WorldWideScience

Sample records for acute pesticide poisoning

  1. Acute pesticide poisoning--a global public health problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning has become a major public health problem worldwide, following the intensification of agriculture and the promotion of agro-chemicals in low and middle income countries, with more than 300,000 deaths each year. The easy availability of highly toxic pesticides in the homes...

  2. Medical treatment of acute poisoning with organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokanović, Milan

    2009-10-28

    Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) are used as pesticides and developed as warfare nerve agents such as tabun, soman, sarin, VX and others. Exposure to even small amounts of an OP can be fatal and death is usually caused by respiratory failure. The mechanism of OP poisoning involves inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) leading to inactivation of the enzyme which has an important role in neurotransmission. AChE inhibition results in the accumulation of acetylcholine at cholinergic receptor sites, producing continuous stimulation of cholinergic fibers throughout the nervous systems. During more than five decades, pyridinium oximes have been developed as therapeutic agents used in the medical treatment of poisoning with OP. They act by reactivation of AChE inhibited by OP. However, they differ in their activity in poisoning with pesticides and warfare nerve agents and there is still no universal broad-spectrum oxime capable of protecting against all known OP. In spite of enormous efforts devoted to development of new pyridinium oximes as potential antidotes against poisoning with OP only four compounds so far have found its application in human medicine. Presently, a combination of an antimuscarinic agent, e.g. atropine, AChE reactivator such as one of the recommended pyridinium oximes (pralidoxime, trimedoxime, obidoxime and HI-6) and diazepam are used for the treatment of OP poisoning in humans. In this article the available data related to medical treatment of poisoning with OP pesticides are reviewed and the current recommendations are presented.

  3. Pesticide use and self-reported symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning among aquatic farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming; Jørs, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers...... in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88%) had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly...... associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02-1.28). The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22-0.91). These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide...

  4. Acute pesticide poisoning among female and male cotton growers in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mancini, F.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Jiggins, J.L.S.; Ambatipudi, A.C.; Murphy, H.

    2005-01-01

    A season-long assessment of acute pesticide poisoning among farmers was conducted in three villages in India. Fifty female cotton growers reported the adverse effects experienced after exposures to pesticides by themselves and by their male relatives (n = 47). The study documented the serious conseq

  5. Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Symptoms of Acute Pesticide Poisoning among Aquatic Farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Klith Jensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88% had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02–1.28. The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22–0.91. These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among the farmers and enforcing the effective banning of the most toxic pesticides will considerably reduce the number of acute pesticide poisoning episodes.

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Acute Poisoning with Organophosphorus Pesticide: Patients Admitted to A Hospital in Bijapur, Karnataka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira A. Hundekari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphorus compounds are the pesticides most often involved in human poisoning. Toxicity of these compounds is due to the inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase at cholinergic junctions of the nervous system. Aims & Objectives: Toxicities of OP pesticidescause adverse effects on many organs and systems hence the present study was planned to study the plasma Cholinesterase, serumcholesterol and thyroid function tests in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Materials and Methods: Plasma ChE, serumcholesterol and serum triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and thyroid stimulating hormone levels were estimated using standard methods.Result: In our study we found the maximum (95% cases were suicidal poisoning. We found that the incidence of poisoning was more common among age group between 15-35 years and males (57% were more likely to attempt suicide as compared to females (38%. Among the organophosphorus compounds the most commonly used were dimethoate,monocrotophos, chlorpyriphos. 79% organophosphorus poisoned patients recovered, while 21% died. Plasma Cholinesterase levels were significantly (p<0.001 decreased in all grades of organophosphate poisoning as compared to controls. Inhibition of Plasma Cholinesterase occurs at the time of admission due to toxic effect of organophosphorus compounds; but the levels significantly (p<0.001 normalized after treatment i.e. on the last day of hospitalization. Serum total cholesterol levels significantly decreased (p<0.001 in all grades of organophosphate poisoning cases as compared to controls without any change after treatment as compared with the patients before treatment. There was a slight and nonsignificant decrease in serum triiodothyronine and serum thyroxine levels in organophosphorus poisoning cases without anysignificant change in serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels as compared to control. The organophosphorus poisoned patients after treatment do not show more changes in their

  7. Risk factors for acute pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    -poisoning. Case fatality was 18% with extremely high case fatality for poisoning with the insecticide endosulfan and the herbicide paraquat. Cases were generally younger than controls, of lower educational status and were more often unemployed. No agricultural risk factors were found but a family history...

  8. Management of Treatment and Prevention of Acute OP Pesticide Poisoning by Medical Informatics, Telemedicine and Nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Chandra Sahoo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute organophosphorous pesticide (OP poisoning kills a lot of people each year. Treatment of acute OP poisoning is of very difficult task and is a time taking event. Present day informatics methods (telemedicine, bioinformatics methods (data mining, molecular modeling, docking, cheminformatics, and nanotechnology (nanomedicine should be applied in combination or separately to combat the rise of death rate due to OP poisoning. Use of informatics method such as Java enabled camera mobiles will enable us early detection of insecticidal poisoning. Even the patients who are severely intoxicated (suicidal attempts can be diagnosed early. Telemedicine can take care for early diagnosis and early treatment. Simultaneously efforts must be taken with regard to nanotechnology to find lesser toxic compounds (use less dose of nanoparticle mediated compounds: nano-malathion as insecticides and find better efficacy of lesser dose of compounds for treatment (nano-atropine of OP poisoning. Nano-apitropine (atropine oxide may be a better choice for OP poisoning treatment as the anticholinergic agent; apitropine and hyoscyamine have exhibited higher binding affinity than atropine sulfate. Synthesis of insecticides (malathion with an antidote (atropine, apitropine in nanoscale range will prevent the lethal effect of insecticides.

  9. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and dela

  10. Reducing the Incidence of Acute Pesticide Poisoning by Educating Farmers on Integrated Pest Management in South India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mancini, F.; Jiggins, J.L.S.; O'Malley, M.

    2009-01-01

    Sixty-five farmers reported on pesticide use and the signs and symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning when using two different plant protection strategies: in 2003 using chemical controls and in 2004 using an approach to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) based on an ecological analysis of the field co

  11. A phase II clinical trial to assess the safety of clonidine in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

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    Karunatilake Harindra

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 2–3 million people are acutely poisoned by organophosphorus pesticides each year, mostly in the developing world. There is a pressing need for new affordable antidotes and clonidine has been shown to be effective in animal studies. Our aim was to determine the safety of clonidine given as an antidote in adult patients presenting with signs or symptoms of acute organophosphate ingestion. Methods This study was a dose finding, open-label, multicentre, phase II trial. Forty eight patients with acute organophosphate poisoning were randomized to receive either clonidine or placebo: Four to receive placebo and twelve to receive clonidine at each dose level. The first dose level was an initial loading dose of 0.15 mg followed by an infusion of 0.5 mg of clonidine over 24 hours. The initial loading dose was increased to 0.3 mg, 0.45 and 0.6 mg. at all dosing levels however the subsequent infusion remained at 0.5 mg of clonidine over 24 hours. Results The baseline characteristics of both groups were similar. The trial was stopped after completion of the 3rd dosing level. At the 1st and 2nd dosing level there were no reported adverse drug reactions. At the 3rd dosing level 5 patients (42% developed significant hypotension during clonidine treatment that responded to intravenous fluids. There were no statistical differences in ventilation rate, pre and post GCS, and mortality rates over all levels. Conclusion Our findings suggest use of moderate doses of clonidine in acute organophosphate poisoning can be used without causing frequent clinical problems but that higher doses are associated with a high incidence of hypotension requiring intervention. Further studies are needed to study the efficacy of clonidine as an antidote in organophosphate poisoning. Trial registration Current Controlled Trial ISRCTN89917816.

  12. Intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas Acute poisoning from pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Jesús Durán-Nah

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la epidemiología de la intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas (IAP en el Hospital General O'Horán de Mérida, Yucatán, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se revisaron los expedientes de 33 pacientes ³ 13 años, tratados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI, entre 1994 y 1998. Se recopilaron variables demográficas y clínicas relevantes, y se aplicó estadística descriptiva. RESULTADOS: En la población estudiada predominó el sexo masculino (82% del medio rural (70%, y la edad media fue de 34 ± 15.8 años. El intento de suicidio fue causa frecuente de IAP (79%, y en 33% de los casos la intoxicación se produjo por la utilización de organofosforados. La mortalidad fue de 12%. CONCLUSIONES: La IAP fue baja entre los sujetos del medio rural, por lo que los resultados de este estudio parecen no reflejar la realidad del problema. Es importante añadir que los plaguicidas son utilizados con relativa frecuencia para el intento de suicidio.OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiologic pattern of acute pesticide poisoning (APP in a general hospital in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 1994 to 1998, 33 patients 13 years of age or older with diagnosis of APP were studied. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze information. RESULTS: Males were frequently affected (82%, specially those coming from rural areas (60%. The mean age of the group was 34 ± 15.8 years. In 79% of the cases, pesticides were used to commit suicide and 33% of poisoning cases were due to organophospate pesticides. The mortality rate was 12%. CONCLUSIONS: In this small sample, acute poisoning from pesticides in the agricultural setting may be underestimated, since it was less frequent than in the general population. APP was more commonly used by indigent people to commit suicide.

  13. Gastric Lavage in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide poisoning (GLAOP – a randomised controlled trial of multiple vs. single gastric lavage in unselected acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

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    Cao YuPing

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organophosphorus (OP pesticide poisoning is the most common form of pesticide poisoning in many Asian countries. Guidelines in western countries for management of poisoning indicate that gastric lavage should be performed only if two criteria are met: within one hour of poison ingestion and substantial ingested amount. But the evidence on which these guidelines are based is from medicine overdoses in developed countries and may be irrelevant to OP poisoning in Asia. Chinese clinical experience suggests that OP remains in the stomach for several hours or even days after ingestion. Thus, there may be reasons for doing single or multiple gastric lavages for OP poisoning. There have been no randomised controlled trials (RCTs to assess this practice of multiple lavages. Since it is currently standard therapy in China, we cannot perform a RCT of no lavage vs. a single lavage vs. multiple lavages. We will compare a single gastric lavage with three gastric lavages as the first stage to assess the role of gastric lavage in OP poisoning. Methods/Design We have designed an RCT assessing the effectiveness of multiple gastric lavages in adult OP self-poisoning patients admitted to three Chinese hospitals within 12 hrs of ingestion. Patients will be randomised to standard treatment plus either a single gastric lavage on admission or three gastric lavages at four hour intervals. The primary outcome is in-hospital mortality. Analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis. On the basis of the historical incidence of OP at the study sites, we expect to enroll 908 patients over three years. This projected sample size provides sufficient power to evaluate the death rate; and a variety of other exposure and outcome variables, including particular OPs and ingestion time. Changes of OP level will be analyzed in order to provide some toxic kinetic data. Discussion the GLAOP study is a novel, prospective cohort study that will explore to the toxic

  14. Is prevention of acute pesticide poisoning effective and efficient, with Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varma, Anshu; Neupane, Dinesh; Ellekilde Bonde, Jens Peter;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Farmers' risk of pesticide poisoning can be reduced with personal protective equipment but in low-income countries farmers' use of such equipment is limited. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness and efficiency of Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment to reduce organophospha...

  15. Relationship between Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning and Damages Induced by Free Radicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between abnormal reactions of free radicals in bodies of patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP) and damages induced by free radicals. Methods 58 AOPP patients and 58 healthy adult volunteers (HAV) were enrolled in an independent samples control design, in which spectrophotometric methods were used to determine the concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and lipoperoxides (LPO) in plasma, and LPO in erythrocytes, vitamin C (VC), vitamin E (VE) and b-carotene (b-CAR) in plasma as well as activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in erythrocytes. Results Compared with the average values of every biochemical parameter in the HAV group, the average values of LPO in plasma and in erythrocytes, and NO in plasma in the AOPP group were significantly increased (P=0.000001), while the average values of VC, VE, a-CAR in plasma as well as SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and AChE in erythrocytes in the AOPP group were significantly decreased (P=0.000001). The findings of Pearson product-moment correlation analysis between the value of AChE in erythrocytes and the values of above biochemical parameters for 58 AOPP patients showed that there was a significant linear negative correlation between AChE in erythrocytes and LPO, NO in plasma, and LPO in erythrocytes (P=0.000001~0.001319), while there was a significant linear positive correlation between AChE in erythrocytes and VC, VE, a-CAR in plasma as well as SOD, CAT, GSH-Px in erythrocytes (P=0.000013~0.000824). The results of discriminant analysis of above chemical parameters for 58 AOPP patients and 58 HAV suggested that the correct rates of discriminant analysis were increased to 100 % when the values of AChE and LPO in plasma and in erythrocytes, or AChE and others, were jointly used for the discriminant analysis. Conclusion The findings of the present study suggest that a series of free radical

  16. Pesticide Poisoning of Honeybees: A Review of Symptoms, Incident Classification, and Causes of Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiljanek Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2000s, the problem of pesticide poisoning of honeybees seemed to be almost solved. The number of cases has decreased in comparison to the 1970s. The problem of acute honeybee poisoning, however, has not disappeared, but instead has transformed into a problem of poisoning from ‘traditional’ pesticides like organophosphorus pesticides or pyrethroids, to poisoning from additional sources of ‘modern’ systemic neonicotinoids and fipronil. In this article, the biological activity of pesticides was reviewed. The poisoning symptoms, incident definitions, and monitoring systems, as well as the interpretation of the analytical results, were also reviewed. The range of pesticides, and the detected concentrations of pesticides in poisoned honeybee samples, were reviewed. And, for the first time, cases of poisoning related to neonicotinoids were reviewed. The latter especially is of practical importance and could be helpful to analysts and investigators of honeybee poisoning incidents. It is assumed that secondary poisoning induced by plant collected materials contaminated with systemic pesticides occurs. Food stored in a hive and contaminated with systemic pesticides consumed continuously by the same generation of winter bees, may result in sub-lethal intoxication. This leads to abnormal behaviour identified during acute intoxication. The final result is that the bees discontinue their social role in the honeybee colony super organism, and colony collapse disorder (CCD takes place. The process described above refers primarily to robust and strong colonies that were able to collect plenty of food due to effective plant protection.

  17. Pesticide poisoning: a major health problem in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoek, Wim van der; Konradsen, F; Athukorala, K;

    1998-01-01

    pesticides is the most important reason for this high number of poisoning cases. The frequent application of highly hazardous pesticides in high concentrations was often irrational and posed serious health and financial risks to the farmers. Sales promotion activities and credit facilities promoted...... in an immediate health benefit. Improved agricultural extension services to promote alternative non-chemical methods of pest control is the most important strategy, in the long term, to prevent acute pesticide poisoning....

  18. 控制高毒农药在预防农村急性农药中毒中的意义%Effects of controlling specific dangerous pesticides on prevention of acute pesticide poisoning in rural area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张平; 赵江霞; 常秀丽; 周志俊

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of controlling the specific dangerous pesticides on prevention of acute pesticide poisoning in rural area. Methods The data of reported cases of pesticide poisoning were analyzed to find out the specific dangerous pesticide in acute pesticide poisoning. Then the occurrence of occupational pesticide poisoning and fatality of non-occupational pesticide poisoning were estimated under the hypothesis of removing the specific dangerous pesticides. Results The data indicated that parathion (including methyl parathion) was the specific dangerous pesticide inducing occupational pesticide poisoning.After removing the use of parathion, the hazard of pesticides which caused occupational pesticide poisoning would be significantly decreased(P<0.01 ). Parathion was also the most dangerous pesticide which caused nonoccupational pesticide poisoning, with its fatality up to 15.8%. If parathion was well controlled, the fatality of non-occupational pesticide poisoning would be declined from 9.4% to 7.4%. The analyses of related literatures also revealed the similar results. Conclusion The occurrence of occupational pesticide poisoning and fatality of non-occupational pesticide poisoning may decrease if the most dangerous pesticides are well supervised.%目的 探讨控制危害最大的农药在预防农村急性农药中毒中所起的作用.方法 通过对某省某县医院既往中毒病例的分析,发现在农村中最易发生中毒的特危农药,假设在控制这些农药后,估测生产性农药中毒的发生和非生产性农药中毒病死率的变化趋势.结果 对硫磷(含甲基对硫磷)是某省某县引起生产性农药中毒危害最大的农药,在控制了对硫磷农药的使用之后,生产性农药中毒危害的大小[生产性农药中毒的例数(A)与非生产性农药中毒的例数(B)的比值]由控制前的0.63下降为0.32,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).对硫磷同样是引起非生产性农药中毒危害

  19. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers.

  20. Reducing acute poisoning in developing countries--options for restricting the availability of pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Flemming; van der Hoek, Wim; Cole, Donald C

    2003-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of people are dying around the world each year from the effects of the use, or misuse, of pesticides. This paper reviews the different options to reduce availability of the most hazardous chemicals, focusing on issues in developing countries. Emphasis is placed on the fatal ......, alcohol or drug addiction, emotional distress, depression, physical illness, social isolation or financial hardship. These should be addressed through preventive health programmes and community development efforts.......Hundreds of thousands of people are dying around the world each year from the effects of the use, or misuse, of pesticides. This paper reviews the different options to reduce availability of the most hazardous chemicals, focusing on issues in developing countries. Emphasis is placed on the fatal...... with safe and cost-effective alternatives, possibly guided by the establishment of a Minimum Pesticide List, and the development of future agricultural practices where pesticide usage is reduced to an absolute minimum. Underlying factors that make individuals at risk for self-harm include domestic problems...

  1. Arrhythmia induced by acute organophosphorous pesticide poisoning: a literature review%有机磷农药中毒心律失常国内文献回顾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣丹旦; 郑舒聪; 万伟国; 裘昊旻; 邹和建

    2011-01-01

    对1979至2010年国内学术期刊上发表的有机磷农药中毒心律失常文献进行统计和分析.共收集到有机磷农药中毒3468例,心电图异常率35.4%~68.4%,平均(53±15)%.最常见心电图表现为ST-T段改变(26.5%)和窦性心动过速(16.6%).有机磷农药中毒程度越重,心电图异常例次与患者人数的比值越高,且越容易发生严重心律失常(x2=33.253,P<0.01),最常见死亡原因是室性心动过速和心室颤动(26.2%).%Literatures on arrhythmia induced by acute organophosphorous pesticide poisoning published in domestic journals from 1979 to 2010 were searched. Total 3468 cases of acute organophosphorous poisoning were collected and analyzed. The average abnormal ECC rate was (53 ±15)%(35. 4% -68. 4% ) in acute organophosphorous poisoning, the most common ECG abnormalities were ST-T segment changes (26. 5% ) and sinus tachycardia (16. 6% ). The rate and severity of ECG abnormalities were increased with the severity of organophosphorous poisoning(x2 = 33. 253,P < 0. 01). The most common causes of death in acute organophosphorous poisoning were ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation (26.2%).

  2. 17 cases of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning combined with acute pancreatitis%有机磷农药中毒并发急性胰腺炎17例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡海英; 张茂

    2010-01-01

    @@ 急性有机磷农药中毒(acute organophosphorous pesticides poisoning,AOPP)是急诊科较为常见的急症之一,尤其在基层医院更为多见.中、重度AOPP病情变化较多,并发神经、心脏及呼吸系统损害较为常见且报道较多,但对并发胰腺炎往往不被认识,容易导致误诊和漏诊,从而延误治疗甚至危及生命.

  3. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment.

  4. Study of Effect of Magnesium Sulphate in Management of Acute Organophosphorous Pesticide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, H. N.; Kannan, Sudheesh; Tejasvi, C.; Duggappa, Devika Rani; Veeranna Gowda, K. M.; Nethra, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Organophosphorus compound poisoning (OPCP) is a major public health problem in developing countries like India. Atropine and oximes remain the main-stay of management. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) has shown benefit in the management of OPCP. Aims: This study was designed to assess the effect of MgSO4 on outcome in OPCP patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Settings and Design: Double-blind prospective randomized clinical trial in an ICU of tertiary care institution. Methods: One hundred patients (50 in each group) of OPCP, confirmed by history and syndrome of OPCP with low plasma pseudocholinesterase, aged between 18 and 60 years were studied. Magnesium group (Group M) received 4 g of 20% MgSO4 infusion over 30 min at admission to ICU, control group (Group C) received normal saline placebo in the same manner. Patients were assessed for the need for intubation, requirement of atropine, duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of ICU stay, and its effect on mortality. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test for categorical data, independent sample t-test, and paired t-test for nominal data. Results: Demographics and basal serum magnesium levels were comparable. Atropine requirement was higher in Group C (74.82 ± 22.39 mg) compared to Group M (53.11 ± 45.83 mg) (P < 0.001). A total of 33 patients in Group C and 23 patients in Group M required intubation, respectively (P = 0.043). The mean duration of mechanical ventilation was 4.51 ± 2 days in Group C compared to 4.13 ± 1.6 days in Group M (P = 0.45). ICU stay was 5.36 ± 2.018 days in Group C compared to 4.54 ± 1.581 days in Group M (P = 0.026). There was no significant difference in mortality between the groups. Conclusion: Four grams of MgSO4 given to OPCP patients within 24 h of admission to ICU, decreases atropine requirement, need for intubation, and ICU stay.

  5. Diagnosis & Treatment of Poisoning by Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This report succinctly discusses the steps necessary to diagnose and treat poisoning from pesticides, especially organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Immediate and continuing steps in the care of poisoning victims are outlined with supportive information on where to locate emergency assistance. (CS)

  6. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  7. CLINICAL STUDY OF ACUTE POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panduranga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acute poisoning is an important medical emergency. Studies of this nature will be useful tool in planning, early diagnosis and management of acute poisoning cases. The objective of the study are to study the clinical features, diagnosis and management, morbidity and mortality of various acute poisoning. METHODOLOGY: This study comprises of 350 patients of acute poisoning admitted to Chigateri General Hospital and Bapuji Hospital attached to J. J. M. Medical College, Davangere, between 1st March 2011 to 31st October 2011. REUSLTS: Out of 350 cases of acute poisoning studied, there were 268 males and 82 females. Males comprised 76.57%and females 23.42% of the total, in this series, Organophosphorous compounds were the commonest (30%, majority of the patients hailed from rural area 70%. Mortality is 10.57%.

  8. Causes of rhabdomyolysis in acute poisonings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Snežana R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Rhabdomyolysis (RM is potentially lethal syndrome, but there are no enough published data on its frequency and characteristics in acute poisonings. The aim of this study was to determine the causes and severity of RM in acute poisonings. Methods. Patients hospital charts were retrospectively screened during a one-year period in order to identify patients with RM among 656 patients treated due to acute poisonings with different agents. All the patients with RM were selected. Entrance criterion was the value of creatine kinase (CK over 250 U/L. The severity of RM was assessed according to the Poison Severity Score. The patients were divided into three groups: the first one with mild RM (CK from 250 to 1,500 U/L, the second with moderate RM (CK from 1,500 to 10,000 U/L and the third with severe RM (CK greater than 10,000 U/L. Results. RM occurred in 125 (19% of the patients with acute poisonings. It was mainly mild (61%, or moderate (36%, and only in 3% of the patients was severe RM. The incidence of RM was the highest in poisonings with opiates (41%, pesticides (38%, neuroleptics (26%, anticonvulsants (26%, ethyl alcohol (20%, and gases (19%. Psychotropic agents were the most common causes of poisoning, and consequently of RM. Fatal outcomes were registered in 32 (25.60% of all RM patients. The incidence of fatal outcomes in poisonings with mild, moderate and severe RM was 19.73%, 31.11% and 75%, respectively. Conclusion. RM syndrome occurs at a relatively high rate in acute poisonings. Although agent’s toxicity is crucial for the outcome, severe RM and its complications may significantly influence the clinical course and prognosis of poisoning. Routine analysis of CK, as a relevant marker for RM may indicate the development of RM in acute poisoning and initiate prompt therapeutic measures in preventing acute renal failure as the most frequent consequence of extensive rhabdomyolysis.

  9. 急性有机磷中毒临床综合治疗分析%The combined therapy of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning clinical observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁宗发; 伍松涛

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study on acute organophosphate poisoning of clinical characteristic and clinical treatment Methods; A retrospective analysis of 55 cases in our hospital with acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning patients with clinical data from JAN 20005 to JAN 2010. Observe the clinical characteristics. Results: 55 cases with acute organophosphate poisoning pass a system comprehensive treatment of the cure rate reaches a percentage of 94. 55. Extensive skin contact and respiratory suction poisoning patients cure rate was a percentage of 100%, two cases death. Conclusion: Clinicians should be timely, accurate, rapid and complete gastric lavage as soon as possible, in sufficient quantities, repeated, sustained the right of use of atropine and atropine rapidly as soon as possible for the first time in sufficient quantities to use PAM, it is key to prevent complications place.%目的:探讨急性有机磷中毒的临床特点和临床诊治方法.方法:回顾性分析我院2005年1月-2010年1月救治的55例急性有机磷农药中毒患者的临床资料,观察其临床特点.结果:55例急性有机磷中毒的患者,经过系统的综合治疗治愈率达94.55%.广泛皮肤接触和呼吸道吸中毒的患者治愈率为100%,死亡2例.结论:及早、正确、快速、彻底洗胃,及早、足量、反复、特续,正确使用阿托品及快速阿托品化,及早,首次足量使用解磷,并注意患者饮食以及积极防治相关并发症等都是保障患者康复的关键.

  10. 江苏南部农民急性生产性农药中毒现况调查%Work-related acute pesticide poisoning among farmers in southern Jiangsu province: a cross-sectional study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁道正; 涂志斌; 钱娟; 张徐军; 王峻涛; 朱骏; 杨亚明

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解江苏南部农民急性生产性农药中毒情况和影响因素.方法 采用分层整群随机抽样方法,在江苏南部抽取3个村庄共1 380名农民进行现场问卷调查,采用SPSS 16.0软件进行多因素非条件logistic回归分析.结果 3个村庄农民的急性生产性农药中毒率为8.6%;性别、年龄、喷洒农药前不阅读标签、药械滴漏、用手擦汗、打药时身体受污染以及身体感到不适仍继续打药是急性生产性农药中毒的影响因素(P<0.05);使用农药中的危险行为得分与急性生产性农药中毒之间存在剂量-反应关系(R2=0.9840).结论 江苏南部农民急性生产性农药中毒发生率较高,使用农药中危险行为较多.%Objective To explore characteristics and the risk factors of work-related acute pesticide poisoning among farmers in southern part of Jiangsu province.Methods Stratified cluster sampling was used to investigate 1 380 famers from three rural areas in southern Jiangsu province with a questionnaire survey.The database was set up with Epi Data,and SPSS 16.0 software was used for multivariate unconditional logistic regression analyses.Results The rate of workrelated acute pesticide poisoning among the farmers was 8.6%.The factors of work-related acute pesticide poisoning included gender,age,without reading labels before pesticide use,using leaking knapsack during application,wiping the sweat by hand during application,body contact with the pesticide during application,and continuing pesticide application while in ill health stares (P < 0.05 for all).A dose-response relationship between the score of risk behaviors and workrelated acute pesticide poisoning was observed.Conclusion The rate of work-related acute pesticide poisoning is high and relates to risk behaviors among farmers in southern Jiangsu province.

  11. Study on the best marker for myocardial damage of acute organophos-phorus pesticide poisoning%急性有机磷农药中毒心肌损伤最佳标志物的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈士轩; 滕哈乐; 牛红霞; 褚晓雯; 黄金洪; 肖青; 夏于新; 韩颖

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the best marker for myocardial injury after 6 hours of acute organophosphorus pesti-cide poisoning (AOPP). Methods 86 cases of AOPP patients in Department of Emergency, Electric Power Teaching Hospital of Capital Medical University ("our hospital"for short) from May 2006 to November 2014 were selected as ob-servation group. They were divided into mild poisoning group, moderate poisoning group and severe poisoning group ac-cording to the Occupational Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning (GBZ8-2002). All patients were routinely done for 12 lead ECG examination and examined for CK, CK-MB, cTnI in 6 hours after taking poison. Control group was from our hospital outpatient health examination, and CK, CK-MB, cTnI levels were examined the same day. The above three indicators of each group were observed. Results There were statistical differences in CK, CK-MB, cTnI levels between observation group and control group (P 0.05), and there was statistical difference in cTnI level be-tween mild poisoning group and control group (P 0.05). There was statistical difference in CK-MB level between severe poisoning group and moderate poisoning group (P0.05),cTnI水平差异有统计学意义(P0.05),CK-MB水平差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),cTnI水平差异有高度统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论cTnI是判断AOPP心肌损伤的最敏感指标,是AOPP心肌损伤的最佳标志物,CK-MB次之。 CK和心电图对判断AOPP心肌损伤及损伤程度价值不大。

  12. Is prevention of acute pesticide poisoning effective and efficient, with Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment? A randomized crossover study among farmers in Chitwan, Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varma, Anshu; Neupane, Dinesh; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2016-01-01

    Background: Farmers' risk of pesticide poisoning can be reduced with personal protective equipment but in low-income countries farmers' use of such equipment is limited. Objective: To examine the effectiveness and efficiency of Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment to reduce organophospha...

  13. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Donald P.

    This manual aids health professionals in recognizing and treating pesticide poisonings. Suggested treatments are appropriate for implementation in the small hospitals and clinics which usually receive the victims of pesticide poisoning. Classes of compounds covered include: (1) organophosphate cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides; (2) carbamate…

  14. Correlation between Cholinesterase and Paraoxonase 1 Activities: Case Series of Pesticide Poisoning Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Austin Richard

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute exposure to pesticide due to suicidal poisoning is the most extensive cause of pesticide exposure, compared with all other causes including agricultural or industrial exposure. Organophosphate (OP and carbamate group of pesticides can inhibit acetylcholinesterase; on the other hand, paraoxonase1 can detoxify organophosphate poisoning by hydrolyzing organophosphate metabolites. Methods: We have compared the serum paraoxonase1 status and cholinesterase activity of subjects who attempted to commit suicide by consuming OP pesticide. Cholinesterase and paraoxonase1 activity were measured spectrophotometrically using butyrylthiocholine and phenyl acetate as substrates, respectively. Results: A positive correlation was found between serum paraoxonase1 activity and cholinesterase activity among pesticide consumed subjects. Conclusion: Our results suggest that subjects with higher paraoxonase1 activity may have a better chance of detoxifying the lethal effect of acute organophosphate poisoning.

  15. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months.

  16. 绍兴市2006至2011年急性农药中毒分析%The characteristics and trends of acute pesticide poisoning of Shaoxing in 2006 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋国钦; 连灵君; 王春辉; 李明; 王纪刚; 潘南燕; 王莎莎

    2013-01-01

    目的 描述绍兴市2006至2011年急性农药中毒特征,为预防和控制农药中毒提供参考.方法 利用中国疾病预防控制信息系统中绍兴市2006至2011年农药中毒报告的数据并进行整理分析.结果 2006至2011年绍兴市共报告急性农药中毒2024例,漏报44例,漏报率为2.1%(44/2086).死亡119例,病死率5.9%(119/2024),其中生产性中毒病死率为1.0%(3/289),非生产性中毒病死率为6.7%(116/1735).女性急性农药中毒1038例(51.3%),男性986例(48.7%),各年度不同性别急性农药中毒构成比的差异无统计学意义(x2=9.16,P=0.10).2024例急性农药中毒病例平均年龄为(47.0±18.7)岁,其中男性(50.7±19.0)岁,女性(43.4±17.8)岁,男性急性农药中毒病例的平均年龄高于女性,差异有统计学意义(t=9.01,P<0.001).生产性中毒289例,占全部病例的14.3%,其中男性生产性中毒22.2%(219/986);非生产性中毒1735例,占全部病例的85.7%.其中女性非生产性中毒93.3%(968/1038).2024例中毒病例的中毒农药为杀虫剂中毒86.7%(1754/2024),除草剂5.1% (104/2024),杀鼠剂3.6%(72/2024),杀菌剂、混合制剂、生物化学农药以及其他4类共占4.6%(94/2024).杀虫剂中有机磷中毒占83.0%(1455/1754).结论 绍兴市非生产性急性农药中毒发生率较高,且以女性为主,30~ 60岁组人群中毒的构成比较高;中毒农药主要为杀虫剂.应进一步加强健康知识宣传教育和农药的安全管理.%Objective To describe the epidemiological characteristics of acute pesticide poisoning in Shaoxing,China during 2006-2011 and to provide a reference for the prevention and control of pesticide poisoning.Methods The data on pesticide poisoning in Shaoxing during 2006-2011 were obtained from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention and were then analyzed.Results A total of 2024 cases of acute pesticide poisoning were reported in Shaoxing during 2006-2011,and 44

  17. Neurology of acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gagandeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organophosphate (OP poisoning is one of the most common poisonings in emergency medicine and toxicological practice in some of the less-developed nations in South Asia. Traditionally, OP poisoning comes under the domain of emergency physicians, internists, intensivists, and toxicologists. However, some of the complications following OP poisoning are neurological and involve neurologists. The pathophysiological basis for the clinical manifestations of OP poisoning is inactivation of the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase at the peripheral nicotinic and muscarinic and central nervous system (CNS nerve terminals and junctions. Nicotinic manifestations occur in severe cases and late in the course; these comprise of fasciculations and neuromuscular paralysis. There is a good correlation between the electrophysiological abnormalities and the severity of the clinical manifestations. Neurophysiological abnormalities characteristic of nicotinic junctions (mainly neuromuscular junction dysfunction include: (1 single, supramaximal electrical-stimulus-induced repetitive response/s, (2 decrement-increment response to high frequency (30 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS, and (3 decremental response to high frequency (30 Hz RNS. Atropine ameliorates muscarinic manifestations. Therapeutic agents that can ameliorate nicotinic manifestations, mainly neuromuscular, are oximes. However, the evidence for this effect is inconclusive. This may be due to the fact that there are several factors that determine the therapeutic effect of oximes. These factors include: The OP compound responsible for poisoning, duration of poisoning, severity of poisoning, and route of exposure. There is also a need to study the effect of oximes on the neurophysiological abnormalities.

  18. Clinical analysis of 85 cases with acute treatment of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%85例急性有机磷农药中毒救治的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱华; 赵春秋; 钟伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the treatment experience of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Methods:We record the treatment process and analyze the treatment effect of the 85 patients with organophosphate poisoning who were admitted by hospital.Results:In 85 cases of patients with acute pesticide poisoning of organic phosphorus,80 cases were cured,5 deaths,the success rate was 94%.Conclusion:Thorough effective repeated gastric lavage, rapid application of anticholinergics penehyclidine hydrochloride (Changtuoning) and cholinesterase agents (pralidoxime chloride) was the key to rescue the patients who with critical acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning and we found that active prevention of complications occurrence can improve the success rate.%目的:探讨急性有机磷农药中毒的救治经验与体会。方法:对85例有机磷农药中毒患者的治疗过程进行记录,分析治疗效果。结果:85例急性有机磷农药中毒患者,救治成功80例,死亡5例,成功率94%。结论:急性有机磷农药中毒的抢救关键是尽快、彻底、有效反复地洗胃,快速应用抗胆碱药盐酸戊乙奎醚(长托宁)及胆碱酯酶复能剂(氯磷定),积极预防并发症的发生,可提高抢救成功率。

  19. Clinical Observation Hemoperfusion Treatment of Acute Severe Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning%血液灌流治疗急性重度有机磷农药中毒的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭亮

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the hemoperfusion treatment of acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (acute severe organophosphorous pesticide poisoning). Methods from August 2009 to December 2012, our department treated 40 cases of acute severe organophosphorus pesticide, in conventional medical treatment with hemoperfusion treatment of 21 cases as treatment group,for only given conventional medical treatment 19 cases as control group. Results In comparison with control group, patients in treatment group needed shorter time for waking from coma, shorter recovery time of cholinesterase activity and shorter time for hospitalization, and intermediate syndrome incidence decline in this group were reduced (P<0.01). Moreover ,total dose of atropine applied in treatment group were lower (P<0.01), and fatality rate were lower in this group (P<0.05). Conclusion the hemoperfusion can quickly remove toxins in the body and can improve the rescue success rate in patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.%目的探讨血液灌流治疗急性重度有机磷农药中毒(acute severe organophosphorous pesticide poisoning)的效果。方法2009年08月~2012年12月我科收治急性重度有机磷农药40例,对在常规内科治疗上加用血液灌流治疗的21例作为治疗组,对仅给予常规内科治疗的19例作为对照组。结果治疗组和对照组比较,患者昏迷至清醒时间、胆碱酯酶活力恢复时间、住院时间明显缩短,中间综合征发生率下降,应用阿托品总量减少(P均<0.01),病死率降低(P<0.05)。结论血液灌流能迅速清除体内毒物,可提高急性重度有机磷农药中毒患者抢救成功率。

  20. Health information systems and pesticide poisoning at Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Costa Cavalcanti de Albuquerque

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Understanding the epidemiologic profile of a particular disease is key to undertake health actions. To that end, information systems that present quality data help in the decision-making process and demonstrate the impact of the problems.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the contribution of health information systems for the characterization of pesticide poisoning through SINAN, CEATOX and SIM in the State of Pernambuco.METHOD: In this study, the completeness and consistency of the data were assessed, as well as the epidemiological profile of pesticide poisoning in Pernambuco in the period from 2008 to 2012, based on the following Health Information Systems: Center for Toxicological Assistance of Pernambuco (CEATOX, Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN and Mortality Information System (SIM.RESULTS: The data revealed incompleteness and inconsistencies in information. Regarding the profile, females are more affected in the morbidity profile, and men have a higher mortality rate. Poisoning was more frequent in young adults with low educational level. With regard to the circumstances, most of the cases were suicide attempts, unique acute cases and not related to work. Despite suggesting underreporting, the data showed that persons engaged in agriculture are most commonly affected.CONCLUSION: The strengthening of these systems is necessary for the generation of consistent information that support health policies for the population groups involved.

  1. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis.

  2. Successful Treatment of Acute Boron Poisoning Induced Neurotoxicity by Haemodialysis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Hosagoudar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Boric acid is commonly used as pesticide, disinfectant and wood preservative. Acute boron poisoning may manifest with vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, altered sensorium, seizure etc. Treatment of acute boron poisoning is conservative, no specific antidote is available.

  3. Central respiratory failure during acute organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Jennifer L; Dunn, Courtney; Gaspari, Romolo J

    2013-11-01

    Organophosphate (OP) pesticide poisoning is a global health problem with over 250,000 deaths per year. OPs affect neuronal signaling through acetylcholine (Ach) neurotransmission via inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), leading to accumulation of Ach at the synaptic cleft and excessive stimulation at post-synaptic receptors. Mortality due to OP agents is attributed to respiratory dysfunction, including central apnea. Cholinergic circuits are integral to many aspects of the central control of respiration, however it is unclear which mechanisms predominate during acute OP intoxication. A more complete understanding of the cholinergic aspects of both respiratory control as well as neural modification of pulmonary function is needed to better understand OP-induced respiratory dysfunction. In this article, we review the physiologic mechanisms of acute OP exposure in the context of the known cholinergic contributions to the central control of respiration. We also discuss the potential central cholinergic contributions to the known peripheral physiologic effects of OP intoxication.

  4. 21例急性有机磷农药中毒患者皮肤灼伤处理%21 cases of acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning patients with skin burns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁娴; 张文军; 周彬

    2011-01-01

    目的探讨急性有机磷农药中毒患者皮肤灼伤处理.方法回顾性分析我院的21例急性有机磷农药中毒患者皮肤灼伤的临床资料.结果创面浅Ⅱ度6-10天治愈,创面深Ⅱ度10-18天治愈.讨论反复进行灼伤创面清洗以及保持灼伤创面的干燥及涂抹典类制剂是灼伤创面扩大和后期感粢的重要措施.%objective to explore the acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning patients with skin burns. Methods retrospective analysis of 21 cases of acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning were burned skin clinical data. Results the wound H degrees 6-shallow 10 days. II deep wounds heal degrees 10-18 days cured. Discuss the repeated bum wounds and keep the wound clean burns dry and daub Canon agents is wound infection and later expanded burns the important measures.

  5. The experience of emergency treatment on acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%急性重度口服有机磷农药中毒的急救与体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海燕

    2014-01-01

    目的:总结急性重度口服有机磷农药中毒的急救经验。方法:2011年2月-2013年12月救治急性重度口服有机磷农药中毒患者30例,对其实施救治措施。结果:本组30例患者经过救治,意识转清醒时间(1.83±1.2)天,胆碱酯酶活性恢复时间(3.2±1.6)天,住院时间(7.3±2.6)天。临床疗效:治愈29例,治愈率96.7%,死亡1例,死亡率3.3%。结论:清洗被污染的皮肤,彻底洗胃,眼污染时用微温水、2%碳酸氢钠溶液清洗,导泻,阿托品的应用以及早期足量使用氯磷定等,是急救急性重度口服有机磷农药中毒的重要措施。%Objective:To summary the experience of emergency treatment on acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Methods:30 cases with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were selected from February 2011 to December 2013. They were treated with first aid measures.Results:After treatment,the average time of 30 cases from consciousness turned to clear was(1.83 ± 1.2)days.Cholinesterase recovery time was(3.2 ± 1.6)days.Hospitalization time was(7.3 ± 2.6)days.Clinical curative effect:29 cases were cured,and the cure rate was 96.7%.1 cases died,and the mortality was 3.3%.Conclusion: There are important measures for emergency treatment on acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,including:washing the contaminated skin,complete gastric lavage,If eye pollution cleaning its with lukewarm water and 2% sodium bicarbonate solution,catharsis, atropine application,early and adequate use of pralidoxime chloride poisoning.

  6. Structural equation modeling of pesticide poisoning, depression, safety, and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beseler, Cheryl L; Stallones, Lorann

    2013-01-01

    The role of pesticide poisoning in risk of injuries may operate through a link between pesticide-induced depressive symptoms and reduced engagement in safety behaviors. The authors conducted structural equation modeling of cross-sectional data to examine the pattern of associations between pesticide poisoning, depressive symptoms, safety knowledge, safety behaviors, and injury. Interviews of 1637 Colorado farm operators and their spouses from 964 farms were conducted during 1993-1997. Pesticide poisoning was assessed based on a history of ever having been poisoned. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale was used to assess depressive symptoms. Safety knowledge and safety behaviors were assessed using ten items for each latent variable. Outcomes were safety behaviors and injuries. A total of 154 injuries occurred among 1604 individuals with complete data. Pesticide poisoning, financial problems, health, and age predicted negative affect/somatic depressive symptoms with similar effect sizes; sex did not. Depression was more strongly associated with safety behavior than was safety knowledge. Two safety behaviors were significantly associated with an increased risk of injury. This study emphasizes the importance of financial problems and health on depression, and provides further evidence for the link between neurological effects of past pesticide poisoning on risk-taking behaviors and injury.

  7. Neuropsychiatric manifestations following acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyakam Mohapatra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute muscarinic and nicotinic side effects of organophosphate (OP poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 22-year-old male who developed psychotic features and motor neuropathy following acute OP poisoning.

  8. Mechanical ventilation nursing of patients with respiratory failure caused by acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%急性有机磷农药中毒致呼吸衰竭行机械通气的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何芹香

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨急性有机磷农药中毒致呼吸衰竭患者行机械通气的护理方法.方法 对40例急性有机磷农药中毒致呼吸衰竭患者行机械通气的护理过程及效果进行同顾性分析.结果 本组36例治愈出院,自动出院4例,抢救成功率90.0%.结论 急性有机磷农药中毒导致呼吸衰竭救治的关键是机械通气.同时加强机械通气过程中的护理,严密观察病情变化,监测和调整呼吸机参数,加强气道管理,预防感染,重视心理护理,能提高治愈率,减少并发症,促进患者早日康复.%Objective To investigate the mechanical ventilation nursing strategies for patients with respiratory failure caused by acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Methods Forty patients with respiratory failure caused by acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning received mechanical ventilation. The effect and the nursing process were analyzed retrospectively. Results A total of 36 patients were cured and discharged, and 4 patients gave up treatment. The success rate reached 90% . Conclusion The key to treat acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning with respiratory failure is mechanical ventilation. In the course of mechanical ventilation, nursing should be intensified with a close observation of patients' conditions. The respirator parameters should be monitored and properly adjusted. The airway management should be enhanced to prevent infection. Equal attention should be paid to the psychological nursing. All of these measures can reduce complications and contribute to the early recovery of patients.

  9. 急性重度有机磷农药中毒患者死亡危险因素分析%Analysis on risk factors of mortality in patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玮艳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the risk factors of mortality in patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Methods Forty-four patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poison were retrospectively analyzed.Various risk factors were statistically evaluated and mortality of patients was compared between groups.Results Hospital mortality in 44 patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning was 22.7%.The mortality was significantly different between APACHE Ⅱ score ≥20 group and APACHE Ⅱ score<20 group (P <0.01),between age ≥ 60 group and age< 60 group (P <0.01),between hypotensive group and non-hypotensive group (P < 0.05 ),between hypoxemia group and non-hypoxemia group (P < 0.05 ),between metabolic acidosis group and non-metabolic acidosis group (P < 0.05 ).Conclusion APACHE Ⅱ score,age, hypotension, hypoxemia, metabolic acidosis may be the risk factors of mortality in patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,and the items can be used to assess the severity of disease and mortality risk in clinic.%目的:探讨急性重度有机磷农药中毒死亡的危险因素。方法回顾性分析急性重度有机磷农药中毒44例患者的临床资料,对各项危险因素进行统计分析,比较患者的病死率。结果44例急性重度有机磷农药中毒患者住院期间病死率22.7%(10/44),其中急性生理学及慢性健康状况评分(APACHE)≥20分和<20分、年龄≥60岁和<60岁、合并低血压和未合并低血压、合并低氧血症和未合并低氧血症、合并代谢性酸中毒和未合并代谢性酸中毒的患者病死率比较,差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05或<0.01)。结论 APACHEⅡ分值、高龄、低血压、低氧血症、代谢性酸中毒可能是急性重度有机磷农药中毒患者死亡的危险因素,在临床中可以用于评估患者病情严重程度与死亡风险。

  10. The role of private pesticide vendors in preventing access to pesticides for self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weerasinghe, Manjula; Pearson, Melissa; Peiris, Ravi;

    2014-01-01

    In 15% to 20% of self-poisoning cases, the pesticides used are purchased from shops just prior to ingestion. We explored how pesticide vendors interacted with customers at risk of self-poisoning to identify interventions to prevent such poisonings. Two strategies were specifically discussed......: selling pesticides only to farmers bearing identity cards or customers bearing pesticide 'prescriptions'. Vendors reported refusing to sell pesticides to people thought to be at risk of self-poisoning, but acknowledged the difficulty of distinguishing them from legitimate customers; vendors also stated...

  11. Abamectin: an uncommon but potentially fatal cause of pesticide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Bansod

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Human intoxication with abamectin is not frequently reported. It is an uncommon but potentially fatal cause of pesticide poisoning. In contrast to common organophosphate poisoning the toxic effects of avermectin in humans are not clearly defined. Ingestion of a large dose of avermectin may be associated with life-threatening complications. The therapy for avermectin poisoning is mainly symptomatic and supportive. The prognosis of patients with avermectin poisoning is likely to be favorable unless they are complicated by severe hypotension or aspiration. We hereby report a case with abamectin poisoning with neurological toxicity and respiratory failure which responded to supportive line of therapy. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 285-286

  12. Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Fahim; Manuweera, Gamini; Gunnell, David

    2009-01-01

    -harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. METHODS: The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an agricultural region of Sri Lanka. Patients who had self-poisoned with pesticides and were admitted to the adult medical wards were interviewed...

  13. Cases of Acute Poisoning in Southeast Anatolia of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahfer Güloğlu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the biological effects of acute poisoning, nature ofagents involved and pattern of poisoning during 2000 in Diyarbakır City in Southeast AnatolianRegion of Turkey.Data from hospital records of all admissions to Emergency Department (ED of Dicle UniversityHospital following acute poisoning collected retrospectively were analysed for the period January toDecember in 2000. Present study included 44 (25.9% male (M and 126 (74.1% female (F, a total170 consecutive patients. A M/F ratio was found as 1.0/3.5 in the study.Mean age of cases was 23.3±6.3 years old; 63 (37.1% of them were under age of 20 years oldand 147 (86.5% of them were under age of 30 years old. Cases of intoxication have admitted insummer season (93 of 170 patients, especially in April, May and July (24, 26 and 30 patients,respectively. Sixty-two (36.5% cases due to accidental, 108 (63.5% cases due to suicidal goal. Thecases of suicidal purposeful intoxications were mostly determined in females (77 cases, 71.3%,p<0.05, and singles (74 cases, 68.5%, p<0.05. There were only two deaths (1.2% among the 170admissions of acute poisonings during hospitaliztion. One of the deaths was due to pesticides; otherone was due to abuse of medical drug. According to physical examination, tachycardia (59, 34.7%,vomit history (55, 32.4%, and unconsciousness (42, 24.7% were frequently observed; however,hypersecretion (15, 8.8%, bradycardia (5, 2.9%, convulsion (8, 4.7%, and hipertension (2, 1.2%,were seen rarely. Cases who poisoned with pesticide compared other cases have had significantlyhigher rate of convulsion (6, 10.2%, miosis (6, 10.2%, and hypersecretion (12, 20.3% (p=0.018,p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively.In our region, pesticides intoxication especially affected to young unmarried females, and mostof them resulted from suicidal purpose. The annual rate of poisoning-related ED visits and mortalitywere within the reported ranges, psychoactive agents being

  14. Analysis of Recent Situation of Pesticide Poisoning in Bangladesh: Is There a Proper Estimate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourab Dewan

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Pesticide poisoning is responsible for great number of admissions and deaths in Bangladesh. Creating a register of commercially available pesticides in each region for rapid identification of nature of the pesticide is recommended.

  15. Pancreatic Pseudocyst after Acute Organophosphate Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Kawabe, Ken; Ito, Tetsuhide; Arita, Yoshiyuki; Sadamoto, Yojiro; Harada, Naohiko; Yamaguchi, Koji; Tanaka, Masao; Nakano, Itsuro; Nawata, Hajime; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2006-01-01

    Acute organophosphate poisoning(OP) shows several severe clinical symptoms due to its strong blocking effect on cholinesterase. Acute pancreatitis is one of the complications associated with acute OP, but this association still may not be widely recognized. We report here the case of a 73-year-old man who had repeated abdominal pain during and after the treatment of acute OP. Hyperamylasemia and a 7-cm pseudocyst in the pancreatic tail were noted on investigations. We diagnosed pancreatic pse...

  16. The characteristics of emergency department presentations related to acute herbicide or insecticide poisoning in South Korea between 2011 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jeong Mi; Chun, Byeong Jo; Cho, Yong Soo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine epidemiologic data regarding acute herbicide or insecticide poisoning in adults from 2011 to 2014 at the national level in South Korea. Further, the association between governmental regulations involving pesticides and changes in pesticide poisoning occurrences over time was determined. Data were obtained from the emergency department (ED)-based Injury In-depth Surveillance system conducted by the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). Governmental regulations on pesticides were downloaded from the homepage of the Korea Rural Development Administration. Pesticides were classified according to guidelines provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) and by the respective Resistance Action Committee (RAC). Trends in the number of ED presentations and case fatality rate (CFR) due to pesticide poisoning were investigated. The overall CFR due to poisoning from herbicides or insecticides in adults in South Korea was 16.8% during 2011-2014. However, CFR significantly decreased over the 4-year period. The ED presentations of paraquat (PQ) poisoning fell significantly, whereas poisoning due to glyphosate, glufosinate, or combined herbicides increased markedly over the 4 years. Between 2011 and 2013, PQ was the most common pesticide poisoning, whereas glyphosate became the most frequent in 2014. PQ produced the highest rate of fatality followed by endosulfan. Although the frequency of PQ poisoning decreased, which may be attributed to governmental regulations, the CFR and incidence of pesticide poisoning in adults remain a public health concern that needs to be addressed.

  17. Increasing pesticide-resistant ectoparasitic infections may increase pesticide poisoning risks in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2008-01-01

    Head louse and scabies mite infestations are common among pre-school and school-age children, and topical pesticides are frequently prescribed to treat such conditions. Ectoparasite resistance to the safest and most commonly prescribed pyrethrin/pyrethroid pesticides for ectoparasitic infections has, however, been increasing since the 1980s. The increasing resistance of these arthropods to the safest pesticides may lead to greater use of more toxic, alternative pesticides to control infestations and to prevent institutional outbreaks. MEDLINE and Cochrane searches, 1966-2008, were conducted to assess the impact of increasing pesticide resistance on prescribing practices for ectoparasitic infections and to describe the evolving global epidemiology of pediatric poisonings by more toxic pediculicides and miticides, including carbamates, organochlorines, and organophosphates. Pharmacists, physicians, and poison control personnel should be fully informed about increasing pesticide resistance among the most commonly encountered ectoparasites of children and the institutionalized and be prepared to prevent and to treat accidental home and institutional pesticide poisonings with more toxic pesticides.

  18. Clinical Review: Emergency management of acute poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. van Hoving

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this commissioned review was to establish concise guidelines for the initial management of the acutely poisoned patient in the Emergency Centre. The American Academy of Clinical Toxicology and the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists are the international leaders in the field of toxicology and the guidelines in their position papers were generally followed. Most of the dosage regimes are according to the South African Medicines Formulary.

  19. Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

    2012-08-01

    Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues.

  20. Pesticide poisoning in the developing world--a minimum pesticides list

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eddleston, Michael; Karalliedde, Lakshman; Buckley, Nick

    2002-01-01

    In parts of the developing world, pesticide poisoning causes more deaths than infectious diseases. Use of pesticides is poorly regulated and often dangerous; their easy availability also makes them a popular method of self-harm. In 1985, the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) produced...... pesticides be restricted--where this has been done, suicide rates have fallen. Since an Essential Drugs List was established in 1977, use of a few essential drugs has rationalised drug use in many regions. An analogous Minimum Pesticides List would identify a restricted number of less dangerous pesticides...... a voluntary code of conduct for the pesticide industry in an attempt to limit the harmful effects of pesticides. Unfortunately, a lack of adequate government resources in the developing world makes this code ineffective, and thousands of deaths continue today. WHO has recommended that access to highly toxic...

  1. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick Ii, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-10-22

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning.

  2. 长托宁对急性有机磷农药中毒患者的疗效分析%Clinical analysis of Penehyclidine Hydrochloride treatment for acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗来发

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effect on acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning treated by Penehyclidine Hydrochloride. Methods 76 cases with acucte organophosphate peticide poisoning were randomly divided into Penehyclidine Hydrochloride group and Atropine group, with 38 cases in each group. The two groups were given Penehyclidine Hydrochloride and Atropine at the base of conventional treatment, the efficacy was compared. Results The total effective rate of Penehyclidine Hydrochloride group was 97.4%, significantly higher than 78.9% of Atropine group (P < 0.05). The disappear time of poisoning symptoms and cholinesterase energy recovery in Penehyclidine Hydrochloride group was shorter than the Atropine group (P < 0.05). The drug dose and the average number of drugs were significantly different between the two groups (P < 0.05). The incidence rate of adverse reaction of Penehyclidine Hydrochloride group was 7.9%, significantly lower than Atropine group (26.3%) (P < 0.05). Conclusion The clinical effect on acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning treated by Penehyclidine Hydrochloride is satisfactory, recovery faster and less adverse reactions, which is worthy of clinical application.%目的 观察长托宁治疗急性有机磷农药中毒的临床疗效.方法 将76例急性有机磷中毒患者随机分为长托宁组和阿托品组,各38例,两组在常规治疗的基础上分别给予长托宁和阿托品肌注联合氯解磷定治疗,比较两组的临床疗效.结果 长托宁组和阿托品组的有效率分别为97.4%和78.9%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P < 0.05);长托宁组的中毒症状消失时间和胆碱酯酶活力恢复时间均明显短于阿托品组,住院时间也明显缩短(P < 0.05).长托宁组的用量和给药次数均明显少于阿托品组(P < 0.05).治疗过程中长托宁组的不良反应发生率为7.9%,显著低于阿托品组的26.3%(P < 0.05).结论 长托宁用于急性有机磷中毒的抢救疗效显

  3. Pancreatic pseudocyst after acute organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Ken; Ito, Tetsuhide; Arita, Yoshiyuki; Sadamoto, Yojiro; Harada, Naohiko; Yamaguchi, Koji; Tanaka, Masao; Nakano, Itsuro; Nawata, Hajime; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2006-04-01

    Acute organophosphate poisoning (OP) shows several severe clinical symptoms due to its strong blocking effect on cholinesterase. Acute pancreatitis is one of the complications associated with acute OP, but this association still may not be widely recognized. We report here the case of a 73-year-old man who had repeated abdominal pain during and after the treatment of acute OP. Hyperamylasemia and a 7-cm pseudocyst in the pancreatic tail were noted on investigations. We diagnosed pancreatic pseudocyst that likely was secondary to an episode of acute pancreatitis following acute OP. He was initially treated with a long-term intravenous hyperalimentation, protease inhibitors and octerotide, but eventually required surgical intervention, a cystgastrostomy. Acute pancreatitis and hyperamylasemia are known to be possible complications of acute OP. It is necessary to examine and assess pancreatic damage in patients with acute OP.

  4. The role of private pesticide vendors in preventing access to pesticides for self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weerasinghe, Manjula; Pearson, Melissa; Peiris, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    In 15% to 20% of self-poisoning cases, the pesticides used are purchased from shops just prior to ingestion. We explored how pesticide vendors interacted with customers at risk of self-poisoning to identify interventions to prevent such poisonings. Two strategies were specifically discussed...... they did want to help to improve identification of such customers. The community did not blame vendors when pesticides used for self-poison were purchased from their shops. Vendors have already taken steps to restrict access, including selling low toxic products, counselling and asking customer to return...

  5. The use of self-reported symptoms as a proxy for acute organophosphate poisoning after exposure to chlorpyrifos 50 % plus cypermethrin 5 % among Nepali farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Dea Haagensen; Jørs, Erik; Varma, Anshu

    2016-01-01

    cholinesterase (PchE) activity, in addition to the symptoms, when assessing occupational acute pesticide poisoning. This study evaluated self-reported symptoms as a proxy for acute organophosphate poisoning among Nepali farmers by examining self-reported acute organophosphate poisoning symptoms and PchE activity......%: moderately hazardous) spray session or a 2-h placebo spray session, and after 7 days' washout, the farmers were assigned to the other spray session. Before and after each spray session farmers were interviewed about acute organophosphate poisoning symptoms and PchE activity was measured. Analyses were...... symptoms among the farmers regardless of organophosphate exposure or poisoning. Thus, self-reported acute organophosphate symptoms seem to be a poor proxy for acute organophosphate poisoning as the occurrence of these symptoms is not necessarily associated with acute organophosphate poisoning. TRIAL...

  6. Acute oral poisoning due to chloracetanilide herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Su-Jin; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young; Song, Ho-Yeon; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2012-02-01

    Chloracetanilide herbicides (alachlor, butachlor, metachlor) are used widely. Although there are much data about chronic low dose exposure to chloracetanilide in humans and animals, there are few data about acute chloracetanilide poisoning in humans. This study investigated the clinical feature of patients following acute oral exposure to chloracetanilide. We retrospectively reviewed the data on the patients who were admitted to two university hospitals from January 2006 to December 2010. Thirty-five patients were enrolled. Among them, 28, 5, and 2 cases of acute alachlor, metachlor, butachlor poisoning were included. The mean age was 49.8 ± 15.4 yr. The poison severity score (PSS) was 17 (48.6%), 10 (28.6%), 5 (14.3%), 2 (5.7%), and 1 (2.9%) patients with a PSS of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The age was higher for the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that for the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS) (43.6 ± 15.2 vs 55.7 ± 13.5). The arterial blood HCO₃⁻ was lower in the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that in the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS). Three patients were a comatous. One patient died 24 hr after the exposure. In conclusion, although chloracetanilide poisoning is usually of low toxicity, elder patients with central nervous system symptoms should be closely monitored and cared after oral exposure.

  7. Hyperamylasaemia and acute pancreatitis in paracetamol poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L E; Dalhoff, K

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyperamylasaemia and even acute pancreatitis have been reported in patients with paracetamol poisoning. AIMS: To describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, and prognostic implications of hyperamylasaemia in paracetamol poisoning. PATIENTS: Six hundred and two patients transferred...... in 28 of the unselected patients (13%), in 218 of the transferred patients (36%), and in 118 of 148 patients (80%) with fulminant hepatic failure. Only 33 cases of paracetamol-associated acute pancreatitis were diagnosed. A threshold serum amylase of 150 U/L to discriminate non-survivors had sensitivity......, whereas clinical acute pancreatitis occurs rarely. The incidence of hyperamylasaemia increases with the degree of hepatic dysfunction. A serum amylase exceeding 1.5 times the upper normal limit indicates a poor prognosis....

  8. ONE CASE REPORT OF ACUTE POISONING BY BARIUM CARBONATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Qin-min; BIAN Fan; WANG Shu-yun; SHEN Sheng-hui

    2009-01-01

    @@ Most barium poisoning cases were caused by oral intake by mistake. Recent years, barium carbonate poisoning has been rare to be reported. Here we reported a case of acute barium carbonate toxication taken orally on purpose.

  9. 28 Cases of Delayed Polyneuropathy Acute Induced by Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning%急性有机磷农药中毒致迟发性多发性神经病28例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅继荣; 史家安

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨急性有机磷农药中毒后迟发性多发性神经病的临床特点、发病机制,以提高早期诊断及治疗效果.方法 回顾28例迟发性多发性神经病发生的时间、症状及体症,结合辅助检查,进行系统分析.结果 28例迟发性多发性神经病患者均为口服中毒,潜伏期为10~32 d,平均18 d.主要表现为肢体末端开始的感觉和运动障碍,表现为疼痛、麻木、无力、肌肉萎缩、腱反射减弱或消失,肌电图示神经源性损害.用糖皮质激素、B族维生素等综合治疗,大部分预后良好.结论 迟发性多发性神经病经早期诊断,积极治疗,预后一般良好,激素治疗可加速神经功能恢复.%Objective To explore the clinical features and pathogenesis of the delayed polyneuropathy induced by acute organ-ophosphorus pesticide poisoning,and improve the curative effects of early diagnosis and treatment. Methods The onset time,symptoms and physical signs of 28 eases of delayed polyneuropathy were recalled and analyzed combined with supplementary ex-amination retrospectively. Results 28 delayed polyneuropathy were all oral poisoning, the incubation period was of 10 to 32 days, with an average of 18 days. Dyskinesia and abnormity of sense started from the end of limbs, such as pain, numbness, weak-ness, muscle atrophy, weakening or disappearance of tendon reflexes, neurogenie damage showed by electromyography, were the main clinical manifestation. The comprehensive treatment with glueocortieoid and B vitamins eould improve prognosis.Conclusion The delayed polyneuropathy has a good prognosis by early diagnosis and active treatment, and hormone therapy may accelerate the recovery of neurological function.

  10. Analysis of risk factors with 48 patients of intermediate syndrome after acute organophosphorous pesticides poisoning%48例急性有机磷中毒合并中间综合征危险因素的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔宙

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨和研究影响急性有机磷中毒(Acute organophosphorous pesticides poisoning,AOPP)合并中间综合征(Intermediate syndrome,IMS)患者的预后危险因素.方法:回顾48例AOPP合并IMS患者的抢救前基本资料(年龄,性别,基础疾病,中毒后就诊时间,中毒药物种类)和抢救后临床资料(心率,机械通气,洗胃时间,救治环境和IMS发生时间及临床检验指标),根据生存情况分为生存组31例,死亡组17例.结果:两组的年龄、性别、中毒药物种类、心率、白细胞和血小板计数、胆碱酯酶活力差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).生存组中毒后就诊时间、pH2、洗胃时间、机械通气时间、救治环境、IMS发生时间与死亡组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:中毒后就诊时间、洗胃时间、机械通气时间、救治环境、IMS发生时间是AOPP合并IMS预后的危险因素.

  11. [Peripheral neuropathy caused by acute arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Campos, J; Ramos-Peek, J; Martínez-Barros, M; Zamora-Peralta, M; Martínez-Cerrato, J

    1998-01-01

    Although peripheral neuropathy is a fairly common finding in chronic arsenic poisoning, little is known about the acute effects of this metal on peripheral nerves. This report shows clinical and electrophysiological findings in a patient who developed peripheral neuropathy only three days after a high-dose ingestion of this metal due to a failed suicide attempt. We speculate that peripheral nerves and some cranial nerves can show not only clinical but also subclinical involvement that can only be detected by neurophysiological studies.

