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Sample records for acute pesticide poisoning

  1. Risk factors for acute pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of patients with acute pesticide poisoning in a rural area of Sri Lanka and, for intentional self-poisoning cases, explores the relative importance of the different determinants. Data were collected for 239 acute pesticide-poisoning cases, which were......-poisoning. Case fatality was 18% with extremely high case fatality for poisoning with the insecticide endosulfan and the herbicide paraquat. Cases were generally younger than controls, of lower educational status and were more often unemployed. No agricultural risk factors were found but a family history...... of pesticide poisoning and having ended an emotional relationship in the past year was clearly associated with intentional self-poisoning. The presence of mental disorders could only be assessed for a subsample of the cases and controls and this showed that alcohol dependence was a risk factor. This study...

  2. Respiratory Failure in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Self-Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Eddleston, Michael; Mohamed, Fahim; Davies, James OJ; Eyer, Peter; Worek, Franz; Sheriff, Mh Rezvi; Buckley, Nick A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Acute organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a major clinical problem in the developing world. Textbooks ascribe most deaths to respiratory failure occurring in one of two distinct clinical syndromes - acute cholinergic respiratory failure or the intermediate syndrome. The delayed failure appears to be due to respiratory muscle weakness, but its pathophysiology is not yet clear.

  3. Acute pesticide poisoning--a global public health problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    of farming communities has made pesticides the preferred means of suicide with an extremely high case fatality. Similarly, the extensive use of pesticides exposes the community to both long-term and acute occupational health problems. A concerted effort is urgently needed to address the situation....

  4. Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Symptoms of Acute Pesticide Poisoning among Aquatic Farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Klith Jensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88% had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02–1.28. The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22–0.91. These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among the farmers and enforcing the effective banning of the most toxic pesticides will considerably reduce the number of acute pesticide poisoning episodes.

  5. Pesticide use and self-reported symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning among aquatic farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming; Jørs, Erik;

    2011-01-01

    in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88%) had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly...... associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02-1.28). The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22-0.91). These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide...

  6. Pharmacotherapy to protect the neuromuscular junction after acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Steven B; Krajacic, Predrag; Sawamoto, Keigo; Bunya, Naofumi; Loro, Emanuele; Khurana, Tejvir S

    2016-06-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world, affecting an estimated three million people annually. Much of the morbidity is directly related to muscle weakness, which develops 1-4 days after poisoning. This muscle weakness, termed the intermediate syndrome (IMS), leads to respiratory, bulbar, and proximal limb weakness and frequently necessitates the use of mechanical ventilation. While not entirely understood, the IMS is most likely due to persistently elevated acetylcholine (ACh), which activates nicotinic ACh receptors at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Thus, the NMJ is potentially a target-rich area for the development of new therapies for acute OP poisoning. In this manuscript, we discuss what is known about the IMS and studies investigating the use of nicotinic ACh receptor antagonists to prevent or mitigate NMJ dysfunction after acute OP poisoning. PMID:27258847

  7. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and dela

  8. Reducing the Incidence of Acute Pesticide Poisoning by Educating Farmers on Integrated Pest Management in South India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mancini, F.; Jiggins, J.L.S.; O'Malley, M.

    2009-01-01

    Sixty-five farmers reported on pesticide use and the signs and symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning when using two different plant protection strategies: in 2003 using chemical controls and in 2004 using an approach to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) based on an ecological analysis of the field co

  9. N-acetylcysteine in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning: A Randomized, Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ebiary, Ahmad A; Elsharkawy, Rasha E; Soliman, Nema A; Soliman, Mohammed A; Hashem, Ahmed A

    2016-08-01

    Organophosphorus poisoning is a major global health problem with hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. Research interest in N-acetylcysteine has grown among increasing evidence of the role of oxidative stress in organophosphorus poisoning. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of N-acetylcysteine as an adjuvant treatment in patients with acute organophosphorus poisoning. This was a randomized, controlled, parallel-group trial on 30 patients suffering from acute organophosphorus poisoning, who were admitted to the Poison Control Center of Tanta University Emergency Hospital, Tanta, Egypt, between April and September 2014. Interventions included oral N-acetylcysteine (600 mg three times daily for 3 days) as an added treatment to the conventional measures versus only the conventional treatment. Outcome measures included mortality, total dose of atropine administered, duration of hospitalization and the need for ICU admission and/or mechanical ventilation. A total of 46 patients were screened and 30 were randomized. No significant difference was found between both groups regarding demographic characteristics and the nature or severity of baseline clinical manifestations. No major adverse effects to N-acetylcysteine therapy were reported. Malondialdehyde significantly decreased and reduced glutathione significantly increased only in the NAC-treated patients. The patients on NAC therapy required less atropine doses than those who received only the conventional treatment; however, the length of hospital stay showed no significant difference between both groups. The study concluded that the use of N-acetylcysteine as an added treatment was apparently safe, and it reduced atropine requirements in patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. PMID:26786042

  10. Reducing acute poisoning in developing countries--options for restricting the availability of pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Flemming; van der Hoek, Wim; Cole, Donald C;

    2003-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of people are dying around the world each year from the effects of the use, or misuse, of pesticides. This paper reviews the different options to reduce availability of the most hazardous chemicals, focusing on issues in developing countries. Emphasis is placed on the fatal ......, alcohol or drug addiction, emotional distress, depression, physical illness, social isolation or financial hardship. These should be addressed through preventive health programmes and community development efforts.......Hundreds of thousands of people are dying around the world each year from the effects of the use, or misuse, of pesticides. This paper reviews the different options to reduce availability of the most hazardous chemicals, focusing on issues in developing countries. Emphasis is placed on the fatal...... poisoning cases and hence the focus on self-harm cases. Overall, it is argued here that restricting access to the most hazardous pesticides would be of paramount importance to reduce the number of severe acute poisoning cases and case-fatalities and would provide greater opportunities for preventive...

  11. Intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas Acute poisoning from pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Jesús Durán-Nah

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la epidemiología de la intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas (IAP en el Hospital General O'Horán de Mérida, Yucatán, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se revisaron los expedientes de 33 pacientes ³ 13 años, tratados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI, entre 1994 y 1998. Se recopilaron variables demográficas y clínicas relevantes, y se aplicó estadística descriptiva. RESULTADOS: En la población estudiada predominó el sexo masculino (82% del medio rural (70%, y la edad media fue de 34 ± 15.8 años. El intento de suicidio fue causa frecuente de IAP (79%, y en 33% de los casos la intoxicación se produjo por la utilización de organofosforados. La mortalidad fue de 12%. CONCLUSIONES: La IAP fue baja entre los sujetos del medio rural, por lo que los resultados de este estudio parecen no reflejar la realidad del problema. Es importante añadir que los plaguicidas son utilizados con relativa frecuencia para el intento de suicidio.OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiologic pattern of acute pesticide poisoning (APP in a general hospital in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 1994 to 1998, 33 patients 13 years of age or older with diagnosis of APP were studied. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze information. RESULTS: Males were frequently affected (82%, specially those coming from rural areas (60%. The mean age of the group was 34 ± 15.8 years. In 79% of the cases, pesticides were used to commit suicide and 33% of poisoning cases were due to organophospate pesticides. The mortality rate was 12%. CONCLUSIONS: In this small sample, acute poisoning from pesticides in the agricultural setting may be underestimated, since it was less frequent than in the general population. APP was more commonly used by indigent people to commit suicide.

  12. Gastric Lavage in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide poisoning (GLAOP – a randomised controlled trial of multiple vs. single gastric lavage in unselected acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao YuPing

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organophosphorus (OP pesticide poisoning is the most common form of pesticide poisoning in many Asian countries. Guidelines in western countries for management of poisoning indicate that gastric lavage should be performed only if two criteria are met: within one hour of poison ingestion and substantial ingested amount. But the evidence on which these guidelines are based is from medicine overdoses in developed countries and may be irrelevant to OP poisoning in Asia. Chinese clinical experience suggests that OP remains in the stomach for several hours or even days after ingestion. Thus, there may be reasons for doing single or multiple gastric lavages for OP poisoning. There have been no randomised controlled trials (RCTs to assess this practice of multiple lavages. Since it is currently standard therapy in China, we cannot perform a RCT of no lavage vs. a single lavage vs. multiple lavages. We will compare a single gastric lavage with three gastric lavages as the first stage to assess the role of gastric lavage in OP poisoning. Methods/Design We have designed an RCT assessing the effectiveness of multiple gastric lavages in adult OP self-poisoning patients admitted to three Chinese hospitals within 12 hrs of ingestion. Patients will be randomised to standard treatment plus either a single gastric lavage on admission or three gastric lavages at four hour intervals. The primary outcome is in-hospital mortality. Analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis. On the basis of the historical incidence of OP at the study sites, we expect to enroll 908 patients over three years. This projected sample size provides sufficient power to evaluate the death rate; and a variety of other exposure and outcome variables, including particular OPs and ingestion time. Changes of OP level will be analyzed in order to provide some toxic kinetic data. Discussion the GLAOP study is a novel, prospective cohort study that will explore to the toxic

  13. Is prevention of acute pesticide poisoning effective and efficient, with Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varma, Anshu; Neupane, Dinesh; Ellekilde Bonde, Jens Peter;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Farmers' risk of pesticide poisoning can be reduced with personal protective equipment but in low-income countries farmers' use of such equipment is limited. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness and efficiency of Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment to reduce organophospha...

  14. Relationship between Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning and Damages Induced by Free Radicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between abnormal reactions of free radicals in bodies of patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP) and damages induced by free radicals. Methods 58 AOPP patients and 58 healthy adult volunteers (HAV) were enrolled in an independent samples control design, in which spectrophotometric methods were used to determine the concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and lipoperoxides (LPO) in plasma, and LPO in erythrocytes, vitamin C (VC), vitamin E (VE) and b-carotene (b-CAR) in plasma as well as activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in erythrocytes. Results Compared with the average values of every biochemical parameter in the HAV group, the average values of LPO in plasma and in erythrocytes, and NO in plasma in the AOPP group were significantly increased (P=0.000001), while the average values of VC, VE, a-CAR in plasma as well as SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and AChE in erythrocytes in the AOPP group were significantly decreased (P=0.000001). The findings of Pearson product-moment correlation analysis between the value of AChE in erythrocytes and the values of above biochemical parameters for 58 AOPP patients showed that there was a significant linear negative correlation between AChE in erythrocytes and LPO, NO in plasma, and LPO in erythrocytes (P=0.000001~0.001319), while there was a significant linear positive correlation between AChE in erythrocytes and VC, VE, a-CAR in plasma as well as SOD, CAT, GSH-Px in erythrocytes (P=0.000013~0.000824). The results of discriminant analysis of above chemical parameters for 58 AOPP patients and 58 HAV suggested that the correct rates of discriminant analysis were increased to 100 % when the values of AChE and LPO in plasma and in erythrocytes, or AChE and others, were jointly used for the discriminant analysis. Conclusion The findings of the present study suggest that a series of free radical

  15. Acute poisoning in a child following topical treatment of head lice (pediculosis capitis) with an organophosphate pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Muddathir H; Adeel, Ahmed Awad; Alhaboob, Ali Abdu N; Ashri, Ahmed M; Salih, Mustafa A

    2016-01-01

    This is a case report of acute organophosphate poisoning in a child treated with topical application of Diazinon-60 (WHO Class II toxicity) for head lice (pediculosis capitis). The patient presented with neurological symptoms and signs. After emergency respiratory and circulatory resuscitation the patient underwent dermal decontamination and was treated with atropine, high flow oxygen and pralidoxime. Scanning electron micrographs of scalp hair specimens revealed both viable and empty head lice nits (lice eggs that attach to the hair shaft). The patient was hospitalized for seven days and discharged after full recovery. The case highlights the importance of raising the awareness of health workers and the community about the danger of misusing pesticides for the treatment of head lice. PMID:27651556

  16. Pesticide poisoning: a major health problem in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoek, Wim van der; Konradsen, F; Athukorala, K;

    1998-01-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in Sri Lanka. In several agricultural districts, it precedes all other causes of death in government hospitals. Most of the acute poisoning cases are intentional (suicide) and occur among young adults, mainly males. Poisoning due to occup...... in an immediate health benefit. Improved agricultural extension services to promote alternative non-chemical methods of pest control is the most important strategy, in the long term, to prevent acute pesticide poisoning.......Acute pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in Sri Lanka. In several agricultural districts, it precedes all other causes of death in government hospitals. Most of the acute poisoning cases are intentional (suicide) and occur among young adults, mainly males. Poisoning due...... to occupational exposure is also common, but less well documented. In an irrigation area in Sri Lanka a very high incidence of serious pesticide poisoning was observed, with 68% due to intentional ingestion of liquid pesticides. It is argued that the easy availability and widespread use of highly hazardous...

  17. Profile of acute mixed organophosphorus poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunga, Girish; Sam, Kishore Gnana; Khera, Kanav; Xavier, Vidya; Verma, Murlidhar

    2009-06-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide self-poisoning is a major clinical and public health problem across much of rural Asia and responsible for two thirds of suicidal deaths. However, clinical reports or evidence for the management of mixed poisoning are lacking. Patients are often treated based on the type of symptoms they exhibit, and there are no specific guidelines available to treat mixed poisoning. In this case series, we report 3 acute OP poisoning cases with mixed poisons such as organochlorine, fungicide, copper sulfate, and kerosene. All 3 patients were treated successfully, with a greater focus on OP poisoning with pralidoxime and atropine infusion along with standard decontamination procedures. Because patients developed complications due to the concomitant poisons ingested, they were later treated symptomatically, and in one case, D-penicillamine was administered as antidote for copper poisoning. Mixed poisoning especially with OP compounds makes the diagnosis difficult because the clinical symptoms of OP predominate, whereas damage produced by other pesticides is late to develop and often neglected. Common treatment procedures are focused mainly on the OP poisoning ignoring the complications of other concomitant pesticides ingested. Treating physicians should be prepared and consider the possibility of mixed poisoning prevalent in that region before initiating therapy. PMID:19497478

  18. 急性有机磷农药中毒患者的急救护理%Emergency nursing care of patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鑫

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨急性有机磷农药中毒患者的急救和护理措施。方法:我院收治35例有机磷农药中毒患者,采取急救措施和护理措施,实施治疗。结果:35例患者在经过精心的救护后,治愈34例,死亡1例。结论:对急性有机磷农药中毒患者,采取一定的急救措施,并给予相应的护理干预,具有较好治疗效果,值得推广。%Objective:To investigate the first aid and nursing measuresof acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning patients. Methods Patients in our hospital 35 cases of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning, take emergency measures and nursing measures, the implementation of treatment. Results:35 patients after carefultreatment, 34 cases were cured, 1 cases died. Conclusion:Patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning, take someemergency measures, and give the corresponding nursing intervention, has better curative effect, is worth promoting.

  19. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. PMID:24716788

  20. 急性有机磷农药中毒50例治疗分析%Clinical Analysis of 50 Cases of Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高喜生

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,and to give timely and effective treatment measures.Methods In our hospital in 2006~2008 in two years of 50 patients treated in patients with organophosphorus pesticide for analysis.Results To take timely and ef ective after checking measures,50 cases were completely cured,no excessive toxic reaction of atropine and rebound phenomenon of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.Conclusion Acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning is the clinical common emergency medicine,early and timely give just the right amount of drug detoxification treatment,treatment is the key to success.%目的探析急性有机磷农药中毒患者的临床表现特点,并给予及时有效的救治措施。方法对我院2006年~2008年2年来收治的50例服入有机磷农药的患者进行分析。结果采取及时有效求治措施后,50例患者均完全治愈,无1例出现阿托品过量的中毒反应及有机磷农药中毒反跳现象。结论急性有机磷农药中毒是临床内科常见的急诊,进行早期及时、给予适量的解毒药物治疗措施,是治疗成功的关键。

  1. STUDY ON 52 PATIENTS WITH ACUTE SEVERE ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE POISONING%急性重度有机磷中毒52例临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟瑞; 卢敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical application of hemoperfusion combined with hemodialysis and continuous micropump infusion of atropine in the treatment of acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning( ASOPP ). Methods A total of 104 patients with ASOPP were retrospectively analysed, all patients were treated with gastric lavage and so on, the treated group adopted hemoperfusion combined with hemodialysis and continuous micropump infusion of atropine in addition to basic therapy. The clinical data was compared. Results The treated group was superior to the control group in time from coma to consciousness, total amount of atropine and recovery time of cholinesterase etc. The recovery rate was 84.6%. Conclusion It is effective to apply hemoperfusion combined with hemodialysis and continuous micropump iffusion of atropine in rescuing the acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.%目的 评价血液灌流联合血液透析、阿托品微量泵持续泵入治疗急性重度有机磷中毒(acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,ASOPP)的临床应用价值.方法 对104例ASOPP患者进行回顾性分析,所有患者均给予洗胃等治疗,治疗组在对照组基础上加用血液灌流联合血液透析、阿托品微量泵治疗,比较2组各项临床资料.结果 治疗组昏迷至清醒时间、阿托品总量、胆碱酯酶恢复时间等明显优于对照组,治愈率为84.6%.结论 应用血液灌流联合血液透析、阿托品微量泵治疗ASOPP效果较好.

  2. Work-related pesticide poisoning among farmers in two villages of Southern China: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Gary A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide poisoning is an important health problem among Chinese farm workers, but there is a paucity of pesticide poisoning data from China. Using the WHO standard case definition of a possible acute pesticide poisoning, we investigated the prevalence and risk factors of acute work-related pesticide poisoning among farmers in Southern China. Methods A stratified sample of 910 pesticide applicators from two villages in southern China participated in face-to-face interviews. Respondents who self-reported having two or more of a list of sixty-six symptoms within 24 hours after pesticide application were categorized as having suffered acute pesticide poisoning. The association between the composite behavioral risk score and pesticide poisoning were assessed in a multivariate logistic model. Results A total of 80 (8.8% pesticide applicators reported an acute work-related pesticide poisoning. The most frequent symptoms among applicators were dermal (11.6% and nervous system (10.7% symptoms. Poisoning was more common among women, farmers in poor areas, and applicators without safety training (all p 2 = 0.9246. Conclusions This study found that 8.8% of Chinese pesticide applicators suffered acute pesticide poisoning and suggests that pesticide safety training, safe application methods, and precautionary behavioral measures could be effective in reducing the risk of pesticide poisoning.

  3. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment.

  4. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment. PMID:25486670

  5. Treatment experience of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%急性有机磷农药中毒的救治体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡相东

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨急性有机磷农药中毒的救治体会。方法:2010年3月-2013年10月收治急性有机磷农药中毒患者78例,作为研究对象,回顾性分析所有患者的临床资料。结果:78例患者中,75例患者在经过洗胃、服用阿托品、输血治疗、其他症状治疗等系列治疗后均痊愈出院,有效率96.1%;有3例患者因口服有机磷农药中毒且治疗不及时,抢救无效死亡,死亡率3.9%。结论:及时给予患者彻底的洗胃、正确使用阿托品是及时抢救急性有机磷农药中毒的关键,同时有针对性治疗患者的其他症状可以显著提高治疗效果。%Objective:To explore the treatment experience of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.Methods:78 cases with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were selected from March 2010 to October 2013.They were as the study objects.The clinical data of all patients were retrospectively analyzed.Results:In 78 cases,75 cases were recovered discharge after a series of treatment method,such as gastric lavage,taking atropine,blood transfusion treatment and other symptoms treatment.The effective rate was 96.1%.3 cases with oral excessive pesticide poisoning and delayed treatment were rescue invalid death.The mortality was 3.9%.Conclusion:The timely and thorough gastric lavage for patients and the correct use of atropine are the key to timely rescue acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.And targeted therapy in patients with other symptoms can significantly improve the treatment effect.

  6. Massive acute arsenic poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-07-16

    Arsenic poisonings are still important in the field of toxicology, though they are not as frequent as about 20-30 years ago. In this paper, the arsenic concentrations in ante- and post-mortem materials, and also forensic and anatomo-pathological aspects in three cases of massive acute poisoning with arsenic(III) oxide (two of them with unexplained criminalistic background, in which arsenic was taken for amphetamine and one suicide), are presented. Ante-mortem blood and urine arsenic concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 6.7 microg/ml, respectively. Post-mortem tissue total arsenic concentrations were also detected in large concentrations. In case 3, the contents of the duodenum contained as much as 30.1% arsenic(III) oxide. The high concentrations of arsenic detected in blood and tissues in all presented cases are particularly noteworthy in that they are very rarely detected at these concentrations in fatal arsenic poisonings. PMID:15939162

  7. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  8. CLINICAL STUDY OF ACUTE POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panduranga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acute poisoning is an important medical emergency. Studies of this nature will be useful tool in planning, early diagnosis and management of acute poisoning cases. The objective of the study are to study the clinical features, diagnosis and management, morbidity and mortality of various acute poisoning. METHODOLOGY: This study comprises of 350 patients of acute poisoning admitted to Chigateri General Hospital and Bapuji Hospital attached to J. J. M. Medical College, Davangere, between 1st March 2011 to 31st October 2011. REUSLTS: Out of 350 cases of acute poisoning studied, there were 268 males and 82 females. Males comprised 76.57%and females 23.42% of the total, in this series, Organophosphorous compounds were the commonest (30%, majority of the patients hailed from rural area 70%. Mortality is 10.57%.

  9. Diagnosis and treatment experience of 58 cases of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%急性有机磷农药中毒58例诊治体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林国群

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究探讨急性有机磷农药中毒。方法:收治急性有机磷农药中毒58例,对其进行检查、急性中毒程度分级和诊疗。结果:58例中痊愈52例,迟发性多发性神经病4例,死亡2例,中间综合征5例均痊愈。结论:急性有机磷农药中毒确诊后,应立即予以积极救治,加强护理。%Objective:To study acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.Method:58 patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were checked,classiifed of acute poisoning,diagnosed and treated.Result:In 58 cases,52 cases were cured;4 cases became delayed polyneuropathy;2 cases died.5 cases of intermediate syndrome were all recovered.Conclusion:After conifrming the diagnosis as acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,it should be actively treated and strengthened nursing.

  10. Survey of pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    J. Jeyaratnam; Seneviratne, R. S. de Alwis; Copplestone, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    This study included a sample survey of the clinical records of patients admitted to the different hospitals in Sri Lanka, and showed that approximately 13 000 patients are admitted to hospital annually for pesticide poisoning and that each year 1000 of them die. Suicidal attempts account for 73% of the total, and occupational and accidental poisoning accounts for 24.9%. It is recommended that urgent action be taken to minimize the extent of the problem.

  11. 江苏南部农民急性生产性农药中毒现况调查%Work-related acute pesticide poisoning among farmers in southern Jiangsu province: a cross-sectional study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁道正; 涂志斌; 钱娟; 张徐军; 王峻涛; 朱骏; 杨亚明

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解江苏南部农民急性生产性农药中毒情况和影响因素.方法 采用分层整群随机抽样方法,在江苏南部抽取3个村庄共1 380名农民进行现场问卷调查,采用SPSS 16.0软件进行多因素非条件logistic回归分析.结果 3个村庄农民的急性生产性农药中毒率为8.6%;性别、年龄、喷洒农药前不阅读标签、药械滴漏、用手擦汗、打药时身体受污染以及身体感到不适仍继续打药是急性生产性农药中毒的影响因素(P<0.05);使用农药中的危险行为得分与急性生产性农药中毒之间存在剂量-反应关系(R2=0.9840).结论 江苏南部农民急性生产性农药中毒发生率较高,使用农药中危险行为较多.%Objective To explore characteristics and the risk factors of work-related acute pesticide poisoning among farmers in southern part of Jiangsu province.Methods Stratified cluster sampling was used to investigate 1 380 famers from three rural areas in southern Jiangsu province with a questionnaire survey.The database was set up with Epi Data,and SPSS 16.0 software was used for multivariate unconditional logistic regression analyses.Results The rate of workrelated acute pesticide poisoning among the farmers was 8.6%.The factors of work-related acute pesticide poisoning included gender,age,without reading labels before pesticide use,using leaking knapsack during application,wiping the sweat by hand during application,body contact with the pesticide during application,and continuing pesticide application while in ill health stares (P < 0.05 for all).A dose-response relationship between the score of risk behaviors and workrelated acute pesticide poisoning was observed.Conclusion The rate of work-related acute pesticide poisoning is high and relates to risk behaviors among farmers in southern Jiangsu province.

  12. Pipazethate--acute childhood poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, O A; Lopez, M

    1977-01-01

    A previously healthy child who who had accidentally ingested an unknown quantity of 20-mg tablets of pipazethate developed severe acute poisoning with neurologic, metabolic, and cardiovascular disturbances. She recovered with symptomatic and supportive therapy. PMID:589958

  13. 急性有机磷农药中毒合并呼吸衰竭69例临床分析%Analysis of Acute Organic Phosphorus Pesticide Poisoning Complicated with Respiratory Failure of 69 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛崇涛

    2012-01-01

      目的探讨并分析急性有机磷农药中毒合并呼吸衰竭的原因,为临床抢救急性有机磷农药中毒提供帮助。方法回顾分析69例重度有机磷农药中毒合并呼吸衰竭病例。结果抢救有机磷农药中毒的首要措施是恢复有效通气,改善缺氧,必要时行气管插管,这样才能提高抢救的成功率。结论正确分析呼吸衰竭,及时的机械通气支持可以有效提高有机磷农药中毒抢救成功率。%  Objective To study and analysis the acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning combination of respiratory failure reasons, for clinical rescuing patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning offer help. Methods Retrospective analysis of 69 cases of severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning combination of respiratory failure cases. Results The rescue organophosphorus pesticide poisoning first step was to restore effective ventilation, improve the lack of oxygen,make necessary endotracheal intubation,in order to improve the success rate of rescue. Conclusion Correct analysis of respiratory failure, timely mechanical ventilation support can effectively improve the organophosphorus pesticide poisoning rescue success rate.

  14. Analysis of 8000 hospital admissions for acute poisoning in a rural area of Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    the study period was 318 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval [CI], 311 to 325). Incidence of all poisoning showed an increase over the period of study. However, this increase was lower for pesticide poisoning, and the mortality rate and case fatality ratio of pesticides went down towards the end......BACKGROUND: Acute poisoning, especially deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides, is an emerging global public health problem, but reliable incidence estimates are lacking. Only a few previous studies have assessed the impact of regulatory or other preventive measures. OBJECTIVE...... government hospitals in southern Sri Lanka from 1990 to 2002. RESULTS: Data of 8,110 admissions for acute poisoning were available for analysis. Most cases were young adults, who deliberately self-poisoned themselves with pesticides, males outnumbering females. Average incidence rate of acute poisoning over...

  15. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months.

  16. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months. PMID:26508422

  17. Neurology of acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gagandeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organophosphate (OP poisoning is one of the most common poisonings in emergency medicine and toxicological practice in some of the less-developed nations in South Asia. Traditionally, OP poisoning comes under the domain of emergency physicians, internists, intensivists, and toxicologists. However, some of the complications following OP poisoning are neurological and involve neurologists. The pathophysiological basis for the clinical manifestations of OP poisoning is inactivation of the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase at the peripheral nicotinic and muscarinic and central nervous system (CNS nerve terminals and junctions. Nicotinic manifestations occur in severe cases and late in the course; these comprise of fasciculations and neuromuscular paralysis. There is a good correlation between the electrophysiological abnormalities and the severity of the clinical manifestations. Neurophysiological abnormalities characteristic of nicotinic junctions (mainly neuromuscular junction dysfunction include: (1 single, supramaximal electrical-stimulus-induced repetitive response/s, (2 decrement-increment response to high frequency (30 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS, and (3 decremental response to high frequency (30 Hz RNS. Atropine ameliorates muscarinic manifestations. Therapeutic agents that can ameliorate nicotinic manifestations, mainly neuromuscular, are oximes. However, the evidence for this effect is inconclusive. This may be due to the fact that there are several factors that determine the therapeutic effect of oximes. These factors include: The OP compound responsible for poisoning, duration of poisoning, severity of poisoning, and route of exposure. There is also a need to study the effect of oximes on the neurophysiological abnormalities.

  18. Correlation between Cholinesterase and Paraoxonase 1 Activities: Case Series of Pesticide Poisoning Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Austin Richard

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute exposure to pesticide due to suicidal poisoning is the most extensive cause of pesticide exposure, compared with all other causes including agricultural or industrial exposure. Organophosphate (OP and carbamate group of pesticides can inhibit acetylcholinesterase; on the other hand, paraoxonase1 can detoxify organophosphate poisoning by hydrolyzing organophosphate metabolites. Methods: We have compared the serum paraoxonase1 status and cholinesterase activity of subjects who attempted to commit suicide by consuming OP pesticide. Cholinesterase and paraoxonase1 activity were measured spectrophotometrically using butyrylthiocholine and phenyl acetate as substrates, respectively. Results: A positive correlation was found between serum paraoxonase1 activity and cholinesterase activity among pesticide consumed subjects. Conclusion: Our results suggest that subjects with higher paraoxonase1 activity may have a better chance of detoxifying the lethal effect of acute organophosphate poisoning.

  19. Analysis on clinical treatment of acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning by tracheal intubation%急性重度有机磷农药中毒行气管插管的临床救治分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云恒; 李慧; 杜正驰

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical effect of rescue emergency tracheal intubation of severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Methods: From July 2008 to June 2010, 60 patients in our hospital emergency treatment of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were analyzed retrospectively. Results: 54 cases were cured, death occurred in 4 cases, 2 cases gave up treatment. Conclusion: Tracheal intubation can be an effective treatment of acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning patients during the treatment, medical staff should pay attention to patients with multiple organ to maintain stability and prevent complications.%目的:探讨紧急气管插管抢救重度急性有机磷农药中毒患者的临床效果.方法:2008年7月~2010年6月,我院共抢救有机磷农药中毒患者60例,对其临床救治情况进行回顾性分析.结果:本组60例患者中治愈54例,死亡4例,自动放弃治疗2例.结论:应用气管插管可以有效地抢救急性重度有机磷农药中毒患者,在救治过程中医护人员应注意维持患者全身多器官功能稳定及防治并发症.

  20. 绍兴市2006至2011年急性农药中毒分析%The characteristics and trends of acute pesticide poisoning of Shaoxing in 2006 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋国钦; 连灵君; 王春辉; 李明; 王纪刚; 潘南燕; 王莎莎

    2013-01-01

    目的 描述绍兴市2006至2011年急性农药中毒特征,为预防和控制农药中毒提供参考.方法 利用中国疾病预防控制信息系统中绍兴市2006至2011年农药中毒报告的数据并进行整理分析.结果 2006至2011年绍兴市共报告急性农药中毒2024例,漏报44例,漏报率为2.1%(44/2086).死亡119例,病死率5.9%(119/2024),其中生产性中毒病死率为1.0%(3/289),非生产性中毒病死率为6.7%(116/1735).女性急性农药中毒1038例(51.3%),男性986例(48.7%),各年度不同性别急性农药中毒构成比的差异无统计学意义(x2=9.16,P=0.10).2024例急性农药中毒病例平均年龄为(47.0±18.7)岁,其中男性(50.7±19.0)岁,女性(43.4±17.8)岁,男性急性农药中毒病例的平均年龄高于女性,差异有统计学意义(t=9.01,P<0.001).生产性中毒289例,占全部病例的14.3%,其中男性生产性中毒22.2%(219/986);非生产性中毒1735例,占全部病例的85.7%.其中女性非生产性中毒93.3%(968/1038).2024例中毒病例的中毒农药为杀虫剂中毒86.7%(1754/2024),除草剂5.1% (104/2024),杀鼠剂3.6%(72/2024),杀菌剂、混合制剂、生物化学农药以及其他4类共占4.6%(94/2024).杀虫剂中有机磷中毒占83.0%(1455/1754).结论 绍兴市非生产性急性农药中毒发生率较高,且以女性为主,30~ 60岁组人群中毒的构成比较高;中毒农药主要为杀虫剂.应进一步加强健康知识宣传教育和农药的安全管理.%Objective To describe the epidemiological characteristics of acute pesticide poisoning in Shaoxing,China during 2006-2011 and to provide a reference for the prevention and control of pesticide poisoning.Methods The data on pesticide poisoning in Shaoxing during 2006-2011 were obtained from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention and were then analyzed.Results A total of 2024 cases of acute pesticide poisoning were reported in Shaoxing during 2006-2011,and 44

  1. Acute arsenic poisoning in two siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Melisa W; Boyer, Edward W; Kleinman, Monica E; Rodig, Nancy M; Ewald, Michele Burns

    2005-07-01

    We report a case series of acute arsenic poisoning of 2 siblings, a 4-month-old male infant and his 2-year-old sister. Each child ingested solubilized inorganic arsenic from an outdated pesticide that was misidentified as spring water. The 4-month-old child ingested a dose of arsenic that was lethal despite extraordinary attempts at arsenic removal, including chelation therapy, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, exchange transfusion, and hemodialysis. The 2-year-old fared well with conventional therapy. PMID:15995066

  2. Clinical Observation of Penehyclidine Hydrochloride in Treatment of Acute Severe Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning%长托宁治疗重度急性有机磷农药中毒的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田昭涛

    2014-01-01

    目的::观察重度急性有机磷农药中毒(Severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,SAOPP)患者的急性症状以及分析其治疗措施。方法:采用血液灌流联合长托宁治疗观察组的患者,运用阿托品治疗对照组的患者,当全血CHE值大于65%时,即可停药。结果:两组的治愈时间、治愈率以及呼吸衰竭例数均存在显著性差异,P<0.05,观察组的治疗效果优于对照组。结论:SAOPP患者病情危急,应根据病情进展采用适当的方法进行治疗。%Objective: Observed severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (Severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning, SAOPP) in patients with acute symptoms and analyze their treatment.Methods:Patients with hemoperfusion therapy combined Changtuoning observation group, the use of atropine treatment of patients in the control group, when whole blood CHE values greater than 65%, can be discontinued.Results:Two sets of cure time, the cure rate and the number of cases of respiratory failure, there were significant differences, P<0.05, treatment observation group than the control group.Conclusion:TSAOPP patients in critical condition, treatment should be based on appropriate methods of disease progression.

  3. Acute myocardial infarction: Can it be a complication of acute organophosphorus compound poisoning?

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, P.; P Manoria; Joseph, D., T.; Z Gandhi

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphorus compounds are used as pesticides and represent a common cause of poisoning in developing countries including India due to their widespread availability and use. Toxicity due to these agents can affect many organs including heart. Here, we report a case of acute organophosphorus poisoning (parathion), followed by acute myocardial infarction; documented by clinical features, electrocardiographic changes, and elevated cardiac enzymes. Myocardial infarction has been rarely report...

  4. Health information systems and pesticide poisoning at Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Costa Cavalcanti de Albuquerque

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Understanding the epidemiologic profile of a particular disease is key to undertake health actions. To that end, information systems that present quality data help in the decision-making process and demonstrate the impact of the problems.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the contribution of health information systems for the characterization of pesticide poisoning through SINAN, CEATOX and SIM in the State of Pernambuco.METHOD: In this study, the completeness and consistency of the data were assessed, as well as the epidemiological profile of pesticide poisoning in Pernambuco in the period from 2008 to 2012, based on the following Health Information Systems: Center for Toxicological Assistance of Pernambuco (CEATOX, Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN and Mortality Information System (SIM.RESULTS: The data revealed incompleteness and inconsistencies in information. Regarding the profile, females are more affected in the morbidity profile, and men have a higher mortality rate. Poisoning was more frequent in young adults with low educational level. With regard to the circumstances, most of the cases were suicide attempts, unique acute cases and not related to work. Despite suggesting underreporting, the data showed that persons engaged in agriculture are most commonly affected.CONCLUSION: The strengthening of these systems is necessary for the generation of consistent information that support health policies for the population groups involved.

  5. Clinical analysis of acute organic phosphorus pesticide poisoning and intermediate syndrome%急性有机磷农药中毒与中间综合症临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟少妍

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the rescue method of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning and intermediate syndrome. Methods:38 patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were treated from January 2007 to December 2005, including 5 patients with intermediate syndrome, and the treatment of all patients were summarized.Result:Through the timely rescue,31 cases were rescued successfully, 7 cases died.Conclusion: Intermediate syndrome (IMS) is one of the most serious complications of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. For patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,measures should be taken in time to rescue; if patients with intermediate syndrome, should establish an effective mechanical ventilation, and its combined treatment in time, in order to improve the success rate of rescue.%目的:探讨急性有机磷农药中毒及中间综合症的抢救方法。方法2005年1月至2007年12月收治的急性有机磷农药中毒患者共38例,其中发生中间综合征的患者共5例,总结对所有患者采用的抢救措施,评价效果。结果经及时的抢救,31例抢救成功,7例死亡。结论中间综合症(IMS)是急性有机磷农药中毒恢复期最严重的并发症之一。对于急性有机磷农药中毒患者,要及时采取措施加以抢救;如果患者出现中间综合症,要及时建立有效的机械通气,并对其辅以综合治疗,以提高抢救成功率。

  6. 21例急性有机磷农药中毒患者皮肤灼伤处理%21 cases of acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning patients with skin burns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁娴; 张文军; 周彬

    2011-01-01

    目的探讨急性有机磷农药中毒患者皮肤灼伤处理.方法回顾性分析我院的21例急性有机磷农药中毒患者皮肤灼伤的临床资料.结果创面浅Ⅱ度6-10天治愈,创面深Ⅱ度10-18天治愈.讨论反复进行灼伤创面清洗以及保持灼伤创面的干燥及涂抹典类制剂是灼伤创面扩大和后期感粢的重要措施.%objective to explore the acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning patients with skin burns. Methods retrospective analysis of 21 cases of acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning were burned skin clinical data. Results the wound H degrees 6-shallow 10 days. II deep wounds heal degrees 10-18 days cured. Discuss the repeated bum wounds and keep the wound clean burns dry and daub Canon agents is wound infection and later expanded burns the important measures.

  7. The experience of emergency treatment on acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%急性重度口服有机磷农药中毒的急救与体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海燕

    2014-01-01

    目的:总结急性重度口服有机磷农药中毒的急救经验。方法:2011年2月-2013年12月救治急性重度口服有机磷农药中毒患者30例,对其实施救治措施。结果:本组30例患者经过救治,意识转清醒时间(1.83±1.2)天,胆碱酯酶活性恢复时间(3.2±1.6)天,住院时间(7.3±2.6)天。临床疗效:治愈29例,治愈率96.7%,死亡1例,死亡率3.3%。结论:清洗被污染的皮肤,彻底洗胃,眼污染时用微温水、2%碳酸氢钠溶液清洗,导泻,阿托品的应用以及早期足量使用氯磷定等,是急救急性重度口服有机磷农药中毒的重要措施。%Objective:To summary the experience of emergency treatment on acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Methods:30 cases with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were selected from February 2011 to December 2013. They were treated with first aid measures.Results:After treatment,the average time of 30 cases from consciousness turned to clear was(1.83 ± 1.2)days.Cholinesterase recovery time was(3.2 ± 1.6)days.Hospitalization time was(7.3 ± 2.6)days.Clinical curative effect:29 cases were cured,and the cure rate was 96.7%.1 cases died,and the mortality was 3.3%.Conclusion: There are important measures for emergency treatment on acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,including:washing the contaminated skin,complete gastric lavage,If eye pollution cleaning its with lukewarm water and 2% sodium bicarbonate solution,catharsis, atropine application,early and adequate use of pralidoxime chloride poisoning.

  8. Structural equation modeling of pesticide poisoning, depression, safety, and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beseler, Cheryl L; Stallones, Lorann

    2013-01-01

    The role of pesticide poisoning in risk of injuries may operate through a link between pesticide-induced depressive symptoms and reduced engagement in safety behaviors. The authors conducted structural equation modeling of cross-sectional data to examine the pattern of associations between pesticide poisoning, depressive symptoms, safety knowledge, safety behaviors, and injury. Interviews of 1637 Colorado farm operators and their spouses from 964 farms were conducted during 1993-1997. Pesticide poisoning was assessed based on a history of ever having been poisoned. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale was used to assess depressive symptoms. Safety knowledge and safety behaviors were assessed using ten items for each latent variable. Outcomes were safety behaviors and injuries. A total of 154 injuries occurred among 1604 individuals with complete data. Pesticide poisoning, financial problems, health, and age predicted negative affect/somatic depressive symptoms with similar effect sizes; sex did not. Depression was more strongly associated with safety behavior than was safety knowledge. Two safety behaviors were significantly associated with an increased risk of injury. This study emphasizes the importance of financial problems and health on depression, and provides further evidence for the link between neurological effects of past pesticide poisoning on risk-taking behaviors and injury.

  9. 护理干预对急性重度有机磷农药中毒患者的影响%Impact of Nursing Intervention in Patients with Acute Severe Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨利

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the impact of nursing intervention in patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.Methods 60 patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning treated from September 2013 to January 2014 in our hospital were selected and randomly divided into experimental group and control group,30 cases each group.The control group took the first-aid measures associated with conventional nursing;experimental group took the first-aid measures associated with nursing intervention.The nursing ef icacy of two groups was compared.Results The hospitalization time of experimental group was shorter than that of control group;compared with control group,experimental group had more cured cases;the complications of experimental group were fewer than those of control group ( <0.05).Conclusion Implement ef ective nursing interventions can improve acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning survival rate of patients and reduce complications and mortality.%目的研究护理干预对急性重度有机磷农药中毒患者的影响。方法选取我院2013年9月~2014年1月收治60例急性重度有机磷农药中毒患者,根据随机数字表法分为实验组和对照组,每组30例,对照组实施急救配合常规护理;实验组实施急救配合护理干预,比较两组护理效果。结果实验组住院时间短与对照组,其治愈例多于对照组,并发症实验组少于对照组<0.05,具有统计学意义。结论实施有效的护理干预可以提高急性重度有机磷农药中毒患者的抢救成功率,减少并发症及死亡率。

  10. 急性重度有机磷农药中毒患者死亡危险因素分析%Analysis on risk factors of mortality in patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玮艳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the risk factors of mortality in patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Methods Forty-four patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poison were retrospectively analyzed.Various risk factors were statistically evaluated and mortality of patients was compared between groups.Results Hospital mortality in 44 patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning was 22.7%.The mortality was significantly different between APACHE Ⅱ score ≥20 group and APACHE Ⅱ score<20 group (P <0.01),between age ≥ 60 group and age< 60 group (P <0.01),between hypotensive group and non-hypotensive group (P < 0.05 ),between hypoxemia group and non-hypoxemia group (P < 0.05 ),between metabolic acidosis group and non-metabolic acidosis group (P < 0.05 ).Conclusion APACHE Ⅱ score,age, hypotension, hypoxemia, metabolic acidosis may be the risk factors of mortality in patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,and the items can be used to assess the severity of disease and mortality risk in clinic.%目的:探讨急性重度有机磷农药中毒死亡的危险因素。方法回顾性分析急性重度有机磷农药中毒44例患者的临床资料,对各项危险因素进行统计分析,比较患者的病死率。结果44例急性重度有机磷农药中毒患者住院期间病死率22.7%(10/44),其中急性生理学及慢性健康状况评分(APACHE)≥20分和<20分、年龄≥60岁和<60岁、合并低血压和未合并低血压、合并低氧血症和未合并低氧血症、合并代谢性酸中毒和未合并代谢性酸中毒的患者病死率比较,差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05或<0.01)。结论 APACHEⅡ分值、高龄、低血压、低氧血症、代谢性酸中毒可能是急性重度有机磷农药中毒患者死亡的危险因素,在临床中可以用于评估患者病情严重程度与死亡风险。

  11. 急性有机磷农药中毒22例死亡原因分析%Causal analysis of Death in 22 cases with acute organophosphorus pesticids poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志祥; 马福来

    2002-01-01

    @@ 有机磷农药是目前应用最为广泛的农业杀虫剂,有机磷农药急性中毒(acute organophosphorus pesticides poisoning,AOPP)居基层医院内科急诊中毒病例之首,病死率在10%以上[1].我院1996年1月~2000年12月共收治有机磷农药急性中毒154例,死亡22例,病死率为28.3%.本文为了提高抢救成功率,降低病死率,分析如下.

  12. Acute poisoning in children; changes over the years, data of pediatric clinic department of toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alije Keka

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: In our study drugs and house cleaning products are the most frequent agents causing accidental poisoning in children less than 5 years-old, this age of children is the most susceptible in terms of morbidity. Compared with the previous studies in Pediatric Clinic of Pristina, drugs are still the most frequent cause of acute poisoning in children; the number of poisoning with pesticides has fallen but has increased the number of poisoning with cleaning products. All preventive measures against poisoning should be taken including preventive strategies of education at national level especially in drug and household product storage.

  13. Acute iron poisoning. Rescue with macromolecular chelators.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahoney, J R; Hallaway, P E; Hedlund, B E; Eaton, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    Acute iron intoxication is a frequent, sometimes life-threatening, form of poisoning. Present therapy, in severe cases, includes oral and intravenous administration of the potent iron chelator, deferoxamine. Unfortunately, high dose intravenous deferoxamine causes acute hypotension additive with that engendered by the iron poisoning itself. To obviate this problem, we have covalently attached deferoxamine to high molecular weight carbohydrates such as dextran and hydroxyethyl starch. These ma...

  14. Cases of Acute Poisoning in Southeast Anatolia of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahfer Güloğlu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the biological effects of acute poisoning, nature ofagents involved and pattern of poisoning during 2000 in Diyarbakır City in Southeast AnatolianRegion of Turkey.Data from hospital records of all admissions to Emergency Department (ED of Dicle UniversityHospital following acute poisoning collected retrospectively were analysed for the period January toDecember in 2000. Present study included 44 (25.9% male (M and 126 (74.1% female (F, a total170 consecutive patients. A M/F ratio was found as 1.0/3.5 in the study.Mean age of cases was 23.3±6.3 years old; 63 (37.1% of them were under age of 20 years oldand 147 (86.5% of them were under age of 30 years old. Cases of intoxication have admitted insummer season (93 of 170 patients, especially in April, May and July (24, 26 and 30 patients,respectively. Sixty-two (36.5% cases due to accidental, 108 (63.5% cases due to suicidal goal. Thecases of suicidal purposeful intoxications were mostly determined in females (77 cases, 71.3%,p<0.05, and singles (74 cases, 68.5%, p<0.05. There were only two deaths (1.2% among the 170admissions of acute poisonings during hospitaliztion. One of the deaths was due to pesticides; otherone was due to abuse of medical drug. According to physical examination, tachycardia (59, 34.7%,vomit history (55, 32.4%, and unconsciousness (42, 24.7% were frequently observed; however,hypersecretion (15, 8.8%, bradycardia (5, 2.9%, convulsion (8, 4.7%, and hipertension (2, 1.2%,were seen rarely. Cases who poisoned with pesticide compared other cases have had significantlyhigher rate of convulsion (6, 10.2%, miosis (6, 10.2%, and hypersecretion (12, 20.3% (p=0.018,p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively.In our region, pesticides intoxication especially affected to young unmarried females, and mostof them resulted from suicidal purpose. The annual rate of poisoning-related ED visits and mortalitywere within the reported ranges, psychoactive agents being

  15. 急性有机磷农药中毒的院前救治护理%Acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning for treatment of pre-hospital care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽莹; 黄品超; 罗明春

    2012-01-01

      Objective Discussion of severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning in patients with pre-hospital emergency treatment and effective care, to improve the success rate. Methods Retrospective analysis the situation of patients with 25 cases of pre-hospital case management and care in our hospital from May 2010 to December 2011 .Results Getting the victims of organophosphorus intoxication out of the toxic environment in time , patients with early gastric lavage nearby, matching doctors with the application of drug detoxification and nursing, attention to the close observation of the course of delivery , strengthening the psychological care pre-hospitaly is an important guarantee for success.Conclusions Effective pre-hospital treatment and care can improve the survival rate.%  目的探讨急性有机磷农药中毒患者的院前有效救治护理,以提高抢救成功率。方法回顾总结我院2010年5月至2011年12月25例患者的院前救治及护理情况。结果对有机磷农药中毒患者及时脱离中毒环境,早期就近洗胃,配合医生做好解毒药物的应用及护理,运送过程注意密切观察病情,加强心理护理是院前救治成功的重要保证。结论有效的院前救治及护理能提高抢救成功率。

  16. The role of private pesticide vendors in preventing access to pesticides for self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weerasinghe, Manjula; Pearson, Melissa; Peiris, Ravi;

    2014-01-01

    In 15% to 20% of self-poisoning cases, the pesticides used are purchased from shops just prior to ingestion. We explored how pesticide vendors interacted with customers at risk of self-poisoning to identify interventions to prevent such poisonings. Two strategies were specifically discussed......: selling pesticides only to farmers bearing identity cards or customers bearing pesticide 'prescriptions'. Vendors reported refusing to sell pesticides to people thought to be at risk of self-poisoning, but acknowledged the difficulty of distinguishing them from legitimate customers; vendors also stated...

  17. Analysis of Recent Situation of Pesticide Poisoning in Bangladesh: Is There a Proper Estimate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourab Dewan

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Pesticide poisoning is responsible for great number of admissions and deaths in Bangladesh. Creating a register of commercially available pesticides in each region for rapid identification of nature of the pesticide is recommended.

  18. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick Ii, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-10-22

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning.

  19. 急性重度有机磷农药中毒合并呼吸、心跳停止8例临床救治%Clinical treatment of 8 cases of acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning with respiratory,cardiac arrest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩海涛

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨急性重度有机磷农药中毒并呼吸、心跳停止的临床救治。方法:收治8例急性重度有机磷农药中毒并呼吸、心跳停止的患者,对其临床资料进行回顾性分析。结果:患者均抢救成功。结论:给予急性重度有机磷农药中毒并呼吸、心跳停止的患者积极有效的治疗,可促进其康复。%Objective:To explore the clinical treatment of acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning with respiratory, cardiac arrest.Methods:8 cases with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning with respiratory,cardiac arrest were selected.The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed.Results:All the patients were successfully treated.Conclusion:The positive and effective treatment for patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning with respiratory,cardiac arrest,can promote the rehabilitation.

  20. Pesticide poisoning in the developing world--a minimum pesticides list

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eddleston, Michael; Karalliedde, Lakshman; Buckley, Nick;

    2002-01-01

    In parts of the developing world, pesticide poisoning causes more deaths than infectious diseases. Use of pesticides is poorly regulated and often dangerous; their easy availability also makes them a popular method of self-harm. In 1985, the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) produced...... a voluntary code of conduct for the pesticide industry in an attempt to limit the harmful effects of pesticides. Unfortunately, a lack of adequate government resources in the developing world makes this code ineffective, and thousands of deaths continue today. WHO has recommended that access to highly toxic...... pesticides be restricted--where this has been done, suicide rates have fallen. Since an Essential Drugs List was established in 1977, use of a few essential drugs has rationalised drug use in many regions. An analogous Minimum Pesticides List would identify a restricted number of less dangerous pesticides...

  1. Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Fahim; Manuweera, Gamini; Gunnell, David;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self-harm...... the particular pesticide for self-harm were its easy accessibility (n = 311, 46%) or its popularity as a suicide agent in their village (n = 290, 43%). CONCLUSION: Three quarters of people who ingested pesticides in acts of self-harm used products that were available within the home or in close proximity......; relatively few patients purchased the pesticide for the act. The study highlights the importance of reducing the accessibility of toxic pesticides in the domestic environment....

  2. Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddleston Michael

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self-harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. Methods The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an agricultural region of Sri Lanka. Patients who had self-poisoned with pesticides and were admitted to the adult medical wards were interviewed by study doctors following initial resuscitation to identify the source of pesticides they have ingested. Results Of the 669 patients included in the analysis, 425 (63.5% were male; the median age was 26 (IQR 20-36. In 511 (76% cases, the pesticides had been stored either inside or immediately outside the house; among this group only eight patients obtained pesticides that were kept in a locked container. Ten percent (n = 67 of the patients used pesticides stored in the field while 14% (n = 91 purchased pesticides from shops within a few hours of the episode. The most common reasons for choosing the particular pesticide for self-harm were its easy accessibility (n = 311, 46% or its popularity as a suicide agent in their village (n = 290, 43%. Conclusion Three quarters of people who ingested pesticides in acts of self-harm used products that were available within the home or in close proximity; relatively few patients purchased the pesticide for the act. The study highlights the importance of reducing the accessibility of toxic pesticides in the domestic environment.

  3. Acute Poisoning in Children in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Mendonça, Dilton; Menezes, Marta Silva; Matos, Marcos Antônio Almeida; Rebouças, Daniel Santos; Filho, Jucelino Nery da Conceição; de Assis, Reginara Souza; Carneiro, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Acute poisoning is a frequent accident in childhood, particularly in children under 4 years of age. This was a descriptive study with data collected from standardized forms of the Poison Control Center and patient record charts. All the cases of acute poisoning in children aged 0 to 14 years during the period 2008 to 2012 were selected. The variables studied comprised characteristics of the events and toxic agents, clinical development, and outcome. A total of 657 cases of acute poisoning, with higher frequency in the age-group from 1 to 4 years (48.7%) and male sex (53.4%), were recorded. The occurrences were accidental in 92% of the cases, and 5.8% were due to suicide attempts. Among the toxic agents, medications (28.5%), venomous animals (19.3%), nonvenomous animals (10%), household cleaning products (9.0%), and raticide agents (8.7%) predominated. The majority of cases were characterized as light (73.5%) and around 18% required hospitalization, and there was low lethality (0.5%). PMID:27335994

  4. Acute Poisoning in Children in Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Mendonça, Dilton; Menezes, Marta Silva; Matos, Marcos Antônio Almeida; Rebouças, Daniel Santos; Filho, Jucelino Nery da Conceição; de Assis, Reginara Souza; Carneiro, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Acute poisoning is a frequent accident in childhood, particularly in children under 4 years of age. This was a descriptive study with data collected from standardized forms of the Poison Control Center and patient record charts. All the cases of acute poisoning in children aged 0 to 14 years during the period 2008 to 2012 were selected. The variables studied comprised characteristics of the events and toxic agents, clinical development, and outcome. A total of 657 cases of acute poisoning, with higher frequency in the age-group from 1 to 4 years (48.7%) and male sex (53.4%), were recorded. The occurrences were accidental in 92% of the cases, and 5.8% were due to suicide attempts. Among the toxic agents, medications (28.5%), venomous animals (19.3%), nonvenomous animals (10%), household cleaning products (9.0%), and raticide agents (8.7%) predominated. The majority of cases were characterized as light (73.5%) and around 18% required hospitalization, and there was low lethality (0.5%). PMID:27335994

  5. Acute oral poisoning due to chloracetanilide herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Su-Jin; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young; Song, Ho-Yeon; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2012-02-01

    Chloracetanilide herbicides (alachlor, butachlor, metachlor) are used widely. Although there are much data about chronic low dose exposure to chloracetanilide in humans and animals, there are few data about acute chloracetanilide poisoning in humans. This study investigated the clinical feature of patients following acute oral exposure to chloracetanilide. We retrospectively reviewed the data on the patients who were admitted to two university hospitals from January 2006 to December 2010. Thirty-five patients were enrolled. Among them, 28, 5, and 2 cases of acute alachlor, metachlor, butachlor poisoning were included. The mean age was 49.8 ± 15.4 yr. The poison severity score (PSS) was 17 (48.6%), 10 (28.6%), 5 (14.3%), 2 (5.7%), and 1 (2.9%) patients with a PSS of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The age was higher for the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that for the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS) (43.6 ± 15.2 vs 55.7 ± 13.5). The arterial blood HCO₃⁻ was lower in the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that in the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS). Three patients were a comatous. One patient died 24 hr after the exposure. In conclusion, although chloracetanilide poisoning is usually of low toxicity, elder patients with central nervous system symptoms should be closely monitored and cared after oral exposure.

  6. Therapeutic efficacy of hemoperfusion in the treatment of acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%血液灌流在急性重度有机磷农药中毒治疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄杨; 尹文; 郝路; 刘健; 余厚友; 瞿丽娟

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the study was to evaluate the applications and value of hemoperfusion (HP) in the treatment of acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Method Patients who had been di-agnosed with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were selected for the study between January and October 2008. The patients were randomly divided into three groups: A group (HA230-type hemoperfutor), B group (HA330-type hemoperfutor), and C group (control group, without HP treatment). Patients in the three groups underwent the same conventional treatments except for the HP. The curative effect, cholinesterase (CHE) activities and the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β,IL-6, and IL-8 in serum were statisticaUy analyzed. Results The cure rate of the A and B groups was significantly higher than the C group (P≤0.05). The cumulative dosage of at-ropine and average hospitalization days in the C group were significantly higher than the patients in the A and B groups (P <0.01). As well, the CHE activities were obviously up-regulated after the HP h-eatment in A and B groups (P < 0.01). At 24 hours after HP treatment, the level of CHE activities in the B group was much higher than the level in the A group (P≤0.05). Levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 were down-regulated after the HP treatment in the A and B groups (P < 0.01). An internal comparison revealed that the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 were lower in the B group than the A group (P <0.01). Conclusions HP can be used for treating acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning, likely functioning by absorbing poisons from the blood and acting to reduco inflammatory cytokines.%目的 探讨血液灌流在治疗急性重度有机磷农药中毒巾的应用方法和价值.方法选择2008年1月至2008年10月所有符合急件重度有机磷农药中毒诊断标准的急诊住院患者.将行血液灌流治疗的患者,根据应用血液灌流器的不同,随机分A组(HA230

  7. ONE CASE REPORT OF ACUTE POISONING BY BARIUM CARBONATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Qin-min; BIAN Fan; WANG Shu-yun; SHEN Sheng-hui

    2009-01-01

    @@ Most barium poisoning cases were caused by oral intake by mistake. Recent years, barium carbonate poisoning has been rare to be reported. Here we reported a case of acute barium carbonate toxication taken orally on purpose.

  8. [Peripheral neuropathy caused by acute arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Campos, J; Ramos-Peek, J; Martínez-Barros, M; Zamora-Peralta, M; Martínez-Cerrato, J

    1998-01-01

    Although peripheral neuropathy is a fairly common finding in chronic arsenic poisoning, little is known about the acute effects of this metal on peripheral nerves. This report shows clinical and electrophysiological findings in a patient who developed peripheral neuropathy only three days after a high-dose ingestion of this metal due to a failed suicide attempt. We speculate that peripheral nerves and some cranial nerves can show not only clinical but also subclinical involvement that can only be detected by neurophysiological studies.

  9. Risk factors associated with purchasing pesticide from shops for self-poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weerasinghe, Manjula; Konradsen, Flemming; Eddleston, Michael;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pesticide self-poisoning is one of the most frequently used methods of suicide worldwide, killing over 300,000 people annually. Around 15-20% of pesticide self-poisonings occur soon after the person has bought the pesticide from a shop. We aim to determine the characteristics...... will be used for this study: a semistructured questionnaire, Beck Suicidal Intent Scale (SIS), Clinical Interview Schedule-Sinhalese version (CIS-Sn) and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Each case (expected n=33) will be compared with two groups of individuals: (1) those who have self......-poisoned using pesticides from the home, home garden or farmland and (2) those who bought pesticides from the same shops as the above cases, but not did not self-poison. Logistic regression models will be used to identify risk factors of purchasing pesticides for self-poisoning from shops. ETHICS...

  10. Therapeutic effect of Penehyclidine Hydrochloride to rescue severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%长托宁抢救重度有机磷农药中毒疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘嗣庭

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较观察阿托品和盐酸戊乙奎醚(商品名:长托宁)分别用于重度有机磷中毒(acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,AOPP)抢救的疗效.方法:选掸60例重度AOPP患者,随机分成长托宁+氯解磷定组(P组)及阿托品+氯解磷定组(A组),各30例,两组基础治疗相同,P组肌注长托宁4~6 mg,氯磷定2.0~3.0 g静脉注射;A组给予阿托品首剂10~20 mg静脉注射后间断维持,同时氯磷定2.0~3.0 g静脉注射,观察记录两组患者毒蕈碱样症状消失时间、烟碱样症状消失时间、中枢神经系统症状消失时间及胆碱酯酶活力恢复60%时间,统计各组治愈率、住院时间及严重并发症发生率,观察药物不良反应发生情况.结果:P组患者蕈碱样症状消失时间、烟碱样症状消失时间、中枢神经系统症状消失时间及胆碱酯酶活力恢复60%时间均低于A组(P<0.05),P组胆碱酯酶活力恢复明显较A组快,P组治愈率高于A组(P<0.05),P组住院时间较A组缩短,严重并发症发生率及药物不良反应发生率P组均低于A组(P<0.05).结论:长托宁能有效缓解重度AOPP症状,促进胆碱酯酶活力恢复,不良反应少,是较阿托品更为理想的重度AOPP治疗药物.%Objective: To compare the therapeutic effect of Atropine and Penehyclidine Hydrochloride used for severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). Methods: 30 cases of severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were selected and divided into Penehyclidine Hydrochloride + Pyraloxime Chloride group (group P) and Atropine + Pyraloxime Chloride group (group A) randomly. The same basic treatment was given, 4-6 mg Penehyclidine Hydrochloride im and 2.0-3.0 g Pyraloxime Chloride iv for group P, 10-20 mg initial dose of Atropine iv and 2.0-3.0 g Pyraloxime Chloride iv for group A. Then extinction time of M sample, extinction time of N sample, extinction time of CNS sample and time of recovery 60% ChE activity were observed

  11. Gastric lavage in patients with acute poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Amigó Tadín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisonings are a frequent complaint in emergency departments and therapy which prevents the absorption of toxic products taken orally is often indicated: one such option is gastric lavage. Gastric lavage is a digestive decontamination technique whose goal is to remove the maximum amount of poison from the stomach and prevent its absorption. The procedure involves inserting a gastric tube into the stomach through the mouth or nose; firstly to aspirate all the stomach contents and then to perform gastric washing manoeuvres. The effectiveness of gastric lavage is limited and involves a risk of iatrogenesis, and therefore the indications and contraindications should be carefully considered and the technique carried out meticulously to increase its effectiveness and reduce complications, primarily bronchoaspiration. Gastric lavage may be used in conjunction with other digestive decontamination techniques such as administration of activated charcoal. This gastric lavage protocol is based on a review of the literature on this procedure and is supported by the expertise of our research group in gastrointestinal decontamination techniques in patients with acute poisoning.

