pelleted placebo formulation in their daily feed. Concurrent with treatment, all the horses were administered 5000 pyrantel-susceptible cyathostomin infective larvae once daily, 5 days a week, for 24 weeks. Beginning in the fifth week, the horses also received 25 S. vulgaris larvae once weekly for the remainder of the study. At regular biweekly intervals, fecal samples were collected for quantitative egg counts, and whole blood and serum samples were collected for measurement of packed cell volume, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, SAA, Hp, and Fe. On days 161-164, all the horses were euthanatized and necropsied. Samples were collected for enumeration of total luminal worm burdens, encysted cyathostomin larval populations, and migrating S. vulgaris larvae. Concentrations of Hp, Fe, and A/G ratio were associated significantly with strongyle burdens. Only treated male horses had significant increases in serum albumin. Larval S. vulgaris did not associate with Fe, whereas Fe was associated negatively with both total cyathostomin burdens and encysted L4s. The A/G ratios differed significantly between the two treatment groups. Significant differences between groups and individual time points were also observed for Hp and Fe, whereas SAA concentrations remained low throughout the study. In general, this study illustrated that experimental inoculations with S. vulgaris and cyathostomins may be associated with changes in Hp, Fe, and serum proteins, but not with SAA. Overall, these changes suggest that mixed strongyle infections elicit a mild acute phase reaction

  5. Impaired mitochondrial respiration and protein nitration in the rat hippocampus after acute inhalation of combustion smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Heung M.; Reed, Jason; Greeley, George H.; Englander, Ella W.

    2009-01-01

    Survivors of massive inhalation of combustion smoke endure critical injuries, including lasting neurological complications. We have previously reported that acute inhalation of combustion smoke disrupts the nitric oxide homeostasis in the rat brain. In this study, we extend our findings and report that a 30-minute exposure of awake rats to ambient wood combustion smoke induces protein nitration in the rat hippocampus and that mitochondrial proteins are a sensitive nitration target in this setting. Mitochondria are central to energy metabolism and cellular signaling and are critical to proper cell function. Here, analyses of the mitochondrial proteome showed elevated protein nitration in the course of a 24-hour recovery following exposure to smoke. Mass spectrometry identification of several significantly nitrated mitochondrial proteins revealed diverse functions and involvement in central aspects of mitochondrial physiology. The nitrated proteins include the ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase, F1-ATP synthase α subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3), succinate dehydrogenase Fp subunit, and voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1) protein. Furthermore, acute exposure to combustion smoke significantly compromised the respiratory capacity of hippocampal mitochondria. Importantly, elevated protein nitration and reduced mitochondrial respiration in the hippocampus persisted beyond the time required for restoration of normal oxygen and carboxyhemoglobin blood levels after the cessation of exposure to smoke. Thus, the time frame for intensification of the various smoke-induced effects differs between blood and brain tissues. Taken together, our findings suggest that nitration of essential mitochondrial proteins may contribute to the reduction in mitochondrial respiratory capacity and underlie, in part, the brain pathophysiology after acute inhalation of combustion smoke

  6. Reverse phase protein microarray technology in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyorgy, Andrea B; Walker, John; Wingo, Dan; Eidelman, Ofer; Pollard, Harvey B; Molnar, Andras; Agoston, Denes V

    2010-09-30

    Antibody based, high throughput proteomics technology represents an exciting new approach in understanding the pathobiologies of complex disorders such as cancer, stroke and traumatic brain injury. Reverse phase protein microarray (RPPA) can complement the classical methods based on mass spectrometry as a high throughput validation and quantification method. RPPA technology can address problematic issues, such as sample complexity, sensitivity, quantification, reproducibility and throughput, which are currently associated with mass spectrometry-based approaches. However, there are technical challenges, predominantly associated with the selection and use of antibodies, preparation and representation of samples and with analyzing and quantifying primary RPPA data. Here we present ways to identify and overcome some of the current issues associated with RPPA. We believe that using stringent quality controls, improved bioinformatics analysis and interpretation of primary RPPA data, this method will significantly contribute in generating new level of understanding about complex disorders at the level of systems biology. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Low protein Z plasma level is a risk factor for acute myocardial infarction in coronary atherosclerosis disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoxin; Li, Yong; Luo, Jiachen; Dai, Liming; Zhao, Jinlong; Li, Hongqiang; Jie, Qiqiang; Wang, Dongzhi; Huang, Xin; Wei, Yidong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine plasma protein Z (PZ) levels in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and chronic coronary atherosclerosis disease (CCAD) patients without history of AMI and explore its potential clinical significance. Methods Plasma PZ concentrations were measured in 90 AMI patients (Group A), 87 CCAD patients without AMI history who remained free of major clinical events at least one year (Group B), and 88 clinically healthy controls (Group C). Results PZ was found to be significantly lower (PC (2001.7 ± 733.0 ng/mL) groups and in A+B compared with C Group (A+B 1663.1±570.0, PC groups (P=0.081). PZ level was significantly correlated with concentration of creatine kinase MB, high sensitive-cardiac troponin T, high sensitive C reactive protein, D-dimer and coagulation factor II and may be a useful predictor for AMI (OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.13-1.77, P=0.03). Subgroup analysis showed PZ concentration below the lowest tertile (< 1398 ng/mL) had a significantly increased risk for AMI and CCAD (OR: 3.39; 95% CI: 1.12-10.31; P=0.03 and OR: 7.39; 95% CI: 2.62-20.79; P<0.001 respectively). Conclusions PZ deficiency is found in AMI patients and could potentially reflect the myocardium injury, local coagulation activation and inflammation response during the acute phase of coronary atherosclerosis disease. PMID:27770663

  8. Pulmonary response to surface‐coated nanotitanium dioxide particles includes induction of acute phase response genes, inflammatory cascades, and changes in microRNAs: A toxicogenomic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halappanavar, Sabina; Jackson, Petra; Williams, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    with acute phase, inflammation and immune response 5 days post exposure with concomitant changes in several miRNAs. The role of these miRNAs in pulmonary response to inhaled particles is unknown and warrants further research. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2011. © 2011 Wiley‐Liss, Inc....... in increased levels of mRNA for acute phase markers serum amyloid A‐1 (Saa1) and serum amyloid A‐3 (Saa3), several C‐X‐C and C‐C motif chemokines, and cytokine tumor necrosis factor genes. Protein analysis of Saa1 and 3 showed selective upregulation of Saa3 in lung tissues. Sixteen miRNAs were induced by more...... than 1.2‐fold (adjusted P‐value changes in the expression of genes associated...

  9. Trajectories of sleep changes during the acute phase of traumatic brain injury: A 7-day actigraphy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Yean Chiu

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Poor sleep efficiency and longer sleep duration are common symptoms in acute TBI patients. Both head injury severity and age predicted the trajectories of daytime and 24-hour sleep duration during the acute phase of TBI, whereas gender predicted the trajectories of 24-hour sleep duration in the mild TBI subgroup.

  10. Gas phase absorption studies of photoactive yellow protein chromophore derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Rinza, Toms; Christiansen, Ove; Rajput, Jyoti; Gopalan, Aravind; Rahbek, Dennis B; Andersen, Lars H; Bochenkova, Anastasia V; Granovsky, Alexander A; Bravaya, Ksenia B; Nemukhin, Alexander V; Christiansen, Kasper Lincke; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2009-08-27

    Photoabsorption spectra of deprotonated trans p-coumaric acid and two of its methyl substituted derivatives have been studied in gas phase both experimentally and theoretically. We have focused on the spectroscopic effect of the location of the two possible deprotonation sites on the trans p-coumaric acid which originate to either a phenoxide or a carboxylate. Surprisingly, the three chromophores were found to have the same absorption maximum at 430 nm, in spite of having different deprotonation positions. However, the absorption of the chromophore in polar solution is substantially different for the distinct deprotonation locations. We also report on the time scales and pathways of relaxation after photoexcitation for the three photoactive yellow protein chromophore derivatives. As a result of these experiments, we could detect the phenoxide isomer within the deprotonated trans p-coumaric acid in gas phase; however, the occurrence of the carboxylate is uncertain. Several computational methods were used simultaneously to provide insights and assistance in the interpretation of our experimental results. The calculated excitation energies S(0)-S(1) are in good agreement with experiment for those systems having a negative charge on a phenoxide moiety. Although our augmented multiconfigurational quasidegenerate perturbation theory calculations agree with experiment in the description of the absorption spectrum of anions with a carboxylate functional group, there are some puzzling disagreements between experiment and some calculational methods in the description of these systems.

  11. Citocinas e proteínas de fase aguda do soro como marcadores de regressão da resposta inflamatória ao tratamento da tuberculose pulmonar Cytokines and acute phase serum proteins as markers of inflammatory regression during the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Peresi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o padrão de citocinas pró- e antiinflamatórias e da resposta de fase aguda (RFA como marcadores de resposta ao tratamento da tuberculose pulmonar. MÉTODOS: Determinação dos níveis de interferon-gama (IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, fator de necrose tumoral-alfa, interleucina-10 (IL-10 e transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β, fator transformador de crescimento-beta, pelo método ELISA, em sobrenadante de cultura de células mononucleares do sangue periférico e monócitos, assim como dos níveis de proteínas totais, albumina, globulinas, alfa-1-glicoproteína ácida (AGA, proteína C reativa (PCR e velocidade de hemossedimentação (VHS em 28 doentes com tuberculose pulmonar, em três tempos: antes (T0, aos três meses (T3 e aos seis meses (T6 de tratamento, em relação aos controles saudáveis, em um único tempo. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes apresentaram valores maiores de citocinas e RFA que os controles em T0, com diminuição em T3 e diminuição (TNF-α, IL-10, TGF-β, AGA e VHS ou normalização (IFN-γ e PCR em T6. CONCLUSÕES: PCR, AGA e VHS são possíveis marcadores para auxiliar no diagnóstico de tuberculose pulmonar e na indicação de tratamento de indivíduos com baciloscopia negativa; PCR (T0 > T3 > T6 = referência pode também ser marcador de resposta ao tratamento. Antes do tratamento, o perfil Th0 (IFN-γ, IL-10, TNF-α e TGF-β, indutor de e protetor contra inflamação, prevaleceu nos pacientes; em T6, prevaleceu o perfil Th2 (IL-10, TNF-α e TGF-β, protetor contra efeito nocivo pró-inflamatório do TNF-α ainda presente. O comportamento do IFN-γ (T0 > T3 > T6 = controle sugere sua utilização como marcador de resposta ao tratamento.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pattern of pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines and the acute phase response (APR as markers of the response to treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

  12. Phase I/Phase II Study of Blinatumomab in Pediatric Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stackelberg, Arend; Locatelli, Franco; Zugmaier, Gerhard; Handgretinger, Rupert; Trippett, Tanya M; Rizzari, Carmelo; Bader, Peter; O'Brien, Maureen M; Brethon, Benoît; Bhojwani, Deepa; Schlegel, Paul Gerhardt; Borkhardt, Arndt; Rheingold, Susan R; Cooper, Todd Michael; Zwaan, Christian M; Barnette, Phillip; Messina, Chiara; Michel, Gérard; DuBois, Steven G; Hu, Kuolung; Zhu, Min; Whitlock, James A; Gore, Lia

    2016-12-20

    Purpose Blinatumomab is a bispecific T-cell engager antibody construct targeting CD19 on B-cell lymphoblasts. We evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, recommended dosage, and potential for efficacy of blinatumomab in children with relapsed/refractory B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). Methods This open-label study enrolled children treatment cycles. Primary end points were maximum-tolerated dosage (phase I) and complete remission rate within the first two cycles (phase II). Results We treated 49 patients in phase I and 44 patients in phase II. Four patients had dose-limiting toxicities in cycle 1 (phase I). Three experienced grade 4 cytokine-release syndrome (one attributed to grade 5 cardiac failure); one had fatal respiratory failure. The maximum-tolerated dosage was 15 µg/m 2 /d. Blinatumomab pharmacokinetics was linear across dosage levels and consistent among age groups. On the basis of the phase I data, the recommended blinatumomab dosage for children with relapsed/refractory ALL was 5 µg/m 2 /d for the first 7 days, followed by 15 µg/m 2 /d thereafter. Among the 70 patients who received the recommended dosage, 27 (39%; 95% CI, 27% to 51%) achieved complete remission within the first two cycles, 14 (52%) of whom achieved complete minimal residual disease response. The most frequent grade ≥ 3 adverse events were anemia (36%), thrombocytopenia (21%), and hypokalemia (17%). Three patients (4%) and one patient (1%) had cytokine-release syndrome of grade 3 and 4, respectively. Two patients (3%) interrupted treatment after grade 2 seizures. Conclusion This trial, which to the best of our knowledge was the first such trial in pediatrics, demonstrated antileukemic activity of single-agent blinatumomab with complete minimal residual disease response in children with relapsed/refractory BCP-ALL. Blinatumomab may represent an important new treatment option in this setting, requiring further investigation in curative indications.

  13. Prognostic value of sustained elevated C-reactive protein levels in patients with acute aortic intramural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitai, Takeshi; Kaji, Shuichiro; Kim, Kitae; Ehara, Natsuhiko; Tani, Tomoko; Kinoshita, Makoto; Furukawa, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The appropriate management of aortic intramural hematoma is still controversial, because a variety of aortic events can arise during follow-up in some patients. However, simplified identification of these patients remains challenging. The present study aimed to determine the prognostic significance of serial C-reactive protein measurements for the prediction of adverse events in patients with acute aortic intramural hematoma. A total of 180 patients with aortic intramural hematoma were retrospectively reviewed. The C-reactive protein data were obtained at admission and 2 days, 1 week, and 2 weeks from the onset, and the maximum value was obtained during the acute phase. Adverse aorta-related events were defined by a composite of aortic rupture, aortic aneurysm, and surgical or endovascular aortic repair. The C-reactive protein value was 3.0 ± 4.6, 8.7 ± 5.9, 9.0 ± 5.5, and 5.7 ± 4.5 mg/dL on admission and 2 days, 1 week, and 2 weeks from the onset, respectively. The maximal value of C-reactive protein was 12.4 ± 6.3 mg/dL at a mean of 4 days from the onset. Patients with elevated C-reactive protein levels (≥7.2 mg/dL) at 2 weeks had significantly greater rates of aorta-related events (P analysis, an elevated C-reactive protein level at 2 weeks (hazard ratio, 3.16; P value compared with the development of an ulcer-like projection (chi-square, 16.94 for ulcer-like projection only vs 34.32 with the addition of C-reactive protein at 2 weeks, P < .001). C-reactive protein was a simple and useful marker providing incremental prognostic information compared with the development of an ulcer-like projection in patients with aortic intramural hematoma. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response may be the causal link between particle inhalation and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saber, Anne T.; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Jackson, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of ambient and workplace particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. One proposed mechanism for this association is that pulmonary inflammation induces a hepatic acute phase response, which increases risk of cardiovascular disease. Induction...... epidemiological studies. In this review, we present and review emerging evidence that inhalation of particles (e.g., air diesel exhaust particles and nanoparticles) induces a pulmonary acute phase response, and propose that this induction constitutes the causal link between particle inhalation and risk...

  15. Selected acute phase CSF factors in ischemic stroke: findings and prognostic value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intskirveli Nino

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Study aimed at investigation of pathogenic role and prognostic value of several selected cerebrospinal fluid acute phase factors that can reflect the severity of ischemic brain damage. Methods Ninety five acute ischemic stroke patients were investigated. Ischemic region visualized at the twenty fourth hour by conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Stroke severity evaluated by National Institute Health Stroke Scale. One month outcome of disease was assessed by Barthel Index. Cerebrospinal fluid was taken at the sixth hour of stroke onset. CSF pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were studied by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Nitric Oxide and Lipoperoxide radical were measured by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. CSF Nitrate levels were detected using the Griess reagent. Statistics performed by SPSS-11.0. Results At the sixth hour of stroke onset, cerebrospinal fluid cytokine levels were elevated in patients against controls. Severe stroke patients had increased interleukin-6 content compared to less severe strokes (P Conclusion According to present study the cerebrospinal fluid contents of interleukin-6 and nitrates seem to be the most reliable prognostic factors in acute phase of ischemic stroke.

  16. [Pulmonary function of children with acute leukemia in maintenance phase of chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macêdo, Thalita Medeiros Fernandes; Campos, Tania Fernandes; Mendes, Raquel Emanuele de França; França, Danielle Corrêa; Chaves, Gabriela Suéllen da Silva; de Mendonça, Karla Morganna Pereira Pinto

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the pulmonary function of children with acute leukemia. Cross-sectional observational analytical study that enrolled 34 children divided into groups A (17 with acute leukemia in the maintenance phase of chemotherapy) and B (17 healthy children). The groups were matched for sex, age and height. Spirometry was measured using a spirometer Microloop Viasys(®) in accordance with American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society guidelines. Maximal respiratory pressures were measured with an MVD300 digital manometer (Globalmed(®)). Maximal inspiratory pressures and maximal expiratory pressures were measured from residual volume and total lung capacity, respectively. Group A showed a significant decrease in maximal inspiratory pressures when compared to group B. No significant difference was found between the spirometric values of the two groups, nor was there any difference between maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure values in group A compared to the lower limit values proposed as reference. Children with acute leukemia, myeloid or lymphoid, during the maintenance phase of chemotherapy exhibited unchanged spirometric variables and maximal expiratory pressure; However, there was a decrease in inspiratory muscle strength. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Delirium in the acute phase after stroke: comparison between methods of detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Maria Teresa; Pardini, Matteo; Balestrino, Maurizio; Finocchi, Cinzia; Malfatto, Laura; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Mancardi, Giovanni Luigi; Gandolfo, Carlo; Serrati, Carlo

    2017-06-01

    Delirium is an acute neuropsychiatric syndrome, very common in hospitalized people with medical and neurological conditions. The identification of delirium after stroke is not an easy task and validated psychometric instruments are needed to correctly identify it. We decided to verify if (1) formal training in DSM-V criteria is needed to correctly identify post-stroke delirium, (2) if the use of a brief psychometric instrument such as 4AT improves its identification, (3) the applicability of these scales in the stroke setting. In the first phase of this study we retrospectively studied 102 acute stroke patients in Stroke Units of San Martino Hospital (Genova, Italy) to evaluate delirium with clinical criteria, first by a neurologist without a formal training in DSM-V criteria and after training. Then, we enrolled 100 new acute stroke patients who underwent screening for delirium using 4AT scale and DSM-V criteria. In the first phase, DSM-V criteria training significantly increased the ability to capture delirium (5 vs. 15%). In the second phase, the 4AT was used for delirium screening revealing a 52% of cases of delirium, the same observed by the consensus diagnosis of two senior neurologists (that was 50%). In the second phase, the use of 4AT scale allowed to capture post-stroke delirium as well as the consensus diagnosis by two neurologists. The identification of post-stroke delirium is not an easy task and requires both formal training in DSM-V criteria as well as the application of brief scales, such as the 4AT.

  18. C-reactive protein: an aid for diagnosis of acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N.

    2017-01-01

    Delayed or wrong diagnosis of acute appendicitis in patients results in complications like perforation, gangrene, etc. which carries a significant amount of morbidity and mortality to the patients. Thus, timely diagnosis of acute appendicitis is crucial to prevent these complications. Recently, it was found that serum C-reactive protein (CRP) individually can be a useful marker, thus in resource limited settings (i.e., access to ultrasonography) simple laboratory investigation can be of extreme utility for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Current study aimed to ascertain and determine the role of C Reactive Protein (CRP) as a complementary test to decrease the rate of negative appendectomies in tertiary care hospitals of Pakistan. Methods: Using non-probability consecutive sampling, 112 patients with the initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis on history and clinical examination were enrolled. A blood sample was taken for serum level of CRP. Results: Mean age was 20.8+-8.6 years and 51 (45.5 %) patients were males. Pathologic review revealed 100 cases (89.3%) of acute appendicitis, 4 patients (3.6%) had perforated appendix while 8 patients (7.1%) had normal appendix. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of C reactive protein >24 mg/lit taking histology as gold standard came out 25.9%, 100%, 100%, 9.4% and 31.25% respectively. Conclusion: It was concluded that CRP >48 mg/lit is an indication of perforated appendix and when the surgeon is in fix whether to go conservatively or apply some intervention, CRP can be a good diagnostic aid. (author)

  19. Acute Heat Stress Changes Protein Expression in the Testes of a Broiler-Type Strain of Taiwan Country Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Han; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Chen, Chao-Jung; Chan, Hong-Lin; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan

    2018-03-19

    Heat stress leads to decreased fertility in roosters. This study investigated the global protein expression in response to acute heat stress in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens (TCCs). Twelve 45-week-old roosters were randomly allocated to the control group maintained at 25°C, and three groups subjected to acute heat stress at 38°C for 4 h, with 0, 2, and 6 h of recovery, respectively. Testis samples were collected for hematoxylin and eosin staining, apoptosis assay, and protein analysis. The results revealed 101 protein spots that differed significantly from the control following exposure to acute heat stress. The proteins that were differentially expressed participated mainly in protein metabolism and other metabolic processes, responses to stimuli, apoptosis, cellular organization, and spermatogenesis. Proteins that negatively regulate apoptosis were downregulated and proteins involved in autophagy and major heat shock proteins (HSP90α, HSPA5, and HSPA8) were upregulated in the testes of heat-stressed chickens. In conclusion, acute heat stress causes a change in protein expression in the testes of broiler-type B strain TCCs and may thus impair cell morphology, spermatogenesis, and apoptosis. The expression of heat shock proteins increased to attenuate the testicular injury induced by acute heat stress.

  20. Effect of acute maternal starvation on tyrosine metabolism and protein synthesis in fetal sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurti, C.R.; Schaefer, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    To determine the effects of acute maternal starvation on intrauterine growth, tyrosine concentration and specific activity values in plasma, intracellular free and protein bound pools were determined in catheterized ovine fetuses following an 8 h continuous infusion of L-[2,3,5,6 3 H] or L-[U- 14 C] tyrosine into the ewe and fetus respectively at 115-125 days of gestation. From the kinetic data the rates of whole body and tissue fractional protein synthesis were calculated. Although placental protein synthesis was not significantly changed as a result of acute maternal starvation, fetal whole body protein synthesis was reduced from 63 g/d/kg in the fed to 25 g/d/kg in the starved condition. There was also a 10 fold reduction in the net placental transfer of tyrosine to the fetus in the starved ewes. In addition, a three fold increase was observed in the quantity of tyrosine used for oxidation by the fetuses of starved ewes, changing from 5.2% of tyrosine net utilization in the fed to 13.7% in the starved condition. Significant reductions in tissue fractional protein synthesis rates were also seen in the liver, brain, lung kidney and GIT tissues from 78, 37, 65, 45 and 71%/d respectively in the fed to 12, 10, 23, 22 and 35%/d in the fetuses of starved ewes. The data indicate that during acute maternal starvation the sheep fetus utilizes more tyrosine for oxidation and less for anabolic purposes which is reflected in a decrease both in whole body and tissue fractional rates of protein synthesis

  1. Acute versus chronic phase mechanisms in a rat model of CRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tzuping; Guo, Tian-Zhi; Li, Wen-Wu; Kingery, Wade S; Clark, John David

    2016-01-19

    Tibia fracture followed by cast immobilization in rats evokes nociceptive, vascular, epidermal, and bone changes resembling complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). In most cases, CRPS has three stages. Over time, this acute picture, allodynia, warmth, and edema observed at 4 weeks, gives way to a cold, dystrophic but still painful limb. In the acute phase (at 4 weeks post fracture), cutaneous immunological and NK1-receptor signaling mechanisms underlying CRPS have been discovered; however, the mechanisms responsible for the chronic phase are still unknown. The purpose of this study is to understand the mechanisms responsible for the chronic phases of CRPS (at 16 weeks post fracture) at both the peripheral and central levels. We used rat tibial fracture/cast immobilization model of CRPS to study molecular, vascular, and nociceptive changes at 4 and 16 weeks post fracture. Immunoassays and Western blotting were carried out to monitor changes in inflammatory response and NK1-receptor signaling in the skin and spinal cord. Skin temperature and thickness were measured to elucidate vascular changes, whereas von Frey testing and unweighting were carried out to study nociceptive changes. All data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Neuman-Keuls multiple comparison test to compare among all cohorts. In the acute phase (at 4 weeks post fracture), hindpaw allodynia, unweighting, warmth, edema, and/or epidermal thickening were observed among 90 % fracture rats, though by 16 weeks (chronic phase), only the nociceptive changes persisted. The expression of the neuropeptide signaling molecule substance P (SP), NK1 receptor, inflammatory mediators TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6 and nerve growth factor (NGF) were elevated at 4 weeks in sciatic nerve and/or skin, returning to normal levels by 16 weeks post fracture. The systemic administration of a peripherally restricted IL-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra) or of anti-NGF inhibited nociceptive behaviors at 4

  2. Serum eosinophil cationic protein levels can be useful for predicting acute exacerbation of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Kamimura

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a case in which five consecutive exacerbations of asthma were monitored by following serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP levels. The serum ECP level correlated well with each exacerbation and tended to increase even before the exacerbations of asthma became apparent. This case shows that serum levels of ECP can be useful markers of disease activity and may also be predictive markers for acute exacerbation.

  3. The Contribution of Serine 194 Phosphorylation to Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein Function

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Goro; Zubair, Mohamad; Ishii, Tomohiro; Mitsui, Toshikatsu; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Auchus, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) facilitates the delivery of cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane, where the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme catalyzes the initial step of steroid hormone biosynthesis. StAR was initially identified in adrenocortical cells as a phosphoprotein, the expression and phosphorylation of which were stimulated by corticotropin. A number of in vitro studies have implicated cAMP-dependent phosphorylation at serine 194 (S194, S195 in hum...

  4. Risk factors for and impact of respiratory failure on mortality in the early phase of acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Tilde; Kristensen, Marlene Østermark; Rysgaard, Sisse

    2016-01-01

    : Retrospective cohort study including 359 patients admitted with acute pancreatitis. Information was gathered from electronic patient records. We defined respiratory failure based on the modified Marshall scoring system in the revised Atlanta criteria. Predictors of respiratory failure were evaluated......, or pneumonia may develop respiratory failure, suggests that acute lung injury, possibly associated with systemic inflammation, may be important.......BACKGROUND: The incidence of respiratory failure and other respiratory complications in the early phase of acute pancreatitis (AP) is not well investigated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of respiratory failure, and its impact on mortality in the early phase AP. METHODS...

  5. Acute-Phase Inflammatory Response to Single-Bout HIIT and Endurance Training: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kaspar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study compared acute and late effect of single-bout endurance training (ET and high-intensity interval training (HIIT on the plasma levels of four inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein and insulin-like growth factor 1. Design. Cohort study with repeated-measures design. Methods. Seven healthy untrained volunteers completed a single bout of ET and HIIT on a cycle ergometer. ET and HIIT sessions were held in random order and at least 7 days apart. Blood was drawn before the interventions and 30 min and 2 days after the training sessions. Plasma samples were analyzed with ELISA for the interleukins (IL, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1, and C-reactive protein (CRP. Statistical analysis was with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results. ET led to both a significant acute and long-term inflammatory response with a significant decrease at 30 minutes after exercise in the IL-6/IL-10 ratio (−20%; p=0.047 and a decrease of MCP-1 (−17.9%; p=0.03. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that ET affects the inflammatory response more adversely at 30 minutes after exercise compared to HIIT. However, this is compensated by a significant decrease in MCP-1 at two days associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis.

  6. Acute-Phase Inflammatory Response to Single-Bout HIIT and Endurance Training: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Felix; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Perkins, Steven; Al-Aubaidy, Hayder A.; deJong, Bev; Butkowski, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study compared acute and late effect of single-bout endurance training (ET) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the plasma levels of four inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein and insulin-like growth factor 1. Design. Cohort study with repeated-measures design. Methods. Seven healthy untrained volunteers completed a single bout of ET and HIIT on a cycle ergometer. ET and HIIT sessions were held in random order and at least 7 days apart. Blood was drawn before the interventions and 30 min and 2 days after the training sessions. Plasma samples were analyzed with ELISA for the interleukins (IL), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Statistical analysis was with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results. ET led to both a significant acute and long-term inflammatory response with a significant decrease at 30 minutes after exercise in the IL-6/IL-10 ratio (−20%; p = 0.047) and a decrease of MCP-1 (−17.9%; p = 0.03). Conclusion. This study demonstrates that ET affects the inflammatory response more adversely at 30 minutes after exercise compared to HIIT. However, this is compensated by a significant decrease in MCP-1 at two days associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:27212809

  7. Acute-Phase Inflammatory Response to Single-Bout HIIT and Endurance Training: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Felix; Jelinek, Herbert F; Perkins, Steven; Al-Aubaidy, Hayder A; deJong, Bev; Butkowski, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    This study compared acute and late effect of single-bout endurance training (ET) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the plasma levels of four inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein and insulin-like growth factor 1. Cohort study with repeated-measures design. Seven healthy untrained volunteers completed a single bout of ET and HIIT on a cycle ergometer. ET and HIIT sessions were held in random order and at least 7 days apart. Blood was drawn before the interventions and 30 min and 2 days after the training sessions. Plasma samples were analyzed with ELISA for the interleukins (IL), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Statistical analysis was with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. ET led to both a significant acute and long-term inflammatory response with a significant decrease at 30 minutes after exercise in the IL-6/IL-10 ratio (-20%; p = 0.047) and a decrease of MCP-1 (-17.9%; p = 0.03). This study demonstrates that ET affects the inflammatory response more adversely at 30 minutes after exercise compared to HIIT. However, this is compensated by a significant decrease in MCP-1 at two days associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis.

  8. Predictive value of c-reactive protein for thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeed, N.; Bashir, F.

    2014-01-01

    The serum levels of C-reactive protein on admission may predict the efficacy of reperfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Objectives: This study was conducted to know the predictive value of CRP for success of thrombolysis and to know the prognostic value of C-reactive protein in patients having acute myocardial infarction. Study Design: It was single center, open labeled cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients of acute myocardial infarction diagnosed on clinical and ECG criteria, who received thrombolytic therapy with strepto- kinase, were included in the study. The diagnosis of acute rnyocardial infarction was made on clinical para meters and ECG criteria. The ECG changes were noted before starting thrombolysis. The baseline sample for C-reactive protein (CRP,) was taken before starting thrombolysis. The time duration between onset of symptoms and start of thrombolysis was also noted. The thrombolysis was done with streptokinase infusion, 1.5 million units diluted in 100ml normal saline, intravenously over one hour. The ECG was repeated after six hours of completion of thrombolysis and, changes were noted and compared with ECG changes before thrombolysis. Now second sample for C-reactive protein (CRP2) was taken after six hours of completion of thrombolysis. CRP was measured by a high sensitivity assay which can accurately measure basal levels of CRP throughout the currently accepted cardiovascular risk assessment range (0.20 - 10.0 mg/L). According to ECG findings after thrombolysis, all patients were divided into two groups. Group A was considered as successful group to thrombolysis, in whom ECG changes were settled. Group B was considered as unsuccessful group to thrombolysis, in whom ECG changes remained same as before thrombolysis. Both values of C-reactive protein, CRP, and CRP2 were compared in both groups group A and group B. Results: Plasma CRP values before and after thrombolysis had strong predictive value for

  9. Prostate hypofractionated radiation therapy with injection of hyaluronic acid: acute toxicities in a phase 2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-03-15

    Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity

  11. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.chapet@chu-lyon.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); EMR3738, Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie [Pole Information Médicale Evaluation Recherche, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); EA SIS, Université de Lyon, Lyon (France); Faix, Antoine [Department of Urology, Clinique Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Ruffion, Alain [Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Department of Urology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Jalade, Patrice [Department of Medical Physics, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  12. Multiple drug resistance protein (MDR-1, multidrug resistance-related protein (MRP and lung resistance protein (LRP gene expression in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Terci Valera

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Despite the advances in the cure rate for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, approximately 25% of affected children suffer relapses. Expression of genes for the multiple drug resistance protein (MDR-1, multidrug resistance-related protein (MRP, and lung resistance protein (LRP may confer the phenotype of resistance to the treatment of neoplasias. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the expression of the MDR-1, MRP and LRP genes in children with a diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia via the semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and to determine the correlation between expression and event-free survival and clinical and laboratory variables. DESIGN: A retrospective clinical study. SETTING: Laboratory of Pediatric Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Bone marrow aspirates from 30 children with a diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia were assessed for the expression of messenger RNA for the MDR-1, MRP and LRP genes by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS: In the three groups studied, only the increased expression of LRP was related to worsened event-free survival (p = 0.005. The presence of the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA was correlated with increased LRP expression (p = 0.009 and increased risk of relapse or death (p = 0.05. The relative risk of relapse or death was six times higher among children with high LRP expression upon diagnosis (p = 0.05, as confirmed by multivariate analysis of the three genes studied (p = 0.035. DISCUSSION: Cell resistance to drugs is a determinant of the response to chemotherapy and its detection via RT-PCR may be of clinical importance. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of the expression of genes for resistance to antineoplastic drugs in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia upon diagnosis, and particularly the expression of the LRP gene, may be of clinical relevance, and should be the

  13. Study of Stationary Phase Metabolism Via Isotopomer Analysis of Amino Acids from an Isolated Protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, AfshanS.; Tang, YinjieJ.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Martin, Hector Garcia; Gin, Jennifer; Benke, Peter; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-09-14

    Microbial production of many commercially important secondary metabolites occurs during stationary phase, and methods to measure metabolic flux during this growth phase would be valuable. Metabolic flux analysis is often based on isotopomer information from proteinogenic amino acids. As such, flux analysis primarily reflects the metabolism pertinent to the growth phase during which most proteins are synthesized. To investigate central metabolism and amino acids synthesis activity during stationary phase, addition of fully 13C-labeled glucose followed by induction of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression during stationary phase was used. Our results indicate that Escherichia coli was able to produce new proteins (i.e., GFP) in the stationary phase, and the amino acids in GFP were mostly from degraded proteins synthesized during the exponential growth phase. Among amino acid biosynthetic pathways, only those for serine, alanine, glutamate/glutamine, and aspartate/asparagine had significant activity during the stationary phase.

  14. Thrombus length discrepancy on dual-phase CT can predict clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Mina; Kim, Kyung-eun; Lee, Seung-Koo; Shin, Na-Young; Lim, Soo Mee; Song, Dongbeom; Heo, Ji Hoe; Kim, Jin Woo; Oh, Se Won

    2016-01-01

    The thrombus length may be overestimated on early arterial computed tomography angiography (CTA) depending on the collateral status. We evaluated the value of a grading system based on the thrombus length discrepancy on dual-phase CT in outcome prediction. Forty-eight acute ischemic stroke patients with M1 occlusion were included. Dual-phase CT protocol encompassed non-contrast enhanced CT, CTA with a bolus tracking technique, and delayed contrast enhanced CT (CECT) performed 40s after contrast injection. The thrombus length discrepancy between CTA and CECT was graded by using a three-point scale: G0 = no difference; G1 = no difference in thrombus length, but in attenuation distal to thrombus; G2 = difference in thrombus length. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to define independent predictors of poor clinical outcome at 3 months. The thrombus discrepancy grade showed significant linear relationships with both the collateral status (P = 0.008) and the presence of antegrade flow on DSA (P = 0.010) with good interobserver agreement (κ = 0.868). In a multivariate model, the presence of thrombus length discrepancy (G2) was an independent predictor of poor clinical outcome [odds ratio = 11.474 (1.350-97.547); P =0.025]. The presence of thrombus length discrepancy on dual-phase CT may be a useful predictor of unfavourable clinical outcome in acute M1 occlusion patients. (orig.)

  15. Flight performance of western sandpipers, Calidris mauri, remains uncompromised when mounting an acute phase immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, Silke; Buehler, Deborah M; MacMillan, Alexander; Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2013-07-15

    Migratory birds have been implicated in the spread of some zoonotic diseases, but how well infected individuals can fly remains poorly understood. We used western sandpipers, Calidris mauri, to experimentally test whether flight is affected when long-distance migrants are mounting an immune response and whether migrants maintain immune defences during a flight in a wind tunnel. We measured five indicators of innate immunity in 'flown-healthy' birds (flying in a wind tunnel without mounting an immune response), 'flown-sick' birds (flying while mounting an acute phase response, which is part of induced innate immunity), and a non-flying control group ('not-flown'). Voluntary flight duration did not differ between flown-healthy and flown-sick birds, indicating that mounting an acute phase response to simulated infection did not hamper an individual's ability to fly for up to 3 h. However, in comparison to not-flown birds, bacterial killing ability of plasma was significantly reduced after flight in flown-sick birds. In flown-healthy birds, voluntary flight duration was positively correlated with bacterial killing ability and baseline haptoglobin concentration of the blood plasma measured 1-3 weeks before experimental flights, suggesting that high quality birds had strong immune systems and greater flight capacity. Our findings indicate that flight performance is not diminished by prior immune challenge, but that flight while mounting an acute phase response negatively affects other aspects of immune function. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the transmission of avian diseases, as they suggest that birds can still migrate while fighting an infection.

  16. Determinants of fatigue after first-ever ischemic stroke during acute phase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Shan Wang

    Full Text Available Fatigue after stroke is common and has a negative impact on rehabilitation and survival. However, its pathogenesis and contributing factors remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing the occurrence of fatigue after first-ever ischemic stroke in acute phase.We examined 265 consecutive patients with first-ever ischemic stroke during acute phase (within 2 weeks in two tertiary stroke care hospitals in Henan, China. We documented patients' demographic and clinical characteristics through face-to-face interviews using structured questionnaires and reviews of medical records. Post-stroke fatigue was defined as a score of ≥4 using the Fatigue Severity Scale. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine post-stroke fatigue in relation to socio-demographic, lifestyle, clinical characteristics and family function.About 40% first-ever ischemic stroke patients experienced post-stroke fatigue in acute phase. Post-stroke fatigue was associated with lack of exercise before stroke (adjusted odds ratio 4.01, 95% CI 1.95-8.24, family dysfunction (2.63, 1.20-5.80, depression (2.39, 1.02-5.58, the presence of pre-stroke fatigue (4.89, 2.13-11.21, use of sedative medications (4.14, 1.58-10.88, coronary heart disease (3.38, 1.46-7.79 and more severe Modified Rankin Scale (2.55, 1.65-3.95.The causes of post-stroke fatigue are multifaceted. More physical exercise, improving family function, reducing depression and appropriate use of sedative medications may be helpful in preventing post-stroke fatigue.