  12. Value of β2-MG in the Diagnosis of Acute Kidney Injury Induced by Acute Organophosphate Pesticide Poisoning%β2-MG诊断急性有机磷农药中毒急性肾损伤的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春晓; 唐开奖; 黄向阳

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解血清β2-微球蛋白(β2-MG)诊断急性有机磷农药中毒(AOPP)急性肾损伤(AKI)的价值.方法 81例AOPP患者根据其乙酰胆碱酯酶水平分为轻度组(31例)、中度组(29例)、重度组(21例).同期门诊体检健康者30例为对照组.分别检测各组血清肌酐(Scr)、β2-MG含量;分析β2-MG诊断AKI的特异度、灵敏度.结果 AOPP时AKI的总发生率为76.5%(62/81),轻、中、重度组AKI发生率分别为45.2%(14/31)、93.1%(27/29)、100.0%(21/21).β2-MG诊断AOPP致AKI的总体灵敏度、特异度分别为46.8%(29/62)、100.0%.各中毒组的β2-MG阳性率依次为0%(0/31)、34.5%(10/29)、90.5%(19/21),重度组>中度组>轻度组(P<0.01).β2-MG含量及阳性率与中毒程度均呈负相关关系(P<0.05).结论 β2-MG诊断AOPP致AKI的灵敏度、阳性率低,不是早期诊断AKI的敏感指标.%Objective To explore the value of β2-microglobulin( β2-MG ) in the diagnodid of acute kidney injury( AKI ) induced by acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning( AOPP ). Methods Eighty one patients with AOPP were divided into three groups( mild poisoning group, moderate poisoning group and severe poisoning group ) according to acetylcholinesterase( AchE ) level. Thirty healthy controls in out-patient clinic were also recruited. Creatinine ( Scr),β2-MG were detected in each group,and β2-MG was analyzed to diagnose the specificity and sensitivity of AKI. Results The total incidence of AKI induced by AOPP was 76. 5%( 62/81 ),the incidences of mild poisoning group, moderate poisoning group and severe poisoning group were 45. 2%( 14/31 ),93. 1%( 27/29 ) and 100. 0%( 21/21 ), respectively. The total specificity and sensitivity of β2-MG in the diagnosis of AKI induced by AOPP were 46.8%( 29/62 ), 100.0% respectively. The positive rates of β2-MG in each poisoning group were 0%( 0/31 ),34. 5%( 10/29 ) and 90.5%( 19/21 ),which was the highest in the severe poisoning group but the lowest in the mild poisoning

  13. Gastric lavage in patients with acute poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Amigó Tadín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisonings are a frequent complaint in emergency departments and therapy which prevents the absorption of toxic products taken orally is often indicated: one such option is gastric lavage. Gastric lavage is a digestive decontamination technique whose goal is to remove the maximum amount of poison from the stomach and prevent its absorption. The procedure involves inserting a gastric tube into the stomach through the mouth or nose; firstly to aspirate all the stomach contents and then to perform gastric washing manoeuvres. The effectiveness of gastric lavage is limited and involves a risk of iatrogenesis, and therefore the indications and contraindications should be carefully considered and the technique carried out meticulously to increase its effectiveness and reduce complications, primarily bronchoaspiration. Gastric lavage may be used in conjunction with other digestive decontamination techniques such as administration of activated charcoal. This gastric lavage protocol is based on a review of the literature on this procedure and is supported by the expertise of our research group in gastrointestinal decontamination techniques in patients with acute poisoning.

  14. PRALIDOXIME IN ACUTE ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE POISONING: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW%解磷定治疗急性中重度有机磷中毒的系统评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志强; 张印刚; 程爱斌; 邱方

    2011-01-01

    [目的]评价解磷定对急性中重度有机磷中毒患者病死率、中问综合症发病率、需机械通气患者比例和机械通气时间的影响.[方法]计算机检索PubMed(1966~2009.10)、Cochrane Database(2009年第3期)、CBM(1978~2009.10)和CNKI(1979~2009),收集国内外关于解磷定对急性中重度有机磷中毒患者影响的随机对照试验,并进行系统评价.[结果]共6篇文献入选,1篇A级文猷,其余为B级文献.分析显示长期高剂量应用解磷定可以降低病死率、中间综合征发病率、需机械通气患者比例和缩短机械通气时问(P<0.05),而短期高剂量应用对患者有害.[结论]长期高剂量应用解磷定可能对急性中熏度有机磷患者有益.由于纳入文献的总体质量不高,尚需进行更多大样本、高质量随机对照试验来进一步证实解磷定的疗效.%[Objective] To compare the effects of pralidoxime therapy on mortality rate, incidence of intermediate syndrome, need for mechanical ventilation and the duration of mechanical ventilation. [Methods] Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified from PubMed (1966-2009.10), Cochrane Database (Issue 3, 2009), CBM (1978-2009.10) and CNKI (1979-2009). All RCTs of pralidoxime in acute moderate and severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were included, and a systematic review was performed. [Results] Six literatures were enrolled in the systematic review. The clinical benefit, including mortality, the incidence of intermediate syndrome, ventilatory requirements and duration of ventilation could be produced in long-term and high-dose application of pralidoxime subgroup, meanwhile, a detrimental effect was observed in short-term and low-dose application subgroup. [Conclusion] Based on the current available data, long-term and high-dose application of pralidoxime may be benefit in human organophosphate poisoning. The lack of high quality literatures, it needs large sample and high quality randomized

  15. Chest radiographic findings in acute paraquat poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Gyeong Gyun; Lee, Mi Sook; Kim, Hee Jun; Sun, In O [Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    To describe the chest radiographic findings of acute paraquat poisoning. 691 patients visited the emergency department of our hospital between January 2006 and October 2012 for paraquat poisoning. Of these 691, we identified 56 patients whose initial chest radiographs were normal but who developed radiographic abnormalities within one week. We evaluated their radiographic findings and the differences in imaging features based on mortality. The most common finding was diffuse consolidation (29/56, 52%), followed by consolidation with linear and nodular opacities (18/56, 32%), and combined consolidation and pneumomediastinum (7/56, 13%). Pleural effusion was noted in 17 patients (30%). The two survivors (4%) showed peripheral consolidations, while the 54 patients (96%) who died demonstrated bilateral (42/54, 78%) or unilateral (12/54, 22%) diffuse consolidations. Rapidly progressing diffuse pulmonary consolidation was observed within one week on follow-up radiographs after paraquat ingestion in the deceased, but the survivors demonstrated peripheral consolidation.

  16. Acute poisoning in children; changes over the years, data of pediatric clinic department of toxicology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keka Alije; Ramosaj A; Toro H; Azemi M; Baloku A; Sylaj B; Lenjani B; Kyseni K

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To present the frequency, etiology, changes over the years of acute poisoning in children admitted toPediatricClinic ofPristina and to determine the extent and characteristics of the problem, according to which related preventive measures can be taken.Methods:Retrospectively we have analyzed the epidemiology of accidental and suicidal poisonings in children hospitalization inPediatricClinicDepartment ofToxicology during the year2012. Our data we compared with data from previous studies on acute poisoning in children in the PediatricClinic conducted during the years1976-1985 and2001.Results:During the year2012, inPediatricClinic ofPristina5723 children were hospitalized,136 of them or2.3% were treated due to acute poisoning inDepartment ofToxicology,82 of them was boys and54 was girls, rate boys girls was1.5:1.The majority of cases101 or74.2% were under five years with peak age three and35% or25.7% were over five years.The most of the cases was accidentally97% and only 2.9% was suicidal and all of them were over the age of ten.Drugs were the most common agent causing the poisoning71(52.2%) followed by house cleaning products38(27.9%), food10(5.8%), pesticides7(5.14%), rare agent that caused poisoning were: narcotic substances, plant, heavy metals, alcohol, carbon monoxide, carburant.Poisoning occurred mostly in spring and the peak was observed inMay,(1.17% of all patients).January was the month of lowest rate of poisoning. During the years1976-1985, inPediatricClinic ofPristina900 children were hospitalized due to acute poisoning,44.11% were from drugs,15.88% from pesticides,65(7.2%), while during2001 in the unit care intensive were hospitalized66 children due to acute poisoning, among them51.5% were poisoning from drugs,30.03 from pesticides,12.2% from cleaning products.Conclusion:In our study drugs and house cleaning products are the most frequent agents causing accidental poisoning in children less than5 years-old, this age of children is the most

  17. 机械通气抢救急性有机磷农药中毒呼吸衰竭47例%Rescue mechanical ventilation in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning with respiratory failure of 47 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶惠平

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨机械通气治疗重度有机磷农药中毒呼吸衰竭的临床意义.方法 重度有机磷农药中毒呼吸衰竭患者患者83例,按是否机械通气分为治疗组47例和对照组36例.两组均常规给予洗胃、应用阿托品、氯磷定及对症支持治疗等综合措施,治疗组给予机械通气.结果 治疗组抢救成功率(89%)明显高于对照组(69%)(P<0.05).结论 早期建立人工气道机械通气是有机磷农药中毒并呼吸衰竭抢救成功的关键.%Objective To investigate the mechanical ventilation in the treatment of severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning in the clinical significance of respiratory failure.Methods Uinical data of admitted to our hospital with severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning respiratory failure in 83 cases were analyzed,according to whether mechanical ventilation,they were divided into treatment group(47 cases) and control group 36 cases,the efficacy were observed.Both groups were given routine gastric lavage,atropine,PAM,and symptomatic supportive care and other comprehensive measures,the treatment group,was given an extra mechanical ventilation.Results The treatment group had significantly higher success rate of resuscitation,the two groups were significantly different (P<0.05).Conclusion Early establishment of artificial airway mechanical ventilation is a key step to rescue organophosphate pesticide poisoning,and respiratory failure to rescue key.

  18. Acute Anterolateral Myocardial Infarction Due to Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Dadpour

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum phosphide (AlP is a highly effective rodenticide which is used as a suicide poison. Herein, a 24 year-old man who’d intentionally ingested about 1liter of alcohol and one tablet of AlP is reported. Acute myocardial infarction due to AlP poisoning has been occurred secondary to AIP poisoning. Cardiovascular complications are poor prognostic factors in AlP poisoning

  19. Acute aluminium phosphide poisoning, what is new?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatendra Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide that is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently generated interest with increasing number of cases in the past four decades because of its increased use for agricultural and nonagricultural purposes, and also its easy availability in the markets has led to its increased misuse to commit suicide. Ingestion is usually suicidal in intent, uncommonly accidental and rarely homicidal. The poison affects all systems, shock, cardiac arrhythmias with varied ECG changes and gastrointestinal features being the most prominent. Diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical suspicion, a positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination of coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Unfortunately, the lack of a specific antidote Results in very high mortality and the key to treatment lies in rapid decontamination and institution of resuscitative measures. This article aims to identify the salient features and mechanism of AlP poisoning along with its management strategies and prognostic variables.

  20. Risk factors associated with purchasing pesticide from shops for self-poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weerasinghe, Manjula; Konradsen, Flemming; Eddleston, Michael

    2015-01-01

    -harm. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study will investigate risk factors associated with purchasing pesticides for acts of self-poisoning from pesticide shops, including cases identified over a 9-month period using a population-based case-control group approach. Four interviewer-administered data collection tools...... will be used for this study: a semistructured questionnaire, Beck Suicidal Intent Scale (SIS), Clinical Interview Schedule-Sinhalese version (CIS-Sn) and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Each case (expected n=33) will be compared with two groups of individuals: (1) those who have self......-poisoned using pesticides from the home, home garden or farmland and (2) those who bought pesticides from the same shops as the above cases, but not did not self-poison. Logistic regression models will be used to identify risk factors of purchasing pesticides for self-poisoning from shops. ETHICS...

  1. 急性中重度有机磷农药中毒对认知功能的影响%Effect of Acute Moderately Severe Organophosphorus Pesticides Poisoning on Cognitive Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琴; 田仰华; 周姝; 李景荣; 程景林

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of acute moderately severe organophosphorus pesticides poisoning on cognitive function. Methods 29 patients with acute moderately severe organophosphorus pesticides poisoning,who had been hospitalized in Department of Emergency Internal Medicine of the Second Hospital of Anhui Medical University from November 2010 to October 2014 and met the inclusion criteria,were selected as the research group,and 29 healthy volunteers after physical examination in the same hospital during the same period were also enrolled as the control group. Patients in research group received corresponding treatment like timely gastric lavage. All patients' cognitive function were evaluated by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment(MoCA). The MoCA various dimensional score and total score of control group at the enrolling time and of research group 1 week,1 month and 6 months after treatment were compared in this study. Results The MoCA total score of 1 month and 6 months after treatment was higher than that of 1 week after treatment in the research group(P 0. 05). In the research group,the scores of naming,attention,abstraction,delayed recall and orientation of 1 month and 6 months after treatment were higher than those 1 week after treatment,and the scores of visual space and executive function and language 6 months after treatment were higher than those 1 week after treatment(P < 0. 05);the scores of visual space and executive function,attention,language,abstraction,delayed recall and orientation 6 months after treatment were higher than those 1 month after treatment(P < 0. 05). The scores of visual space and executive function,naming,attention, language,abstraction,delayed recall and orientation in the control group were higher than those in the research group 1 week after treatment(P < 0. 05);the scores of attention,language,delayed recall and orientation in the control group were higher than those in the research group 1 month after treatment(P < 0. 05

  2. 江苏省农村居民急性生产性农药中毒调查及危险因素%Investigation of work-related acute pesticide poisoning among farmers in Jiangsu Province and the risk factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔梦晶; 涂志斌; 顾月; 张徐军

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence of work-related acute pesticide poisoning among farmers in Jiangsu Province and to identify the risk factors.Methods Multi-stage stratified sampling and cluster sampling methods were used to randomly select 1490 farmers from the south (Z village),centre (Y village) and north (X village) of Jiangsu Province.The database was established by EpiData 3.1.SPSS 17.0 and SAS 9.13 were used to do chi-square test,trend chi-square test,single factor and multi-factor logistic regression analysis.Results Among 1490 farmers,121 people had work-related acute pesticide poisoning in the past year.The incidence rate in Jiangsu Province was 8.1%.118 farmers (97.5%) were mild pesticide poisoning.3 farmers (2.5%) were moderate pesticide poisoning.The incidence rate of Work-related acute pesticide poisoning in X village of North Jiangsu Province (13.5%,68/505) is obviously higher than that in Y village of Central Jiangsu Province(4.8%,19/399) and Z village of South Jiangsu Province(5.8%,34/586),and the difference is statistically significant (x2=29.60,P<0.01).The incidence rate of Work-related acute pesticide poisoning in female (10.4%,58/557) is obviously higher than that in male (6.8%,63/933),and the difference is statistically significant (x2 =6.26,P<0.05).There are lack of safety guidance,unsafety application methods (without alternate row spraying,without backward application,without down-wind application) and risk behaviors in the spraying (without read labels,preparing pesticides without gloves,wiping sweat with hand (s),equipment leakage,body pollution by pesticide,working when feeling sick,without bath after work).If farmers have risk behaviors above,the incidence rate of Work-related acute pesticide poisoning will be obviously higher than farmers who receive safety guidance and have no such dangerous behaviors,and all the differences are statistically significant (P<0.05).The group of 24~34 years old has the highest

  3. Glyphosate Poisoning with Acute Pulmonary Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Darshana Sudip; Khot, Rajashree; Joshi, P. P.; Pandharipande, Madhuri; Nagpure, Keshav

    2014-01-01

    GlySH-surfactant herbicide (GlySH), one of the most commonly used herbicides worldwide, has been considered as minimally toxic to humans. However, clinical toxicologists occasionally encounter cases of severe systemic toxicity. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) states that ‘GlySH’ is of relatively low oral and acute dermal toxicity. It does not have anticholinesterase effect and no organophosphate-like central nervous system (CNS) effects. The clinical features range from skin and throat irritation to hypotension and death. Severe GlySH-surfactant poisoning is manifested by gastroenteritis, respiratory disturbances, altered mental status, hypotension refractory to the treatment, renal failure, and shock.[1] GlySH intoxication has a case fatality rate 3.2–29.3%. Pulmonary toxicity and renal toxicity seem to be responsible for mortality. Metabolic acidosis, abnormal chest X-ray, arrhythmias, and elevated serum creatinine levels are useful prognostic factors for predicting GlySH mortality.[2] There is no antidote and the mainstay of treatment for systemic toxicity is decontamination and aggressive supportive therapy. We report a case of acute pulmonary edema, which is a rare but severe manifestation of oral GlySH poisoning, where patient survived with aggressive supportive therapy. PMID:25948977

  4. Acute Pancreatitis Caused By Mushroom Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Karahan Research Fellow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the more than 5000 species of mushrooms known, 100 types are toxic and approximately 10% of these toxic types can cause fatal toxicity. A type of mushroom called Amanita phalloides is responsible for 95% of toxic mushroom poisonings. In this article, we report 2 cases of mushroom poisonings caused by Lactarius volemus, known as Tirmit by the local people. The patient and his wife were admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting 20 hours after consuming Lactarius volemus, an edible type of mushroom. The patients reported that they had been collecting this mushroom from the mountains and eating them for several years but had never developed any clinicopathology to date. Further examination of the patients revealed a very rare case of acute pancreatitis due to mushroom intoxication. The male patient was admitted to the intensive care unit while his wife was followed in the internal medicine service, because of her relative mild clinical symptoms. Both patients recovered without sequelae and were discharged. In this article, we aimed to emphasize that gastrointestinal symptoms are often observed in mushroom intoxications and can be confused with acute pancreatitis, thus leading to misdiagnosis of patients. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve patients’ prognosis and prevent the development of complications.

  5. 急性有机磷农药中毒84例的抢救及护理%The rescue and nursing of 84 cases of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁晓春

    2015-01-01

    目的:迅速清除毒物,及时使用解毒剂和尽快达到阿托品化以对抗烟碱样症状、毒蕈碱样症状、中枢神经系统症状,减轻对重要器官的损害,提高抢救成功率,防止反跳与猝死的发生。方法:催吐、洗胃、清除毒物,尽早快速使用解毒剂,使其短期达到阿托品化,对症处置。结果:84例有机磷农药中毒患者经及时抢救,精心护理,80例痊愈出院,4例死于呼吸、循环衰竭。结论:有机磷农药中毒抢救的关键是早期及时应用解毒剂,短期达到阿托品化,迅速彻底清除毒物,密切观察病情,采取有效的护理措施,可大大提高抢救成功率。%Objective:In order to fight against nicotine symptoms,muscarinic symptoms,central nervous system symptoms,to alleviate the damage of the vital organs,improve the success rate of rescue,prevent the occurrence of rebound and sudden death by quickly remove poisons,timely use of antidotes and reach atropinization as soon as possible.Methods: The use of emetic,gastric lavage,clean up the poison,early rapid use antidote,make its short-term reach atropinization and symptomatic disposal.Results:84 cases of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning patients with timely rescue,careful nursing,80 cases were cured,4 cases died of respiratory and circulatory failure.Conclusion:The key to rescue organophosphorus pesticide poisoning is that the early and timely application of antidote,short-term reach atropinization,quickly and thoroughly remove poison,close observation of disease,take effective nursing measures,which can greatly improve the success rate of rescue.

  6. Fatal human poisoning with Padan: a cartap-containing pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurisaki, Emiko; Kato, Naho; Ishida, Tokiya; Matsumoto, Akinori; Shinohara, Kazuaki; Hiraiwa, Kouichi

    2010-02-01

    We report a patient who ingested about 13 g of Padan SG, a cartap-containing pesticide. After ingestion, the patient developed multiple seizures and dyspnea and lost consciousness. The patient did not recover and died on the fifth hospital day despite treatment at the early stage of poisoning. The cause of death was multisystem organ failure. Results of toxicological analysis were as follows: concentrations of nereistoxin (cartap metabolite) were 10.6 microg/mL in plasma, 18.2 microg/mL in urine, and 2.6 mg/mL in gastric fluid. Results of drug screening of urine by Triage DOA Panels and using an organophosphate detection kit were negative.

  7. Arsenic pesticides and environmental pollution: exposure, poisoning, hazards and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Mohammad, Amina El-Hosini; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-08-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid element. Acute high-dose exposure to arsenic can cause severe systemic toxicity and death. Lower dose chronic arsenic exposure can result in subacute toxicity that can include peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, skin eruptions, and hepatotoxicity. Long-term effects of arsenic exposure include an in Due to the physiologic effects of the arsenic on all body systems, thus, chronic arsenic-poisoned patient is a major nursing challenge. The critical care nurse provides valuable assessment and interventions that prevent major multisystem complications from arsenic toxicity.

  8. Toxic Agents Responsible for Acute Poisonings Treated at Four Medical Settings in Iran during 2012-2013: A Report from Iran's National Drug and Poison Information Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talat Ghane

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Pharmaceutical products, substances of abuse and pesticides are the most common causes of poisoning-related admissions to referral Iranian poison treatment centers. Effective measures to reduce poisoning with these substances should be done.

  9. Comparative study of penehyclidime hydrochloride and atropine in treatment of acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning%盐酸戊乙奎醚与阿托品治疗急性有机磷农药中毒疗效比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱艳霞; 杨贤义; 肖敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical efficacy of penehyclidime hydrochloride and atropine in treatment of a-cute organophosphate pesticide poisoning. Methods Totally 76 patients within six hours of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were randomly divided into penehyclidime hydrochloride group (re = 38) and atropine group ( n = 38 ),they were all combined with pralidoxime chloride,different doses of penehyclidime hydrochloride and atropine were given according to difference degrees of severity which was ranged in terms of cholinesterase value. The clinical efficacy of two groups was compared. Results The penehyclidime hydrochloride group,the poisoning symptoms time,cuative time and CHE recovery time were compared with that of the atropine group,the difference was statistically significant (P < 0. 01) ; The incidence rate of adverse reactions significantly less than that of the atropine group ( P < 0. 01). Conclusion Penehyclidime hydrochloride in treatment of acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning is safer and more effective than atropine.%目的 比较盐酸戊乙奎醚与阿托品治疗急性有机磷农药中毒的临床疗效.方法 76例6h内有机磷农药中毒者随机分成盐酸戊乙奎醚组(38例)和阿托品组(38例),均配伍用氯解磷定,分别按照胆碱酯酶数值划分的轻中重度程度,给予不同剂量的盐酸戊乙奎醚及阿托品,比较两组患者的临床疗效.结果 盐酸戊乙奎醚组的中毒症状消失时间、治愈时间、CHE恢复时间与阿托品组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);并且不良反应的发生率明显比阿托品组低(P<0.01).结论 盐酸戊乙奎醚治疗急性有机磷农药中毒疗效确切,不良反应少,优于阿托品.

  10. 急性有机磷农药中毒致呼吸衰竭的影响因素分析%Study on correlated clinical factors of respiratory failure induced by acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶贤洲; 王佐

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析急性有机磷农药中毒( AOPP)致呼吸衰竭的相关临床因素,为制订有效的预防及干预措施提供科学依据。方法回顾分析94例重性AOPP患者临床资料,根据血气分析结果将患者分为呼吸衰竭组(41例)和非呼吸衰竭组(53例),观察患者的APACHEⅡ评分、胆碱酯酶、血糖、血清淀粉酶、肝肾功能及心肌酶谱等指标。结果胆碱酯酶水平呼吸衰竭组患者低于非呼吸衰竭组患者(P<0.05);APACHEⅡ评分、血清淀粉酶、肝肾功能及心肌酶谱等,呼吸衰竭组患者高于非呼吸衰竭组患者(P<0.05);Logistic回归分析显示APACHEⅡ评分、胆碱酯酶及血清淀粉酶与呼吸衰竭相关。结论 APACHEⅡ评分、胆碱酯酶及血清淀粉酶水平可作为AOPP引起呼吸衰竭的预测指标。%Objective To investigate the correlated clinical factors of respiratory failure induced by acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning ( AOPP) ,and to provide relevant data for prevention and intervention of respiratory failure .Methods This retrospective study in-cluded 94 patients with severe AOPP ,and all patients were divided into respiratory failure group ( n=41 ) and non-respiratory failure group (n=53) according to arterial blood gas analysis .We observed APACHEⅡscores,cholinesterase,blood glucose,serum amylase,hepatic func-tion,renal function and myocardial enzyme between the two groups .Results Cholinesterase level in the respiratory failure group was lower than that in non-respiratory failure group (P<0.05);APACHEⅡ scores,serum amylase,hepatic function,renal function and myocardial enzyme in the respiratory failure group were higher than those of non-respiratory failure group (P<0.05).Spearman correlation analysis and Logistic regression analyses showed APACHEⅡscores,cholinesterase and serum amylase were related to respiratory failure ,and they had sig-nificant predictive effects on respiratory failure

  11. Serum Metabolomics in Rats after Acute Paraquat Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiyi; Ma, Jianshe; Zhang, Meiling; Wen, Congcong; Huang, Xueli; Sun, Fa; Wang, Shuanghu; Hu, Lufeng; Lin, Guanyang; Wang, Xianqin

    2015-01-01

    Paraquat is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world and is highly toxic to humans and animals. In this study, we developed a serum metabolomic method based on GC/MS to evaluate the effects of acute paraquat poisoning on rats. Pattern recognition analysis, including both principal component analysis and partial least squares-discriminate analysis revealed that acute paraquat poisoning induced metabolic perturbations. Compared with the control group, the level of octadecanoic acid, L-serine, L-threonine, L-valine, and glycerol in the acute paraquat poisoning group (36 mg/kg) increased, while the levels of hexadecanoic acid, D-galactose, and decanoic acid decreased. These findings provide an overview of systematic responses to paraquat exposure and metabolomic insight into the toxicological mechanism of paraquat. Our results indicate that metabolomic methods based on GC/MS may be useful to elucidate the mechanism of acute paraquat poisoning through the exploration of biomarkers.

  12. The global distribution of fatal pesticide self-poisoning: systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnell, David; Eddleston, Michael; Phillips, Michael R;

    2007-01-01

    personal collections of papers and books. Our aim was to identify papers enabling us to estimate the proportion of a country's suicides due to pesticide self-poisoning. RESULTS: We conservatively estimate that there are 258,234 (plausible range 233,997 to 325,907) deaths from pesticide self......-poisoning worldwide each year, accounting for 30% (range 27% to 37%) of suicides globally. Official data from India probably underestimate the incidence of suicides; applying evidence-based corrections to India's official data, our estimate for world suicides using pesticides increases to 371,594 (range 347...

  13. Prognostic factors of acute aluminum phosphide poisoning

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    Louriz M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : In Morocco, acute aluminum phosphide poisoning (AAlPP is a serious health care problem. It results in high mortality rate despite the progress of critical care. Aims : The present paper aims at determining the characteristics of AAlPP and evaluating its severity factors. Setting and design: We studied consecutive patients of AAlPP admitted to the medical intensive care unit (ICU (Ibn Sina Hospital, Rabat, Morocco between January 1992 and December 2007. Materials and Methods : Around 50 parameters were collected, and a comparison was made between survivor and nonsurvivor groups. Statistical Analysis : Data were analyzed using Fisher exact test, Mann-Whitney U test and Cox regression model. Results : Forty-nine patients were enrolled: 31 females and 18 males; their average age was 26± 11 years. The ingested dose of aluminum phosphide was 1.2± 0.7 g. Self-poisoning was observed in 47 cases, and the median of delay before admission to the hospital was 5.3 hours (range, 2.9-10 hours. Glasgow coma scale was 14± 2. Shock was reported in 42.6% of the patients. pH was 7.1± 0.4, and bicarbonate concentration was 16.3± 8.8 mmol/L. Electrocardiogram abnormalities were noted in 28 (57% cases. The mortality rate was 49% (24 cases. The prognostic factors were APACHE II (P= 0.01, low Glasgow coma scale (P= 0.022, shock (P= 0.0003, electrocardiogram abnormalities (P= 0.015, acute renal failure (P= 0.026, low prothrombin rate (P= 0.020, hyperleukocytosis (P= 0.004, use of vasoactive drugs (P< 0.001, use of mechanical ventilation (P= 0.003. Multivariate analysis by logistic regression revealed that mortality in AAlPP correlated with shock (RR = 3.82; 95% CI= 1.12-13.38; P= 0.036 and altered consciousness (RR= 3.26; 95% CI= 1.18-8.99; P= 0.022. Conclusion : AAlPP is responsible for a high mortality, which is primarily due to hemodynamic failure.

  14. Analysis of characteristics of acute poisoning caused by various poisons in Guangxi, China%广西各类毒物致急性中毒分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡德宏; 张振明; 刘清华; 蒋东方

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics of acute poisonings caused by various poisons in Guangxi,China.Methods A retrospective investigation was performed in 5859 cases of acute poisonings who were admitted to 63 hospitals in 11 cities,as well as 531 types of poisons involved.The poisons were categorized into 6 groups; each group of cases was stratified by the rural or urban settings,frequency of poisoning,and cause of poisoning to analyze the numbers of cases and constituent ratios.Results Most types of poisons (68.74%) belonged to drugs (217 types) and pesticides (148 types).Most cases of poisonings (61.63%) were caused by pesticides (n=2547) and chemicals (n=1064).Pesticides,poisons of plant origins,and poisons of animal origins were responsible for most of the cases in rural settings; 88.46%,79.10%,and 66.74% of the cases of these poison categories happened in rural settings.Chemicals,drugs,and other poisons were responsible for most of the cases in urban settings; 70.20%,61.74%,and 63.73% of the cases of these poison categories happened in urban settings.The numbers of cases in 5-year-poisoning groups were the highest in all categories of poisons,accounting for 85.24%,88.57%,55.16%,70.79%,68.36%,and 66.44% of cases of respective categories.Most cases of poisonings by chemicals,poisons of animal origin,and other poisons were accident-related (86.24%,72.66%,and 46.71% of the poison categories).Most cases of poisonings by pesticides and drugs were suiciderelated (59.39% and 33.52% of the poison categories).Most cases by poisons of plant origin were caused by accidental ingestion (70.36% of the poison category).Conclusion Most of the acute poisonings in Guangxi area are caused by pesticides and chemicals; the most common causes of poisoning are accidents,accidental ingestion,and suicide.There are significant differences in the causes of acute poisonings between the urban and rural settings.%目的 探讨广西各类毒

  15. Acute tramadol poisoning and its clinical and laboratory findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Shadnia, Shahin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic with opioid and nonopioid properties, which extensively used in the relief of mild to moderate pain. Tramadol poisoning is a common cause of acute pharmaceutical poisoning in Iran. There are a few studies about clinical and laboratory findings related to acute tramadol poisoning. Therefore, the aim of this study was to demonstrate the clinical and laboratory findings in tramadol acute poisoning cases. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study of patients with acute tramadol poisoning who referred to Loghman Hakim Hospital Poison Center during January to April 2012. Data such as patient's age, sex, time of ingestion, ingested dose, cause of poisoning, mean duration of hospitalization, patient's clinical presentations, laboratory findings, therapeutic measures, and patient's outcome have collected in a predesigned checklist. Results: A total of 144 patients including 111 men (77%) and 33 women (23%) with acute tramadol poisoning was included in this study. The mean ingested dose was 1971.2 mg (100-20000 mg). Seizure (47.91%) was the most frequent clinical symptom. Blood gas on admission showed pH (7.3 ± 0.1), PCO2 (49.7 ± 8.6 mmHg) and HCO3− (24.1 ± 3.8 mEq/L), indicating pure acute respiratory acidosis may be occurred in tramadol-intoxicated patients. There were significant differences between tramadol-intoxicated cases with and without a seizure with regard to the time interval between ingestion and admission on hospital, ingested dose and PCO2. Conclusion: Seizure and rise of PCO2 were the most findings in this study. PMID:25535500

  16. Emergency care outcomes of acute chemical poisoning cases in Rawalpindi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrar Rafique; Umbreen Akhtar; Umar Farooq; Mussadiq Khan; Junaid Ahmad Bhatti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the emergency care outcomes of acute chemical poisoning cases in tertiary care settings in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods: The data were extracted from an injury surveillance study conducted in the emergency departments (ED) of three tertiary care hospitals of Rawalpindi city from July 2007 to June 2008. The World Health Organization standard reporting questionnaire (one page) was used for recording information. Associations of patients' characteristics with ED care outcomes, i.e., admitted vs. discharged were assessed using logistic regression models. Results: Of 62 530 injury cases reported, chemical poisoning was identified in 434 (0.7%) cases. The most frequent patient characteristics were poisoning at home (61.9%), male gender (58.6%), involving self-harm (46.0%), and youth aged 20–29 years (43.3%). Over two-thirds of acute poisoning cases (69.0%) were admitted. Acute poisoning cases were more likely to be admitted if they were youth aged 10–19 years [odds ratio (OR)=4.41], when the poisoning occurred at home (OR=21.84), and was related to self-harm (OR=18.73) or assault (OR=7.56). Conclusions: Findings suggest that controlling access of poisonous substances in youth and at homes might reduce related ED care burden. Safety promotion agencies and emergency physicians can use these findings to develop safety messages.

  17. Neuromuscular Effects of Acute Organophosphate Poisoning

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    Taylan Pekoz

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: There is no evoked potential studies performed in organophosphate poisoning althoung electroneurography repetitive and P300 studies exist in literature. More further studies are needed to evaluate the cardiac and neuromuscular effects of organophosphate poisoning. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 795-800

  18. Hydroxocobalamin for severe acute cyanide poisoning by ingestion or inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frédéric J; Mégarbane, Bruno; Bismuth, Chantal

    2007-06-01

    This chart review was undertaken to assess efficacy and safety of hydroxocobalamin for acute cyanide poisoning. Hospital records of the Fernand Widal and Lariboisière Hospitals were reviewed for intensive care unit admissions with cyanide poisoning for which hydroxocobalamin was used as first-line treatment from 1988 to 2003. Smoke inhalation cases were excluded. Hydroxocobalamin (5-20 g) was administered to 14 consecutive patients beginning a median 2.1 hours after cyanide ingestion or inhalation. Ten patients (71%) survived and were discharged. Of the 11 patients with blood cyanide exceeding the typically lethal threshold of 100 micromol/L, 7 survived. The most common hydroxocobalamin-attributed adverse events were chromaturia and pink skin discoloration. Severe cyanide poisoning of the nature observed in most patients in this study is frequently fatal. That 71% of patients survived after treatment with hydroxocobalamin suggests that hydroxocobalamin as first-line antidotal therapy is effective and safe in acute cyanide poisoning.

  19. Effect of rhubarb and Glauber's salt cathartic intervention on acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%大黄加芒硝导泻治疗有机磷农药中毒的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱茄英; 陈茶花; 鄢小莲; 肖玲; 黄敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of nasal tube feeding of rhubarb solution and umbilical compress of Glauber's salt for purgation in the treatment of patients with severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP).Methods A retrospective study was conducted.Eighty patients with severe AOPP were dividedinto two groups according to different treatment,with 40 patients in each group.A thorough gastric lavage was done,followed by cholinesterase complex agent and atropine were given for all the patients.On the base of this treatment,one group of patients were given nasogastric feeding of rhubarb solution (200 ml) and Glauber's salt solution ( 100 g) for umbilical compress (rhubarb plus Glauher group),and another group of patients were fed with 20% mannitol (200 ml)as a control group (mannitol group).The time of first defecation,number of passing stools,the time of normalization of cholinesterase (ChE) activity,time of atropinization,dosage of atropinization,and total amount of atropine given,incidence of adverse reactions,and hospital stay in two groups were observed,a statistical analysis of the data was conducted.Results In rhubarb plus Glauber group,all the conditions were improved better than those of mannitol group [first defecation time (minutes):134.13 ± 31.31 vs.154.35 ± 34.78,the number of stools (times/d):2.60 ±0.81 vs.2.14 ± 0.63,time of ChE activity returned to normal (days):9.65 ± 1.42 vs.10.66 ± 1.74,atropinization time ( hours ):3.00 ± 0.73 vs.3.56 ± 1.02,dosage of atropinization (mg):51.43 ± 7.03 vs.57.65 ± 7.74,the total amount of atropine given (mg):229.78 ± 28.96 vs.248.41 ± 31.45,the incidence of adverse reactions:abdominal pain 0 vs.17.5%,abdominal distention 0 vs.20.0%,hospital stay (days):10.43 ± 1.68 vs.11.59 ± 2.121,and all the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.01).Conclusion Combination usage with aqueous rhubarb solution and Glauber's salt in AOPP patients could yield quick clearance of toxin

  20. Relationship Between Acute Benzodiazepine Poisoning and Acute Pancreatitis Risk: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Geng-Wang; Hung, Dong-Zong; Chen, Wei-Kung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, I-Ching; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-12-01

    We designed a population-based retrospective cohort study to investigate the association between the event of benzodiazepine (BZD) poisoning and the risk of acute pancreatitis.In the present study, 12,893 patients with BZD poisoning during 2000 to 2011 were enrolled and matched with 4 comparison patients according to mean age and sex. We determined the cumulative incidences and adjusted hazard ratios of acute pancreatitis.A significant association was observed between BZD poisoning and acute pancreatitis. After adjustment for potential risk factors, the patients with BZD poisoning had a 5.33-fold increased risk of acute pancreatitis compared with the controls without BZD poisoning (HR = 5.33, 95% CI = 2.26-12.60). The results revealed that acute pancreatitis in patients with BZD poisoning occurred in a follow-up time of ≤1 month (HR = 50.0, P risk of acute pancreatitis was no different between the patients with and without BZD poisoning when the follow-up time was >1 month (HR = 1.07, P > .05).This population-based study revealed the positive correlation between the event of BZD poisoning and an increased risk of acute pancreatitis. The findings warrant further large-scale and in-depth investigation.

  1. Confirmed organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisonings in South African wildlife (2009–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo J. Botha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During a six-year period (from January 2009 to December 2014, specimens collected from 344 cases of suspected organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisonings in wildlife, including birds, were submitted to the Toxicology Laboratory (ARC-OVI for analysis. A positive diagnosis was made in 135 (39% of these cases. The majority of cases were from birds, which included Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres and African white-backed vultures (Gyps africanus and bateleur eagles (Terathopius ecaudatus. In one incident 49 vultures were killed when a farmer intentionally laced carcasses with carbofuran in an attempt to control jackal predation. There were 22 incidents of poisoning in helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris. On nine different occasions blue cranes (Anthropoides paradiseus were poisoned, in one incident 14 birds were reported to have been killed. Over the period of investigation, there were 20 cases of poisoning involving mammalian species, the majority being vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus. The carbamate pesticides were responsible for 57 incidents of poisoning. Aldicarb, carbofuran and methomyl were detected in 26, 18 and 12 cases respectively. The majority of organophosphorus pesticide poisonings were caused by diazinon (n = 19, monocrotophos (n = 13 and methamidophos (n = 10.

  2. CLINICAL STUDY OF ACUTE POISONING: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

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    Praveen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : OBJECTIVES: To determine the common agents, clinical features and outcomes of acute poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of patients of acute poisoning of more than 14 years age admitted through emergency with a history of intentional, self-inflicted and suicidal poisoning in SRMS-IMS from Jan 2010 to Dec 2012. RESULTS: A total of 58 cases were included with a common age of affection 16 to 25 years and male to female ratio 1.63: 1. Poisoning cases occur throughout the year with maximum prevalence in May and minimum in June. Organophosphorus was the most common poison followed by aluminium phosphide. Vomiting was the most common symptoms followed by altered sensorium. 70.68% patients were discharged, 20.68% expired and 8.62% left against medical advice. Aluminium phosphide was the most common toxin consumed by dead patients. CONCLUSION: Acute poisoning is commonly affecting young population and is caused by variety of toxin. High mortality is associated with aluminum phosphide.

  3. Is there a role for progesterone in the management of acute organophosphate poisoning during pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, Mostafa; Nasrabadi, Zeynab Nasri; Sheikhazadi, Ardeshir; Abbaspour, Abdollah; Vasigh, Shayesteh; Yousefinejad, Vahid; Marashi, Sayed Mahdi

    2013-06-01

    Organophosphates are commonly used pesticides and cause about one million unintentional and 2 million suicidal exposures with up to 300,000 fatalities every year around the world. Toxicity of organophosphates is due to inhibition cholinesterase activity and prolonging the effects of acetylcholine in the receptor site. Clinical features of organophosphate poisoning are defecation, urination, miosis, bronchorrhea, emesis, lacrimation and salivation. Spontaneous abortion reported some when in pregnant patients. Intravenous administration of benzodiazepines, atropine and pralidoxime is the formal treatment of this toxicity. Atropine and pralidoxime have been assigned to pregnancy class C by the FDA and should be recommended for use in pregnant women clinically suffer organophosphate poisoning. Benzodiazepines have been assigned to pregnancy class D and should be avoided during pregnancy. Clinical experiments suggest transplacental transfer of organophosphates is possible, and fetal sensitivity is probable, but a single acute overdose most likely don't make any physical deformities, therefore termination of pregnancy is not imperative. Nonetheless, no definite strategy focused on maintaining pregnancy. Here we propose an idea that in any female case of acute organophosphate poisoning in childbearing range of age, maternal serum Beta-HCG should be tested for pregnancy and prophylactic progesterone should be used in pregnant cases of organophosphate poisoning.

  4. A CLINICAL PROFILE OF ACUTE POISONING

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    Vaddadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 100 patients were studied to know the common poisons, age, sex, clinical manifestations, response to treatment, motive behind the consumption and prognostic factors. Out of 100 cases, most of them committed this with suicidal intention, 21 - 30 age group, males, insecticide poison consumed were affected. 70% of them had domestic problems as the main reason to commit this extreme step. Those who reached early to the hospital had recovered well with a mortality rate of 7%.

  5. Identification of strategies to prevent death after pesticide self-poisoning using a Haddon matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eddleston, M; Buckley, N A; Gunnell, D;

    2006-01-01

    Despite pesticide self-poisoning causing around 300 000 deaths each year in the rural Asia Pacific region, no comprehensive public health response has yet been formulated. The authors have developed a Haddon matrix to identify factors that increase the risk of fatal rather than non-fatal pesticide...... political support for making the changes necessary to reduce this waste of life. Lessons learnt from Sri Lanka are likely to be highly relevant for much of rural Asia....

  6. Acute Pancreatitis in the Course of Meprobamate Poisoning

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    Neila Fathallah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Context We report a case of massive poisoning with meprobamate leading to acute pancreatitis. Case report A 43-year-old patient with a history of schizophrenia and multiple suicide attempts was admitted to the intensive care unit for severe poisoning with meprobamate (voluntary ingestion of 60 g. On admission, the patient was deeply comatose with low blood pressure and hypothermia. Laboratory analysis revealed leukocytosis and high lipase and amylase serum levels. There was no eosinophilia. Abdominal computed tomography showed pancreatitis grade A. The patient was intubated and ventilated, and intravenous dopamine was infused. The patient regained consciousness and was extubated five days later. Improvement in pancreatic tests was noted several days later. The outcome was favorable. Discussion According to the Naranjo probability scale, meprobamate-induced acute pancreatitis was probable. Acute pancreatitis in meprobamate poisoning is exceptional. The pathogenesis of pancreatitis-induced meprobamate poisoning may be explained by two mechanisms: stimulation of pancreatic secretion secondary to cholinergic activation and pancreatic ductal hypertension. Conclusions The signs of severe meprobamate toxicity are numerous including cardiovascular and central nervous symptoms. Acute pancreatitis should also be added as a possible manifestation of meprobamate poisoning.

  7. Increased Risk of Dementia in Patients With Acute Organophosphate and Carbamate Poisoning: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Yang, Chih-Hui; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-07-01

    Organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CM) are the most commonly used pesticides against insects. Little is known regarding the relationship between dementia and acute OP and CM poisoning. A nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The incidence and relative risk of dementia were assessed in patients hospitalized for acute OP and CM poisoning from 2000 to 2011. The comparison cohort was matched with the poisoned cohort at a 4:1 ratio based on age, sex, and the year of hospitalization. During the follow-up period, the incidence of dementia was 29.4 per 10,000 person-years in the poisoned group, and represented a 1.98-fold increased risk of dementia compared with the control cohort (95% confidence interval, 1.59-2.47). This study provides evidence on the association between dementia and acute OP and CM poisoning. Regular follow-up of poisoned patients for dementia is suggested.

  8. Spectrum of Acute Pharmaceutical and Chemical Poisoning in Northern Bangladesh

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    Devendranath Sarkar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute poisoning is a major public health problem in Bangladesh. It is a common method for suicide. A clear picture regarding clinical presentation, most commonly used toxic agents, background factors and outcome of poisoned patients is necessary in every region. The aim of this study was to investigate frequency and outcome of acute pharmaceutical and chemical poisoning cases in Northern Bangladesh. Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study on poisoned patients with 18 years of age and above who were admitted to Rangpur Medical College Hospital during 1st December 2011 to 30th November 2012. Results: During the study period, a total of 956 patients were investigated. Males slightly outnumbered females (51.6%. The majority of patients (92% were in the 18-40 year age-group. Regarding occupation, housewives were the most frequent (33.6% followed by farmers (31.7% and students (20.9%. Organophosphate compounds (OPC were the most commonly used toxic agents (73.5%. Most of poisoning cases occurred following suicidal attempts (88%. Familial disharmony was the main cause of suicidal attempts (92.3%. Univariate Analysis showed that age less than 40 years, being married, living in rural areas and educational attainment below secondary level were significantly associated with an increased risk of poisoning (P

  9. Pre-hospital treatment of acute poisonings in Oslo

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    Nore Anne K

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poisoned patients are often treated in and discharged from pre-hospital health care settings. Studies of poisonings should therefore not only include hospitalized patients. Aims: To describe the acutely poisoned patients treated by ambulance personnel and in an outpatient clinic; compare patients transferred to a higher treatment level with those discharged without transfer; and study the one-week mortality after pre-hospital discharge. Methods A one-year multi-centre study with prospective inclusion of all acutely poisoned patients ≥ 16 years of age treated in ambulances, an outpatient clinic, and hospitals in Oslo. Results A total of 3757 health service contacts from 2997 poisoning episodes were recorded: 1860 were treated in ambulances, of which 15 died and 750 (40% were discharged without transfer; 956 were treated in outpatient clinic, of which 801 (84% were discharged without transfer; and 941 episodes were treated in hospitals. Patients discharged alive after ambulance treatment were mainly poisoned by opiates (70%, were frequently comatose (35%, had respiratory depression (37%, and many received naloxone (49%. The majority of the patients discharged from the outpatient clinic were poisoned by ethanol (55%, fewer were comatose (10%, and they rarely had respiratory depression (4%. Among the hospitalized, pharmaceutical poisonings were most common (58%, 23% were comatose, and 7% had respiratory depression. Male patients comprised 69% of the pre-hospital discharges, but only 46% of the hospitalized patients. Except for one patient, who died of a new heroin overdose two days following discharge from an ambulance, there were no deaths during the first week after the poisonings in the 90% of the pre-hospital discharged patients with known identity. Conclusion More than half of the poisoned patients treated in pre-hospital treatment settings were discharged without transfer to higher levels. These poisonings were more often

  10. [Acute toloxatone poisoning. Apropos of 122 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoyan, P; Garnier, R; Baud, F J; Efthymiou, M L

    1990-01-01

    Toloxatone is a new monoamine oxidase inhibitor. One hundred and twenty two cases of poisoning with this drug are reported. In this series, the minimal toxic dose was 2 g. The first symptoms appeared about one hour after ingestion. In most cases, only drowsiness and mild adrenergic effects were observed. In a few cases of massive overdose, coma, pyramidal irritation, and myoclonic jerks occurred. In 3 cases of severe poisoning, toloxatone was associated with tricyclic antidepressants. Symptoms were similar to those reported in intoxications associating classical monoamine oxidase inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants: muscular rigidity, hyperthermia and cardiovascular collapse. Two of these patients died.

  11. Intoxicación por plaguicidas Pesticide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ferrer

    2003-01-01

    or by their chemical family (organochlorates, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, Bipyridilium compounds, inorganic salts…. All of them are biocides, which normally implies a high toxicity for humans, which has been a cause for concern since the mid-XX century due to the widespread and indiscriminate use of these products. Exposure to pesticides can have effects that are acute, chronic and long-term. Some organochlorate compounds (such as DDT were the first to be used in massive fumigations to fight malaria and have had to be banned because of their capacity for bioaccumulation and environmental persistence. The danger represented by the widespread presence of these agents has been demonstrated in numerous episodes of human toxic epidemics, producers of a high morbidity/mortality, described for nearly all chemical families: organochlorate insecticides and fungicides, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, organomercurial fungicides and inorganic salts. These episodes have above all been caused through the ingestion of foodstuffs and in the occupational field. Other causes of health concern are their carcinogenic capacity and occasional reproductive alterations. The principal characteristics of some of the most relevant families are presented.

  12. Cardiovascular Effects of Acute Organophosphate Poisoning

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    Shankar Laudari

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion:Cardiac effects of OP poisoning can be life-threatening. Prompt diagnosis, early supportive and definitive therapies with atropine and oximes along with vigilant monitoring of the patients for prominent cardiac effects such as QT prolongation, VT or VF during hospital stay can definitely save lives of the victims.

  13. Profile of acute poisoning in three health districts of Botswana

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    Mary Kasule

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study sought to characterise acute poisoning cases seen in three health districts of Botswana.Method: A retrospective review of patients’ records was conducted and included patients treated from January 2004 to December 2005. Data on the demographic status of the patients, information about the poisonous agent(s involved, and the circumstances and outcomes of the poisoning incidents were recorded on a pre-tested data collection form.Results: A total of 590 cases of acute poisoning were included in the analysis. The most affected age category was that of children aged less than six years, who constituted 33.4% of the cases. Most incidents were recorded in the urban district of Gaborone. Seventy-eight percent (78% of the incidents were accidental, with the remainder being intentional. The poisonous agents involved were pharmaceuticals (26.6%, natural toxins (25.6%, household products (14.6%, foods (14.4%, alcohol (6.9%, traditional medicines (4.7%, unspecified agents (3.2%, and agrochemicals (2.7%. The most common route of poison exposure was by oral (82.2%, followed by dermal contact (16.5%, while the inhalation of gases occurred in 1.2% of cases. An incidence rate of 4.7/1000, a case fatality rate of 3.8/100, and 1.5% of deaths were recorded over the two-year period.Conclusion: In conclusion, it can be stated that acute poisoning involved mainly young children and resulted in an incidence rate of 4.7/1000, a case fatality rate of 3.8/100, and 1.5% of deaths over the two-year period. There were differences based on age category, gender and residence of the victims, the types of toxic agents involved, as well as the circumstances and the outcomes of the poisoning incidents. Given the fact that pharmaceuticals, natural toxins, household products and foods were the agents most commonly involved, targeted interventions should take these differences into account in addressing the problem of acute poisoning.

  14. The comparison of the applications of strong ion gap, blood glucose and other indexes in the acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%强离子隙和血糖等指标在急性有机磷农药中毒中的应用比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾旭东; 袁雪丰; 聂时南

    2016-01-01

    目的:比较急性有机磷农药中毒( AOPP)患者的强离子隙( SIG)、血淀粉酶( AMS)、天门冬氨基酸转移酶( AST)、磷酸激酶同工酶( CK-MB)、血糖( BG)等指标与其预后的相关性。方法回顾性研究2014-01~2014-12共69例AOPP患者,根据预后分为生存组和死亡组,比较中毒早期SIG、AMS、AST、CK-MB、BG等指标水平以及其他一般资料结果,并通过分析优势比( odds ratio, OR)以及建立ROC曲线比较SIG、BG等指标对AOPP患者的预后有效性。结果异常的BG较正常的指标有更高的死亡风险,SIG较BG对致死率具有更高意义的ORs(P<0.05)。结论随着早期SIG、BG水平的升高,AOPP患者的死亡风险增加,且SIG对患者死亡预后的预测更有效。%Objective To compare the strong ion gap ( SIG) and AMS, AST, CK-MB, blood glucose ( BG) index predicting the prognosis of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning ( AOPP ) patients. Methods This retrospective study included 69 cases who were diagnosed by AOPP from January to December 2014. According to the prognosis they were divided into death group and survival group. By analyzing the odds ratio (ORs) and establishing ROC curve, we evaluated the effectiveness of SIG and BG in predicting the prognosis of patients with AOPP. Results The abnormal index of blood glucose (P=0. 001) indicated a higher risk of death than the normal index, SIG showed higher ORs for fatality than BG (P <0. 05). In the ROC curve, the area under the curve of the SIG, BG on the prognosis of fatality was 0. 856, 0. 817, respectively. Conclusion With early SIG and BG level increase, the risk of death will increase in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning, and SIG is a more effective marker than index of BG on the prognosis of death.

  15. Comparative Study on the Process Characteristics of Group-acute-poisoning and Sporadic-acute-poisoning in Guangxi Area%广西地区群发性与散发性急性中毒特点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋东方; 胡德宏; 张振明; 刘清华

    2012-01-01

    15 rural hospitals from 11 cities in Guangxi province were divided into group - acute - poisoning group (641 cases ) and sporadic - acute - poisoning group ( 5 369 cases ). Investigating plan and table were formulated by experts to collect poisoning sites ( home, school, working place, restaurants, entertainment places and others ), poisoning reasons ( accidental, occupational, false - feeding, medicine, suicide and others ), poison category ( chemical, pesticide, medical, plants, animal, infection and others ), poisoning degree ( mild, medium and severe ) and efficacy ( cure, sequel and death ). Results The difference of poisoning sites between the two groups were statistically significant ( χ2= 1 408. 57, P = 0. 00 ). The incidence of poisoning at home, school, working place, restaurants and other places between group - acute - poisoning group and sporadic - acute - poisoning group all showed statistically significant differences ( P < 0. 05 ). The difference of poisoning reasons between the two groups were statistically significant ( χ2=527.46, P=0. 00). The incidence of poisoning for accidental, occupational, false -feeding, medical, suicidal and other reasons between the two groups also all showed statistically significant differences ( P < 0. 05 ). The difference of poison categories between the two groups was significant different ( χ2= 1 276. 14, P = 0. 00 ). The incidence of poisoning fell into chemical, pesticide, medical, plants, animal, infection and other categories between the two groups all showed statistically significant differences ( P <0. 05 ). The poisoning degrees between the two groups all showed statistically significant differences ( u = - 12. 50, P = 0. 00 ). The treatment efficacy between the two groups showed no statistically significant difference ( u = - 0. 41, P = 0. 68 ). Conclusion Patients of group - acute - poisoning characterize in its heavy accumulation , unknown poisoning reason and various kinds of poisonous substances with

  16. Acute metheamoglobinemia due to nitrobenzene poisoning: Case series

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    Harish Kumar S, Ujjawal Kumar, Raghavendra Prasad B N, Kiran BJ, Anil Kumar M

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrobenzene is a nitrite compound; its toxic effects are due to its ability to convert hemoglobin to methaemoglobin by oxidizing iron. The clinical features of nitrobenzene poisoning vary based on the concentration of methaemoglobin in blood. Immediate identification based on clinical features, odour of the compound with supporting evidence of increased methaemoglobin levels will help in a timely intervention thus preventing fatal outcome. Early haemodynamic and ventilator support along with administration of methylene blue as an antidote has been proved crucial in saving some lives. An acute nitrobenzene poisoning presenting with methaemoglobinemia is becoming quite common in this part of the country. Here authorsreport a series of cases of nitrobenzene poisoning where immediate clinical evaluation, with repeated intravenous methylene blue saved three patients, but two patients presenting late and with heavy exposure could not be saved

  17. Acute mercury poisoning: a case report

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    Aktas Can

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mercury poisoning can occur as a result of occupational hazard or suicide attempt. This article presents a 36-year-old case admitted to emergency department (ED due to exposure to metallic mercury. Case Presentatıon A 36-year-old woman presented to the ED with a three-day history of abdominal pain, diarrhea and fever. One week ago her daughter had brought mercury in the liquid form from the school. She had put it on the heating stove. One day later, her 14-month old sister baby got fever and died before admission to the hospital. Her blood pressure was 134/87 mmHg; temperature, 40.2°C; heart rate 105 bpm and regular; respiration, 18 bpm; O2 saturation, 96%. Nothing was remarkable on examination and routine laboratory tests. As serine or urinary mercury levels could not be tested in the city, symptomatic chelation treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC was instituted with regard to presumptive diagnosis and history. At the 7th day of admission she was discharged without any sequelae or complaint. At the discharge day blood was drawn and sent for mercury levels which turned out to be 30 μg/dL (normal range: 0 - 10 μg/dL. Conclusion Public education on poisoning and the potential hazards of mercury are of vital importance for community health.

  18. Applied clinical pharmacology and public health in rural Asia – preventing deaths from organophosphorus pesticide and yellow oleander poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Eddleston, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Self-poisoning with pesticides or plants is a major clinical problem in rural Asia, killing several hundred thousand people every year. Over the last 17 years, our clinical toxicology and pharmacology group has carried out clinical studies in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka to improve treatment and reduce deaths. Studies have looked at the effectiveness of anti-digoxin Fab in cardiac glycoside plant poisoning, multiple dose activated charcoal in all poisoning, and pralidoxime in moder...

  19. Transdermal carbamate poisoning – a case of misuse

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    Lalit Kumar Rajbanshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pesticide poisoning is a common mode of intentional self harm. Oral ingestion is the usual mode of poisoning. However, inhalation, accidental or occupational transdermal exposure leading to acute or chronic poisoning can be the other route of poisoning. It has been seen that the purpose of poising is suicidal intensity in most of the cases. We report an unusual case where the victim had acute pesticide poisoning through transdermal route that was intended for non suicidal purpose. The patient was managed successfully with immediate decontamination and adequate antidote.

  20. Hypotension in Severe Dimethoate Self-Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, James; Roberts, Darren; Eyer, Peter; Buckley, Nick; Eddleston, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute self-poisoning with the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide dimethoate has a human case fatality three-fold higher than poisoning with chlorpyrifos despite similar animal toxicity. The typical clinical presentation of severe dimethoate poisoning is quite distinct from that of chlorpyrifos and other OP pesticides: many patients present with hypotension that progresses to shock and death within 12–48 h post-ingestion. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is not clear. Case report...

  1. Poisoning severity score, Glasgow coma scale, corrected QT interval in acute organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdur, Okhan; Durukan, Polat; Ozkan, Seda; Avsarogullari, Levent; Vardar, Alper; Kavalci, Cemil; Ikizceli, Ibrahim

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effectiveness of the poisoning severity score (PSS), Glasgow coma scale (GCS), and corrected QT (QTc) interval in predicting outcomes in acute organophosphates (OP) poisoning. Over a period of 2 years, 62 patients with OP poisoning were admitted to emergency department (ED) of Erciyes University Medical School Hospital. The age, sex, cause of contact, compound involved, time elapsed between exposure and admission to the ED, duration of hospital stay, and cardiac manifestations at the time of presentation were recorded. GCS and poisoning severity score (PSS) was calculated for each patient. Electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis included the rate, rhythm, ST-T abnormalities, conduction defects, and measurement of PR and QT intervals. Sixty-two patients with OP poisoning presented to our ED from January 2007 to December 2008 from which 54 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 34.1 +/- 14.8 years. Of the cases, 53.7% were female. Twenty-six patients had a prolonged QTc interval. Mean PSS of men and women was 1.8 +/- 1.0. No statistically significant correlation was found between the PSS and QTc intervals of the cases. A significant correlation was determined between the GCS and PSS of grade 3 and grade 4 cases. GCS is a parameter that helps clinician to identify advanced grade OP poisoning patients in the initial assessment in the ED. However, ECG findings, such as prolonged QTc interval, are not effective in determination of short-term prognosis and show no relationship with PSS.

  2. An unusual presentation of mad honey poisoning: acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci, Sinan; Arslan, Uğur; Karakurt, Kamber; Cengel, Atiye

    2008-09-26

    An unusual type of food poisoning is commonly seen in the Black Sea coast of Turkey due to grayanotoxin containing toxic honey so called "mad honey" ingestion. In cases of toxication bradycardia and rhythm disturbances are commonly observed. Herein, we present a case of a patient who was admitted to the hospital because of acute myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries after "mad honey" ingestion.

  3. Acute Toxicity of Four Organophosphorus Pesticide Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Acute toxicity of phoxim,acephate,isofenphos-methyl and isocarbophos on male SD rats of clean grade was carried out by gastric lavage method at room temperature of 18℃. These rats are 4 to 5 months old with body weight of 180 to 220 kg. The results indicate that the orders of the toxicity of these four pesticides on SD rats are isofenphos-methyl,isocarbophos,acephate,phoxim. We found that the median lethal concentration of phoxim in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 3. 892 g /kg,3. 051 g /kg,2. 618 g /kg and 2. 458 g /kg respectively; the median lethal concentration of isofenphos-methyl in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 015 g /kg,0. 013g /kg,0. 012g /kg and 0. 011 g /kg respectively; the median lethal concentration of isocarbophos in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 049 g /kg,0. 046 g /kg,0. 043 g /kg,0. 041 g /kg respectively; and the median lethal concentration of acephate in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 137 g /kg,0. 113 g /kg,0. 100 g /kg,0. 085 g /kg respectively. Finally,we evaluated the characteristics of toxicity effect and safe concentration of these pesticides to SD rats.

  4. Early continuous dialysis in acute glyphosate-surfactant poisoning

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    Knežević Violeta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Treating severe acute glyphosate-surfactant poisoning requires intensive therapy including dialysis. Cases of hemoperfusion and hemodialysis use in renal failure induced by herbicide ingestion have been reported in the current medical literature. We present a case report of successful patient treatment with continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration in acute glyphosate-surfactant poisoning. Case Outline. A 36-year-old male patient attempted suicide by drinking approximately 300 ml of glyphosate-surfactant about an hour before coming to our Clinic. On admittance the patient was somnolent, normotensive, acidotic and hyperkalemic. Six hours after poison ingestion there was no positive response to symptomatic and supportive therapy measures. The patient became hypotensive, hypoxic with oliguric acute renal failure, so that post-dilution continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration was started. During the treatment the patient became hemodinamically stabile, diuresis was established along with electrolyte and acid-base status correction and a gradual decrease of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels. After a single 27.5-hour treatment, clinical condition and renal function parameters did not require further dialysis. Complete recovery of renal function was achieved on the fifth day. Conclusion. Early introduction of continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration with other intensive therapy measures led to complete recovery in a hemodinamically instable patient.

  5. Renal cortex copper concentration in acute copper poisoning in calves

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    Luis E. Fazzio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the diagnostic value of renal cortex copper (Cu concentration in clinical cases of acute copper poisoning (ACP. A total of 97 calves that died due to subcutaneous copper administration were compiled in eleven farms. At least, one necropsy was conducted on each farm and samples for complementary analysis were taken. The degree of autolysis in each necropsy was evaluated. The cases appeared on extensive grazing calf breeding and intensive feedlot farms, in calves of 60 to 200 kg body weight. Mortality varied from 0.86 to 6.96 %, on the farms studied. The first succumbed calf was found on the farms between 6 and 72 hours after the susbcutaneous Cu administration. As discrepancies regarding the reference value arose, the local value (19.9 parts per million was used, confirming the diagnosis of acute copper poisoning in 93% of the analyzed kidney samples. These results confirm the value of analysis of the cortical kidney Cu concentration for the diagnosis of acute copper poisoning.

  6. Optimization of Treatment Policy for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

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    R. N. Akalayev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of combination use of hyperbaric oxygenation, succinate-containing solutions, and anti-edematous agents in patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Subjects and methods. The results of treatment were analyzed in 32 patients admitted in 2009—2011 for severe acute carbon monoxide poisoning and a Glasgow coma score of 6—8. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 patients whose combination therapy involved hyperbaric oxygenation, Succinasol infusions, and L-lysine-aescinate injections; 2 those who received traditional therapy. All the patients underwent complex clinical, laboratory, and neurophysiologic examinations. Results. Just 24 hours after the combination use of Succinasol and L-lysine-aescinate, Group I patients were observed to have substantially reduced lactate, the content of the latter approached the normal value following 48 hours, which was much below the values in the control group. The similar pattern was observed when endogenous intoxication parameters were examined. During the performed therapy, the level of consciousness and that of intellect according to the MMSE and FAB scales were restored more rapidly in the study group patients than in Group 2. Conclusion. The combination use of hyperbaric oxygenation, the succinate-containing solution Succinasol, and the anti-edematous agent L-lysine-aescinate considerably enhances the efficiency of intensive therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Key words: carbon monoxide, toxic hypoxic encephalopathy, combination therapy, hyperbaric oxygenation, succinic acid, L-lysine-aescinate.

  7. Reaching for the bottle of pesticide--a cry for help. Self-inflicted poisonings in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Flemming; Hoek, Wim van der; Peiris, Pushpalatha

    2005-01-01

    This long-term study in Sri Lanka explored the complexities behind self-inflicted pesticide poisonings by 166 Sri Lankans. Using or threatening to use pesticides for self-harm has become a response to stressful events and a powerful message towards a specific individual, or to the outside world....... Also, issues around "love affairs," arranged marriages and domestic physical, sexual or psychological abuse in the domestic environment are referred to by many self-harmers or their relatives as a reason for ingesting poison. Clearly, easy access to lethal pesticides by impulsive individuals often...

  8. 急性百草枯中毒的救治体会%Treatment experience of acute paraquat poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兴勤; 杨庆忠; 张晓娟; 马丽; 田建元

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨急性百草枯(paraquat,PQ)中毒的治疗方法.方法 对12例急性百草枯中毒住院患者的治疗效果与转归进行回顾性分析.结果 5例患者存活,占41.2%;4例自动出院,占33.3%;3例患者临床死亡,占25.0%.结论 急性百草枯农药中毒可以导致多脏器损害;早期积极治疗可以降低患者死亡率.%Objective In this study,we investigated the treatment methods in order to reduce mortality in acute paraquat poisoning. Methods The retrospective analysis was made on clinical data of 12 patients with oral paraquat poisoning in our hospital. Results 5 cases survived,4 cases discharged and 3 cases died. Conclusion Acute paraquat pesticide poisoning can cause multiple organ damage. The early aggressive therapy can reduce mortality in acute paraquat poisoning.