  12. Pesticide poisoning and neurobehavioral function among farm workers in Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujun; Wu, Ming; Yao, Hongyan; Yang, Yaming; Cui, Mengjing; Tu, Zhibin; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides remain an integral part of agricultural activities worldwide. Although there have been a number of studies over the last two decades concerning the adverse effects of pesticide poisoning and chronic long term exposures on neurobehavioral function, the impact of recent pesticide poisoning and long term pesticide exposure on neurobehavioral function in Chinese farm workers has not been reported. China is the largest user of pesticides worldwide and figures suggest 53,300-123,000 Chinese people are poisoned every year. A case control study was conducted to examine the impact of recent pesticide poisoning on neurobehavioral function and the relationship between years worked in agriculture and lower performance on neurobehavioral tests. A total of 121 farm workers who self-reported recent pesticide poisonings within the previous 12 months (case group) and 80 farm workers who reported no pesticide poisoning in the previous 12 months (control group) were recruited from three areas of Jiangsu Province, China. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended neurobehavioral core test battery (NCTB) was used to assess neurobehavioral functioning among cases and controls. Student's t tests and two-way covariance analysis (ANCOVA) were used to test for significant differences in the neurobehavioral test results between the groups. Scores on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in the recently poisoned group were significantly higher for anger-hostility, depression-dejection, tension-anxiety and lower for vigor-activity compared to controls (p pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral functioning in Chinese farm workers. PMID:26475098

  13. Acute poisoning in children; changes over the years, data of pediatric clinic department of toxicology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keka Alije; Ramosaj A; Toro H; Azemi M; Baloku A; Sylaj B; Lenjani B; Kyseni K

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To present the frequency, etiology, changes over the years of acute poisoning in children admitted toPediatricClinic ofPristina and to determine the extent and characteristics of the problem, according to which related preventive measures can be taken.Methods:Retrospectively we have analyzed the epidemiology of accidental and suicidal poisonings in children hospitalization inPediatricClinicDepartment ofToxicology during the year2012. Our data we compared with data from previous studies on acute poisoning in children in the PediatricClinic conducted during the years1976-1985 and2001.Results:During the year2012, inPediatricClinic ofPristina5723 children were hospitalized,136 of them or2.3% were treated due to acute poisoning inDepartment ofToxicology,82 of them was boys and54 was girls, rate boys girls was1.5:1.The majority of cases101 or74.2% were under five years with peak age three and35% or25.7% were over five years.The most of the cases was accidentally97% and only 2.9% was suicidal and all of them were over the age of ten.Drugs were the most common agent causing the poisoning71(52.2%) followed by house cleaning products38(27.9%), food10(5.8%), pesticides7(5.14%), rare agent that caused poisoning were: narcotic substances, plant, heavy metals, alcohol, carbon monoxide, carburant.Poisoning occurred mostly in spring and the peak was observed inMay,(1.17% of all patients).January was the month of lowest rate of poisoning. During the years1976-1985, inPediatricClinic ofPristina900 children were hospitalized due to acute poisoning,44.11% were from drugs,15.88% from pesticides,65(7.2%), while during2001 in the unit care intensive were hospitalized66 children due to acute poisoning, among them51.5% were poisoning from drugs,30.03 from pesticides,12.2% from cleaning products.Conclusion:In our study drugs and house cleaning products are the most frequent agents causing accidental poisoning in children less than5 years-old, this age of children is the most

  14. Acute Anterolateral Myocardial Infarction Due to Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Bita Dadpour; Zohre Oghabian

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a highly effective rodenticide which is used as a suicide poison. Herein, a 24 year-old man who’d intentionally ingested about 1liter of alcohol and one tablet of AlP is reported. Acute myocardial infarction due to AlP poisoning has been occurred secondary to AIP poisoning. Cardiovascular complications are poor prognostic factors in AlP poisoning

  15. Acute Anterolateral Myocardial Infarction Due to Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Dadpour

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum phosphide (AlP is a highly effective rodenticide which is used as a suicide poison. Herein, a 24 year-old man who’d intentionally ingested about 1liter of alcohol and one tablet of AlP is reported. Acute myocardial infarction due to AlP poisoning has been occurred secondary to AIP poisoning. Cardiovascular complications are poor prognostic factors in AlP poisoning

  16. Acute aluminium phosphide poisoning, what is new?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatendra Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide that is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently generated interest with increasing number of cases in the past four decades because of its increased use for agricultural and nonagricultural purposes, and also its easy availability in the markets has led to its increased misuse to commit suicide. Ingestion is usually suicidal in intent, uncommonly accidental and rarely homicidal. The poison affects all systems, shock, cardiac arrhythmias with varied ECG changes and gastrointestinal features being the most prominent. Diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical suspicion, a positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination of coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Unfortunately, the lack of a specific antidote Results in very high mortality and the key to treatment lies in rapid decontamination and institution of resuscitative measures. This article aims to identify the salient features and mechanism of AlP poisoning along with its management strategies and prognostic variables.

  17. 阿托品救治有机磷中毒不同给药途径的疗效比较%Study on Atropine Administration Methods in Rescuing Patients with Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄新桥; 谭琪敏; 钟房友; 钟丽娴

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of different atropine medications in remedy of severely acute organophosphorus pesticide. Methods A retrospective study were performed.This study was carried out in 75 patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. The patients were divided into three groups according atropine medications: Group A(25 cases), were treated with intravenous injection of atropine and artificial; Group B(25 cases)directly with micro pump delivery, Group C(25 cases)achieved using micro-pump after atropine administration patients are atropine artificial intravenous injection, the patient achieved using micro-pump after atropine administration; Compared the efficacy and complications among the three groups. Results There is significant difference between minim continuous pump after atropine administration and interval injecting or minim continuous pump. As a result, the patients in Group C were more effective and fewer complications than that in Group A and C. Conclusion Using micro-pump after atropine administration artificial intravenous injection of atropine was the better effect, it has proved to be a fine medication.%目的:分析基层医院救治有机磷中毒患者时,阿托品不同给药方式的疗效差异,为探索其最佳给药方法提供依据。方法回顾分析75例急性有机磷农药中毒患者的临床资料,25例进行人工间歇静脉推注阿托品法(A 组),25例采用微量泵持续静脉输注阿托品法(B 组,25例先间歇静脉推注阿托品,达阿托品化后再用微量泵泵入阿托品(C 组),分析比较三组阿托品化时间、用量、住院时间、疗效以及不良反应和并发症。结果 C 组阿托品化时间、用量、住院时间、阿托品过量、不足中毒、用量、尿潴留和多器官功能损害等明显降低而治愈率显著提高(P <0.05)。结论采用阿托品人工静脉推注,待患者阿托品化再予以微量泵给药,不仅起效

  18. Factors associated with the decline in suicide by pesticide poisoning in Taiwan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Eddleston, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Pesticide self-poisoning accounts for one-third of suicides worldwide, but few studies have investigated the national epidemiology of pesticide suicide in countries where it is a commonly used method. We investigated trends in pesticide suicide, and factors associated with such trends...... of the workforce involved in agriculture and unemployment. We compared pesticide products banned by the Taiwanese government with products that remained on the market and pesticides that accounted for the most poisoning deaths in Taiwan. Results. Age-standardised rates of pesticide suicide showed a 67% reduction...... from 7.7 per 100,000 (42% of all suicides) in 1987 to 2.5 per 100,000 (12% of all suicides) in 2010, in contrast to a 69% increase in suicide rates by other methods. Pesticide poisoning was the most commonly used method of suicide in 1987 but had become the third most common method by 2010...

  19. 江苏省农村居民急性生产性农药中毒调查及危险因素%Investigation of work-related acute pesticide poisoning among farmers in Jiangsu Province and the risk factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔梦晶; 涂志斌; 顾月; 张徐军

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence of work-related acute pesticide poisoning among farmers in Jiangsu Province and to identify the risk factors.Methods Multi-stage stratified sampling and cluster sampling methods were used to randomly select 1490 farmers from the south (Z village),centre (Y village) and north (X village) of Jiangsu Province.The database was established by EpiData 3.1.SPSS 17.0 and SAS 9.13 were used to do chi-square test,trend chi-square test,single factor and multi-factor logistic regression analysis.Results Among 1490 farmers,121 people had work-related acute pesticide poisoning in the past year.The incidence rate in Jiangsu Province was 8.1%.118 farmers (97.5%) were mild pesticide poisoning.3 farmers (2.5%) were moderate pesticide poisoning.The incidence rate of Work-related acute pesticide poisoning in X village of North Jiangsu Province (13.5%,68/505) is obviously higher than that in Y village of Central Jiangsu Province(4.8%,19/399) and Z village of South Jiangsu Province(5.8%,34/586),and the difference is statistically significant (x2=29.60,P<0.01).The incidence rate of Work-related acute pesticide poisoning in female (10.4%,58/557) is obviously higher than that in male (6.8%,63/933),and the difference is statistically significant (x2 =6.26,P<0.05).There are lack of safety guidance,unsafety application methods (without alternate row spraying,without backward application,without down-wind application) and risk behaviors in the spraying (without read labels,preparing pesticides without gloves,wiping sweat with hand (s),equipment leakage,body pollution by pesticide,working when feeling sick,without bath after work).If farmers have risk behaviors above,the incidence rate of Work-related acute pesticide poisoning will be obviously higher than farmers who receive safety guidance and have no such dangerous behaviors,and all the differences are statistically significant (P<0.05).The group of 24~34 years old has the highest

  20. Arsenic pesticides and environmental pollution: exposure, poisoning, hazards and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Mohammad, Amina El-Hosini; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-08-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid element. Acute high-dose exposure to arsenic can cause severe systemic toxicity and death. Lower dose chronic arsenic exposure can result in subacute toxicity that can include peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, skin eruptions, and hepatotoxicity. Long-term effects of arsenic exposure include an in Due to the physiologic effects of the arsenic on all body systems, thus, chronic arsenic-poisoned patient is a major nursing challenge. The critical care nurse provides valuable assessment and interventions that prevent major multisystem complications from arsenic toxicity.

  1. The global distribution of fatal pesticide self-poisoning: systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnell, David; Eddleston, Michael; Phillips, Michael R;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence is accumulating that pesticide self-poisoning is one of the most commonly used methods of suicide worldwide, but the magnitude of the problem and the global distribution of these deaths is unknown. METHODS: We have systematically reviewed the worldwide literature to estimate...... the number of pesticide suicides in each of the World Health Organisation's six regions and the global burden of fatal self-poisoning with pesticides. We used the following data sources: Medline, EMBASE and psycINFO (1990-2007), papers cited in publications retrieved, the worldwide web (using Google) and our...... personal collections of papers and books. Our aim was to identify papers enabling us to estimate the proportion of a country's suicides due to pesticide self-poisoning. RESULTS: We conservatively estimate that there are 258,234 (plausible range 233,997 to 325,907) deaths from pesticide self...

  2. 急性有机磷农药中毒致呼吸衰竭的影响因素分析%Study on correlated clinical factors of respiratory failure induced by acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶贤洲; 王佐

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析急性有机磷农药中毒( AOPP)致呼吸衰竭的相关临床因素,为制订有效的预防及干预措施提供科学依据。方法回顾分析94例重性AOPP患者临床资料,根据血气分析结果将患者分为呼吸衰竭组(41例)和非呼吸衰竭组(53例),观察患者的APACHEⅡ评分、胆碱酯酶、血糖、血清淀粉酶、肝肾功能及心肌酶谱等指标。结果胆碱酯酶水平呼吸衰竭组患者低于非呼吸衰竭组患者(P<0.05);APACHEⅡ评分、血清淀粉酶、肝肾功能及心肌酶谱等,呼吸衰竭组患者高于非呼吸衰竭组患者(P<0.05);Logistic回归分析显示APACHEⅡ评分、胆碱酯酶及血清淀粉酶与呼吸衰竭相关。结论 APACHEⅡ评分、胆碱酯酶及血清淀粉酶水平可作为AOPP引起呼吸衰竭的预测指标。%Objective To investigate the correlated clinical factors of respiratory failure induced by acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning ( AOPP) ,and to provide relevant data for prevention and intervention of respiratory failure .Methods This retrospective study in-cluded 94 patients with severe AOPP ,and all patients were divided into respiratory failure group ( n=41 ) and non-respiratory failure group (n=53) according to arterial blood gas analysis .We observed APACHEⅡscores,cholinesterase,blood glucose,serum amylase,hepatic func-tion,renal function and myocardial enzyme between the two groups .Results Cholinesterase level in the respiratory failure group was lower than that in non-respiratory failure group (P<0.05);APACHEⅡ scores,serum amylase,hepatic function,renal function and myocardial enzyme in the respiratory failure group were higher than those of non-respiratory failure group (P<0.05).Spearman correlation analysis and Logistic regression analyses showed APACHEⅡscores,cholinesterase and serum amylase were related to respiratory failure ,and they had sig-nificant predictive effects on respiratory failure

  3. Acute human self-poisoning with imidacloprid compound: a neonicotinoid insecticide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahim Mohamed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Deliberate self-poisoning with older pesticides such as organophosphorus compounds are commonly fatal and a serious public health problem in the developing world. The clinical consequences of self-poisoning with newer pesticides are not well described. Such information may help to improve clinical management and inform pesticide regulators of their relative toxicity. This study reports the clinical outcomes and toxicokinetics of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid following acute self-poisoning in humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Demographic and clinical data were prospectively recorded in patients with imidacloprid exposure in three hospitals in Sri Lanka. Blood samples were collected when possible for quantification of imidacloprid concentration. There were 68 patients (61 self-ingestions and 7 dermal exposures with exposure to imidacloprid. Of the self-poisoning patients, the median time to presentation was 4 hours (IQR 2.3-6.0 and median amount ingested was 15 mL (IQR 10-50 mL. Most patients only developed mild symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, headache and diarrhoea. One patient developed respiratory failure needing mechanical ventilation while another was admitted to intensive care due to prolonged sedation. There were no deaths. Median admission imidacloprid concentration was 10.58 ng/L; IQR: 3.84-15.58 ng/L, Range: 0.02-51.25 ng/L. Changes in the concentration of imidacloprid in serial blood samples were consistent with prolonged absorption and/or saturable elimination. CONCLUSIONS: Imidacloprid generally demonstrates low human lethality even in large ingestions. Respiratory failure and reduced level of consciousness were the most serious complications, but these were uncommon. Substitution of imidacloprid for organophosphorus compounds in areas where the incidence of self-poisoning is high may help reduce deaths from self-poisoning.

  4. Acute tramadol poisoning and its clinical and laboratory findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Shadnia, Shahin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic with opioid and nonopioid properties, which extensively used in the relief of mild to moderate pain. Tramadol poisoning is a common cause of acute pharmaceutical poisoning in Iran. There are a few studies about clinical and laboratory findings related to acute tramadol poisoning. Therefore, the aim of this study was to demonstrate the clinical and laboratory findings in tramadol acute poisoning cases. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study of patients with acute tramadol poisoning who referred to Loghman Hakim Hospital Poison Center during January to April 2012. Data such as patient's age, sex, time of ingestion, ingested dose, cause of poisoning, mean duration of hospitalization, patient's clinical presentations, laboratory findings, therapeutic measures, and patient's outcome have collected in a predesigned checklist. Results: A total of 144 patients including 111 men (77%) and 33 women (23%) with acute tramadol poisoning was included in this study. The mean ingested dose was 1971.2 mg (100-20000 mg). Seizure (47.91%) was the most frequent clinical symptom. Blood gas on admission showed pH (7.3 ± 0.1), PCO2 (49.7 ± 8.6 mmHg) and HCO3− (24.1 ± 3.8 mEq/L), indicating pure acute respiratory acidosis may be occurred in tramadol-intoxicated patients. There were significant differences between tramadol-intoxicated cases with and without a seizure with regard to the time interval between ingestion and admission on hospital, ingested dose and PCO2. Conclusion: Seizure and rise of PCO2 were the most findings in this study. PMID:25535500

  5. Analysis of characteristics of acute poisoning caused by various poisons in Guangxi, China%广西各类毒物致急性中毒分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡德宏; 张振明; 刘清华; 蒋东方

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics of acute poisonings caused by various poisons in Guangxi,China.Methods A retrospective investigation was performed in 5859 cases of acute poisonings who were admitted to 63 hospitals in 11 cities,as well as 531 types of poisons involved.The poisons were categorized into 6 groups; each group of cases was stratified by the rural or urban settings,frequency of poisoning,and cause of poisoning to analyze the numbers of cases and constituent ratios.Results Most types of poisons (68.74%) belonged to drugs (217 types) and pesticides (148 types).Most cases of poisonings (61.63%) were caused by pesticides (n=2547) and chemicals (n=1064).Pesticides,poisons of plant origins,and poisons of animal origins were responsible for most of the cases in rural settings; 88.46%,79.10%,and 66.74% of the cases of these poison categories happened in rural settings.Chemicals,drugs,and other poisons were responsible for most of the cases in urban settings; 70.20%,61.74%,and 63.73% of the cases of these poison categories happened in urban settings.The numbers of cases in 5-year-poisoning groups were the highest in all categories of poisons,accounting for 85.24%,88.57%,55.16%,70.79%,68.36%,and 66.44% of cases of respective categories.Most cases of poisonings by chemicals,poisons of animal origin,and other poisons were accident-related (86.24%,72.66%,and 46.71% of the poison categories).Most cases of poisonings by pesticides and drugs were suiciderelated (59.39% and 33.52% of the poison categories).Most cases by poisons of plant origin were caused by accidental ingestion (70.36% of the poison category).Conclusion Most of the acute poisonings in Guangxi area are caused by pesticides and chemicals; the most common causes of poisoning are accidents,accidental ingestion,and suicide.There are significant differences in the causes of acute poisonings between the urban and rural settings.%目的 探讨广西各类毒

  6. Emergency care outcomes of acute chemical poisoning cases in Rawalpindi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrar Rafique; Umbreen Akhtar; Umar Farooq; Mussadiq Khan; Junaid Ahmad Bhatti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the emergency care outcomes of acute chemical poisoning cases in tertiary care settings in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods: The data were extracted from an injury surveillance study conducted in the emergency departments (ED) of three tertiary care hospitals of Rawalpindi city from July 2007 to June 2008. The World Health Organization standard reporting questionnaire (one page) was used for recording information. Associations of patients' characteristics with ED care outcomes, i.e., admitted vs. discharged were assessed using logistic regression models. Results: Of 62 530 injury cases reported, chemical poisoning was identified in 434 (0.7%) cases. The most frequent patient characteristics were poisoning at home (61.9%), male gender (58.6%), involving self-harm (46.0%), and youth aged 20–29 years (43.3%). Over two-thirds of acute poisoning cases (69.0%) were admitted. Acute poisoning cases were more likely to be admitted if they were youth aged 10–19 years [odds ratio (OR)=4.41], when the poisoning occurred at home (OR=21.84), and was related to self-harm (OR=18.73) or assault (OR=7.56). Conclusions: Findings suggest that controlling access of poisonous substances in youth and at homes might reduce related ED care burden. Safety promotion agencies and emergency physicians can use these findings to develop safety messages.

  7. Acute Pancreatitis Caused By Mushroom Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Karahan, Samet; Erden, Abdulsamet; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avci, Deniz; Ortakoyluoglu, Adile Irfan; Karagoz, Hatice; BULUT, Kadir; Basak, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Of the more than 5000 species of mushrooms known, 100 types are toxic and approximately 10% of these toxic types can cause fatal toxicity. A type of mushroom called Amanita phalloides is responsible for 95% of toxic mushroom poisonings. In this article, we report 2 cases of mushroom poisonings caused by Lactarius volemus, known as Tirmit by the local people. The patient and his wife were admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting 20 hours after consuming Lactariu...

  8. A CLINICAL PROFILE OF ACUTE POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaddadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 100 patients were studied to know the common poisons, age, sex, clinical manifestations, response to treatment, motive behind the consumption and prognostic factors. Out of 100 cases, most of them committed this with suicidal intention, 21 - 30 age group, males, insecticide poison consumed were affected. 70% of them had domestic problems as the main reason to commit this extreme step. Those who reached early to the hospital had recovered well with a mortality rate of 7%.

  9. CLINICAL STUDY OF ACUTE POISONING: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : OBJECTIVES: To determine the common agents, clinical features and outcomes of acute poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of patients of acute poisoning of more than 14 years age admitted through emergency with a history of intentional, self-inflicted and suicidal poisoning in SRMS-IMS from Jan 2010 to Dec 2012. RESULTS: A total of 58 cases were included with a common age of affection 16 to 25 years and male to female ratio 1.63: 1. Poisoning cases occur throughout the year with maximum prevalence in May and minimum in June. Organophosphorus was the most common poison followed by aluminium phosphide. Vomiting was the most common symptoms followed by altered sensorium. 70.68% patients were discharged, 20.68% expired and 8.62% left against medical advice. Aluminium phosphide was the most common toxin consumed by dead patients. CONCLUSION: Acute poisoning is commonly affecting young population and is caused by variety of toxin. High mortality is associated with aluminum phosphide.

  10. Poisoning of animals in the Los Angeles area with pesticides during 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddy, K T; Winter, J

    1980-12-01

    During 1977, there were 289 pesticide exposure incidents involving animals that were handled by the Thomas J. Fleming Memorial Poison Information Center in Los Angeles. Almost all of this service was provided to veterinarians and most of the incidents involved dogs. Cases handled by this center are considered typical for small animal practices in urban areas of California. Ingestion was the major route of exposure. As recently as 10 years ago, arsenic, strychnine, and phosphorus were major causes of such poisonings. During 1977, the n-methylcarbamates (27%), anticoagulants (19%), and organo-phosphates (15%) were the major pesticides involved in exposure incidents. Lesser percentages of cases attributed to a specific chemical included: Vacor (5%), metaldehyde (4%), chlorinated hydrocarbons (4%), and arsenicals (4%). A variety of other pesticides, classified as miscellaneous, were also involved in poisonings to a lesser extent.

  11. Acute Pancreatitis in the Course of Meprobamate Poisoning

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    Neila Fathallah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Context We report a case of massive poisoning with meprobamate leading to acute pancreatitis. Case report A 43-year-old patient with a history of schizophrenia and multiple suicide attempts was admitted to the intensive care unit for severe poisoning with meprobamate (voluntary ingestion of 60 g. On admission, the patient was deeply comatose with low blood pressure and hypothermia. Laboratory analysis revealed leukocytosis and high lipase and amylase serum levels. There was no eosinophilia. Abdominal computed tomography showed pancreatitis grade A. The patient was intubated and ventilated, and intravenous dopamine was infused. The patient regained consciousness and was extubated five days later. Improvement in pancreatic tests was noted several days later. The outcome was favorable. Discussion According to the Naranjo probability scale, meprobamate-induced acute pancreatitis was probable. Acute pancreatitis in meprobamate poisoning is exceptional. The pathogenesis of pancreatitis-induced meprobamate poisoning may be explained by two mechanisms: stimulation of pancreatic secretion secondary to cholinergic activation and pancreatic ductal hypertension. Conclusions The signs of severe meprobamate toxicity are numerous including cardiovascular and central nervous symptoms. Acute pancreatitis should also be added as a possible manifestation of meprobamate poisoning.

  12. Relationship Between Acute Benzodiazepine Poisoning and Acute Pancreatitis Risk: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Geng-Wang; Hung, Dong-Zong; Chen, Wei-Kung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, I-Ching; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-12-01

    We designed a population-based retrospective cohort study to investigate the association between the event of benzodiazepine (BZD) poisoning and the risk of acute pancreatitis.In the present study, 12,893 patients with BZD poisoning during 2000 to 2011 were enrolled and matched with 4 comparison patients according to mean age and sex. We determined the cumulative incidences and adjusted hazard ratios of acute pancreatitis.A significant association was observed between BZD poisoning and acute pancreatitis. After adjustment for potential risk factors, the patients with BZD poisoning had a 5.33-fold increased risk of acute pancreatitis compared with the controls without BZD poisoning (HR = 5.33, 95% CI = 2.26-12.60). The results revealed that acute pancreatitis in patients with BZD poisoning occurred in a follow-up time of ≤1 month (HR = 50.0, P pancreatitis was no different between the patients with and without BZD poisoning when the follow-up time was >1 month (HR = 1.07, P > .05).This population-based study revealed the positive correlation between the event of BZD poisoning and an increased risk of acute pancreatitis. The findings warrant further large-scale and in-depth investigation.

  13. Confirmed organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisonings in South African wildlife (2009–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo J. Botha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During a six-year period (from January 2009 to December 2014, specimens collected from 344 cases of suspected organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisonings in wildlife, including birds, were submitted to the Toxicology Laboratory (ARC-OVI for analysis. A positive diagnosis was made in 135 (39% of these cases. The majority of cases were from birds, which included Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres and African white-backed vultures (Gyps africanus and bateleur eagles (Terathopius ecaudatus. In one incident 49 vultures were killed when a farmer intentionally laced carcasses with carbofuran in an attempt to control jackal predation. There were 22 incidents of poisoning in helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris. On nine different occasions blue cranes (Anthropoides paradiseus were poisoned, in one incident 14 birds were reported to have been killed. Over the period of investigation, there were 20 cases of poisoning involving mammalian species, the majority being vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus. The carbamate pesticides were responsible for 57 incidents of poisoning. Aldicarb, carbofuran and methomyl were detected in 26, 18 and 12 cases respectively. The majority of organophosphorus pesticide poisonings were caused by diazinon (n = 19, monocrotophos (n = 13 and methamidophos (n = 10.

  14. Spectrum of Acute Pharmaceutical and Chemical Poisoning in Northern Bangladesh

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    Devendranath Sarkar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute poisoning is a major public health problem in Bangladesh. It is a common method for suicide. A clear picture regarding clinical presentation, most commonly used toxic agents, background factors and outcome of poisoned patients is necessary in every region. The aim of this study was to investigate frequency and outcome of acute pharmaceutical and chemical poisoning cases in Northern Bangladesh. Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study on poisoned patients with 18 years of age and above who were admitted to Rangpur Medical College Hospital during 1st December 2011 to 30th November 2012. Results: During the study period, a total of 956 patients were investigated. Males slightly outnumbered females (51.6%. The majority of patients (92% were in the 18-40 year age-group. Regarding occupation, housewives were the most frequent (33.6% followed by farmers (31.7% and students (20.9%. Organophosphate compounds (OPC were the most commonly used toxic agents (73.5%. Most of poisoning cases occurred following suicidal attempts (88%. Familial disharmony was the main cause of suicidal attempts (92.3%. Univariate Analysis showed that age less than 40 years, being married, living in rural areas and educational attainment below secondary level were significantly associated with an increased risk of poisoning (P

  15. Pre-hospital treatment of acute poisonings in Oslo

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    Nore Anne K

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poisoned patients are often treated in and discharged from pre-hospital health care settings. Studies of poisonings should therefore not only include hospitalized patients. Aims: To describe the acutely poisoned patients treated by ambulance personnel and in an outpatient clinic; compare patients transferred to a higher treatment level with those discharged without transfer; and study the one-week mortality after pre-hospital discharge. Methods A one-year multi-centre study with prospective inclusion of all acutely poisoned patients ≥ 16 years of age treated in ambulances, an outpatient clinic, and hospitals in Oslo. Results A total of 3757 health service contacts from 2997 poisoning episodes were recorded: 1860 were treated in ambulances, of which 15 died and 750 (40% were discharged without transfer; 956 were treated in outpatient clinic, of which 801 (84% were discharged without transfer; and 941 episodes were treated in hospitals. Patients discharged alive after ambulance treatment were mainly poisoned by opiates (70%, were frequently comatose (35%, had respiratory depression (37%, and many received naloxone (49%. The majority of the patients discharged from the outpatient clinic were poisoned by ethanol (55%, fewer were comatose (10%, and they rarely had respiratory depression (4%. Among the hospitalized, pharmaceutical poisonings were most common (58%, 23% were comatose, and 7% had respiratory depression. Male patients comprised 69% of the pre-hospital discharges, but only 46% of the hospitalized patients. Except for one patient, who died of a new heroin overdose two days following discharge from an ambulance, there were no deaths during the first week after the poisonings in the 90% of the pre-hospital discharged patients with known identity. Conclusion More than half of the poisoned patients treated in pre-hospital treatment settings were discharged without transfer to higher levels. These poisonings were more often

  16. Cardiovascular Effects of Acute Organophosphate Poisoning

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    Shankar Laudari

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion:Cardiac effects of OP poisoning can be life-threatening. Prompt diagnosis, early supportive and definitive therapies with atropine and oximes along with vigilant monitoring of the patients for prominent cardiac effects such as QT prolongation, VT or VF during hospital stay can definitely save lives of the victims.

  17. Intoxicación por plaguicidas Pesticide poisoning

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    A. Ferrer

    2003-01-01

    or by their chemical family (organochlorates, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, Bipyridilium compounds, inorganic salts…. All of them are biocides, which normally implies a high toxicity for humans, which has been a cause for concern since the mid-XX century due to the widespread and indiscriminate use of these products. Exposure to pesticides can have effects that are acute, chronic and long-term. Some organochlorate compounds (such as DDT were the first to be used in massive fumigations to fight malaria and have had to be banned because of their capacity for bioaccumulation and environmental persistence. The danger represented by the widespread presence of these agents has been demonstrated in numerous episodes of human toxic epidemics, producers of a high morbidity/mortality, described for nearly all chemical families: organochlorate insecticides and fungicides, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, organomercurial fungicides and inorganic salts. These episodes have above all been caused through the ingestion of foodstuffs and in the occupational field. Other causes of health concern are their carcinogenic capacity and occasional reproductive alterations. The principal characteristics of some of the most relevant families are presented.

  18. Profile of acute poisoning in three health districts of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kasule

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study sought to characterise acute poisoning cases seen in three health districts of Botswana.Method: A retrospective review of patients’ records was conducted and included patients treated from January 2004 to December 2005. Data on the demographic status of the patients, information about the poisonous agent(s involved, and the circumstances and outcomes of the poisoning incidents were recorded on a pre-tested data collection form.Results: A total of 590 cases of acute poisoning were included in the analysis. The most affected age category was that of children aged less than six years, who constituted 33.4% of the cases. Most incidents were recorded in the urban district of Gaborone. Seventy-eight percent (78% of the incidents were accidental, with the remainder being intentional. The poisonous agents involved were pharmaceuticals (26.6%, natural toxins (25.6%, household products (14.6%, foods (14.4%, alcohol (6.9%, traditional medicines (4.7%, unspecified agents (3.2%, and agrochemicals (2.7%. The most common route of poison exposure was by oral (82.2%, followed by dermal contact (16.5%, while the inhalation of gases occurred in 1.2% of cases. An incidence rate of 4.7/1000, a case fatality rate of 3.8/100, and 1.5% of deaths were recorded over the two-year period.Conclusion: In conclusion, it can be stated that acute poisoning involved mainly young children and resulted in an incidence rate of 4.7/1000, a case fatality rate of 3.8/100, and 1.5% of deaths over the two-year period. There were differences based on age category, gender and residence of the victims, the types of toxic agents involved, as well as the circumstances and the outcomes of the poisoning incidents. Given the fact that pharmaceuticals, natural toxins, household products and foods were the agents most commonly involved, targeted interventions should take these differences into account in addressing the problem of acute poisoning.

  19. A community-based cluster randomised trial of safe storage to reduce pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, Melissa; Konradsen, Flemming; Gunnell, David;

    2011-01-01

    Background The WHO recognises pesticide poisoning to be the single most important means of suicide globally. Pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health and clinical problem in rural Asia, where it has led to case fatality ratios 20-30 times higher than self-poisoning in the developed world...... a lockable safe storage container for agrochemicals. The primary outcome will be incidence of pesticide self-poisoning over three years amongst individuals aged 14 years and over. 217,944 person years of follow-up are required in each arm to detect a 33% reduction in pesticide self-poisoning with 80% power...... partnership between provincial health services, local and international researchers, and local communities. We discuss issues in relation to randomisation and contamination, engaging control villages, the intervention, and strategies to improve adherence. Trial Registritation The trial is registered...

  20. Acute Human Self-Poisoning with Imidacloprid Compound: A Neonicotinoid Insecticide

    OpenAIRE

    Fahim Mohamed; Indika Gawarammana; Robertson, Thomas A.; Roberts, Michael S; Chathura Palangasinghe; Shukry Zawahir; Shaluka Jayamanne; Jaganathan Kandasamy; Michael Eddleston; Buckley, Nick A.; Dawson, Andrew H.; Roberts, Darren M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deliberate self-poisoning with older pesticides such as organophosphorus compounds are commonly fatal and a serious public health problem in the developing world. The clinical consequences of self-poisoning with newer pesticides are not well described. Such information may help to improve clinical management and inform pesticide regulators of their relative toxicity. This study reports the clinical outcomes and toxicokinetics of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid following...

  1. The comparison of the applications of strong ion gap, blood glucose and other indexes in the acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%强离子隙和血糖等指标在急性有机磷农药中毒中的应用比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾旭东; 袁雪丰; 聂时南

    2016-01-01

    目的:比较急性有机磷农药中毒( AOPP)患者的强离子隙( SIG)、血淀粉酶( AMS)、天门冬氨基酸转移酶( AST)、磷酸激酶同工酶( CK-MB)、血糖( BG)等指标与其预后的相关性。方法回顾性研究2014-01~2014-12共69例AOPP患者,根据预后分为生存组和死亡组,比较中毒早期SIG、AMS、AST、CK-MB、BG等指标水平以及其他一般资料结果,并通过分析优势比( odds ratio, OR)以及建立ROC曲线比较SIG、BG等指标对AOPP患者的预后有效性。结果异常的BG较正常的指标有更高的死亡风险,SIG较BG对致死率具有更高意义的ORs(P<0.05)。结论随着早期SIG、BG水平的升高,AOPP患者的死亡风险增加,且SIG对患者死亡预后的预测更有效。%Objective To compare the strong ion gap ( SIG) and AMS, AST, CK-MB, blood glucose ( BG) index predicting the prognosis of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning ( AOPP ) patients. Methods This retrospective study included 69 cases who were diagnosed by AOPP from January to December 2014. According to the prognosis they were divided into death group and survival group. By analyzing the odds ratio (ORs) and establishing ROC curve, we evaluated the effectiveness of SIG and BG in predicting the prognosis of patients with AOPP. Results The abnormal index of blood glucose (P=0. 001) indicated a higher risk of death than the normal index, SIG showed higher ORs for fatality than BG (P <0. 05). In the ROC curve, the area under the curve of the SIG, BG on the prognosis of fatality was 0. 856, 0. 817, respectively. Conclusion With early SIG and BG level increase, the risk of death will increase in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning, and SIG is a more effective marker than index of BG on the prognosis of death.

  2. Identification of strategies to prevent death after pesticide self-poisoning using a Haddon matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eddleston, M; Buckley, N A; Gunnell, D;

    2006-01-01

    Despite pesticide self-poisoning causing around 300 000 deaths each year in the rural Asia Pacific region, no comprehensive public health response has yet been formulated. The authors have developed a Haddon matrix to identify factors that increase the risk of fatal rather than non-fatal pesticide...... self-poisoning in Sri Lanka. Many important host factors such as age, gender, and genetics are not alterable; factors that could be changed-alcohol use and mental health-have previously proved difficult to change. Interventions affecting agent or environmental factors may be easier to implement...... and more effective, in particular those limiting the human toxicity and accessibility of the pesticides, and the quality, affordability, and accessibility of health care in the community. Controlled studies are required to identify effective strategies for prevention and harm minimization and to garner...

  3. Acute mercury poisoning: a case report

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    Aktas Can

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mercury poisoning can occur as a result of occupational hazard or suicide attempt. This article presents a 36-year-old case admitted to emergency department (ED due to exposure to metallic mercury. Case Presentatıon A 36-year-old woman presented to the ED with a three-day history of abdominal pain, diarrhea and fever. One week ago her daughter had brought mercury in the liquid form from the school. She had put it on the heating stove. One day later, her 14-month old sister baby got fever and died before admission to the hospital. Her blood pressure was 134/87 mmHg; temperature, 40.2°C; heart rate 105 bpm and regular; respiration, 18 bpm; O2 saturation, 96%. Nothing was remarkable on examination and routine laboratory tests. As serine or urinary mercury levels could not be tested in the city, symptomatic chelation treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC was instituted with regard to presumptive diagnosis and history. At the 7th day of admission she was discharged without any sequelae or complaint. At the discharge day blood was drawn and sent for mercury levels which turned out to be 30 μg/dL (normal range: 0 - 10 μg/dL. Conclusion Public education on poisoning and the potential hazards of mercury are of vital importance for community health.

  4. Acute metheamoglobinemia due to nitrobenzene poisoning: Case series

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    Harish Kumar S, Ujjawal Kumar, Raghavendra Prasad B N, Kiran BJ, Anil Kumar M

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrobenzene is a nitrite compound; its toxic effects are due to its ability to convert hemoglobin to methaemoglobin by oxidizing iron. The clinical features of nitrobenzene poisoning vary based on the concentration of methaemoglobin in blood. Immediate identification based on clinical features, odour of the compound with supporting evidence of increased methaemoglobin levels will help in a timely intervention thus preventing fatal outcome. Early haemodynamic and ventilator support along with administration of methylene blue as an antidote has been proved crucial in saving some lives. An acute nitrobenzene poisoning presenting with methaemoglobinemia is becoming quite common in this part of the country. Here authorsreport a series of cases of nitrobenzene poisoning where immediate clinical evaluation, with repeated intravenous methylene blue saved three patients, but two patients presenting late and with heavy exposure could not be saved

  5. Comparative Study on the Process Characteristics of Group-acute-poisoning and Sporadic-acute-poisoning in Guangxi Area%广西地区群发性与散发性急性中毒特点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋东方; 胡德宏; 张振明; 刘清华

    2012-01-01

    15 rural hospitals from 11 cities in Guangxi province were divided into group - acute - poisoning group (641 cases ) and sporadic - acute - poisoning group ( 5 369 cases ). Investigating plan and table were formulated by experts to collect poisoning sites ( home, school, working place, restaurants, entertainment places and others ), poisoning reasons ( accidental, occupational, false - feeding, medicine, suicide and others ), poison category ( chemical, pesticide, medical, plants, animal, infection and others ), poisoning degree ( mild, medium and severe ) and efficacy ( cure, sequel and death ). Results The difference of poisoning sites between the two groups were statistically significant ( χ2= 1 408. 57, P = 0. 00 ). The incidence of poisoning at home, school, working place, restaurants and other places between group - acute - poisoning group and sporadic - acute - poisoning group all showed statistically significant differences ( P < 0. 05 ). The difference of poisoning reasons between the two groups were statistically significant ( χ2=527.46, P=0. 00). The incidence of poisoning for accidental, occupational, false -feeding, medical, suicidal and other reasons between the two groups also all showed statistically significant differences ( P < 0. 05 ). The difference of poison categories between the two groups was significant different ( χ2= 1 276. 14, P = 0. 00 ). The incidence of poisoning fell into chemical, pesticide, medical, plants, animal, infection and other categories between the two groups all showed statistically significant differences ( P <0. 05 ). The poisoning degrees between the two groups all showed statistically significant differences ( u = - 12. 50, P = 0. 00 ). The treatment efficacy between the two groups showed no statistically significant difference ( u = - 0. 41, P = 0. 68 ). Conclusion Patients of group - acute - poisoning characterize in its heavy accumulation , unknown poisoning reason and various kinds of poisonous substances with

  6. Refractory status epilepticus following self-poisoning with the organochlorine pesticide endosulfan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Darren M; Dissanayake, Wasantha; Rezvi Sheriff, M H; Eddleston, Michael

    2004-09-01

    We describe a case of refractory status epilepticus presenting to a rural general hospital in Sri Lanka. This patient's condition was precipitated by intentional self-poisoning with the organochlorine insecticide endosulfan. Although rarely seen in developed countries, pesticide poisoning particularly with endosulfan is an important cause of difficult-to-manage seizures in Asian countries. In this case report, we discuss the management of status epilepticus and refractory status epilepticus. Further, we specifically discuss the clinical pharmacology and toxicology of endosulfan. PMID:15337143

  7. Respiratory Complications from Acute Corrosive Poisonings in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chibishev, Andon; Simonovska, Natasa; Bozinovska, Cvetanka; Pereska, Zanina; Smokovski, Ivica; Glasnovic, Marija

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Acute corrosive poisonings are caused by ingestion of corrosive chemicals which are most commonly used as household agents. Intoxications with these kind of agents produce numerous and severe post-corrosive complications of the upper gastrointestinal tract. On the other hand, our experience showed that corrosive agents may also cause injuries of the respiratory system, which makes the treatment very hard and additionally complicates the severe clinical condition of the patient. ...

  8. Renal cortex copper concentration in acute copper poisoning in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Fazzio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the diagnostic value of renal cortex copper (Cu concentration in clinical cases of acute copper poisoning (ACP. A total of 97 calves that died due to subcutaneous copper administration were compiled in eleven farms. At least, one necropsy was conducted on each farm and samples for complementary analysis were taken. The degree of autolysis in each necropsy was evaluated. The cases appeared on extensive grazing calf breeding and intensive feedlot farms, in calves of 60 to 200 kg body weight. Mortality varied from 0.86 to 6.96 %, on the farms studied. The first succumbed calf was found on the farms between 6 and 72 hours after the susbcutaneous Cu administration. As discrepancies regarding the reference value arose, the local value (19.9 parts per million was used, confirming the diagnosis of acute copper poisoning in 93% of the analyzed kidney samples. These results confirm the value of analysis of the cortical kidney Cu concentration for the diagnosis of acute copper poisoning.

  9. Acute Toxicity of Four Organophosphorus Pesticide Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Acute toxicity of phoxim,acephate,isofenphos-methyl and isocarbophos on male SD rats of clean grade was carried out by gastric lavage method at room temperature of 18℃. These rats are 4 to 5 months old with body weight of 180 to 220 kg. The results indicate that the orders of the toxicity of these four pesticides on SD rats are isofenphos-methyl,isocarbophos,acephate,phoxim. We found that the median lethal concentration of phoxim in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 3. 892 g /kg,3. 051 g /kg,2. 618 g /kg and 2. 458 g /kg respectively; the median lethal concentration of isofenphos-methyl in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 015 g /kg,0. 013g /kg,0. 012g /kg and 0. 011 g /kg respectively; the median lethal concentration of isocarbophos in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 049 g /kg,0. 046 g /kg,0. 043 g /kg,0. 041 g /kg respectively; and the median lethal concentration of acephate in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 137 g /kg,0. 113 g /kg,0. 100 g /kg,0. 085 g /kg respectively. Finally,we evaluated the characteristics of toxicity effect and safe concentration of these pesticides to SD rats.

  10. A cost effectiveness analysis of the preferred antidotes for acute paracetamol poisoning patients in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Senarathna, S M D K Ganga; Ranganathan, Shalini Sri; Buckley, Nick; Fernandopulle, Rohini

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute paracetamol poisoning is a rapidly increasing problem in Sri Lanka. The antidotes are expensive and yet no health economic evaluation has been done on the therapy for acute paracetamol poisoning in the developing world. The aim of this study is to determine the cost effectiveness of using N-acetylcysteine over methionine in the management of acute paracetamol poisoning in Sri Lanka. Methods Economic analysis was applied using public healthcare system payer perspective. Costs ...

  11. Do Bolivian small holder farmers improve and retain knowledge to reduce occupational pesticide poisonings after training on Integrated Pest Management?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Lander, Flemming; Huici, Omar;

    2014-01-01

    handling. Similar though less pronounced improvements was seen among neighbor farmers having had less training and information on pesticide handling and alternatives than the FFS trained farmers. Training of farmers on IPM and good agricultural practices has positive effects, but is scarce in Bolivia......BACKGROUND: Pesticide consumption is increasing in Bolivia as well as pest resistance, pesticide poisonings and pollution of the environment. This survey evaluates the training of small holder farmers on pesticide handling and ecological alternatives to reduce the negative pesticide effects. METHOD...... in 'knowledge, attitude and practice' (KAP) on IPM and symptoms of poisoning when handling pesticides. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 21.0 using χ2-test, Cochran's Q test and Student's T-test. RESULTS: Improvements were seen in both groups but most significant among the FFS farmers...

  12. Changes of Level of Serum ICAM-1 and its Clinical Significance in Patients with Acute Organic Phosphorus Pesticide Poisoning%急性有机磷农药中毒患者ICAM-1的检测及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关永东; 雷间红; 邓素贞; 陈洁文

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨急性有机磷农药中毒(AOPP)患者血清细胞间粘附分子-1(ICAM-1)的水平变化及临床意义.方法 采用ELISA法检测68例AOPP患者第1天、第3天、第5天和恢复期(12~14 d)及64例正常健康体检者血清ICAM-1的水平变化.结果 AOPP在第1天的ICAM-1含量最高,与正常对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P0.05);AOPP患者在住院5 d内ICAM-1:轻度组与中度组比较差异有统计学意义(P0.05),compared with control group.Within the first 5 days of the treatment,serum ICAM-1 level were dramatically different between slight group,moderate group and severe group (P<0.05).Serum ICAM-1 level was positively correlated with the severity of AOPP poisoning.Conclusion ICAM-1 was involved in the pathogenesis of AOPP poisoning,and assiociated with the course of AOPP poisoning.

  13. To identify morbidity and mortality predictors in acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Muley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphorus poisoning remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality, but no definite parameters have been identified as predictors of outcome. Prediction of morbidity at presentation might help in decision making in places of limited resources like rural settings in developing countries. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 cases were included in this retrospective cohort study. Logged relative risk of requirement of mechanical ventilation and hospital stay >7 days was measured in patients with serum acetylcholinesterase (s. acetylcholinesterase 1000, presenting in 12 and in patients with SpO 2 7 days. Conclusion: S. acetylcholinesterase, SpO 2 at room air, GCS, and duration of exposure at presentation can be used to identify the requirement of special care in acute organophosphorus poisoning. This can aid in decision making regarding admission to intensive care unit and referral in the places with limited resources.

  14. 国内延长胃管插入长度抢救急性有机磷农药中毒效果的Meta分析%A Meta-analysis for the rescue effects of sever acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning by different of length of gastric lavage tube in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛仁丹吉; 伏旭; 马晓红; 贺莉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the rescue effects for sever acute organophosphate pesticide poison (AOPP) by different length of gastric lavage tube .Method The Cochrane library(1994 to March ,2014) ,VIP (1994 to March , 2014) ,CBM (1994 to March ,2014) and Wanfang (1994 to March ,2014) was searched to identify randomized con‐trolled trials (RCTs) related to length of gastric lavage tube for sever AOPP .The quality of included studies as as‐sessed and data analyses were performed by RevMan 5 .0 .Result 9 RCTs involving 1440 patients were included .The results showed that prolong the length of gastric lavage tube for sever AOPP are better than traditional gastric lav‐age in the first gastric lavage time[OR= -0 .38 ,95% CI(-0 .40 , -0 .35)] ,total gastric lavage time[OR=-7 .22 ,95% CI(-7 .67 ,-6 .77)] ,blood gastric juice[OR=0 .16 ,95% CI(0 .09 ,0 .30)] ,abdominal pain[OR=0 .22 ,95% CI(0 .14 ,0 .34)]Conclusion Prolong length of gastric lavage tube for sever AOPP can increase the rescue effect in patients .%目的:评价延长胃管插入长度抢救急性有机磷农药中毒(Acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning , AOPP)患者的效果。方法计算机检索CNKI数据库(1994~2014.3)、VIP数据库(1989~2014.3)、CBMdisc数据库(1980~2014.3)、万方数据库(1998~2014.3),收集延长胃管插入长度后抢救AOPP患者的所有随机对照实验(RCT),按照Cochrane系统评价的方法,纳入符合标准的 RCT ,评价纳入研究的质量,采用RevMan5.0软件进行M eta分析。结果共纳入9个RC T ,共计1440例患者。M eta分析显示:延长胃管插入长度在首次洗出液时间[OR=-0.38,95% CI(-0.40,-0.35)]、总洗胃时间[OR=-7.22,95% CI(-7.67,-6.77)]、发生血性洗出液[OR=0.16,95% CI(0.09,0.30)]、发生上腹不适[OR=0.22,95% CI(0.14,0.34)]均优于传统洗胃胃管插入长度。结论延长

  15. Acute arsenic poisoning: clinical, toxicological, histopathological, and forensic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournel, Gilles; Houssaye, Cédric; Humbert, Luc; Dhorne, Christine; Gnemmi, Viviane; Bécart-Robert, Anne; Nisse, Patrick; Hédouin, Valéry; Gosset, Didier; Lhermitte, Michel

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a suicide case by acute arsenic intoxication via intravenous injection. A 30-year-old woman injected arsenic As (V) (sodium arseniate disodique: Disodium Hydrogena Arsenik RP) in a successful suicide attempt. Three hours following administration, the woman developed severe digestive symptoms. She was admitted to a hospital and transferred to the intensive care unit within 12 h of the massive administration of arsenic. Despite therapeutic efforts, over the next 2 h she developed multiorgan failure and died. A postmortem examination was performed. Pulmonary edema and congestion of liver were apparent. As (V) and As (III) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after mineralization of samples by concentrated nitric acid. Toxicological analysis revealed high concentrations of arsenic in biological fluids as well as in organs. Histopathological examination showed a typical indication of myocarditis. These findings were in agreement with acute arsenic poisoning. The symptoms developed by this young woman (intoxication by intravenous administration) were comparable to oral intoxication. The clinical signs, survival time, and administration type are discussed in light of the literature on acute and chronic arsenic poisoning.

  16. Effect of Intensive Atropine Doses (Rapid Incremental Loading and Titration for Management of Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning: a Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Saleh Ahmed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Acute poisoning with organophosphorus (OP pesticides is a common method of suicide and entails considerable mortality in Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and outcomes of a protocol for treatment of OP poisoning that included titrated incremental atropine as loading dose and slow infusion for maintenance.  Methods:In this prospective descriptive case series, definitive OP poisoned patients were enrolled in an adult medicine unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from April 2006 to April 2007. Clinical examinations were done as soon as the patient entered the ward. Patient’s demographics, comorbid conditions and the occurrence of specific clinical outcomes including death, need for assisted ventilation and clinical complications were recorded. The patients were treated according to the protocol. Results: A total of 56 patients were enrolled over the study period. The median age of the study population was 22.5 years. Most patients were men (67.8%. The most common clinical presentation was miosis (58.9%. In total, 11 patients died (19.6%. Intermediate syndrome developed in 12 patients (21.4% and 6 of them died. Assisted ventilation was required in 16 cases (28.5. Patients with diastolic blood pressure ≤ 70 mmHg and/or GCS ≤ 10 were significantly less likely to survive (P = 0.02, 0.006, respectively. Moreover, early respiratory failure (P < 0.001 and the need for assisted ventilation (P < 0.001 were significantly higher among deceased cases. The mortality rate in this study was similar to previous studies. The frequency of atropine toxicity in the present study (1.8% was considerably lower than conventional regimen used in previous studies. Conclusion:Using the new protocol, lower rate of atropine toxicity developed in victims. Hence, the new protocol appears to be safer and its effectiveness should be further evaluated in case control studies in Bangladesh.    How to cite this article: Ahmed AS

  17. 碳酸氢钠联合乌司他丁治疗急性辛硫磷农药中毒胆碱酯酶活力的变化%The influence of sodium bicarbonate combined with ulinastatin on cholinesterase activity for patients with acute phoxim pesticide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵波; 杨兰菊; 肖磊; 孙宝泉; 邹宪宝; 高冬梅; 菅向东

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of sodium bicarbonate combined with ulinastatin on cholinesterase activity for patients with acute phoxim pesticide poisoning.Methods A total of 67 eligible patients with acute phoxim pesticide poisoning,Who were admitted to the emeryency department of hospital from March 2011 to February 2014,Acording to different treatments au patients were randomly divided into the conventional treatment group (n=34) and the sodium bicarbonate+ulinastatin group (n=35).The conventional treatment group were given thorough gastric lavage with water,the sodium bicarbonate + ulinastatin group were given gastric lavage with 2% sodium bicarbonate solution.Both groups were given such treatments as catharsis,administration of oxygen,fluid infusion,diuresis,and antidotes such as atropine and pralidoxime methylchloride.On the basis of comprehensive treatment,people in the sodium bicarbonate+ulinastatin group were given 5% sodium bicarbonate injection and ulinastatin.The clinical effect of the two groups were compared.Results The serum cholinesterase activity of the sodium bicarbonate +ulinastatin group was significantly higher than the conventional treatment group from the 5th day,and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).The total atropine dosage,total pralidoxime methylchloride dosage and hospitalization days were better than the conventional treatment group,and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).The difference in the time of atropinization between the two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05).The results of arterial blood pH,HCO3-of the sodium bicarbonate + ulinastatin group were higher than the conventional treatment group,and the difference of HCO3-at the 10th day was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusions Sodium bicarbonate combined with ulinastatin can improve the therapeutic effect and reduce complications in the treatment of acute phoxim pesticide poisoning,and have beneficial

  18. Acute cyanide poisoning among jewelry and textile industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coentrão, Luís; Moura, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Limited work has focused on occupational exposures that may increase the risk of cyanide poisoning by ingestion. A retrospective chart review of all admissions for acute cyanide poisoning by ingestion for the years 1988 to 2008 was conducted in a tertiary university hospital serving the largest population in the country working in jewelry and textile facilities. Of the 9 patients admitted to the hospital during the study period, 8 (7 males, 1 female; age 36 ± 11 years, mean ± SD) attempted suicide by ingestion of potassium cyanide used in their profession as goldsmiths or textile industry workers. Five patients had severe neurologic impairment and severe metabolic acidosis (pH 7.02 ± 0.08, mean ± SD) with high anion gap (23 ± 4 mmol/L, mean ± SD). Of the 5 severely intoxicated patients, 3 received antidote therapy (sodium thiosulfate or hydroxocobalamin) and resumed full consciousness in less than 8 hours. All patients survived without major sequelae. Cyanide intoxication by ingestion in our patients was mainly suicidal and occurred in specific jobs where potassium cyanide is used. Metabolic acidosis with high anion is a good surrogated marker of severe cyanide poisoning. Sodium thiosulfate and hydroxocobalamin are both safe and effective antidotes.

  19. Prediction of patient survival in cases of acute paraquat poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae-Yong Hong

    Full Text Available Paraquat concentration-time data have been used to predict the clinical outcome following ingestion. However, these studies have included only small populations, although paraquat poisoning has a very high mortality rate. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and reliable model to predict survival according to the time interval post-ingestion in patients with acute paraquat poisoning. Data were retrospectively collected for patients who were admitted with paraquat poisoning to Soonchunhyang University Choenan Hospital between January 2005 and December 2012. Plasma paraquat levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. To validate the model we developed, we used external data from 788 subjects admitted to the Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju, Korea, between January 2007 and December 2012. Two thousand one hundred thirty six patients were included in this study. The overall survival rate was 44% (939/2136. The probability of survival for any specified time and concentration could be predicted as (exp(logit/(1+exp(logit, where logit = 1.3544+[-3.4688 × log10(plasma paraquat μg/M[Formula: see text

  20. Analysis of chest image performance in patients with acute chlorine poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore chest image features of patients with acute chlorine poisoning and their clinical values. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed by chest image features of 117 patients with acute chlorine poisoning. All the patients were classified according to Chinese management of occupational acute chlorine poisoning diagnosis standard. Results: Sixty-five patients presented with stimulus response, and normal or both lungs had a little more white on their chest images. Thirty-one cases presented with minor poisoning, and without or the texture of both lungs was increased, and grew hazy and coarse.seventeen cases were moderate, and small sample vague shadows or single or multiple limitations lamellar shadow. Four cases were serious,and two lungs had extensive and density homogeneous consolidation shadow. Conclusions: It would make the diagnosis and assessment of chlorine poisoning more easier based on the combination of chest image features, the clear history of acute chlorine poisoning and relevant clinical performance. (authors)

  1. Pattern of acute poisoning at two urban referral hospitals in Lusaka, Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Z’gambo, Jessy; Siulapwa, Yorum; Michelo, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background Poisoning remains an important public health problem contributing significantly to the global burden of disease. Evidence on the exact burden and pattern of acute poisoning in Zambia is limited. We aimed to characterise acute poisoning with regard to demographic and epidemiologic factors of cases reported at the University Teaching Hospital and Levy Mwanawasa General Hospital; two large referral hospitals in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving retrosp...

  2. Severe but reversible acute kidney injury resulting from Amanita punctata poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Eunjung; Cheong, Ka-Young; Lee, Min-Jeong; Kim, Seirhan; Shin, Gyu-Tae; Kim, Heungsoo; Park, In-Whee

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom-related poisoning can cause acute kidney injury. Here we report a case of acute kidney injury after ingestion of Amanita punctata, which is considered an edible mushroom. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred within 24 hours from the mushroom intake and were followed by an asymptomatic period, acute kidney injury, and elevation of liver and pancreatic enzymes. Kidney function recovered with supportive care. Nephrotoxic mushroom poisoning should be considered as a cause of acute kidney i...

  3. A simplified acute physiology score in the prediction of acute aluminum phosphide poisoning outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Shadnia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Aluminum phosphide (AlP is used as a fumigant. It produces phosphine gas, which is a mitochondrial poison. Unfortunately, there is no known antidote for AlP intoxication, and also, there are few data about its prognostic factors. AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II in the prediction of outcome in patients with acute AlP poisoning requiring admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Materials and Methods : This was a prospective study in patients with acute AlP poisoning, admitted to the ICU over a period of 12 months. The demographic data were collected and SAPSII was recorded. The patients were divided into survival and non-survival groups due to outcome. Statistical Analysis : The data were expressed as mean ± SD for continuous or discrete variables and as frequency and percentage for categorical variables. The results were compared between the two groups using SPSS software. Results : During the study period, 39 subjects were admitted to the ICU with acute AlP poisoning. All 39 patients required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation in addition to gastric decontamination with sodium bicarbonate, permanganate potassium, and activated charcoal, therapy with MgSO 4 and calcium gluconate and adequate hydration. Among these patients, 26 (66.7% died. SAPSII was significantly higher in the non-survival group than in the survival group (11.88 ± 4.22 vs. 4.31 ± 2.06, respectively (P < 0.001. Conclusion : SAPSII calculated within the first 24 hours was recognized as a good prognostic indicator among patients with acute AlP poisoning requiring ICU admission.