  17. Value of dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI in the acute phase of transient global amnesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Förster

    Full Text Available Transient global amnesia (TGA is a transitory, short-lasting neurological disorder characterized by a sudden onset of antero- and retrograde amnesia. Perfusion abnormalities in TGA have been evaluated mainly by use of positron emission tomography (PET or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. In the present study we explore the value of dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI in TGA in the acute phase.From a MRI report database we identified TGA patients who underwent MRI including PWI in the acute phase and compared these to control subjects. Quantitative perfusion maps (cerebral blood flow (CBF and volume (CBV were generated and analyzed by use of Signal Processing In NMR-Software (SPIN. CBF and CBV values in subcortical brain regions were assessed by use of VOI created in FIRST, a model-based segmentation tool in the Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain (FMRIB Software Library (FSL.Five TGA patients were included (2 men, 3 women. On PWI, no relevant perfusion alterations were found by visual inspection in TGA patients. Group comparisons for possible differences between TGA patients and control subjects showed significant lower rCBF values bilaterally in the hippocampus, in the left thalamus and globus pallidus as well as bilaterally in the putamen and the left caudate nucleus. Correspondingly, significant lower rCBV values were observed bilaterally in the hippocampus and the putamen as well as in the left caudate nucleus. Group comparisons for possible side differences in rCBF and rCBV values in TGA patients revealed a significant lower rCBV value in the left caudate nucleus.Mere visual inspection of PWI is not sufficient for the assessment of perfusion changes in TGA in the acute phase. Group comparisons with healthy control subjects might be useful to detect subtle perfusion changes on PWI in TGA patients. However, this should be confirmed in larger data sets and serial PWI

  18. Nursing diagnoses and interventions for post-acute-phase battered women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson-Catalano, J

    1998-01-01

    To identify nursing diagnoses and interventions applicable for post-acute-phase battered women. Eight battered women were interviewed twice for 2 hours. Gordon's functional health patterns provided the framework for data collection. Fifty-three nursing diagnoses and 52 nursing interventions were indicated in the data; 24 nursing diagnoses and 26 nursing interventions were present in all participants' data. With the use of comprehensive interventions, nurses can make a major contribution to society by enabling battered women to move to a more protected lifestyle.

  19. [Antipsychotic Treatment of the Adult Patient in the Acute Phase of Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana; Gómez Restrepo, Carlos; García Valencia, Jenny; Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo; de la Hoz, Ana María; Arenas, Álvaro; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of different antipsychotic drugs in the management of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in the acute phase. To formulate evidence-based recommendations on the antipsychotic (AP) drug management strategies for the treatment of the adult diagnosed with schizophrenia in the acute phase. Clinical practice guidelines were prepared, using the guidelines of the Methodology Guide of the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, in order to identify, synthesise, and evaluate the evidence and formulate recommendations as regards the management and follow-up of adult patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. The evidence of the NICE 82 guideline was adopted and updated, which answered the question on the management of the acute phase of adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The evidence and its level were presented to the Guideline Development Group (GDG) in order to formulate recommendations following the methodology proposed by the GRADE approach. Clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, ziprasidone, amisulpride, paliperidone, haloperidol, quetiapine, and aripiprazole were more effective than placebo for the majority of psychotic symptoms and the abandonment of treatment, but asenapine was not. Paliperidone, risperidone, quetiapine, clozapine, and olanzapine showed significant increases in weight compared to placebo. Haloperidol, risperidone, ziprasidone, and paliperidone had a higher risk of extrapyramidal symptoms than placebo. There was a significant risk of sedation or drowsiness with, risperidone, haloperidol, ziprasidone, quetiapine, olanzapine, and clozapine in the comparisons with placebo. Of the results of the comparisons between AP, it was shown that clozapine and paliperidone had a clinically significant effect compared to haloperidol and quetiapine, respectively. Olanzapine and risperidone had a lower risk of abandoning the treatment in general, and due to adverse reactions in two comparisons of each one, haloperidol was the

  20. Hemorrhagic intra splenic pseudocyst as a complication of chronic pancreatitis in acute phase - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Fabiola Assuncao de; Marchiori, Edson; Mello, Walter de Assis; Nogueira, Aline Silva; Sales, Anderson Ribeiro; Martins, Renata Romano; Santos, Tereza Cristina C.R.S. dos

    1999-01-01

    The authors report a case of hemorrhagic intra splenic pseudocyst as a complication of chronic pancreatitis in acute phase. A 43-year-old woman, chronic alcoholic, who had pancreatitis 5 years ago, with symptoms of strong abdominal pain in the epigastrium, nausea and fever. Abdominal sonography showed a lesion contiguous to the spleen and computed tomography demonstrated an heterogeneous lesion of not well defined limits, in the lateral and posterior parts of the spleen. The patient was submitted to Roux-Y cystojejunostomy, he does not present any symptoms at the moment, and is undergoing clinical control. (author)

  1. Different Stationary Phase Selectivities and Morphologies for Intact Protein Separations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astefanei, A.; Dapic, I.; Camenzuli, M.

    The central dogma of biology proposed that one gene encodes for one protein. We now know that this does not reflect reality. The human body has approximately 20,000 protein-encoding genes; each of these genes can encode more than one protein. Proteins expressed from a single gene can vary in terms

  2. Decreased PARP and procaspase-2 protein levels are associated with cellular drug resistance in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Holleman (Amy); M.L. den Boer (Monique); K.M. Kazemier (Karin); H.B. Beverloo (Berna); A.R.M. von Bergh (Anne); G.E. Janka-Schaub (Gritta); R. Pieters (Rob)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractDrug resistance in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with impaired ability to induce apoptosis. To elucidate causes of apoptotic defects, we studied the protein expression of Apaf-1, procaspases-2, -3, -6, -7,

  3. Overestimation of Albumin Measured by Bromocresol Green vs Bromocresol Purple Method: Influence of Acute-Phase Globulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Moreira, Vanessa; Beridze Vaktangova, Nana; Martinez Gago, Maria Dolores; Laborda Gonzalez, Belen; Garcia Alonso, Sara; Fernandez Rodriguez, Eloy

    2018-05-22

    Usually serum albumin is measured with dye-binding assay as bromocresol green (BCG) and bromocresol purple (BCP) methods. The aim of this paper was to examine the differences in albumin measurements between the Advia2400 BCG method (AlbBCG), Dimension RxL BCP (AlbBCP) and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Albumin concentrations from 165 serum samples were analysed using AlbBCG, AlbBCP and CZE. CZE was employed to estimate different serum protein fractions. Influence of globulins on albumin concentration discrepancies between methods was estimated as well as the impact of the albumin method on aCa concentrations. Medcalc was employed for statistical analysis, setting a value of P albumin concentrations. AlbBCG were positively biased versus CZE (3.54 g/L). There was good agreement between CZE and ALbBCP (Albumin results from the BCP and BCG methods may result in unacceptable differences and clinical confusion, especially at lower albumin concentrations. Serum acute phase proteins contribute to overestimating the albumin concentration using AlbBCG.

  4. Mixed-mode reversed phase/positively charged repulsion chromatography for intact protein separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ling; Guo, Zhimou; Hu, Zhuo; Liang, Xinmiao

    2017-05-10

    A mixed-mode reversed phase/positively charged repulsion stationary phase C8PN composed of octyl and amino group has been developed for separation of intact protein. Before the separation of proteins, a set of probe compounds were employed to evaluate the chromatographic properties of C8PN, demonstrating typical reversed phase/positively charged repulsion interaction on this stationary phase as estimated. Then the new C8PN stationary phase was used to separate a standard protein mixture on the reversed phase mode. Compared with a commercial C4 stationary phase, it showed different selectivity for some proteins. In order to better understand the properties of C8PN, the effect of acetonitrile content was investigated based on retention equation. Higher values of the equation parameters on C8PN demonstrated that the protein retentions were more sensitive to the change of acetonitrile content. Besides, the influences of buffer salt additives on the protein retentions were also studied. The retention factors of the proteins got larger with the increase of buffer salt concentration, which confirmed the positively charged repulsion interaction on the column. Finally, the C8PN was further applied to separate oxidized- and reduced- forms of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone. Our study indicated the advantages and application potential of mixed-mode reversed phase/positively charged repulsion stationary phase for intact protein separation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of Arsenic Direct-Binding Proteins in Acute Promyelocytic Leukaemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The identification of arsenic direct-binding proteins is essential for determining the mechanism by which arsenic trioxide achieves its chemotherapeutic effects. At least two cysteines close together in the amino acid sequence are crucial to the binding of arsenic and essential to the identification of arsenic-binding proteins. In the present study, arsenic binding proteins were pulled down with streptavidin and identified using a liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS. More than 40 arsenic-binding proteins were separated, and redox-related proteins, glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1, heat shock 70 kDa protein 9 (HSPA9 and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2, were further studied using binding assays in vitro. Notably, PKM2 has a high affinity for arsenic. In contrast to PKM2, GSTP1and HSPA9 did not combine with arsenic directly in vitro. These observations suggest that arsenic-mediated acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL suppressive effects involve PKM2. In summary, we identified several arsenic binding proteins in APL cells and investigated the therapeutic mechanisms of arsenic trioxide for APL. Further investigation into specific signal pathways by which PKM2 mediates APL developments may lead to a better understanding of arsenic effects on APL.

  6. Modulation of task-related cortical connectivity in the acute and subacute phase after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lisbeth H.; Zibrandtsen, Ivan C.; Wienecke, Troels

    2018-01-01

    The functional relevance of cortical reorganization post-stroke is still not well understood. In this study, we investigated task-specific modulation of cortical connectivity between neural oscillations in key motor regions during the early phase after stroke. EEG and EMG recordings were examined...... from 15 patients and 18 controls during a precision grip task using the affected hand. Each patient attended two sessions in the acute and subacute phase (median of 3 and 34 days) post-stroke. Dynamic causal modelling (DCM) for induced responses was used to investigate task-specific modulations...... of oscillatory couplings in a bilateral network comprising supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and primary motor cortex (M1). Fourteen models were constructed for each subject, and the input induced by the experimental manipulation (task) was set to inferior parietal lobule (IPL...

  7. Affective symptoms and cognitive functions in the acute phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Elberling, Tina V; Hørding, Merete

    2007-01-01

    of cognitive deficits) had decreased significantly, with further normalisation 1-year after treatment initiation. In conclusion, patients had subjective reports of cognitive deficits in the toxic phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis but comprehensive neuropsychological testing revealed no cognitive impairment......In the acute phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis patients often have subjective cognitive complaints. Continuing controversy exists about the nature of these symptoms and whether they persist after treatment. This prospective study included 31 consecutively referred, newly diagnosed, and untreated....... No significant differences between the patient and the control group on neuropsychological test performances were found. Thyroid levels did not correlate with the neuropsychological test performances or psychiatric ratings. After reaching euthyroidism the level of affective symptoms (including reports...

  8. Is Customization in Antidepressant Prescribing Associated with Acute-Phase Treatment Adherence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Elizabeth L; Hodgkin, Dominic; Panas, Lee; Soumerai, Stephen B; Ritter, Grant

    2012-03-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to explore whether prescribing variation is associated with duration of antidepressant use during the acute phase of treatment. Improving quality of care and increasing the extent to which treatment is patient-centered and customized are interrelated goals. Prescribing variation may be considered a marker of customization, and could be associated with better antidepressant treatment adherence. METHODS: A cross-sectional secondary data analysis examining the association between providers' antidepressant prescribing variation and patient continuity of antidepressant treatment. The data source was two states' Medicaid claims for dual-eligible Medicaid/Medicare patients. The sample included 383 patients with new episodes of antidepressant treatment, representing 70 providers with at least four patients in the sample. We tested two alternate measures of prescribing concentration: 1) share of prescriber's initial antidepressant prescribing accounted for by the two most common regimens, and 2) Herfindahl index. The HEDIS performance measure of effective acute-phase treatment (at least 84 out of 114 days with antidepressant) was the dependent variable. KEY FINDINGS: In multivariate analyses, the concentration measure based on the top two regimens was significant and inversely related to duration adequacy (p customized care.

  9. Inherited Variation in Cytokine, Acute Phase Response, and Calcium Metabolism Genes Affects Susceptibility to Infective Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia V. Ponasenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis (IE is a septic inflammation of the endocardium. Recognition of microbial patterns, cytokine and acute phase responses, hemostasis features, and alterations in plasma lipid and calcium profile all have been reported to affect pathogenesis and clinical course of IE. Having recruited 123 patients with IE and 300 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched healthy blood donors, we profiled their genomic DNA for 35 functionally significant polymorphisms within the 22 selected genes involved in the abovementioned pathways, with the further genetic association analysis. We found that the G/A genotype of the rs1143634 polymorphism within the IL1B gene, the G/T genotype of the rs3212227 polymorphism within the IL12B gene, the A/G genotype of the rs1130864 polymorphism within the CRP gene, and the G allele of the rs1801197 polymorphism within the CALCR gene were associated with a decreased risk of IE whereas the T/T genotype of the rs1205 polymorphism within the CRP gene was associated with a higher risk of IE. Furthermore, heterozygous genotypes of the rs1143634 and rs3212227 polymorphisms were associated with the higher plasma levels of IL-1β and IL-12, respectively. Our results indicate that inherited variation in the cytokine, acute phase response, and calcium metabolism pathways may be linked to IE.

  10. Inherited Variation in Cytokine, Acute Phase Response, and Calcium Metabolism Genes Affects Susceptibility to Infective Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkovskaya, Natalia V.; Kondyukova, Natalia V.; Odarenko, Yuri N.; Kazachek, Yana V.; Tsepokina, Anna V.; Barbarash, Leonid S.

    2017-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a septic inflammation of the endocardium. Recognition of microbial patterns, cytokine and acute phase responses, hemostasis features, and alterations in plasma lipid and calcium profile all have been reported to affect pathogenesis and clinical course of IE. Having recruited 123 patients with IE and 300 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched healthy blood donors, we profiled their genomic DNA for 35 functionally significant polymorphisms within the 22 selected genes involved in the abovementioned pathways, with the further genetic association analysis. We found that the G/A genotype of the rs1143634 polymorphism within the IL1B gene, the G/T genotype of the rs3212227 polymorphism within the IL12B gene, the A/G genotype of the rs1130864 polymorphism within the CRP gene, and the G allele of the rs1801197 polymorphism within the CALCR gene were associated with a decreased risk of IE whereas the T/T genotype of the rs1205 polymorphism within the CRP gene was associated with a higher risk of IE. Furthermore, heterozygous genotypes of the rs1143634 and rs3212227 polymorphisms were associated with the higher plasma levels of IL-1β and IL-12, respectively. Our results indicate that inherited variation in the cytokine, acute phase response, and calcium metabolism pathways may be linked to IE. PMID:28659664

  11. Cortisol evaluation during the acute phase of traumatic brain injury-A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalah, Meriem; Donaldson, Malcolm; Aribi, Yamina; Iabassen, Malek; Cherfi, Lyes; Nebbal, Mustapha; Medjaher, Meriem; Haffaf, ElMehdi; Abdennebi, Benaissa; Guenane, Kamel; Djermane, Adel; Kemali, Zahra; OuldKablia, Samia

    2018-05-01

    Biochemical diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency (AI) is difficult in the context of traumatic brain injury (TBI). To assess the frequency and predictive factors of AI in victims of TBI from Algiers. Between November 2009 and December 2013, TBI victims had a single 8-9 am serum cortisol measurement during the acute postinjury period (0-7 days). AI was defined according to basal cortisol levels of 83, 276 and 414 nmol/L. Variables studied were TBI severity according to Glasgow coma scale, duration of intubation and coma, pupillary status, hypotension, anaemia, brain imaging findings, diabetes insipidus and medication. Insulin tolerance test was performed during the recovery phase, defining AI as peak cortisol 414 nmol/L. Hydrocortisone replacement is advised in TBI patients with morning cortisol <276 nmol/L or those <414 nmol/L with additional risk factors for AI. As acute and subsequent AI are poorly correlated, patients with moderate/severe TBI require adrenal re-evaluation during the recovery phase. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Acute guttate psoriasis patients have positive streptococcus hemolyticus throat cultures and elevated antistreptococcal M6 protein titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guang; Feng, Xiaoling; Na, Aihua; Yongqiang, Jiang; Cai, Qing; Kong, Jian; Ma, Huijun

    2005-02-01

    To further study the role of Streptococci hemolyticus infection and streptococcal M6 protein in the pathogenesis of acute guttate psoriasis, streptococcal cultures were taken from the throats of 68 patients with acute guttate psoriasis. PCR technique was applied to detect M6 protein encoding DNA from those cultured streptococci. Pure M6 protein was obtained by Sephacry/S-200HR and Mono-Q chromatography from proliferated Streptococcus hemolyticus. Antistreptococcal M6 protein titers were measured in the serum of patients with acute guttate psoriasis, plaque psoriasis and healthy controls by ELISA. A high incidence of Streptococcus hemolyticus culture was observed in the guttate psoriatic group compared with the plaque psoriasis and control groups. Fourteen strains of Streptococcus hemolyticus were cultured from the throats of 68 acute guttate psoriasis patients. Of these, 5 strains contain DNA encoding the M6 protein gene as confirmed by PCR technique. More than 85% purification of M6 protein was obtained from Streptococcus pyogenes. Applying our pure M6 protein with the ELISA methods, we found that the titer of antistreptococcal M6 protein was significantly higher in the serum of guttate psoriasis patients than in the control or plaque psoriasis groups (P M6 protein in their sera.

  13. Get phases from arsenic anomalous scattering: de novo SAD phasing of two protein structures crystallized in cacodylate buffer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Liu

    Full Text Available The crystal structures of two proteins, a putative pyrazinamidase/nicotinamidase from the dental pathogen Streptococcus mutans (SmPncA and the human caspase-6 (Casp6, were solved by de novo arsenic single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (As-SAD phasing method. Arsenic (As, an uncommonly used element in SAD phasing, was covalently introduced into proteins by cacodylic acid, the buffering agent in the crystallization reservoirs. In SmPncA, the only cysteine was bound to dimethylarsinoyl, which is a pentavalent arsenic group (As (V. This arsenic atom and a protein-bound zinc atom both generated anomalous signals. The predominant contribution, however, was from the As anomalous signals, which were sufficient to phase the SmPncA structure alone. In Casp6, four cysteines were found to bind cacodyl, a trivalent arsenic group (As (III, in the presence of the reducing agent, dithiothreitol (DTT, and arsenic atoms were the only anomalous scatterers for SAD phasing. Analyses and discussion of these two As-SAD phasing examples and comparison of As with other traditional heavy atoms that generate anomalous signals, together with a few arsenic-based de novo phasing cases reported previously strongly suggest that As is an ideal anomalous scatterer for SAD phasing in protein crystallography.

  14. BAG1: the guardian of anti-apoptotic proteins in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Aveic

    Full Text Available BCL2 associated Athano-Gene 1 (BAG1 is a multifunctional protein that has been described to be involved in different cell processes linked to cell survival. It has been reported as deregulated in diverse cancer types. Here, BAG1 protein was found highly expressed in children with acute myeloid leukemia at diagnosis, and in a cohort of leukemic cell lines. A silencing approach was used for determining BAG1's role in AML, finding that its down-regulation decreased expression of BCL2, BCL-XL, MCL1, and phospho-ERK1/2, all proteins able to sustain leukemia, without affecting the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. BAG1 down-regulation was also found to increase expression of BAG3, whose similar activity was able to compensate the loss of function of BAG1. BAG1/BAG3 co-silencing caused an enhanced cell predisposition to death in cell lines and also in primary AML cultures, affecting the same proteins. Cell death was CASPASE-3 dependent, was accompanied by PARP cleavage and documented by an increased release of pro-apoptotic molecules Smac/DIABLO and Cytochrome c. BAG1 was found to directly maintain BCL2 and to protect MCL1 from proteasomal degradation by controlling USP9X expression, which appeared to be its novel target. Finally, BAG1 was found able to affect leukemia cell fate by influencing the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins crucial for AML maintenance.

  15. Oral Administration of Astrovirus Capsid Protein Is Sufficient To Induce Acute Diarrhea In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A. Meliopoulos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The disease mechanisms associated with the onset of astrovirus diarrhea are unknown. Unlike other enteric virus infections, astrovirus infection is not associated with an inflammatory response or cellular damage. In vitro studies in differentiated Caco-2 cells demonstrated that human astrovirus serotype 1 (HAstV-1 capsid protein alone disrupts the actin cytoskeleton and tight junction complex, leading to increased epithelial barrier permeability. In this study, we show that oral administration of purified recombinant turkey astrovirus 2 (TAstV-2 capsid protein results in acute diarrhea in a dose- and time-dependent manner in turkey poults. Similarly to that induced by infectious virus, TAstV-2 capsid-induced diarrhea was independent of inflammation or histological changes but was associated with increased intestinal barrier permeability, as well as redistribution of sodium hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3 from the membrane to the cytoplasm of the intestinal epithelium. Unlike other viral enterotoxins that have been identified, astrovirus capsid induces diarrhea after oral administration, reproducing the natural route of infection and demonstrating that ingestion of intact noninfectious capsid protein may be sufficient to provoke acute diarrhea. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the astrovirus capsid acts like an enterotoxin and induces intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction.

  16. CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins regulate expression of the human steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, L K; Johnson, P F; McAllister, J M; Strauss, J F

    1999-09-10

    Two putative CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) response elements were identified in the proximal promoter of the human steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene, which encodes a key protein-regulating steroid hormone synthesis. Expression of C/EBPalpha and -beta increased StAR promoter activity in COS-1 and HepG2 cells. Cotransfection of C/EBPalpha or -beta and steroidogenic factor 1, a transcription factor required for cAMP regulation of StAR expression, into COS-1 augmented 8-bromoadenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP)-stimulated promoter activity. When the putative C/EBP response elements were mutated, individually or together, a pronounced decline in basal StAR promoter activity in human granulosa-lutein cells resulted, but the fold stimulation of promoter activity by 8-Br-cAMP was unaffected. Recombinant C/EBPalpha and -beta bound to the two identified sequences but not the mutated elements. Human granulosa-lutein cell nuclear extracts also bound these elements but not the mutated sequences. An antibody to C/EBPbeta, but not C/EBPalpha, supershifted the nuclear protein complex associated with the more distal element. The complex formed by nuclear extracts with the proximal element was not supershifted by either antibody. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta in human granulosa-lutein cell nuclear extracts. C/EBPbeta levels were up-regulated 3-fold by 8-Br-cAMP treatment. Our studies demonstrate a role for C/EBPbeta as well as yet to be identified proteins, which can bind to C/EBP response elements, in the regulation of StAR gene expression and suggest a mechanism by which C/EBPbeta participates in the cAMP regulation of StAR gene transcription.

  17. Virtual histology study of atherosclerotic plaque composition in patients with stable angina and acute phase of acute coronary syndromes without ST segment elevation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is the cause of most acute coronary syndromes (ACS. Postmortem studies which compared stable coronary lesions and atherosclerotic plaques in patients who have died because of ACS indicated high lipid-core content as one of the major determinants of plaque vulnerability. Objective. Our primary goal was to assess the potential relations of plaque composition determined by IVUS-VH (Intravascular Ultrasound - Virtual Histology in patients with stable angina and subjects in acute phase of ACS without ST segment elevation. Methods. The study comprised of 40 patients who underwent preintervention IVUS examination. Tissue maps were reconstructed from radio frequency data using IVUS-VH software. Results. We analyzed 53 lesions in 40 patients. Stable angina was diagnosed in 24 patients (29 lesions, while acute phase of ACS without ST elevation was diagnosed in 16 patients (24 lesions. In the patients in acute phase of ACS without ST segment elevation IVUS-VH examination showed a significantly larger area of the necrotic core at the site of minimal lumen area and a larger mean of the necrotic core volume in the entire lesion comparing to stable angina subjects (1.84±0.90 mm2 vs. 0.96±0.69 mm2; p<0.001 and 20.94±15.79 mm3 vs. 11.54±14.15 mm3; p<0.05 respectively. Conclusion. IVUS-VH detected that the necrotic core was significantly larger in atherosclerotic lesions in patients in acute phase of ACS without ST elevation comparing to the stable angina subjects and that it could be considered as a marker of plaque vulnerability.

  18. Therapeutical effect on blood-flow in three-phase scanning in primary malignant tumours and acute osteomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacic, K; Kusic, Z [Clinical Hospital Sestre Milosrdnice, Zagreb (Croatia). Dept. of Oncology and Nuclear Medicine; Cepulic, M [Children` s Hospital, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1994-10-01

    In the studies where the bone scan was limited only to the late static image, the main disadvantage was its nonspecifity. With three-phase bone scan the number of false positive findings was reduced by some peculiar diseases; for instance, acute hematogenous osteomyelitis. It is well known that various diseases, such as nonunion of the fracture, some surgical interventions, avascular necrosis... can imitate acute osteomyelitis on the static image. These diseases can only be differentiated from inflammation by blood-flow. Therefore, in all patients with the diagnosis of primary bone disease tumor, inflammation, trauma, aseptic necrosis... three-phase bone scintigraphy is performed. Here, only the patients with acute osteomyelitis and primary malignant bone tumors will be presented: the basic scintigram was done before the therapy started, and the second one as a part of the follow-up - in some patients during the therapy and in some after its ending. We noticed that the most reliable part of three-phase bone scan responding to the therapy is angioscintigraphy (blood-flow) and in some cases early static (blood-pool) image. These two phases, especially the first one, are in good correlation with the clinic, in contrast to the third phase which is delayed. From the presented cases it could be concluded that in acute osteomyelitis and primary malignant tumors, blood-flow and blood-pool images are unavoidable phases of the bone scanning when we want to correctly evaluate the effects of the therapy. (author).

  19. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-coronavirus 3a protein may function as a modulator of the trafficking properties of the spike protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yee-Joo

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent publication reported that a tyrosine-dependent sorting signal, present in cytoplasmic tail of the spike protein of most coronaviruses, mediates the intracellular retention of the spike protein. This motif is missing from the spike protein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV, resulting in high level of surface expression of the spike protein when it is expressed on its own in vitro. Presentation of the hypothesis It has been shown that the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus genome contains open reading frames that encode for proteins with no homologue in other coronaviruses. One of them is the 3a protein, which is expressed during infection in vitro and in vivo. The 3a protein, which contains a tyrosine-dependent sorting signal in its cytoplasmic domain, is expressed on the cell surface and can undergo internalization. In addition, 3a can bind to the spike protein and through this interaction, it may be able to cause the spike protein to become internalized, resulting in a decrease in its surface expression. Testing the hypothesis The effects of 3a on the internalization of cell surface spike protein can be examined biochemically and the significance of the interplay between these two viral proteins during viral infection can be studied using reverse genetics methodology. Implication of the hypothesis If this hypothesis is proven, it will indicate that the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus modulates the surface expression of the spike protein via a different mechanism from other coronaviruses. The interaction between 3a and S, which are expressed from separate subgenomic RNA, would be important for controlling the trafficking properties of S. The cell surface expression of S in infected cells significantly impacts viral assembly, viral spread and viral pathogenesis. Modulation by this unique pathway could confer certain advantages during the replication of the severe

  20. P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance protein activities in relation to treatment outcome in acute myeloid leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, EGE; van Putten, WLJ; Verdonck, LF; Ossenkoppele, GJ; Verhoef, GEG; Vellenga, E

    Despite treatment with intensive chemotherapy, a considerable number of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) die from their disease due to the occurrence of resistance. Overexpression of the transporter proteins P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 1 has been identified

  1. Protein source and quality in therapeutic foods affect the immune response and outcome in severe acute malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein is a vital component of therapeutic foods designed to treat severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in children; however there are still unknowns about the quality and quantity of the proteins to use in these foods. This review examines two recent studies investigating several different qualities an...

  2. Diagnostic criteria for acute food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. Is the work in progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli Sopo, S; Bersani, G; Fantacci, C; Romano, A; Monaco, S

    2018-02-15

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergic disorder. Some diagnostic criteria have been published for acute FPIES. Of course, they are not all the same, so the clinician must choose which ones to adopt for his/her clinical practice. We present here a brief review of these criteria and, through two clinical cases, show how the choice of one or the other can change the diagnostic destiny of a child with suspect FPIES. Copyright © 2018 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute effects of ethanol in the control of protein synthesis in isolated rat liver cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girbes, T.; Susin, A.; Ayuso, M.S.; Parrilla, R.

    1983-01-01

    The acute effect of ethanol on hepatic protein synthesis is a rather controversial issue. In view of the conflicting reports on this subject, the effect of ethanol on protein labeling from L-[ 3 H]valine in isolated liver cells was studied under a variety of experimental conditions. When tracer doses of the isotope were utilized, ethanol consistently decreased the rate of protein labeling, regardless of the metabolic conditions of the cells. This inhibition was not prevented by doses of 4-methylpyrazole large enough to abolish all the characteristic metabolic effects of ethanol, and it was not related to perturbations on the rates of L-valine transport and/or proteolysis. When ethanol was tested in the presence of saturating doses of L-[ 3 H]valine no effect on protein labeling was observed. These observations suggest that the ethanol effect in decreasing protein labeling from tracer doses of the radioactive precursor does not reflect variations in the rate of protein synthesis but reflects changes in the specific activity of the precursor. These changes probably are secondary to variations in the dimensions of the amino acid pool utilized for protein synthesis. Even though it showed a lack of effect when tested alone, in the presence of saturating doses of the radioactive precursor ethanol inhibited the stimulatory effects on protein synthesis mediated by glucose and several gluconeogenic substrates. This effect of ethanol was not prevented by inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase, indicating that a shift of the NAD system to a more reduced state is not the mediator of its action. It is suggested that ethanol probably acted by changing the steady-state levels of some common effector(s) generated from the metabolism of all these fuels or else by preventing the inactivation of a translational repressor

  4. Interindividual variation in the response by fibrinogen, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 to yellow fever vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuur, M.; Beek, M.T. van der; Tak, H.S.; Visser, L.G.; Maat, M.P.M. de

    2004-01-01

    The acute phase reaction is important in many disease processes. Habitual levels of the acute phase proteins fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the dynamic variation of plasma levels of acute phase

  5. The liquid protein phase in crystallization: a case study—intact immunoglobulins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Yurii G.; Malkin, Alexander J.; McPherson, Alexander

    2001-11-01

    A common observation by protein chemists has been the appearance, for many proteins in aqueous solutions, of oil like droplets, or in more extreme cases the formation of a second oil like phase. These may accompany the formation of precipitate in "salting out" or "salting in' procedures, but more commonly appear in place of any precipitate. Such phase separations also occur, with even greater frequency, in the presence of polymeric precipitants such as polyethyleneglycol (PEG). In general the appearance of a second liquid phase has been taken as indicative of protein aggregation, though an aggregate state distinctly different from that characteristic of amorphous precipitate. While the latter is thought to be composed of linear and branched assemblies, polymers of a sort, the oil phase suggests a more compact, three-dimensional, but fluid state. An important property of an alternate, fluid phase is that it can mediate transitions between other states, for example, between protein molecules free in solution and protein molecules immobilized in amorphous precipitate or crystals. The "liquid protein" phase can be readily observed in many crystallization experiments either prior to the appearance of visible crystals, or directly participating in the crystal growth process. In some cases the relationship between the liquid phase and developing crystals is intimate. Crystals grow directly from the liquid phase, or appear only after the visible formation of the liquid phase. We describe here our experience with a class of macromolecules, immunoglobulins, and particularly IDEC-151, an IgG specific for CD4 on human lymphocytes. This protein has been crystallized from a Jeffamine-LiSO 4 mother liquor and, its crystallization illustrates many of the features associated with the liquid protein, or protein rich phase.

  6. Endogenous acute phase serum amyloid A lacks pro-inflammatory activity, contrasting the two recombinant variants that activate human neutrophils through different receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eChristenson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most notable among the acute phase proteins is serum amyloid A (SAA, levels of which can increase 1000-fold during infections, aseptic inflammation, and/or trauma. Chronically elevated SAA levels are associated with a wide variety of pathological conditions, including obesity and rheumatic diseases. Using a recombinant hybrid of the two human SAA isoforms (SAA1 and 2 that does not exist in vivo, numerous in vitro studies have given rise to the notion that acute phase SAA is a pro-inflammatory molecule with cytokine-like properties. It is however unclear whether endogenous acute phase SAA per se mediates pro-inflammatory effects. We tested this in samples from patients with inflammatory arthritis and in a transgenic mouse model that expresses human SAA1. Endogenous human SAA did not drive production of pro-inflammatory IL-8/KC in either of these settings. Human neutrophils derived from arthritis patients displayed no signs of activation, despite being exposed to severely elevated SAA levels in circulation, and SAA-rich sera also failed to activate cells in vitro. In contrast, two recombinant SAA variants (the hybrid SAA and SAA1 both activated human neutrophils, inducing L-selectin shedding, production of reactive oxygen species, and production of IL-8. The hybrid SAA was approximately 100-fold more potent than recombinant SAA1. Recombinant hybrid SAA and SAA1 activated neutrophils through different receptors, with recombinant SAA1 being a ligand for formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2. We conclude that even though recombinant SAAs can be valuable tools for studying neutrophil activation, they do not reflect the nature of the endogenous protein.

  7. Multidetector row computed tomography of acute pancreatitis: Utility of single portal phase CT scan in short-term follow up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Yongwonn [Department of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, 4-12, Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-729 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee Sun, E-mail: heesun.park@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, 4-12, Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-729 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Jun; Jung, Sung Il; Jeon, Hae Jeong [Department of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, 4-12, Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-729 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the question of whether nonenhanced CT or contrast enhanced portal phase CT can replace multiphasic pancreas protocol CT in short term monitoring in patients with acute pancreatitis. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. From April 2006 to May 2010, a total of 52 patients having acute pancreatitis who underwent initial dual phase multidetector row CT (unenhanced, arterial, and portal phase) at admission and a short term (within 30 days) follow up dual phase CT (mean interval 10.3 days, range 3-28 days) were included. Two abdominal radiologists performed an independent review of three sets of follow up CT images (nonenhanced scan, single portal phase scan, and dual phase scan). Interpretation of each image set was done with at least 2-week interval. Radiologists evaluated severity of acute pancreatitis with regard to pancreatic inflammation, pancreatic necrosis, and extrapancreatic complication, based on the modified CT severity index. Scores of each image set were compared using a paired t-test and interobserver agreement was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient statistics. Results: Mean scores of sum of CT severity index on nonenhanced scan, portal phase scan, and dual phase scan were 5.7, 6.6, and 6.5 for radiologist 1, and 5.0, 5.6, and 5.8 for radiologist 2, respectively. In both radiologists, contrast enhanced scan (portal phase scan and dual phase scan) showed significantly higher severity score compared with that of unenhanced scan (P < 0.05), while portal phase and dual phase scan showed no significant difference each other. The trend was similar regarding pancreatic inflammation and extrapancreatic complications, in which contrast enhanced scans showed significantly higher score compared with those of unenhanced scan, while no significant difference was observed between portal phase scan and dual phase scan. In pancreatic necrosis

  8. Profile of Infections in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Acute Leukemia During the Induction Phase of Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, H.A.; Talaat, S.M.; El-Mahallawy, H.A.; Kaddah, A.M.; Ismael, H.T.

    2009-01-01

    Acute leukemia is the most common pediatric malignancy. Despite the significant progress in the treatment of infectious complications, infection-related morbidity and mortality continue to be of great importance. Prompt initiation of the appropriate empiric antibiotic treatment has improved infection outcome. The aim of the present study is to assess the type, frequency, and severity of infectious complications in a cohort of pediatric cancer patients treated at a single medical institution. We also aim to identify factors affecting bloodstream infections in newly diagnosed ALL and AML pediatric patients during the induction phase of treatment. Patients and Methods: This study was carried out at the Department of Pediatric Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, during the time period from January 1st to June 30th 2007. Inclusion criteria were pediatric age group (from 0-16 years), newly diagnosed acute leukemia, positive blood culture and documented site of infection. Data were analyzed using the SPSS package version 15. A p-value £0.05 was considered significant. Results: This is a retrospective study including 100 newly diagnosed cases of acute leukemia. Fifty-four patients had ALL, and 46 patients had AML. 348 infectious episodes were recorded. Blood stream infections (BSI) occurred once or twice in 32%, 3-4 episodes in 58%, and five or more episodes in 10% of the cases. Gram-positive cocci were the most frequently observed cause of BSI, accounting for 77.9% of the total isolates followed by Gram negative organisms seen in 18.9% and mixed infections in 8%. The majority of the episodes (n= 208, 58.4%) responded to first-line empirical antibiotic therapy. Conclusion: Clinical and laboratory risk factors could be identified and can help prediction of serious BSI.