  9. 活性炭和甘露醇联合应用对急性有机磷农药中毒的疗效%Effect of joint of activated charcoal and mannitol on the efficacy of treating acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段新旺; 黄亮; 赖谋锋

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of oral administration of activated charcoal and mannitol on removing toxicant after acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). Method A total of 41 patients with severe AOPP were randomly divided into experiment group (activated charcoal used as adsorbent and mannitol used as cathartics, n =21)and control group (without adsorbent and cathartics, n = 20). Patients of both groups received routine treatment for AOPP after admission to hospital. The differences in duration of atropinization, the length of hospitalization and the success rate of treatment were compared between two groups. Results There were significant differences in duration of atropinization, the success rate of treatment and hospitalization time between the two groups. Conclusions The combination of activated charcoal and mannitol is more effective than the conventional gastric lavage on removal of organophosphorus pesticides from G-I tract, shorting the duration of atropinization time and hospital stays, and enhancing the success rate of rescue as well as improving the outcome of patients after organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.%目的 探讨口服活性炭和甘露醇对急性有机磷农药中毒(AOPP)的毒物清除作用.方法 2004年1月至2009年12月南昌大学第一附属医院收治的41例重症AOPP患者随机分为试验组(活性炭吸附毒物和甘露醇导泻治疗组,n=21)和对照组(未用活性炭吸附毒物和甘露醇导泻治疗组,n=20).两组患者均进行AOPP急救常规治疗,观察两组患者阿托品化时间、抢救成功率和住院时间的差异.结果 试验组阿托品化时间、抢救成功率和住院时间与对照组比较差异[(3.60±1.6)h vs.(17.5±13.4)h;(4.1±1.45)d vs.(8.00±2.13)d;100% vs.(70.0±4.7)]均有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 活性炭和甘露醇联合应用较传统洗胃法更能有效清除进入体内的有机磷农药,且能缩短患者阿托品化时间和住院时间,进一步提

  10. To identify morbidity and mortality predictors in acute organophosphate poisoning

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    Arti Muley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphorus poisoning remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality, but no definite parameters have been identified as predictors of outcome. Prediction of morbidity at presentation might help in decision making in places of limited resources like rural settings in developing countries. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 cases were included in this retrospective cohort study. Logged relative risk of requirement of mechanical ventilation and hospital stay >7 days was measured in patients with serum acetylcholinesterase (s. acetylcholinesterase 1000, presenting in 12 and in patients with SpO 2 7 days. Conclusion: S. acetylcholinesterase, SpO 2 at room air, GCS, and duration of exposure at presentation can be used to identify the requirement of special care in acute organophosphorus poisoning. This can aid in decision making regarding admission to intensive care unit and referral in the places with limited resources.

  11. Effect of Intensive Atropine Doses (Rapid Incremental Loading and Titration for Management of Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning: a Case Series

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    Abu Saleh Ahmed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Acute poisoning with organophosphorus (OP pesticides is a common method of suicide and entails considerable mortality in Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and outcomes of a protocol for treatment of OP poisoning that included titrated incremental atropine as loading dose and slow infusion for maintenance.  Methods:In this prospective descriptive case series, definitive OP poisoned patients were enrolled in an adult medicine unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from April 2006 to April 2007. Clinical examinations were done as soon as the patient entered the ward. Patient’s demographics, comorbid conditions and the occurrence of specific clinical outcomes including death, need for assisted ventilation and clinical complications were recorded. The patients were treated according to the protocol. Results: A total of 56 patients were enrolled over the study period. The median age of the study population was 22.5 years. Most patients were men (67.8%. The most common clinical presentation was miosis (58.9%. In total, 11 patients died (19.6%. Intermediate syndrome developed in 12 patients (21.4% and 6 of them died. Assisted ventilation was required in 16 cases (28.5. Patients with diastolic blood pressure ≤ 70 mmHg and/or GCS ≤ 10 were significantly less likely to survive (P = 0.02, 0.006, respectively. Moreover, early respiratory failure (P < 0.001 and the need for assisted ventilation (P < 0.001 were significantly higher among deceased cases. The mortality rate in this study was similar to previous studies. The frequency of atropine toxicity in the present study (1.8% was considerably lower than conventional regimen used in previous studies. Conclusion:Using the new protocol, lower rate of atropine toxicity developed in victims. Hence, the new protocol appears to be safer and its effectiveness should be further evaluated in case control studies in Bangladesh.    How to cite this article: Ahmed AS

  12. Do Bolivian small holder farmers improve and retain knowledge to reduce occupational pesticide poisonings after training on Integrated Pest Management?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Lander, Flemming; Huici, Omar

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pesticide consumption is increasing in Bolivia as well as pest resistance, pesticide poisonings and pollution of the environment. This survey evaluates the training of small holder farmers on pesticide handling and ecological alternatives to reduce the negative pesticide effects. METHOD...... in 'knowledge, attitude and practice' (KAP) on IPM and symptoms of poisoning when handling pesticides. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 21.0 using χ2-test, Cochran's Q test and Student's T-test. RESULTS: Improvements were seen in both groups but most significant among the FFS farmers...... as in most low-income countries and must be encouraged to support an improved and sustainable food production and to protect the health of farmers and consumers as well as the environment....

  13. 国内延长胃管插入长度抢救急性有机磷农药中毒效果的Meta分析%A Meta-analysis for the rescue effects of sever acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning by different of length of gastric lavage tube in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛仁丹吉; 伏旭; 马晓红; 贺莉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the rescue effects for sever acute organophosphate pesticide poison (AOPP) by different length of gastric lavage tube .Method The Cochrane library(1994 to March ,2014) ,VIP (1994 to March , 2014) ,CBM (1994 to March ,2014) and Wanfang (1994 to March ,2014) was searched to identify randomized con‐trolled trials (RCTs) related to length of gastric lavage tube for sever AOPP .The quality of included studies as as‐sessed and data analyses were performed by RevMan 5 .0 .Result 9 RCTs involving 1440 patients were included .The results showed that prolong the length of gastric lavage tube for sever AOPP are better than traditional gastric lav‐age in the first gastric lavage time[OR= -0 .38 ,95% CI(-0 .40 , -0 .35)] ,total gastric lavage time[OR=-7 .22 ,95% CI(-7 .67 ,-6 .77)] ,blood gastric juice[OR=0 .16 ,95% CI(0 .09 ,0 .30)] ,abdominal pain[OR=0 .22 ,95% CI(0 .14 ,0 .34)]Conclusion Prolong length of gastric lavage tube for sever AOPP can increase the rescue effect in patients .%目的:评价延长胃管插入长度抢救急性有机磷农药中毒(Acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning , AOPP)患者的效果。方法计算机检索CNKI数据库(1994~2014.3)、VIP数据库(1989~2014.3)、CBMdisc数据库(1980~2014.3)、万方数据库(1998~2014.3),收集延长胃管插入长度后抢救AOPP患者的所有随机对照实验(RCT),按照Cochrane系统评价的方法,纳入符合标准的 RCT ,评价纳入研究的质量,采用RevMan5.0软件进行M eta分析。结果共纳入9个RC T ,共计1440例患者。M eta分析显示:延长胃管插入长度在首次洗出液时间[OR=-0.38,95% CI(-0.40,-0.35)]、总洗胃时间[OR=-7.22,95% CI(-7.67,-6.77)]、发生血性洗出液[OR=0.16,95% CI(0.09,0.30)]、发生上腹不适[OR=0.22,95% CI(0.14,0.34)]均优于传统洗胃胃管插入长度。结论延长

  14. Is there a relationship between the WHO hazard classification of organophosphate pesticide and outcomes in suicidal human poisoning with commercial organophosphate formulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, John Victor; Jerobin, Jayakumar; Nair, Anupama; Bennett, Anjana

    2010-06-01

    The WHO classification of pesticides by hazard is based primarily on the acute oral and dermal toxicity to rats. In several Asian countries there is no legislation against the sale of Class I insecticides. We evaluated if there was an association between the WHO hazard Class I, II or III organophosphate compound and outcomes in human poisoning. Two-hundred and fifty-one patients with mean (SD) age of 30.4 (11.8) years, admitted with symptomatic poisoning and treated with atropine and supportive care, were followed up until death or hospital discharge. The admission pseudocholinesterase level of 818.8 (1368) IU/L indicated significant suppression of cholinesterase activity. Class I compounds were ingested by 126, Class II by 113 and Class III by 12 patients. The hospital mortality rate was 16.7%, 5.3% and 0% with Class I, II and III organophosphate compounds, respectively (P=0.01). Ventilatory requirements were higher with Class I compared with Class II poisoning (77.0% vs. 54.9%, Ppoisoning needed mechanical ventilation for a longer period (10.55 (7.4) vs. 7.0 (5.2) days, P=0.002). The linear relationship between the WHO hazard class and mortality in acute organophosphate poisoning mandates the restriction of the sale of organophosphate compounds associated with higher lethality amongst humans.

  15. Analysis of 20 cases of the treatment effect of acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%重度有机磷农药中毒20例综合救治效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓鸣; 杨帆

    2013-01-01

    Objective: analysis of 20 patients with severe organophosphate poisoning effect of comprehensive treatment. Methods: a retrospective analysis of 2010 May ~2012 year in May in our hospital, the clinical data of 20 cases of AOPP patients with comprehensive treatment. Results: The implementation of comprehensive treatment on AOPP poisoning patients, can effectively improve the success rate of product, save the lives of patients.%目的探究重度有机磷农药中毒20例综合救治效果分析。方法回顾性分析2010年5月~2012年5月期间我院收治的20例AOPP患者综合治疗的临床资料。结果治愈率90%,死亡率10%。结论对AOPP中毒患者实施综合救治措施,可有效积提高抢救成功率,挽救患者的生命。

  16. Acute arsenic poisoning: clinical, toxicological, histopathological, and forensic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournel, Gilles; Houssaye, Cédric; Humbert, Luc; Dhorne, Christine; Gnemmi, Viviane; Bécart-Robert, Anne; Nisse, Patrick; Hédouin, Valéry; Gosset, Didier; Lhermitte, Michel

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a suicide case by acute arsenic intoxication via intravenous injection. A 30-year-old woman injected arsenic As (V) (sodium arseniate disodique: Disodium Hydrogena Arsenik RP) in a successful suicide attempt. Three hours following administration, the woman developed severe digestive symptoms. She was admitted to a hospital and transferred to the intensive care unit within 12 h of the massive administration of arsenic. Despite therapeutic efforts, over the next 2 h she developed multiorgan failure and died. A postmortem examination was performed. Pulmonary edema and congestion of liver were apparent. As (V) and As (III) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after mineralization of samples by concentrated nitric acid. Toxicological analysis revealed high concentrations of arsenic in biological fluids as well as in organs. Histopathological examination showed a typical indication of myocarditis. These findings were in agreement with acute arsenic poisoning. The symptoms developed by this young woman (intoxication by intravenous administration) were comparable to oral intoxication. The clinical signs, survival time, and administration type are discussed in light of the literature on acute and chronic arsenic poisoning.

  17. Acute lead poisoning in two users of illicit methamphetamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allcott, J.V. III; Barnhart, R.A.; Mooney, L.A.

    1987-07-31

    Acute lead poisoning can present a difficult diagnostic dilemma, with symptoms that mimic those of hepatitis, nephritis, and encephalopathy. The authors report two cases in intravenous methamphetamine users who presented with abnormal liver function values, low hematocrit values, basophilic stippling of red blood cells, and elevated blood lead levels. Both patients excreted large amounts of lead in their urine after treatment with edetic acid, followed by resolution of their symptoms. Lead contamination was proved in one drug sample. Basophilic stippling of the red blood cells was the one key laboratory result that led to the definitive diagnosis in both cases.

  18. Acute cyanide poisoning among jewelry and textile industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coentrão, Luís; Moura, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Limited work has focused on occupational exposures that may increase the risk of cyanide poisoning by ingestion. A retrospective chart review of all admissions for acute cyanide poisoning by ingestion for the years 1988 to 2008 was conducted in a tertiary university hospital serving the largest population in the country working in jewelry and textile facilities. Of the 9 patients admitted to the hospital during the study period, 8 (7 males, 1 female; age 36 ± 11 years, mean ± SD) attempted suicide by ingestion of potassium cyanide used in their profession as goldsmiths or textile industry workers. Five patients had severe neurologic impairment and severe metabolic acidosis (pH 7.02 ± 0.08, mean ± SD) with high anion gap (23 ± 4 mmol/L, mean ± SD). Of the 5 severely intoxicated patients, 3 received antidote therapy (sodium thiosulfate or hydroxocobalamin) and resumed full consciousness in less than 8 hours. All patients survived without major sequelae. Cyanide intoxication by ingestion in our patients was mainly suicidal and occurred in specific jobs where potassium cyanide is used. Metabolic acidosis with high anion is a good surrogated marker of severe cyanide poisoning. Sodium thiosulfate and hydroxocobalamin are both safe and effective antidotes.

  19. Prediction of patient survival in cases of acute paraquat poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae-Yong Hong

    Full Text Available Paraquat concentration-time data have been used to predict the clinical outcome following ingestion. However, these studies have included only small populations, although paraquat poisoning has a very high mortality rate. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and reliable model to predict survival according to the time interval post-ingestion in patients with acute paraquat poisoning. Data were retrospectively collected for patients who were admitted with paraquat poisoning to Soonchunhyang University Choenan Hospital between January 2005 and December 2012. Plasma paraquat levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. To validate the model we developed, we used external data from 788 subjects admitted to the Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju, Korea, between January 2007 and December 2012. Two thousand one hundred thirty six patients were included in this study. The overall survival rate was 44% (939/2136. The probability of survival for any specified time and concentration could be predicted as (exp(logit/(1+exp(logit, where logit = 1.3544+[-3.4688 × log10(plasma paraquat μg/M[Formula: see text

  20. Prediction of patient survival in cases of acute paraquat poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sae-Yong; Lee, Ji-Sung; Sun, In O; Lee, Kwang-Young; Gil, Hyo-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat concentration-time data have been used to predict the clinical outcome following ingestion. However, these studies have included only small populations, although paraquat poisoning has a very high mortality rate. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and reliable model to predict survival according to the time interval post-ingestion in patients with acute paraquat poisoning. Data were retrospectively collected for patients who were admitted with paraquat poisoning to Soonchunhyang University Choenan Hospital between January 2005 and December 2012. Plasma paraquat levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. To validate the model we developed, we used external data from 788 subjects admitted to the Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju, Korea, between January 2007 and December 2012. Two thousand one hundred thirty six patients were included in this study. The overall survival rate was 44% (939/2136). The probability of survival for any specified time and concentration could be predicted as (exp(logit))/(1+exp(logit)), where logit = 1.3544+[-3.4688 × log10(plasma paraquat μg/M[Formula: see text])]+[-2.3169 × log10(hours since ingestion)]. The external validation study showed that our model was highly accurate for the prediction of survival (C statics 0.964; 95% CI [0.952-0.975]). We have developed a model that is effective for predicting survival after paraquat intoxication.

  1. Effects of atropine and penehyclidine with different opportunity combination on severe acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning%阿托品与长托宁不同时机联合对重度急性有机磷农药中毒疗效的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张随玉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the influence of atropine,penehyclidine with different opportunity combination on severe acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning (AOPP).Methods Eighty-nine cases of severe AOPP patients were divided into two groups randomly:began joint group (43 cases) and atropinization combination group (46 cases).The began joint group immediately treated with atropine,penehyclidine at hospital admission.The atropinization combination group combined atropine with penehyclidine to maintain atropinization state after reaching atropinization with atropine.Dynamically observe the changes of CHE activity,recorded the number of poisoning rebound,atropine poisoning,intermediate syndrome,death and atropinization time,length of stay,the clinical efficacy of two groups were analyzed.Results Compared with the begain joint group,in the atropinization combination group the time of atropinization,CHE activity resumed to 50% and hospitalization was obviously shortened [atropinization time:(54.6-± 18.3) min to (65.3 ± 23.1) min (P < 0.01),CHE activity resumed 50% time (4.2 ±1.9)d to (5.3 ±2.6)d (P<0.05),hospital stays:(15.1 ±5.6)d to (18.2 ±6.8) d (P<0.05),poisoning rebound,atropine poisoning incidence was lower poisoning rebound:2.1% to 13.9%,atropine poisoning:4.3% to 18.6% (P < 0.05).IMS incidence,mortality have no significant difference average,(P > 0.05).Conclusions After quickly reached atropinization with atropine,small doses of penehyclidine and the joint use of atropine maintain atropinization state treatment of severe AOPP can reduce the incidence of complications,patients smoothly through dangerous period,reduce hospital stays and cut down medical costs.%目的 观察阿托品、长托宁在不同治疗时机联合对重度急性有机磷农药中毒(AOPP)疗效的影响.方法 将89例重度AOPP患者,随机分为开始联合组(43例)及阿托品化联合组(46例),开始联合组在入院后即行阿托品、长托宁联合治疗,

  2. Clinical analysis of 206 cases of acute poisoning in children%206例小儿急性中毒的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭庆明; 邹卫红; 郭毅; 贺丽梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the etiology and clinical characteristics of pediatric acute poisoning. Methods The clinical data of 206 cases of acute poisoning in children in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Results In 206 patients with poisoning,90 cases (43.7%) were food poisoning,45 cases (21.8%) with drug poisoning, 30 cases (14.6%)of pesticide poisoning,18 cases (8.7%) of rodenticide poisoning,12 cases (5.8%)of chemical poisoning,11 cases (5.3%) of CO poisoning;among them 191 cases were cured or improved,6 cases of death, transferred 5 cases,4 cases gave up treatment. Conclusion Pediatric acute poisoning involving children of all ages,the number of rural areas is more than urban,and most of the digestive tract poisoning,to eating, wrongly as much;prevention and treatment of acute poisoning in children should be based on prevention,treatment time is the key to treatment of acute poisoning.%目的:了解小儿急性中毒的病因及临床特点。方法回顾性分析对本院206例急性中毒患儿的临床资料。结果在206例中毒患儿中,食物中毒90例(43.7%),药物中毒45例(21.8%),农药中毒30例(14.6%),鼠药中毒18例(8.7%),化学品中毒12例(5.8%),CO中毒11例(5.3%);其中治愈好转191例,死亡6例,转院5例,放弃治疗4例。结论小儿急性中毒涉及儿童各年龄段,农村多于城镇,且绝大多数经消化道中毒,以误食、误服为多;小儿急性中毒的防治应以预防为主,救治开始时间是急性中毒抢救治疗的关键。

  3. Cases of acute poisoning admitted to Clinical Hospital Merkur in Zagreb in 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prkacin, I; Vujanić, S; Dabo, N; Palcić, I; Naumovski-Mihalić, S

    2001-11-01

    This paper describes 170 cases of acute poisoning in 60 men and 110 women admitted to emergency room from January through November 1999. Ninety-eight percent of acute poisonings were self-inflicted, and 90% occurred at home. Drugs were used in 134 (79%) suicide attempts. Eighty-one acute poisonings were caused by benzodiazepines (48%) and 19 by antidepressants (11%). Alcohol intoxication, alone or combined with the intake of psychoactive drug (28 cases, 16%) predominated in men. Cocaine was the most common narcotic drug, taken by 31 patients (16%). Other acute poisonings involved ecstasy (4 cases), CO (6 cases), and HCl inhalation (2 cases). Previous suicide attempts due to depression were found in 68 patients (40%). Fifty patients (29%) were comatose on admission, 24 were transferred to intensive care, and 3 died. Data such as these can be very useful for handling self-inflicted acute poisonings and for planning long-term health care activities.

  4. A hospital base epidemiology and pattern of acute adult poisoning across Iran: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Malihe; Ghaemi, Kazem; Mehrpour, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Poisoning is one of the most important health issues in the world. There is no exact statistic regarding the epidemiology of poisoning in Iran. The aim of this systematic review was to study the epidemiology of poisoning of adults in Iran. Methods All the published papers regarding the epidemiology and patterns of adult poisonings in different parts of Iran were reviewed in bibliographical databases, including SID, Iran Medex, Medlib, Magiran and Embase, Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar, without time limitation up to March 21, 2016. We searched for the terms poisoning, Iran, and epidemiology. After the final analysis, 38 articles that fulfilled all the required conditions were selected. Result In this article, we show that in most Iranian cities, except Ahvaz, pharmaceutical drugs, especially psychiatric pharmaceutical drugs, are the most common cause of poisoning in adults. In the Southwest region of Iran, poisoning due to envenomation is a very common. Although pesticide and opioid poisonings are less common, they are an important cause of death due to poisoning in Iran. Conclusion Pharmaceutical drugs are the most common cause of poisoning in most Iranian cities and it is recommended not to store pharmaceutical drugs at home and to set special rules regarding proper description of pharmaceutical drugs. More public health instruction is essential in the Southwest cities of Iran in order to reduce animal poisonings. PMID:27790337

  5. Severe acute caffeine poisoning due to intradermal injections: Mesotherapy hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Caffeine is indicated in the treatment of migraine headaches, as well as neonatal apnea and bradycardia syndrome. In mild poisoning, the most prevalent symptoms are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, tremor, anxiety and headache. In more severe cases, symptoms consist of heart rythym abnormalities, myocardial infarction and seizures. Due to its common lipolytic effect, caffeine is used in mesotherapy, usually in combination with drugs of similar effect. We presented a patient with acute iatrogenic caffeine poisoning. Case report. A 51-year-old woman, with preexisting hypertension and hypertensive cardiomyopathy was subjected to cosmetic treatment in order to remove fat by intradermal caffeine injections. During the treatment the patient felt sickness, an urge to vomit, and a pronounced deterioration of general condition. Upon examination, the patient exhibited somnolence, hypotension and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, which was sufficient enough evidence for further hospitalization. On admission to the intensive care unit the patient was anxious with increased heart rate, normotensive, with cold, damp skin, and visible traces of injection sites with surrounding hematomas on the anterior abdominal wall. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT on electrocardiographic monitoring was found. The laboratory analysis determined a lowered potassium level of 2.1 mmol/L (normal range 3,5 - 5.2 mmol/L, and a toxicological analysis (liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection proved a toxic concentration of caffeine in plasma - 85.03 mg/L (toxic concentration over 25 mg/L. On application of intensive therapy, antiarrhythmics, and substitution of potassium, as well as both symptomatic and supportive therapy, there was a significant recovery. The patient was discharged without any sequele within four days. Conclusion. A presented rare iatrogenic acute caffeine poisoning occured due to massive absorption of caffeine from the

  6. Pattern and outcome of acute poisoning cases in a tertiary care hospital in Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesha K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Acute poisoning is a medical emergency. It is important to know the nature, severity and outcome of acute poisoning cases in order to take up appropriate planning, prevention and management techniques. This study aimed to assess the pattern and outcome of acute poisoning cases in a tertiary care hospital in Karnataka. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective hospital record-based study conducted in a tertiary care hospital attached to a medical institution in Karnataka. The study included 136 cases and data regarding age, sex, time elapsed after intake; circumstances of poisoning, name of the poisonous substance, chemical type, duration of hospitalization, severity and outcome were collected in the prestructured proforma. Results: Incidence was more common among males (75.4% compared to females (24.3. Most cases of acute poisoning presented among 20- to 29-year age group (31.2% followed by 12- to 19-year age group (30.2%. A majority of poisoning cases (36.0% were due to organophosphorus compound (OPC. Total mortality was found to be 15.4%. Mortality rate due to corrosives was significantly high compared with OPC poisoning (χ2 = 4.12, P = 0.04. Of the 56 patients of OPC and carbamate poisoning, 13 patients (23.2% had respiratory arrest and required respiratory support. Time lapse had a significant role on the mortality in cases of acute poisoning (χ2 = 10.9, P = 0.01. Conclusion: Poisoning is more common in young males. The overall mortality is substantially high, mainly contributed by self-poisoning with insecticides and corrosives. Early care in a tertiary care center may help to reduce mortality in India.

  7. [Decontamination and antidotes in acute cases of poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Züst, Ariane; Rauber-Lüthy, Christine

    2009-05-01

    In acute poisoning the maintenance or reconstitution of vital functions is the first and most critical action. All subsequent therapies and the prognosis depend on the identification of the causative agent and on information about substance-specific toxicity. Despite incomplete evidence the concept of harm reduction by decreased absorption of the toxicants and by shortening the course of illness is consistent with toxicokinetic-dynamic principles and is therefore still used by clinical toxicologists. All these treatment options have to be seen within the context of the prognosis and the time course of an individual case of poisoning. Treatment options of gastrointestinal decontamination are (in decreasing order of importance) single-dose activated charcoal, whole bowel irritation, and gastric lavage. Induced emesis by ipecac syrup is not practiced anymore. Enhanced elimination techniques are multiple-dose activated charcoal, urine alkalinization, and extracorporeal techniques such as hemodialysis and hemoperfusion. Enhanced elimination is only beneficial in toxicants with long half-life. Antidotes are directed against specific agents and therefore may be used only in a limited number of cases. The procurement of specific antidotes, often hardly available and not approved, is facilitated if the supply is organized in a transparent and standardized manner.

  8. Impulsive but fatal self-poisoning with pesticides among south asians in Nickerie, Suriname. An exploratory autopsy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, van B.A.J.; Graafsma, T.; Dullaart, H.I.A.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Intentional self-poisoning with pesticides is a serious problem in many developing countries. It is a commonly used method among South Asians all over the world. Aims: To describe the circumstances and characteristics of suicides in Nickerie, Suriname, in order to gain insight into why S

  9. Do Bolivian small holder farmers improve and retain knowledge to reduce occupational pesticide poisonings after training on Integrated Pest Management?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Lander, Flemming; Huici, Omar;

    2014-01-01

    in 'knowledge, attitude and practice' (KAP) on IPM and symptoms of poisoning when handling pesticides. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 21.0 using χ2-test, Cochran's Q test and Student's T-test. RESULTS: Improvements were seen in both groups but most significant among the FFS farmers...

  10. [Resuscitation in acute poisonings based on 2005 and 2010 Resuscitation Guideline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheta, Alicja; Pach, Janusz; Andres, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Acute poisonings in USA are a leading cause of cardiac arrest, especially in youngsters. Primary survey and cardiopulmonary resuscitation for poisoning is based on ABCDE procedure. One of the most common manifestation of acute poisoning is coma. An open airway should be ensured. Endotracheal intubation should be performed by an experienced person. The mouth-to mouth method of artificial respiration can be applied ultimately. In case of cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, organophosphates and corrosives poisonings a special caution is needed and pocket mask or self-inflating bag with a face mask should be rather used. A quick poison identification and a contact with regional poison information centre regarding patient management are crucial. Different procedures include prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  11. Mortality from and incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea: findings from National Death and Health Utilization Data between 2006 and 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Shil Cha

    Full Text Available Pesticide poisoning has been recognized as an important public health issue around the world. The objectives of this study were to report nationally representative figures on mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea and to describe their epidemiologic characteristics. We calculated the age-standardized rates of mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea by gender and region from 2006 through 2010 using registered death data obtained from Statistics Korea and national healthcare utilization data obtained from the National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of South Korea. During the study period of 2006 through 2010, a total of 16,161 deaths and 45,291 patients related to pesticide poisoning were identified, marking respective mortality and incidence rates of 5.35 and 15.37 per 100,000 population. Intentional self-poisoning was identified as the major cause of death due to pesticides (85.9% and accounted for 20.8% of all recorded suicides. The rates of mortality due to and incidence of pesticide poisoning were higher in rural than in urban areas, and this rural-urban discrepancy was more pronounced for mortality than for incidence. Both the rate of mortality due to pesticide poisoning and its incidence rate increased with age and were higher among men than women. This study provides the magnitude and epidemiologic characteristics for mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning at the national level, and strongly suggests the need for further efforts to prevent pesticide self-poisonings, especially in rural areas in South Korea.

  12. Analysis of Nine Cases of Acute Thallium Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiwei; HUANG Xiaojiang; LIU Liang

    2007-01-01

    In this study nine cases of thallium poisoning in a series of homicidal poisoning were analyzed in order to provide more information concerning thallium poisoning. It was found that the most common clinical feature of thallium poisoning was peripheral neuropathy and paraesthesia was more common than amyasthenia. Understanding of these clinical characteristics of thallium poisoning was helpful to early identification and differential diagnosis. Since the early administration of Prussian Blue, as a specific antidote for thallium poisoning, can substantially improve the prognosis, it is of great importance to establish a correct and early diagnosis.

  13. Acute methaemoglobinaemia initially treated as organophosphate poisoning leading to atropine toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Kakhandki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of unknown compound poisoning is presented. It was initially treated as organophosphate poisoning with lack of response. A timely diagnosis of acute methaemoglobinaemia and iatrogenic atropine toxicity was made based on clinical evaluation. Treatment of methaemoglobinaemia using oral methylene blue and of atropine toxicity with supportive measures could save the patient.

  14. Causes of Acute Poisoning Hospital admission in Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Yasuj, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mohammad Hosseini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: About 7% of patient referred to hospital are various forms of poisoning. This study was performed to determine the major causes of acute poisoning leading to Hospitalization at Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Yasuj, Iran. Methods: This descriptive study was performed from August 2007 to July 2008 on 470 cases of poisonings referred to Shahid Beheshti hospital of Yasuj. Demographic characteristics, time of poisoning, poisoning factor, history of previous poisoning, history of psychiatric disease, medication and other therapeutic intervention based on questionnaires and interviews with patients or companions of patients were recorded. Data were analyzed by Chi-Square Test. Results: Majority of poisoned patients were single females, in the age range of 21-30 years, unemployed, lived in urban areas, and had at least a diploma. The majority of cases were intentional poisoning with a history of depression, previous poisoning and attempted suicide. Significant relationship were seen between poisoning, age, sex, and job, (p0.05. Conclusion: With respect to the results of this study, the majority of these poisonings occurred among young, single and unemployed females due to suicide and drug intoxication. Necessary actions should be done in drug usage and maintenance, taking action against non-prescription drugs and giving proper public education to families.

  15. [Acute gamma-butyrolactone poisoning with withdrawal syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwaluk, Paweł; Rejmak, Grazyna

    2011-01-01

    Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) is a solvent that are part of many consumer products and in most countries can be legally purchased in the form of almost pure substance. After ingestion GBL is rapidly converted to gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). In recent years, GBL became a legal alternative to GHB, which is used widely since 1990s as a club drug and date rape drug. It is believed that abuse of GBL is not frequent in Europe, except for certain specific groups, mainly in urban centers in the west of the continent. We present a case of acute GBL poisoning with the withdrawal syndrome in 23-year-old man living in a rural area in eastern Poland. The patient was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) because of coma of unknown origin. On admission erosions of the lips and mouth was seen. Ethyl alcohol was not present in blood sample, urine screening tests for drugs were negative. During his stay in the ICU patient required ventilatory support, was periodically agitated with muscular jerks and opisthotonos. The later medical history revealed that the patient from two years used GBL, which purchased as wheels cleaner. The tolerance developed, and the interruption of use of substance triggered symptoms of withdrawal. GBL abuse occurs in different social groups and is at risk for acute toxicity and the development of physical dependence.

  16. Reversible brain damage following acute organic solvents' poisoning determined by magnetic resonance

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. Acute exposure to the effects of volatile solvents is characterized by the abrupt onset of symptoms and signs of poisoning, and relatively fast recovery in the majority of cases. Case report. We report a 24-year-old patient with an acute, accidental poisoning with a mixture of volatile organic solvents (most probably toluene, styrene and xylene), which led to the development of upward gaze paresis, diplopia, hemiparesis, ataxic gate, and the late onset truncal ataxia episodes. A...

  17. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... team will provide additional treatment. They can use methods to get rid of the poison before it causes more harm. Some types of poison have antidotes. These work by reversing the poison’s effects and curing it. Treatment also includes measures to relieve symptoms. ...

  18. Neurological Effects of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun YARAR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity due to poisoning in all over the world. Although the incidence of COP has not been known exactly in the childhood, almost one-third of CO exposures occurred in children. The data regarding COP in children are inconclusive. Children may be more vulnerable to CO exposure than adults as a result of their high respiration and metabolic rates, high oxygen metabolism, and immature central nervous system. Recent researches proposed new theories about neurological effects of CO toxicity. The clinical presentations associated acute COP may be various and nonspecific. Unrecognized CO exposure may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. CO exposed children often become symptomatic earlier, and recover more rapidly, than similarly CO exposed adults. Mild clinical signs and symptoms associated with COP are headache, dizziness, weakness, lethargy, and myalgia; however, severe signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, syncope, convulsion, coma, cardiopulmonary arrest and death can also accompany with COP. Neurologic manifestations can include altered mental status at different degrees, neck stiffness, tremor, ataxia, and positive Babinski's sign. Delayed neurologic sequels (DNS of COP might be seen in children like adults. DNS symptoms and signs in children include memory problems, mental retardation, mutism, fecal and urinary incontinence, motor deficits, facial palsy, psychosis, chronic headache, seizures, and epilepsy. After CO exposure children must be cared to detect and treat DNS. Although hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is reported to prevent development of DNS, its indications, application duration and procedures are controversial in both of the children and adults. Although their predictive values are limited, exposing to CO more than eight hours and suffering from CO-induced coma, cardiac arrest, lactic acidosis, high COHb levels, and pathologic findings

  19. Using poisons information service data to assess the acute harms associated with novel psychoactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, D M; Hill, S L; Thomas, S H L; Dargan, P I

    2014-01-01

    Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) can cause significant acute toxicity but usually little is known about their toxicity when they enter the recreational drug scene. Current data sources include online user forums, user questionnaires, case reports/series, and deaths; however, these are limited by their focus on sub-populations and generally include severe cases and specific geographical areas. Approximately 54% of countries have at least one poisons information service (in 2012 there were 274 worldwide) providing advice to healthcare professionals and/or the public on poisoning. They provide advice on recreational drug and NPS toxicity. In 2012, 2.5% of telephone enquiries to the UK National Poisons Information Service and 2.4% of enquiries to US poisons centres related to recreational drugs. Data are collected at population level and can be used to complement other data sources with clinical details on acute NPS toxicity and geographical/time patterns of toxicity. Like other acute NPS toxicity data, poisons centre data should be interpreted within their limitations, notably the absence of analytical confirmation and reliance on secondary reporting of clinical features. This manuscript demonstrates the breadth and depth of poisons information service data in the literature with a focus on mephedrone and synthetic cannabinoid-receptor agonists. In our opinion it would be possible to develop a more robust and systematic reporting system using a network of poisons information services both within and across countries that would be complimentary to other datasets on acute NPS toxicity and allow more accurate data triangulation.

  20. Continued implication of the banned pesticides carbofuran and aldicarb in the poisoning of domestic and wild animals of the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; González-Moreo, Federico; Suárez-Pérez, Alejandro; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida-González, Maira; Del Mar Travieso-Aja, María; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-02-01

    Although nowadays the intentional poisoning of domestic and wild animals is a crime in EU, in the past the poison was used in rural areas of a number of European countries to kill animals that were considered harmful for human activities. In Spain evidences indicate that intentional poisonings continue to occur throughout the entire country nowadays. This situation seems to be of particular concern in the Canary Islands (Spain), where this study was performed. Our results confirmed that 225 animals were poisoned by pesticides over the study period (32 months; 2010-2013). The intentionality of the poisoning was confirmed in 117 cases. It has to be highlighted that the other 108 animals also died by pesticide poisoning, although the intentionality was only suspected. This incidence is currently the highest reported in any region from European Union. The pesticides carbofuran, bromadiolone, brodifacoum and aldicarb were the most frequently detected involved. Among the affected species, it has to be highlighted that endangered species are frequently affected in poisoning incidents. Notably, chemicals banned in the EU (carbofuran and aldicarb) were identified in approximately 75% of cases, and in almost 100% of baits, which suggests that these pesticides are still available to the population. Several circumstances may explain these results. Firstly, little control over the sale and possession of pesticide products, and the potential existence of an illegal market of pesticides banned in the European Union in the neighbouring African continent. In addition, the limited awareness of the population about the dangerousness of these compounds, for the environment, animals, or even people, make the situation very worrying in these islands. Stronger regulations, control of legal and illegal pesticide use, development of educational programs and legal action in poisoning incidents are needed to decrease the impact of pesticide misuse on wildlife and domestic animals.

  1. Relationship between blood alcohol concentration on admission and outcome in dimethoate organophosphorus self-poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Eddleston, Michael; Gunnell, David; von Meyer, Ludwig; Eyer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    center dot Acute alcohol intoxication often complicates acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.center dot No data are available on how alcohol intoxication affects outcome in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.center dot In particular, the relationships between plasma alcohol concentration and plasma organophosphorus concentration or outcome are unclear.WHAT THIS STUDY ADDScenter dot Alcohol co-ingestion is associated with higher concentrations of the organophosphorus insecticide ...

  2. Metabolic changes in rat urine after acute paraquat poisoning and discriminated by support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Congcong; Wang, Zhiyi; Zhang, Meiling; Wang, Shuanghu; Geng, Peiwu; Sun, Fa; Chen, Mengchun; Lin, Guanyang; Hu, Lufeng; Ma, Jianshe; Wang, Xianqin

    2016-01-01

    Paraquat is quick-acting and non-selective, killing green plant tissue on contact; it is also toxic to human beings and animals. In this study, we developed a urine metabonomic method by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to evaluate the effect of acute paraquat poisoning on rats. Pattern recognition analysis, including both partial least squares discriminate analysis and principal component analysis revealed that acute paraquat poisoning induced metabolic perturbations. Compared with the control group, the levels of benzeneacetic acid and hexadecanoic acid of the acute paraquat poisoning group (intragastric administration 36 mg/kg) increased, while the levels of butanedioic acid, pentanedioic acid, altronic acid decreased. Based on these urinary metabolomics data, support vector machine was applied to discriminate the metabolomic change of paraquat groups from the control group, which achieved 100% classification accuracy. In conclusion, metabonomic method combined with support vector machine can be used as a useful diagnostic tool in paraquat-poisoned rats.

  3. [Poison cases and types of poisons based on data obtained of patients hospitalized from 1995-2009 with acute poisoning in the second internal ward in a multi-profile provincial hospital in Tarnow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Stanisław; Janiszewski, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    The thesis presents a short history and organization of an acute poisoning centre in the1995 functioning within the internal diseases department in a multi-profile provincial hospital. The data show the number of patients treated beetween 1995-2009 an the types of toxic substances that caused poisoning. The conclusions presented refer to the role of the centre to help people suffering from acute poisoning within the city of Tarnow.

  4. Salvianolic Acids Attenuate Rat Hippocampal Injury after Acute CO Poisoning by Improving Blood Flow Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning causes the major injury and death due to poisoning worldwide. The most severe damage via CO poisoning is brain injury and mortality. Delayed encephalopathy after acute CO poisoning (DEACMP occurs in forty percent of the survivors of acute CO exposure. But the pathological cause for DEACMP is not well understood. And the corresponding therapy is not well developed. In order to investigate the effects of salvianolic acid (SA on brain injury caused by CO exposure from the view point of hemorheology, we employed a rat model and studied the dynamic of blood changes in the hemorheological and coagulative properties over acute CO exposure. Compared with the groups of CO and 20% mannitol + CO treatments, the severe hippocampal injury caused by acute CO exposure was prevented by SA treatment. These protective effects were associated with the retaining level of hematocrit (Hct, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, whole blood viscosities and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in red blood cells (RBCs. These results indicated that SA treatment could significantly improve the deformation of erythrocytes and prevent the damage caused by CO poisoning. Meanwhile, hemorheological indexes are good indicators for monitoring the pathological dynamic after acute CO poisoning.

  5. 庫存血液膽碱酯酶水平變化及其在重症有機磷中毒搶救中應用選擇%Alteration of Banked Blood Cholinesterase Level and Its Significance in Emergency Treatment of Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鍾沛霖; 王勤鷹; 盛慧球

    2002-01-01

    目的觀察庫血保存天數與血漿膽碱酯酶(CHE)水平變化關係;探討重症有機磷農藥中毒(AOPP)搶救中合理選擇血源.方法輸血前隨機留取保留不同天數的庫血測定血漿CHE值;血液中心採血當日留取正常人血漿、即日測定CHE值作對照組.CHE測定用BM公司膽碱酯酶試劑盒,Roch公司的Cobas-FaraⅡ自動分析儀測定.結果庫血保存天數為第一天的血漿CHE值與正常對照組比較無顯著差異(p>o.05),其他各組均顯著低於對照組(P>0.05).各組與正常對照組相比較其下降百分比約19%-83%.保存天數與CHE值呈負相關(r=-0.7929,P<0.01).曲線回歸Y=-1 823.3Ln(X)+6229.4.結論隨採血後庫血保存天數的增加,血漿CHE值逐漸下降.在重度AOPP搶救中,以使用保留天數為一天以內新鮮血液最為適宜,以免浪費血源,貽( )搶救時機.本報告為強調輸入新鮮血液,保證高活性膽碱酯酶輸入提供實驗依據,並可供臨床參考.%Objective To observe the relationship between the preservation days of banked blood and the alteration level of plasma cholinesterase(CHE) with the aim of making proper selection of banked blood in emergency treatment of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). Methods We selected at random the banked blood that has been stored for different length of time before blood transfusion so as to determine the plasma cholinesterase value. The normal plasma cholinesterase value was determined on blood samples in the Blood Center which served as a control group. The cholinesterase value was determined with a kit of the BM Company and the Cobas-Fara Ⅱ automatic analysis of the Roch Company. Results It was found that there was no significant difference of plasma cholinesterase value between the one-day banked blood and the normal control group (P>0.05), but the plasma cholinesterase values of the other experiment groups were all significantly lower than that of the control group(P<0.05). As

  6. Comparison of two commonly practiced atropinization regimens in acute organophosphorus and carbamate poisoning, doubling doses vs. ad hoc: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, P M S; Shahmy, S; Gawarammana, I; Dawson, A H

    2008-06-01

    There is a wide variation and lack of evidence in current recommendations for atropine dosing schedules leading to subsequent variation in clinical practice. Therefore, we sought to examine the safety and effectiveness of a titrated vs. ad hoc atropine treatment regimen in a cohort of patients with acute cholinesterase inhibitor pesticide poisoning. A prospective cohort study was conducted in three district secondary referral hospitals in Sri Lanka using a structured data collection form that collected details of clinical symptoms and outcomes of cholinesterase inhibitor pesticide poisoning, atropine doses, and signs of atropinization. We compared two hospitals that used a titrated dosing protocol based on a structured monitoring sheet for atropine infusion with another hospital using an ad hoc regime. During the study, 272 symptomatic patients with anticholinesterase poisoning requiring atropine were admitted to the three hospitals. Outcomes of death and ventilation were analyzed for all patients, 226 patients were prospectively assessed for atropine toxicity. At baseline, patients in the titrated dose cohort had clinical signs consistent with greater toxicity. This in part may be due to ingestion of more toxic organophosphates. They received less pralidoxime and atropine, and were less likely to develop features of atropine toxicity, such as delirium (1% vs. 17%), hallucinations (1% vs. 35%), or either (1% vs. 35%) and need for patient restraint (3% vs. 48%) compared with the ad hoc dose regime. After adjusting for the pesticides ingested, there was no difference in mortality and ventilatory rates between protocols. Ad hoc high dose atropine regimens are associated with more frequent atropine toxicity without any obvious improvement in patient outcome compared with doses titrated to clinical effect. Atropine doses should be titrated against response and toxicity. Further education and the use of a structured monitoring sheet may assist in more appropriate

  7. Organophosphate Poisoning and Subsequent Acute Kidney Injury Risk: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Feng-You; Chen, Wei-Kung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lai, Ching-Yuan; Wu, Yung-Shun; Lin, I-Ching; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-11-01

    Small numbers of the papers have studied the association between organophosphate (OP) poisoning and the subsequent acute kidney injury (AKI). Therefore, we used the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) to study whether patients with OP poisoning are associated with a higher risk to have subsequent AKI.The retrospective cohort study comprised patients aged ≥20 years with OP poisoning and hospitalized diagnosis during 2000-2011 (N = 8924). Each OP poisoning patient was frequency-matched to 4 control patients based on age, sex, index year, and comorbidities of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, and stroke (N = 35,696). We conducted Cox proportional hazard regression analysis to estimate the effects of OP poisoning on AKI risk.The overall incidence of AKI was higher in the patients with OP poisoning than in the controls (4.85 vs 3.47/1000 person-years). After adjustment for age, sex, comorbidity, and interaction terms, patients with OP poisoning were associated with a 6.17-fold higher risk of AKI compared with the comparison cohort. Patients with highly severe OP poisoning were associated with a substantially increased risk of AKI.The study found OP poisoning is associated with increased risk of subsequent AKI. Future studies are encouraged to evaluate whether long-term effects exist and the best guideline to prevent the continuously impaired renal function.

  8. Emergency Room of the Hospital associated with the University of Salerno: acute poisoning registered from April 2009 to September 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Vitola

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An ever growing number of patients go to the emergency room (ER for toxic exposure to various causal agents. Yet, the actual number of acute poisoning still remains unknown and the epidemic data are only partly available. Cases of acute poisoning in the ER of Salerno Hospital from April 2009 to September 2011 (30 months’ period are reported. Data are divided according to the criteria of gender, age, aetiologic agent, place and reasons of poisoning, and risk evaluation. Out of the total 220,165 patients, the acute poisoning cases were 1,347 (0.61%. Among these, 189 (14.1% patients were admitted to hospital while 3 (0.2% died. Alcool acute poisonings are the most frequent (43.6%, followed by drugs poisonings (30.6%. Acute poisonings are more common among males (59.9% and in people aged 20-50 years. Out of all the acute poisoning cases, 27.8% requested a consult to the Anti-Poisoning Centre. The results aim at contributing to the epidemic research for acute poisoning in ER.

  9. Hospital Performance Indicators and Their Associated Factors in Acute Child Poisoning at a Single Poison Center, Central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Menyfah Q; Al-Jeriasy, Majed I; Al-Assiri, Mohammed H; Afesh, Lara Y; Alhammad, Fahad; Salam, Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    Admission rate and length of stay (LOS) are two hospital performance indicators that affect the quality of care, patients' satisfaction, bed turnover, and health cost expenditures. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with higher admission rates and extended average LOS among acutely poisoned children at a single poison center, central Saudi Arabia.This is a cross-sectional, poison and medical chart review between 2009 and 2011. Exposures were child characteristics, that is, gender, age, body mass index (BMI), health history, and Canadian 5-level triage scale. Poison incident characteristics were, that is, type, exposure route, amount, form, home remedy, and arrival time to center. Admission status and LOS were obtained from records. Chronic poisoning, plant allergies, and venomous bites were excluded. Bivariate and regression analyses were applied. Significance at P Poison substances were pharmaceutical drugs (63%) versus chemical products (37%). Main exposure route was oral (98%). Home remedy was observed in (21.9%), which were fluids, solutes, and/or gag-induced vomiting. Almost (52%) arrived to center >1 h. Triage levels: non-urgent cases (58%), less urgent (11%), urgent (18%), emergency (12%), resuscitative (1%). Admission rate was (20.6%) whereas av. LOS was 13 ± 22 h. After adjusting and controlling for confounders, older children (adj.OR = 1.19) and more critical triage levels (adj.OR = 1.35) were significantly associated with higher admission rates compared to younger children and less critical triage levels (adj.P = 0.006) and (adj.P = 0.042) respectively. Home remedy prior arrival was significantly associated with higher av. LOS (Beta = 9.48, t = 2.99), compared to those who directly visited the center, adj.P = 0.003.Hospital administrators are cautioned that acutely poisoned children who received home remedies prior arrival are more likely to endure an extended LOS. This non-conventional practice

  10. Correlation of high sensitivity C-reactive protein and acute organophosphrus pesticide poison with multiple organ dysfunction%超敏C反应蛋白与急性有机磷农药中毒多脏器功能障碍的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘东峰; 张颖

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨急性有机磷农药中毒(AOPP)患者血清高敏C反应蛋白(hsCRP)与各脏器损伤的相关关系.方法 多脏器功能障碍综合征(MODS)死亡组8例,MODS非死亡组23例,对照组30例,分别测定血清hsCRP、血常规、血生化、心肌酶学等指标,比较组间差异,分析hsCRP与各指标的相关性.结果 对照组、MODS非死亡组、MODS死亡组间,胆碱脂酶(ACHE)水平(8.07±2.19) kU/L、(0.60±0.19) kU/L vs (0.40±0.21)kU/L依次降低(P <0.01);hsCRP水平(1.47±0.54) mg/L vs (19.02±5.61) mg/L、(58.44±40.30) mg/L、白细胞(WBC)水平(6.45±1.58)×109/L vs (13.95±3.62)×109/L、(18.57±10.57)×109/L、中性粒细胞(N)水平(3.66±1.21)×109/L vs (11.01±6.05)×109/L、(13.19±7.54)×109/L、血小板(PLT)水平(201.17±81.03)×109/L vs (325.04±110.91)×109/L、(407.54±132.78)×109/L均依次升高(P<0.01);3组间红细胞(RBC)和血红蛋白(Hb)差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)水平193.00(32.75) U/L vs 285.00(168.00) U/L、583.50(680.00) U/L;空腹血糖(FPG)水平5.26(0.69) mmol/L vs 8.76(5.75) mmol/L、12.83(11.01) mmol/L依次升高(P<0.01);MODS死亡组天冬氨酸转氨酶(AST) 72.00(478.00) U/L、尿素氮(BUN) 10.25 (11.30) mmol/L、肌酸激酶(CK)416.50(1 221.70) U/L、血肌酐(SCr) 140.00(196.00) μmol/L均高于健康对照组(P<0.01);MODS死亡组和非死亡组肌酸激酶同工酶(CK-MB)35.75(121.65) U/L、33.00(49.00) U/L均高于对照组(P<0.01).hsCRP与ACHE成负相关,与PLT、RBC和Hb间无相关关系,与WBC、N、CK-MB、LDH、丙氨酸转氨酶(ALT)、AST、FPG、BUN、CK、SCr间呈正相关关系.结论 HsCRP对AOPP中毒的程度及其预后的判断均有临床指导意义.%Objective To investigate the correlation between serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with the degree of organ damage of patients with acute organophosphrus pesticide poison (AOPP). Methods 31 cases of AOPP patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

  11. [Homeostasis changes during rehabilitation period after acute chemical poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalian, A V; Luzhnikov, E A; Gol'dfarb, Iu S; Godkov, M A; Khvatov, V B; Bitkova, E E; El'kov, A N; Il'iashenko, K K; Nikulina, V P; Matveev, S B

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with review of 78 patients of rehabilitation toxicological unit. The patients received resuscitation and detoxification. All patients were divided into three groups; 1st group--patients after poisoning with psychopharmaceuticals, 2nd group--patients after poisoning with cauterizing liquids and 3rd group--patients with encephalopathy after poisoning with neurotoxin (psychopharmaceuticals, narcotics and ethanol). Disorders of rheology, haemostasis and endotoxicosis accrued in all groups. These disorders were a signs of the erythrocytes and platelets aggregation developing and viscoelasticity disorder. Homeostasis changes during rehabilitation period need an accurate diagnostics for purposeful treatment of the defined disorders.

  12. Cost to government health-care services of treating acute self-poisonings in a rural district in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickramasinghe, Kanchana; Steele, Paul; Dawson, Andrew;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the direct financial costs to the Sri Lanka Ministry of Health of treating patients after self-poisoning, particularly from pesticides, in a single district. METHODS: Data on staff, drug, laboratory and other inputs for each patient admitted for self-poisoning were prospect......OBJECTIVE: To estimate the direct financial costs to the Sri Lanka Ministry of Health of treating patients after self-poisoning, particularly from pesticides, in a single district. METHODS: Data on staff, drug, laboratory and other inputs for each patient admitted for self-poisoning were...... pesticides and possibly by improving case management in primary care hospitals. Additional research is needed to assess if increasing infrastructure and staff at peripheral hospitals could reduce the overall cost to the government, optimize case management and reduce pressure on secondary services....

  13. ACUTE POISONING WITH BENZODIAZEPINES AND OTHER HYPNOTICS: ETIOLOGIC CAUSE, SEX/AGE DISTRIBUTION AND CLINICAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petko Marinov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Poisoning with drugs occupies a leading position among the causes of acute intoxications. Etiological distribution of medicated poisoning in different countries, even if they are adjacent, is different. In the most studies it was reported that the highest incidence of poisoning is with benzodiazepines or other psychoactive drugs. A retrospective analysis of acute poisoning with benzodiazepines and other hypnotic drugs in the Varna region for 25 years period – from 1991 to 2015 was carried out. Material and Methods: The number of patients who received hospital treatment after poisoning with benzodiazepines is 1741, and those with other hypnotics is 293, representing respectively 26.37% and 4.44% of all drug intoxications. Results: The share of poisoning with benzodiazepines and hypnotics compared to all acute intoxications is 11.66%. They are more common in women – 1566 (77%. Men are 468 (23%, the ratio of men to women was 3.34:1. The largest number of intoxications is in the age group up to 24 years - 1123 (55.2%, and only 4.1% of patients over 60 years. Intentional suicide attempts are 1896 (93.2%. Death is registered in 8 (0.4% patients.

  14. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H. [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2005-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  15. 某市2008至2010年农药中毒病例分析%Epidemiological analysis for Quzhou pesticide poisoning of year 2008 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵士光; 刘斯峰

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析衢州市农药中毒病例的特征,为制定防治对策提供科学依据.方法 收集衢州市2008至2010年农药中毒的登记数据,用SPSS 12.0软件进行统计分析.结果 2008至2010年衢州市共发生农药中毒1222例,其中,生产性农药中毒225例,占18.4%,死亡1例,病死率为0.44%;非生产性农药中毒997例,占81.6%,死亡77例,病死率为7.72%.生产性农药中毒以男性为主(172例),占76.4%,非生产性农药中毒以女性为主(519例),占52.1%.农药中毒主要发生在第3季度.生产性农药中毒和非生产性农药中毒均以65岁以上年龄组的病例最多,分别为81例(占36.0%)和262例 (占26.3%);农药种类均以有机磷类杀虫剂为主.结论 农药中毒在衢州市严重威胁着公众的健康,非生产性农药中毒应引起重视,有机磷类杀虫剂为主要的中毒农药.%Objective To provide scientific evidence of making measures for prevention of pesticide poisoning,the investigation on the condition of pesticide poisoning was carried out in Quzhou.Methods Registration data of pesticide poisoning from 2008 to 2010 in Quzhou were collected and statistically analyzed by SPSS 12.0.Results During the three years,there were 1222 cases reported for pesticide poisoning.Among them,the number of occupational poisoning was 225 (1 case died),with fatality rate of 0.44%.The number of non-occupational poisoning was 997 (77 cases died),and its fatality rate was 7.72%.The incidence of occupational poisoning and non-occupational poisoning accounted for 18.4% and 81.6% respectively.Male patients were in the majority in occupational pesticides poisoning (accounting for 76.4%),female patients in non-occupational poisoning (accounting for 52.1%).The pesticide poisoning mainly occurred from July to September.Occupational poisoning and non-occupational poisoning cases mainly concentrated in over 65 age group,accounting for 36.0% (81 cases) and 26.3% (262 cases

  16. An unusual case of reversible acute kidney injury due to chlorine dioxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathina, Gangadhar; Yadla, Manjusha; Burri, Srikanth; Enganti, Rama; Prasad Ch, Rajendra; Deshpande, Pradeep; Ch, Ramesh; Prayaga, Aruna; Uppin, Megha

    2013-09-01

    Chlorine dioxide is a commonly used water disinfectant. Toxicity of chlorine dioxide and its metabolites is rare. In experimental studies, it was shown that acute and chronic toxicity were associated with insignificant hematological changes. Acute kidney injury due to chlorine dioxide was not reported. Two cases of renal toxicity due to its metabolites, chlorate and chlorite were reported. Herein, we report a case of chlorine dioxide poisoning presenting with acute kidney injury.

  17. Multimodality evoked potentials in patients with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiahong Wang; Bo Xiao; Renjun Gu; Lan Xiao; Yi Yang; Yinhui Hao; Nini Wang; Junlin Mu; Jinggang Yin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic values in patients with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Methods: The tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), vision evoked potentials (VEPs), and brain stem audition evoked potentials(BAEPs) were performed in 32 healthy adults and 43 patients with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Results: This paper indicated abnormalities of tibial nerve SEPs in 31 patients (31/43, 72.1%), VEPs in 17 patients (17/28, 60.7%), and BAEPs in 14 patients (14/43, 32.6%). These results showed that the greatest diagnostic value was SEPs, followed by VEPs and, BAEPs with the lowest sensitivity. Conclusion: Multimodality evoked potentials (EPs) can be used for evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic values in cases of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  18. PREDICTING OUTCOME AND SEVERITY IN ACUTE ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS POISONING WITH CLINICAL SCORING AND SERUM CHOLINESTERASE LEVELS

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    Basavaraj R

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Organophosphorus compound poisoning is the most common medico toxic emergency in India the increase in pesticide use in agriculture has paralleled the increase in the use of these products for deliberate self-warm. Respiratory failure is the most common complication of OP poisoning leading to death. Early recognition and prompt ventilator support may improve survival. Owing to limited availability of resources, all OP poisoning patients are not managed in ICUs in Indian setup. It is therefore important that clinical features and criteria to predict the need for ventilator support be identified at initial examination. Hence this study was undertaken to assess the severity of organophosphorus compound poisoning both clinically by using Peradeniya scoring and by estimating serum choline esterase levels. METHODS: Cross sectional study was done at basaveswar teaching and general hospital attached to MR Medical College. Cases with history of exposure to organophosphorus compound within previous 24 hours were chosen after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients were evaluated for Peradeniya OP poisoning scale and serum cholinesterase levels for assessment of severity of poisoning. Serum cholinesterase levels and Peradeniya OP poisoning scale were studied to predict the need for ventilator support. The results were analyzed using Chi-square test. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: It was done using pearson’s chi square test. RESULTS: In this study requirement of ventilator support was seen in 36% of patients. Mortality in our study was 18%. Only 15.6% of patients with mild grade of poisoning according to Peradeniya OP poisoning scale required ventilator support, whereas 84.4% did not require ventilator support. Most of patients with moderate (70.6% and severe poisoning (100% according to Peradeniya OP poisoning scale required ventilator support. 93.7% of patients with serum cholinesterase levels more than 50% did not require

  19. Acute kidney injury and disseminated intravascular coagulation due to mercuric chloride poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapriya, J.; Gopalakrishnan, N.; Arun, V.; Dineshkumar, T.; Sakthirajan, R.; Balasubramaniyan, T.; Haris, M.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic heavy metal and occurs in organic and inorganic forms. Inorganic mercury includes elemental mercury and mercury salts. Mercury salts are usually white powder or crystals, and widely used in indigenous medicines and folk remedies in Asia. Inorganic mercury poisoning causes acute kidney injury (AKI) and gastrointestinal manifestations and can be life-threatening. We describe a case with unknown substance poisoning who developed AKI and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Renal biopsy showed acute tubular necrosis. Later, the consumed substance was proven to be mercuric chloride. His renal failure improved over time, and his creatinine normalized after 2 months. PMID:27194836

  20. Minoxidil poisoning presenting as acute coronary syndrome: a rare case scenario

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    Shrikant Kalyanrao Panchal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of severe minoxidil poisoning (3000 mg with resultant severe hypotension, tachycardia and subendocardial ischemia initially treated crystalloid, dopamine, aspirin, clopidogrel on the lines of acute coronary syndrome with partial haemodynamic improvement. After getting the history of minoxidil poisoning, the patient was treated with bolus doses of norepinephrine, and norepinephrine infusion, resulting in resolution of hypertension, tachycardia and reversal of ischemia. Topical minoxidil is commonly used agent for male pattern baldness. It also has got antihypertensive action when ingested, acute coronary syndrome and compensatory tachycardia with successful management with norepinephrine bolus and infusion. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 784-785

  1. Analysis on structural characteristics of poison system in acute poisoning of Guangxi%广西急性中毒毒物体系构成特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋东方; 张振明; 刘清华

    2013-01-01

    A total of 6004 cases of acute poisoning with 532 kinds of related poisons from 63hospitals were analyzed.According to the classification of pharmaceutical,pesticide,chemical,animal,plant and other poisons,the numbers of poison categories were 217,148,61,34,36 and 36 kinds accounting for 40.8%,27.8%,11.5%,6.4%,6.8%,6.7% of total number of poisons respectively.According to the case count,they were divided into three groups of low,medium and high morbidity and their poison numbers were 462,59 and 11 kinds accounting for 86.8%,11.1%,2.1% of total number of poisons respectively.According to the types of poisons,they were divided into five groups of poisoning 1,2,3,4,5 years and their poison numbers were 320,91,34,33 and 54 kinds accounting for 60.2%,17.1%,6.4%,6.2%,10.1% of total number of poisons respectively.According to the time of poisoning,they were divided into three groups of 1-year,discontinuous and perennial poisoning and their poison numbers were 320,158 and 54 kinds accounting for 60.2%,29.7%,10.1% of total number of poisons respectively.%分析63家医院收治的6004例急性中毒病例的相关毒物,共有532种,按医药、农药、化学、动物、植物、其他分为6类,各类毒物数为217、148、61、34、36、36种,分别占总毒物数的40.8%、27.8%、11.5%、6.4%、6.8%、6.7%.将各类毒物按中毒病例数分为低、中、高发病3组,各组毒物数分别为462(86.8%)、59(11.1%)、11(2.1%)种.各类毒物按中毒发生年数分为5个组,各类毒物合计数分别为320(60.2%)、91(17.1%)、34(6.4%)、33(6.2%)、54(10.1%)种.各类毒物按发生中毒的时间分为1年、间断、常年中毒3个组,各类毒物合计数分别为320(60.2%)、158 (29.7%)、54(10.1%)种.

  2. Comparative analysis of acute toxic poisoning in 2003 and 2011: analysis of 3 academic hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hak-Soo; Kim, Jung-Youn; Choi, Sung-Hyuk; Yoon, Young-Hoon; Moon, Sung-Woo; Hong, Yun-Sik; Lee, Sung-Woo

    2013-10-01

    Social factors may affect the available sources of toxic substances and causes of poisoning; and these factors may change over time. Additionally, understanding the characteristics of patients with acute toxic poisoning is important for treating such patients. Therefore, this study investigated the characteristics of patients with toxic poisoning. Patients visiting one of 3 hospitals in 2003 and 2011 were included in this study. Data on all patients who were admitted to the emergency departments with acute toxic poisoning were retrospectively obtained from medical records. Total 939 patients were analyzed. The average age of patients was 40.0 ± 20 yr, and 335 (36.9%) patients were men. Among the elements that did not change over time were the facts that suicide was the most common cause, that alcohol consumption was involved in roughly 1 of 4 cases, and that there were more women than men. Furthermore, acetaminophen and doxylamine remained the most common poisoning agents. In conclusion, the average patient age and psychotic drug poisoning has increased over time, and the use of lavage treatment has decreased.

  3. Multi-residue method for the determination of pesticides and pesticide metabolites in honeybees by liquid and gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry--Honeybee poisoning incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiljanek, Tomasz; Niewiadowska, Alicja; Semeniuk, Stanisław; Gaweł, Marta; Borzęcka, Milena; Posyniak, Andrzej

    2016-02-26

    A method for the determination of 200 pesticides and pesticide metabolites in honeybee samples has been developed and validated. Almost 98% of compounds included in this method are approved to use within European Union, as active substances of plant protection products or veterinary medicinal products used by beekeepers to control mites Varroa destructor in hives. Many significant metabolites, like metabolites of imidacloprid, thiacloprid, fipronil, methiocarb and amitraz, are also possible to detect. The sample preparation was based on the buffered QuEChERS method. Samples of bees were extracted with acetonitrile containing 1% acetic acid and then subjected to clean-up by dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) using a new Z-Sep+ sorbent and PSA. The majority of pesticides, including neonicotionoids and their metabolites, were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) but some of pesticides, especially pyrethroid insecticides, were analyzed by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The procedure was validated according to the Guidance document SANCO/12571/2013 at four concentration levels: 1, 5, 10 and 100 ng/g bees and verified in the international proficiency test. The analysis of bee samples spiked at the limit of quantification (LOQ) showed about 98% mean recovery value (trueness) and 97% of analytes showed recovery in the required range of 70-120% and RSDr (precision) below 20%. Linearity and matrix effects were also established. The LOQs of pesticides were in the range of 1-100 ng/g. The developed method allows determination of insecticides at concentrations of 10 ng/g or less, except abamectin and tebufenozide. LOQ values are lower than the median lethal doses LD50 for bees. The method was used to investigate more than 70 honeybee poisoning incidents. Data about detected pesticides and their metabolites are included.

  4. Acute formic acid poisoning in a rubber plantation worker

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    Dattatrai Kashinath More

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the workers in a rubber plantation in South India, ingestion of formic acid either accidentally or with suicidal intention is a common problem. Formic acid is diluted and used for coagulation of rubber latex. Easy availability makes formic acid a common poison. The aim of this article is to study the case of formic acid poisoning, its complications and management. Patient was managed symptomatically. Antidote was not used and no nasogastric aspiration was done. Patient had dysphagia; nutrition was maintained with open gastrostomy done on day 5 and subsequent enteral feeding. Measures to prevent anticipated complications were undertaken. Stricture of the esophagus is a common complication leading to long-term morbidity. After initial management, all patients should be on follow-up for prevention and management of strictures. Workers should be educated on complications of formic acid poisoning and easy availability should be curtailed by enforcing remedial measures.