  4. Clinical analysis of 206 cases of acute poisoning in children%206例小儿急性中毒的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭庆明; 邹卫红; 郭毅; 贺丽梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the etiology and clinical characteristics of pediatric acute poisoning. Methods The clinical data of 206 cases of acute poisoning in children in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Results In 206 patients with poisoning,90 cases (43.7%) were food poisoning,45 cases (21.8%) with drug poisoning, 30 cases (14.6%)of pesticide poisoning,18 cases (8.7%) of rodenticide poisoning,12 cases (5.8%)of chemical poisoning,11 cases (5.3%) of CO poisoning;among them 191 cases were cured or improved,6 cases of death, transferred 5 cases,4 cases gave up treatment. Conclusion Pediatric acute poisoning involving children of all ages,the number of rural areas is more than urban,and most of the digestive tract poisoning,to eating, wrongly as much;prevention and treatment of acute poisoning in children should be based on prevention,treatment time is the key to treatment of acute poisoning.%目的:了解小儿急性中毒的病因及临床特点。方法回顾性分析对本院206例急性中毒患儿的临床资料。结果在206例中毒患儿中,食物中毒90例(43.7%),药物中毒45例(21.8%),农药中毒30例(14.6%),鼠药中毒18例(8.7%),化学品中毒12例(5.8%),CO中毒11例(5.3%);其中治愈好转191例,死亡6例,转院5例,放弃治疗4例。结论小儿急性中毒涉及儿童各年龄段,农村多于城镇,且绝大多数经消化道中毒,以误食、误服为多;小儿急性中毒的防治应以预防为主,救治开始时间是急性中毒抢救治疗的关键。

  5. Severe acute caffeine poisoning due to intradermal injections: Mesotherapy hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Caffeine is indicated in the treatment of migraine headaches, as well as neonatal apnea and bradycardia syndrome. In mild poisoning, the most prevalent symptoms are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, tremor, anxiety and headache. In more severe cases, symptoms consist of heart rythym abnormalities, myocardial infarction and seizures. Due to its common lipolytic effect, caffeine is used in mesotherapy, usually in combination with drugs of similar effect. We presented a patient with acute iatrogenic caffeine poisoning. Case report. A 51-year-old woman, with preexisting hypertension and hypertensive cardiomyopathy was subjected to cosmetic treatment in order to remove fat by intradermal caffeine injections. During the treatment the patient felt sickness, an urge to vomit, and a pronounced deterioration of general condition. Upon examination, the patient exhibited somnolence, hypotension and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, which was sufficient enough evidence for further hospitalization. On admission to the intensive care unit the patient was anxious with increased heart rate, normotensive, with cold, damp skin, and visible traces of injection sites with surrounding hematomas on the anterior abdominal wall. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT on electrocardiographic monitoring was found. The laboratory analysis determined a lowered potassium level of 2.1 mmol/L (normal range 3,5 - 5.2 mmol/L, and a toxicological analysis (liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection proved a toxic concentration of caffeine in plasma - 85.03 mg/L (toxic concentration over 25 mg/L. On application of intensive therapy, antiarrhythmics, and substitution of potassium, as well as both symptomatic and supportive therapy, there was a significant recovery. The patient was discharged without any sequele within four days. Conclusion. A presented rare iatrogenic acute caffeine poisoning occured due to massive absorption of caffeine from the

  6. Poisoning of raptors with organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides with emphasis on Canada, U.S. and U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineau, P.; Fletcher, M.R.; Glaser, L.C.; Thomas, N.J.; Brassard, C.; Wilson, L.K.; Elliott, J.E.; Lyon, L.A.; Henny, C.J.; Bollinger, T.; Porter, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    We reviewed cases of raptor mortality resulting from cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides. We compiled records from the U.S., U.K. and Canada for the period 1985-95 (520 incidents) and surveyed the relevant literature to identify the main routes of exposure and those products that led to the greatest number of poisoning cases. A high proportion of cases in the U.K. resulted from abusive uses of pesticides (willful poisoning). The proportion was smaller in North America where problems with labeled uses of pesticides were as frequent as abuse cases. Poisoning resulting from labeled use was possible with a large number of granular pesticides and some seed treatments through secondary poisoning or through the ingestion of contaminated invertebrates, notably earthworms. With the more toxic products, residue levels in freshly-sprayed insects were high enough to cause mortality. The use of organophosphorus products as avicides and for the topical treatment of livestock appeared to be common routes of intoxication. The use of insecticides in dormant oils also gave rise to exposure that can be lethal or which can debilitate birds and increase their vulnerability. A few pesticides of high toxicity were responsible for the bulk of poisoning cases. Based on limited information, raptors appeared to be more sensitive than other bird species to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Some of the more significant risk factors that resulted in raptor poisonings were: insectivory and vermivory; opportunistic taking of debilitated prey; scavenging, especially if the gastrointestinal tracts are consumed; presence in agricultural areas; perceived status as pest species; and flocking or other gregarious behavior at some part of their life cycle. Lethal or sublethal poisoning should always be considered in the diagnosis of dead or debilitated raptors even when another diagnosis (e.g., electrocution, car or building strike) is apparent. Many cases of poisoning are not currently

  7. Brain CT scan in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brain CT findings in 19 patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning was analysed and the emphasis was placed on the relationship between CT findings and prognosis. Five had a normal manifestation in CT ; eight had the findings of ovoid or patchy low density area in globus pallidus, bilateral or unlateral, during the second day to fifth week after poisoning, and the low density areas were decreasing and blurring in edge in follow up and at last disappeared during 3 - 14 weeks in three cases of them ; nine showed the appearance of diffuse low density of white matter and of globus pallidus in some of them ; two had an appearance of brain atrophy. The pathology of CT findings mentioned above may be brain edema, necrosis, malacia and degeneration in gray matter and globus pallidus. The result suggested the cases with normal CT manifestation, cerebral edema and decreasing and disappearing low density area had a good prognosis, in contrary, the cases with persistant low density in globus pallidus had a poorer prognosis. (author)

  8. Pattern and outcome of acute poisoning cases in a tertiary care hospital in Karnataka, India

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    Ramesha K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Acute poisoning is a medical emergency. It is important to know the nature, severity and outcome of acute poisoning cases in order to take up appropriate planning, prevention and management techniques. This study aimed to assess the pattern and outcome of acute poisoning cases in a tertiary care hospital in Karnataka. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective hospital record-based study conducted in a tertiary care hospital attached to a medical institution in Karnataka. The study included 136 cases and data regarding age, sex, time elapsed after intake; circumstances of poisoning, name of the poisonous substance, chemical type, duration of hospitalization, severity and outcome were collected in the prestructured proforma. Results: Incidence was more common among males (75.4% compared to females (24.3. Most cases of acute poisoning presented among 20- to 29-year age group (31.2% followed by 12- to 19-year age group (30.2%. A majority of poisoning cases (36.0% were due to organophosphorus compound (OPC. Total mortality was found to be 15.4%. Mortality rate due to corrosives was significantly high compared with OPC poisoning (χ2 = 4.12, P = 0.04. Of the 56 patients of OPC and carbamate poisoning, 13 patients (23.2% had respiratory arrest and required respiratory support. Time lapse had a significant role on the mortality in cases of acute poisoning (χ2 = 10.9, P = 0.01. Conclusion: Poisoning is more common in young males. The overall mortality is substantially high, mainly contributed by self-poisoning with insecticides and corrosives. Early care in a tertiary care center may help to reduce mortality in India.

  9. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... talking with the Poison Control Center. GETTING HELP Call the Poison Control Center emergency number at 1-800-222-1222. DO NOT wait until the person has symptoms before you call. Try to have the following information ready: The ...

  10. Analysis of Nine Cases of Acute Thallium Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiwei; HUANG Xiaojiang; LIU Liang

    2007-01-01

    In this study nine cases of thallium poisoning in a series of homicidal poisoning were analyzed in order to provide more information concerning thallium poisoning. It was found that the most common clinical feature of thallium poisoning was peripheral neuropathy and paraesthesia was more common than amyasthenia. Understanding of these clinical characteristics of thallium poisoning was helpful to early identification and differential diagnosis. Since the early administration of Prussian Blue, as a specific antidote for thallium poisoning, can substantially improve the prognosis, it is of great importance to establish a correct and early diagnosis.

  11. Evaluation of respiratory dysfunction in a pig model of severe acute dichlorvos poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xin-hua; WU Jun-yuan; LI Chun-sheng; SU Zhi-yu; JI Xian-fei; HAN Yi; WANG Sheng-qi; ZHANG Jian

    2012-01-01

    Background Respiratory failure is the main cause of death in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.In this study,a pulse-induced contour cardiac output monitor was used to evaluate the respiratory status in a pig model of acute dichlorvos poisoning.Methods Twenty female pigs were randomly allocated to dichlorvos (n=7),atropine (n=7),and control (n=6) groups.In the dichlorvos group,pigs were administered 80% emulsifiable dichlorvos (100 mg/kg) via a gastric tube.In the atropine group,pigs were similarly administered dichlorvos,and 0.5 hours later,atropine was injected to attain and maintain atropinization.The control group was administered saline solution.Arterial blood gas was measured at 0,0.5,1,2,4,and 6 hours post-injection.The extravascular lung water index and pulmonary vascular permeability index were recorded by the pulse-induced contour cardiac output monitor.At termination of the study,the animals were euthanized,the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio was determined,and histopathology was observed.Results In the dichlorvos group,the extravascular lung water index and pulmonary vascular permeability index were substantially increased from 0.5 hours and were particularly high within 1 hour.In the atropine group,these indices increased initially,but decreased from the 1-hour mark.The control group exhibited no obvious changes.In both the dichlorvos and atropine groups,the extravascular lung water index was negatively correlated with partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspiration oxygen (PO2/FiO2) and positively correlated with the pulmonary vascular permeability index.Compared with the control group,the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio markedly increased and the histopathological findings obviously changed in the dichlorvos group,but only mildly increased and changed,respectively,in the atropine group.Conclusion The extravascular lung water index is an appropriate and valuable parameter for assessment of respiratory function in acute dichlorvos poisoning.

  12. PESTICIDE USE AND HUMAN HEALTH IN NORTHWESTERN JAMAICA

    OpenAIRE

    Ncube, Ngqabutho; Bessler, Patricia; Jolly, Pauline E; Tint, Kyaw; Fogo, Christopher; Binns, Alvin; Jolly, Curtis M.

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies have detected high levels of pesticide residues in surface water and aquatic life in Jamaica and acute pesticide poisoning is believed to be widespread there. Despite efforts by the Jamaican government to create awareness of the dangers of pesticides and adopt safe a pesticide disposal method, many farmers still display poor pesticide handling and disposal practices. The objectives of this study were to 1) describe pesticide use by farmers in northwestern Jamaica including...

  13. Reaching for the bottle of pesticide--a cry for help. Self-inflicted poisonings in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Flemming; Hoek, Wim van der; Peiris, Pushpalatha

    2005-01-01

    . Also, issues around "love affairs," arranged marriages and domestic physical, sexual or psychological abuse in the domestic environment are referred to by many self-harmers or their relatives as a reason for ingesting poison. Clearly, easy access to lethal pesticides by impulsive individuals often...

  14. Nursing experience of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%有机磷农药中毒护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董丽仙

    2015-01-01

    Due to the use or an improper protection of organophosphorus pesticide, poisoning events occur. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning harm for human life is bigger, the rescue is not timely mortality is higher. Agricultural production in the process of organophosphorus pesticide use many, poisoning, and often happen, so we must strengthen the organophosphorus pesticide poisoning the clinical diagnosis and treatment and nursing of patients, and improve the success rate of rescue and reduce mortality.%有机磷农药的使用或防护不当致中毒事件时有发生,有机磷农药中毒对人的生命危害较大,抢救不及时死亡率较高,我县是农业县,农业生产过程中有机磷农药使用相对多,中毒事件时有发生,必须加强对有机磷农药中毒患者的临床诊治与护理,提高患者抢救成功率,降低死亡率。

  15. Causes of Acute Poisoning Hospital admission in Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Yasuj, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mohammad Hosseini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: About 7% of patient referred to hospital are various forms of poisoning. This study was performed to determine the major causes of acute poisoning leading to Hospitalization at Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Yasuj, Iran. Methods: This descriptive study was performed from August 2007 to July 2008 on 470 cases of poisonings referred to Shahid Beheshti hospital of Yasuj. Demographic characteristics, time of poisoning, poisoning factor, history of previous poisoning, history of psychiatric disease, medication and other therapeutic intervention based on questionnaires and interviews with patients or companions of patients were recorded. Data were analyzed by Chi-Square Test. Results: Majority of poisoned patients were single females, in the age range of 21-30 years, unemployed, lived in urban areas, and had at least a diploma. The majority of cases were intentional poisoning with a history of depression, previous poisoning and attempted suicide. Significant relationship were seen between poisoning, age, sex, and job, (p0.05. Conclusion: With respect to the results of this study, the majority of these poisonings occurred among young, single and unemployed females due to suicide and drug intoxication. Necessary actions should be done in drug usage and maintenance, taking action against non-prescription drugs and giving proper public education to families.

  16. Diagnostic value of low-field MRI for acute poisoning brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the value of low-field MIR in diagnosis of acute CO poisoning brain injury. Methods: The brain MIR and clinical data of 110 patients with acute CO poisoning brain injury confirmed by clinical examination were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Long T1 and T2 signal intensity was showed on MRI in cerebral hemispheres and globus pallidus symmetrically. There were three basic types of MIR manifestations, white matter of brain type, globus pallidus type and brain mixed type. Conclusions: MRI could be used for confirming the degree and range of acute CO poisoning brain injury. It has important clinical value in the diagnosis, staging and prognosis of patients with acute CO poisoning brain injury. (authors)

  17. Using poisons information service data to assess the acute harms associated with novel psychoactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, D M; Hill, S L; Thomas, S H L; Dargan, P I

    2014-01-01

    Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) can cause significant acute toxicity but usually little is known about their toxicity when they enter the recreational drug scene. Current data sources include online user forums, user questionnaires, case reports/series, and deaths; however, these are limited by their focus on sub-populations and generally include severe cases and specific geographical areas. Approximately 54% of countries have at least one poisons information service (in 2012 there were 274 worldwide) providing advice to healthcare professionals and/or the public on poisoning. They provide advice on recreational drug and NPS toxicity. In 2012, 2.5% of telephone enquiries to the UK National Poisons Information Service and 2.4% of enquiries to US poisons centres related to recreational drugs. Data are collected at population level and can be used to complement other data sources with clinical details on acute NPS toxicity and geographical/time patterns of toxicity. Like other acute NPS toxicity data, poisons centre data should be interpreted within their limitations, notably the absence of analytical confirmation and reliance on secondary reporting of clinical features. This manuscript demonstrates the breadth and depth of poisons information service data in the literature with a focus on mephedrone and synthetic cannabinoid-receptor agonists. In our opinion it would be possible to develop a more robust and systematic reporting system using a network of poisons information services both within and across countries that would be complimentary to other datasets on acute NPS toxicity and allow more accurate data triangulation.

  18. Salvianolic Acids Attenuate Rat Hippocampal Injury after Acute CO Poisoning by Improving Blood Flow Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning causes the major injury and death due to poisoning worldwide. The most severe damage via CO poisoning is brain injury and mortality. Delayed encephalopathy after acute CO poisoning (DEACMP occurs in forty percent of the survivors of acute CO exposure. But the pathological cause for DEACMP is not well understood. And the corresponding therapy is not well developed. In order to investigate the effects of salvianolic acid (SA on brain injury caused by CO exposure from the view point of hemorheology, we employed a rat model and studied the dynamic of blood changes in the hemorheological and coagulative properties over acute CO exposure. Compared with the groups of CO and 20% mannitol + CO treatments, the severe hippocampal injury caused by acute CO exposure was prevented by SA treatment. These protective effects were associated with the retaining level of hematocrit (Hct, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, whole blood viscosities and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in red blood cells (RBCs. These results indicated that SA treatment could significantly improve the deformation of erythrocytes and prevent the damage caused by CO poisoning. Meanwhile, hemorheological indexes are good indicators for monitoring the pathological dynamic after acute CO poisoning.

  19. Continued implication of the banned pesticides carbofuran and aldicarb in the poisoning of domestic and wild animals of the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; González-Moreo, Federico; Suárez-Pérez, Alejandro; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida-González, Maira; Del Mar Travieso-Aja, María; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-02-01

    Although nowadays the intentional poisoning of domestic and wild animals is a crime in EU, in the past the poison was used in rural areas of a number of European countries to kill animals that were considered harmful for human activities. In Spain evidences indicate that intentional poisonings continue to occur throughout the entire country nowadays. This situation seems to be of particular concern in the Canary Islands (Spain), where this study was performed. Our results confirmed that 225 animals were poisoned by pesticides over the study period (32 months; 2010-2013). The intentionality of the poisoning was confirmed in 117 cases. It has to be highlighted that the other 108 animals also died by pesticide poisoning, although the intentionality was only suspected. This incidence is currently the highest reported in any region from European Union. The pesticides carbofuran, bromadiolone, brodifacoum and aldicarb were the most frequently detected involved. Among the affected species, it has to be highlighted that endangered species are frequently affected in poisoning incidents. Notably, chemicals banned in the EU (carbofuran and aldicarb) were identified in approximately 75% of cases, and in almost 100% of baits, which suggests that these pesticides are still available to the population. Several circumstances may explain these results. Firstly, little control over the sale and possession of pesticide products, and the potential existence of an illegal market of pesticides banned in the European Union in the neighbouring African continent. In addition, the limited awareness of the population about the dangerousness of these compounds, for the environment, animals, or even people, make the situation very worrying in these islands. Stronger regulations, control of legal and illegal pesticide use, development of educational programs and legal action in poisoning incidents are needed to decrease the impact of pesticide misuse on wildlife and domestic animals.

  20. Electrophysiological correlates of respiratory failure in acute organophosphate poisoning: Evidence for differential roles of muscarinic and nicotinic stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Jayawardane, Pradeepa; Senanayake, Nimal; Buckley, Nick A.; Dawson, Andrew H

    2012-01-01

    Background. Respiratory failure in acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning can occur early and also relatively late in the clinical course, and the pathophysiology of respiratory failure at these different phases may have important clinical implications. Objective. To compare the electrophysiological findings in patients with early and late respiratory failure following acute OP poisoning. Methods. A prospective observational case series of consenting symptomatic patients with acute OP poisoning...

  1. 庫存血液膽碱酯酶水平變化及其在重症有機磷中毒搶救中應用選擇%Alteration of Banked Blood Cholinesterase Level and Its Significance in Emergency Treatment of Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鍾沛霖; 王勤鷹; 盛慧球

    2002-01-01

    目的觀察庫血保存天數與血漿膽碱酯酶(CHE)水平變化關係;探討重症有機磷農藥中毒(AOPP)搶救中合理選擇血源.方法輸血前隨機留取保留不同天數的庫血測定血漿CHE值;血液中心採血當日留取正常人血漿、即日測定CHE值作對照組.CHE測定用BM公司膽碱酯酶試劑盒,Roch公司的Cobas-FaraⅡ自動分析儀測定.結果庫血保存天數為第一天的血漿CHE值與正常對照組比較無顯著差異(p>o.05),其他各組均顯著低於對照組(P>0.05).各組與正常對照組相比較其下降百分比約19%-83%.保存天數與CHE值呈負相關(r=-0.7929,P<0.01).曲線回歸Y=-1 823.3Ln(X)+6229.4.結論隨採血後庫血保存天數的增加,血漿CHE值逐漸下降.在重度AOPP搶救中,以使用保留天數為一天以內新鮮血液最為適宜,以免浪費血源,貽( )搶救時機.本報告為強調輸入新鮮血液,保證高活性膽碱酯酶輸入提供實驗依據,並可供臨床參考.%Objective To observe the relationship between the preservation days of banked blood and the alteration level of plasma cholinesterase(CHE) with the aim of making proper selection of banked blood in emergency treatment of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). Methods We selected at random the banked blood that has been stored for different length of time before blood transfusion so as to determine the plasma cholinesterase value. The normal plasma cholinesterase value was determined on blood samples in the Blood Center which served as a control group. The cholinesterase value was determined with a kit of the BM Company and the Cobas-Fara Ⅱ automatic analysis of the Roch Company. Results It was found that there was no significant difference of plasma cholinesterase value between the one-day banked blood and the normal control group (P>0.05), but the plasma cholinesterase values of the other experiment groups were all significantly lower than that of the control group(P<0.05). As

  2. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that could poison you include the following: Cleaning products Household products, such as nail polish remover and other personal ... Get rid of old or expired medicines and household products. Keep medicines and chemicals in their original containers. ...

  3. Cost to government health-care services of treating acute self-poisonings in a rural district in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickramasinghe, Kanchana; Steele, Paul; Dawson, Andrew;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the direct financial costs to the Sri Lanka Ministry of Health of treating patients after self-poisoning, particularly from pesticides, in a single district. METHODS: Data on staff, drug, laboratory and other inputs for each patient admitted for self-poisoning were prospect...

  4. Hospital Performance Indicators and Their Associated Factors in Acute Child Poisoning at a Single Poison Center, Central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Menyfah Q; Al-Jeriasy, Majed I; Al-Assiri, Mohammed H; Afesh, Lara Y; Alhammad, Fahad; Salam, Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    Admission rate and length of stay (LOS) are two hospital performance indicators that affect the quality of care, patients' satisfaction, bed turnover, and health cost expenditures. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with higher admission rates and extended average LOS among acutely poisoned children at a single poison center, central Saudi Arabia.This is a cross-sectional, poison and medical chart review between 2009 and 2011. Exposures were child characteristics, that is, gender, age, body mass index (BMI), health history, and Canadian 5-level triage scale. Poison incident characteristics were, that is, type, exposure route, amount, form, home remedy, and arrival time to center. Admission status and LOS were obtained from records. Chronic poisoning, plant allergies, and venomous bites were excluded. Bivariate and regression analyses were applied. Significance at P Poison substances were pharmaceutical drugs (63%) versus chemical products (37%). Main exposure route was oral (98%). Home remedy was observed in (21.9%), which were fluids, solutes, and/or gag-induced vomiting. Almost (52%) arrived to center >1 h. Triage levels: non-urgent cases (58%), less urgent (11%), urgent (18%), emergency (12%), resuscitative (1%). Admission rate was (20.6%) whereas av. LOS was 13 ± 22 h. After adjusting and controlling for confounders, older children (adj.OR = 1.19) and more critical triage levels (adj.OR = 1.35) were significantly associated with higher admission rates compared to younger children and less critical triage levels (adj.P = 0.006) and (adj.P = 0.042) respectively. Home remedy prior arrival was significantly associated with higher av. LOS (Beta = 9.48, t = 2.99), compared to those who directly visited the center, adj.P = 0.003.Hospital administrators are cautioned that acutely poisoned children who received home remedies prior arrival are more likely to endure an extended LOS. This non-conventional practice

  5. [Homeostasis changes during rehabilitation period after acute chemical poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalian, A V; Luzhnikov, E A; Gol'dfarb, Iu S; Godkov, M A; Khvatov, V B; Bitkova, E E; El'kov, A N; Il'iashenko, K K; Nikulina, V P; Matveev, S B

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with review of 78 patients of rehabilitation toxicological unit. The patients received resuscitation and detoxification. All patients were divided into three groups; 1st group--patients after poisoning with psychopharmaceuticals, 2nd group--patients after poisoning with cauterizing liquids and 3rd group--patients with encephalopathy after poisoning with neurotoxin (psychopharmaceuticals, narcotics and ethanol). Disorders of rheology, haemostasis and endotoxicosis accrued in all groups. These disorders were a signs of the erythrocytes and platelets aggregation developing and viscoelasticity disorder. Homeostasis changes during rehabilitation period need an accurate diagnostics for purposeful treatment of the defined disorders.

  6. A community-based cluster randomised trial of safe storage to reduce pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Melissa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The WHO recognises pesticide poisoning to be the single most important means of suicide globally. Pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health and clinical problem in rural Asia, where it has led to case fatality ratios 20-30 times higher than self-poisoning in the developed world. One approach to reducing access to pesticides is for households to store pesticides in lockable "safe-storage" containers. However, before this approach can be promoted, evidence is required on its effectiveness and safety. Methods/Design A community-based cluster randomised controlled trial has been set up in 44,000 households in the North Central Province, Sri Lanka. A census is being performed, collecting baseline demographic data, socio-economic status, pesticide usage, self-harm and alcohol. Participating villages are then randomised and eligible households in the intervention arm given a lockable safe storage container for agrochemicals. The primary outcome will be incidence of pesticide self-poisoning over three years amongst individuals aged 14 years and over. 217,944 person years of follow-up are required in each arm to detect a 33% reduction in pesticide self-poisoning with 80% power at the 5% significance level. Secondary outcomes will include the incidence of all pesticide poisoning and total self-harm. Discussion This paper describes a large effectiveness study of a community intervention to reduce the burden of intentional poisoning in rural Sri Lanka. The study builds on a strong partnership between provincial health services, local and international researchers, and local communities. We discuss issues in relation to randomisation and contamination, engaging control villages, the intervention, and strategies to improve adherence. Trial Registritation The trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov ref: NCT1146496 (http://clinicaltrialsfeeds.org/clinical-trials/show/NCT01146496.

  7. Acute kidney injury and disseminated intravascular coagulation due to mercuric chloride poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanapriya, J.; Gopalakrishnan, N; Arun, V.; Dineshkumar, T.; Sakthirajan, R.; Balasubramaniyan, T.; Haris, M

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic heavy metal and occurs in organic and inorganic forms. Inorganic mercury includes elemental mercury and mercury salts. Mercury salts are usually white powder or crystals, and widely used in indigenous medicines and folk remedies in Asia. Inorganic mercury poisoning causes acute kidney injury (AKI) and gastrointestinal manifestations and can be life-threatening. We describe a case with unknown substance poisoning who developed AKI and disseminated intravascular coagulation (...

  8. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H. [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2005-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  9. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: Emergency management and hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severance, H.W.; Kolb, J.C.; Carlton, F.B.; Jorden, R.C.

    1989-10-01

    An ice storm in February 1989 resulted in numerous incidences of carbon monoxide poisoning in central Mississippi secondary to exposure to open fires in unventilated living spaces. Sixteen cases were treated during this period at the University of Mississippi Medical Center and 6 received Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy. These 6 cases and the mechanisms of CO poisoning are discussed and recommendations for emergency management are reviewed.10 references.

  10. PREDICTING OUTCOME AND SEVERITY IN ACUTE ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS POISONING WITH CLINICAL SCORING AND SERUM CHOLINESTERASE LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj R

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Organophosphorus compound poisoning is the most common medico toxic emergency in India the increase in pesticide use in agriculture has paralleled the increase in the use of these products for deliberate self-warm. Respiratory failure is the most common complication of OP poisoning leading to death. Early recognition and prompt ventilator support may improve survival. Owing to limited availability of resources, all OP poisoning patients are not managed in ICUs in Indian setup. It is therefore important that clinical features and criteria to predict the need for ventilator support be identified at initial examination. Hence this study was undertaken to assess the severity of organophosphorus compound poisoning both clinically by using Peradeniya scoring and by estimating serum choline esterase levels. METHODS: Cross sectional study was done at basaveswar teaching and general hospital attached to MR Medical College. Cases with history of exposure to organophosphorus compound within previous 24 hours were chosen after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients were evaluated for Peradeniya OP poisoning scale and serum cholinesterase levels for assessment of severity of poisoning. Serum cholinesterase levels and Peradeniya OP poisoning scale were studied to predict the need for ventilator support. The results were analyzed using Chi-square test. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: It was done using pearson’s chi square test. RESULTS: In this study requirement of ventilator support was seen in 36% of patients. Mortality in our study was 18%. Only 15.6% of patients with mild grade of poisoning according to Peradeniya OP poisoning scale required ventilator support, whereas 84.4% did not require ventilator support. Most of patients with moderate (70.6% and severe poisoning (100% according to Peradeniya OP poisoning scale required ventilator support. 93.7% of patients with serum cholinesterase levels more than 50% did not require

  11. Assessing biomarkers and neuropsychological outcomes in rural populations exposed to organophosphate pesticides in Chile – study design and protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez-Santana, M.; Zuniga, L.; S Corral; R. Sandoval; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Velden, K. van der; Roeleveld, N.; Pancetti, F.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health effects of pesticides are easily diagnosed when acute poisonings occurs, nevertheless, consequences from chronic exposure can only be observed when neuropsychiatric, neurodegenerative or oncologic pathologies appear. Therefore, early monitoring of this type of exposure is especially relevant to avoid the consequences of pathologies previously described; especially concerning workers exposed to pesticides on the job. For acute organophosphate pesticides (OPP) exposure, two b...

  12. Minoxidil poisoning presenting as acute coronary syndrome: a rare case scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant Kalyanrao Panchal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of severe minoxidil poisoning (3000 mg with resultant severe hypotension, tachycardia and subendocardial ischemia initially treated crystalloid, dopamine, aspirin, clopidogrel on the lines of acute coronary syndrome with partial haemodynamic improvement. After getting the history of minoxidil poisoning, the patient was treated with bolus doses of norepinephrine, and norepinephrine infusion, resulting in resolution of hypertension, tachycardia and reversal of ischemia. Topical minoxidil is commonly used agent for male pattern baldness. It also has got antihypertensive action when ingested, acute coronary syndrome and compensatory tachycardia with successful management with norepinephrine bolus and infusion. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 784-785

  13. 某市2008至2010年农药中毒病例分析%Epidemiological analysis for Quzhou pesticide poisoning of year 2008 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵士光; 刘斯峰

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析衢州市农药中毒病例的特征,为制定防治对策提供科学依据.方法 收集衢州市2008至2010年农药中毒的登记数据,用SPSS 12.0软件进行统计分析.结果 2008至2010年衢州市共发生农药中毒1222例,其中,生产性农药中毒225例,占18.4%,死亡1例,病死率为0.44%;非生产性农药中毒997例,占81.6%,死亡77例,病死率为7.72%.生产性农药中毒以男性为主(172例),占76.4%,非生产性农药中毒以女性为主(519例),占52.1%.农药中毒主要发生在第3季度.生产性农药中毒和非生产性农药中毒均以65岁以上年龄组的病例最多,分别为81例(占36.0%)和262例 (占26.3%);农药种类均以有机磷类杀虫剂为主.结论 农药中毒在衢州市严重威胁着公众的健康,非生产性农药中毒应引起重视,有机磷类杀虫剂为主要的中毒农药.%Objective To provide scientific evidence of making measures for prevention of pesticide poisoning,the investigation on the condition of pesticide poisoning was carried out in Quzhou.Methods Registration data of pesticide poisoning from 2008 to 2010 in Quzhou were collected and statistically analyzed by SPSS 12.0.Results During the three years,there were 1222 cases reported for pesticide poisoning.Among them,the number of occupational poisoning was 225 (1 case died),with fatality rate of 0.44%.The number of non-occupational poisoning was 997 (77 cases died),and its fatality rate was 7.72%.The incidence of occupational poisoning and non-occupational poisoning accounted for 18.4% and 81.6% respectively.Male patients were in the majority in occupational pesticides poisoning (accounting for 76.4%),female patients in non-occupational poisoning (accounting for 52.1%).The pesticide poisoning mainly occurred from July to September.Occupational poisoning and non-occupational poisoning cases mainly concentrated in over 65 age group,accounting for 36.0% (81 cases) and 26.3% (262 cases

  14. Acute Poisoning in Children: A Hospital-Based Study in Arak, Iran (2008-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Arjmand Shabestari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poisoning is one of the important reasons for children’s admission to hospital. Knowledge of epidemiology of poisoning in each region plays an important role in planning prevention, care, and treatment of patients. This study was conducted to determine the characteristics of acute poisoning epidemiology in children attending pediatric wards of Amirkabir Hospital in Arak in a five-year period (March 2008 to March 2012. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 224 children admitted for poisoning. Data were retrospectively collected from patients’ files and analyzed using SPSS 16 software. Results: Of the total population, 54.9% were boys and the rest were girls. Mean age of children was 3.54±2.99 years, and the most common age range was 1-3 years (50.9%. The highest rate of children’s admission due to poisoning was in the winter (30.8%. The most common causes of poisoning included drugs (65.2%, kerosene (7.1%, and food poisoning (5.4%. The most common poisoning drugs, included benzodiazepines (21.9%, gastrointestinal drugs (19.9%, opioid analgesics (15.1%. The most prevalent drugs were methadone, metoclopramide, and clonazepam. At admission, the most common presenting symptoms were neurological (51.3%, and gastrointestinal symptoms (38.4%. Conclusion: High prevalence of poisoning with groups of drugs mentioned could indicate community-wide excessive use of these drugs, as well as negligence of families in keeping them out of children’s reach. Therefore, raising knowledge and awareness about variety of poisoning and how to prevent them, through holding workshops, national media, schools, and health centers can be a valuable step toward upkeep of children’s health.

  15. A Case of Mushroom Poisoning with Russula subnigricans: Development of Rhabdomyolysis, Acute Kidney Injury, Cardiogenic Shock, and Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jong Tae; Han, Jin Hyung

    2016-07-01

    Mushroom exposures are increasing worldwide. The incidence and fatality of mushroom poisoning are reported to be increasing. Several new syndromes in mushroom poisoning have been described. Rhabdomyolytic mushroom poisoning is one of new syndromes. Russula subnigricans mushroom can cause delayed-onset rhabdomyolysis with acute kidney injury in the severely poisoned patient. There are few reports on the toxicity of R. subnigricans. This report represents the first record of R. subnigricans poisoning with rhabdomyolysis in Korea, describing a 51-year-old man who suffered from rhabdomyolysis, acute kidney injury, severe hypocalcemia, respiratory failure, ventricular tachycardia, cardiogenic shock, and death. Mushroom poisoning should be considered in the evaluation of rhabdomyolysis of unknown cause. Furthermore, R. subnigricans should be considered in the mushroom poisoning with rhabdomyolysis. PMID:27366018

  16. ACUTE ACCIDENTAL POISONING IN CHILDREN: A HOSPITAL-BASED RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kameshore

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute accidental poisoning in children is a big problem anywhere in the world. Studies done elsewhere in India showed a wide range of incidence of the problem. Hence, it was felt important to study its magnitude and associated characteristics as of now. OBJECTIVE: The current study was taken up to know the magnitude among children admitted in JNIMS, Imphal which is a newly established medical institute and also to study the characteristics like age, gender, type of poison, duration of hospital-stay and outcome of the cases. MATERIALS & METHODS: Retrospective data of all acute accidental poisoning cases among children admitted in the Pediatrics Ward, JNIMS, Imphal during the period July 2008 - December 2013 were analyzed by using descriptive statistics. RESULT: Of all the 13,663 children admitted, 148 cases were because of acute accidental poisoning giving an incidence rate of 1.08%. The male is to female ratio was 1.31:1. The last three years of the study period showed a slightly increasing trend in the incidence. Children aged 1-4 years were the most commonly affected (65.54%. Kerosene oil was by far the commonest (42% of all the poisonous substances consumed. Food poisoning, poisoning with organic compounds, poisoning with medicinal drugs and poisoning with corrosives comprised 21%, 12%, 9% and 8% respectively of all the cases. There was no mortality. DISCUSSION: The incidence rate of 1.08% as found out from the current study was on the lower side as compared to reports of previous studies done in other parts of the country. Yet, it was two-fold of the incidence reported from RIMS which is situated in the same State. Parental negligence in storing poisonous substances in the household was implicated. They need to be made aware for keeping harmful poisonous substances in safe places out of the reach of children. CONCLUSION: Community-based studies are recommended for estimating more accurately the magnitude of the problem in the

  17. Should hyperbaric oxygen be used to treat the pregnant patient for acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoesen, K.B.; Camporesi, E.M.; Moon, R.E.; Hage, M.L.; Piantadosi, C.A. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA))

    1989-02-17

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the leading cause of death due to poisoning. Although uncommon, CO poisoning does occur during pregnancy and can result in fetal mortality and neurological malformations in fetuses who survive to term. Uncertainty arises regarding the use of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) as a treatment for the pregnant patient because of possible adverse effects on the fetus that could be induced by oxygen at high partial pressures. While the dangers of hyperoxia to the fetus have been demonstrated in animal models, careful review of animal studies and human clinical experience indicates that the short duration of hyperoxic exposure attained during HBO therapy for CO poisoning can be tolerated by the fetus in all stages of pregnancy and reduces the risk of death or deformity to the mother and fetus. A case is presented of acute CO poisoning during pregnancy that was successfully treated with HBO. Recommendations are suggested for the use of HBO during pregnancy.

  18. 急性有机磷农药中毒患者心肌酶及心电图检测临床分析%CLINICAL ANALYSIS OF MYOCARDIAL ENZYME AND ECG OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE POISONING PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫民; 何玉娟

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To discuss the clinical significance of changes on myocardial enzymes and ECG in patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning and its relationship with prognosis.[Methods]From January 2006 -December 2009, 85 patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were admitted to hospital and the dynamic observation of their enzymes was made, then compared clinical data to analyze.[Results]The serum enzyme of 85 cases of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were increased with different levels, EKG changed obviously, 16 cases died.[Conclusion]The illness is severer, the more obvious increase of enzymes is found, and the prognosis is worse.It should protect the heart at early stage to reduce mortality and improve the cure rate.%[目的]探讨急性有机磷农药中毒患者心肌酶学及心电图改变的临床意义及预后的关系.[方法]对2006年1月~2009年12月85例急性有机磷农药中毒患者入院后作心肌酶动态观察并结合临床资料进行分析.[结果]85例急性有机磷农药中毒病人的血清心肌酶均有不同程度的升高,心电图发生明显改变,死亡16例.[结论]病情越重,心肌酶升高幅度越明显,预后越差,应早期应用保护心脏药物,降低死亡率,提高治愈率.

  19. Analysis on structural characteristics of poison system in acute poisoning of Guangxi%广西急性中毒毒物体系构成特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋东方; 张振明; 刘清华

    2013-01-01

    A total of 6004 cases of acute poisoning with 532 kinds of related poisons from 63hospitals were analyzed.According to the classification of pharmaceutical,pesticide,chemical,animal,plant and other poisons,the numbers of poison categories were 217,148,61,34,36 and 36 kinds accounting for 40.8%,27.8%,11.5%,6.4%,6.8%,6.7% of total number of poisons respectively.According to the case count,they were divided into three groups of low,medium and high morbidity and their poison numbers were 462,59 and 11 kinds accounting for 86.8%,11.1%,2.1% of total number of poisons respectively.According to the types of poisons,they were divided into five groups of poisoning 1,2,3,4,5 years and their poison numbers were 320,91,34,33 and 54 kinds accounting for 60.2%,17.1%,6.4%,6.2%,10.1% of total number of poisons respectively.According to the time of poisoning,they were divided into three groups of 1-year,discontinuous and perennial poisoning and their poison numbers were 320,158 and 54 kinds accounting for 60.2%,29.7%,10.1% of total number of poisons respectively.%分析63家医院收治的6004例急性中毒病例的相关毒物,共有532种,按医药、农药、化学、动物、植物、其他分为6类,各类毒物数为217、148、61、34、36、36种,分别占总毒物数的40.8%、27.8%、11.5%、6.4%、6.8%、6.7%.将各类毒物按中毒病例数分为低、中、高发病3组,各组毒物数分别为462(86.8%)、59(11.1%)、11(2.1%)种.各类毒物按中毒发生年数分为5个组,各类毒物合计数分别为320(60.2%)、91(17.1%)、34(6.4%)、33(6.2%)、54(10.1%)种.各类毒物按发生中毒的时间分为1年、间断、常年中毒3个组,各类毒物合计数分别为320(60.2%)、158 (29.7%)、54(10.1%)种.

  20. Multi-residue method for the determination of pesticides and pesticide metabolites in honeybees by liquid and gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry--Honeybee poisoning incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiljanek, Tomasz; Niewiadowska, Alicja; Semeniuk, Stanisław; Gaweł, Marta; Borzęcka, Milena; Posyniak, Andrzej

    2016-02-26

    A method for the determination of 200 pesticides and pesticide metabolites in honeybee samples has been developed and validated. Almost 98% of compounds included in this method are approved to use within European Union, as active substances of plant protection products or veterinary medicinal products used by beekeepers to control mites Varroa destructor in hives. Many significant metabolites, like metabolites of imidacloprid, thiacloprid, fipronil, methiocarb and amitraz, are also possible to detect. The sample preparation was based on the buffered QuEChERS method. Samples of bees were extracted with acetonitrile containing 1% acetic acid and then subjected to clean-up by dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) using a new Z-Sep+ sorbent and PSA. The majority of pesticides, including neonicotionoids and their metabolites, were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) but some of pesticides, especially pyrethroid insecticides, were analyzed by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The procedure was validated according to the Guidance document SANCO/12571/2013 at four concentration levels: 1, 5, 10 and 100 ng/g bees and verified in the international proficiency test. The analysis of bee samples spiked at the limit of quantification (LOQ) showed about 98% mean recovery value (trueness) and 97% of analytes showed recovery in the required range of 70-120% and RSDr (precision) below 20%. Linearity and matrix effects were also established. The LOQs of pesticides were in the range of 1-100 ng/g. The developed method allows determination of insecticides at concentrations of 10 ng/g or less, except abamectin and tebufenozide. LOQ values are lower than the median lethal doses LD50 for bees. The method was used to investigate more than 70 honeybee poisoning incidents. Data about detected pesticides and their metabolites are included.

  1. Multi-residue method for the determination of pesticides and pesticide metabolites in honeybees by liquid and gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry--Honeybee poisoning incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiljanek, Tomasz; Niewiadowska, Alicja; Semeniuk, Stanisław; Gaweł, Marta; Borzęcka, Milena; Posyniak, Andrzej

    2016-02-26

    A method for the determination of 200 pesticides and pesticide metabolites in honeybee samples has been developed and validated. Almost 98% of compounds included in this method are approved to use within European Union, as active substances of plant protection products or veterinary medicinal products used by beekeepers to control mites Varroa destructor in hives. Many significant metabolites, like metabolites of imidacloprid, thiacloprid, fipronil, methiocarb and amitraz, are also possible to detect. The sample preparation was based on the buffered QuEChERS method. Samples of bees were extracted with acetonitrile containing 1% acetic acid and then subjected to clean-up by dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) using a new Z-Sep+ sorbent and PSA. The majority of pesticides, including neonicotionoids and their metabolites, were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) but some of pesticides, especially pyrethroid insecticides, were analyzed by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The procedure was validated according to the Guidance document SANCO/12571/2013 at four concentration levels: 1, 5, 10 and 100 ng/g bees and verified in the international proficiency test. The analysis of bee samples spiked at the limit of quantification (LOQ) showed about 98% mean recovery value (trueness) and 97% of analytes showed recovery in the required range of 70-120% and RSDr (precision) below 20%. Linearity and matrix effects were also established. The LOQs of pesticides were in the range of 1-100 ng/g. The developed method allows determination of insecticides at concentrations of 10 ng/g or less, except abamectin and tebufenozide. LOQ values are lower than the median lethal doses LD50 for bees. The method was used to investigate more than 70 honeybee poisoning incidents. Data about detected pesticides and their metabolites are included. PMID:26830634

  2. Reversible brain damage following acute organic solvents' poisoning determined by magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dujmović Irena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute exposure to the effects of volatile solvents is characterized by the abrupt onset of symptoms and signs of poisoning, and relatively fast recovery in the majority of cases. Case report. We report a 24-year-old patient with an acute, accidental poisoning with a mixture of volatile organic solvents (most probably toluene, styrene and xylene, which led to the development of upward gaze paresis, diplopia, hemiparesis, ataxic gate, and the late onset truncal ataxia episodes. After 6 weeks, he recovered completely, while his extensive brain MRI lesions in the caudate nuclei, laterobasal putaminal regions, bilateral anterior insular cortex, central midbrain tegmental area withdrew completely after 4 months. Conclusion. Acute toxic encephalopathy should be a part of the differential diagnosis in any patient with acute neurobehavioral and neurological deficit.

  3. The Acute Oral Toxicity of Commonly Used Pesticides in Iran, to Honeybees (Apis Mellifera Meda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasuli Farhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The honey bee is credited with approximately 85% of the pollinating activity necessary to supply about one-third of the world’s food supply. Well over 50 major crops depend on these insects for pollination. The crops produce more abundantly when honey bees are plentiful. Worker bees are the ones primarily affected by pesticides. Poisoning symptoms can vary depending on the developmental stage of the individual bee, and the kind of chemical employed. The oral toxicity of these insecticides: (phosalone and pirimicarb, acaricide (propargite, insecticide and acaricide (fenpropathrin, fungicides, and bactericides (copper oxychloride and the Bordeaux mixture, were evaluated for the purposes of this research. The results showed that fenpropathrin had high acute oral toxicity (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 0.54 and 0.3 ppm, respectively. Propargite had 7785 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-24h and 6736 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-48h in honeybees and is therefore, non-toxic to Apis mellifera. On the other hand, copper oxychloride had minimum acute oral toxicity to honeybees (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 4591.5 and 5407.9 ppm, respectively and was therefore considered non-toxic. Also, the Bordeaux mixture was safe to use around honeybees. Phosalone and primicarb were considered highly and moderately toxic to honeybees, respectively.

  4. Characteristics of acute poisoning in children and advances in the diagnosis and treatment%小儿急性中毒的特点和诊治进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱素云

    2010-01-01

    Acute poisoning in children is closely related with the surrounding environment. In China,acute poisoning in children,mainly caused by wrong intake of pesticides,drugs and rodenticide,still leads to high mortality in severe acute poisoning cases. Particular emphasis on safe storage of drugs and toxic chemicals mentioned above may reduce poisoning accidents at the source. Of the suspected poisoning cases, besides the detailed medical history and physical examination, poison identification is the most direct and objective method to confirm the diagnosis and evaluate the poisoning severity. Timely diagnosis, appropriate antidote use, extensive application of blood purification therapy, and emphasis on supportive therapy remain critical for the successful treatment. Accurate and comprehensive clinical epidemiological data are considered to be of informative value to identifying poisoning of different regions, ages and sexes.%儿童急性中毒的发生与周围环境密切相关.我国儿童急性中毒以农药、药物和灭鼠药为主,主要因误服误食所致,重症急性中毒的病死率仍较高.加强对药物和上述毒物的管理,可以从源头减少中毒机会.对疑似中毒的患儿,除详细询问病史和查体外,多数情况下毒物鉴定是明确有元中毒和病情严重程度最直接、客观的方法.及时诊断、合理使用解毒药物、普及血液净化治疗技术、重视支持疗法是成功救治的关键.准确而全面的临床流行病学资料有助于对地区性、年龄阶段性及不同性别的中毒起到警示作用.

  5. Combined administration of hyperbaric oxygen and hydroxocobalamin improves cerebral metabolism after acute cyanide poisoning in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M B; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Hyldegaard, O

    2013-01-01

    -to-pyruvate ratio in rat brain by means of microdialysis during acute CN poisoning. Anesthetized rats were allocated to three groups: 1) vehicle (1.2 ml isotonic NaCl intra-arterially); 2) potassium CN (5.4 mg/kg intra-arterially); 3) potassium CN, OHCob (100 mg/kg intra-arterially) and subsequent HBOT (284 k...

  6. Oral administration of lactulose: a novel therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning via increasing intestinal hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dan-Feng; Hu, Hui-Jun; Sun, Xue-Jun; Meng, Xiang-En; Zhang, Yu; Pan, Shu-Yi

    2016-01-01

    It has been known that the pathophysiology of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is related to hypoxia, the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Studies have shown that the novel, safe and effective free radical scavenger, hydrogen, has neuroprotective effects in both acute CO poisoning and delayed neuropsychological sequelae in CO poisoning. Orally administered lactulose, which may be used by some intestinal bacteria as a food source to produce endogenous hydrogen, can ameliorate oxidative stress. Based on the available findings, we hypothesize that oral administration of lactulose may be a novel therapy for acute CO poisoning via increasing intestinal hydrogen production.

  7. 2006至2009年某市农药中毒情况%Situation of pesticide poisoning in Huzhou from 2006 to 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘弢; 张传会; 张鹏; 金玫华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the situations of pesticide poisoning in Huzhou and take preventive strategy and measures against the pesticide poisoning. Methods Case reports between 2006 and 2009 in the data base of reporting system for occupational diseases were computed by Excel for windows and statistical significance by SPSS12.0. Results A total of 2298 patients were reported from 2006 to 2009.Among them, the incidence of occupational poisoing accounted for 25.59% (588 cases), including 4 fatalities (fatality rate, 0.68% ). Male patients (458 cases, 77.89% ) were more than femal ones ( 130 cases, 22.11% ) in occupational pesticides poisoning. Summer and autumn were the most seasons in occupational pesticides poisoning occurring. The incidence of non-occupational pesticides poisoning accounted for 74.41% ( 1710 cases ),including 112 fatalities (fatality rate, 6.55%). Femal patients (952 cases, 55.67% ) were more than male ones (758 cases, 44.33% ) in non-occupational pesticides poisoning. 15-55 years were the highest incidences among non-occupational pesticides poisoning patients. Insecticides especially organophosphorus insecticides such as methamidophos, parathion, and omethoate comprised a higher proportion, accounting for 79.98% of the pesticides poisoning. Conclusion The incidence and the fatality rate of occupational pesticide poisoning were reduced in the city. However, more attention should be paied to non-occupational pesticides poisoning. To decrease the numbers of pesticide poisoning and the risks of death, the relevant departments should take preventive strategy and measures against the pesticide poisoning.%目的 了解湖州市农药中毒的危害现状,为农药中毒预防控制提供依据.方法 将2006至2009年每年应用"中国疾病预防控制信息系统"的子系统"健康危害因素检测信息系统"所建立的农药中毒报告数据库导入Excel,进行汇总统计,使用SPSS 12.0软件进行统计分析.结果 2006至2009

  8. Distribution and Economic Loss Analysis for 38 Hospitalized Children with Acute Poisoning%38例急性中毒住院儿童病例分布及经济损失分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋瑞娟; 宋瑞华; 牛彦青; 王莉

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To understand the distribution features and economic losses of the hospitalized children with acute poisoning, scientific basis was provided to prevent and control the acute poisoning in children.Methods:A retrospective analysis of 38 cases of acute poisoning in children admitted to the pediatric in Heji Hospital affiliated to Changzhi Medical College from 2007 to 2012.Results:In the children with poisoning,25 cases were male,while 13 caseswere female.Children were divided into four groups according to the age:<1,1~4,5~9,and 10~14,whose distribution were respectively 6 cases,20 cases,4 cases,8 cases.Rural and urban poisoning proportion was 1.38:1.The peak was in September and the indoor poisoning accounted for 86.84%.34.21% poisoning was caused by the drug in acute poisoning,while the same with the chemical poisoning.The economic losses of acute poisoning caused by pesticide was(5 171.03 ±4 843.46)RMB on average,which was the highest.The economic losses caused by plant was (2 062.63±715.78)RMB on average, which was the second highest.Conclusion:The number of male children with acute poisoning in the hospital were larger than the female, and mainly concentrated in 1~4 years old,who lived in rural rather than the city.In addition,drug poisoning was the main type of acute poisoning.Pesticide poisoning made the largest economic loss.Measures should be taken to prevent and control the acute poisoning according to its epidemiological characteristics.%目的:了解急性中毒住院患儿的分布特征和经济损失,为儿童急性中毒的预防、控制提供科学依据。方法:回顾性分析38例儿童急性中毒病例。结果:38例中毒患儿中,男25例,女13例;<1岁、1~4岁、5~9岁、10~14岁年龄组分别为6、20、4、8例;农村、城市中毒比例1.38∶1;9月份为发病高峰期;发生在户内占86.84%。急性中毒中药物中毒和化学性中毒各占34.21%。急性中毒的经济损失

  9. Does the clock make the poison? Circadian variation in response to pesticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa A Hooven

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circadian clocks govern daily physiological and molecular rhythms, and putative rhythms in expression of xenobiotic metabolizing (XM genes have been described in both insects and mammals. Such rhythms could have important consequences for outcomes of chemical exposures at different times of day. To determine whether reported XM gene expression rhythms result in functional rhythms, we examined daily profiles of enzyme activity and dose responses to the pesticides propoxur, deltamethrin, fipronil, and malathion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Published microarray expression data were examined for temporal patterns. Male Drosophila were collected for ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECOD, esterase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and, and uridine 5'-diphosphoglucosyltransferase (UGT enzyme activity assays, or subjected to dose-response tests at four hour intervals throughout the day in both light/dark and constant light conditions. Peak expression of several XM genes cluster in late afternoon. Significant diurnal variation was observed in ECOD and UGT enzyme activity, however, no significant daily variation was observed in esterase or GST activity. Daily profiles of susceptibility to lethality after acute exposure to propoxur and fipronil showed significantly increased resistance in midday, while susceptibility to deltamethrin and malathion varied little. In constant light, which interferes with clock function, the daily variation in susceptibility to propoxur and in ECOD and UGT enzyme activity was depressed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Expression and activities of specific XM enzymes fluctuate during the day, and for specific insecticides, the concentration resulting in 50% mortality varies significantly during the day. Time of day of chemical exposure should be an important consideration in experimental design, use of pesticides, and human risk assessment.

  10. The epidemiological characteristics analysis of 655 patients with pesticide poisoning%655例农药中毒患者的流行病学特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏令; 韦兵; 孙磊; 徐猛; 章福彬

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解农药中毒的原因与特征,为制定防控农药中毒的策略与措施提供依据. 方法:对2009-2013年收治的655例农药中毒患者信息进行三间分布描述以及一般特征的描述. 结果:655例农药中毒患者病死29例,病死率为4. 43%;生活性农药中毒582 例,病死率4. 81%. 93. 99%生活性农药中毒中是用农药来自杀,且以年轻女性和老年为主;经院前处置中毒患者病死率低于未行院前处置者(P<0. 05). 结论:农药中毒已经成为一个严重的公共卫生问题,应广泛开展卫生安全宣传教育,强化管理,加强心理干预,加强院前急救技术培训,进一步完善农药中毒监测工作.%Objective:To investigate the causes and characteristics of pesticide poisoning for providing the evidence in formulating the prevention and control strategies. Methods:The clinical data of 655 patients with pesticide poisoning from 2009 to 2013 were described in three fields and general features. Results:Among 655 cases with pesticide poisoning,29 cases died,the fatality rate of which was 4. 43%. The fatality rate of 582 cases with life-pesticide poisoning was 4. 81%. The 93. 99% of life-pesticide poisoning was suicide patients using pesticide,the young women and elderly were the majority. The fatality rate of patients with pre-hospital treatment was less than that in patients without pre-hospital treatment(P<0. 05). Conclusions:Pesticide poisoning has become a serious public health problem. Developing extensive health and safety publicity education,strengthening pesticide management,psychological intervention and technical training before hospital,and further improving the monitoring of pesticide poisoning should be implemented.

  11. Ulinastatin suppresses endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats with acute paraquat poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-feng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung injury is the main manifestation of paraquat poisoning. Few studies have addressed brain damage after paraquat poisoning. Ulinastatin is a protease inhibitor that can effectively stabilize lysosomal membranes, prevent cell damage, and reduce the production of free radicals. This study assumed that ulinastatin would exert these effects on brain tissues that had been poisoned with paraquat. Rat models of paraquat poisoning were intraperitoneally injected with ulinastatin. Simultaneously, rats in the control group were administered normal saline. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that most hippocampal cells were contracted and nucleoli had disappeared in the paraquat group. Fewer cells in the hippocampus were concentrated and nucleoli had disappeared in the ulinastatin group. Western blot assay showed that expressions of GRP78 and cleaved-caspase-3 were significantly lower in the ulinastatin group than in the paraquat group. Immunohistochemical findings showed that CHOP immunoreactivity was significantly lower in the ulinastatin group than in the paraquat group. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining showed that the number of apoptotic cells was reduced in the paraquat and ulinastatin groups. These data confirmed that endoplasmic reticular stress can be induced by acute paraquat poisoning. Ulinastatin can effectively inhibit this stress as well as cell apoptosis, thereby exerting a neuroprotective effect.

  12. Using bosentan to treat paraquat poisoning-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongchen Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paraquat poisoning is well known for causing multiple organ function failure (MODS and high mortality. Acute lung injury and advanced pulmonary fibrosis are the most serious complications. Bosentan is a dual endothelin receptor antagonist. It plays an important role in treating PF. There is no related literature on the use of bosentan therapy for paraquat poisoning. OBJECTIVE: To study the use of bosentan to treat acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis as induced by paraquat. METHOD: A total of 120 adult Wister male rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the paraquat poisoning group (rats were intragastrically administered with paraquat at 50 mg/kg body weight once at the beginning; the bosentan therapy group (rats were administered bosentan at 100 mg/kg body weight by intragastric administration half an hour after paraquat was administered, then the same dose was administered once a day; and a control group (rats were administered intragastric physiological saline. On the 3rd, 7th, 14th, and 21st days following paraquat exposure, rats were sacrificed, and samples of lung tissue and venous blood were collected. The levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, endothelin-1 (ET-1, and hydroxyproline (HYP in the plasma and lung homogenate were determined. Optical and electronic microscopes were used to examine pathological changes. RESULT: The TGF-β1, ET-1, and HYP of the paraquat poisoning group were significantly higher than in the control group, and they were significantly lower in the 21st day therapy group than in the paraquat poisoning group on the same day. Under the optical and electronic microscopes, lung tissue damage was observed to be more severe but was then reduced after bosentan was administered. CONCLUSION: Bosentan can reduce inflammation factor release. It has a therapeutic effect on acute lung injury as induced by paraquat.

  13. Residential Proximity to Agricultural Pesticide Applications and Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Rull, Rudolph P.; Gunier, Robert; Von Behren, Julie; Hertz, Andrew; Crouse, Vonda; Buffler, Patricia A.; Reynolds, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Ambient exposure from residential proximity to applications of agricultural pesticides may contribute to the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Using residential histories collected from the families of 213 ALL cases and 268 matched controls enrolled in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study, the authors assessed residential proximity within a half-mile (804.5 meters) of pesticide applications by linking address histories with reports of agricultural pesticide use...

  14. 灾后重建中急性中毒1077例流行病学分析%Epidemiology of 1077 cases of acute poisoning in reconstruction after earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玲; 杨鼎君; 袁娟; 刘君; 旷娟; 范文娟; 高梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the epidemiology of 1077 cases of acute poisoning in reconstruction after earthquake. Methods 1077 patients with acute poisoning were analyzed. Results The acute alcohol poisoning was 53. 3% followed by pesticide poisoning (20. 97%), drug poisoning (11. 15%), food poisoning (6.13%), carbon monoxide poisoning (5. 48%), drug intoxication (3. 02%). Women was higher than men (P<0. 039). 21-40 years old was the age of high incidence of poisoning. Cause of poisoning within the service poison suicide was the most (59. 24%). Conclusion The acute poisoning occur with sex, age, personality, emotional intelligence and accidents.%目的 探讨灾后重建中急性中毒的流行病学特点及相关原因.方法 对2008年5月22日~2010年12月31日抢救的1077例急性中毒患者,按病种、例次、性别、年龄、中毒意向、就诊方式等进行统计分析,探讨其流行病学特征及相关因素.结果 灾后重建中急性中毒最多的为酒精中毒(53.3%),其次依次为农药中毒(20.97%)、药物中毒(11.15%)、食物中毒(6.13%)、CO中毒(5.48%)、毒品中毒(3.02%).女性高于男性(P<0.039).但男性中毒有增多趋势.21~40岁是中毒的高发年龄段(53.95%).中毒原因以内服毒物自杀最多(59.24%).就诊方式以自来院居多(54.41%).结论 灾后重建中急性中毒的发生与性别、年龄、性格、情商及意外事件等有直接的关系.

  15. The Effect of Acute Fluoride Poisoning on Nitric Oxide and Methemoglobin Formation in the Guinea pig

    OpenAIRE

    ŞİRELİ, Meltem

    2004-01-01

    To study the effect of acute fluoride poisoning on nitric oxide and methemoglobin formation, 250 mg/kg bw sodium fluoride was applied alone and verapamil was applied together with fluoride. Blood nitric oxide (Griess reaction) and calcium levels; hemoglobin, methemoglobin and hematocrit values; and erythrocyte counts were determined and compared with those of the controls. After the fluoride application it was found that there was a relative relationship between the increase in nitric oxide a...

  16. Guidance document for setting an Acute Reference Dose in Dutch national pesticide evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaij MTM van; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a proposal for the procedures for setting an Acute Reference Dose (ARfD) for pesticides evaluated in the Netherlands. This deals with both evaluations on the national level (on behalf of the Dutch Board for the Authorisation of Pesticides (CTB)) and evaluations at the European

  17. Effect of hemoperfusion on internal environment of patients with acute poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Li; Wen-Qiang Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of hemoperfusion on the internal environment of patients with acute poisoning.Methods: A total of 36 patients with the acute poisoning who received the hemoperfusion treatment in Department of Emergency Medicine of this hospital were selected as the research subjects and a retrospective study was performed on them. At the beginning, 30 min and 120 min of hemoperfusion treatment, the blood was taken from the blood-collecting point of artery with cardiopulmonary bypass to detect the blood pH, partial pressure of CO2, partial pressure of oxygen, blood lactic acid, potassium, sodium, free calcium, bicarbonate ion and blood glucose level. The above indicators at the different time point were compared. Results:At the beginning, 30 min and 120 min of hemoperfusion, there was no significant difference in the partial pressure of CO2, pH, blood potassium, blood sodium, bicarbonate ion and free calcium between groups. But at the beginning, 30 min and 120 min of hemoperfusion, there was the significant difference in the partial pressure of oxygen, lactic acid and blood glucose between groups.Conclusion:There is no significant effect on the internal environment of patients with acute poisoning who receive the hemoperfusion treatment.

  18. Acute Copper Sulfate Poisoning: Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Chand Meena

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Copper sulfate ingestion is a relatively popular method for committing suicide in Indian subcontinent. It causes a high mortality rate, and so a growing concern has been raised to identify the severe alarming signs suggestive of poor prognosis and to improve treatment approaches. Case report: A 22-year-old unmarried man working as a painter was found unconscious at his friend residence. The patient developed hypotension, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis with hematemesis and melena, renal and hepatic failure, severe metabolic acidosis and intravascular hemolysis during admission at hospital. His signs were refractory to treatment with fluid replacement therapy, vasoactive drugs, antiemetic drugs, ranitidine, furosemide, methylene blue and 2,3 dimercaptopropane-1-sulphonate. He died six hours post-admission. In post-mortem examinations, there were multiple sub-pleural and sub-epicardial hemorrhages and the gastrointestinal mucosa was congested, hemorrhagic, and greenish blue in color. The liver, on histological examination, showed sub-massive hepatic necrosis. On toxicological analyses, copper sulfate was detected in preserved viscera and results for other heavy metals were negative. Conclusion: Hypotension, cyanosis, uremia and jaundice can be considered as signs of poor prognosis in copper sulfate poisoning. Copper sulfate ingestion is life-threatening due to its deleterious effects on the upper GI, kidneys, liver and blood. Having no time to waste, aggressive treatments should be immediately instituted and signs of poor prognosis should be kept in mind.

  19. 有机磷农药中毒患者中毒原因及心理护理分析%Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning Patients the Cause of Poisoning and Psychological Care Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂云

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the cause of poisoning and the effect of psychological nursing for the patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Methods 110 patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were randomly divided into observation group and control group. The control group received routine nursing, the observation group was combined with psychological nursing.Results The observation group was better than the control group (P<0.05); the HAMD score was lower than the control group (P<0.05).Conclusion The effect of psychological nursing is notable for patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.%目的 分析有机磷农药中毒患者中毒原因及心理护理效果.方法 选取有机磷农药中毒患者110例,将其随机分为观察组与对照组,对照组给予常规护理,观察组联合心理护理.结果 观察组治疗配合情况优于对照组(P<0.05);HAMD评分低于对照组(P<0.05).结论 有机磷农药中毒患者实施心理护理的效果显著.

  20. Acute methoxetamine and amphetamine poisoning with fatal outcome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Wiergowski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Methoxetamine (MXE is a psychoactive substance distributed mostly via the Internet and is not liable to legal regulation in Poland. MXE has a toxicity profile similar to that of ketamine but longer-lasting effects. The paper describes a case of acute poisoning that resulted from recreational use of MXE and amphetamine and ended in death. In mid-July 2012, a 31-year old man was admitted to the clinical toxicology unit in Gdańsk because of poisoning with an unknown psychoactive substance. The patient was transported to the emergency department (ED at 5:15 a.m. in a very poor general condition, in a deep coma, with acute respiratory failure, hyperthermia (> 39°C and generalized seizures. Laboratory tests showed marked leukocytosis, signs of massive rhabdomyolysis, hepatic failure and beginning of acute renal failure. Despite intensive therapy, the patient died 4 weeks after the poisoning in the course of multi-organ dysfunction syndrome. Chemical and toxicological studies of serum and urine samples collected on the poisoning day at 1:40 p.m. confirmed that amphetamine and MXE had been taken earlier that day. Concentration of amphetamine in the serum (0.06 μg/ml was within the non-toxic range, while MXE (0.32 μg/ml was within the toxic range of concentrations. Amphetamine was also detected in the patient's hair, which suggested a possibility of its use within the last dozen weeks or so. The serious clinical course of intoxication and co-existence of amphetamine and MXE in the patient's blood and urine suggest the possibility of adverse interactions between them.