  9. Transient dysautonomia in an acute phase of encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimiya, Yuko; Kaku, Noriyuki; Sakai, Yasunari; Yamashita, Fumiya; Matsuoka, Wakato; Muraoka, Mamoru; Akamine, Satoshi; Mizuguchi, Soichi; Torio, Michiko; Motomura, Yoshitomo; Hirata, Yuichiro; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Takada, Hidetoshi; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Ohga, Shouichi

    2017-08-01

    Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a dysautonomic condition that is associated with various types of acquired brain injuries. Traumatic brain lesions have been documented as the leading cause of PSH. However, detailed clinical features of pediatric PSH caused by intrinsic brain lesions remain to be elusive. We present a 3-year-old boy, who had been diagnosed as having cerebral palsy, developmental delay and epilepsy after perinatal hypoxia-induced brain injury. He developed status epilepticus with fever on the third day of respiratory infection. Whereas the seizure was terminated by systemic infusion of midazolam, consciousness remained disturbed for the next 48h. Serial magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed that acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) evolved on 3days after the seizure. Therapeutic hypothermia was immediately introduced, however, the brain lesion extended to the whole subcortical white matters on day 8. The intermittent bilateral dilation of pupils with increased blood pressure and tachycardia were observed until day 12. Real-time monitoring of electroencephalograms ruled out the recurrent attacks of seizures. The abnormal signs of autonomic nervous system gradually ceased and never relapsed after recovery from the hypothermia. PSH or a transient condition of dysautonomia may emerge and persist during the acute phase of AESD. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes in plasma homocyst(e)ine in the acute phase after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Virginia J; Sides, Elizabeth G; Newman, George C; Cohen, Stanley N; Howard, George; Malinow, M Rene; Toole, James F

    2002-02-01

    Elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine [H(e)] concentration has been associated with an increased risk of stroke. Although the literature suggests that H(e) increases from the acute to the convalescent phase after a stroke, it is not known whether H(e) changes within the acute period. A prospective, multicenter study was conducted to examine changes in H(e) during the 2 weeks after an incident stroke. Blood samples were collected at days 1, 3, 5, 7, and between 10 and 14 days after the stroke. Seventy-six participants (51 men) were enrolled from 9 sites from February 1997 through June 1998. Mean age was 65.6 years, and subjects had at least two H(e) measurements. The estimated mean H(e) level at baseline was 11.3+/-0.5 micromol/L, which increased consistently to a mean of 12.0+/-0.05, 12.4+/-0.5, 13.3+/-0.5, and 13.7+/-0.7 micromol/L at days 3, 5, 7, and 10 to 14, respectively. The magnitude of the change in H(e) was not affected by age, sex, smoking status, alcohol use, history of hypertension or diabetes, or Rankin Scale Score. ; These data suggest that the clinical interpretation of H(e) after stroke and the eligibility for clinical trials assessing treatment for elevated H(e) levels require an adjustment in time since stroke to properly interpret the observed H(e) levels.

  11. Global aphasia as a predictor of mortality in the acute phase of a first stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F F Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To establish whether vascular aphasic syndromes can predict stroke outcomes. METHOD: Thirty-seven adults were evaluated for speech and language within 72 hours after a single first-ever ischemic brain lesion, in blind association to CT and/or MR. RESULTS: Speech or language disabilities were found in seven (87.5% of the eight deceased patients and twenty-six (89.7% of the twenty-nine survivors. Global aphasia was identified in eleven patients, all with left hemisphere lesions (nine mute; five deceased, consisting on a risk factor for death in the acute stroke phase (ρ=0.022. Age (z=1.65; ρ>0.09, thrombolysis (ρ=0.591, infarct size (ρ=0.076 and side (ρ=0.649 did not significantly influence survival. Absence of aphasia did not predict a better evolution, regardless of the affected hemisphere. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was similar for all patient groups. CONCLUSION: Global aphasia in acute stroke can adversely affect prognosis, translated into impairment of dominant perisylvian vascular territories, with mutism as an important semiological element.

  12. Using the Relevance Vector Machine Model Combined with Local Phase Quantization to Predict Protein-Protein Interactions from Protein Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yong An

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel computational method known as RVM-LPQ that combines the Relevance Vector Machine (RVM model and Local Phase Quantization (LPQ to predict PPIs from protein sequences. The main improvements are the results of representing protein sequences using the LPQ feature representation on a Position Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM, reducing the influence of noise using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA, and using a Relevance Vector Machine (RVM based classifier. We perform 5-fold cross-validation experiments on Yeast and Human datasets, and we achieve very high accuracies of 92.65% and 97.62%, respectively, which is significantly better than previous works. To further evaluate the proposed method, we compare it with the state-of-the-art support vector machine (SVM classifier on the Yeast dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that our RVM-LPQ method is obviously better than the SVM-based method. The promising experimental results show the efficiency and simplicity of the proposed method, which can be an automatic decision support tool for future proteomics research.

  13. Body composition and phase angle in Russian children in remission from acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, G. Ja; Khomyakova, I. A.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Konovalova, M. V.; Vashura, A. Yu; Tretyak, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Rudnev, S. G.

    2010-04-01

    Elevated degree of body fatness and changes in other body composition parameters are known to be common effects of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children. In order to study peculiarities of somatic growth and development in ALL survivors, we describe the results of BIA body composition analysis of 112 boys and 108 girls aged 5-18 years in remission from ALL (remission time range 1-13 years) compared to data from the same number of age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n=220). Detrimental effect on height in ALL boys was observed, whereas girls experienced additional weight gain compared to healthy subjects. In ALL patients, resistance, body fat, and percent body fat were significantly increased. The reactance, phase angle, absolute and relative values of skeletal muscle and body cell mass were significantly decreased. Principal component analysis revealed an early prevalence of adiposity traits in the somatic growth and development of ALL girls compared to healthy controls.

  14. Use of escitalopram to prevent depression and cognitive impairments in the acute phase of stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Rustemovna Khasanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to comparatively analyze the rate of post-stroke depression and cognitive impairments in escitalopram (cipralex-treated and untreated (control patients. Emotional and affective cognitive symptoms, neurological deficit, and day-to-day activity were evaluated over time 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. The results of the study indicated that escitalopram used to prevent depression in the acute phase of stroke provided a good effect. This drug caused a prompter recovery of cognitive impairments and reduced the pace of development of neurodegenerative disorders underlying the post-stroke 2D (depression and dementia syndrome. The study group was recorded to have more favorable functional outcomes of stroke and patient mobility indicators associated with lower disability rates.

  15. Pituitary dysfunction in traumatic brain injury: Is evaluation in the acute phase worthwhile?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip P Dalwadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI is an under-recognized cause of hypopituitarism. According to recent data, it could be more frequent than previously known. However, there is a scarcity of data in Indian population. Aims: The main aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of pituitary hormone deficiencies in the acute phase of TBI. The secondary objectives were to correlate the severity of trauma with basal hormone levels and to determine whether initial hormone deficiencies predict mortality. Subjects and Methods: Forty-nine TBI patients (41 men and 8 women were included in this study. Pituitary functions were evaluated within 24 h of admission. Results: Gonadotropin deficiency was found in 65.3% patient while 46.9% had low insulin-like growth factor-1, 12.24% had cortisol level <7 mcg/dl. Cortisol and prolactin level were positively correlated with the severity of TBI suggestive of stress response. Free triiodothyronine (fT3 and free thyroxine were significantly lower in patients with increasing severity of tuberculosis. Logistic regression analysis revealed that mortality after TBI was unrelated to the basal pituitary hormone levels except low T3 level, which was found to be positively related to mortality. Conclusions: Pituitary dysfunction is common after TBI and the most commonly affected axes are growth hormone and gonadotropin axis. Low fT3 correlates best with mortality. During the acute phase of TBI, at least an assessment of cortisol is vital as undetected cortisol deficiency can be life-threatening

  16. Selective coronarography and ventriculography with Iopamidol in the acute phase of myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci Maccarini, P; Benenati, P M; Bellanti, G; Piscitelli, G

    1988-01-01

    The new techniques for an early treatement of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), such as thrombolysis and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, often necessitate rapid and accurate radiological evaluation of coronaric lesions and left ventricular function. The aim of the present study was to evaluate both safety and tolerability of selective coronarography (SC) and left ventriculography (LVG), with iopamidol 370 mg I/ml as a contrast medium, in the acute phase of AMI. Thirty-nine patients aged 26-29 years, were examined: 18 group A, within 4 days (mean 2.6+-0.8 SD) and 21, group B, within 5-15 days after AMI (mean 8.8+-3 SD). Contrast media (cm) dosage varied from 150 to 300 ml (2.43-5.5 ml/bw). During the procedure, ECG was continuosly recorded; left ventricular pressure was registered immediately and 30 minutes after cm administration. During the following 9 days ECG tracings and plasmatic cytolysisenzymes were monitored. During the examination no patient complained of any symptoms. After LVG slight elevations in end diastolic pressure were detected in all patients (mean increase 4.7 mmHg), which were not relevant from a clinical point of view. In 11/39 cases ventricular tachycardia was observed, which spontaneously ceased. During SC no change in ECG tracings was registered except in one patient, group A, in whom complete transitory heart block was detected. After SC no alteration in instrumental and biochemical parameters was registered except in one patient, group B, in whom a reinfarction due to right coronaric artery occlusion was observed. In conclusion, these results suggest that both SC and LVG with iopamidol are safe techniques also in the early phase of myocardial infarction. 24 refs.

  17. Acute phase response in lactating dairy cows during hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemic and hyperinsulinemic euglycaemic clamps and after intramammary LPS challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Matteis, L; Bertoni, G; Lombardelli, R; Wellnitz, O; Van Dorland, H A; Vernay, M C M B; Bruckmaier, R M; Trevisi, E

    2017-06-01

    The link between energy availability, turnover of energy substrates and the onset of inflammation in dairy cows is complex and poorly investigated. To clarify this, plasma inflammatory variables were measured in mid-lactating dairy cows allocated to three groups: hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemic clamp, induced by insulin infusion (HypoG, n = 5); hyperinsulinemic euglycaemic clamp, induced by insulin and glucose infusion (EuG; n = 6); control, receiving a saline solution infusion (NaCl; n = 6). At 48 h after the start of i.v. infusions, two udder quarters per cow were challenged with 200 μg of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Individual blood samples were taken before clamps, before LPS challenge (i.e. 48 h after clamps) and 6.5 h after. At 48 h, positive acute phase proteins (posAPP) did not differ among groups, whereas albumin and cholesterol (index of lipoproteins), negative APP (negAPP), were lower (p insulin at the tissue-level makes dairy cows more susceptible to inflammatory events. In contrast, HypoG seems to attenuate the inflammatory response. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Inhibition of Acute Phase Inflammation by Laminaria japonica through Regulation of iNOS-NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Kyu Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminaria japonica has been frequently used as food supplements in many of the Asian countries and as a drug in traditional oriental medicine. This research investigated the effects of Laminaria japonica extract (LJE on acute phase inflammation in a carrageenan-induced paw edema model, as assessed by histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses. The effect of LJE was also evaluated in Raw264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS in the aspect of the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, and proinflammatory cytokines production. NO, PGE2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 contents were assayed by ELISA, and inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expressions were determined by western blot analyses. In rats, LJE treatment inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema formation and infiltration of inflammatory cells in H&E staining. LJE treatment prevented the ability of LPS to increase the levels of iNOS and COX-2 protein in a concentration-dependent manner. Consistently, LJE suppressed the production of TNF-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6. Treatment of the cells with LJE caused inhibition of inhibitor of κBα phosphorylation induced by LPS, suggesting LJE repression of nuclear factor-κB activity by LPS. In conclusion, this study shown here may be of help to understand the action mechanism of LJE and the anti-inflammatory use of L. japonica.

  19. Predictive value of C-reactive protein/albumin ratio in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Mustafa; Ates, Ihsan; Akpinar, Muhammed Yener; Yuksel, Mahmut; Kuzu, Ufuk Baris; Kacar, Sabite; Coskun, Orhan; Kayacetin, Ertugrul

    2017-08-15

    Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) increases and albumin decreases in patients with inflammation and infection. However, their role in patients with acute pancreatitis is not clear. The present study was to investigate the predictive significance of the CRP/albumin ratio for the prognosis and mortality in acute pancreatitis patients. This study was performed retrospectively with 192 acute pancreatitis patients between January 2002 and June 2015. Ranson scores, Atlanta classification and CRP/albumin ratios of the patients were calculated. The CRP/albumin ratio was higher in deceased patients compared to survivors. The CRP/albumin ratio was positively correlated with Ranson score and Atlanta classification in particular and with important prognostic markers such as hospitalization time, CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. In addition to the CRP/albumin ratio, necrotizing pancreatitis type, moderately severe and severe Atlanta classification, and total Ranson score were independent risk factors of mortality. It was found that an increase of 1 unit in the CRP/albumin ratio resulted in an increase of 1.52 times in mortality risk. A prediction value about CRP/albumin ratio >16.28 was found to be a significant marker in predicting mortality with 92.1% sensitivity and 58.0% specificity. It was seen that Ranson and Atlanta classification were higher in patients with CRP/albumin ratio >16.28 compared with those with CRP/albumin ratio ≤16.28. Patients with CRP/albumin ratio >16.28 had a 19.3 times higher chance of death. The CRP/albumin ratio is a novel but promising, easy-to-measure, repeatable, non-invasive inflammation-based prognostic score in acute pancreatitis. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. EEG patterns from acute to chronic stroke phases in focal cerebral ischemic rats: correlations with functional recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-jie; Ke, Zheng; Li, Le; Yip, Shea-ping; Tong, Kai-yu

    2013-04-01

    Monitoring the neural activities from the ischemic penumbra provides critical information on neurological recovery after stroke. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the temporal alterations of neural activities using electroencephalography (EEG) from the acute phase to the chronic phase, and to compare EEG with the degree of post-stroke motor function recovery in a rat model of focal ischemic stroke. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 90 min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery followed by reperfusion for seven days (n = 58). The EEG signals were recorded at the pre-stroke phase (0 h), acute phase (3, 6 h), subacute phase (12, 24, 48, 72 h) and chronic phase (96, 120, 144, 168 h) (n = 8). This study analyzed post-stroke seizures and polymorphic delta activities (PDAs) and calculated quantitative EEG parameters such as the alpha-to-delta ratio (ADR). The ADR represented the ratio between alpha power and delta power, which indicated how fast the EEG activities were. Forelimb and hindlimb motor functions were measured by De Ryck's test and the beam walking test, respectively. In the acute phase, delta power increased fourfold with the occurrence of PDAs, and the histological staining showed that the infarct was limited to the striatum and secondary sensory cortex. In the subacute phase, the alpha power reduced to 50% of the baseline, and the infarct progressed to the forelimb cortical region. ADRs reduced from 0.23 ± 0.09 to 0.04 ± 0.01 at 3 h in the acute phase and gradually recovered to 0.22 ± 0.08 at 168 h in the chronic phase. In the comparison of correlations between the EEG parameters and the limb motor function from the acute phase to the chronic phase, ADRs were found to have the highest correlation coefficients with the beam walking test (r = 0.9524, p test (r = 0.8077, p < 0.05). This study measured EEG activities after focal cerebral ischemia and showed that functional recovery was closely correlated with the neural

  1. EEG patterns from acute to chronic stroke phases in focal cerebral ischemic rats: correlations with functional recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shao-jie; Ke, Zheng; Tong, Kai-yu; Li, Le; Yip, Shea-ping

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring the neural activities from the ischemic penumbra provides critical information on neurological recovery after stroke. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the temporal alterations of neural activities using electroencephalography (EEG) from the acute phase to the chronic phase, and to compare EEG with the degree of post-stroke motor function recovery in a rat model of focal ischemic stroke. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were subjected to 90 min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery followed by reperfusion for seven days (n = 58). The EEG signals were recorded at the pre-stroke phase (0 h), acute phase (3, 6 h), subacute phase (12, 24, 48, 72 h) and chronic phase (96, 120, 144, 168 h) (n = 8). This study analyzed post-stroke seizures and polymorphic delta activities (PDAs) and calculated quantitative EEG parameters such as the alpha-to-delta ratio (ADR). The ADR represented the ratio between alpha power and delta power, which indicated how fast the EEG activities were. Forelimb and hindlimb motor functions were measured by De Ryck's test and the beam walking test, respectively. In the acute phase, delta power increased fourfold with the occurrence of PDAs, and the histological staining showed that the infarct was limited to the striatum and secondary sensory cortex. In the subacute phase, the alpha power reduced to 50% of the baseline, and the infarct progressed to the forelimb cortical region. ADRs reduced from 0.23 ± 0.09 to 0.04 ± 0.01 at 3 h in the acute phase and gradually recovered to 0.22 ± 0.08 at 168 h in the chronic phase. In the comparison of correlations between the EEG parameters and the limb motor function from the acute phase to the chronic phase, ADRs were found to have the highest correlation coefficients with the beam walking test (r = 0.9524, p < 0.05) and De Ryck's test (r = 0.8077, p < 0.05). This study measured EEG activities after focal cerebral ischemia and showed that functional recovery was closely

  2. Pharmaceutical Perspective on Opalescence and Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation in Protein Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Ashlesha S; Kalonia, Devendra S

    2016-05-02

    Opalescence in protein solutions reduces aesthetic appeal of a formulation and can be an indicator of the presence of aggregates or precursor to phase separation in solution signifying reduced product stability. Liquid-liquid phase separation of a protein solution into a protein-rich and a protein-poor phase has been well-documented for globular proteins and recently observed for monoclonal antibody solutions, resulting in physical instability of the formulation. The present review discusses opalescence and liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) for therapeutic protein formulations. A brief discussion on theoretical concepts based on thermodynamics, kinetics, and light scattering is presented. This review also discusses theoretical concepts behind intense light scattering in the vicinity of the critical point termed as "critical opalescence". Both opalescence and LLPS are affected by the formulation factors including pH, ionic strength, protein concentration, temperature, and excipients. Literature reports for the effect of these formulation factors on attractive protein-protein interactions in solution as assessed by the second virial coefficient (B2) and the cloud-point temperature (Tcloud) measurements are also presented. The review also highlights pharmaceutical implications of LLPS in protein solutions.

  3. Differential Effects of Acute Stress on Anticipatory and Consummatory Phases of Reward Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Poornima; Berghorst, Lisa H.; Nickerson, Lisa D.; Dutra, Sunny J.; Goer, Franziska; Greve, Douglas; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2014-01-01

    Anhedonia is one of the core symptoms of depression and has been linked to blunted responses to rewarding stimuli in striatal regions. Stress, a key vulnerability factor for depression, has been shown to induce anhedonic behavior, including reduced reward responsiveness in both animals and humans, but the brain processes associated with these effects remain largely unknown in humans. Emerging evidence suggests that stress has dissociable effects on distinct components of reward processing, as it has been found to potentiate motivation/‘wanting’ during the anticipatory phase but reduce reward responsiveness/‘liking’ during the consummatory phase. To examine the impact of stress on reward processing, we used a monetary incentive delay (MID) task and an acute stress manipulation (negative performance feedback) in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fifteen healthy participants performed the MID task under no-stress and stress conditions. We hypothesized that stress would have dissociable effects on the anticipatory and consummatory phases in reward-related brain regions. Specifically, we expected reduced striatal responsiveness during reward consumption (mirroring patterns previously observed in clinical depression) and increased striatal activation during reward anticipation consistent with non-human findings. Supporting our hypotheses, significant Phase (Anticipation/Consumption) x Stress (Stress/No-stress) interactions emerged in the putamen, nucleus accumbens, caudate and amygdala. Post-hoc tests revealed that stress increased striatal and amygdalar activation during anticipation but decreased striatal activation during consumption. Importantly, stress-induced striatal blunting was similar to the profile observed in clinical depression under baseline (no-stress) conditions in prior studies. Given that stress is a pivotal vulnerability factor for depression, these results offer insight to better understand the etiology of this

  4. Acute low-level alcohol consumption reduces phase locking of event-related oscillations in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Leslie R; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2017-07-14

    Event-related oscillations (EROs) are rhythmic changes that are evoked by a sensory and/or cognitive stimulus that can influence the dynamics of the EEG. EROs are defined by the decomposition of the EEG signal into magnitude (energy) and phase information and can be elicited in both humans and animals. EROs have been linked to several relevant genes associated with ethanol dependence phenotypes in humans and are altered in selectively bred alcohol-preferring rats. However, pharmacological studies are only beginning to emerge investigating the impact low intoxicating doses of ethanol can have on event-related neural oscillations. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of low levels of voluntary consumption of ethanol, in rats, on phase locking of EROs in order to give further insight into the acute intoxicating effects of ethanol on the brain. To this end, we allow rats to self-administer unsweetened 20% ethanol over 15 intermittent sessions. This method results in a stable low-dose consumption of ethanol. Using an auditory event-related potential "oddball" paradigm, we investigated the effects of alcohol on the phase variability of EROs from electrodes implanted into the frontal cortex, dorsal hippocampus, and amygdala. We found that intermittent ethanol self-administration was sufficient to produce a significant reduction in overall intraregional synchrony across all targeted regions. These data suggest that phase locking of EROs within brain regions known to be impacted by alcohol may represent a sensitive biomarker of low levels of alcohol intoxication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in protein expression in testes of L2 strain Taiwan country chickens in response to acute heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Han; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Chen, Chao-Jung; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    Heat stress causes a decrease of fertility in roosters. Yet, the way acute heat stress affects protein expression remains poorly understood. This study investigated differential protein expression in testes of the L2 strain of Taiwan country chickens following acute heat stress. Twelve 45-week-old roosters were allocated into four groups, including control roosters kept at 25 °C, roosters subjected to 38 °C acute heat stress for 4 hours without recovery, with 2 hours of recovery, and with 6 hours of recovery. Testis samples were collected for morphologic assay and protein analysis. Some of the differentially expressed proteins were validated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Abnormal and apoptotic spermatogenic cells were observed at 2 hours of recovery after acute heat stress, especially among the spermatocytes. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed that 119 protein spots were differentially expressed in chicken testes following heat stress, and peptide mass fingerprinting revealed that these spots contained 92 distinct proteins. In the heat-stressed samples, the heat shock proteins, chaperonin containing t-complex, and proteasome subunits were downregulated, and glutathione S-transferase, transgelin, and DJ-1 were upregulated. Our results demonstrate that acute heat stress impairs the processes of translation, protein folding, and protein degradation, and thus results in apoptosis and interferes with spermatogenesis. On the other hand, the increased expression of antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione S-transferase and DJ-1, may attenuate heat-induced damage. These findings may have implications for breeding chickens that can tolerate more extreme conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultrastructural and biochemical evidence for the presence of mature steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in the cytoplasm of human luteal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierralta, Walter D; Kohen, Paulina; Castro, Olga; Muñoz, Alex; Strauss, Jerome F; Devoto, Luigi

    2005-10-20

    The distribution of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) inside thecal and granulosa-lutein cells of human corpus luteum (CL) was assessed by immunoelectron microscopy. We found greater levels of StAR immunolabeling in steroidogenic cells from early- and mid-than in late luteal phase CL and lower levels in cells from women treated with a GnRH antagonist in the mid-luteal phase. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed significant levels of StAR antigen in the mitochondria and in the cytoplasm of luteal cells. The 30 kDa mature StAR protein was present in both mitochondria and cytosol (post-mitochondrial) fractions from homogenates of CL at different ages, whereas cytochrome c and mitochondrial HSP70 were detected only in the mitochondrial fraction. Therefore, we hypothesized that either appreciable processing of StAR 37 kDa pre-protein occurs outside the mitochondria, or mature StAR protein is selectively released into the cytoplasm after mitochondrial processing. The presence of mature StAR in the cytoplasm is consonant with the notion that StAR acts on the outer mitochondrial membrane to effect sterol import, and that StAR may interact with other cytoplasmic proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism, including hormone sensitive lipase.

  7. CD26: A Prognostic Marker of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Children in the Post Remission Induction Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehde, Atheer Awad; Yusof, Faridah; Adel Mehdi, Wesen; Zainulabdeen, Jwan Abdulmohsin

    2015-01-01

    ALL is an irredeemable disease due to the resistance to treatment. There are several influences which are involved in such resistance to chemotherapy, including oxidative stress as a result of the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and presence of hypodiploid cells. Cluster of differentiation 26 (CD26), also known as dipeptidyl peptidase-4, is a 110 kDa, multifunctional, membrane-bound glycoprotein. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of serum CD26 in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients in the post remission induction phase, as well as the relationship between CD26 activity and the oxidative stress status. CD26, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI), in addition to activity of related enzymes myeloperoxidase, glutathione- s-transferase and xanthine oxidase, were analysed in sixty children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the post remission induction phase. The study showed significant elevation in CD26, TOS and OSI levels in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the post remission induction phase in comparison to healthy control samples. In contrast, myeloperoxidase, glutathione-s-transferase and xanthine oxidase activities were decreased significantly. A significant correlation between CD26 concentration and some oxidative stress parameters was evident in ALL patients. Serum levels of CD26 appear to be useful as a new biomarker of oxidative stress in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the post remission induction phase, and levels of antioxidants must be regularly estimated during the treatment of children with ALL.

  8. Editorial: dose-dependent ZnO particle-induced acute phase response in humans warrants re-evaluation of occupational exposure limits for metal oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Cassee, Flemming R.

    2018-01-01

    in autonomic imbalance and particle-induced pulmonary inflammation and acute phase response.The acute phase response is the systemic response to acute and chronic inflammatory states caused by for example bacterial infection, virus infection, trauma and infarction. It is characterized by differential...... studies and SAA has been causally related to the formation of plaques in the aorta in animal studies.In a recent paper in Particle and Fibre Toxicology, Christian Monse et al. provide evidence that inhalation of ZnO nanoparticles induces dose-dependent acute phase response in humans at dose levels well...

  9. Acylation-stimulating protein is a surrogate biomarker for acute myocardial infarction: Role of statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder M Al-Kuraishy

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: ASP levels are elevated in patients with acute MI and regarded as surrogate biomarker for acute MI also; therapy with statins leads to significant reduction in ASP levels compared to nonstatins-treated patients that presented with acute MI.

  10. Monoolein lipid phases as incorporation and enrichment materials for membrane protein crystallization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Wallace

    Full Text Available The crystallization of membrane proteins in amphiphile-rich materials such as lipidic cubic phases is an established methodology in many structural biology laboratories. The standard procedure employed with this methodology requires the generation of a highly viscous lipidic material by mixing lipid, for instance monoolein, with a solution of the detergent solubilized membrane protein. This preparation is often carried out with specialized mixing tools that allow handling of the highly viscous materials while minimizing dead volume to save precious membrane protein sample. The processes that occur during the initial mixing of the lipid with the membrane protein are not well understood. Here we show that the formation of the lipidic phases and the incorporation of the membrane protein into such materials can be separated experimentally. Specifically, we have investigated the effect of different initial monoolein-based lipid phase states on the crystallization behavior of the colored photosynthetic reaction center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. We find that the detergent solubilized photosynthetic reaction center spontaneously inserts into and concentrates in the lipid matrix without any mixing, and that the initial lipid material phase state is irrelevant for productive crystallization. A substantial in-situ enrichment of the membrane protein to concentration levels that are otherwise unobtainable occurs in a thin layer on the surface of the lipidic material. These results have important practical applications and hence we suggest a simplified protocol for membrane protein crystallization within amphiphile rich materials, eliminating any specialized mixing tools to prepare crystallization experiments within lipidic cubic phases. Furthermore, by virtue of sampling a membrane protein concentration gradient within a single crystallization experiment, this crystallization technique is more robust and increases the efficiency of identifying productive

  11. Fasa Registry on Acute Myocardial Infarction (FaRMI: Feasibility Study and Pilot Phase Results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Bahramali

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction (MI is the leading cause of death in Iran. Every attempt to improve treatment patterns and patient outcomes needs a surveillance system to both consider the efficacy and safety measures. Fasa Registry on Myocardial Infarction (FaRMI is the first population-based registry for acute MI in Iran targeted to provide meticulous description of patients' characteristics, to explore the management patterns of these patients, to discover the degree of adherence to the practice guidelines, and to investigate the determinants of poor in-hospital and later outcomes.A diagnosis of acute MI (type I, II and III was made upon the accepted criteria by the attending cardiologists and types IV and V MI were excluded. Two registrar nurses gathered data on demographics, place of residence and ethnicity, past medical history, risk factors, and the clinical course. Management patterns in the pre-hospital setting, during the hospital stay and at the discharge time were recorded. Routine laboratory results and cardiac biomarkers on three consecutive days were registered.pilot phase included the first 95 patients, 63.5% of whom were men and 31.5% were women. With a mean age of 62.89±13.75 years among participants, the rate of premature MI was 31.8%. ST segment elevation MI accounted for 68.2% cases and inferior wall was the most prevalent region involved followed by anterior and posterior walls.Obtained data on the characteristics of patients suffering an MI event revealed the major determinants of delay in initiation of therapies and contributors of poor outcome. Completeness of data was guaranteed upon involvement of multiple checkpoints and data quality was secured by means of automatic validation processes in addition to weekly physicians' roundups.Execution of FaRMI in the form presented is feasible and it will build up a comprehensive population-based registry for MI in the region.

  12. Measurement of renal blood flow by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging during septic acute kidney injury: a pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowle, John R; Molan, Maurice P; Hornsey, Emma; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2012-06-01

    In septic patients, decreased renal perfusion is considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury. However, the accurate measurement of renal blood flow in such patients is problematic and invasive. We sought to overcome such obstacles by measuring renal blood flow in septic patients with acute kidney injury using cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. Pilot observational study. University-affiliated general adult intensive care unit. Ten adult patients with established septic acute kidney injury and 11 normal volunteers. Cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging measurement of renal blood flow and cardiac output. The median age of the study patients was 62.5 yrs and eight were male. At the time of magnetic resonance imaging, eight patients were mechanically ventilated, nine were on continuous hemofiltration, and five required vasopressors. Cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging examinations were carried out without complication. Median renal blood flow was 482 mL/min (range 335-1137) in septic acute kidney injury and 1260 mL/min (range 791-1750) in healthy controls (p = .003). Renal blood flow indexed to body surface area was 244 mL/min/m2 (range 165-662) in septic acute kidney injury and 525 mL/min/m2 (range 438-869) in controls (p = .004). In patients with septic acute kidney injury, median cardiac index was 3.5 L/min/m2 (range 1.6-8.7), and median renal fraction of cardiac output was only 7.1% (range 4.4-10.8). There was no rank correlation between renal blood flow index and creatinine clearance in patients with septic acute kidney injury (r = .26, p = .45). Cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging can be used to noninvasively and safely assess renal perfusion during critical illness in man. Near-simultaneous accurate measurement of cardiac output enables organ blood flow to be assessed in the context of the global circulation. Renal blood flow seems consistently reduced as a fraction of cardiac output in

  13. Purification and Identification of Membrane Proteins from Urinary Extracellular Vesicles using Triton X-114 Phase Partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuiwang; Musante, Luca; Tataruch, Dorota; Xu, Xiaomeng; Kretz, Oliver; Henry, Michael; Meleady, Paula; Luo, Haihua; Zou, Hequn; Jiang, Yong; Holthofer, Harry

    2018-01-05

    Urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) have become a promising source for biomarkers accurately reflecting biochemical changes in kidney and urogenital diseases. Characteristically, uEVs are rich in membrane proteins associated with several cellular functions like adhesion, transport, and signaling. Hence, membrane proteins of uEVs should represent an exciting protein class with unique biological properties. In this study, we utilized uEVs to optimize the Triton X-114 detergent partitioning protocol targeted for membrane proteins and proceeded to their subsequent characterization while eliminating effects of Tamm-Horsfall protein, the most abundant interfering protein in urine. This is the first report aiming to enrich and characterize the integral transmembrane proteins present in human urinary vesicles. First, uEVs were enriched using a "hydrostatic filtration dialysis'' appliance, and then the enriched uEVs and lysates were verified by transmission electron microscopy. After using Triton X-114 phase partitioning, we generated an insoluble pellet fraction and aqueous phase (AP) and detergent phase (DP) fractions and analyzed them with LC-MS/MS. Both in- and off-gel protein digestion methods were used to reveal an increased number of membrane proteins of uEVs. After comparing with the identified proteins without phase separation as in our earlier publication, 199 different proteins were detected in DP. Prediction of transmembrane domains (TMDs) from these protein fractions showed that DP had more TMDs than other groups. The analyses of hydrophobicity revealed that the GRAVY score of DP was much higher than those of the other fractions. Furthermore, the analysis of proteins with lipid anchor revealed that DP proteins had more lipid anchors than other fractions. Additionally, KEGG pathway analysis showed that the DP proteins detected participate in endocytosis and signaling, which is consistent with the expected biological functions of membrane proteins. Finally

  14. Acute morbidity reduction using 3DCRT for prostate carcinoma; a randomised phase III study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koper, P.; Putten, W. van; Stroom, J.; Korevaar, G.; Heijmen, B.; Wijnmaalen, A.; Jansen, P.; Hanssens, P.; Griep, C.; Krol, A.; Samson, M.; Levendag, P.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: A randomised phase III toxicity study (conventional vs conformal radiotherapy) was performed for prostatic carcinoma to study the effects on the (acute) morbidity of intestinal/rectosigmoid and bladder. The observed toxicity was compared with Dose Volume Histograms to reveal possible volume (reduction) effects. Methods: In the phase III study 266 T1-4 N0M0 prostate cancer patients were entered. Patients were randomised for conventional and conformal radiotherapy (total dose 66 Gy, minimum PTV dose 95% ICRU and a CTV-PTV margin of 10 mm in both study arms). The GTV was limited to the prostate only in T1 tumors. In all other patients the GTV was defined to be prostate and seminal vesicles for the complete treatment course. The CTV-PTV margin (10mm) was created by a automated program to ensure the minimum prescribed margin. The rectosigmoid was defined to be the rectum including the sigmoid within the Treatment Volume (ICRU). Acute toxicity was evaluated using the EORTC/RTOG morbidity score and weekly quality of life questionnaires. The radiation technique comparison was done by Dose volume Histogram analysis using the Area Under The Curve (AUC) for different dose levels. In this preliminary DVH analysis we present the data for the first 100 patients. Results: Patient and tumor characteristics were evenly distributed between both study groups. The maximum toxicity is reached at 75% of the tumordose (TD) (rectal grade I 59% grade II 26%, bladder grade I 48%, grade II 16% and grade III 1% [catheter for urinary retention]). Comparing both study arms there seems to be a reduction in intestinal morbidity (grade II and higher resp. 32% vs 19% p=0.02). Further analysis revealed a marked reduction in medication for anal symptoms; this accounts for a large part of the significant difference in intestinal toxicity (grade II conventional vs conformal rectosigmoid 18% vs 14% and anal 16% vs 8%). For bladder morbidity no difference for mobidity higher than grade I is

  15. Strategic study on energy-protein requirements for local sheep: 5. Ewes during lactation phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-W Mathius

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-six Javanese thin-tail ewes in the end of late pregnancy phase were set out to study the energy and crude protein requirements during the first eight-week of lactation phase. The ewes were penned individually in doors and randomly assigned to a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, consisting of three levels of energy (low, medium and high and three levels of crude protein (low, medium and high diets with four ewes per treatment. The diets were pelleted and offered four times daily in approximately equal amount. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility, body weight and milk production were recorded. Results showed that, total lamb birth weights was not affected, but protein content on the ration treatments significantly altered (P0.05, while crude protein content on the ration highly significantly affected (P<0.01. Based on data recorded, the energy and protein requirements for ewes during lactation phase are highly significantly depended on ewes’ live weight, milk production and the ratio of energy metabolism and crude protein of the ration. It was concluded that in order to fulfil the crude protein and energy needs of the ewes during lactation phase, the ration given should contain crude protein and energy as much as 16% (based on dry matter and 13.4 MJ/kg dry matter respectively.

  16. A direct comparison of protein structure in the gas and solution phase: the Trp-cage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patriksson, Alexandra; Adams, Christopher M; Kjeldsen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of zwitterions of the Trp-cage protein in the gas phase show that the most stable ion in vacuo has preserved the charge locations acquired in solution. A direct comparison of the gas and solution-phase structures reveals that, despite the similarity in charge location...

  17. Comparison of parasite loads in serum and blood samples from patients in acute and chronic phases of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Carolina; Teherán, Aníbal; Flórez, Carolina; Ramírez, Juan David

    2018-04-17

    Molecular methods have been developed for the detection and quantification of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in blood samples from patients with Chagas disease. However, aspects of sample processing necessary for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), such as the addition of guanidine hydrochloride to whole blood samples, may limit timely access to molecular diagnosis. We analysed 169 samples from serum and guanidine-EDTA blood (GEB) obtained from patients in acute and chronic phases of Chagas disease. We applied qPCR targeted to the satellite DNA region. Finally, we compared the parasite loads and cycle of threshold values of the qPCR. The results confirmed the usefulness of serum samples for the detection and quantification of parasite DNA in patients with Chagas disease, especially in the acute phase. However, the parasite loads detected in serum samples from patients in the chronic phase were lower than those detected in GEB samples. The epidemiological implications of the findings are herein discussed.

  18. RPPAML/RIMS: A metadata format and an information management system for reverse phase protein arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislaus, Romesh; Carey, Mark; Deus, Helena F; Coombes, Kevin; Hennessy, Bryan T; Mills, Gordon B; Almeida, Jonas S

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Reverse Phase Protein Arrays (RPPA) are convenient assay platforms to investigate the presence of biomarkers in tissue lysates. As with other high-throughput technologies, substantial amounts of analytical data are generated. Over 1000 samples may be printed on a single nitrocellulose slide. Up to 100 different proteins may be assessed using immunoperoxidase or immunoflorescence techniques in order to determine relative amounts of protein expression in the samples of inter...