  5. ACUTE ACCIDENTAL POISONING IN CHILDREN: A HOSPITAL-BASED RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

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    Kameshore

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute accidental poisoning in children is a big problem anywhere in the world. Studies done elsewhere in India showed a wide range of incidence of the problem. Hence, it was felt important to study its magnitude and associated characteristics as of now. OBJECTIVE: The current study was taken up to know the magnitude among children admitted in JNIMS, Imphal which is a newly established medical institute and also to study the characteristics like age, gender, type of poison, duration of hospital-stay and outcome of the cases. MATERIALS & METHODS: Retrospective data of all acute accidental poisoning cases among children admitted in the Pediatrics Ward, JNIMS, Imphal during the period July 2008 - December 2013 were analyzed by using descriptive statistics. RESULT: Of all the 13,663 children admitted, 148 cases were because of acute accidental poisoning giving an incidence rate of 1.08%. The male is to female ratio was 1.31:1. The last three years of the study period showed a slightly increasing trend in the incidence. Children aged 1-4 years were the most commonly affected (65.54%. Kerosene oil was by far the commonest (42% of all the poisonous substances consumed. Food poisoning, poisoning with organic compounds, poisoning with medicinal drugs and poisoning with corrosives comprised 21%, 12%, 9% and 8% respectively of all the cases. There was no mortality. DISCUSSION: The incidence rate of 1.08% as found out from the current study was on the lower side as compared to reports of previous studies done in other parts of the country. Yet, it was two-fold of the incidence reported from RIMS which is situated in the same State. Parental negligence in storing poisonous substances in the household was implicated. They need to be made aware for keeping harmful poisonous substances in safe places out of the reach of children. CONCLUSION: Community-based studies are recommended for estimating more accurately the magnitude of the problem in the

  6. The Acute Oral Toxicity of Commonly Used Pesticides in Iran, to Honeybees (Apis Mellifera Meda

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    Rasuli Farhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The honey bee is credited with approximately 85% of the pollinating activity necessary to supply about one-third of the world’s food supply. Well over 50 major crops depend on these insects for pollination. The crops produce more abundantly when honey bees are plentiful. Worker bees are the ones primarily affected by pesticides. Poisoning symptoms can vary depending on the developmental stage of the individual bee, and the kind of chemical employed. The oral toxicity of these insecticides: (phosalone and pirimicarb, acaricide (propargite, insecticide and acaricide (fenpropathrin, fungicides, and bactericides (copper oxychloride and the Bordeaux mixture, were evaluated for the purposes of this research. The results showed that fenpropathrin had high acute oral toxicity (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 0.54 and 0.3 ppm, respectively. Propargite had 7785 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-24h and 6736 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-48h in honeybees and is therefore, non-toxic to Apis mellifera. On the other hand, copper oxychloride had minimum acute oral toxicity to honeybees (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 4591.5 and 5407.9 ppm, respectively and was therefore considered non-toxic. Also, the Bordeaux mixture was safe to use around honeybees. Phosalone and primicarb were considered highly and moderately toxic to honeybees, respectively.

  7. Characteristics of acute poisoning in children and advances in the diagnosis and treatment%小儿急性中毒的特点和诊治进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱素云

    2010-01-01

    Acute poisoning in children is closely related with the surrounding environment. In China,acute poisoning in children,mainly caused by wrong intake of pesticides,drugs and rodenticide,still leads to high mortality in severe acute poisoning cases. Particular emphasis on safe storage of drugs and toxic chemicals mentioned above may reduce poisoning accidents at the source. Of the suspected poisoning cases, besides the detailed medical history and physical examination, poison identification is the most direct and objective method to confirm the diagnosis and evaluate the poisoning severity. Timely diagnosis, appropriate antidote use, extensive application of blood purification therapy, and emphasis on supportive therapy remain critical for the successful treatment. Accurate and comprehensive clinical epidemiological data are considered to be of informative value to identifying poisoning of different regions, ages and sexes.%儿童急性中毒的发生与周围环境密切相关.我国儿童急性中毒以农药、药物和灭鼠药为主,主要因误服误食所致,重症急性中毒的病死率仍较高.加强对药物和上述毒物的管理,可以从源头减少中毒机会.对疑似中毒的患儿,除详细询问病史和查体外,多数情况下毒物鉴定是明确有元中毒和病情严重程度最直接、客观的方法.及时诊断、合理使用解毒药物、普及血液净化治疗技术、重视支持疗法是成功救治的关键.准确而全面的临床流行病学资料有助于对地区性、年龄阶段性及不同性别的中毒起到警示作用.

  8. The profile evolution of acute severe poisoning in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogué, S; Marruecos, L; Nolla, J; Monteís, J; Ferrer, A; Civeira, E

    1992-12-01

    About 5% of the patients admitted to emergency departments with poisonings are seriously ill and need admission to intensive care units (ICUs). This paper presents the result of three multicentric studies carried out in Spain during the last ten years. A study was made of 6 ICUs in 1980, 41 in 1987 and 15 in 1990 with a total of 596 patients. The average age (36) remained stable throughout, but the number of female cases decreased each time. The most frequent cause (79%) was attempted suicide. The products used most frequently were therapeutic drugs (82, 71 and 58%) followed by drugs of abuse, and then agricultural, household and industrial products. We observed a progressive decrease in barbiturates (54, 15 and 2%) and an increase in benzodiazepines and cyclic antidepressants. Therapeutic methods used were mostly gastric lavage (64%), activated charcoal (35%), forced diuresis (43%), extracorporeal therapy (11%) and antidotes. The mortality rate fluctuated between 6.4 and 9.1%, being significantly higher with poisoning by non-therapeutic drugs. In conclusion, the most common poisoning admitted to our ICUs was by psychoactive drugs in suicide attempts. We observed the under-use of activated charcoal and an excessive usage of kidney and extracorporeal methods. The prognosis was worse for poisonings with non-therapeutic drugs.

  9. Acute penitrem A and roquefortine poisoning in a dog

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Sean L.

    2002-01-01

    Penitrem A and roquefortine poisonings were diagnosed in a Laborador retriever following garbage consumption. Clinical signs of mycotoxicosis included polypnea, tachycardia, and ataxia that quickly progressed to lateral recumbency and seizures. Removal of the mycotoxins from the stomach soon after ingestion allowed the dog to recover within 72–96 hours.

  10. Reversible brain damage following acute organic solvents' poisoning determined by magnetic resonance

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    Dujmović Irena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute exposure to the effects of volatile solvents is characterized by the abrupt onset of symptoms and signs of poisoning, and relatively fast recovery in the majority of cases. Case report. We report a 24-year-old patient with an acute, accidental poisoning with a mixture of volatile organic solvents (most probably toluene, styrene and xylene, which led to the development of upward gaze paresis, diplopia, hemiparesis, ataxic gate, and the late onset truncal ataxia episodes. After 6 weeks, he recovered completely, while his extensive brain MRI lesions in the caudate nuclei, laterobasal putaminal regions, bilateral anterior insular cortex, central midbrain tegmental area withdrew completely after 4 months. Conclusion. Acute toxic encephalopathy should be a part of the differential diagnosis in any patient with acute neurobehavioral and neurological deficit.

  11. Oral administration of lactulose: a novel therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning via increasing intestinal hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dan-Feng; Hu, Hui-Jun; Sun, Xue-Jun; Meng, Xiang-En; Zhang, Yu; Pan, Shu-Yi

    2016-01-01

    It has been known that the pathophysiology of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is related to hypoxia, the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Studies have shown that the novel, safe and effective free radical scavenger, hydrogen, has neuroprotective effects in both acute CO poisoning and delayed neuropsychological sequelae in CO poisoning. Orally administered lactulose, which may be used by some intestinal bacteria as a food source to produce endogenous hydrogen, can ameliorate oxidative stress. Based on the available findings, we hypothesize that oral administration of lactulose may be a novel therapy for acute CO poisoning via increasing intestinal hydrogen production.

  12. Risk factors for the development of pneumonia in acute psychotropic drugs poisoning

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    Vučinić Slavica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Pneumonia is the most frequent complication in acute psychotropic drugs poisoning, which results in substantial morbidity and mortality, but which also increases the costs of treatment. Risk factors for pneumonia are numerous: age, sex, place of the appearance of pneumonia, severity of underlying disease, airway instrumentation (intubation, reintubation, etc. The incidence of pneumonia varies in poisoning caused by the various groups of drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for pneumonia in the patients with acute psychotropic drugs poisoning. Methods. A group of 782 patients, out of which 614 (78.5% with psychotropic and 168 (21.5% nonpsychotropic drug poisoning were analyzed prospectively during a two-year period. The diagnosis of pneumonia was made according to: clinical presentation, new and persistent pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiography, positive nonspecific parameters of inflammation, and the microbiological confirmation of causative microorganisms. To analyze predisposing risk factors for pneumonia, the following variables were recorded: sex, age, underlying diseases, endotracheal intubation, coma, severity of poisoning with different drugs, histamine H2 blockers, corticosteroids, mechanical ventilation, central venous catheter. The univariate analysis for pneumonia risk factors in all patients, and for each group separately was done. The multivariate analysis was performed using the logistic regression technique. Results. Pneumonia was found in 94 (12.02% of the patients, 86 of which (91.5% in psychotropic and 8 (8.5% in nonpsychotropic drug poisoning. In the psychotropic drug group, pneumonia was the most frequent in antidepressant (47%, and the rarest in benzodiazepine poisoning (3.8%. A statistically significant incidence of pneumonia was found in the patients with acute antidpressant poisoning (p < 0.001. Univariate analysis showed statistical significance for the

  13. Distribution and Economic Loss Analysis for 38 Hospitalized Children with Acute Poisoning%38例急性中毒住院儿童病例分布及经济损失分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋瑞娟; 宋瑞华; 牛彦青; 王莉

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To understand the distribution features and economic losses of the hospitalized children with acute poisoning, scientific basis was provided to prevent and control the acute poisoning in children.Methods:A retrospective analysis of 38 cases of acute poisoning in children admitted to the pediatric in Heji Hospital affiliated to Changzhi Medical College from 2007 to 2012.Results:In the children with poisoning,25 cases were male,while 13 caseswere female.Children were divided into four groups according to the age:<1,1~4,5~9,and 10~14,whose distribution were respectively 6 cases,20 cases,4 cases,8 cases.Rural and urban poisoning proportion was 1.38:1.The peak was in September and the indoor poisoning accounted for 86.84%.34.21% poisoning was caused by the drug in acute poisoning,while the same with the chemical poisoning.The economic losses of acute poisoning caused by pesticide was(5 171.03 ±4 843.46)RMB on average,which was the highest.The economic losses caused by plant was (2 062.63±715.78)RMB on average, which was the second highest.Conclusion:The number of male children with acute poisoning in the hospital were larger than the female, and mainly concentrated in 1~4 years old,who lived in rural rather than the city.In addition,drug poisoning was the main type of acute poisoning.Pesticide poisoning made the largest economic loss.Measures should be taken to prevent and control the acute poisoning according to its epidemiological characteristics.%目的:了解急性中毒住院患儿的分布特征和经济损失,为儿童急性中毒的预防、控制提供科学依据。方法:回顾性分析38例儿童急性中毒病例。结果:38例中毒患儿中,男25例,女13例;<1岁、1~4岁、5~9岁、10~14岁年龄组分别为6、20、4、8例;农村、城市中毒比例1.38∶1;9月份为发病高峰期;发生在户内占86.84%。急性中毒中药物中毒和化学性中毒各占34.21%。急性中毒的经济损失

  14. The effects of acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning on cytochrome P450 isoforms activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianqin; Chen, Mengchun; Chen, Xinxin; Ma, Jianshe; Wen, Congcong; Pan, Jianchun; Hu, Lufeng; Lin, Guanyang

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the second leading cause of toxin related death (after carbon monoxide) in the workplace. H2S is absorbed by the upper respiratory tract mucosa, and it causes histotoxic hypoxemia and respiratory depression. Cocktail method was used to evaluate the influences of acute H2S poisoning on the activities of cytochrome P450 isoforms CYP2B6, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP2C9, which were reflected by the changes of pharmacokinetic parameters of six specific probe drugs, bupropion, metoprolol, midazolam, phenacetin, omeprazole, and tolbutamide, respectively. The experimental rats were randomly divided into two groups, control group and acute H2S poisoning group (inhaling 300 ppm for 2 h). The mixture of six probes was given to rats by oral administration and the blood samples were obtained at a series of time points through the caudal vein. The concentrations of probe drugs in rat plasma were measured by LC-MS. The results for acute H2S poisoning and control groups were as follows: there was a statistically significant difference in the AUC and C max for bupropion, metoprolol, phenacetin, and tolbutamide, while there was no statistical pharmacokinetic difference for midazolam and omeprazole. Acute H2S poisoning could inhibit the activity of CYP2B6, CYP2D6, CYP1A2, and CYP2C9 in rats.

  15. The Effects of Acute Hydrogen Sulfide Poisoning on Cytochrome P450 Isoforms Activity in Rats

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    Xianqin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is the second leading cause of toxin related death (after carbon monoxide in the workplace. H2S is absorbed by the upper respiratory tract mucosa, and it causes histotoxic hypoxemia and respiratory depression. Cocktail method was used to evaluate the influences of acute H2S poisoning on the activities of cytochrome P450 isoforms CYP2B6, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP2C9, which were reflected by the changes of pharmacokinetic parameters of six specific probe drugs, bupropion, metoprolol, midazolam, phenacetin, omeprazole, and tolbutamide, respectively. The experimental rats were randomly divided into two groups, control group and acute H2S poisoning group (inhaling 300 ppm for 2 h. The mixture of six probes was given to rats by oral administration and the blood samples were obtained at a series of time points through the caudal vein. The concentrations of probe drugs in rat plasma were measured by LC-MS. The results for acute H2S poisoning and control groups were as follows: there was a statistically significant difference in the AUC and Cmax for bupropion, metoprolol, phenacetin, and tolbutamide, while there was no statistical pharmacokinetic difference for midazolam and omeprazole. Acute H2S poisoning could inhibit the activity of CYP2B6, CYP2D6, CYP1A2, and CYP2C9 in rats.

  16. Is hair analysis for dialkyl phosphate metabolites a suitable biomarker for assessing past acute exposure to organophosphate pesticides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsakis, A M; Tutudaki, M; Tzatzarakis, M N; Dawson, A; Mohamed, F; Christaki, M; Alegakis, A K

    2012-03-01

    In the present paper, the possibility to use dialkyl phosphate metabolites (DAPs) hair segmental analysis as a biomarker of past acute exposure to organophosphates is examined. Hair samples of four acute poisoning survivors were collected and segmental hair analysis was performed. The total hair samples were divided to 1 cm segments and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the presence of four DAP metabolites, dimethyl phosphate (DMP), diethyl phosphate (DEP), diethyl thiophosphate (DETP) and diethyl dithiophosphate (DEDTP). Results were examined under the light of pesticide type and time of hair sample collection. Although DAPs were detected all along the hair shaft, higher concentrations (peaks) were detected in the segments proximate to the suicide period. It was also observed that the elevated concentrations of the present metabolites corresponded to the ones produced by the ingested parent compound. Conclusively, measurements of DAPs in the appropriate hair segments of OP-poisoned patients can be used for assessing past acute exposure to organophosphates in certain cases.

  17. Does the clock make the poison? Circadian variation in response to pesticides.

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    Louisa A Hooven

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circadian clocks govern daily physiological and molecular rhythms, and putative rhythms in expression of xenobiotic metabolizing (XM genes have been described in both insects and mammals. Such rhythms could have important consequences for outcomes of chemical exposures at different times of day. To determine whether reported XM gene expression rhythms result in functional rhythms, we examined daily profiles of enzyme activity and dose responses to the pesticides propoxur, deltamethrin, fipronil, and malathion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Published microarray expression data were examined for temporal patterns. Male Drosophila were collected for ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECOD, esterase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and, and uridine 5'-diphosphoglucosyltransferase (UGT enzyme activity assays, or subjected to dose-response tests at four hour intervals throughout the day in both light/dark and constant light conditions. Peak expression of several XM genes cluster in late afternoon. Significant diurnal variation was observed in ECOD and UGT enzyme activity, however, no significant daily variation was observed in esterase or GST activity. Daily profiles of susceptibility to lethality after acute exposure to propoxur and fipronil showed significantly increased resistance in midday, while susceptibility to deltamethrin and malathion varied little. In constant light, which interferes with clock function, the daily variation in susceptibility to propoxur and in ECOD and UGT enzyme activity was depressed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Expression and activities of specific XM enzymes fluctuate during the day, and for specific insecticides, the concentration resulting in 50% mortality varies significantly during the day. Time of day of chemical exposure should be an important consideration in experimental design, use of pesticides, and human risk assessment.

  18. [Acute toxicity of different type pesticide surfactants to Daphnia magna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-huan; Li, Hua; Chen, Cheng-yu; Li, Jian-tao; Liu, Feng

    2013-08-01

    By using the standard test methods in Experimental Guideline for Environmental Safety Evaluation of Chemical Pesticide to aquatic organisms, a comparative study was conducted on the acute toxicity of 39 nonionic, 6 anionic, and 3 cationic surfactants to Daphnia magna. The acute toxicity of three cationic surfactants 1427, 1227 and C8-10 to D. magna belonged to virulent level, and the toxicity of 1427 was the highest, with the EC50 value being 0.97 x 10(-2) mg x L(-1). The acute toxicity of nonionic surfactants polyoxyethylene ether castor oil EL, Tween, and Span emulsifiers belonged to low level, but the toxicity of alkylphenol polyoxyethylene ether and fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether surfactants was relatively high, of which, AEO-7 and AEO-5 displayed high toxicity, with the EC50 value being 0.82 and 0.97 mg x L(-1), respectively. In these surfactants, the more liposolubility, the higher the toxicity was. Most of the anionic surfactants were medium in toxicity, but the acute toxicity of NNO belonged to high toxicity, with the EC50 value being 0.17 mg x L(-1).

  19. The epidemiological characteristics analysis of 655 patients with pesticide poisoning%655例农药中毒患者的流行病学特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏令; 韦兵; 孙磊; 徐猛; 章福彬

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解农药中毒的原因与特征,为制定防控农药中毒的策略与措施提供依据. 方法:对2009-2013年收治的655例农药中毒患者信息进行三间分布描述以及一般特征的描述. 结果:655例农药中毒患者病死29例,病死率为4. 43%;生活性农药中毒582 例,病死率4. 81%. 93. 99%生活性农药中毒中是用农药来自杀,且以年轻女性和老年为主;经院前处置中毒患者病死率低于未行院前处置者(P<0. 05). 结论:农药中毒已经成为一个严重的公共卫生问题,应广泛开展卫生安全宣传教育,强化管理,加强心理干预,加强院前急救技术培训,进一步完善农药中毒监测工作.%Objective:To investigate the causes and characteristics of pesticide poisoning for providing the evidence in formulating the prevention and control strategies. Methods:The clinical data of 655 patients with pesticide poisoning from 2009 to 2013 were described in three fields and general features. Results:Among 655 cases with pesticide poisoning,29 cases died,the fatality rate of which was 4. 43%. The fatality rate of 582 cases with life-pesticide poisoning was 4. 81%. The 93. 99% of life-pesticide poisoning was suicide patients using pesticide,the young women and elderly were the majority. The fatality rate of patients with pre-hospital treatment was less than that in patients without pre-hospital treatment(P<0. 05). Conclusions:Pesticide poisoning has become a serious public health problem. Developing extensive health and safety publicity education,strengthening pesticide management,psychological intervention and technical training before hospital,and further improving the monitoring of pesticide poisoning should be implemented.

  20. Respiratory failure induced by acute organophosphate poisoning in rats: effects of vagotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspari, Romolo J; Paydarfar, David

    2009-03-01

    Acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning causes respiratory failure through two mechanisms: central apnea and pulmonary dysfunction. The vagus nerve is involved in both the central control of respiratory rhythm as well as the control of pulmonary vasculature, airways and secretions. We used a rat model of acute OP poisoning with and without a surgical vagotomy to explore the role of the vagus in OP-induced respiratory failure. Dichlorvos (2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) injection (100mg/kg subcutaneously, 3 x LD50) resulted in progressive hypoventilation and apnea in all animals, irrespective of whether or not the vagi were intact. However, vagotomized animals exhibited a more rapidly progressive decline in ventilation and oxygenation. Artificial mechanical ventilation initiated at onset of apnea resulted in improvement in oxygenation and arterial pressure in poisoned animals with no difference between vagus intact or vagotomized animals. Our observations suggest that vagal mechanisms have a beneficial effect during the poisoning process. We speculate that vagally mediated feedback signals from the lung to the brainstem serve as a modest protective mechanism against central respiratory depressive effects of the poison and that bulbar-generated efferent vagal signals do not cause sufficient pulmonary dysfunction to impair pulmonary gas exchange.

  1. The protection effect of benthiactzine on gut-barrier in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%宾赛克嗪对有机磷农药中毒时肠黏膜屏障功能破坏的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喆; 潘志远; 龙超良; 邱泽武; 汪海

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the change of gut-barrier function of mice in acute organophosphorus poisoning and the protection effect of benthiactzine. Method A total of 65 Kunming mice, female and male both half, were randomly assigned to five groups: normal group, DDVP poisoning(model) group, and benthiactzine 2, sured by spectrophotometric assay at 3 hours after DDVP poisoning. The variance analysis was used to deal the quantitative data. Results The DAO activity in model group significantly increased compared with normal group (P < 0.01). Whereas, the DAO activity in all pretreatment groups were significantly decreased compared with model group(all P<0.01).The effects of benthisetzine 6 mg·kg~(-1) pretrentment group was the best of all.The concentration of D-lactate in model group was significantly increased compared with normal group (P < 0.01). However, the concentration of D-lactate in pretreatment groups was significantly decreased compared with model group(all P < 0.01). The concentration of D-lactate could be decreased dose-dependently by the administration of benthiactzine. Conclusions The diamine oxidase activity and concentration of D-lactate were significantly in-creased in the DDVP poisoning mice, which means the gnt-barrier function was severely damaged. And the admin-istration of benthiactzine could alleviate the injury to the gut-barrier function.%目的 研究有机磷农药敌敌畏中毒后小鼠肠黏膜屏障功能的变化及新型抗毒剂宾赛克嗪的保护作用.方法昆明小鼠65只,雌雄各半,随机分为正常对照组、敌敌畏染毒模型组、宾赛克嗪2,6,18mg/ks预防治疗组;各预防治疗组腹腔注射预防给予相应约物,10min后灌胃给予敌敌畏55mg/ks,于染毒后3 h取血,使用紫外分光光度计检测血浆二胺氧化酶(DAO)活性及D-乳酸质量浓度,采用单因素方差分析定量数据.结果 与正常对照组比较,模型组血浆DAO活性明显升高(P<0.01);与模型组比较,各预防治

  2. 灾后重建中急性中毒1077例流行病学分析%Epidemiology of 1077 cases of acute poisoning in reconstruction after earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玲; 杨鼎君; 袁娟; 刘君; 旷娟; 范文娟; 高梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the epidemiology of 1077 cases of acute poisoning in reconstruction after earthquake. Methods 1077 patients with acute poisoning were analyzed. Results The acute alcohol poisoning was 53. 3% followed by pesticide poisoning (20. 97%), drug poisoning (11. 15%), food poisoning (6.13%), carbon monoxide poisoning (5. 48%), drug intoxication (3. 02%). Women was higher than men (P<0. 039). 21-40 years old was the age of high incidence of poisoning. Cause of poisoning within the service poison suicide was the most (59. 24%). Conclusion The acute poisoning occur with sex, age, personality, emotional intelligence and accidents.%目的 探讨灾后重建中急性中毒的流行病学特点及相关原因.方法 对2008年5月22日~2010年12月31日抢救的1077例急性中毒患者,按病种、例次、性别、年龄、中毒意向、就诊方式等进行统计分析,探讨其流行病学特征及相关因素.结果 灾后重建中急性中毒最多的为酒精中毒(53.3%),其次依次为农药中毒(20.97%)、药物中毒(11.15%)、食物中毒(6.13%)、CO中毒(5.48%)、毒品中毒(3.02%).女性高于男性(P<0.039).但男性中毒有增多趋势.21~40岁是中毒的高发年龄段(53.95%).中毒原因以内服毒物自杀最多(59.24%).就诊方式以自来院居多(54.41%).结论 灾后重建中急性中毒的发生与性别、年龄、性格、情商及意外事件等有直接的关系.

  3. Ulinastatin suppresses endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats with acute paraquat poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-feng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung injury is the main manifestation of paraquat poisoning. Few studies have addressed brain damage after paraquat poisoning. Ulinastatin is a protease inhibitor that can effectively stabilize lysosomal membranes, prevent cell damage, and reduce the production of free radicals. This study assumed that ulinastatin would exert these effects on brain tissues that had been poisoned with paraquat. Rat models of paraquat poisoning were intraperitoneally injected with ulinastatin. Simultaneously, rats in the control group were administered normal saline. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that most hippocampal cells were contracted and nucleoli had disappeared in the paraquat group. Fewer cells in the hippocampus were concentrated and nucleoli had disappeared in the ulinastatin group. Western blot assay showed that expressions of GRP78 and cleaved-caspase-3 were significantly lower in the ulinastatin group than in the paraquat group. Immunohistochemical findings showed that CHOP immunoreactivity was significantly lower in the ulinastatin group than in the paraquat group. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining showed that the number of apoptotic cells was reduced in the paraquat and ulinastatin groups. These data confirmed that endoplasmic reticular stress can be induced by acute paraquat poisoning. Ulinastatin can effectively inhibit this stress as well as cell apoptosis, thereby exerting a neuroprotective effect.

  4. Ulinastatin suppresses endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats with acute paraquat poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-feng Li; Shi-xing Zhao; Bao-peng Xing; Ming-li Sun

    2015-01-01

    Lung injury is the main manifestation of paraquat poisoning. Few studies have addressed brain damage after paraquat poisoning. Ulinastatin is a protease inhibitor that can effectively stabilize lysosomal membranes, prevent cell damage, and reduce the production of free radicals. This study assumed that ulinastatin would exert these effects on brain tissues that had been poisoned with paraquat. Rat models of paraquat poisoning were intraperitoneally injected with ulinastatin. Simultaneously, rats in the control group were administered normal saline. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that most hippocampal cells were contracted and nucleoli had disappeared in the paraquat group. Fewer cells in the hippocampus were concentrated and nucleoli had dis-appeared in the ulinastatin group. Western blot assay showed that expressions of GRP78 and cleaved-caspase-3 were signiifcantly lower in the ulinastatin group than in the paraquat group. Immunohistochemical ifndings showed that CHOP immunoreactivity was signiifcantly lower in the ulinastatin group than in the paraquat group. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-medi-ated dUTP nick end labeling staining showed that the number of apoptotic cells was reduced in the paraquat and ulinastatin groups. These data conifrmed that endoplasmic reticular stress can be induced by acute paraquat poisoning. Ulinastatin can effectively inhibit this stress as well as cell apoptosis, thereby exerting a neuroprotective effect.

  5. Using bosentan to treat paraquat poisoning-induced acute lung injury in rats.

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    Zhongchen Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paraquat poisoning is well known for causing multiple organ function failure (MODS and high mortality. Acute lung injury and advanced pulmonary fibrosis are the most serious complications. Bosentan is a dual endothelin receptor antagonist. It plays an important role in treating PF. There is no related literature on the use of bosentan therapy for paraquat poisoning. OBJECTIVE: To study the use of bosentan to treat acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis as induced by paraquat. METHOD: A total of 120 adult Wister male rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the paraquat poisoning group (rats were intragastrically administered with paraquat at 50 mg/kg body weight once at the beginning; the bosentan therapy group (rats were administered bosentan at 100 mg/kg body weight by intragastric administration half an hour after paraquat was administered, then the same dose was administered once a day; and a control group (rats were administered intragastric physiological saline. On the 3rd, 7th, 14th, and 21st days following paraquat exposure, rats were sacrificed, and samples of lung tissue and venous blood were collected. The levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, endothelin-1 (ET-1, and hydroxyproline (HYP in the plasma and lung homogenate were determined. Optical and electronic microscopes were used to examine pathological changes. RESULT: The TGF-β1, ET-1, and HYP of the paraquat poisoning group were significantly higher than in the control group, and they were significantly lower in the 21st day therapy group than in the paraquat poisoning group on the same day. Under the optical and electronic microscopes, lung tissue damage was observed to be more severe but was then reduced after bosentan was administered. CONCLUSION: Bosentan can reduce inflammation factor release. It has a therapeutic effect on acute lung injury as induced by paraquat.

  6. Guidance document for setting an Acute Reference Dose in Dutch national pesticide evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaij MTM van; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a proposal for the procedures for setting an Acute Reference Dose (ARfD) for pesticides evaluated in the Netherlands. This deals with both evaluations on the national level (on behalf of the Dutch Board for the Authorisation of Pesticides (CTB)) and evaluations at the European

  7. Effect of hemoperfusion on internal environment of patients with acute poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Li; Wen-Qiang Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of hemoperfusion on the internal environment of patients with acute poisoning.Methods: A total of 36 patients with the acute poisoning who received the hemoperfusion treatment in Department of Emergency Medicine of this hospital were selected as the research subjects and a retrospective study was performed on them. At the beginning, 30 min and 120 min of hemoperfusion treatment, the blood was taken from the blood-collecting point of artery with cardiopulmonary bypass to detect the blood pH, partial pressure of CO2, partial pressure of oxygen, blood lactic acid, potassium, sodium, free calcium, bicarbonate ion and blood glucose level. The above indicators at the different time point were compared. Results:At the beginning, 30 min and 120 min of hemoperfusion, there was no significant difference in the partial pressure of CO2, pH, blood potassium, blood sodium, bicarbonate ion and free calcium between groups. But at the beginning, 30 min and 120 min of hemoperfusion, there was the significant difference in the partial pressure of oxygen, lactic acid and blood glucose between groups.Conclusion:There is no significant effect on the internal environment of patients with acute poisoning who receive the hemoperfusion treatment.

  8. Assessing biomarkers and neuropsychological outcomes in rural populations exposed to organophosphate pesticides in Chile - study design and protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramirez-Santana, M.; Zuniga, L.; Corral, S.; Sandoval, R.; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Velden, K. van der; Roeleveld, N.; Pancetti, F.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health effects of pesticides are easily diagnosed when acute poisonings occurs, nevertheless, consequences from chronic exposure can only be observed when neuropsychiatric, neurodegenerative or oncologic pathologies appear. Therefore, early monitoring of this type of exposure is especial

  9. [Neurotoxicology of pesticides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hiroo

    2015-01-01

    Pesticides have been used for many years for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating pests such as insects, rodents, and weeds. However, most pesticides are not completely specific for pests and can also induce damage to the human nervous system. In particular, insecticides often directly targets the nervous system by affecting major targets such as the neuro-transmitter metabolism, neuronal receptors, and ion channels; acetylcholine (ACh) esterase for organo-phosphates and carbamates, nicotinic ACh receptor for neonicotinoids, γ-aminobutyric acid receptors/chloride channels for organochlorides and fipronil, and voltage-gated sodium channel for pyrethroids. Additional targets include sites in the sodium channels, glutamate-gated chloride channels, and octopamine and ryanodine receptors. Several pesticides also produce adverse neurological effects indirectly by disrupting the general cellular mechanisms that support the high metabolic activity of the nervous system. Nowadays, more potent pesticides are being developed as replacements for the older, harmful ones. Pesticide neurotoxicity in humans may involve the central or peripheral nervous system or both and may induce typical neuronal damage in case of acute poisoning even by new agents. However, whether effect of exposure to pesticides at below acute-poisoning threshold level remains unclear. Moreover, neurotoxicology for behavioral and higher-brain function remains an unresolved and a challenging problem.

  10. Successful usage of intravenous lipid emulsion in treatment of acute verapamil poisoning: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković-Ercegović Gordana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. During the last few years, intravenous lipid emulsions have been effectively used in treatment of acute poisonings with lipophilic substances, including verapamil. Case report. A 37-year-old women presented 1 hour after ingestion of 2.8 g verapamil with hypotension and complete heart block. Because of the applied standard therapy failure and further patients impairment, Intralipid® 20% was used. Sinus rhythm was restored, arterial blood pressure increased and verapamile concentrations, both total and free decreased. Conclusion. Intravenous lipid emulsion can be important in treatment of severe acute intoxication and cardiotoxicity caused by verapamil.

  11. Poisoning of cats and dogs by the carbamate pesticides aldicarb and carbofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Adriana; Salvagni, Fernanda Auciello; Yoshida, Alberto Soiti; Gonçalves-Junior, Vagner; Calefi, Atilio Sersun; Fukushima, André Rinaldi; Spinosa, Helenice de Souza; Maiorka, Paulo César

    2015-10-01

    The intentional and accidental poisoning of animals and people is a threat to public health and safety worldwide. Necropsies and histopathological examinations of 26 cats and 10 dogs poisoned by the carbamates aldicarb and carbofuran, confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) were analysed, with variable post mortem interval and conservation of the carcass. Biological matrices were collected for toxicological and histopathological analyses. High performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) was utilized to detect aldicarb and its metabolites, aldicarb sulphoxide and aldicarb sulphone, and carbofuran. The variable post mortem interval and the method of conservation of the carcass may be harmful to toxicological, necroscopic and histopathological analyses, that should be performed in order to provide reliable evidences to investigate possible poisoning of animals, which is cruel crime, and are usually linked to domestic or social conflict.

  12. 重度有机磷农药中毒的抢救治疗分析%Analysis on the Treatment of Severe Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘胜利

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the methods and experiences in the treatment of severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Methods: Analysis of 105 cases of severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning patients treated in our hospital emergency department. Results: 105 cases of poisoning patients, 99 cases were cured, 6 cases died, the cure rate was 93.4%.Conclusion:For the patients with severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning is a dangerous disease, rapid development, individual differences and close observation at the same time, the reasonable adjustment of therapy is the key to rescue.%目的:总结重度有机磷农药中毒抢救的方法和经验。方法:分析我院急诊科收治的105例重度有机磷农药中毒患者的救治资料。结果:105例中毒患者,治愈99例,死亡6例,治愈率为93.4%。结论:重度有机磷农药中毒病情凶险,发展迅速,个体差异大,密切观察同时合理调整治疗方案是救治的关键。

  13. Acute methoxetamine and amphetamine poisoning with fatal outcome: A case report

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    Marek Wiergowski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Methoxetamine (MXE is a psychoactive substance distributed mostly via the Internet and is not liable to legal regulation in Poland. MXE has a toxicity profile similar to that of ketamine but longer-lasting effects. The paper describes a case of acute poisoning that resulted from recreational use of MXE and amphetamine and ended in death. In mid-July 2012, a 31-year old man was admitted to the clinical toxicology unit in Gdańsk because of poisoning with an unknown psychoactive substance. The patient was transported to the emergency department (ED at 5:15 a.m. in a very poor general condition, in a deep coma, with acute respiratory failure, hyperthermia (> 39°C and generalized seizures. Laboratory tests showed marked leukocytosis, signs of massive rhabdomyolysis, hepatic failure and beginning of acute renal failure. Despite intensive therapy, the patient died 4 weeks after the poisoning in the course of multi-organ dysfunction syndrome. Chemical and toxicological studies of serum and urine samples collected on the poisoning day at 1:40 p.m. confirmed that amphetamine and MXE had been taken earlier that day. Concentration of amphetamine in the serum (0.06 μg/ml was within the non-toxic range, while MXE (0.32 μg/ml was within the toxic range of concentrations. Amphetamine was also detected in the patient's hair, which suggested a possibility of its use within the last dozen weeks or so. The serious clinical course of intoxication and co-existence of amphetamine and MXE in the patient's blood and urine suggest the possibility of adverse interactions between them.

  14. Prediction and validation of hemodialysis duration in acute methanol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Philippe; Mac-Way, Fabrice; Desmeules, Simon; De Serres, Sacha A; Julien, Anne-Sophie; Douville, Pierre; Ghannoum, Marc; Agharazii, Mohsen

    2015-11-01

    The duration of hemodialysis (HD) in methanol poisoning (MP) is dependent on the methanol concentration, the operational parameters used during HD, and the presence and severity of metabolic acidosis. However, methanol assays are not easily available, potentially leading to undue extension or premature termination of treatment. Here we provide a prediction model for the duration of high-efficiency HD in MP. In a retrospective cohort study, we identified 71 episodes of MP in 55 individuals who were treated with alcohol dehydrogenase inhibition and HD. Four patients had residual visual abnormality at discharge and only one patient died. In 46 unique episodes of MP with high-efficiency HD the mean methanol elimination half-life (T1/2) during HD was 108 min in women, significantly different from the 129 min in men. In a training set of 28 patients with MP, using the 90th percentile of gender-specific elimination T1/2 (147 min in men and 141 min in women) and a target methanol concentration of 4 mmol/l allowed all cases to reach a safe methanol of under 6 mmol/l. The prediction model was confirmed in a validation set of 18 patients with MP. High-efficiency HD time in hours can be estimated using 3.390 × (Ln (MCi/4)) for women and 3.534 × (Ln (MCi/4)) for men, where MCi is the initial methanol concentration in mmol/l, provided that metabolic acidosis is corrected.

  15. Acute collective gas poisoning at work in a manure storage tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żaba, Czesław; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Tężyk, Artur; Tobolski, Jarosław; Zaba, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    Cases of deaths in manure or septic tanks are rare in legal-medical practice, more frequently as unfortunate occupational accidents. Poisoning with toxic gases, especially with hydrogen sulfide, is reported as the cause of death, while the exhaustion of oxygen in the air is omitted with the simultaneous excess of carbon dioxide. In such cases, determination of the direct cause of death constitutes a big problem because post-mortem examination does not reveal the specific changes. A case of acute collective poisoning by gases in a manure storage tank is presented of 5 agricultural workers, 2 of whom died. While explaining the cause of poisoning and deaths, toxicological blood tests were performed in the victims of the accident, as well as gases inside the manure storage tank. The post-mortem examinations and toxicological blood tests performed did not allow determination of the direct cause of death. Toxicological tests of gases from inside the manure tank showed a very low concentration of oxygen, with a simultaneous very high concentration of carbon dioxide, and a considerable level of hydrogen sulfide. The cause of fainting of three and deaths of two workers was not the poisoning with hydrogen sulfide, but oxygen deficiency in the air of the tank.

  16. Prevalence of pulmonary edema among the deceased cases with acute Methadone poisoning: A report from Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Naeini, Seyed Amir Hossein Madani; Hedaiaty, Mahrang; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Moudi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Methadone poisoning is common in our society, mainly in drug addicts. One of its lethal complications is pulmonary edema. Therefore, we evaluated the prevalence of pulmonary edema in the deceased cases with methadone poisoning and its possible relationship with some medical variables. Methods: In this cross-sectional study which was done in 2014, we have investigated the deceased patients with methadone toxicity who underwent autopsy at Isfahan Forensic Medicine Department (Iran). All variables including age, gender, and autopsy findings were recorded and analyzed. Demographic characteristics and medical complications of the patients were compared between the patients with or without pulmonary edema in the autopsy findings. Findings: There were 64 cases who died with methadone poisoning during the 1-year study period. The average age of cases (±standard deviation) was 32.1 ± 10.29 years, among which 92.2% were male. Based on the autopsy findings, 64.1% were diagnosed with pulmonary edema. There was no statistically significant relationship between pulmonary edema and age, gender, history of addiction, and hepatic or cardiovascular complications. Conclusion: Pulmonary edema is a common finding in deceased methadone poisoning cases and must be considered and ruled out in patients with acute methadone toxicity. PMID:27843967

  17. Acute glyphosate-surfactant poisoning with neurological sequels and fatal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potrebić Olivera

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Clinical picture of severe glyphosatesurfactant poisoning is manifested by gastroenteritis, respiratory disturbances, altered mental status, hypotension refractory to the treatment, renal failure, shock. Single case report indicated possible neurotoxic sequels of glyphosatesurfactant exposure with white matter lesions and development of Parkinsonism. We described a patient with massive white matter damage which led to vigil coma and lethal outcome. Case report. A 56-year old woman ingested about 500 mL of herbicide containing glyphosate isopropylamine salt. The most prominent manifestation of poisoning included hypotension, coma, hyperkaliemia, respiratory and renal failure. The patient was treated in intensive care unit by symptomatic and supportive therapy including mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis. The patient survived the acute phase of poisoning, but she developed vigil coma. Nuclear magnetic imagining revealed extensive bilateral lesions of the brain stem white matter and pons. Conclusion. The outcome of reported poisoning may be the consequence of glyphosate-surfactant neurotoxic effect or/and ischemia, especially in the episodes of marked hypotension during hemodialysis. Considering recommendation of early hemodialysis as the treatment of choice, even before renal failure development, we point out the importance of careful planning of dialysis modality in hemodynamically instable patient and recommend continuous dialysis methods.

  18. Pralidoxime in acute organophosphorus insecticide poisoning--a randomised controlled trial.

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    Michael Eddleston

    2009-06-01

    benefit. CONCLUSIONS: Despite clear reactivation of red cell acetylcholinesterase in diethyl organophosphorus pesticide poisoned patients, we found no evidence that this regimen improves survival or reduces need for intubation in patients with organophosphorus insecticide poisoning. The reason for this failure to benefit patients was not apparent. Further studies of different dose regimens or different oximes are required.

  19. Duration of an induced resistance of sheep to acute poisoning by Crotalaria retusa seeds

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    Lisanka Angelo Maia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the duration of the resistance after the end of the ingestion of non-toxic doses of Crotalaria retusa seeds. Ten sheep were divided into 3 groups of 3 animals each and a control group with 1 sheep. To induce resistance, sheep in groups 1, 2 and 3 received 20 daily doses of 2g kg-1 of C. retusa seeds, followed by 7 daily doses of 4g kg-1. To determine the duration of resistance the sheep in groups 1, 2 and 3 were challenged orally, 3, 7 and 15 days, respectively, after receiving the last dose of 4g kg-1, with a single dose of 5g kg-1. Sheep of groups 1 and 2 did not develop overt signs of poisoning. Two sheep of group 3, challenged 15 days after the end of the resistance induction period, showed signs of acute poisoning and died. These results suggest that the induced resistance of sheep to acute poisoning by C. retusa seeds is of short duration, from 7 to 15 days.

  20. Time-Dependent Changes Of Hematological Parameters In Patients With Acute Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerrin Defne Dündar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prognostic value of the time-dependent changes of hematological parameters in patients with acute organophosphate poisoning. Methods: All patients admitted to emergency departments from 2010 through 2013 due to organophosphate poisoning were enrolled in the study. Demographic data, route of exposure, serum cholinesterase levels, complete blood count results of 5 consecutive days, mechanical ventilation requirement, length of stay in hospital, and outcomes were recorded. Results: Mechanically ventilated patients had higher leukocyte and neutrophil counts than nonventilated patients during the whole follow-up period, and both of them had a trend of decrease in both patient groups. There was no difference between patient groups in terms of lymphocyte counts at day 1, but mechanically ventilated patients had lower lymphocyte counts than nonventilated patients after day 2. Hemoglobin levels had a trend of decrease during the whole follow-up period in both patient groups. Conclusion: The parameters obtained from complete blood count can be used as sensitive follow-up parameters in patients with acute organophosphate poisoning by serial measurement.

  1. Fresh frozen plasma as a successful antidotal supplement in acute organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vučinić, Slavica; Zlatković, Milica; Antonijević, Biljana; Ćurčić, Marijana; Bošković, Bogdan

    2013-06-01

    Despite improvements to intensive care management and specific pharmacological treatments (atropine, oxime, diazepam), the mortality associated with organophosphate (OP) poisoning has not substantially decreased. The objective of this examination was to describe the role of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in acute OP poisoning. After a deliberate ingestion of malathion, a 55-year-old male suffering from miosis, somnolence, bradycardia, muscular fasciculations, rales on auscultation, respiratory insufficiency, as well as from an inhibition of red blood cell acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), was admitted to hospital. Malathion was confirmed in a concentration of 18.01 mg L(-1). Apart from supportive measures (including mechanical ventilation for four days), antidotal treatment with atropine, oxime-pralidoxime methylsulphate (Contrathion(R)), and diazepam was administered, along with FFP. The potentially beneficial effects of FFP therapy included a prompt increase of BuChE activity (from 926 IU L(-1) to 3277 IU L(-1); reference range from 7000 IU L(-1) to 19000 IU L(-1)) and a reduction in the malathion concentration, followed by clinical recovery. Due to BuChE replacement, albumin content, and volume restitution, FFP treatment may be used as an alternative approach in patients with acute OP poisoning, especially when oximes are not available.

  2. Acute mercury poisoning among children in two provinces of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Kursat Bora; Tutkun, Engin; Yilmaz, Hinc; Dilber, Cengiz; Dalkiran, Tahir; Cakir, Baris; Arslantas, Didem; Cesaretli, Yildirim; Aykanat, Selin Aktaş

    2013-06-01

    Elemental mercury exposure occurs frequently and is potentially a toxic, particularly in children. Children are often attracted to elemental mercury because of its color, density, and tendency to form beads. Clinical manifestations of elemental mercury intoxication vary depending on its form, concentration, route of ingestion, and the duration of exposure. We present data on 179 pediatric cases of elemental mercury poisoning from exposure to mercury in schools in two different provinces of Turkey. Of all patients, 160 children had both touched/played with the mercury and inhaled its vapors, while 26 children had only inhaled the mercury vapor, two children reported having tasted the mercury. The median duration of exposure was 5 min (min 1-max 100), and 11 (6 %) children were exposed to the mercury for more than 24 h at home. More than half of the children (51.9 %) were asymptomatic at admission. Headache was the most common presenting complaint. The results of physical and neurological examinations were normal in 80 (44.6 %) children. Mid-dilated/dilated pupils were the most common neurological abnormality, and this sign was present in 90 (50.2 %) children. Mercury levels were measured in 24-h urine samples daily, and it was shown that the median urinary level of mercury was 29.80 μg/L (min, 2.40 μg/L; max, 4,687 μg/L). A positive correlation was also found between the duration of exposure and urinary mercury levels (r = 0.23, p = 0.001). All patients were followed up for 6 months. On the first follow-up visit performed 1 month after discharge, the neurological examinations of all patients were normal except for those patients with peripheral neuropathy and visual field defects. On the last follow-up visit at the sixth month, only two children still experienced visual field defects. In conclusion, this study is one of the largest case series of mercury intoxication of students in schools. Elemental mercury exposure can be potentially toxic, and its

  3. Effects of acute organophosphate poisoning on pituitary target gland hormones at admission, discharge and three months after poisoning: A hospital based pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinaki Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphate compound (OPC poisoning is common in the developing countries such as India. The acute and later effects of OPC poisoning on pituitary and target gland hormones is largely unknown. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted at Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research between January 2012 and March 2013. Fourteen patients (8 males, age 18-50 years with acute OPC poisoning were included in the study based on the history and clinical features, documented decreased in plasma cholinesterase activity or presence of the OPC in gastric lavage/blood samples. The hormonal parameters were done at baseline, at the time of discharge and at three months of follow-up. Results: A total of 14 patients out of 46 with the mean age of 30.1 ± 10.3 years were finally eligible for the study. Hormonal alterations at admission were similar to sick euhormonal syndrome. Overall 7 of them had nine hormonal deficits at three months of follow up, 4 having sub normal basal cortisol level and two each had low testosterone and growth hormone and only one had thyroxine deficiency. Conclusion: Acute organophosphate poisoning results in endocrine dysfunction akin to sick euhormonal syndrome. However, in a small subset of patients, varying level of hormonal insufficiency may occur either at admission or later. These observations need re-validation in a larger group of patients with specific OPC.

  4. Mania following organophosphate poisoning

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    Satyakam Mohapatra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning.

  5. Mania following organophosphate poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Satyakam Mohapatra; Neelmadhav Rath

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning.

  6. Mania following organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Satyakam; Rath, Neelmadhav

    2014-11-01

    Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning.

  7. Long QT syndrome and torsades de pointes induced by acute sulpiride poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jia-How; Weng, Te-I; Fang, Cheng-Chung

    2009-10-01

    Sulpiride, a selective dopamine D2 antagonist and a substituted benzamide derivative, is considered a safe antipsychotic and antidepressant agent with few adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. Sulpiride-induced torsades de pointes is rare. We report a case of long QT syndrome and torsades de pointes induced by ingestion of 1.5 g of sulpiride. Ventricular arrhythmia was initially treated with amiodarone, without success. Eventually, lidocaine and magnesium sulfate successfully terminated the ventricular arrhythmia. The patient was discharged uneventfully after 3 days of hospitalization. This case illustrates the fact that acute sulpiride poisoning may lead to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. Early recognition followed by effective therapy is crucial. Intensive cardiac monitoring is recommended for sulpiride poisoning.

  8. Analysis on the characteristics of the acute poisoning processes in Beihai city%北海市急性中毒过程的特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青华

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨北海市急性中毒过程的特点。方法采用流行病学调查方法,调查了市、县、乡10个三级医疗单位2005-01~2012-12的2127例急性中毒住院患者,并对相关资料进行分类分析。结果在2127例中毒患者中,中毒地点以发生在家里、学校、工作场地、餐馆、娱乐场所与其他场地的病例数各占86.63%、0.24%、5.37%、3.25%、1.46%、3.06%;中毒途径以经口、呼吸、皮肤中毒病例数各占68.47%、19.01%、12.52%;中毒原因以意外性、自杀性、误食性、医疗性、职业性、他杀性、其他原因中毒的病例数各占36.05%、25.65%、15.20%、7.06%、2.45%、0.24%、13.35%。其中以家里、经口、意外性与自杀性中毒为中毒过程的4个主要特点。进一步分析这4个特点的中毒原因与毒物,其中家里中毒的主要原因与毒物为意外性与农药类中毒病例数最多,各占同类病例数的33.33%、29.18%;经口中毒的主要原因与毒物为自杀性与农药类中毒病例数最多,各占同类病例数的36.70%、31.99%;进一步分析意外性与自杀性中毒的主要毒物,以化学类与农药类毒物中毒病例数为多(各占同类原因总病例数的44.39%、68.62%)。结论北海地区以家里中毒、经口中毒与意外、自杀性原因中毒为急性中毒过程的突出特点,应针对这些特点采取针对性地防控对策。%Objective To study the characteristics of the acute poisoning processes in Beihai city.Methods By the epidemiological study, the 2 127 cases of all-kind-acute poisoning were surveyed from 10 hospitals of the city, county and township in Beihai city.The classification analysis was made by collecting the relevant data of poisoning processes of the cases.Results In all the 2 127 cases, the numbers of poisoning in the poisoning sites of home, school ,workplace , restaurants, entertainment and other places

  9. [Clinical symptoms and circumastances of acute poisonings with fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and panther cap (Amanita pantherina)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik-Głebocka, Magdalena; Druzdz, Artur; Naskret, Maciej

    2011-01-01

    Mushroom poisonings in Poland are quite common, especially in summer and autumn, but fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and panther cap (Amanita pantherina) are rather rare cause of these intoxications. Fly agaric is a cause of deliberate poisoning, whereas panther cap poisoning also happens accidentally. The main toxins of these two mushrooms are ibotenic acid (pantherine, agarine), muscimol, muscazone and muscaridine. The other bioactive substances are stizolobic and stizolobinic acids and aminodicarboxyethylthiopropanoic acids. All these compounds are responsible for diverse picture of intoxication. An analysis of patients with Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina poisoning hospitalized in the Poznan Departament of Toxicology revealed that symptoms occurred after 30 minutes to 2 hours with vomiting, hallucinations, restlessness, increased psychomotor drive and central nervous system depression. Other antycholinergic symptoms like tachycardia and increased blood pressure, mydriasis, dry and red skin were seen only in a few cases. Acute respiratory failure was the most dangerous symptom observed in the course of poisoning.

  10. Factors associated with the decline in suicide by pesticide poisoning in Taiwan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Eddleston, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    not include products (e.g. paraquat) that accounted for most deaths and were mainly restricted to selected high-strength formulated products whilst their equivalent low-strength products were not banned. Conclusions. Access to pesticides, indicated by the size of agricultural workforce, appears to influence...

  11. Assessing the connection between organophosphate pesticide poisoning and mental health: A comparison of neuropsychological symptoms from clinical observations, animal models and epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallones, Lorann; Beseler, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatry and psychology are beginning to recognize the importance of lead, mercury and heavy metals as causal partners in the development of mental disorders. Further, mental health researchers and clinicians are embracing the idea that the combined effects of genetics and environmental exposures can result in perturbations in brain neurochemistry leading to psychiatric disorders. The purpose of this review is to examine the biological foundations for the epidemiological observations previously identified by reviewing the toxicology literature and relating it to epidemiological studies addressing the role of poisoning with organophosphate pesticides (OPs) in neurobehavioral and neuropsychological disorders. The goal of this review is to raise awareness in the mental health community about the possibility that affective disorders might be the result of contributions from environmental and occupational pesticide poisoning.

  12. Impairment of striatal mitochondrial function by acute paraquat poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniczyniec, Analía; Lanza, E M; Karadayian, A G; Bustamante, J; Lores-Arnaiz, S

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondria are essential for survival. Their primary function is to support aerobic respiration and to provide energy for intracellular metabolic pathways. Paraquat is a redox cycling agent capable of generating reactive oxygen species. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in cortical and striatal mitochondrial function in an experimental model of acute paraquat toxicity and to compare if the brain areas and the molecular mechanisms involved were similar to those observed after chronic exposure. Sprague-Dawley rats received paraquat (25 mg/Kg i.p.) or saline and were sacrificed after 24 h. Paraquat treatment decreased complex I and IV activity by 37 and 21 % respectively in striatal mitochondria. Paraquat inhibited striatal state 4 and state 3 KCN-sensitive respiration by 80 % and 62 % respectively, indicating a direct effect on respiratory chain. An increase of 2.2 fold in state 4 and 2.3 fold in state 3 in KCN-insensitive respiration was observed in striatal mitochondria from paraquat animals, suggesting that paraquat redox cycling also consumed oxygen. Paraquat treatment increased hydrogen peroxide production (150 %), TBARS production (42 %) and cardiolipin oxidation/depletion (12 %) in striatal mitochondria. Also, changes in mitochondrial polarization was induced after paraquat treatment. However, no changes were observed in any of these parameters in cortical mitochondria from paraquat treated-animals. These results suggest that paraquat treatment induced a clear striatal mitochondrial dysfunction due to both paraquat redox cycling reactions and impairment of the mitochondrial electron transport, causing oxidative damage. As a consequence, mitochondrial dysfunction could probably lead to alterations in cellular bioenergetics.

  13. Therapeutic efficacy of charcoal hemoperfusion in patients with acute severe dichlorvos poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AiPENG; Fan-qingMENG; Lan-fangSUN; Zhan-shengJI; Yu-huiLI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy of hemoperfusion (HP) in the treatment of the patients with acute severe dichlorvos(DDVP) poisoning. METHODS: One hundred and eight patients with acute severe DDVP poisoning in the two teaching hospitals were enrolled. Sixty-seven patients were treated with HP (HP group) and forty-one patients accepted traditional treatment only as the control. Serum concentration of DDVP was determined by gas chromatography. RESULTS: The duration of coma, impaired consciousness, ICU stay, and mechanical ventilation was significantly shorter in the HP group than that in the control. The cumulative dosages (mg) of atropine required either in the first 24 h on admission (442±436 vs 899±485 in the control, P<0.01) or within the hospital (568±574vs 1228±982 in the control, P<0.01) were markedly reduced in the HP patients. The lower incidence of mechanical ventilation required (13.4 % vs 36.6 % P<0.01), respiratory muscular paralysis (4.5 % vs 17.1%, P<0.05) and the lower mortality of death (7.5 % vs 34.1%, P<0.01) were observed in the HP group. HP could accelerate the recovery of suppressed cholinesterase activity. After the procedure, the DDVP level was decreased from (11±4) to(7±3) mg/L in parallel with a decline in APACHE II Score or dopamine dose and a rise in Glasgow Coma Scale(P<0.05). In addition, the mean values of peak clearance and reduction rate were (87±17) mL/min and 44 %±11%,respectively. CONCLUSION: The rapid fall in blood DDVP level and the dramatic clinical response suggest that HP is effective in the treatment of acute severe DDVP poisoning.

  14. Protective effects of penehyclidine hydrochloride on acute lung injury caused by severe dichlorvos poisoning in swine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Juan; LI Chun-sheng; HE Xin-hua; SONG Yu-guo

    2013-01-01

    Background Organophosphate poisoning is an important health problem in developing countries which causes death mainly by inducing acute lung injury.In this study,we examined the effects of penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC),a selective M-receptor inhibitor,on dichlorvos-induced acute lung injury in swine.Methods Twenty-two female swines were randomly divided into control (n=5),dichlorvos (n=6),atropine (n=6),and PHC (n=5) groups.Hemodynamic data,extravascular lung water index (EVLWI),and pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI) were monitored; blood gas analysis and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) levels were measured.PaO2/FiO2,cardiac index (Cl),and pulmonary vascular resistance indices (PVRI) were calculated.At termination of the study,pulmonary tissue was collected for ATPase activity determination and wet to dry weight ratio (W/D) testing 6 hours post-poisoning.TUNEL assay,and Bax,Bcl-2,and caspase-3 expression were applied to pulmonary tissue,and histopathology was observed.Results After poisoning,PHC markedly decreased PVRI,increased CI more effectively than atropine.Anticholinergic treatment reduced W/D,apoptosis index (AI),and mitigated injury to the structure of lung; however,PHC reduced AI and caspase-3 expression and improved Bcl-2/Bax more effectively than atropine.Atropine and PHC improved ATPase activities; a significant difference between groups was observed in Ca2+-ATPase activity,but not Na+-K+-ATPase activity.Conclusions The PHC group showed mild impairment in pathology,less apoptotic cells,and little impact on cardiac function compared with the atropine group in dichlorvos-induced acute lung injury.

  15. Slow Repetitive Nerve Stimulation in Patients with Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning after Clinical Recovery

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    Sudheera Jayasinghe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolonged inhibition of acetylcholine esterase may lead to the intermediate syndrome. Neuromuscular junction (NMJ dysfunction has been shown with repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS. Subclinical NMJ dysfunction may also occur. We aimed to examine the NMJ function following acute organophosphorus (OP poisoning by using exercise modified slow RNS. Methods: A cohort study was conducted with matched controls. Patients with acute OP poisoning were enrolled. NMJ function, muscle power and tendon reflexes were assessed at discharge and six weeks after exposure. NMJ function was assessed with exercise modified supramaximal slow RNS of the median nerve. Results: There were 68 patients and 71 controls. Mean (SD age of patients and controls were 32 (12 and 33 (12 years. In some particular amplitude, the decrement response was statistically significant. They were decrement response at rest, at fourth amplitude (95% CI: -0.2 to -2.7 and two minutes post-exercise at fourth and fifth amplitudes (95% CI: -0.8 to -5, -1 to -5 respectively in the second assessment compared to controls, decrement response at rest at fourth and fifth amplitudes (95% CI: -4 to -0.5, -3.9 to -0.01 respectively and two minutes post-exercise at fourth amplitude (95% CI: -5 to -0.8 in the second assessment compared to the first assessment. Patients in the first assessment and controls showed more than 8% decrement response either to the second, fourth or fifth stimuli in seven and five occasions respectively. Conclusion:  There was no significant neuromuscular junction dysfunction assessed by exercise modified slow repetitive stimulation following acute exposure to OP. Since, NMJ dysfunctions are likely to occur following OP poisoning, other electrodiagnostic modalities such as SF-EMG are probably more efficient to assess these abnormalities.

  16. 化学农药对蜜蜂的急性毒性测定方法与危害评价%Hazard assessment and methods to measure the acute toxicity of chemical pesticides to bees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗术东; 安建东; 李继莲; 黄家兴; 彭文君; 吴杰

    2009-01-01

    Pollinators, such as honeybees and bumble bees, are crucial to the harvest. During their foraging behavior, bees are also exposed to the risk of poisoning due to chemical pesticide treatments. At the same time, they are also very sensitive to chemical pesticides for its morphological and ethological features, therefore, it is very important to assess the hazard of pesticides on bees systematic and measure the toxicity of pesticides to bees for bee protection and new pesticides exploitation. Many measuring methods were used to investigate the toxicity of pesticides to bees, among which acute toxicity bioassays were the main ones. All kinds of measuring methods are summed up from two aspects----the acute toxicity of pesticides to bees(acute oral toxicity and acute contact toxicity) and the hazard assessments of pesticides on bees and the hazard assessment was simply introduced.%蜜蜂独特的生物学特性决定了它对化学农药的危害十分敏感,因此,精确地测定化学农药对蜜蜂的毒性和评价化学农药对蜜蜂的危害,对保护蜜蜂等非靶标生物和新农药的开发与推广都具有重要作用.在众多测定化学农药对蜜蜂的毒性方法中,急性毒性的测定是最主要的手段,是评价化学农药对蜜蜂危害的基础.从急性经口毒性和急性触杀毒性两方面综述了化学农药对蜜蜂的急性毒性测定方法和危害评价体系.

  17. Toxicoepidemiology of acute poisoning cases in a secondary care hospital in rural South India: A five-year analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T H Indu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To ascertain the trend of poisoning cases admitted to the Government District Headquarters Hospital, a secondary care center in Udhagamandalam, Nilgiris District, Tamil Nadu, India, over a five-year period. Materials and Methods: The number of cases that presented to the hospital annually (incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates, socio-demographic pattern, and the nature of the poison were noted. Results: A total of 1860 poisoning cases (80 deaths were reported during the period from October 2008 to September 2013. The incidence of poisoning was found to increase every year. The average incidence was 1.60 per 1000 population, while the average case fatality rate and mortality rates were 40.51 and 0.07, respectively. A total of 1148 (62% were males. The majority of cases were seen in the 21-30 age group (41.24%. The poisonings were largely deliberate self-harm (n = 1,755; 94.35%, followed by accidental (n = 85; 4.57%. Agrochemicals were the main choice of poisoning agents and among these, organophosphates were the major cause. Conclusion: The data generated can help policy makers take decisions on the sale and availability of pesticides in this region.

  18. The Effects of Acute Hydrogen Sulfide Poisoning on Cytochrome P450 Isoforms Activity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Xianqin Wang; Mengchun Chen; Xinxin Chen; Jianshe Ma; Congcong Wen; Jianchun Pan; Lufeng Hu; Guanyang Lin

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the second leading cause of toxin related death (after carbon monoxide) in the workplace. H2S is absorbed by the upper respiratory tract mucosa, and it causes histotoxic hypoxemia and respiratory depression. Cocktail method was used to evaluate the influences of acute H2S poisoning on the activities of cytochrome P450 isoforms CYP2B6, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP2C9, which were reflected by the changes of pharmacokinetic parameters of six specific probe d...

  19. Brain injury due to acute organophosphate poisoning Magnetic resonance imaging manifestation and pathological characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute organophosphate poisoning can cause injuries of multiple visceras; especially,central nervous system injury can increase risk factors of patients with severe acute organophosphate poisoning. An application of modem image may increase diagnostic rate of brain injury in an earlier period and provide evidences for clinical treatment.OBJECTIVE: To reveal imaging manifestations, pathological characteristics and multi-ways injured mechanism of brain injury due to acute organophosphate poisoning.DESIGN: Contrast observational study.SETTING: Department of Medical Image, the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Department of Nerve Molecule Imaging Medicine and Laboratory of Neurology, the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University from August 2003 to February 2004. A total of 30 healthy cats weighing 2.8 - 3.5 g and of both genders were selected from Animal Experimental Center of Hebei Medical University.METHODS: Thirty healthy cats were randomly divided into control group (n =5) and intoxication group (n=25). Cats in the control group were subcutaneously injected with 0.3 mL/kg saline at four points; while, cats in the intoxication group were subcutaneously injected with 400 g/L 0.3 mL/kg O,O-dimethyl-S-(methoxycarbonylmethyl) thiophosphate at four points. Two minutes after intoxication, cats received muscular injection with 0.5 mg/kg atropine sulfate, and then, brain tissues were collected from parietal lobe, basal ganglia, hippocampus, cerebellum and brain stem were observed at 3, 6, 24 hours, 3 and 7 days after intoxication respectively under optic microscope and electron microscope and expressions of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP),glutamic acid (Glu) and γ-amino butyric acid after immunohistochemical staining.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Results of MRI examinations; histological changes under optic microscope and electron

  20. Minamata disease revisited: an update on the acute and chronic manifestations of methyl mercury poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekino, Shigeo; Susa, Mari; Ninomiya, Tadashi; Imamura, Keiko; Kitamura, Toshinori

    2007-11-15

    The first well-documented outbreak of acute methyl mercury (MeHg) poisoning by consumption of contaminated fish occurred in Minamata, Japan, in 1953. The clinical picture was officially recognized and called Minamata disease (MD) in 1956. However, 50 years later there are still arguments about the definition of MD in terms of clinical symptoms and extent of lesions. We provide a historical review of this epidemic and an update of the problem of MeHg toxicity. Since MeHg dispersed from Minamata to the Shiranui Sea, residents living around the sea were exposed to low-dose MeHg through fish consumption for about 20 years (at least from 1950 to 1968). These patients with chronic MeHg poisoning continue to complain of distal paresthesias of the extremities and the lips even 30 years after cessation of exposure to MeHg. Based on findings in these patients the symptoms and lesions in MeHg poisoning are reappraised. The persisting somatosensory disorders after discontinuation of exposure to MeHg were induced by diffuse damage to the somatosensory cortex, but not by damage to the peripheral nervous system, as previously believed.