  1. Poisoning of cats and dogs by the carbamate pesticides aldicarb and carbofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Adriana; Salvagni, Fernanda Auciello; Yoshida, Alberto Soiti; Gonçalves-Junior, Vagner; Calefi, Atilio Sersun; Fukushima, André Rinaldi; Spinosa, Helenice de Souza; Maiorka, Paulo César

    2015-10-01

    The intentional and accidental poisoning of animals and people is a threat to public health and safety worldwide. Necropsies and histopathological examinations of 26 cats and 10 dogs poisoned by the carbamates aldicarb and carbofuran, confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) were analysed, with variable post mortem interval and conservation of the carcass. Biological matrices were collected for toxicological and histopathological analyses. High performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) was utilized to detect aldicarb and its metabolites, aldicarb sulphoxide and aldicarb sulphone, and carbofuran. The variable post mortem interval and the method of conservation of the carcass may be harmful to toxicological, necroscopic and histopathological analyses, that should be performed in order to provide reliable evidences to investigate possible poisoning of animals, which is cruel crime, and are usually linked to domestic or social conflict.

  2. Pralidoxime in acute organophosphorus insecticide poisoning--a randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Eddleston

    2009-06-01

    benefit. CONCLUSIONS: Despite clear reactivation of red cell acetylcholinesterase in diethyl organophosphorus pesticide poisoned patients, we found no evidence that this regimen improves survival or reduces need for intubation in patients with organophosphorus insecticide poisoning. The reason for this failure to benefit patients was not apparent. Further studies of different dose regimens or different oximes are required.

  3. Duration of an induced resistance of sheep to acute poisoning by Crotalaria retusa seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisanka Angelo Maia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the duration of the resistance after the end of the ingestion of non-toxic doses of Crotalaria retusa seeds. Ten sheep were divided into 3 groups of 3 animals each and a control group with 1 sheep. To induce resistance, sheep in groups 1, 2 and 3 received 20 daily doses of 2g kg-1 of C. retusa seeds, followed by 7 daily doses of 4g kg-1. To determine the duration of resistance the sheep in groups 1, 2 and 3 were challenged orally, 3, 7 and 15 days, respectively, after receiving the last dose of 4g kg-1, with a single dose of 5g kg-1. Sheep of groups 1 and 2 did not develop overt signs of poisoning. Two sheep of group 3, challenged 15 days after the end of the resistance induction period, showed signs of acute poisoning and died. These results suggest that the induced resistance of sheep to acute poisoning by C. retusa seeds is of short duration, from 7 to 15 days.

  4. [Neurotoxicology of pesticides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hiroo

    2015-01-01

    Pesticides have been used for many years for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating pests such as insects, rodents, and weeds. However, most pesticides are not completely specific for pests and can also induce damage to the human nervous system. In particular, insecticides often directly targets the nervous system by affecting major targets such as the neuro-transmitter metabolism, neuronal receptors, and ion channels; acetylcholine (ACh) esterase for organo-phosphates and carbamates, nicotinic ACh receptor for neonicotinoids, γ-aminobutyric acid receptors/chloride channels for organochlorides and fipronil, and voltage-gated sodium channel for pyrethroids. Additional targets include sites in the sodium channels, glutamate-gated chloride channels, and octopamine and ryanodine receptors. Several pesticides also produce adverse neurological effects indirectly by disrupting the general cellular mechanisms that support the high metabolic activity of the nervous system. Nowadays, more potent pesticides are being developed as replacements for the older, harmful ones. Pesticide neurotoxicity in humans may involve the central or peripheral nervous system or both and may induce typical neuronal damage in case of acute poisoning even by new agents. However, whether effect of exposure to pesticides at below acute-poisoning threshold level remains unclear. Moreover, neurotoxicology for behavioral and higher-brain function remains an unresolved and a challenging problem.

  5. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rodents, noxious weeds, and insects. Pesticides help prevent crop loss and, potentially, human disease. According to the ... pesticides. DO NOT mix pesticides. DO NOT set traps or place bait in areas where children or ...

  6. Effects of acute organophosphate poisoning on pituitary target gland hormones at admission, discharge and three months after poisoning: A hospital based pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinaki Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphate compound (OPC poisoning is common in the developing countries such as India. The acute and later effects of OPC poisoning on pituitary and target gland hormones is largely unknown. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted at Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research between January 2012 and March 2013. Fourteen patients (8 males, age 18-50 years with acute OPC poisoning were included in the study based on the history and clinical features, documented decreased in plasma cholinesterase activity or presence of the OPC in gastric lavage/blood samples. The hormonal parameters were done at baseline, at the time of discharge and at three months of follow-up. Results: A total of 14 patients out of 46 with the mean age of 30.1 ± 10.3 years were finally eligible for the study. Hormonal alterations at admission were similar to sick euhormonal syndrome. Overall 7 of them had nine hormonal deficits at three months of follow up, 4 having sub normal basal cortisol level and two each had low testosterone and growth hormone and only one had thyroxine deficiency. Conclusion: Acute organophosphate poisoning results in endocrine dysfunction akin to sick euhormonal syndrome. However, in a small subset of patients, varying level of hormonal insufficiency may occur either at admission or later. These observations need re-validation in a larger group of patients with specific OPC.

  7. The Acute Oral Toxicity of Commonly Used Pesticides in Iran, to Honeybees (Apis Mellifera Meda)

    OpenAIRE

    Rasuli Farhang; Rafie Javad Nazemi; Sadeghi Amin

    2015-01-01

    The honey bee is credited with approximately 85% of the pollinating activity necessary to supply about one-third of the world’s food supply. Well over 50 major crops depend on these insects for pollination. The crops produce more abundantly when honey bees are plentiful. Worker bees are the ones primarily affected by pesticides. Poisoning symptoms can vary depending on the developmental stage of the individual bee, and the kind of chemical employed. The oral toxicity of these insecticides: (p...

  8. [Clinical symptoms and circumastances of acute poisonings with fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and panther cap (Amanita pantherina)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik-Głebocka, Magdalena; Druzdz, Artur; Naskret, Maciej

    2011-01-01

    Mushroom poisonings in Poland are quite common, especially in summer and autumn, but fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and panther cap (Amanita pantherina) are rather rare cause of these intoxications. Fly agaric is a cause of deliberate poisoning, whereas panther cap poisoning also happens accidentally. The main toxins of these two mushrooms are ibotenic acid (pantherine, agarine), muscimol, muscazone and muscaridine. The other bioactive substances are stizolobic and stizolobinic acids and aminodicarboxyethylthiopropanoic acids. All these compounds are responsible for diverse picture of intoxication. An analysis of patients with Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina poisoning hospitalized in the Poznan Departament of Toxicology revealed that symptoms occurred after 30 minutes to 2 hours with vomiting, hallucinations, restlessness, increased psychomotor drive and central nervous system depression. Other antycholinergic symptoms like tachycardia and increased blood pressure, mydriasis, dry and red skin were seen only in a few cases. Acute respiratory failure was the most dangerous symptom observed in the course of poisoning. PMID:22010435

  9. Analysis on the characteristics of the acute poisoning processes in Beihai city%北海市急性中毒过程的特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青华

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨北海市急性中毒过程的特点。方法采用流行病学调查方法,调查了市、县、乡10个三级医疗单位2005-01~2012-12的2127例急性中毒住院患者,并对相关资料进行分类分析。结果在2127例中毒患者中,中毒地点以发生在家里、学校、工作场地、餐馆、娱乐场所与其他场地的病例数各占86.63%、0.24%、5.37%、3.25%、1.46%、3.06%;中毒途径以经口、呼吸、皮肤中毒病例数各占68.47%、19.01%、12.52%;中毒原因以意外性、自杀性、误食性、医疗性、职业性、他杀性、其他原因中毒的病例数各占36.05%、25.65%、15.20%、7.06%、2.45%、0.24%、13.35%。其中以家里、经口、意外性与自杀性中毒为中毒过程的4个主要特点。进一步分析这4个特点的中毒原因与毒物,其中家里中毒的主要原因与毒物为意外性与农药类中毒病例数最多,各占同类病例数的33.33%、29.18%;经口中毒的主要原因与毒物为自杀性与农药类中毒病例数最多,各占同类病例数的36.70%、31.99%;进一步分析意外性与自杀性中毒的主要毒物,以化学类与农药类毒物中毒病例数为多(各占同类原因总病例数的44.39%、68.62%)。结论北海地区以家里中毒、经口中毒与意外、自杀性原因中毒为急性中毒过程的突出特点,应针对这些特点采取针对性地防控对策。%Objective To study the characteristics of the acute poisoning processes in Beihai city.Methods By the epidemiological study, the 2 127 cases of all-kind-acute poisoning were surveyed from 10 hospitals of the city, county and township in Beihai city.The classification analysis was made by collecting the relevant data of poisoning processes of the cases.Results In all the 2 127 cases, the numbers of poisoning in the poisoning sites of home, school ,workplace , restaurants, entertainment and other places

  10. The Anion Gap is a Predictive Clinical Marker for Death in Patients with Acute Pesticide Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Hyo; Park, Samel; Lee, Jung-Won; Hwang, Il-Woong; Moon, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Park, Su-Yeon; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2016-07-01

    Pesticide formulation includes solvents (methanol and xylene) and antifreeze (ethylene glycol) whose metabolites are anions such as formic acid, hippuric acid, and oxalate. However, the effect of the anion gap on clinical outcome in acute pesticide intoxication requires clarification. In this prospective study, we compared the anion gap and other parameters between surviving versus deceased patients with acute pesticide intoxication. The following parameters were assessed in 1,058 patients with acute pesticide intoxication: blood chemistry (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glucose, lactic acid, liver enzymes, albumin, globulin, and urate), urinalysis (ketone bodies), arterial blood gas analysis, electrolytes (Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) HCO3 (-), Ca(++)), pesticide field of use, class, and ingestion amount, clinical outcome (death rate, length of hospital stay, length of intensive care unit stay, and seriousness of toxic symptoms), and the calculated anion gap. Among the 481 patients with a high anion gap, 52.2% had a blood pH in the physiologic range, 35.8% had metabolic acidosis, and 12.1% had acidemia. Age, anion gap, pesticide field of use, pesticide class, seriousness of symptoms (all P < 0.001), and time lag after ingestion (P = 0.048) were significant risk factors for death in univariate analyses. Among these, age, anion gap, and pesticide class were significant risk factors for death in a multiple logistic regression analysis (P < 0.001). In conclusions, high anion gap is a significant risk factor for death, regardless of the accompanying acid-base balance status in patients with acute pesticide intoxication. PMID:27366016

  11. Therapeutic efficacy of charcoal hemoperfusion in patients with acute severe dichlorvos poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AiPENG; Fan-qingMENG; Lan-fangSUN; Zhan-shengJI; Yu-huiLI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy of hemoperfusion (HP) in the treatment of the patients with acute severe dichlorvos(DDVP) poisoning. METHODS: One hundred and eight patients with acute severe DDVP poisoning in the two teaching hospitals were enrolled. Sixty-seven patients were treated with HP (HP group) and forty-one patients accepted traditional treatment only as the control. Serum concentration of DDVP was determined by gas chromatography. RESULTS: The duration of coma, impaired consciousness, ICU stay, and mechanical ventilation was significantly shorter in the HP group than that in the control. The cumulative dosages (mg) of atropine required either in the first 24 h on admission (442±436 vs 899±485 in the control, P<0.01) or within the hospital (568±574vs 1228±982 in the control, P<0.01) were markedly reduced in the HP patients. The lower incidence of mechanical ventilation required (13.4 % vs 36.6 % P<0.01), respiratory muscular paralysis (4.5 % vs 17.1%, P<0.05) and the lower mortality of death (7.5 % vs 34.1%, P<0.01) were observed in the HP group. HP could accelerate the recovery of suppressed cholinesterase activity. After the procedure, the DDVP level was decreased from (11±4) to(7±3) mg/L in parallel with a decline in APACHE II Score or dopamine dose and a rise in Glasgow Coma Scale(P<0.05). In addition, the mean values of peak clearance and reduction rate were (87±17) mL/min and 44 %±11%,respectively. CONCLUSION: The rapid fall in blood DDVP level and the dramatic clinical response suggest that HP is effective in the treatment of acute severe DDVP poisoning.

  12. Slow Repetitive Nerve Stimulation in Patients with Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning after Clinical Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheera Jayasinghe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolonged inhibition of acetylcholine esterase may lead to the intermediate syndrome. Neuromuscular junction (NMJ dysfunction has been shown with repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS. Subclinical NMJ dysfunction may also occur. We aimed to examine the NMJ function following acute organophosphorus (OP poisoning by using exercise modified slow RNS. Methods: A cohort study was conducted with matched controls. Patients with acute OP poisoning were enrolled. NMJ function, muscle power and tendon reflexes were assessed at discharge and six weeks after exposure. NMJ function was assessed with exercise modified supramaximal slow RNS of the median nerve. Results: There were 68 patients and 71 controls. Mean (SD age of patients and controls were 32 (12 and 33 (12 years. In some particular amplitude, the decrement response was statistically significant. They were decrement response at rest, at fourth amplitude (95% CI: -0.2 to -2.7 and two minutes post-exercise at fourth and fifth amplitudes (95% CI: -0.8 to -5, -1 to -5 respectively in the second assessment compared to controls, decrement response at rest at fourth and fifth amplitudes (95% CI: -4 to -0.5, -3.9 to -0.01 respectively and two minutes post-exercise at fourth amplitude (95% CI: -5 to -0.8 in the second assessment compared to the first assessment. Patients in the first assessment and controls showed more than 8% decrement response either to the second, fourth or fifth stimuli in seven and five occasions respectively. Conclusion:  There was no significant neuromuscular junction dysfunction assessed by exercise modified slow repetitive stimulation following acute exposure to OP. Since, NMJ dysfunctions are likely to occur following OP poisoning, other electrodiagnostic modalities such as SF-EMG are probably more efficient to assess these abnormalities.

  13. Brain injury due to acute organophosphate poisoning Magnetic resonance imaging manifestation and pathological characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute organophosphate poisoning can cause injuries of multiple visceras; especially,central nervous system injury can increase risk factors of patients with severe acute organophosphate poisoning. An application of modem image may increase diagnostic rate of brain injury in an earlier period and provide evidences for clinical treatment.OBJECTIVE: To reveal imaging manifestations, pathological characteristics and multi-ways injured mechanism of brain injury due to acute organophosphate poisoning.DESIGN: Contrast observational study.SETTING: Department of Medical Image, the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Department of Nerve Molecule Imaging Medicine and Laboratory of Neurology, the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University from August 2003 to February 2004. A total of 30 healthy cats weighing 2.8 - 3.5 g and of both genders were selected from Animal Experimental Center of Hebei Medical University.METHODS: Thirty healthy cats were randomly divided into control group (n =5) and intoxication group (n=25). Cats in the control group were subcutaneously injected with 0.3 mL/kg saline at four points; while, cats in the intoxication group were subcutaneously injected with 400 g/L 0.3 mL/kg O,O-dimethyl-S-(methoxycarbonylmethyl) thiophosphate at four points. Two minutes after intoxication, cats received muscular injection with 0.5 mg/kg atropine sulfate, and then, brain tissues were collected from parietal lobe, basal ganglia, hippocampus, cerebellum and brain stem were observed at 3, 6, 24 hours, 3 and 7 days after intoxication respectively under optic microscope and electron microscope and expressions of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP),glutamic acid (Glu) and γ-amino butyric acid after immunohistochemical staining.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Results of MRI examinations; histological changes under optic microscope and electron

  14. Assessing the connection between organophosphate pesticide poisoning and mental health: A comparison of neuropsychological symptoms from clinical observations, animal models and epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallones, Lorann; Beseler, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatry and psychology are beginning to recognize the importance of lead, mercury and heavy metals as causal partners in the development of mental disorders. Further, mental health researchers and clinicians are embracing the idea that the combined effects of genetics and environmental exposures can result in perturbations in brain neurochemistry leading to psychiatric disorders. The purpose of this review is to examine the biological foundations for the epidemiological observations previously identified by reviewing the toxicology literature and relating it to epidemiological studies addressing the role of poisoning with organophosphate pesticides (OPs) in neurobehavioral and neuropsychological disorders. The goal of this review is to raise awareness in the mental health community about the possibility that affective disorders might be the result of contributions from environmental and occupational pesticide poisoning. PMID:26654853

  15. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary acute exposure of the population of Denmark to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christensen, Tue

    2009-01-01

    the nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-2002. Contributions from 43 commodities were included in the calculations. We used the relative potency factor (RPF) approach to normalize the toxicity of the various organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides to the two index compounds chlorpyriphos......Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides and as such have a common mode of action. We assessed the cumulative acute exposure of the population of Denmark to 25 organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide residues from the consumption of fruit, vegetables...... exposure was apple. The results show that there is no cumulative acute risk for Danish consumers to acetylcholinesterase- inhibiting pesticides....

  16. Brain temperature measured by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in acute and subacute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain temperature (BT) is associated with the balance between cerebral blood flow and metabolism according to the ''heat-removal'' theory. The present study investigated whether BT is abnormally altered in acute and subacute CO-poisoned patients by using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Eight adult CO-poisoned patients underwent 3-T magnetic resonance imaging in the acute and subacute phases after CO exposure. MRS was performed on deep cerebral white matter in the centrum semiovale, and MRS-based BT was estimated by the chemical shift difference between water and the N-acetyl aspartate signal. We defined the mean BT + 1.96 standard deviations of the BT in 15 healthy controls as the cutoff value for abnormal BT increases (p < 0.05) in CO-poisoned patients. BT of CO-poisoned patients in both the acute and subacute phases was significantly higher than that of the healthy control group. However, BT in the subacute phase was significantly lower than in the acute phase. On the other hand, no significant difference in body temperature was observed between acute and subacute CO-poisoned patients. BT weakly correlated with body temperature, but this correlation was not statistically significant (rho = 0.304, p = 0.2909). The present results suggest that BT in CO-poisoned patients is abnormally high in the acute phase and remains abnormal in the subacute phase. BT alteration in these patients may be associated with brain perfusion and metabolism rather than other factors such as systemic inflammation and body temperature. (orig.)

  17. Brain temperature measured by {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in acute and subacute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Shunrou; Nishimoto, Hideaki; Murakami, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Akira; Ogasawara, Kuniaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka, Iwate (Japan); Yoshioka, Yoshichika [Osaka University, Laboratory of Biofunctional Imaging, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka (Japan); Matsuda, Tsuyoshi [MR Applications and Workflow Asia Pacific, GE Healthcare Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Beppu, Takaaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka, Iwate (Japan); Iwate Medical University, Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, Iwate (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    Brain temperature (BT) is associated with the balance between cerebral blood flow and metabolism according to the ''heat-removal'' theory. The present study investigated whether BT is abnormally altered in acute and subacute CO-poisoned patients by using {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Eight adult CO-poisoned patients underwent 3-T magnetic resonance imaging in the acute and subacute phases after CO exposure. MRS was performed on deep cerebral white matter in the centrum semiovale, and MRS-based BT was estimated by the chemical shift difference between water and the N-acetyl aspartate signal. We defined the mean BT + 1.96 standard deviations of the BT in 15 healthy controls as the cutoff value for abnormal BT increases (p < 0.05) in CO-poisoned patients. BT of CO-poisoned patients in both the acute and subacute phases was significantly higher than that of the healthy control group. However, BT in the subacute phase was significantly lower than in the acute phase. On the other hand, no significant difference in body temperature was observed between acute and subacute CO-poisoned patients. BT weakly correlated with body temperature, but this correlation was not statistically significant (rho = 0.304, p = 0.2909). The present results suggest that BT in CO-poisoned patients is abnormally high in the acute phase and remains abnormal in the subacute phase. BT alteration in these patients may be associated with brain perfusion and metabolism rather than other factors such as systemic inflammation and body temperature. (orig.)

  18. Acute Pancreatitis Caused By Mushroom Poisoning: A Report of Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Samet; Erden, Abdulsamet; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avci, Deniz; Ortakoyluoglu, Adile Irfan; Karagoz, Hatice; Bulut, Kadir; Basak, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Of the more than 5000 species of mushrooms known, 100 types are toxic and approximately 10% of these toxic types can cause fatal toxicity. A type of mushroom called Amanita phalloides is responsible for 95% of toxic mushroom poisonings. In this article, we report 2 cases of mushroom poisonings caused by Lactarius volemus, known as Tirmit by the local people. The patient and his wife were admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting 20 hours after consuming Lactarius volemus, an edible type of mushroom. The patients reported that they had been collecting this mushroom from the mountains and eating them for several years but had never developed any clinicopathology to date. Further examination of the patients revealed a very rare case of acute pancreatitis due to mushroom intoxication. The male patient was admitted to the intensive care unit while his wife was followed in the internal medicine service, because of her relative mild clinical symptoms. Both patients recovered without sequelae and were discharged. In this article, we aimed to emphasize that gastrointestinal symptoms are often observed in mushroom intoxications and can be confused with acute pancreatitis, thus leading to misdiagnosis of patients. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve patients' prognosis and prevent the development of complications. PMID:26835473

  19. Toxicological Investigation of Acute Cyanide Poisoning of a 29-year-old Man: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Anazodo Nnoli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cyanide poisoning is frequently lethal, Because of the early onset of severe symptoms and difficulty in the diagnosis. Case: The case was a 29-year-old boy who collapsed suddenly after taking a bottle of beer in a bar. Samples, such as peripheral blood, stomach contents, bile fluid, urine and mouth swabs, were prepared using standard autopsy procedure and were subjected to analysis for cyanide using visible spectrophotometric method. The cyanide contents in samples, included stomach content (260 ppm, bile fluid (272 ppm, blood (256 ppm, and mouth swab (265 ppm. Conclusion: The cause of death was acute myocardial infarction following acute poisoning from ingestion of cyanide salts. Its lethality was related to the rapid onset of toxicity, non-specific nature of the symptoms, and failure to consider the diagnosis. Regarding the absence of pathognomonic symptoms for its toxicity, delay in acquiring a full history and unexplained sudden collapse or acidosis which worsen the prognosis, cyanide intoxication needs to be expeditiously diagnosed and managed.

  20. Abnormal pancreatic enzymes and their prognostic role after acute paraquat poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Wang, Meng; Gao, Yanxia; Yang, Wen; Xu, Qun; Eddleston, Michael; Li, Li; Yu, Xuezhong

    2015-11-25

    Ingestion of paraquat causes multi-organ failure. Prognosis is best estimated through measurement of blood paraquat concentrations but this facility is not available in most hospitals. We studied the prognostic significance of abnormal pancreatic enzymes for survival. Patients with acute paraquat poisoning were recruited. An extensive series of blood tests including serum amylase were serially checked. Patients were sorted according to their serum amylase activity (normal [660 U/L]), and survival compared between groups. 177 patients were enrolled to the study, of whom 67 died and 110 survived. 122 (70.62%), 27 (15.25%) and 25 (14.13%) patients were in the normal, mildly elevated and elevated amylase activity groups, respectively. The case fatality in the elevated group was 100% compared to 17% in the normal group (P pancreatic enzyme activity showed good prediction power. We have found that abnormal pancreatic enzymes are useful prognostic marker of death after acute paraquat poisoning. Including serum amylase activity into a prognostic model provides a good prognostication.

  1. Intentional poisoning cases of animals with anticholinesterase pesticide-carbofuran in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennakoon, Sakunthala; Perera, Bandumala; Haturusinghe, Lathika

    2009-04-01

    Carbofuran is a broad spectrum insecticide and nematicide which inhibits acetyl cholinesterase. Several intentional poisoning cases of animals and birds including crows, dogs, cow, and elephant, using carbofuran were reported in Sri Lanka. Qualitative analysis of carbofuran in biological specimens was carried out using T.L.C and GC-MS. The quantitative analysis was carried out by HPLC using Zorbax Eclips XDB-C18 (150 x 4.6 mm I.D x 5 microm particle size) column with acetonitrile: water 25:75 v/v mobile phase and UV detection at 210 nm. The liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform was reproducible and sensitive. The procedure was validated in terms of linearity (0.996carbofuran poisoning. The fatal carbofuran levels detected were in the range of 42-910 microg/g in crow's gizzard and contents, 50-800 microg/g in dog's stomach contents, 13-20 microg/g in dog's liver, 0.9 microg/g in cow's stomach and contents, 35 microg/g in elephant's stomach and contents.

  2. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Onodera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been observed. Method. The subjects included patients treated for acute carbon monoxide poisoning in whom a medical emergency team was able to measure the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning. We examined the relationship between the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning and carbon monoxide exposure time and the relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and carbon monoxide exposure time. Results. A total of 10 patients met the above criteria. The carboxyhemoglobin levels at the site of poisoning were significantly and positively correlated with the exposure time (rs = 0.710, p=0.021, but the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were not correlated with the exposure time. Conclusion. In rural areas, the carboxyhemoglobin level measured at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning correlated with the exposure time.

  3. Epidemiology and toxicology of arsenic poisoning in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, L A; Case, A A; Osweiler, G D; Hayes, H M

    1977-01-01

    Arsenic poisoning is one of the more important causes of heavy metal poisoning in domestic animals. Two species--dogs and cattle--are intoxicated more frequently than other animals; yet sporadic instances of poisoning have been observed in cats, horses, and pigs. Cases observed by veterinary clinicians are either peracute, acute, or chronic intoxications. Frequently the initial and only indication that a severe problem exists with peracute poisoning in a cattle herd is dead animals. Chronic intoxications are also observed in cattle. Acute intoxication is the most common form of arsenic poisoning observed and documented in the dog. Also intoxicated dogs were younger, i.e., 2-6 months of age. Arsenic is a severe alimentary tract irritant in domestic animals, and treatment in most instances consists mainly of symptomatic and supportive treatment. The source of intoxication, when it can be determined, is usually dips, sprays, powders, or vegetation contaminated by pesticides containing arsenic. PMID:908297

  4. Epidemiology and toxicology of arsenic poisoning in domestic animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selby, L.A.; Case, A.A.; Osweiler, G.D.; Hayes, H.M. Jr.

    1977-08-01

    Arsenic poisoning is one of the more important causes of heavy metal poisoning in domestic animals; yet sporadic instances of poisoning have been observed in cats, horses, and pigs. Cases observed by veterinary clinicians are either peracute, acute, or chronic intoxications. Frequently the initial and only indication that a severe problem exists with peracute poisoning in a cattle herd is dead animals. Chronic intoxications are also observed in cattle. Acute intoxication is the most common form of arsenic poisoning observed and documented in the dog. Also intoxicated dogs were younger, i.e., 2-6 months of age. Arsenic is a severe alimentary tract irritant in domestic animals, and treatment in most instances consists mainly of symptomatic and supportive treatment. The source of intoxication, when it can be determined, is usually dips, sprays, powders, or vegetation contaminated by pesticides containing arsenic.

  5. Epidemiology and toxicology of arsenic poisoning in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, L A; Case, A A; Osweiler, G D; Hayes, H M

    1977-08-01

    Arsenic poisoning is one of the more important causes of heavy metal poisoning in domestic animals. Two species--dogs and cattle--are intoxicated more frequently than other animals; yet sporadic instances of poisoning have been observed in cats, horses, and pigs. Cases observed by veterinary clinicians are either peracute, acute, or chronic intoxications. Frequently the initial and only indication that a severe problem exists with peracute poisoning in a cattle herd is dead animals. Chronic intoxications are also observed in cattle. Acute intoxication is the most common form of arsenic poisoning observed and documented in the dog. Also intoxicated dogs were younger, i.e., 2-6 months of age. Arsenic is a severe alimentary tract irritant in domestic animals, and treatment in most instances consists mainly of symptomatic and supportive treatment. The source of intoxication, when it can be determined, is usually dips, sprays, powders, or vegetation contaminated by pesticides containing arsenic.

  6. Oxime and atropine failure to prevent intermediate syndrome development in acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Slavica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intermediate syndrome (IMS was described a few decades ago, however, there is still a controversy regarding its exact etiology, risk factors, diagnostic parameters and required therapy. Considering that acute poisonings are treated in different types of medical institutions this serious complication of organophosphate insecticide (OPI poisoning is frequently overlooked. The aim of this paper was to present a case of IMS in organophosphate poisoning, which, we believe, provides additional data on the use of oxime or atropine. Case report. After a well-resolved cholinergic crisis, the patient developed clinical presentation of IMS within the first 72 h from deliberate malathion ingestion. The signs of IMS were weakness of proximal limb muscles and muscles innervated by motor cranial nerves, followed by the weakness of respiratory muscles and serious respiratory insufficiency. Malathion and its active metabolite were confirmed by analytical procedure (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pralidoxime methylsulphate, adiministered as a continuous infusion until day 8 (total dose 38.4 g, and atropine until the day 10 (total dose 922 mg did not prevent the development of IMS, hence the mechanical ventilation that was stopped after 27 h had to be continued until the day 10. Conclusion. Continuous pralidoxime methylsulphate infusion with atropine did not prevent the development of IMS, most likely due to the delayed treatment and insufficient oxime dose but also because of chemical structure and lipophilicity of ingested OPI. A prolonged intensive care monitoring and respiratory care are the key management for the intermediate syndrome. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 176018, No. 46009

  7. Study on decorporating and detoxicating acute depleted uranium poison with some flavonoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate decorporating and detoxicating acute depleted uranium poison of flavonoids, the decorporation effect of flavonoids with catechol group, chelating agent of catechols amino carboxylic acid type (8102) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were studied under DU exposure and Wistar rats as animal model. In 3d later after injecting DU with dose of 20 mg/kg and then injecting flavonoids with dose of 10 mg/kg in abdomen, the mortality, uranium contents, kidney function and pathological observation of kidney were investigated. It has been found that nearly 20% mortality occurs both in the T2 and in T1 groups meanwhile 30% mortality occurs in the control group. But death has not been observed in 8102 group. The concentration of excreted urine uranium increases and the level of serum uranium decreases when T2 used. The retention of uranium in kidney with T2 group also increases. Large reducing of urea nitrogen and creatinine in serum has been observed in 8102 and F1 groups, and reducing of creatinine has also been observed in F2, T1 and T2 groups. The serious injury of kidney has not been observed in T2 group. The protection efficiency can be listed as T2> 8102>T1>F1>QU. It has been revealed that flavonoid T2 is the most effective protector from the damage and poison of DU. (authors)

  8. Paraquat poisoning: an experimental model of dose-dependent acute lung injury due to surfactant dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F.R. Silva

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the most characteristic feature of paraquat poisoning is lung damage, a prospective controlled study was performed on excised rat lungs in order to estimate the intensity of lesion after different doses. Twenty-five male, 2-3-month-old non-SPF Wistar rats, divided into 5 groups, received paraquat dichloride in a single intraperitoneal injection (0, 1, 5, 25, or 50 mg/kg body weight 24 h before the experiment. Static pressure-volume (PV curves were performed in air- and saline-filled lungs; an estimator of surface tension and tissue works was computed by integrating the area of both curves and reported as work/ml of volume displacement. Paraquat induced a dose-dependent increase of inspiratory surface tension work that reached a significant two-fold order of magnitude for 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight (P<0.05, ANOVA, sparing lung tissue. This kind of lesion was probably due to functional abnormalities of the surfactant system, as was shown by the increase in the hysteresis of the paraquat groups at the highest doses. Hence, paraquat poisoning provides a suitable model of acute lung injury with alveolar instability that can be easily used in experimental protocols of mechanical ventilation

  9. Toxicological Investigation of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Four Occupants of a Fuming Sport Utility Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Nnoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This toxicological investigation involves a report on the death of four occupants of a sport utility vehicle on one of the major busy Federal roads of Nigeria where they were held for up to three hours in a traffic jam while the car was steaming. Methods: Autopsy was executed using the standard procedure and toxicological analysis was done using simple spectrophotometric method to establish the level of carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO in peripheral blood in the four occupants. Results: The autopsy report indicated generalized cyanosis, sub-conjuctival hemorrhages, marked laryngo-trachea edema with severe hyperemia with frothy fluid discharges characteristic of carbon monoxide poisoning. Toxicological report of the level of HbCO in part per million (ppm in the peripheral blood of the four occupants was A= 650 ppm; B= 500 ppm; C= 480 ppm, and D= 495 ppm against the maximum permissible level of 50 ppm. Conclusion: The sudden death of the four occupants was due to excessive inhalation of the carbon monoxide gas from the exhaust fumes leaking into the cabin of the car. The poor road network, numerous potholes, and traffic jam in most of roads in Nigeria could have exacerbated a leaky exhaust of the smoky second hand SUV car leading to the acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  10. Clinical Rescue of Severe Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning with Coma%抢救重度有机磷农药中毒伴昏迷患者临床观察分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于承民

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察抢救重度有机磷农药中毒伴昏迷患者治疗效果。方法将31例重度有机磷农药中毒伴昏迷患者,随机分为观察组(15例)和对照组(16例),均给予常规迅速清除毒物,同时应用chE复能药和胆碱受体拮抗药,并与血液灌流。在血液净化期间对解磷氯定,阿托品,肝素等给予不同治疗方案:观察组改变用药剂量,对照组按常规给药治疗。结果观察组治愈率73.3%,与对照组52.3%相比有显著性。结论改变用药剂量,频率,救治重度有机磷农药中毒伴昏迷患者肺水肿,呼吸肌麻痹,脑水肿,中间综合征发生率低,并且缩短病程,减少并发症。%Objective To investigate the acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning with coma patient outcomes.Methods 31 cases of severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning with coma patients were randomly divided into two groups (15 patients)and control group (16 cases)were given routine quickly remove toxins,and application of complex energy chE and cholinergic receptor antagonist drug medicine,and perfused with blood.During the blood purification chlorine set for solubilizing,atropine,heparin given dif erent treatment options:change the dose observation group,the control group conventional drug treatment.Results The cure rate was 73.3%,52.3%,compared with the control group was significant.Conclusion Change the dose,frequency,treatment of severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning pulmonary edema in patients with coma,respiratory muscle paralysis,cerebral edema,low incidence.

  11. 2009-2011年合肥市蜀山区农药中毒流行病学分析%Epidemiological analysis on pesticide poisoning in Shushan District of Hefei City from 2009-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉萍

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]To comprehensively learn about the epidemic status,hazard degree, occurrence regularity and distribution characteristics of pesticide poisoning in Shushan District of Hefei City, provide the basis for controlling and reducing the pesticide poisoning, as well as carrying out the network report management. [Methods] By using the Health hazards monitoring information system, the pesticide poisoning cases were analyzed statistically. [ Results] Most of pesticide poisoning cases in Shushan District were unproductive poisoning. The incidence rate in females was higher than that in males, and 47.5% of patients were people aged 25- 45 years old. The mortality of poisoning patients increased with increasing age, but there was no statistical significant difference (χ2 = 7. 391,P > 0. 05 ). Among these cases, phosphate pesticide poisoning was the most frequently reported. [ Conclusion] The pesticide poisoning has become a serious public health problem, and has a profound impact on people! health. Comprehensive interventions should be carried out to prevent various pesticide poisoning events, particularly the public education of pesticide safety.%目的 为全面掌握合肥市蜀山区农药中毒的发生现状、危害程度、发病规律及分布特点,为控制、减少农药中毒的发生和做好网络报告管理工作提供依据.方法 利用健康危害因素监测信息系统对报告的农药中毒病例进行统计分析.结果 合肥市蜀山区农药中毒以非生产性中毒为主,女性中毒发生率高于男性;中毒病例年龄集中在25~ 45岁,占47.5%.中毒患者的病死率有随年龄增高逐渐增加的趋势,但差异无统计学意义(x2=7.391,P>0.05).中毒农药以有机磷农药中毒最为常见.结论 农药中毒已形成了一个严重的公共卫生问题,对居民健康产生深远的影响,应采用综合干预措施预防各类农药中毒事故的发生,尤其是要加强农药安全知识的宣传教育.

  12. Characteristics and determinants of adult patients with acute poisoning attending the accident and emergency department of a teaching hospital in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudair, I F; Jassim, Z; Hanssens, Y; Alsaad, W A

    2013-09-01

    Data about etiologic and demographic characteristics of acute poisoning in adults in Qatar are lacking. This prospective observational study was undertaken to analyze characteristics and possible determinants of acute poisoning in adults in Qatar. During 2010, 18,073 patients attended the emergency department of Hamad General Hospital, a teaching hospital in Qatar. Out of them, 599 (3.3%) patients were diagnosed as "poisoning case" with either chemical or pharmaceutical substances. The prevalence rate of poisoning incidence was 35.3/100,000 population. Seven patients died, corresponding with a case-fatality rate of 0.39/1000. The majority were male (65%) and the mean age was 34 years. The poisons involved were mainly chemicals (61.6%) and pharmaceuticals (38.4%). Female, mainly single, suffered more intentional poisoning compared to male. Of the patients aged 60 years and above (7.2%), the majority (95.3%) suffered unintentional poisoning with pharmaceuticals; 56% with warfarin, 12% with digoxin and 7% with insulin. Multivariate analysis shows that female gender, single status, younger than 35 years of age, being poisoned by pharmaceutical products, and the need for hospitalization are significant determinants for acute intentional poisoning after adjusting all other possible covariates. The findings of this study can be used to establish awareness and prophylactic campaigns in Qatar.

  13. Study on 6 011 cases of acute poisoning in Guangxi from 2005 to 2009:case analysis and prevention-control scheme%2005~2009年广西急性中毒6011例分析及防控宣教对策探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋东方; 张振明; 陈雪冬; 龙永美; 何德智

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics and prevention-control scheme of acute-poisoning in Guangxi.Methods The retrospective analysis on the data of 6 011 patients with acute poisoning from the hospitals of 11 cities in Guangxi from 2005 to 2009was conducted.Results The people with employment(68.84%) and secondary school education or above(53.42%) were the mainpopulation of acute poisoning.The onset of acute poisoning mainly occurred at home(79.53%),and peroral poisoning was most common(69.45%).The proportion of poisoning without consciousness(61.59%) was significantly higher than that of poisoning with consciousness(37.31%).The main toxicants included pesticides,chemical and medicine toxicants,which accounted for 75.00%.Conclusion Forimproving self-protective consciousness and skills of people from different places,the specific measures of acute-poisoning education shouldbe formulated according to the characteristics of poisoning population,poisoning process,poisoning causes and toxicants,and differencesbetween cities and countries.%目的 探讨广西急性中毒的特点及防控对策. 方法 回顾性分析2005 ~2009 年广西11 个市及其县级医院、乡镇卫生院6 011例急性中毒患者的病历资料. 结果 中毒人群以就业人群(68.84%)与中学及以上学历者(53.42%)为主. 中毒过程以发生在家中(占79.53%)与经口中毒(占69.45%)最常见;无意识性中毒者比例(占61.59%)明显高于有意识性中毒(占37.31%). 中毒毒物主要为农药、化学、医药3 类,占75.00%. 结论 应根据中毒人群、中毒过程及原因、毒物特点及城乡差别,制订针对性的宣教措施,以提高各地人群的自我防毒意识与技能.

  14. Evaluation of acceptability and use of lockable storage devices for pesticides in Sri Lanka that might assist in prevention of self-poisoning

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    Harriss Louise

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-poisoning with pesticides is a major reason for high suicide rates in rural areas of many developing countries. Safer storage of pesticides may be one means of prevention. We have conducted a study to assess the acceptability and use of lockable boxes for storing pesticides in rural Sri Lanka. Methods Four hundred lockable metal storage boxes were given to farming households, 100 in each of four villages. Assessment interviews were conducted by Sumithrayo (NGO field workers immediately after boxes were supplied (T1, 11 – 14 weeks later (T2, 30 weeks later (T3, and 18 months later (T4. Data on suicide and self-harm were collected from local police and hospitals. Results At T1 only 1.8% (7/396 of households reported locking up pesticides, 72.5% (279/385 easy access to pesticides for adults and 50.4% (195/387 easy access for children. At T3 most informants in households using pesticides reported using the box all (82.3%, 298/362 or most of the time (7.2%, 26/362. Informants usually reported always locking the box (92.8%, 336/362 and most boxes were locked on inspection (93.6%, 339/362. By T4 there was some reduction in reporting that the box was kept locked all of the time (75.2%, 267/355 and the box being locked on inspection (73.8%, 262/355. Easy child access to the key was reported in relatively few households (10.7% at T4, although interviewers judged that this was possible in rather more (20.6%. Most informants regarded the box as useful (100% at T3 and 99.4% at T4, with convenience for storage, security, avoiding wastage, and protection of children being major factors. A message on the box about how to deal with bad feelings and the importance of safer storage was well received. The locks had been broken or the key lost in a few households. Conclusion Introduction of lockable boxes for storing pesticides to farming households in Sri Lanka appeared to be acceptable. Most households used the boxes responsibly

  15. A retrospective study of paradigm and outcome of acute poisoning cases in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Southern India

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    Arulmurugan C.

    2015-10-01

    Results: Incidence was high among males (60.36% compared to females (39.64%. Most of the cases of acute poisoning were in the age group 10 to 30 years (60.95% followed by 30 to 50 years age group (30.77%. A majority of poisoning cases (27.2% were due to organophosphorus (OPC insecticide. Total mortality was found to be 5.32%. Mortality rate due to Paraquat, Abrus Pretorius seeds was significantly high compared with OPC because there is no specific antidote. Time lapse had a very significant role in the mortality in cases of poisoning. Conclusions: Poisoning is common with young males. The mortality is high, in cases of self-poisoning with parquet and abrus seeds. Despite the highest consumption rate, no mortality was observed with organophosphorus because of early medical intervention and specific antidote. Early medical care in a tertiary care hospital will help to reduce significant mortality in India. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(10.000: 2654-2657

  16. THE SPECTRUM OF INTERMEDIATE SYNDROME FOLLOWING ACUTE ORGANOPHOSPHORUS POISONING: A RETROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY FROM A TEACHING HOSPITAL OF CHHATTISGARH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate syndrome is a common complication found in patients with organo-phosphorus poisoning. The aim of this study was to find its incidence in this tribal dominated area of Chhattisgarh state. This is a retrospective study carried out at the ICU of a teaching Medical College hospital. In a period of one year, 720 cases of acute poisoning were admitted in the medical ICU ward, out of which, 682 cases (94.7% were of organo-phosphorus poisoning. 64 cases (9.3% had signs & symptoms of intermediate syndrome, which included inability to flex the neck, respiratory difficulty, convulsions and other features. All the 64 cases of intermediate syndrome required ventilatory support. Male: female ratio was 8:10. The commonest compound implicated in poisoning was Fenthion. Mortality was 18%. Patients with respiratory muscle weakness & proximal muscle paresis were the definitive predictors for the development of intermediate syndrome. Early recognition & prompt treatment has often proved successful, but, in mixed poisoning, recovery is variable and unpredictable.

  17. The spectrum of intermediate syndrome following acute organophosphate poisoning: a prospective cohort study from Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeepa Jayawardane

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intermediate syndrome (IMS is a major cause of death from respiratory failure following acute organophosphate poisoning. The objective of this study was to determine repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS predictors of IMS that would assist in patient management and clinical research. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Seventy-eight consenting symptomatic patients with organophosphate poisoning were assessed prospectively with daily physical examination and RNS. RNS was done on the right and left median and ulnar nerves at 1, 3, 10, 15, 20, and 30 Hz. The study was conducted as a prospective observational cohort study in the Central Province, Sri Lanka. IMS was diagnosed in ten out of 78 patients using a priori clinical diagnostic criteria, and five of them developed respiratory failure. All ten patients showed progressive RNS changes correlating with the severity of IMS. A decrement-increment was observed at intermediate and high frequencies preceding the onset of clinical signs of IMS. As the patient developed clinical signs of IMS, decrement-increment was progressively noted at low and intermediate frequencies and a combination of decrement-increment and repetitive fade or severe decrement was noted at high frequencies. Severe decrement preceded respiratory failure in four patients. Thirty patients developed forme fruste IMS with less severe weakness not progressing to respiratory failure whose RNS was characterized by decrement-increment or a combination of decrement-increment and repetitive fade but never severe decrements. CONCLUSIONS: Characteristic changes in RNS, preceding the development of IMS, help to identify a subgroup of patients at high risk of developing respiratory failure. The forme fruste IMS with the characteristic early changes on RNS indicates that IMS is a spectrum disorder. RNS changes are objective and precede the diagnosis and complications of IMS. Thus they may be useful in clinical management and research.

  18. 自杀性急性中毒527例分析%Analysis on 527 Cases of Acute Poisoning Suicide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春燕; 赵群远; 马瑞芳; 张颖; 陈时; 韩瑞

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析自杀性中毒的规律、特征,探索防范和干预措施。方法收集2012年1月至2013年12月于昆明医科大学第二附属医院就诊的527例自杀性急性中毒患者的临床资料,根据其性别、年龄、职业、毒物种类等特点进行统计和分析。结果中毒以18~44岁年龄段最多(61.5%);病例职业分布以农民和工人最多(65.6%),中学文化水平病例最多(45.4%);自杀性中毒常见的毒物为农药和药物(80.8%),农药最常见为有机磷农药、百草枯和杀鼠剂,药物中以安眠药、解热镇痛药和混合药物为主;城市自杀毒物多为药物,为24.5%(129/527),而农村多为农药,为25.6%(135/527),差异有统计学意义(P <0.01);中毒发生以7月病例达高峰(21.6%);病死率为3.0%(16/527)。结论中毒是最常见的自杀方式,严格管理农药、药品及其他危险化学品,限制购买、使用,加强监管,避免自杀工具的随意获得,关注公众心理健康,建立自杀干预和预警机制,提供危机咨询和援助,是减少自杀性中毒发生的关键。%Objective To analyze the rule and characteristics of suicide poisoning,to explore the pre-vention and intervention measures.Methods The clinical data of acute poisoning suicide cases admitted to the Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University from Jan.2012to Dec .2013 was collected and statistically analyzed for their gender,age,occupation,poisoning types and other characteristics.Results Mostly aged between 18 to 44 years old(61.5%);in terms of profession,farmers and workers accounted for 65.6%;at cultural level,most patients were of only junior middle school education (45.4%);the poisons were mostly pesticides and medicine(80.8%),and the most common pesticides were organophosphorus pes-ticide,paraquat and rodenticide,and the most common medicines were sleeping pills

  19. Probabilistic acute dietary exposure assessments to captan and tolylfluanid using several European food consumption and pesticide concentration databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Polly E.; Svensson, Kettil; Moussavian, Shahnaz;

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic dietary acute exposure assessments of captan and tolylfluanid were performed for the populations of the Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden. The basis for these assessments was national databases for food consumption and pesticide concentration data harmonised...

  20. Analysis on the Epidemiology of Pre-hospital Emergency for Acute Poisoning in Urumqi from 2011 to 2012%乌鲁木齐市2011-2012年院前急救急性中毒流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建中; 李树林; 张亚楼; 帕尔哈提·拜合提; 王晓静; 马宏飞; 亚力坤·赛来; 肖开提·依布拉音; 贾志军

    2014-01-01

    were recorded and analyzed, Results There was significant difference in incidence of acute poisoning among different age groups (χ2 = 7 776, 77,P < 0, 05),most acute poisoning patients were 40 - 49 years old(P < 0, 05), 7 475(75, 48% )acute poison-ing patients were male,2 428(24, 52% )were female,there was significant difference in incidence of acute poisoning among different gender groups(χ2 = 1 077, 47,P < 0, 000 1), The incidence of alcohol poisoning in pre - hospital male patients was significantly higher than that in pre - hospital female patients,while incidences of gas poisoning,drug poisoning,pesticide poi-soning and drug poisoning in pre - hospital male patients were significantly lower than those in pre - hospital female patients(P <0, 05), There was significant difference in incidence of acute poisoning among different nationality groups(χ2 = 586, 63,P <0, 000 1),most acute poisoning patients were Han nationality(χ2 = 8, 14,P = 0, 004), There was significant difference in inci-dence of acute poisoning among different kind of toxicant groups(χ2 = 26 267, 86,P < 0, 01),most acute poisoning patients had alcohol poisoning(χ2 = 1 014, 09,P < 0, 01), There was significant difference in incidence of acute poisoning among different season groups(χ2 = 263, 73,P < 0, 01),most patients had acute poisoning in winter(χ2 = 1 401, 15,P < 0, 01), There was significant difference in incidence of acute poisoning among different poisoning routes groups(χ2 = 11, 56,P = 0, 009),most patients had gastrointestinal poisoning(χ2 = 3 419, 24,P < 0, 01), Among 69(0, 70% )dead patients,45 cases(65, 22% ) died from carbon monoxide poisoning,11 cases(15, 79% )died from drug poisoning,9 cases(13, 20% )died from alcohol poisoning,4 cases(5, 79% )died from pesticide poisoning, Conclusion The epidemiology of pre - hospital patients with acute poisoning in Urumqi,such as age,gender,nationality,cause of poisoning,poisoning routes,poisoning seasons,cause of death,has regional

  1. 天津市宝坻区农药中毒报告现状的分析%Analysis of pesticide poisoning reports in Baodi District of Tianjin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘河

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解天津市宝坻区农药中毒的现状.方法 对2010-2012年每年上报的农药中毒报告卡进行统计学分析.结果 2010-2012年宝坻区报告农药中毒102例,其中生产性中毒、生活性中毒分别占总中毒例数的67.65%和32.35%,病死率为10.78%.中毒者平均年龄为37.26岁,20 ~59岁青壮年占93.14%;生产性中毒以男性为主,生活性中毒以女性为主;中毒农药的类别分布以杀虫剂为主,占54.90%;且以敌敌畏有机磷中毒为主.结论 目前宝坻区农药中毒的严重性应引起社会,特别是政府和卫生工作人员的关注.%[Objective] To understand the status of pesticide poisoning in Baodi District of Tianjin City.[Methods] The annually reported pesticide poisoning cards were statistically analyzed from 2010-2012.[Results] From 2010-2012,102 cases of pesticide poisoning were reported in Baodi District.The cases of poisoning in production and in daily life occupied 67.65% and 32.35% of total cases,the mortality rate was 10.78%.The average age of the poisoned people was 37.26 years,20-59 years occupied 93.16%.Most cases of poisoning in production were male,and most cases of poisoning in daily life were female.The main kind of pesticide caused poisoning was insecticide (54.90%),mainly was dichlorvos organophosphate poisoning.[Conclusion] The severity of pesticide poisoning should attract social attentions in Baodi District,especially from government and health workers.

  2. Acute arsenic poisoning treated by intravenous dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and combined extrarenal epuration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantson, Philippe; Haufroid, Vincent; Buchet, Jean-Pierre; Mahieu, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic poisoning was diagnosed in a 26-year-old man who had been criminally intoxicated over the last two weeks preceding admission by the surreptitious oral administration of probably 10 g of arsenic trioxide (As2O3). The patient developed severe manifestations of toxic hepatitis and pancreatitis, and thereafter neurological disorders, respiratory distress, acute renal failure, and cardiovascular disturbances. In addition to supportive therapy, extrarenal elimination techniques and chelating agents were used. Dimercaprol (BAL) and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA or succimer) were used simultaneously as arsenic chelating agents for two days, and thereafter DMSA was used alone. DMSA was administered by intravenous (20 mg/kg/d for five days, then 10 mg/kg/d for six days) and intraperitoneal route. Intravenous DMSA infusion was well tolerated and resulted in an increase in arsenic blood concentration immediately after the infusion. Continuous venovenous hemofiltration combined with hemodialysis, and peritoneal dialysis were proposed to enhance arsenic elimination. It was calculated that over an 11-day period 14.5 mg arsenic were eliminated by the urine, 26.7 mg by hemodialysis, 17.8 mg by peritoneal dialysis, and 7.8 mg by continuous venovenous hemofiltration. These amounts appeared negligible with regard to the probable ingested dose. The patient died on day 26 from the consequences of multiple organ failure, with subarachnoid hemorrhage and generalized infection caused by Aspergillus fumigatus.

  3. Determination of as by instrumental neutron activation analysis in sectional hair samples for forensic purposes. Chronic or acute poisoning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Autopsy of 29-year old woman suspicious of having committed suicide by ingestion of As2O3 yielded contradictory findings. All pathological findings as well as clinical symptoms suggested acute poisoning, while a highly elevated. As level of 26.4 μg g-1 in her hair collected at the autopsy (measured with ICP-MS) indicated chronic poisoning. To elucidate this discrepancy, INAA with proven accuracy of sectional hair samples obtained from a hair-brush from the left estate of the deceased person was performed. Levels of As found in this work in the range of 0.06-0.26 μg g-1 excluded chronic poisoning, because the person died after approximately 14 hours after the As2O3 ingestion. Two reasons for the discordant As results are considered: (1) accidental, non-removed contamination of hair on the As2O3 ingestion; (2) erroneous performance of ICP-MS. A brief review is also presented of As determination in hair for forensic purposes, including supposed, and until now frequently discussed, poisoning of Napoleon Bonaparte.

  4. Community uptake of safe storage boxes to reduce self-poisoning from pesticides in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Flemming; Pieris, Ravi; Weerasinghe, Manjula;

    2007-01-01

    exposure from the rain and sun and a reduced risk of theft. Data were analysed for 172 households that reported agricultural use of pesticides at follow-up. Of these, 141 (82%) kept pesticides in the house under lock against 3 (2%) at baseline. As expected, the distribution of boxes significantly reduced...

  5. An epidemiological study on pesticide poisoning with mixed preparation%混配农药中毒的流行病学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘文奇; 陈曙旸; 陶炳根; 叶明宪; 文保元; 阎永建; 许庆忠; 贾建华; 冒明建; 丁伟

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of pesticide poisoning with mixed preparation and risk factors contributing to it.Methods Twenty-five administrative villages were studied in three townships of Jiangsu and Shandong Provinces with cluster sampling.The sampled villages were divided into study group (12 villages) and control group (13 villages) with approximately equal number of people each.Pesticide sprayers in the study group applied mixed preparation containing organophosphorous and dimethrin and those in the control group applied single organophosphorous preparation.All the sprayers in sampled villages were interviewed with a same questionnaire about their situation of pesticide spraying during the observation period.Cases of pesticide poisoning were ascertained by seniors physicians in occupational diseases after group discussion.Results Incidence of pesticide poisoning was higher in 2 179 sprayers of the study group (10.10‰) than that in 2 615 of the control group (2.29‰), with a highly statistically difference (χ2=12.46,P<0.01) and an risk ratio (RR) of 4.45 (95% CI=1.94~10.05) adjusted for other risk factors by logistic regression.Other risk factors for pesticide poisoning with mixed preparation were smoking or taking food during spraying, leaking or breakdown of sprayers, without washing their whole body as soon as possible after spraying, poor personal protection, spraying for a long time, spraying by women and spraying pesticide on cotton.Conclusions If toxicity of mixed preparation of single pesticide showed a synergistic or additional effect, risk of poisoning by spraying mixed preparation increased.Health education and technical training should be strengthened for pesticide sprayers.%目的查明混配农药中毒的发病水平和农药中毒的危险因素。方法采用整群抽样方法,在江苏省和山东省的3个乡随机抽取25个行政村,按大约1∶1的人数比例分为研究组(12个行政村)与对照

  6. Analysis on the characteristics of acute poisoning people during 2005-2012 in Beihai City%2005-2012年北海市急性中毒人群构成特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青华; 吴德仁; 曾小峰; 刘强

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristics of acute poisoning reported in the Beihai City. Methods Acute intoxicated cases with all kind of poisoning reported in19 hospitals of the city were retrospectively investigated and analyzed. Results In 2 127 cases of acute intoxication, the male and female accounted for 53.89% and 46.11% of the total cases, respectively. The proportion of no-employment, employment population and the elder group in all cases was 29.30%, 62.09% and 8.61%, respectively. The proportion of the non-academic credentials, primary, secondary, and college-educated persons in all cases was 39.41%, 19.70%, 34.40%and 6.49%, respectively. The proportion of the inoccupations, students, persons engaged in acriculture, and industry, administrators, and the persons engaged in other professions accounted for 41.28%, 10.67%, 33.99%, 4.23%, 4.56% and 5.27% of all cases, respectively. Among them, the main poisoning causes and poisons in the no-employment, working-age and elder-population groups were accident poisoning (accounted for 41.48%,34.02% and 32.24% of the total cases) and the pesticides (accounted for 29.26%、41.97%、53.01%of the total cases). In addition, the suicide poisoning of the farming group accounted for 41.49% of the total cases, the accident poisoning of the inoccupations, student, working, administrative, and other business groups for 34.66%, 51.54%, 48.89%, 38.14%and 41.07%of the total cases, the chemical poisoning of the student group for 36.12%of the total cases, the pesticides poisoning of the inoccupations, farming, and other business groups for 33.64%,59.89% and 28.57% of the total cases, and the other-poison poisoning of the working, administrative groups for 24.44%and 37.14%of the total cases, respectively. Conclusion The working-age, primary and/or no-schooling, inoccupations and farmers account for major proportion of acute-poisoning cases in Beihai city. Therefore, these people should be the main target population for preventing and

  7. 谈我国混配农药中毒的预防对策%Preventive measures on mixed pesticide poisoning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘文奇; 陈曙旸; 陶炳根; 文保元; 何凤生

    2001-01-01

    根据流行病学现场调查发现的具体问题,提出预防混配农药中毒的对策:禁止无原则、无实验根据的随意混配;禁止或限制生产和使用高毒混配农药;严格规范混配农药标签的内容及形式;加强对农药市场的监督管理,严禁非法生产和经销混配农药;探索和推广由专业人员统一负责的集中施药模式;加强对施药员的技术培训,提高用药的科学性;加强对施药员的健康教育,提高其自我防护意识。%The article put forward the preventive measures of mixed pesticides poisoning according to the practical problems found in epidemiology field investigation as follows:(1)The random mixing without principle and experiment foundation should be prohibited;(2)The production and application of highly toxic pesticides should be prohibited or restricted;(3)The content and the form of the mixed pesticide label should be prescribed strictly.(4)The administration and supervision of pesticide market should be strengthened and the illegal production and market of mixed pesticides should be punished severely;(5)The way of collective applying pesticide should be attempted and spreaded;(6)Techniques training to operators should be strengthened and reduce the application quantity of pesticides;(7)The health education should be strengthened to improve the self-protection consciousness of operators.

  8. A Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship for acute oral toxicity of pesticides on rats: Validation, Domain of Application and Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Hamadache, Mabrouk; Benkortbi, Othmane; Hanini, Salah; Amrane, Abdeltif; Khaouane, Latifa; Si Moussa, Cherif

    2016-01-01

    International audience Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models are expected to play an important role in the risk assessment of chemicals on humans and the environment. In this study, we developed a validated QSAR model to predict acute oral toxicity of 329 pesticides to rats because a few QSAR models have been devoted to predict the Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) of pesticides on rats. This QSAR model is based on 17 molecular descriptors, and is robust, externally predictive and...

  9. 一起由有机磷农药引起食物中毒的调查报告%Investigation report on a case of food poisoning caused by organophosphorus pesticide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶瑞国; 罗铭; 梁阳; 覃彦琳; 彭丽; 柒挺

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To analyze field epidemiological investigation and laboratory test results on food poisoning caused by or-ganophosphorus pesticide contamination, providing reference for handling food poisoning cases. Methods: Samples from the patients' vomit, blood and leftover were collected and detection of four common physical and chemical poisoning indexes; organo-phosphorus, tetramine, carbamate esters and fluorine ethyl amide were detected according to the clinical symptoms. Results: or-ganophosphorus pesticide were detected from the pickled food the patients took, the leftover and vomit of patients. Conclusion: This case of food poisoning was caused by organophosphorus pesticide.%目的:总结分析有机磷农药污染引起的食物中毒的现场流行病学调查和实验室检测情况,为类似食物中毒处理提供参考资料.方法:采集患者的呕吐物、血液及剩余食物,根据临床症状进行了有机磷、毒鼠强、氨基甲酸酯、氟乙酰胺四项常见理化中毒指标检测.结果:从患者吃剩的酸料食物和呕吐物中均检出有机磷农药.结论:本起食物中毒由有机磷农药引起.