  19. MAR binding protein SMAR1 favors IL-10 mediated regulatory T cell function in acute colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirlekar, Bhalchandra; Patil, Sachin; Bopanna, Ramanamurthy; Chattopadhyay, Samit

    2015-01-01

    T reg cells are not only crucial for controlling immune responses to autoantigens but also prevent those directed towards commensal pathogens. Control of effector immune responses by T reg cells depend on their capacity to accumulate at inflammatory site and accordingly accommodate to inflammatory environment. Till date, the factors associated with maintaining these aspects of T reg phenotype is not understood properly. Here we have shown that a known nuclear matrix binding protein SMAR1 is selectively expressed more in colonic T reg cells and is required for their ability to accumulate at inflammatory site and to sustain high levels of Foxp3 and IL-10 expression during acute colitis. Elimination of anti-inflammatory subsets revealed a protective role for IL-10 producing T reg cells in SMAR1 −/− mice. Moreover, a combined action of Foxp3 and SMAR1 restricts effector cytokine production and enhance the production of IL-10 by colonic T reg cells that controls acute colitis. This data highlights a critical role of SMAR1 in maintaining T reg physiology during inflammatory disorders. - Highlights: • SMAR1 is essential to sustain high level of Foxp3 and IL-10 in T reg cells. • SMAR1 −/− T reg cells produce pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17 leads to inflammation. • IL-10 administration can control the inflammation in SMAR1 −/− mice. • Both Foxp3 and SMAR1 maintain T reg phenotype that controls colitis

  20. Early diagnosis value of C-reactive protein in the acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhen; Ruan Hui

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate pairs of C-reactive protein (CRP) in acute pancreatitis(AP) diagnosis and disease evaluation of the value of research. Methods: One hundred and fifty cases of AP in two groups were divided into mild AP (MAP) and severe AP (SAP), in the 1 st, 3 rd, 5 th, 7 th, 9 th days after admission tests of CRP levels, dynamic observation and comparative analysis were performed. Results: CRP in all AP patients after admission was significantly higher, levels in SAP group serum CRP reached an average of (106.3 ± 15.4) mg/L which was significantly higher than that the MAP group (21.5 ± 7.6) mg/L (P < 0.01). Conclusion: CRP can be used as an early diagnosis of AP and SAP severity assessment and a prognosis indicators. (authors)

  1. Heat Shock Protein 90α Is a Potential Serological Biomarker of Acute Rejection after Renal Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Maehana

    Full Text Available Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90, a molecular chaperone associated with the activation of client proteins, was recently reported to play an important role in immunologic reactions. To date, the role of HSP90 in solid organ transplantations has remained unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum HSP90α levels and acute allograft rejection after organ and tissue transplantation using serum samples from kidney allograft recipients, an in vitro antibody-mediated rejection model, and a murine skin transplantation.Serum HSP90α levels were significantly higher in kidney recipients at the time of acute rejection (AR than in those with no evidence of rejection. In most cases with AR, serum HSP90 decreased to baseline after the treatment. On the other hand, serum HSP90α was not elevated as much in patients with chronic rejection, calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity, or BK virus nephropathy as in AR patients. In vitro study showed that HSP90α concentration in the supernatant was significantly higher in the supernatant of human aortic endothelial cells cocultured with specific anti-HLA IgG under complement attack than in that of cells cocultured with nonspecific IgG. In mice receiving skin transplantation, serum HSP90α was elevated when the first graft was rejected and the level further increased during more severe rejection of the second graft.The results suggest that HSP90α is released into the serum by cell damage due to AR in organ and tissue transplantation, and it is potentially a new biomarker to help detect AR in kidney recipients.

  2. Relationship between gastro-intestinal complaints and endotoxaemia, cytokine release and the acute-phase reaction during and after a long-distance triathlon in highly trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeukendrup, A E; Vet-Joop, K; Sturk, A; Stegen, J H; Senden, J; Saris, W H; Wagenmakers, A J

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish whether gastro-intestinal (GI) complaints observed during and after ultra-endurance exercise are related to gut ischaemia-associated leakage of endotoxins [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] into the circulation and associated cytokine production. Therefore we collected blood samples from 29 athletes before, immediately after, and 1, 2 and 16 h after a long-distance triathlon for measurement of LPS, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 (IL-6). As the cytokine response would trigger an acute-phase response, characteristic variables of these responses were also measured, along with creatine kinase (CK) to obtain an indicator of muscle damage. There was a high incidence (93% of all participants) of GI symptoms; 45% reported severe complaints and 7% of the participants abandoned the race because of severe GI distress. Mild endotoxaemia (5-15 pg/ml) was evident in 68% of the athletes immediately after the race, as also indicated by a reduction in IgG anti-LPS levels. In addition, we observed production of IL-6 (27-fold increase immediately after the race), leading to an acute-phase response (20-fold increase in C-reactive protein and 12% decrease in pre-albumin 16 h after the race). The extent of endotoxaemia was not correlated with the GI complaints or the IL-6 response, but did show a correlation with the elevation in C-reactive protein (r(s) 0.389; P=0.037). Creatine kinase levels were increased significantly immediately post-race, and increased further in the follow-up period. Creatine kinase levels did not correlate with those of either IL-6 or C-reactive protein. It is therefore concluded that LPS does enter the circulation after ultra-endurance exercise and may, together with muscle damage, be responsible for the increased cytokine response and hence GI complaints in these athletes.

  3. Probing Protein Structure and Folding in the Gas Phase by Electron Capture Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schennach, Moritz; Breuker, Kathrin

    2015-07-01

    The established methods for the study of atom-detailed protein structure in the condensed phases, X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, have recently been complemented by new techniques by which nearly or fully desolvated protein structures are probed in gas-phase experiments. Electron capture dissociation (ECD) is unique among these as it provides residue-specific, although indirect, structural information. In this Critical Insight article, we discuss the development of ECD for the structural probing of gaseous protein ions, its potential, and limitations.

  4. Correlations for the partition behavior of proteins in aqueous two-phase systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, A.S.; Andrews, B.A.; Asenjo, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    to its high hydrophilicity. In the case of subtilisin and trypsin inhibitor, their high concentrations in the top phase were due to their hydrophobic nature (hydrophobic interaction with PEG) and small size (negligible steric exclusion). The maximum concentration in the bottom phase for trypsin inhibitor...... of the overall protein concentration, by the ratio between the ''saturation'' equations of the two individual phases. Better correlations were obtained when an empirical sigmoidal Boltzmann equation was fitted to the data, since in virtually all cases the partition coefficient is constant at low protein...

  5. Phase 3 study of recombinant factor VIII Fc fusion protein in severe hemophilia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlangu, Johnny; Powell, Jerry S.; Ragni, Margaret V.; Chowdary, Pratima; Josephson, Neil C.; Pabinger, Ingrid; Hanabusa, Hideji; Gupta, Naresh; Kulkarni, Roshni; Fogarty, Patrick; Perry, David; Shapiro, Amy; Pasi, K. John; Apte, Shashikant; Nestorov, Ivan; Jiang, Haiyan; Li, Shuanglian; Neelakantan, Srividya; Cristiano, Lynda M.; Goyal, Jaya; Sommer, Jurg M.; Dumont, Jennifer A.; Dodd, Nigel; Nugent, Karen; Vigliani, Gloria; Luk, Alvin; Brennan, Aoife

    2014-01-01

    This phase 3 pivotal study evaluated the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of a recombinant FVIII Fc fusion protein (rFVIIIFc) for prophylaxis, treatment of acute bleeding, and perioperative hemostatic control in 165 previously treated males aged ≥12 years with severe hemophilia A. The study had 3 treatment arms: arm 1, individualized prophylaxis (25-65 IU/kg every 3-5 days, n = 118); arm 2, weekly prophylaxis (65 IU/kg, n = 24); and arm 3, episodic treatment (10-50 IU/kg, n = 23). A subgroup compared recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) and rFVIIIFc pharmacokinetics. End points included annualized bleeding rate (ABR), inhibitor development, and adverse events. The terminal half-life of rFVIIIFc (19.0 hours) was extended 1.5-fold vs rFVIII (12.4 hours; P < .001). Median ABRs observed in arms 1, 2, and 3 were 1.6, 3.6, and 33.6, respectively. In arm 1, the median weekly dose was 77.9 IU/kg; approximately 30% of subjects achieved a 5-day dosing interval (last 3 months on study). Across arms, 87.3% of bleeding episodes resolved with 1 injection. Adverse events were consistent with those expected in this population; no subjects developed inhibitors. rFVIIIFc was well-tolerated, had a prolonged half-life compared with rFVIII, and resulted in low ABRs when dosed prophylactically 1 to 2 times per week. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01181128. PMID:24227821

  6. Evaluation of Respiratory Muscle Strength in the Acute Phase of Stroke: The Role of Aging and Anthropometric Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvizutto, Gustavo José; Dos Santos, Maria Regina Lopes; Sartor, Lorena Cristina Alvarez; da Silva Rodrigues, Josiela Cristina; da Costa, Rafael Dalle Molle; Braga, Gabriel Pereira; de Oliveira Antunes, Letícia Cláudia; Souza, Juli Thomaz; de Carvalho Nunes, Hélio Rubens; Bazan, Silméia Garcia Zanati; Bazan, Rodrigo

    2017-10-01

    During hospitalization, stroke patients are bedridden due to neurologic impairment, leading to loss of muscle mass, weakness, and functional limitation. There have been few studies examining respiratory muscle strength (RMS) in the acute phase of stroke. This study aimed to evaluate the RMS of patients with acute stroke compared with predicted values and to relate this to anthropometric variables, risk factors, and neurologic severity. This is a cross-sectional study in the acute phase of stroke. After admission, RMS was evaluated by maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP); anthropometric data were collected; and neurologic severity was evaluated by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. The analysis of MIP and MEP with predicted values was performed by chi-square test, and the relationship between anthropometric variables, risk factors, and neurologic severity was determined through multiple linear regression followed by residue analysis by the Shapiro-Wilk test; P < .05 was considered statistically significant. In the 32 patients studied, MIP and MEP were reduced when compared with the predicted values. MIP declined significantly by 4.39 points for each 1 kg/m 2 increase in body mass index (BMI), and MEP declined significantly by an average of 3.89 points for each 1 kg/m 2 increase in BMI. There was no statistically significant relationship between MIP or MEP and risk factors, and between MIP or MIP and neurologic severity in acute phase of stroke. There is a reduction of RMS in the acute phase of stroke, and RMS was lower in individuals with increased age and BMI. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the effects of honey on acute-phase deep burn wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yukari; Mukai, Kanae; Nasruddin; Komatsu, Emi; Iuchi, Terumi; Kitayama, Yukie; Sugama, Junko; Nakatani, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of honey on acute-phase deep burn wounds. Two deep burn wounds were created on mice which were divided into four groups: no treatment, silver sulfadiazine, manuka honey, and Japanese acacia honey. Wound sizes were calculated as expanded wound areas and sampled 30 minutes and 1-4 days after wounding for histological observation. The wound sections were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistological staining to detect necrotic cells, apoptotic cells, neutrophils, and macrophages. The no treatment group formed a scar. The redness around the wound edges in the silver sulfadiazine group was the most intense. All groups exhibited increased wound areas after wounding. The proportions of necrotic cells and the numbers of neutrophils in the manuka and acacia honey groups were lower than those in the no treatment and silver sulfadiazine groups until day 3; however, there were no significant differences between all groups on day 4. These results show that honey treatment on deep burn wounds cannot prevent wound progression. Moreover, comparing our observations with those of Jackson, there are some differences between humans and animals in this regard, and the zone of hyperemia and its surrounding area fall into necrosis, which contributes to burn wound progression.

  8. Evaluation of the Effects of Honey on Acute-Phase Deep Burn Wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukari Nakajima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the effects of honey on acute-phase deep burn wounds. Two deep burn wounds were created on mice which were divided into four groups: no treatment, silver sulfadiazine, manuka honey, and Japanese acacia honey. Wound sizes were calculated as expanded wound areas and sampled 30 minutes and 1–4 days after wounding for histological observation. The wound sections were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistological staining to detect necrotic cells, apoptotic cells, neutrophils, and macrophages. The no treatment group formed a scar. The redness around the wound edges in the silver sulfadiazine group was the most intense. All groups exhibited increased wound areas after wounding. The proportions of necrotic cells and the numbers of neutrophils in the manuka and acacia honey groups were lower than those in the no treatment and silver sulfadiazine groups until day 3; however, there were no significant differences between all groups on day 4. These results show that honey treatment on deep burn wounds cannot prevent wound progression. Moreover, comparing our observations with those of Jackson, there are some differences between humans and animals in this regard, and the zone of hyperemia and its surrounding area fall into necrosis, which contributes to burn wound progression.

  9. Effects of Acute Endurance Exercise on Plasma Protein Profiles of Endurance-Trained and Untrained Individuals over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Schild

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute physical exercise and repeated exercise stimuli affect whole-body metabolic and immunologic homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine plasma protein profiles of trained (EET, n=19 and untrained (SED, n=17 individuals at rest and in response to an acute bout of endurance exercise. Participants completed a bicycle exercise test at an intensity corresponding to 80% of their VO2max. Plasma samples were taken before, directly after, and three hours after exercise and analyzed using multiplex immunoassays. Seventy-eight plasma variables were included in the final analysis. Twenty-nine variables displayed significant acute exercise effects in both groups. Seven proteins differed between groups, without being affected by acute exercise. Among these A2Macro and IL-5 were higher in EET individuals while leptin showed elevated levels in SED individuals. Fifteen variables revealed group and time differences with elevated levels for IL-3, IL-7, IL-10, and TNFR2 in EET individuals. An interaction effect could be observed for nine variables including IL-6, MMP-2, MMP-3, and muscle damage markers. The proteins that differ between groups indicate a long-term exercise effect on plasma protein concentrations. These findings might be of importance in the development of exercise-based strategies in the prevention and therapy of chronic metabolic and inflammatory diseases and for training monitoring.

  10. Essential role for cyclic-AMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB) in the survival of acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sligte, Naomi E.; Kampen, Kim R.; ter Elst, Arja; Scherpen, Frank J. G.; Meeuwsen-de Boer, Tiny G. J.; Guryev, Victor; van Leeuwen, Frank N.; Kornblau, Steven M.; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) relapse remains a leading cause of cancer related death in children, therefore, new therapeutic options are needed. Recently, we showed that a peptide derived from Cyclic-AMP Responsive Element Binding Protein (CREB) was highly phosphorylated in pediatric

  11. Effects of a heat shock protein inducer on the atrial fibrillation substrate caused by acute atrial ischaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakabe, Masao; Shiroshita-Takeshita, Akiko; Maguy, Ange; Brundel, Bianca J. J. M.; Fujiki, Akira; Inoue, Hiroshi; Nattel, Stanley

    2008-01-01

    Aims Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a set of endogenous cytoprotective factors activated by various pathological conditions. This study addressed the effects of geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), an orally active HSP inducer, on the atrial fibrillation (AF) substrate associated with acute atria( ischaemia

  12. Reverse Phase Protein Arrays for High-Throughput Protein Measurements in Mammospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marlene Lemvig; Block, Ines; List, Markus

    Protein Array (RPPA)-based readout format integrated into robotic siRNA screening. This technique would allow post-screening high-throughput quantification of protein changes. Recently, breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) have attracted much attention, as a tumor- and metastasis-driving subpopulation...

  13. Hydroxysafflor yellow A suppress oleic acid-induced acute lung injury via protein kinase A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chaoyun; Huang, Qingxian; Wang, Chunhua; Zhu, Xiaoxi; Duan, Yunfeng; Yuan, Shuai; Bai, Xianyong

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation response and oxidative stress play important roles in acute lung injury (ALI). Activation of the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway may attenuate ALI by suppressing immune responses and inhibiting the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is a natural flavonoid compound that reduces oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine-mediated damage. In this study, we examined whether HSYA could protect the lungs from oleic acid (OA)-induced injury, which was used to mimic ALI, and determined the role of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway in this process. Arterial oxygen tension (PaO 2 ), carbon dioxide tension, pH, and the PaO 2 /fraction of inspired oxygen ratio in the blood were detected using a blood gas analyzer. We measured wet/dry lung weight ratio and evaluated tissue morphology. The protein and inflammatory cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were determined using enzyme-linked immunoassay. The activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, PKA, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, and the concentrations of cAMP and malondialdehyde in the lung tissue were detected using assay kits. Bcl-2, Bax, caspase 3, and p22 phox levels in the lung tissue were analyzed using Western blotting. OA increased the inflammatory cytokine and ROS levels and caused lung dysfunction by decreasing cAMP synthesis, inhibiting PKA activity, stimulating caspase 3, and reducing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. H-89 increased these effects. HSYA significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, inhibited the inflammatory response via cAMP/PKA pathway activation, and attenuated OA-induced lung injury. Our results show that the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway is required for the protective effect of HSYA against ALI. - Highlights: • Oleic acid (OA) cause acute lung injury (ALI) via inhibiting cAMP/PKA signal pathway. • Blocking protein kinase A (PKA) activation may enhance Cytokine

  14. [Effects of balneotherapy on the reactants of acute inflammation phase in ankylosing spondylitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects sacroiliac joints, spinal column and peripheral joints. Beside medication therapy, physical and balneotherapy play an important role in its complex treatment. The aim of the research was to establish serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (alpha 1-AGP), ceruloplasmine (CP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (SE) before and after the balneotherapy in ankylosing spondylitis. The research included 50 AS patients according to the revised New York criteria, of mean age 43 years, who were treated for 14 days on the average at the Clinic for Rheumatology of the Institute "Niska Banja". All the patients received medications and balneotherapy (radioactive oligomineral baths, peloid, massage, kinesitherapy); the serum concentrations of CRP, al-AGP, CP and SE were measured before and after balneotherapy. Serum proteins were determined using original Nor Partigen plates Boehringer. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was measured by Westergreen method. Balneotherapy was applied individually, intensively or mildly, depending on the AS stage and activity phase. After dosed balneotherapy, a significant decrease in the concentrations of CP (p balneotherapy efficiency in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis.

  15. Automated de novo phasing and model building of coiled-coil proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rämisch, Sebastian; Lizatović, Robert; André, Ingemar

    2015-03-01

    Models generated by de novo structure prediction can be very useful starting points for molecular replacement for systems where suitable structural homologues cannot be readily identified. Protein-protein complexes and de novo-designed proteins are examples of systems that can be challenging to phase. In this study, the potential of de novo models of protein complexes for use as starting points for molecular replacement is investigated. The approach is demonstrated using homomeric coiled-coil proteins, which are excellent model systems for oligomeric systems. Despite the stereotypical fold of coiled coils, initial phase estimation can be difficult and many structures have to be solved with experimental phasing. A method was developed for automatic structure determination of homomeric coiled coils from X-ray diffraction data. In a benchmark set of 24 coiled coils, ranging from dimers to pentamers with resolutions down to 2.5 Å, 22 systems were automatically solved, 11 of which had previously been solved by experimental phasing. The generated models contained 71-103% of the residues present in the deposited structures, had the correct sequence and had free R values that deviated on average by 0.01 from those of the respective reference structures. The electron-density maps were of sufficient quality that only minor manual editing was necessary to produce final structures. The method, named CCsolve, combines methods for de novo structure prediction, initial phase estimation and automated model building into one pipeline. CCsolve is robust against errors in the initial models and can readily be modified to make use of alternative crystallographic software. The results demonstrate the feasibility of de novo phasing of protein-protein complexes, an approach that could also be employed for other small systems beyond coiled coils.

  16. Renal and urinary levels of endothelial protein C receptor correlate with acute renal allograft rejection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Lattenist

    Full Text Available The Endothelial Protein C Receptor (EPCR is expressed on leukocytes, on endothelium of large blood vessels and to a lesser extent on capillaries. Membrane bound EPCR plays an important role in the activation of protein C which has anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects. After cleavage by a protease EPCR is also found as a soluble protein. Acute rejection of kidney allografts can be divided in T-cell-mediated rejection (TCMR and antibody-mediated (ABMR rejection. The latter is characterized by strong activation of coagulation. Currently no reliable non-invasive biomarkers are available to monitor rejection. Renal biopsies were available from 81 renal transplant patients (33 without rejection, 26 TCMR and 22 ABMR, we had access to mRNA material, matched plasma and urine samples for a portion of this cohort. Renal EPCR expression was assessed by RT-PCR and immunostaining. Plasma and urine sEPCR levels were measured by ELISA. ABMR patients showed higher levels of EPCR mRNA than TCMR patients. EPCR expression on glomeruli was significantly elevated in ABMR patients than in TCMR or control patients. In the peritubular capillaries EPCR expression was higher in ABMR patients than in control patients. EPCR expression was higher in tubules and arteries of rejection patients than in control patients. Plasma sEPCR levels did not differ. Urine sEPCR levels were more elevated in the ABMR group than in patients with TCMR or without rejection. ROC analysis demonstrated that urinary sEPCR is appropriate to discriminate between ABMR patients and TCMR or control patients. We conclude that urinary sEPCR could be a novel non-invasive biomarker of antibody mediated rejection in renal transplantation.

  17. Experimental determination and thermodynamic modeling of phase equilibrium and protein partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems containing biodegradable salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Brenda; Malpiedi, Luciana Pellegrini; Tubío, Gisela; Nerli, Bibiana; Alcântara Pessôa Filho, Pedro de

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Binodal data of systems (water + polyethyleneglycol + sodium) succinate are reported. ► Pitzer model describes the phase equilibrium of systems formed by polyethyleneglycol and biodegradable salts satisfactorily. ► This simple thermodynamic framework was able to predict the partitioning behaviour of model proteins acceptably well. - Abstract: Phase diagrams of sustainable aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) formed by polyethyleneglycols (PEGs) of different average molar masses (4000, 6000, and 8000) and sodium succinate are reported in this work. Partition coefficients (Kps) of seven model proteins: bovine serum albumin, catalase, beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-amylase, lysozyme, pepsin, urease and trypsin were experimentally determined in these systems and in ATPSs formed by the former PEGs and other biodegradable sodium salts: citrate and tartrate. An extension of Pitzer model comprising long and short-range term contributions to the excess Gibbs free energy was used to describe the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium. Comparison between experimental and calculated tie line data showed mean deviations always lower than 3%, thus indicating a good correlation. The partition coefficients were modeled by using the same thermodynamic approach. Predicted and experimental partition coefficients correlated quite successfully. Mean deviations were found to be lower than the experimental uncertainty for most of the assayed proteins.

  18. Association of psychopathology with quality of life in acute phase of schizophrenia; an experience from east India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suravi Patra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find the association of patient characteristic and psychopathology with quality of life in acute phase of schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: Socio-demographic variables of patient, psychopathology and quality of life were assessed. Spearman′s Correlation coefficients were measured using SPSS version 15.0. Results: Quality of life of the patients varied in different domains. Male gender, unmarried status and higher educational status predicted a poorer quality of life. The domains of physical and psychological well-being of WHO-QOL were correlated with PANSS general and total scores whereas environmental and social health showed no correlation with PANSS scores. Conclusion: Domains of subjective quality of life in acute phase of schizophrenia are associated variedly with socio-demographic variables and symptomatology.

  19. MAR binding protein SMAR1 favors IL-10 mediated regulatory T cell function in acute colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirlekar, Bhalchandra; Patil, Sachin [Chromatin and Disease Biology Laboratory, National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Bopanna, Ramanamurthy [Experimental Animal Facility, National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Chattopadhyay, Samit, E-mail: samit@nccs.res.in [Chromatin and Disease Biology Laboratory, National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)

    2015-08-21

    T{sub reg} cells are not only crucial for controlling immune responses to autoantigens but also prevent those directed towards commensal pathogens. Control of effector immune responses by T{sub reg} cells depend on their capacity to accumulate at inflammatory site and accordingly accommodate to inflammatory environment. Till date, the factors associated with maintaining these aspects of T{sub reg} phenotype is not understood properly. Here we have shown that a known nuclear matrix binding protein SMAR1 is selectively expressed more in colonic T{sub reg} cells and is required for their ability to accumulate at inflammatory site and to sustain high levels of Foxp3 and IL-10 expression during acute colitis. Elimination of anti-inflammatory subsets revealed a protective role for IL-10 producing T{sub reg} cells in SMAR1{sup −/−} mice. Moreover, a combined action of Foxp3 and SMAR1 restricts effector cytokine production and enhance the production of IL-10 by colonic T{sub reg} cells that controls acute colitis. This data highlights a critical role of SMAR1 in maintaining T{sub reg} physiology during inflammatory disorders. - Highlights: • SMAR1 is essential to sustain high level of Foxp3 and IL-10 in T{sub reg} cells. • SMAR1{sup −/−} T{sub reg} cells produce pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17 leads to inflammation. • IL-10 administration can control the inflammation in SMAR1{sup −/−} mice. • Both Foxp3 and SMAR1 maintain T{sub reg} phenotype that controls colitis.

  20. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis and acute phase response link pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes to risk of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sarah S.; Saber, Anne T.; Mortensen, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    has led to concerns that inhalation exposure to MWCNTs might pose similar risks. We analyzed parameters related to cardiovascular disease, including plasma acute phase response (APR) proteins and plasma lipids, in female C57BL/6 mice exposed to a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18,54 or 162 mu...... levels correlated strongly with pulmonary Saa3 levels. Analysis of global gene expression revealed perturbation of the same biological processes and pathways in liver, including the HMG-CoA reductase pathway. Both MWCNTs induced similar histological hepatic changes, with a tendency towards greater...... response following CNTLarge exposure. Overall, we show that pulmonary exposure to two different MWCNTs induces similar systemic and hepatic responses, including changes in plasma APR, lipid composition, hepatic gene expression and liver morphology. The results link pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs with risk...

  1. Anti-inflammatory effect of diclofenac diethylammonium gel on acute phase of ligature induced periodontitis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Marco A.; Paixão, Mônica S.; Rachid, Ítalo; Bannet, Leonard Edward; Patrus, Ana Helena; Mattos, Thiago Borges; Queiroz, Dinalva; Ruela, Ronaldo; Costa, Jose M. C; Quintans Júnior, Lucindo José

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a diclofenac diethylammonium gel 10 mg/g (DD) on acute phase of ligature induced periodontitis model in rats. Experimental Periodontitis Disease (EPD) was induced in 30 Wistar rats subjected to ligature placement on left molars. Animals were treated with (DD), immediately after (EPD) induction. Saline-based gel (SG) was utilized as negative control and DD gel 10 mg/g was the tested substance. Animals were randomly assigned into the groups. The period...

  2. Controlled in meso phase crystallization--a method for the structural investigation of membrane proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kubicek

    Full Text Available We investigated in meso crystallization of membrane proteins to develop a fast screening technology which combines features of the well established classical vapor diffusion experiment with the batch meso phase crystallization, but without premixing of protein and monoolein. It inherits the advantages of both methods, namely (i the stabilization of membrane proteins in the meso phase, (ii the control of hydration level and additive concentration by vapor diffusion. The new technology (iii significantly simplifies in meso crystallization experiments and allows the use of standard liquid handling robots suitable for 96 well formats. CIMP crystallization furthermore allows (iv direct monitoring of phase transformation and crystallization events. Bacteriorhodopsin (BR crystals of high quality and diffraction up to 1.3 Å resolution have been obtained in this approach. CIMP and the developed consumables and protocols have been successfully applied to obtain crystals of sensory rhodopsin II (SRII from Halobacterium salinarum for the first time.

  3. Acute post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis is not correlated with resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cameron J; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Parise, Gianni; Bellamy, Leeann; Baker, Steven K; Smith, Kenneth; Atherton, Philip J; Phillips, Stuart M

    2014-01-01

    Muscle hypertrophy following resistance training (RT) involves activation of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) to expand the myofibrillar protein pool. The degree of hypertrophy following RT is, however, highly variable and thus we sought to determine the relationship between the acute activation of MPS and RT-induced hypertrophy. We measured MPS and signalling protein activation after the first session of resistance exercise (RE) in untrained men (n = 23) and then examined the relation between MPS with magnetic resonance image determined hypertrophy. To measure MPS, young men (24±1 yr; body mass index  = 26.4±0.9 kg•m²) underwent a primed constant infusion of L-[ring-¹³C₆] phenylalanine to measure MPS at rest, and acutely following their first bout of RE prior to 16 wk of RT. Rates of MPS were increased 235±38% (Pmuscle volume and acute rates of MPS measured over 1-3 h (r = 0.02), 3-6 h (r = 0.16) or the aggregate 1-6 h post-exercise period (r = 0.10). Hypertrophy after chronic RT was correlated (r = 0.42, P = 0.05) with phosphorylation of 4E-BP1(Thr37/46) at 1 hour post RE. We conclude that acute measures of MPS following an initial exposure to RE in novices are not correlated with muscle hypertrophy following chronic RT.

  4. Nomothetic and idiographic symptom change trajectories in acute-phase cognitive therapy for recurrent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R; Clark, Lee Anna; Thase, Michael E; Jarrett, Robin B

    2013-08-01

    We tested nomothetic and idiographic convergence and change in 3 symptom measures during acute-phase cognitive therapy (CT) for depression and compared outcomes among patients showing different change patterns. Outpatients (N = 362; 69% women; 85% White; age M = 43 years) with recurrent major depressive disorder according to criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) completed the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Hamilton, 1960), Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, Ward, Mendelson, Mock, & Erbaugh, 1961), and Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (Rush, Gullion, Basco, Jarrett, & Trivedi, 1996) on 14 occasions as well as pre/post-CT measures of social-interpersonal functioning and negative cognitive content. The 3 symptom measures marked the same severity and change constructs, and we offer improved formulas for intermeasure score conversions via their common factor. Pre/post-CT symptom reductions were large (ds = 1.71-1.92), and nomothetic symptom curves were log-linear (larger improvements earlier and smaller improvements later in CT). Nonetheless, only 30% of individual patients showed clear log-linear changes, whereas other patients showed linear (e.g., steady decreases; 20%), 1-step (e.g., a quick drop; 16%), and unclassified (34%) patterns. Log-linear, linear, and 1-step patients were generally similar to one another and superior to unclassified patients post-CT in symptom levels, response and stable remission rates, social-interpersonal functioning, and cognitive content (median d = 0.69). Reaching a low-symptom "destination" at the end of CT via any coherent "path" is more important in the short term than which path patients take. We discuss implications for theories of change, clinical monitoring of individuals' progress in CT, and the need to investigate long-term outcomes of patients with differing patterns of symptom change. PsycINFO Database Record

  5. [Types of Care for Adult Patients Diagnosed With Acute and Maintenance Phase Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana; Gómez Restrepo, Carlos; Oviedo Lugo, Gabriel Fernando; de la Hoz Bradford, Ana María; Castro Díaz, Sergio Mario; García Valencia, Jenny; Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo; Ávila-Guerra, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    To assist the clinician in making decisions about the types of care available for adults with schizophrenia. To determine which are the modalities of treatment associated with better outcomes in adults with schizophrenia. A clinical practice guideline was elaborated under the parameters of the Methodological Guide of the Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social to identify, synthesize and evaluate the evidence and make recommendations about the treatment and follow-up of adult patients with schizophrenia. The evidence of NICE guide 82 was adopted and updated. The evidence was presented to the Guideline Developing Group and recommendations, employing the GRADE system, were produced. Patients who were in Assertive community treatment had a lower risk of new hospitalizations. For the intensive case management, the results favored this intervention in the outcomes: medium term readmissions, social functioning and satisfaction with services. The crisis resolution teams was associated with better outcomes on outcomes of readmissions, social functioning and service satisfaction in comparison with standard care. The use of different modalities of care leads to the need of a comprehensive approach to patients to reduce the overall disability associated with the disease. Evidence shows overall benefit for most outcomes studied without encountering hazards for health of patients. This evaluation is recommended to use the professional ways of providing health services that are community-based and have a multidisciplinary group. It is not recommended the modality "day hospital" during the acute phase of schizophrenia in adults. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of the outcome of burn patients using acute-phase plasma base deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, S H; As'adi, K; Mousavi, J

    2011-12-31

    Background. In recent years, plasma base deficit has been used as a marker to determine the status of tissue perfusion in trauma patients and also to predict the outcome of these patients. This study was performed to investigate the effect of plasma base deficit in predicting burn patient outcome. Methods. This prospective cohort study was performed from October 2009 to October 2010 in the acute phase of burn patients who were admitted within 6 h post-injury to Motahari Burn Hospital in Iran. The patients were divided into two groups based on the plasma base deficit in the first 24 h post-injury: group A, in which the mean plasma base deficit was less than or equal to -6 (more negative), and group B, in which the mean plasma base deficit greater than -6. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v.16 software. Results. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled in each group. The mean plasma base deficit in group A (-7.76 ± 2.18 mmol) was significantly less than that in group B (-1.19 ± 2.82) mmol (p 0.05) and despite removal of interfering factors, there were significant differences between the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome score and the percentage of sepsis between the two groups (p 0.05). Conclusion. The plasma base deficit can be used as a valuable marker in the resuscitation of burn patients, along with clinical criteria. Physiological indicators (burn percentage, age, and mucosal burns) are not sufficient to predict mortality and morbidity in burn patients, and it is necessary to investigate the role of biochemical markers such as base deficit in determining the final outcome of burn patients.

  7. Urinary protein profiles in ketorolac-associated acute kidney injury in patients undergoing orthopedic day surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano F

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Filippo Mariano,1 Chiara Cogno,1 Fulvia Giaretta,2,3 Ilaria Deambrosis,2,3 Simona Pozza,4 Maurizio Berardino,5 Giuseppe Massazza,6 Luigi Biancone1,3 1Department of General and Specialist Medicine, Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation Unit, City of Health and Science, CTO Hospital, Turin, 2Department of General and Specialist Medicine, Laboratory of Nephrology and Immunopathology, City of Health and Science, Molinette Hospital, Turin, 3Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, 4Department of Radiology and Radiotherapy, CTO Radiology, City of Health and Science, CTO Hospital, Turin, 5Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Anesthesiology and Intensive Care 5, City of Health and Science, CTO Hospital, Turin, 6Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Week Hospital Unit, City of Health and Science, CTO Hospital, and University of Turin, Turin, Italy Background: Parenteral administration of ketorolac is very effective in controlling postoperative pain for orthopedic surgery. Ketorolac can induce clinically relevant renal alterations in elderly patients, whereas its short course is considered safe for young adults with normal preoperative renal function. In this study, of a cohort of young adults undergoing elective orthopedic day surgery, we sought cases complicated by readmission due to acute kidney injury (AKI.Patients and methods: Among 1397 young adults, aged 18–32 years who were admitted to undergo orthopedic day surgery from 2013 to 2015, four patients (0.29%, three males/one female treated in postprocedure with ketorolac (from 60 to 90 mg/day for 1–2 days were readmitted for suspected severe AKI. We evaluated functional outcome, urinary protein profiles and kidney biopsy (1 patient.Results: After day surgery discharge, they experienced gastrointestinal disturbances, flank pain and fever. Readmitted on post-surgery days 3–4, they presented with oliguric AKI (creatinine range 158.4–466.4 µmol/L and

  8. Late Protein Synthesis-Dependent Phases in CTA Long-Term Memory: BDNF Requirement

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Moreno, Araceli; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F.; Escobar, Martha L.

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that long-term memory persistence requires a late protein synthesis-dependent phase, even many hours after memory acquisition. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an essential protein synthesis product that has emerged as one of the most potent molecular mediators for long-term synaptic plasticity. Studies in the rat hippocampus have been shown that BDNF is capable to rescue the late-phase of long-term potentiation as well as the hippocampus-related long-term memo...

  9. Late protein synthesis-dependent phases in CTA long-term memory: BDNF requirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli eMartínez-Moreno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that long-term memory persistence requires a late protein synthesis-dependent phase, even many hours after memory acquisition. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is an essential protein synthesis product that has emerged as one of the most potent molecular mediators for long-term synaptic plasticity. Studies in the rat hippocampus have been shown that BDNF is capable to rescue the late-phase of long-term potentiation as well as the hippocampus-related long-term memory when protein synthesis was inhibited. Our previous studies on the insular cortex (IC, a region of the temporal cortex implicated in the acquisition and storage of conditioned taste aversion (CTA, have demonstrated that intracortical delivery of BDNF reverses the deficit in CTA memory caused by the inhibition of IC protein synthesis due to anisomycin administration during early acquisition. In this work, we first analyze whether CTA memory storage is protein synthesis dependent in different time-windows. We observed that CTA memory become sensible to protein synthesis inhibition 5 and 7 hours after acquisition. Then, we explore the effect of BDNF delivery (2 μg/2 μl per side in the IC during those late protein synthesis-dependent phases. Our results show that BDNF reverses the CTA memory deficit produced by protein synthesis inhibition in both phases. These findings support the notion that recurrent rounds of consolidation-like events take place in the neocortex for maintenance of CTA memory trace and that BDNF is an essential component of these processes.

  10. Late Protein Synthesis-Dependent Phases in CTA Long-Term Memory: BDNF Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Moreno, Araceli; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F; Escobar, Martha L

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that long-term memory (LTM) persistence requires a late protein synthesis-dependent phase, even many hours after memory acquisition. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an essential protein synthesis product that has emerged as one of the most potent molecular mediators for long-term synaptic plasticity. Studies in the rat hippocampus have been shown that BDNF is capable to rescue the late-phase of long-term potentiation as well as the hippocampus-related LTM when protein synthesis was inhibited. Our previous studies on the insular cortex (IC), a region of the temporal cortex implicated in the acquisition and storage of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), have demonstrated that intracortical delivery of BDNF reverses the deficit in CTA memory caused by the inhibition of IC protein synthesis due to anisomycin administration during early acquisition. In this work, we first analyze whether CTA memory storage is protein synthesis-dependent in different time windows. We observed that CTA memory become sensible to protein synthesis inhibition 5 and 7 h after acquisition. Then, we explore the effect of BDNF delivery (2 μg/2 μl per side) in the IC during those late protein synthesis-dependent phases. Our results show that BDNF reverses the CTA memory deficit produced by protein synthesis inhibition in both phases. These findings support the notion that recurrent rounds of consolidation-like events take place in the neocortex for maintenance of CTA memory trace and that BDNF is an essential component of these processes.

  11. Late Protein Synthesis-Dependent Phases in CTA Long-Term Memory: BDNF Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Moreno, Araceli; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F.; Escobar, Martha L.

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that long-term memory (LTM) persistence requires a late protein synthesis-dependent phase, even many hours after memory acquisition. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an essential protein synthesis product that has emerged as one of the most potent molecular mediators for long-term synaptic plasticity. Studies in the rat hippocampus have been shown that BDNF is capable to rescue the late-phase of long-term potentiation as well as the hippocampus-related LTM when protein synthesis was inhibited. Our previous studies on the insular cortex (IC), a region of the temporal cortex implicated in the acquisition and storage of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), have demonstrated that intracortical delivery of BDNF reverses the deficit in CTA memory caused by the inhibition of IC protein synthesis due to anisomycin administration during early acquisition. In this work, we first analyze whether CTA memory storage is protein synthesis-dependent in different time windows. We observed that CTA memory become sensible to protein synthesis inhibition 5 and 7 h after acquisition. Then, we explore the effect of BDNF delivery (2 μg/2 μl per side) in the IC during those late protein synthesis-dependent phases. Our results show that BDNF reverses the CTA memory deficit produced by protein synthesis inhibition in both phases. These findings support the notion that recurrent rounds of consolidation-like events take place in the neocortex for maintenance of CTA memory trace and that BDNF is an essential component of these processes. PMID:21960964

  12. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein a gene expression in Egyptian patients with acute myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, N.; Fahmy, A.; Desoky, M.; Zawam, H.M.; Medhat, N.; Medhat, N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Transcription factors play a crucial role in myeloid differentiation and lineage determination. Tumor suppressor protein C/EBPa is a key regulator of granulocytic differentiation whose functional inactivation has become a pathophysiological signature of myeloid leukemia. Given the role that CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBP α) plays in myelopoiesis, we anticipated that their expression might be disrupted in myeloid neoplasms. Purpose: To estimate the expression of C/EBP α mRNA in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and correlate its expression with the pathogenesis of the disease. Patients and methods: Forty AML patients and 20 age and sex matched healthy controls were included in the study. Blood samples of patients and controls were analyzed for CEBP α mRNA expression by quantitative RT-real time PCR using TaqMan technology and δδct method for calculation of gene expression. Results: Twenty-nine (72.5%) patients out of the 40 showed low expression levels of CEBP α mRNA below the cutoff value with median of 0.19 (range:0-0.87). While eleven (27.5%) patients out of the 40 showed higher expression levels of CEBP α above the cutoff value with median of 1.52 (range: 1.07-2). Seven patients out of the 11 showed higher expression levels of CEBP α mRNA belong to the M3 subtype of AML harboring the t(15;17) PML-RARa translocation. Conclusion: We conclude that the majority of the AML patients analyzed, express low levels of C/EBPa mRN. However, a subset of patients represented by the M3 subtype, express higher levels of C/EBPa

  13. Modulation of the acute phase response following a lipopolysaccharide challenge in pigs supplemented with an all-natural saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine if feeding a Saccharamyces cerevisiae fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce the stress and acute phase responses (APR) following an acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n = 20; 6.4 ± 0.2 kg BW) were obtained and transported to an environment...

  14. Region-specific differences in bioenergetic proteins and protein response to acute high fat diet in brains of low and high capacity runner rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Li; Ma, Delin; Li, Min; Yang, Fu-Chen; Rogers, Robert S; Wheatley, Joshua L; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Thyfault, John P; Geiger, Paige C; Stanford, John A

    2018-05-01

    Aerobic capacity is a strong predictor of mortality. Low capacity runner (LCR) rats exhibit reduced mitochondrial function in peripheral organs. A high fat diet (HFD) can worsen metabolic phenotype in LCR rats. Little is known about metabolic changes in the brains of these rats, however. This study examined protein markers of mitochondrial function and metabolism as a function of aerobic running capacity and an acute HFD in four brain regions: the striatum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and substantia nigra. After 3 days HFD or chow diets, we measured peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC1-α), nuclear respiratory factors 1 (Nrf-1), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), and phosphorylated (activated) AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) protein levels in the four brain regions. LCR rats exhibited lower levels of mitochondrial proteins (PGC1-α, Nrf-1, TFAM), and greater p-AMPK, in striatum, but not in the other brain regions. Mitochondrial protein levels were greater in HFD LCR striatum, while p-AMPK was lower in this group. Markers of lower mitochondrial biogenesis and increased metabolic demand were limited to the LCR striatum, which nevertheless maintained the capacity to respond to an acute HFD challenge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Serum levels of chicken mannan-binding lectin (MBL) during virus infections; indication that chicken MBL is an acute phase reactant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.L.; Jensenius, J. C.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a serum collectin which is believed to be an opsonin of the innate immune defence against various microorganisms. MBL is a minor acute phase reactant in man. We investigated the concentration of serum MBL in chickens infected with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV...... levels returned to normal values 6-10 days after infection. The results indicated that MBL is a minor acute phase reactant in chickens....

  16. Can cerebral blood flow measurement predict clinical outcome in the acute phase in patients with artherosclerotic occlusive carotid artery disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hokari, Masaaki; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Motoyuki; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Abe, Satoru; Saito, Hisatoshi; Kuroda, Satoshi; Nakayama, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    It has been thought that the clinical course of patients with acute carotid occlusive disease depends on their collateral cerebral blood flow (CBF) and duration of ischemia. However, there have been few clinical reports to prove this hypothesis. Therefore, we performed CBF study in patients with artherosclerotic carotid occlusive disease in the very acute phase, and precisely assessed the prognosis of those patients under intensive medical therapy. This prospective study included a total of 44 patients (72±13 years) who were admitted to our hospital between April, 2007 and December, 2008. To evaluate their initial CBF, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies were performed within 6 hours after the onset. All patients included in this study were medically treated and were periodically followed up by neurological and radiological examination. Moreover, in patients with reduced CBF (ipsilateral CBF/contralateral CBF x 100: %CBF <80%), dobutamine-induce hyperdynamic therapy was performed. Multivariate analysis was performed to detect significant predictors for the occurrence of further cerebral infarction. Multivariate analysis showed that the occurrence of further infarction was associated with older age and smaller %CBF. Of 44 patients, 21 experienced further cerebral infarction within 10 days after onset. Fourteen out of 15 patients with %CBF <60% developed cerebral infarction. This study showed that the prognosis of the patients with artherosclerotic carotid occlusive disease in the acute phase is associated with their initial residual CBFs. It may be difficult to stop the developed cerebral infarction in those patients with %CBF <60% despite intensive medical therapy. (author)

  17. Perceptions of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation and Coping Predict Emotional Distress During the Acute Phase After Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliousis, Michael; Rennoldson, Michael; Dawson, David L; Mills, Jayne; das Nair, Roshan

    2017-01-01

    To test whether a widely used model of adjustment to illness, the self-regulatory model, explains the patterns of distress during acute hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). According to the model, perceptions of HSCT, coping, and coping appraisals are associated with distress.
. Longitudinal, correlational.
. The Centre for Clinical Haematology at Nottingham City Hospital and the Department of Haematology at Royal Hallamshire Hospital in Sheffield, both in the United Kingdom.
. 45 patients receiving mostly autologous transplantations for a hematologic malignancy.
. Patients were assessed at baseline, on transplantation day, and two and four weeks after transplantation using three questionnaires. Psychological distress, including depression, anxiety, stress, and overall distress (DASS-21); use of different coping styles (Brief COPE); and perceptions of HSCT and coping appraisals (Brief IPQ).
. As suggested by the self-regulatory model, greater distress was associated with negative perceptions of HSCT, controlling for the effects of confounding variables. Mixed support was found for the model's predictions about the impact of coping styles on distress. Use of active and avoidant coping styles was associated with more distress during the acute phase after HSCT.
. Negative perceptions of HSCT and coping contribute to psychological distress during the acute phase after HSCT and suggest the basis for intervention.
. Eliciting and discussing patients' negative perceptions of HSCT beforehand and supporting helpful coping may be important ways to reduce distress during HSCT.

  18. Brain magnetic resonance imaging in acute phase of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009--associated encephalopathy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yu; Kawashima, Hisashi; Morichi, Shinichiro; Yamanaka, Gaku; Okumura, Akihisa; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Morishima, Tsuneo

    2015-02-01

    Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 has been shown to be associated more with neurological complications than the seasonal influenza virus. In this study, we focused on the clinical usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the acute phase of influenza A (H1N1) 2009-associated encephalopathy. A questionnaire was distributed to pediatric and general hospitals in Japan that treat children with encephalopathy. We conducted a questionnaire-based study involving the collection of information regarding 207 patients with encephalopathy. Brain MRI was performed in 97 of these 207 patients in the age group of 9 months to 15 years (mean, 7.5 years) within 48 hours after the development of encephalopathy symptoms. Sixty-six patients (68%) showed normal imaging. Diffuse brain edema was visible in five patients and an abnormal signal in the deep gray matter in two patients which is consistent with acute necrotizing encephalopathy. Abnormal signals of the splenial lesion, subcortical white matter (bright tree appearance), and cortical area were observed in 15, 1, and 8 patients, respectively. From our findings based on the questionnaire results, we suggest that MRI is useful for determining fatal cases of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 infection when performed in the acute phase. However, MRI is not useful in predicting the development of sequelae. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Solid-phase synthesis of an apoptosis-inducing tetrapeptide mimicking the Smac protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Quement, Sebastian Thordal; Ishøy, Mette; Petersen, Mette Terp

    2011-01-01

    An approach for the solid-phase synthesis of apoptosis-inducing Smac peptidomimetics is presented. Using a Rink linker strategy, tetrapeptides mimicking the N-4-terminal residue of the Smac protein [(N-Me)AVPF sequence] were synthesized on PEGA resin in excellent purities and yields. Following two...

  20. Early coordinated rehabilitation in acute phase after hip fracture - a model for increased patient participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplin, Gillian; Carlsson, Gunnel; Zidén, Lena; Kjellby-Wendt, Gunilla

    2017-10-17

    Studies have shown that patients with hip fracture treated in a Comprehensive Geriatric Care (CGC) unit report better results in comparison to orthopaedic care. Furthermore, involving patients in their healthcare by encouraging patient participation can result in better quality of care and improved outcomes. To our knowledge no study has been performed comparing rehabilitation programmes within a CGC unit during the acute phase after hip fracture with focus on improving patients' perceived participation and subsequent effect on patients' function. A prospective, controlled, intervention performed in a CGC unit and compared with standard care. A total of 126 patients with hip fracture were recruited who were prior to fracture; community dwelling, mobile indoors and independent in personal care. Intervention Group (IG): 63 patients, mean age 82.0 years and Control Group (CG): 63 patients mean age 80.5 years. coordinated rehabilitation programme with early onset of patient participation and intensified occupational therapy and physiotherapy after hip fracture surgery. The primary outcome measure was self-reported patient participation at discharge. Secondary outcome measures were: TLS-BasicADL; Bergs Balance Scale (BBS); Falls Efficacy Scale FES(S); Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) at discharge and 1 month and ADL staircase for instrumental ADL at 1 month. At discharge a statistically significant greater number of patients in the IG reported higher levels of participation (p < 0.05) and independence in lower body hygiene (p < 0.05) and dressing (p < 0.001). There were however no statistically significant differences at discharge and 1 month between groups in functional balance and confidence, performance measures or risk for falls. This model of OT and PT coordinated inpatient rehabilitation had a positive effect on patients' perceived participation in their rehabilitation and ADL at discharge but did not appear to

  1. Acute social stress before the planning phase improves memory performance in a complex real life-related prospective memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glienke, Katharina; Piefke, Martina

    2016-09-01

    Successful execution of intentions, but also the failure to recall are common phenomena in everyday life. The planning, retention, and realization of intentions are often framed as the scientific concept of prospective memory. The current study aimed to examine the influence of acute stress on key dimensions of complex "real life" prospective memory. To this end, we applied a prospective memory task that involved the planning, retention, and performance of intentions during a fictional holiday week. Forty healthy males participated in the study. Half of the subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions, and the other half of the participants underwent a control procedure at the same time. Salivary cortisol was used to measure the effectiveness of the SECPT stress induction. Stressed participants did not differ from controls in planning accuracy. However, when we compared stressed participants with controls during prospective memory retrieval, we found statistically significant differences in PM across the performance phase. Participants treated with the SECPT procedure before the planning phase showed improved prospective memory retrieval over time, while performance of controls declined. Particularly, there was a significant difference between the stress and control group for the last two days of the holiday week. Interestingly, control participants showed significantly better performance for early than later learned items, which could be an indicator of a primacy effect. This differential effect of stress on performance was also found in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that acute stress induced before the planning phase may improve prospective memory over the time course of the performance phase in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our data thus indicate that prospective memory can be enhanced by acute stress. Copyright © 2016

  2. Day/night changes in serum S100B protein concentrations in acute paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera-Fumero, Armando L; Díaz-Mesa, Estefanía; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; Fernandez-Lopez, Lourdes; Cejas-Mendez, Maria Del Rosario

    2017-04-03

    There are day/night and seasonal changes in biological markers such as melatonin and cortisol. Controversial changes in serum S100B protein levels have been described in schizophrenia. We aim studying whether serum S100B levels present day/night variations in schizophrenia patients and whether S100B levels are related to psychopathology. Sixty-five paranoid schizophrenic inpatients participated in the study. Psychopathology was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at admission and discharge. Blood was drawn at 12:00 (midday) and 00:00 (midnight) hours at admission and discharge. Sixty-five healthy subjects matched by age, gender and season acted as control group. At admission and discharge patients had significantly higher serum S100B concentrations at midday and midnight than healthy subjects. At admission, patients showed a day/night variation of S100B levels, with higher S100B levels at 12:00 than at 00:00h (143.7±26.3pg/ml vs. 96.9±16.6pg/ml). This day/night difference was not present in the control group. Midday and midnight S100B at admission decreased when compared to S100B at discharge (midday, 143.7±26.3 vs. 83.0±12, midnight 96.9±16.6 vs. 68.6±14.5). There was a positive correlation between the PANSS positive subscale and S100B concentrations at admission. This correlation was not present at discharge. acute paranoid schizophrenia inpatients present a day/night change of S100B serum levels at admission that disappears at discharge. The correlation between serum S100B concentrations and the PANSS positive scores at admission as well as the decrease of S100B at discharge may be interpreted as an acute biological response to the clinical state of the patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of gas phase protein ion densities via ion mobility analysis with charge reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisser, Anne; Premnath, Vinay; Ghosh, Abhimanyu; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Attoui, Michel; Hogan, Christopher J

    2011-12-28

    We use a charge reduction electrospray (ESI) source and subsequent ion mobility analysis with a differential mobility analyzer (DMA, with detection via both a Faraday cage electrometer and a condensation particle counter) to infer the densities of single and multiprotein ions of cytochrome C, lysozyme, myoglobin, ovalbumin, and bovine serum albumin produced from non-denaturing (20 mM aqueous ammonium acetate) and denaturing (1 : 49.5 : 49.5, formic acid : methanol : water) ESI. Charge reduction is achieved through use of a Po-210 radioactive source, which generates roughly equal concentrations of positive and negative ions. Ions produced by the source collide with and reduce the charge on ESI generated drops, preventing Coulombic fissions, and unlike typical protein ESI, leading to gas-phase protein ions with +1 to +3 excess charges. Therefore, charge reduction serves to effectively mitigate any role that Coulombic stretching may play on the structure of the gas phase ions. Density inference is made via determination of the mobility diameter, and correspondingly the spherical equivalent protein volume. Through this approach it is found that for both non-denaturing and denaturing ESI-generated ions, gas-phase protein ions are relatively compact, with average densities of 0.97 g cm(-3) and 0.86 g cm(-3), respectively. Ions from non-denaturing ESI are found to be slightly more compact than predicted from the protein crystal structures, suggesting that low charge state protein ions in the gas phase are slightly denser than their solution conformations. While a slight difference is detected between the ions produced with non-denaturing and denaturing ESI, the denatured ions are found to be much more dense than those examined previously by drift tube mobility analysis, in which charge reduction was not employed. This indicates that Coulombic stretching is typically what leads to non-compact ions in the gas-phase, and suggests that for gas phase

  4. Time course of protein synthesis-dependent phase of olfactory memory in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Noji, Sumihare; Mizunami, Makoto

    2003-04-01

    The cricket Gryllus bimaculatus forms a stable olfactory memory that lasts for practically a lifetime. As a first step to elucidate the cellular mechanisms of olfactory learning and memory retention in crickets, we studied the dependency of memory retention on the de novo brain protein synthesis by injecting the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX) into the head capsule. Injection of CHX inhibited (3)H-leucine incorporation into brain proteins by > 90% for 3 hr. Crickets were trained to associate peppermint odor with water (reward) and vanilla odor with saline solution (non-reward) and were injected with CHX before or at different times after training. Their odor preferences were tested at 2 hr, 1 day and 4 days after training. Memory retention at 2 hr after training was unaffected by CHX injection. However, the level of retention at 1 day and 4 days after training was lowered when CHX was injected 1 hour before training or at 1 hr or 6 hr after training. To study the time course of the development of CHX-sensitive memory phase, crickets that had been injected with CHX at 1 hr after training were tested at different times from 2 to 12 hr after training. The level of retention was unaffected up to 4 hr after training but significantly lowered at 5 hr after training, and the CHX-sensitive memory phase developed gradually during the next several hours. CHX dissociates two phases of olfactory memory in crickets: earlier protein synthesis-independent phase ( 5 hr) protein synthesis-dependent phase.

  5. Protein-enriched 'regular products' and their effect on protein intake in acute hospitalized older adults; a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelten, S.; Dekker, I.M.; Ronday, E.M.; Thijs, A.; Boelsma, E.; Peppelenbos, H.W.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background & aims: Especially in older adults, maintaining muscle mass is essential to perform activities of daily living. This requires a sufficient protein intake. However, protein intake in hospitalized older adults is often insufficient. Thus far different nutrition intervention strategies have

  6. Changes of CSF-protein pattern in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia during prophylactic CNS therapy (Berlin protocol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemes, H.; Rating, D.; Siegert, M.; Hanefeld, F.; Mueller, S.; Gadner, H.; Riehm, H.

    1980-01-01

    The cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)-protein profiles of ten children with previously untreated acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were investigated by agarose gel electrophoresis. The profiles were determined at diagnosis and during the fifth to eighth week of treatment when preventive therapy for central nervous system (CNS) leukemia (skull irradiation, intrathecal methotrexate (ithMTX) was administered. The profiles were compared with those obtained from a control group of 67 children and those from 42 patients with acute aseptic meningitis. The data from the latter group demonstrated the CSF-protein pattern of partial blood-CSF barrier (B-CSF-B) breakdown. The children with ALL showed no or only minor signs of a B-CSF-B impairment at diagnosis and after four weeks of systemic treatment. However, CSF changes indicative of a lesion of the B-CSF-B increased in all children continuously during CNS prophylaxis. The protein profile at the end of combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy was very similar to that in patients with acute aseptic meningitis. These observations point to neurotoxic side effects on the CNS barrier system with the combination of cranial radiation and ithMTX. A striking finding was restricted heterogeneity of gamma-globulin, observed in the CSF of nine out of the ten children with ALL before or during treatment. The significance of this abnormality is unknown

  7. Maternal deprivation affects the neuromuscular protein profile of the rat colon in response to an acute stressor later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luísa V; Marvin-Guy, Laure F; Fuerholz, Andreas; Affolter, Michael; Ramadan, Ziad; Kussmann, Martin; Fay, Laurent B; Bergonzelli, Gabriela E

    2008-04-30

    Early life stress as neonatal maternal deprivation (MD) predisposes rats to alter gut functions in response to acute psychological stressors in adulthood, mimicking features of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We applied proteomics to investigate whether MD permanently changes the protein profile of the external colonic neuromuscular layer that may condition the molecular response to an acute stressor later in life. Male rat pups were separated 3 h/day from their mothers during the perinatal period and further submitted to water avoidance (WA) stress during adulthood. Proteins were extracted from the myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle of control (C), WA and MD+WA rat colon, separated on 2D gels, and identified by mass spectrometry. MD amplified the WA-induced protein changes involved in muscle contractile function, suggesting that stress accumulation along life imbalances the muscle tone towards hypercontractility. Our results also propose a stress dependent regulation of gluconeogenesis. Secretogranin II - the secretoneurin precursor - was induced by MD. The presence of secretoneurin in myenteric ganglia may partially explain the stress-mediated modulation of gastrointestinal motility and/or mucosal inflammation previously described in MD rats. In conclusion, our findings suggest that neonatal stress alters the responses to acute stress in adulthood in intestinal smooth muscle and enteric neurons.

  8. Multiple scales and phases in discrete chains with application to folded proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinelnikova, A.; Niemi, A. J.; Nilsson, Johan; Ulybyshev, M.

    2018-05-01

    Chiral heteropolymers such as large globular proteins can simultaneously support multiple length scales. The interplay between the different scales brings about conformational diversity, determines the phase properties of the polymer chain, and governs the structure of the energy landscape. Most importantly, multiple scales produce complex dynamics that enable proteins to sustain live matter. However, at the moment there is incomplete understanding of how to identify and distinguish the various scales that determine the structure and dynamics of a complex protein. Here we address this impending problem. We develop a methodology with the potential to systematically identify different length scales, in the general case of a linear polymer chain. For this we introduce and analyze the properties of an order parameter that can both reveal the presence of different length scales and can also probe the phase structure. We first develop our concepts in the case of chiral homopolymers. We introduce a variant of Kadanoff's block-spin transformation to coarse grain piecewise linear chains, such as the C α backbone of a protein. We derive analytically, and then verify numerically, a number of properties that the order parameter can display, in the case of a chiral polymer chain. In particular, we propose that in the case of a chiral heteropolymer the order parameter can reveal traits of several different phases, contingent on the length scale at which it is scrutinized. We confirm that this is the case with crystallographic protein structures in the Protein Data Bank. Thus our results suggest relations between the scales, the phases, and the complexity of folding pathways.

  9. L-Alanylglutamine inhibits signaling proteins that activate protein degradation, but does not affect proteins that activate protein synthesis after an acute resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanyi; Choi, Ran Hee; Solares, Geoffrey J; Tseng, Hung-Min; Ding, Zhenping; Kim, Kyoungrae; Ivy, John L

    2015-07-01

    Sustamine™ (SUS) is a dipeptide composed of alanine and glutamine (AlaGln). Glutamine has been suggested to increase muscle protein accretion; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms of glutamine on muscle protein metabolism following resistance exercise have not been fully addressed. In the present study, 2-month-old rats climbed a ladder 10 times with a weight equal to 75 % of their body mass attached at the tail. Rats were then orally administered one of four solutions: placebo (PLA-glycine = 0.52 g/kg), whey protein (WP = 0.4 g/kg), low dose of SUS (LSUS = 0.1 g/kg), or high dose of SUS (HSUS = 0.5 g/kg). An additional group of sedentary (SED) rats was intubated with glycine (0.52 g/kg) at the same time as the ladder-climbing rats. Blood samples were collected immediately after exercise and at either 20 or 40 min after recovery. The flexor hallucis longus (FHL), a muscle used for climbing, was excised at 20 or 40 min post exercise and analyzed for proteins regulating protein synthesis and degradation. All supplements elevated the phosphorylation of FOXO3A above SED at 20 min post exercise, but only the SUS supplements significantly reduced the phosphorylation of AMPK and NF-kB p65. SUS supplements had no effect on mTOR signaling, but WP supplementation yielded a greater phosphorylation of mTOR, p70S6k, and rpS6 compared with PLA at 20 min post exercise. However, by 40 min post exercise, phosphorylation of mTOR and rpS6 in PLA had risen to levels not different than WP. These results suggest that SUS blocks the activation of intracellular signals for MPB, whereas WP accelerates mRNA translation.

  10. Dual-phase CT for the assessment of acute vascular injuries in high-energy blunt trauma: the imaging findings and management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobellis, Francesca; Ierardi, Anna M; Mazzei, Maria A; Magenta Biasina, Alberto; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Nicola, Refky; Scaglione, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Acute vascular injuries are the second most common cause of fatalities in patients with multiple traumatic injuries; thus, prompt identification and management is essential for patient survival. Over the past few years, multidetector CT (MDCT) using dual-phase scanning protocol has become the imaging modality of choice in high-energy deceleration traumas. The objective of this article was to review the role of dual-phase MDCT in the identification and management of acute vascular injuries, particularly in the chest and abdomen following multiple traumatic injuries. In addition, this article will provide examples of MDCT features of acute vascular injuries with correlative surgical and interventional findings.

  11. Liquid crystalline phase behavior of protein fibers in water: experiments versus theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin-Mi; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2010-01-05

    We have developed a new method allowing the study of the thermodynamic phase behavior of mesoscopic colloidal systems consisting of amyloid protein fibers in water, obtained by heat denaturation and aggregation of beta-lactoglobulin, a dairy protein. The fibers have a cross section of about 5.2 nm and two groups of polydisperse contour lengths: (i) long fibers of 1-20 microm, showing semiflexible behavior, and (ii) short rods of 100-200 nm long, obtained by cutting the long fibers via high-pressure homogenization. At pH 2 without salt, these fibers are highly charged and stable in water. We have studied the isotropic-nematic phase transition for both systems and compared our results with the theoretical values predicted by Onsager's theory. The experimentally measured isotropic-nematic phase transition was found to occur at 0.4% and at 3% for the long and short fibers, respectively. For both systems, this phase transition occurs at concentrations more than 1 order of magnitude lower than what is expected based on Onsager's theory. Moreover, at low enough pH, no intermediate biphasic region was observed between the isotropic phase and the nematic phase. The phase diagrams of both systems (pH vs concentration) showed similar, yet complex and rich, phase behavior. We discuss the possible physical fundamentals ruling the phase diagram as well as the discrepancy we observe for the isotropic-nematic phase transition between our experimental results and the predicted theoretical results. Our work highlights that systems formed by water-amyloid protein fibers are way too complex to be understood based solely on Onsager's theories. Experimental results are revisited in terms of the Flory's theory (1956) for suspensions of rods, which allows accounting for rod-solvent hydrophobic interactions. This theoretical approach allows explaining, on a semiquantitative basis, most of the discrepancies observed between the experimental results and Onsager's predictions. The sources of

  12. Amino acids augment muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs during acute endotoxemia by stimulating mTOR-dependent translation initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Renán A; Jeyapalan, Asumthia; Escobar, Jeffery; Frank, Jason W; Nguyen, Hanh V; Suryawan, Agus; Davis, Teresa A

    2007-11-01

    In skeletal muscle of adults, sepsis reduces protein synthesis by depressing translation initiation and induces resistance to branched-chain amino acid stimulation. Normal neonates maintain a high basal muscle protein synthesis rate that is sensitive to amino acid stimulation. In the present study, we determined the effect of amino acids on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and other tissues in septic neonates. Overnight-fasted neonatal pigs were infused with endotoxin (LPS, 0 and 10 microg.kg(-1).h(-1)), whereas glucose and insulin were maintained at fasting levels; amino acids were clamped at fasting or fed levels. In the presence of fasting insulin and amino acids, LPS reduced protein synthesis in longissimus dorsi (LD) and gastrocnemius muscles and increased protein synthesis in the diaphragm, but had no effect in masseter and heart muscles. Increasing amino acids to fed levels accelerated muscle protein synthesis in LD, gastrocnemius, masseter, and diaphragm. LPS stimulated protein synthesis in liver, lung, spleen, pancreas, and kidney in fasted animals. Raising amino acids to fed levels increased protein synthesis in liver of controls, but not LPS-treated animals. The increase in muscle protein synthesis in response to amino acids was associated with increased mTOR, 4E-BP1, and S6K1 phosphorylation and eIF4G-eIF4E association in control and LPS-infused animals. These findings suggest that amino acids stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis during acute endotoxemia via mTOR-dependent ribosomal assembly despite reduced basal protein synthesis rates in neonatal pigs. However, provision of amino acids does not further enhance the LPS-induced increase in liver protein synthesis.

  13. Primary Screening for Proteins Differentially Expressed in the Myocardium of a Rat Model of Acute Methamphetamine Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Qu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of myocardial injury induced by the cardiovascular toxicity of methamphetamine (MA has been shown to depend on alterations in myocardial proteins caused by MA. Primary screening of the expression of myocardial proteins in a rat model of MA intoxication was achieved by combining two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analyses, which revealed a total of 100 differentially expressed proteins. Of these, 13 displayed significantly altered expression. Moreover, Western blotting and real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses of several relative proteins demonstrated that acute MA intoxication lowers protein expression and mRNA transcription of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 10. In contrast, MA intoxication elevated the protein expression and mRNA transcription of heat shock protein family B (small member 1. By combining behavioral assessments of experimental rat models with the histological and pathological changes evident in cardiomyocytes, a mechanism accounting for MA myocardial toxicity was suggested. MA alters the regulation of gene transcription and the subsequent expression of certain proteins that participate in myocardial respiration and in responding to oxidative stress, resulting in myocardial dysfunction and structural changes that affect the functioning of the cardiovascular system.

  14. Cytokines and T-Lymphocute count in patients in the acute and chronic phases of Bartonella bacilliformis infection in an endemic area in peru: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Huarcaya

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Human Bartonellosis has an acute phase characterized by fever and hemolytic anemia, and a chronic phase with bacillary angiomatosis-like lesions. This cross-sectional pilot study evaluated the immunology patterns using pre- and post-treatment samples in patients with Human Bartonellosis. Patients between five and 60 years of age, from endemic areas in Peru, in the acute or chronic phases were included. In patients in the acute phase of Bartonellosis a state of immune peripheral tolerance should be established for persistence of the infection. Our findings were that elevation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and numeric abnormalities of CD4+ and CD8+ T-Lymphocyte counts correlated significantly with an unfavorable immune state. During the chronic phase, the elevated levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 observed in our series correlated with previous findings of endothelial invasion of B. henselae in animal models.

  15. Cytokines and T-Lymphocute count in patients in the acute and chronic phases of Bartonella bacilliformis infection in an endemic area in peru: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huarcaya, Erick; Best, Ivan; Rodriguez-Tafur, Juan; Maguiña, Ciro; Solórzano, Nelson; Menacho, Julio; Lopez De Guimaraes, Douglas; Chauca, Jose; Ventosilla, Palmira

    2011-01-01

    Human Bartonellosis has an acute phase characterized by fever and hemolytic anemia, and a chronic phase with bacillary angiomatosis-like lesions. This cross-sectional pilot study evaluated the immunology patterns using pre- and post-treatment samples in patients with Human Bartonellosis. Patients between five and 60 years of age, from endemic areas in Peru, in the acute or chronic phases were included. In patients in the acute phase of Bartonellosis a state of immune peripheral tolerance should be established for persistence of the infection. Our findings were that elevation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and numeric abnormalities of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-Lymphocyte counts correlated significantly with an unfavorable immune state. During the chronic phase, the elevated levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 observed in our series correlated with previous findings of endothelial invasion of B. henselae in animal models.

  16. Evaluation of the prevalence of stress and its phases in acute myocardial infarction in patients active in the labor market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Boreki Lucinda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute myocardial infarction is a social health problem of epidemiological relevance, with high levels of morbidity and mortality. Stress is one of the modifiable risk factors that triggers acute myocardial infarction. Stress is a result of a set of physiological reactions, which when exaggerated in intensity or duration can lead to imbalances in one's organism, resulting in vulnerability to diseases. Objective: To identify the presence of stress and its phases in hospitalized and active labor market patients with unstable myocardial infarction and observe its correlation with the life of this population with stress. Methods: The methodology used was a quantitative, descriptive and transversal research approach conducted with a total of 43 patients, who were still active in the labor market, presenting or not morbidities. Data collection occurred on the fourth day of their hospitalization and patients responded to Lipp's Stress Symptom Inventory for adults. Results: Thirty-one patients (72.1% presented stress and twelve (27.8% did not. In patients with stress, the identified phases were: alert - one patient (3.2%; resistance -twenty-two patients (71.0%; quasi-exhaustion - six patients (19.4% and exhaustion - two patients (6.5%. All women researched presented stress. Conclusion: The results suggest a high level of stress, especially in the resistance phase, in the male infarcted population, hospitalized and active in the labor market.

  17. Does C-reactive Protein Add Prognostic Value to GRACE Score in Acute Coronary Syndromes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Luis Cláudio Lemos, E-mail: lccorreia@terra.com.br; Vasconcelos, Isis; Garcia, Guilherme; Kalil, Felipe; Ferreira, Felipe; Silva, André; Oliveira, Ruan; Carvalhal, Manuela; Freitas, Caio; Noya-Rabelo, Márcia Maria [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Hospital São Rafael, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    The incremental prognostic value of plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in relation to GRACE score has not been established in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with non-ST segment elevation. To test the hypothesis that CRP measurements at admission increases the prognostic value of GRACE score in patients with ACS. A total of 290 subjects, consecutively admitted for ACS, with plasma material obtained upon admission CRP measurement using a high-sensitivity method (nephelometry) were studied. Cardiovascular outcomes during hospitalization were defined by the combination of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction or nonfatal refractory angina. The incidence of cardiovascular events during hospitalization was 15% (18 deaths, 11 myocardial infarctions, 13 angina episodes) with CRP showing C-statistics of 0.60 (95% CI = 0.51-0.70, p = 0.034) in predicting these outcomes. After adjustment for the GRACE score, elevated CRP (defined as the best cutoff point) tended to be associated with hospital events (OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 0.92 to 3.88, p = 0.08). However, the addition of the variable elevated CRP in the GRACE model did not result in significant increase in C-statistics, which ranged from 0.705 to 0.718 (p = 0.46). Similarly, there was no significant reclassification of risk with the addition of CRP in the predictor model (net reclassification = 5.7 %, p = 0.15). Although CRP is associated with hospital outcomes, this inflammatory marker does not increase the prognostic value of the GRACE score.

  18. Does C-reactive Protein Add Prognostic Value to GRACE Score in Acute Coronary Syndromes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Luis Cláudio Lemos; Vasconcelos, Isis; Garcia, Guilherme; Kalil, Felipe; Ferreira, Felipe; Silva, André; Oliveira, Ruan; Carvalhal, Manuela; Freitas, Caio; Noya-Rabelo, Márcia Maria

    2014-01-01

    The incremental prognostic value of plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in relation to GRACE score has not been established in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with non-ST segment elevation. To test the hypothesis that CRP measurements at admission increases the prognostic value of GRACE score in patients with ACS. A total of 290 subjects, consecutively admitted for ACS, with plasma material obtained upon admission CRP measurement using a high-sensitivity method (nephelometry) were studied. Cardiovascular outcomes during hospitalization were defined by the combination of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction or nonfatal refractory angina. The incidence of cardiovascular events during hospitalization was 15% (18 deaths, 11 myocardial infarctions, 13 angina episodes) with CRP showing C-statistics of 0.60 (95% CI = 0.51-0.70, p = 0.034) in predicting these outcomes. After adjustment for the GRACE score, elevated CRP (defined as the best cutoff point) tended to be associated with hospital events (OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 0.92 to 3.88, p = 0.08). However, the addition of the variable elevated CRP in the GRACE model did not result in significant increase in C-statistics, which ranged from 0.705 to 0.718 (p = 0.46). Similarly, there was no significant reclassification of risk with the addition of CRP in the predictor model (net reclassification = 5.7 %, p = 0.15). Although CRP is associated with hospital outcomes, this inflammatory marker does not increase the prognostic value of the GRACE score

  19. Valosin-Containing Protein/p97 as a Novel Therapeutic Target in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Gugliotta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL cells are distinctively vulnerable to endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. Recently, inhibition of p97 was shown to induce ER stress and subsequently cell death in solid tumors and in multiple myeloma. We investigated the role of a novel, orally available, p97 inhibitor (CB-5083; Cleave Biosciences in B-ALL. CB-5083 induced a significant reduction in viability in 10 human B-ALL cell lines, harboring the most common fusion-genes involved in pediatric and adult B-ALL, with IC50s ranging from 0.34 to 0.76 μM. Moreover, CB-5083 significantly reduced the colony formation of OP1 and NALM6 cells. Early and strong induction of apoptosis was demonstrated in BALL1 and OP1 cells, together with a robust cleavage of PARP. CB-5083 induced ER stress, as documented through: 1 prominent expression of chaperones (GRP78, GRP94, PDI, DNAJC3, and DNAJB9; 2 increased activation of IRE1-alpha, as demonstrated by the splicing of XBP1; and 3 activation of PERK, which resulted in a significant overexpression of CHOP, and its downstream genes. CB-5083 reduced the viability also in GRP78−/−, GRP94−/−, and XBP1−/− cells, suggesting that none of these proteins alone was strictly required for CB-5083 activity. Moreover, we showed that the absence of XBP1 (XBP1−/− increased the sensitivity to CB-5083, leading to the hypothesis that XBP1 splicing counteracts the activity of CB-5083, probably mitigating ER stress. Finally, vincristine was synergistic with CB-5083 in both BALL1 and OP1 cells. In summary, the targeting of p97 with CB-5083 is a novel promising therapeutic approach that should be further evaluated in B-ALL.

  20. Acute inhibition of myostatin-family proteins preserves skeletal muscle in mouse models of cancer cachexia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benny Klimek, Margaret E.; Aydogdu, Tufan [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Link, Majik J.; Pons, Marianne [Molecular Oncology Program, Division of Surgical Oncology, DeWitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Koniaris, Leonidas G. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Molecular Oncology Program, Division of Surgical Oncology, DeWitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Molecular Oncology and Experimental Therapeutics Program, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Zimmers, Teresa A., E-mail: tzimmers@med.miami.edu [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Molecular Oncology Program, Division of Surgical Oncology, DeWitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Molecular Oncology and Experimental Therapeutics Program, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Cachexia, progressive loss of fat and muscle mass despite adequate nutrition, is a devastating complication of cancer associated with poor quality of life and increased mortality. Myostatin is a potent tonic muscle growth inhibitor. We tested how myostatin inhibition might influence cancer cachexia using genetic and pharmacological approaches. First, hypermuscular myostatin null mice were injected with Lewis lung carcinoma or B16F10 melanoma cells. Myostatin null mice were more sensitive to tumor-induced cachexia, losing more absolute mass and proportionately more muscle mass than wild-type mice. Because myostatin null mice lack expression from development, however, we also sought to manipulate myostatin acutely. The histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A has been shown to increase muscle mass in normal and dystrophic mice by inducing the myostatin inhibitor, follistatin. Although Trichostatin A administration induced muscle growth in normal mice, it failed to preserve muscle in colon-26 cancer cachexia. Finally we sought to inhibit myostatin and related ligands by administration of the Activin receptor extracellular domain/Fc fusion protein, ACVR2B-Fc. Systemic administration of ACVR2B-Fc potently inhibited muscle wasting and protected adipose stores in both colon-26 and Lewis lung carcinoma cachexia, without affecting tumor growth. Enhanced cachexia in myostatin knockouts indicates that host-derived myostatin is not the sole mediator of muscle wasting in cancer. More importantly, skeletal muscle preservation with ACVR2B-Fc establishes that targeting myostatin-family ligands using ACVR2B-Fc or related molecules is an important and potent therapeutic avenue in cancer cachexia.

  1. Acute inhibition of myostatin-family proteins preserves skeletal muscle in mouse models of cancer cachexia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benny Klimek, Margaret E.; Aydogdu, Tufan; Link, Majik J.; Pons, Marianne; Koniaris, Leonidas G.; Zimmers, Teresa A.

    2010-01-01

    Cachexia, progressive loss of fat and muscle mass despite adequate nutrition, is a devastating complication of cancer associated with poor quality of life and increased mortality. Myostatin is a potent tonic muscle growth inhibitor. We tested how myostatin inhibition might influence cancer cachexia using genetic and pharmacological approaches. First, hypermuscular myostatin null mice were injected with Lewis lung carcinoma or B16F10 melanoma cells. Myostatin null mice were more sensitive to tumor-induced cachexia, losing more absolute mass and proportionately more muscle mass than wild-type mice. Because myostatin null mice lack expression from development, however, we also sought to manipulate myostatin acutely. The histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A has been shown to increase muscle mass in normal and dystrophic mice by inducing the myostatin inhibitor, follistatin. Although Trichostatin A administration induced muscle growth in normal mice, it failed to preserve muscle in colon-26 cancer cachexia. Finally we sought to inhibit myostatin and related ligands by administration of the Activin receptor extracellular domain/Fc fusion protein, ACVR2B-Fc. Systemic administration of ACVR2B-Fc potently inhibited muscle wasting and protected adipose stores in both colon-26 and Lewis lung carcinoma cachexia, without affecting tumor growth. Enhanced cachexia in myostatin knockouts indicates that host-derived myostatin is not the sole mediator of muscle wasting in cancer. More importantly, skeletal muscle preservation with ACVR2B-Fc establishes that targeting myostatin-family ligands using ACVR2B-Fc or related molecules is an important and potent therapeutic avenue in cancer cachexia.

  2. Late phase cell cycle proteins in Alzheimer’s disease: a possible target for therapy?

    KAUST Repository

    Bajic, Vladan

    2017-02-22

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is represented by neuronal loss and this loss is correlated to a constant state of neuronal instability induced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this paper data is presented regarding the possible roles of late phase cell cycle proteins in normal and affected neurons with the goal that understanding the mechanisms involved in the regulation of these proteins may represent a novel strategy for AD treatment. The results demonstrate a relative differential pattern of expression of certain proteins (APC/C, Mad1 and Mad2, Bub R1, Bub1, CDK 11, cohesin subunit Rad 21 and astrin) in the AD brain versus age matched controls, and it is suggested that targeting these proteins might translate into potential treatments for AD. Although the data presented here is of some interest, the ability to translate such information into clinical applications is often a challenge.

  3. Late phase cell cycle proteins in Alzheimer’s disease: a possible target for therapy?

    KAUST Repository

    Bajic, Vladan; B. Bajic, Vladimir; Zivkovic, Lada; Arendt, Thomas; Perry, George; Spremo-Potparevic, Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is represented by neuronal loss and this loss is correlated to a constant state of neuronal instability induced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this paper data is presented regarding the possible roles of late phase cell cycle proteins in normal and affected neurons with the goal that understanding the mechanisms involved in the regulation of these proteins may represent a novel strategy for AD treatment. The results demonstrate a relative differential pattern of expression of certain proteins (APC/C, Mad1 and Mad2, Bub R1, Bub1, CDK 11, cohesin subunit Rad 21 and astrin) in the AD brain versus age matched controls, and it is suggested that targeting these proteins might translate into potential treatments for AD. Although the data presented here is of some interest, the ability to translate such information into clinical applications is often a challenge.

  4. Proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines present in the acute phase of experimental colitis treated with Saccharomyces boulardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijó, Nathália Nahas; Borra, Ricardo Carneiro; Sdepanian, Vera Lucia

    2010-09-01

    To study the proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines present in the acute phase of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced experimental colitis treated with Saccharomyces boulardii. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: (1) treated group--received Saccharomyces boulardii for 14 days; (2) non-treated group--received sodium chloride solution for 14 days; (3) control group. Colitis was induced on the seventh day of the study in the treated and the non-treated groups using TNBS (10 mg) dissolved in 50% ethanol. Quantification of cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), in the serum and colonic tissue collected on day 14 were carried out using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mean concentrations of TGF-beta in both the serum and the colonic tissue of the treated group were statistically higher than that of the control group. The mean concentration of TGF-beta in the colonic tissue of the non-treated group was also statistically higher than the control group. The group treated with Saccharomyces boulardii showed increased amounts of TGF-beta, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, during the acute phase of colitis. There were no differences in the amount of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-10 between the treated and the non-treated or the control groups during the acute phase of experimental colitis induced by TNBS.

  5. Phase behaviour and in vitro hydrolysis of wheat starch in mixture with whey protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Natasha; Liu, Yingting; Ashton, John; Gorczyca, Elisabeth; Kasapis, Stefan

    2013-04-15

    Network formation of whey protein isolate (WPI) with increasing concentrations of native wheat starch (WS) has been examined. Small deformation dynamic oscillation in shear and modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry enabled analysis of binary mixtures at the macro- and micromolecular level. Following heat induced gelation, textural hardness was measured by undertaking compression tests. Environmental scanning electron microscopy provided tangible information on network morphology of polymeric constituents. Experiments involving in vitro starch digestion also allowed for indirect assessment of phase topology in the binary mixture. The biochemical component of this work constitutes an attempt to utilise whey protein as a retardant to the enzymatic hydrolysis of starch in a model system with α-amylase enzyme. During heating, rheological profiles of binary mixtures exhibited dramatic increases in G' at temperatures more closely related to those observed for single whey protein rather than pure starch. Results from this multidisciplinary approach of analysis, utilising rheology, calorimetry and microscopy, argue for the occurrence of phase separation phenomena in the gelled systems. There is also evidence of whey protein forming the continuous phase with wheat starch being the discontinuous filler, an outcome that is explored in the in vitro study of the enzymatic hydrolysis of starch. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Phase behaviour of disordered proteins underlying low density and high permeability of liquid organelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ming-Tzo; Elbaum-Garfinkle, Shana; Holehouse, Alex S.; Chen, Carlos Chih-Hsiung; Feric, Marina; Arnold, Craig B.; Priestley, Rodney D.; Pappu, Rohit V.; Brangwynne, Clifford P.

    2017-11-01

    Many intracellular membraneless organelles form via phase separation of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) or regions (IDRs). These include the Caenorhabditis elegans protein LAF-1, which forms P granule-like droplets in vitro. However, the role of protein disorder in phase separation and the macromolecular organization within droplets remain elusive. Here, we utilize a novel technique, ultrafast-scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, to measure the molecular interactions and full coexistence curves (binodals), which quantify the protein concentration within LAF-1 droplets. The binodals of LAF-1 and its IDR display a number of unusual features, including 'high concentration' binodal arms that correspond to remarkably dilute droplets. We find that LAF-1 and other in vitro and intracellular droplets are characterized by an effective mesh size of ∼3-8 nm, which determines the size scale at which droplet properties impact molecular diffusion and permeability. These findings reveal how specific IDPs can phase separate to form permeable, low-density (semi-dilute) liquids, whose structural features are likely to strongly impact biological function.

  7. Acute post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis is not correlated with resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy in young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron J Mitchell

    Full Text Available Muscle hypertrophy following resistance training (RT involves activation of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS to expand the myofibrillar protein pool. The degree of hypertrophy following RT is, however, highly variable and thus we sought to determine the relationship between the acute activation of MPS and RT-induced hypertrophy. We measured MPS and signalling protein activation after the first session of resistance exercise (RE in untrained men (n = 23 and then examined the relation between MPS with magnetic resonance image determined hypertrophy. To measure MPS, young men (24±1 yr; body mass index  = 26.4±0.9 kg•m² underwent a primed constant infusion of L-[ring-¹³C₆] phenylalanine to measure MPS at rest, and acutely following their first bout of RE prior to 16 wk of RT. Rates of MPS were increased 235±38% (P<0.001 above rest 60-180 min post-exercise and 184±28% (P = 0.037 180-360 min post exercise. Quadriceps volume increased 7.9±1.6% (-1.9-24.7% (P<0.001 after training. There was no correlation between changes in quadriceps muscle volume and acute rates of MPS measured over 1-3 h (r = 0.02, 3-6 h (r = 0.16 or the aggregate 1-6 h post-exercise period (r = 0.10. Hypertrophy after chronic RT was correlated (r = 0.42, P = 0.05 with phosphorylation of 4E-BP1(Thr37/46 at 1 hour post RE. We conclude that acute measures of MPS following an initial exposure to RE in novices are not correlated with muscle hypertrophy following chronic RT.

  8. RNAi mediated acute depletion of Retinoblastoma protein (pRb promotes aneuploidy in human primary cells via micronuclei formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iovino Flora

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in chromosome number or structure as well as supernumerary centrosomes and multipolar mitoses are commonly observed in human tumors. Thus, centrosome amplification and mitotic checkpoint dysfunctions are believed possible causes of chromosomal instability. The Retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (RB participates in the regulation of synchrony between DNA synthesis and centrosome duplication and it is involved in transcription regulation of some mitotic genes. Primary human fibroblasts were transfected transiently with short interfering RNA (siRNA specific for human pRb to investigate the effects of pRb acute loss on chromosomal stability. Results Acutely pRb-depleted fibroblasts showed altered expression of genes necessary for cell cycle progression, centrosome homeostasis, kinetochore and mitotic checkpoint proteins. Despite altered expression of genes involved in the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC the checkpoint seemed to function properly in pRb-depleted fibroblasts. In particular AURORA-A and PLK1 overexpression suggested that these two genes might have a role in the observed genomic instability. However, when they were post-transcriptionally silenced in pRb-depleted fibroblasts we did not observe reduction in the number of aneuploid cells. This finding suggests that overexpression of these two genes did not contribute to genomic instability triggered by RB acute loss although it affected cell proliferation. Acutely pRb-depleted human fibroblasts showed the presence of micronuclei containing whole chromosomes besides the presence of supernumerary centrosomes and aneuploidy. Conclusion Here we show for the first time that RB acute loss triggers centrosome amplification and aneuploidy in human primary fibroblasts. Altogether, our results suggest that pRb-depleted primary human fibroblasts possess an intact spindle checkpoint and that micronuclei, likely caused by mis-attached kinetochores that in turn trigger

  9. Molecular cloning of the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) identifies a type II integral membrane protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipp, M.A.; Richardson, N.E.; Sayre, P.H.; Brown, N.R.; Masteller, E.L.; Clayton, L.K.; Ritz, J.; Reinherz, E.L.

    1988-01-01

    Common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) is a 100-kDa cell-surface glycoprotein expressed on most acute lymphoblastic leukemias and certain other immature lymphoid malignancies and on normal lymphoid progenitors. The latter are either uncommitted to B- or T-cell lineage or committed to only the earliest stages of B- or T-lymphocyte maturation. To elucidate the primary structure of CALLA, the authors purified the protein to homogeneity, obtained the NH 2 -terminal sequence from both the intact protein and derived tryptic and V8 protease peptides and isolated CALLA cDNAs from a Nalm-6 cell line λgt10 library using redundant oligonucleotide probes. The CALLA cDNA sequence predicts a 750-amino acid integral membrane protein with a single 24-amino acid hydrophobic segment that could function as both a transmembrane region and a signal peptide. The COOH-terminal 700 amino acids, including six potential N-linked glycosylation sites compose the extracellular protein segment, whereas the 25 NM 2 -terminal amino acids remaining after cleavage of the initiation methionine form the cytoplasmic tail. CALLA + cells contain CALLA transcripts of 2.7 to 5.7 kilobases with the major 5.7- and 3.7-kilobase mRNAs being preferentially expressed in specific cell types

  10. The influence of acute resistance exercise on cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 activity and protein levels in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Chad C; O'Connor, Devin T; Steinmeyer, Robert; Del Mundo, Jonathon D; McMullan, David R; Whitt, Jamie A; Ramos, Jahir E; Gonzales, Rayna J

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluated the activity and content of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 in response to acute resistance exercise (RE) in human skeletal muscle. Previous work suggests that COX-1, but not COX-2, is the primary COX isoform elevated with resistance exercise in human skeletal muscle. COX activity, however, has not been assessed after resistance exercise in humans. It was hypothesized that RE would increase COX-1 but not COX-2 activity. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis of nine young men (25 ± 1 yr) at baseline (preexercise), 4, and 24 h after a single bout of knee extensor RE (three sets of 10 repetitions at 70% of maximum). Tissue lysate was assayed for COX-1 and COX-2 activity. COX-1 and COX-2 protein levels were measured via Western blot analysis. COX-1 activity increased at 4 h (P 0.05) with acute RE. In contrast, COX-2 protein levels were nearly 3-fold greater (P > 0.05) at 4 h and 5-fold greater (P = 0.06) at 24 h, compared with preexercise. In conclusion, COX-1 activity increases transiently with exercise independent of COX-1 protein levels. In contrast, both COX-2 activity and protein levels were elevated with exercise, and this elevation persisted to at least 24 h after RE.

  11. Protein synthesis during the initial phase of the temperature-induced bleaching response in Euglena gracilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, W.

    1990-01-01

    Growing cultures of photoheterotrophic Euglena gracilis experience an increase in chlorophyll accumulation during the initial phase of the temperature-induced bleaching response suggesting an increase in the synthesis of plastid components at the bleaching temperature of 33 degree C. A primary goal of this work was to establish whether an increase in the synthesis of plastid proteins accompanies the observed increase in chlorophyll accumulation. In vivo pulse-labeling experiments with [ 35 S]sodium sulfate were carried out with cells grown at room temperature or at 33 degree C. The synthesis of a number of plastid polypeptides of nucleocytoplasmic origin, including some presumably novel polypeptides, increased in cultures treated for 15 hours at 33 degree C. In contrast, while synthesis of thylakoid proteins by the plastid protein synthesis machinery decreased modestly, synthesis of the large subunit of the enzyme ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase was strongly affected at the elevated temperature. Synthesis of novel plastid-encoded polypeptides was not induced at the bleaching temperature. It is concluded that protein synthesis in plastids declines during the initial phase of the temperature response in Euglena despite an overall increase in cellular protein synthesis and an increase in chlorophyll accumulation per cell

  12. A phase 1 clinical trial of single-agent selinexor in acute myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garzon, Ramiro; Savona, Michael; Baz, Rachid

    2017-01-01

    of selinexor in patients with advanced hematological malignancies. Ninety-five patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were enrolled between January 2013 and June 2014 to receive 4, 8, or 10 doses of selinexor in a 21- or 28-day cycle. The most frequently reported adverse events (AEs...

  13. Value of the Doppler index of myocardial performance in the early phase of acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, S H; Jensen, S E; Tei, C

    2000-01-01

    Prospective assessment of a nongeometric Doppler-derived index of combined systolic and diastolic myocardial performance was performed in 64 patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) within 1 hour after their arrival to the hospital and in 39 age-matched healthy subjects. The index is defined...

  14. Acute Heart Failure Clinical Drug Development : From Planning to Proof of Activity to Phase III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cotter, Gad; Voors, Adriaan A.; Weatherley, Beth Davison; Pang, Peter S.; Teerlink, John R.; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Ponikowski, Piotr; Milo-Cotter, Olga; Dittrich, Howard; Teichman, Sam L.; Adams, Kirkwood F.; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Metra, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decades, attempts to develop new therapies for acute heart failure (AHF) have largely failed. Limitations in understanding the pathophysiology of AHF, its natural history, the effects of current therapies, the properties of new agents, and, importantly, study designs and execution have

  15. A phase 1/2 study of rigosertib in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and MDS progressed to acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navada, Shyamala C; Fruchtman, Steven M; Odchimar-Reissig, Rosalie; Demakos, Erin P; Petrone, Michael E; Zbyszewski, Patrick S; Holland, James F; Silverman, Lewis R

    2018-01-01

    This Phase 1/2, dose-escalating study of rigosertib enrolled 22 patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) (n=9) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n=13) who had relapsed or were refractory to standard therapy and for whom no second-line therapies were approved. Patients received 3- to 7-day continuous intravenous infusions of rigosertib, an inhibitor of Ras-effector pathways that interacts with the Ras-binding domains, common to several signaling proteins including Raf and PI3 kinase. Rigosertib was administered at doses of 650-1700mg/m 2 /day in 14-day cycles. Initial dose escalation followed a Fibonacci scheme, followed by recommended phase 2 dose confirmation in an expanded cohort. Rigosertib was well tolerated for up to 23 cycles, with no treatment-related deaths and 18% of patients with related serious adverse events (AEs). Common AEs were fatigue, diarrhea, pyrexia, dyspnea, insomnia, and anemia. Rigosertib exhibited biologic activity, with reduction or stabilization of bone marrow blasts and improved peripheral blood counts in a subset of patients. Ten of 19 evaluable patients (53%) demonstrated bone marrow/peripheral blood responses (n=4 MDS, n=1 AML) or stable disease (n=3 MDS, n=2 AML). Median survival was 15.7 and 2.0 months for responders and non-responders, respectively. Additional studies of rigosertib are ongoing in higher-risk MDS (NCT00854646). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Two-phase aqueous micellar systems: an alternative method for protein purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangel-Yagui C. O.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-phase aqueous micellar systems can be exploited in separation science for the extraction/purification of desired biomolecules. This article reviews recent experimental and theoretical work by Blankschtein and co-workers on the use of two-phase aqueous micellar systems for the separation of hydrophilic proteins. The experimental partitioning behavior of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD in two-phase aqueous micellar systems is also reviewed and new results are presented. Specifically, we discuss very recent work on the purification of G6PD using: i a two-phase aqueous micellar system composed of the nonionic surfactant n-decyl tetra(ethylene oxide (C10E4, and (ii a two-phase aqueous mixed micellar system composed of C10E4 and the cationic surfactant decyltrimethylammonium bromide (C10TAB. Our results indicate that the two-phase aqueous mixed (C10E4/C10TAB micellar system can improve significantly the partitioning behavior of G6PD relative to that observed in the two-phase aqueous C10E4 micellar system.

  17. Comparison of colorimetric m ethods for the quantification of model proteins in aqueous two-phase systems

    OpenAIRE

    Glyk, Anna; Heinisch, Sandra L.; Scheper, Thomas; Beutel, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, the quantification of different model proteins in the presence of typical aqueous two-phase system components was investigated by using the Bradford and bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assays. Each phase-forming component above 1 and 5 wt% had considerable effects on the protein quantification in both assays, respectively, resulting in diminished protein recoveries/absorption values by increasing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)/salt concentration and PEG molecular weight. Therefore...

  18. Strengthening of the DNA-protein complex during stationary phase aging of cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhlov, A.N.; Chirkova, E.Yu.; Gorin, A.I.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility of accumulation of cross-linkages in the DNA-protein complex was studied during stationary phase aging of cells in culture. Chinese hamster cells were used in the experiments, along with human fibroblasts. 3 H-thymidine, 14 C-valine, and 14 C-leucine were added to the medium. The quantity of protein firmly bound with DNA was judged from the value of the coefficient 14 C/ 3 H determined with allowance for penetration of counting from the 14 C-channel into the 3 H-channel. The authors maintain that the results presented in this paper provide further evidence of the value of stationary phase cell cultures for the study of the mechanisms of aging and also of some of the general principles underlying hereditary pathology

  19. Preparation of bioconjugates by solid-phase conjugation to ion exchange matrix-adsorbed carrier proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houen, G.; Olsen, D.T.; Hansen, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    A solid-phase conjugation method utilizing carrier protein bound to an ion exchange matrix was developed. Ovalbumin was adsorbed to an anion exchange matrix using a batch procedure, and the immobilized protein was then derivatized with iodoacetic acid N-hydroxysuccinimid ester. The activated......, and immunization experiments with the eluted conjugates showed that the more substituted conjugates gave rise to the highest titers of glutathione antibodies. Direct immunization with the conjugates adsorbed to the ion exchange matrix was possible and gave rise to high titers of glutathione antibodies. Conjugates...... of ovalbumin and various peptides were prepared in a similar manner and used for production of peptide antisera by direct immunization with the conjugates bound to the ion exchanger. Advantages of the method are its solid-phase nature, allowing fast and efficient reactions and intermediate washings...

  20. Dimethylarginines, blood glucose, and C-reactive protein in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Gudjoncik

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed that in patients with acute MI, SDMA, and only weakly ADMA, are associated with admission blood glucose, beyond traditional dimethylarginine determinants and may therefore have biological activity beyond renal function.

  1. TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT PHASE BEHAVIOR AND PROTEIN PARTITIONING IN GIANT PLASMA MEMBRANE VESICLES

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, SA; Stinson, BM; Go, M; Carmona, LM; Reminick, JI; Fang, X; Baumgart, T

    2010-01-01

    Liquid-ordered (Lo) and liquid-disordered (Ld) phase coexistence has been suggested to partition the plasma membrane of biological cells into lateral compartments, allowing for enrichment or depletion of functionally relevant molecules. This dynamic partitioning might be involved in fine-tuning cellular signaling fidelity through coupling to the plasma membrane protein and lipid composition. In earlier work, giant plasma membrane vesicles, obtained by chemically induced blebbing from cultured...

  2. Origin of Asymmetric Charge Partitioning in the Dissociation of Gas-Phase Protein Homodimers

    OpenAIRE

    Jurchen, John C.; Williams, Evan R.

    2003-01-01

    The origin of asymmetric charge and mass partitioning observed for gas-phase dissociation of multiply charged macromolecular complexes has been hotly debated. These experiments hold the potential to provide detailed information about the interactions between the macromolecules within the complex. Here, this unusual phenomenon of asymmetric charge partitioning is investigated for several protein homodimers. Asymmetric charge partitioning in these ions depends on a number of factors, including ...

  3. Schematic X-ray diagnostic examination for the acute phase after a blunt thoraco-abdominal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingma, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    The radiodiagnostic examination in the acute phase after a blunt thoracoabdominal injury can be made more reliable by repeating the examination after half an hour. The classical radiodiagnostic examination of the thorax and the abdomen is completed by a detail view of the upper abdomen. This X-ray plays a decisive part in the diagnosis of lesions of the liver, the spleen and both hemi-diafragms. The intravenous urogram is not only important because of the information gained about the condition of the urinary tract, but is also of great value to the management of shock and to regulate the infusion of fluids in the acute phase. One of the most important conclusions from this investigation is that the exclusion of pathology in trauma-patients is just as important as the demonstration of it. By ignoring the indications for urography and the significance of possible haematuria unnecessary loss of time can be avoided. The statistical relevance of the observations is shown in many examples, with the exception of the time-limits imposed in the selection of the patients. It could not be proved that the X-ray scheme is only of more value in the early post traumatic period. There was no correlation found between the passage of time since trauma and the significance of the results of the radiodiagnostic examination. Finally, advice is given about a scheme for the radiodiagnostic examination of patients with a blunt thoraco-abdominal injury, based upon the observations and conclusions in this dissertation. (Auth.)

  4. Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) in locally advanced thyroid cancer: Acute toxicity results of a phase I study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbano, Teresa Guerrero; Clark, Catharine H.; Hansen, Vibeke N.; Adams, Elizabeth J.; Miles, Elizabeth A.; Mc Nair, Helen; Bidmead, A. Margaret; Warrington, Jim; Dearnaley, David P.; Harmer, Clive; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: This phase 1 study was designed to determine the toxicity of accelerated fractionation IMRT in locally advanced thyroid cancer. Methods: Patients with high risk locally advanced thyroid cancer who required post-operative EBRT were recruited. A single-phase inverse-planned-simultaneous-boost was delivered by IMRT: 58.8 Gy/28F (daily) to the primary tumour and involved nodes and 50 Gy/28F to the elective nodes. Acute (NCICTCv.2.0) and late toxicity (RTOG and modified LENTSOM) was collected. Results: Thirteen patients were treated (7 medullary thyroid, 2 Hurthle cell and 4 well differentiated thyroid cancer). G3 and G2 radiation dermatitis rates were 38.5% and 31%; G3 and G2 mucositis rates 8% and 53% and G3 and G2 pain 23% and 54%. Thirty-one percentage required enteral feeding. G3 and G2 xerostomia rates were 0% and 31%. Recovery was seen, with 62% patients having dysphagia G ≤ 1 2 months after IMRT. Thirty percent of patients developed L'Hermitte's syndrome. No grade 4 toxicity was observed. No dose limiting toxicity was found. Conclusions: Accelerated fractionation IMRT in this group of patients is feasible and safe. The acute toxicity appeared acceptable and early indicators of late toxicity moderate and similar to what would be expected with conventional RT. Longer follow up is required to quantify late side effects

  5. Glutamate excitoxicity is the key molecular mechanism which is influenced by body temperature during the acute phase of brain stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Francisco; Pérez-Mato, María; Agulla, Jesús; Blanco, Miguel; Barral, David; Almeida, Angeles; Brea, David; Waeber, Christian; Castillo, José; Ramos-Cabrer, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate excitotoxicity, metabolic rate and inflammatory response have been associated to the deleterious effects of temperature during the acute phase of stroke. So far, the association of temperature with these mechanisms has been studied individually. However, the simultaneous study of the influence of temperature on these mechanisms is necessary to clarify their contributions to temperature-mediated ischemic damage. We used non-invasive Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to simultaneously measure temperature, glutamate excitotoxicity and metabolic rate in the brain in animal models of ischemia. The immune response to ischemia was measured through molecular serum markers in peripheral blood. We submitted groups of animals to different experimental conditions (hypothermia at 33°C, normothermia at 37°C and hyperthermia at 39°C), and combined these conditions with pharmacological modulation of glutamate levels in the brain through systemic injections of glutamate and oxaloacetate. We show that pharmacological modulation of glutamate levels can neutralize the deleterious effects of hyperthermia and the beneficial effects of hypothermia, however the analysis of the inflammatory response and metabolic rate, demonstrated that their effects on ischemic damage are less critical than glutamate excitotoxity. We conclude that glutamate excitotoxicity is the key molecular mechanism which is influenced by body temperature during the acute phase of brain stroke.

  6. A green deep eutectic solvent-based aqueous two-phase system for protein extracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Kaijia; Wang, Yuzhi; Huang, Yanhua; Li, Na; Wen, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A strategy for the protein purification with a deep eutectic solvent(DES)-based aqueous two-phase system. • Choline chloride-glycerin DES was selected as the extraction solvent. • Bovine serum albumin and trypsin were used as the analytes. • Aggregation phenomenon was detected in the mechanism research. - Abstract: As a new type of green solvent, deep eutectic solvent (DES) has been applied for the extraction of proteins with an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in this work. Four kinds of choline chloride (ChCl)-based DESs were synthesized to extract bovine serum albumin (BSA), and ChCl-glycerol was selected as the suitable extraction solvent. Single factor experiments have been done to investigate the effects of the extraction process, including the amount of DES, the concentration of salt, the mass of protein, the shaking time, the temperature and PH value. Experimental results show 98.16% of the BSA could be extracted into the DES-rich phase in a single-step extraction under the optimized conditions. A high extraction efficiency of 94.36% was achieved, while the conditions were applied to the extraction of trypsin (Try). Precision, repeatability and stability experiments were studied and the relative standard deviations (RSD) of the extraction efficiency were 0.4246% (n = 3), 1.6057% (n = 3) and 1.6132% (n = 3), respectively. Conformation of BSA was not changed during the extraction process according to the investigation of UV–vis spectra, FT-IR spectra and CD spectra of BSA. The conductivity, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to explore the mechanism of the extraction. It turned out that the formation of DES–protein aggregates play a significant role in the separation process. All the results suggest that ChCl-based DES-ATPS are supposed to have the potential to provide new possibilities in the separation of proteins

  7. Treatment for Sulfur Mustard Lung Injuries; New Therapeutic Approaches from Acute to Chronic Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Poursaleh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sulfur mustard (SM is one of the major potent chemical warfare and attractive weapons for terrorists. It has caused deaths to hundreds of thousands of victims in World War I and more recently during the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988. It has ability to develop severe acute and chronic damage to the respiratory tract, eyes and skin. Understanding the acute and chronic biologic consequences of SM exposure may be quite essential for developing efficient prophylactic/therapeutic measures. One of the systems majorly affected by SM is the respiratory tract that numerous clinical studies have detailed processes of injury, diagnosis and treatments of lung. The low mortality rate has been contributed to high prevalence of victims and high lifetime morbidity burden. However, there are no curative modalities available in such patients. In this review, we collected and discussed the related articles on the preventive and therapeutic approaches to SM-induced respiratory injury and summarized what is currently known about the management and therapeutic strategies of acute and long-term consequences of SM lung injuries.Method:This review was done by reviewing all papers found by searching following key words sulfur mustard; lung; chronic; acute; COPD; treatment.Results:Mustard lung has an ongoing pathological process and is active disorder even years after exposure to SM. Different drug classes have been studied, nevertheless there are no curative modalities for mustard lung. Conclusion:Complementary studies on one hand regarding pharmacokinetic of drugs and molecular investigations are mandatory to obtain more effective treatments.

  8. Treatment for sulfur mustard lung injuries; new therapeutic approaches from acute to chronic phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poursaleh Zohreh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Sulfur mustard (SM is one of the major potent chemical warfare and attractive weapons for terrorists. It has caused deaths to hundreds of thousands of victims in World War I and more recently during the Iran-Iraq war (1980–1988. It has ability to develop severe acute and chronic damage to the respiratory tract, eyes and skin. Understanding the acute and chronic biologic consequences of SM exposure may be quite essential for developing efficient prophylactic/therapeutic measures. One of the systems majorly affected by SM is the respiratory tract that numerous clinical studies have detailed processes of injury, diagnosis and treatments of lung. The low mortality rate has been contributed to high prevalence of victims and high lifetime morbidity burden. However, there are no curative modalities available in such patients. In this review, we collected and discussed the related articles on the preventive and therapeutic approaches to SM-induced respiratory injury and summarized what is currently known about the management and therapeutic strategies of acute and long-term consequences of SM lung injuries. Method This review was done by reviewing all papers found by searching following key words sulfur mustard; lung; chronic; acute; COPD; treatment. Results Mustard lung has an ongoing pathological process and is active disorder even years after exposure to SM. Different drug classes have been studied, nevertheless there are no curative modalities for mustard lung. Conclusion Complementary studies on one hand regarding pharmacokinetic of drugs and molecular investigations are mandatory to obtain more effective treatments.

  9. Infection pattern of neutropenic patients in post-chemotherapy phase of acute leukemia treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ahmadzadeh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neutropenia following chemotherapy regimens in leukemia patients is of major concern since it makes these patients vulnerable to infections. If we can identify which germs are causing these infections, they can be annihilated or, at least, the most appropriate antibiotic therapy can be started immediately, even before we have the results of the culture. This retrospective multi-center study took place in 2012 and included patients with acute leukemia who had already undergone chemotherapy and who had been febrile for at least 16 hours. In order to assess the type of infection, different environments were chosen and the results were compared by t-test and x2 tests. This study took place in four hospitals in Tehran and Ahwaz, Iran. The study population was made up of 89 patients: 37 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 52 with acute myeloid leukemia. The results revealed that blood was the most common site of infection. From all our positive cultures, it was seen that 85.4% of them had gram-negative bacteria with a dominance of E. coli of 25.8% over the other colonies. Also, antibiograms revealed the sensitivity of almost all the gram-negatives to amino glycosides. In contrast with most of the literature, in our patients, gram-negatives are the most common cause of infection and, therefore, administering amino glycosides would be the safest antibiotic therapy to prescribe before culture results are available.

  10. RPPAML/RIMS: a metadata format and an information management system for reverse phase protein arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislaus, Romesh; Carey, Mark; Deus, Helena F; Coombes, Kevin; Hennessy, Bryan T; Mills, Gordon B; Almeida, Jonas S

    2008-12-22

    Reverse Phase Protein Arrays (RPPA) are convenient assay platforms to investigate the presence of biomarkers in tissue lysates. As with other high-throughput technologies, substantial amounts of analytical data are generated. Over 1,000 samples may be printed on a single nitrocellulose slide. Up to 100 different proteins may be assessed using immunoperoxidase or immunoflorescence techniques in order to determine relative amounts of protein expression in the samples of interest. In this report an RPPA Information Management System (RIMS) is described and made available with open source software. In order to implement the proposed system, we propose a metadata format known as reverse phase protein array markup language (RPPAML). RPPAML would enable researchers to describe, document and disseminate RPPA data. The complexity of the data structure needed to describe the results and the graphic tools necessary to visualize them require a software deployment distributed between a client and a server application. This was achieved without sacrificing interoperability between individual deployments through the use of an open source semantic database, S3DB. This data service backbone is available to multiple client side applications that can also access other server side deployments. The RIMS platform was designed to interoperate with other data analysis and data visualization tools such as Cytoscape. The proposed RPPAML data format hopes to standardize RPPA data. Standardization of data would result in diverse client applications being able to operate on the same set of data. Additionally, having data in a standard format would enable data dissemination and data analysis.

  11. Absolute coronary blood flow measurement and microvascular resistance in ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the acute and subacute phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijnbergen, Inge; Veer, Marcel van ' t [Department of Cardiology, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Lammers, Jeroen; Ubachs, Joey [Department of Cardiology, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Pijls, Nico H.J., E-mail: nico.pijls@cze.nl [Department of Cardiology, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2016-03-15

    Background/Purpose: In a number of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), myocardial hypoperfusion, known as the no-reflow phenomenon, persists after primary percutaneous intervention (PPCI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a new quantitative method of measuring absolute blood flow and resistance within the perfusion bed of an infarct-related artery. Furthermore, we sought to study no-reflow by correlating these measurements to the index of microvascular resistance (IMR) and the area at risk (AR) as determined by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Methods: Measurements of absolute flow and myocardial resistance were performed in 20 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), first immediately following PPCI and then again after 3–5 days. These measurements used the technique of thermodilution during a continuous infusion of saline. Flow was expressed in ml/min per gram of tissue within the area at risk. Results: The average time needed for measurement of absolute flow, resistance and IMR was 20 min, and all measurements could be performed without complication. A higher flow supplying the AR correlated with a lower IMR in the acute phase. Absolute flow increased from 3.14 to 3.68 ml/min/g (p = 0.25) and absolute resistance decreased from 1317 to 1099 dyne.sec.cm-5/g (p = 0.40) between the first day and fifth day after STEMI. Conclusions: Measurement of absolute flow and microvascular resistance is safe and feasible in STEMI patients and may allow for a better understanding of microvascular (dys)function in the early phase of AMI. - Highlights: • We measured absolute coronary blood flow and microvascular resistance in STEMI patients in the acute phase and in the subacute phase, using the technique of thermodilution with low grade intracoronary continuous infusion of saline. • These measurements are safe and feasible during PPCI in STEMI patients. • In STEMI patients, absolute flow

  12. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis and acute phase response link pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes to risk of cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Sarah S., E-mail: spo@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Saber, Anne T., E-mail: ats@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Mortensen, Alicja, E-mail: almo@food.dtu.dk [National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Søborg (Denmark); Szarek, Józef, E-mail: szarek@uwm.edu.pl [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland); Wu, Dongmei, E-mail: dongmei.wu@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Williams, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.williams@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Andersen, Ole, E-mail: oa@ruc.dk [Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Jacobsen, Nicklas R., E-mail: nrj@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Yauk, Carole L., E-mail: carole.yauk@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Wallin, Håkan, E-mail: hwa@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, DK-1014 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Halappanavar, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.halappanavar@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Vogel, Ulla, E-mail: ubv@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-03-15

    Adverse lung effects following pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are well documented in rodents. However, systemic effects are less understood. Epidemiological studies have shown increased cardiovascular disease risk after pulmonary exposure to airborne particles, which has led to concerns that inhalation exposure to MWCNTs might pose similar risks. We analyzed parameters related to cardiovascular disease, including plasma acute phase response (APR) proteins and plasma lipids, in female C57BL/6 mice exposed to a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18, 54 or 162 μg/mouse of small, entangled (CNT{sub Small}, 0.8 ± 0.1 μm long) or large, thick MWCNTs (CNT{sub Large}, 4 ± 0.4 μm long). Liver tissues and plasma were harvested 1, 3 and 28 days post-exposure. In addition, global hepatic gene expression, hepatic cholesterol content and liver histology were used to assess hepatic effects. The two MWCNTs induced similar systemic responses despite their different physicochemical properties. APR proteins SAA3 and haptoglobin, plasma total cholesterol and low-density/very low-density lipoprotein were significantly increased following exposure to either MWCNTs. Plasma SAA3 levels correlated strongly with pulmonary Saa3 levels. Analysis of global gene expression revealed perturbation of the same biological processes and pathways in liver, including the HMG-CoA reductase pathway. Both MWCNTs induced similar histological hepatic changes, with a tendency towards greater response following CNT{sub Large} exposure. Overall, we show that pulmonary exposure to two different MWCNTs induces similar systemic and hepatic responses, including changes in plasma APR, lipid composition, hepatic gene expression and liver morphology. The results link pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs with risk of cardiovascular disease. - Highlights: • Systemic and hepatic alterations were evaluated in female mice following MWCNT instillation. • Despite being physicochemically

  13. Deficiency in Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP1B Shortens Lifespan and Leads to Development of Acute Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Sommer, Samantha; Morrice, Nicola; Pesaresi, Martina; Thompson, Dawn; Vickers, Mark A; Murray, Graeme I; Mody, Nimesh; Neel, Benjamin G; Bence, Kendra K; Wilson, Heather M; Delibegović, Mirela

    2018-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is a critical regulator of signaling pathways controlling metabolic homeostasis, cell proliferation, and immunity. In this study, we report that global or myeloid-specific deficiency of PTP1B in mice decreases lifespan. We demonstrate that myeloid-specific deficiency of PTP1B is sufficient to promote the development of acute myeloid leukemia. LysM-PTP1B -/- mice lacking PTP1B in the innate myeloid cell lineage displayed a dysregulation of bone marrow cells with a rapid decline in population at midlife and a concomitant increase in peripheral blood blast cells. This phenotype manifested further with extramedullary tumors, hepatic macrophage infiltration, and metabolic reprogramming, suggesting increased hepatic lipid metabolism prior to overt tumor development. Mechanistic investigations revealed an increase in anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage responses in liver and spleen, as associated with increased expression of arginase I and the cytokines IL10 and IL4. We also documented STAT3 hypersphosphorylation and signaling along with JAK-dependent upregulation of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl2 and BclXL. Our results establish a tumor suppressor role for PTP1B in the myeloid lineage cells, with evidence that its genetic inactivation in mice is sufficient to drive acute myeloid leukemia. Significance: This study defines a tumor suppressor function for the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B in myeloid lineage cells, with evidence that its genetic inactivation in mice is sufficient to drive acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer Res; 78(1); 75-87. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Growth-Phase-Specific Modulation of Cell Morphology and Gene Expression by an Archaeal Histone Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulmage, Keely A; Todor, Horia; Schmid, Amy K

    2015-09-08

    In all three domains of life, organisms use nonspecific DNA-binding proteins to compact and organize the genome as well as to regulate transcription on a global scale. Histone is the primary eukaryotic nucleoprotein, and its evolutionary roots can be traced to the archaea. However, not all archaea use this protein as the primary DNA-packaging component, raising questions regarding the role of histones in archaeal chromatin function. Here, quantitative phenotyping, transcriptomic, and proteomic assays were performed on deletion and overexpression mutants of the sole histone protein of the hypersaline-adapted haloarchaeal model organism Halobacterium salinarum. This protein is highly conserved among all sequenced haloarchaeal species and maintains hallmark residues required for eukaryotic histone functions. Surprisingly, despite this conservation at the sequence level, unlike in other archaea or eukaryotes, H. salinarum histone is required to regulate cell shape but is not necessary for survival. Genome-wide expression changes in histone deletion strains were global, significant but subtle in terms of fold change, bidirectional, and growth phase dependent. Mass spectrometric proteomic identification of proteins from chromatin enrichments yielded levels of histone and putative nucleoid-associated proteins similar to those of transcription factors, consistent with an open and transcriptionally active genome. Taken together, these data suggest that histone in H. salinarum plays a minor role in DNA compaction but important roles in growth-phase-dependent gene expression and regulation of cell shape. Histone function in haloarchaea more closely resembles a regulator of gene expression than a chromatin-organizing protein like canonical eukaryotic histone. Histones comprise the major protein component of eukaryotic chromatin and are required for both genome packaging and global regulation of expression. The current paradigm maintains that archaea whose genes encode

  15. The level of neuron-specific enolase and S-100 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sokhan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic role of neuron-specific enolase (NSE and S-100 protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of patients with acute bacterial meningitis in the course of the disease. Materials and Methods. 54 cases of acute bacterial meningitis were analyzed, among them – 26 with pneumococcal and 28 with meningococcal etiology. Patients were divided into groups depending on the severity and etiology of disease. In addition to routine laboratory methods, we analyzed the CSF levels of S-100 protein and NSE at admission and after 10 – 12 days of treatment. 12 patients with acute respiratory infections and meningism were examined as a comparison group. Results. In all patients with acute bacterial meningitis CSF NSE and protein S-100 levels were significantly higher than in the control group (P <0,05. CSF neuro specific proteins level was in direct dependence on severity of the disease, and in patients with severe disease was significantly higher than in patients with moderate severity and in the control group (P <0,01. After 10 – 12 days of treatment, the level of the NSE and S-100 protein decreased, but in severe cases was still higher than in the control group (P <0,05. Conclusions. Increased cerebrospinal fluid NSE and S – 100 protein levels shows the presence and value of neurons and glial cells damage in patients with acute bacterial meningitis. CSF S-100 protein and neuron-specific enolase levels help to determine the severity of neurons destruction and glial cells in patients with acute bacterial meningitis. Level of neurospecific protein is in direct proportion to the severity of the disease and is the highest in patients with severe cases (P<0,05. It confirms the diagnostic and prognostic value of CSF neurospecific protein determination in patients with bacterial meningitis.

  16. Effects of Partial and Acute Total Sleep Deprivation on Performance across Cognitive Domains, Individuals and Circadian Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C.; Groeger, John A.; Santhi, Nayantara; Arbon, Emma L.; Lazar, Alpar S.; Hasan, Sibah; von Schantz, Malcolm; Archer, Simon N.; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background Cognitive performance deteriorates during extended wakefulness and circadian phase misalignment, and some individuals are more affected than others. Whether performance is affected similarly across cognitive domains, or whether cognitive processes involving Executive Functions are more sensitive to sleep and circadian misalignment than Alertness and Sustained Attention, is a matter of debate. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a 2 × 12-day laboratory protocol to characterize the interaction of repeated partial and acute total sleep deprivation and circadian phase on performance across seven cognitive domains in 36 individuals (18 males; mean ± SD of age = 27.6±4.0 years). The sample was stratified for the rs57875989 polymorphism in PER3, which confers cognitive susceptibility to total sleep deprivation. We observed a deterioration of performance during both repeated partial and acute total sleep deprivation. Furthermore, prior partial sleep deprivation led to poorer cognitive performance in a subsequent total sleep deprivation period, but its effect was modulated by circadian phase such that it was virtually absent in the evening wake maintenance zone, and most prominent during early morning hours. A significant effect of PER3 genotype was observed for Subjective Alertness during partial sleep deprivation and on n-back tasks with a high executive load when assessed in the morning hours during total sleep deprivation after partial sleep loss. Overall, however, Subjective Alertness and Sustained Attention were more affected by both partial and total sleep deprivation than other cognitive domains and tasks including n-back tasks of Working Memory, even when implemented with a high executive load. Conclusions/Significance Sleep loss has a primary effect on Sleepiness and Sustained Attention with much smaller effects on challenging Working Memory tasks. These findings have implications for understanding how sleep debt and circadian rhythmicity

  17. A Systematic Review of the Usefulness of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein for Predicting Acute Intracranial Lesions following Head Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu M. Luoto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe extensive use of computed tomography (CT after acute head injury is costly and carries potential iatrogenic risk. This systematic review examined the usefulness of blood-based glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP for predicting acute trauma-related CT-positive intracranial lesions following head trauma. The main objective was to summarize the current evidence on blood-based GFAP as a potential screening test for acute CT-positive intracranial lesions following head trauma.MethodsWe screened MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychInfo, CINAHL, Web of Science, the Cochrane Database, Scopus, Clinical Trials, OpenGrey, ResearchGate, and the reference lists of eligible publications for original contributions published between January 1980 and January 2017. Eligibility criteria included: (i population: human head and brain injuries of all severities and ages; (ii intervention: blood-based GFAP measurement ≤24 h post-injury; and (iii outcome: acute traumatic lesion on non-contrast head CT ≤24 h post-injury. Three authors completed the publication screening, data extraction, and quality assessment of eligible articles.ResultsThe initial search identified 4,706 articles, with 51 eligible for subsequent full-text assessment. Twenty-seven articles were ultimately included. Twenty-four (89% studies reported a positive association between GFAP level and acute trauma-related intracranial lesions on head CT. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for GFAP prediction of intracranial pathology ranged from 0.74 to 0.98 indicating good to excellent discrimination. GFAP seemed to discriminate mass lesions and diffuse injury, with mass lesions having significantly higher GFAP levels. There was considerable variability between the measured GFAP averages between studies and assays. No well-designed diagnostic studies with specific GFAP cutoff values predictive of acute traumatic intracranial lesions have been published

  18. Flow cytometric immunobead assay for fast and easy detection of PML-RARA fusion proteins for the diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H.A. Dekking (E. H A); V.H.J. van der Velden (Vincent); A. Varro (Andras); H. Wai; S. Böttcher (Stephan); M. Kneba (Michael); E. Sonneveld (Edwin); A. Koning; N. Boeckx; N. Van Poecke; P. Lucio (Paulo); A. Mendonça; L. Sedek (Lukasz); T. Szczepanski (Tomasz); T. Kalina (Tomas); V. Kanderová (V.); P.G. Hoogeveen (Patricia); J. Flores-Montero (Juan); C. Chillón (Carmen); A. Orfao (Alberto); J.M.M. Almeida (Julia); P.A.S. Evans; C. Cullen; A.L. Noordijk; P.M. Vermeulen (P.); M.T. de Man (M.); E.P. Dixon (Eric); W.M. Comans-Bitter; J.J.M. van Dongen (Jacques)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe PML-RARA fusion protein is found in approximately 97% of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). APL can be associated with life-threatening bleeding complications when undiagnosed and not treated expeditiously. The PML-RARA fusion protein arrests maturation of myeloid

  19. Determination of phase diagrams via computer simulation: methodology and applications to water, electrolytes and proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, C; Sanz, E; Abascal, J L F; Noya, E G

    2008-01-01

    In this review we focus on the determination of phase diagrams by computer simulation, with particular attention to the fluid-solid and solid-solid equilibria. The methodology to compute the free energy of solid phases will be discussed. In particular, the Einstein crystal and Einstein molecule methodologies are described in a comprehensive way. It is shown that both methodologies yield the same free energies and that free energies of solid phases present noticeable finite size effects. In fact, this is the case for hard spheres in the solid phase. Finite size corrections can be introduced, although in an approximate way, to correct for the dependence of the free energy on the size of the system. The computation of free energies of solid phases can be extended to molecular fluids. The procedure to compute free energies of solid phases of water (ices) will be described in detail. The free energies of ices Ih, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, XI and XII will be presented for the SPC/E and TIP4P models of water. Initial coexistence points leading to the determination of the phase diagram of water for these two models will be provided. Other methods to estimate the melting point of a solid, such as the direct fluid-solid coexistence or simulations of the free surface of the solid, will be discussed. It will be shown that the melting points of ice Ih for several water models, obtained from free energy calculations, direct coexistence simulations and free surface simulations agree within their statistical uncertainty. Phase diagram calculations can indeed help to improve potential models of molecular fluids. For instance, for water, the potential model TIP4P/2005 can be regarded as an improved version of TIP4P. Here we will review some recent work on the phase diagram of the simplest ionic model, the restricted primitive model. Although originally devised to describe ionic liquids, the model is becoming quite popular to describe the behavior of charged colloids

  20. Anti-oxidant vitamins, nitric oxide and acute phase proteins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is established that there is increased risk of developing heart disease, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, lung cancer and infections in cigarette smokers. However specific mechanisms whereby cigarette smoking causes these are not fully understood. The present study provided information to explain above observation by ...

  1. Cyclooxygenase-2 and hypoxia-regulated proteins are modulated by basic fibroblast growth factor in acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Villanueva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure (ARF can be caused by injuries that induce tissue hypoxia, which in turn can trigger adaptive or inflammatory responses. We previously showed the participation of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 in renal repair. Based on this, the aim of this study was to analyze the effect of FGF-2 signaling pathway manipulation at hypoxia-induced protein levels, as well as in key proteins from the vasoactive systems of the kidney. We injected rat kidneys with FGF-2 recombinant protein (r-FGF or FGF-2 receptor antisense oligonucleotide (FGFR2-ASO after bilateral ischemia, and evaluated the presence of iNOS, EPO and HO-1, in representation of hypoxia-induced proteins, as well as COX-2, renin, kallikrein, and B2KR, in representation of the vasoactive systems of the kidney. A reduction in iNOS, HO-1, EPO, renin, kallikrein, B2KR, and in renal damage was observed in animals treated with r-FGF. The opposite effect was found with FGF-2 receptor down-regulation. In contrast, COX-2 protein levels were higher in kidneys treated with r-FGF and lower in those that received FGFR2-ASO, as compared to saline treated kidneys. These results suggest that the protective role of FGF-2 in the pathogenesis of ARF induced by I/R is a complex process, through which a differential regulation of metabolic pathways takes place.

  2. Effects of protein in combination with carbohydrate supplements on acute or repeat endurance exercise performance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Tom M; Pasiakos, Stefan M; Lieberman, Harris R

    2014-04-01

    Protein supplements are consumed frequently by athletes and recreationally active adults for various reasons, including improved exercise performance and recovery after exercise. Yet, far too often, the decision to purchase and consume protein supplements is based on marketing claims rather than available evidence-based research. The purpose of this review was to provide a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the literature that tested the hypothesis that protein supplements, when combined with carbohydrate, directly enhance endurance performance by sparing muscle glycogen during exercise and increasing the rate of glycogen restoration during recovery. The analysis was used to create evidence statements based on an accepted strength of recommendation taxonomy. English language articles were searched with PubMed and Google Scholar using protein and supplements together with performance, exercise, competition, and muscle, alone or in combination as keywords. Additional articles were retrieved from reference lists found in these papers. Inclusion criteria specified recruiting healthy active adults less than 50 years of age and evaluating the effects of protein supplements in combination with carbohydrate on endurance performance metrics such as time-to-exhaustion, time-trial, or total power output during sprint intervals. The literature search identified 28 articles, of which 26 incorporated test metrics that permitted exclusive categorization into one of the following sections: ingestion during an acute bout of exercise (n = 11) and ingestion during and after exercise to affect subsequent endurance performance (n = 15). The remaining two articles contained performance metrics that spanned both categories. All papers were read in detail and searched for experimental design confounders such as energy content of the supplements, dietary control, use of trained or untrained participants, number of subjects recruited, direct measures of muscle glycogen utilization and

  3. Preserved skeletal muscle protein anabolic response to acute exercise and protein intake in well-treated rheumatoid arthritis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Dideriksen, Kasper; Andersen, Mads Bisgaard

    2015-01-01

    and anabolic signaling response in patients with RA compared to healthy controls. METHODS: Thirteen RA patients (age range 34-84 years; diagnosed for 1-32 years, median 8 years) were individually matched with 13 healthy controls for gender, age, BMI and activity level (CON). Plasma levels of C-reactive protein...... and in combination with physical exercise in patients with well-treated RA to a similar extent as in healthy individuals. This indicates that moderately inflamed RA patients have maintained their muscle anabolic responsiveness to physical activity and protein intake....

  4. Longitudinal social-interpersonal functioning among higher-risk responders to acute-phase cognitive therapy for recurrent major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R; Clark, Lee Anna; Thase, Michael E; Jarrett, Robin B

    2016-07-15

    Social-interpersonal dysfunction increases disability in major depressive disorder (MDD). Here we clarified the durability of improvements in social-interpersonal functioning made during acute-phase cognitive therapy (CT), whether continuation CT (C-CT) or fluoxetine (FLX) further improved functioning, and relations of functioning with depressive symptoms and relapse/recurrence. Adult outpatients (N=241) with recurrent MDD who responded to acute-phase CT with higher risk of relapse (due to unstable or partial remission) were randomized to 8 months of C-CT, FLX, or pill placebo plus clinical management (PBO) and followed 24 additional months. We analyzed repeated measures of patients' social adjustment, interpersonal problems, dyadic adjustment, depressive symptoms, and major depressive relapse/recurrence. Large improvements in social-interpersonal functioning occurring during acute-phase CT (median d=1.4) were maintained, with many patients (median=66%) scoring in normal ranges for 32 months. Social-interpersonal functioning did not differ significantly among C-CT, FLX, and PBO arms. Beyond concurrently measured residual symptoms, deterioration in social-interpersonal functioning preceded and predicted upticks in depressive symptoms and major depressive relapse/recurrence. Results may not generalize to other patient populations, treatment protocols, or measures of social-interpersonal functioning. Mechanisms of risk connecting poorer social-interpersonal functioning with depression were not studied. Average improvements in social-interpersonal functioning among higher-risk responders to acute phase CT are durable for 32 months. After acute-phase CT, C-CT or FLX may not further improve social-interpersonal functioning. Among acute-phase CT responders, deteriorating social-interpersonal functioning provides a clear, measurable signal of risk for impending major depressive relapse/recurrence and opportunity for preemptive intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  5. Serum level of soluble fibrinogen-like protein 2 in renal allograft recipients with acute rejection: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z; Yang, C; Tang, Q; Zhao, T; Jia, Y; Ma, Z; Rong, R; Xu, M; Zhu, T

    2012-12-01

    Soluble fibrinogen-like protein 2 (sfgl2), which is mainly secreted by T cells, is a novel effector of regulatory T cells with immunosuppressive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate serum levels of sfgl2 among renal allograft recipients. From November 2010 to August 2011 we retrospectively divided 47 renal allograft recipients into an acute rejection (n = 19) versus a stable group (n = 28) according to allograft biopsy results, using the Banff 2007 classification. The acute rejection group was subdivided into grade I (n = 8) versus grade II T-cell-mediated (n = 6) or antibody-mediated rejection episodes (n = 5). Peripheral blood samples were collected at the time of biopsy. Fourteen healthy volunteers were included as normal group controls. Serum levels of sfgl2 were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum levels of sfgl2 were increased among renal allograft recipients suffering from biopsy-proven acute rejection episodes (61.91 ± 45.68 ng/mL), versus those with stable allografts (38.59 ± 19.92 ng/mL, P rejection episodes (41.71 ± 16.44 ng/mL, P rejection (34.10 ± 9.26 ng/mL, P rejection episodes to an extent dependent upon the pathological type and severity of the response. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) presenting with an unusually prolonged period of marked polyuria heralded by an abrupt oliguric phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoutar, Virin; Landa, Cristian; James, Leighton R

    2014-08-22

    A 50-year-old African-American man presented with acute tubular necrosis (ATN) secondary to hypotension from non-typhoid Salmonella gastroenteritis and bacteraemia. The oliguric phase lasted only 24 h followed by prolonged polyuria for 20 days, with urine output in excess of 16 L/day at maximum. As indexed in PubMed this is only the second published case of this nature since 1974, in which an abrupt oliguric phase of 24 h or less heralded prolonged polyuria in ATN. The diagnosis is challenging as fractional excretion of sodium early in the clinical course and rapid normalisation of serum creatinine with intravenous fluids (IVF) may point towards prerenal azotaemia resulting in a premature discharge from hospital. Patients with an abrupt oliguric phase may suffer a secondary renal insult from the profound fluid loss that is to follow and may need inpatient monitoring with supplemental IVF to prevent deleterious outcomes. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. Comprehensive proteome analysis of nasal lavage samples after controlled exposure to welding nanoparticles shows an induced acute phase and a nuclear receptor, LXR/RXR, activation that influence the status of the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Neserin; Ljunggren, Stefan; Karlsson, Helen M; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Pagels, Joakim; Isaxon, Christina; Gudmundsson, Anders; Rissler, Jenny; Nielsen, Jörn; Lindh, Christian H; Kåredal, Monica

    2018-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that many welders experience respiratory symptoms. During the welding process a large number of airborne nanosized particles are generated, which might be inhaled and deposited in the respiratory tract. Knowledge of the underlying mechanisms behind observed symptoms is still partly lacking, although inflammation is suggested to play a central role. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of welding fume particle exposure on the proteome expression level in welders suffering from respiratory symptoms, and changes in protein mediators in nasal lavage samples were analyzed. Such mediators will be helpful to clarify the pathomechanisms behind welding fume particle-induced effects. In an exposure chamber, 11 welders with work-related symptoms in the lower airways during the last month were exposed to mild-steel welding fume particles (1 mg/m 3 ) and to filtered air, respectively, in a double-blind manner. Nasal lavage samples were collected before, immediately after, and the day after exposure. The proteins in the nasal lavage were analyzed with two different mass spectrometry approaches, label-free discovery shotgun LC-MS/MS and a targeted selected reaction monitoring LC-MS/MS analyzing 130 proteins and four in vivo peptide degradation products. The analysis revealed 30 significantly changed proteins that were associated with two main pathways; activation of acute phase response signaling and activation of LXR/RXR, which is a nuclear receptor family involved in lipid signaling. Connective tissue proteins and proteins controlling the degradation of such tissues, including two different matrix metalloprotease proteins, MMP8 and MMP9, were among the significantly changed enzymes and were identified as important key players in the pathways. Exposure to mild-steel welding fume particles causes measurable changes on the proteome level in nasal lavage matrix in exposed welders, although no clinical symptoms were manifested. The

  8. The limits of adaptation of functional protein synthesis to severe undernutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, T.; Jahoor, F.; Reeds, P.

    1996-01-01

    This project was designed to investigate the limits of adaptation of protein metabolism in the stree of severe childhood malnutrition, representing as it does chronic dietary insufficiency of macronutrients and superimposed infection. The tasks included measurement of concentrations and rates of synthesis of nutrient transport proteins and hepatic acute phase proteins inseverely malnourished children during their acute illness and a recovery

  9. Visualization of membrane protein crystals in lipid cubic phase using X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Anna J.; Armour, Wes; Axford, Danny; Basham, Mark; Connolley, Thomas; Hall, David R.; Horrell, Sam; McAuley, Katherine E.; Mykhaylyk, Vitaliy; Wagner, Armin; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2013-01-01

    A comparison of X-ray diffraction and radiographic techniques for the location and characterization of protein crystals is demonstrated on membrane protein crystals mounted within lipid cubic phase material. The focus in macromolecular crystallography is moving towards even more challenging target proteins that often crystallize on much smaller scales and are frequently mounted in opaque or highly refractive materials. It is therefore essential that X-ray beamline technology develops in parallel to accommodate such difficult samples. In this paper, the use of X-ray microradiography and microtomography is reported as a tool for crystal visualization, location and characterization on the macromolecular crystallography beamlines at the Diamond Light Source. The technique is particularly useful for microcrystals and for crystals mounted in opaque materials such as lipid cubic phase. X-ray diffraction raster scanning can be used in combination with radiography to allow informed decision-making at the beamline prior to diffraction data collection. It is demonstrated that the X-ray dose required for a full tomography measurement is similar to that for a diffraction grid-scan, but for sample location and shape estimation alone just a few radiographic projections may be required

  10. Visualization of membrane protein crystals in lipid cubic phase using X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Anna J. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Armour, Wes [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Oxford e-Research Centre, 7 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3QG (United Kingdom); Axford, Danny; Basham, Mark; Connolley, Thomas; Hall, David R. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Horrell, Sam [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); McAuley, Katherine E.; Mykhaylyk, Vitaliy; Wagner, Armin; Evans, Gwyndaf, E-mail: gwyndaf.evans@diamond.ac.uk [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    A comparison of X-ray diffraction and radiographic techniques for the location and characterization of protein crystals is demonstrated on membrane protein crystals mounted within lipid cubic phase material. The focus in macromolecular crystallography is moving towards even more challenging target proteins that often crystallize on much smaller scales and are frequently mounted in opaque or highly refractive materials. It is therefore essential that X-ray beamline technology develops in parallel to accommodate such difficult samples. In this paper, the use of X-ray microradiography and microtomography is reported as a tool for crystal visualization, location and characterization on the macromolecular crystallography beamlines at the Diamond Light Source. The technique is particularly useful for microcrystals and for crystals mounted in opaque materials such as lipid cubic phase. X-ray diffraction raster scanning can be used in combination with radiography to allow informed decision-making at the beamline prior to diffraction data collection. It is demonstrated that the X-ray dose required for a full tomography measurement is similar to that for a diffraction grid-scan, but for sample location and shape estimation alone just a few radiographic projections may be required.

  11. Protein content of leaf-cutting ant queens before the nuptial flight and during the post-claustral phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edypo Jacob Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein content of leaf-cutting ant queens before the nuptial flight and during the post-claustral phase. This study evaluated the crude protein content of queens of Atta sexdens before the nuptial flight and after the claustral phase in laboratory and field colonies. The hypothesis was that protein is used for survival of the queen and for early colony growth during the claustral phase. Additionally, the nest morphology, live biomass and adult population of field colonies were evaluated. Crude protein was determined by digestion of the organic material with sulfuric acid at high temperatures. The mean crude protein content was 123.23 ± 11.20 mg for females before the nuptial flight and 70.44 ± 12.21 mg for laboratory-reared queens after the claustral phase. The post-claustral crude protein content of field-collected queen was 55.90 ± 9.18 mg. With respect to the loss of crude protein as a function of duration of the claustral phase, laboratory-reared queens lost 52.79 mg and field-collected queens lost 67.33 mg compared to females before the nuptial flight. A positive linear correlation was observed between the weight of field-collected queens (256.4 ± 36.3 mg and colony biomass (13.02 ± 9.12 g, but there was no correlation between biomass and nest depth (13.11 ± 3.82 cm. As expected, the present results support the hypothesis that protein is used for survival of the queen and for early colony growth, as demonstrated by the reduction in crude protein content as a function of duration of the claustral phase. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide data of the dynamics of protein reserves in leaf-cutting ant queens during the claustral phase.

  12. Liver genomic responses to ciguatoxin: evidence for activation of phase I and phase II detoxification pathways following an acute hypothermic response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Jeanine S; Ryan, James C; Bottein Dechraoui, Marie-Yasmine; Rezvani, Amir H; Levin, Edward D; Gordon, Christopher J; Ramsdell, John S; Van Dolah, Frances M

    2008-06-01

    Ciguatoxins (CTX) are polyether neurotoxins that target voltage-gated sodium channels and are responsible for ciguatera, the most common fish-borne food poisoning in humans. This study characterizes the global transcriptional response of mouse liver to a symptomatic dose (0.26 ng/g) of the highly potent Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1). At 1 h post-exposure 2.4% of features on a 44K whole genome array were differentially expressed (p or = 1.5 and p < or = 0.0001 in at least one time point) and a trend set of 1550 genes were used for further analysis. Early gene expression was likely influenced prominently by an acute 4 degrees C decline in core body temperature by 1 h, which resolved by 8 h following exposure. An initial downregulation of 32 different solute carriers, many involved in sodium transport, was observed. Differential gene expression in pathways involving eicosanoid biosynthesis and cholesterol homeostasis was also noted. Cytochrome P450s (Cyps) were of particular interest due to their role in xenobiotic metabolism. Twenty-seven genes, mostly members of Cyp2 and Cyp4 families, showed significant changes in expression. Many Cyps underwent an initial downregulation at 1 h but were quickly and strongly upregulated at 4 and 24 h post-exposure. In addition to Cyps, increases in several glutathione S-transferases were observed, an indication that both phase I and phase II metabolic reactions are involved in the hepatic response to CTX in mice.

  13. Focused and divided attention abilities in the acute phase of recovery from moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kayela; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2017-01-01

    Impairments in attention following traumatic brain injury (TBI) can significantly impact recovery and rehabilitation effectiveness. This study investigated the multi-faceted construct of selective attention following TBI, highlighting the differences on visual nonsearch (focused attention) and search (divided attention) tasks. Participants were 30 individuals with moderate to severe TBI who were tested acutely (i.e. following emergence from PTA) and 30 age- and education-matched controls. Participants were presented with visual displays that contained either two or eight items. In the focused attention, nonsearch condition, the location of the target (if present) was cued with a peripheral arrow prior to presentation of the visual displays. In the divided attention, search condition, no spatial cue was provided prior to presentation of the visual displays. The results revealed intact focused, nonsearch, attention abilities in the acute phase of TBI recovery. In contrast, when no spatial cue was provided (divided attention condition), participants with TBI demonstrated slower visual search compared to the control group. The results of this study suggest that capitalizing on intact focused attention abilities by allocating attention during cognitively demanding tasks may help to reduce mental workload and improve rehabilitation effectiveness.

  14. Spouses' conceptions of the pre-hospital phase when their partners suffered an acute myocardial infarction--a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Ingela; Swahn, Eva; Strömberg, Anna

    2008-09-01

    Delay from onset of acute myocardial infarction symptoms to the delivery of medical care is a major determinant of prognosis. Although studies have explored patient reasons for delay, there are only limited data concerning experiences of the spouse. Was to describe spouses' conceptions of the pre-hospital phase when their partners suffered an acute myocardial infarction. A phenomenographic approach was applied. Fifteen spouses were interviewed rational, and consulting others. The category respecting independence contained: accepting the need for control, marital roles and experiences, restraining emotions, and seeking agreement. Our findings suggest that spouses have a strong influence on the course of events. When accepting the partner's need for control through following earlier marital roles and experiences, restraining own emotions and seeking agreement, this seemed to contribute to delay. However, when the spouse was resourceful by sharing the experience, having knowledge, understanding the severity, being rational and consulting others when needed, this seemed to have a positive influence on the pre-hospital time.

  15. Ultrasound of the coracoclavicular ligaments in the acute phase of an acromioclavicular disjunction: Comparison of radiographic, ultrasound and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faruch Bilfeld, Marie; Lapegue, Franck; Chiavassa Gandois, Helene; Bayol, Marie Aurelie; Sans, Nicolas [CHU Toulouse-Purpan, Service de Radiologie, Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Bonnevialle, Nicolas [CHU Toulouse-Purpan, Service d' Orthopedie, Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)

    2017-02-15

    Acromioclavicular joint injuries are typically diagnosed by clinical and radiographic assessment with the Rockwood classification, which is crucial for treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to describe how the ultrasound findings of acromioclavicular joint injury compare with radiography and MRI findings. Forty-seven patients with suspected unilateral acromioclavicular joint injury after acute trauma were enrolled in this prospective study. All patients underwent digital radiography, ultrasound and 3T MRI. A modified Rockwood classification was used to evaluate the coracoclavicular ligaments. The classifications of acromioclavicular joint injuries diagnosed with radiography, ultrasound and MRI were compared. MRI was used as the gold standard. The agreement between the ultrasound and MRI findings was very good, with a correlation coefficient of 0.83 (95 % CI: 0.72-0.90; p < 0.0001). Ultrasound detected coracoclavicular ligament injuries with a sensitivity of 88.9 %, specificity of 90.0 %, positive predictive value of 92.3 % and negative predictive value of 85.7 %. The agreement between the ultrasound and radiography findings was poor, with a correlation coefficient of 0.69 (95 % CI: 0.51-0.82; p < 0.0001). Ultrasound is an effective examination for the diagnostic work-up of lesions of the coracoclavicular ligaments in the acute phase of an acromioclavicular injury. (orig.)

  16. Acute-Phase Blood Pressure Levels Correlate With a High Risk of Recurrent Strokes in Young-Onset Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanoja, Satu; Putaala, Jukka; Gordin, Daniel; Tulkki, Lauri; Aarnio, Karoliina; Pirinen, Jani; Surakka, Ida; Sinisalo, Juha; Lehto, Mika; Tatlisumak, Turgut

    2016-06-01

    High blood pressure (BP) in acute stroke has been associated with a poor outcome; however, this has not been evaluated in young adults. The relationship between BP and long-term outcome was assessed in 1004 consecutive young, first-ever ischemic stroke patients aged 15 to 49 years enrolled in the Helsinki Young Stroke Registry. BP parameters included systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure at admission and 24 hours. The primary outcome measure was recurrent stroke in the long-term follow-up. Adjusted for demographics and preexisting comorbidities, Cox regression models were used to assess independent BP parameters associated with outcome. Of our patients (63% male), 393 patients (39%) had prestroke hypertension and 358 (36%) used antihypertensive treatment. The median follow-up period was 8.9 years (interquartile range 5.7-13.2). Patients with a recurrent stroke (n=142, 14%) had significantly higher admission SBP, diastolic BP, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure (Pstroke. Patients with SBP ≥160 mm Hg compared with those with SBP strokes (hazard ratio 3.3 [95% confidence interval, 2.05-4.55]; Pstroke, while the 24-hour BP levels were not. In young ischemic stroke patients, high acute phase BP levels are independently associated with a high risk of recurrent strokes. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Critical Analysis of the Efficacy of Meditation Therapies for Acute and Subacute Phase Treatment of Depressive Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Felipe A.; Walsh, Roger N.; Eisendrath, Stuart J.; Christensen, Scott; Cahn, B. Rael

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, the application of meditative practices to the treatment of depressive disorders has met with increasing clinical and scientific interest, due to a lower side-effect burden, potential reduction of polypharmacy, as well as theoretical considerations that such interventions may target some of the cognitive roots of depression. We aimed to determine the state of the evidence supporting this application. Methods Randomized, controlled trials of techniques meeting the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) definition of meditation, for participants suffering from clinically diagnosed depressive disorders, not currently in remission, were selected. Meditation therapies were separated into praxis (i.e. how they were applied) components, and trial outcomes were reviewed. Results Eighteen studies meeting inclusionary criteria were identified, encompassing seven distinct techniques and 1173 patients, with Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy comprising the largest proportion. Studies including patients suffering from acute major depressive episodes (N = 10 studies), and those with residual subacute clinical symptoms despite initial treatment (N = 8), demonstrated moderate to large reductions in depression symptoms within group, and relative to control groups. There was significant heterogeneity of techniques and trial designs. Conclusions A substantial body of evidence indicates that meditation therapies may have salutary effects on patients suffering from clinical depressive disorders during the acute and subacute phases of treatment. Due to methodological deficiences and trial heterogeneity, large-scale, randomized controlled trials with well-described comparator interventions and measures of expectation are needed to clarify the role of meditation in the depression treatment armamentarium. PMID:25591492

  18. Ultrasound of the coracoclavicular ligaments in the acute phase of an acromioclavicular disjunction: Comparison of radiographic, ultrasound and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruch Bilfeld, Marie; Lapegue, Franck; Chiavassa Gandois, Helene; Bayol, Marie Aurelie; Sans, Nicolas; Bonnevialle, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Acromioclavicular joint injuries are typically diagnosed by clinical and radiographic assessment with the Rockwood classification, which is crucial for treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to describe how the ultrasound findings of acromioclavicular joint injury compare with radiography and MRI findings. Forty-seven patients with suspected unilateral acromioclavicular joint injury after acute trauma were enrolled in this prospective study. All patients underwent digital radiography, ultrasound and 3T MRI. A modified Rockwood classification was used to evaluate the coracoclavicular ligaments. The classifications of acromioclavicular joint injuries diagnosed with radiography, ultrasound and MRI were compared. MRI was used as the gold standard. The agreement between the ultrasound and MRI findings was very good, with a correlation coefficient of 0.83 (95 % CI: 0.72-0.90; p < 0.0001). Ultrasound detected coracoclavicular ligament injuries with a sensitivity of 88.9 %, specificity of 90.0 %, positive predictive value of 92.3 % and negative predictive value of 85.7 %. The agreement between the ultrasound and radiography findings was poor, with a correlation coefficient of 0.69 (95 % CI: 0.51-0.82; p < 0.0001). Ultrasound is an effective examination for the diagnostic work-up of lesions of the coracoclavicular ligaments in the acute phase of an acromioclavicular injury. (orig.)

  19. Cardiac index after acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction measured with phase-contrast cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klug, Gert; Reinstadler, Sebastian Johannes; Feistritzer, Hans-Josef; Schwaiger, Johannes P.; Reindl, Martin; Mair, Johannes; Mueller, Silvana; Franz, Wolfgang-Michael; Metzler, Bernhard; Kremser, Christian; Mayr, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Phase-contrast CMR (PC-CMR) might provide a fast and robust non-invasive determination of left ventricular function in patients after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Cine sequences in the left-ventricular (LV) short-axis and free-breathing, retrospectively gated PC-CMR were performed in 90 patients with first acute STEMI and 15 healthy volunteers. Inter- and intra-observer agreement was determined. The correlations of clinical variables age, gender, ejection fraction, NT pro-brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP] with cardiac index (CI) were calculated. For CI, there was a strong agreement of cine CMR with PC-CMR in healthy volunteers (r: 0.82, mean difference: -0.14 l/min/m 2 , error ± 23 %). Agreement was lower in STEMI patients (r: 0.61, mean difference: -0.17 l/min/m 2 , error ± 32 %). In STEMI patients, CI measured with PC-CMR showed lower intra-observer (1 % vs. 9 %) and similar inter-observer variability (9 % vs. 12 %) compared to cine CMR. CI was significantly correlated with age, ejection fraction and NT-proBNP values in STEMI patients. The agreement of PC-CMR and cine CMR for the determination of CI is lower in STEMI patients than in healthy volunteers. After acute STEMI, CI measured with PC-CMR decreases with age, LV ejection fraction and higher NT-proBNP. (orig.)

  20. GFAP and S100B in the acute phase of mild traumatic brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metting, Z.; Wilczak, N.; Rodiger, L. A.; Schaaf, J. M.; van der Naalt, J.

    Objective: The biomarkers glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and S100B are increasingly used as prognostic tools in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Data for mild TBI are scarce. This study aims to analyze the predictive value of GFAP and S100B for outcome in mild TBI and the relation with

  1. Investigation of the solubility and the potentials for purification of serum amyloid A (SAA) from equine acute phase serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michelle Brønniche; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Jacobsen, Stine

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serum amyloid A (SAA) is useful as a diagnostic marker of systemic inflammation in horses, but only heterologous assays based on non-equine calibration and standardization are available for measurements of equine SAA. More accurate measurements could be obtained using purified species......-specific SAA in native conformation for assay calibration and standardization. Further knowledge about the biochemical properties of SAA would facilitate a future production of native species-specific calibration material Therefore, the aim of the study was an investigation of the solubility and potentials...... for purification of equine SAA based on biochemical properties.Freeze dried equine acute phase serum was dissolved in 70% 2-propanol, 8 M urea, and milli-Q water, respectively. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), size-exclusive chromatography (FPLC-SEC), and preparative isoelectric focusing (IEF) were performed...

  2. Early Diagnosis of Congenital Trypanosoma cruzi Infection, Using Shed Acute Phase Antigen, in Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallimaci, María Cristina; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Russomando, Graciela; Sanchez, Zunilda; Sijvarger, Carina; Alvarez, Isabel Marcela; Barrionuevo, Lola; Lopez, Carlos; Segura, Elsa Leonor

    2010-01-01

    Chagas' disease, or American trypanosomiasis, is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanasoma cruzi. It is estimated that 15,000 new cases of congenital T. cruzi transmission occur in the Americas each year. The aim of this study was to estimate the rate of congenital T. cruzi infection in infants born to infected women living in Ushuaia, Argentina, as well to assess a serologic test using Shed Acute Phase Antigen (SAPA) for a timely diagnosis of congenital infection. The rate of congenital infection among children in the study was 4.4% (3/68). Our results show that for infants younger than 30 days of age, matched blood samples from mother and infant were capable of identifying congenital transmission of infection using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with SAPA. For infants older than 3 months, congenital infection could be ruled out using the same procedure. PMID:20064996

  3. Plastic Change along the Intact Crossed Pathway in Acute Phase of Cerebral Ischemia Revealed by Optical Intrinsic Signal Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The intact crossed pathway via which the contralesional hemisphere responds to the ipsilesional somatosensory input has shown to be affected by unilateral stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate the plasticity of the intact crossed pathway in response to different intensities of stimulation in a rodent photothrombotic stroke model. Using optical intrinsic signal imaging, an overall increase of the contralesional cortical response was observed in the acute phase (≤48 hours after stroke. In particular, the contralesional hyperactivation is more prominent under weak stimulations, while a strong stimulation would even elicit a depressed response. The results suggest a distinct stimulation-response pattern along the intact crossed pathway after stroke. We speculate that the contralesional hyperactivation under weak stimulations was due to the reorganization for compensatory response to the weak ipsilateral somatosensory input.

  4. The Role of Histone Protein Modifications and Mutations in Histone Modifiers in Pediatric B-Cell Progenitor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczar, Szymon; Janczar, Karolina; Pastorczak, Agata; Harb, Hani; Paige, Adam J. W.; Zalewska-Szewczyk, Beata; Danilewicz, Marian; Mlynarski, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    While cancer has been long recognized as a disease of the genome, the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in neoplasia was acknowledged more recently. The most active epigenetic marks are DNA methylation and histone protein modifications and they are involved in basic biological phenomena in every cell. Their role in tumorigenesis is stressed by recent unbiased large-scale studies providing evidence that several epigenetic modifiers are recurrently mutated or frequently dysregulated in multiple cancers. The interest in epigenetic marks is especially due to the fact that they are potentially reversible and thus druggable. In B-cell progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) there is a relative paucity of reports on the role of histone protein modifications (acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation) as compared to acute myeloid leukemia, T-cell ALL, or other hematologic cancers, and in this setting chromatin modifications are relatively less well studied and reviewed than DNA methylation. In this paper, we discuss the biomarker associations and evidence for a driver role of dysregulated global and loci-specific histone marks, as well as mutations in epigenetic modifiers in BCP-ALL. Examples of chromatin modifiers recurrently mutated/disrupted in BCP-ALL and associated with disease outcomes include MLL1, CREBBP, NSD2, and SETD2. Altered histone marks and histone modifiers and readers may play a particular role in disease chemoresistance and relapse. We also suggest that epigenetic regulation of B-cell differentiation may have parallel roles in leukemogenesis. PMID:28054944

  5. Overexpression of IL-38 protein in anticancer drug-induced lung injury and acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Masaki; Okamoto, Masaki; Kawayama, Tomotaka; Matsuoka, Masanobu; Kaieda, Shinjiro; Sakazaki, Yuki; Kinoshita, Takashi; Mori, Daisuke; Inoue, Akira; Hoshino, Tomoaki

    2017-09-01

    Interleukin (IL)-38, a member of the IL-1 family, shows high homology to IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and IL-36 receptor antagonist (IL-36Ra). Its function in interstitial lung disease (ILD) is still unknown. To determine the expression pattern of IL-38 mRNA, a panel of cDNAs derived from various tissues was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Immunohistochemical reactivity with anti-human IL-38 monoclonal antibody (clone H127C) was evaluated semi-quantitatively in lung tissue samples from 12 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia (IPF/UIP), 5 with acute exacerbation of IPF, and 10 with anticancer drug-induced ILD (bleomycin in 5 and epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor in 5). Control lung tissues were obtained from areas of normal lung in 22 lung cancer patients who underwent extirpation surgery. IL-38 transcripts were strongly expressed in the lung, spleen, synoviocytes, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and at a lower level in pancreas and muscle. IL-38 protein was not strongly expressed in normal pulmonary alveolar tissues in all 22 control lungs. In contrast, IL-38 was overexpressed in the lungs of 4 of 5 (80%) patients with acute IPF exacerbation and 100% (10/10) of the patients with drug-induced ILD. IL-38 overexpression was limited to hyperplastic type II pneumocytes, which are considered to reflect regenerative change following diffuse alveolar damage in ILD. IL-38 may play an important role in acute and/or chronic inflammation in anticancer drug-induced lung injury and acute exacerbation of IPF. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Phorbol-ester-induced down-regulation of protein kinase C in mouse pancreatic islets. Potentiation of phase 1 and inhibition of phase 2 of glucose-induced insulin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thams, P; Capito, K; Hedeskov, C J

    1990-01-01

    and potentiated phase 1 of glucose-induced secretion. Furthermore, perifusion of islets in the presence of staurosporine (1 microM), an inhibitor of protein kinase C, potentiated phase 1 and inhibited phase 2 of glucose-induced secretion. In addition, down-regulation of protein kinase C potentiated phase 1...

  7. Correlative mRNA and protein expression of middle and inner ear inflammatory cytokines during mouse acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trune, Dennis R; Kempton, Beth; Hausman, Frances A; Larrain, Barbara E; MacArthur, Carol J

    2015-08-01

    Although the inner ear has long been reported to be susceptible to middle ear disease, little is known of the inflammatory mechanisms that might cause permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Recent studies have shown inner ear tissues are capable of expressing inflammatory cytokines during otitis media. However, little quantitative information is available concerning cytokine gene expression in the inner ear and the protein products that result. Therefore, this study was conducted of mouse middle and inner ear during acute otitis media to measure the relationship between inflammatory cytokine genes and their protein products with quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Balb/c mice were inoculated transtympanically with heat-killed Haemophilus influenzae and middle and inner ear tissues collected for either quantitative RT-PCR microarrays or ELISA multiplex arrays. mRNA for several cytokine genes was significantly increased in both the middle and inner ear at 6 h. In the inner ear, these included MIP-2 (448 fold), IL-6 (126 fold), IL-1β (7.8 fold), IL-10 (10.7 fold), TNFα (1.8 fold), and IL-1α (1.5 fold). The 24 h samples showed a similar pattern of gene expression, although generally at lower levels. In parallel, the ELISA showed the related cytokines were present in the inner ear at concentrations higher by 2-122 fold higher at 18 h, declining slightly from there at 24 h. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies to a number of these cytokines demonstrated they occurred in greater amounts in the inner ear tissues. These findings demonstrate considerable inflammatory gene expression and gene products in the inner ear following acute otitis media. These higher cytokine levels suggest one potential mechanism for the permanent hearing loss seen in some cases of acute and chronic otitis media. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Production of thyrotropin receptor antibodies in acute phase of infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus primary infection: a case report of a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Keiko; Okuno, Keisuke; Ochi, Marika; Kumata, Keisuke; Sano, Hitoshi; Yoneda, Naohiro; Ueyama, Jun-Ichi; Matsushita, Michiko; Kuwamoto, Satoshi; Kato, Masako; Murakami, Ichiro; Kanzaki, Susumu; Hayashi, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Various autoantibodies have been reported to be detected during the progression of infectious mononucleosis. We observed a case of infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus primary infection for 2 months, and noticed the transiently increased titer of thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies detected at the acute phase on the 3rd day after admission. At that time, real-time quantitative PCR also revealed the mRNA expressions of an immediate early lytic gene, BZLF1, and a latent gene, EBNA2. The expression of BZLF1 mRNA means that Epstein-Barr virus infects lytically, and EBNA2 protein has an important role in antibody production as well as the establishment of Epstein-Barr virus latency. These results suggest that Epstein-Barr virus lytic infection is relevant to thyrotropin receptor autoantibody production. Thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies stimulate thyroid follicular cells to produce excessive thyroid hormones and cause Graves' disease. Recently, we reported the thyrotropin receptor autoantibody production from thyrotropin receptor autoantibody-predisposed Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells by the induction of Epstein-Barr virus lytic infection in vitro. This case showed in vivo findings consistent with our previous reports, and is important to consider the pathophysiology of Graves' disease and one of the mechanisms of autoimmunity.

  9. A green deep eutectic solvent-based aqueous two-phase system for protein extracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kaijia; Wang, Yuzhi; Huang, Yanhua; Li, Na; Wen, Qian

    2015-03-15

    As a new type of green solvent, deep eutectic solvent (DES) has been applied for the extraction of proteins with an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in this work. Four kinds of choline chloride (ChCl)-based DESs were synthesized to extract bovine serum albumin (BSA), and ChCl-glycerol was selected as the suitable extraction solvent. Single factor experiments have been done to investigate the effects of the extraction process, including the amount of DES, the concentration of salt, the mass of protein, the shaking time, the temperature and PH value. Experimental results show 98.16% of the BSA could be extracted into the DES-rich phase in a single-step extraction under the optimized conditions. A high extraction efficiency of 94.36% was achieved, while the conditions were applied to the extraction of trypsin (Try). Precision, repeatability and stability experiments were studied and the relative standard deviations (RSD) of the extraction efficiency were 0.4246% (n=3), 1.6057% (n=3) and 1.6132% (n=3), respectively. Conformation of BSA was not changed during the extraction process according to the investigation of UV-vis spectra, FT-IR spectra and CD spectra of BSA. The conductivity, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to explore the mechanism of the extraction. It turned out that the formation of DES-protein aggregates play a significant role in the separation process. All the results suggest that ChCl-based DES-ATPS are supposed to have the potential to provide new possibilities in the separation of proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. RPPAML/RIMS: A metadata format and an information management system for reverse phase protein arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennessy Bryan T

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reverse Phase Protein Arrays (RPPA are convenient assay platforms to investigate the presence of biomarkers in tissue lysates. As with other high-throughput technologies, substantial amounts of analytical data are generated. Over 1000 samples may be printed on a single nitrocellulose slide. Up to 100 different proteins may be assessed using immunoperoxidase or immunoflorescence techniques in order to determine relative amounts of protein expression in the samples of interest. Results In this report an RPPA Information Management System (RIMS is described and made available with open source software. In order to implement the proposed system, we propose a metadata format known as reverse phase protein array markup language (RPPAML. RPPAML would enable researchers to describe, document and disseminate RPPA data. The complexity of the data structure needed to describe the results and the graphic tools necessary to visualize them require a software deployment distributed between a client and a server application. This was achieved without sacrificing interoperability between individual deployments through the use of an open source semantic database, S3DB. This data service backbone is available to multiple client side applications that can also access other server side deployments. The RIMS platform was designed to interoperate with other data analysis and data visualization tools such as Cytoscape. Conclusion The proposed RPPAML data format hopes to standardize RPPA data. Standardization of data would result in diverse client applications being able to operate on the same set of data. Additionally, having data in a standard format would enable data dissemination and data analysis.

  11. Effects of plasticization and shear stress on phase structure development and properties of soy protein blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Zhang, Jinwen

    2010-11-01

    In this study, soy protein concentrate (SPC) was used as a plastic component to blend with poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT). Effects of SPC plasticization and blend composition on its deformation during mixing were studied in detail. Influence of using water as the major plasticizer and glycerol as the co-plasticizer on the deformation of the SPC phase during mixing was explored. The effect of shear stress, as affected by SPC loading level, on the phase structure of SPC in the blends was also investigated. Quantitative analysis of the aspect ratio of SPC particles was conducted by using ImageJ software, and an empirical model predicting the formation of percolated structure was applied. The experimental results and the model prediction showed a fairly good agreement. The experimental results and statistic analysis suggest that both SPC loading level and its water content prior to compounding had significant influences on development of the SPC phase structure and were correlated in determining the morphological structures of the resulting blends. Consequently, physical and mechanical properties of the blends greatly depended on the phase morphology and PBAT/SPC ratio of the blends.

  12. Phosphopeptide Enrichment by Covalent Chromatography after Derivatization of Protein Digests Immobilized on Reversed-Phase Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nika, Heinz; Nieves, Edward; Hawke, David H.; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue

    2013-01-01

    A rugged sample-preparation method for comprehensive affinity enrichment of phosphopeptides from protein digests has been developed. The method uses a series of chemical reactions to incorporate efficiently and specifically a thiol-functionalized affinity tag into the analyte by barium hydroxide catalyzed β-elimination with Michael addition using 2-aminoethanethiol as nucleophile and subsequent thiolation of the resulting amino group with sulfosuccinimidyl-2-(biotinamido) ethyl-1,3-dithiopropionate. Gentle oxidation of cysteine residues, followed by acetylation of α- and ε-amino groups before these reactions, ensured selectivity of reversible capture of the modified phosphopeptides by covalent chromatography on activated thiol sepharose. The use of C18 reversed-phase supports as a miniaturized reaction bed facilitated optimization of the individual modification steps for throughput and completeness of derivatization. Reagents were exchanged directly on the supports, eliminating sample transfer between the reaction steps and thus, allowing the immobilized analyte to be carried through the multistep reaction scheme with minimal sample loss. The use of this sample-preparation method for phosphopeptide enrichment was demonstrated with low-level amounts of in-gel-digested protein. As applied to tryptic digests of α-S1- and β-casein, the method enabled the enrichment and detection of the phosphorylated peptides contained in the mixture, including the tetraphosphorylated species of β-casein, which has escaped chemical procedures reported previously. The isolates proved highly suitable for mapping the sites of phosphorylation by collisionally induced dissociation. β-Elimination, with consecutive Michael addition, expanded the use of the solid-phase-based enrichment strategy to phosphothreonyl peptides and to phosphoseryl/phosphothreonyl peptides derived from proline-directed kinase substrates and to their O-sulfono- and O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O

  13. Bcl-2 protein level in blood of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (AML), bcl-2 being an anti-apoptotic protein incriminated in cancer. ... resistant to apoptosis, defining this protein as a factor of bad prognosis in AML. Moreover, the determination ..... of the molecular mechanisms of physiological ... long term survival in breast cancer, Am. J. Pathol. ... Burkitt subtype at presentation, and is not.

  14. C-fos protein expression in central nervous system. Effects of acute whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.; Chollat, S.; Mahfoudi, H.; Lambert, F.; Baille Le Crom, V.; Fatome, M.

    1995-01-01

    Study of c-Fos protein expression in the rat striatum after gamma or (neutron-gamma) irradiation was carried on. c-Fos protein is expressed one hour after gamma exposure at the dose of 15 Gy but specificity of the response must be verified. (author)

  15. Effects of heat shock protein 90 expression on pectoralis major oxidation in broilers exposed to acute heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Y; Gu, X H

    2014-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) expression on pH, lipid peroxidation, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression of pectoralis major in broilers exposed to acute heat stress. In total, 90 male broilers were randomly allocated to 3 groups: control (CON), heat stress (HS), or geldanamycin treatment (GA). On d 41, the broilers in the GA group were injected intraperitoneally with GA (5 μg/kg of BW), and the broilers in the CON and HS groups were injected intraperitoneally with saline. Twenty-four hours later, the broilers in the CON group were moved to environmental chambers controlled at 22°C for 2 h, and the broilers in the HS and GA groups were moved to environmental chambers controlled at 40°C for 2 h. The pH values of the pectoralis major after 30 min and 24 h of chilling after slaughter of HS and GA broilers were significantly lower (P stress caused significant increases in sera corticosterone and lactic dehydrogenase, the activity of malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase, the expression of HSP90 and HSP70, and nuclear expression of GR protein in the pectoralis major (P stress induced a significant decrease in GR protein expression in the cytoplasm and GR mRNA expression. Furthermore, the low expression of HSP90 significantly increased levels of lactic dehydrogenase and malondialdehyde and GR protein expression in the cytoplasm under heat stress (P shock protein 90 was positively correlated with corticosterone and superoxide dismutase activities (P < 0.01), and HSP90 mRNA was negatively correlated with pH after chilling for 24 h. The results demonstrated that HSP90 plays a pivotal role in protecting cells from oxidation. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Variation of fibrinogen oligosaccharide structure in the acute phase response: Possible haemorrhagic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen O. Brennan

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions and implications: The failure of incorporation Gal excludes the possibility of the hepatic NAcNeu Gal transferase capping the oligosaccharides with sialic acid. This has two desirable haemostatic outcomes: fibrin monomers will polymerise and form clots more rapidly, and two galactose residues can never be exposed diminishing uptake of the protein by the asialoglycoprotein receptor and ramping up concentration at a time of challenge.

  17. Leptospiral outer membrane protein LipL41 is not essential for acute leptospirosis but requires a small chaperone protein, lep, for stable expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Amy M; Bartpho, Thanatchaporn; Sermswan, Rasana W; Bulach, Dieter M; Eshghi, Azad; Picardeau, Mathieu; Adler, Ben; Murray, Gerald L

    2013-08-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp., but knowledge of leptospiral pathogenesis remains limited. However, the development of mutagenesis systems has allowed the investigation of putative virulence factors and their involvement in leptospirosis. LipL41 is the third most abundant lipoprotein found in the outer membranes of pathogenic leptospires and has been considered a putative virulence factor. LipL41 is encoded on the large chromosome 28 bp upstream of a small open reading frame encoding a hypothetical protein of unknown function. This gene was named lep, for LipL41 expression partner. In this study, lipL41 was found to be cotranscribed with lep. Two transposon mutants were characterized: a lipL41 mutant and a lep mutant. In the lep mutant, LipL41 protein levels were reduced by approximately 90%. Lep was shown through cross-linking and coexpression experiments to bind to LipL41. Lep is proposed to be a molecular chaperone essential for the stable expression of LipL41. The roles of LipL41 and Lep in the pathogenesis of Leptospira interrogans were investigated; surprisingly, neither of these two unique proteins was essential for acute leptospirosis.

  18. Lung Surfactant Protein D (SP-D) Response and Regulation During Acute and Chronic Lung Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunsbaek, Maria Quisgaard; Rasmussen, Karina Juhl; Beers, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    in three murine models of lung injury, using a validated ELISA technology for estimation of SP-D levels. METHODS: Mice were exposed to lipopolysaccharide, bleomycin, or Pneumocystis carinii (Pc) and sacrificed at different time points. RESULTS: In lipopolysaccharide-challenged mice, the level of SP...... injury, with a sustained increment during chronic inflammation compared with acute inflammation. A quick upregulation of SP-D in serum in response to acute airway inflammation supports the notion that SP-D translocates from the airways into the vascular system, in favor of being synthesized systemically....... The study also confirms the concept of using increased SP-D serum levels as a biomarker of especially chronic airway inflammation....

  19. IgG responses to Pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae protein antigens are not impaired in children with a history of recurrent acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiertsema, Selma P; Corscadden, Karli J; Mowe, Eva N; Zhang, Guicheng; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; Coates, Harvey L; Mitchell, Timothy J; Thomas, Wayne R; Richmond, Peter C; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines including conserved antigens from Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) have the potential to reduce the burden of acute otitis media. Little is known about the antibody response to such antigens in young children with recurrent acute otitis media, however, it has been suggested antibody production may be impaired in these children. We measured serum IgG levels against 4 pneumococcal (PspA1, PspA 2, CbpA and Ply) and 3 NTHi (P4, P6 and PD) proteins in a cross-sectional study of 172 children under 3 years of age with a history of recurrent acute otitis media (median 7 episodes, requiring ventilation tube insertion) and 63 healthy age-matched controls, using a newly developed multiplex bead assay. Children with a history of recurrent acute otitis media had significantly higher geometric mean serum IgG levels against NTHi proteins P4, P6 and PD compared with healthy controls, whereas there was no difference in antibody levels against pneumococcal protein antigens. In both children with and without a history of acute otitis media, antibody levels increased with age and were significantly higher in children colonised with S. pneumoniae or NTHi compared with children that were not colonised. Proteins from S. pneumoniae and NTHi induce serum IgG in children with a history of acute otitis media. The mechanisms in which proteins induce immunity and potential protection requires further investigation but the dogma of impaired antibody responses in children with recurrent acute otitis media should be reconsidered.

  20. IgG responses to Pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae protein antigens are not impaired in children with a history of recurrent acute otitis media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma P Wiertsema

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vaccines including conserved antigens from Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi have the potential to reduce the burden of acute otitis media. Little is known about the antibody response to such antigens in young children with recurrent acute otitis media, however, it has been suggested antibody production may be impaired in these children. METHODS: We measured serum IgG levels against 4 pneumococcal (PspA1, PspA 2, CbpA and Ply and 3 NTHi (P4, P6 and PD proteins in a cross-sectional study of 172 children under 3 years of age with a history of recurrent acute otitis media (median 7 episodes, requiring ventilation tube insertion and 63 healthy age-matched controls, using a newly developed multiplex bead assay. RESULTS: Children with a history of recurrent acute otitis media had significantly higher geometric mean serum IgG levels against NTHi proteins P4, P6 and PD compared with healthy controls, whereas there was no difference in antibody levels against pneumococcal protein antigens. In both children with and without a history of acute otitis media, antibody levels increased with age and were significantly higher in children colonised with S. pneumoniae or NTHi compared with children that were not colonised. CONCLUSIONS: Proteins from S. pneumoniae and NTHi induce serum IgG in children with a history of acute otitis media. The mechanisms in which proteins induce immunity and potential protection requires further investigation but the dogma of impaired antibody responses in children with recurrent acute otitis media should be reconsidered.

  1. Serum protein profiling by miniaturized solid-phase extraction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Anne K; Mohammed, Shabaz; Bunkenborg, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    for translation of MALDI-MS based diagnostic methods to clinical applications. We have investigated a number of MALDI matrices and several miniaturized solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods for serum protein concentration and desalting with the aim of generating reproducible, high-quality protein profiles by MALDI...

  2. Dexrazoxane Shows No Protective Effect in the Acute Phase of Reperfusion during Myocardial Infarction in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Pranitha; Vandenberghe, Stijn; Christen, Stephan; Bongoni, Anjan K; Meier, Bernhard; Rieben, Robert; Khattab, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    Calcium and iron overload participate in the mechanisms of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury during myocardial infarction (MI). Calcium overload induces cardiomyocyte death by hypercontraction, while iron catalyses generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We therefore hypothesized that dexrazoxane, an intracellular metal chelator, would attenuate I/R injury. MI was induced in pigs by occlusion of the left anterior descending artery for 1 hour followed by 2 hours reperfusion. Thirty minutes before reperfusion either 5 mg/ml dexrazoxane (n = 5) or saline (n = 5) was infused intravenously. Myocardial necrosis as percentage of the area at ischemic risk was found to be similar in both groups (77.2 ± 18% for dexrazoxane and 76.4 ± 14% for saline group) as determined by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining of the ischemic myocardium. Also, serum levels of troponin-I were similar in both groups. A conductance catheter was used to measure left ventricular pressure and volume at all times. Markers for tissue damage due to ROS (HNE), endothelial cell activation (CD31) and inflammation (IgG, C3b/c, C5b9, MCP-1) were assessed on tissue and/or in serum. No significant differences were observed between the groups for the parameters analyzed. To conclude, in this clinically relevant model of early reperfusion after acute myocardial ischemia, dexrazoxane lacked attenuating effects on I/R injury as shown by the measured parameters.

  3. Dexrazoxane Shows No Protective Effect in the Acute Phase of Reperfusion during Myocardial Infarction in Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranitha Kamat

    Full Text Available Calcium and iron overload participate in the mechanisms of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury during myocardial infarction (MI. Calcium overload induces cardiomyocyte death by hypercontraction, while iron catalyses generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. We therefore hypothesized that dexrazoxane, an intracellular metal chelator, would attenuate I/R injury. MI was induced in pigs by occlusion of the left anterior descending artery for 1 hour followed by 2 hours reperfusion. Thirty minutes before reperfusion either 5 mg/ml dexrazoxane (n = 5 or saline (n = 5 was infused intravenously. Myocardial necrosis as percentage of the area at ischemic risk was found to be similar in both groups (77.2 ± 18% for dexrazoxane and 76.4 ± 14% for saline group as determined by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining of the ischemic myocardium. Also, serum levels of troponin-I were similar in both groups. A conductance catheter was used to measure left ventricular pressure and volume at all times. Markers for tissue damage due to ROS (HNE, endothelial cell activation (CD31 and inflammation (IgG, C3b/c, C5b9, MCP-1 were assessed on tissue and/or in serum. No significant differences were observed between the groups for the parameters analyzed. To conclude, in this clinically relevant model of early reperfusion after acute myocardial ischemia, dexrazoxane lacked attenuating effects on I/R injury as shown by the measured parameters.

  4. Magnetic solid-phase extraction of protein with deep eutectic solvent immobilized magnetic graphene oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kaijia; Wang, Yuzhi; Ding, Xueqin; Huang, Yanhua; Li, Na; Wen, Qian

    2016-01-01

    As a new type of green solvent, four kinds of choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been synthesized, and then a core-shell structure magnetic graphene oxide (Fe3O4-NH2@GO) nanoparticles have been prepared and coated with the ChCl-based DESs. Magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) based Fe3O4-NH2@GO@DES was studied for the first time for the extraction of proteins. The characteristic results of vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) indicated the successful preparation of Fe3O4-NH2@GO@DES. The concentrations of proteins in studies were determined by a UV-vis spectrophotometer. The advantages of Fe3O4-NH2@GO@DES in protein extraction were compared with Fe3O4-NH2@GO and Fe3O4-NH2, and Fe3O4-NH2@GO@ChCl-glycerol was selected as the suitable extraction solvent. The influence factors of the extraction process such as the pH value, the temperature, the extraction time, the concentration of protein and the amount of Fe3O4-NH2@GO@ChCl-glycerol were evaluated. Desorption experimental result showed 98.73% of BSA could be eluted from the solid extractant with 0.1 mol/L Na2HPO4 solution contained 1 mol/L NaCl. Besides, the conformation of BSA was not changed during the elution by the investigation of circular dichromism (CD) spectra. Furthermore, the analysis of real sample demonstrated that the prepared magnetic nanoparticles did have extraction ability on proteins in bovine whole blood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A phase 1 clinical trial of vorinostat in combination with decitabine in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Mark; Gojo, Ivana; Goldberg, Stuart L; Bredeson, Christopher; Kujawski, Lisa A; Yang, Allen; Marks, Peter; Frankel, Paul; Sun, Xing; Tosolini, Alessandra; Eid, Joseph E; Lubiniecki, Gregory M; Issa, Jean-Pierre

    2014-10-01

    Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) may respond to treatment with epigenetic-modifying agents. Histone deacetylase inhibitors may synergize with hypomethylating agents. This phase 1 dose-escalation study was designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose, recommended phase 2 dose, safety and tolerability of vorinostat plus decitabine in patients with relapsed/refractory AML, newly-diagnosed AML, or intermediate- to high-grade MDS. Thirty-four patients received concurrent therapy with decitabine plus vorinostat and 37 received sequential therapy with decitabine followed by vorinostat. Twenty-nine patients had relapsed/refractory AML, 31 had untreated AML and 11 had MDS. The target maximum administered dose (MAD) of decitabine 20 mg/m(2) daily for 5 d plus vorinostat 400 mg/d for 14 d was achieved for concurrent and sequential schedules, with one dose-limiting toxicity (Grade 3 QTc prolongation) reported in the sequential arm. Common toxicities were haematological and gastrointestinal. Responses were observed more frequently at the MAD on the concurrent schedule compared with the sequential schedule in untreated AML (46% vs. 14%), relapsed/refractory AML (15% vs. 0%) and MDS (60% vs. 0%). Decitabine plus vorinostat given concurrently or sequentially appears to be safe and well-tolerated. Concurrent therapy shows promising clinical activity in AML or MDS, warranting further investigation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Routine phasing of coiled-coil protein crystal structures with AMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens M. H. Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coiled-coil protein folds are among the most abundant in nature. These folds consist of long wound α-helices and are architecturally simple, but paradoxically their crystallographic structures are notoriously difficult to solve with molecular-replacement techniques. The program AMPLE can solve crystal structures by molecular replacement using ab initio search models in the absence of an existent homologous protein structure. AMPLE has been benchmarked on a large and diverse test set of coiled-coil crystal structures and has been found to solve 80% of all cases. Successes included structures with chain lengths of up to 253 residues and resolutions down to 2.9 Å, considerably extending the limits on size and resolution that are typically tractable by ab initio methodologies. The structures of two macromolecular complexes, one including DNA, were also successfully solved using their coiled-coil components. It is demonstrated that both the ab initio modelling and the use of ensemble search models contribute to the success of AMPLE by comparison with phasing attempts using single structures or ideal polyalanine helices. These successes suggest that molecular replacement with AMPLE should be the method of choice for the crystallographic elucidation of a coiled-coil structure. Furthermore, AMPLE may be able to exploit the presence of a coiled coil in a complex to provide a convenient route for phasing.

  7. Correlation between protein kinase C alpha activity and membrane phase behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micol, V; Sánchez-Piñera, P; Villalaín, J; de Godos, A; Gómez-Fernández, J C

    1999-02-01

    Lipid activation of protein kinase C alpha (PKC alpha) was studied by using a model mixture containing 1, 2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), 1, 2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine (DMPS), and 1, 2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycerol (1,2-DMG). This lipid mixture was physically characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR). Based on these techniques, a phase diagram was constructed by keeping a constant DMPC/DMPS molar ratio of 4:1 and changing the concentration of 1,2-DMG. This phase diagram displayed three regions and two compounds: compound 1 (C1), with 45 mol% 1,2-DMG, and compound 2 (C2), with 60 mol% 1,2-DMG. When the phase diagram was elaborated in the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+, at concentrations similar to those used in the PKC alpha activity assay, the boundaries between the regions changed slightly and C1 had 35 mol% 1,2-DMG. The activity of PKC alpha was studied at several temperatures and at different concentrations of 1,2-DMG, with a maximum of activity reached at 30 mol% 1,2-DMG and lower values at higher concentrations. In the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+, maximum PKC alpha activity occurred at concentrations of 1,2-DMG that were close to the boundary in the phase diagram between region 1, where compound C1 and the pure phospholipid coexisted in the gel phase, and region 2, where compounds C1 and C2 coexisted. These results suggest that the membrane structure corresponding to a mixture of 1,2-DMG/phospholipid complex and free phospholipid is better able to support the activity of PKC alpha than the 1,2-DMG/phospholipid complex alone.

  8. DNA strand breaks, acute phase response and inflammation following pulmonary exposure by instillation to the diesel exhaust particle NIST1650b in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyjovska, Zdenka O.; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Saber, Anne T.

    2015-01-01

    by the alkaline comet assay as DNA strand breaks in BAL cells, lung and liver tissue. The pulmonary acute phase response was analysed by Saa3 mRNA levels by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Instillation of DEP induced a strong neutrophil influx 1 and 3 days, but not 28 days post-exposure. Saa3 m...

  9. Effect of BSA Antigen Sensitization during the Acute Phase of Influenza A Viral Infection on CD11c+ Pulmonary Antigen Presenting Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitaka Sato

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: BSA antigen sensitization during the acute phase of influenza A viral infection enhanced IL-10 production from naive CD4+ T cell interaction with CD11c+ pulmonary APCs. The IL-10 secretion evoked Th2 responses in the lungs with downregulation of Th1 responses and was important for the eosinophil recruitment into the lungs after BSA antigen challenge.

  10. ROLE OF THE MATERNAL ACUTE PHASE RESPONSE AND TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA IN THE DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE IN THE CD-1 MOUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT The acute phase response (APR) functions to reset metabolic homeostasis following infectious, toxic or traumatic insult. TNF- , a putative mediator of the APR, has been associated with fetal death in rodents and preterm labor and delivery in humans. We hypothesized...

  11. Evidence that estrogen receptors play a limited role in mediating enhanced recovery of bile flow in female rats in the acute phase of liver ischemia reperfusion injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Heleen A. H.; Ponds, Fraukje A. M.; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B.; Morphett, Arthur; Padbury, Robert T. A.; Barritt, Greg J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Female patients exhibit better survival and less hepatic damage from ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury following surgery. However, the effects of sex and estrogens on liver function in the acute phase of IR are not well understood. Objective. The aim was to investigate this question.

  12. Refeeding with a high-protein diet after a 48 h fast causes acute hepatocellular injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oarada, Motoko; Tsuzuki, Tsuyoshi; Nikawa, Takeshi; Kohno, Shohei; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Gonoi, Tohru

    2012-05-01

    Elucidating the effects of refeeding a high-protein diet after fasting on disease development is of interest in relation to excessive protein ingestion and irregular eating habits in developed countries. The objective of the present study was to address the hepatic effects of refeeding a high-protein diet after fasting. Mice were fasted for 48 h and then refed with a test diet containing 3, 15, 35, 40, 45 or 50 % casein. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and liver immediate-early gene expression levels were sequentially measured for the first 24 h after initiation of refeeding. Refeeding with a 50 % casein diet after 48 h of fasting led to a rapid (within 2-3 h) and abnormal elevation in serum ALT (P = 0·006) and AST (P = 0·001) activities and a marked increase in liver Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ) osteosarcoma oncogene (P = 0·007) and nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 1 (P = 0·002) mRNA levels. In contrast, refeeding of the 3, 15 or 35 % casein diets produced no substantial increases in serum ALT and AST activities in mice. Refeeding of 40, 45 or 50 % casein increased serum ALT and AST activities in proportion to this dietary casein content. In mice refed the 3, 15 or 35, but not 50 %, casein diets, liver heat shock protein 72 transcript levels greatly increased. We conclude from these data that the consumption of a high-protein diet after fasting causes acute hepatocellular injury in healthy animals, and propose that careful attention should be paid to the use of such diets.

  13. Quantifying factors determining the rate of CTL escape and reversion during acute and chronic phases of HIV infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganusov, Vitaly V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perelson, Alan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often evades cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses by generating variants that are not recognized by CTLs. However, the importance and quantitative details of CTL escape in humans are poorly understood. In part, this is because most studies looking at escape of HIV from CTL responses are cross-sectional and are limited to early or chronic phases of the infection. We use a novel technique of single genome amplification (SGA) to identify longitudinal changes in the transmitted/founder virus from the establishment of infection to the viral set point at 1 year after the infection. We find that HIV escapes from virus-specific CTL responses as early as 30-50 days since the infection, and the rates of viral escapes during acute phase of the infection are much higher than was estimated in previous studies. However, even though with time virus acquires additional escape mutations, these late mutations accumulate at a slower rate. A poor correlation between the rate of CTL escape in a particular epitope and the magnitude of the epitope-specific CTL response suggests that the lower rate of late escapes is unlikely due to a low efficacy of the HIV-specific CTL responses in the chronic phase of the infection. Instead, our results suggest that late and slow escapes are likely to arise because of high fitness cost to the viral replication associated with such CTL escapes. Targeting epitopes in which virus escapes slowly or does not escape at all by CTL responses may, therefore, be a promising direction for the development of T cell based HIV vaccines.

  14. Schiff Base Metal Derivatives Enhance the Expression of HSP70 and Suppress BAX Proteins in Prevention of Acute Gastric Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Golbabapour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schiff base complexes have appeared to be promising in the treatment of different diseases and disorders and have drawn a lot of attention to their biological activities. This study was conducted to evaluate the regulatory effect of Schiff base metal derivatives on the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP 70 and BAX in protection against acute haemorrhagic gastric ulcer in rats. Rats were assigned to 6 groups of 6 rats: the normal control (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg, the positive control (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg, and four Schiff base derivative groups named Schiff_1, Schiff_2, Schiff_3, and Schiff_4 (25 mg/kg. After 1 h, all of the groups received ethanol 95% (5 mL/kg but the normal control received Tween 20 (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg. The animals were euthanized after 60 min and the stomachs were dissected for histology (H&E, immunohistochemistry, and western blot analysis against HSP70 and BAX proteins. The results showed that the Schiff base metal derivatives enhanced the expression of HSP70 and suppressed the expression of BAX proteins during their gastroprotection against ethanol-induced gastric lesion in rats.

  15. Schiff base metal derivatives enhance the expression of HSP70 and suppress BAX proteins in prevention of acute gastric lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbabapour, Shahram; Gwaram, Nura Suleiman; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M Jamil; Soleimani, A F; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdul Majid, Nazia

    2013-01-01

    Schiff base complexes have appeared to be promising in the treatment of different diseases and disorders and have drawn a lot of attention to their biological activities. This study was conducted to evaluate the regulatory effect of Schiff base metal derivatives on the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) 70 and BAX in protection against acute haemorrhagic gastric ulcer in rats. Rats were assigned to 6 groups of 6 rats: the normal control (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg), the positive control (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg), and four Schiff base derivative groups named Schiff_1, Schiff_2, Schiff_3, and Schiff_4 (25 mg/kg). After 1 h, all of the groups received ethanol 95% (5 mL/kg) but the normal control received Tween 20 (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg). The animals were euthanized after 60 min and the stomachs were dissected for histology (H&E), immunohistochemistry, and western blot analysis against HSP70 and BAX proteins. The results showed that the Schiff base metal derivatives enhanced the expression of HSP70 and suppressed the expression of BAX proteins during their gastroprotection against ethanol-induced gastric lesion in rats.

  16. Solid-phase immunoradiometric assay for C-reactive protein using magnetisable cellulose particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, F.C. de; Pepys, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for C-reactive protein (CRP) was developed using magnetisable cellulose particles as the solid-phase support for anti-CRP antibodies. 125 I-labelled immunopurified anti-CRP antibody was used to quantitate the amount of CRP taken up by the solid phase. Unbound label was easily and rapidly removed by decantation after sedimenting the particles on a magnet. The assay could detect 1 μg CRP/l and had a range of up to 10 mg/l with the portion of the standard curve between 10 μg/l and 2-3 mg/l being linear. Fifty samples per hour could be processed manually from serum to CRP result with an intra-assay CV of 5.2% and an inter-assay CV of 10.0%, based on 5 replicates of 5 samples with CRP levels between 2 mg/l and 180 mg/l run in 5 separate assays. Fifty clinical samples were assayed in parallel with a standard electroimmunoassay and yielded a linear correlation coefficient (r) of 0.975 and a slope of 0.98. With its single, brief incubation step including all reagents and its simple phase separation procedure the present method may be the assay of choice when precise measurement of CRP concentrations is required rapidly. (Auth.)

  17. Fatty Acid binding protein 4 is associated with carotid atherosclerosis and outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverre Holm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4 has been shown to play an important role in macrophage cholesterol trafficking and associated inflammation. To further elucidate the role of FABP4 in atherogenesis in humans, we examined the regulation of FABP4 in carotid atheroscl