  1. Preclinical study comparing the antidotal effect of clonidine with atropine for the treatment of acute malathion poisoning in the albino rats

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    Suresha K. R.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In developing countries 2–3 million people are acutely poisoned by organophosphorus (OP pesticides every year. There is a pressing need for new affordable antidotes and in this context clonidine which has central effect (α2 agonist has been evaluated in the albino rats presenting with signs or symptoms of acute malathion poisoning. And compared with atropine for the acte malathion poisoning in albino rats. Methods: This was a preclinical study conducted on albino rats of either sex weighing 100-150 grams were randomly divided into 4 groups (6/group. Malathion was given at the lethal dose of 54 mg/kg body weight (BW by gavage to each group. Group 1: normal saline intraperioneal (i.p. Group 2: Post treated with atropine 1.5 mg/kg BW (i.p. Group 3: Pre treated with clonidine 1mg/ kg BW (i.p, 10 minutes priore malathion. Group 4: Pre treated with clonidine and post treated with atropine. The above groups were observed for straub tail, muscle fasciculation, piloerection, lacrimation, defecation/ urination; salivation, tremors, gasping and convulsion and were recorded at time 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after poisoning. The latency of onset of tremors, loss of righting reflex and tremors were recorded. Results were presented as percentage occurrence and Mean ± SEM. Repeated measure one way ANOVA and Fisher’s Least Significant Difference post hoc test for comparison between groups. P-value of 0.05 or less was considered for statistical significance. Results: The central effects namely straubs tail and whole body tremors are significantly improved compared to control and atropine with clonidine group (p<0.05. However convulsion shows improve in atropine alone and atropine with clonidine groups. The overall survival time has significantly increased compared to control and atropine and atropine with clonidine (P<0.05.Clonidine has not shown any effect on survival time. Conclusions: Clonidine has some central protective effect in

  2. Organophosphate poisoning : A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmod K. Sinha

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate pesticides are used extensively worldwide, and poisoning by these agents, particularly in developing nations is a public health problem. Organophosphorous nerve agents are still considered as potential threat in both military or terrorism situations. The mechanism of toxicity is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, resulting in accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and continued stimulation of acetylcholine receptors both in central and peripheral nervous systems. Beside acute cholinergic crisis, organophosphates are capable of producing several subacute or chronic neurological syndromes. The well described intermediate syndrome (IMS emerges 1-4 days after an apparently well treated cholinergic crisis. The standard treatment consists of reactivation of inhibited acetylcholinesterase with an oxime antidote (pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI-6 and Hlo7 and reversal of the biochemical effects of acetylcholine with atropine. The newer oximes HI-6 and Hlo& are much more suitable and efficacious acetylcholinesterase reactivator for severe acute nerve agent induced poisoning than currently used pralidoxime or obidoxime. Patients who receive treatment promptly usually recover from acute toxicity but may suffer from neurologic sequelae. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 120-6 Keywords: poisoning, insecticide, organophosphate (OP, carbamates, acetylcholinesterase, oxime, pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI-6, HLo7

  3. Brain temperature measured by {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in acute and subacute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Shunrou; Nishimoto, Hideaki; Murakami, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Akira; Ogasawara, Kuniaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka, Iwate (Japan); Yoshioka, Yoshichika [Osaka University, Laboratory of Biofunctional Imaging, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka (Japan); Matsuda, Tsuyoshi [MR Applications and Workflow Asia Pacific, GE Healthcare Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Beppu, Takaaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka, Iwate (Japan); Iwate Medical University, Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, Iwate (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    Brain temperature (BT) is associated with the balance between cerebral blood flow and metabolism according to the ''heat-removal'' theory. The present study investigated whether BT is abnormally altered in acute and subacute CO-poisoned patients by using {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Eight adult CO-poisoned patients underwent 3-T magnetic resonance imaging in the acute and subacute phases after CO exposure. MRS was performed on deep cerebral white matter in the centrum semiovale, and MRS-based BT was estimated by the chemical shift difference between water and the N-acetyl aspartate signal. We defined the mean BT + 1.96 standard deviations of the BT in 15 healthy controls as the cutoff value for abnormal BT increases (p < 0.05) in CO-poisoned patients. BT of CO-poisoned patients in both the acute and subacute phases was significantly higher than that of the healthy control group. However, BT in the subacute phase was significantly lower than in the acute phase. On the other hand, no significant difference in body temperature was observed between acute and subacute CO-poisoned patients. BT weakly correlated with body temperature, but this correlation was not statistically significant (rho = 0.304, p = 0.2909). The present results suggest that BT in CO-poisoned patients is abnormally high in the acute phase and remains abnormal in the subacute phase. BT alteration in these patients may be associated with brain perfusion and metabolism rather than other factors such as systemic inflammation and body temperature. (orig.)

  4. Epidemiology and toxicology of arsenic poisoning in domestic animals

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    Selby, L.A.; Case, A.A.; Osweiler, G.D.; Hayes, H.M. Jr.

    1977-08-01

    Arsenic poisoning is one of the more important causes of heavy metal poisoning in domestic animals; yet sporadic instances of poisoning have been observed in cats, horses, and pigs. Cases observed by veterinary clinicians are either peracute, acute, or chronic intoxications. Frequently the initial and only indication that a severe problem exists with peracute poisoning in a cattle herd is dead animals. Chronic intoxications are also observed in cattle. Acute intoxication is the most common form of arsenic poisoning observed and documented in the dog. Also intoxicated dogs were younger, i.e., 2-6 months of age. Arsenic is a severe alimentary tract irritant in domestic animals, and treatment in most instances consists mainly of symptomatic and supportive treatment. The source of intoxication, when it can be determined, is usually dips, sprays, powders, or vegetation contaminated by pesticides containing arsenic.

  5. Epidemiology and toxicology of arsenic poisoning in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, L A; Case, A A; Osweiler, G D; Hayes, H M

    1977-01-01

    Arsenic poisoning is one of the more important causes of heavy metal poisoning in domestic animals. Two species--dogs and cattle--are intoxicated more frequently than other animals; yet sporadic instances of poisoning have been observed in cats, horses, and pigs. Cases observed by veterinary clinicians are either peracute, acute, or chronic intoxications. Frequently the initial and only indication that a severe problem exists with peracute poisoning in a cattle herd is dead animals. Chronic intoxications are also observed in cattle. Acute intoxication is the most common form of arsenic poisoning observed and documented in the dog. Also intoxicated dogs were younger, i.e., 2-6 months of age. Arsenic is a severe alimentary tract irritant in domestic animals, and treatment in most instances consists mainly of symptomatic and supportive treatment. The source of intoxication, when it can be determined, is usually dips, sprays, powders, or vegetation contaminated by pesticides containing arsenic. PMID:908297

  6. Intentional poisoning cases of animals with anticholinesterase pesticide-carbofuran in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennakoon, Sakunthala; Perera, Bandumala; Haturusinghe, Lathika

    2009-04-01

    Carbofuran is a broad spectrum insecticide and nematicide which inhibits acetyl cholinesterase. Several intentional poisoning cases of animals and birds including crows, dogs, cow, and elephant, using carbofuran were reported in Sri Lanka. Qualitative analysis of carbofuran in biological specimens was carried out using T.L.C and GC-MS. The quantitative analysis was carried out by HPLC using Zorbax Eclips XDB-C18 (150 x 4.6 mm I.D x 5 microm particle size) column with acetonitrile: water 25:75 v/v mobile phase and UV detection at 210 nm. The liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform was reproducible and sensitive. The procedure was validated in terms of linearity (0.996carbofuran poisoning. The fatal carbofuran levels detected were in the range of 42-910 microg/g in crow's gizzard and contents, 50-800 microg/g in dog's stomach contents, 13-20 microg/g in dog's liver, 0.9 microg/g in cow's stomach and contents, 35 microg/g in elephant's stomach and contents.

  7. Neurotoxicity and reactive astrogliosis in the anterior cingulate cortex in acute ciguatera poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Cao, Bing; Wang, Jun; Liu, Jin; Tung, Vivian Oi Vian; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing; Chan, Leo Lai; Li, Ying

    2013-06-01

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs) cause long-term disturbance of cerebral functions. The primary mechanism of neurotoxicity is related to their interaction with voltage-gated sodium channels. However, until now, the neurological targets for CTXs in the brain of intact animals have not been described. In our study, 1 day following oral exposure to 0.26 ng/g of Pacific ciguatoxin 1 (P-CTX-1), we performed in vivo electrophysiological recordings in the rat anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and identified the increase in spontaneous firings and enhanced responses to visceral noxious stimulation. Local field recordings characterized the P-CTX-1-induced synaptic potentiation and blockage of the induction of electrical stimulation-induced long-term potentiation in the medial thalamus (MT)-ACC pathway. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular administration of P-CTX-1 at doses of 1.0, 5.0, and 10 nM produced a dose-dependent increase in ACC neuronal firings and MT-ACC synaptic transmission. Further studies showed upregulated Na(+) channel expression in astrocytes under pathological conditions. We hypothesized that the astrocytes might have been activated in the ciguatera poisoning in vivo. Increases in glial fibrillary acid protein expression were detected in reactive astrocytes in the rat ACC. The activation of astroglia was further indicated by activation of the gap junction protein connexin 43 and upregulation of excitatory amino acid transporter 2 expression suggesting that glutamate was normally rapidly cleared from the synaptic cleft during acute ciguatera poisoning. However, neurotoxicity and reactive astrogliosis were not detected in the ACC after 7 days of P-CTX-1 exposure. The present results are the first characterization of P-CTX-1-invoked brain cortex neuronal excitotoxicity in vivo and supported the theme that neuron and astroglia signals might play roles in acute ciguatera poisoning.

  8. Ophthalmic findings in acute mercury poisoning in adults: A case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Lokman; Aslankurt, Murat; Bozkurt, Selim; Aksoy, Adnan; Ozdemir, Murat; Gizir, Harun; Yasar, Ibrahim

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to report ophthalmic findings of acute mercury poisoning in 48 adults referred to emergency department. Full ophthalmologic examination including the best corrected visual acuity, external eye examination, reaction to light, a slit-lamp examination, funduscopy, intraocular pressure measurements, and visual field (VF) and color vision (CV) tests were performed at the presentation and repeated after 6 months. The parametric values of VF test, the mean deviation (MD), and pattern standard deviation (PSD) were recorded in order to compare patients and the 30 healthy controls. The mean parameter of color confusion index in patients was found to be statistically different than controls (p < 0.01). The MD and PSD in patients were different from controls statistically significant (p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively). There was no correlation between the ocular findings and the urine and blood mercury levels. Methyl mercury, held in the school laboratory for experimental purpose, may be a source of poisoning. In this case series, we showed that acute exposure to mercury had hazardous effect on the visual system, especially CV and VF. We propose that emphasizing the public education on the potential hazards of mercury is crucial for preventive community health.

  9. Intoxicaciones medicamentosas (II: Analgésicos y anticonvulsivantes Acute pharmacologic poisoning (II: Analgesics and anticonvulsants

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    P. Munné

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En este segundo capítulo sobre Intoxicaciones Medicamentosas Agudas abordamos dos grupos de sustancias de enorme trascendencia desde el punto de vista de su uso y morbimortalidad. Dentro del grupo de los anagésicos-antiinflamatorios desarrollamos el paracetamol y los salicilatos, de enorme disponibilidad para la población. En cuanto a los anticonvulsivantes, aunque están poco implicados en el conjunto de las intoxicaciones medicamentosas agudas, sus efectos pueden ser graves. Nos ceñimos a cuatro fármacos: ácido valproico, fenobarbital, carbamacepina, y fenitoína. Finalmente dedicamos un apartado a la isoniacida, fármaco que, con el rebrote de la tuberculosis, presenta interés toxicológico.In this second chapter on Acute Drugs Poisoning we deal with two groups of substances of great transcendence from the point of view of their use and morbidity/mortality. Within the group of analgesic-anti-inflammatory drugs we consider paracetamol and the salicylates, which are easily available to the population. With respect to the anticonvulsants, although they are barely involved in the ensemble of acute drug poisonings, their effects can be serious. We concentrate on four drugs: valproic acid, phenobarbitol, carbamacepine, and phenytoin. Finally, a section is dedicated to isoniazid, a drug that, with the renewed incidence of tuberculosis, is of toxicological interest.

  10. Abnormal pancreatic enzymes and their prognostic role after acute paraquat poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Wang, Meng; Gao, Yanxia; Yang, Wen; Xu, Qun; Eddleston, Michael; Li, Li; Yu, Xuezhong

    2015-11-25

    Ingestion of paraquat causes multi-organ failure. Prognosis is best estimated through measurement of blood paraquat concentrations but this facility is not available in most hospitals. We studied the prognostic significance of abnormal pancreatic enzymes for survival. Patients with acute paraquat poisoning were recruited. An extensive series of blood tests including serum amylase were serially checked. Patients were sorted according to their serum amylase activity (normal [660 U/L]), and survival compared between groups. 177 patients were enrolled to the study, of whom 67 died and 110 survived. 122 (70.62%), 27 (15.25%) and 25 (14.13%) patients were in the normal, mildly elevated and elevated amylase activity groups, respectively. The case fatality in the elevated group was 100% compared to 17% in the normal group (P paraquat death prediction: amylase, PaCO2, leukocyte number, and neutrophil percentage. Models using pancreatic enzyme activity showed good prediction power. We have found that abnormal pancreatic enzymes are useful prognostic marker of death after acute paraquat poisoning. Including serum amylase activity into a prognostic model provides a good prognostication.

  11. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas

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    Makoto Onodera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been observed. Method. The subjects included patients treated for acute carbon monoxide poisoning in whom a medical emergency team was able to measure the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning. We examined the relationship between the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning and carbon monoxide exposure time and the relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and carbon monoxide exposure time. Results. A total of 10 patients met the above criteria. The carboxyhemoglobin levels at the site of poisoning were significantly and positively correlated with the exposure time (rs = 0.710, p=0.021, but the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were not correlated with the exposure time. Conclusion. In rural areas, the carboxyhemoglobin level measured at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning correlated with the exposure time.

  12. Medical Recapitulate%Role of Nrf-2 Gene in the Pathogenesis of Brain Damage Following Acute Carbon Monoxide Poison-ing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑然(综述); 李琴; 邹勇(审校)

    2016-01-01

    Acute brain damage and delayed encephalopathy are two main clinical manifestations of brain damage after carbon monoxide(CO) exposure,and seriously affect the life quality and prognosis of patients with CO poisoning.Hyperbaric oxygen is considered as the main therapy for brain damage after acute CO poi-soning.However,there are many controversies on its clinical application .The pathogenesis of brain damage after acute CO poisoning is poorly elucidated.The activation of nuclear factor erythrocyte two related factors-2 ( Nrf-2) may benefit the therapy for inflammatory and apoptosis mechanism triggered by CO poisoning .Thus, research on the role of Nrf-2 gene in the pathogenesis of brain damage following acute CO poisoning can pro-vide new ideas for the targeted therapy for the acute brain damage and delayed encephalopathy following CO poisoning.%一氧化碳中毒后的急性脑损伤和迟发型脑病严重影响患者的预后及生存质量。高压氧作为临床治疗一氧化碳中毒性脑损伤的主要方法争议颇多,而一氧化碳中毒性脑损伤的发病机制目前也尚未明确。核因子红细胞2相关因子2(Nrf-2)的激活可能对一氧化碳中毒引发的炎症、凋亡等发挥较好的治疗作用。因此,研究Nrf-2在一氧化碳中毒性脑损伤发病机制中的作用可为一氧化碳中毒后急性脑损伤和迟发型脑病的靶向治疗提供新思路。

  13. An evaluation of acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning in rats through serum metabolomics based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiling; Deng, Mingjie; Ma, Jianshe; Wang, Xianqin

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the second leading cause of toxin-related deaths in the operational site. Its main target organs of toxic effects are the central nervous system and respiratory system. In this study, we developed a serum metabonomic method, based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), to evaluate the effect of acute poisoning by hydrogen sulfide on rats. Pattern recognition analysis, including both principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA), revealed that acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning induced metabolic perturbations. Compared to the control group, the level of urea, glucose, glyceryl stearate in rat serum of the poisoning group increased after two hours, and the level of glucose, docosahexaenoic acid, glyceryl stearate and arachidonic acid in rat serum of the poisoning group increased after 48 h, while the L-valine, galactose, L-tyrosine levels decreased. Our results indicate that metabonomic methods based on GC/MS may be useful to elucidate acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning through the exploration of biomarkers.

  14. Can poisons stimulate bees? Appreciating the potential of hormesis in bee-pesticide research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, G Christopher; Rix, Rachel R

    2015-10-01

    Hormesis, a biphasic dose response whereby exposure to low doses of a stressor can stimulate biological processes, has been reported in many organisms, including pest insects when they are exposed to low doses of a pesticide. However, awareness of the hormesis phenomenon seems to be limited among bee researchers, in spite of the increased emphasis of late on pollinator toxicology and risk assessment. In this commentary, we show that there are several examples in the literature of substances that are toxic to bees at high doses but stimulatory at low doses. Appreciation of the hormetic dose response by bee researchers will improve our fundamental understanding of how bees respond to low doses of chemical stressors, and may be useful in pollinator risk assessment.

  15. Comparative assessment of blood and urine analyses in patients with acute poisonings by medical, narcotic substances and alcohol in clinical toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapenko, Yury Nikolaevich; Lisovik, Zhanna Andreevna; Belova, Maria Vladimirovna; Luzhnikov, Evgeny Alekseevich; Livanov, Alexandr Sergeevich

    2005-01-01

    Acute poisonings by medical, narcotic substances and alcohol are actual in Russia in the recent years. Comparison of analytic facilities of modern analytical techniques: chromatographic (HPLC, GC, GC-MS) and immuno-chemical (FPIA) in clinical toxicology for urgent diagnostics, assessment of the severity of acute poisoning and the efficacy of the treatment in patients with acute poisonings by psychotropic drugs, narcotics and alcohol have been done. The object of the study were serum, blood, urine of 611 patients with acute poisonings by amitriptyline, clozapine, carbamazepine, opiates and also alcohol. Threshold concentrations (threshold, critical and lethal) of the toxicants and their active metabolites which corresponded to different degrees of poisoning severity have been determined. The most comfortable and informative screening method for express diagnostics and assessment of severity of acute poisonings by psychotropic drugs and narcotics showed the HPLC with using automatic analyzers. FPIA using the automatic analyzer could be applied for screening studies, if group identification is enough. GC-FID method is advisable in case of poisoning by medical substances and narcotics in view of repeated investigation for assessment of the efficacy of the therapy. GC-MS could be advisable for confirming the results of other methods. GC-TCD possess high sensitivity and specificity and is optimal for express differential diagnostics and quantitative assessment of acute poisoning by ethanol and other alcohols.

  16. Oxime and atropine failure to prevent intermediate syndrome development in acute organophosphate poisoning

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    Vučinić Slavica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intermediate syndrome (IMS was described a few decades ago, however, there is still a controversy regarding its exact etiology, risk factors, diagnostic parameters and required therapy. Considering that acute poisonings are treated in different types of medical institutions this serious complication of organophosphate insecticide (OPI poisoning is frequently overlooked. The aim of this paper was to present a case of IMS in organophosphate poisoning, which, we believe, provides additional data on the use of oxime or atropine. Case report. After a well-resolved cholinergic crisis, the patient developed clinical presentation of IMS within the first 72 h from deliberate malathion ingestion. The signs of IMS were weakness of proximal limb muscles and muscles innervated by motor cranial nerves, followed by the weakness of respiratory muscles and serious respiratory insufficiency. Malathion and its active metabolite were confirmed by analytical procedure (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pralidoxime methylsulphate, adiministered as a continuous infusion until day 8 (total dose 38.4 g, and atropine until the day 10 (total dose 922 mg did not prevent the development of IMS, hence the mechanical ventilation that was stopped after 27 h had to be continued until the day 10. Conclusion. Continuous pralidoxime methylsulphate infusion with atropine did not prevent the development of IMS, most likely due to the delayed treatment and insufficient oxime dose but also because of chemical structure and lipophilicity of ingested OPI. A prolonged intensive care monitoring and respiratory care are the key management for the intermediate syndrome. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 176018, No. 46009

  17. Toxicological Investigation of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Four Occupants of a Fuming Sport Utility Vehicle

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    Martin Nnoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This toxicological investigation involves a report on the death of four occupants of a sport utility vehicle on one of the major busy Federal roads of Nigeria where they were held for up to three hours in a traffic jam while the car was steaming. Methods: Autopsy was executed using the standard procedure and toxicological analysis was done using simple spectrophotometric method to establish the level of carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO in peripheral blood in the four occupants. Results: The autopsy report indicated generalized cyanosis, sub-conjuctival hemorrhages, marked laryngo-trachea edema with severe hyperemia with frothy fluid discharges characteristic of carbon monoxide poisoning. Toxicological report of the level of HbCO in part per million (ppm in the peripheral blood of the four occupants was A= 650 ppm; B= 500 ppm; C= 480 ppm, and D= 495 ppm against the maximum permissible level of 50 ppm. Conclusion: The sudden death of the four occupants was due to excessive inhalation of the carbon monoxide gas from the exhaust fumes leaking into the cabin of the car. The poor road network, numerous potholes, and traffic jam in most of roads in Nigeria could have exacerbated a leaky exhaust of the smoky second hand SUV car leading to the acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  18. Paraquat poisoning: an experimental model of dose-dependent acute lung injury due to surfactant dysfunction

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    M.F.R. Silva

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the most characteristic feature of paraquat poisoning is lung damage, a prospective controlled study was performed on excised rat lungs in order to estimate the intensity of lesion after different doses. Twenty-five male, 2-3-month-old non-SPF Wistar rats, divided into 5 groups, received paraquat dichloride in a single intraperitoneal injection (0, 1, 5, 25, or 50 mg/kg body weight 24 h before the experiment. Static pressure-volume (PV curves were performed in air- and saline-filled lungs; an estimator of surface tension and tissue works was computed by integrating the area of both curves and reported as work/ml of volume displacement. Paraquat induced a dose-dependent increase of inspiratory surface tension work that reached a significant two-fold order of magnitude for 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight (P<0.05, ANOVA, sparing lung tissue. This kind of lesion was probably due to functional abnormalities of the surfactant system, as was shown by the increase in the hysteresis of the paraquat groups at the highest doses. Hence, paraquat poisoning provides a suitable model of acute lung injury with alveolar instability that can be easily used in experimental protocols of mechanical ventilation

  19. Hypersensitivity Reaction and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Pyrethroid Poisoning and Role of Steroid Therapy

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    Jisa George

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyrethroids are generally of low toxicity to humans, but in suicidal poisonings which are usually associated with ingestion of high doses, they lead to severe systemic effects. Case Report: A 30-year old woman presented to emergency department with a history of intentional ingestion of about 15 mL of prallethrin around 3 days earlier. She complained of shortness of breath along with chest pain for the last 2 days. She reported no vomiting or stomach pain prior to presentation to hospital. On chest auscultation, breath sounds were mildly decreased in bilateral infrascapular areas with generalized crepitation. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed respiratory alkalosis. Chest X ray and computed tomography of thorax revealed widespread confluent areas of consolidation with interlobular septal thickening involving bilateral parahilar regions suggestive of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. The patient did not respond to broad spectrum antibiotic coverage, diuretics and oxygen inhalation. Intravenous methylprednisolone (2 mg/kg/day divided 6 hourly was started and slowly tapered off during the next days. The patient discharged after 3 weeks in good health. Discussion: As pyrethroids can affect sodium channels, the osmotic gradient of alveolar epithelium probably disrupts and therefore, alveolar infiltrations gradually spread over lungs. In addition, there is a possibility of hypersensitivity reactions to pyrethroids, which can cause progressive inflammation and involve respiratory tract in severe cases. Conclusion: Pyrethroid poisoning can lead to ARDS. Steroid therapy may help such patients tide over the pulmonary crisis.

  20. Cardiac and renal nitrosative-oxidative stress after acute poisoning by a nerve agent Tabun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimov, Dimo; Hadjiolova, Radka; Kanev, Kamen; Tomova, Radka; Michova, Anna; Todorov, Todor; Murdjev, Rumen; Boneva, Temenujka; Dimova, Ivanka

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that Tabun poisoning, as well as other organophosphorous treatment, cause specific organs' oxidative changes that have not previously been substantiated investigated. In this regard, a marker for nitrosative-oxidative stress in the main haemodynamic organs (heart and kidney) could reveal the existence of such changes. In this study, for the first time we studied the nitrosative/oxidative stress in heart and kidney after acute Tabun (Ethyl N,N- Dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate) poisoning measuring by immunohistochemistry the expression of 3-nitrotyrosine--a marker for nitrosative-oxidative stress. We investigated nitrotyrozine expression in three different groups of animals (with at least 3 animals in each group): the first group was treated with 0.5 LD50 Tabun and organs were collected after 24 h; the second group received vehicle for the same period; in the third group a highly specific re-activator was applied immediately after Tabun application. Heart and kidney were collected after 24 h. The levels of nitrotyrozine production significantly increased (more than 3 times) in cardiomyocytes after Tabun. The application of re-activator slightly reduced these levels not reaching the basal heart levels. Nitrotyrozine expression in kidney increased more than 2 times after Tabun and application of re-activator did not change it significantly. In conclusion, our study evidently demonstrated that Tabun trigger oxidative-nitrosative stress in heart and kidney and these cellular effects should be protected by an additional anti-oxidant therapy, since acetylcholinesterase re-activator is not efficient in this manner.

  1. Rhabdomyolysis following Acute Extended-Release Quetiapine Poisoning: A Case Report

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    Antonios Liolios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. During the past few years, there have been a number of case reports concerning rhabdomyolysis following quetiapine poisoning; however, there has been none concerning the medication in its extended-release form. Methods. We present the case report of a 48-year-old man presenting a major depressive disorder and borderline personality disorder, who after voluntary intoxication with 12000 mg of quetiapine extended-release developed signs of acute rhabdomyolysis. Results. The rhabdomyolysis was confirmed by the laboratory and the clinical findings, with elevated levels of creatinine, creatine phosphokinase, and CRP. Discussion. We would like to pinpoint the importance of this complication and our concern of prescribing it for psychiatric patients with chronic somatic comorbidities.

  2. Acute severe organophosphate poisoning in a child who was successfully treated with therapeutic plasma exchange, high-volume hemodiafiltration, and lipid infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilbas, Osman; Kihtir, Hasan S; Altiti, Mohammad; Petmezci, Mey Talip; Balkaya, Seda; Bursal Duramaz, Burcu; Ersoy, Melike; Sevketoglu, Esra

    2016-10-01

    Acute severe organophosphate poisoning is a serious complication seen in developing and agricultural countries. Pralidoxime and high dose atropine are the standard treatments. There is no consensus about acute severe organophosphate poisonings that are unresponsive to pralidoxime, atropine, and supportive therapies. We report a case of acute severe organophosphate poisoning that was unresponsive to standard treatments and successfully treated with high-volume continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration and therapeutic plasma exchange combined with lipid infusion. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:467-469, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Study on 6 011 cases of acute poisoning in Guangxi from 2005 to 2009:case analysis and prevention-control scheme%2005~2009年广西急性中毒6011例分析及防控宣教对策探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋东方; 张振明; 陈雪冬; 龙永美; 何德智

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics and prevention-control scheme of acute-poisoning in Guangxi.Methods The retrospective analysis on the data of 6 011 patients with acute poisoning from the hospitals of 11 cities in Guangxi from 2005 to 2009was conducted.Results The people with employment(68.84%) and secondary school education or above(53.42%) were the mainpopulation of acute poisoning.The onset of acute poisoning mainly occurred at home(79.53%),and peroral poisoning was most common(69.45%).The proportion of poisoning without consciousness(61.59%) was significantly higher than that of poisoning with consciousness(37.31%).The main toxicants included pesticides,chemical and medicine toxicants,which accounted for 75.00%.Conclusion Forimproving self-protective consciousness and skills of people from different places,the specific measures of acute-poisoning education shouldbe formulated according to the characteristics of poisoning population,poisoning process,poisoning causes and toxicants,and differencesbetween cities and countries.%目的 探讨广西急性中毒的特点及防控对策. 方法 回顾性分析2005 ~2009 年广西11 个市及其县级医院、乡镇卫生院6 011例急性中毒患者的病历资料. 结果 中毒人群以就业人群(68.84%)与中学及以上学历者(53.42%)为主. 中毒过程以发生在家中(占79.53%)与经口中毒(占69.45%)最常见;无意识性中毒者比例(占61.59%)明显高于有意识性中毒(占37.31%). 中毒毒物主要为农药、化学、医药3 类,占75.00%. 结论 应根据中毒人群、中毒过程及原因、毒物特点及城乡差别,制订针对性的宣教措施,以提高各地人群的自我防毒意识与技能.

  4. Evaluation of acceptability and use of lockable storage devices for pesticides in Sri Lanka that might assist in prevention of self-poisoning

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    Harriss Louise

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-poisoning with pesticides is a major reason for high suicide rates in rural areas of many developing countries. Safer storage of pesticides may be one means of prevention. We have conducted a study to assess the acceptability and use of lockable boxes for storing pesticides in rural Sri Lanka. Methods Four hundred lockable metal storage boxes were given to farming households, 100 in each of four villages. Assessment interviews were conducted by Sumithrayo (NGO field workers immediately after boxes were supplied (T1, 11 – 14 weeks later (T2, 30 weeks later (T3, and 18 months later (T4. Data on suicide and self-harm were collected from local police and hospitals. Results At T1 only 1.8% (7/396 of households reported locking up pesticides, 72.5% (279/385 easy access to pesticides for adults and 50.4% (195/387 easy access for children. At T3 most informants in households using pesticides reported using the box all (82.3%, 298/362 or most of the time (7.2%, 26/362. Informants usually reported always locking the box (92.8%, 336/362 and most boxes were locked on inspection (93.6%, 339/362. By T4 there was some reduction in reporting that the box was kept locked all of the time (75.2%, 267/355 and the box being locked on inspection (73.8%, 262/355. Easy child access to the key was reported in relatively few households (10.7% at T4, although interviewers judged that this was possible in rather more (20.6%. Most informants regarded the box as useful (100% at T3 and 99.4% at T4, with convenience for storage, security, avoiding wastage, and protection of children being major factors. A message on the box about how to deal with bad feelings and the importance of safer storage was well received. The locks had been broken or the key lost in a few households. Conclusion Introduction of lockable boxes for storing pesticides to farming households in Sri Lanka appeared to be acceptable. Most households used the boxes responsibly

  5. Characteristics and determinants of adult patients with acute poisoning attending the accident and emergency department of a teaching hospital in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudair, I F; Jassim, Z; Hanssens, Y; Alsaad, W A

    2013-09-01

    Data about etiologic and demographic characteristics of acute poisoning in adults in Qatar are lacking. This prospective observational study was undertaken to analyze characteristics and possible determinants of acute poisoning in adults in Qatar. During 2010, 18,073 patients attended the emergency department of Hamad General Hospital, a teaching hospital in Qatar. Out of them, 599 (3.3%) patients were diagnosed as "poisoning case" with either chemical or pharmaceutical substances. The prevalence rate of poisoning incidence was 35.3/100,000 population. Seven patients died, corresponding with a case-fatality rate of 0.39/1000. The majority were male (65%) and the mean age was 34 years. The poisons involved were mainly chemicals (61.6%) and pharmaceuticals (38.4%). Female, mainly single, suffered more intentional poisoning compared to male. Of the patients aged 60 years and above (7.2%), the majority (95.3%) suffered unintentional poisoning with pharmaceuticals; 56% with warfarin, 12% with digoxin and 7% with insulin. Multivariate analysis shows that female gender, single status, younger than 35 years of age, being poisoned by pharmaceutical products, and the need for hospitalization are significant determinants for acute intentional poisoning after adjusting all other possible covariates. The findings of this study can be used to establish awareness and prophylactic campaigns in Qatar.

  6. Black-spot poison ivy dermatitis. An acute irritant contact dermatitis superimposed upon an allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, R M; Rivera, H P; Guin, J D

    1984-08-01

    A black spot in the epidermis over a blister of poison ivy dermatitis is an uncommon finding. Four patients with the phenomenon are described. Histologic and histochemical studies were made on biopsy material and the blackish deposit on the skin surface was compared with black deposits in and on leaves of the species of poison ivy. This examination revealed a yellow, amorphous substance on the stratum corneum of the lesions and a similar substance in and on leaves of the poison ivy plant, Toxicodendron radicans ssp. negundo. Associated with the pigmentary deposits there were distinct changes of acute irritant contact dermatitis superimposed upon allergic contact dermatitis. Our findings support the view that the black material is the oleoresin of the plant, and that this substance behaves both as an irritant and an allergen.

  7. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQ Methadone FAQ Buprenorphine FAQ Dextromethorphan Ethylene Glycol Pesticides AnabolicSteroids HomeNaloxone Button Batteries Cocaine Carbon Monoxide Designer Amphetamines NSAID_FAQ Killer Bees Energy Drinks Heat Illness Nicotine Magnets Synthetic Cannabinoids ...

  8. 乌鲁木齐市2011-2012年院前急救急性中毒流行病学分析%Analysis on the Epidemiology of Pre-hospital Emergency for Acute Poisoning in Urumqi from 2011 to 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建中; 李树林; 张亚楼; 帕尔哈提·拜合提; 王晓静; 马宏飞; 亚力坤·赛来; 肖开提·依布拉音; 贾志军

    2014-01-01

    were recorded and analyzed, Results There was significant difference in incidence of acute poisoning among different age groups (χ2 = 7 776, 77,P < 0, 05),most acute poisoning patients were 40 - 49 years old(P < 0, 05), 7 475(75, 48% )acute poison-ing patients were male,2 428(24, 52% )were female,there was significant difference in incidence of acute poisoning among different gender groups(χ2 = 1 077, 47,P < 0, 000 1), The incidence of alcohol poisoning in pre - hospital male patients was significantly higher than that in pre - hospital female patients,while incidences of gas poisoning,drug poisoning,pesticide poi-soning and drug poisoning in pre - hospital male patients were significantly lower than those in pre - hospital female patients(P <0, 05), There was significant difference in incidence of acute poisoning among different nationality groups(χ2 = 586, 63,P <0, 000 1),most acute poisoning patients were Han nationality(χ2 = 8, 14,P = 0, 004), There was significant difference in inci-dence of acute poisoning among different kind of toxicant groups(χ2 = 26 267, 86,P < 0, 01),most acute poisoning patients had alcohol poisoning(χ2 = 1 014, 09,P < 0, 01), There was significant difference in incidence of acute poisoning among different season groups(χ2 = 263, 73,P < 0, 01),most patients had acute poisoning in winter(χ2 = 1 401, 15,P < 0, 01), There was significant difference in incidence of acute poisoning among different poisoning routes groups(χ2 = 11, 56,P = 0, 009),most patients had gastrointestinal poisoning(χ2 = 3 419, 24,P < 0, 01), Among 69(0, 70% )dead patients,45 cases(65, 22% ) died from carbon monoxide poisoning,11 cases(15, 79% )died from drug poisoning,9 cases(13, 20% )died from alcohol poisoning,4 cases(5, 79% )died from pesticide poisoning, Conclusion The epidemiology of pre - hospital patients with acute poisoning in Urumqi,such as age,gender,nationality,cause of poisoning,poisoning routes,poisoning seasons,cause of death,has regional

  9. 自杀性急性中毒527例分析%Analysis on 527 Cases of Acute Poisoning Suicide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春燕; 赵群远; 马瑞芳; 张颖; 陈时; 韩瑞

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析自杀性中毒的规律、特征,探索防范和干预措施。方法收集2012年1月至2013年12月于昆明医科大学第二附属医院就诊的527例自杀性急性中毒患者的临床资料,根据其性别、年龄、职业、毒物种类等特点进行统计和分析。结果中毒以18~44岁年龄段最多(61.5%);病例职业分布以农民和工人最多(65.6%),中学文化水平病例最多(45.4%);自杀性中毒常见的毒物为农药和药物(80.8%),农药最常见为有机磷农药、百草枯和杀鼠剂,药物中以安眠药、解热镇痛药和混合药物为主;城市自杀毒物多为药物,为24.5%(129/527),而农村多为农药,为25.6%(135/527),差异有统计学意义(P <0.01);中毒发生以7月病例达高峰(21.6%);病死率为3.0%(16/527)。结论中毒是最常见的自杀方式,严格管理农药、药品及其他危险化学品,限制购买、使用,加强监管,避免自杀工具的随意获得,关注公众心理健康,建立自杀干预和预警机制,提供危机咨询和援助,是减少自杀性中毒发生的关键。%Objective To analyze the rule and characteristics of suicide poisoning,to explore the pre-vention and intervention measures.Methods The clinical data of acute poisoning suicide cases admitted to the Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University from Jan.2012to Dec .2013 was collected and statistically analyzed for their gender,age,occupation,poisoning types and other characteristics.Results Mostly aged between 18 to 44 years old(61.5%);in terms of profession,farmers and workers accounted for 65.6%;at cultural level,most patients were of only junior middle school education (45.4%);the poisons were mostly pesticides and medicine(80.8%),and the most common pesticides were organophosphorus pes-ticide,paraquat and rodenticide,and the most common medicines were sleeping pills

  10. Acute Poisoning in Elderly; a Five-Year Study (2008-2013 in Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Afzali

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Deliberate self-harm and poisoning with opioids especially methadone showed a high prevalence in elderly poisoned patients in Hamadan, Iran.  It seems that drug trafficking control, addiction rehabilitation therapies and suicide prevention programs for elderly can be helpful in poisoning reduction in this age group in this part of the country.

  11. Severe acute poisoning with homemade Aconitum napellus capsules: toxicokinetic and clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Fabienne; Compagnon, Patricia; Kaliszczak, Isabelle Guery; Kaliszczak, Yann; Caliskan, Valérie; Girault, Christophe

    2005-01-01

    Aconitum napellus is an extremely dangerous plant that contains various toxic diterpenoid alkaloids, mainly aconitine primarily concentrated in the roots. We report a case of acute intoxication of a 21-year-old man admitted to our Emergency Department after the ingestion, in order to sleep, of three homemade Aconitum napellus capsules. Capsules were measured to contain 237 mg of root and 19 microg of aconitine. The patient experienced the first symptoms on wakening 5 hours later with generalized paresthesia, nausea, diarrhea, vertigo, thoracic pain dyspnea, and dyschromatopsia. At admission, 7 hours after intake electrocardiographic analysis showed a sinusal bradycardia with polymorphic and bigeminal ventricular extrasystolia. Cardiovascular and neurological symptoms disappeared, respectively within 11 and 13 hours of ingestion. The patient was discharged from the ICU on day 2. Plasmatic concentrations at H7, H9, H14 H19, and after ingestion were, respectively, of 1.75, 0.75, 0.35, and 0.02 ng/mL. The calculated half-life of aconitine was 3 hours. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case with an aconitine toxicokinetic-effect relationship. The authors stress that clinicians must be aware of possible occurrence of acute poisoning with Aconitum napellus in European countries and in the United States as herbal medicine is becoming increasingly popular.

  12. Is there a relationship between the blood cholinesterase and QTc interval in the patients with acute organophosphate poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydin, A; Aygun, D; Yazici, M; Karatas, A; Deniz, T; Yardan, T

    2007-06-01

    Organophosphates cause poisoning as a result of the excessive accumulation of acetylcholine at the cholinergic synapses due to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (ChE). In the literature, it has been reported that there have been electrocardiographic abnormalities, including QT-interval prolongation in most patients with acute organophosphate poisoning (OPP), and a relation between blood ChE level and clinical severity in acute OPP. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between blood ChE level and QTc interval in the patients with acute OPP. This retrospective study consists of 20 patients admitted to the emergency intensive care unit. A total of 93 QTc interval and blood ChE measures obtained on the same day from 20 cases were compared for their correlation. There were prolonged QTc intervals in 35.4% of the ECGs. There was a negative correlation between QTc interval and blood ChE measures. In following up the patients with acute OPP, QTc interval may be useful when blood ChE levels are low and may provide complementary information concerning the severity of poisoning. However, further prospective studies, supporting the present results, are needed.

  13. A retrospective study of paradigm and outcome of acute poisoning cases in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arulmurugan C.

    2015-10-01

    Results: Incidence was high among males (60.36% compared to females (39.64%. Most of the cases of acute poisoning were in the age group 10 to 30 years (60.95% followed by 30 to 50 years age group (30.77%. A majority of poisoning cases (27.2% were due to organophosphorus (OPC insecticide. Total mortality was found to be 5.32%. Mortality rate due to Paraquat, Abrus Pretorius seeds was significantly high compared with OPC because there is no specific antidote. Time lapse had a very significant role in the mortality in cases of poisoning. Conclusions: Poisoning is common with young males. The mortality is high, in cases of self-poisoning with parquet and abrus seeds. Despite the highest consumption rate, no mortality was observed with organophosphorus because of early medical intervention and specific antidote. Early medical care in a tertiary care hospital will help to reduce significant mortality in India. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(10.000: 2654-2657

  14. The spectrum of intermediate syndrome following acute organophosphate poisoning: a prospective cohort study from Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeepa Jayawardane

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intermediate syndrome (IMS is a major cause of death from respiratory failure following acute organophosphate poisoning. The objective of this study was to determine repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS predictors of IMS that would assist in patient management and clinical research. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Seventy-eight consenting symptomatic patients with organophosphate poisoning were assessed prospectively with daily physical examination and RNS. RNS was done on the right and left median and ulnar nerves at 1, 3, 10, 15, 20, and 30 Hz. The study was conducted as a prospective observational cohort study in the Central Province, Sri Lanka. IMS was diagnosed in ten out of 78 patients using a priori clinical diagnostic criteria, and five of them developed respiratory failure. All ten patients showed progressive RNS changes correlating with the severity of IMS. A decrement-increment was observed at intermediate and high frequencies preceding the onset of clinical signs of IMS. As the patient developed clinical signs of IMS, decrement-increment was progressively noted at low and intermediate frequencies and a combination of decrement-increment and repetitive fade or severe decrement was noted at high frequencies. Severe decrement preceded respiratory failure in four patients. Thirty patients developed forme fruste IMS with less severe weakness not progressing to respiratory failure whose RNS was characterized by decrement-increment or a combination of decrement-increment and repetitive fade but never severe decrements. CONCLUSIONS: Characteristic changes in RNS, preceding the development of IMS, help to identify a subgroup of patients at high risk of developing respiratory failure. The forme fruste IMS with the characteristic early changes on RNS indicates that IMS is a spectrum disorder. RNS changes are objective and precede the diagnosis and complications of IMS. Thus they may be useful in clinical management and research.

  15. Research progress on delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning%急性一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑病研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛桂荣

    2010-01-01

    @@ 急性一氧化碳(CO)中毒迟发性脑病(Delayed encephalopathy after acute canbon monoxide poisoning,DEACMP)系指急性CO中毒(Acute carbon monoxide poisoning,ACOP)患者经抢救,中毒症状缓解或消失2~30 d后,再度出现的神经精神症状.

  16. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary acute exposure of the population of Denmark to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christensen, Tue

    2009-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides and as such have a common mode of action. We assessed the cumulative acute exposure of the population of Denmark to 25 organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide residues from the consumption of fruit, vegetables...... the nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-2002. Contributions from 43 commodities were included in the calculations. We used the relative potency factor (RPF) approach to normalize the toxicity of the various organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides to the two index compounds chlorpyriphos...

  17. 天津市宝坻区农药中毒报告现状的分析%Analysis of pesticide poisoning reports in Baodi District of Tianjin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘河

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解天津市宝坻区农药中毒的现状.方法 对2010-2012年每年上报的农药中毒报告卡进行统计学分析.结果 2010-2012年宝坻区报告农药中毒102例,其中生产性中毒、生活性中毒分别占总中毒例数的67.65%和32.35%,病死率为10.78%.中毒者平均年龄为37.26岁,20 ~59岁青壮年占93.14%;生产性中毒以男性为主,生活性中毒以女性为主;中毒农药的类别分布以杀虫剂为主,占54.90%;且以敌敌畏有机磷中毒为主.结论 目前宝坻区农药中毒的严重性应引起社会,特别是政府和卫生工作人员的关注.%[Objective] To understand the status of pesticide poisoning in Baodi District of Tianjin City.[Methods] The annually reported pesticide poisoning cards were statistically analyzed from 2010-2012.[Results] From 2010-2012,102 cases of pesticide poisoning were reported in Baodi District.The cases of poisoning in production and in daily life occupied 67.65% and 32.35% of total cases,the mortality rate was 10.78%.The average age of the poisoned people was 37.26 years,20-59 years occupied 93.16%.Most cases of poisoning in production were male,and most cases of poisoning in daily life were female.The main kind of pesticide caused poisoning was insecticide (54.90%),mainly was dichlorvos organophosphate poisoning.[Conclusion] The severity of pesticide poisoning should attract social attentions in Baodi District,especially from government and health workers.

  18. Hypotension in Severe Dimethoate Self-Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, James; Roberts, Darren; Eyer, Peter; Buckley, Nick; Eddleston, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute self-poisoning with the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide dimethoate has a human case fatality three-fold higher than poisoning with chlorpyrifos despite similar animal toxicity. The typical clinical presentation of severe dimethoate poisoning is quite distinct from that of chlorpyrifos and other OP pesticides: many patients present with hypotension that progresses to shock and death within 12–48 h post-ingestion. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is not clear. Case reports We present here three patients with proven severe dimethoate poisoning. Clinically, all had inappropriate peripheral vasodilatation and profound hypotension on presentation, which progressed despite treatment with atropine, i.v. fluids, pralidoxime chloride, and inotropes. All died 2.5–32 h post-admission. Continuous cardiac monitoring and quantification of troponin T provided little evidence for a primary cardiotoxic effect of dimethoate. Conclusion Severe dimethoate self-poisoning causes a syndrome characterized by marked hypotension with progression to distributive shock and death despite standard treatments. A lack of cardiotoxicity until just before death suggests that the mechanism is of OP-induced low systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Further invasive studies of cardiac function and SVR, and post-mortem histology, are required to better describe this syndrome and to establish the role of vasopressors and high-dose atropine in therapy. PMID:19003596

  19. 急性有机磷中毒中间型综合征的危险因素分析及护理对策%The risk factors analysis of acute organophosphate poisoning intermediate syndrome and nursing countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鹿丽华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the risk factors of acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning intermediate syndrome(IMS ),and discuss the corresponding nursing countermeasures. Methods From January 2007 to January 2011,50 cases of patients with acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning were collected as the research object.And we analyzed the risk factors of related intermediate syndrome. Results The incidence rate of acute organophosphate poisoning intermediate syndrome was 10.0%.IMS mainly occurred at age of 20~50 years old,rarely occurred at age of <20 and >50 years old.The incidence of IMS with oral intake was higher than respiratory poisoning and skin poisoning.The incidence of IMS caused by drugs of moderate toxicity was higher than drugs with high or low toxicity.The incidence of IMS patients who got atropinization within 2 hours was less than those without it.The incidence of IMS patients using aminoglycoside drugs was higher than those not using them. Conclusions Poisoning way,toxicity of toxicant,timely treatment,basic diseases,atropinization within 2 hours,and using aminoglycoside drugs can influence the condition and prognosis of intermediate syndrome caused by organophosphate pesticide poisoning.%目的 分析急性有机磷农药中毒中间型综合征(IMS)的危险因素,并探讨相应的护理对策.方法 选取2007年1月至2011年1月我院收治的50例急性有机磷农药中毒患者为研究对象.调查与中间型综合征病情相关的危险因素.结果 所有急性有机磷中毒患者中间型综合征的发生率为10.0%.就年龄来看,IMS主要发生于20~50岁,<20岁和>50岁无病例,但20~30岁,31~40岁,41~50岁3个年龄组IMS发生率无明显差异.就中毒途径来看,经口中毒IMS发生率,依次高于经呼吸道中毒、经皮肤中毒;毒物的毒性程度方面:中等毒性药物IMS发生率依次高于高毒性药物、低毒性药物;延缓救治患者IMS发生率高于及时救治患者

  20. Protective effect of HI-6 and trimedoxime combination in mice acutely poisoned with tabun, dichlorvos or heptenophos

    OpenAIRE

    Antonijević Biljana; Vučinić Slavica; Ćupić V.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the protective effect of two individual oximes (HI-6 and trimedoxime) with their combination in mice acutely poisoned with tabun, dichlorvos or heptenophos. Oxime HI-6 did not protect experimental animals against either dichlorvos, heptenophos or tabun. Trimedoxime was very effective against all three OPs. The ED-500 doses of trimedoxime necessary to protect 50% of animals after the simultaneous administration of OPs and...

  1. Protective effect of HI-6 and trimedoxime combination in mice acutely poisoned with tabun, dichlorvos or heptenophos

    OpenAIRE

    Antonijević Biljana; Vučinić Slavica; Ćupić V.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the protective effect of two individual oximes (HI-6 and trimedoxime) with their combination in mice acutely poisoned with tabun, dichlorvos or heptenophos. Oxime HI-6 did not protect experimental animals against either dichlorvos, heptenophos or tabun. Trimedoxime was very effective against all three OPs. The ED-500 doses of trimedoxime necessary to protect 50% of animals after the simultaneous administration of OPs and oxime were 42.18, 14.97 and 3...

  2. Experience of Diagnosis and Treatment of Patients with Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning%有机磷中毒的诊治心得体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文德

    2015-01-01

    目的对有机磷中毒的诊断和治疗进行讨论。方法将1例急性有机磷中毒临床资料进行回顾并将治疗结果进行分析。结果患者康复出院。结论对有机磷中毒患者进行准确快速的诊断后及时给与复能剂与解毒剂,防止阿托品中毒,在改善患者的治愈率及身心健康方面所起的作用是明显的。%Objective To discuss the diagnosis and treatment of organophosphate poisoning. Methods Review the case of acute organophosphate poisoning clinical information and treatment results were analyzed. Results Patients rehabilitation hospital discharge.Conclusion Accurate rapid diagnosis to patients with organophosphorus poisoning after timely give reply to agent and antidote, prevent atropine poisoning, in improving the patient's cure rate and the role of the physical and mental health is obvious.

  3. Do not overlook acute isoniazid poisoning in children with status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caksen, Hüseyin; Odabas, Dursun; Erol, Mehmet; Anlar, Omer; Tuncer, Oguz; Atas, Bülent

    2003-02-01

    A previously healthy 2-year-old girl was admitted with generalized convulsive status epilepticus. She was in a stupor and could respond only to painful stimuli. She also had severe metabolic acidosis. Although initial liver function tests were normal, they were found to be moderately high on the fifth day of admission; however, they dropped to their normal ranges on the twelfth day of admission. Initially, the patient was diagnosed as having idiopathic status epilepticus, and classic anticonvulsant agents, including diazepam, phenytoin, and then phenobarbital, were given. However, her seizures did not subside, and diazepam infusion was initiated. After initiation of diazepam infusion, the seizures were completely controlled. On the fourth day of admission, her parents said that she had accidentally received 20 tablets (a total dose of 2000 mg) of isoniazid just before admission to our hospital. Later, we injected 200 mg of pyridoxine intravenously. During follow-up, her general condition improved, and anticonvulsant agents were discontinued because an electroencephalogram was found to be norma. She was discharged from the hospital on the twelfth day of admission. At the fourth month of follow-up, she was seizure free. Because of this case, we would like to re-emphasize that acute isoniazid poisoning should also be considered in a child with unexplained status epilepticus.

  4. Community uptake of safe storage boxes to reduce self-poisoning from pesticides in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Flemming; Pieris, Ravi; Weerasinghe, Manjula;

    2007-01-01

    exposure from the rain and sun and a reduced risk of theft. Data were analysed for 172 households that reported agricultural use of pesticides at follow-up. Of these, 141 (82%) kept pesticides in the house under lock against 3 (2%) at baseline. As expected, the distribution of boxes significantly reduced...

  5. Acute oral and percutaneous toxicity of pesticides to mallards: Correlations with mammalian toxicity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, R.H.; Haegele, M.A.; Tucker, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    Acute oral (po) and 24-hr percutaneous (perc) LD50 values for 21 common pesticides (19 anticholinesterases, of which 18 were organophosphates, and one was a carbamate; one was an organochlorine central nervous system stimulant; and one was an organonitrogen pneumotoxicant) were determined in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Three of the pesticides tested were more toxic percutaneously than orally. An index to the percutaneous hazard of a pesticide, the dermal toxicity index (DTI = po LD50/perc LD50 ? 100), was also calculated for each pesticide. These toxicity values in mallards were compared with toxicity data for rats from the literature. Significant positive correlations were found between log po and log percutaneous LD50 values in mallards (r = 0.65, p 0.10). Variations in percutaneous methodologies are discussed with reference to interspecies variation in toxicity values. It is recommended that a mammalian DTI value approaching 30 be used as a guideline for the initiation of percutaneous toxicity studies in birds, when the po LD50 and/or projected percutaneous LD50 are less than expected field exposure levels.

  6. Rare alleles within the CYP2E1 (MEOS system) could be associated with better short-term health outcome after acute methanol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Pelclova, Daniela; Seidl, Zdenek; Vaneckova, Manuela; Klempir, Jiri; Ruzicka, Evzen; Ridzon, Petr; Urban, Pavel; Fenclova, Zdenka; Petrik, Vit; Diblik, Pavel; Kuthan, Pavel; Miovsky, Michal; Janikova, Barbara; Adamkova, Vera; Zakharov, Sergey

    2015-02-01

    Genetic polymorphisms influence the metabolism of ethanol and methanol, but the potential effects of genetic predisposition on the clinical course, outcome and short-term health sequelae of acute methanol poisoning are unknown. To evaluate the role of the MEOS system in methanol poisoning, we analysed the effect of three polymorphisms (RsaI - rs2031920; PstI - rs3813867; insertion/deletion I/D) within the CYP2E1 enzyme (MEOS system) in 50 adult survivors of methanol poisoning and compared their genotype frequencies with 460 controls. The minor allele frequencies of all three polymorphisms were below 5% in both groups. We did not detect significant differences in the genotype frequencies between survivors of methanol poisoning and controls (p = 0.34 for the RsaI variant; p = 0.59 for the PstI variant and p = 0.21 for the I/D polymorphism). The carriers of at least one minor allele in the CYP2E1 gene had less severe clinical symptoms and better short-term outcome after acute poisoning. Variants within the CYP2E1 gene are likely not significant genetic determinants of acute methanol poisoning (if survivors are analysed), but they may influence the severity of methanol poisoning and its visual/central nervous system (CNS) outcome.

  7. Bioconcentration and Acute Intoxication of Brazilian Freshwater Fishes by the Methyl Parathion Organophosphate Pesticide

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    João Bosco de Salles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of freshwater Brazilian fishes (pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus; piavussu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus were exposed to an acute dose of 5 ppm methyl parathion organophosphate pesticide. Three to five individuals per species were exposed, one at a time, to 40 liters tap water spiked with Folidol 600. Pesticide concentrations and cholinesterase (ChE activities were evaluated in serum, liver, brain, heart, and muscle. The bioconcentration of methyl parathion was similar for all studied fishes. Brain tissue showed the highest pesticide concentration, reaching 80 ppm after exposure for 30 min to methyl parathion. Three to 5 hours of 5 ppm methyl parathion exposure provoked the death of all P. lineatus at 92% brain AChE inhibition, whereas fish from the other two species survived for up to 78 hours with less than 80% brain AChE inhibition. Our results indicate that acute toxic effects of methyl parathion to fish are correlated with brain AChE sensitivity to methyl paraoxon.

  8. Bioconcentration and Acute Intoxication of Brazilian Freshwater Fishes by the Methyl Parathion Organophosphate Pesticide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco de Salles, João; Matos Lopes, Renato; de Salles, Cristiane M. C.; Cassano, Vicente P. F.; de Oliveira, Manildo Marcião; Cunha Bastos, Vera L. F.; Bastos, Jayme Cunha

    2015-01-01

    Three species of freshwater Brazilian fishes (pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus; piavussu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus) were exposed to an acute dose of 5 ppm methyl parathion organophosphate pesticide. Three to five individuals per species were exposed, one at a time, to 40 liters tap water spiked with Folidol 600. Pesticide concentrations and cholinesterase (ChE) activities were evaluated in serum, liver, brain, heart, and muscle. The bioconcentration of methyl parathion was similar for all studied fishes. Brain tissue showed the highest pesticide concentration, reaching 80 ppm after exposure for 30 min to methyl parathion. Three to 5 hours of 5 ppm methyl parathion exposure provoked the death of all P. lineatus at 92% brain AChE inhibition, whereas fish from the other two species survived for up to 78 hours with less than 80% brain AChE inhibition. Our results indicate that acute toxic effects of methyl parathion to fish are correlated with brain AChE sensitivity to methyl paraoxon. PMID:26339593

  9. Kind and estimated stocking amount of antidotes for initial treatment for acute poisoning at emergency medical centers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Chang Hwan; Ryoo, Seung Mok; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Won; Lim, Hoon; Oh, Bum Jin

    2014-11-01

    Antidotes for toxicological emergencies can be life-saving. However, there is no nationwide estimation of the antidotes stocking amount in Korea. This study tried to estimate the quantities of stocking antidotes at emergency department (ED). An expert panel of clinical toxicologists made a list of 18 emergency antidotes. The quantity was estimated by comparing the antidote utilization frequency in a multicenter epidemiological study and the nation-wide EDs' data of National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS). In an epidemiological study of 11 nationwide EDs from January 2009 to December 2010, only 92 (1.9%) patients had been administered emergency antidotes except activated charcoal among 4,870 cases of acute adult poisoning patients. Comparing with NEDIS data, about 1,400,000 patients visited the 124 EDs nationwide due to acute poisoning and about 103,348 adult doses of the 18 emergency antidotes may be required considering poisoning severity score. Of these, 13,224 (1.9%) adult doses of emergency antidotes (575 of atropine, 144 of calcium gluconate or other calcium salts, 2,587 of flumazenil, 3,450 of N-acetylcysteine, 5,893 of pralidoxime, 287 of hydroxocobalamin, 144 of sodium nitrite, and 144 of sodium thiosulfate) would be needed for maintaining the present level of initial treatment with emergency antidotes at EDs in Korea.

  10. Protective effect of HI-6 and trimedoxime combination in mice acutely poisoned with tabun, dichlorvos or heptenophos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonijević Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the protective effect of two individual oximes (HI-6 and trimedoxime with their combination in mice acutely poisoned with tabun, dichlorvos or heptenophos. Oxime HI-6 did not protect experimental animals against either dichlorvos, heptenophos or tabun. Trimedoxime was very effective against all three OPs. The ED-500 doses of trimedoxime necessary to protect 50% of animals after the simultaneous administration of OPs and oxime were 42.18, 14.97 and 32.08 μmol/kg in dichlorvos, heptenophos and tabun poisoning, respectively. Half-time of efficacy in the tabun protocol was approximately three and two times longer than in the protocol for heptenophos and dichlorvos, respectively indicating also that trimedoxime is very potent in counteracting tabun toxicity. Addition of trimedoxime significantly improved the protective effect of HI-6 in acute tabun poisoning. When dichlorvos or heptenophos were used, addition of trimedoxime generally improved the antidotal effect of HI-6, but still lower protection was obtained than in the case when trimedoxime alone was administered. The investigations of different oxime combinations have indicated that application of a mixture of two oximes represents a promising antidotal approach.

  11. 谈我国混配农药中毒的预防对策%Preventive measures on mixed pesticide poisoning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘文奇; 陈曙旸; 陶炳根; 文保元; 何凤生

    2001-01-01

    根据流行病学现场调查发现的具体问题,提出预防混配农药中毒的对策:禁止无原则、无实验根据的随意混配;禁止或限制生产和使用高毒混配农药;严格规范混配农药标签的内容及形式;加强对农药市场的监督管理,严禁非法生产和经销混配农药;探索和推广由专业人员统一负责的集中施药模式;加强对施药员的技术培训,提高用药的科学性;加强对施药员的健康教育,提高其自我防护意识。%The article put forward the preventive measures of mixed pesticides poisoning according to the practical problems found in epidemiology field investigation as follows:(1)The random mixing without principle and experiment foundation should be prohibited;(2)The production and application of highly toxic pesticides should be prohibited or restricted;(3)The content and the form of the mixed pesticide label should be prescribed strictly.(4)The administration and supervision of pesticide market should be strengthened and the illegal production and market of mixed pesticides should be punished severely;(5)The way of collective applying pesticide should be attempted and spreaded;(6)Techniques training to operators should be strengthened and reduce the application quantity of pesticides;(7)The health education should be strengthened to improve the self-protection consciousness of operators.

  12. Analysis on the characteristics of acute poisoning people during 2005-2012 in Beihai City%2005-2012年北海市急性中毒人群构成特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青华; 吴德仁; 曾小峰; 刘强

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristics of acute poisoning reported in the Beihai City. Methods Acute intoxicated cases with all kind of poisoning reported in19 hospitals of the city were retrospectively investigated and analyzed. Results In 2 127 cases of acute intoxication, the male and female accounted for 53.89% and 46.11% of the total cases, respectively. The proportion of no-employment, employment population and the elder group in all cases was 29.30%, 62.09% and 8.61%, respectively. The proportion of the non-academic credentials, primary, secondary, and college-educated persons in all cases was 39.41%, 19.70%, 34.40%and 6.49%, respectively. The proportion of the inoccupations, students, persons engaged in acriculture, and industry, administrators, and the persons engaged in other professions accounted for 41.28%, 10.67%, 33.99%, 4.23%, 4.56% and 5.27% of all cases, respectively. Among them, the main poisoning causes and poisons in the no-employment, working-age and elder-population groups were accident poisoning (accounted for 41.48%,34.02% and 32.24% of the total cases) and the pesticides (accounted for 29.26%、41.97%、53.01%of the total cases). In addition, the suicide poisoning of the farming group accounted for 41.49% of the total cases, the accident poisoning of the inoccupations, student, working, administrative, and other business groups for 34.66%, 51.54%, 48.89%, 38.14%and 41.07%of the total cases, the chemical poisoning of the student group for 36.12%of the total cases, the pesticides poisoning of the inoccupations, farming, and other business groups for 33.64%,59.89% and 28.57% of the total cases, and the other-poison poisoning of the working, administrative groups for 24.44%and 37.14%of the total cases, respectively. Conclusion The working-age, primary and/or no-schooling, inoccupations and farmers account for major proportion of acute-poisoning cases in Beihai city. Therefore, these people should be the main target population for preventing and

  13. A one-year observational study of all hospitalized acute poisonings in Oslo: complications, treatment and sequelae

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    Lund Cathrine

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Changes in poisoning trends may affect both complications and outcomes in patients with acute poisoning. This study reports the treatments given and the frequency of complications, also related to treatment, mortality and sequelae related to various toxic agents. Methods All acute poisonings in adults (≥16 years admitted to the five hospitals in Oslo were included consecutively during one year (2008 to 2009 in an observational cross-sectional multicenter study. A standardized form was completed by the treating physician, which covered the study aims. Results There were 1065 admissions in 912 patients. The median length of hospital stay was one day, and 49% were observed in an intensive care unit (ICU. Active treatment was given to 83%, and consisted of supportive therapy (70%, antidote(s (38%, activated charcoal (16% and gastric lavage (9%. The most commonly used antidotes were flumazenil (19%, naloxone (17% and N-acetylcysteine (11%. The rate of treatment-related complications was 2.4% (21/884. Neither flumazenil, naloxone, nor the combination, was associated with convulsions or other complications. Among those receiving N-acetylcysteine, 5% (6/120 developed allergic reactions, one of which mandated discontinuation of treatment. Nineteen percent presented in a coma. Complications developed in 30%, compared with 18% in a 2003 study, mainly respiratory depression (12%, prolonged QTc interval (6% and hypotension (5%. Eight patients died (0.8% and five (0.5% survived with permanent sequelae, mainly anoxic brain damage. Discussion Few patients stayed more than two days. The use of the ICU was liberal, considering that only one out of five presented in a coma. Antidotes were frequently given diagnostically. Although N-acetylcysteine induced allergic reactions, most were mild and treatment discontinuation was only necessary once. The frequency of complications had almost doubled in five years, although the poisoning pattern was

  14. Intoxicação por agrotóxicos no Brasil: os sistemas oficiais de informação e desafios para realização de estudos epidemiológicos Pesticides poisoning in Brazil: the official notification system and challenges to conducting epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neice Müller Xavier Faria

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é um dos líderes mundiais em consumo de agrotóxicos e os trabalhadores expostos são numerosos e diversificados. As intoxicações agudas são a face mais visível do impacto destes produtos na saúde. A avaliação dos vários sistemas oficiais de informação que notificam os casos de intoxicações concluiu que nenhum deles responde adequadamente ao papel de sistema de vigilância. Na prática, só se registram os casos agudos e mais graves. Uma importante lacuna é a informação de exposição a agrotóxicos: a avaliação da única fonte oficial (os Receituários Agronômicos revelou muitas limitações. A revisão das publicações brasileiras aponta um crescimento quantitativo e qualitativo dos estudos nesta área, com vários tipos de abordagens. O impacto da intensa carga química e o enorme contingente de trabalhadores expostos são duas importantes razões para o desenvolvimento da pesquisa epidemiológica sobre intoxicações por agrotóxicos, que no Brasil ainda tem um vasto campo para se desenvolver.Brazil is one of the world leaders in pesticide consumption and exposed workers are numerous and diversified. Acute poisonings are just the most visible aspect of pesticide impact on human health. An assessment of many official information systems that notify pesticide poisoning concluded that none of them performed appropriately the role of a surveillance system. Only acute and severe cases are notified. One of the main gaps concerns exposure information: the only official source (the Agronomic Prescriptions has many limitations and is not available for research. A review of published articles in Brazil shows a quantitative and qualitative increase of studies in this area with many different approaches. The impact of such a high chemical burden and the huge numbers of workers exposed are two important reasons for the development of an epidemiological research on pesticide poisoning, an issue that has still a vast field to

  15. EPIDEMIC ANALYSIS OF PESTICIDE POISONING IN NANTONG CITY FROM 2006 TO 2009%南通市2006~2009年急性农药中毒流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆春花

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To study the characteristics of pesticide poisoning and to provide scientific evidence for preventive strategy. [Methods] The data on pesticide poisoning in Nantong city from 2006 to 2009 were analyzed. [Results] There were 2 754 cases of pesticide poisoning from 2006 to 2009. 207 cases were dead in all, the fatality rate of 2 754 cases was 7.52 percent.The poisonings mainly occurred from July to August all over the year. [Conclusion] The study indicates that most cases of pesticide poisoning are caused by intentional and occupational exposure.The number of intentional exposure is more than that of occupational exposure.Insecticide ranks the Grst in terms of total poisoning cases caused by pesticide, followed by herbicide, and organophosphate poisoning ranks the first in all insecticides.%[目的]探讨农药中毒发生的流行病学特点,为制定相应防治策略提供科学依据. [方法]对2006~2009年南通地区农药中毒报告资料进行描述性分析. [结果] 2006~2009年南通地区发生农药中毒2 754例,其中死亡207例.总的死亡率7.52%.中毒主要集中在7、8月份.中毒多发生在生产性自用和非生产性自服.引起农药中毒农药种类以有机磷占首位. [结论]南通市2006~2009年急性农药中毒由自服和生产性中毒所致,自服中毒的人数超过生产性中毒,杀虫剂和除草剂中毒病例数居前2位.杀虫剂中又以有机磷中毒人数最多.