  10. Intoxicação por agrotóxicos no Brasil: os sistemas oficiais de informação e desafios para realização de estudos epidemiológicos Pesticides poisoning in Brazil: the official notification system and challenges to conducting epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neice Müller Xavier Faria

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é um dos líderes mundiais em consumo de agrotóxicos e os trabalhadores expostos são numerosos e diversificados. As intoxicações agudas são a face mais visível do impacto destes produtos na saúde. A avaliação dos vários sistemas oficiais de informação que notificam os casos de intoxicações concluiu que nenhum deles responde adequadamente ao papel de sistema de vigilância. Na prática, só se registram os casos agudos e mais graves. Uma importante lacuna é a informação de exposição a agrotóxicos: a avaliação da única fonte oficial (os Receituários Agronômicos revelou muitas limitações. A revisão das publicações brasileiras aponta um crescimento quantitativo e qualitativo dos estudos nesta área, com vários tipos de abordagens. O impacto da intensa carga química e o enorme contingente de trabalhadores expostos são duas importantes razões para o desenvolvimento da pesquisa epidemiológica sobre intoxicações por agrotóxicos, que no Brasil ainda tem um vasto campo para se desenvolver.Brazil is one of the world leaders in pesticide consumption and exposed workers are numerous and diversified. Acute poisonings are just the most visible aspect of pesticide impact on human health. An assessment of many official information systems that notify pesticide poisoning concluded that none of them performed appropriately the role of a surveillance system. Only acute and severe cases are notified. One of the main gaps concerns exposure information: the only official source (the Agronomic Prescriptions has many limitations and is not available for research. A review of published articles in Brazil shows a quantitative and qualitative increase of studies in this area with many different approaches. The impact of such a high chemical burden and the huge numbers of workers exposed are two important reasons for the development of an epidemiological research on pesticide poisoning, an issue that has still a vast field to

  11. Determination of As by instrumental neutron activation analysis in sectioned hair samples for forensic purposes: chronic or acute poisoning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autopsy of 29-year old woman suspicious of committing suicide by the ingestion of As2O3 yielded contradictory findings. All pathological findings as well as clinical symptoms suggested acute poisoning, while a highly elevated As level of 26.4 μg g-1 in her hair collected at the autopsy, which was determined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry indicated chronic poisoning. To elucidate this discrepancy, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with proven accuracy was performed of another set of sectioned hair samples. Levels of As found by INAA in the range of 0.16-0.26 μg g-1 excluded chronic poisoning, because the person died after approximately 14 h after the As2O3 ingestion. Two reasons for the discordant As results obtained by ICP-MS and INAA are considered: (1) accidental, non-removed contamination of hair on the As2O3 ingestion; (2) erroneous performance of ICP-MS. (author)

  12. Temperature-dependent acute toxicity of methomyl pesticide on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Edward Tak Chuen; Karraker, Nancy Elizabeth; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee

    2015-10-01

    Relative to other animal taxa, ecotoxicological studies on amphibians are scarce, even though amphibians are experiencing global declines and pollution has been identified as an important threat. Agricultural lands provide important habitats for many amphibians, but often these lands are contaminated with pesticides. The authors determined the acute toxicity, in terms of 96-h median lethal concentrations, of the carbamate pesticide methomyl on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species, the Asian common toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus), the brown tree frog (Polypedates megacephalus), and the marbled pygmy frog (Microhyla pulchra), at 5 different temperatures (15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C, 30 °C, and 35 °C) to examine the relationships between temperature and toxicity. Significant interspecific variation in methomyl sensitivity and 2 distinct patterns of temperature-dependent toxicity were found. Because high proportions of malformation among the surviving tadpoles were observed, a further test was carried out on the tree frog to determine effect concentrations using malformation as the endpoint. Concentrations as low as 1.4% of the corresponding 96-h median lethal concentrations at 25 °C were sufficient to cause malformation in 50% of the test population. As the toxicity of pesticides may be significantly amplified at higher temperatures, temperature effects should not be overlooked in ecotoxicological studies and derivation of safety limits in environmental risk assessment and management.

  13. Temperature-dependent acute toxicity of methomyl pesticide on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Edward Tak Chuen; Karraker, Nancy Elizabeth; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee

    2015-10-01

    Relative to other animal taxa, ecotoxicological studies on amphibians are scarce, even though amphibians are experiencing global declines and pollution has been identified as an important threat. Agricultural lands provide important habitats for many amphibians, but often these lands are contaminated with pesticides. The authors determined the acute toxicity, in terms of 96-h median lethal concentrations, of the carbamate pesticide methomyl on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species, the Asian common toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus), the brown tree frog (Polypedates megacephalus), and the marbled pygmy frog (Microhyla pulchra), at 5 different temperatures (15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C, 30 °C, and 35 °C) to examine the relationships between temperature and toxicity. Significant interspecific variation in methomyl sensitivity and 2 distinct patterns of temperature-dependent toxicity were found. Because high proportions of malformation among the surviving tadpoles were observed, a further test was carried out on the tree frog to determine effect concentrations using malformation as the endpoint. Concentrations as low as 1.4% of the corresponding 96-h median lethal concentrations at 25 °C were sufficient to cause malformation in 50% of the test population. As the toxicity of pesticides may be significantly amplified at higher temperatures, temperature effects should not be overlooked in ecotoxicological studies and derivation of safety limits in environmental risk assessment and management. PMID:25959379

  14. The Antidotal Effects of High-dosage γ-Aminobutyric Acid on Acute Tetramine Poisoning as Compared with Sodium Dimercaptopropane Sulfonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Peng; HAN Jiyuan; WENG Yuying

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of high-dosage γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on acute tetramine (TET) poisoning, 50 Kunming mice were divided into 5 groups at random and the antidotal effects of GABA or sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate (Na-DMPS) on poisoned mice in different groups were observed in order to compare the therapeutic effects of high-dosage GABA with those of Na-DMPS. Slices of brain tissue of the poisoned mice were made to examine pathological changes of cells. The survival analysis was employed. Our results showed that both high-dosage GABA and Na-DMPS could obviously prolong the survival time, delay onset of convulsion and muscular twitch, and ameliorate the symptoms after acute tetramine poisoning in the mice.Better effects could be achieved with earlier use of high dosage GABA or Na-DMPS. There was no significant difference in prolonging the survival time between high-dose GABA and Na-DMPS used immediately after poisioning. It is concluded that high-dosage GABA can effectively antagonize acute toxicity of teramine in mice. And it is suggested that high-dosage GABA may be used as an excellent antidote for acute TET poisoning in clinical practice. The indications and correct dosage for clinical use awaits to be further studied.

  15. Therapeutic efficacy of new dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) analogues in acute arsenic trioxide poisoning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreppel, H; Paepcke, U; Thiermann, H; Szinicz, L; Reichl, F X; Singh, P K; Jones, M M

    1993-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of six newly synthesized analogues of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) was investigated in acute arsenic trioxide poisoning in mice. Meso-2,3-di(acetylthio)succinic acid (DATSA) and meso-2,3- di(benzoylthio)succinic acid (DBTSA) are analogues of DMSA with protected thiol groups ("prodrugs"), and DMDMS, DEDMS, DnPDMS, and DiPDMS are various di-esters of DMSA with methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, and isopropyl alcohols, respectively. Thirty minutes after s.c. injection of an LD80 of arsenic trioxide (65 mumol/kg) male NMRI mice were treated with a single equimolar dose (0.7 mmol/kg) of DMSA i.p. or one of the analogues i.p. or via gastric tube (i.g.). Control animals received arsenic trioxide and saline 30 min later. The survival rate was recorded for 30 days. All of the animals treated with DMSA i.p. survived and all controls died within 2 days. Administered i.g., DATSA and DBTSA increased the survival rate to 29% and 43%, and injected i.p. to 86%. Treatment with DMDMS i.p. and i.g., and with DEDMS, DnPDMS, and DiPDMS i.g. did not reduce lethality. Given i.p., DnPDMS increased the survival rate to 72%, and DEDMS and DiPDMS to 86%, respectively. To investigate the efficacy of the DMSA analogues in reducing the tissue content of arsenic, male NMRI mice received an s.c. injection of an LD5 of arsenic trioxide containing a tracer dose of 73-As(III) (42.5 mumol/kg body wt). Thirty minutes later, saline (controls) or a single equimolar dose (0.7 mmol/kg) of DMSA i.p., or one of the analogues i.p. or i.g. was administered. The arsenic content of various organs (blood, liver, kidneys, heart, lungs, spleen, small intestine, large intestine, brain, testes, skeletal muscle, and skin) at 30 min, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, and 8 h after the arsenic injection was measured using a gamma counter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoolmeester, W.L.; White, D.R.

    1980-02-01

    Arsenic poisoning continues to require awareness of its diverse clinical manifestations. Industry is the major source of arsenic exposure. Although epidemiologic studies strongly contend that arsenic is carcinogenic, there are little supportive research data. Arsenic poisoning, both acute and chronic, is often overlooked initially in the evaluation of the patient with multisystem disease, but once it is suspected, many accurate methods are available to quantitate the amount and duration of exposure. Treatment with dimercaprol remains the mainstay of therapy, and early treatment is necessary to prevent irreversible complications.

  17. Epidemiology Characteristics and Prognosis Risk Factors Analysis Research on Acute Pesticide Intoxication in One District%急性农药中毒流行特征及预后影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜育刚; 李清雅; 陈建南

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the epidemiology characteristics of acute pesticide intoxication, then make clear the risk factors of acute pesticide intoxication prognosis, and explore its regularity of the poisoning and the feasibility of controlling measures. METHODS 306 cases of acute pesticide intoxication were collected from January 2007 to December 2011 with self-design questionnaire, and each data of them were collected. RESULTS In 306 cases, 173 cases (56.5%) were poisoned by orgnaophosphorus, 49 cases (16.0%) by pyrethroid and 81 cases (26.5%) by parquet. The risk factors affecting the prognosis of acute pesticide intoxication included sex (OR = 3.930), poisoning extent (OR = 10.166) , poisonous types (OR = 5.854) , oxygen inhale (OR =0.211), respiratory system abnormality (OR =6.180), fever (OR = 7.182), pulse (OR =4.063), renal functions (OR = 4.670) and electrocardiography (OR - 2.272). CONCLUSION We have made clear the epidemiology characteristics, and analyzed the risk factors of prognosis. We raise prevention and remedy strategies of acute pesticide intoxication.%目的 分析急性农药中毒病例的流行特征,摸清影响预后的危险因素,探讨其发病规律及可行的防治策略.方法 通过回顾性收集2007年1月~2011年12月期间的306例急性农药中毒病例;采用自行设计的调查表,收集各个病例的各种资料.结果 306例患者中,有机磷中毒173例(56.5%)、拟除虫菊酯中毒49例(16.0%)、百草枯中毒81例(26.5%)、其他中毒3例(1.0%);影响预后的因素包括性别(OR=3.930)、中毒程度(OR=10.166)、毒物种类(OR=5.854)、氧气吸入(OR=0.211)、呼吸系统异常(OR=6.180)、发热(OR=7.182)、脉搏(OR=4.063)、肾功能(OR=4.670)、心电图检查(OR=2.272)等指标.结论 摸清了急性农药中毒的流行特征,分析了影响预后的危险因素,并提出了急性农药中毒的预防和救治策略.

  18. The comparison of clinical manifestation of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (OPP) between oral exposure and occupational exposure in field work%田间作业致有机磷农药中毒与口服中毒的临床比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡雪珍; 卢中秋; 孙来芳; 王征

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨田间作业中毒和口服有机磷农药中毒在临床表现及治疗上的差异.方法 回顾性分析我院2007年7月至2010年7月收治的85例中、重度急性有机磷农药中毒患者的临床资料,按中毒途径分为口服组(51例)和非口服组(34例),比较不同途径中毒后的临床表现、治疗特点及预后.结果 口服组中度中毒患者的肌颤肌痉挛和共济失调的发生率(86.4%、90.9%)均明显高于非口服组(50.0%、55.0%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05,P<0.01);口服组重度中毒患者的肺水肿、肌颤肌痉挛及昏迷的发生率(100.0%、89.7%、93.1%)均明显高于非口服组(71.4%、64.3%、50.0%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05 ).非口服组解毒时间[中度:(35.0±6.2)h、重度:(45.0±11.1)h]较口服组[中度:(49.0±7.7)h、重度:(77.0±10.3)h]明显缩短,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).治疗后24、48、72 h,中、重度非口服组胆碱酯酶活力明显高于口服组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01);中、重度非口服组的氯磷定用量、阿托品化用量及阿托品总量明显低于口服组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 田间作业有机磷农药中毒在临床表现上与口服中毒不尽相同,且治疗的阿托品及氯磷定用量相对较少,胆碱酯酶活力恢复较快.%Objective To investigate the differences of clinical manifestation and therapy of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (OPP) between oral exposure and occupational exposure in field work. Methods From July 2007 to July 2010, 85 patients with acute severe OPP were treated in a hospital, which were divided into oral poisoning group (51 cases) and non-oral poisoning group (34 cases). The differences of clinical manifestations, curative effects and prognosis between two groups were compared. Results The rates of myoclonus and ataxia in cases with moderate poisoning of oral poisoning group were 86.4% and 90.9%, which were significantly higher than those (50

  19. Recommendations for the role of extracorporeal treatments in the management of acute methanol poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Darren M; Yates, Christopher; Megarbane, Bruno;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Methanol poisoning can induce death and disability. Treatment includes the administration of antidotes (ethanol or fomepizole and folic/folinic acid) and consideration of extracorporeal treatment for correction of acidemia and/or enhanced elimination. The Extracorporeal Treatments in P...

  20. Acute toxicity test for terrestrial hazard assessment with exposure of Folsomia candida to pesticides in an aqueous medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houx, N.W.H.; Dekker, A.; Kammen-Polman, van A.M.M.; Ronday, R.

    1996-01-01

    An acute-toxicty test is described in which the springtail Folsomia candida was exposed to pesticides in water for four days. The test method has been designed for the direct and economical chemical analyses of all the concentrations during the execution of the test. The 96-hour EC50 values determin

  1. Probabilistic acute dietary exposure assessments to captan and tolylfluanid using several European food consumption and pesticide concentration databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P.E.; Svensson, K.; Moussavian, S.; Voet, van der H.; Petersen, A.; Ruprich, J.; Debegnach, F.; Boer, de W.J.; Donkersgoed, van G.; Brera, C.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Busk, L.

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic dietary acute exposure assessments of captan and tolylfluanid were performed for the populations of the Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden. The basis for these assessments was national databases for food consumption and pesticide concentration data harmonised at

  2. A case of 5-month baby poisoning caused by organophosphorus pesticide and review of literature.%有机磷农药致五个月婴儿中毒一例并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽珠; 胡世轩; 陈永伴; 陈永传

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study thc clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning in baby. Methods Here we report a case of baby poisoning caused by organophosphorus pesticide, and comb/ned with literature review, to discuss clinical features, diagnosis and treatment, and propose preventive measures. Results Symptoms of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning was very complex, progression rapid,medical history is unknown and misdiagnosed. Conclusion Babies could easily poison by organophosphorus pesticide, and clinicians should be timely medical examinations, laboratory examinations can not be excessive, so as not to affect the rescue time.%目的 探讨有机磷农药致婴儿中毒的临床特征、诊断及治疗方法.方法 报告一例有机磷农药致5个月婴儿中毒,结合文献探讨这种病例的临床表现特征、诊断和治疗方法,并提出相应的预防措施.结果 有机磷农药中毒临床表现症状复杂多变,病情发展迅速,病史不详且误诊率高.结论 有机磷农药较易导致婴儿中毒,且症状不典型.临床医生应及时的进行体格检查,不能过度依赖辅助检查,以免影响抢救时机.

  3. 13例抑郁症患者合并有机磷农药中毒的护理体会%Nursing experience of 13 depression patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐莉; 蒋燕; 董林

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the nursing methods for the depression patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Methods 13 depression patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were conducted with emergency treatment and nursing. Results All of 13 patients were cured and discharged after the emergency treatment and nursing, and no patient died. Conclusion High — grade nursing is an important factor in the successful emergency treatment for the depression patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.%目的 探讨抑郁症合并有机磷农药中毒的护理方法.方法 对13例抑郁症合并有机磷农药中毒的患者进行抢救治疗和护理.结果 13例患者经抢救和护理均治愈出院,无1例死亡.结论 高质量的护理是此类患者抢救成功的重要因素.

  4. Epidemiological analysis of poisoning cases in Van, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the etiological and demographical characteristics of acute adult poisoning cases in eastern Turkey. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Emergency Department of Yuzuncu Yil University, School of Medicine, and comprised data related to the period between 2007 and 2009. The data obtained included age, gender, referrals, manner of poisoning, manner of application, the department which followed up on the patients, duration of hospital stay. All data was noted on proforma. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the total cases visiting the Emergency Department, 1207 (1.1%) related to poisoning. Of them, 880 (72.9%) had attempted suicide; 858 (71.1%) were female; 349 (29%) were male. The average age of the females was 25.4+-8.5 years, and that of the males 28.3+-14.3 years. Single-medicine was noted in poisoning 544 (45.1%) patients. Other poisoning types were multidrugs 373 (30.9%); rat poisoning, insecticide and pesticides, 145 (12%); corrosives 38 (3.1%); and weed, mushroomang; food 47 (3.8%). Oral poisoning was noted in 1141 (94.5%) cases. A total of 1019 (84.4%) patients received treatment and were followed up in the Emergency Department. Six (0.6%) patients died. Conclusion: There is a need to generate more awareness about the hazards of domestic cleaning products and to keep it away at some distinct place to minimised chances of confusion. (author)

  5. Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Health Symptoms Among Rice Farmers in Zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marisa; Stadlinger, Nadja; Mmochi, Aviti J; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Marrone, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    The agrarian population in low- and middle-income countries suffers from a number of adverse health effects due to pesticide exposure. In Zanzibar, the government subsidizes pesticides to enhance local rice production. The objectives of this study were to assess Zanzibar smallholder rice farmers' pesticide use and self-reported health symptoms in relation to pesticide exposure, training, and use of protective measures and to raise awareness for future local policy formulation. An exploratory cross-sectional interviewer-administered study was conducted among 99 rice farmers. Participants were selected based on convenience sampling and stratified by expected exposure category. The study participants reported using pesticides in World Health Organization (WHO) Class II. Of pesticide users, 61% reported one or more symptoms of possible acute pesticide poisoning. Only 50% of pesticide users had received training in safe handling and application of pesticides, but those who had displayed a higher use of protective measures. Farmers who did not use protective measures were more likely to have reported skin irritation and headache, which, together with eye irritation, were the most commonly reported acute symptoms. The main sociodemographic differences between the expected exposure categories of pesticide users and nonusers were in gender and education level. Scaling up of training in safe handling and application of pesticides is needed. Further studies are required to better understand the mechanisms behind the choice to use pesticides or not. PMID:27439957

  6. [Italian Program for Surveillance of Acute Pesticide-Related Illnesses: cases identified in 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settimi, L; Davanzo, F; Travaglia, A; Locatelli, C; Cilento, I; Volpe, C; Russo, A; Miceli, G; Fracassi, A; Maiozzi, P; Marcello, I; Sesan, F; Urbani, E

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the Italian System for Surveillance of Acute Pesticide-Related Illnesses (SIAF) identified 625 cases, among which 520 unintentionally exposed. The majority of these subjects were men (75%) and aged 26-65 years (65%). About 63% of all exposures occurred at work. Severity for these illnesses was low for 94% and moderate for 5%. Four cases were classified as illnesses of high severity. Some 70% of all the reported exposures occurred between May and September. The active ingredients responsible for the largest number of cases were: glyphosate (n. 56), copper sulphate (n. 55), methomyl (n. = 52), metam-sodium (n. 24). Three episodes of collective environmental exposure to soil fumigants involving 23 subjects were also detected.

  7. Notes from the Field: Acute Sulfuryl Fluoride Poisoning in a Family - Florida, August 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulay, Prakash R; Clark, Grethel; Jackson, William L; Calvert, Geoffrey M

    2016-01-01

    On August 19, 2015, the Florida Department of Health (FDOH) was notified by the Florida Poison Information Center Network and a local hospital of possible sulfuryl fluoride poisonings affecting a family in Martin County, in southeastern Florida. Sulfuryl fluoride is a highly toxic (toxicity category I) gas fumigant used for termite control of homes and buildings.* FDOH personnel in Martin County commenced an investigation and identified a family of five (a grandmother, mother, father, son, and daughter) exposed to sulfuryl fluoride after their house was fumigated. The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Criminal Investigation Division also conducted an investigation after being notified by FDOH. Medical records were reviewed, and the father was interviewed by FDOH. PMID:27414166

  8. Effect of glucose in mice after acute experimental poisoning with arsenic trioxide (As sub 2 O sub 3 )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichl, F.X.; Kreppel, H.; Fichtl, B.; Forth, W. (Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Walter-Straub-Institut fuer Pharmakologie und Toxikologie); Szinicz, L. (Akademie des Sanitaets- und Gesundheitswesens der Bundeswehr, Garching (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Pharmakologie und Toxikologie)

    1990-06-01

    In the present paper the effectiveness of glucose substitution was investigated in mice after acute experimental poisoning with As{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Four groups of ten mice each received As{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 12.9 mg/kg, s.c. After the injection the first group remained without further treatment, the second received saline every 2 h, the third 5% glucose, and the fourth 5% glucose + 0.12 IE insulin/kg i.p. Groups 5 and 6, five mice each, received either saline or glucose only. Group 7, five mice, remained without any treatment. Immediately after death the livers were removed for the enzymatic determination of glucose and glycogen. Mice receiving As{sub 2}O{sub 3} only died within 22 h. The mean survival time was 12.4 h. In mice receiving As{sub 2}O{sub 3} and after that saline, glucose, or glucose + insulin, an increase in the survival time to 30.8, 40.7, and 43.6 h, respectively, was observed. All mice which died showed a significant decrease in the liver glucose and glycogen content, compared to control animals. In livers of survivors, the glucose and glycogen content was not different to the control groups. The data support the assumption that carbohydrate depletion is an important factor in arsenic toxicity, and its substitution should be considered in the treatment of arsenic poisoning. (orig./MG).

  9. Contributing Factors for Acute Illness/Injury from Childhood Pesticide Exposure in North Carolina, USA, 2007–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmalla Barros

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Between 2007 and 2013, there were 685 events with evidence of a relationship between pesticide exposure and acute illness/injury among persons less than 18 years old in North Carolina (United States. Median age of children affected was 4.3 years (range: 0.2–17.9. Distribution by gender was similar across all age groups. One fatality and four high severity events were observed. The greatest proportion (42% of events had ocular exposures, followed by dermal (25% and inhalation (18% exposures. When more than one route of exposure occurred, dermal and ocular routes were the most common (46%. Almost all events took place indoors and 32 events involved contact with pets. Insecticides (53% and insect repellants (31% were the most frequent agents contributing to these events. Manual application of pesticides contributed to the greatest number of events (25%, while application through a pressurized can and use of a trigger pump were involved in 21% and 15% of events, respectively. Additional contributors were due to inappropriate storage of pesticides and improper use of the pesticide. These contributing factors can be removed or minimized if pesticides are stored outside the residence or out of the reach of children and pets, and adequate ventilation is ensured whenever pesticides are applied.

  10. Effect of a brief outreach educational intervention on the translation of acute poisoning treatment guidelines to practice in rural Sri Lankan hospitals: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalith Senarathna

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In developing countries, including Sri Lanka, a high proportion of acute poisoning and other medical emergencies are initially treated in rural peripheral hospitals. Patients are then usually transferred to referral hospitals for further treatment. Guidelines are often used to promote better patient care in these emergencies. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN73983810 which aimed to assess the effect of a brief educational outreach ('academic detailing' intervention to promote the utilization of treatment guidelines for acute poisoning. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This cluster RCT was conducted in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka. All peripheral hospitals in the province were randomized to either intervention or control. All hospitals received a copy of the guidelines. The intervention hospitals received a brief out-reach academic detailing workshop which explained poisoning treatment guidelines and guideline promotional items designed to be used in daily care. Data were collected on all patients admitted due to poisoning for 12 months post-intervention in all study hospitals. Information collected included type of poison exposure, initial investigations, treatments and hospital outcome. Patients transferred from peripheral hospitals to referral hospitals had their clinical outcomes recorded. There were 23 intervention and 23 control hospitals. There were no significant differences in the patient characteristics, such as age, gender and the poisons ingested. The intervention hospitals showed a significant improvement in administration of activated charcoal [OR 2.95 (95% CI 1.28-6.80]. There was no difference between hospitals in use of other decontamination methods. CONCLUSION: This study shows that an educational intervention consisting of brief out-reach academic detailing was effective in changing treatment behavior in rural Sri Lankan hospitals. The intervention was only effective for treatments with

  11. 有机磷农药中毒气管插管患者非计划性拔管的原因分析%Reason analysis of unplanned extubation in organophosphorus pesticide poisoning patients with endotracheal intubation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德淑; 张惠

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the incidence and risk factors of unplanned extubation(UE) in organophosphorus pesticide poisoning patients with endotracheal intubation. Methods The prevalence and risk factors of UE in 43 organophosphorus pesticide poisoning patients with endotracheal intubation were retrospectively analyzed. Results The incidence of UE in organophosphorus pesticide poisoning patients with endotracheal intubation was 30.23 percent. Logistic regression analysis showed that Ramsay sedation score (OR=0.079) and sputum scab score (OR =7.029) were the risk factors of UE. Conclusions The incidence of UE in organophosphorus pesticide poisoning patients is relatively high. Ramsay sedation score and sputum scab score are the independent risk factors of UE. Effective sedation measures and airway management may reduce the incidence of UE and increase the successful rescue rate of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning patients.%目的 总结有机磷农药中毒气管插管患者非计划性拔管(Unplanned extubation,UE)的发生率,分析UE发生的相关原因.方法 回顾性分析2009年1月至2010年12月我科收治的43例有机磷农药中毒气管插管患者年龄、性别、Ramsay评分、阿托品日平均用量、气道痰痴评分、使用气管导管型号等临床资料,评估UE发生率并筛查UE的临床危险因素.结果 本组有机磷农药中毒气管插患者UE发生率为30.23%,单因素分析显示,UE组与非UE组Ramsay评分、阿托品日平均用量及气道痰痴评分差异有统计学意义,Logistics逐步回归分析显示Ramsay评分(OR=0.079)和气道痰痴评分(OR=7.029)与UE的发生独立相关.结论 有机磷农药中毒气管插患者UE发生率较高,Ramsay评分低和气道痰痂评分高是发生UE的独立危险因素.有效镇静和强化气道管理可能有助于减少UE的发生,提高有机磷农药中毒患者的救治成功率.

  12. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  13. Acute and chronic toxicity of the benzoylurea pesticide, lufenuron, in the fish, Colossoma macropomum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaela Leão Soares, Priscila; Lucas Corrêa de Andrade, André; Pinheiro Santos, Thamiris; Caroline Barros Lucas da Silva, Stephannie; Freitas da Silva, Jadson; Rodrigues Dos Santos, Amanda; Hugo Lima da Silva Souza, Elton; Magliano da Cunha, Franklin; Wanderley Teixeira, Valéria; Sales Cadena, Marilia Ribeiro; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrício; Bezerra de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz; Gonçalves Cadena, Pabyton

    2016-10-01

    Lufenuron is a benzoylurea insecticide that interfere in chitin synthesis in insects. Although lufenuron is widely used in agriculture and aquaculture, rare are studies described that relates to possible toxic effects in fish. This work aimed to evaluate acute and chronic toxic effects of benzoylurea pesticide (lufenuron) on biological parameters of Colossoma macropomum (Tambaqui). In the acute test, juveniles of Tambaqui were divided into control group and five experimental groups with exposure from 0.1 to 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron for 96 h. Animals were also submitted to chronic toxicity test for four months in concentrations of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L of lufenuron, the concentration used in the treatment of ectoparasites in fish and 50% of LC50 96 h, respectively. The presence of hemorrhages was observed in eyes, fins and operculum of fish exposed to 0.7 and 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron. Histological analysis showed changes in the morphology of fish gills submitted to acute toxicity test, as lamellar aneurysm and blood congestion inside lamellae. Lufenuron promoted damage in fish retina as in ability to respond to stimuli in photoreceptors and in ON-bipolar cells in acute test. In chronic test, blood glucose analysis and morphometric parameters showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). In general, Tambaqui exhibited behaviors associated with stress when exposed to lufenuron. Thus, lufenuron showed several toxic effects in relation to biological parameters in Tambaqui. This concerns about the use and discard of lufenuron, and indicates the requirement of environmental actions to prevent potential contamination of aquatic biota.

  14. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Probably Caused by Arsenic-Based Pesticides: Findings from an Investigation Study of a Household.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfang; Ye, Feng; Wang, Anwei; Wang, Da; Yang, Boyi; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan; Gao, Xinghua

    2016-01-16

    In addition to naturally occurring arsenic, man-made arsenic-based compounds are other sources of arsenic exposure. In 2013, our group identified 12 suspected arsenicosis patients in a household (32 living members). Of them, eight members were diagnosed with skin cancer. Interestingly, all of these patients had lived in the household prior to 1989. An investigation revealed that approximately 2 tons of arsenic-based pesticides had been previously placed near a well that had supplied drinking water to the family from 1973 to 1989. The current arsenic level in the well water was 620 μg/L. No other high arsenic wells were found near the family's residence. Based on these findings, it is possible to infer that the skin lesions exhibited by these family members were caused by long-term exposure to well water contaminated with arsenic-based pesticides. Additionally, biochemical analysis showed that the individuals exposed to arsenic had higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase than those who were not exposed. These findings might indicate the presence of liver dysfunction in the arsenic-exposed individuals. This report elucidates the effects of arsenical compounds on the occurrence of high levels of arsenic in the environment and emphasizes the severe human health impact of arsenic exposure.

  15. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Probably Caused by Arsenic-Based Pesticides: Findings from an Investigation Study of a Household

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfang; Ye, Feng; Wang, Anwei; Wang, Da; Yang, Boyi; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan; Gao, Xinghua

    2016-01-01

    In addition to naturally occurring arsenic, man-made arsenic-based compounds are other sources of arsenic exposure. In 2013, our group identified 12 suspected arsenicosis patients in a household (32 living members). Of them, eight members were diagnosed with skin cancer. Interestingly, all of these patients had lived in the household prior to 1989. An investigation revealed that approximately 2 tons of arsenic-based pesticides had been previously placed near a well that had supplied drinking water to the family from 1973 to 1989. The current arsenic level in the well water was 620 μg/L. No other high arsenic wells were found near the family’s residence. Based on these findings, it is possible to infer that the skin lesions exhibited by these family members were caused by long-term exposure to well water contaminated with arsenic-based pesticides. Additionally, biochemical analysis showed that the individuals exposed to arsenic had higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase than those who were not exposed. These findings might indicate the presence of liver dysfunction in the arsenic-exposed individuals. This report elucidates the effects of arsenical compounds on the occurrence of high levels of arsenic in the environment and emphasizes the severe human health impact of arsenic exposure. PMID:26784217

  16. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Probably Caused by Arsenic-Based Pesticides: Findings from an Investigation Study of a Household.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfang; Ye, Feng; Wang, Anwei; Wang, Da; Yang, Boyi; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan; Gao, Xinghua

    2016-01-01

    In addition to naturally occurring arsenic, man-made arsenic-based compounds are other sources of arsenic exposure. In 2013, our group identified 12 suspected arsenicosis patients in a household (32 living members). Of them, eight members were diagnosed with skin cancer. Interestingly, all of these patients had lived in the household prior to 1989. An investigation revealed that approximately 2 tons of arsenic-based pesticides had been previously placed near a well that had supplied drinking water to the family from 1973 to 1989. The current arsenic level in the well water was 620 μg/L. No other high arsenic wells were found near the family's residence. Based on these findings, it is possible to infer that the skin lesions exhibited by these family members were caused by long-term exposure to well water contaminated with arsenic-based pesticides. Additionally, biochemical analysis showed that the individuals exposed to arsenic had higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase than those who were not exposed. These findings might indicate the presence of liver dysfunction in the arsenic-exposed individuals. This report elucidates the effects of arsenical compounds on the occurrence of high levels of arsenic in the environment and emphasizes the severe human health impact of arsenic exposure.

  17. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Probably Caused by Arsenic-Based Pesticides: Findings from an Investigation Study of a Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to naturally occurring arsenic, man-made arsenic-based compounds are other sources of arsenic exposure. In 2013, our group identified 12 suspected arsenicosis patients in a household (32 living members. Of them, eight members were diagnosed with skin cancer. Interestingly, all of these patients had lived in the household prior to 1989. An investigation revealed that approximately 2 tons of arsenic-based pesticides had been previously placed near a well that had supplied drinking water to the family from 1973 to 1989. The current arsenic level in the well water was 620 μg/L. No other high arsenic wells were found near the family’s residence. Based on these findings, it is possible to infer that the skin lesions exhibited by these family members were caused by long-term exposure to well water contaminated with arsenic-based pesticides. Additionally, biochemical analysis showed that the individuals exposed to arsenic had higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase than those who were not exposed. These findings might indicate the presence of liver dysfunction in the arsenic-exposed individuals. This report elucidates the effects of arsenical compounds on the occurrence of high levels of arsenic in the environment and emphasizes the severe human health impact of arsenic exposure.

  18. One case of acute Alocasia macrorrhiza poisoning and management%急性海芋中毒救治1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢立璟; 王英伟; 龙鑫; 孙承业

    2011-01-01

    A 44-year-old man took the tuber of Alocasia macronhiza by mistake. Several minutes after ingestion of the tuber, he presented with numbness of lip, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, salivation, dyspnea, and dysphonia. Twenty minutes after poisoning, he was hospitalized and diagnosed as having acute laryngeal edema. He received diphenhydramine 20 mg and dexamethasone 5 mg via IV push, followed by an IV infusion of dexaroethasone 10 mg. Meanwhile oxygen inhalation, liver protective treatment, and other symptomatic treatment were given. Five hours after poisoning, his symptoms gradually resolved and, 50 days later, he recovered. Alocasia macronhiza is a poisonous plant of Alocasia Sckott in the family Araceae, and it contains sapotoxin and calcium oxalate which can induce neurological and gastrointestinal disorder after ingestion of the plant. The latent period from exposure to onset of symptoms is 10 to 30 minutes and death might occur in patients with severe poisoning. Skin contact or eye contact with Alocasia macronhiza juice can cause pruritus, conjunctivitis, and even blindness. Inhalation of Alocasia macronhiza powder can lead to severe mucosal irritation in the eye, nasal cavity, and throat. Poisoning could be diagnosed by the history of contact with the plant and clinical manifestations. There is no specific antidote for Alocasia macronhiza poisoning and main management is symptomatic treatment.%1例44岁男性误食海芋块根,数分钟后出现口唇麻木、咽喉疼痛、恶心、呕吐、流涎、呼吸困难、发音困难等症状,中毒后20 min入院,诊断为急性喉头水肿.给予静脉推注苯海拉明20 mg、地塞米松5mg和静脉滴注地塞米松10 ng等处理,并行吸氧、保肝等对症治疗.中毒5h后症状逐渐好转,50 d后痊愈.海芋是天南星科海芋属有毒植物,含有皂素毒苷及草酸钙等.口服后可致神经和胃肠系统症状,潜伏期一般为10~30 min,严重者可致死亡;皮肤或者眼接触海芋汁

  19. STUDY OF FATAL POISONING IN A DISTRICT HOSPITAL OF WEST BENGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning is an emerging problem worldwide. According to WHO, 3 million acute poisoning cases with 2,20,000 deaths occur annually. Of these, 90% of fatal poisoning occurs in developing countries mainly among agricultural workers. It is estimated that more than 50,000 people die every year from toxic exposure in India. OBJECTIVES 1. To study the current trend of poisoning in a District of West Bengal. 2. To know the burden of pesticide poisoning in society. MATERIAL AND METHODS A hospital based retrospective cross sectional study was conducted in a district hospital of West Bengal. Ethical clearance was taken from Ethics Committee. All the registered cases of poisoning in a district hospital during the study period were included in the study. Data was collected from medico-legal register and respective case sheets using pre-structured and validated questionnaire containing demographic and medico-legal aspects of poisoning for the period of 2 years (March 2014-March 2016. Data was analysed using the SPSS version 16 software. Descriptive statistics were reported as mean (SD for continuous variables and frequency (percentage for categorical variables. RESULT Total 7280 patients reported to casualty department over two years; 5.21% were reported to be the poisoning cases. Out of total 380 poisoning cases, 84 (22.10% patients died. Maximum poisoning cases were from rural area falling mainly in the age group of 21-30 and above 50 years. Organ phosphorus poisoning was noted in 46.42% of reported cases. CONCLUSIONS Based on the study findings, we could understand the trend of poisoning in the study area. It is very important to identify these changing trends in the study area, as it will be helpful for policy makers to equip health care institutions which can lead to better management of cases and reduction in the mortality related to poisoning

  20. Study of trends of poisoning in the cases reported to government hospital, Yavatmal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuganti Prabhakar Vaidya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: India is a developing country in south Asia. Rural population of this country is mostly dependant on agriculture. Pesticides, mainly the organophosphorus compounds are the most frequently used substances in agriculture and thus are easily accessible. Animal bites such as snake bite, scorpion bites are also common, as people here are mainly involved in the field work. Aims: This includes, knowing the pattern of poisoning in India along with various parameters, such as mode of poisoning, type of poison, outcome of the poisoning, the most vulnerable age group involved in poisoning, so that the study will help in rapid clinical diagnosis and immediate treatment of the cases leading to decreased mortality and morbidity. Setting and design: Retrospective observational study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Govt. Hospital, Yavatmal. Poisoning cases reported to casualty and post-mortem cases of poisoning brought to the hospital from 01/06/2003 to 30/05/2004 were included in the study. Result: Total 1003 patients studied; acute poisoning in the age group of 21-30 years was the most common with higher frequency in males. Most common mode was suicidal. Most common agent responsible for poisoning was organophosphorus compounds followed by snake bite. Overall mortality due to poisoning was 12%. It was highest in insecticidal poisoning. Conclusion: It was seen that adults between 21 and 30 years of age were more prone to suicidal poisoning with organophosphorous compounds followed by accidental poisoning due to snake bite. Steps are needed to be taken to educate the people, to improve their socioeconomic status and also to provide better treatment facilities at grass root level.

  1. Paraquat poisoning: an experimental model of dose-dependent acute lung injury due to surfactant dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    M.F.R. Silva; P.H.N. Saldiva

    1998-01-01

    Since the most characteristic feature of paraquat poisoning is lung damage, a prospective controlled study was performed on excised rat lungs in order to estimate the intensity of lesion after different doses. Twenty-five male, 2-3-month-old non-SPF Wistar rats, divided into 5 groups, received paraquat dichloride in a single intraperitoneal injection (0, 1, 5, 25, or 50 mg/kg body weight) 24 h before the experiment. Static pressure-volume (PV) curves were performed in air- and saline-filled l...

  2. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control If someone has severe symptoms from possible ... be caused by lead poisoning, call your local poison control center. Your local poison center can be ...

  3. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  4. Acute arsenic self-poisoning for suicidal purpose in a dentist: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Y; Armagan, E; Olmez, Of; Esen, M; Alkis, N; Dolar, E

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic is a classical poison that has been historically used since ancient times for homicidal purposes. More recently, episodes of deliberate or unintentional arsenic self-poisoning have been increasingly reported. We describe here a case of a 77-year old male patient with a history of major depression, who attempted suicide by ingestion of 4 g of arsenic trioxide. The man, a dentist by profession, used arsenic preparations for pulp devitalization. The patient was admitted to our hospital 5 h after arsenic ingestion with nausea and vomiting. Plain radiograph of the abdomen showed radio-opaque material in the stomach and small intestine. Nasogastric lavage, activated charcoal, and chelators were used to remove arsenic. On day 3, endoscopy disclosed the presence of gastritis and superficial ulcers. The patient developed significant anemia (Hb: 8.7 g/dL on day 7) without significant signs of hemolysis. He gradually recovered from anemia within 5 months. The patient did not suffer any adverse outcome in spite of having ingesting 4 g of arsenic, approximately 20 times the lethal dose.

  5. CHANGES IN LIVER IN CASE OF INSECTICIDAL AND ALCOHOL POISONING: AN AUTOPSY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhasish

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Poison is a substance introduced in the body to produce ill - effect, disease or death. It may be of any origin like synthetic, mineral, animal or vegetable. Death due to poisoning is mostly prevalent in the developing countries, of the total burden of acute pesticide poisoning; the majority of deaths are from deliberate self - poisoning with organophosphorus pesticides, aluminium phosphide and paraquat. Exposure to pesticides is usually occupational, accidental or suicidal. In India very few research works hav e been undertaken on histopathological changes of liver in different poisoning. In this part of our country a sizable number of cases of poisoning due to insecticides & alcohol are reported. So this current study intends to find out different histopatholog ical changes of liver in insecticidal & alcohol poisoning with regards to time interval between poisoning and death. In our 1 year (November 2012 - October 2013 of study we got 143 victims who died due to insecticidal and alcohol poisoning, out of which 132 cases show significant histopathological changes in liver. In this study male subjects (60.83% outnumber female (39.17% victims and most common age group affected in this study is between 20 - 40 years. This study show 29.37% victims died due to organopho sphorus poisoning, 25.17% cases of organochlorine poisoning, 11.88% study subjects from carbamate poisoning, 18.88% cases died due to combined alcohol and insecticidal poisoning, and 14.68% victims died due to alcohol poisoning. On microscopically 25.87% o f cases show centrilobular necrosis(CN, sinusoidal dilatation(SD found in 22.37%, fatty changes(FC in 11.88%, both venous congestion(VC, combined sinusoidal dilatation and degenerative change in 1.39% of cases, each 2.09% of cases show degenerative cha nge(DC , centrilobular necrosis and venous congestion , and sinusoidal dilatation and venous congestion respectively, each 3.49% show combined centrilobular necrosis and sinusoidal

  6. Analysis of factors related to infection situation and the risk associated with acute poisoning patients with EICU%EICU急性中毒患者合并院内感染相关情况及危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何铁英; 董志英; 王芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the condition and relevant danger factors of patients with acute poisoning combined infection in EICU. Methods A total of 80 patients with acute poisoning received by EICU were chosen, among which 30 cases were complicated by infection and 50 cases were not. By reference of clinical data of patients, infection condi-tion and relevant danger factors were analyzed. Results Among 30 cases of acute poisoning, heavy metal(66.67%), poi-sonous gas (55.56%), opioid (45.45%), pesticide (45.45%), acid and alkali (42.86%), hypnotics (33.33%), alcohol (16.67%); respiratory tract infection (46.67%), urinary tract infection (30.00%), digestive tract infection (16.67%), skin and soft tissue infection (6.67%);Complication of coma, gastric intubation, trachea cannula were high risk factors of pa-tients with acute poisoning combined with infection (P<0.01). Conclusion Acute poisoning of strong acid and alkali, poisonous gas and heavy metal are more common among patients with acute poisoning received by EICU, and the infec-tions are mainly respiratory tract and urinary tract infection, and high risk factors of patients with acute poisoning com-bined infection were coma, gastric intubation, trachea cannula.%目的:观察并分析急诊重症监护病房急性中毒患者合并感染的情况及相关危险因素。方法临床纳入80例EICU收治的急性中毒患者,其中30例合并有感染,50例未发生感染。结合患者临床资料,分析感染情况与感染相关因素。结果30例急性中毒患者中,重金属(66.67%)、有毒气体(55.56%)、阿片类药物(45.45%)、农药(45.45%)、酸碱类(42.86%)、安眠药(33.33%)、酒精(16.67%)、呼吸道感染(46.67%)、泌尿道感染(30.00%)、消化道感染(16.67%)、皮肤、软组织感染(6.67%);合并昏迷、留置胃管、气管插管是急性中毒患者合并感染的高危因素(P<0.01)。结论重金属、有毒气体、阿片类药物、农药中毒患者在EICU收治的急

  7. A Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship for acute oral toxicity of pesticides on rats: Validation, domain of application and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadache, Mabrouk; Benkortbi, Othmane; Hanini, Salah; Amrane, Abdeltif; Khaouane, Latifa; Si Moussa, Cherif

    2016-02-13

    Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models are expected to play an important role in the risk assessment of chemicals on humans and the environment. In this study, we developed a validated QSAR model to predict acute oral toxicity of 329 pesticides to rats because a few QSAR models have been devoted to predict the Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) of pesticides on rats. This QSAR model is based on 17 molecular descriptors, and is robust, externally predictive and characterized by a good applicability domain. The best results were obtained with a 17/9/1 Artificial Neural Network model trained with the Quasi Newton back propagation (BFGS) algorithm. The prediction accuracy for the external validation set was estimated by the Q(2)ext and the root mean square error (RMS) which are equal to 0.948 and 0.201, respectively. 98.6% of external validation set is correctly predicted and the present model proved to be superior to models previously published. Accordingly, the model developed in this study provides excellent predictions and can be used to predict the acute oral toxicity of pesticides, particularly for those that have not been tested as well as new pesticides.

  8. A Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship for acute oral toxicity of pesticides on rats: Validation, domain of application and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadache, Mabrouk; Benkortbi, Othmane; Hanini, Salah; Amrane, Abdeltif; Khaouane, Latifa; Si Moussa, Cherif

    2016-02-13

    Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models are expected to play an important role in the risk assessment of chemicals on humans and the environment. In this study, we developed a validated QSAR model to predict acute oral toxicity of 329 pesticides to rats because a few QSAR models have been devoted to predict the Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) of pesticides on rats. This QSAR model is based on 17 molecular descriptors, and is robust, externally predictive and characterized by a good applicability domain. The best results were obtained with a 17/9/1 Artificial Neural Network model trained with the Quasi Newton back propagation (BFGS) algorithm. The prediction accuracy for the external validation set was estimated by the Q(2)ext and the root mean square error (RMS) which are equal to 0.948 and 0.201, respectively. 98.6% of external validation set is correctly predicted and the present model proved to be superior to models previously published. Accordingly, the model developed in this study provides excellent predictions and can be used to predict the acute oral toxicity of pesticides, particularly for those that have not been tested as well as new pesticides. PMID:26513561

  9. 一起有机磷农药污染餐具所致食物中毒调查分析%Survey analysis of food poisoning caused by the consumption of organophosphorus pesticide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董婕瑾

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨一起有机磷农药中毒发生原因,防止类似事件发生。方法对中毒人群进行流行病学调查,实验室检验。结果3例病人均曾用一个曾盛过有机磷农药敌敌畏的碗,误盛红烧肉饮食史,3例病人临床检验乙酰胆碱酯酶活性分别为对照组的70%、60%、45%。结论综合流行病学调查、临床检验、临床症状及治疗情况,证实为一起误服有机磷农药敌敌畏所致食物中毒事件。%Objective Explore together organophophorus pesticide poisoning incidents,to prevent similar incidents. Methods Poisoning populations on epidemiology,laboratory testing;Results Three patients had clinical esamination acetylcholinesterase activityin the control group were 70 %,60 %45 %,and the dog died.3patients and a dog has dichlorvos contamination Pork diet history Conclusions Comprehensive epidemiological investigation,clinical esaina-tion,proved to be swallowed with organophosphate pesticide dichlorvos caused y food poisoning.

  10. Survey analysis of food poisoning caused by the consumption of organophosphorus pesticide%一起有机磷农药污染餐具所致食物中毒调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董婕瑾

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨一起有机磷农药中毒发生原因,防止类似事件发生。方法对中毒人群进行流行病学调查,实验室检验。结果3例病人均曾用一个曾盛过有机磷农药敌敌畏的碗,误盛红烧肉饮食史,3例病人临床检验乙酰胆碱酯酶活性分别为对照组的70%、60%、45%。结论综合流行病学调查、临床检验、临床症状及治疗情况,证实为一起误服有机磷农药敌敌畏所致食物中毒事件。%Objective Explore together organophophorus pesticide poisoning incidents,to prevent similar incidents. Methods Poisoning populations on epidemiology,laboratory testing;Results Three patients had clinical esamination acetylcholinesterase activityin the control group were 70 %,60 %45 %,and the dog died.3patients and a dog has dichlorvos contamination Pork diet history Conclusions Comprehensive epidemiological investigation,clinical esaina-tion,proved to be swallowed with organophosphate pesticide dichlorvos caused y food poisoning.

  11. Intoxicaciones medicamentosas (I: Psicofármacos y antiarrítmicos Acute pharmacologic poisoning (I: Psychotropic and antiarrhythmic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Osés

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En la valoración de la Intoxicación Medicamentosa Aguda (IMA en pacientes graves con dosis potencialmente no tóxicas del teórico fármaco responsable es importante insistir en la anamnesis en la coingesta de otros fármacos o tóxicos. Inicialmente se prestará atención a las medidas de soporte vital, oxigenando, protegiendo la vía aérea y expandiendo la volemia. El ECG es una herramienta diagnóstica de primer orden en las IMA, sobre todo por antidepresivos tricíclicos (ADT y medicación cardiovascular. Su monitorización continua durante las primeras 12-24 horas suele ser necesaria en la mayoría de los casos. Las benzodiacepinas no suelen producir intoxicaciones graves. El uso del flumazenilo se reservará a los casos de depresión respiratoria, coma profundo o de causa no filiada. Pueden dar lugar a convulsiones, sobre todo en caso de intoxicación mixta con antidepresivos, y síndrome de abstinencia. Los ADT poseen una potencial gravedad enorme, pudiendo originar arritmias mortales. El rango terapéutico del litio es muy estrecho, pudiendo producirse signos de toxicidad fundamentalmente digestiva y neurológica. En caso de intoxicación por digoxina, se considerará el uso de anticuerpos antidigital en caso de bradiarritmias graves, bloqueos AV o PCR. El glucagón es el antídoto para la intoxicación grave por ß-bloqueantes y para la hipotensión refractaria en caso de calcioantagonistas.In the evaluation of Acute Drug Poisoning (ADP in patients seriously ill with a potentially non-toxic dose of the drug that is theoretically responsible, it is important to insist on anamnesis in the coingestion of other drugs or toxics. Initially attention is given to life support measures, oxygenation, protection of the airway and expanding the volemia. The ECG is a diagnostic tool of the first order in ADPs, above all for tricyclic antidepressants (TAD and cardio-vascular drugs. In the majority of cases continuous monitoring is usually

  12. The epidemiology investigation and analysis of acute poisoning in the first affiliated hospital of henan university of science and technology from 2008 to 2013%河南科技大学第一附属医院2008-2013年急性中毒流行病学调查及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国秀

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate and analyze the epidemiological characteristics of acute poisoning in the First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Science and Technology from 2013 to 2008,and provide the theory basis for the disease prevention and control.Methods:We analyzed6246 cases of acute poisoning by retrospective epidemiological investigation.Results:The number of acute poisoning were increasing,the average annual increase is 16.01% from 2008 to 2013,the number increased by 80.03% in 2013 than 2008;the patients are 3040 males(48.67%),female 3206 cases(51.33%),1:1.05 ratio of men to women;the most age of onset were20~60 years old(65% )young adults who live in rural(79.91% );Most of the toxicant category was chemical(38.00%),such as alcohol and carbon monoxide,the followed by pesticides(23.01%);the main reason for poisoning were accidental(61.98% ) and suicide(24.94% );the major route of poisoning were through the mouth(76.00% )and respiratory tract(18.36% )into the body.476 died in 6246 patients,the mortality rate was 7.62% ,mainly for pesticide poisoning(55.88% ). Conclusion:Conclusion:The acute poisoning cases increased year by year and the disease has certain epidemiological characteristics,we should strengthen the health education,improve the level of diagnosis and treatment of emergency department for the relevant characteristics of the disease,so we can reduce the incidence and mortality of acute poisoning.%目的:调查分析河南科技大学第一附属医院急性中毒的流行病学特征,为疾病防控提供理论依据。方法:采用回顾性流行病学调查方法,对收治的6246例急性中毒病例进行分析。结果:近年来收住的急性中毒病例数呈增加趋势,2008-2013年平均每年递增16.01%,2013年比2008年增加了80.03%;患者中男性3040例(48.67%),女性3206例(51.33%),男女比例1:1.05;发病年龄以居住农村(79.91%)的20~60岁(65.00%)青壮年居多;毒物类别以化学物(38

  13. Lack of clinical symptoms in an acute arsenic poisoning: an unusual case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, A F; Schiaffino, S; Ballesteros, J L; Gil, F; Pla, A; Villanueva, E

    1998-12-01

    A 32-y-old woman was admitted to Granada University Hospital for attempted suicide by ingestion of an ant-killer containing 10% sodium arsenate and 5% pyrethrins. Neither gastrointestinal distress nor hepatic, renal, or neurologic disturbances were clinically observed. However, the presence of toxic levels of arsenic (14 mg/L) was confirmed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in a sample of urine taken about 12 h after poisoning. An uneventful clinical course was observed, and the patient was discharged after 6 days upon her request. Long-term follow-up was unavailable. From a Medline search over the years 1985-1998 only one similar report also dealing with sodium arsenate was found. Different pathogenic hypotheses are discussed in the light of the clinical data.

  14. Prevention of food poisoning due to pesticide residues in vegetables of Guangdong province%广东省预防蔬菜农残中毒工作研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伟雄; 邓峰; 江月碧; 罗建波; 梁春穗; 戴昌芳

    2001-01-01

    为预防蔬菜农药中毒的发生和提高蔬菜食用的安全性,广东省卫生防疫站开展了预防蔬菜农残引起食物中毒的系统工作,包括:加强部门间合作,研究消除蔬菜中农药残留物的方法,提高监测技术水平。结果表明,此系统的工作是科学的、有效的,广东省因农药引起的食物中毒呈逐年下降趋势。%A prevention system in Guangdong province was developed by the Station of Health and Anti|epidemic to prevent the food poisoning due to pesticide residues in vegetables.It includes the reinforcement of the cooperation between departments,research on the method for removing pesticide residues in vegetables and improvement of the level of inspection.The work indicated the scientific and efficient of the system,and the downtrend of food poisoning due to pesticide residues.

  15. Limitations and challenges in treatment of acute chemical warfare agent poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz; Kehe, Kai

    2013-12-01

    Recent news from Syria on a possible use of chemical warfare agents made the headlines. Furthermore, the motivation of terrorists to cause maximal harm shifts these agents into the public focus. For incidents with mass casualties appropriate medical countermeasures must be available. At present, the most important threats arise from nerve agents and sulfur mustard. At first, self-protection and protection of medical units from contamination is of utmost importance. Volatile nerve agent exposure, e.g. sarin, results in fast development of cholinergic crisis. Immediate clinical diagnosis can be confirmed on-site by assessment of acetylcholinesterase activity. Treatment with autoinjectors that are filled with 2mg atropine and an oxime (at present obidoxime, pralidoxime, TMB-4 or HI-6) are not effective against all nerve agents. A more aggressive atropinisation has to be considered and more effective oximes (if possible with a broad spectrum or a combination of different oximes) as well as alternative strategies to cope with high acetylcholine levels at synaptic sites should be developed. A further gap exists for the treatment of patients with sustained cholinergic crisis that has to be expected after exposure to persistent nerve agents, e.g. VX. The requirement for long-lasting artificial ventilation can be reduced with an oxime therapy that is optimized by using the cholinesterase status for guidance or by measures (e.g. scavengers) that are able to reduce the poison load substantially in the patients. For sulfur mustard poisoning no specific antidote is available until now. Symptomatic measures as used for treatment of burns are recommended together with surgical or laser debridement. Thus, huge amounts of resources are expected to be consumed as wound healing is impaired. Possible depots of sulfur mustard in tissues may aggravate the situation. More basic knowledge is necessary to improve substantially therapeutic options. The use of stem cells may provide a new

  16. 广西城乡间急性中毒特点的比较分析%The comparative analysis of acute poisoning characteristics between cities and rural areas in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋东方; 刘清华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the acute-poisoning characteristics between city and rural areas of Guangxi Province in order to provide clinical data for the formation of treatment strategies of acute poisoning in Guangxi.Methods Data of acute poisoning patients as treated in 36 municipal and 12 county hospitals,and also 15 rural clinics in 11 cities of Guangxi during 2005 to 2009 were collected and analyzed according to poisoning population,poisoning site,poisoning process,and poisoning degree.Results By analysing 3678 and 2153 cases of acute poisoning patients in rural and urban areas,the gender (x2=5.53,P<0.05),age (x2=21.04,P<0.01 ),professions (x2=3156.83,P<0.01 ),poisoning site (x2=429.26,P<0.01),poisoning cause (x2=363.06,P<0.01),poison variety (x2=1713.12,P<0.01 ),poisoning degree (x2=35.25,P<0.01 ) were shown to be significantly different between rural and urban areas.In the rural areas,poisoning occurred predominantly in male (48.10% vs.44.91% ),age between 20-60 years (69.39% vs.67.53% ) and over 61 years old ( 11.17% vs.8.69% ),farmers by occupation (74.84% vs.2.79% ),home ( 80.64% vs.78.07% ),sites of labor ( 11.83% vs.3.07% ) and other sites (4.08% vs.2.97% ),and the chiefcauses were professional (3.10% vs.1.30% ),taken by mistake (21.85% vs.20.91%),homicide (0.30/ vs.0.28% ),and suicide (39.07% vs.18.77% ),and by pesticide (60.94% vs.12.13%),plant (7.08% vs.2.88% ) and animal poisons ( 7.73% vs.6.56% ),belonging to severe poisoning ( 25.86% vs.19.04% ) were higher than those in town.In the town,poisoning occurred predominantly in female (55.09% vs.51.90% ),age below 19 years old (23.78% vs.19.44%),unemployed (33.35% vs.13.76%),student ( 17.53% vs.8.43% ),industrial workers (31.95% vs.2.69%),executives ( 10.84% vs.0.22% ) and other professional ( 3.53% vs.0.05% ) ; occurred in schools ( 8.78% vs.0.82% ),restaurants (5.48% vs.1.55%),place of entertainment

  17. 有机磷农药中毒的临床表现及急救治疗分析%Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning the clinical manifestation and the analysis of emergency treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥敏

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨有机磷农药中毒的临床表现及急救措施。方法:采取回顾性的方法对66例有机磷农药中毒患者急救治疗的临床资料进行分析,总结出患者的主要临床表现,并对抢救措施进行分析总结。结果:本组66例患者,经抢救有62例患者脱离危险,死亡6例,整体救治率为93.94%。结论:由于有机磷农药中毒患者的临床表现比较复杂,且患者病情变化较大,个体差异性较大,因此在抢救该类患者时务必要以患者的自身情况为依据制定最佳的抢救方案。%Objective:To study the clinical manifestation of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning and first aid measures. Methods :Take a retrospective method to 66 cases of patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning the clinical data of emergency treatment were analyzed, and sums up the major clinical manifestations of patients, and analyze the rescue measures summed up. Results:Of 66 patients, 62 patients via rescue out of danger, 6 cases died, the overall cure rate was 93.94%. Conclusion:Due to the patients of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning is more complex, and patients condition change is bigger, the individual difference is bigger, so in rescuing the patients too based on patients' condition to develop the best rescue plan.

  18. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Puncturing and Bloodletting at Twelve Hand Jing Points to Treat Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning as Adjunct to First Aid Treatment: A Study Protocol

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    Ying Yue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACOP is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in many countries. Twelve Hand Jing Points (THJP have been believed to be effective to treat all kinds of emergency calls in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for more than 3000 years. This randomized controlled trial (RCT is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of THJP in curing acute carbon monoxide poisoning in first aid treatment. This paper reports the protocol of the trial. Methods/Design. This RCT is a multicenter, randomized, controlled study undergoing in China. The compliant patients are divided into the bloodletting group and standard of care group. With first aid treatments given to both of the groups, the bloodletting group is bleeding at THJP upon being hospitalized. Primary outcomes and secondary outcomes will be measured and compared between these two groups. Before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours after treatment, patients’ basic vital signs and state of consciousness were observed. Before treatment and 1 and 4 hours after treatment, carboxyhemoglobin concentration in venous blood samples was detected. Discussion. The objective of this study is to provide convincing evidence to clarify the efficacy and safety of THJP for early treatment of acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  19. High lethality and minimal variation after acute self-poisoning with carbamate insecticides in Sri Lanka – implications for global suicide prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Thomas; Selvarajah, Liza R.; Mohamed, Fahim; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Gawarammana, Indika; Mostafa, Ahmed; Buckley, Nicholas A.; Roberts, Michael S.; Eddleston, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Highly hazardous organophosphorus (OP) insecticides are responsible for most pesticide poisoning deaths. As they are removed from agricultural practice, they are often replaced by carbamate insecticides of perceived lower toxicity. However, relatively little is known about poisoning with these insecticides. Methods: We prospectively studied 1288 patients self-poisoned with carbamate insecticides admitted to six Sri Lankan hospitals. Clinical outcomes were recorded for each patient and plasma carbamate concentration measured in a sample to confirm the carbamate ingested. Findings: Patients had ingested 3% carbofuran powder (719), carbosulfan EC25 liquid (25% w/v, 389), or fenobucarb EC50 liquid (50% w/v, 127) formulations, carbamate insecticides of WHO Toxicity Classes Ib, II, and II, respectively. Intubation and ventilation was required for 183 (14.2%) patients while 71 (5.5%) died. Compared with carbofuran, poisoning with carbosulfan or fenobucarb was associated with significantly higher risk of death [carbofuran 2.2%; carbosulfan 11.1%, OR 5.5 (95% CI 3.0–9.8); fenobucarb 6.3%, OR 3.0 (1.2–7.1)] and intubation [carbofuran 6.1%; carbosulfan 27.0%, OR 5.7 (3.9–8.3); fenobucarb 18.9%, OR 3.6 (2.1–6.1)]. The clinical presentation and cause of death did not differ markedly between carbamates. Median time to death was similar: carbofuran 42.3 h (IQR 5.5–67.3), carbosulfan 21.3 h (11.5–71.3), and fenobucarb 25.3 h (17.3–72.1) (p = 0.99); no patients showed delayed onset of toxicity akin to the intermediate syndrome seen after OP insecticide poisoning. For survivors, median duration of intubation was 67.8 h (IQR 27.5–118.8) with no difference in duration between carbamates. Reduced GCS at presentation was associated with worse outcome although some patients with carbosulfan died after presentation with normal GCS. Conclusions: We did not find carbamate insecticide self-poisoning to vary markedly according to the carbamate

  20. Confirmation of acute nitrate poisoning differentiating from anthrax in three Indian indigenous cattle

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    Kumaresan Nagarajan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reports cases of nitrate poisoning in Indian indigenous cattle breeds comprising two Gir cows aging 4 years each, and one Barugur cow at 1.5 years of age. The cattle with case history of sudden death and oozing of partially clotted blood from the anal opening were brought to the Central University Laboratory (CUL, Center for Animal Health Studies (CAHS, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (TANUVAS for diagnostic investigation with a suspicion of anthrax. According to anamnesis, all the animals were clinically normal and did not reveal any abnormality on the previous day. The animals were fed with recently harvested sorghum leaves and stalks. Smears examined for anthrax were found negative. Biological test (mice inoculation for anthrax was also negative. Gross lesions on necropsy examination of the carcases were suggestive of nitrate intoxication. Finally, nitrate intoxication of these cattle was confirmed by chemical and toxicological analysis of fodder, rumen content, aqueous humor, liver, kidney and urine.

  1. Ischemic colitis associated with acute carbon monoxide poisoning--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Lindell K; Deru, Kayla

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common, but it has rarely been reported to cause ischemic colitis. In this case, a 34-year-old female with depression presented to an emergency department after a period of unconsciousness, with urinary and bowel incontinence, following exposure to car exhaust. Her carboxyhemoglobin level was 23%. She had metabolic acidosis. She was transferred to our facility for hyperbaric oxygen treatment, where she had intractable nausea/vomiting with abdominal pain and bright-red bleeding per rectum. She exhibited lower abdominal tenderness and hypoactive bowel sounds. Vital signs were: temperature 36.8 degrees C; blood pressure 137/ 86 mmHg; heart rate 114 beats/minute; respiratory rate 28 breaths/minute. The patient's electrocardiogram showed sinus tachycardia with T-wave inversions in leads I, aVL and V3-V6. The troponin I level peaked at 3.7 ng/ml. Echocardiogram showed a reduced ejection fraction of 30%-35%, with akinesis in the posterior lateral and distal anterior distributions. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed diffuse colonic mural thickening, supporting mesenteric ischemia. Sigmoidoscopy showed edematous friable pale mucosa from rectum to distal sigmoid colon. Hyperbaric oxygen was deferred based on the patient's status. Over three days, the initial hematochezia progressed to melena and then resolved. Adenosine cardiac stress MRI was normal. She was transferred to the psychiatry service and discharged four days later. Four years later, she has no gastrointestinal, cardiac or cognitive problems. PMID:27265995

  2. Glasgow coma scale in acute poisonings before and after use of antidote in patients with history of use of psychotropic agents

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    Poplas-Sušić Tonka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Data on emergency interventions in poisonings are scarce. Objective. To determine the effectiveness of antidote therapy in acute poisoning-related emergency medical services (EMS interventions. Methods. A prospective observational study included all poisoning-related intervention cases over 3 years (1999-2001 in the Celje region, Slovenia, covering 125,000 inhabitants. Data were recorded on an EMS form. Results. Psychoactive agents were present in 56.5% out of 244 poisoning-related EMS interventions. Prescription drugs were a cause of intoxication in 93 (39.2% cases alone or in combination with alcohol or illegal drugs. More than one fifth of poisonings were due to the use of illegal drugs in 52 (21.9% cases, 43 (18.1% out of them heroin related. At the time of EMS arrival, more patients who ingested illegal drugs were in coma or comatose than the rest. 24 (45.3% vs. 32 (17.3% of poisoned patients were in coma (p<0.001. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS at the first contact was lower in patients who ingested illegal drugs than in the remaining patients (9.0 vs. 11.6, p=0.001. In 23.2% of the cases, an antidote was administered. In 29 (12.2% naloxone and in 16 (6.7% flumazenil was administered. Mean GCS after intervention was higher in all cases but significantly higher in illegal drug cases, 13.4 vs. 12.2 (p=0.001, with a mean positive change in GCS of 4.5 vs. 0.6 (p<0.001. In illegal drug users, mean change after antidote administration was 8.2 vs. 0.5 without antidote administration (p<0.001. Conclusion. High rate of successful antidote use during the intervention indicated the importance of good EMS protocols and the presence of a skilled doctor in the EMS team.

  3. Acute arsenic poisoning: absence of polyneuropathy after treatment with 2,3-dimercaptopropanesulphonate (DMPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D F; O'Callaghan, C A; Berlyne, G; Ogg, C S; Davies, H A; House, I M; Henry, J A

    1994-01-01

    Two men aged 19 and 21 years ingested 1 g and 4 g respectively from 3 kg of a white crystalline powder that they thought was a substance of abuse. It was later identified as almost pure arsenic trioxide. Both had nausea and vomiting and one developed acute renal failure. Each was treated with 2,3-dimercaptopropanesulphonate (DMPS), and made a full recovery with no evidence of prolonged renal or neurological impairment. The DMPS-arsenic complex is probably associated with lower penetration into the CNS and as a consequence treatment with DMPS may result in lower acute and chronic neurotoxicity than treatment with the currently standard recommended chelating agent dimercaprol (British Anti-Lewisite; BAL). PMID:8089687

  4. Probabilistic acute dietary exposure assessments to captan and tolylfluanid using several European food consumption and pesticide concentration databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Polly E; Svensson, Kettil; Moussavian, Shahnaz; van der Voet, Hilko; Petersen, Annette; Ruprich, Jiri; Debegnach, Francesca; de Boer, Waldo J; van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Brera, Carlo; van Klaveren, Jacob D; Busk, Leif

    2009-12-01

    Probabilistic dietary acute exposure assessments of captan and tolylfluanid were performed for the populations of the Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden. The basis for these assessments was national databases for food consumption and pesticide concentration data harmonised at the level of raw agricultural commodity. Data were obtained from national food consumption surveys and national monitoring programmes and organised in an electronic platform of databases connected to probabilistic software. The exposure assessments were conducted by linking national food consumption data either (1) to national pesticide concentration data or (2) to a pooled database containing all national pesticide concentration data. We show that with this tool national exposure assessments can be performed in a harmonised way and that pesticide concentrations of other countries can be linked to national food consumption surveys. In this way it is possible to exchange or merge concentration data between countries in situations of data scarcity. This electronic platform in connection with probabilistic software can be seen as a prototype of a data warehouse, including a harmonised approach for dietary exposure modelling.

  5. Acute thiopurine overdose: analysis of reports to a national poison centre 1995-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Gregoriano, Claudia; Ceschi, Alessandro; Rauber-Lüthy, Christine; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Banner, Nicholas R.; Krähenbühl, Stephan; Taegtmeyer, Anne B

    2014-01-01

    Literature regarding acute human toxicity of thiopurines is limited to a handful of case reports. Our objectives were to describe all cases of overdose with thiopurines reported to the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre between 1995-2013. A retrospective analysis was performed to determine circumstances, magnitude, management and outcome of overdose with these substances. A total of 40 cases (14 paediatric) were reported (azathioprine, n = 35; 6-mercaptopurine, n = 5). Of these, 25 were w...

  6. Hydroxyethyl Starch Could Save a Patient With Acute Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marashi, Sayed Mahdi; Nasri Nasrabadi, Zeynab; Jafarzadeh, Mostafa; Mohammadi, Sogand

    2016-07-01

    A 40-year-old male patient with suicidal ingestion of one tablet of aluminium phosphide was referred to the department of toxicology emergency of Baharloo Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The garlic odor was smelled from the patient and abdominal pain and continuous vomiting as well as agitation and heartburn were the first signs and symptoms. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures at the arrival time were 95 and 67 mmHg, respectively. Gastric lavage with potassium permanganate (1:10,000), and 2 vials of sodium bicarbonate through a nasogastric tube was started for the patient and the management was continued with free intravenous infusion of 1 liter of NaCl 0.9% serum plus NaHCO3, hydrocortisone acetate (200 mg), calcium gluconate (1 g) and magnesium sulfate (1 g). Regarding the large intravenous fluid therapy and vasoconstrictor administering (norepinephrine started by 5 µg/min and continued till 15 µg/min), there were no signs of response and the systolic blood pressure was 49 mmHg. At this time, hydroxyethyl starch (HES) (6% hetastarch 600/0.75 in 0.9% sodium chloride) with a dose of 600 cc in 6 hours was started for the patient. At the end of therapy with HES, the patient was stable with systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 110 and 77 mmHg, respectively. He was discharged on the 6th day after the psychological consultation, with normal clinical and paraclinical examinations. This is the first report of using HES in the management of AlP poisoning and its benefit to survive the patient. PMID:27424021

  7. DNA pooling base genome-wide association study identifies variants at NRXN3 associated with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Li

    Full Text Available Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP is more characteristic of anoxic encephalopathy than of other types of anoxia. Those who have the same poisoning degree and are of similar age and gender have a greater risk of getting DEACMP. This has made it clear that there are obvious personal differences. Genetic factors may play a very important role. The authors performed a genome-wide association study involving pooling of DNA obtained from 175 patients and 244 matched acute carbon monoxide poisoning without delayed encephalopathy controls. The Illumina HumanHap 660 Chip array was used for DNA pools. Allele frequencies of all SNPs were compared between delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning and control groups and ranked. A total of 123 SNPs gave an OR >1.4. Of these, 46 mapped in or close to known genes. Forty-eight SNPs located in 19 genes were associated with DEACMP after correction for 5% FDR in the genome-wide association of pooled DNA. Two SNPs (rs11845632 and rs2196447 locate in the Neurexin 3 gene were selected for individual genotyping in all samples and another cohort consisted of 234 and 271 controls. There were significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies of rs11845632 and rs2196447 between the DEACMP group and controls group (all P-values <0.05. This study describes a positive association between Neurexin 3 and controls in the Han Chinese population, and provides genetic evidence to support the susceptibility of DEACMP, which may be the resulting interaction of environmental and genetic factors.

  8. Clinical analyses on the 61 cases of acute poisoning in the senior citizen%老年人急性中毒61例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜俭; 朱涛

    2008-01-01

    Objective Discusses correlation factor,clinical characteristic and intervention measure which the senior citizen acute is poisoned.Methods Acutely reviewed the old age which in January,2000 during-2006 year December admitted to be poisoned the clinical material,after the sex,the poison invasion way,was poisoned the material type,is poisoned the reason,pre-and the death situation carries on the analysis.Results The old age acute is poisoned the male and female asexual other difference;The poison invasion way by the digestive tract primarily,accounts for 81.9%,the skin absorption next,accounts for 14.7%;Is poisoned the matter by the agricultural chemicals and the medicine primarily,in the agricultural chemicals the methylamine phosphons accounts for first place 54%,in the medicine the calm hypnosis,the anti-neurosis medicine primarily,accounts for 22.9%,cardiovascular medicine next 6.5%;Is poisoned the reason to commit suicide the first place to account for 67.2%;Died 11.4%.Conclusion Strengthens the agricultural chemicals and the drugs management,intervenes senior citizen's psychology,the physiological health,reduces the effective action which the senior citizen is poisoned.%目的 探讨老年人急性中毒的相关因素、临床特点及干预措施.方法 回顾了2000年1月至2006年12月问收治的老年急性中毒临床资料,对性别、毒物侵入途径、中毒物质种类、中毒原因、预后及死亡情况进行分析.结果 老年急性中毒男女无性别差异;毒物侵入途径以消化道为主,占81.9%,皮肤吸收其次,占14.7%;中毒物质以农药和药物为主,农药中甲胺磷占首位(54%),药物中镇静催眠、抗精神病药为主,占22.9%,心血管药其次(6.5%);中毒原因自杀首位占67.2%;死亡占11.4%.结论 加强农药和药品的管理,干预老年人的心理、生理健康,是减少老年人中毒的有效措施.

  9. Oleander poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  10. Detergent poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Philodendron poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  12. Ammonia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  13. Foxglove poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  14. Yew poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Mistletoe poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  16. Poison Ivy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Poison Ivy Posted under Health Guides . Updated 2 June ... everyone is sensitive to these plants. What is poison ivy? Poison ivy is a plant that can ...

  17. Diazinon poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  18. Iodine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  19. Deodorant poisoning

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    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  20. Mushroom Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poisoning, call your doctor or the Poison Control Center. Call 911 immediately if the person is unconscious, not breathing or convulsing. The phone number for the Poison Control Center is 1-800-222-1222. This number is ...

  1. Health Aspects of Organophosphorous Pesticides in Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Balali-Mood

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorous (OP pesticides are used frequently in agriculture, particularly in Asian countries over the pastdecades. Poisoning by these agents, either as acute or chronic in these nations, is a serious health problem. OP pesticidesresidue in fruits and vegetables that may not induce early clinical features, could also affect the human health.Therefore, medical and health professionals should be aware and learn more on the toxicology, prevention and proper management of OP poisoning. The well-known mechanism of OP toxicity is the inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase,resulting in an accumulation of acetylcholine and continued stimulation of acetylcholine receptors. Therefore, they arealso called anticholinesterase agents. Determination of blood acetyl cholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase activities remains a mainstay for the rapid initial screening of OP pesticides. Quantitative analysis of OP and their degradation products in plasma and urine by mass spectrometric methods is a more specific method, but is expensive and limited to specialized laboratories. Therefore, history of OP pesticides exposure and clinical manifestations of a cholinergic syndrome is sufficient for management of the exposed patients. However, electrophysiological tests may be requiredfor the diagnosis of delayed neuropathy of OP poisoning. The standard management of OP poisoning includes decontamination,atropine sulphate with an oxime. Recent advances focus on blood alkalinisation and magnesium sulphate as promising adjunctive therapies. Preventive measures in OP exposure are of great importance in human health in developing countries. Therefore, regulations and controls on safe use of OP particularly in Asian countries are recommended.

  2. Acute thiopurine overdose: analysis of reports to a National Poison Centre 1995-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gregoriano

    Full Text Available Literature regarding acute human toxicity of thiopurines is limited to a handful of case reports. Our objectives were to describe all cases of overdose with thiopurines reported to the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre between 1995-2013. A retrospective analysis was performed to determine circumstances, magnitude, management and outcome of overdose with these substances. A total of 40 cases (14 paediatric were reported (azathioprine, n = 35; 6-mercaptopurine, n = 5. Of these, 25 were with suicidal intent, 12 were accidental and 3 were iatrogenic errors. The magnitude of overdose ranged from 1.5 to 43 (median 8 times the usual dose in adults. Twelve cases (30% had attributable symptoms. The majority of these were minor and included gastrointestinal complaints and liver function test and blood count abnormalities. Symptoms were experienced by patients who took at least 1.5-times their usual daily thiopurine dose. Overdoses over two or more consecutive days, even if of modest size, were less well tolerated. One case of azathioprine and allopurinol co-ingestion over consecutive days led to agranulocytosis. Decontamination measures were undertaken in 11 cases (10 activated charcoal, 1 gastric lavage and these developed fewer symptoms than untreated patients. This study shows that acute overdoses with thiopurines have a favourable outcome in the majority of cases and provides preliminary evidence that gastrointestinal decontamination with activated charcoal may reduce symptom development after overdose of these substances if patients present to medical services soon after ingestion.

  3. Acute thiopurine overdose: analysis of reports to a National Poison Centre 1995-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoriano, Claudia; Ceschi, Alessandro; Rauber-Lüthy, Christine; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Banner, Nicholas R; Krähenbühl, Stephan; Taegtmeyer, Anne B

    2014-01-01

    Literature regarding acute human toxicity of thiopurines is limited to a handful of case reports. Our objectives were to describe all cases of overdose with thiopurines reported to the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre between 1995-2013. A retrospective analysis was performed to determine circumstances, magnitude, management and outcome of overdose with these substances. A total of 40 cases (14 paediatric) were reported (azathioprine, n = 35; 6-mercaptopurine, n = 5). Of these, 25 were with suicidal intent, 12 were accidental and 3 were iatrogenic errors. The magnitude of overdose ranged from 1.5 to 43 (median 8) times the usual dose in adults. Twelve cases (30%) had attributable symptoms. The majority of these were minor and included gastrointestinal complaints and liver function test and blood count abnormalities. Symptoms were experienced by patients who took at least 1.5-times their usual daily thiopurine dose. Overdoses over two or more consecutive days, even if of modest size, were less well tolerated. One case of azathioprine and allopurinol co-ingestion over consecutive days led to agranulocytosis. Decontamination measures were undertaken in 11 cases (10 activated charcoal, 1 gastric lavage) and these developed fewer symptoms than untreated patients. This study shows that acute overdoses with thiopurines have a favourable outcome in the majority of cases and provides preliminary evidence that gastrointestinal decontamination with activated charcoal may reduce symptom development after overdose of these substances if patients present to medical services soon after ingestion. PMID:24489721

  4. Acute and sublethal effects of sequential exposure to the pesticide azinphos-methyl on juvenile earthworms (Eisenia andrei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, Martine S; Reinecke, Sophié A; Reinecke, Adriaan J

    2012-04-01

    The use of organophosphate pesticides is an integral part of commercial farming activities and these substances have been implicated as a major source of environmental contamination and may impact on a range of non-target fauna. The extent to which soil dwelling non-target organisms are affected by exposure to the organophosphate azinphos-methyl was investigated through monitoring selected biomarker responses and life cycle effects under laboratory conditions in the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Standard acute toxicity tests were conducted followed by a sequential exposure regime experiment, in order to assess the effects of multiple pesticide applications on biomarker (cholinesterase activity and neutral red retention time), life-cycle (growth and reproduction) and behaviour (avoidance and burrowing activity) responses. The present study indicates that the time between exposure events was a more important variable than concentration and that a longer interval between exposures may mitigate the effects of pesticide exposure provided that the exposure concentration is low. Additionally, it was shown that E. andrei was unable to avoid the presence of azinphos-methyl in soil, even at concentrations as high as 50% of the LC(50) value, indicating that the presence of azinphos-methyl in the soil pose a realistic threat to earthworms and other soil dwelling organisms. The ChE inhibition test showed a high percentage inhibition of the enzyme in all exposure groups that survived and NRR times of exposed organisms were lower than that of the controls. The present study yielded important results that contribute to the understanding of biological impacts of pesticide pollution on the environment. Extrapolating these results can aid in optimising pesticide application regimes to mitigate the environmental effects thereof and thus ensuring sustained soil biodiversity in agricultural areas. PMID:22086221

  5. Pesticide Health and Safety Challenges Facing Informal Sector Workers: A Case of Small-scale Agricultural Workers in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined.

  6. Pesticide Health and Safety Challenges Facing Informal Sector Workers: A Case of Small-scale Agricultural Workers in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined. PMID:27406110

  7. Clinical Analysis of Inserting Gastric Tube to Tube Rupture in 1 Cases of Pesticide Poisoning%关于农药中毒插胃管致胃管断裂1例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈霞

    2014-01-01

    目的分析抢救农药中毒患者置胃管时被患者咬断的原因。方法介绍1例女性患者因自服敌敌畏,患者洗胃时拒不配合,强行咬断胃管的前端致胃管断裂的病历进行分析。结果患者吐出断胃管,更换胃管,在口腔内置入牙垫,置入胃管完成洗胃的全过程。结论洗胃是农药中毒患者最直接有效地方法,有效地将胃管插入胃内并进行固定是确保洗胃过程顺利进行的一个关键环节,能最大限度地减少毒物的吸收,直接影响抢救有机磷农药中毒的成功率。提高洗胃的速度和清洁度,减少不良反应,提高抢救成功率,减轻护士疲劳感。%Objective Analysis for pesticide poisoning patients indwel ing gastric tube was a patient of snap. Methods A female patients because of self medication in patients with gastric lavage, dichlorvos, refuses to cooperate with, forced to bite tube rupture caused by stomach tube at the front end of the medical record analysis. Results The patient to spit out the broken tube, replace the nasogastric tube, in the mouth into the stomach with dental pad, complete the whole process of gastric lavage. Conclusion The gastric lavage is pesticide poisoning were the most direct and effective way, ef ectively the gastric tube into the stomach and fixation is the key to ensuring the gastric lavage process smoothly, can minimize the absorption of poison, directly af ect the organic phosphorus pesticide poisoning rescue success rate. To improve the speed of gastric lavage and cleanliness, reduce adverse reaction, improve the success rate, reduce the fatigue feeling.

  8. Pesticide exposure - Indian scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. India started pesticide production with manufacturing plant for DDT and benzene hexachloride (BHC) (HCH) in the year 1952. In 1958, India was producing over 5000 metric tonnes of pesticides. Currently, there are approximately 145 pesticides registered for use, and production has increased to approximately 85,000 metric tonnes. Rampant use of these chemicals has given rise to several short-term and long-term adverse effects of these chemicals. The first report of poisoning due to pesticides in India came from Kerala in 1958 where, over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion. Subsequently several cases of pesticide-poisoning including the Bhopal disaster have been reported. Despite the fact that the consumption of pesticides in India is still very low, about 0.5 kg/ha of pesticides against 6.60 and 12.0 kg/ha in Korea and Japan, respectively, there has been a widespread contamination of food commodities with pesticide residues, basically due to non-judicious use of pesticides. In India, 51% of food commodities are contaminated with pesticide residues and out of these, 20% have pesticides residues above the maximum residue level values on a worldwide basis. It has been observed that their long-term, low-dose exposure are increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune-suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities, and cancer. In this light, problems of pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, use of biotechnology, and biopesticides, and use of pesticides obtained from natural plant sources such as neem extracts are some of the future strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides

  9. Sampling strategies for estimating acute and chronic exposures of pesticides in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Charles G.

    2004-01-01

    The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires that human exposure to pesticides through drinking water be considered when establishing pesticide tolerances in food. Several systematic and seasonally weighted systematic sampling strategies for estimating pesticide concentrations in surface water were evaluated through Monte Carlo simulation, using intensive datasets from four sites in northwestern Ohio. The number of samples for the strategies ranged from 4 to 120 per year. Sampling strategies with a minimal sampling frequency outside the growing season can be used for estimating time weighted mean and percentile concentrations of pesticides with little loss of accuracy and precision, compared to strategies with the same sampling frequency year round. Less frequent sampling strategies can be used at large sites. A sampling frequency of 10 times monthly during the pesticide runoff period at a 90 km 2 basin and four times monthly at a 16,400 km2 basin provided estimates of the time weighted mean, 90th, 95th, and 99th percentile concentrations that fell within 50 percent of the true value virtually all of the time. By taking into account basin size and the periodic nature of pesticide runoff, costs of obtaining estimates of time weighted mean and percentile pesticide concentrations can be minimized.

  10. Speciation analysis of arsenic compounds in the serum and urine of a patient with acute arsine poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamanaka K.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsine is one of the most potent hemolytic agents. It is important to clarify arsine metabolism as well as its chemical interactions with biological components. The aim of the present study was to clarify arsine metabolism by arsenic speciation analysis in serum and urine from an acute poisoning patient with hematuria, anemia, and renal and liver dysfunction. Speciation analysis of arsenics in serum and urine was performed using HPLC-ICP-MS. The total arsenic (T-As concentration in serum was 244.8 μg/l at admission and 97.1 μg/l at discharge. In the speciation analysis, four kinds of As compounds derived from arsine metabolism were detected in serum and urine. The concentration of arsenite (AsIII, arsenate (AsV, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA in serum at admission were 45.8, 5.2, 17.9 and 9.3 μg/l, respectively. The concentrations of AsIII, AsV, and MMA decreased with biological half time (BHT of 30.1, 43.0, and 96.3 h, respectively. Only DMA was increased at discharge. The urinary AsIII, AsV, MMA and DMA concentrations were 223.0, 12.1, 317.5 and 1053.5 μg/l at discharge, and decreased with BHT of 15.1, 20.8, 14.7, and 16.0 d, respectively. The results indicate that arsine was quickly metabolized to AsIII and subsequently up to DMA, with the result that the toxic effects of inorganic arsenic were added to those of arsine toxicity.

  11. Antagonism of Acute Sulfide Poisoning in Mice by Nitrite Anion without Methemoglobinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronican, Andrea A; Frawley, Kristin L; Ahmed, Humza; Pearce, Linda L; Peterson, Jim

    2015-07-20

    There are currently no FDA-approved antidotes for H2S/sulfide intoxication. Sodium nitrite, if given prophylactically to Swiss Webster mice, was shown to be highly protective against the acute toxic effects of sodium hydrosulfide (∼LD40 dose) with both agents administered by intraperitoneal injections. However, sodium nitrite administered after the toxicant dose did not detectably ameliorate sulfide toxicity in this fast-delivery, single-shot experimental paradigm. Nitrite anion was shown to rapidly produce NO in the bloodstream, as judged by the appearance of EPR signals attributable to nitrosylhemoglobin and methemoglobin, together amounting to less than 5% of the total hemoglobin present. Sulfide-intoxicated mice were neither helped by the supplemental administration of 100% oxygen nor were there any detrimental effects. Compared to cyanide-intoxicated mice, animals surviving sulfide intoxication exhibited very short knockdown times (if any) and full recovery was extremely fast (∼15 min) irrespective of whether sodium nitrite was administered. Behavioral experiments testing the ability of mice to maintain balance on a rotating cylinder showed no motor impairment up to 24 h post sulfide exposure. It is argued that antagonism of sulfide inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase by NO is the crucial antidotal activity of nitrite rather than formation of methemoglobin.

  12. Detection of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio as a serum marker associated with inlfammations by acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mustafa Karabacak; Kenan Ahmet Turkdogan; Abuzer Coskun; Orhan Akpinar; Ali Duman; Mcahit Kapci; Sevki Hakan Eren; Pnar Karabacak

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR), which is an indicator of systemic inflammation, in patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Methods: We included 528 patients (275 women) who presented with a diagnosis of CO poisoning between June 2009 and March 2014. Control group was composed of 54 patients (24 women). Platelet count and mean platelet volume level were significantly higher in the CO poisoning group. Results: White blood cell level (9.8 ± 3.3vs 8.6 ± 2.9× 103/mL, respectively;P= 0.01), neutrophil count (6.00 ± 2.29vs 4.43 ± 2.04×103/mL, respectively;P Conclusions: The increase ofNLR may indicate the progression of fatal complications due to CO poisoning.

  13. Temperature changes among organophosphate poisoned patients, Tehran- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talaie Haleh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute poisoning with organophosphorus compounds (OPs is a major global clinical problem in the developing countries. There have been many animal studies and few human surveys on the effects of organophosphorus pesticide (OP poisoning on thermoregulation. The aim of this prospective study was to document the pattern of tympanic temperature changes among OP poisoned patients throughout the length of their hospital stay. Methods 60 patients with diagnose of organophosphate poisoning were included in this study. Questioner was filled out by trained nurses including demographic, clinical and paraclinical data. Tympanic temperature and Pulse rate data of the cases were collected on five- occasions after admission. Results There were 41 (68.3% male and 19 (31.7% female, with a mean age of 34.4 ±19.4 years (range 13–89 years. Forty five patients had intentional poisoning for suicidal attempt. At the time of entry, the mean tympanic temperature, pulse rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic of the OP poisoned patients were respectively 37.1+/−0.6°C (36.0- 39.5, 91+/−18 (55–145, 18+/−5.6 (8–44, 116+/−20 mm Hg (70–170 and 75+/−11.6 mm Hg (40–110. 41.7% of the cases had serum butyryl cholinesterase activities (BChE ≥ 50% normal (≥1600 mU/ml. Our patients had normal temperature at the time entry (mean = 37.1. Tympanic temperature decreasing below 36°C was not detected among the patients during the study period. A rise in mean tympanic temperature was found after atropine administration. Conclusion Our study showed hypothermia was not considerable factor among organophosphate poisoned patients, although more studies with similar situations in tropical countries are needed.

  14. Assessment of acute pesticide toxicity with selected biochemical variables in suicide attempting subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticide induced changes were assessed in thirty two subjects of attempted suicide cases. Among all, the farmers and their families were recorded as most frequently suicide attempting. The values obtained from seven biochemical variables of 29 years old (average age) hospitalized subjects were compared to the same number and age matched normal volunteers. The results revealed major differences in the mean values of the selected parameters. The mean difference calculate; alkaline phosphatase (178.7 mu/l), Bilirubin (7.5 mg/dl), GPT (59.2 mu/l) and glucose (38.6 mg/dl) were higher than the controls, which indicate the hepatotoxicity induced by the pesticides in suicide attempting individuals. Increase in serum creatinine and urea indicated renal malfunction that could be linked with pesticide induced nephrotoxicity among them. (author)

  15. Oximes in organophosphorus poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherian M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organic insecticide poisoning is a major health problem all over the world, particularly in the developing countries, where organophosphates (OPs are the most common suicidal poisons with high morbidity and mortality and account for a large proportion of patients admitted to intensive care units. Other insecticides less commonly used are organocarbamates, organochlorides, and pyrethroids, which are less toxic and are associated with less morbidity and mortality. Patients with poisoning present with a wide spectrum of gastrointestinal, neurological, and cardiac manifestations. A strong clinical suspicion is necessary to make an early diagnosis and to start appropriate therapy. Treatment is primarily supportive and includes decontamination, anticholinergics, protection of the airway, and cardiac and respiratory support. The use of oximes has been controversial and may be associated with higher mortality owing to a higher incidence of type-II paralysis. They may have other toxic side effects. This paper reviews the literature on OP poisoning.

  16. 职业性急性氮氧化物中毒一例报道%Occupational Acute Nitrogen Oxides Poisoning: A Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟皓成; 管继如

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides are common irritative gases including NO2, NO, and N2O, etc. NO2 is the main component of gases generated by metal pickling. The patient had worked in pool without any protection for about 3 hours. The NO2 concentration was beyond the national allowable concentration 41 hours after the accident occurred. The exposure to NO2 was confirmed. The patient presented pulmonary edema and was diagnosed as acute severe nitrogen oxides poisoning according to the Diagnostic Criteria of Occupational Acute Nitrogen Oxides Poisoning (GBZ 15-2002).%氮氧化物是常见的刺激性气体之一,包括NO2、NO、N2O等.金属酸洗过程中所产生的氮氧化物主要为NO2.本例患者在清水池底工作约3h,且未佩戴任何防护用具,事故发生41h后地中NO2浓度仍超过国家容许浓度,氮氧化物接触史明确.患者在病程中出现肺水肿.根据GBZ 15-2002《职业性急性氮氧化物中毒诊断标准》,诊断为急性重度氮氧化物中毒.

  17. Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  18. Starch poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  19. Ethanol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002644.htm Ethanol poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ...

  20. Insecticide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 76. Borron SW. Pyrethins, repellants, ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 77. Cannon RD, Ruha A- ...

  1. Merbromin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 71. Linakis JG, Skarbek-Borowska S. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 18. Rusyniak DE, Arroyo A, ...

  2. Copper poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 75. Holland MG. Pulmonary toxicology. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 9. Jones AL, Dargan PI. ...

  3. Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of multiple and single dose activated charcoal for acute self-poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Fahim

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The case fatality for intentional self-poisoning in rural Asia is 10–30 times higher than in the West, mostly due to the use of highly toxic poisons. Activated charcoal is a widely available intervention that may – if given early – bind to poisons in the stomach and prevent their absorption. Current guidelines recommend giving a single dose of charcoal (SDAC if patients arrive within an hour of ingestion. Multiple doses (MDAC may increase poison elimination at a later time by interrupting any enterohepatic or enterovascular circulations. The effectiveness of SDAC or MDAC is unknown. Since most patients present to hospital after one hour, we considered MDAC to have a higher likelihood of clinical benefit and set up a study to compare MDAC with no charcoal. A third arm of SDAC was added to help determine whether any benefit noted from MDAC resulted from the first dose or all doses. Methods/design We set up a randomised controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of superactivated charcoal in unselected adult self-poisoning patients admitted to the adult medical wards of three Sri Lankan secondary hospitals. Patients were randomised to standard treatment or standard treatment plus either a single 50 g dose of superactivated charcoal dissolved in 300 ml of water or six doses every four hours. All patients with a history of poison ingestion were approached concerning the study and written informed consent taken from each patient, or their relative (for unconscious patients or those 72 hrs post-ingestion, and previous recruitment. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality; secondary outcomes included the occurrence of serious complications (need for intubation, time requiring assisted ventilation, fits, cardiac dysrhythmias. Analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis; the effects of reported time to treatment after poisoning and status on admission will also be assessed. Discussion This trial will provide important

  4. A study of neurologic symptoms on exposure to organophosphate pesticides in the children of agricultural workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastogi S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used extensively throughout the world in agriculture and in pest control as well as for community health purposes. Organophosphate (OP pesticide self-poisoning is an important clinical problem in rural regions of the developing world that kills an estimated 200,000 people every year. Unintentional poisoning kills far fewer people but is an apparent problem in places where highly toxic OP pesticides are available. Neurologic dysfunction is the best documented health effect of pesticide exposure. High-level exposure has both acute and long-term neurologic signs and symptoms, and adverse effects have been reported in most type of pesticides, including organophosphate (OP, carbamate, organochlorine, and pyrethroid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and fumigants. Acute OP pesticide exposure can involve in wide range of both central and peripheral neurologic symptoms. Increased neurologic symptom prevalence may provide early evidence of neurologic dysfunctions, before clinically measurable signs are evident. In this study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data on neurologic signs and symptoms from 225 rural children, both males (n = 132 and females (n = 93 who were occupationally and paraoccupationally exposed to methyl OPs (dichlorvos, fenthion, malathion, methyl parathion and ethyl OPs (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, ethyl parathion as they belonged to agricultural families handling, mixing, and spraying the OP pesticides. The children completed a specially designed questionnaire (Q16 on neurologic symptoms associated with pesticide exposure with their parental help. A suitable reference group consisting of rural children (n = 50 never involved in pesticide handling (neither outdoor nor indoor belonging to similar socioeconomic strata included in the study to compare the prevalence of various neurologic symptoms between the two groups. Among all the neurologic self-reported symptoms, headache, watering in eyes, and burning sensation in

  5. 一起有机磷农药污染糯米面粉致食物中毒的调查%Investigation on food poisoning caused by flour polluted by organophosphorus pesticide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙锐莲

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyse the cause of a food poisoning case. METHODS Used the field investigation method of epidemiology, combined with clinical treatment and laboratory bacteriology appraisal method. RESULTS The severe food poisoning wag caused by food contaminated by organophosphorus pesticides that methamidophos and oxidizing dimethoate. CONCLUSION It should intensify the propaganda work about food safety in remote rural area, make people master correct food storage and use methods.%目的 分析一起食物中毒的原因.方法 接流行病学现场调查方法,结合临床治疗和实验室细菌学鉴定.结果 本次食物中毒为有机磷农药污染食品后引起的急性甲胺磷和氧化乐果重度食物中毒.结论 加大对偏僻农村的食品安全宣传教育工作,让人们掌握正确的食品储存和使用方法.

  6. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  7. Clinical study on pancreatic damage in patients with acute dichlorvos poisoning combined with alcohol poisoning%急性敌敌畏中毒合并急性乙醇中毒患者胰腺损害的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冰; 瞿海龙; 周英莲; 梁璐; 彭广军

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To investigate the incidence rate of severe pancreatic damage in patients with acute dichlorvos poisoning combined with alcohol poisoning, in order to guide the clinical early diagnosis and rational treatment. [Methods] 140 acute dichlorvos poisoning cases in Emergency Department of Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University were divided into dichlorvos poisoning group (80 cases) and dichlorvos poisoning combined with alcohol poisoning group (60 cases). The acute pancreatitis was diagnosed through blood and urine amylase detection, and pancreatic CT within 24 hours after admission. The pancreatitis incidence and prognosis of two groups were compared. [Results] There was 20 severe acute pancreatitis cases in dichlorvos poisoning combined with alcohol poisoning group and 14 cases in dichlorvos poisoning group, and the difference between two groups was significant (x2 =4. 67,P<0.05). The incidence rate of complications, operation rate, mortality rate and hospitalization time in dichlorvos poisoning combined with alcohol poisoning group were higher than those in dichlorvos poisoning group [P<0.05). [ Conclusion] Compared with single dichlorvos poisoning group, there is a higher incidence rate of severe pancreatitis in dichlorvos poisoning combined with alcohol poisoning group, and it has high mortality rate and poor prognosis.%目的 探讨急性敌敌畏中毒合并急性乙醇中毒患者重症胰腺炎发生情况,以指导临床早期诊断和合理治疗.方法 将就诊于河北大学附属医院急诊科的140例急性重度敌敌畏中毒患者分为单纯敌敌畏中毒组(80例)、敌敌畏中毒合并乙醇中毒组(60例);于入院后24h内通过血尿中淀粉酶、胰腺CT检查明确胰腺炎诊断;对2组患者胰腺炎发生率及其预后进行比较.结果 急性敌敌畏中毒合并急性乙醇中毒患者20例发生重症胰腺炎,单纯敌敌畏中毒组14例发生重症胰腺炎,两组差异有统计学意义(x2=4.67,P<0.05);

  8. An Epidemiological Analysis of 80 Acute Occupational Poisoning Accidents%80起急性职业中毒事件流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨黎明; 黄云彪; 王宇; 施渊; 严军

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] To study the characteristics of industry, population and time distributions of 80 acute occupational poisoning accidents in Pudong New Area of Shanghai, to explore the prime causes, and to provide a basis for developing control and prevention strategies. [ Methods ] A retrospective survey was conducted on 80 acute occupational poisoning accidents which occurred between January 1996 and December 2008. [ Results ] A total of 157 victims were identified in these 80 acute occupational poisoning accidents, with 129 males (82.2%) and 28 females (17.8%). The peak annual occurrence (43 accidents) was found in the period of 2003-2005. Sulfureted hydrogen was identified as the most common chemical substance that caused 42 people (26.8%) poisoned and 15 (71.4%) deaths. Of the 80 accidents, 45 (56.3%) occurred from July to September. The common causes of the accidents included protection equipment failure (35.0%), not wearing personal protective equipments (28.7%), and violation of safety operation procedures (18.7%). [ Conclusion ] A comprehensive strategy on safety education and the allocation of safeguards and personal protective equipments should be introduced against the causes of acute occupational poisoning.%[目的]分析上海市浦东新区80起急性职业中毒事件的行业、人群和时间分布特征及主要原因,为制订防治对策提供依据. [方法]用回顾性调查的方法,对该区1996年1月至2008年12月间发生的80起急性职业中毒事件进行回顾性调查分析.[结果] 80起急性职业中毒事件共造成157人中毒,其中男性129人(82.2%),女性28人(17.8%);年发生数以2003至2005年为高峰,共发生43起;致中毒化学物质中,硫化氢共造成急性职业中毒42人(26.8%),死亡15人(71.4%);发生于7-9月的急性职业中毒事件共45起(56.3%).事故发生的主要原因有防护设施失效(35.0%)、未使用个人防护用品(28.7%)、违反安全操作规程(18.3%)等. [结

  9. Is plasma β-glucuronidase a novel human biomarker for monitoring anticholinesterase pesticides exposure? A Malaysian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the effects of acute and chronic pesticide exposure on the plasma β-glucuronidase enzyme activity among five patients of acute pesticide poisoning in Tengku Ampuan Rahimah Hospital, Klang, 230 farmers in the MADA area, Kedah and 49 fishermen in Setiu, Terengganu. The duration of pesticide exposure among the patients was unknown, but the plasma samples from patients were collected on day one in the hospital. The duration of pesticide exposure among the farmers was between 1 and 45 years. The β-glucuronidase activity was compared with plasma cholinesterase activity in the same individual. The plasma cholinesterase activity was measured using Cholinesterase (PTC) Reagent set kit (Teco Diagnostics, UK) based on colorimetric method, while the plasma β-glucuronidase activity was measured fluorometrically based on β-glucuronidase assay. The plasma cholinesterase activity was significantly reduced (p 0.05). The plasma β-glucuronidase activity among the farmers was significantly elevated (p 0.05). The plasma cholinesterase activity was positively correlated with the plasma β-glucuronidase activity among the farmers (r = 0.205, p 0.05). Thus, plasma β-glucuronidase enzyme activity can be measured as a biomarker for the chronic exposure of pesticide. However, further studies need to be performed to confirm whether plasma β-glucuronidase can be a sensitive biomarker for anticholinesterase pesticide poisoning

  10. 急性铊中毒14例临床分析%Clinical analysis of acute thallium poisoning in fourteen patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓然; 邱泽武; 崔文华; 彭晓波

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析总结急性铊中毒的临床表现及治疗方法. 方法 收集2009至2011年军事医学科学院附属医院收治的所有急性铊中毒患者病历资料进行回顾性分析. 结果 2009至2011年共收治急性铊中毒患者14例,男性8例,女性6例,年龄9 ~ 68岁,平均42岁.1例自诉被他人投毒;1例疑似误服;2例与铊中毒者有共同生活史;10例中毒原因不明.铊中毒早期临床表现主要为恶心、呕吐、腹痛等胃肠道症状(5例)和四肢麻木、酸胀疼痛、记忆力减退等神经系统症状(13例),10例出现肝功能异常,8例出现毛发脱落,1例指甲出现Mees纹.治疗前患者血铊浓度为3764.0 ~ 19.7 μg/L,尿铊浓度为29 100.0~0.2μg/L,给予单纯支持(1例)、口服普鲁士蓝(4例)和口服普鲁士蓝联合血液灌流(9例)等治疗后,血铊浓度降至68.0~2.4 μg/L,尿铊浓度降至542.0~11.3 μg/L.13例出现神经系统症状者在住院期间症状明显缓解,但出院时仍有轻度四肢麻木、疼痛等症状.5例出现胃肠道症状者在1周内症状缓解或消失.10例出现肝功能异常者的肝酶水平在2~4周内恢复正常.8例毛发脱落者中5例在住院期间好转,3例未见明显变化.出现Mees纹者体征无变化. 结论 患者出现不明原因胃肠道症状且同时伴有神经系统症状时,应考虑重金属中毒的可能.普鲁士蓝联合血液灌流治疗铊中毒安全有效.%Objective To analyze and summarize the clinical manifestations and treatments of acute thallium poisoning.Methods The clinical data of patients with acute thallium poisoning,who were hospitalized in Affiliated Hospital of Academy of Military Medical Science from 2009 to 2011 were collected and analyzed retrospectively.Results Fourteen patients with acute thallium poisoning comprised 8 males and 6 females with an average age of 42 years (rang 9 to 68) were hospitalized from 2009 to 2011.Of them,1 case complained poisoning by others; 1 case

  11. Effects of Chinese rhubarb combined with Smecta in treatment of ;organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%两组用药清除有机磷农药中毒肠道毒物的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴艳丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨大黄、思密达与硫酸镁、漂白土在治疗急性有机磷农药中毒的疗效。方法将76例口服有机磷中毒的重度患者随机均分2组。两组均给予彻底洗胃、适量应用长托宁及阿托品解毒,氯磷定复能剂等综合常规治疗。A组(治疗组)应用大黄导泻、思密达吸附;B组(对照组)应用硫酸镁导泻、漂白土吸附。观察首次排便时间,胃肠功能不全发生率及严重程度评分;观察胃肠功能恢复时间、阿托品化时间、意识恢复时间、胆碱酯酶活力恢复50%以上时间、阿托品和长托宁用量、药物耐受、中毒反跳、中间综合征、迟发性神经病、住院时间和死亡情况。结果治疗组各指标均优于对照组,均差异有统计学意义(均P<0.01或P<0.05)。结论思密达、大黄是目前彻底清除AOPP患者胃肠道残留毒物较好的导泻、吸附联合用药,减少了药物用量和并发症、缩短了住院时间。%Objective investigate the effects of Chinese rhubarb combined with Smecta in treatment of organopjophorus pesticide poisoning. Methods Seventy-six patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning underwent conventional treatment including thorough gastric lavage, muscular injection of penehyckiine hydrochloride, intravenous injection of atropine through micropumping, and intravenous drip of pyraloxime methylchloride. The patients were randomly divided into 2 equal groups: Group A underdoing catharsis with 200 ml of Chinese Rhubarb powder and then suspension of Smecta through gastric tube 2h later as a cycle per 4 hours for 48 hours, and Group B undergoing irrigation of magnesium sulphate solution and suspension of Fuller's earth per 4 hours as a cycle for 48 hours. The effects were observed. Results The first defecation yime, recovery time of gastrointestinal tract, time of atropinization time, consciousness recovery time, recovery time of cholinesterase activity, and length

  12. Photographic fixative poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photographic developer poisoning; Hydroquinone poisoning; Quinone poisoning; Sulfite poisoning ... Quinones Sodium thiosulfate Sodium sulfite/bisulfite Boric acid Photographic fixative can also break down (decompose) to form ...

  13. An analysis on clinical characteristics of patients died of acute CO poisoning%急性CO中毒死亡患者临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏志强; 邓文彬; 韩超

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解东莞地区急性一氧化碳(CO)中毒死亡患者的临床特征,探讨急性CO中毒的防治策略.方法 对1998年1月-2010年12月期间急诊科接诊和收治的急性CO中毒死亡患者进行系统的回顾性分析研究.结果 13年间共接诊和收治急性CO中毒死亡患者47例,男女比例为1∶1.94;平均年龄(26.76±10.41)岁,高发年龄段是11~30岁,占57.45%;外省来莞打工人员是急性CO中毒死亡的高发人群,占72.34%;室内洗澡燃汽热水器意外是本地区急性CO中毒死亡的主要原因,占85.11%; 13年间急性CO中毒死亡人数略呈上升趋势,平均每年递增约8.02%;冬春季是本地区急性CO中毒死亡的高发季节,占91.49%;院前死亡患者数居首位,占74.47%,其次是急诊科抢救无效死亡,占14.89%,入院后死亡占10.64%.结论 东莞地区急性CO中毒死亡患者具有明显的中毒源、职业、季节、年龄和性别等特征,值得引起重视,对公众开展针对性的宣传教育并进行急救知识和技能的培训,尽快建立和完善急救医疗服务系统是遏制急性CO中毒死亡的重要手段.%Objective To explore the clinical characteristics of patients died of acute carbon monoxide ( CO ) poisoning in Dongguan area,and to provide preventive and treatment measures for acute CO poisoning.Methods The data on the patients died of acute CO poisoning during the period of January 1998 to December 2010 were retrospectively analyzed.Results 47 patients had been hospitalized and treated over the past 13 years.The ratio of male to female was 1 to 1.94,the average age of was ( 26.76 +10.41 ),and 57.54% of the patients were at the age of 21 to 40.The high-risk population wasinigrant workers,accounting for 72.34%.The major cause of death was gas water heater accident during a bath,accounting for 85.11%.Over the past 13 years,the number of death showed an increasing tendency with an annual increase of 8.02%.91.49% of the

  14. HAIR DYE POISONING: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar; Raghunadh Babu; Ramakrishna; Kathyayini; Surekha

    2015-01-01

    S uper Vasmol is one of the commonly used, cheap, freely available hair dye poisoning is emerging a major cause of suicidal poisoning in India, and the hair dyes mainly contain paraphenylene diamine (PPD) and resorcinol. Acute poisoning by PPD causes charact eristic sever angio - neurotic oedema of upper air way associated with a swollen, dry, hard and protruding tongue, systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute ...

  15. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child

    OpenAIRE

    KONCA, Capan; Kahramaner, Zelal; Bosnak, Mehmet; Kocamaz, Halil

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestio...

  16. 职业性急性汞中毒患者的临床护理研究%Clinical nursing study of occupational acute mercury poisoning patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬鸿雁

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the clinical nursing methods and effect of occupational acute mercury poisoning patients. Methods:66 occupational acute mercury poisoning patients were selected.They were divided into the control group and the observation group with 33 cases by using the method of drawing lots.The control group was given conventional nursing.The observation group was given comprehensive nursing.The clinical nursing effects of the two groups were compared.Results:After nursing intervention,the treatment total effective rate and nursing satisfaction of the observation group were significantly higher than those of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:The occupational acute mercury poisoning patients were given clinical comprehensive nursing intervention.It can effectively reduce the clinical symptoms of patients,control the disease development, and improve the curative effect and patient satisfaction.%目的:分析职业性急性汞中毒患者的临床护理方法及效果。方法:收治职业性急性汞中毒患者66例,通过抽签法分为对照组和观察组各33例。对照组给予常规护理,观察组给予综合护理。比较两组患者的临床护理疗效。结果:经过护理干预,观察组的治疗总有效率及护理满意度明显高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:给予职业性急性汞中毒患者临床综合护理干预,能够有效减轻患者的临床症状,控制病情发展,提高疗效以及患者满意度。

  17. Early Biomarkers in 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Striatal Pathological Mechanisms after Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Li; LI Zong Yang; ZHANG Yan Lin; CONG Cui Cui; ZHAO Jin Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Objective In vivo Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS) can be used to evaluate the levels of specific neurochemical biomarkers of pathological mechanisms in the brain. Methods We conducted T2-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and 1H-MRS with a 3.0-Tesla animal MRI system to investigate the early microstructural and metabolic profiles in vivo in the striatum of rats following carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Results Compared to baseline, we found significant cortical surface deformation, cerebral edema changes, which were indicated by the unclear gray/white matter border, and lateral ventricular volume changes in the brain. A significant reduction in the metabolite to total creatine (Cr) ratios of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) was observed as early as 1 h after the last CO administration, while the lactate (Lac) levels increased marginally. Both the Lac/Cr and NAA/Cr ratios leveled off at 6 h and showed no subsequent significant changes. In addition, compared to the control, the choline (Cho)/Cr ratio was slightly reduced in the early stages and significantly increased after 6 h. In addition, a pathological examination revealed mild cerebral edema on cessation of the insult and more severe cerebral injury after additional CO poisoning. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that 1H-MRS of the brain identified early metabolic changes after CO poisoning. Notably, the relationship between the increased Cho/Cr ratio in the striatum and delayed neuropsychologic sequelae requires further research.

  18. Investigation of Acute Poisoning Accident Caused by Hydrogen Sulfide%一起急性硫化氢中毒事故的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小涛; 熊田甜

    2013-01-01

      目的介绍一起因硫氢化钠与外环境酸性污水反应导致的硫化氢中毒死亡事件的调查处理情况。方法2006年11月29日, J 市 G 区发生一起以双眼及上呼吸道刺激为主要症状,伴有胸闷、憋气、头晕、恶心干呕等全身症状的中毒事故,造成1人死亡,一人昏迷,一人头晕。对患者进行临床诊断,对外环境相关有毒物质进行检测,模拟有毒气体的化学反应。结果三名患者临床表现符合硫化氢中毒后症状;事发后2h,现场空气硫化氢浓度为0.87mg/m3,现场含酸污水与原料硫化钠模拟试验可以检测到反应产物硫化氢气体。结论中毒主要原因是硫氢化钠被外环境酸性污水浸泡,分解后释放出硫化氢,加上作业工人防护不到位,导致吸入高浓度硫化氢中毒。%  Objective: To introduce an Accident Caused by Hydrogen Sulfide.   Methods: In some factory happened a poisoning accident,which resulted in death and casualty,the folowing measures such as Medical treatment, field investigation, laboratory detection were carried out immediately.   Results: Three victims were diagnosed as hydrogen sulfide poisoning; 2 hours after the accident, the concentration of hydrogen sulfide in spot was 0.87mg/m3, and hydrogen sulfide was detected positive in Simulation test.   Conclusion: The acute poisoning accident was caused by Hydrogen sulfide, which was released when sodium hydrosulfide mixed with hydrochloric acid. When the victims were lack of enough safeguard, high concentrations of Hydrogen sulfide were inhaled and resulted poisoning.

  19. Treating Experience of Acute Arsenic Poisoning:Report of 11 Cases%急性砷中毒11例救治体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈银宗; 余贻汉; 郭玉飞; 汪毅; 凌瑞杰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of acute arsenic poisoning and to improve the level of treatment. Methods Clinical data of 11 cases in our hospital with acute arsenic poisoning through digestive tract route were analyzed. Results Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea were commonly found as the first symptoms. Multiple system symptoms and impairment were also common. Arsenic concentrations in the urine were increased in all cases. Abnormality of blood routine, liver function and renal function, hypokalemia, and metabolic acidosis with complicated respiratory alkalosis were also common among these patients. All cases recovered after intensive treatment. Conclusion The success rate of therapy depends on cooperative, timely and effective treatment.%目的 分析急性砷中毒临床特点,提高其救治水平.方法 对本院收治的11例通过消化道途径急性砷中毒患者的临床资料进行分析.结果 急性砷中毒消化道症状是首发表现,可出现多系统症状,尿砷均增高,血常规、肝肾功能异常、低钾血症、代谢性酸中毒并呼吸性碱中毒常见,经过积极救治均治愈出院.结论 多学科协作、及时有效的治疗,能提高其治疗成功率.

  20. Food poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poisoning, including: Campylobacter enteritis Cholera E. coli enteritis Toxins in spoiled or tainted fish or shellfish Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella Shigella Infants and older people are at ...

  1. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Updates Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... hang in loose clusters. back to top Poison Plant Rashes Aren’t Contagious Poison ivy and other ...

  2. 百草枯中毒的治疗进展%Treatment Progress in Acute Paraquat Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桂喜

    2013-01-01

    Paraquat is a highly toxic herbicide,which has strong toxicity to humans and animalsThe herbicide effect of paraquat was found at the end of 1950s. Since its introduction in the market in 1962, there were many people died of paraquat poisoning every year. Paraquat has very strong toxicity on various organs of the body with different clinical manifestations, and ultimately the patients died of organ dysfunction syndrome ( multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, MODS ), and hypoxemia caused by pulmonary fibrosis. The domestic and foreign scholars have not discovered the effective drugs for paraquat poisoning, and here is to make a review of the research on the treatment progress of paraquat poisoning in recent years.%百草枯属剧毒除草剂,对人畜有较强的毒性.20世纪50年代末,百草枯的除草作用被发现,1962年首次在市场上销售,每年均有很多人死于百草枯中毒.百草枯对全身各个器官均有极强的毒性,病程进展快,病死率很高,临床表现各异,最终患者多因器官功能障碍综合征以及肺纤维化所致的低氧血症死亡.国内外学者至今仍未发现百草枯的特效解毒药物,该文就近年来百草枯中毒治疗的进展予以综述.

  3. 中毒患者急诊临床表现及死亡的相关因素分析%Clinical manifestations of acute intoxication in emergency department and analysis on related factors of poisoned death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边雪梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide basis for emergency treatment on patients with poisoning and reduce the mortality by un-derstanding the clinical manifestation of the poisoning patients in emergency department.Methods 204 emergency patients with poisoning in our hospital from June 2012 to June 2014 were studied.Results The emergency patients with poisoning were mainly young adults.The poisoning occurrence rate in rural areas was significantly higher than that in urban areas( P<0.05) . The highest incidence of poisoning occurred in the occupation engaged in agricultural labor(37.8%).The main reason for the accidents of poisoning was incidents(73.0%).Chemical poison was the main toxic substance causing poisoning (55.9%). Poisoning events almost exclusively happened at home(76.0%),and influenced by seasons.Age,pesticides and drugs were the main influencing factors that caused deaths of poisoning patients.Conclusion Analysis of clinical manifestations of poisoning patients in emergency department and studying related factors of poisoned death may contribute to coping with emergency inci-dence of poisoning and to improving the survival rate.%目的:了解中毒患者急诊临床表现,为中毒患者急诊治疗、降低死亡率提供依据。方法将我院2012年6月-2014年6月204例急诊中毒患者作为研究对象,对其临床资料进行分析。结果急诊中毒患者主要发生于青壮年,且农村人群中毒发生率显著高于城市人群(P<0.05),从事农业劳动为中毒发生率最高的职业(37.8%)。意外事故为发生急诊中毒事件的主要原因(73.0%),化学品中毒是引起中毒的主要毒性物质(55.9%),且中毒事件多发生于家中(76.0%),并具有一定的季节性。年龄、农药以及毒品是导致中毒患者急诊治疗死亡的主要影响因素。结论通过对中毒患者急诊临床表现及死亡的相关因素分析研究,有助于更有效的应对中毒患者

  4. 有机磷农药中毒患者一体化急救护理管理探讨%Explorations about organophosphorus pesticide poisoning patients with integrated emergency nursing management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静; 汪正权; 方雅; 陆雯

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨一体化急救模式下护理管理在有机磷农药中毒患者救治中所发挥的作用。方法将198例有机磷农药中毒患者按时间先后分为两组,2012年5月~2013年12月浙江省余姚市人民医院救治的96例有机磷农药中毒患者设为实验组,2010年9月~2012年4月浙江省余姚市人民医院救治的102例有机磷农药中毒患者设为对照组,实验组实施与一体化急救模式相适应的护理管理措施,包括调整急救中心的布局与设施、完善应急预案、规范抢救程序、注重抢救的时效性、优化人力资源、规范护理病历书写、定期组织学习法律知识等,对照组常规护理,未实施与一体化急救模式相适应的护理管理措施,通过回顾分析比较两组患者的救治效果和满意度。结果与对照组相比,实验院前反应时间明显缩短,差异有高度统计学意义[(3.42±1.14)min比(5.68±1.34)min,P<0.01)],中毒症状消失时间、胆碱酯酶恢复到60%时间、住院时间均缩短,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),住院费用减少,差异有统计学意义[(14889±3366)元比(20448±4181)元,P<0.05],救治成功率和救治满意度均提高,差异有统计学意义(96.9%比91.2%,97.9%比93.1%,P<0.05)。结论利用急救一体化模式的优势,不断完善急救护理管理,提供及时、有效、科学的现代急救护理,提高了有机磷农药中毒患者的救治水平,提升了医院的综合急救素质。%Objective To explore the integration of emergency nursing management mode in treating patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Methods 96 patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning from May 2012 to December 2013 were setted in the experiment group, 102 patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning from September 2010 to April 2012 were setted in the control group. The experiment group was adapted to the implementa-tion and integration of

  5. Cost-effectiveness analyses of self-harm strategies aimed at reducing the mortality of pesticide self-poisonings in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lizell Bustamante; Eddleston, Michael; Hansen, Kristian Schultz;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: An estimated 803,900 people worldwide died as a result of self-harm in 2012. The deliberate ingestion of pesticides has been identified as the method most frequently used to commit fatal self-harm globally. In Sri Lanka, it is estimated that up to 60% of all suicides are committed......-effectiveness ratios. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was granted for the safe storage project from the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, in March of 2008. An amendment for the present study was granted from Rajarata University of Sri Lanka in November of 2013. Findings will be disseminated to public...

  6. Use of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in an acute-on-chronic lithium poisoned patient:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chakroun-Walha Olfa; Ksibi Hichem; Rejeb Imen; Boujelben Mariem; Chaari Adel; Chtara Kamilia; Bouaziz Mounir; Rekik Noureddine

    2016-01-01

    A 35-year-old woman with an acute-on-chronic lithium overdose received multiple oral doses of sodium polystyrene sulfonate totaling 120 g over a 24-h period. During the 72 h after the institution of therapy, the serum lithium level decreased from 3.80 to 0.42 mEq/L. Multiple doses of sodium polystyrene sulfonate may be useful in lowering the serum lithium level in severely ill patients with acute renal failure, and can substitute hemodialysis.

  7. Present situation of treatment of occupational acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning%职业性急性硫化氢中毒救治现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁启荣

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is a main occupational hazard factor that threatens life and health of workers in China.The acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning has high incidence rate,develops rapidly,and its treatment is difficult,which the fatality rate is very high.The on-site treatment measures and comprehensive therapy is very important on rehabilitation of hydrogen sulfide poisoning.The comprehensive therapy,including the cardio-pulmonary resuscitation,application of special antidote (DMAP),early administration of large dose of glucocorticoid,ultrasonic atomizing inhalation,application of hyoscyamine drugs and naloxone,hyperbaric oxygen therapy,maintaining the important organs'function,redressing acid-base imbalances and electrolyte disorfer,is the effective treatment measure for improving the rescue success rate,reducing mortality and sequela.%硫化氢是我国威胁劳动者生命及健康的重要职业病危害因素,急性硫化氢中毒发病率高,病情发展迅猛,救治比较困难,病死率极高.现场救治措施及综合治疗对硫化氢中毒的康复至关重要.心肺复苏、特效解毒药物DMAP的使用,早期大剂量糖皮质激素的使用、超声雾化吸入、莨菪碱类药物、纳洛酮的使用、高压氧治疗、维持重要脏器功能、纠正酸碱失衡及电解质紊乱等综合治疗,是提高抢救成功率、降低死亡率、减少后遗症发生的有效治疗措施.

  8. Effect of acute lead poisoning on pathological damage in mice testis%急性铅中毒对小鼠睾丸病理损伤研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙相和; 孔令芸; 李冲; 陈玲丽; 宁红梅; 葛亚明

    2014-01-01

    为了研究急性铅中毒对小鼠睾丸病理变化的影响,通过对小鼠饲喂含有醋酸铅的去离子水建立铅负荷小鼠模型.处理10 d后取材,分析体质量、睾丸指数和睾丸病理剖检变化.结果显示:与对照组相比,铅中毒组小鼠体质量无明显变化,睾丸指数降低,且差异显著(P<0.05);小鼠睾丸中支持细胞、生精细胞和间质细胞数量减少.铅对小鼠睾丸具有显著损害作用,从而影响小鼠的生殖健康.%To investigate the effect of acute lead poisoning on pathological changes in mice testis,mice were orally administered with lead acetate for 10 days to establish a lead poisoning mice model.After 10 days,some indexes,such as body weight,testis index,necropsy and histopathology,were analyzed.The results showed that the body weight change of mice was not relevant significantly to the dosage of lead acetate.Compared with the control group,the difference of testis relative index in dosage group was significant (P<0.05).The amount of sertoli cells,germ cells and Leydig’s cells in mice tesis was decreased.The results suggested that lead could damage mice testis significantly and then affect the reproductive health of mice.

  9. Pre-hospital emergency and nursing measures of acute carbon monoxide poisoning%急性一氧化碳中毒的院前急救及护理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎秀英

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the pre-hospital emergency and nursing measures of acute carbon monoxide poisoning.Methods:57 patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning were given pre-hospital emergency and nursing measures,treatment and nursing measures at the poisoning scene,treatment and nursing measures in the transport process,treatment after admission. Results:In addition to 4 patients were died before the medical personnel arrived at the poisoning scene,other patients were significantly improved and discharged after the treatment,did not appear serious sequelae.Conclusion:Timely taking effective pre-hospital emergency and nursing measures can significantly reduce the disability and mortality of patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning.%目的:探讨急性一氧化碳(CO)中毒的院前急救及护理对策。方法:对57例急性CO中毒患者采取院外急救及护理措施,中毒现场救治及护理措施,转运过程中救治及护理措施,入院后的治疗。结果:除4例患者在医务人员到达中毒现场前已死亡外,其余患者经治疗,均明显好转出院,未出现严重后遗症。结论:及时采取有效的院前急救及护理对策可明显降低急性CO中毒患者的伤残及死亡率。

  10. CLINICAL PROFILE OF CHILDHOOD POISONING IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Accidents including poisoning are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children in the west. Poisoning, while never accounting for a large number of accidental deaths, have acquired prominence now because they have not decreased at the same rate as the infectious diseases. METHODS An observational study was done in Department of Paediatrics KIMS Bangalore to know the incidence and pattern of childhood poisoning, to know the morbidity and mortality resulting from childhood poisoning. 86 children aged between 0-18 years were admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit with history of poisoning during the 2-year period of the study (Nov 13-Nov 15 were included. Diagnosis of poisoning was made on the basis of history and examination findings, Relevant investigations were done and Profile of patients with poisoning, their symptoms, type of poisoning and outcome were analysed. RESULTS The average duration of stay in the hospital was 2.7 days. Poisoning was accidental in 80 (93% patients whereas suicidal intent was present in only 6 (7% patients. Total 5 (5.8% patients died of which 4 were due to insecticide and pesticide poisoning and one was due to kerosene poisoning. CONCLUSION In the present study the probable reason for higher incidence of poisoning by insecticides & pesticides could be the involvement of higher age group and more involvement of adolescent children.