  16. Protective effect of HI-6 and trimedoxime combination in mice acutely poisoned with tabun, dichlorvos or heptenophos

    OpenAIRE

    Antonijević, Biljana; Vučinić, Slavica; Ćupić, V.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the protective effect of two individual oximes (HI-6 and trimedoxime) with their combination in mice acutely poisoned with tabun, dichlorvos or heptenophos. Oxime HI-6 did not protect experimental animals against either dichlorvos, heptenophos or tabun. Trimedoxime was very effective against all three OPs. The ED-500 doses of trimedoxime necessary to protect 50% of animals after the simultaneous administration of OPs and oxime were 42.18, 14.97 and 32.08 μ...

  17. Temperature-dependent acute toxicity of methomyl pesticide on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Edward Tak Chuen; Karraker, Nancy Elizabeth; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee

    2015-10-01

    Relative to other animal taxa, ecotoxicological studies on amphibians are scarce, even though amphibians are experiencing global declines and pollution has been identified as an important threat. Agricultural lands provide important habitats for many amphibians, but often these lands are contaminated with pesticides. The authors determined the acute toxicity, in terms of 96-h median lethal concentrations, of the carbamate pesticide methomyl on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species, the Asian common toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus), the brown tree frog (Polypedates megacephalus), and the marbled pygmy frog (Microhyla pulchra), at 5 different temperatures (15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C, 30 °C, and 35 °C) to examine the relationships between temperature and toxicity. Significant interspecific variation in methomyl sensitivity and 2 distinct patterns of temperature-dependent toxicity were found. Because high proportions of malformation among the surviving tadpoles were observed, a further test was carried out on the tree frog to determine effect concentrations using malformation as the endpoint. Concentrations as low as 1.4% of the corresponding 96-h median lethal concentrations at 25 °C were sufficient to cause malformation in 50% of the test population. As the toxicity of pesticides may be significantly amplified at higher temperatures, temperature effects should not be overlooked in ecotoxicological studies and derivation of safety limits in environmental risk assessment and management.

  18. A CASE CONTROL STUDY OF INTRAVENOUS MAGNESIUM SULPHATE IN TREATMENT OF ACUTE ORGANOPHOSPHATE POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND To study the efficacy of intravenous magnesium sulphate in the treatment of OPC poisoning and its outcome. To assess merits and demerits of use of MgSO4 with conventional therapy. METHOD This is a case control study of patients admitted with severe OPC poisoning in intensive care medical unit of tertiary care hospital. RESULTS Total of 69 cases and 64 control patients were compared. Among both cases and controls incidence of poisoning was more common among male sex and common among patients belonging to third decade of age. When compared to control arm, there is statistically significant reduction in mortality when intravenous MgSO4 was given to patients in addition to standard treatment protocol for severe OPC poisoning. CONCLUSION In our study, addition of MgSO4 has shown significant clinical improvement of severe OPC poisoning with no adverse outcome. Long term and large studies are needed to determine the efficacy of MgSO4 in treatment of OPC poisoning

  19. ASSESSMENT OF SEVERITY, TREATMENT AND OUTCOME OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS POISONING: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY

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    Chandra Indira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Organophophorous poisoning constitutes one of the most frequent poisoning in clinical practice all over the country and especially in this area where agriculture is the chief economic occupation. Acute organophophorous poisoning ranks foremost in the list of agents which causes acute pesticide poisoning in the developing countries. Acute poisoning, accidental or due to deliberate ingestion or inhalation of these organophosphate chemicals is an important and one of the most common medical emergencies. Hence the present stud y is undertaken to assess severity of poisoning, management and outcome of organophosphorous poisoning cases admitted in Government General Hospital, Kakinada, A. P. AIMS/OBJECTIVES: 1. Assessment of severity of Organophosphorous poisoning according to Dri esbach’s criteria 2. To study the morbidity and mortality in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: In this descriptive study fifty patients with organophosphorous insecticide poisoning were evaluated by clinical examination. They were investigated, treate d and their treatment outcome were analyzed. RESULTS: 1. Chlorpyriphos and monocrotophos(together 66% were the most commonly used pesticides. 2. 82% cases reached the hospital within 6 hours for commencement of treatment and were mostly of moderate to se vere degree of OP poisoning while mild cases of accidental poisoning reached after 12 hours. Hence the mortality is high in the former group only. 3. When the severity of poisoning was graded by applying Dreisbach's criteria at the time of admission 34% ha d severe degree of poisoning, 26% had moderate poisoning while 40% of cases presented with mild degree of poisoning. (Most of the cases were accidental inhalation and skin contact exposure. 4. Among the patients belonging to moderate to severe degree of p oisoning 30% of patients were put on assisted mechanical ventilation, indications being uncontrolled pulmonary secretions, continuing hypoxia, not

  20. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoolmeester, W.L.; White, D.R.

    1980-02-01

    Arsenic poisoning continues to require awareness of its diverse clinical manifestations. Industry is the major source of arsenic exposure. Although epidemiologic studies strongly contend that arsenic is carcinogenic, there are little supportive research data. Arsenic poisoning, both acute and chronic, is often overlooked initially in the evaluation of the patient with multisystem disease, but once it is suspected, many accurate methods are available to quantitate the amount and duration of exposure. Treatment with dimercaprol remains the mainstay of therapy, and early treatment is necessary to prevent irreversible complications.

  1. The Antidotal Effects of High-dosage γ-Aminobutyric Acid on Acute Tetramine Poisoning as Compared with Sodium Dimercaptopropane Sulfonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Peng; HAN Jiyuan; WENG Yuying

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of high-dosage γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on acute tetramine (TET) poisoning, 50 Kunming mice were divided into 5 groups at random and the antidotal effects of GABA or sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate (Na-DMPS) on poisoned mice in different groups were observed in order to compare the therapeutic effects of high-dosage GABA with those of Na-DMPS. Slices of brain tissue of the poisoned mice were made to examine pathological changes of cells. The survival analysis was employed. Our results showed that both high-dosage GABA and Na-DMPS could obviously prolong the survival time, delay onset of convulsion and muscular twitch, and ameliorate the symptoms after acute tetramine poisoning in the mice.Better effects could be achieved with earlier use of high dosage GABA or Na-DMPS. There was no significant difference in prolonging the survival time between high-dose GABA and Na-DMPS used immediately after poisioning. It is concluded that high-dosage GABA can effectively antagonize acute toxicity of teramine in mice. And it is suggested that high-dosage GABA may be used as an excellent antidote for acute TET poisoning in clinical practice. The indications and correct dosage for clinical use awaits to be further studied.

  2. Therapeutic efficacy of new dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) analogues in acute arsenic trioxide poisoning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreppel, H; Paepcke, U; Thiermann, H; Szinicz, L; Reichl, F X; Singh, P K; Jones, M M

    1993-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of six newly synthesized analogues of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) was investigated in acute arsenic trioxide poisoning in mice. Meso-2,3-di(acetylthio)succinic acid (DATSA) and meso-2,3- di(benzoylthio)succinic acid (DBTSA) are analogues of DMSA with protected thiol groups ("prodrugs"), and DMDMS, DEDMS, DnPDMS, and DiPDMS are various di-esters of DMSA with methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, and isopropyl alcohols, respectively. Thirty minutes after s.c. injection of an LD80 of arsenic trioxide (65 mumol/kg) male NMRI mice were treated with a single equimolar dose (0.7 mmol/kg) of DMSA i.p. or one of the analogues i.p. or via gastric tube (i.g.). Control animals received arsenic trioxide and saline 30 min later. The survival rate was recorded for 30 days. All of the animals treated with DMSA i.p. survived and all controls died within 2 days. Administered i.g., DATSA and DBTSA increased the survival rate to 29% and 43%, and injected i.p. to 86%. Treatment with DMDMS i.p. and i.g., and with DEDMS, DnPDMS, and DiPDMS i.g. did not reduce lethality. Given i.p., DnPDMS increased the survival rate to 72%, and DEDMS and DiPDMS to 86%, respectively. To investigate the efficacy of the DMSA analogues in reducing the tissue content of arsenic, male NMRI mice received an s.c. injection of an LD5 of arsenic trioxide containing a tracer dose of 73-As(III) (42.5 mumol/kg body wt). Thirty minutes later, saline (controls) or a single equimolar dose (0.7 mmol/kg) of DMSA i.p., or one of the analogues i.p. or i.g. was administered. The arsenic content of various organs (blood, liver, kidneys, heart, lungs, spleen, small intestine, large intestine, brain, testes, skeletal muscle, and skin) at 30 min, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, and 8 h after the arsenic injection was measured using a gamma counter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. The comparison of clinical manifestation of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (OPP) between oral exposure and occupational exposure in field work%田间作业致有机磷农药中毒与口服中毒的临床比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡雪珍; 卢中秋; 孙来芳; 王征

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨田间作业中毒和口服有机磷农药中毒在临床表现及治疗上的差异.方法 回顾性分析我院2007年7月至2010年7月收治的85例中、重度急性有机磷农药中毒患者的临床资料,按中毒途径分为口服组(51例)和非口服组(34例),比较不同途径中毒后的临床表现、治疗特点及预后.结果 口服组中度中毒患者的肌颤肌痉挛和共济失调的发生率(86.4%、90.9%)均明显高于非口服组(50.0%、55.0%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05,P<0.01);口服组重度中毒患者的肺水肿、肌颤肌痉挛及昏迷的发生率(100.0%、89.7%、93.1%)均明显高于非口服组(71.4%、64.3%、50.0%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05 ).非口服组解毒时间[中度:(35.0±6.2)h、重度:(45.0±11.1)h]较口服组[中度:(49.0±7.7)h、重度:(77.0±10.3)h]明显缩短,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).治疗后24、48、72 h,中、重度非口服组胆碱酯酶活力明显高于口服组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01);中、重度非口服组的氯磷定用量、阿托品化用量及阿托品总量明显低于口服组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 田间作业有机磷农药中毒在临床表现上与口服中毒不尽相同,且治疗的阿托品及氯磷定用量相对较少,胆碱酯酶活力恢复较快.%Objective To investigate the differences of clinical manifestation and therapy of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (OPP) between oral exposure and occupational exposure in field work. Methods From July 2007 to July 2010, 85 patients with acute severe OPP were treated in a hospital, which were divided into oral poisoning group (51 cases) and non-oral poisoning group (34 cases). The differences of clinical manifestations, curative effects and prognosis between two groups were compared. Results The rates of myoclonus and ataxia in cases with moderate poisoning of oral poisoning group were 86.4% and 90.9%, which were significantly higher than those (50

  4. [BIS values were useful on the evaluation of consciousness recovery in acute Vegetamin-A poisoning: report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hironori; Umakoshi, Kensuke; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Takeba, Jun; Aibiki, Mayuki

    2014-12-01

    A 37-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with acute phenobarbital poisoning. On arrival, he was in deep coma with respiro-circulatory depressions. The serum concentration of the agent was elevated to 149.04 μg/mL which was consistent with a lethal concentration level. He underwent a gastric lavage, administration of activated charcoal, urinary alkalinazation and bowel irrigation. Respiro-circulatory status was recovered rapidly, while the serum concentration of phenobarbital did not decrease smoothly. Although the concentration of the agent decreased to 77.07 μg/mL that should be a comatose level, BIS values were gradually elevated, and then eventually the patient regained his consciousness. Because he was a chronic user of Vegetamin-A containing phenobarbital, the serum level might not have been correlated with symptoms. BIS values were highly reflective of the consciousness level, so it could be a useful indicator for predicting the consciousness levels of patients in deep coma with acute poisoning from hypnotic agents.

  5. [Acute accidental poisoning in children: aspects of their epidemiology, aetiology, and outcome at the Charles de Gaulle Paediatric Hospital in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouéta, Fla; Dao, Lassina; Yé, Diarra; Fayama, Zéinabou; Sawadogo, Alphonse

    2009-01-01

    Accidents are a daily concern in the paediatric ward because of their frequency, diversity and severity. Acute accidental poisoning (AAP) accounts for an important portion of these. To help improvement management of AAP, we conducted a retrospective study covering a period of 2 years from January 2005 to December 2006 at Charles de Gaulle Paediatric University Hospital in Ouagadougou. Of 9390 admissions during the study period, 123 children, or 1.3%, were admitted for poisoning. A cumulative average of 11 were admitted monthly, with a peak of 16 patients in April 2005 and 2006, together. AAP was most common among children aged 1 to 4 years. Their mean age was 3 years and ranged from 6 days to 12 years. Boys outnumbered girls, with a sex ratio of 1.2. Mothers of more than half (61%) of the children poisoned worked in the home. Household products accounted for 44.7% of AAPs, followed by drug (22.7%) and food (22%) poisoning. Kerosene and other petroleum products topped the list of household products, with 54.5%. Tranquilizers (46.4%) and dairy products (37%) dominated the drug and food poisoning categories. Immediate outcome was fatal in 3% of cases, and three quarters of these deaths occurred during drug poisoning of children aged 1 to 4 years. The mean hospital stay was 2 days, and ranged from 0 to 9 days. Health officials, the media, and community outreach must all help to increase awareness about the dangers of poisoning and of preventive measures.

  6. Recommendations for the role of extracorporeal treatments in the management of acute methanol poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Darren M; Yates, Christopher; Megarbane, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    in Poisoning workgroup aimed to develop evidence-based consensus recommendations for extracorporeal treatment in methanol poisoning. DESIGN AND METHODS: Utilizing predetermined methods, we conducted a systematic review of the literature. Two hundred seventy-two relevant publications were identified...... to methanol: coma, seizures, new vision deficits, metabolic acidosis with blood pH ≤7.15, persistent metabolic acidosis despite adequate supportive measures and antidotes, serum anion gap higher than 24 mmol/L; or, serum methanol concentration 1) greater than 700 mg/L (21.8 mmol/L) in the context...

  7. Acute toxicity test for terrestrial hazard assessment with exposure of Folsomia candida to pesticides in an aqueous medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houx, N.W.H.; Dekker, A.; Kammen-Polman, van A.M.M.; Ronday, R.

    1996-01-01

    An acute-toxicty test is described in which the springtail Folsomia candida was exposed to pesticides in water for four days. The test method has been designed for the direct and economical chemical analyses of all the concentrations during the execution of the test. The 96-hour EC50 values determin

  8. Four-Year Study on Acute Poisoning Cases Admitted to a Tertiary Hospital in Bangladesh: Emerging Trend of Poisoning in Commuters

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    Mohammad Shafiqul Bari

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion:Commuter or travel-related poisoning is an emerging public health threat in this part of Bangladesh. Public awareness should be raised and school-based educational programs should be emphasized regarding the commuter poisoning and the consequence of accepting and eating food from strangers.

  9. 1286例急性中毒患者临床特点回顾及分析%Clinical characteristics of acute poisoning: retrospective analysis of 1286 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘利峰; 夏鹄; 刘先华; 吴航滨; 宋海晶; 曹娟; 乔莉

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨急性中毒患者病因学构成、临床特点及与治疗、预后的关系.方法 对我院十年间急性中毒患者病因、临床特点及治疗、预后分析.结果 本院急诊抢救室十年间共收治急性中毒患者1 286 人.男:女为1:1.70,平均年龄(33.73±14.94)岁,明显低于就诊人群总发病年龄,青中年是中毒高发年龄.药物中毒占急性中毒总数的51.09%,其中镇静类药物占28.30%.酒精中毒是造成中毒患者意识障碍最主要原因(58.24% ).死亡率最高的是有机磷中毒,为4.95%,占死亡总数的71.43%.口服中毒是最常见的中毒途径,占91.76%.自杀是主要的中毒原因,占中毒患者总数的57%,并以女性占绝大多数为71.20%,平均年龄亦低于其他中毒原因,均有统计学差异均(P <0.001).结论 急性中毒有自身的临床特点.早期、正确的判断及处理是治疗关键.社会、家族关心是减少发生的根本.%Objective To explore the correlation between the etiology constructions, clinical characteristics and the treatment, as well as its prognosis for acute poisoning patients. Methods An analysis on all acute poisoning patients admitted in our emergency room in the past ten years was performed. Results In a total of 1286 acute poisoning patients admitted in past ten years, the proportion of male to female was 1:1.70 with an average age of 33.73 ±14.94, which was obvious lower than the average age in general. Among the causes of poisoning, 51.09% were caused by alcoholism of which sedative medicine accounted for 28.3% . 4.95% organophosphate poisoning patients died, accounting for 71.43% of the total acute poisoning deaths. Oral ingestion, the most frequent route of poisoning, took 91.76% of the total poisoning cases. Suicide had become the major cause for being poisoned, accounting 57% of the total poisoning cases with an obvious younger age in average than other types of poisoning (P<0.001), of which female suicide took 71

  10. Acute toxicity of agricultural pesticides to embryo-larval and juvenile African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbohessi, P T; Imorou Toko, I; Houndji, A; Gillardin, V; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2013-05-01

    Acute toxicities of Tihan 175 O-TEQ, as well as its active ingredients flubendiamide and spirotetramat, and of Thionex 350 EC (active compound endosulfan) were measured for embryo-larval and juvenile stages of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus to assess risks of pesticide use in the cotton basin in Benin (West Africa). For embryo-larval stages, Tihan was more toxic (LC5048h 20 ppm) than Thionex (LC5048h 56 ppm), and flubendiamide was more toxic (LC5048h 2.0 ppm) than spirotetramat (LC5048h 8.44 ppm). All decreased hatching rates. Tihan and spirotetramat disturbed larval swimming coordination; flubendiamide induced tail cleavage. For juvenile fish, Thionex was more toxic (LC5096h 0.22 ppm) than Tihan (LC5096h 8.8 ppm), and flubendiamide (LC5096h 4.7 ppm) was more toxic than spirotetramat (LC5096h 6.0 ppm). Eggs were more resistant than juvenile fish to all tested pesticides except flubendiamide. Although Thionex was more toxic to juvenile fish, replacing Thionex with Tihan may be undesirable for survival of eggs and larvae.

  11. [Italian Program for Surveillance of Acute Pesticide-Related Illnesses: cases identified in 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settimi, L; Davanzo, F; Travaglia, A; Locatelli, C; Cilento, I; Volpe, C; Russo, A; Miceli, G; Fracassi, A; Maiozzi, P; Marcello, I; Sesan, F; Urbani, E

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the Italian System for Surveillance of Acute Pesticide-Related Illnesses (SIAF) identified 625 cases, among which 520 unintentionally exposed. The majority of these subjects were men (75%) and aged 26-65 years (65%). About 63% of all exposures occurred at work. Severity for these illnesses was low for 94% and moderate for 5%. Four cases were classified as illnesses of high severity. Some 70% of all the reported exposures occurred between May and September. The active ingredients responsible for the largest number of cases were: glyphosate (n. 56), copper sulphate (n. 55), methomyl (n. = 52), metam-sodium (n. 24). Three episodes of collective environmental exposure to soil fumigants involving 23 subjects were also detected.

  12. Intravenous Lipid Emulsion as an Antidote for the Treatment of Acute Poisoning: A Bibliometric Analysis of Human and Animal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Waring, W Stephen; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M; Rahhal, Belal; Awang, Rahmat

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the role of intravenous lipid formulations as potential antidotes in patients with severe cardiotoxicity caused by drug toxicity. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of all human and animal studies featuring lipid emulsion as an antidote for the treatment of acute poisoning. The Scopus database search was performed on 5 February 2016 to analyse the research output related to intravenous lipid emulsion as an antidote for the treatment of acute poisoning. Research indicators used for analysis included total number of articles, date (year) of publication, total citations, value of the h-index, document types, countries of publication, journal names, collaboration patterns and institutions. A total of 594 articles were retrieved from Scopus database for the period of 1955-2015. The percentage share of global intravenous lipid emulsion research output showed that research output was 85.86% in 2006-2015 with yearly average growth in this field of 51 articles per year. The USA, United Kingdom (UK), France, Canada, New Zealand, Germany, Australia, China, Turkey and Japan accounted for 449 (75.6%) of all the publications. The total number of citations for all documents was 9,333, with an average of 15.7 citations per document. The h-index of the retrieved documents for lipid emulsion research as antidote for the treatment of acute poisoning was 49. The USA and the UK achieved the highest h-indices, 34 and 14, respectively. New Zealand produced the greatest number of documents with international collaboration (51.9%) followed by Australia (50%) and Canada (41.4%) out of the total number of publications for each country. In summary, we found an increase in the number of publications in the field of lipid emulsion after 2006. The results of this study demonstrate that the majority of publications in the field of lipid emulsion were published by high-income countries. Researchers from

  13. Contributing Factors for Acute Illness/Injury from Childhood Pesticide Exposure in North Carolina, USA, 2007–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmalla Barros

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Between 2007 and 2013, there were 685 events with evidence of a relationship between pesticide exposure and acute illness/injury among persons less than 18 years old in North Carolina (United States. Median age of children affected was 4.3 years (range: 0.2–17.9. Distribution by gender was similar across all age groups. One fatality and four high severity events were observed. The greatest proportion (42% of events had ocular exposures, followed by dermal (25% and inhalation (18% exposures. When more than one route of exposure occurred, dermal and ocular routes were the most common (46%. Almost all events took place indoors and 32 events involved contact with pets. Insecticides (53% and insect repellants (31% were the most frequent agents contributing to these events. Manual application of pesticides contributed to the greatest number of events (25%, while application through a pressurized can and use of a trigger pump were involved in 21% and 15% of events, respectively. Additional contributors were due to inappropriate storage of pesticides and improper use of the pesticide. These contributing factors can be removed or minimized if pesticides are stored outside the residence or out of the reach of children and pets, and adequate ventilation is ensured whenever pesticides are applied.

  14. Effect of glucose in mice after acute experimental poisoning with arsenic trioxide (As sub 2 O sub 3 )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichl, F.X.; Kreppel, H.; Fichtl, B.; Forth, W. (Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Walter-Straub-Institut fuer Pharmakologie und Toxikologie); Szinicz, L. (Akademie des Sanitaets- und Gesundheitswesens der Bundeswehr, Garching (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Pharmakologie und Toxikologie)

    1990-06-01

    In the present paper the effectiveness of glucose substitution was investigated in mice after acute experimental poisoning with As{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Four groups of ten mice each received As{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 12.9 mg/kg, s.c. After the injection the first group remained without further treatment, the second received saline every 2 h, the third 5% glucose, and the fourth 5% glucose + 0.12 IE insulin/kg i.p. Groups 5 and 6, five mice each, received either saline or glucose only. Group 7, five mice, remained without any treatment. Immediately after death the livers were removed for the enzymatic determination of glucose and glycogen. Mice receiving As{sub 2}O{sub 3} only died within 22 h. The mean survival time was 12.4 h. In mice receiving As{sub 2}O{sub 3} and after that saline, glucose, or glucose + insulin, an increase in the survival time to 30.8, 40.7, and 43.6 h, respectively, was observed. All mice which died showed a significant decrease in the liver glucose and glycogen content, compared to control animals. In livers of survivors, the glucose and glycogen content was not different to the control groups. The data support the assumption that carbohydrate depletion is an important factor in arsenic toxicity, and its substitution should be considered in the treatment of arsenic poisoning. (orig./MG).

  15. Study of trends of poisoning in the cases reported to government hospital, Yavatmal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuganti Prabhakar Vaidya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: India is a developing country in south Asia. Rural population of this country is mostly dependant on agriculture. Pesticides, mainly the organophosphorus compounds are the most frequently used substances in agriculture and thus are easily accessible. Animal bites such as snake bite, scorpion bites are also common, as people here are mainly involved in the field work. Aims: This includes, knowing the pattern of poisoning in India along with various parameters, such as mode of poisoning, type of poison, outcome of the poisoning, the most vulnerable age group involved in poisoning, so that the study will help in rapid clinical diagnosis and immediate treatment of the cases leading to decreased mortality and morbidity. Setting and design: Retrospective observational study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Govt. Hospital, Yavatmal. Poisoning cases reported to casualty and post-mortem cases of poisoning brought to the hospital from 01/06/2003 to 30/05/2004 were included in the study. Result: Total 1003 patients studied; acute poisoning in the age group of 21-30 years was the most common with higher frequency in males. Most common mode was suicidal. Most common agent responsible for poisoning was organophosphorus compounds followed by snake bite. Overall mortality due to poisoning was 12%. It was highest in insecticidal poisoning. Conclusion: It was seen that adults between 21 and 30 years of age were more prone to suicidal poisoning with organophosphorous compounds followed by accidental poisoning due to snake bite. Steps are needed to be taken to educate the people, to improve their socioeconomic status and also to provide better treatment facilities at grass root level.

  16. Analysis of 8000 hospital admissions for acute poisoning in a rural area of Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    of the 1990s. The decline in mortality was attributed to regulatory controls for the group of highly hazardous organophosphorus compounds implemented in 1995 and for the organochlorine endosulfan in 1998. CONCLUSIONS: Regulatory control of highly toxic pesticides provides important health benefits, especially...

  17. Effect of a brief outreach educational intervention on the translation of acute poisoning treatment guidelines to practice in rural Sri Lankan hospitals: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalith Senarathna

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In developing countries, including Sri Lanka, a high proportion of acute poisoning and other medical emergencies are initially treated in rural peripheral hospitals. Patients are then usually transferred to referral hospitals for further treatment. Guidelines are often used to promote better patient care in these emergencies. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN73983810 which aimed to assess the effect of a brief educational outreach ('academic detailing' intervention to promote the utilization of treatment guidelines for acute poisoning. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This cluster RCT was conducted in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka. All peripheral hospitals in the province were randomized to either intervention or control. All hospitals received a copy of the guidelines. The intervention hospitals received a brief out-reach academic detailing workshop which explained poisoning treatment guidelines and guideline promotional items designed to be used in daily care. Data were collected on all patients admitted due to poisoning for 12 months post-intervention in all study hospitals. Information collected included type of poison exposure, initial investigations, treatments and hospital outcome. Patients transferred from peripheral hospitals to referral hospitals had their clinical outcomes recorded. There were 23 intervention and 23 control hospitals. There were no significant differences in the patient characteristics, such as age, gender and the poisons ingested. The intervention hospitals showed a significant improvement in administration of activated charcoal [OR 2.95 (95% CI 1.28-6.80]. There was no difference between hospitals in use of other decontamination methods. CONCLUSION: This study shows that an educational intervention consisting of brief out-reach academic detailing was effective in changing treatment behavior in rural Sri Lankan hospitals. The intervention was only effective for treatments with

  18. Legalon® SIL: the antidote of choice in patients with acute hepatotoxicity from amatoxin poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengs, Ulrich; Pohl, Ralf-Torsten; Mitchell, Todd

    2012-08-01

    More than 90% of all fatal mushroom poisonings worldwide are due to amatoxin containing species that grow abundantly in Europe, South Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. Many cases have also been reported in North America. Initial symptoms of abdominal cramps, vomiting, and a severe cholera-like diarrhea generally do not manifest until at least six to eight hours following ingestion and can be followed by renal and hepatic failure. Outcomes range from complete recovery to fulminant organ failure and death which can sometimes be averted by liver transplant. There are no controlled clinical studies available due to ethical reasons, but uncontrolled trials and case reports describe successful treatment with intravenous silibinin (Legalon® SIL). In nearly 1,500 documented cases, the overall mortality in patients treated with Legalon® SIL is less than 10% in comparison to more than 20% when using penicillin or a combination of silibinin and penicillin. Silibinin, a proven antioxidative and anti-inflammatory acting flavonolignan isolated from milk thistle extracts, has been shown to interact with specific hepatic transport proteins blocking cellular amatoxin re-uptake and thus interrupting enterohepatic circulation of the toxin. The addition of intravenous silibinin to aggressive intravenous fluid management serves to arrest and allow reversal of the manifestation of fulminant hepatic failure, even in severely poisoned patients. These findings together with the available clinical experience justify the use of silibinin as Legalon® SIL in Amanita poisoning cases.

  19. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Probably Caused by Arsenic-Based Pesticides: Findings from an Investigation Study of a Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to naturally occurring arsenic, man-made arsenic-based compounds are other sources of arsenic exposure. In 2013, our group identified 12 suspected arsenicosis patients in a household (32 living members. Of them, eight members were diagnosed with skin cancer. Interestingly, all of these patients had lived in the household prior to 1989. An investigation revealed that approximately 2 tons of arsenic-based pesticides had been previously placed near a well that had supplied drinking water to the family from 1973 to 1989. The current arsenic level in the well water was 620 μg/L. No other high arsenic wells were found near the family’s residence. Based on these findings, it is possible to infer that the skin lesions exhibited by these family members were caused by long-term exposure to well water contaminated with arsenic-based pesticides. Additionally, biochemical analysis showed that the individuals exposed to arsenic had higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase than those who were not exposed. These findings might indicate the presence of liver dysfunction in the arsenic-exposed individuals. This report elucidates the effects of arsenical compounds on the occurrence of high levels of arsenic in the environment and emphasizes the severe human health impact of arsenic exposure.

  20. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Probably Caused by Arsenic-Based Pesticides: Findings from an Investigation Study of a Household.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfang; Ye, Feng; Wang, Anwei; Wang, Da; Yang, Boyi; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan; Gao, Xinghua

    2016-01-16

    In addition to naturally occurring arsenic, man-made arsenic-based compounds are other sources of arsenic exposure. In 2013, our group identified 12 suspected arsenicosis patients in a household (32 living members). Of them, eight members were diagnosed with skin cancer. Interestingly, all of these patients had lived in the household prior to 1989. An investigation revealed that approximately 2 tons of arsenic-based pesticides had been previously placed near a well that had supplied drinking water to the family from 1973 to 1989. The current arsenic level in the well water was 620 μg/L. No other high arsenic wells were found near the family's residence. Based on these findings, it is possible to infer that the skin lesions exhibited by these family members were caused by long-term exposure to well water contaminated with arsenic-based pesticides. Additionally, biochemical analysis showed that the individuals exposed to arsenic had higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase than those who were not exposed. These findings might indicate the presence of liver dysfunction in the arsenic-exposed individuals. This report elucidates the effects of arsenical compounds on the occurrence of high levels of arsenic in the environment and emphasizes the severe human health impact of arsenic exposure.

  1. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Probably Caused by Arsenic-Based Pesticides: Findings from an Investigation Study of a Household

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfang; Ye, Feng; Wang, Anwei; Wang, Da; Yang, Boyi; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan; Gao, Xinghua

    2016-01-01

    In addition to naturally occurring arsenic, man-made arsenic-based compounds are other sources of arsenic exposure. In 2013, our group identified 12 suspected arsenicosis patients in a household (32 living members). Of them, eight members were diagnosed with skin cancer. Interestingly, all of these patients had lived in the household prior to 1989. An investigation revealed that approximately 2 tons of arsenic-based pesticides had been previously placed near a well that had supplied drinking water to the family from 1973 to 1989. The current arsenic level in the well water was 620 μg/L. No other high arsenic wells were found near the family’s residence. Based on these findings, it is possible to infer that the skin lesions exhibited by these family members were caused by long-term exposure to well water contaminated with arsenic-based pesticides. Additionally, biochemical analysis showed that the individuals exposed to arsenic had higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase than those who were not exposed. These findings might indicate the presence of liver dysfunction in the arsenic-exposed individuals. This report elucidates the effects of arsenical compounds on the occurrence of high levels of arsenic in the environment and emphasizes the severe human health impact of arsenic exposure. PMID:26784217

  2. Acute and chronic toxicity of the benzoylurea pesticide, lufenuron, in the fish, Colossoma macropomum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaela Leão Soares, Priscila; Lucas Corrêa de Andrade, André; Pinheiro Santos, Thamiris; Caroline Barros Lucas da Silva, Stephannie; Freitas da Silva, Jadson; Rodrigues Dos Santos, Amanda; Hugo Lima da Silva Souza, Elton; Magliano da Cunha, Franklin; Wanderley Teixeira, Valéria; Sales Cadena, Marilia Ribeiro; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrício; Bezerra de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz; Gonçalves Cadena, Pabyton

    2016-10-01

    Lufenuron is a benzoylurea insecticide that interfere in chitin synthesis in insects. Although lufenuron is widely used in agriculture and aquaculture, rare are studies described that relates to possible toxic effects in fish. This work aimed to evaluate acute and chronic toxic effects of benzoylurea pesticide (lufenuron) on biological parameters of Colossoma macropomum (Tambaqui). In the acute test, juveniles of Tambaqui were divided into control group and five experimental groups with exposure from 0.1 to 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron for 96 h. Animals were also submitted to chronic toxicity test for four months in concentrations of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L of lufenuron, the concentration used in the treatment of ectoparasites in fish and 50% of LC50 96 h, respectively. The presence of hemorrhages was observed in eyes, fins and operculum of fish exposed to 0.7 and 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron. Histological analysis showed changes in the morphology of fish gills submitted to acute toxicity test, as lamellar aneurysm and blood congestion inside lamellae. Lufenuron promoted damage in fish retina as in ability to respond to stimuli in photoreceptors and in ON-bipolar cells in acute test. In chronic test, blood glucose analysis and morphometric parameters showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). In general, Tambaqui exhibited behaviors associated with stress when exposed to lufenuron. Thus, lufenuron showed several toxic effects in relation to biological parameters in Tambaqui. This concerns about the use and discard of lufenuron, and indicates the requirement of environmental actions to prevent potential contamination of aquatic biota.

  3. Coronary artery bypass grafting in a patient with organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieris, Rajeeva R; Fernando, Ravindra

    2015-08-30

    A 43-year-old male, with no previous history of mental illness, was diagnosed with coronary heart disease, after which he became acutely depressed and attempted suicide by ingesting an organophosphate pesticide. He was admitted to an intensive care unit and treated with pralidoxime, atropine, and oxygen. His coronary occlusion pattern required early coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. His family, apprehensive of a repeat suicidal attempt, requested surgery be performed as soon as possible. He recovered well from the OP poisoning and was mentally fit to express informed consent 2 weeks after admission. Seventeen days after poisoning, he underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and recovered uneventfully. Six years later, he remains in excellent health. We report this case because to the best of our knowledge there is no literature regarding CABG performed soon after organophosphate poisoning.

  4. CHANGES IN LIVER IN CASE OF INSECTICIDAL AND ALCOHOL POISONING: AN AUTOPSY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhasish

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Poison is a substance introduced in the body to produce ill - effect, disease or death. It may be of any origin like synthetic, mineral, animal or vegetable. Death due to poisoning is mostly prevalent in the developing countries, of the total burden of acute pesticide poisoning; the majority of deaths are from deliberate self - poisoning with organophosphorus pesticides, aluminium phosphide and paraquat. Exposure to pesticides is usually occupational, accidental or suicidal. In India very few research works hav e been undertaken on histopathological changes of liver in different poisoning. In this part of our country a sizable number of cases of poisoning due to insecticides & alcohol are reported. So this current study intends to find out different histopatholog ical changes of liver in insecticidal & alcohol poisoning with regards to time interval between poisoning and death. In our 1 year (November 2012 - October 2013 of study we got 143 victims who died due to insecticidal and alcohol poisoning, out of which 132 cases show significant histopathological changes in liver. In this study male subjects (60.83% outnumber female (39.17% victims and most common age group affected in this study is between 20 - 40 years. This study show 29.37% victims died due to organopho sphorus poisoning, 25.17% cases of organochlorine poisoning, 11.88% study subjects from carbamate poisoning, 18.88% cases died due to combined alcohol and insecticidal poisoning, and 14.68% victims died due to alcohol poisoning. On microscopically 25.87% o f cases show centrilobular necrosis(CN, sinusoidal dilatation(SD found in 22.37%, fatty changes(FC in 11.88%, both venous congestion(VC, combined sinusoidal dilatation and degenerative change in 1.39% of cases, each 2.09% of cases show degenerative cha nge(DC , centrilobular necrosis and venous congestion , and sinusoidal dilatation and venous congestion respectively, each 3.49% show combined centrilobular necrosis and sinusoidal

  5. One case of acute Alocasia macrorrhiza poisoning and management%急性海芋中毒救治1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢立璟; 王英伟; 龙鑫; 孙承业

    2011-01-01

    A 44-year-old man took the tuber of Alocasia macronhiza by mistake. Several minutes after ingestion of the tuber, he presented with numbness of lip, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, salivation, dyspnea, and dysphonia. Twenty minutes after poisoning, he was hospitalized and diagnosed as having acute laryngeal edema. He received diphenhydramine 20 mg and dexamethasone 5 mg via IV push, followed by an IV infusion of dexaroethasone 10 mg. Meanwhile oxygen inhalation, liver protective treatment, and other symptomatic treatment were given. Five hours after poisoning, his symptoms gradually resolved and, 50 days later, he recovered. Alocasia macronhiza is a poisonous plant of Alocasia Sckott in the family Araceae, and it contains sapotoxin and calcium oxalate which can induce neurological and gastrointestinal disorder after ingestion of the plant. The latent period from exposure to onset of symptoms is 10 to 30 minutes and death might occur in patients with severe poisoning. Skin contact or eye contact with Alocasia macronhiza juice can cause pruritus, conjunctivitis, and even blindness. Inhalation of Alocasia macronhiza powder can lead to severe mucosal irritation in the eye, nasal cavity, and throat. Poisoning could be diagnosed by the history of contact with the plant and clinical manifestations. There is no specific antidote for Alocasia macronhiza poisoning and main management is symptomatic treatment.%1例44岁男性误食海芋块根,数分钟后出现口唇麻木、咽喉疼痛、恶心、呕吐、流涎、呼吸困难、发音困难等症状,中毒后20 min入院,诊断为急性喉头水肿.给予静脉推注苯海拉明20 mg、地塞米松5mg和静脉滴注地塞米松10 ng等处理,并行吸氧、保肝等对症治疗.中毒5h后症状逐渐好转,50 d后痊愈.海芋是天南星科海芋属有毒植物,含有皂素毒苷及草酸钙等.口服后可致神经和胃肠系统症状,潜伏期一般为10~30 min,严重者可致死亡;皮肤或者眼接触海芋汁

  6. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  7. Acute Cyanide Poisoning: Hydroxocobalamin and Sodium Thiosulfate Treatments with Two Outcomes following One Exposure Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Meillier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanide is rapidly reacting and causes arrest of aerobic metabolism. The symptoms are diffuse and lethal and require high clinical suspicion. Remediation of symptoms and mortality is highly dependent on quick treatment with a cyanide antidote. Presently, there are two widely accepted antidotes: sodium thiosulfate and hydroxocobalamin. These treatments act on different components of cyanide’s metabolism. Here, we present two cases resulting from the same source of cyanide poisoning and the use of both antidotes separately used with differing outcomes.

  8. Analysis of factors related to infection situation and the risk associated with acute poisoning patients with EICU%EICU急性中毒患者合并院内感染相关情况及危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何铁英; 董志英; 王芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the condition and relevant danger factors of patients with acute poisoning combined infection in EICU. Methods A total of 80 patients with acute poisoning received by EICU were chosen, among which 30 cases were complicated by infection and 50 cases were not. By reference of clinical data of patients, infection condi-tion and relevant danger factors were analyzed. Results Among 30 cases of acute poisoning, heavy metal(66.67%), poi-sonous gas (55.56%), opioid (45.45%), pesticide (45.45%), acid and alkali (42.86%), hypnotics (33.33%), alcohol (16.67%); respiratory tract infection (46.67%), urinary tract infection (30.00%), digestive tract infection (16.67%), skin and soft tissue infection (6.67%);Complication of coma, gastric intubation, trachea cannula were high risk factors of pa-tients with acute poisoning combined with infection (P<0.01). Conclusion Acute poisoning of strong acid and alkali, poisonous gas and heavy metal are more common among patients with acute poisoning received by EICU, and the infec-tions are mainly respiratory tract and urinary tract infection, and high risk factors of patients with acute poisoning com-bined infection were coma, gastric intubation, trachea cannula.%目的:观察并分析急诊重症监护病房急性中毒患者合并感染的情况及相关危险因素。方法临床纳入80例EICU收治的急性中毒患者,其中30例合并有感染,50例未发生感染。结合患者临床资料,分析感染情况与感染相关因素。结果30例急性中毒患者中,重金属(66.67%)、有毒气体(55.56%)、阿片类药物(45.45%)、农药(45.45%)、酸碱类(42.86%)、安眠药(33.33%)、酒精(16.67%)、呼吸道感染(46.67%)、泌尿道感染(30.00%)、消化道感染(16.67%)、皮肤、软组织感染(6.67%);合并昏迷、留置胃管、气管插管是急性中毒患者合并感染的高危因素(P<0.01)。结论重金属、有毒气体、阿片类药物、农药中毒患者在EICU收治的急

  9. A Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship for acute oral toxicity of pesticides on rats: Validation, domain of application and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadache, Mabrouk; Benkortbi, Othmane; Hanini, Salah; Amrane, Abdeltif; Khaouane, Latifa; Si Moussa, Cherif

    2016-02-13

    Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models are expected to play an important role in the risk assessment of chemicals on humans and the environment. In this study, we developed a validated QSAR model to predict acute oral toxicity of 329 pesticides to rats because a few QSAR models have been devoted to predict the Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) of pesticides on rats. This QSAR model is based on 17 molecular descriptors, and is robust, externally predictive and characterized by a good applicability domain. The best results were obtained with a 17/9/1 Artificial Neural Network model trained with the Quasi Newton back propagation (BFGS) algorithm. The prediction accuracy for the external validation set was estimated by the Q(2)ext and the root mean square error (RMS) which are equal to 0.948 and 0.201, respectively. 98.6% of external validation set is correctly predicted and the present model proved to be superior to models previously published. Accordingly, the model developed in this study provides excellent predictions and can be used to predict the acute oral toxicity of pesticides, particularly for those that have not been tested as well as new pesticides.

  10. Prevention of food poisoning due to pesticide residues in vegetables of Guangdong province%广东省预防蔬菜农残中毒工作研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伟雄; 邓峰; 江月碧; 罗建波; 梁春穗; 戴昌芳

    2001-01-01

    为预防蔬菜农药中毒的发生和提高蔬菜食用的安全性,广东省卫生防疫站开展了预防蔬菜农残引起食物中毒的系统工作,包括:加强部门间合作,研究消除蔬菜中农药残留物的方法,提高监测技术水平。结果表明,此系统的工作是科学的、有效的,广东省因农药引起的食物中毒呈逐年下降趋势。%A prevention system in Guangdong province was developed by the Station of Health and Anti|epidemic to prevent the food poisoning due to pesticide residues in vegetables.It includes the reinforcement of the cooperation between departments,research on the method for removing pesticide residues in vegetables and improvement of the level of inspection.The work indicated the scientific and efficient of the system,and the downtrend of food poisoning due to pesticide residues.

  11. The epidemiology investigation and analysis of acute poisoning in the first affiliated hospital of henan university of science and technology from 2008 to 2013%河南科技大学第一附属医院2008-2013年急性中毒流行病学调查及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国秀

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate and analyze the epidemiological characteristics of acute poisoning in the First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Science and Technology from 2013 to 2008,and provide the theory basis for the disease prevention and control.Methods:We analyzed6246 cases of acute poisoning by retrospective epidemiological investigation.Results:The number of acute poisoning were increasing,the average annual increase is 16.01% from 2008 to 2013,the number increased by 80.03% in 2013 than 2008;the patients are 3040 males(48.67%),female 3206 cases(51.33%),1:1.05 ratio of men to women;the most age of onset were20~60 years old(65% )young adults who live in rural(79.91% );Most of the toxicant category was chemical(38.00%),such as alcohol and carbon monoxide,the followed by pesticides(23.01%);the main reason for poisoning were accidental(61.98% ) and suicide(24.94% );the major route of poisoning were through the mouth(76.00% )and respiratory tract(18.36% )into the body.476 died in 6246 patients,the mortality rate was 7.62% ,mainly for pesticide poisoning(55.88% ). Conclusion:Conclusion:The acute poisoning cases increased year by year and the disease has certain epidemiological characteristics,we should strengthen the health education,improve the level of diagnosis and treatment of emergency department for the relevant characteristics of the disease,so we can reduce the incidence and mortality of acute poisoning.%目的:调查分析河南科技大学第一附属医院急性中毒的流行病学特征,为疾病防控提供理论依据。方法:采用回顾性流行病学调查方法,对收治的6246例急性中毒病例进行分析。结果:近年来收住的急性中毒病例数呈增加趋势,2008-2013年平均每年递增16.01%,2013年比2008年增加了80.03%;患者中男性3040例(48.67%),女性3206例(51.33%),男女比例1:1.05;发病年龄以居住农村(79.91%)的20~60岁(65.00%)青壮年居多;毒物类别以化学物(38

  12. Toxicology in the Old Testament. Did the High Priest Alcimus die of acute aconitine poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, Ferdinand P; Karenberg, Axel

    2002-01-01

    The Bible contains several interesting contributions to the history of neurology, as is the case of the High Priest Alkimos, who died suddenly in 159 BC. He was regarded as a stereotypical stroke victim for a long time. The reports on his death in the Septauginta and the later 'Jewish Antiquities' of Flavius Josephus present some typical symptoms of stroke (collapse, loss of speech and death within a short time), but they also describe severe pains, which are very unusual among patients with stroke. Similar symptoms can be found in the case of the Roman emperor Claudius, who was poisoned by his spouse Agrippina. It was thought that she used aconitine, an ingredient of the monkshood plant (Aconitum napellus L.), which imitates an apoplectic insult, but also causes vehement pains. It was therefore possible that something similar had happened to Alkimos, as aconitine was a common poison in ancient times and the surroundings of his death may confirm the suspicion. Reigning during a time of great upheaval, Alkimos was able to maintain his high office chiefly because of the help of the Seleucides. He has just begun construction work on the temple of Jerusalem, an order, which was regarded as a sacrilege by his foes. This impression was enhanced by his subsequent illness which could be considered as a divine punishment.

  13. Acute arsenic self-poisoning for suicidal purpose in a dentist: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Y; Armagan, E; Olmez, Of; Esen, M; Alkis, N; Dolar, E

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic is a classical poison that has been historically used since ancient times for homicidal purposes. More recently, episodes of deliberate or unintentional arsenic self-poisoning have been increasingly reported. We describe here a case of a 77-year old male patient with a history of major depression, who attempted suicide by ingestion of 4 g of arsenic trioxide. The man, a dentist by profession, used arsenic preparations for pulp devitalization. The patient was admitted to our hospital 5 h after arsenic ingestion with nausea and vomiting. Plain radiograph of the abdomen showed radio-opaque material in the stomach and small intestine. Nasogastric lavage, activated charcoal, and chelators were used to remove arsenic. On day 3, endoscopy disclosed the presence of gastritis and superficial ulcers. The patient developed significant anemia (Hb: 8.7 g/dL on day 7) without significant signs of hemolysis. He gradually recovered from anemia within 5 months. The patient did not suffer any adverse outcome in spite of having ingesting 4 g of arsenic, approximately 20 times the lethal dose.

  14. Therapeutic effectiveness of sustained low-efficiency hemodialysis plus hemoperfusion and continuous hemofiltration plus hemoperfusion for acute severe organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shou-liang; Wang, Dan; Jiang, Hong; Lei, Qing-feng; Zhu, Xiao-hua; Cheng, Jun-zhang

    2014-02-01

    There is no report on the effects of sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) plus hemoperfusion (HP) (SLED + HP) in patients with acute severe organophosphate (OP) poisoning (ASOPP). This study was designed to compare the therapeutic effectiveness between SLED + HP and continuous hemofiltration (CHF) plus HP (CHF + HP) in patients with ASOPP. In order to assess the two treatment methods, 56 patients with ASOPP were divided into CHF + HP group and SLED + HP group. The biochemical indicators, in-hospital duration, hemodynamic parameters, Acute Physiology, and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score, and survival and mortality rates were compared. In both groups after treatment, the levels of serum creatine kinase isozyme MB, creatine kinase, creatinine, glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease, and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, and the APACHE II scores on the first, second, and seventh day decreased (P  0.05). In conclusion, SLED has similar hemodynamic stability to CHF and the two treatment methods have similar effects on ASOPP patients. More importantly, SLED plus HP is relatively economical and convenient for patients with ASOPP in clinical practice.

  15. Intoxicaciones medicamentosas (I: Psicofármacos y antiarrítmicos Acute pharmacologic poisoning (I: Psychotropic and antiarrhythmic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Osés

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En la valoración de la Intoxicación Medicamentosa Aguda (IMA en pacientes graves con dosis potencialmente no tóxicas del teórico fármaco responsable es importante insistir en la anamnesis en la coingesta de otros fármacos o tóxicos. Inicialmente se prestará atención a las medidas de soporte vital, oxigenando, protegiendo la vía aérea y expandiendo la volemia. El ECG es una herramienta diagnóstica de primer orden en las IMA, sobre todo por antidepresivos tricíclicos (ADT y medicación cardiovascular. Su monitorización continua durante las primeras 12-24 horas suele ser necesaria en la mayoría de los casos. Las benzodiacepinas no suelen producir intoxicaciones graves. El uso del flumazenilo se reservará a los casos de depresión respiratoria, coma profundo o de causa no filiada. Pueden dar lugar a convulsiones, sobre todo en caso de intoxicación mixta con antidepresivos, y síndrome de abstinencia. Los ADT poseen una potencial gravedad enorme, pudiendo originar arritmias mortales. El rango terapéutico del litio es muy estrecho, pudiendo producirse signos de toxicidad fundamentalmente digestiva y neurológica. En caso de intoxicación por digoxina, se considerará el uso de anticuerpos antidigital en caso de bradiarritmias graves, bloqueos AV o PCR. El glucagón es el antídoto para la intoxicación grave por ß-bloqueantes y para la hipotensión refractaria en caso de calcioantagonistas.In the evaluation of Acute Drug Poisoning (ADP in patients seriously ill with a potentially non-toxic dose of the drug that is theoretically responsible, it is important to insist on anamnesis in the coingestion of other drugs or toxics. Initially attention is given to life support measures, oxygenation, protection of the airway and expanding the volemia. The ECG is a diagnostic tool of the first order in ADPs, above all for tricyclic antidepressants (TAD and cardio-vascular drugs. In the majority of cases continuous monitoring is usually

  16. Survey of patients with acute poisoning seen in the Emergency Department of the University Hospital of Gent between 1983 and 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, A G; Buylaert, W A

    1995-12-01

    In a prospective study of 4234 patients with acute poisoning in the Emergency Department of the University Hospital of Gent in Belgium between 1983 and 1990, we observed a decline in the number of poisonings from 665 in 1983 to 424 in 1990. This was due to a decrease in the number of deliberate self-poisonings. Fifty-six per cent of patients were female and the most prevalent age group was 20 to 24 years. There was no seasonal variation. The substances most frequently taken were benzodiazepines (55% of the deliberate self-poisonings), ethanol in combination with other substances (35.8%), barbiturates and older hypnotics (18.6%), non-narcotic analgesics (13.3%) and tricyclic antidepressants (11.6%). Carbon monoxide accounted for 65.1% of all the accidental poisonings. With regard to treatment, a reduction in gastric lavage was observed. The patients were transferred to the intensive care unit (29.2%), the psychiatry ward (23.6%) or discharged home (27.8%). Only 0.3% of the patients died in the Emergency Department.

  17. 广西城乡间急性中毒特点的比较分析%The comparative analysis of acute poisoning characteristics between cities and rural areas in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋东方; 刘清华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the acute-poisoning characteristics between city and rural areas of Guangxi Province in order to provide clinical data for the formation of treatment strategies of acute poisoning in Guangxi.Methods Data of acute poisoning patients as treated in 36 municipal and 12 county hospitals,and also 15 rural clinics in 11 cities of Guangxi during 2005 to 2009 were collected and analyzed according to poisoning population,poisoning site,poisoning process,and poisoning degree.Results By analysing 3678 and 2153 cases of acute poisoning patients in rural and urban areas,the gender (x2=5.53,P<0.05),age (x2=21.04,P<0.01 ),professions (x2=3156.83,P<0.01 ),poisoning site (x2=429.26,P<0.01),poisoning cause (x2=363.06,P<0.01),poison variety (x2=1713.12,P<0.01 ),poisoning degree (x2=35.25,P<0.01 ) were shown to be significantly different between rural and urban areas.In the rural areas,poisoning occurred predominantly in male (48.10% vs.44.91% ),age between 20-60 years (69.39% vs.67.53% ) and over 61 years old ( 11.17% vs.8.69% ),farmers by occupation (74.84% vs.2.79% ),home ( 80.64% vs.78.07% ),sites of labor ( 11.83% vs.3.07% ) and other sites (4.08% vs.2.97% ),and the chiefcauses were professional (3.10% vs.1.30% ),taken by mistake (21.85% vs.20.91%),homicide (0.30/ vs.0.28% ),and suicide (39.07% vs.18.77% ),and by pesticide (60.94% vs.12.13%),plant (7.08% vs.2.88% ) and animal poisons ( 7.73% vs.6.56% ),belonging to severe poisoning ( 25.86% vs.19.04% ) were higher than those in town.In the town,poisoning occurred predominantly in female (55.09% vs.51.90% ),age below 19 years old (23.78% vs.19.44%),unemployed (33.35% vs.13.76%),student ( 17.53% vs.8.43% ),industrial workers (31.95% vs.2.69%),executives ( 10.84% vs.0.22% ) and other professional ( 3.53% vs.0.05% ) ; occurred in schools ( 8.78% vs.0.82% ),restaurants (5.48% vs.1.55%),place of entertainment

  18. 盐酸戊乙奎醚治疗有机磷农药中毒临床分析%Clinical Analysis of Hydrochloric Acid Penehyclidine in Treatmentof Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹振强; 汪显琪

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy and clinical significance of hydrochloric acid penehyclidine in the treatment of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Method: Chosing 126 cases of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning patients. Then explored the comprehensive methods of hydrochloric acid penehyclidine treatment. Result: After 3 to 5 days of comprehensive hydrochloric acid penehyclidine treatment, 122 patients escaped from danger successfully and 4 patients died. Another 15 patients responded with dry mouth , flushing face and so on, and then was cured slowly after stopping the treatment. Conclusion: Hydrochloric acid penehyclidine is characteristic of long-lasting time, simple operation and so on. It is of better clinical utility and safety, and can obviously speed up the level of consciousness, reduce treatment time and improve the treatment success rate for organophosphorus pesticide poisoning patients.%目的:探讨盐酸戊乙奎醚治疗有机磷农药中毒病症的疗效及临床意义.方法:选取我院急诊科126例有机磷农药中毒患者,探讨盐酸戊乙奎醚治疗的综合方法,并结合实际分析其效果.结果:经盐酸戊乙奎醚综合治疗3-5d后,122例患者成功脱险,死亡4例.有15例出现口干、面红等不良反应,停药后自行缓解.结论:盐酸戊乙奎醚具有持续时间长、操作简便等特点,具有更好的临床实用性和安全性,对于有机磷农药中毒患者能明显加快清醒程度,缩短时间,提高救治成功率.

  19. 有机磷农药中毒的临床表现及急救治疗分析%Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning the clinical manifestation and the analysis of emergency treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥敏

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨有机磷农药中毒的临床表现及急救措施。方法:采取回顾性的方法对66例有机磷农药中毒患者急救治疗的临床资料进行分析,总结出患者的主要临床表现,并对抢救措施进行分析总结。结果:本组66例患者,经抢救有62例患者脱离危险,死亡6例,整体救治率为93.94%。结论:由于有机磷农药中毒患者的临床表现比较复杂,且患者病情变化较大,个体差异性较大,因此在抢救该类患者时务必要以患者的自身情况为依据制定最佳的抢救方案。%Objective:To study the clinical manifestation of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning and first aid measures. Methods :Take a retrospective method to 66 cases of patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning the clinical data of emergency treatment were analyzed, and sums up the major clinical manifestations of patients, and analyze the rescue measures summed up. Results:Of 66 patients, 62 patients via rescue out of danger, 6 cases died, the overall cure rate was 93.94%. Conclusion:Due to the patients of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning is more complex, and patients condition change is bigger, the individual difference is bigger, so in rescuing the patients too based on patients' condition to develop the best rescue plan.

  20. Acute severe poisoning in Spain: clinical outcome related to the implicated drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, M E; Marruecos, L; Porta, M; Martín, M L; Laporte, J R

    1983-10-01

    The 91 patients over the age of 10 (57 women and 32 men) with severe self-poisoning admitted to the ICU of a general hospital in Barcelona during the period 1974-1980 have been retrospectively studied. Previous suicidal attempts have been identified among 32 patients; 26 patients presented a history of personality disorders, and 19 had a neurological disease, a chronic physical illness, or a history of alcoholism. Sedative-hypnotic drugs were involved in about half the number of cases, and one fifth of total cases were due to tricyclic antidepressants and phenothiazines. Paracetamol was only involved in 2 cases, and heroin in another 2 cases. Many of the most severe morbidity manifestations were related to overdoses by intermediate-acting barbiturates. Two out of a total of 5 deaths were related to butalbitone overdose. Butalbitone had been ingested as a fixed-dose combination containing butalbitone, propyphenazone, and caffeine, which is freely dispensed as an analgesic in Spain.

  1. Lack of clinical symptoms in an acute arsenic poisoning: an unusual case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, A F; Schiaffino, S; Ballesteros, J L; Gil, F; Pla, A; Villanueva, E

    1998-12-01

    A 32-y-old woman was admitted to Granada University Hospital for attempted suicide by ingestion of an ant-killer containing 10% sodium arsenate and 5% pyrethrins. Neither gastrointestinal distress nor hepatic, renal, or neurologic disturbances were clinically observed. However, the presence of toxic levels of arsenic (14 mg/L) was confirmed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in a sample of urine taken about 12 h after poisoning. An uneventful clinical course was observed, and the patient was discharged after 6 days upon her request. Long-term follow-up was unavailable. From a Medline search over the years 1985-1998 only one similar report also dealing with sodium arsenate was found. Different pathogenic hypotheses are discussed in the light of the clinical data.

  2. Limitations and challenges in treatment of acute chemical warfare agent poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz; Kehe, Kai

    2013-12-01

    Recent news from Syria on a possible use of chemical warfare agents made the headlines. Furthermore, the motivation of terrorists to cause maximal harm shifts these agents into the public focus. For incidents with mass casualties appropriate medical countermeasures must be available. At present, the most important threats arise from nerve agents and sulfur mustard. At first, self-protection and protection of medical units from contamination is of utmost importance. Volatile nerve agent exposure, e.g. sarin, results in fast development of cholinergic crisis. Immediate clinical diagnosis can be confirmed on-site by assessment of acetylcholinesterase activity. Treatment with autoinjectors that are filled with 2mg atropine and an oxime (at present obidoxime, pralidoxime, TMB-4 or HI-6) are not effective against all nerve agents. A more aggressive atropinisation has to be considered and more effective oximes (if possible with a broad spectrum or a combination of different oximes) as well as alternative strategies to cope with high acetylcholine levels at synaptic sites should be developed. A further gap exists for the treatment of patients with sustained cholinergic crisis that has to be expected after exposure to persistent nerve agents, e.g. VX. The requirement for long-lasting artificial ventilation can be reduced with an oxime therapy that is optimized by using the cholinesterase status for guidance or by measures (e.g. scavengers) that are able to reduce the poison load substantially in the patients. For sulfur mustard poisoning no specific antidote is available until now. Symptomatic measures as used for treatment of burns are recommended together with surgical or laser debridement. Thus, huge amounts of resources are expected to be consumed as wound healing is impaired. Possible depots of sulfur mustard in tissues may aggravate the situation. More basic knowledge is necessary to improve substantially therapeutic options. The use of stem cells may provide a new

  3. Acute toxicity of two pesticides Diazinon and Deltamethrin on Tench (Tinca tinca larvae and fingerling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Diazinon and deltamethrin are common useful agricultural pesticides in the world. The present research compared the acute toxicity of diazinon and deltamethrin to tench larvae and fingerling. LC50 of 24 h, 48-h, 72 h and 96 h were determined using a probit. Fish samples (21 fish in each test group were exposed to different concentrations of diazinon and deltamethrin (diazinon: for fingerling between1-20 ppm and larvae 0.25-2 ppm, deltamethrin: for fingerling between 0.01-0.2 ppm and larvae 0.0025-0.02 for 96 h and mortality were recorded. The LC50 96 h of diazinon for fingerlings and larvae were 6.77 and 0.63, respectively. The LC50 96 h of deltamethrin for fingerlings and larvae were 0.07 and 0.005 ppm, respectively. According to the results, larvae are more sensitive than fingerlings, LC50 values indicated that deltamethrin is more toxic than diazinon to Tinca tinca, so we suggest to use diazinon instead of deltamethrin in agriculture.

  4. High lethality and minimal variation after acute self-poisoning with carbamate insecticides in Sri Lanka – implications for global suicide prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Thomas; Selvarajah, Liza R.; Mohamed, Fahim; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Gawarammana, Indika; Mostafa, Ahmed; Buckley, Nicholas A.; Roberts, Michael S.; Eddleston, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Highly hazardous organophosphorus (OP) insecticides are responsible for most pesticide poisoning deaths. As they are removed from agricultural practice, they are often replaced by carbamate insecticides of perceived lower toxicity. However, relatively little is known about poisoning with these insecticides. Methods: We prospectively studied 1288 patients self-poisoned with carbamate insecticides admitted to six Sri Lankan hospitals. Clinical outcomes were recorded for each patient and plasma carbamate concentration measured in a sample to confirm the carbamate ingested. Findings: Patients had ingested 3% carbofuran powder (719), carbosulfan EC25 liquid (25% w/v, 389), or fenobucarb EC50 liquid (50% w/v, 127) formulations, carbamate insecticides of WHO Toxicity Classes Ib, II, and II, respectively. Intubation and ventilation was required for 183 (14.2%) patients while 71 (5.5%) died. Compared with carbofuran, poisoning with carbosulfan or fenobucarb was associated with significantly higher risk of death [carbofuran 2.2%; carbosulfan 11.1%, OR 5.5 (95% CI 3.0–9.8); fenobucarb 6.3%, OR 3.0 (1.2–7.1)] and intubation [carbofuran 6.1%; carbosulfan 27.0%, OR 5.7 (3.9–8.3); fenobucarb 18.9%, OR 3.6 (2.1–6.1)]. The clinical presentation and cause of death did not differ markedly between carbamates. Median time to death was similar: carbofuran 42.3 h (IQR 5.5–67.3), carbosulfan 21.3 h (11.5–71.3), and fenobucarb 25.3 h (17.3–72.1) (p = 0.99); no patients showed delayed onset of toxicity akin to the intermediate syndrome seen after OP insecticide poisoning. For survivors, median duration of intubation was 67.8 h (IQR 27.5–118.8) with no difference in duration between carbamates. Reduced GCS at presentation was associated with worse outcome although some patients with carbosulfan died after presentation with normal GCS. Conclusions: We did not find carbamate insecticide self-poisoning to vary markedly according to the carbamate

  5. 急性三氯甲烷中毒一例报告%A Case Report on Acute Trichloromethane Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚峰; 冯玉妹; 张雪涛

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To report a case of acute occupational trichloromethane poisoning, to alert relevant enterprises to similar episodes and to provide reference for avoiding misdiagnosis. [Methods] The patient received relevant examination after careful inquiry of medical history including previous visiting and treatment in other institutions. Simultaneously field study was performed for comprehensively understanding the cause of disease. [ Results ] The patient was diagnosed acute mild toxic hepatitis due to occupational exposure to trichloromethane. After removal from further exposure and symptomatic treatment, the patient was fully recovered. Two clinic follow-ups respectively after half a year and one year showed restored liver function. [ Conclusion ] Trichloromelhane can lead to liver damage. In this case, the employers' lack of knowledge on the toxicity of trichloromethane failed them to take effective protective measures and finally resulted in occupational poisoning.%[目的] 通过对一例职业性急性三氯甲烷中毒病例的报告,以引起相关企业的重视,采取有效防护措施,避免类似事件的发生.同时给医疗机构提供参考,避免误诊.[方法] 收治患者后详细询问职业史、病史以及外院诊疗经过,完善实验室检查并邀请消化科会诊,同时调查劳动条件,分析病因,集体讨论综合分析后得出诊断.[结果] 患者诊断为三氯甲烷引起的急性轻度中毒性肝病,经对症治疗后痊愈出院,半年及1年随访肝功能均正常.[结论] 三氯甲烷可导致肝脏损害.企业主对三氯甲烷的毒性认识不足,未采取有效防护措施是导致此次事件发生的重要原因.

  6. Health Aspects of Organophosphorous Pesticides in Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Balali-Mood

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorous (OP pesticides are used frequently in agriculture, particularly in Asian countries over the pastdecades. Poisoning by these agents, either as acute or chronic in these nations, is a serious health problem. OP pesticidesresidue in fruits and vegetables that may not induce early clinical features, could also affect the human health.Therefore, medical and health professionals should be aware and learn more on the toxicology, prevention and proper management of OP poisoning. The well-known mechanism of OP toxicity is the inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase,resulting in an accumulation of acetylcholine and continued stimulation of acetylcholine receptors. Therefore, they arealso called anticholinesterase agents. Determination of blood acetyl cholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase activities remains a mainstay for the rapid initial screening of OP pesticides. Quantitative analysis of OP and their degradation products in plasma and urine by mass spectrometric methods is a more specific method, but is expensive and limited to specialized laboratories. Therefore, history of OP pesticides exposure and clinical manifestations of a cholinergic syndrome is sufficient for management of the exposed patients. However, electrophysiological tests may be requiredfor the diagnosis of delayed neuropathy of OP poisoning. The standard management of OP poisoning includes decontamination,atropine sulphate with an oxime. Recent advances focus on blood alkalinisation and magnesium sulphate as promising adjunctive therapies. Preventive measures in OP exposure are of great importance in human health in developing countries. Therefore, regulations and controls on safe use of OP particularly in Asian countries are recommended.

  7. Probabilistic acute dietary exposure assessments to captan and tolylfluanid using several European food consumption and pesticide concentration databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Polly E; Svensson, Kettil; Moussavian, Shahnaz; van der Voet, Hilko; Petersen, Annette; Ruprich, Jiri; Debegnach, Francesca; de Boer, Waldo J; van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Brera, Carlo; van Klaveren, Jacob D; Busk, Leif

    2009-12-01

    Probabilistic dietary acute exposure assessments of captan and tolylfluanid were performed for the populations of the Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden. The basis for these assessments was national databases for food consumption and pesticide concentration data harmonised at the level of raw agricultural commodity. Data were obtained from national food consumption surveys and national monitoring programmes and organised in an electronic platform of databases connected to probabilistic software. The exposure assessments were conducted by linking national food consumption data either (1) to national pesticide concentration data or (2) to a pooled database containing all national pesticide concentration data. We show that with this tool national exposure assessments can be performed in a harmonised way and that pesticide concentrations of other countries can be linked to national food consumption surveys. In this way it is possible to exchange or merge concentration data between countries in situations of data scarcity. This electronic platform in connection with probabilistic software can be seen as a prototype of a data warehouse, including a harmonised approach for dietary exposure modelling.

  8. Pesticide Health and Safety Challenges Facing Informal Sector Workers: A Case of Small-scale Agricultural Workers in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined.

  9. Pesticide knowledge, practice and attitude and how it affects the health of small-scale farmers in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oesterlund, Anna H; Thomsen, Jane F; Sekimpi, Deogratias K

    2014-01-01

    countries, small-scale farmers in Uganda do not use the most hazardous pesticides (WHO class 1a and 1b). However use of WHO class II pesticides and those of lower toxicity is seen in combination with inadequate knowledge and practice among the farmers. This poses a danger of acute intoxications, chronic......BACKGROUND: Over the past years there has been an increase in the use of pesticides in developing countries. This study describes pesticide use among small-scale farmers in Uganda and analyses predictors of pesticide poisoning (intoxication) symptoms. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted...... using a standardized questionnaire. Some 317 small-scale farmers in two districts in Uganda were interviewed about pesticide use, knowledge and attitude, symptoms of intoxication, personal protective equipment (PPE) and hygiene. The risk of reporting symptoms was analysed using logistic regression...

  10. [Study of blood concentration analysis for formate in acute methanol poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Go; Okazawa, Katsuko; Shimizu, Takahiro; Otagiri, Sayoko; Fuwa, Fumiko; Nakagawa, Saori; Yamato, Susumu

    2015-09-01

    A 53-year-old woman ingested about 300 mL of 95% methanol. After immediate ethanol antagonist therapy and hemodialysis, she recovered completely. Few days later, the plasma concentration of methanol and formate was measured. A gas chromatography was used for the plasma methanol concentration measurement, and a colorimetric method was used for plasma formate concentration measurement (Formate Colorimetric Assay Kit; BioVision, California, USA). Patient's plasma methanol concentration before hemodialysis was 676.9 mg/dL and plasma formate concentration was 16.9 mg/dL. By removing blood methanol and formate using hemodialysis before formate accumulations in the body, the patient was discharged without any sequelae. We were able to obtain correlation between a gas chromatography and colorimetric method without gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, with good correlation coefficients. The sensitivity was sufficient for analyzing blood sample. Monitoring formate concentration is useful in determining the treatment and evaluating the prognosis of methanol poisoning. We suggest that this colorimetric method is useful in a facility with no access to a gas chromatography in order to measure a plasma formate concentration.

  11. Confirmation of acute nitrate poisoning differentiating from anthrax in three Indian indigenous cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaresan Nagarajan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reports cases of nitrate poisoning in Indian indigenous cattle breeds comprising two Gir cows aging 4 years each, and one Barugur cow at 1.5 years of age. The cattle with case history of sudden death and oozing of partially clotted blood from the anal opening were brought to the Central University Laboratory (CUL, Center for Animal Health Studies (CAHS, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (TANUVAS for diagnostic investigation with a suspicion of anthrax. According to anamnesis, all the animals were clinically normal and did not reveal any abnormality on the previous day. The animals were fed with recently harvested sorghum leaves and stalks. Smears examined for anthrax were found negative. Biological test (mice inoculation for anthrax was also negative. Gross lesions on necropsy examination of the carcases were suggestive of nitrate intoxication. Finally, nitrate intoxication of these cattle was confirmed by chemical and toxicological analysis of fodder, rumen content, aqueous humor, liver, kidney and urine.

  12. Inconceivable Hypokalemia: A Case Report of Acute Severe Barium Chloride Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Tao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium is a heavy divalent alkaline earth metal that has been known as a muscle poison. Barium can cause human toxicity, which may lead to significant hypokalemia and have serious consequences. This paper reports a case of unprecedented barium intoxication in which the patient, who suffered from depression, swallowed at least 3.0 g barium chloride to commit suicide. On admission, the patient presented with nausea, vomiting, stomach burning feeling, dizziness, and weakness. Emergency biochemical testing showed that the patient was suffering from severe hypokalemia (K+ 1.7 mmol/L. His electrocardiogram (ECG prompted atrioventricular blocking, ventricular tachycardia, prolongation of PR interval, ST segment depression with U waves, and T wave inversion. Intravenous potassium supplements were given immediately to correct hypokalemia and regular monitoring of vital signs and fluid balance was arranged. After all-out rescue of our hospital personnel, the condition of the patient is currently stable and he is gradually recovering. This case exemplifies the weaknesses of the management of toxic substances and the lack of mental health education for young people. We hope to get more attention for the supervision of toxic substances and the healthy development of young people.

  13. Intoxicações por agrotóxicos entre trabalhadores rurais de fruticultura, Bento Gonçalves, RS Intoxicaciones por agrotóxicos entre trabajadores rurales de fruticultura, Bento Gonçalves, Sur de Brasil Poisoning by pesticides among family fruit farmers, Bento Gonçalves, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neice Müller Xavier Faria

    2009-04-01

    ámetros oficiales de monitorización deben ser reevaluados para mejor protección de los trabajadores. La ocurrencia de intoxicaciones a partir de la percepción de los trabajadores estuvo dentro de lo esperado, pero la estimación con base en la clasificación de la OMS captó una proporción mayor de casos.OBJECTIVE: To describe the occupational exposure to acute poisoning by pesticides, especially organophosphates, and its incidence. METHODS: A descriptive study was carried out on 290 family fruit farmers in the municipality of Bento Gonçalves, Southern Brazil, conducted in two stages in 2006. Two hundred and forty-one of these workers completed the two stages, which corresponded to periods of low use and intense use of pesticides. Data on the property, occupational exposure to pesticides, sociodemographic data and frequency of health problems were gathered using a standardized questionnaire. Poisoning was characterized by reports of episodes, symptoms relating to pesticides and plasma cholinesterase examinations. Cases were classified according to the matrix proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO. RESULTS: On average, each property used 12 different types of pesticides, consisting mainly of glyphosate and organophosphates. Most of the workers used tractors for pesticide application (87%, set aside the containers for selective garbage collection (86% and used protective equipment during activities involving pesticides (= 94%. Among these family farmers, 4% reported occurrences of poisoning by pesticides over the 12 months preceding the investigation, and 19% at some time during their lives. According to the criterion proposed by WHO, 11% were classified as probable cases of acute poisoning. Among the workers who had used organophosphates over the ten-day period preceding the examination, 2.9% presented two or more symptoms relating to pesticides and a 20% reduction in cholinesterase. CONCLUSIONS: The poisoning occurrences according to the workers' perceptions were

  14. A pilot program using promotoras de salud to educate farmworker families about the risk from pesticide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebman, Amy K; Juárez, Patricia M; Leyva, Claudia; Corona, Adriana

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews a successful community-based education effort to minimize pesticide exposure to migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their families through innovative training curricula, informal participatory educational techniques and culturally sensitive outreach methods. In 2004, Migrant Clinicians Network, Inc., trained lay health educators, or promotoras de salud, from local agencies in southern New Mexico in pesticide safety and in ways to successfully promote safety information in the farmworker community. Through home visits and small group workshops, the promotoras trained 273 farmworkers and farmworker family members on ways to reduce exposures to pesticides in their homes and at work, with an emphasis on protecting children. The families received a Spanish language comic book that reinforced the pesticide safety information, emphasizing the health effects of acute and chronic pesticide exposure and steps to protect farmworker children from pesticide exposure. The project resulted in a significant increase in knowledge regarding the routes of exposure, the vulnerability of children, the signs and symptoms of pesticide poisonings and the ways to minimize pesticide exposures. Additionally, the project showed improved behaviors aimed at minimizing pesticide exposure through accidental poisonings in the home. This pilot project proved the efficacy of an in-home, one-on-one approach with a culturally appropriate educational comic book as an instrument to help transfer education to the community. Moreover, the educational method involving promotoras offers a training-of- trainer approach that is easy to implement and potentially replicate.

  15. Deodorant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  16. Jimsonweed poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  17. Detergent poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  18. Foxglove poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  19. Nicotine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  20. Mistletoe poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  1. Bee poison

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002847.htm Bee poison To use the sharing features on this page, ... of insect, if possible Time of the sting Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached ...

  2. Gasoline poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... condition Time the gasoline was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  3. Philodendron poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  4. Poison Ivy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Poison Ivy KidsHealth > For Kids > Poison Ivy Print A ... the leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere — from the ...

  5. Neurological syndromes following organophosphate poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorous compounds, the anticholinesterases, produce significant morbidity and mortality in India. Although exact estimates are not available, hospital based statistics suggest that nearly half of the admissions to emergency with acute poisoning are due to organophosphates. Following accidental or suicidal exposure, these anticholinesterases lead to three well defined neurological syndromes i.e. initial life threatening acute cholinergic crisis which often requires management in intensive care unit, intermediate syndrome in which cranial nerve palsies, proximal muscle weakness and respiratory muscle weakness are common and patients often require respiratory support and delayed organophosphate induced polyneuropathy. In addition to these three classical neurological syndromes following acute exposure and in some following low dose chronic exposure, several neurobehavioural changes have been observed and these have been termed together as ′chronic organophosphate induced neuropsychiatric disorders′ (COPIND. Organo-phosphate compounds produce significant pesticide related illness in developing countries. There is, thus, a need to determine exact extent of the problem and to develop appropriate strategies to manage these cases with available resources in these countries.

  6. Acute arsenic poisoning: absence of polyneuropathy after treatment with 2,3-dimercaptopropanesulphonate (DMPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D F; O'Callaghan, C A; Berlyne, G; Ogg, C S; Davies, H A; House, I M; Henry, J A

    1994-01-01

    Two men aged 19 and 21 years ingested 1 g and 4 g respectively from 3 kg of a white crystalline powder that they thought was a substance of abuse. It was later identified as almost pure arsenic trioxide. Both had nausea and vomiting and one developed acute renal failure. Each was treated with 2,3-dimercaptopropanesulphonate (DMPS), and made a full recovery with no evidence of prolonged renal or neurological impairment. The DMPS-arsenic complex is probably associated with lower penetration into the CNS and as a consequence treatment with DMPS may result in lower acute and chronic neurotoxicity than treatment with the currently standard recommended chelating agent dimercaprol (British Anti-Lewisite; BAL). PMID:8089687

  7. Clinical analyses on the 61 cases of acute poisoning in the senior citizen%老年人急性中毒61例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜俭; 朱涛

    2008-01-01

    Objective Discusses correlation factor,clinical characteristic and intervention measure which the senior citizen acute is poisoned.Methods Acutely reviewed the old age which in January,2000 during-2006 year December admitted to be poisoned the clinical material,after the sex,the poison invasion way,was poisoned the material type,is poisoned the reason,pre-and the death situation carries on the analysis.Results The old age acute is poisoned the male and female asexual other difference;The poison invasion way by the digestive tract primarily,accounts for 81.9%,the skin absorption next,accounts for 14.7%;Is poisoned the matter by the agricultural chemicals and the medicine primarily,in the agricultural chemicals the methylamine phosphons accounts for first place 54%,in the medicine the calm hypnosis,the anti-neurosis medicine primarily,accounts for 22.9%,cardiovascular medicine next 6.5%;Is poisoned the reason to commit suicide the first place to account for 67.2%;Died 11.4%.Conclusion Strengthens the agricultural chemicals and the drugs management,intervenes senior citizen's psychology,the physiological health,reduces the effective action which the senior citizen is poisoned.%目的 探讨老年人急性中毒的相关因素、临床特点及干预措施.方法 回顾了2000年1月至2006年12月问收治的老年急性中毒临床资料,对性别、毒物侵入途径、中毒物质种类、中毒原因、预后及死亡情况进行分析.结果 老年急性中毒男女无性别差异;毒物侵入途径以消化道为主,占81.9%,皮肤吸收其次,占14.7%;中毒物质以农药和药物为主,农药中甲胺磷占首位(54%),药物中镇静催眠、抗精神病药为主,占22.9%,心血管药其次(6.5%);中毒原因自杀首位占67.2%;死亡占11.4%.结论 加强农药和药品的管理,干预老年人的心理、生理健康,是减少老年人中毒的有效措施.

  8. The exploration of mechanism of cactus rescue organophosphorus pesticides poisoning rabbits%仙人掌解救有机磷农药中毒家兔机制探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨佳颜; 罗丽霞; 熊伟; 刘帆; 曹弟勇

    2012-01-01

      目的探讨仙人掌联合用药在有机磷中毒过程中对胆碱酯酶活性的影响。方法对家兔进行肝素化后,测其胆碱酯酶活性,进行有机磷农药灌胃,使胆碱酯酶活性为正常的50%以下,用仙人掌及其联合用药的方法解救,再测量胆碱酯酶活性。结果仙人掌单独使用可使有机磷农药中毒的家兔胆碱酯酶活性恢复,作用接近于解磷定,但恢复速度慢。%  objective to explore the Cactus combined with medicine in organic phosphorus poisonning effects on cholinesterase activity in the process. Methods: after heparin rabbit, measuring cholinesterase activity, intragastric infusion with organic phosphorus pesticide, when cholinesterase activity below normal 50%, Rescue with cactus and their combination , and then measuring cholinesterase activity.Results: Cactus is used alone can make the cholinesterase activity of rabbit with organic phosphorus pesticide poisoning's recovery, role closer to pralidoxime, but slowly.

  9. DNA pooling base genome-wide association study identifies variants at NRXN3 associated with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Li

    Full Text Available Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP is more characteristic of anoxic encephalopathy than of other types of anoxia. Those who have the same poisoning degree and are of similar age and gender have a greater risk of getting DEACMP. This has made it clear that there are obvious personal differences. Genetic factors may play a very important role. The authors performed a genome-wide association study involving pooling of DNA obtained from 175 patients and 244 matched acute carbon monoxide poisoning without delayed encephalopathy controls. The Illumina HumanHap 660 Chip array was used for DNA pools. Allele frequencies of all SNPs were compared between delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning and control groups and ranked. A total of 123 SNPs gave an OR >1.4. Of these, 46 mapped in or close to known genes. Forty-eight SNPs located in 19 genes were associated with DEACMP after correction for 5% FDR in the genome-wide association of pooled DNA. Two SNPs (rs11845632 and rs2196447 locate in the Neurexin 3 gene were selected for individual genotyping in all samples and another cohort consisted of 234 and 271 controls. There were significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies of rs11845632 and rs2196447 between the DEACMP group and controls group (all P-values <0.05. This study describes a positive association between Neurexin 3 and controls in the Han Chinese population, and provides genetic evidence to support the susceptibility of DEACMP, which may be the resulting interaction of environmental and genetic factors.

  10. Emergency treatment and nursing care of 5 cases of acute thallium poisoning%急性铊中毒5例的急救与护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆柳; 秦玉梅; 吴丽华; 韦旖旎; 梁启荣

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To summarize the nursing experiences of 5 cases of acute thallium poisoning.[Methods] The treatment and nursing process of 5 acute thallium poisoning cases that were treated in Guangxi Research Institute of Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment in September 2012 was retrospectively analyzed.[.Results] 5 cases of confirmed thallium poisoning were treated with blood perfusion,oral administration of Prussian blue,diuresis,supplying potassium,fluid infusion and liver protection therapy,and were given the intensive nursing.The hospitalization time of 5 cases were15-27 days.All cases were cured,and follow-up showed that all patients got hair regrowth and had no sequelae.[Conclusion] Thallium has strong toxicity.The therapy of Prussian blue combined with blood perfusion as well as individualized nursing has remarkable effect on patients with acute thallium poisoning.%目的 总结5例急性铊中毒的护理体会.方法 回顾分析广西壮族自治区职业病防治研究院2012年9月住院的5例急性铊中毒患者的救治与护理过程.结果 5例确诊为铊中毒患者经血液灌流和口服普鲁士蓝、利尿、补钾、补液、护肝治疗,同时加强护理,5例患者住院时间15~27 d,痊愈出院,随诊重新长出头发及无后遗症.结论 铊毒性强,中毒后应用普鲁士蓝联合血液灌流治疗方案,对患者实施个体化的整体护理,效果显著.

  11. [Mercury poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

    2011-07-01

    Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds…). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication.

  12. Clinical Analysis of Inserting Gastric Tube to Tube Rupture in 1 Cases of Pesticide Poisoning%关于农药中毒插胃管致胃管断裂1例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈霞

    2014-01-01

    目的分析抢救农药中毒患者置胃管时被患者咬断的原因。方法介绍1例女性患者因自服敌敌畏,患者洗胃时拒不配合,强行咬断胃管的前端致胃管断裂的病历进行分析。结果患者吐出断胃管,更换胃管,在口腔内置入牙垫,置入胃管完成洗胃的全过程。结论洗胃是农药中毒患者最直接有效地方法,有效地将胃管插入胃内并进行固定是确保洗胃过程顺利进行的一个关键环节,能最大限度地减少毒物的吸收,直接影响抢救有机磷农药中毒的成功率。提高洗胃的速度和清洁度,减少不良反应,提高抢救成功率,减轻护士疲劳感。%Objective Analysis for pesticide poisoning patients indwel ing gastric tube was a patient of snap. Methods A female patients because of self medication in patients with gastric lavage, dichlorvos, refuses to cooperate with, forced to bite tube rupture caused by stomach tube at the front end of the medical record analysis. Results The patient to spit out the broken tube, replace the nasogastric tube, in the mouth into the stomach with dental pad, complete the whole process of gastric lavage. Conclusion The gastric lavage is pesticide poisoning were the most direct and effective way, ef ectively the gastric tube into the stomach and fixation is the key to ensuring the gastric lavage process smoothly, can minimize the absorption of poison, directly af ect the organic phosphorus pesticide poisoning rescue success rate. To improve the speed of gastric lavage and cleanliness, reduce adverse reaction, improve the success rate, reduce the fatigue feeling.

  13. 血液灌流救治有机磷农药中毒的护理与观察%Blood flow observation and nursing in the treatment of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高巍; 白凤兰

    2014-01-01

    目的:讨论和分析血液灌流救治有机磷农药中毒病人的效果。方法使用 Ha230型树脂灌流器。将同时进行常规治疗和血液灌流的38位有机磷农药中毒病人和仅采用常规治疗方式的21位有机磷农药中毒病人作比较。结果进行血液灌流的患者的昏迷时间和住院天数要比仅采用常规治疗方式的有机磷农药中毒病人短,治愈率高,死亡率降低。结论血液灌流与内科综合治疗相结合是抢救有机磷农药中毒成功的关键。%Objective To investigate the flow in the treatment of organophosphoruspesticide poisoning patients nursin g observation of blood. Methods using Ha230 type resin hemoperfusion apparatus. 38 cases of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning patients at the same time in the conventional treatment was performed in 21 patients with hemoperfusion and the simple application of the conventional treatment were compared. Results the hemoperfusion group coma time and length of hospital stay is shortened routine group, the cure rate is high, mortality.Conclusion hemoperfusion and department of internal medicine comprehensivetreatment combination is the key to the success of the rescue organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.

  14. Acute thiopurine overdose: analysis of reports to a National Poison Centre 1995-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gregoriano

    Full Text Available Literature regarding acute human toxicity of thiopurines is limited to a handful of case reports. Our objectives were to describe all cases of overdose with thiopurines reported to the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre between 1995-2013. A retrospective analysis was performed to determine circumstances, magnitude, management and outcome of overdose with these substances. A total of 40 cases (14 paediatric were reported (azathioprine, n = 35; 6-mercaptopurine, n = 5. Of these, 25 were with suicidal intent, 12 were accidental and 3 were iatrogenic errors. The magnitude of overdose ranged from 1.5 to 43 (median 8 times the usual dose in adults. Twelve cases (30% had attributable symptoms. The majority of these were minor and included gastrointestinal complaints and liver function test and blood count abnormalities. Symptoms were experienced by patients who took at least 1.5-times their usual daily thiopurine dose. Overdoses over two or more consecutive days, even if of modest size, were less well tolerated. One case of azathioprine and allopurinol co-ingestion over consecutive days led to agranulocytosis. Decontamination measures were undertaken in 11 cases (10 activated charcoal, 1 gastric lavage and these developed fewer symptoms than untreated patients. This study shows that acute overdoses with thiopurines have a favourable outcome in the majority of cases and provides preliminary evidence that gastrointestinal decontamination with activated charcoal may reduce symptom development after overdose of these substances if patients present to medical services soon after ingestion.

  15. Acute thiopurine overdose: analysis of reports to a National Poison Centre 1995-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoriano, Claudia; Ceschi, Alessandro; Rauber-Lüthy, Christine; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Banner, Nicholas R; Krähenbühl, Stephan; Taegtmeyer, Anne B

    2014-01-01

    Literature regarding acute human toxicity of thiopurines is limited to a handful of case reports. Our objectives were to describe all cases of overdose with thiopurines reported to the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre between 1995-2013. A retrospective analysis was performed to determine circumstances, magnitude, management and outcome of overdose with these substances. A total of 40 cases (14 paediatric) were reported (azathioprine, n = 35; 6-mercaptopurine, n = 5). Of these, 25 were with suicidal intent, 12 were accidental and 3 were iatrogenic errors. The magnitude of overdose ranged from 1.5 to 43 (median 8) times the usual dose in adults. Twelve cases (30%) had attributable symptoms. The majority of these were minor and included gastrointestinal complaints and liver function test and blood count abnormalities. Symptoms were experienced by patients who took at least 1.5-times their usual daily thiopurine dose. Overdoses over two or more consecutive days, even if of modest size, were less well tolerated. One case of azathioprine and allopurinol co-ingestion over consecutive days led to agranulocytosis. Decontamination measures were undertaken in 11 cases (10 activated charcoal, 1 gastric lavage) and these developed fewer symptoms than untreated patients. This study shows that acute overdoses with thiopurines have a favourable outcome in the majority of cases and provides preliminary evidence that gastrointestinal decontamination with activated charcoal may reduce symptom development after overdose of these substances if patients present to medical services soon after ingestion.

  16. Sampling strategies for estimating acute and chronic exposures of pesticides in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Charles G.

    2004-01-01

    The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires that human exposure to pesticides through drinking water be considered when establishing pesticide tolerances in food. Several systematic and seasonally weighted systematic sampling strategies for estimating pesticide concentrations in surface water were evaluated through Monte Carlo simulation, using intensive datasets from four sites in northwestern Ohio. The number of samples for the strategies ranged from 4 to 120 per year. Sampling strategies with a minimal sampling frequency outside the growing season can be used for estimating time weighted mean and percentile concentrations of pesticides with little loss of accuracy and precision, compared to strategies with the same sampling frequency year round. Less frequent sampling strategies can be used at large sites. A sampling frequency of 10 times monthly during the pesticide runoff period at a 90 km 2 basin and four times monthly at a 16,400 km2 basin provided estimates of the time weighted mean, 90th, 95th, and 99th percentile concentrations that fell within 50 percent of the true value virtually all of the time. By taking into account basin size and the periodic nature of pesticide runoff, costs of obtaining estimates of time weighted mean and percentile pesticide concentrations can be minimized.

  17. Acute phosphine poisoning aboard a grain freighter. Epidemiologic, clinical, and pathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R; Lovejoy, F H; Jaeger, R J; Landrigan, P L

    1980-07-11

    Two children and 29 of 31 crew members aboard a grain freighter became acutely ill after inhaling the toxic fumigant phosphine; one child died. Predominant symptoms were headache, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, cough, and shortness of breath. Abnormal physical findings included jaundice, paresthesias, ataxia, intention tremor, and diplopia. Focal myocardial infiltration with necrosis, pulmonary edema, and widespread small-vessel injury were found at postmortem examination of the dead child. The surviving child showed ECG and echocardiographic evidence of myocardial injury and transient elevation of the MB fraction of serum creatinine phosphokinase. Illness was significantly associated with living or working amidships or on the forward deck areas of the vessel. Phosphine gas was found to have escaped from the holds through a cable housing located near the midships ventilation intake and around hatch covers on the forward deck. The outbreak illustrates the hazards associated with shipboard fumigation.

  18. In Case of Pesticide Emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Call the Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222 for help with first aid information. The ... Health Land, Waste, and Cleanup Lead Mold Pesticides Radon Science Water A-Z Index Laws & Regulations By ...

  19. Speciation analysis of arsenic compounds in the serum and urine of a patient with acute arsine poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamanaka K.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsine is one of the most potent hemolytic agents. It is important to clarify arsine metabolism as well as its chemical interactions with biological components. The aim of the present study was to clarify arsine metabolism by arsenic speciation analysis in serum and urine from an acute poisoning patient with hematuria, anemia, and renal and liver dysfunction. Speciation analysis of arsenics in serum and urine was performed using HPLC-ICP-MS. The total arsenic (T-As concentration in serum was 244.8 μg/l at admission and 97.1 μg/l at discharge. In the speciation analysis, four kinds of As compounds derived from arsine metabolism were detected in serum and urine. The concentration of arsenite (AsIII, arsenate (AsV, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA in serum at admission were 45.8, 5.2, 17.9 and 9.3 μg/l, respectively. The concentrations of AsIII, AsV, and MMA decreased with biological half time (BHT of 30.1, 43.0, and 96.3 h, respectively. Only DMA was increased at discharge. The urinary AsIII, AsV, MMA and DMA concentrations were 223.0, 12.1, 317.5 and 1053.5 μg/l at discharge, and decreased with BHT of 15.1, 20.8, 14.7, and 16.0 d, respectively. The results indicate that arsine was quickly metabolized to AsIII and subsequently up to DMA, with the result that the toxic effects of inorganic arsenic were added to those of arsine toxicity.

  20. Temperature changes among organophosphate poisoned patients, Tehran- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talaie Haleh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute poisoning with organophosphorus compounds (OPs is a major global clinical problem in the developing countries. There have been many animal studies and few human surveys on the effects of organophosphorus pesticide (OP poisoning on thermoregulation. The aim of this prospective study was to document the pattern of tympanic temperature changes among OP poisoned patients throughout the length of their hospital stay. Methods 60 patients with diagnose of organophosphate poisoning were included in this study. Questioner was filled out by trained nurses including demographic, clinical and paraclinical data. Tympanic temperature and Pulse rate data of the cases were collected on five- occasions after admission. Results There were 41 (68.3% male and 19 (31.7% female, with a mean age of 34.4 ±19.4 years (range 13–89 years. Forty five patients had intentional poisoning for suicidal attempt. At the time of entry, the mean tympanic temperature, pulse rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic of the OP poisoned patients were respectively 37.1+/−0.6°C (36.0- 39.5, 91+/−18 (55–145, 18+/−5.6 (8–44, 116+/−20 mm Hg (70–170 and 75+/−11.6 mm Hg (40–110. 41.7% of the cases had serum butyryl cholinesterase activities (BChE ≥ 50% normal (≥1600 mU/ml. Our patients had normal temperature at the time entry (mean = 37.1. Tympanic temperature decreasing below 36°C was not detected among the patients during the study period. A rise in mean tympanic temperature was found after atropine administration. Conclusion Our study showed hypothermia was not considerable factor among organophosphate poisoned patients, although more studies with similar situations in tropical countries are needed.

  1. [Peripheral nerve disease associated with acute renal failure due to bromate poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshimaru, M; Miyagawa, T; Sumiyoshi, S; Nomura, Y

    1976-08-01

    A case of 21 year old male with neuropathy caused by renal insufficiency was present. He had taken bromate (mixed powder of potassium bromate and sodium bromate) for the purpose of suicide and suffered from acute renal insufficiency and hard of hearing. Renal dysfunction improved gradually by peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis. However, on the 32th day after the onset, burning pain appeared in the bilateral feets. Following this, he began to complain of the disturbances of superficial and deep sensory below the ankle jerks and the weakness of his toes. Considering the clinical features, we supposed that the disturbance of the peripheral nerve was caused by uremia due to taking bromate. N. suralis was biopsied on the 80th day after the onset and examined electron microscopically. Electroscopical findings was as follows. Degeneration of the Schwann cells and irregularity or destruction of the myelin sheaths were observed. The axoplasm of the myelinated nerve fiber were relatively preserved as compared with the changes of the myelin sheaths. In the unmyelinated nerve fibers, cavity formations were observed. The findings of regeneration were not observed. From the electron microscopical findings, we speculate that the changes of the Schwann cells and the myelin sheaths are primary resulting from the disturbance of the metabolism of the Schwann cells. We speculate that anemia and hypoproteinemia caused by bromate disturbed regeneration.

  2. Antagonism of Acute Sulfide Poisoning in Mice by Nitrite Anion without Methemoglobinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronican, Andrea A; Frawley, Kristin L; Ahmed, Humza; Pearce, Linda L; Peterson, Jim

    2015-07-20

    There are currently no FDA-approved antidotes for H2S/sulfide intoxication. Sodium nitrite, if given prophylactically to Swiss Webster mice, was shown to be highly protective against the acute toxic effects of sodium hydrosulfide (∼LD40 dose) with both agents administered by intraperitoneal injections. However, sodium nitrite administered after the toxicant dose did not detectably ameliorate sulfide toxicity in this fast-delivery, single-shot experimental paradigm. Nitrite anion was shown to rapidly produce NO in the bloodstream, as judged by the appearance of EPR signals attributable to nitrosylhemoglobin and methemoglobin, together amounting to less than 5% of the total hemoglobin present. Sulfide-intoxicated mice were neither helped by the supplemental administration of 100% oxygen nor were there any detrimental effects. Compared to cyanide-intoxicated mice, animals surviving sulfide intoxication exhibited very short knockdown times (if any) and full recovery was extremely fast (∼15 min) irrespective of whether sodium nitrite was administered. Behavioral experiments testing the ability of mice to maintain balance on a rotating cylinder showed no motor impairment up to 24 h post sulfide exposure. It is argued that antagonism of sulfide inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase by NO is the crucial antidotal activity of nitrite rather than formation of methemoglobin.

  3. Acute toxicity of the pesticide methomyl on the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva): mortality and effects on four biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huixian; Jiang, Hui; Gao, Xiwu; Wang, Xiaojun; Qu, Weigang; Lin, Ronghua; Chen, Jiao

    2008-09-01

    In this study, the acute toxicity of the pesticide methomyl on the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva) was evaluated using mortality and the activity of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) as endpoints. LC50 values were 1.228, 0.782, 0.538, and 0.425 mg/l at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure, respectively. Methomyl caused a sharp decrease in specific activity of brain AChE around 48% at concentrations between 0.043 and 0.213 mg/l. A reduction higher than 40% in liver GST activity at concentrations between 0.085 and 0.213 mg/l was found, whereas no significant effects were observed in intestinal GST. A significant concentration-dependent decrease of GOT activity was found after 24 h of exposure to the pesticide but not after 96 h. No significant effects on GPT activity were observed. These results indicate that at the concentrations tested, methomyl is acutely toxic to the species P. parva, causing mortality, neurotoxic effects, and changes in some hepatic enzymes.

  4. Detection of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio as a serum marker associated with inlfammations by acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mustafa Karabacak; Kenan Ahmet Turkdogan; Abuzer Coskun; Orhan Akpinar; Ali Duman; Mcahit Kapci; Sevki Hakan Eren; Pnar Karabacak

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR), which is an indicator of systemic inflammation, in patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Methods: We included 528 patients (275 women) who presented with a diagnosis of CO poisoning between June 2009 and March 2014. Control group was composed of 54 patients (24 women). Platelet count and mean platelet volume level were significantly higher in the CO poisoning group. Results: White blood cell level (9.8 ± 3.3vs 8.6 ± 2.9× 103/mL, respectively;P= 0.01), neutrophil count (6.00 ± 2.29vs 4.43 ± 2.04×103/mL, respectively;P Conclusions: The increase ofNLR may indicate the progression of fatal complications due to CO poisoning.

  5. Ciguatera poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaibar, Kira C; Moore, Simon; Bain, Peter G

    2007-10-01

    Ciguatera is a form of poisoning that occurs after eating tropical and subtropical ciguatoxic fish. The ciguatoxins are a family of heat stable, lipid soluble cyclic polyether compounds that bind to and open voltage-sensitive Na(+) channels at resting membrane potential, resulting in neural hyperexcitability, as well as swelling of the nodes of Ranvier. The authors describe a 45-year-old man who developed acute gastrointestinal symptoms in Antigua soon after eating red snapper and grouper, potentially "ciguatoxic fish". This was followed by neurological symptoms 24-48 hours later, including temperature reversal (paradoxical dysaesthesia), intense pruritus and increased nociception as a result of a small fibre peripheral neuropathy. The patient's symptoms and small fibre neuropathy improved over a period of 10 months.

  6. Clinical rescue experience of 42 cases of acute organophosphate poisoning%42例急性有机磷中毒抢救的临床体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旭华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To summarize the rescue method of acute organophosphate poisoning. Methods Forty- two cases of patients with organophosphate poisoning were pumped into at ropine by the micro- pump continually. Strict observation was done before atropinization was com pleted in order to prevent excessive Atropine intake and atropine poisoning. Results Five out of 42 cases were reported dead and the remaining cases were improved and discharged after treatment. The total cure rate was 88.10%. The average atropinization time was (138.5 ± 38.2) min, and at ropinization process required (78.3 ± 6.8) mg. Two cases (4.76%) had Atropine overdose and poi soning, 3 cases (7. 14%) condition rebounding, and 2 cases (4. 76%) intermediate syndrome. Conclusion Using continuous micro - pump into the Atropine in acute organophosphate poisoning rescue can reduce the required dose of atropinization and reduce the risk of overdose and poisoning.%目的 总结急性有机磷中毒抢救的方法.方法 对42例有机磷中毒患者进行持续微量泵泵入阿托品,严格观察使之阿托品化,防止出现阿托品过量以及阿托品中毒.结果 42例病例除5例死亡外,其余病例均经治疗后好转出院,治愈率88.10%.患者达到阿托品化的平均时间为(138.5±38.2) min,阿托品化需药量(78.3±6.8) mg.出现阿托品过量及中毒2例(4.76%),出现病情反跳3例(7.14%),出现中间综合征者2例(4.76%).结论 在急性有机磷中毒的抢救中使用持续微量泵入阿托品,可以降低达到阿托品化的需药量,并且可以降低出现阿托品过量及中毒的风险.

  7. A study of neurologic symptoms on exposure to organophosphate pesticides in the children of agricultural workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastogi S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used extensively throughout the world in agriculture and in pest control as well as for community health purposes. Organophosphate (OP pesticide self-poisoning is an important clinical problem in rural regions of the developing world that kills an estimated 200,000 people every year. Unintentional poisoning kills far fewer people but is an apparent problem in places where highly toxic OP pesticides are available. Neurologic dysfunction is the best documented health effect of pesticide exposure. High-level exposure has both acute and long-term neurologic signs and symptoms, and adverse effects have been reported in most type of pesticides, including organophosphate (OP, carbamate, organochlorine, and pyrethroid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and fumigants. Acute OP pesticide exposure can involve in wide range of both central and peripheral neurologic symptoms. Increased neurologic symptom prevalence may provide early evidence of neurologic dysfunctions, before clinically measurable signs are evident. In this study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data on neurologic signs and symptoms from 225 rural children, both males (n = 132 and females (n = 93 who were occupationally and paraoccupationally exposed to methyl OPs (dichlorvos, fenthion, malathion, methyl parathion and ethyl OPs (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, ethyl parathion as they belonged to agricultural families handling, mixing, and spraying the OP pesticides. The children completed a specially designed questionnaire (Q16 on neurologic symptoms associated with pesticide exposure with their parental help. A suitable reference group consisting of rural children (n = 50 never involved in pesticide handling (neither outdoor nor indoor belonging to similar socioeconomic strata included in the study to compare the prevalence of various neurologic symptoms between the two groups. Among all the neurologic self-reported symptoms, headache, watering in eyes, and burning sensation in

  8. Pharmacokinetics of digoxin cross-reacting substances in patients with acute yellow Oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning, including the effect of activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Darren M; Southcott, Emma; Potter, Julia M; Roberts, Michael S; Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A

    2006-12-01

    Intentional self-poisonings with seeds from the yellow oleander tree (Thevetia peruviana) are widely reported. Activated charcoal has been suggested to benefit patients with yellow oleander poisoning by reducing absorption and/or facilitating elimination. Two recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of activated charcoal yielded conflicting outcomes in terms of mortality. The effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of Thevetia cardenolides has not been assessed. This information may be useful for determining whether further studies are necessary. Serial blood samples were obtained from patients enrolled in an RCT assessing the relative efficacy of single-dose and multiple-dose activated charcoal (SDAC and MDAC, respectively) compared with no activated charcoal (NoAC). The concentration of Thevetia cardenolides was estimated with a digoxin immunoassay. The effect of activated charcoal on cardenolide pharmacokinetics was compared between treatment groups by determining the area under the curve for each patient in the 24 hours following admission, the 24-hour mean residence time, and regression lines obtained from serial concentration points, adjusted for exposure. Erratic and prolonged absorption patterns were noted in each patient group. The apparent terminal half-life was highly variable, with a median time of 42.9 hours. There was a reduction in 24-hour mean residence time and in the apparent terminal half-life estimated from linear regression in patients administered activated charcoal, versus the control group (NoAC). This effect was approximately equal in patients administered MDAC or SDAC. Activated charcoal appears to favorably influence the pharmacokinetic profile of Thevetia cardenolides in patients with acute self-poisoning and may have clinical benefits. Given the conflicting clinical outcomes noted in previous RCTs, these mechanistic data support the need for further studies to determine whether a particular subgroup

  9. Oximes in organophosphorus poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherian M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organic insecticide poisoning is a major health problem all over the world, particularly in the developing countries, where organophosphates (OPs are the most common suicidal poisons with high morbidity and mortality and account for a large proportion of patients admitted to intensive care units. Other insecticides less commonly used are organocarbamates, organochlorides, and pyrethroids, which are less toxic and are associated with less morbidity and mortality. Patients with poisoning present with a wide spectrum of gastrointestinal, neurological, and cardiac manifestations. A strong clinical suspicion is necessary to make an early diagnosis and to start appropriate therapy. Treatment is primarily supportive and includes decontamination, anticholinergics, protection of the airway, and cardiac and respiratory support. The use of oximes has been controversial and may be associated with higher mortality owing to a higher incidence of type-II paralysis. They may have other toxic side effects. This paper reviews the literature on OP poisoning.

  10. Organophosphate Poisoning and Intermediate Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yilmaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxic effects that occur after acute organophosphate poisoning (OP can manifest three phases, namely, acute cholinergic crisis, intermediate syndrome and delayed-type polyneuropathy. Clinical signs and symptoms of organophosphate poisoning depend on the accumulation of acetylcholine at the nerve junction. Organophosphate poisoning causes three main clinical findings; acute cholinergic crisis consisting of muscarinic, nicotinic and central nervous system symptoms, intermediate syndrome with recurrence of cholinergic symptoms or muscle weakness without fasciculation 24-96 hours after poisoning and delayed-type polyneuropathy that can usually occur several days or weeks after acute exposure to organic phosphorus compounds. In this article, intermediate syndrome, which is a late complication, has been reviewed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(1.000: 70-83

  11. Identification and treatment of poison ivy dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briant, D; Brouder, G

    1983-01-01

    Poison ivy dermatitis is an acute self-limiting problem of two or three weeks' duration that can cause significant discomfort. Poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac cause more cases of allergic contact dermatitis than all the other contact allergens combined. Treatment of poison ivy dermatitis depends on the severity of the reaction. The nurse practitioner can manage the majority of poison ivy cases. However, if there is systemic involvement, a physician consultation is necessary. The patient can best be assisted by assessing the severity of the dermatitis, prescribing an appropriate supportive therapy and teaching preventive measures.

  12. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants Share Tweet Linkedin ... tips to avoid it. back to top Recognizing Poison Ivy, Poison Oak, and Poison Sumac Open PDF ...

  13. Starch poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  14. Insecticide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 76. Borron SW. Pyrethins, repellants, ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 77. Cannon RD, Ruha A- ...

  15. Copper poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 75. Holland MG. Pulmonary toxicology. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 9. Jones AL, Dargan PI. ...

  16. Methylmercury poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grain that was treated with this from of mercury. Poisoning from eating fish from water that is contaminated ... into the body. Many of the symptoms of mercury poisoning are similar to symptoms of cerebral palsy . In ...

  17. Merbromin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a vein (by IV) Laxatives Medicine called an antidote to reverse the effect of the poison Tube ... chance for recovery. If the person takes an antidote to reverse the poison within 1 week, recovery ...

  18. 职业性急性氮氧化物中毒一例报道%Occupational Acute Nitrogen Oxides Poisoning: A Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟皓成; 管继如

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides are common irritative gases including NO2, NO, and N2O, etc. NO2 is the main component of gases generated by metal pickling. The patient had worked in pool without any protection for about 3 hours. The NO2 concentration was beyond the national allowable concentration 41 hours after the accident occurred. The exposure to NO2 was confirmed. The patient presented pulmonary edema and was diagnosed as acute severe nitrogen oxides poisoning according to the Diagnostic Criteria of Occupational Acute Nitrogen Oxides Poisoning (GBZ 15-2002).%氮氧化物是常见的刺激性气体之一,包括NO2、NO、N2O等.金属酸洗过程中所产生的氮氧化物主要为NO2.本例患者在清水池底工作约3h,且未佩戴任何防护用具,事故发生41h后地中NO2浓度仍超过国家容许浓度,氮氧化物接触史明确.患者在病程中出现肺水肿.根据GBZ 15-2002《职业性急性氮氧化物中毒诊断标准》,诊断为急性重度氮氧化物中毒.

  19. Amitraz: a mimicker of organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhooria, Sahajal; Behera, Digambar; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-10-01

    Amitraz is used as an ectoparasiticide for dogs and cattle. Human poisoning due to amitraz may be misdiagnosed as organophosphate/carbamate (OPC) toxicity, since amitraz poisoning shares several clinical features (miosis, bradycardia and hypotension) encountered with OPC poisoning. A 19-year-old man with an alleged history of suicidal ingestion of a pesticide presented with drowsiness and was found to have constricted pupils, hypotension and bradycardia. He was diagnosed as a case of OPC poisoning and was treated with atropine and pralidoxime prior to presentation to our centre. Absence of a hypersecretory state, and the presence of hyperglycaemia and hypothermia along with a normal serum cholinesterase level suggested an alternate possibility. Retrieval of the poison container confirmed the diagnosis of amitraz poisoning. The patient made a rapid recovery with supportive management. Clinician awareness is key to successful management of this poisoning, which carries a good prognosis.

  20. Research Progress on Pesticide Residue Analysis Techniques in Agro-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Ze-ying

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There are constant occurrences of acute pesticide poisoning among consumers and pesticide residue violations in agro-products import/export trading. Pesticide residue analysis is the important way to protect the food safety and the interest of import/export enterprises. There has been a rapid development in pesticide residue analysis techniques in recent years. In this review, the research progress in the past five years were discussed in the respects of samples preparation and instrument determination. The application, modification and development of the QuEChERS method in samples preparation and the application of tandem mass spectrometry and high resolution mass spectrometry were reviewed. And the implications for the future of the field were discussed.

  1. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t be awakened is at risk of dying. Alcohol poisoning is an emergency If you suspect that someone has alcohol poisoning — even if you don't see the ... immediately. Never assume the person will sleep off alcohol poisoning. Be prepared to provide information. If you ...

  2. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  3. Clinical research on eye complications of acute chlorine poisoning%急性氯气中毒眼部并发症的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季玉玲; 张迎秋; 王涛; 陈晨; 苗娟; 王猛; 张娟美

    2015-01-01

    •AlM:To observe the eye complications in the cases of acute chlorine gas poisoning. •METHODS:A retrospective review of 121 cases of acute chlorine gas poising with eye irritation, dry eye and other eye complications in Linyi People’s Hospital from February 2009 to February 2013 was performed. •RESULTS: Among 121 patients, 117 cases ( about 96. 7%) had complications of eye irritation and conjunctival and corneal epithelial damage, and the ocular surface damage was aggravated with the increasing level of chlorine gas poisoning. After 3, 6mo being discharged, 32 and 7 patients respectively occurred dry eye among 115 patients followed up. One mild chlorine poisoning patient, during the hormonotherapy of pulmonary complication, complicated with bullous retinal detachment, of which symptoms and physical signs had been improved after stopping hormonotherapy and adding drugs facilitating fluid absorption. One severe chlorine poisoning patient with loss of consciousness during the treatment, had corneal ulcer and after ulcer being healed with drug and conjunctival flap covering surgery, was left permanent leukoma cornea. •CONCLUSlON: Acute chlorine poisoning can cause corneal and conjunctival epithelial damage and dry eye. Ocular complications like bullous retinal detachment associated with hormone application should be paid more attention to in the hormonotherapy. For some patients with severe poisoning, the therapy of corneal and conjunctival epitheliums should be taken seriously in case of irreparable damage in rescuing patient’s life.%目的:观察急性氯气中毒患者眼部并发症的发生情况。  方法:回顾性分析2009-02/2013-02就诊于临沂市人民医院的急性氯气中毒患者121例,其发生眼部刺激症状、干眼及其它一些眼部并发症的情况。  结果:在121例患者中,有117例(96.7%)并发有眼部刺激症状及角结膜上皮的损伤,随着氯气中毒程度的加重,眼表损伤也加重。在115

  4. Clinical study on pancreatic damage in patients with acute dichlorvos poisoning combined with alcohol poisoning%急性敌敌畏中毒合并急性乙醇中毒患者胰腺损害的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冰; 瞿海龙; 周英莲; 梁璐; 彭广军

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To investigate the incidence rate of severe pancreatic damage in patients with acute dichlorvos poisoning combined with alcohol poisoning, in order to guide the clinical early diagnosis and rational treatment. [Methods] 140 acute dichlorvos poisoning cases in Emergency Department of Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University were divided into dichlorvos poisoning group (80 cases) and dichlorvos poisoning combined with alcohol poisoning group (60 cases). The acute pancreatitis was diagnosed through blood and urine amylase detection, and pancreatic CT within 24 hours after admission. The pancreatitis incidence and prognosis of two groups were compared. [Results] There was 20 severe acute pancreatitis cases in dichlorvos poisoning combined with alcohol poisoning group and 14 cases in dichlorvos poisoning group, and the difference between two groups was significant (x2 =4. 67,P<0.05). The incidence rate of complications, operation rate, mortality rate and hospitalization time in dichlorvos poisoning combined with alcohol poisoning group were higher than those in dichlorvos poisoning group [P<0.05). [ Conclusion] Compared with single dichlorvos poisoning group, there is a higher incidence rate of severe pancreatitis in dichlorvos poisoning combined with alcohol poisoning group, and it has high mortality rate and poor prognosis.%目的 探讨急性敌敌畏中毒合并急性乙醇中毒患者重症胰腺炎发生情况,以指导临床早期诊断和合理治疗.方法 将就诊于河北大学附属医院急诊科的140例急性重度敌敌畏中毒患者分为单纯敌敌畏中毒组(80例)、敌敌畏中毒合并乙醇中毒组(60例);于入院后24h内通过血尿中淀粉酶、胰腺CT检查明确胰腺炎诊断;对2组患者胰腺炎发生率及其预后进行比较.结果 急性敌敌畏中毒合并急性乙醇中毒患者20例发生重症胰腺炎,单纯敌敌畏中毒组14例发生重症胰腺炎,两组差异有统计学意义(x2=4.67,P<0.05);

  5. Effects of Chinese rhubarb combined with Smecta in treatment of ;organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%两组用药清除有机磷农药中毒肠道毒物的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴艳丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨大黄、思密达与硫酸镁、漂白土在治疗急性有机磷农药中毒的疗效。方法将76例口服有机磷中毒的重度患者随机均分2组。两组均给予彻底洗胃、适量应用长托宁及阿托品解毒,氯磷定复能剂等综合常规治疗。A组(治疗组)应用大黄导泻、思密达吸附;B组(对照组)应用硫酸镁导泻、漂白土吸附。观察首次排便时间,胃肠功能不全发生率及严重程度评分;观察胃肠功能恢复时间、阿托品化时间、意识恢复时间、胆碱酯酶活力恢复50%以上时间、阿托品和长托宁用量、药物耐受、中毒反跳、中间综合征、迟发性神经病、住院时间和死亡情况。结果治疗组各指标均优于对照组,均差异有统计学意义(均P<0.01或P<0.05)。结论思密达、大黄是目前彻底清除AOPP患者胃肠道残留毒物较好的导泻、吸附联合用药,减少了药物用量和并发症、缩短了住院时间。%Objective investigate the effects of Chinese rhubarb combined with Smecta in treatment of organopjophorus pesticide poisoning. Methods Seventy-six patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning underwent conventional treatment including thorough gastric lavage, muscular injection of penehyckiine hydrochloride, intravenous injection of atropine through micropumping, and intravenous drip of pyraloxime methylchloride. The patients were randomly divided into 2 equal groups: Group A underdoing catharsis with 200 ml of Chinese Rhubarb powder and then suspension of Smecta through gastric tube 2h later as a cycle per 4 hours for 48 hours, and Group B undergoing irrigation of magnesium sulphate solution and suspension of Fuller's earth per 4 hours as a cycle for 48 hours. The effects were observed. Results The first defecation yime, recovery time of gastrointestinal tract, time of atropinization time, consciousness recovery time, recovery time of cholinesterase activity, and length

  6. Probabilistic acute dietary exposure assessments to captan and tolylfluanid using several European food consumption and pesticide concentration databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Polly E.; Svensson, Kettil; Moussavian, Shahnaz

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic dietary acute exposure assessments of captan and tolylfluanid were performed for the populations of the Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden. The basis for these assessments was national databases for food consumption and pesticide concentration data harmonised...... at the level of raw agricultural commodity. Data were obtained from national food consumption surveys and national monitoring programmes and organised in an electronic platform of databases connected to probabilistic software. The exposure assessments were conducted by linking national food consumption data...... to national food consumption surveys. In this way it is possible to exchange or merge concentration data between countries in situations of data scarcity. This electronic platform in connection with probabilistic software can be seen as a prototype of a data warehouse, including a harmonised approach...

  7. Photographic fixative poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photographic developer poisoning; Hydroquinone poisoning; Quinone poisoning; Sulfite poisoning ... Quinones Sodium thiosulfate Sodium sulfite/bisulfite Boric acid Photographic fixative can also break down (decompose) to form ...

  8. 急性百草枯中毒的综合治疗%A comprehensive therapy on acute paraquat poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙树印; 刘云海

    2013-01-01

    Paraquat is a common herbicides extensively used in agriculture.Recent years,paraquat poisoning get obviously increased,especially the oral poisoning.There is no specific antidote for the poisoning yet,it has extremely high mortality.The main target organ of paraquat is lung,while the multiple organ failure and pulmonary fibrosis are the leading reasons of death.A comprehensive,symptomatic treatment has been the main therapy strategy,and exploring effective antidote has also become a research hotspot.This article will provide a brief overview on all the traditional methods and new trials about treatment of paraquat poisoning.%百草枯是农业常用除草剂,近年来百草枯中毒病人明显增多,且以口服中毒为主,中毒后尚无特效的解毒剂,病死率极高,靶器官主要是肺脏,多脏器功能衰竭和肺纤维化是死亡的主要原因.目前以综合治疗为主,探寻百草枯中毒的有效治疗药物已成为研究热点,本文对临床救治中常用的及近年来新发现的治疗措施作一综述.

  9. Drug Utilization Study on Acute Poisoning Cases Treated at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Western Part of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik D. Asari

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Use of antimicrobial medicines for poisoned patients was too high and irrational.  Due to high incidence of snakebites, hospital stockpiles should be regularly checked for availability of antivenom. Educational programs with emphasis on preventive measures for toxic exposures are necessary to create awareness among the general public.

  10. A prospective study on clinical profile and incidence of acute kidney injury due to hair dye poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ramulu

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: So in current scenario of emerging hair dye poisoning, it is imperative for a timely intervention by reducing the time of admission in hospital and also early management by clinicians is the need of an hour. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(12.000: 5277-5282

  11. An Epidemiological Analysis of 80 Acute Occupational Poisoning Accidents%80起急性职业中毒事件流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨黎明; 黄云彪; 王宇; 施渊; 严军

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] To study the characteristics of industry, population and time distributions of 80 acute occupational poisoning accidents in Pudong New Area of Shanghai, to explore the prime causes, and to provide a basis for developing control and prevention strategies. [ Methods ] A retrospective survey was conducted on 80 acute occupational poisoning accidents which occurred between January 1996 and December 2008. [ Results ] A total of 157 victims were identified in these 80 acute occupational poisoning accidents, with 129 males (82.2%) and 28 females (17.8%). The peak annual occurrence (43 accidents) was found in the period of 2003-2005. Sulfureted hydrogen was identified as the most common chemical substance that caused 42 people (26.8%) poisoned and 15 (71.4%) deaths. Of the 80 accidents, 45 (56.3%) occurred from July to September. The common causes of the accidents included protection equipment failure (35.0%), not wearing personal protective equipments (28.7%), and violation of safety operation procedures (18.7%). [ Conclusion ] A comprehensive strategy on safety education and the allocation of safeguards and personal protective equipments should be introduced against the causes of acute occupational poisoning.%[目的]分析上海市浦东新区80起急性职业中毒事件的行业、人群和时间分布特征及主要原因,为制订防治对策提供依据. [方法]用回顾性调查的方法,对该区1996年1月至2008年12月间发生的80起急性职业中毒事件进行回顾性调查分析.[结果] 80起急性职业中毒事件共造成157人中毒,其中男性129人(82.2%),女性28人(17.8%);年发生数以2003至2005年为高峰,共发生43起;致中毒化学物质中,硫化氢共造成急性职业中毒42人(26.8%),死亡15人(71.4%);发生于7-9月的急性职业中毒事件共45起(56.3%).事故发生的主要原因有防护设施失效(35.0%)、未使用个人防护用品(28.7%)、违反安全操作规程(18.3%)等. [结

  12. 急性铊中毒14例临床分析%Clinical analysis of acute thallium poisoning in fourteen patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓然; 邱泽武; 崔文华; 彭晓波

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析总结急性铊中毒的临床表现及治疗方法. 方法 收集2009至2011年军事医学科学院附属医院收治的所有急性铊中毒患者病历资料进行回顾性分析. 结果 2009至2011年共收治急性铊中毒患者14例,男性8例,女性6例,年龄9 ~ 68岁,平均42岁.1例自诉被他人投毒;1例疑似误服;2例与铊中毒者有共同生活史;10例中毒原因不明.铊中毒早期临床表现主要为恶心、呕吐、腹痛等胃肠道症状(5例)和四肢麻木、酸胀疼痛、记忆力减退等神经系统症状(13例),10例出现肝功能异常,8例出现毛发脱落,1例指甲出现Mees纹.治疗前患者血铊浓度为3764.0 ~ 19.7 μg/L,尿铊浓度为29 100.0~0.2μg/L,给予单纯支持(1例)、口服普鲁士蓝(4例)和口服普鲁士蓝联合血液灌流(9例)等治疗后,血铊浓度降至68.0~2.4 μg/L,尿铊浓度降至542.0~11.3 μg/L.13例出现神经系统症状者在住院期间症状明显缓解,但出院时仍有轻度四肢麻木、疼痛等症状.5例出现胃肠道症状者在1周内症状缓解或消失.10例出现肝功能异常者的肝酶水平在2~4周内恢复正常.8例毛发脱落者中5例在住院期间好转,3例未见明显变化.出现Mees纹者体征无变化. 结论 患者出现不明原因胃肠道症状且同时伴有神经系统症状时,应考虑重金属中毒的可能.普鲁士蓝联合血液灌流治疗铊中毒安全有效.%Objective To analyze and summarize the clinical manifestations and treatments of acute thallium poisoning.Methods The clinical data of patients with acute thallium poisoning,who were hospitalized in Affiliated Hospital of Academy of Military Medical Science from 2009 to 2011 were collected and analyzed retrospectively.Results Fourteen patients with acute thallium poisoning comprised 8 males and 6 females with an average age of 42 years (rang 9 to 68) were hospitalized from 2009 to 2011.Of them,1 case complained poisoning by others; 1 case

  13. 职业性急性汞中毒患者的临床护理研究%Clinical nursing study of occupational acute mercury poisoning patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬鸿雁

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the clinical nursing methods and effect of occupational acute mercury poisoning patients. Methods:66 occupational acute mercury poisoning patients were selected.They were divided into the control group and the observation group with 33 cases by using the method of drawing lots.The control group was given conventional nursing.The observation group was given comprehensive nursing.The clinical nursing effects of the two groups were compared.Results:After nursing intervention,the treatment total effective rate and nursing satisfaction of the observation group were significantly higher than those of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:The occupational acute mercury poisoning patients were given clinical comprehensive nursing intervention.It can effectively reduce the clinical symptoms of patients,control the disease development, and improve the curative effect and patient satisfaction.%目的:分析职业性急性汞中毒患者的临床护理方法及效果。方法:收治职业性急性汞中毒患者66例,通过抽签法分为对照组和观察组各33例。对照组给予常规护理,观察组给予综合护理。比较两组患者的临床护理疗效。结果:经过护理干预,观察组的治疗总有效率及护理满意度明显高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:给予职业性急性汞中毒患者临床综合护理干预,能够有效减轻患者的临床症状,控制病情发展,提高疗效以及患者满意度。

  14. Clinical analysis of 92 patients with acute aconites poisoning%乌头碱中毒92例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张阳; 沈丽娟; 王长谦

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore clinical characteristics and emergency treatment of patients with acute aconites poisoning. Methods: Clinical data of 92 patients with acute aconites poisoning were analyzed. Results: After gastric lav-age, catharsis, a total of 78 cases (84.7%) received anticholinergic drugs under electrocardiography monitoring in early period, among which there were 23 cases (25%) receiving atropine and 55 cases (59. 8%) receiving penehycli-dine hydrochloride. There were two patients occurring Adam-stoke attack and they received DC asynchronous electric defibrillationj a total of eight shock patients were given anti-shock therapy routinely, they all got recovery. All 92 patients (100%) were cured and discharged from the hospital. Conclusion: The key point of emergency treatment of acute aconites poisoning is its diagnosis in early stage, early use of anticholinergic drugs, such as atropine and penehyclidine hydrochloride, if tachyarrhythmia occurs, lidocaine can increase emergency success rate.%目的:探讨急性乌头碱中毒患者的临床特征及抢救办法.方法:分析92例急性乌头碱中毒患者的临床资料.结果:入院后经洗胃、导泻,在心电监护下,78例早期应用抗胆碱药物(84.7%)治疗,其中23例应用阿托品(25.0%),55例应用盐酸戊乙奎醚(59.8%);有2例发生室颤并阿斯氏发作,8例发生休克,分别在给予直流非同步电除颤及抗休克治疗后得到恢复.92例患者全部治愈出院,治愈率为100%.结论:乌头碱中毒救治要点是早期诊断,早期及时使用抗胆碱能药物如阿托品、盐酸戊乙奎醚,如出现快速心律失常,使用利多卡因等可提高抢救成功率.

  15. 高压氧协同药物综合治疗急性亚硝酸盐中毒9例分析%Clinical Study of Hyperbaric Oxygen Combined Therapy for 9 Cases of Acute Poisoning by Nitrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琳; 钱培丽; 朱彩琴; 赵迎春

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨0.25 MPa高压氧(HBO)协同药物综合治疗急性亚硝酸盐中毒的疗效,通过分析急性亚硝酸盐中毒的机制明确高压氧综合治疗的临床意义.方法 0.25 Mpa HBO协同清水洗胃催吐、药物(特效解毒剂亚甲蓝拮抗、维生素C注射液、葡萄糖补液)综合治疗9例中度急性亚硝酸盐中毒患者.根据患者病情,分别给予亚甲蓝40 mg或80mg静推,维生素C3.0~5.0g静滴,HBO 1次/d,疗程1~2次.结果 9例中度急性亚硝酸中毒患者全部治愈.结论 0.25 MPa HBO协同药物综合治疗中度急性亚硝酸盐中毒患者有效.临床上除正确应用亚甲蓝等药物外,对病情较严重者应尽早高压氧治疗.%Objective To study the effect of 0.25 MPa hyperbaric oxygen therapy combined drugs for acute poisoning by nitrite. Through analyzing the mechanism of acute poisoning by nitrite, it would identify clinical significance of hyperbaric oxygen combined therapy. Methods 9 cases of midrange acute poisoning by nitrite were treated with 0.25 MPa HBO combined gastric lavage and drug therapy (methylthioninium chloride, vitamin C, glucose). Methylthioninium chloride was effective antidote of acute poisoning by nitrite. According to the patients' condition,infusion methylthioninium chloride 40 mg or 80 mg and vitamin C 3.0 -5.0 g were given intravenous,and HBO once a day,one or two as a course of treatmeat. Results 9 cases of midrange acute poisoning by nitrite treating with hyperbaric oxygen combined therapy were cured. Conclusion HBO combined therapy for midrange acute poisoning by nitrite was effective. Midrange and severe patients of acute poisoning by nitrite should be treated with HBO in early stage of the disease.

  16. [Antidotal effects of sulfhydryl compounds on acute poisonings by sodium ammonium dimethyl-2-(propane-1,3-dithiosulfate) monohydrate, nereistoxin and cartap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, B J; Chen, Z K; Chi, Z Q

    1990-03-01

    Sodium dimercaptopropanesulphonate (DMPS) and sodium dimercaptosuccinate (DMS) were discovered to be effective antidotes for acute poisoning of insecticides SCD [sodium ammonium dimethyl-2-(propane-1,3-dithiosulfate) monohydrate], nereistoxin (4-N,N-dimethylamino-1,2-dithiolane) and cartap (dihydronereistoxin dicarbamate). In mice, DMPS (250 mg/kg) or DMS (1000 mg/kg) ip 20 min before SCD increased LD50 of ig SCD from 97 to 374 or 251 mg/kg, respectively. The prophylactic effect of DMPS was better than that of DMS. Administration of DMPS prior to cartap increased LD50 of ig cartap from 130 to 375 mg/kg. The therapeutic effect of DMPS was also demonstrated in SCD-poisoned conscious rabbits. DMPS 62.5 mg/kg or DMS 500 mg/kg iv completely antagonized the neuromuscular blockade and respiratory depression caused by SCD, nereistoxin and cartap in anesthetized rabbits. The antagonism of SCD-induced neuromuscular blockade by cysteine (400 mg/kg, iv) was less effective and of shorter duration than that by DMPS and DMS. Dimercaprol 50 mg/kg im showed little effect on SCD-induced paralysis. The antagonistic actions of sulfhydryl compounds on neuromuscular blockade induced by these insecticides probably belong to chemical antagonism.

  17. Arsenic poisoning in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Bahri, L; Ben Romdane, S

    1991-06-01

    Arsenic is an important heavy metal intoxicant to livestock. Arsenical pesticides present significant hazards to animal health. The toxicity of arsenic varies with several factors--its chemical form, oxidation states, solubility. The phenylarsonic compounds are the least toxic and are used as feed additives in swine and poultry rations. However, roxarsone has a higher absolute toxicity than arsanilic acid. The mechanism of action is related to its reaction with sulfhydryl groups values to enzyme function and to its ability to uncouple oxydative phosphorylation. Most animals excrete arsenic quite readily. Toxicoses caused by inorganic and aliphatic organic arsenicals result in a different clinical syndrome than that from the phenylarsonic compounds. Arsenic poisoning may be confused with other types of intoxication. The specific antidote for inorganic arsenical poisoning is dimercaprol (BAL).

  18. Early Biomarkers in 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Striatal Pathological Mechanisms after Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Li; LI Zong Yang; ZHANG Yan Lin; CONG Cui Cui; ZHAO Jin Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Objective In vivo Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS) can be used to evaluate the levels of specific neurochemical biomarkers of pathological mechanisms in the brain. Methods We conducted T2-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and 1H-MRS with a 3.0-Tesla animal MRI system to investigate the early microstructural and metabolic profiles in vivo in the striatum of rats following carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Results Compared to baseline, we found significant cortical surface deformation, cerebral edema changes, which were indicated by the unclear gray/white matter border, and lateral ventricular volume changes in the brain. A significant reduction in the metabolite to total creatine (Cr) ratios of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) was observed as early as 1 h after the last CO administration, while the lactate (Lac) levels increased marginally. Both the Lac/Cr and NAA/Cr ratios leveled off at 6 h and showed no subsequent significant changes. In addition, compared to the control, the choline (Cho)/Cr ratio was slightly reduced in the early stages and significantly increased after 6 h. In addition, a pathological examination revealed mild cerebral edema on cessation of the insult and more severe cerebral injury after additional CO poisoning. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that 1H-MRS of the brain identified early metabolic changes after CO poisoning. Notably, the relationship between the increased Cho/Cr ratio in the striatum and delayed neuropsychologic sequelae requires further research.

  19. Clinical analysis of occupational acute poisoning of HCFC-255%职业性急性二氯五氟丙烷中毒临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑倩玲; 陈嘉斌; 梁伟辉; 梁顺华; 余意玉

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨职业性急性二氯五氟丙烷(HCFC-225 )中毒的临床特点及治疗方法.方法:回顾性分析2010年12月一起职业中毒事故中6例急性HCFC-225中毒患者的临床资料.结果:本组6例患者均有明确的急性泄露事故导致吸入HCFC-225的职业接触史,急性起病,均被诊断为职业性急性HCFC-225中毒.多数患者出现头晕、眼花、头痛、乏力、步态蹒跚、胸闷、恶心等,部分患者出现呕吐、咳嗽、咽痛、鼻塞、流涕等,严重者可出现意识障碍.体征方面,所有患者均出现急性病容和四肢肌力下降,5例出现呼吸音增粗,个别呼吸急促,严重者出现烦躁不安、嗜睡、昏睡、昏迷.中枢神经系统症状改变与HCFC-225接触时间呈剂量一效应关系.患者中毒第2日外周血白细胞计数均升高,1例患者胸部X线片示急性支气管炎改变,1例昏迷患者出现脑电图低电压改变,另1例出现动脉血氧分压偏低.糖皮质激素和脱水治疗有效.结论:职业性急性HCFC-225中毒的临床表现以中枢神经系统和呼吸系统的损害为主,及时的脱水治疗和早期、足量、短程糖皮质激素是治疗的关键.%Objective: To study the clinical features and treatments of occupational acute poisoning of HCFC-225. Methods: Clinical data of 6 patients with acute poisoning of HCFC-225 from an industrial accident in December 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The 6 patients were diagnosed of occupational acute poisoning of HCFC-225 according to acute onset and occupational exposure of HCFC-255 inhalation in an acute leakage accident Symptoms, such as dizziness, giddiness, headache, fatigue, waddling gait, nausea and chest distress were presented in most patients. Vomiting, cough, sore throat, stuffy and running nose were observed in some patients. Conscious disturbance was also revealed in severe cases. Clinical signs of acute facial features and limb muscle strength decline were observed in all

  20. Investigation of Acute Poisoning Accident Caused by Hydrogen Sulfide%一起急性硫化氢中毒事故的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小涛; 熊田甜

    2013-01-01

      目的介绍一起因硫氢化钠与外环境酸性污水反应导致的硫化氢中毒死亡事件的调查处理情况。方法2006年11月29日, J 市 G 区发生一起以双眼及上呼吸道刺激为主要症状,伴有胸闷、憋气、头晕、恶心干呕等全身症状的中毒事故,造成1人死亡,一人昏迷,一人头晕。对患者进行临床诊断,对外环境相关有毒物质进行检测,模拟有毒气体的化学反应。结果三名患者临床表现符合硫化氢中毒后症状;事发后2h,现场空气硫化氢浓度为0.87mg/m3,现场含酸污水与原料硫化钠模拟试验可以检测到反应产物硫化氢气体。结论中毒主要原因是硫氢化钠被外环境酸性污水浸泡,分解后释放出硫化氢,加上作业工人防护不到位,导致吸入高浓度硫化氢中毒。%  Objective: To introduce an Accident Caused by Hydrogen Sulfide.   Methods: In some factory happened a poisoning accident,which resulted in death and casualty,the folowing measures such as Medical treatment, field investigation, laboratory detection were carried out immediately.   Results: Three victims were diagnosed as hydrogen sulfide poisoning; 2 hours after the accident, the concentration of hydrogen sulfide in spot was 0.87mg/m3, and hydrogen sulfide was detected positive in Simulation test.   Conclusion: The acute poisoning accident was caused by Hydrogen sulfide, which was released when sodium hydrosulfide mixed with hydrochloric acid. When the victims were lack of enough safeguard, high concentrations of Hydrogen sulfide were inhaled and resulted poisoning.

  1. Treating Experience of Acute Arsenic Poisoning:Report of 11 Cases%急性砷中毒11例救治体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈银宗; 余贻汉; 郭玉飞; 汪毅; 凌瑞杰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of acute arsenic poisoning and to improve the level of treatment. Methods Clinical data of 11 cases in our hospital with acute arsenic poisoning through digestive tract route were analyzed. Results Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea were commonly found as the first symptoms. Multiple system symptoms and impairment were also common. Arsenic concentrations in the urine were increased in all cases. Abnormality of blood routine, liver function and renal function, hypokalemia, and metabolic acidosis with complicated respiratory alkalosis were also common among these patients. All cases recovered after intensive treatment. Conclusion The success rate of therapy depends on cooperative, timely and effective treatment.%目的 分析急性砷中毒临床特点,提高其救治水平.方法 对本院收治的11例通过消化道途径急性砷中毒患者的临床资料进行分析.结果 急性砷中毒消化道症状是首发表现,可出现多系统症状,尿砷均增高,血常规、肝肾功能异常、低钾血症、代谢性酸中毒并呼吸性碱中毒常见,经过积极救治均治愈出院.结论 多学科协作、及时有效的治疗,能提高其治疗成功率.

  2. Combined application of dexamethasone and hyperbaric oxygen therapy yields better efficacy for patients with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Wenping; Xue, Hui; Wang, Baojun; Li, Yuechun; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Changchun; Liang, Furu; Pang, Jiangxia; Yu, Lehua

    2017-01-01

    Background Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning (DEACMP) commonly occurs after recovering from acute CO poisoning. This study was performed to assess the efficacy of the combined application of dexamethasone and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy in patients with DEACMP. Patients and methods A total of 120 patients with DEACMP were recruited and randomly assigned into the experimental group (receiving dexamethasone 5 mg/day or 10 mg/day plus HBO therapy) and control group (HBO therapy as monotherapy). Meanwhile, the conventional treatments were provided for all the patients. We used the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scale to assess the cognitive function, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) to assess the neurological function and the remission rate (RR) to assess the clinical efficacy. Myelin basic protein (MBP) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was also measured. Results After 4 weeks of treatment, compared to the control group, the experimental group had a significantly higher remission rate (P=0.032), a significantly higher average MMSE score (P=0.037) and a significantly lower average NIHSS score (P=0.002). Meanwhile, there was a trend toward better improvement with dexamethasone 10 mg/day, and the level of MBP in the CSF of patients was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group (P<0.0001). The addition of dexamethasone did not significantly increase the incidence of adverse events. Conclusion These results indicate that the combined application of dexamethasone and HBO therapy could yield better efficacy for patients with DEACMP and should be viewed as a potential new therapy. PMID:28260864

  3. Analysis of the risk factors for pesticide poisoning among children in countryside of Guigang%贵港市农村儿童杀虫剂中毒危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海; 杨莉; 冯启明; 李春灵

    2011-01-01

    目的 探索贵港市农村儿童杀虫剂中毒的危险因素.方法 采用1:4个体匹配病例对照研究,对贵港市农村2009年1-12月因杀虫剂中毒而急诊或住院的78例中毒儿童和312名对照儿童的家长或监护人进行问卷调查,调查表内容包括:一般情况以及家庭结构、监护情况、父母学历、家庭年均总收入、家庭和学校健康教育、儿童危险行为等21个可能与杀虫剂中毒相关的因素.对调查结果采用条件logistic回归模型进行统计分析.结果 贵港市农村儿童杀虫剂中毒的危险因素有3项,分别为随意放置工作服和喷洒器具( OR=3.529,95%CI:1.408 ~8.848)、儿童经常外出玩耍( OR=2.846,95% CI:1.513 ~5.352)、祖辈为监护人(OR=2.187,95%CI:1.187 ~4.029);保护因素有5项,分别为监护频率高(OR=0.408,95% CI:0.205 ~0.811)、知晓中毒预防知识(OR=0.412,95% CI:0.224~0.758)、及时清洗工作服(OR=0.435,95% CI:0.212 ~0.893)、学校设置健康教育课程(OR=0.448,95% CI:0.232 ~0.867)、经常教育儿童不接触毒物(OR=0.462,95% CI:0.227~0.939).结论 农村儿童杀虫剂中毒的发生与儿童自身危险行为、家庭因素、环境因素、健康教育等因素均有关.%Objective This study was to investigate the risk factors for pesticide poisoning among rural children in Guigang.Methods A 1:4 matched case-control study was conducted.A total of 78 rural children who were hospitalized or visited the out-patient clinic due to pesticide poisoning in Guigang from January to December in 2009 were recruited as cases,and 312 matched controls were recruited during the same time.The children's parents or guardians were surveyed with a questionnaire.The questionnaire including general information and 21 possible risk factors concerned in family structure,guardian status,educational level of parents,average annual family income,family and school health education and dangerous behavior in children

  4. Poison Ivy Rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Poison ivy rash By Mayo Clinic Staff Poison ivy rash is caused by an allergic reaction to an oily resin ... is in the leaves, stems and roots of poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac. Wash your ...

  5. 急性有机磷中毒洗胃的护理体会%The experience of nursing for gastric lavage for acute organophosphate poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学君

    2012-01-01

      目的探讨并分析对急性有机磷中毒患者进行洗胃的方法及临床效果。方法对于2005年9月至2010年12月间在我院就诊的30例急性有机磷中毒患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析。通过随机的方式将30例患者分为试验组和对照组两组,其中试验组患者15例,对照组患者15例。对试验组的患者通过对胃管进行留置进而反复进行洗胃的方法进行洗胃护理,对照组的患者则接受传统方法进行洗胃护理。比较两组护理临床效果。结果试验组患者的护理总有效率高于对照组,且不良反应少于对照组。结论对急性有机磷中毒患者通过留置反复洗胃的方法可以起到良好的临床效果,值得在临床是进一步的研究和应用。%  Objective: To discuss the different methods and clinical effect of nursing for gastric lavage for acute organophosphate poisoning. Methods: Choosed 60 cases of acute organophosphate poisoning from Sep. 2005 to Dec. 2010 to analyze retrospectly. Divided these 30 patients into study group and controled group for 15 in each other. The study group were treated with gastric tuber detaining for repeating gastric lavage, while controled group were treated with routine methods. Compared the clinical effect of these two groups. Results:The total rate of nursing of study group was higher than controled group with less adverse effect. Conclusion: The clinical effect of using repeating organophosphate poisoning is good to extend in clinical.

  6. 中毒患者急诊临床表现及死亡的相关因素分析%Clinical manifestations of acute intoxication in emergency department and analysis on related factors of poisoned death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边雪梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide basis for emergency treatment on patients with poisoning and reduce the mortality by un-derstanding the clinical manifestation of the poisoning patients in emergency department.Methods 204 emergency patients with poisoning in our hospital from June 2012 to June 2014 were studied.Results The emergency patients with poisoning were mainly young adults.The poisoning occurrence rate in rural areas was significantly higher than that in urban areas( P<0.05) . The highest incidence of poisoning occurred in the occupation engaged in agricultural labor(37.8%).The main reason for the accidents of poisoning was incidents(73.0%).Chemical poison was the main toxic substance causing poisoning (55.9%). Poisoning events almost exclusively happened at home(76.0%),and influenced by seasons.Age,pesticides and drugs were the main influencing factors that caused deaths of poisoning patients.Conclusion Analysis of clinical manifestations of poisoning patients in emergency department and studying related factors of poisoned death may contribute to coping with emergency inci-dence of poisoning and to improving the survival rate.%目的:了解中毒患者急诊临床表现,为中毒患者急诊治疗、降低死亡率提供依据。方法将我院2012年6月-2014年6月204例急诊中毒患者作为研究对象,对其临床资料进行分析。结果急诊中毒患者主要发生于青壮年,且农村人群中毒发生率显著高于城市人群(P<0.05),从事农业劳动为中毒发生率最高的职业(37.8%)。意外事故为发生急诊中毒事件的主要原因(73.0%),化学品中毒是引起中毒的主要毒性物质(55.9%),且中毒事件多发生于家中(76.0%),并具有一定的季节性。年龄、农药以及毒品是导致中毒患者急诊治疗死亡的主要影响因素。结论通过对中毒患者急诊临床表现及死亡的相关因素分析研究,有助于更有效的应对中毒患者

  7. 百草枯中毒的治疗进展%Treatment Progress in Acute Paraquat Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桂喜

    2013-01-01

    Paraquat is a highly toxic herbicide,which has strong toxicity to humans and animalsThe herbicide effect of paraquat was found at the end of 1950s. Since its introduction in the market in 1962, there were many people died of paraquat poisoning every year. Paraquat has very strong toxicity on various organs of the body with different clinical manifestations, and ultimately the patients died of organ dysfunction syndrome ( multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, MODS ), and hypoxemia caused by pulmonary fibrosis. The domestic and foreign scholars have not discovered the effective drugs for paraquat poisoning, and here is to make a review of the research on the treatment progress of paraquat poisoning in recent years.%百草枯属剧毒除草剂,对人畜有较强的毒性.20世纪50年代末,百草枯的除草作用被发现,1962年首次在市场上销售,每年均有很多人死于百草枯中毒.百草枯对全身各个器官均有极强的毒性,病程进展快,病死率很高,临床表现各异,最终患者多因器官功能障碍综合征以及肺纤维化所致的低氧血症死亡.国内外学者至今仍未发现百草枯的特效解毒药物,该文就近年来百草枯中毒治疗的进展予以综述.

  8. Malathion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) ... to kill and control insects on crops and in gardens. The government also uses it to kill mosquitoes in large ...

  9. Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Diagnosing Neurological Complications in Intermediate Syndrome of Organophosphate Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikanth, Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Organophosphate poisoning (OP) is a very common mode of suicide in rural and urban areas due to the wide availability of pesticides. The identification of OP and timely referral for appropriate supportive care can be lifesaving. Injury to the central nervous system is a serious entity in acute OP. Application of modern imaging techniques like diffusion weighted imaging increases the diagnostic rate of brain injury in the early period and can provide evidence for medical treatment. We present the imaging features in the intermediate syndrome of OP. PMID:28250609

  10. Role of magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosing neurological complications in intermediate syndrome of organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Ravikanth

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate poisoning (OP is a very common mode of suicide in rural and urban areas due to the wide availability of pesticides. The identification of OP and timely referral for appropriate supportive care can be lifesaving. Injury to the central nervous system is a serious entity in acute OP. Application of modern imaging techniques like diffusion weighted imaging increases the diagnostic rate of brain injury in the early period and can provide evidence for medical treatment. We present the imaging features in the intermediate syndrome of OP.

  11. Intoxicações provocadas por agrotóxicos de uso agrícola na microrregião de Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, no período de 1992 a 2002 Pesticide poisoning in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, 1992/2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Xavier Pires

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available As notificações de intoxicações e tentativas de suicídio provocadas por agrotóxicos na microrregião de Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, entre 1992 e 2002, foram avaliadas baseando-se nos registros do Centro Integrado de Vigilância Toxicológica da Secretaria de Saúde do estado. Foram notificadas 475 ocorrências no período, sendo 261 intoxicações (acidental ou ocupacional, 203 tentativas de suicídio e 11 eventos de causa indeterminada. O Município de Dourados apresentou a maior prevalência de intoxicações, por 100 mil habitantes, considerando a população rural, e Fátima do Sul a segunda maior prevalência de suicídios na microrregião. Correlações significativas foram encontradas entre intoxicação e tentativa de suicídio (r = 0,60; p Reports of poisoning and suicide attempts involving pesticides in the micro region of Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, from 1992 to 2002, were evaluated, using data from the Integrated Center for Toxicological Surveillance under the State Health Department. A total of 475 reports were made during the period, of which 261 were accidental or occupational poisonings, 203 suicide attempts, and 11 undetermined. Dourados county had the highest prevalence of pesticide poisoning and suicide attempts per 100,000 inhabitants, considering the rural population, and Fátima do Sul the second highest prevalence of suicides within the micro region. Significant correlations were found between poisoning and suicide (r = 0.60; p < 0.05 and between poisoning and temporary crop area as a percentage of the county's total area (r = 0.68; p < 0.05. Poisoning occurred predominantly in men (87.0%, but the percentage of suicide attempts by men and women were similar (53 and 47.0%, respectively. Poisonings occurred mostly from October to March and the organophosphate insecticides monocrotophos and methamidophos were the main pesticides involved.

  12. CLINICAL PROFILE OF CHILDHOOD POISONING IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Accidents including poisoning are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children in the west. Poisoning, while never accounting for a large number of accidental deaths, have acquired prominence now because they have not decreased at the same rate as the infectious diseases. METHODS An observational study was done in Department of Paediatrics KIMS Bangalore to know the incidence and pattern of childhood poisoning, to know the morbidity and mortality resulting from childhood poisoning. 86 children aged between 0-18 years were admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit with history of poisoning during the 2-year period of the study (Nov 13-Nov 15 were included. Diagnosis of poisoning was made on the basis of history and examination findings, Relevant investigations were done and Profile of patients with poisoning, their symptoms, type of poisoning and outcome were analysed. RESULTS The average duration of stay in the hospital was 2.7 days. Poisoning was accidental in 80 (93% patients whereas suicidal intent was present in only 6 (7% patients. Total 5 (5.8% patients died of which 4 were due to insecticide and pesticide poisoning and one was due to kerosene poisoning. CONCLUSION In the present study the probable reason for higher incidence of poisoning by insecticides & pesticides could be the involvement of higher age group and more involvement of adolescent children.

  13. Neurotoxicity of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifer, Matthew C; Firestone, Jordan

    2007-01-01

    Several pesticides such as organophosphates, carbamates and the organochlorine pesticides directly target nervous tissue as their mechanism of toxicity. In several others, such as the fumigants, the nervous system is affected by toxicological mechanisms that diffusely affect most or all tissues in the body. Both the central and peripheral nervous system are involved in the acute toxidromes of many pesticides resulting in acute short-term effects. There is strong human epidemiological evidence for persistent nervous system damage following acute intoxication with several important pesticide groups such as organophosphates and certain fumigants. However, whether persistent nervous system damage follows chronic low-level exposure to pesticides in adults (particularly organophosphpates), and whether in utero and/or early childhood exposure leads to persistent nervous system damage, is a subject of study at present. Parkinson's Disease, one of the most common chronic central nervous system diseases, has been linked to pesticide exposure in some studies, but other studies have failed to find an association. Several new pesticidal chemicals such as the neo-nicotinoids and fipronil have central nervous system effects, but only case reports are available to date on acute human intoxications with several of these. Little data are yet available on whether long-term effects result from these chemicals. Several ongoing or recently completed studies should add valuable insight into the effects of pesticides on the human nervous system particularly the effect of low-dose, chronic exposure both in adults and children.

  14. 2005-2009年广西地区群发与散发急性中毒人口学特征%Demographic Characteristics of Epidemic and Sporadic Acute Poisonings in Guangxi, 2005-2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋东方; 刘清华; 陈雪冬

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨广西地区群发与散发急性中毒人群特点,为制定针对性的地区防控对策提供依据. [方法]收集广西11个市的36家市级医院、12家县级医院及15家乡镇卫生院在2005-2009年间收治的急性中毒病例,其中群发组641例、散发组5369例,作分类比较分析. [结果]群发组人群,女性、年龄<25岁、小学学历、职业为学生、城镇者构成比最高,分别为56.79%、62.40%、32.63%、34.32%、59.47%.散发组人群,女性、年龄26~岁、中学学历、职业为务农、农村者构成比最高,分别占52.71%、56.79%、45.43%、50.78%、64.37%.两组调查对象性别、年龄、学历、职业及地区构成均不同(P均< 0.05). [结论]广西的群发性与散发性急性中毒在人群构成方面具有明显区别,群发性急性中毒以城镇的低龄在校学生为主,而散发性急性中毒则以农村26~岁的务农者为主.应在此基础上作进一步的中毒过程、中毒环境、中毒原因与毒物的比较研究.%[ Objective ] To study the demographic characteristics of epidemic and sporadic acute poisonings in Guangxi areas, and to provide basis for preventive and control countermeasures in these areas. [ Methods ] Data on patients involved with epidemic (n=641) and sporadic (n=5 369) acute poisonings during 2005-2009 were retrieved from 36 municipal hospitals, 12 county level hospitals, and 15 township health centers across 11 cities of Guangxi for comparative analysis. [ Results ] In the epidemic acute poisoning events, the proportion of female (56.79%), 26 years old (56.79%), middle school education level (45.43%), farmers (50.78%), and rural residents (64.37%) were higher than the other corresponding categories. There were significant differences in gender, age group, education level, occupation, and residential location between the epidemic and the sporadic acute poisoning cases (P<0.05). [ Conclusion ] The differences in demographic

  15. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Praveen Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  16. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    A S Praveen Kumar; Deepak Amalnath; T K Dutta

    2011-01-01

    Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  17. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A S Praveen; Amalnath, Deepak; Dutta, T K

    2011-10-01

    Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  18. Effect of acute pesticide exposure on bee spatial working memory using an analogue of the radial-arm maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Elizabeth E. W.; Chen-Wishart, Zachary P.; Gill, Richard J.; Leadbeater, Ellouise

    2016-12-01

    Pesticides, including neonicotinoids, typically target pest insects by being neurotoxic. Inadvertent exposure to foraging insect pollinators is usually sub-lethal, but may affect cognition. One cognitive trait, spatial working memory, may be important in avoiding previously-visited flowers and other spatial tasks such as navigation. To test this, we investigated the effect of acute thiamethoxam exposure on spatial working memory in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris, using an adaptation of the radial-arm maze (RAM). We first demonstrated that bumblebees use spatial working memory to solve the RAM by showing that untreated bees performed significantly better than would be expected if choices were random or governed by stereotyped visitation rules. We then exposed bees to either a high sub-lethal positive control thiamethoxam dose (2.5 ng‑1 bee), or one of two low doses (0.377 or 0.091 ng‑1) based on estimated field-realistic exposure. The high dose caused bees to make more and earlier spatial memory errors and take longer to complete the task than unexposed bees. For the low doses, the negative effects were smaller but statistically significant, and dependent on bee size. The spatial working memory impairment shown here has the potential to harm bees exposed to thiamethoxam, through possible impacts on foraging efficiency or homing.

  19. Preventive counterplan for chemical poisonings and the role of toxicology; Kagaku busshitsu chudoku jiko taisaku to dokubutsugaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, T. [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    1996-02-10

    Some cases of poisoning by chemical substances are taken up, and counterplans are discussed. This report centers about the neurotoxic gas sarin incidents dealing with them as examples of acute poisoning caused by chemical substances. The important difference in terms of chemical structure between a neurotoxic gas and organo-phosphoric pesticide is that in the former phosphorus is directly bonded with carbon or halogen while, in the latter, bondage is represented by P-O-C, P-S-C, and the like, so bonded as to form the phosphoric acid, thiophosphoric acid, or dithiophosphoric acid. The result of the difference in chemical structure is that the neurotoxic gas easily gains access to the target enzyme and remains stable after bonding therewith while the organo-phosphoric pesticide is easily hydrolyzed by enzymes other than the target enzyme. Poisoning by neurotoxic gas or organo-phosphoric pesticide is clinically treated by the administration of atropine and 2-pyridine aldoxime methiodide which is an antidote. It is mandatory to let people clearly know beforehand the methods of analysis of chemical substances and their toxicity and to establish beforehand how to first-aid the victims and what emergency treatment can be executed. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. 宁夏地区2006-2010年急性职业中毒事故分析%Investigation on Acute Occupational Poisoning Incidents in Ningxia during 2006-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸿成; 王冠梅; 姬绪莉; 谢峰; 杨文海; 孙伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of acute occupational poisoning in Ningxia, and to provide evidence for effective prevention and control. Methods Informaiton of 2006 -2010 acute occupational poisoning statements in Ningxia was collected and analyzed. Results 8 acute occupational poisoning incidents and 43 patients( including 6 deaths) were found; the main causes of acute occupational poisoning were hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide, including 33 cases hydrogen sulfide poisoning and 4 deaths cases. The incidents occurred in the metallurgical and chemical industry were 4 and 2, respectively. Exposure time of 79. 1% cases was within 5 years. Conclusion Occupational poisoning accidents happened frequently in Ningxia recently. Effective measures against occupational poisoning should be taken in metallurgy, chemical industry and coal industry.%目的 掌握宁夏地区急性职业中毒发生规律和特点,为制定有效的防范措施提供依据.方法 收集宁夏地区2006-2010年急性职业中毒报表进行汇总分析.结果 此间宁夏共发生急性职业中毒事件8起,中毒患者43人,累计死亡6人;引起急性职业中毒主要以硫化氢、一氧化碳为主,其中一氧化碳中毒事件起数最多(4起),而硫化氢中毒例数(33例)和死亡例数(4例)最多;发生在冶金和化工行业系统的事故分别为4起和2起,中毒患者分别为32例(占74.5%)和6例(占13.9%);大部分中毒人员接触工龄都在5年以内,占到总中毒人数的79.1%.结论 宁夏地区近几年急性职业中毒事故频发,应着重抓好冶金、化工、煤炭行业重点毒物,尤其是硫化氢和一氧化碳的职业卫生监督,加强企业职工的职业卫生防护.

  1. Pre-hospital emergency and nursing measures of acute carbon monoxide poisoning%急性一氧化碳中毒的院前急救及护理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎秀英

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the pre-hospital emergency and nursing measures of acute carbon monoxide poisoning.Methods:57 patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning were given pre-hospital emergency and nursing measures,treatment and nursing measures at the poisoning scene,treatment and nursing measures in the transport process,treatment after admission. Results:In addition to 4 patients were died before the medical personnel arrived at the poisoning scene,other patients were significantly improved and discharged after the treatment,did not appear serious sequelae.Conclusion:Timely taking effective pre-hospital emergency and nursing measures can significantly reduce the disability and mortality of patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning.%目的:探讨急性一氧化碳(CO)中毒的院前急救及护理对策。方法:对57例急性CO中毒患者采取院外急救及护理措施,中毒现场救治及护理措施,转运过程中救治及护理措施,入院后的治疗。结果:除4例患者在医务人员到达中毒现场前已死亡外,其余患者经治疗,均明显好转出院,未出现严重后遗症。结论:及时采取有效的院前急救及护理对策可明显降低急性CO中毒患者的伤残及死亡率。

  2. Effect of acute lead poisoning on pathological damage in mice testis%急性铅中毒对小鼠睾丸病理损伤研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙相和; 孔令芸; 李冲; 陈玲丽; 宁红梅; 葛亚明

    2014-01-01

    为了研究急性铅中毒对小鼠睾丸病理变化的影响,通过对小鼠饲喂含有醋酸铅的去离子水建立铅负荷小鼠模型.处理10 d后取材,分析体质量、睾丸指数和睾丸病理剖检变化.结果显示:与对照组相比,铅中毒组小鼠体质量无明显变化,睾丸指数降低,且差异显著(P<0.05);小鼠睾丸中支持细胞、生精细胞和间质细胞数量减少.铅对小鼠睾丸具有显著损害作用,从而影响小鼠的生殖健康.%To investigate the effect of acute lead poisoning on pathological changes in mice testis,mice were orally administered with lead acetate for 10 days to establish a lead poisoning mice model.After 10 days,some indexes,such as body weight,testis index,necropsy and histopathology,were analyzed.The results showed that the body weight change of mice was not relevant significantly to the dosage of lead acetate.Compared with the control group,the difference of testis relative index in dosage group was significant (P<0.05).The amount of sertoli cells,germ cells and Leydig’s cells in mice tesis was decreased.The results suggested that lead could damage mice testis significantly and then affect the reproductive health of mice.

  3. Present situation of treatment of occupational acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning%职业性急性硫化氢中毒救治现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁启荣

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is a main occupational hazard factor that threatens life and health of workers in China.The acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning has high incidence rate,develops rapidly,and its treatment is difficult,which the fatality rate is very high.The on-site treatment measures and comprehensive therapy is very important on rehabilitation of hydrogen sulfide poisoning.The comprehensive therapy,including the cardio-pulmonary resuscitation,application of special antidote (DMAP),early administration of large dose of glucocorticoid,ultrasonic atomizing inhalation,application of hyoscyamine drugs and naloxone,hyperbaric oxygen therapy,maintaining the important organs'function,redressing acid-base imbalances and electrolyte disorfer,is the effective treatment measure for improving the rescue success rate,reducing mortality and sequela.%硫化氢是我国威胁劳动者生命及健康的重要职业病危害因素,急性硫化氢中毒发病率高,病情发展迅猛,救治比较困难,病死率极高.现场救治措施及综合治疗对硫化氢中毒的康复至关重要.心肺复苏、特效解毒药物DMAP的使用,早期大剂量糖皮质激素的使用、超声雾化吸入、莨菪碱类药物、纳洛酮的使用、高压氧治疗、维持重要脏器功能、纠正酸碱失衡及电解质紊乱等综合治疗,是提高抢救成功率、降低死亡率、减少后遗症发生的有效治疗措施.

  4. Use of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in an acute-on-chronic lithium poisoned patient:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chakroun-Walha Olfa; Ksibi Hichem; Rejeb Imen; Boujelben Mariem; Chaari Adel; Chtara Kamilia; Bouaziz Mounir; Rekik Noureddine

    2016-01-01

    A 35-year-old woman with an acute-on-chronic lithium overdose received multiple oral doses of sodium polystyrene sulfonate totaling 120 g over a 24-h period. During the 72 h after the institution of therapy, the serum lithium level decreased from 3.80 to 0.42 mEq/L. Multiple doses of sodium polystyrene sulfonate may be useful in lowering the serum lithium level in severely ill patients with acute renal failure, and can substitute hemodialysis.

  5. Zinc poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hill; 2006. Hall AH, Shannon MW. Other heavy metals. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ,eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA. Elsevier ...

  6. Shellac poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in shellac that can be harmful are: Ethanol Isopropanol Methanol Methyl isobutyl ketone ... Isopropanol and methanol are extremely poisonous. As little as 2 tablespoons (14.8 mL) of methanol can ...

  7. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, D.G.

    1974-01-01

    The use of arsenic in ant poisons, herbicides, and insecticides affords the necessary contact with the poison by pets. The gastrointestinal tract appears to suffer the greatest though there may also be injury to the liver and kidneys. The treatments discussed were in relation to very early poisoning in which the owner had observed ingestion of the arsenic, and when the signs of the poisoning were evident. Early observation treatment included emptying the stomach before the arsenic passed in quantity into the intestine. If the signs of toxicity were already advanced, then the treatment consisted of the intramuscular administration of dimercaprol (BAL) at a dosage of 3 mg/lb of body weight three times a day until recovery. l reference.

  8. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, D.G.

    1971-01-01

    The use of arsenic in ant poisons, herbicides, and insecticides affords the necessary contact with the poison by pets. Treatment was discussed in relation to two circumstances: very early poisoning in which the owner has observed ingestion of the arsenic, and when the signs of the poisoning are evident. Treatment for early ingestion involves emptying the stomach before the arsenic can pass in quantity into the intestine. This is followed with a 1% solution of sodium bicarbonate, with the administering of 3 to 6 mg of apomorphine. When signs of arsenic toxicity are already advanced, there is little advantage to be gained by either gastric lavage or administration of an emetic. The treatment then consists of the intramuscular administration of dimercaprol (BAL) at a dosage of 3 mg/lb of body weight three times a day until recovery. This is the specific antidote for arsenic. 1 reference.

  9. Paraffin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax poisoning - paraffin ... Paraffin ... Eating a lot of paraffin can lead to intestinal obstruction, which can cause abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and possible constipation. If the paraffin contains a ...

  10. Food poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and toxins may cause food poisoning, including: Campylobacter enteritis Cholera E. coli enteritis Toxins in spoiled or tainted fish or shellfish ... Read More Botulism Campylobacter infection Cholera E. coli enteritis Fish tapeworm infection Pericarditis Salmonella enterocolitis Shigellosis Patient ...

  11. Menthol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menthol is used to add peppermint flavor to candy and other products. It is also used in certain skin lotions and ointments. This article discusses menthol poisoning from swallowing pure menthol. This article is ...

  12. Naphthalene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... 147. Levine MD, Zane R. Chemical injuries. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  13. Ammonia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... 147. Levine MD, Zane R. Chemical injuries. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  14. Case report: an unusual heart rhythm associated with organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Enes Elvin; Can, Ilknur; Kusumoto, Fred M

    2012-09-01

    Organophosphate pesticides have emerged as a common cause of poisoning, particularly in developing countries. The most common electrocardiographic abnormalities observed in organophosphate poisoning are sinus tachycardia, QT interval prolongation, and, very rarely, ventricular arrhythmias. We report a case of organophosphate poisoning associated with atrial fibrillation, right bundle branch block, QT interval prolongation, and intermittent narrow QRS complexes that were most likely due to automaticity from the region of the left posterior fascicle.

  15. The Acute Oral Toxicity of 300 Formulated Pesticides to Apis mellifera%300个农药制剂对蜜蜂的急性经口毒性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵帅; 袁善奎; 才冰; 姜辉; 王晓军; 林荣华; 瞿唯钢; 张招荣

    2011-01-01

    [Aims] Honey bee is one of the most important insects for plant pollination, but the honey bees are underlying the phenomenon of colony collapse disorder (CCD), one of the factors causing this problem is the much use of pesticides in agricultural production. Totally 300 pesticides were tested for their acute omi toxicity to honey bee (Apis mellifera) by dietary method in the paper, the objective of this study is to understand the status of toxicity of common used pesticides.[Restults] The results indicated that the pesticides with very high toxicity, high toxicity, moderate toxicity and low toxicity pesticides accounted for 14.7, 35.6, 10.7, 39% respectively, the high toxic and very high toxic pesticide covered more than 50%, and these pesticides were mainly the insecticides, while the fungicides and herbicides with relative low toxicity.The toxicity of different pesticide formulations with the same active ingredients (AI) to zebra fish maybe varied for the difference in AI content, formulation type and processing technique. Regarding to the biological pesticides, some of them still have high toxicity to honeybee. [Conclusions] These results suggested that the pesticides with high toxicity to honey bee covered a large proportion of common used pesticides in China, therefore, some precautions should be involved as we used the pesticides, particularly for insecticides to reduce or avoid the side effects on honey bee.%[目的]蜜蜂是一种重要的传粉昆虫,近年来世界各地出现了严重的种群衰退现象,原因之一是农业生产过程中使用了大量农药.采用摄入法测定f300个农药制剂对蜜蜂的急性经口毒性,旨在了解我国常用农药对蜜蜂的毒风险情况.[结果]结果表明:对蜜蜂的急性经口毒性表现剧毒、高毒、中毒、低毒的农药制剂分别占14.7%、35.6%、10.7%、39%,高毒和剧毒农药产品达50%以上,但这些制剂主要为杀虫剂,占整个杀虫剂的74.1%,杀菌剂和除草剂

  16. 低场强MRI对急性CO中毒脑损伤的诊断价值%Diagnostic value of low-field MRI for acute poisoning brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党连荣; 何勤义

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of low-field MIR in diagnosis of acute CO poisoning brain injury.Methods The brain MIR and clinical data of 110 patients with acute CO poisoning brain injury confirmed by clinical examination were retrospectively analyzed.Results Long T1 and T2 signal intensity was showed on MRI in cerebral hemispheres and globus pallidus symmetrically.There were three basic types of MIR manifestations,white matter of brain type,globus pallidus type and brain mixed type.Conclusions MRI could be used for confirming the degree and range of acute CO poisoning brain injury.It has important clinical value in the diagnosis,staging and prognosis of patients with acute CO poisoning brain injury.%目的 探讨低场强MRI在急性CO中毒脑损伤诊断中的价值.方法 回顾性分析29例经临床确诊的急性CO中毒脑损伤患者的颅脑MRI和临床资料.结果 CO中毒脑损伤的MRI表现主要为双侧大脑半球白质及苍白球出现长T1、长T2信号灶,两侧对称.MRI表现可分3型,即脑白质型、苍白球型及脑混合型.结论 MRI检查可确定急性CO中毒脑损伤的程度及范围,对急性CO中毒脑损伤的治疗和判断预后有重要的临床指导价值.

  17. Use of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in an acute-on-chronic lithium poisoned patient: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakroun-Walha Olfa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old woman with an acute-on-chronic lithium overdose received multiple oral doses of sodium polystyrene sulfonate totaling 120 g over a 24-h period. During the 72 h after the institution of therapy, the serum lithium level decreased from 3.80 to 0.42 mEq/L. Multiple doses of sodium polystyrene sulfonate may be useful in lowering the serum lithium level in severely ill patients with acute renal failure, and can substitute hemodialysis.

  18. Further assessment of an in vitro screen that may help identify organophosphorus pesticides that are more acutely toxic to the young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, S; Sung, H-J; Moser, V C

    2004-09-24

    Some, but not all, organophosphorus pesticides are more acutely toxic to the young as compared to adults. We have developed an in vitro assay that measures the detoxification potential (via carboxylesterase and A-esterases) of tissues. Previous results using this in vitro screen correlated with the marked in vivo sensitivity of the young to chlorpyrifos and also correlated with the equal sensitivity of the young and adult to methamidophos (Padilla et al., 2000). We have now extended these observations to two other pesticides that have already been shown in the literature to be more toxic to the young: parathion (paraoxon) and malathion (malaoxon). In our in vitro assay, liver or plasma from 7-d-old rats were much less efficacious than adult tissues at detoxification of the active metabolites of these two pesticides. Using our in vitro assay we also tested the active metabolite of diazinon, diazoxon, and again found that young liver or plasma possessed much less detoxification capability than adult tissues. From these results, we predicted that young animals would be more sensitive to diazinon, which, in fact, was the case: When postnatal day (PND) 17 or adult rats were given a dosage of 75 mg/kg diazinon, adult brain cholinesterase (ChE) was only inhibited 38%, while the brain ChE in the PND 17 animals showed much more inhibition (75%). We conclude that our in vitro screen may prove to be a useful, quick, convenient test for identifying which organophosphorus pesticides may be more acutely toxic to the young as compared to adults.

  19. 急性三氯丙烷中毒18例临床分析%The clinical ananlysis of 18 cases with acute trichloropropane poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鑫; 邱泽武; 沈伟; 彭晓波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To sunmmarise the clinical features of 18 cases with acute trichloropropane(TCP)poisoning for improving the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.Methods Exposure history,clinical manifestations,laboratorial examinations,poisoning causes and treament were retropectively reviewed in 18 cases with acute TCP poisoning.The results of peripheral lymphocyte micronucleus tests were compared with the healthy control group (n =33).Results The common clinical symptoms were as following:respiratory symptoms were the earlier oneset,such as chest tightness in 13,dry and sore throat in 7,cough and runny nose in 2.Gastrointestinal symptoms were more common,such as abdominal pain in 18,nausea and vomit in 14.Only 1 out of 18 patients was found with liver injury.The major manifestation was the increase in ALT and AST,which was returned to nomal after treatment.ALL of the 18 patients were found TCP in their serum which concentration was from 39.0 to 310.0 ng/ml,and the average was (68.9±42.1) ng/ml.The symptoms of toxic peripheral neuropathy were typical in all the patients,such as fatigue and numb limb in 18,burning pain of the distal lower limbs in 14,the symmetrical sock-like sensory dysfunction of pain,touch and vibration of the lower limbs in 13,muscle strength reduced in 7,hyporeflexia knee-jerks in 4,hyporeflexia ankle-jerks in 3.The peripheral nerve conduction velocity (NCV) examinations were as followed:the (sensore-nerve conduction velocity) SCV of peroneus super nerve in 18 and the (motor-nerve conduction velocity) MCV of tibial nerve in 8 was slowed down and the distal latency in 18 was prolonged.Micronucleus were found in all 18 cases,The micronucleus rate was 10.06‰±2.80‰ and 8.24‰±2.67‰ in acute TCP poisoning group and healthy control group,respectively.The difference was significant (P<0.05).Conclusion The common clinical manifestations of respiratory exposure of TCP poisoning patients were respiratory symptoms,gastrointestinal symptoms and

  20. Hyperbaric programs in the United States: Locations and capabilities of treating decompression sickness, arterial gas embolisms, and acute carbon monoxide poisoning: survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Walter; Jacoby, Laura; Simon, Olivia; Talati, Nisha; Wegrzyn, Gracelene; Jacoby, Rachelle; Proano, Jacob; Sprau, Susan E; Markovitz, Gerald; Hsu, Rita; Joo, Ellie

    2016-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the primary treatment for arterial gas embolism, decompression sickness and acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Though there has been a proliferation of hyperbaric centers throughout the United States, a scarcity of centers equipped to treat emergency indications makes transport of patients necessary. To locate and characterize hyperbaric chambers capable of treating emergency cases, a survey of centers throughout the entire United States was conducted. Using Google, Yahoo, HyperbaricLink and the UHMS directory, a database for United States chambers was created. Four researchers called clinicians from the database to administer the survey. All centers were contacted for response until four calls went unreturned or a center declined to be included. The survey assessed chamber readiness to respond to high-acuity patients, including staff availability, use of medical equipment such as ventilators and intravenous infusion devices, and responding yes to treating hyperbaric emergencies within a 12-month period. Only 43 (11.9%, N = 361) centers had equipment, intravenous infusion pumps and ventilators, and staff necessary to treat high-acuity patients. Considering that a primary purpose of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the treatment of arterial gas embolism and decompression sickness, more hyperbaric centers nationwide should be able to accommodate these emergency cases quickly and safely.

  1. 血液净化疗法在急性中毒中的应用%Application of blood purification therapy in acute poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴国

    2012-01-01

    Blood purification therapy is a medical technique that has developed rapidly in recent years and has been widely used in many branches of clinical field. It can not only well clean out internal metabolic wastes, but may also eliminate the xog-enous toxicants, that has gradually become one of the best therapy measures for acute poisoning. The paper will specially introduce the elimination effect on various toxicants by different blood purification modes, the correlated factor of purification effect, and also discuss the detailed aspect on the selection of blood purification modes.%血液净化技术是近年来发展较为迅速的一项医疗技术,其应用范围已涉及到临床多个学科.该技术不仅可以清除体内代谢废物,还可以清除外源性毒物,已逐渐成为临床抢救急性重度中毒的首选的治疗手段之一.本文重点介绍了不同的血液净化方式对各种毒物的清除效果、影响血液净化疗效的相关因素,并就急性中毒中如何选择合适的血液净化方式等进行了较细致讨论.

  2. Pesticide Safety for Farmworkers = Uso Seguro de Pesticidas para los Trabajadores del Campo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Bonnie; Fluker, Sam S.

    A booklet for farmworkers and employers uses illustrations and simple text in English and Spanish to inform about the dangers, precautions, and use of pesticides. Topics covered include methods of pesticide absorption; signs/symptoms of pesticide poisoning; first aid; residues; appropriate work clothes; safe and unsafe pesticide practices; how to…

  3. Poison ivy dermatitis. Nuances in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, P M; Sheretz, E F

    1994-02-01

    Acute allergic contact dermatitis due to poison ivy or poison oak is a common presenting complaint in the practices of many primary care physicians. While the clinical features are well described, reported treatment regimens vary in both topical and systemic therapies. We review herein the variability of presenting morphologic features of the disease and common treatment regimens, with attention given to complications of therapy. We also comment on the correct botanical designation, incidence, and immune mechanisms of the disease state and review measures to avoid allergic contact dermatitis due to poison ivy and poison oak.

  4. Carbofuran poisoning detected by mass spectrometry of butyrylcholinesterase adduct in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Ricordel, Ivan; Tong, Larry; Schopfer, Lawrence M; Baud, Frédéric; Mégarbane, Bruno; Maury, Eric; Masson, Patrick; Lockridge, Oksana

    2009-03-01

    Carbofuran is a pesticide whose acute toxicity is due to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in plasma is inhibited by carbofuran and serves as a biomarker of poisoning by carbofuran. The goal was to develop a method to positively identify poisoning by carbofuran. Sera from an attempted murder and an attempted suicide were analyzed for the presence of carbofuran adducts on BChE. The BChE from 1 ml of serum was rapidly purified on a 0.2 ml procainamide-Sepharose column. Speed was essential because the carbofuran-BChE adduct decarbamylates with a half-life of about 2 h. The partially purified BChE was boiled to denature the protein, thus stopping decarbamylation and making the protein vulnerable to digestion with trypsin. The labeled peptide was partially purified by HPLC before analysis by LC/MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode on the QTRAP 2000 mass spectrometer. Carbofuran was found to be covalently bound to Ser 198 of human BChE in serum samples from two poisoning cases. Multiple reaction monitoring triggered MS/MS spectra positively identified the carbofuran-BChE adduct. In conclusion a mass spectrometry method to identify carbofuran poisoning in humans has been developed. The method uses 1 ml of serum and detects low-level exposure associated with as little as 20% inhibition of plasma butyrylcholinesterase.

  5. Pharmaceutical care for the patient with acute organophosphorous insecticides poi-soning by clinical pharmacists%临床药师在急性有机磷中毒患者治疗中的药学监护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊佳; 陈万生

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨临床药师在急性有机磷中毒患者的药学监护点,为急性有机磷中毒患者用药提供参考. 方法 临床药师通过参与急性有机磷中毒患者治疗用药方案的制定,从药物的选择、给药剂量及不良反应预计等方面,提出药学观点. 结果 治疗后,患者逐步恢复正常,未出现进一步的阿托品中毒,肝损害症状得到有效控制. 结论 临床药师参与急性有机磷中毒患者的临床治疗过程,使患者获益,提高了临床治疗水平.%Objective To discuss the pharmaceutical care for a patient with acute organophosphorous insecti-cides poisoning by clinical pharmacists,to provide references for clinical medication. Methods Clinical pharmacists participated in the formulation of medication plan for a patient with acute organophosphorous insecticides poisoning,in respects of drug selection,drug dosage and adverse drug reaction monitoring. Results After treatment,the patient re-covered gradually,and no further atropine poisoning appeared,the hepatic injury was effectively controlled. Conclusion Clinical pharmacists can participate in the treatment of patients with acute organophosphorous insecticides poisoning with obvious benefit,and enhance the level of clinical therapy.

  6. New EPA Guidance for Testing Pesticides Will Reduce Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is issuing guidance for requesting waivers of acute dermal toxicity testing requirements for pesticide formulations, which will lead to fewer animal tests for acute dermal toxicity for pesticides.

  7. 急性氯氰菊酯中毒合并急性酒精中毒的临床探讨%Clinical study of acute cypermethrin poisoning afifliated with acute alcohol intoxication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿海龙; 梁璐; 麻月云

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of plasma concentration of alcohol on blood cypermethrin concentration and the prognosis of the patients when acute cypermethrin poisoning afifliated with acute alcohol intoxication. Methods 60 cypermethrin poisoning cases were divided into mixed cypermethrin group and cypermethrin group , blood samples were taken on admission from patients, the cypermethrin concentration were detected, blood alcohol concentration also detected in mixed group. Sex, age, cypermethrin concentration, mortality rate were analysised, meanwhile, speaman correlation were used to investigate whether associations between alcohol and cypermethrin. Results Compared with patients with no alcohol in their blood, patients with detectable alcohol were more likely to be male, the cypermethrin concentration and death rate were more higher than control group (P<0.05). There was a positive correlation between alcohol and cypermethrin levels. Conclusion Acute cypermethrin poisoning afifliated with acute alcohol intoxication is associated with higher blood concentrations of cypermethrin and increased risk of death.%目的:探讨急性氯氰菊酯中毒合并急性酒精中毒时,血浆酒精浓度及氯氰菊酯浓度相关性及此类患者的预后。方法对60例急性氯氰菊酯中毒患者,根据中毒前是否饮酒分为混合中毒组与单纯中毒组,所有患者行血浆氯氰菊酯浓度检测,对混合中毒组患者行血浆酒精浓度检测;对两组患者的一般资料(性别、年龄、氯氰菊酯浓度)及死亡率进行统计学处理,并对酒精浓度与氯氰菊酯浓度相关性进行分析。结果两组患者存在性别差异,混合中毒组男性明显高于女性(P<0.05);混合中毒组患者血液中氯氰菊酯含量、病死率明显升高(P<0.05);混合中毒组患者血浆酒精浓度与血液中氯氰菊酯浓度呈正相关,饮酒量越多,氯氰菊酯中毒程度越重。结论急性氯氰

  8. Arsenic poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLennan, M.W.; Dodson, M.E.

    1972-06-01

    A case of acute arsenic poisoning in cattle was reported. The losses occurred on a property in the south east of South Australia. The weather had been hot for two or three days before the death occurred. The tank supplying the water trough had almost run dry. The cattle then attempted to meet their water requirements by drinking from the sheep dipping vat. A sample of rumen contents and a sample of water from the dipping vat were checked for arsenic. The rumen sample contained 45 ppM As/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and the sample of dipping fluid contained 200 ppM As. The lesions observed were similar to earlier reported arsenic poisoning. 5 references.

  9. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  10. Extracorporeal Treatment for Salicylate Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juurlink, David N; Gosselin, Sophie; Kielstein, Jan T

    2015-01-01

    that salicylates are dialyzable by hemodialysis and hemoperfusion (level of evidence=B) and recommended extracorporeal treatment in patients with severe salicylate poisoning (1D), including any patient with altered mental status (1D), with acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring supplemental oxygen (1D...

  11. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Mahesh Chand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law.

  12. A single center, prospective study on the epidemiology of acute childhood poisoning%儿童急性中毒流行病学单中心前瞻性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹雪笛; 高恒妙; 廖琨; 王新伟; 王龙; 赵光远; 霍枫; 钱素云

    2015-01-01

    目的 分析儿童急性中毒的流行病学特征,探讨预防儿童急性中毒的方法.方法 应用儿童中毒病例信息收集表前瞻性收集2013年1月1日至12月31日就诊于北京儿童医院中毒患儿的流行病学资料,分析儿童急性中毒的年龄、原因、途径、种类和后果.结果 共收集中毒病例353例.<1岁28例(8.0%),~4岁255例(72.2%),~9岁35例(9.9%),≥9岁35例(9.9%).中毒发生在家庭305例(86.4%),家庭以外48例(13.6%).经消化道中毒348例(98.5%),吸入5例(1.5%).患儿自己误服281例(79.4%),家长喂错药或超量喂药48例(13.6%),医源性7例(2.1%),试图自杀12例(3.4%).药物中毒206例(58.4%),化学制剂55例(15.6%),鼠药26例(7.3%),农药45例(12.7%),有毒植物16例(4.5%).353例中,急诊留观治疗297例(84.1%),因病情危重住PICU 56例(15.9%),死亡4例(1.1%).结论 中毒好发年龄为1~4岁,主要原因为误服,毒物种类第一位是药物,导致死亡或严重中毒的种类包括精神类药物、农药、鼠药.预防工作重点为防止幼儿家中误服,主要措施有加强儿童监管、妥善保管家中药物及有毒物品、鼓励使用药品安全包装.%Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of acute childhood poisoning and to explore the methods of prevention.Methods The epidemiological information of each poisoning child presented to Emergency Department, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University from Jan 1 st to Dec 31st 2013 were collected with an information collection table.The children's age, causes of poisoning, poison types, ways of poisoning and the consequences of poisoning were analyzed.Results A total of 353 poisoning children presented to our emergency department in 2013.Twenty-eight patients (8.0%) were < 1 year-old.Two hundred and fifty-five patients(72.2%) were between 1 to < 4 year-old.Thirty-five patients (9.9%) were between 4 to <9 year

  13. 湘潭市1990-2009年急性职业中毒情况分析%Analysis on Acute Occupational Poisoning in Xiangtan During the Period of 19902009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高华北; 张花玲; 马金辉; 刘晓; 袁新铭; 黄曦

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨湘潭市1990-2009年期间49起急性职业中毒事故发生的原因,为防止事故再次发生提供科学依据.方法 采用回顾性流行病学调查方法,对事故进行时间分布、行业分布、毒物类别、发生原因等要素进行相关分析.结果 湘潭市急性职业中毒的年发病率为44.66/10万,急性职业中毒人年死亡率为6.59/10万;后10年中毒事故率明显减少(x2=24.25,P<0.01),但中毒危害程度严重,其发病率和中毒死亡率分别超过前10年的4.79倍和3.54倍P<0.01);化工行业急性职业中毒的年发病率高达310.47/10万,高于其他行业299.29倍(x2=1 230.35,P<0.01);毒物类别以砷化氢、一氧化碳、氯气、硫化氢中毒为主;事故主要原因为无安全防范意识和个人防护用品.结论 加强对重点行业、重点毒物的卫生监督管理和职工的防毒知识教育,可有效降低急性职业中毒发病率.%Objective To discuss the occurrence causes of 49 oases of acute occupational poisoning (AOP) happened in Xiangtan from 1990 to 2009, and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention of acute occupational poisoning.Methods With the retrospective epidemiological investigation method, the correlation among the incident- related factors, including time distribution, industry distribution, type of the poison, and causes, was analyzed.Results The annual incidence rate of AOP in Xiangtan was 44.66/100,000, and the person- year mortality rate of A0P was 6.59/100,000.The incidence rates of AOP during the last ten years were significantly declined (x2 =24.25, P<0.05), and the degree of poisoning was severe.As compared with the first 10 years, the incidence rates and poisoning mortality rates during the last ten years were increased by 4.79 times and 3.54 times (P<0.01).The annual incidence rate of AOP in the chemical industry was up to 310.47/100,000, which was higher than those of other industries by 299.29 times (x2 = 1, 230.35, P < 0.01).The

  14. Acute Poisonings from Synthetic Cannabinoids - 50 U.S. Toxicology Investigators Consortium Registry Sites, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riederer, Anne M; Campleman, Sharan L; Carlson, Robert G; Boyer, Edward W; Manini, Alex F; Wax, Paul M; Brent, Jeffrey A

    2016-07-15

    Recent reports suggest that acute intoxications by synthetic cannabinoids are increasing in the United States (1,2). Synthetic cannabinoids, which were research compounds in the 1980s, are now produced overseas; the first shipment recognized to contain synthetic cannabinoids was seized at a U.S. border in 2008 (3). Fifteen synthetic cannabinoids are Schedule I controlled substances (3), but enforcement is hampered by the continual introduction of new chemical compounds (1,3). Studies of synthetic cannabinoids indicate higher cannabinoid receptor binding affinities, effects two to 100 times more potent than Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (the principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis), noncannabinoid receptor binding, and genotoxicity (4,5). Acute synthetic cannabinoid exposure reportedly causes a range of mild to severe neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular, renal, and other effects (4,6,7); chronic use might lead to psychosis (6,8). During 2010-2015, physicians in the Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC) treated 456 patients for synthetic cannabinoid intoxications; 277 of the 456 patients reported synthetic cannabinoids as the sole toxicologic agent. Among these 277 patients, the most common clinical signs of intoxication were neurologic (agitation, central nervous system depression/coma, and delirium/toxic psychosis). Relative to all cases logged by 50 different sites in the ToxIC Case Registry, there was a statistically significant association between reporting year and the annual proportion of synthetic cannabinoid cases. In 2015, reported cases of synthetic cannabinoid intoxication increased at several ToxIC sites, corroborating reported upward trends in the numbers of such cases (1,2) and underscoring the need for prevention.

  15. 尿中百草枯半定量试验对急性百草枯中毒的预后评估%Prognosis value of urine paraquat semi-quantitative in the patients with acute paraquat poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘尊齐; 刘东兴; 张兴国; 王海石; 郝凤桐

    2014-01-01

    目的 研究尿中百草枯(paraquat,PQ)半定量试验对急性PQ中毒严重程度评估的意义.方法 依据尿中PQ半定量试验结果将179例PQ中毒病例分为+组(36例)、++组(23例)、+++组(25例)和++++组(95例),比较4组病例的临床特征、肝肾损害程度、呼吸衰竭和临床分型,用Kaplan-Meier法进行生存率分析.结果 179例PQ中毒患者死亡81例,病死率为45.25%.+组病例无严重并发症,++++组病例急性呼吸、肝肾衰竭发生率明显高于+组、++组和+++组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).尿中PQ浓度与急性PQ中毒临床严重程度分级呈正相关,相关系数为0.720(P<0.01).Kaplan-Meier生存分析显示,++++组病死率(73.7%)明显高于+++组(40.0%)、++组(4.3%)和+组(0%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 尿PQ半定量试验可较好判断急性PQ中毒的严重程度,可对急性PQ中毒患者指导治疗,预测预后.%Objective To investigate the relationship between semi-quantification of urine paraquat and the severity of acute paraquat poisoning,and to evaluate the prognostic value of the test in patients with acute paraquat poisoning.Methods A total of 179 patients with acute paraquat poisoning were categorized into four groups according to their semi-quantification results of urine paraquat:+group (n=36),++group (n=23),+++ group (n=25),and ++++group (n=95).The clinical features,severity of hepatic and renal injuries,respiratory failure,and clinical classification were compared between these four groups.Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to evaluate the survival rate.Results The 60-day mortality was 45.25% (81/179).The amount of ingestion increased significantly from +group to ++++group (P<0.05).No patient in +group was found to have serious complications,while most patients in ++++group suffered organ dysfunction or even organ failure.The incidence of acute respiratory failure,renal failure,and hepatic failure in ++++group was significantly higher than

  16. Glyphosate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  17. Effect of various antidotes on biliary excretion of arsenic in isolated perfused livers of guinea pigs after acute experimental poisoning with As2O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichl, F X; Mückter, H; Kreppel, H; Forth, W

    1992-05-01

    The effect of the dithiols British Anti-Kewisite (BAL), dimercaptopropanesulfonic acid (DMPS), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and a new metal binding agent 2,3-bis-(acetylthio)- propanesulfonamide (BAPSA) on the biliary excretion of arsenic in perfused livers of guinea pigs after acute experimental poisoning with As2O3 was investigated. Guinea pigs received As2O3, 10.0 mg/kg subcutaneously at 9 a.m. as a single injection. One hour after the injection the livers were perfused (2.5 ml x min.-1 x g-1 liver) with Krebs-Henseleit buffer and glucose for 80 min. After 40 min. of saline perfusion (control) 0.1 or 0.7 mmol/l BAL, DMSA, DMPS, or BAPSA were added to the perfusate and arsenic elimination in the bile and effluent perfusate was measured. The biliary excretion of arsenic in control livers between 40 and 80 min. was 0.7% of the total arsenic liver content before perfusion (= arsenic liver content after perfusion + portion excreted in the bile+perfusate). After antidote addition (0.1 mmol/l) the excretion was 0.2% for livers perfused with BAL, 6.8% for DMSA, 10.6% for DMPS, and 11.1% for BAPSA, respectively. After 0.7 mmol/l antidote the excretion of arsenic was 0.1% in livers perfused with BAL, 9.6% for DMSA, 12.3% for DMPS, and 13.3% for BAPSA, respectively. Except BAL, all compounds and most effectively BAPSA increased biliary excretion of arsenic. This indicates that excretion of arsenic which normally is mainly renal is shifted towards faecal excretion by the dithiols.

  18. 急性有机磷农药中毒30例临床分析%Clinical analysis of acute organophosphate poisoning in 30 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董磊; 李晶晶

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨急性有机磷农药中毒(AOPP)的临床表现及治疗方案。方法观察30例 AOPP 患者的临床表现,给予相应的治疗措施,分析其转归及预后。结果本组共治愈出院27例,平均住院7 d;3例心搏、呼吸停止,经胸外按压、呼吸机辅助通气后心搏恢复,但终因脑复苏不成功死亡。结论有机磷农药中毒病势凶险,发展快,彻底、反复洗胃,及早应用抗胆碱能药阿托品的同时早期应用胆碱酯酶复能剂是抢救成功的关键。%  Objective To investigate the clinical features and treatment of acute organophosphate poisoning. Methods The clinical manifestations in 30 patients with AOPP were observed. Giving the expectant treatment, and then prognosis of the patients were analyzed. Results 27patients were healing well, the average days in hospital were 7days. 3 cases suffered from cardiorespiratory arrest, after cardiopulmonary resuscitation their hearts beaten. But the 3 patients died because of brain death. Conclusion AOPP is dangerous. Patients underwent Gastric lavage again and again, and treatment of cholinesterase reactivator and atropine as early as possible are key points of successful rescuing.

  19. 急性百草枯中毒的治疗进展%Advances in the treatment of acute paraquat poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴应强; 肖雪

    2013-01-01

    Paraquat is one of the most widely used herbicide. Its toxicity is medium to animal but highly to human. The estimated lethal dose for adult is about 40 mg/kg. The mechanism of paraquat poisoning is complicated and unclear. And there is no specific antidote. Current treatment is mainly focused on the comprehensive treatment, and the mortality rate is high. There is no breakthrough research progress on the paraquat poisoning. Recent studies on the therapy of paraquat poisoning are reviewed in this paper.

  20. Recognizing the Toxicodendrons (poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guin, J D; Gillis, W T; Beaman, J H

    1981-01-01

    Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac are now classified in the genus Toxicodendron which is readily distinguished from Rhus. In the United States, there are two species of poison oak, Toxicodendron diversilobum (western poison oak) and Toxicodendron toxicarium (eastern poison oak). There are also two species of poison ivy, Toxicodendron rydbergii, a nonclimbing subshrub, and Toxicodendron radicans, which may be either a shrub or a climbing vine. There are nine subspecies of T. radicans, six of which are found in the United States. One species of poison sumac, Toxicodendron vernix, occurs in the United States. Distinguishing features of these plants and characteristics that separate Toxicodendron from Rhus are outlined in the text and illustrated in color plates.

  1. 活性炭血液灌流对重度敌敌畏中毒的治疗作用%Therapeutic efficacy of charcoal hemoperfusion in patients with acute severe dichlorvos poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭艾; 孟凡青; 孙兰芳; 季占胜; 李玉会

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy of hemoperfusion (HP) in the treatment of the patients with acute severe dichlorvos (DDVP) poisoning. METHODS: One hundred and eight patients with acute severe DDVP poisoning in the two teaching hospitals were enrolled. Sixty-seven patients were treated with HP (HP group) and forty-one patients accepted traditional treatment only as the control. Serum concentration of DDVP was determined by gas chromatography. RESULTS: The duration of coma, impaired consciousness, ICU stay, and mechanical ventilation was significantly shorter in the HP group than that in the control. The cumulative dosages (mg) of atropine required either in the first 24 h on admission (442±436 vs 899±485 in the control, P<0.01) or within the hospital (568±574 vs 1228±982 in the control, P<0.01) were markedly reduced in the HP patients. The lower incidence of mechanical ventilation required (13.4 % vs 36.6 % P<0.01), respiratory muscular paralysis (4.5 % vs 17.1%, P<0.05) and the lower mortality of death (7.5 % vs 34.1%, P<0.01) were observed in the HP group. HP could accelerate the recovery of suppressed cholinesterase activity. After the procedure, the DDVP level was decreased from (11±±4) to (7±±3) mg/L in parallel with a decline in APACHE Ⅱ Score or dopamine dose and a rise in Glasgow Coma Scale (P<0.05). In addition, the mean values of peak clearance and reduction rate were (87±17) Ml/min and 44 %±±11%,respectively. CONCLUSION: The rapid fall in blood DDVP level and the dramatic clinical response suggest that HP is effective in the treatment of acute severe DDVP poisoning.

  2. Mortality Analysis of Patients with Paraquat Poisoning Treated at Two University Hospitals in Shiraz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazel Goudarzi

    2014-12-01

    Conlcusion: PQ poisoning is associated with high mortality requiring an immediate asse