  11. Neurotoxicity of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifer, Matthew C; Firestone, Jordan

    2007-01-01

    Several pesticides such as organophosphates, carbamates and the organochlorine pesticides directly target nervous tissue as their mechanism of toxicity. In several others, such as the fumigants, the nervous system is affected by toxicological mechanisms that diffusely affect most or all tissues in the body. Both the central and peripheral nervous system are involved in the acute toxidromes of many pesticides resulting in acute short-term effects. There is strong human epidemiological evidence for persistent nervous system damage following acute intoxication with several important pesticide groups such as organophosphates and certain fumigants. However, whether persistent nervous system damage follows chronic low-level exposure to pesticides in adults (particularly organophosphpates), and whether in utero and/or early childhood exposure leads to persistent nervous system damage, is a subject of study at present. Parkinson's Disease, one of the most common chronic central nervous system diseases, has been linked to pesticide exposure in some studies, but other studies have failed to find an association. Several new pesticidal chemicals such as the neo-nicotinoids and fipronil have central nervous system effects, but only case reports are available to date on acute human intoxications with several of these. Little data are yet available on whether long-term effects result from these chemicals. Several ongoing or recently completed studies should add valuable insight into the effects of pesticides on the human nervous system particularly the effect of low-dose, chronic exposure both in adults and children.

  12. Analysis of the characteristics of toxins in 6005 cases of acute poisoning in Guangxi%广西6005例急性中毒病例的毒物特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋东方; 张振明; 胡德宏; 刘清华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the toxin characteristics of toxins in patients of acute poisoning in the Guangxi area.Methods A retrospective study was conducted.The data of acute poisoning cases and the causative toxins collected from 63 hospitals of Guangxi,including 36 city hospitals,12 county hospitals,and 15 township health centers from January 2005 to December 2009 were collected.The data were descriptively analyzed and classified by year.Results A total of 6005 cases with acute poisoning induced by 532 kinds of poisons were enrolled.The 532 kinds of toxin were classified by high-occurrence (producing poisoning for 5 continuous years),low-occurrence (leading to poisoning for 2-4 continuous years) and newly occurred categories (leading to poisoning only in 1 year).The numbers of poisons of these 3 categories accounted for 10.15% (54 kinds),29.70% (158 kinds),60.15% (320 kinds) of total number of poisons,respectively.There were 4688 (78.07%),780 (12.99%),and 537 (8.94%) cases for each category respectively.And the poisoning cases of each toxin involved from 8 to 837,2 to 25,and 1 to 69 cases respectively.77.78% (42/54) of high-occurrence poisons affect more than 20 cases,and 89.87% (142/158),98.75%(316/320) of low-occurrence and new-occurrence poisons involved less than 10 cases.In the dynamic analyses for 5 years,frequency of toxin caused by high-occurrence,low-occurrence and newly occurred poisons in 5 years were 5 times,2.6 times,and 1 time,respectively.The number of poisons caused by the high-occurrence toxin each year were same,but the average-annual growth rates of poison numbers caused by the low-occurrence and new-occurrence poisons each year were 17.61% and 20.10%.The average-annual growth rates of poisoning cases caused by the 3 categories of poisons were 14.08%,16.53%,31.96%,and the average-annual growth rates of poisoning cases caused by each categories were 10.28%,1.13%,11.45%,respectively.Conclusions In the high

  13. Preventive counterplan for chemical poisonings and the role of toxicology; Kagaku busshitsu chudoku jiko taisaku to dokubutsugaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, T. [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    1996-02-10

    Some cases of poisoning by chemical substances are taken up, and counterplans are discussed. This report centers about the neurotoxic gas sarin incidents dealing with them as examples of acute poisoning caused by chemical substances. The important difference in terms of chemical structure between a neurotoxic gas and organo-phosphoric pesticide is that in the former phosphorus is directly bonded with carbon or halogen while, in the latter, bondage is represented by P-O-C, P-S-C, and the like, so bonded as to form the phosphoric acid, thiophosphoric acid, or dithiophosphoric acid. The result of the difference in chemical structure is that the neurotoxic gas easily gains access to the target enzyme and remains stable after bonding therewith while the organo-phosphoric pesticide is easily hydrolyzed by enzymes other than the target enzyme. Poisoning by neurotoxic gas or organo-phosphoric pesticide is clinically treated by the administration of atropine and 2-pyridine aldoxime methiodide which is an antidote. It is mandatory to let people clearly know beforehand the methods of analysis of chemical substances and their toxicity and to establish beforehand how to first-aid the victims and what emergency treatment can be executed. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Use of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in an acute-on-chronic lithium poisoned patient: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakroun-Walha Olfa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old woman with an acute-on-chronic lithium overdose received multiple oral doses of sodium polystyrene sulfonate totaling 120 g over a 24-h period. During the 72 h after the institution of therapy, the serum lithium level decreased from 3.80 to 0.42 mEq/L. Multiple doses of sodium polystyrene sulfonate may be useful in lowering the serum lithium level in severely ill patients with acute renal failure, and can substitute hemodialysis.

  15. Paraffin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax poisoning - paraffin ... Paraffin ... Eating a lot of paraffin can lead to intestinal obstruction, which can cause abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and possible constipation. If the paraffin contains a ...

  16. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, D.G.

    1974-01-01

    The use of arsenic in ant poisons, herbicides, and insecticides affords the necessary contact with the poison by pets. The gastrointestinal tract appears to suffer the greatest though there may also be injury to the liver and kidneys. The treatments discussed were in relation to very early poisoning in which the owner had observed ingestion of the arsenic, and when the signs of the poisoning were evident. Early observation treatment included emptying the stomach before the arsenic passed in quantity into the intestine. If the signs of toxicity were already advanced, then the treatment consisted of the intramuscular administration of dimercaprol (BAL) at a dosage of 3 mg/lb of body weight three times a day until recovery. l reference.

  17. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, D.G.

    1971-01-01

    The use of arsenic in ant poisons, herbicides, and insecticides affords the necessary contact with the poison by pets. Treatment was discussed in relation to two circumstances: very early poisoning in which the owner has observed ingestion of the arsenic, and when the signs of the poisoning are evident. Treatment for early ingestion involves emptying the stomach before the arsenic can pass in quantity into the intestine. This is followed with a 1% solution of sodium bicarbonate, with the administering of 3 to 6 mg of apomorphine. When signs of arsenic toxicity are already advanced, there is little advantage to be gained by either gastric lavage or administration of an emetic. The treatment then consists of the intramuscular administration of dimercaprol (BAL) at a dosage of 3 mg/lb of body weight three times a day until recovery. This is the specific antidote for arsenic. 1 reference.

  18. Zinc poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hill; 2006. Hall AH, Shannon MW. Other heavy metals. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ,eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA. Elsevier ...

  19. Malathion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used in agriculture to kill and control insects on crops and in gardens. The government also ... Mercaptothion poisoning References Cannon RD, Ruha A-M. Insecticides, herbicides, and rodenticides. In: Adams JG. Emergency Medicine . ...

  20. Chlorine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... VESSELS Collapse Low blood pressure that develops rapidly SKIN Burns Holes (necrosis) in the skin or tissues underneath ... the effect of the poison Surgical removal of burned skin (skin debridement) Tube through the mouth into the ...

  1. Solder poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... occurs when someone swallows solder in large amounts. Skin burns can occur if solder touches the skin. This ... the effect of the poison Surgery to remove burned skin Tube through the mouth into the stomach to ...

  2. An experience of the clinical features and treatment on patients with severe acute Bisultap poisoning%重症急性杀虫双农药中毒的临床特点及救治体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李信胜; 刘宝; 周树生; 潘爱军; 张琳琳

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical features and the therapy on patients with severe acute Bisultap insecticides poisoning. Method:Clinical features, laboratory tests, and comprehensive treatment in 23 cases with severe acute Bisultap insecticides poisoning, were retrospectively analyzied. Blood urea nitrogen, serum creati-nine, cholinesterase, arterial blood gas, liver functions, serum creatine kinase and other parameters pre-and post-treatment were collected for comparison. Result: 21 (21/23) cases of severe acute Bisultap insecticides poisoning were rescued successfully, and 2 patients were died. The cure rate was 91. 3%. Conclusion:Severe acute Bisultap insecticides poisoning is severe, rapid progress, with much higher mortality. A comprehensive individualized treatment protocol should be peformed.%目的:探讨重症急性杀虫双农药中毒患者的临床特点及救治.方法:回顾性分析23例重症急性杀虫双农药中毒的临床特点、实验室检查以及综合救治措施.中毒剂量与临床表现的关系以及治疗前后的血常规,血浆尿素氮,肌酐,胆碱酯酶,动脉血气分析,肝功能和心肌酶学等数据被检测收集.结果:23例重症急性杀虫双农药中毒患者抢救成功21例,死亡2例,治愈率为91.3%.结论:重症急性杀虫双农药中毒病情较重,进展较快,具有较高的死亡率,应进行综合个体化治疗.

  3. 低场强MRI对急性CO中毒脑损伤的诊断价值%Diagnostic value of low-field MRI for acute poisoning brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党连荣; 何勤义

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of low-field MIR in diagnosis of acute CO poisoning brain injury.Methods The brain MIR and clinical data of 110 patients with acute CO poisoning brain injury confirmed by clinical examination were retrospectively analyzed.Results Long T1 and T2 signal intensity was showed on MRI in cerebral hemispheres and globus pallidus symmetrically.There were three basic types of MIR manifestations,white matter of brain type,globus pallidus type and brain mixed type.Conclusions MRI could be used for confirming the degree and range of acute CO poisoning brain injury.It has important clinical value in the diagnosis,staging and prognosis of patients with acute CO poisoning brain injury.%目的 探讨低场强MRI在急性CO中毒脑损伤诊断中的价值.方法 回顾性分析29例经临床确诊的急性CO中毒脑损伤患者的颅脑MRI和临床资料.结果 CO中毒脑损伤的MRI表现主要为双侧大脑半球白质及苍白球出现长T1、长T2信号灶,两侧对称.MRI表现可分3型,即脑白质型、苍白球型及脑混合型.结论 MRI检查可确定急性CO中毒脑损伤的程度及范围,对急性CO中毒脑损伤的治疗和判断预后有重要的临床指导价值.

  4. Acute toxicity test of pesticide abamectin on common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aliakbar Hedayati; Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah; Ahmad Mohamadi Yalsuyi; Safoura Abarghoei; Michael Hajiahmadyan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine acute toxicity of abamectin (abamectin used for agricultural fields and also is a common acaridae used in farms) to common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Methods: In this research, common carps were exposed to abamectin for 96 h. LC50 values of 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h were attained by probit analysis software SPSS Version 16. Fish were exposed to different concentrations (1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 15 mg/L) of abamectin for 96 h and physicochemical properties of water used for these experiments were stable and every mortality was recorded daily. Results:The 96 h LC50 of abamectin for Cyprinus carpio was 1.243 mg/L. Conclusions: Eventually toxicity values indicated that abamectin has same toxicity in studied other specie and we can state lower value of LC50 for studied specie in compare with most species.

  5. 成功抢救体内带毒致急性重度海洛因中毒5例%Successful rescue of 5 cases of acute severe heroin poisoning caused by drugs in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高尚琪

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析研究因体内藏毒导致急性重度海洛因中毒,采用急救处理措施的临床救治效果。方法:近年来收治急性重度海洛因中毒患者5例,对其相关临床资料进行回顾性分析。结果:所有患者均通过手术取出毒品,并给予纳洛酮进行拮抗治疗。结论:对急性重度海洛因中毒采取相对应的急救措施,可以取得显著临床治疗效果。%Objective:To explore the clinical therapeutic effect of emergency treatment measures for patients of acute severe heroin poisoning caused by drugs in vivo.Methods:In recent years,5 patients with acute severe heroin poisoning were selected,the relevant clinical data were retrospectively analyzed.Results:The drugs in patients were all removed by operation,and patients were given naloxone antagonism treatment.Conclusion:Corresponding emergency measures adopted for acute severe heroin poisoning can achieve significant clinical effect,it is worth spreading in clinical practice.

  6. 急性有机磷中毒患者66例的急救护理%Emergency nursing care of 66 cases of patients with acute organophosphorus poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌敏

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the nursing measures and effect of acute organic phosphorus poisoning.Methods:66 patients with acute organophosphorus poisoning were selected.The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed.Results:The average time of the patients with atropinization was (3.31±1.43) hours.62 cases had successful treatment;4 cases died;the success rate was 96.8%. Conclusion:Timely and effective treatment and nursing for patients with acute organophosphorus poisoning can improve the cure rate and promote the rehabilitation of patients.%目的:探讨急性有机磷中毒的护理措施及效果。方法:收治急性有机磷中毒患者66例,回顾性分析其临床资料。结果:患者达阿托品化时间平均(3.31±1.43)h。成功救治62例,死亡4例,抢救成功率96.8%。结论:对急性有机磷中毒实施患者实施及时、有效的治疗和护理可以提高治愈率,促进患者康复。

  7. The Acute Oral Toxicity of 300 Formulated Pesticides to Apis mellifera%300个农药制剂对蜜蜂的急性经口毒性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵帅; 袁善奎; 才冰; 姜辉; 王晓军; 林荣华; 瞿唯钢; 张招荣

    2011-01-01

    [Aims] Honey bee is one of the most important insects for plant pollination, but the honey bees are underlying the phenomenon of colony collapse disorder (CCD), one of the factors causing this problem is the much use of pesticides in agricultural production. Totally 300 pesticides were tested for their acute omi toxicity to honey bee (Apis mellifera) by dietary method in the paper, the objective of this study is to understand the status of toxicity of common used pesticides.[Restults] The results indicated that the pesticides with very high toxicity, high toxicity, moderate toxicity and low toxicity pesticides accounted for 14.7, 35.6, 10.7, 39% respectively, the high toxic and very high toxic pesticide covered more than 50%, and these pesticides were mainly the insecticides, while the fungicides and herbicides with relative low toxicity.The toxicity of different pesticide formulations with the same active ingredients (AI) to zebra fish maybe varied for the difference in AI content, formulation type and processing technique. Regarding to the biological pesticides, some of them still have high toxicity to honeybee. [Conclusions] These results suggested that the pesticides with high toxicity to honey bee covered a large proportion of common used pesticides in China, therefore, some precautions should be involved as we used the pesticides, particularly for insecticides to reduce or avoid the side effects on honey bee.%[目的]蜜蜂是一种重要的传粉昆虫,近年来世界各地出现了严重的种群衰退现象,原因之一是农业生产过程中使用了大量农药.采用摄入法测定f300个农药制剂对蜜蜂的急性经口毒性,旨在了解我国常用农药对蜜蜂的毒风险情况.[结果]结果表明:对蜜蜂的急性经口毒性表现剧毒、高毒、中毒、低毒的农药制剂分别占14.7%、35.6%、10.7%、39%,高毒和剧毒农药产品达50%以上,但这些制剂主要为杀虫剂,占整个杀虫剂的74.1%,杀菌剂和除草剂

  8. 有机磷农药中毒致神经损伤机制的研究进展%Research progress of the mechanism of never demage induced by organophosphorus pesticides poisonning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 姚林; 王广增

    2005-01-01

    有机磷农药(organophosphorus pesticides,OPs)是我国生产和使用最多的农药,也是引起急性中毒和致死的主要农药。急性有机磷中毒(acute organophosphorus pesticides poisoning,AOPP)是临床常见急症,是我国农村常见的中毒性疾病。OPs对神经损伤是有机磷农药中毒患者致残和致死的主要原因。对中毒患者神经系统损伤的抢救和治疗也是决定有机磷中毒患者抢救成功及预后的关键。

  9. 急性三氯丙烷中毒18例临床分析%The clinical ananlysis of 18 cases with acute trichloropropane poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鑫; 邱泽武; 沈伟; 彭晓波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To sunmmarise the clinical features of 18 cases with acute trichloropropane(TCP)poisoning for improving the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.Methods Exposure history,clinical manifestations,laboratorial examinations,poisoning causes and treament were retropectively reviewed in 18 cases with acute TCP poisoning.The results of peripheral lymphocyte micronucleus tests were compared with the healthy control group (n =33).Results The common clinical symptoms were as following:respiratory symptoms were the earlier oneset,such as chest tightness in 13,dry and sore throat in 7,cough and runny nose in 2.Gastrointestinal symptoms were more common,such as abdominal pain in 18,nausea and vomit in 14.Only 1 out of 18 patients was found with liver injury.The major manifestation was the increase in ALT and AST,which was returned to nomal after treatment.ALL of the 18 patients were found TCP in their serum which concentration was from 39.0 to 310.0 ng/ml,and the average was (68.9±42.1) ng/ml.The symptoms of toxic peripheral neuropathy were typical in all the patients,such as fatigue and numb limb in 18,burning pain of the distal lower limbs in 14,the symmetrical sock-like sensory dysfunction of pain,touch and vibration of the lower limbs in 13,muscle strength reduced in 7,hyporeflexia knee-jerks in 4,hyporeflexia ankle-jerks in 3.The peripheral nerve conduction velocity (NCV) examinations were as followed:the (sensore-nerve conduction velocity) SCV of peroneus super nerve in 18 and the (motor-nerve conduction velocity) MCV of tibial nerve in 8 was slowed down and the distal latency in 18 was prolonged.Micronucleus were found in all 18 cases,The micronucleus rate was 10.06‰±2.80‰ and 8.24‰±2.67‰ in acute TCP poisoning group and healthy control group,respectively.The difference was significant (P<0.05).Conclusion The common clinical manifestations of respiratory exposure of TCP poisoning patients were respiratory symptoms,gastrointestinal symptoms and

  10. Change of serum C-reactive protein in patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning and its clinical significance%有机磷农药中毒患者血清中C-反应蛋白的变化及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔秀琴

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨有机磷农药中毒患者血清中C-反应蛋白(CRP)变化的临床意义.方法 有机磷农药中毒患者20例,所有病例均于入院后次日早上空腹静脉采血3ml,用日立7600型全自动生化分析仪胶乳凝集法测定CRP.并与22例门诊健康检查者对照.结果 有机磷农药中毒患者血清中CRP水平较健康对照组明显增高(t=2.946,P<0.01);中毒越重,血清中CRP水平越高(t=2.725,P<0.01).结论 有机磷农药中毒患者血清中CRP的测定,对有机磷农药中毒患者的病情判定和疗效观察有重要临床意义.%[Objective]To study the clinical significance of change of serum C-reactive protein ( CRP) in patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. [ Methods ] 3 ml fasting venous blood samples were collected from 20 patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning in the next morning after admission, and CRP level was determined with latex agglutination by Hitachi 7600 automatic biochemical analyzer. The results were compared with the data of 22 healthy controls. [Results] The serum CRP level of patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning was significantly higher than that of the control group (t=2.946, P <0.01) , and the serum CRP level increased with the increasing poisoning degree (t = 2. 725 , P < 0. 01). [ Conclusion ] The determination of serum CRP level in patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning has important clinical significance on diagnosis and curative effect observation.

  11. 21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN ANIMAL FOOD AND FOOD... poisonous or deleterious substance, other than a pesticide chemical, that is also a food additive will be... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances....

  12. 21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AND FOOD... poisonous or deleterious substance, other than a pesticide chemical, that is also a food additive, will be... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances....

  13. [New causes of animal poisoning in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schediwy, M; Mevissen, M; Demuth, D; Kupper, J; Naegeli, H

    2015-03-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the frequency, etiology, therapy and prognosis of animal poisoning registered from 2003 to 2012. The relevant cases reported to the Swiss Toxicological Information Center (STIC) were compared with those from previously examined periods. Human medicines not approved for animals and pesticides represented the most common causes of poisoning in dogs. Novel cases occurred as a consequence of the exposure of dogs to ricinus fertilizers, grape residues from wineries, pepper lachrymatory spray and dry bouillon. Cats are still freequently poisoned by pyrethroid drugs that should be administered only to dogs. Agrochmical products are the main source of toxicities in farm animals. Most poisonings in horses and exotic animals took place due to toxic plants. In addition, two tigers died of a secondary poisoning after ingestion of meat from euthanized calves. PMID:26753326

  14. Hyperbaric programs in the United States: Locations and capabilities of treating decompression sickness, arterial gas embolisms, and acute carbon monoxide poisoning: survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Walter; Jacoby, Laura; Simon, Olivia; Talati, Nisha; Wegrzyn, Gracelene; Jacoby, Rachelle; Proano, Jacob; Sprau, Susan E; Markovitz, Gerald; Hsu, Rita; Joo, Ellie

    2016-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the primary treatment for arterial gas embolism, decompression sickness and acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Though there has been a proliferation of hyperbaric centers throughout the United States, a scarcity of centers equipped to treat emergency indications makes transport of patients necessary. To locate and characterize hyperbaric chambers capable of treating emergency cases, a survey of centers throughout the entire United States was conducted. Using Google, Yahoo, HyperbaricLink and the UHMS directory, a database for United States chambers was created. Four researchers called clinicians from the database to administer the survey. All centers were contacted for response until four calls went unreturned or a center declined to be included. The survey assessed chamber readiness to respond to high-acuity patients, including staff availability, use of medical equipment such as ventilators and intravenous infusion devices, and responding yes to treating hyperbaric emergencies within a 12-month period. Only 43 (11.9%, N = 361) centers had equipment, intravenous infusion pumps and ventilators, and staff necessary to treat high-acuity patients. Considering that a primary purpose of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the treatment of arterial gas embolism and decompression sickness, more hyperbaric centers nationwide should be able to accommodate these emergency cases quickly and safely.

  15. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

  16. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... US EPA US Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Pesticides Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us You are here: EPA Home » Pesticides » Antimicrobial Pesticides Antimicrobial Pesticides News and Highlights Disinfection Hierarchy Workshop - October 7 ...

  17. Pesticide use, erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase level and self-reported acute intoxication symptoms among vegetable farmers in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Dinesh; Jors, E.; Brandt, L.

    2014-01-01

    : The majority of pesticides used were WHO class II, classified as moderately hazardous. The mean numbers of personal protective equipment used by farmers were 2.22 (95% CI: 1.89; 2.54). Out of five hygienic practices asked, farmers followed 3.63 (95% CI: 3.40; 3.86) hygienic practices on the average. Farmers...... of healthy individuals. A lower mean haemoglobin-adjusted AChE level was seen among farmers compared to the controls. The use of highly toxic pesticides, inadequate use of personal protective equipment and poor hygienic practices might explain the reason for symptoms of pesticide intoxication and a lower ACh...

  18. Arsenic poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLennan, M.W.; Dodson, M.E.

    1972-06-01

    A case of acute arsenic poisoning in cattle was reported. The losses occurred on a property in the south east of South Australia. The weather had been hot for two or three days before the death occurred. The tank supplying the water trough had almost run dry. The cattle then attempted to meet their water requirements by drinking from the sheep dipping vat. A sample of rumen contents and a sample of water from the dipping vat were checked for arsenic. The rumen sample contained 45 ppM As/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and the sample of dipping fluid contained 200 ppM As. The lesions observed were similar to earlier reported arsenic poisoning. 5 references.

  19. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  20. A Case Report on Severe Acute Occupational Nitrogen Oxide Poisoning%一起职业性急性重度氮氧化物中毒事故分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜彩霞; 杨章萍; 张旭慧; 虞龙

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] To analyze the reason and process of an acute poisoning accident of nitrogen oxide and to propose measures for its control and prevention. [ Methods ] Diagnosis was based on clinical manifestations, occupational health survey findings in the workplace, and diagnosis criteria of occupational diseases. [ Results ] Exposure to nitrogen oxide led to the acute severe poisoning accident. [ Conclusion ] Comprehensive strategies for occupational disease control and prevention need to be adopted to prevent the re-occurrence of this kind of poisoning accident.%[目的]分析1例急性氮氧化物中毒事故的起因、经过,并提出防治措施. [方法]依据患者临床表现、作业场所职业卫生调查结果及职业病诊断标准进行诊断. [结果]患者系因接触氮氧化物而导致急性重度中毒.[结论]需采取综合性的职业病防治措施,防止此类中毒事故再次发生.

  1. Carbofuran poisoning detected by mass spectrometry of butyrylcholinesterase adduct in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Ricordel, Ivan; Tong, Larry; Schopfer, Lawrence M; Baud, Frédéric; Mégarbane, Bruno; Maury, Eric; Masson, Patrick; Lockridge, Oksana

    2009-03-01

    Carbofuran is a pesticide whose acute toxicity is due to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in plasma is inhibited by carbofuran and serves as a biomarker of poisoning by carbofuran. The goal was to develop a method to positively identify poisoning by carbofuran. Sera from an attempted murder and an attempted suicide were analyzed for the presence of carbofuran adducts on BChE. The BChE from 1 ml of serum was rapidly purified on a 0.2 ml procainamide-Sepharose column. Speed was essential because the carbofuran-BChE adduct decarbamylates with a half-life of about 2 h. The partially purified BChE was boiled to denature the protein, thus stopping decarbamylation and making the protein vulnerable to digestion with trypsin. The labeled peptide was partially purified by HPLC before analysis by LC/MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode on the QTRAP 2000 mass spectrometer. Carbofuran was found to be covalently bound to Ser 198 of human BChE in serum samples from two poisoning cases. Multiple reaction monitoring triggered MS/MS spectra positively identified the carbofuran-BChE adduct. In conclusion a mass spectrometry method to identify carbofuran poisoning in humans has been developed. The method uses 1 ml of serum and detects low-level exposure associated with as little as 20% inhibition of plasma butyrylcholinesterase.

  2. Acute Poisonings from Synthetic Cannabinoids - 50 U.S. Toxicology Investigators Consortium Registry Sites, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riederer, Anne M; Campleman, Sharan L; Carlson, Robert G; Boyer, Edward W; Manini, Alex F; Wax, Paul M; Brent, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that acute intoxications by synthetic cannabinoids are increasing in the United States (1,2). Synthetic cannabinoids, which were research compounds in the 1980s, are now produced overseas; the first shipment recognized to contain synthetic cannabinoids was seized at a U.S. border in 2008 (3). Fifteen synthetic cannabinoids are Schedule I controlled substances (3), but enforcement is hampered by the continual introduction of new chemical compounds (1,3). Studies of synthetic cannabinoids indicate higher cannabinoid receptor binding affinities, effects two to 100 times more potent than Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (the principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis), noncannabinoid receptor binding, and genotoxicity (4,5). Acute synthetic cannabinoid exposure reportedly causes a range of mild to severe neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular, renal, and other effects (4,6,7); chronic use might lead to psychosis (6,8). During 2010-2015, physicians in the Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC) treated 456 patients for synthetic cannabinoid intoxications; 277 of the 456 patients reported synthetic cannabinoids as the sole toxicologic agent. Among these 277 patients, the most common clinical signs of intoxication were neurologic (agitation, central nervous system depression/coma, and delirium/toxic psychosis). Relative to all cases logged by 50 different sites in the ToxIC Case Registry, there was a statistically significant association between reporting year and the annual proportion of synthetic cannabinoid cases. In 2015, reported cases of synthetic cannabinoid intoxication increased at several ToxIC sites, corroborating reported upward trends in the numbers of such cases (1,2) and underscoring the need for prevention. PMID:27413997

  3. 湘潭市1990-2009年急性职业中毒情况分析%Analysis on Acute Occupational Poisoning in Xiangtan During the Period of 19902009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高华北; 张花玲; 马金辉; 刘晓; 袁新铭; 黄曦

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨湘潭市1990-2009年期间49起急性职业中毒事故发生的原因,为防止事故再次发生提供科学依据.方法 采用回顾性流行病学调查方法,对事故进行时间分布、行业分布、毒物类别、发生原因等要素进行相关分析.结果 湘潭市急性职业中毒的年发病率为44.66/10万,急性职业中毒人年死亡率为6.59/10万;后10年中毒事故率明显减少(x2=24.25,P<0.01),但中毒危害程度严重,其发病率和中毒死亡率分别超过前10年的4.79倍和3.54倍P<0.01);化工行业急性职业中毒的年发病率高达310.47/10万,高于其他行业299.29倍(x2=1 230.35,P<0.01);毒物类别以砷化氢、一氧化碳、氯气、硫化氢中毒为主;事故主要原因为无安全防范意识和个人防护用品.结论 加强对重点行业、重点毒物的卫生监督管理和职工的防毒知识教育,可有效降低急性职业中毒发病率.%Objective To discuss the occurrence causes of 49 oases of acute occupational poisoning (AOP) happened in Xiangtan from 1990 to 2009, and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention of acute occupational poisoning.Methods With the retrospective epidemiological investigation method, the correlation among the incident- related factors, including time distribution, industry distribution, type of the poison, and causes, was analyzed.Results The annual incidence rate of AOP in Xiangtan was 44.66/100,000, and the person- year mortality rate of A0P was 6.59/100,000.The incidence rates of AOP during the last ten years were significantly declined (x2 =24.25, P<0.05), and the degree of poisoning was severe.As compared with the first 10 years, the incidence rates and poisoning mortality rates during the last ten years were increased by 4.79 times and 3.54 times (P<0.01).The annual incidence rate of AOP in the chemical industry was up to 310.47/100,000, which was higher than those of other industries by 299.29 times (x2 = 1, 230.35, P < 0.01).The

  4. A single center, prospective study on the epidemiology of acute childhood poisoning%儿童急性中毒流行病学单中心前瞻性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹雪笛; 高恒妙; 廖琨; 王新伟; 王龙; 赵光远; 霍枫; 钱素云

    2015-01-01

    目的 分析儿童急性中毒的流行病学特征,探讨预防儿童急性中毒的方法.方法 应用儿童中毒病例信息收集表前瞻性收集2013年1月1日至12月31日就诊于北京儿童医院中毒患儿的流行病学资料,分析儿童急性中毒的年龄、原因、途径、种类和后果.结果 共收集中毒病例353例.<1岁28例(8.0%),~4岁255例(72.2%),~9岁35例(9.9%),≥9岁35例(9.9%).中毒发生在家庭305例(86.4%),家庭以外48例(13.6%).经消化道中毒348例(98.5%),吸入5例(1.5%).患儿自己误服281例(79.4%),家长喂错药或超量喂药48例(13.6%),医源性7例(2.1%),试图自杀12例(3.4%).药物中毒206例(58.4%),化学制剂55例(15.6%),鼠药26例(7.3%),农药45例(12.7%),有毒植物16例(4.5%).353例中,急诊留观治疗297例(84.1%),因病情危重住PICU 56例(15.9%),死亡4例(1.1%).结论 中毒好发年龄为1~4岁,主要原因为误服,毒物种类第一位是药物,导致死亡或严重中毒的种类包括精神类药物、农药、鼠药.预防工作重点为防止幼儿家中误服,主要措施有加强儿童监管、妥善保管家中药物及有毒物品、鼓励使用药品安全包装.%Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of acute childhood poisoning and to explore the methods of prevention.Methods The epidemiological information of each poisoning child presented to Emergency Department, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University from Jan 1 st to Dec 31st 2013 were collected with an information collection table.The children's age, causes of poisoning, poison types, ways of poisoning and the consequences of poisoning were analyzed.Results A total of 353 poisoning children presented to our emergency department in 2013.Twenty-eight patients (8.0%) were < 1 year-old.Two hundred and fifty-five patients(72.2%) were between 1 to < 4 year-old.Thirty-five patients (9.9%) were between 4 to <9 year

  5. Pesticide Safety for Farmworkers = Uso Seguro de Pesticidas para los Trabajadores del Campo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Bonnie; Fluker, Sam S.

    A booklet for farmworkers and employers uses illustrations and simple text in English and Spanish to inform about the dangers, precautions, and use of pesticides. Topics covered include methods of pesticide absorption; signs/symptoms of pesticide poisoning; first aid; residues; appropriate work clothes; safe and unsafe pesticide practices; how to…

  6. Acetone poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript. Acetone is a chemical used in many household products. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing acetone-based ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Household Products Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  7. 29种农药对家蚕的急性毒性评价%An Evaluation on Acute Toxicity of 29 Pesticides to Bombyx mori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张骞; 姜辉; 肖斌; 崔新倩; 王开运

    2011-01-01

    采用食下毒叶法,测定29种农药对家蚕的急性毒性,结果表明:阿维菌素、多杀菌素、氯氰菊酯·毒死蜱和吡虫啉对家蚕96h的LC50分别为0.0020、0.0891、0.2145和0.2729 mg/L,属剧毒级农药;阿维菌素·苏云金杆菌、丁硫克百威、敌百虫、除虫菊素·苦皮藤素、丙溴磷、苏云金杆茵·毒死蜱和烟碱对家蚕96h的LC50分别为0.6921、0.7696、0.8502、0.7449、2.5134、1.7327和7.2604 m/L,属高毒级农药;其余药剂均属中、低毒级农药.以上剧毒级或高毒级的农药应当禁止在蚕区使用.吡蚜酮对家蚕的毒性低,但在蚕区是否能使用低毒级农药,还须考虑药剂的残毒期、慢性毒性和传染性等因素.%The acute toxicity of 29 pesticides to silkworm, Bombyx mori, was evaluated in laboratory by using the leaf dipping method. The results indicated that LC50 of abamectin, spinosad, cypermethrin· chlorpyrifos, and imidacloprid was 0.002 0, 0.089 1,0. 214 5, and 0. 272 9 mg/L respectively, being pesticides of virulent toxicity grade. The LC50 of abamectin· Bacillus thuringiensis, carbosulfan, trichlorfon, pyrethrins ·celastrusangulatus, profenofos, Bacillus thuringiensis·chlorpyrifos, and nicotine was 0. 692 1,0. 769 6, 0. 850 2, 0. 744 9, 2. 513 4, 1. 732 7, 7. 260 4 mg/L respectively, being pesticides of high toxicity grade. All the other pesticides were of moderate or Iow toxicity grade. Pesticides of virulent and high toxicity grade should be forbidden to use in silkworm rearing areas. Pymetrozine is of Iow toxicity grade. Yet the residual toxicity period, chronic toxicity and infectivity should be considered if pesticides of Iow toxicity grade are to be used in silkworm rearing areas.

  8. Acute Toxicity Evaluation of Ninety-one Pesticides to Silkworm%91种农药制剂对家蚕的急性毒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙新友; 袁善奎; 林荣华; 王晓军; 瞿唯钢; 张燕; 高希武; 姜天明

    2011-01-01

    The acute toxicity of ninety-one pesticides to silkworm, Bombyx mori L., was evaluated in laboratory using the intake toxic leaf method, the toxic grades were compartmentalizedaccording to the results and the safety evaluation was made for these pesticides. The LC50 values of thirty pesticides were lower than 0.5mg/kg mulberry (belonged to extremely toxic grade), including emamectin benzoate, abamectin, beta-cypermethrin, bifenthrin, tebufenozide and triazophos etc. ; The LC50 values of fifteen pesticides were between 0.5-20mg/kg mulberry (belonged to high toxic grade), including carbosulfan, chlorfenapyr, triflumuron, fipronil, buprofezin, chloramine phosphorus and trichlorfon etc. ; that of ninety pesticides were between 20-200mg/kg mulberry (belonged to moderate toxic grade) ; That of twenty-seven pesticides were higher than 200mg/kg mulberry (belonged to low toxic grade).%为评价农药对家蚕的环境安全性,作者采用毒叶饲喂法在室内测定了91种农药对家蚕(BombyxmoriL.)的急性毒性,并根据其毒性范围进行分级.结果表明:有30种药剂的LC50〈0.5mg/kg桑叶,属于剧毒级,包括甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐、阿维菌素、高效氯氰菊酯、联苯菊酯、虫酰肼、三唑磷等;有15种药剂的LC50为0.5~20mg/kg桑叶,属于高毒级.如丁硫克百威、虫螨腈、杀铃脲、氟虫腈、噻嗪酮、高渗氯胺磷、敌百虫;19种药剂的LC50为20~200mg/kg桑叶,属于中等毒级;27种药剂LC50〉200

  9. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Mahesh Chand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law.

  10. Organophosphorus Pesticide Application in Food Poisoning Goods Fast Food Physical and Chemical Test Box Corroborate the Method of Research%食物中毒检品中有机磷农药应用食品理化检验箱快速确证的方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐敏

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨有机磷农药中毒时使用食品理化检验箱快速确证的方法。方法使用中国人民解放军总后勤部卫生部监制、军事医学科学院环境医学研究所研制的食品理化检验箱对出现有机磷农药中毒时进行有机磷农药的相关检测。结果通过使用食品理化检验箱的方式,快速而准确的将有机磷农药进行了检出。结论在对食物中毒患者进行检验的过程中,使用食品理化检验箱的方式能够快速而准确地将有机磷农药进行检出,从而保证我国人民的身体健康以及生命安全。并能得到及时的救治。%Objective To explore the organic phosphorus pesticide poisoning when using food physical and chemical test case confirmed quickly method. MethodsUses the Chinese people's liberation army general logistics department of the ministry of health supervision, military academy of medical sciences institute of environmental medicine developed food physical and chemical test cases for organophosphorus pesticide poisoning of organophosphorus pesticide and the related test.Results Through the use of food physical and chemical inspection way, rapid and accurate detection is made for the organophosphorus pesticide.Conclusion In the process of testing in patients with food poisoning, the use of food physical and chemical test box way to quickly and accurately wil be organophosphorus pesticide detection, to ensure the life safety and health of our people.

  11. The reasonable application of atropine in the treatment of acute organic phosphorus poisoning%阿托品在治疗急性有机磷中毒中的合理应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭育旋

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the reasonable application of atropine in the treatment of acute organic phosphorus poisoning. Methods:37 patients with acute organic phosphorus poisoning were selected.After emetic,gastric lavage and other routine therapy, they were given atropine treatment.We analyzed the recovery of the patients.Results:In 37 patients,the recovery of 36 cases(97.3%) was good after the use of atropine treatment.1 case(2.7%) died because of atropine poisoning.Conclusion:In the treatment process of patients with organic phosphorus poisoning,the reasonable application of atropine was the important factor for affecting the therapeutic effects.%目的:探讨阿托品在抢救急性有机磷农药中毒患者时的合理应用。方法:收治急性有机磷中毒患者37例,通过催吐、洗胃等常规治疗,再使用阿托品治疗,分析患者恢复情况。结果:37例患者中,使用阿托品治疗后恢复情况良好36例(97.3%),死于阿托品中毒1例(2.7%)。结论:在有机磷中毒患者救治过程中,合理应用阿托品是救治成功的重要因素。

  12. Effect of various antidotes on biliary excretion of arsenic in isolated perfused livers of guinea pigs after acute experimental poisoning with As2O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichl, F X; Mückter, H; Kreppel, H; Forth, W

    1992-05-01

    The effect of the dithiols British Anti-Kewisite (BAL), dimercaptopropanesulfonic acid (DMPS), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and a new metal binding agent 2,3-bis-(acetylthio)- propanesulfonamide (BAPSA) on the biliary excretion of arsenic in perfused livers of guinea pigs after acute experimental poisoning with As2O3 was investigated. Guinea pigs received As2O3, 10.0 mg/kg subcutaneously at 9 a.m. as a single injection. One hour after the injection the livers were perfused (2.5 ml x min.-1 x g-1 liver) with Krebs-Henseleit buffer and glucose for 80 min. After 40 min. of saline perfusion (control) 0.1 or 0.7 mmol/l BAL, DMSA, DMPS, or BAPSA were added to the perfusate and arsenic elimination in the bile and effluent perfusate was measured. The biliary excretion of arsenic in control livers between 40 and 80 min. was 0.7% of the total arsenic liver content before perfusion (= arsenic liver content after perfusion + portion excreted in the bile+perfusate). After antidote addition (0.1 mmol/l) the excretion was 0.2% for livers perfused with BAL, 6.8% for DMSA, 10.6% for DMPS, and 11.1% for BAPSA, respectively. After 0.7 mmol/l antidote the excretion of arsenic was 0.1% in livers perfused with BAL, 9.6% for DMSA, 12.3% for DMPS, and 13.3% for BAPSA, respectively. Except BAL, all compounds and most effectively BAPSA increased biliary excretion of arsenic. This indicates that excretion of arsenic which normally is mainly renal is shifted towards faecal excretion by the dithiols.

  13. Glyphosate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  14. Glyphosate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  15. 急性百草枯中毒的治疗进展%Advances in the treatment of acute paraquat poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴应强; 肖雪

    2013-01-01

    Paraquat is one of the most widely used herbicide. Its toxicity is medium to animal but highly to human. The estimated lethal dose for adult is about 40 mg/kg. The mechanism of paraquat poisoning is complicated and unclear. And there is no specific antidote. Current treatment is mainly focused on the comprehensive treatment, and the mortality rate is high. There is no breakthrough research progress on the paraquat poisoning. Recent studies on the therapy of paraquat poisoning are reviewed in this paper.

  16. A drug from poison: how the therapeutic effect of arsenic trioxide on acute promyelocytic leukemia was discovered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yi; Li, Runhong; Zhang, Daqing

    2013-06-01

    It is surprising that, while arsenic trioxide (ATO) is now considered as "the single most active agent in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL)", the most important discoverer remains obscure and his original papers have not been cited by a single English paper. The discovery was made during the Cultural Revolution when most Chinese scientists and doctors struggled to survive. Beginning with recipes from a countryside practitioner that were vague in applicable diseases, Zhang TingDong and colleagues proposed in the 1970s that a single chemical in the recipe is most effective and that its target is APL. More than 20 years of work by Zhang and colleagues eliminated the confusions about whether and how ATO can be used effectively. Other researchers, first in China and then in the West, followed his lead. Retrospective analysis of data from his own group proved that APL was indeed the most sensitive target. Removal of a trace amount of mercury chloride from the recipe by another group in his hospital proved that only ATO was required. Publication of Western replication in 1998 made the therapy widely accepted, though neither Western, nor Chinese authors of English papers on ATO cited Zhang's papers in the 1970s. This article focuses on the early papers of Zhang, but also suggests it worth further work to validate Chinese reports of ATO treatment of other cancers, and infers that some findings published in Chinese journals are of considerable value to patients and that doctors from other countries can benefit from the clinical experience of Chinese doctors with the largest population of patients. PMID:23645104

  17. 活性炭血液灌流对重度敌敌畏中毒的治疗作用%Therapeutic efficacy of charcoal hemoperfusion in patients with acute severe dichlorvos poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭艾; 孟凡青; 孙兰芳; 季占胜; 李玉会

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy of hemoperfusion (HP) in the treatment of the patients with acute severe dichlorvos (DDVP) poisoning. METHODS: One hundred and eight patients with acute severe DDVP poisoning in the two teaching hospitals were enrolled. Sixty-seven patients were treated with HP (HP group) and forty-one patients accepted traditional treatment only as the control. Serum concentration of DDVP was determined by gas chromatography. RESULTS: The duration of coma, impaired consciousness, ICU stay, and mechanical ventilation was significantly shorter in the HP group than that in the control. The cumulative dosages (mg) of atropine required either in the first 24 h on admission (442±436 vs 899±485 in the control, P<0.01) or within the hospital (568±574 vs 1228±982 in the control, P<0.01) were markedly reduced in the HP patients. The lower incidence of mechanical ventilation required (13.4 % vs 36.6 % P<0.01), respiratory muscular paralysis (4.5 % vs 17.1%, P<0.05) and the lower mortality of death (7.5 % vs 34.1%, P<0.01) were observed in the HP group. HP could accelerate the recovery of suppressed cholinesterase activity. After the procedure, the DDVP level was decreased from (11±±4) to (7±±3) mg/L in parallel with a decline in APACHE Ⅱ Score or dopamine dose and a rise in Glasgow Coma Scale (P<0.05). In addition, the mean values of peak clearance and reduction rate were (87±17) Ml/min and 44 %±±11%,respectively. CONCLUSION: The rapid fall in blood DDVP level and the dramatic clinical response suggest that HP is effective in the treatment of acute severe DDVP poisoning.

  18. Clinical manifestation and influential factors in patients with acute arsenic poisoning%急性生活性砷化物中毒临床特征及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘薇薇; 杨志前; 张程; 张伊莉; 蒋文中; 吴一行; 刘移民; 古立城

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨急性生活性砷化物中毒的临床特征及其影响因素.方法 分析47例急性砷化物中毒患者临床表现,其中男20例,女27例.参照国家职业卫生相关标准,确诊观察病例2例,轻度中毒40例,重度中毒5例.结果 急性砷化物中毒患者心肌酶活力与年龄、尿砷浓度相关,控制年龄后两者仍有明显相关.心肌酶、肝丙氨酸转氨酶(ALT)、总胆红素(TBil)、间接胆红素(IBil)与呕吐次数呈负相关,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),而尿砷浓度、呕吐次数均与饮汤量相关,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).尽管年龄和饮汤量接近,但呕吐和腹泻次数明显者,其尿砷浓度、心肌酶、肝酶浓度明显低于呕叶和腹泻次数少者,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 急性砷化物中毒可引起心、肝、神经系统等多脏器损害,心肌损害出现最早且持续时间长;损害程度与患者进食量、呕叶、腹泻程度及尿砷浓度相父;及早采用洗胃、催吐、导泻措施清除毒物,尽早规范使用解毒药加速毒物排出,配合积极对症治疗是抢救急性砷化物中毒成功的关键.%Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of acute arsenic poisoning and its influential factors. Methods Clinical data of 47 cases of arsenic poisoning were collected and analyzed. Two cases of observation,40 cases of mild acute poisoning,and 5 severe acute poising were investigated in this group. Results Myocardial enzyme activity was correlated with age and urine arsenic concentrations. Myocardial enzyme,the liver ALT,total bilirubin (TBil) and indirect bilirubin (IBil) were negatively correlated with vomiting frequency,with statistical significance (P<0.05). Urine arsenic concentration was correlated with vomiting frequency and amount of soup drunk, with statistically significant difference(P<0.05 ). Despite no statistical significance in age and amount of soup drunk, the patients with more vomiting or diarrhea

  19. 职业性急性中毒患者的心理状况及相关因素研究%Study of mental status and related factors in patient with occupational acute poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金辉; 谢文媛; 张丽波; 孙曼丽; 宋莉; 李晓军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mental health status of patients with occupational acute poisoning and potential social impact for its development. Methods 100 patients with occupational acute poisoning and 50 health controls were investigated. The mental health status and its related factors were evaluated with questionnaires SCL — 90 etc. Results SCL — 90 results showed that nine factors including somatization, force, interpersonal relationships, anxiety, depression, hostility, phobia, paranoid and sleep and eating disorders of the acute poisoning group were significantly higher than those of the control group(P0. 05). SSRS scores showed that subjective -support,objective support and support utilization of the poisoning group were significantly lower than those of the control group(P<0. 01). Conclusions The mental health status of patients might play an important role in the development and prognosis of occupational acute poisoning. Providing appropriate psychological interventions would be important in treatment of patients with occupational acute poisoning.%目的 探讨职业性急性中毒患者的心理健康状况及可能影响其发展的心理社会因素.方法 采用心理卫生自评量表(SCL-90)等心理量表按2∶1匹配对100例职业性急性中毒患者的心理状况及相关因素进行对照研究.结果 SCL- 90评定结果表明,急性中毒组在躯体化、强迫、人际关系、焦虑、抑郁、敌对、恐怖、偏执及睡眠、饮食障碍9个因子分均明显高于对照组(P<0.01),其中尤以躯体化、焦虑及睡眠、饮食障碍等症状为突出.抑郁自评量表(SDS)和焦虑自评量表(SAS)评定结果表明,急性中毒组的抑郁标准分(41.52±10.23)和焦虑标准分(43.37±10.40)明显高于对照组,其抑郁和焦虑发生率为56%和62%,均明显高于对照组(P<0.05).艾森克个性问卷(EPQ)评定结果表明,急性中毒组的神经质(N)的评分(62.45±16.37)明显高于对照组(47.44±15

  20. Chest radiographic and CT features of acute inhaled mercury poisoning%急性吸入性汞中毒胸部X线及CT表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雨峰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze chest radiographic and CT features of acute inhaled mercury poisoning. Methods 23 cases with high concentration of mercury vapour inhaled acutely were included in this study. Among them, 81 cases underwent chest radio-graphics (61 times) and 11 cases underwent CT scanning(17 times). Radiographic and CT features were analysed. Results Chest radiographs showed pneumonia in 10 cases, the lesions appeared as multiple and scattered patchy high density in bilateral lung field with obscure border, and 3 cases combined with emphysema. There were 7 cases of interstitial pneumonia, radiographs showed lung markings increased and disorder, patchy, strip and gridding high dense shadows. 6 cases had toxic bubble pulmonary edema, which presented as large patchy dense shadows, and 4 cases of interstitial pulmonary edema, K's A,B lines were seen. On CT images, pneumonia appeared as multiple and scattered patchy shadows in bilateral lung field with bullous emphysemas which were low dense thin-wall bubbly shadows. Interstitial pneumonia appeared as lung weight lung markings in creased and blurred, resulted in massive, stripe net-like dense shadows with exudative changes around the lesions. Bullous pulmonary edema appeared as large patchy or butterfly wing-like dense shadow with undefinitive borders. Conclusion The chest X-ray and CT manifestations arc of certain characteristics in acute inhalation of mercury-induced pneumonia, combined with the clinical history and laboratory examination the diagnosis may be done.%目的 分析急性吸入性汞中毒性肺炎胸部X线及CT表现.方法 23例急性吸入性汞中毒患者,拍摄胸部平片61次,其中11例行胸部CT扫描17次,分析其X线及CT表现.结果 23例入院时X线片示汞毒性实质性肺炎10例,表现为双肺野多发片状密度增高影,边缘模糊,散在分布,3例伴有泡性肺气肿.汞毒性肺间质性炎症7例,表现为肺纹理增重模糊及紊乱,呈

  1. Influence of exposure to pesticides on serum components and enzyme activities of cytotoxicity among intensive agriculture farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Antonio F; Amparo Gómez, M; Pérez, Vidal; García-Lario, Jose V; Pena, Gloria; Gil, Fernando; López, Olga; Rodrigo, Lourdes; Pino, Guadalupe; Pla, Antonio

    2006-09-01

    Although the effects of acute pesticide poisoning are well known for the pesticides most currently used, hardly any data exist on health effects after long-term low-dose exposures. Major unresolved issues include the effect of moderate exposure in the absence of poisoning. The increased utilization of pesticides other than organophosphates makes it even more difficult to find associations. In this study a cohort of 106 intensive agriculture workers were assessed twice during the course of a spraying season for changes in serum biochemistry, namely enzymes reflecting cytotoxicity (AST, ALT, LDH, CK, and amino-oxidase) and other biochemical parameters, such as markers of nephrotoxicity (urea, creatinine) and lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides). Several criteria for estimating pesticide exposure were used, the most important one being serum cholinesterase depression greater than 25% from baseline to peak exposure. Our results revealed an association of pesticide exposure with changes in AST (increased activity), LDH, and amino-oxidase (decreased activity) as well as with changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus (lower and higher levels, respectively). These results provide support for a very slight impairment of the liver function, but overall these findings are consistent with no clinically significant hepatotoxicity. Intriguingly, paraoxonase-1 R allele was found to be an independent predictor of higher rates of AST and lower rates of amino-oxidase, so that it may play a supporting role as an individual marker of susceptibility on pesticide-induced health effects. In conclusion, different biomarkers might be used to detect early biochemical effects of pesticides before adverse clinical health effects occur. PMID:16620808

  2. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was swallowed or inhaled Amount swallowed or inhaled Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  3. Hair tonic poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  4. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1222 immediately. Name State American Association of Poison Control Centers Address AAPCC Central Office NOT A POISON ... not for emergency use. Arkansas ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Address 1717 S. Philo Road, Suite 36 Urbana, ...

  5. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  6. Mortality Analysis of Patients with Paraquat Poisoning Treated at Two University Hospitals in Shiraz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazel Goudarzi

    2014-12-01

    Conlcusion: PQ poisoning is associated with high mortality requiring an immediate assessment of patients and prediction of prognosis. Renal and hepatic failure in addition to respiratory distress can be the strongest risk factors for poor prognosis in acute PQ poisoning.

  7. Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIOSH NIOSH Fast Facts: Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants Language: English Español (Spanish) Kreyol Haitien (Hatian Creole) ... outdoors is at risk of exposure to poisonous plants, such as poison ivy, poison oak, and poison ...

  8. Effect of chronic pesticide exposure in farm workers of a Mexico community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payán-Rentería, Rolando; Garibay-Chávez, Guadalupe; Rangel-Ascencio, Raul; Preciado-Martínez, Veronica; Muñoz-Islas, Laura; Beltrán-Miranda, Claudia; Mena-Munguía, Salvador; Jave-Suárez, Luis; Feria-Velasco, Alfredo; De Celis, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides are frequently used substances worldwide, even when the use of some of them is forbidden due to the recognized adverse effect they have on the health of not only the people who apply the pesticides, but also of those that consume the contaminated products. The objectives of this study were to know the health issues of farm workers chronically exposed to pesticides, to evaluate possible damage at genetic level, as well as to explore some hepatic, renal, and hematological alterations. A transversal comparative study was performed between 2 groups, one composed of 25 farm workers engaged in pesticide spraying, and a control group of 21 workers not exposed to pesticides; both groups belonged to the Nextipac community in Jalisco, Mexico. Each member of both groups underwent a full medical history. Blood samples were taken from all farm workers in order to obtain a complete blood count and chemistry, clinical chemistry, lipid profile, liver and kidney function tests, erythrocyte cholinesterase quantification, lipid peroxidation profile, and free DNA fragment quantification. For the information analysis, central tendency and dispersion measurements were registered. In order to know the differences between groups, a cluster multivariate method was used, as well as prevalence reasons. The most used pesticides were mainly organophosphates, triazines and organochlorine compounds. The exposed group showed acute poisoning (20% of the cases) and diverse alterations of the digestive, neurological, respiratory, circulatory, dermatological, renal, and reproductive system probably associated to pesticide exposure. More importantly, they presented free DNA fragments in plasma (90.8 vs 49.05 ng/mL) as well as a higher level of lipid peroxidation (41.85 vs. 31.91 nmol/mL) in comparison with those data from unexposed farm workers. These results suggest that there exist health hazards for those farm workers exposed to pesticides, at organic and cellular levels. PMID:22315932

  9. The study of etiological and demographic characteristics of acute household accidental poisoning in children - a consecutive case series study from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzar Nabeel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the agents of poisoning and demographic distribution of children brought to Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK with a history of accidental poison intake and to examine the factors associated with it. Methods This hospital based descriptive study of first 100 patients from both sexes who presented to Pediatric department, CHK from 1st January 2006 till 31st December 2008 with exposure to a known poisonous agent and fulfilling other inclusion criteria were included in the study. Data regarding their demographic profile and potential risk factors was collected on a well structured proforma, cases were followed until discharge or expiry. Data was analyzed using frequencies, proportions, group means, median and standard deviations. Results The male to female ratio in our study was 1.2:1, with kerosene (50% being the most common household agent followed by medicines (38%, insecticides (7% and bathroom cleaners (5%. Factors such as mother's education level, number of siblings and storage place of poison correlated significantly with the cases of accidental poisoning. Most of the children (70% presented within 3 hours of ingestion. Dyspnea was the most common symptom observed. The mortality rate in our study was 3%. Conclusions Children belonging to age group 2-3 years are the most susceptible both in terms of morbidity and mortality. Preventive strategies need to be adopted at a national level to spread awareness among parents.

  10. SUPERVASMOL POISONING: AN EMERGING ENT EMERGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicide in India. Supervasmol poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicidal attempt in our region. The common cause for consumption of hair dye is by suicidal intent or accidental oral ingestion. There is no specific antidote for Supervasmol poisoning. Management is only symptomatic and supportive with emergency tracheostomy in majority of cases. Hence, we conducted this study to emphasize the role of ENT surgeon in Supervasmol poisoning. STUDY DESIGN Prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS We present a total of 79 cases of Supervasmol poisoning who attended the Emergency Department of Narayana Medical College and General Hospital, Nellore. RESULTS All patients were between age group 15-35 yrs. Females are more than males. More patients were in second decade; 55 cases presented in acute phase, 51 patients underwent tracheostomy and four patients were brought dead. CONCLUSION Emergency tracheostomy is a life saving measure in severe stridor

  11. Enzymatic activity of the intestine in effect of pesticides of pyrethroid group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukaddas Khamrakulova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of investigation was to study the effect of pesticides from group of pyrethroids (e.g. decis on the enzymatic function in the homogenate of the mucosal membrane of the proximal and distal segments of the small intestine.Determination of the degree of the activity of hydrolytic enzymes in the homogenates of some parts of the intestine allowed to show effect of pesticide decis on the gradient of distribution of enzymatic activity along the intestine. For characteristic of the enzymatic activity of the small intestine there was performed study of the activity of dipeptidase, amylase, invertase and alkaline phosphatase in the homogenate of the mucosal membrane from proximal and distal parts in multiple effects of pesticide decis in toxic dose (1/20 LD50 during 4 months.Changes of the enzymatic activity in acute poisoning were depended on the time of pesticide exposure and site of the bowel. The different digestive enzymes have different response to effect ofpesticidesof pyrethroid group (decis, there are differences in the reactions of proximal and distal part of the small intestine and there is correlation between changes of activity of the majority hydrolases and administered dose of pesticides.

  12. Intoxicação experimental aguda por samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum em bovinos Experimental acute poisoning by bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum in cattle

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    Bruno L. Anjos

    2009-09-01

    conflitantes, não permitindo concluir se a coagulação intravascular disseminada tem participação na patogênese das hemorragias nessa intoxicação. A citopatologia e histopatologia da medula óssea dos quatro bovinos intoxicados revelaram acentuada diminuição no número de células hematopoéticas das três linhagens medulares, caracterizando insuficiência medular por aplasia; conclui-se que apenas eventos da hemostasia primária devidos a trombocitopenia são responsáveis pelas hemorragias. Na hemocultura de três dos bovinos intoxicados houve crescimento de Klebsiella oxytoca, Staphylococcus hyicus e Staphylococcus aureus, indicando que a septicemia, facilitada pela neutropenia, pode ter participação na causa da morte de bovinos na intoxicação aguda pela ingestão de P. aquilinum. Aspectos adicionais de interesse na reprodução da intoxicação aguda por samambaia em bovinos deste relato incluem o desenvolvimento de hematúria na doença aguda e a apresentação da chamada forma laríngea da doença.This experiment was design to address the following points in relation to the acute poisoning by bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum in cattle: 1 the severity of the thrombocytopenia in different stages of the intoxication and its relationship to possible deficits in the secondary hemostasis, 2 the relationship between neutropenia and the morphological signs of septicemia occasionally found at necropsy, and 3 the mechanism of anemia and its relationship with blood loss, medium life of erythrocytes and the progress of the disease. The fresh green upper parts of P. aquilinum were fed to four mixed breed calves with average age of 18 months and weights ranging from 190 to 215 kg. A calf of similar age and weight was kept together with the other four under the same conditions, except for the ingestion of P. aquilinum. The four fern-fed calves died with typical features of acute bracken fern poisoning after being fed with the plant for 53-58 days daily doses of 8.0, 8

  13. Pesticide acute toxicity is a better correlate of U.S. grassland bird declines than agricultural intensification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Mineau

    Full Text Available Common agricultural birds are in decline, both in Europe and in North America. Evidence from Europe suggests that agricultural intensification and, for some species, the indirect effects of pesticides mediated through a loss of insect food resource is in part responsible. On a state-by-state basis for the conterminous Unites States (U.S., we looked at several agronomic variables to predict the number of grassland species increasing or declining according to breeding bird surveys conducted between 1980 and 2003. Best predictors of species declines were the lethal risk from insecticide use modeled from pesticide impact studies, followed by the loss of cropped pasture. Loss of permanent pasture or simple measures of agricultural intensification such as the proportion of land under crop or the proportion of farmland treated with herbicides did not explain bird declines as well. Because the proportion of farmland treated with insecticides, and more particularly the lethal risk to birds from the use of current insecticides feature so prominently in the best models, this suggests that, in the U.S. at least, pesticide toxicity to birds should be considered as an important factor in grassland bird declines.

  14. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  15. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    OpenAIRE

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy; Yesudas Sooraj

    2009-01-01

    Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  16. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  17. Lead Poisoning in the World and Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Azizi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a relatively ubiquitous heavy metal with particular features such as resistance to corrosion, high malleability and wide variety of industrial applications. In medicine, however, it is considered as a slow-acting toxic substance affecting multiple body systems, specifically functioning as a potent neurotoxin in the central nervous system. Lead poisoning may be acute or chronic and can be due to occupational or environmental exposures. The history of lead poisoning dates back to ancient times. The present paper briefly describes the worldwide historical accounts of lead poisoning with a special focus on Iran.

  18. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  19. Ciguatera fish poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    J. Crump; McLay, C.; Chambers, S.

    1999-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is one of a variety of non-bacterial forms of human seafood poisoning. Consuming large predatory fish from tropical reef ecosystems may be hazardous. We describe a case that is typical of the disease, and illustrates the persistence of neurological symptoms that occur in some patients.


Keywords: ciguatera fish poisoning; ichthyosarcotoxaemia; poisoning; biotoxins

  20. HAIR DYE POISONING: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available S uper Vasmol is one of the commonly used, cheap, freely available hair dye poisoning is emerging a major cause of suicidal poisoning in India, and the hair dyes mainly contain paraphenylene diamine (PPD and resorcinol. Acute poisoning by PPD causes charact eristic sever angio - neurotic oedema of upper air way associated with a swollen, dry, hard and protruding tongue, systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure (ARF. There is no specific antidote for PPD and treatment mainly supportive, emergency tracheostomy will help the patient to relieve the airway obstruction and reduce mortality. We report a case of suicidal ingestion of hair dye that was presented with cervico - fascial oedema later developed rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure managed with emergency tracheostomy, systemic management and dialysis.

  1. Paraphenylene diamine poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    A C Jesudoss Prabhakaran

    2012-01-01

    The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD). Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, we report a case of PPD poisoning and the importance of clinical of hair dye poisoning. The lack of specific diagnostic tests, a specific antidote for paraphenylene diamine poisoning and the importance of early supportive treatment modalities are also discussed.

  2. Paraphenylene diamine poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A C Jesudoss Prabhakaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD. Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, we report a case of PPD poisoning and the importance of clinical of hair dye poisoning. The lack of specific diagnostic tests, a specific antidote for paraphenylene diamine poisoning and the importance of early supportive treatment modalities are also discussed.

  3. Recent Advances in the Clinical Management of Lead Poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Kianoush

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning is a historic universal disease. Acute or chronic lead exposure may cause reversible or even permanent damages in human beings. Environmental lead exposure is a global health concern in children. Occupational lead poisoning is still a health issue, particularly in developing countries. During the last decades, new methods and medications have been advocated for the prevention and treatment of lead poisoning. This review deals mainly with recent developments in the management of lead poisoning. Sources of lead exposure are introduced, and methods for the primary prevention of lead poisoning are discussed. Details for the screening of adults and children are also explained to serve as a practical guideline for the secondary prevention. Standard chelation therapy in different groups and up-to-date less toxic new medications for the treatment of lead poisoning are finally discussed. Our published clinical research on the therapeutic effects of garlic tablets in mild to moderate occupational lead poisoning will also be discussed.

  4. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine.

  5. Predictors of morbidity and mortality in organophosphorus poisoning: A case study in rural hospital in Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Hassan Banday

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphorus (OP pesticides poisoning can result from occupational, accidental or intentional exposure. Clinical manifestations include cholinergic syndromes, central nervous (CNS system and cardiovascular disorders. Death is usually due to cardiovascular and respiratory failure. Aim: To evaluate various parameters that can predict outcome of patients in OP poisoning. Materials and Methods: A prospective study conducted in Department of Medicine, Adichunchingiri Institute Of medical Sciences and Research Centre, Karnataka, over period of 1 year. Diagnosis of OP poisoning was based on clinical history of exposure to OP compound and low serum pseudocholinesterase levels. Results: In the present study 133 patients were enrolled, out of which 98.5% were suicidal cases and only 1.5% had accidental exposure. Majority of cases were young male, with F/M ratio 1:3.2. Mortality rates were higher in younger people and in patients who required prolonged ventilator support. The mortality rate was directly proportional to amount of poison consumed, lag time, organ failure (Acute Renal Failure and plasma pseudocholinesterase levels. Acute complications were frequently noted and were related to morbidity and mortality. No strict relationship was found between liver dysfunction, electrolyte disturbance and clinical outcome. Conclusion: This case study concluded that mortality is directly proportionate to the lag time, amount of OP substances consumed, clinical severity, pseudocholinesterase levels, Acute renal failure and duration of ventilatory support. This study highlights the importance of rapid diagnosis, and initiation of early and effective treatment, which may result in less number complications and also decreases the mortality rates.

  6. Status and trends in poisonings in Denmark 2007-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgevig, Søren; Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Dalhoff, Kim Peder;

    2011-01-01

    The Danish Poison Information Centre (DPIC) provides information to the public and health care professionals on acute poisonings. The DPIC received 41,000 enquiries during the first three years of its existence as an open 24h telephone service. The aim of this data register study was to classify...... all substance exposures, to gain knowledge of the status and trends in poisonings (toxico-surveillance) and to evaluate the development in the number of contacts....

  7. Clinical Study of Naloxone Combined With Xingnaojing Injection in the Treatment of Acute Hypnotic Poisoning%纳洛酮联合醒脑静治疗急性安眠药中毒的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of naloxone combined with Xingnaojing Injection on the clinical treatment of acute hypnotic poisoning. Methods We collected 64 cases of acute sleeping pill poisoning in our hospital from March 2014 to March 2015, and divided them into two groups according to different treatment. On the basis of the conventional treatment, while the control group was treated with naloxone, a total of 32 cases, the experimental group were treated with naloxone and Xingnaojing, a total of 32 cases. The effect of the two groups was observed and compared. Results In the experimental group, the recovery time and symptom relief time were shorter than the control group, the effective rate of treatment was higher than that of the control group (P<0.05), the difference was significant. Conclusion Naloxone combined with Xingnaojing Injection on acute hypnotic poisoning better curative effect, patients awake quickly, the symptoms disappeared rapidly.%目的:研究纳洛酮联合醒脑静对急性安眠药中毒的临床治疗效果。方法搜集我院2014年3月~2015年3月急性安眠药中毒64例,根据治疗用药不同将其分两组。在常规疗法基础上,对照组应用纳洛酮,共32例;实验组联合应用纳洛酮、醒脑静,共32例。观察比较两组效果。结果实验组患者清醒时间和症状缓解时间均比对照组短,治疗有效率高于对照组(P <0.05),差异显著。结论纳洛酮联合醒脑静对急性安眠药中毒治疗效果佳,患者清醒快,症状消失迅速。

  8. Application of focused settlement mode in the care of acute paraquat poisoning patients%聚焦解决模式在急性百草枯中毒患者护理中应用的效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔秋华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of focused settlement mode applied in caring the acute paraquat poisoning patients.Methods 106 hospitalized patients with acute paraquat poisoning were randomly divided into the control group and the experimental group.All patients in the control group were performed conventional nursing instruction and the experimental group was nursed with focused settlement mode on the basis of conventional nursing instruction.The efficacy of nursing was evaluated when they were discharged from hospital.Results The self-care skills and knowledge,consciously following the medical behavior,satisfaction degree with clinical service of the experimental group were significandy better than the control group,while the hospitalization days were shorter than the control group.Conclusions Focused settlement mode can improve the effect of nursing care for patients with acute paraquat poisoning.%目的 探讨聚焦解决模式应用于急性百草枯中毒护理中的效果.方法 选取住院治疗的急性百草枯中毒患者106例,随机分为对照组50例和观察组56例.对照组患者接受常规的护理指导,观察组在常规护理指导的基础上应用聚焦解决模式进行护理.出院时对2组患者的护理效果进行评价.结果 观察组患者的自我护理技巧和知识、自觉遵医行为、临床服务满意度均明显优于对照组,平均住院天数少于对照组.结论 聚焦解决模式能够提高急性百草枯中毒患者的护理效果.

  9. Efficacy of Hyperbaric Oxygen in the Treatment of 257 Cases With Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning%高压氧治疗急性一氧化碳中毒257例效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林素莲; 沈炳荣; 高惠珍

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究高压氧治疗一氧化碳中毒的临床效果。方法回顾分析我院1999年10月~2015年5月高压氧救治的257例一氧化碳中毒患者的治疗效果。结果257例患者中,252例患者经高压氧等综合救治后痊愈出院,无并发症发生,随访半年预后较好;3例患者留有后遗症,生活不能自理;2例患者治疗无效死亡。结论对于急性一氧化碳中毒患者,给予及时、充分的高压氧治疗是救治关键,可提高治愈率,减少迟发性脑病的发生。%ObjectiveTo study the clinical effect of hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning.Methods A total of 257 cases of carbon monoxide poisoning patients were retrospectively analyzed in our hospital from Oct 1999 to May 2015. Al patients were treated with hyperbaric oxygen treatment,the effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment was investigated.Results252 of 257 cases patients recovered after hyperbaric oxygen treatment, and no complications were observed,a folowed up for half a year showed that al patients with a good prognosis,three patients underwent a poor prognosis,two cases died for ineffective treatment.Conclusion A timely and fuly hyperbaric oxygen therapy is a key treatment for patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning,it can improve the cure rate and reduce the occurrence of delayed encephalopathy.

  10. Pesticide illness, farm practices, and neurological symptoms among farm residents in Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between pesticides and neurological symptoms among a population exposed to organophosphate chemicals as a result of agricultural use. Chronic squealed of acute pesticide poisoning from organophosphate compounds include a variety of neurological symptoms including restlessness, irritability, and trouble sleeping. Individuals who have had an acute pesticide poisoning have been reported to suffer a wide range of neurological symptoms that occur from weeks to months after the initial episode. Data for this study came from a cross-sectional survey of farmers and their spouses conducted in an eight-county area in northeastern Colorado. Neurological characteristics were assessed to determine their relationship with previously reported pesticide-related illnesses. Symptoms that were significantly associated with previous poisoning were difficulty concentrating [OR 2.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22, 3.50]; relatives noticing person had trouble remembering things (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.47, 4.39); making notes to remember things (OR .18, 95% CI 1.20, 3.97); finding it hard to understand the meaning of newspapers, magazines, and books (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.01, 3.60); felt irritable OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.08, 3.12); felt depressed (OR 2.82, 95% CI 1.65, 4.81); ad heart palpitations without exertion (OR 2.83, 95% CI 1.22, 6.54); sleeping more than usual (OR 3.58, 95% CI 1.95, 6.58); difficulty moving fingers or grasping things (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.06, 3.24); and headaches at least once a week (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.06, 3.24). Stepwise regression was used o identify the best explanatory model of pesticide-related illness. Variables that were associated with increased odds of illness were being ale, being depressed, sleeping too much, and using crop organophosphates

  11. PROFILE OF POISONING CASES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL , TELANGANA , INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Poisoning with various substances is an important cause of death and disability worldwide . The types of poisons that are encountered in the emergency medicine departments encompass a wide range of substances . Apparently , geographic location , socio - demographic factors , ease of availability of poisons and many other cryptic factors contribute to the wide spectrum of substances that cause poisoning . Pesticides , drugs and chemicals are reported to be the most commo nly used poisons in India . Management of poisoning is quite challenging for the health care professionals globally . Factors such as the uncertainty in the identification of allegedly consumed poison , varied clinical features and the need for timely access to specific information for treatment , complicates poisoning management . This study was therefore conducted to explore the clinical features , management and outcomes of poisoning cases reporting to a tertiary care centre in south India . OBJECTIVE : To ident ify the spectrum of poisons and evaluate their clinical manifestations , medical management and clinical outcomes . METHODOLOGY : All cases of poisoning that were reported at a tertiary care hospital in South India for a period of 18 months from January 1 , 20 13 to June 30 , 2014 were included in this study . A data abstraction sheet was designed to document demographic details ( age and gender , poison consumed , duration of stay in the hospital , clinical features , treatment administered , need for life support and patient outcomes . RESULTS : A total of 145 poisoning cases were reported during the study period . Among them , 58 . 5% were males and 41 . 3% were females . Majority of victims were in the age group of 21 - 30 years . Intentional poisoning was observed in 86 . 2% , whereas the rest were accidental poisonings . Organophosphorus ( OP poisoning was the most common poisoning encountered in this study . It accounted for 25 . 5% of the total

  12. The application of Hemoperfusion and Hemodialysis in rescuing patients with critical acute poisoning%血液灌流联合血液透析救治急性重型中毒的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶正华; 文朝晖; 吴嘉枫

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effects of hemoperfusion (HP) plus hemodialysis (HD) on the patients with critical acute poisoning. Methods 44 cases in coma,which got critical acute drug or food poisioning, were divided into groups, the cure group(n = 28) and the control group (n = 16). The control group was given gastrolavage,oxygen inhalation, drug tetoxification and basic life-support treatment, on this basis, the cure group was given HP and HD. The duration of coma, the average hospital day, the cure rate and the death rate were observed,and compared between the two groups. Results 27 cases were cured and 1 case died in the cure group, while 11 cases were cured and 5 cases died in the control group, contrast to the control group, it is a singnificant decrease on the duration of coma, The average hospital day and the death rate in the cure group, and it is sapperial to the control group (P<0.01). Conclusion HP and HD is one of the efficient measures to the rescuing patients with critical acute poisoning, because it can clear the drug and food poison quickly, shorten the course of disease and reduce complication,improve the survival rate of patients with critical acute poisoning.%目的 观察血液灌流联合血液透析对救治急性重型中毒患者的疗效.方法 急性药物或食物中毒昏迷患者44例,按治疗方法 不同将病例分为治疗组(n=28)与对照组(n=16).对照组患者常规给予洗胃、吸氧、药物解毒和生命支持等治疗,治疗组患者除上述处理还进行血液灌流和血液透析治疗,观察两组患者昏迷时间、住院天数、治愈率、死亡率、并发症.结果 治疗组治愈27例,死亡1例,对照组治愈11例,死亡5例.治疗组昏迷时间、住院天数、死亡率、并发症发生率明显少于对照组(P<0.01),治愈率高于对照组(P<0.01).结论 血液灌流联合血液透析可迅速清除体内的药物或毒物,明显缩短病程、减少并发症,提高急性重症中毒患者的生存率.

  13. Effect of pesticide decis on the levels of nucleic acids and protein in the animals under condition of air high temperature, and their regulation with complex of bioactivators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukaddas Khamrakulova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There are data about changes of membrane digestion as a result of various disorders of synthesis and translocation of the enzymes on the mucosal surface under effect of some harmful chemical and physical factors. The purpose of investigation was to study the effect of pesticides from group of pyrethroids (for example decis on the enzymatic function in the homogenate of the mucosal membrane of the proximal and distal segments of the small intestine. Determination of the degree of the activity of hydrolytic enzymes in the homogenates of some parts of the intestine allowed to show effect of pesticide decis on the gradient of distribution of enzymatic activity along the intestine. For characteristic of the enzymatic activity of the small intestine there was performed study of the activity of dipeptidase, amylase, invertase and alkaline phosphatase in the homogenate of the mucosal membrane from proximal and distal parts in multiple effects of pesticide decis in toxic dose (1/20 LD50 during 4 months. Changes of the enzymatic activity in acute poisoning were depended on the time of pesticide exposure and site of the bowel. The different digestive enzymes have different response to effect of pesticides of pyrethroid group (decis, there are differences in the reactions of proximal and distal part of the small intestine and there is correlation between changes of activity of the majority hydrolases and administered dose of pesticides.

  14. Pesticide Safety for Non-Certified Mixers, Loaders and Applicators = Uso Seguro de Pesticidas para Mezcladores, Cargadores y Aplicadores no Certificados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Bonnie; Fluker, Sam S.

    Written in English and Spanish and completely illustrated, this manual provides basic safety information for pesticide workers. Mixers, loaders, and applicators work with pesticides at their greatest strength and have the highest risk of poisoning. Understanding the pesticide label is the first step to pesticide safety. The words…

  15. Hepatic venoocclusive disease and perisinusoidal fibrosis secondary to arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadie, H; Stoessel, P; Callard, P; Beaugrand, M

    1990-10-01

    Hepatic injury secondary to arsenic poisoning has been known long but is poorly documented. A case of a patient with hepatic injury following severe arsenic poisoning is reported. Histological study of the liver demonstrated acute venoocclusive disease and perisinusoidal fibrosis. This case indicates that arsenic poisoning causes veno-occlusive disease in humans. It also suggests that hepatic damage in arsenic poisoning is secondary to vascular endothelial injury and supports the hypothesis that different patterns of hepatic vascular injury might proceed from a common mechanism.

  16. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  17. Face powder poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002700.htm Face powder poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Face powder poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes ...

  18. Steam iron cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cleaner is a substance used to clean steam irons. Poisoning occurs when someone swallows steam iron cleaner. This ... Below are symptoms of steam iron cleaner poisoning in different ... AND THROAT Severe pain in the throat Severe pain in the mouth ...

  19. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... or burns Stupor Unconsciousness Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing: ...

  20. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) hair ...

  1. Bracken fern poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is found throughout the world and enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews the plant, the various poisoning syndrome that it produces, the current strategies to prevent poisoning, and recommended treatments....

  2. Arsenic: the forgotten poison?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, E N; Gilbert, D T; Raju, K; Morgan, O S

    1992-03-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning is an uncommon cause of peripheral neuropathy in Jamaica. A patient with this disorder is described. The insidious nature of chronic arsenic poisoning, with its disabling complications, is emphasised.

  3. 中毒污染事件中常见农药、鼠药及其他化学品的现场快速样品处理及GC-MS定性\\半定量检测程序%The procedure about determination of pesticide,raticide and other chemicals in poisoning and contaminative events by GC-MS in site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲宁; 高岩; 曹忠波; 平小红; 华正罡; 李延升

    2011-01-01

    目的:为快速响应食物中毒、环境污染等突发公共卫生事件,建立中毒污染事件中常见农药、鼠药和其他有毒化学品的现场快速样品处理及GC-MS定性\半定量检测程序.方法:用多种有机溶剂同时提取食物中毒、环境污染样品中常见农药、鼠药,气相色谱-质谱联用仪(GC-MS)定性\\半定量快速检测.结果:运用该程序,可实现食物中毒、环境污染样品中有机磷、有机氯、氨基甲酸酯、拟除虫菊酯、鼠药及其他有毒化学品等在到达事发现场后2~3个小时内快速检测.结论:本方法原理可靠.样品处理与检测时间周期短,覆盖毒物范围广,结果准确度高,适用于突发食物中毒、环境污染样品的现场快速检测.%Objective:In order to response burst public health events, we have established a procedure to determine of pesticide and raticide in poisoning and contaminative events qualitatively and semiquantitatively by GC - MS.Methods: We extract target compounds with multiple organic solvents continuously , then extracts were determined by by GC -MS.Results: Using the procedure, organophosphorus pesticides, organo- chlorine pesticides, carbamate esters, pyrethroids and raticides can be determined within two or three hours.Conclusion: The method is reliable,exact and suitable for treatment and detect food poisoning as well as environmental pollusion samples in site.

  4. Developing a Comprehensive Pesticide Health Effects Tracking System for an Urban Setting: New York City’s Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kass, Daniel E.; Thier, Audrey L.; Leighton, Jessica; Cone, James E.; Jeffery, Nancy L.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, there have been substantial investments and improvements in federal and state surveillance systems to track the health effects from pesticide exposure. These surveillance systems help to identify risk factors for occupational exposure to pesticides, patterns in poisonings, clusters of disease, and populations at risk of exposure from pesticide use. Data from pesticide use registries and recent epidemiologic evidence pointing to health risks from urban residential pesticide us...

  5. Paraphenylene diamine poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakaran, A.C. Jesudoss

    2012-01-01

    The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD) being used by the people to color their hair all over the world. Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, the importance of clinical manifestations and of hair dye poisoning is discussed due to the lack of specific diagnostic tests. Since there is no specific antidote for PPD poisoning, the early supportive treatment modalities are dis...

  6. Metal Poisoning: Threat and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SJS Flora

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to toxic metals remains a wide spread occupational and environmental problems in world. Due to their widespread use in human activities such as industry, agriculture and even as medicine numerous health risks may be associated with exposure to these substances. Lead, arsenic and cadmium generally interferes with a number of body functions such as the haematopoietic system, central nervous system (CNS, liver and kidneys. Over the past few decades there have been growing awareness and concern that the toxic biochemical and functional effects are occurring at lower level of metal exposure than those that produce overt clinical and pathological signs and symptoms. Despite many years of research we are still far from an effective treatment of chronic heavy metal poisoning. The main therapeutic option for chronic metal poisoning relies in chelation therapy. Chelating agents are capable of linking together metal ions to form complex structures which can be easily excreted from the body. They have been used clinically as antidotes for acute and chronic poisoning. 2, 3-dimercaprol (BAL has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy of lead or arsenic poisoning. Meso 2, 3, -dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA has been tried successfully in animals as well as in few cases of human lead or arsenic poisoning. However, one of the major disadvantages of chelation with DMSA has been its inability to remove heavy metal from the intracellular sites because of its lipophobic nature. Further, it does not provide protection in terms of clinical/ biochemical recovery. A new trend in chelation therapy has emerged to use combined treatment. This includes use of structurally different chelating agents or a combination of an antioxidant and a chelator to provide better clinical/biochemical recovery in addition to mobilization of heavy metal form intracellular sites. The present review article attempts to provide update information about the current strategies being

  7. Variation and clinical application value of fluoride concentrations in the serum and urine in patients with acute organic fluoride poisoning by inhaling%急性有机氟吸入中毒患者血尿氟浓度变化及临床应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳月珍; 陈寿权; 李章平

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察并比较不同程度急性有机氟吸入中毒患者在不同时间血、尿氟质量浓度的动态变化,探讨血、尿氟质量浓度测定在急性有机氟吸入中毒诊治中的临床应用价值.方法 分析2000年12月至2008年12月间浙江衢化医院收住的23例急性有机氟吸入中毒患者的临床资料,根据职业性急性有机氟中毒诊断标准(GBZ66-2002)分为轻度、中度和重度中毒组,采用离子选择性电极法动态检测中毒后1,2,3,4,5 d的血、尿氟质量浓度,同时测定同期在氟化工公司工作的10例健康员工血、尿氟离子质量浓度作为对照组,分析比较不同组和不同时间点的血、尿氟质量浓度变化.多组均数间的差异性比较采用重复测量方差分析,以P<0.05为差异具有统计学意义.结果 与轻度中毒组同时间点比较,中度中毒组血、尿氟离子质量浓度在第1~5天差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),而重度中毒组血、尿氟离子质量浓度在第1~5天差异均具统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01).与中度中毒组同时间点比较,重度中毒组血、尿氟离子质量浓度在第1~5天差异也均有统计学意义(P<0.005).各中毒组血氟离子质量浓度在第1~5天均较对照组有统计学意义的升高(P<0.05),而尿氟离子质量浓度仅在轻度中毒组第1天、中度中毒组第1~3天和重度中毒组第1~5天有统计学意义的升高(P<0.05).结论 急性有机氟吸入中毒后的5 d内,血氟离子质量浓度测定可作为诊断和判定严重程度的指标,尿氟离子质量浓度可作为中毒的诊断指标,但仅在中毒早期或重度中毒有意义.%Objective To investigate the changes of serum and urine fluorion organic fluoride poisoning by inhaling, and to probe into the clinical application value of concentrations in different degrees and at different time in patients with acute evaluating the sertm and urine fluorion concentration in acute organic

  8. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  9. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Lead Poisoning KidsHealth > For Parents > Lead Poisoning Print A ... Family en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important ...

  10. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl;

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker...... after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months of followup....

  11. Appendectomy due to lead poisoning: a case-report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghilinejad M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lead poisoning is a common occupational health hazard in developing countries and many misdiagnoses and malpractices may occur due to unawareness of lead poisoning symptoms. Case presentation We report a case of occupational lead poisoning in an adult battery worker with abdominal colic who initially underwent appendectomy with removal of normal appendix. Later on he was diagnosed with lead poisoning and was treated appropriately with lead chelator (CaNa2EDTA. Conclusion Lead poisoning is frequently overlooked as the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen which may result in unnecessary surgery. Appropriate occupational history taking is helpful in making a correct diagnosis. Occupational lead poisoning is a preventable disorder and a serious challenge for the health and labor authorities in developing countries.

  12. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF POISONING CASES IN COASTAL ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisoning is one of the common causes of admission in emergency department of various hospitals. This is a common socio medical problem. Green revolution has increased the production of food grain but the wide spread use of organophosphorus compounds has increased incidence of its poisoning to the human kind by accidental or suicidal. Around one hundred fifty six patient admitted in Konaseema Institute of Medical Science and General Hospital with diagnosis of acute poisoning. The present study showed that majority of the patients was of young age with females outnumbering males

  13. Mortality and morbidity of poisonings in the Nordic countries in 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrew, E.; Irestedt, B.; Hurri, T.;

    2008-01-01

    Aim. To map and compare mortality and morbidity of poisonings in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden in 2002 and to establish a common understanding of methods and procedures among the National Poisons Information Centres (NPIC) in order to create a Nordic toxico-epidemiological platform...... poisoning (using the same ICD-10 codes) were collected from the National Death Cause Registers. Results. Annual mortality of acute poisonings per 100,000 inhabitants (rate) was 16.6 in Finland and between 8.6 and 11.1 in the other Nordic countries. Morbidity rates varied between 150 and 255 per 100....... Methods. Morbidity was for this study defined as acute poisonings treated in hospitals given the ICD-10 codes T36-T65 and F10-F19. The figures were extracted from the National Patient/Hospital Registers. Acute poisonings listed as main as well as side diagnoses were included. Deaths recorded as acute...

  14. Acute toxicity of resmethrin, malathion and methoprene to larval and juvenile American lobsters (Homarus amemcanus) and analysis of pesticide levels in surface waters after Scourge™, Anvil™ and Altsoid™ application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkosky, Ann M.; Ruggieri, Joseph P.; Terracciano, Stephen A.; Brownawell, Bruce J.; McElroy, Anne E.

    2005-01-01

    Acute toxicity and immune response, combined with temperature stress effects, were evaluated in larval and juvenile American lobsters (Homarus americanus) exposed to malathion, resmethrin and methoprene. These pesticides were used to control West Nile virus in New York in 1999, the same year the American lobster population collapsed in western Long Island Sound (LIS). Whereas the suite of pesticides used for mosquito control changed in subsequent years, a field study was also conducted to determine pesticide concentrations in surface waters on Long Island and in LIS after operational applications. The commercial formulations used in 2002 and 2003—Scourge, Anvil and Altosid—contain the active ingredients resmethrin, sumithrin and methoprene, respectively. Concentrations of the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) were also measured as a proxy for pesticide exposure. Acute mortality in Stage I-II larval lobsters demonstrated that they are extremely sensitive to continuous resmethrin exposure. Resmethrin LC50s for larval lobsters determined under flow-through conditions varied from 0.26–0.95 μg L−1 in 48- and 96-h experiments at 16°C, respectively. Increased temperature (24°C) did not significantly alter resmethrin toxicity. Malathion and methoprene were less toxic than resmethrin. The 48-h LC50 for malathion was 3.7 μg L−1 and methoprene showed no toxicity at the highest (10 μg L−1) concentration tested. Phenoloxidase activity was used as a measure of immune response for juvenile lobsters exposed to sublethal pesticide concentrations. In continuous exposures to sublethal doses of resmethrin (0.03 μg L−1) or malathion (1 μg L−1) for 7 d at 16 or 22°C, temperature had a significant effect on phenoloxidase activity (P ≤ 0.006) whereas pesticide exposure did not (P = 0.880). The analytical methods developed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (LC-TOF-MS) provided high sensitivity with mass

  15. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furr, A.

    1977-01-01

    The route of arsenic exposure is usually by ingestion, thus the veterinarian is concerned with treating either an acute or a peracute condition. The arsenic compounds are considered to be highly toxic with a rapid onset of clinical signs. The toxicity and rapidity of onset are variable, depending upon the age and the species of animal. The chemical form and solubility of the toxicant also play a role in the course of the clinical syndrome. Inorganic arsenicals inhibit the sulfhydryl enzyme systems which are essential for normal cellular respiration and for metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. Therapeutic measures are intended to either remove or inactivate the unabsorbed material in the intestine, protect the alimentary tract, reverse the toxic syndrome and restore the homeostatic equilibrium of the animal. 5 references.

  16. Utility of population models to reduce uncertainty and increase value relevance in ecological risk assessments of pesticides: an example based on acute mortality data for daphnids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Niklas; Stark, John D

    2012-04-01

    Traditionally, ecological risk assessments (ERA) of pesticides have been based on risk ratios, where the predicted concentration of the chemical is compared to the concentration that causes biological effects. The concentration that causes biological effect is mostly determined from laboratory experiments using endpoints on the level of the individual (e.g., mortality and reproduction). However, the protection goals are mostly defined at the population level. To deal with the uncertainty in the necessary extrapolations, safety factors are used. Major disadvantages with this simplified approach is that it is difficult to relate a risk ratio to the environmental protection goals, and that the use of fixed safety factors can result in over- as well as underprotective assessments. To reduce uncertainty and increase value relevance in ERA, it has been argued that population models should be used more frequently. In the present study, we have used matrix population models for 3 daphnid species (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, and D. pulex) to reduce uncertainty and increase value relevance in the ERA of a pesticide (spinosad). The survival rates in the models were reduced in accordance with data from traditional acute mortality tests. As no data on reproductive effects were available, the conservative assumption that no reproduction occurred during the exposure period was made. The models were used to calculate the minimum population size and the time to recovery. These endpoints can be related to the European Union (EU) protection goals for aquatic ecosystems in the vicinity of agricultural fields, which state that reversible population level effects are acceptable if there is recovery within an acceptable (undefined) time frame. The results of the population models were compared to the acceptable (according to EU documents) toxicity exposure ratio (TER) that was based on the same data. At the acceptable TER, which was based on the most sensitive species (C. dubia

  17. Marijuana poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms.

  18. Marijuana poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. PMID:23796481

  19. Intoxicações e uso de pesticidas por agricultores do Município de Paty do Alferes, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Pesticide use and poisoning among farmers from the county of Paty do Alferes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Fernandes Delgado

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho é parte de um estudo mais amplo sobre as conseqüências para a saúde da exposição a pesticidas. Em 1997, no Município de Paty do Alferes, Rio de Janeiro, 55 agricultores foram entrevistados sobre o uso de pesticidas, equipamentos de proteção e medidas de higiene, ocorrência de intoxicações, destino das embalagens vazias e o tipo de orientação técnica recebida pelos usuários destes produtos. Os pesticidas mais usados foram inseticidas como a abamectina, os compostos organofosforados e os piretróides, e os fungicidas como o mancozeb, o clorotalonil e produtos à base de cobre. Entre os trabalhadores envolvidos no preparo e/ou aplicação de pesticidas, 92% informaram não usar qualquer tipo de equipamento de proteção individual. 62% dos agricultores entrevistados informaram já ter "passado mal" ao preparar ou aplicar pesticidas. Os sintomas mais freqüentemente citados foram dor de cabeça, enjôo, vômitos, vertigem, irritação da pele e visão embaçada. Destes agricultores, 21% necessitaram de assistência médica e em mais da metade dos casos (51%, em que os lavradores identificaram os pesticidas que usavam quando "passaram mal", foram citados inseticidas organofosforados da classe toxicológica I.This survey is part of a more comprehensive study on the health consequences of pesticide exposure. In the county (municipality of Paty do Alferes, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, 55 agricultural workers were interviewed on the use of pesticides, use of personal protective equipment, data on health status, and symptoms related to pesticide exposure, disposal of agrochemical containers, and technical assistance. The most widely used pesticides were insecticides such as abamectin, organophosphate compounds, and pyrethroids, and fungicides such as mancozeb, chlorothalonil, and copper products. As a rule, pesticides are handled carelessly, and 92% of workers involved in the mixing, loading, and spraying of insecticides and

  20. Arsine poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinfeld, M J

    1980-12-01

    A 31-year-old patient was admitted to the hospital because of dark red urine which on examination was found to be due to extracellular hemoglobin. The cause of the hemoglobinuria was exposure to arsine gas from a cylinder thought to be empty. The worker's exposure time was approximately one to two minutes. The degree of hemolytic anemia required only one unit of packed red cells. The patient was hydrated intravenously to avoid acute tubular necrosis. The arsenic content in the urine taken was 0.72 mg/L on the day of admission and dropped to 0.1 mg/L on the fourth day of hospitalization. The patient was discharged eight days after admission, when clinical and hematological status had improved sufficiently. Occupational history revealed that protective procedures employed in the handling of the cylinders containing the arsine gas were inadequate. It was found that the valve on one of the cylinders was half-opened and leaking and that the dust caps, which were attached to the outside of the valves of the cylinders, were present on some and not on others and, where present, had been hand-tightened and not wrench-tightened. Moreover, the cylinders although specified to be empty, were not, according to regulations requiring pressure to be less than 25 pounds gauge or 45 absolute.

  1. Organic Pesticide Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Organic Pesticide Ingredients Organic foods are not necessarily pesticide-free. ...

  2. Pesticides and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Pesticides and Human Health Pesticides have a specific purpose ...

  3. Methodology for determining toxicity of pesticides to wild vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, James B.; Moore, N.W.

    1966-01-01

    The effects of pesticidal contamination of wildlife habitats may be expected to be proportional to the toxicity of the compounds, the rate and manner of application, persistence of the basic chemical and/or any toxic metabolites, and the extent to which these substances are stored in animal tissues or concentrated by successive elements of wildlife food chains. Measurement of these effects under field conditions is difficult, but the need for field studies may be reduced or eliminated by controlled laboratory tests. Representatives of the birds, mammals and aquatic animals in treated areas should be examined at all stages in the life cycle. Suitable species include laboratory rats, rabbits, dogs, bobwhite or coturnix quail, ringneck pheasant, trout, sunfish, oysters. The quantity of pesticide (ppm in diet or environment; mg/kg consumed) should be determined which produces acute or chronic poisoning or which shows measurable sublethal effects on growth or reproduction. Tissues (including gonads and eggs) should be analysed at each degree of exposure.

  4. Food poisonings by ingestion of cyprinid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

    2014-01-28

    Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5α-cyprinol sulfate (5α-cholestane-3α, 7α, 12α, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans.

  5. Certain cases of poisoning by arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristol, P.; Fourcade, J.; Ravoire, J.; Bezenech, C.

    1939-05-01

    Cases of acute and chronic poisoning by arsenic are reported. Diffuse pains, angor, edema of the limbs and genitals, complicated by heptic insufficiency and chronic bronchitis were determined in a subject having lived near an industrial plant processing arseniferous ores for several years. The plant emitted several hundred kg of finely dispersed arsenic oxide daily which settled on forage and vegetables. Symptoms of poisoning by arsenic were also detected in cattle in the same area. The installation of Cottrell type dust separators has helped to suppress the arsenic oxide emissions.

  6. 气管切开救治急性有机磷中毒致呼吸肌麻痹的应用与临床研究%Application and Clinical Study of Bring a Patient Out of Danger Who Acute Organic Phosphorus Poisoning with Respiratory Muscle Paralysis by Tracheotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振宇

    2012-01-01

      目的:探讨救治急性有机磷中毒致呼吸肌麻痹的方法。方法:采用气管切开辅助人工呼吸和给氧等综合治疗。结果:本组23例患者除1例死于并发症外均获救。结论:气管切开是有机磷中毒致呼吸肌麻痹的绝对适应症。%  Objective:To explore the method that bring a patient out of danger who acute organic phosphorus poisoning with respiratory muscle paralysis.Method:Tracheotomy with artificial respiration and oxygen.Result:Treating 23 patients,one of them died from complications. Conclusion:Incision of trachea is the absolute indications that acute organic phosphorus poisoning with respiratory muscle paralysis.

  7. Pesticide Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides generally include herbicides, insecticides and fungicides that play an important role in maintaining worldwide food and fiber production by controlling weeds that compete for water and nutrients or by eliminating pests that reduce yields. In the future, the role of pesticides and fertili...

  8. Fatal poisonings in Oslo: a one-year observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyerdahl Fridtjof

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute poisonings are common and are treated at different levels of the health care system. Since most fatal poisonings occur outside hospital, these must be included when studying characteristics of such deaths. The pattern of toxic agents differs between fatal and non-fatal poisonings. By including all poisoning episodes, cause-fatality rates can be calculated. Methods Fatal and non-fatal acute poisonings in subjects aged ≥16 years in Oslo (428 198 inhabitants were included consecutively in an observational multi-centre study including the ambulance services, the Oslo Emergency Ward (outpatient clinic, and hospitals, as well as medico-legal autopsies from 1st April 2003 to 31st March 2004. Characteristics of fatal poisonings were examined, and a comparison of toxic agents was made between fatal and non-fatal acute poisoning. Results In Oslo, during the one-year period studied, 103 subjects aged ≥16 years died of acute poisoning. The annual mortality rate was 24 per 100 000. The male-female ratio was 2:1, and the mean age was 44 years (range 19-86 years. In 92 cases (89%, death occurred outside hospital. The main toxic agents were opiates or opioids (65% of cases, followed by ethanol (9%, tricyclic anti-depressants (TCAs (4%, benzodiazepines (4%, and zopiclone (4%. Seventy-one (69% were evaluated as accidental deaths and 32 (31% as suicides. In 70% of all cases, and in 34% of suicides, the deceased was classified as drug or alcohol dependent. When compared with the 2981 non-fatal acute poisonings registered during the study period, the case fatality rate was 3% (95% C.I., 0.03-0.04. Methanol, TCAs, and antihistamines had the highest case fatality rates; 33% (95% C.I., 0.008-0.91, 14% (95% C.I., 0.04-0.33, and 10% (95% C.I., 0.02-0.27, respectively. Conclusions Three per cent of all acute poisonings were fatal, and nine out of ten deaths by acute poisonings occurred outside hospital. Two-thirds were evaluated as accidental

  9. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  10. Extracorporeal treatment for barbiturate poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mactier, Robert; Laliberté, Martin; Mardini, Joelle;

    2014-01-01

    The EXTRIP (Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning) Workgroup conducted a systematic review of barbiturate poisoning using a standardized evidence-based process to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with barbiturate poisoning. The authors reviewed al...

  11. DDE poisoning in an adult bald eagle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcelon, D.K.; Thomas, N.J.

    1997-01-01

    A 12-year-old female bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was found in May 1993 on Santa Catalina Island, California (USA), in a debilitated condition, exhibiting ataxia and tremors; it died within hours. On necropsy, the bird was emaciated but had no evidence of disease or physical injury. Chemical analyses were negative for organophosphorus pesticides and lead poisoning. High concentrations of DDE (wet weight basis) were found in the brain (212 ppm), liver (838 ppm), and serum (53 ppm). Mobilization of DDE, from depleted fat deposits, probably resulted in the lethal concentration in the eagle's brain.

  12. Monitoring value of serum PCT in infection among patients with acute organic phosphorus poisoning%血清 PCT 对急诊有机磷中毒患者感染的监测价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚波; 高占强

    2016-01-01

    the e‐mergency patients with acute organic phosphorus poisoning and its application value in the infection and prognosis situation of emergency organic phosphorus poisoning .Methods 316 cases of acute organic phosphorus poisoning in our hospital from March 2013 to March 2015 were selected and divided into the infection group and the non‐infection group according to the results of blood culture ,midstream urine culture ,peritoneal drainage fluid and sputum culture . The venous blood specimen was collected at admission for detecting PCT by using rapid semi‐quantitative immuno‐chromatography (reagent kit produced by the German BRAHAMS company ) .The PCT measurement results were divided into 4 levels :< 0 .5 ,0 .5 - < 2 ,2 - < 10 ,≥ 10 ug/mL ,with PCT ≥ 0 .5 μg/mL as the positive threshold .The detection specimen was collected in the suspected infection sites within 24 h after admission and performed the bacte‐rial culture by using the BACTEC9120 automatic culture system produced by the American BD company .Meanwhile the blood culture ,midstream urine culture ,peritoneal drainage fluid culture and sputum culture were performed .Re‐sults Among 316 cases ,infection occurred in 136 cases ,180 cases had no infection ,the infection rate was 43 .04% ;a‐mong 136 infected cases ,53 cases were bacterial culture positive with the positive rate of 38 .98% ,including 41 cases of Gram‐positive bacterial infection ,8 cases of Gram‐negative bacterial infection and 4 cases of both Gram‐positive and Gram‐negative infection .The PCT level ≥ 0 .5 ng/mL had 130 cases in the infection group ,while only 31 cases in the non‐infection group ,showing the PCT level in the infection group was significantly higher than that in the non‐in‐fection group with statistical difference (P< 0 .05) .There were 136 cases in the infection group among 316 cases ,13 cases had the positive threshold ,but 149 cases among 180 cases in the non‐infection group did not belong to

  13. Study of profile of poisoning cases reported to district hospital, Chamarajanagar, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa K.

    2016-08-01

    Results: In present study, rural hindu males were among the highest reported cases, with maximum number of cases reported during the month of March and during the 12:01 to 18:00 hours of the day. Irritant poisons accounts to the highest incidence (68% among poisoning in present study. Pesticides, organophosphorus compound in particular form the major type of poisons among irritants followed by snake bite, rat poison and honey bee bite (sting. Conclusions: This study highlights the profile of poisoning cases admitted to the Chamarajanagar District, Karnataka, India which clearly indicates the high risk population involved and the common poisons encountered in these region. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1215-1219

  14. Pralidoxime in combination with Smecta in prevention of rebound occurrence for patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%解磷定思密达联用防治有机磷中毒患者进食后反跳的发生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘之红; 鞠贞会; 王姝红; 徐向英

    2015-01-01

    目的::探讨解磷定与思密达联合用药治疗经口有机磷农药中毒患者在进食后导致的病情加重或病情反复。方法:将已经达到阿托品化的64例患者随机分为观察组和对照组,每组各32例,两组患者均于入院后24 h开始进食。观察组患者在进食的同时,用解磷定和思密达交替口服,两组患者的其它治疗与护理措施相同。结果:观察组患者反跳1例,对照组反跳7例,两组患者比较差异显著(P<0.05);阿托品累计用量、用机械通气例数、病程等比较差异显著(P<0.05)。结论:在患者进食的同时,交替口服解磷定和思密达,二药能分解患者胃肠内残存的毒物与代谢产物,吸附并中和含有机磷毒性成分的消化道液体,减轻中毒症状,避免反跳的发生,病程缩短,提高了治愈率。%Objective:To investigate Pralidoxime in combination with Smecta in treatment of aggravated and repeated disease after organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Methods: 64 patients having reached atropinization were randomly divided into control group (n=32) and observation groups (n=32). 24h after admission, all the patients began to eat and patients in the observation group recerved Pralidoxime in combination with Smecta alternatively orally took Pralidoxime and Smecta at the same time. The other treatment and nursing measures of the two group were same. Results:The rebound occurred in 1 case of observation group and 7 cases of control group, and the difference was significant (P<0. 05). There were significant differences in the cumulative amount of atro-pine, the patient number of application of mechanical ventilation, and course of disease between the two groups (P<0. 05). Conclu-sions:Pralidoxime and Smecta being alternatively orally taken when eating can decompose the residual organophosphate poisons and metabolites, absorb and neutralize digestive liquid containing the toxic components of organic

  15. Pesticides: Improvements Needed To Ensure the Safety of Farmworkers and Their Children. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Peter F.

    In response to a Congressional request, the General Accounting Office examined issues related to pesticide safety for children in agricultural settings. Pesticides can cause acute, chronic, or delayed-onset illnesses. Children may be exposed to pesticides through farm work; eating pesticide-treated foods; or contact with drift from pesticide…

  16. Analysis of risk factors of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning%一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑病危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟强; 王勤勇; 李丽; 李晓红

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the risk factors for delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP).Methods All 198 patients with DEACMP were enrolled as DEACMP group,and 130 patients without DEACMP after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACMP) were as ACMP group.The general conditions(including age,gender,body mass index,occupation),poisoning degree,coma duration,the time of treatment of hyperbaric oxygen,complications after ACMP and brain image of CT/MRI were analyzed.Results The rates of age > 60 years,brainworkers,living alone in DEACMP group[65.2% (129/198),24.7% (49/198),48.5%(96/198)] were higher than those in ACMP group[50.0% (65/130),13.8% (18/130),19.2% (25/130)].The severe poisoning patients were more in DEACMP group than in ACMP group [58.1% (115/198) vs 9.2%(12/130),P < 0.01].The patients accompanied with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (including insufficiency of brain blood supply,encephalatrophy,coronay heart disease and hypertension) or diabetes in DEACMP group were more than those in ACMP grup(P <0.05 or P <0.01).The rates of coma duration more than 24 h and the time of treatment of hyperbaric oxygen treatment for more than 4 h in DEACMP group were higher than those in ACMP group (P < 0.05 or P <0.01).The patients accompanied with complications and brain injury in DEACMP group were more than those in ACMP group(P < 0.05 or P < 0.01).The multiple factor regression analysis explored 8 risk factors of DEACMP,including poisoning degree,coma time,brain materially injury,living alone,pulmonary infection,the time accepted treatment of hyperbaric oxygen,multiple organ dysfunctions and brainworkers.Conclusion There are versatile risk factors of DEACMP.%目的 探讨急性一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑病(DEACMP)的危险因素,为其预防提供参考.方法 DEACMP患者198例为DEACMP组,经历急性一氧化碳中毒(ACMP)但未出现DEACMP患者130例为ACMP组.对2组患者的一般情况[包括

  17. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.

    HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae......HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae...

  18. Acute Immobilization Toxicities of Five Pesticides to Daphnia magna Straus%5种药剂对大型溞的急性活动抑制毒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马德君; 冯磊; 蒋红云; 李传仁; 张燕宁; 何伟志; 张兰

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to compare the acute immobilization toxicities of five pesticides to Daphnia magna Straus. [ Method ] The EC50 values of five pesticides to D. magna were determined, and then the acute immobilization toxicities of five pesticides to D. magna were e-valuated. [Result] The acute immobilization toxicities of five pesticides to D. magna were as follows: 20% fenpropathrin EW (EC50 = 0.0028 a.i.mg/L) >10% cyhalothrin WP (EC50 = 0.0089 a. i. mg/L) > 7.5% rotenone EC (EC50 = 0.189 9 a. i. mg/L) > 7.5% pyrethrins EW (EC50= 0.202 0 a.i.mg/L) >0.5% physcion AS (EC50= 0.6401 a.i.mg8L). [Conclusion] The result lays theoretical basis for the application of D. magna in environmental pollution monitoring.%[目的]比较5种药剂对大型溞(Daphnia magna Straus)的急性活动抑制毒性.[方法]测定了5种药剂对大型溞的急性活动抑制中浓度EC50,并评价了5种药剂对大型溞的毒性.[结果]5种药剂对大型溞的毒性大小表现为:20%甲氰菊酯水乳剂(EC50=0.002 8a.i.mg/L)> 10%高效氯氟氰菊酯可湿性粉剂(EC50=0.008 9 a.i.mg/L) >7.5%鱼藤酮乳油(EC50=0.189 9 a.i.mg/L)>7.5%除虫菊素水乳剂( EC50=0.202 0 a.i.mg/L) >0.5%大黄素甲醚水剂(EC50=0.640 1 a.i.mg/L).[结论]为大型溞应用于环境污染监测研究提供了理论依据.

  19. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging findings in carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) of two patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning demonstrated white matter and cortical hyperintensities. In one patient, the changes on the FLAIR sequence were more subtle than those on DWI. The DWI abnormality in this patient represented true restriction. In the second patient, repeated exposure to CO caused restricted diffusion. DWI may be helpful for earlier identification of the changes of acute CO poisoning. (orig.)

  20. Chronic renal insufficiency from cortical necrosis induced by arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, R E; Hudson, J B; Rao, R N; Sobel, R E

    1978-08-01

    A 39-year-old man had anuria and azotemia and was found to be suffering from acute arsenic poisoning. After two peritoneal dialyses, partial renal function returned, and the patient has survived for five years without dialysis. Renal cortical necrosis was demonstrated by renal biopsy and renal calcification. We suggest that arsenic be added to the list of substances capable of causing renal cortical necrosis and recommend consideration of this complication in cases of arsenical poisoning.

  1. Presentations of patients of poisoning and predictors of poisoning-related fatality: Findings from a hospital-based prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hung-Jung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poisoning is a significant public health problem worldwide and is one of the most common reasons for visiting emergency departments (EDs, but factors that help to predict overall poisoning-related fatality have rarely been elucidated. Using 1512 subjects from a hospital-based study, we sought to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of poisoning patients and to identify predictors for poisoning-related fatality. Methods Between January 2001 and December 2002 we prospectively recruited poisoning patients through the EDs of two medical centers in southwest Taiwan. Interviews were conducted with patients within 24 hours after admission to collect relevant information. We made comparisons between survival and fatality cases, and used logistic regressions to identify predictors of fatality. Results A total of 1512 poisoning cases were recorded at the EDs during the study period, corresponding to an average of 4.2 poisonings per 1000 ED visits. These cases involved 828 women and 684 men with a mean age of 38.8 years, although most patients were between 19 and 50 years old (66.8%, and 29.4% were 19 to 30 years. Drugs were the dominant poisoning agents involved (49.9%, followed by pesticides (14.5%. Of the 1512 patients, 63 fatalities (4.2% occurred. Paraquat exposure was associated with an extremely high fatality rate (72.1%. The significant predictors for fatality included age over 61 years, insufficient respiration, shock status, abnormal heart rate, abnormal body temperature, suicidal intent and paraquat exposure. Conclusion In addition to well-recognized risk factors for fatality in clinical settings, such as old age and abnormal vital signs, we found that suicidal intent and ingestion of paraquat were significant predictors of poisoning-related fatality. Identification of these predictors may help risk stratification and the development of preventive interventions.

  2. National Pesticide Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any pest." Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides Repellents Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Local Contacts Find local pesticide & pest control information Pesticide Information and Resources: Frequently Asked Questions: ...

  3. What Is a Pesticide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Basic Information about Pesticide Ingredients Pesticide products contain both "active" and "inert" ingredients: What is a Pesticide? A pesticide is any substance or mixture of ...

  4. Organophosphorus and carbamate insecticide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Allister; Lotti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Both organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate insecticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which results in accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) at autonomic and some central synapses and at autonomic postganglionic and neuromuscular junctions. As a consequence, ACh binds to, and stimulates, muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, thereby producing characteristic features. With OP insecticides (but not carbamates), "aging" may also occur by partial dealkylation of the serine group at the active site of AChE; recovery of AChE activity requires synthesis of new enzyme in the liver. Relapse after apparent resolution of cholinergic symptoms has been reported with OP insecticides and is termed the intermediate syndrome. This involves the onset of muscle paralysis affecting particularly upper-limb muscles, neck flexors, and cranial nerves some 24-96 hours after OP exposure and is often associated with the development of respiratory failure. OP-induced delayed neuropathy results from phosphorylation and subsequent aging of at least 70% of neuropathy target esterase. Cramping muscle pain in the lower limbs, distal numbness, and paresthesiae are followed by progressive weakness, depression of deep tendon reflexes in the lower limbs and, in severe cases, in the upper limbs. The therapeutic combination of oxime, atropine, and diazepam is well established experimentally in the treatment of OP pesticide poisoning. However, there has been controversy as to whether oximes improve morbidity and mortality in human poisoning. The explanation may be that the solvents in many formulations are primarily responsible for the high morbidity and mortality; oximes would not be expected to reduce toxicity in these circumstances. even if given in appropriate dose. PMID:26563788

  5. Severe theophylline poisoning: charcoal haemoperfusion or haemodialysis?

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, R. M.; Hearing, S.; Goldsmith, D.J.; Keevil, B.; Venning, M. C.; Ackrill, P.

    1995-01-01

    Theophylline poisoning with a blood level of 183 mg/l in a 38-year-old man was treated with activated charcoal by mouth, but despite this the blood level of theophylline rose and there was circulatory collapse with rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and hyperthermia. Treatment with charcoal haemoperfusion and simultaneous haemodialysis was given, followed by continuous arteriovenous haemodialysis (CAVHD). Mean extraction rates of theophylline were 26% during CAVHD, and 86% during combined di...

  6. Potassium Permanganate Poisoning: A Nonfatal Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Eteiwi, Suzan M.; Al-Eyadah, Abdallah A.; Al-Sarihin, Khaldon K.; Ahmad A. Al-Omari; Rania A. Al-Asaad; Haddad, Fares H.

    2015-01-01

    Acute poisoning by potassium permanganate is a rare condition with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of the condition relies on a history of exposure or ingestion and a high degree of clinical suspicion. Oxygen desaturation and the presence of methemoglobin are also helpful indicators. Since no specific antidote is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Few cases have been reported in the literature following potassium permanganate ingestion, whether intentional or accidental, and m...

  7. Intoxicação aguda por metano arsonato ácido monossódico em bovinos Acute poisoning by monosodium methanearsonic acid in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela N. Dantas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho estudou a intoxicação acidental por arsênico em um lote de 24 vacas Girolando, as quais tiveram acesso a pasto pulverizado com herbicida à base de metano arsonato ácido monossódico (MSMA. Os bovinos apresentaram apatia, anorexia e diarreia profusa. Foram necropsiados na fazenda dois animais de 14 que morreram. Os principais achados macroscópicos foram úlceras abomasais e congestão renal. No exame microscópico, as principais lesões observadas foram abomasite e omasite necro-hemorrágica multifocal acentuada e, nos rins, necrose tubular difusa. As concentrações médias de arsênico em vacas com sinais clínicos foram 1,19±0,40, 10,52±2,16 e 76,06±48,37ppm no sangue, leite e fezes, respectivamente. Os níveis de arsênico encontrados em dois animais necropsiados foram 25,58 e 23,85ppm em fígado, e 28,71 e 35,94ppm em rins, respectivamente. No feto de uma vaca necropsiada, os níveis de arsênico mensurados no fígado e rim foram 9,0 e 8,92ppm, respectivamente. A concentração de arsênico no capim do piquete pulverizado foi 111,58ppm. No Brasil, o uso MSMA na composição de pesticidas e herbicidas é permitido somente para uso agrícola, mas não pecuário. A utilização desse ou de outros produtos à base de arsênico na pecuária pode causar altos índices de mortalidade no rebanho, além de diminuição da produção e contaminação de produtos de origem animal.Poisoning by monosodium methanearsonic acid (MSMA is reported in a herd of 24 Girolando cows that were introduced into a pasture sprayed with the herbicide. Clinical signs were apathy, anorexia, and profuse diarrhea. Fourteen cows died and two were necropsied. Abomasal ulcers and renal congestion was observed. Main histologic lesions were multifocal, accentuated, necrotizing and hemorrhagic abomasitis and omasitis, and tubular necrosis in the kidneys. Mean arsenic concentrations in cows with clinical signs were 1.19±0.40, 10.52±2.16, and 76.06

  8. Clinical features or metabolic disorder in acute alcohol poisoning and treatment experience%急性酒精中毒致代谢紊乱的临床特点及救治体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋松; 陈翀; 王保平; 王锡洪; 肖化军

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical features of kaliun、 natrum、 chlorum、 glucose and acid- alkali metabolic disorders, proposed treatment plan. Methods: 156 patients with acute severe alcohol poisoning were divided into stupor group and coma group, determination of blood alcohol concentration and kaliun、natrum、 chlorum、glucoso and pH change, treatment approach to fluid therapy and naloxone applications and hemodialysis.Results : Two groups were compared with blood alcohol concentration was significantly different(P<0. 01) ,metabolic acidosis was the most common metabolic disorder accounted for 47. 4%, the rest were hyponatremia、 hypokalemia and hypochloremia, blood glucose was diversity. Coma group patients metabolic acidosis、 hyponatremia、hypokalemia and hypochloremia were significantly lower than stupor group (P<0. 05), two group of patients after treatment were discharged in 24 hours. Conclusions:The incidences of metabolic disorder are higher in acute severe alcohol poisoning patients,which should be paid attention to in emergency work. Fluid therapy、 the application of naloxone and hemodialysis were the exact effective treatment methods.%目的:探讨急性酒精中毒患者的钾、钠、氯、糖及酸碱紊乱的临床特点,提出救治方案.方法:根据意识障碍程度将重度酒精中毒患者156例分为昏睡组和昏迷组,分别测定血液中的乙醇浓度及血钾、钠、氯、糖及 pH值的变化;救治方法以液体治疗、纳络嗣应用及血液透析为主.结果:两组患者血液中乙醇浓度相比有显著性差异(P<0.01).代谢紊乱变化以代谢性酸中毒最为常见,达47.7%,其次为低钠、低钾和低氯,血糖的变化呈多样性.昏迷组患者代谢性酸中毒、低钠、低钾和低氯的发生率明显高于昏睡组(P<0.05).经有效治疗后两组患者均在入院后24h内出院.结论:量度急桂酒精中毒有较明显的代谢紊乱,应予以重视.液体治疗、纳络嗣

  9. 急性一氧化碳中毒对大鼠少突胶质前体细胞的影响%Effect of acute carbon monoxide poisoning on oligodendrocyte precursor cells in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙瑞佼; 郭大志; 李航; 李铭鑫; 胡慧军; 潘晓雯

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过制备急性一氧化碳中毒(acute carbon monoxide poisoning ,ACOP)大鼠模型,观察大鼠中毒后中枢神经系统髓鞘改变,以及髓鞘标志物髓鞘碱性蛋白(myelin basic protein ,MBP)和少突胶质前体细胞(oligoden‐drocyte precursor cells ,OPCs)特异性细胞标志物硫酸软骨素蛋白多糖 NG2在中毒后表达的变化,为研究 ACOP后中枢神经系统髓鞘脱失的机制提供实验依据。方法:24只雄性健康SD大鼠,随机分为对照组和染毒组各12只。染毒组利用分次腹腔注射CO制作急性中毒模型,对照组注射空气。于造模后1d、3d取材,采用免疫组织化学染色和Western Blot方法检测中毒后中枢神经系统髓鞘的损伤和MBP、NG2表达的变化。结果:免疫组织化学染色结果显示,与对照组比较,染毒组染毒1d后MBP、NG2表达即减少,3d时进一步降低(P<0.05);Western Blot结果显示,染毒组染毒1d后MBP、NG2表达即减少,3d时进一步降低(P<0.05)。结论:ACOP后大鼠发生中枢神经系统脱髓鞘以及OPCs损伤。%Objective:To observe the changes in myelin and expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) and NG2 in the brain tissue of rats through the establishment of the acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACOP) model ,and to provide experimental evidence for the mechanism of demyelination of the central nervous system after ACOP .Meth‐ods:Twenty‐four male rats were divided into the control group (n=12) and the intoxication group (n=12) random‐ly .Animals in the intoxication group were intraperitoneally injected with pure CO repeatedly ,and those in the con‐trol group with air by the same protocol .The brain tissues were taken from the animals of the two groups at 1st and 3rd day after the establishment of the model .Changes in myelin were observed by immunohistochemical staining , and the expression of MBP and NG2 was detected using immunohistochemistry and

  10. Intoxicação aguda por samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum em bovinos na Região Central do Rio Grande do Sul Acute poisoning by bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum in cattle in central Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno L. Anjos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram revisados casos de intoxicação por samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum em bovinos de 10 pequenas propriedades rurais de sete municípios da Região Central do Rio Grande do Sul. O estudo abrangeu 6.256 necrospias de bovinos realizadas num período de 43 anos e incluiu 15 necropsias de bovinos que morreram em conseqüência da intoxicação aguda por samambaia. As taxas de morbidade e mortalidade foram 17,9% e a letalidade era virtualmente de 100%. Em 40% das propriedades a doença ocorreu em pequenos surtos afetando vários bovinos; em 60% das propriedades apenas um bovino era afetado. Os principais sinais clínicos incluíam febre (40-42ºC, apatia, salivação e hemorragias, principalmente pelas gengivas, pela cavidade nasal e pelo trato gastrintestinal. Múltiplas petéquias eram observadas nas mucosas e na pele. Ocasionalmente observou-se hematúria e sangue no leite. A doença era invariavelmente fatal após um curso clínico de dois dias. Alterações hematológicas consistiam de leucopenia por neutropenia, anemia normocítica normocrômica e trombocitopenia arregenerativa. Os achados de necropsia incluíam hemorragias de intensidade variável em vários órgãos e infartos no fígado. Tanto as hemorragias quanto os infartos foram confirmados histologicamente; agregados de bacilos e vasos trombosados foram observados em associação com os infartos. Aplasia da medula óssea era um achado consistente nos quatro casos em que esse órgão foi examinado.Cases of acute poisoning by bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum in cattle from 10 small farms of seven municipalities of the Central Region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, were reviewed. The study encompassed 6,256 necropsies of cattle considering a 43-year period and included 15 necropsies of cattle dying from acute bracken poisoning. Morbidity and mortality were 17.9% and lethality was virtually 100%. In 40% of the farms the disease occurred in small outbreaks affecting several cattle

  11. Arsenic – Poison or medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kulik-Kupka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine. Med Pr 2016;67(1:89–96

  12. [The protective effect of pantothenic acid derivatives and changes in the system of acetyl CoA metabolism in acute ethanol poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseenok, A G; Dorofeev, B F; Omel'ianchik, S N

    1988-01-01

    Calcium pantothenate (CaP), calcium 4'-phosphopantothenate (CaPP), pantethine, panthenol, sulfopantetheine and CoA decrease acute toxicity of acetaldehyde in mice. All studied compounds diminish duration of the narcotic action of ethanol--ET (3.5 g/kg intraperitoneally) in mice and rats. In the latter this effect is realized at the expense of "long sleeping" and "middle sleeping" animals. CaP (150 mg/kg subcutaneously) and CaPP (100 mg/kg subcutaneously) prevent hypothermia and a decrease of oxygen consumption in rats induced by ET administration. Combined administration of ET, CaP and CaPP leads to a characteristic increase of acid-soluble CoA fractions in the rat liver and a relative decrease of acetyl CoA synthetase and N-acetyltransferase reactions. The antitoxic effect of preparations of pantothenic acid is not mediated by CoA-dependent reactions of detoxication, but most probably is due to intensification of ET oxidation and perhaps to its elimination from the organism. PMID:2905277

  13. Asphalt cement poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  14. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heater). Many carbon monoxide poisonings occur in the winter months when furnaces, gas fireplaces, and portable heaters ... 16567227 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16567227 . Nelson LS, Hoffman RS. Inhaled toxins. In: Marx JA, ...

  15. Tips to Prevent Poisonings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemical products such as cleaning solutions or beauty products. Never mix household products together. For example, mixing bleach and ammonia ... the fan and open windows when using chemical products such as household cleaners. Keep Young Children Safe from Poisoning Be ...

  16. Drain cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002779.htm Drain cleaner poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Drain cleaners contain very dangerous chemicals that can be ...

  17. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002693.htm Cold wave lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cold wave lotion is a hair care product used ...

  18. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  19. Metal cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal cleaners are very strong chemical products that contain acids. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or ... Metal cleaners contain organic compounds called hydrocarbons, including: 1,2-butylene oxide Boric acid Cocoyl sarcosine Dicarboxylic ...

  20. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids