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Sample records for acute pesticide poisoning

  1. [Acute pesticide poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Nah, J J; Collí-Quintal, J

    2000-01-01

    To describe the epidemiologic pattern of acute pesticide poisoning (APP) in a general hospital in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. From 1994 to 1998, 33 patients 13 years of age or older with diagnosis of APP were studied. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze information. Males were frequently affected (82%), specially those coming from rural areas (60%). The mean age of the group was 34 +/- 15.8 years. In 79% of the cases, pesticides were used to commit suicide and 33% of poisoning cases were due to organophospate pesticides. The mortality rate was 12%. In this small sample, acute poisoning from pesticides in the agricultural setting may be underestimated, since it was less frequent than in the general population. APP was more commonly used by indigent people to commit suicide.

  2. [Acute poisoning by pesticides in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveau, P

    2016-07-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning in children is rare but potentially serious. Some clinical patterns (toxidromes) are suggestive of the drug class: cholinergic crisis for organophosphate or carbamate insecticides; neurological syndrome for rodenticides; digestive and respiratory syndrome for herbicides. Treatment is symptomatic and only a few patients are treated with an antidote: atropine and pralidoxime for organophosphate insecticides, vitamin K for anticoagulant rodenticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. [The reporting system of acute pesticides poisoning and general situation of pesticides poisoning in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-yang; Wang, Hong-fei; Yin, Yu

    2005-10-01

    To introduce the reporting system of acute pesticides poisoning and analyze epidemiologic characteristics of pesticides poisoning from reported cases in China. Case reports in the data base of reporting system for occupational diseases were computed by Excel for windows and statistical significance by SAS 6.12. A total of 108 372 cases were reported from 1997 to 2003. Among them, the incidence of occupational poisoning, and non-occupational poisoning accounted for 25.39%, and 74.61% respectively. The fatality rate was 6.86%. The average age was 36.83 years for all pesticides poisoning patients, and 15-59 years old patients accounted for 84.11%. Among 0-14 years old non-occupational poisoning patients, 0-4 years children accounted for 33.51%. Male patients were in the majority in occupational pesticides poisoning, female in non-occupational. Insecticides especially organophosphorus insecticides such as methamidophos, parathion, and omethoate comprised a higher proportion, accounting for 86.02% of the pesticides poisoning. More attention should be paid to pesticides poisoning by the government and medical workers engaged in public health.

  4. Risk factors for acute pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of patients with acute pesticide poisoning in a rural area of Sri Lanka and, for intentional self-poisoning cases, explores the relative importance of the different determinants. Data were collected for 239 acute pesticide-poisoning cases, which were...... admitted to two rural hospitals in Sri Lanka. Sociodemographic characteristics, negative life events and agricultural practices of the intentional self-poisoning cases were compared with a control group. Most cases occurred among young adults and the large majority (84%) was because of intentional self...... shows that acute pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka is determined by a combination of sociodemographic and psychological factors. Suggestions are given for interventions that could control the morbidity and mortality due to acute pesticide poisoning in developing countries....

  5. [Effects of controlling specific dangerous pesticides on prevention of acute pesticide poisoning in rural area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Zhao, Jiang-xia; Chang, Xiu-li; Zhou, Zhi-jun

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the effects of controlling the specific dangerous pesticides on prevention of acute pesticide poisoning in rural area. The data of reported cases of pesticide poisoning were analyzed to find out the specific dangerous pesticide in acute pesticide poisoning. Then the occurrence of occupational pesticide poisoning and fatality of non-occupational pesticide poisoning were estimated under the hypothesis of removing the specific dangerous pesticides. The data indicated that parathion (including methyl parathion) was the specific dangerous pesticide inducing occupational pesticide poisoning. After removing the use of parathion, the hazard of pesticides which caused occupational pesticide poisoning would be significantly decreased (P pesticide which caused non-occupational pesticide poisoning, with its fatality up to 15.8%. If parathion was well controlled, the fatality of non-occupational pesticide poisoning would be declined from 9.4% to 7.4%. The analyses of related literatures also revealed the similar results. The occurrence of occupational pesticide poisoning and fatality of non-occupational pesticide poisoning may decrease if the most dangerous pesticides are well supervised.

  6. Acute organo-phosphorus pesticide poisoning in North Karnataka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pesticide poisoning is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in India. Objectives: To assess the oxidative damage, hemoglobin level and leukocyte count in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Methods: Plasma cholinesterase was assessed as a toxicity marker. Oxidative damage was ...

  7. Management of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A; Eyer, Peter; Dawson, Andrew H

    2008-01-01

    Summary Organophosphorus pesticide self-poisoning is an important clinical problem in rural regions of the developing world, and kills an estimated 200 000 people every year. Unintentional poisoning kills far fewer people but is a problem in places where highly toxic organophosphorus pesticides are available. Medical management is difficult, with case fatality generally more than 15%. We describe the limited evidence that can guide therapy and the factors that should be considered when designing further clinical studies. 50 years after first use, we still do not know how the core treatments—atropine, oximes, and diazepam—should best be given. Important constraints in the collection of useful data have included the late recognition of great variability in activity and action of the individual pesticides, and the care needed cholinesterase assays for results to be comparable between studies. However, consensus suggests that early resuscitation with atropine, oxygen, respiratory support, and fluids is needed to improve oxygen delivery to tissues. The role of oximes is not completely clear; they might benefit only patients poisoned by specific pesticides or patients with moderate poisoning. Small studies suggest benefit from new treatments such as magnesium sulphate, but much larger trials are needed. Gastric lavage could have a role but should only be undertaken once the patient is stable. Randomised controlled trials are underway in rural Asia to assess the effectiveness of these therapies. However, some organophosphorus pesticides might prove very difficult to treat with current therapies, such that bans on particular pesticides could be the only method to substantially reduce the case fatality after poisoning. Improved medical management of organophosphorus poisoning should result in a reduction in worldwide deaths from suicide. PMID:17706760

  8. Acute pesticide poisoning--a global public health problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning has become a major public health problem worldwide, following the intensification of agriculture and the promotion of agro-chemicals in low and middle income countries, with more than 300,000 deaths each year. The easy availability of highly toxic pesticides in the homes...... of farming communities has made pesticides the preferred means of suicide with an extremely high case fatality. Similarly, the extensive use of pesticides exposes the community to both long-term and acute occupational health problems. A concerted effort is urgently needed to address the situation....

  9. Acute organo-phosphorus pesticide poisoning, oxidative damage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Joseph Ayobabalola Hainan Medical University, China, Faculty of Medicine, University of Nis, Serbia; adjunct. University, Nigeria;. Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok Thailand. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v14i3.42. References. 1. Hundekari IA, Suryakar AN, Rathi DB. Acute organo-phosphorus pesticide poisoning in ...

  10. Factors associated with self-reported symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning among farmers in northwestern Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, Ngqabutho M.; Fogo, Christopher; Bessler, Patricia; Jolly, Curtis M.; Jolly, Pauline E.

    2011-01-01

    Pesticide poisoning is a major public health concern in developing countries. We conducted a population survey among farmers in three parishes of northwestern Jamaica to determine the occurrence of acute pesticide poisoning and to identify factors associated with pesticide poisoning. Approximately 16% of 359 farmers who participated in the study reported one or more incidents of acute pesticide poisoning within the last two years. Only 25% of the farmers reported ever receiving training in pesticide handling or safety. The majority (68%) of farmers who reported pesticide poisoning never sought medical attention for poisoning. The factors found to be associated with pesticide poisoning in this study indicate that implementation of specific intervention strategies and education of farmers is needed in order to improve safe handling, use and disposal of pesticides and reduce incidents of acute pesticide poisoning. PMID:24484363

  11. Patterns of acute poisoning with pesticides in the paediatric age group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayasiri, Kavinda Chandimal; Jayamanne, Shaluka F; Jayasinghe, Chamilka Y

    2017-12-01

    Pesticides are identified as one of the dangerous poisons globally in children and are associated with increased short- and long-term morbidity. Pesticide poisoning is the most common method of self-poisoning among adults in rural Sri Lanka, and the clinical management is associated with significant healthcare costs to the country. There is however little data published on acute pesticide poisoning among children in rural Sri Lanka. The current study aimed to comprehensively evaluate clinical profiles, harmful first aid measures, emergency clinical management, complications and outcomes related to acute pesticide poisoning among children in the rural community of Sri Lanka. This multicenter study was conducted in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka involving all children with acute pesticide poisoning and who were between 9 months and 12 years of age. Data were collected over 7 years (2007-2014), and children from 36 hospitals were recruited. Data collection was carried out by pretested, multi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaires to identify clinical profiles of children, harmful first aid measures, emergency clinical management, reasons for delayed management, complications and outcomes of pesticide poisoning events. Among 1621 children with acute poisoning, 9.5% (155) comprised children with acute pesticide poisoning. Male children outnumbered female children, and the majority of children were less than 5 years. Most common pesticides implicated in poisoning of children were organophosphates and carbamates. Gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms were predominant clinical features. Limited transport and lack of concern regarding urgency among caregivers were leading reasons for delayed management. Most common location for poisoning was cultivation lands. Harmful first aid measures were practiced in 32.4%. 7.1% had intentional pesticide poisoning. The case fatality rate of all pesticide poisonings in the study was 1.9%. 58.1% of patients

  12. [Acute poisoning with anticholinesterase carbamate pesticides: methomyl-lannate®].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouali, Nadia; Amira, Dorra; Zitouni, Eya; Gana, Ines; Nouioui, Anouer; Khelifi, Fathia; Belwaer, Ines; Masri, Wafa; Ghorbal, Hayet; Hedhili, Abderazzek

    2014-01-01

    The methomyl is increasingly involved in suicidal and autolytic attempts. Intoxication with carbamate (CM) compounds is still a frequent cause for admission in the Emergency department of the medical assistance center (MAC) in Tunis, Tunisia. The aim of this study was to describe the demographics, clinical features and hospital course of patients presenting with CM intoxication to the ED of MAC in Tunis, Tunisia. This was a retrospective study about 52 cases of acute poisoning by methomyl, compiled in the MAC from 1st January, 2009 to December 31, 2012. Intoxications were all oral, mostly intentional (33 cases: 65%) and in young patients (29 years old). Females outnumbered males by almost 2:1. The most frequent symptom was hypotension (41 cases: 80%), followed by miosis (39 cases: 75%), rhabdomyolysis (29 cases: 55%), vomiting (18 cases: 43%), bronchorrhea (14 cases: 27%), diarrhea (11 cases: 21%) and fasciculations (8 cases: 17%). Treatments included gastric lavage in 16 patients (32%), assisted ventilation in 8 cases (17%) and atropine in 44 patients (85%). Seven patients died during hospitalization. Pesticide poisoning is a significant public health problem and some preventive measures must be strictly enforced to limit this kind of intoxication.

  13. [The characteristics and trends of acute pesticide poisoning of Shaoxing in 2006 to 2011].

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    Jiang, Guo-qin; Lian, Ling-jun; Wang, Chun-hui; Li, Ming; Wang, Ji-gang; Pan, Nan-yan; Wang, Sha-sha

    2013-07-01

    To describe the epidemiological characteristics of acute pesticide poisoning in Shaoxing, China during 2006-2011 and to provide a reference for the prevention and control of pesticide poisoning. The data on pesticide poisoning in Shaoxing during 2006-2011 were obtained from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention and were then analyzed. A total of 2024 cases of acute pesticide poisoning were reported in Shaoxing during 2006-2011, and 44 cases were missed, accounting for 2.1% (44/2068) of all cases. Among the 2024 cases, 119 (5.9%) died; the fatality rates of productive poisoning and unproductive poisoning were 1.0% (3/289) and 6.7% (116/1735), respectively. The reported cases included 1038 (51.3%) females and 986 (48.7%) males, and there were no significant differences in the ratio between male and female cases of acute pesticide poisoning from 2006 to 2011 (χ2 = 9.16, P = 0.10). The 2024 cases had a mean age of 47.0±18.7 years; the male cases had a significantly higher mean age than the female cases (50.7±19.0 vs 43.4±17.8 years, t = 9.01, P poisoning, and 1735 (85.7%) suffered unproductive poisoning. In the 986 male cases, 219 (22.2%) suffered productive poisoning; in the 1038 female cases, 968 (93.3%) suffered unproductive poisoning. The pesticides that caused poisoning included insecticide (86.7%, 1754/2024), herbicide (5.1%, 104/2024), rodenticide (3.6%, 72/2024), and bactericide, mixed preparation, biochemical pesticides, and other four categories of pesticides (4.6%, 94/2024); of the 1754 cases caused by insecticide, 1455 (83.0%) were attributed to organophosphorus insecticide. The incidence of unproductive acute pesticide poisoning is high in Shaoxing, and it mainly affects females. Most cases of acute pesticide poisoning are aged 30∼60 years. Insecticide is the main cause of poisoning. It is necessary to enhance health knowledge popularization and safety management of pesticides.

  14. Medical treatment of acute poisoning with organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides.

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    Jokanović, Milan

    2009-10-28

    Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) are used as pesticides and developed as warfare nerve agents such as tabun, soman, sarin, VX and others. Exposure to even small amounts of an OP can be fatal and death is usually caused by respiratory failure. The mechanism of OP poisoning involves inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) leading to inactivation of the enzyme which has an important role in neurotransmission. AChE inhibition results in the accumulation of acetylcholine at cholinergic receptor sites, producing continuous stimulation of cholinergic fibers throughout the nervous systems. During more than five decades, pyridinium oximes have been developed as therapeutic agents used in the medical treatment of poisoning with OP. They act by reactivation of AChE inhibited by OP. However, they differ in their activity in poisoning with pesticides and warfare nerve agents and there is still no universal broad-spectrum oxime capable of protecting against all known OP. In spite of enormous efforts devoted to development of new pyridinium oximes as potential antidotes against poisoning with OP only four compounds so far have found its application in human medicine. Presently, a combination of an antimuscarinic agent, e.g. atropine, AChE reactivator such as one of the recommended pyridinium oximes (pralidoxime, trimedoxime, obidoxime and HI-6) and diazepam are used for the treatment of OP poisoning in humans. In this article the available data related to medical treatment of poisoning with OP pesticides are reviewed and the current recommendations are presented.

  15. Pesticide use and self-reported symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning among aquatic farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming; Jørs, Erik

    2011-01-01

    in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88%) had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly...

  16. Acute pesticide poisoning among female and male cotton growers in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mancini, F.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Jiggins, J.L.S.; Ambatipudi, A.C.; Murphy, H.

    2005-01-01

    A season-long assessment of acute pesticide poisoning among farmers was conducted in three villages in India. Fifty female cotton growers reported the adverse effects experienced after exposures to pesticides by themselves and by their male relatives (n = 47). The study documented the serious

  17. Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Symptoms of Acute Pesticide Poisoning among Aquatic Farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Klith Jensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88% had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02–1.28. The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22–0.91. These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among the farmers and enforcing the effective banning of the most toxic pesticides will considerably reduce the number of acute pesticide poisoning episodes.

  18. Acute pesticide poisoning outcomes: a nationwide study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chieh-Fan; Lin, Hsing-Lin; Chou, Huei-Yin; Hsu, Wen-Chi; Shi, Hon-Yi

    2015-03-01

    This study presents the findings of a nationwide study of acute pesticide poisoning (APP) outcomes, including outcome predictors such as physician and hospital volume and associated factors. This study of data contained in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database analysed 27 046 patients who had been hospitalised for APP from January 1996 to December 2007. Patient characteristics were then compared among quartiles. The primary outcome measures were length of stay (LOS) and hospital treatment cost. Effect size (ES) was compared among three equally divided periods, and multiple regression models were used to identify outcome predictors. The overall prevalence of APP per 100 000 patients decreased from 12.43 in 1996 to 6.87 in 2007. The LOS for APP treatment was negatively associated with physician volume during the study period. Both LOS and hospital treatment cost were lowest in the high hospital volume subgroup. Comparisons of LOS and hospital treatment cost among the three periods showed that high-volume hospitals and high-volume physicians had better ESs compared to low-volume hospitals and low-volume physicians. Age and number of co-morbidities had significant positive associations with LOS, while admission year, male gender, hospital level, hospital volume and physician volume had significant negative associations with LOS (p<0.05). Hospital treatment cost and hospital level correlated positively with admission year, number of co-morbidities and LOS but correlated negatively with hospital volume and physician volume (p<0.05). In APP patients, treatment by a high-volume physician can reduce LOS and treatment cost. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Hospital-based surveillance for acute pesticide poisoning caused by neurotoxic and other pesticides in Tanzania.

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    Lekei, Elikana; Ngowi, Aiwerasia V; London, Leslie

    2014-12-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning (APP), particularly with neurotoxic agents, is often under-reported in developing countries. This study aimed to estimate the burden of APP in Tanzania due to neurotoxic and other pesticides in order to propose a surveillance system. The study reviewed hospital admission data for APP retrospectively (2000-2005) in 30 facilities in four regions of Tanzania. A prospective follow-up over 12 months in 2006 focused on 10 facilities with the highest reporting of APP. The majority of known poisoning agents were organophosphates or WHO class I and II pesticides. APP involving suicide was significantly more likely to be fatal in both retrospective (PRR fatal/non-fatal=3.8; 95% CI=1.8-8.0) and in prospective (PRR=8.7; 95% CI=1.1-65) studies. There was a significant association between suicide and gender (PRR female/male=1.5; 95% CI=1.1-2.0) in the prospective study. Occupational circumstances as a cause of APP, which was relatively small in both studies (8.5% in the retrospective and 10.2% in the prospective study) was less common amongst men compared to women (6.1% for males versus 12.0% for females) in the retrospective study but almost equal in prospective study (10.2% for males versus 10.1% for females). Contrasting retrospective to prospective studies, the annual incidence rate almost tripled (from 1.43 to 4.05 per 100,000) and mortality rate doubled (from 0.11 to 0.22 per 100,000). Case fatality declined accordingly from 7.8% to 5.6% in prospective study. The study revealed a substantial improvement in the completeness of data with prospective data collection. Missing data for circumstances and agents declined by 24.1% and 9.9%, respectively. Despite this improvement, routine reporting could only generate 33-50% of the information needed for a notification of banned or severely restricted chemicals under the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) convention. The two to threefold increase in rates with prospective data collection suggests significant

  20. Clonidine as an adjuvant in the management of acute poisoning by anticholinesterase pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ebiary, A A; Gad, S A; Wahdan, A A; El-Mehallawi, I H

    2016-04-01

    Anticholinesterase pesticides are widely used in agriculture and domestic settings throughout the world, and they are responsible for great morbidity and mortality. In Egypt and other developing countries, there is a pressing need for new affordable antidotes to treat anticholinesterase pesticide poisoning. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of moderate doses of clonidine in the management of adult patients with acute anticholinesterase pesticide poisoning. This study was an open-label, phase II pilot clinical trial. Sixty patients with acute anticholinesterase pesticide poisoning gave consent to participate in the study. They were divided into 2 equal groups, with 30 patients in each group. Group I received clonidine plus the routine treatment, while group II received only the routine treatment. Patients were subjected to full history taking, and their vital and clinical data were recorded. Serum cholinesterase levels and routine laboratory investigations were measured. The different outcomes of the patients were assessed. The baseline characteristics of both groups were similar. Thirteen (43.3%) patients developed significant hypotension during clonidine treatment. The clinical outcomes (including mortality, need for assisted ventilation, length of hospital stay, and total doses of atropine) showed no significant differences between the two groups. The use of clonidine in acute anticholinesterase pesticide poisoning may be associated with a high incidence of hypotension requiring intervention. The clinical outcomes may not significantly improve in clonidine-treated patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Acute Pesticide Poisoning in Children: Hospital Review in Selected Hospitals of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elikana Lekei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute pesticide poisoning (APP is a serious problem worldwide. Because the burden of childhood APP is unknown in Tanzania, this study describes the distribution, circumstances, and patterns of APP involving children under 18 years in Tanzania. Methodology. A 12-month prospective study was conducted in 10 Tanzanian healthcare facilities in 2006 using a data collection tool for surveillance. Results. Of 53 childhood poisoning cases identified, 56.6% were female. The most common poisoning circumstances were accidents (49.1% and suicide (30.2%. The most vulnerable children were 16-17 years old (30.2%. Suicide was significantly more common in females (PRR females/males = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.03–2.68 and accidental cases were more common in children aged 10 years or younger. Suicide was concentrated in children over 10 years, comprising 53% of cases in this age group. Organophosphates (OPs, zinc phosphide, and endosulfan were common amongst reported poisoning agents. The annual APP incidence rate was 1.61/100,000. Conclusion. APP is common among children in this region of Tanzania. Prevention of suicide in older children should address mental health issues and control access to toxic pesticides. Prevention of accidents in younger children requires safer storage and hygiene measures. Diverse interventions are needed to reduce pesticide poisoning among children in Tanzania.

  2. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and

  3. Management of Treatment and Prevention of Acute OP Pesticide Poisoning by Medical Informatics, Telemedicine and Nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Chandra Sahoo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute organophosphorous pesticide (OP poisoning kills a lot of people each year. Treatment of acute OP poisoning is of very difficult task and is a time taking event. Present day informatics methods (telemedicine, bioinformatics methods (data mining, molecular modeling, docking, cheminformatics, and nanotechnology (nanomedicine should be applied in combination or separately to combat the rise of death rate due to OP poisoning. Use of informatics method such as Java enabled camera mobiles will enable us early detection of insecticidal poisoning. Even the patients who are severely intoxicated (suicidal attempts can be diagnosed early. Telemedicine can take care for early diagnosis and early treatment. Simultaneously efforts must be taken with regard to nanotechnology to find lesser toxic compounds (use less dose of nanoparticle mediated compounds: nano-malathion as insecticides and find better efficacy of lesser dose of compounds for treatment (nano-atropine of OP poisoning. Nano-apitropine (atropine oxide may be a better choice for OP poisoning treatment as the anticholinergic agent; apitropine and hyoscyamine have exhibited higher binding affinity than atropine sulfate. Synthesis of insecticides (malathion with an antidote (atropine, apitropine in nanoscale range will prevent the lethal effect of insecticides.

  4. Acute pesticide poisoning among children in South Korea: findings from National Health Insurance claims data, 2006-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Jin; Ko, Yousun; Cha, Eun Shil

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of acute pesticide poisoning among children in South Korea and describe the related epidemiologic characteristics. We evaluated the age-standardized rates of incidence of pesticide poisoning among children in South Korea from 2006 through 2009 using National Health Insurance claims data. A total of 1232 children aged 0-14 years were identified from the acute pesticide poisoning cases reported across South Korea during the study period. The annual average age-standardized rate of incidence from acute pesticide poisoning was 3.6 per 100 000. The majority of the cases were identified in the categories of the 1-4-year-old age-group (56.5%), outpatients (80.0%), single-day visit to a hospital (70.4%) and summer occurrence (43.3%). Acute pesticide poisoning is prevalent among children in South Korea; therefore, intervention efforts are needed to reduce the cases of pesticide poisoning among children.

  5. Reducing acute poisoning in developing countries--options for restricting the availability of pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Flemming; van der Hoek, Wim; Cole, Donald C

    2003-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of people are dying around the world each year from the effects of the use, or misuse, of pesticides. This paper reviews the different options to reduce availability of the most hazardous chemicals, focusing on issues in developing countries. Emphasis is placed on the fatal ......, alcohol or drug addiction, emotional distress, depression, physical illness, social isolation or financial hardship. These should be addressed through preventive health programmes and community development efforts....... poisoning cases and hence the focus on self-harm cases. Overall, it is argued here that restricting access to the most hazardous pesticides would be of paramount importance to reduce the number of severe acute poisoning cases and case-fatalities and would provide greater opportunities for preventive...

  6. Reducing the Incidence of Acute Pesticide Poisoning by Educating Farmers on Integrated Pest Management in South India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mancini, F.; Jiggins, J.L.S.; O'Malley, M.

    2009-01-01

    Sixty-five farmers reported on pesticide use and the signs and symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning when using two different plant protection strategies: in 2003 using chemical controls and in 2004 using an approach to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) based on an ecological analysis of the field

  7. Acute organo-phosphorus pesticide poisoning, oxidative damage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    toxicology. However, there are many points to be considered. First, there is no control group in this report and it is not possible to tell whether the observed finding is significantly different from general population in the same area. In many rural areas in developing countries, the exposure to organo-phosphorus pesticide is ...

  8. Factors associated with acute pesticide poisoning among farmers in Northwestern Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Jolly, Pauline; Ncube, N.; Bessler, Patricia; Fogo, Christopher; Jolly, Curtis M.

    2010-01-01

    The safe production and marketing of food is a major step towards food security. However, many farmers put themselves at risk from pesticide poisoning during the production process. The unsafe use of pesticides is a major problem, especially in Caribbean Common Market (CARICOM) countries where the most persistent and hazardous pesticides are used by farmers with limited training. Excessive and improper use of pesticides is one of the major causes of chemical poisoning in the CARICOM area. In ...

  9. N-acetylcysteine in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning: A Randomized, Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ebiary, Ahmad A; Elsharkawy, Rasha E; Soliman, Nema A; Soliman, Mohammed A; Hashem, Ahmed A

    2016-08-01

    Organophosphorus poisoning is a major global health problem with hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. Research interest in N-acetylcysteine has grown among increasing evidence of the role of oxidative stress in organophosphorus poisoning. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of N-acetylcysteine as an adjuvant treatment in patients with acute organophosphorus poisoning. This was a randomized, controlled, parallel-group trial on 30 patients suffering from acute organophosphorus poisoning, who were admitted to the Poison Control Center of Tanta University Emergency Hospital, Tanta, Egypt, between April and September 2014. Interventions included oral N-acetylcysteine (600 mg three times daily for 3 days) as an added treatment to the conventional measures versus only the conventional treatment. Outcome measures included mortality, total dose of atropine administered, duration of hospitalization and the need for ICU admission and/or mechanical ventilation. A total of 46 patients were screened and 30 were randomized. No significant difference was found between both groups regarding demographic characteristics and the nature or severity of baseline clinical manifestations. No major adverse effects to N-acetylcysteine therapy were reported. Malondialdehyde significantly decreased and reduced glutathione significantly increased only in the NAC-treated patients. The patients on NAC therapy required less atropine doses than those who received only the conventional treatment; however, the length of hospital stay showed no significant difference between both groups. The study concluded that the use of N-acetylcysteine as an added treatment was apparently safe, and it reduced atropine requirements in patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  10. Acute pesticide poisoning associated with pyraclostrobin fungicide--Iowa, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-04

    Pyraclostrobin is an agricultural pesticide product used to kill fungi (e.g., blights, mildews, molds, and rusts). Hazards to humans from pyraclostrobin exposure include eye injury and skin irritation. In July 2007, the Iowa Department of Public Health (IDPH) received reports of five events involving pyraclostrobin that sickened 33 persons, including 27 migrant workers who were exposed in a single incident during aerial application (i.e., crop dusting). This report describes those five events and provides recommendations for preventing additional illnesses associated with exposure to pyraclostrobin.

  11. Pharmacotherapy to protect the neuromuscular junction after acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Steven B; Krajacic, Predrag; Sawamoto, Keigo; Bunya, Naofumi; Loro, Emanuele; Khurana, Tejvir S

    2016-06-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world, affecting an estimated three million people annually. Much of the morbidity is directly related to muscle weakness, which develops 1-4 days after poisoning. This muscle weakness, termed the intermediate syndrome (IMS), leads to respiratory, bulbar, and proximal limb weakness and frequently necessitates the use of mechanical ventilation. While not entirely understood, the IMS is most likely due to persistently elevated acetylcholine (ACh), which activates nicotinic ACh receptors at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Thus, the NMJ is potentially a target-rich area for the development of new therapies for acute OP poisoning. In this manuscript, we discuss what is known about the IMS and studies investigating the use of nicotinic ACh receptor antagonists to prevent or mitigate NMJ dysfunction after acute OP poisoning. © 2016 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. A phase II clinical trial to assess the safety of clonidine in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunatilake Harindra

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 2–3 million people are acutely poisoned by organophosphorus pesticides each year, mostly in the developing world. There is a pressing need for new affordable antidotes and clonidine has been shown to be effective in animal studies. Our aim was to determine the safety of clonidine given as an antidote in adult patients presenting with signs or symptoms of acute organophosphate ingestion. Methods This study was a dose finding, open-label, multicentre, phase II trial. Forty eight patients with acute organophosphate poisoning were randomized to receive either clonidine or placebo: Four to receive placebo and twelve to receive clonidine at each dose level. The first dose level was an initial loading dose of 0.15 mg followed by an infusion of 0.5 mg of clonidine over 24 hours. The initial loading dose was increased to 0.3 mg, 0.45 and 0.6 mg. at all dosing levels however the subsequent infusion remained at 0.5 mg of clonidine over 24 hours. Results The baseline characteristics of both groups were similar. The trial was stopped after completion of the 3rd dosing level. At the 1st and 2nd dosing level there were no reported adverse drug reactions. At the 3rd dosing level 5 patients (42% developed significant hypotension during clonidine treatment that responded to intravenous fluids. There were no statistical differences in ventilation rate, pre and post GCS, and mortality rates over all levels. Conclusion Our findings suggest use of moderate doses of clonidine in acute organophosphate poisoning can be used without causing frequent clinical problems but that higher doses are associated with a high incidence of hypotension requiring intervention. Further studies are needed to study the efficacy of clonidine as an antidote in organophosphate poisoning. Trial registration Current Controlled Trial ISRCTN89917816.

  13. Intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas Acute poisoning from pesticides

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    Jaime Jesús Durán-Nah

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la epidemiología de la intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas (IAP en el Hospital General O'Horán de Mérida, Yucatán, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se revisaron los expedientes de 33 pacientes ³ 13 años, tratados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI, entre 1994 y 1998. Se recopilaron variables demográficas y clínicas relevantes, y se aplicó estadística descriptiva. RESULTADOS: En la población estudiada predominó el sexo masculino (82% del medio rural (70%, y la edad media fue de 34 ± 15.8 años. El intento de suicidio fue causa frecuente de IAP (79%, y en 33% de los casos la intoxicación se produjo por la utilización de organofosforados. La mortalidad fue de 12%. CONCLUSIONES: La IAP fue baja entre los sujetos del medio rural, por lo que los resultados de este estudio parecen no reflejar la realidad del problema. Es importante añadir que los plaguicidas son utilizados con relativa frecuencia para el intento de suicidio.OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiologic pattern of acute pesticide poisoning (APP in a general hospital in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 1994 to 1998, 33 patients 13 years of age or older with diagnosis of APP were studied. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze information. RESULTS: Males were frequently affected (82%, specially those coming from rural areas (60%. The mean age of the group was 34 ± 15.8 years. In 79% of the cases, pesticides were used to commit suicide and 33% of poisoning cases were due to organophospate pesticides. The mortality rate was 12%. CONCLUSIONS: In this small sample, acute poisoning from pesticides in the agricultural setting may be underestimated, since it was less frequent than in the general population. APP was more commonly used by indigent people to commit suicide.

  14. [Cases of acute pesticide poisoning in Colonia Puerto Pirapó, Itapúa, Paraguay, February, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrozo, María Esther; Ocampos, Sandra; Galeano, Rosa; Ojeda, Andrea; Cabello, Agueda; De Assis, Dalva

    2017-06-01

    In Paraguay, pesticides are the causative agent in 13.7% of poisonings, especially organophosphorus compounds. Such poisoning produces the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase generating three possible clinical conditions: acute poisoning, intermediate syndrome or late neurotoxicity. We present 15 cases of acute poisoning, ten women and five men from a rural community between 5 and 67 years of age, whose symptoms began after using water contaminated by pesticides from the community network. The most common symptoms were nausea and vomiting, followed by abdominal pain, headache, fever, itching, red eyes and sweating. Five patients underwent blood tests for blood count, renal and liver function and serum cholinesterase, with results within the reference values; just one patient had high liver enzymes.In two samples from the community water supply network the active compound detected was profenophos. It is essential to train primary health care personnel to identify cases of acute pesticide poisoning in a timely manner to provide appropriate treatment, especially in rural areas. Additionally, it is necessary that responsible institutions monitor compliance with environmental regulations in these areas to avoid such incidents.

  15. Gastric Lavage in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide poisoning (GLAOP – a randomised controlled trial of multiple vs. single gastric lavage in unselected acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao YuPing

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organophosphorus (OP pesticide poisoning is the most common form of pesticide poisoning in many Asian countries. Guidelines in western countries for management of poisoning indicate that gastric lavage should be performed only if two criteria are met: within one hour of poison ingestion and substantial ingested amount. But the evidence on which these guidelines are based is from medicine overdoses in developed countries and may be irrelevant to OP poisoning in Asia. Chinese clinical experience suggests that OP remains in the stomach for several hours or even days after ingestion. Thus, there may be reasons for doing single or multiple gastric lavages for OP poisoning. There have been no randomised controlled trials (RCTs to assess this practice of multiple lavages. Since it is currently standard therapy in China, we cannot perform a RCT of no lavage vs. a single lavage vs. multiple lavages. We will compare a single gastric lavage with three gastric lavages as the first stage to assess the role of gastric lavage in OP poisoning. Methods/Design We have designed an RCT assessing the effectiveness of multiple gastric lavages in adult OP self-poisoning patients admitted to three Chinese hospitals within 12 hrs of ingestion. Patients will be randomised to standard treatment plus either a single gastric lavage on admission or three gastric lavages at four hour intervals. The primary outcome is in-hospital mortality. Analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis. On the basis of the historical incidence of OP at the study sites, we expect to enroll 908 patients over three years. This projected sample size provides sufficient power to evaluate the death rate; and a variety of other exposure and outcome variables, including particular OPs and ingestion time. Changes of OP level will be analyzed in order to provide some toxic kinetic data. Discussion the GLAOP study is a novel, prospective cohort study that will explore to the toxic

  16. Changes in monoclonal HLA-DR antigen expression in acute organophosphorus pesticide-poisoned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chenyun; Wang, Mi; Liang, Qi; Yun, Ling'an; Kang, Housheng; Fan, Lei; Wang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Guoyuan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR expression of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) in patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). HLA-DR antigen expression of peripheral blood MNCs was examined in 75 patients with AOPP, including 36 patients without multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (non-MODS) and 39 patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), as well as in 30 healthy individuals using flow cytometry assay. The associations between HLA-DR antigen expression and certain parameters were analyzed, including acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score, serum cholinesterase (ChE) activity, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), cardiac enzymes, and liver and kidney function. The mean fluorescence intensity (MCF) of HLA-DR expression in the AOPP group (21.59±5.36) was significantly lower than that in the control group (27.85±4.86) (PDR expression in patients with AOPP was significantly decreased compared with that in healthy individuals; HLA-DR expression may therefore be a good indicator for evaluating AOPP, MODS disease severity, immune function, efficacy of prognosis and prognosis. Examination of HLA-DR antigen expression may be of crucial clinical value.

  17. Is prevention of acute pesticide poisoning effective and efficient, with Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varma, Anshu; Neupane, Dinesh; Ellekilde Bonde, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Farmers' risk of pesticide poisoning can be reduced with personal protective equipment but in low-income countries farmers' use of such equipment is limited. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness and efficiency of Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment to reduce organophospha...

  18. Pesticide Poisoning of Honeybees: A Review of Symptoms, Incident Classification, and Causes of Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Kiljanek Tomasz; Niewiadowska Alicja; Posyniak Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    During the 2000s, the problem of pesticide poisoning of honeybees seemed to be almost solved. The number of cases has decreased in comparison to the 1970s. The problem of acute honeybee poisoning, however, has not disappeared, but instead has transformed into a problem of poisoning from ‘traditional’ pesticides like organophosphorus pesticides or pyrethroids, to poisoning from additional sources of ‘modern’ systemic neonicotinoids and fipronil. In this article, the biological activity of pest...

  19. Knowledge and Practices Relating to Acute Pesticide Poisoning Among Health Care Providers in Selected Regions of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elikana Lekei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute pesticide poisoning (APP is commonly underdiagnosed in Tanzania. Studies in developing countries suggest that a lack of diagnostic skills among health care providers (HCPs undermines surveillance for APP. This study aimed at characterizing experience and skills of Tanzanian HCPs regarding APP diagnosis and management. Methodology: The population included HCPs responsible for managing APP in Kilimanjaro and Arusha regions (n = 91. The resulting sample included 66 respondents (response rate: 73%. The data were collected in 2005 using a standardized questionnaire. Results: Half of all respondents (50% reported handling at least 1 APP case with 15% reporting handling more than 5 cases in the past. Reported experience of handling an APP case was marginally higher in respondents who reported ⩾4 years of work experience in the health sector compared with those with <4 years of work experience (odds ratio = 1.32; 95% confidence interval = 0.9-1.5. Most of the respondents had high knowledge of exposure routes, reporting awareness of oral (98.5%, inhalational (93.9%, and dermal (77% routes. The study revealed low awareness of pesticide classification by chemical groups (29% or World Health Organization hazard (0% and weak knowledge on pesticide label instructions (55%. Organophosphates accounted for 35% of the pesticide products reported by respondents as being responsible for poisoning. Some treatment options were incorrectly reported as first aid options, and some reported first aid options were wrong or inappropriate. Conclusions: The study revealed that HCPs in northern Tanzania lack adequate skills to diagnose and manage APP. For effective surveillance of APP, there is a need to include training on hazards, classification, diagnosis, and health effects in the training programmes for all HCPs in Tanzania.

  20. Pesticide poisoning: a major health problem in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoek, Wim van der; Konradsen, F; Athukorala, K

    1998-01-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in Sri Lanka. In several agricultural districts, it precedes all other causes of death in government hospitals. Most of the acute poisoning cases are intentional (suicide) and occur among young adults, mainly males. Poisoning due...... to occupational exposure is also common, but less well documented. In an irrigation area in Sri Lanka a very high incidence of serious pesticide poisoning was observed, with 68% due to intentional ingestion of liquid pesticides. It is argued that the easy availability and widespread use of highly hazardous...... that promote the safe use of pesticides through education and training of farmers will be ineffective in Sri Lanka because knowledge is already high and most poisoning cases are intentional. Instead, enforcement of legislation to restrict availability of the most hazardous pesticides would result...

  1. Pesticide Poisoning of Honeybees: A Review of Symptoms, Incident Classification, and Causes of Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiljanek Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2000s, the problem of pesticide poisoning of honeybees seemed to be almost solved. The number of cases has decreased in comparison to the 1970s. The problem of acute honeybee poisoning, however, has not disappeared, but instead has transformed into a problem of poisoning from ‘traditional’ pesticides like organophosphorus pesticides or pyrethroids, to poisoning from additional sources of ‘modern’ systemic neonicotinoids and fipronil. In this article, the biological activity of pesticides was reviewed. The poisoning symptoms, incident definitions, and monitoring systems, as well as the interpretation of the analytical results, were also reviewed. The range of pesticides, and the detected concentrations of pesticides in poisoned honeybee samples, were reviewed. And, for the first time, cases of poisoning related to neonicotinoids were reviewed. The latter especially is of practical importance and could be helpful to analysts and investigators of honeybee poisoning incidents. It is assumed that secondary poisoning induced by plant collected materials contaminated with systemic pesticides occurs. Food stored in a hive and contaminated with systemic pesticides consumed continuously by the same generation of winter bees, may result in sub-lethal intoxication. This leads to abnormal behaviour identified during acute intoxication. The final result is that the bees discontinue their social role in the honeybee colony super organism, and colony collapse disorder (CCD takes place. The process described above refers primarily to robust and strong colonies that were able to collect plenty of food due to effective plant protection.

  2. Impacts of stress, self-efficacy, and optimism on suicide ideation among rehabilitation patients with acute pesticide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun; Li, Shusheng; Chen, Huawen

    2015-01-01

    The high incidence of pesticide ingestion as a means to commit suicide is a critical public health problem. An important predictor of suicidal behavior is suicide ideation, which is related to stress. However, studies on how to defend against stress-induced suicidal thoughts are limited. This study explores the impact of stress on suicidal ideation by investigating the mediating effect of self-efficacy and dispositional optimism. Direct and indirect (via self-efficacy and dispositional optimism) effects of stress on suicidal ideation were investigated among 296 patients with acute pesticide poisoning from four general hospitals. For this purpose, structural equation modeling (SEM) and bootstrap method were used. Results obtained using SEM and bootstrap method show that stress has a direct effect on suicide ideation. Furthermore, self-efficacy and dispositional optimism partially weakened the relationship between stress and suicidal ideation. The final model shows a significant relationship between stress and suicidal ideation through self-efficacy or dispositional optimism. The findings extended prior studies and provide enlightenment on how self-efficacy and optimism prevents stress-induced suicidal thoughts.

  3. Searching for the Cases of Acute Organophosphorus Pesticides Poisoning by JOIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futagami, Kojiro; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Horioka, Masayoshi; Asakura, Hajime; Fukagawa, Mitsuro

    Cholinesterase reactivator PAM (Pralidoxime) is used in the treatment of organophosphates poisoning with anticholinergic agent atropine. However, some reports demonstrated recently that PAM has inefficacy in some cases of so-called low toxicity organophosphates poisoning. So, to atempt to discuss the efficacy of PAM in clinical treatment, we searched for the case reports of these poisoning by JOIS. In this time, we compared with the specificity of each data bases and presented some examples in this on-line information retrieval.

  4. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Pesticide poisoning in Chitwan, Nepal: a descriptive epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenwali, Deepak; Vaidya, Abhinav; Tiwari, Sundar; Khatiwada, Prakash; Lamsal, Daya Ram; Giri, Shrikrishana

    2017-07-03

    Globally, there is a growing concern over pesticides use, which has been linked to self-harm and suicide. However, there is paucity of research on the epidemiology of pesticides poisoning in Nepal. This study is aimed at assessing epidemiological features of pesticides poisoning among hospital-admitted cases in selected hospitals of Chitwan District of Nepal. A hospital-based quantitative study was carried out in four major hospitals of Chitwan District. Information on all pesticides poisoning cases between April 1 and December 31, 2015, was recorded by using a Pesticides Exposure Record (PER) form. A total of 439 acute pesticides poisoning cases from 12 districts including Chitwan and adjoining districts attended the hospitals during the 9-month-long study period. A majority of the poisoned subjects deliberately used pesticides (89.5%) for attempted suicide. The total incidence rate was 62.67/100000 population per year. Higher annual incidence rates were found among young adults (111.66/100000 population), women (77.53/100000 population) and individuals from Dalit ethnic groups (98.22/100000 population). Pesticides responsible for poisoning were mostly insecticides (58.0%) and rodenticides (20.8%). The most used chemicals were organophosphates (37.3%) and pyrethroids (36.7%). Of the total cases, 98.6% were hospitalized, with intensive care required for 41.3%. The case fatality rate among admitted cases was 3.8%. This study has indicated that young adults, females and socially disadvantaged ethnic groups are at a higher risk of pesticides poisoning. Pesticides are mostly misused intentionally as an easy means for committing suicide. It is recommended that the supply of pesticides be properly regulated to prevent easy accessibility and misuse. A population-based study is warranted to reveal the actual problem of pesticides exposure and intoxication in the community.

  6. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings: 6th Edition manual gives healthcare providers a quick reference resource for the best toxicology and treatment information for patients with pesticide exposures.

  7. Effects of different blood purification methods on serum cytokine levels and prognosis in patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lunzhi; Ding, Guohua

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of three different blood purification methods, hemoperfusion (HP), continuous blood purification (CBP), and on-line high-volume hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF), on the survival rate of patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (ASOPP), as well as on major pro-inflammatory (interleukin [IL]-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α]) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines in the serum. Eighty-one ASOPP patients were randomly divided into three groups: HP (N = 23), HP + CBP (N = 26), HP + OL-HD (N = 32). Serum IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 levels were assessed by ELISA before treatment and at 24 and 48 h post-treatment and survival rates were determined. Patient survival rate was significantly higher in OL-HDF and CBP treated patients compared with HP group (P  0.05). Compared with the HP method, CBP or OL-HDF combined with HP can rapidly clear inflammatory cytokines, reduce systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and improve the survival of ASOPP patients. Compared with CBP, OL-HDF is an economical and effective method to treat ASOPP with less technical difficulty and more suitability for rural areas and primary hospitals. © 2014 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2014 International Society for Apheresis.

  8. Economic burden of illness from pesticide poisonings in highland Ecuador

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    Cole Donald C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Active surveillance of acute pesticide poisonings in a potato-growing region of highland Ecuador during 1991-1992 uncovered a rate of 171/100 000, due predominantly to occupational exposures to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Occupational exposure among agricultural workers was the most common reason for poisoning (32 male workers and 1 female worker, out of a total of 50 cases. Of these 33 cases, 28 of them reported pesticide application as the work task just prior to poisoning, with over 80% citing the use of World Health Organization Hazard Category I pesticides. The suicide rate of 17.1/100 000 and the overall mortality rate of 20.5/100 000 that we found are among the highest reported anywhere in the world. At the exchange rates prevailing at that time, median costs associated with these poisonings were estimated as follows: public and social security health care direct costs of US$ 9.85/case; private health costs of US$ 8.33/case; and lost-time indirect costs of US$ 8.33/ agricultural worker. Each one of those costs was over five times the daily agricultural wage, which was then about US$ 1.50. Further costing of pesticide poisonings should be carried out in other settings to provide appropriate information for decisions about pesticide use. In addition, integrated pest management should be further evaluated as an appropriate technology to reduce the economic burden of illness from pesticide poisonings in developing countries.

  9. Economic burden of illness from pesticide poisonings in highland Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald C. Cole

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Active surveillance of acute pesticide poisonings in a potato-growing region of highland Ecuador during 1991-1992 uncovered a rate of 171/100 000, due predominantly to occupational exposures to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Occupational exposure among agricultural workers was the most common reason for poisoning (32 male workers and 1 female worker, out of a total of 50 cases. Of these 33 cases, 28 of them reported pesticide application as the work task just prior to poisoning, with over 80% citing the use of World Health Organization Hazard Category I pesticides. The suicide rate of 17.1/100 000 and the overall mortality rate of 20.5/100 000 that we found are among the highest reported anywhere in the world. At the exchange rates prevailing at that time, median costs associated with these poisonings were estimated as follows: public and social security health care direct costs of US$ 9.85/case; private health costs of US$ 8.33/case; and lost-time indirect costs of US$ 8.33/ agricultural worker. Each one of those costs was over five times the daily agricultural wage, which was then about US$ 1.50. Further costing of pesticide poisonings should be carried out in other settings to provide appropriate information for decisions about pesticide use. In addition, integrated pest management should be further evaluated as an appropriate technology to reduce the economic burden of illness from pesticide poisonings in developing countries.

  10. Work-related pesticide poisoning among farmers in two villages of Southern China: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Gary A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide poisoning is an important health problem among Chinese farm workers, but there is a paucity of pesticide poisoning data from China. Using the WHO standard case definition of a possible acute pesticide poisoning, we investigated the prevalence and risk factors of acute work-related pesticide poisoning among farmers in Southern China. Methods A stratified sample of 910 pesticide applicators from two villages in southern China participated in face-to-face interviews. Respondents who self-reported having two or more of a list of sixty-six symptoms within 24 hours after pesticide application were categorized as having suffered acute pesticide poisoning. The association between the composite behavioral risk score and pesticide poisoning were assessed in a multivariate logistic model. Results A total of 80 (8.8% pesticide applicators reported an acute work-related pesticide poisoning. The most frequent symptoms among applicators were dermal (11.6% and nervous system (10.7% symptoms. Poisoning was more common among women, farmers in poor areas, and applicators without safety training (all p 2 = 0.9246. Conclusions This study found that 8.8% of Chinese pesticide applicators suffered acute pesticide poisoning and suggests that pesticide safety training, safe application methods, and precautionary behavioral measures could be effective in reducing the risk of pesticide poisoning.

  11. Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Eddleston, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Over 300,000 people die each year from pesticide poisoning. Most result from self-poisoning by ingestion, rather than occupational or accidental exposures which are typically topical or inhalational. Severe pesticide poisoning is more common in the rural developing world where pesticides are widely used in smallholder agricultural practice and therefore freely available. Significant acute poisoning is much less common in industrialized countries and here it is the long-term effects of low-dos...

  12. Childhood pesticide poisoning in Zhejiang, China: a retrospective analysis from 2006 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimaer, Aziguli; Chen, Guangdi; Zhang, Meibian; Zhou, Lifang; Fang, Xinglin; Jiang, Wei

    2017-06-28

    Pesticide poisoning in children has been a serious public health issue around the world, especially in the developing countries where agriculture is still one of the largest economic sectors. The purpose of this study was to analyze epidemiological characteristics of acute pesticide poisoning in children from Zhejiang province, China. The pesticide poisoning cases for children were retrieved from Occupational Disease Surveillance and Reporting System, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, China. The incident cases, deaths, and fatality rate of child pesticide poisoning from 2006 through 2015 were calculated. During the study period, totally 2952 children were poisoned by pesticides, with 66 deaths, resulting in a fatality rate of 2.24%. Among them, there were 1607 male cases with 28 deaths, and 1345 female cases with 38 deaths. Most of the cases occurred in preschool children (1349) and adolescent age group (1269). Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides were the cause of most poisonings (1130), leading to 34 deaths. The highest fatality rate (3.13%) was due to poisoning by herbicides and fungicides, causing 14 deaths out of 448 cases. Poisoning occurred mostly in rural areas (78%). And most pesticide poisoning occurred in the summer (896) and fall (811), while fewest poisoning cases in the winter (483) but with the highest fatality rate (3.52%). This study shows that pesticide poisoning of children is a major health problem in Zhejiang, suggesting preventive strategies should be conducted to control childhood pesticide poisoning.

  13. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment.

  14. Diagnosis & Treatment of Poisoning by Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This report succinctly discusses the steps necessary to diagnose and treat poisoning from pesticides, especially organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Immediate and continuing steps in the care of poisoning victims are outlined with supportive information on where to locate emergency assistance. (CS)

  15. Work-related pesticide poisoning among farmers in two villages of Southern China: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujun; Zhao, Weiyan; Jing, Ruiwei; Wheeler, Krista; Smith, Gary A; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun

    2011-06-03

    Pesticide poisoning is an important health problem among Chinese farm workers, but there is a paucity of pesticide poisoning data from China. Using the WHO standard case definition of a possible acute pesticide poisoning, we investigated the prevalence and risk factors of acute work-related pesticide poisoning among farmers in Southern China. A stratified sample of 910 pesticide applicators from two villages in southern China participated in face-to-face interviews. Respondents who self-reported having two or more of a list of sixty-six symptoms within 24 hours after pesticide application were categorized as having suffered acute pesticide poisoning. The association between the composite behavioral risk score and pesticide poisoning were assessed in a multivariate logistic model. A total of 80 (8.8%) pesticide applicators reported an acute work-related pesticide poisoning. The most frequent symptoms among applicators were dermal (11.6%) and nervous system (10.7%) symptoms. Poisoning was more common among women, farmers in poor areas, and applicators without safety training (all p pesticide poisoning was also significantly associated with number of exposure risk behaviors. A significant "dose-response" relationship between composite behavioral risk scores calculated from 9 pesticides exposure risk behaviors and the log odds of pesticide poisoning prevalence was seen among these Chinese farmers (R2 = 0.9246). This study found that 8.8% of Chinese pesticide applicators suffered acute pesticide poisoning and suggests that pesticide safety training, safe application methods, and precautionary behavioral measures could be effective in reducing the risk of pesticide poisoning.

  16. Is prevention of acute pesticide poisoning effective and efficient, with Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment? A randomized crossover study among farmers in Chitwan, Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varma, Anshu; Neupane, Dinesh; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2016-01-01

    . Based on the farmers' working behavior, compounds used, intensity and exposure duration we conclude that Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment does not provide additional protection during usual work practices. However, our Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment might offer protection...... exposure among farmers. Methods: In a crossover study, 45 male farmers from Chitwan, Nepal, were randomly allocated to work as usual applying organophosphate pesticides wearing Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment or Daily Practice Clothing. For seven days before each experiment, each farmer...... the expectation that our farmers in Chitwan, Nepal working with Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment would have fewer acute organophosphate poisoning symptoms, higher plasma cholinesterase (U/mL) and find it more efficient to work with the equipment than farmers working with their Daily Practice Clothing...

  17. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  18. Improving poisoning diagnosis and surveillance of street pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rother, Hanna-Andrea

    2012-03-23

    An effective surveillance system is required to reduce pesticide exposures and poisonings, especially from street pesticides (illegal, unlabelled, and decanted agricultural pesticides used predominately for urban household purposes). Poisoning from any pesticide class, not only organophosphates, constitutes a medically notifiable condition in South Africa. Current practice, however, is to report only organophosphate cases, resulting in severe under-reporting. The lack of data concerning the link between poisonings and street pesticides has led to the mistaken assumption that urban populations are not at risk from significant pesticide exposures and poisonings. Without accurate statistics, healthcare professionals and policy makers are unaware of the contribution of street pesticide poisonings to the overall health burden. Accurate diagnosis is a prerequisite for notification and subsequent surveillance. An algorithm has been developed to enable healthcare professionals to improve the diagnosis and notification of pesticide poisonings.

  19. Causes of rhabdomyolysis in acute poisonings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Snežana R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Rhabdomyolysis (RM is potentially lethal syndrome, but there are no enough published data on its frequency and characteristics in acute poisonings. The aim of this study was to determine the causes and severity of RM in acute poisonings. Methods. Patients hospital charts were retrospectively screened during a one-year period in order to identify patients with RM among 656 patients treated due to acute poisonings with different agents. All the patients with RM were selected. Entrance criterion was the value of creatine kinase (CK over 250 U/L. The severity of RM was assessed according to the Poison Severity Score. The patients were divided into three groups: the first one with mild RM (CK from 250 to 1,500 U/L, the second with moderate RM (CK from 1,500 to 10,000 U/L and the third with severe RM (CK greater than 10,000 U/L. Results. RM occurred in 125 (19% of the patients with acute poisonings. It was mainly mild (61%, or moderate (36%, and only in 3% of the patients was severe RM. The incidence of RM was the highest in poisonings with opiates (41%, pesticides (38%, neuroleptics (26%, anticonvulsants (26%, ethyl alcohol (20%, and gases (19%. Psychotropic agents were the most common causes of poisoning, and consequently of RM. Fatal outcomes were registered in 32 (25.60% of all RM patients. The incidence of fatal outcomes in poisonings with mild, moderate and severe RM was 19.73%, 31.11% and 75%, respectively. Conclusion. RM syndrome occurs at a relatively high rate in acute poisonings. Although agent’s toxicity is crucial for the outcome, severe RM and its complications may significantly influence the clinical course and prognosis of poisoning. Routine analysis of CK, as a relevant marker for RM may indicate the development of RM in acute poisoning and initiate prompt therapeutic measures in preventing acute renal failure as the most frequent consequence of extensive rhabdomyolysis.

  20. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Donald P.

    This manual aids health professionals in recognizing and treating pesticide poisonings. Suggested treatments are appropriate for implementation in the small hospitals and clinics which usually receive the victims of pesticide poisoning. Classes of compounds covered include: (1) organophosphate cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides; (2) carbamate…

  1. Is prevention of acute pesticide poisoning effective and efficient, with Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment? A randomized crossover study among farmers in Chitwan, Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varma, Anshu; Neupane, Dinesh; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2016-01-01

    Background: Farmers' risk of pesticide poisoning can be reduced with personal protective equipment but in low-income countries farmers' use of such equipment is limited. Objective: To examine the effectiveness and efficiency of Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment to reduce organophospha...

  2. 75 FR 22401 - Petition from Pesticide Poisoning Victims United; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... AGENCY Petition from Pesticide Poisoning Victims United; Notice of Availability AGENCY: Environmental... petition from Pesticide Poisoning Victims United, a division of the Pitchfork Rebellion. The petitioners... the Agency Taking? EPA is announcing availability of a petition from Pesticide Poisoning Victims...

  3. Pattern of acute poisoning in Tehran-Iran in 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadnia, Shahin; Esmaily, Hadi; Sasanian, Ghazal; Pajoumand, Abdolkarim; Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hosein; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2007-09-01

    To characterize the poisoning cases admitted to the Loghman-Hakim Hospital Poison Center (a teaching reference hospital of poisoning) in Tehran, Iran. All admitted acutely poisoned patients from January to December 2003 were evaluated retrospectively. Information of socio-demographic characteristics, agents and cause of poisoning, and the mortality rate were collected from medical records of the hospital. During this period, 24 179 cases were referred to the emergency department that 10 206 of them were admitted. Of the admitted cases, 51% were male and 49% female. The majority (38%) of cases were in the age range of 21-30 years. Most (79%) of poisonings were intentional and 21% were unintentional. The most important agents of acute poisoning were drugs (69.13%) especially sedative-hypnotics followed by opioids (12.34%) and pesticides especially organophosphates (OPs) (6.21%). The mortality rate was 1.3% (318 patients). Death was mostly occurred by opioids (41.54%), followed by drugs (28%) and pesticides especially OPs (12%). The prevention and treatment of poisoning due to opioids, pesticides specially OPs and sedative-hypnotics drugs should merit high priority in the health care of the indigenous population of Tehran.

  4. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Ventricular bigeminy in acute organophorous poisoning – A rare ECG finding

    OpenAIRE

    Bharati Taksande; Bhawik Dhirawani

    2015-01-01

    India being a land of farmer, the pesticides are freely and easily available and therefore organophosphorous poisoning is one of the major health issues. Suicidal poisoning is more common than accidental poisoning. Cardiac manifestations of organophosphorous poisoning are well known. It results in various electrocardiographic changes from sinus tachycardia to ST elevation. We hereby present a rare ECG finding of ventricular bigeminy in a case of acute organophosphorous poisoning.

  6. Carbon monoxide poisoning (acute)

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Kent; Smollin, Craig

    2008-01-01

    The main symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning are non-specific in nature and relate to effects on the brain and heart. The symptoms correlate poorly with serum carboxyhaemoglobin levels. People with comorbidity, the elderly or very young, and pregnant women are most susceptible.Carbon monoxide is produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon fuels, including inadequately ventilated heaters and car exhausts, or from chemicals such as methylene chloride paint stripper.Poisoning is conside...

  7. Carbon monoxide poisoning (acute)

    OpenAIRE

    Smollin, Craig; Olson, Kent

    2010-01-01

    The main symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning are non-specific in nature and relate to effects on the brain and heart. The symptoms correlate poorly with serum carboxyhaemoglobin levels. People with comorbidity, elderly or very young people, and pregnant women are most susceptible.Carbon monoxide is produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon fuels, including inadequately ventilated heaters and car exhausts, or from chemicals such as methylene chloride paint stripper.Poisoning is cons...

  8. Severity and prognosis of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning are indicated by C-reactive protein and copeptin levels and APACHE II score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinkuan; Xie, Wei; Cheng, Yuelei; Guan, Qinglong

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and copeptin, in addition to the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) scores, in patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). A total of 100 patients with AOPP were included and divided into mild, moderate and severe groups according to AOPP diagnosis and classification standards. Blood samples were collected from all patients on days 1, 3 and 7 following AOPP. The concentrations of CRP and copeptin in the plasma were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All AOPP patients underwent APACHE II scoring and the diagnostic value of these scores was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic curves (ROCs). On days 1, 3 and 7 after AOPP, the levels of CRP and copeptin were increased in correlation with the increase in AOPP severity, and were significantly higher compared with the control groups. Furthermore, elevated CRP and copeptin plasma levels were detected in patients with severe AOPP on day 7, whereas these levels were reduced in patients with mild or moderate AOPP. APACHE II scores, blood lactate level, acetylcholine esterase level, twitch disappearance time, reactivating agent dose and inability to raise the head were the high-risk factors that affected the prognosis of AOPP. Patients with plasma CRP and copeptin levels higher than median values had worse prognoses. The areas under curve for ROCs were 0.89, 0.75 and 0.72 for CRP levels, copeptin levels and APACHE II scores, respectively. In addition, the plasma contents of CRP and copeptin are increased according to the severity of AOPP. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that CRP and copeptin levels and APACHE II scores may be used for the determination of AOPP severity and the prediction of AOPP prognosis.

  9. [Mortality due to pesticide poisoning in Colombia, 1998-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro-Narváez, Pablo; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Poisoning due to pesticides is an important public health problem worldwide due its morbidity and mortality. In Colombia, there are no exact data on mortality due to pesticide poisoning. To estimate the trend of mortality rate due to pesticide poisoning in Colombia between 1998 and 2011. We carried out a descriptive analysis with the database reports of death as unintentional poisoning, self-inflicted intentional poisoning, aggression with pesticides, and poisoning with non-identified intentionality, population projections between 1998 and 2011, and rurality indexes. Crude and age-adjusted mortality rates were estimated and trends and Spearman coefficients were evaluated. A total of 4,835 deaths were registered (age-adjusted mortality rate of 2.38 deaths per 100,000 people). Mortality rates were higher in rural areas, for self-inflicted intentional poisoning, in men and in age groups between 15 and 39 years old. The trend has been decreasing since 2002. Municipality mortality rates due to unintentional poisoning and aggression correlated significantly with the rurality index in less rural municipalities. Mortality rates due to pesticide poisoning presented a mild decrease between 1998 and 2011. It is necessary to adjust and reinforce the measures conducive to reducing pesticide exposure in order to avoid poisoning and reduce mortality.

  10. Pesticide Poisonings in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Neupane, Dinesh; London, Leslie

    2018-01-01

    Aims and scope This editorial is an introduction to the papers making up the special issue on 'pesticide poisonings in low- and middle income countries'.......Aims and scope This editorial is an introduction to the papers making up the special issue on 'pesticide poisonings in low- and middle income countries'....

  11. [Poisoning by pesticides among family fruit farmers, Bento Gonçalves, Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Neice Müller Xavier; Rosa, José Antônio Rodrigues da; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2009-04-01

    To describe the occupational exposure to acute poisoning by pesticides, especially organophosphates, and its incidence. A descriptive study was carried out on 290 family fruit farmers in the municipality of Bento Gonçalves, Southern Brazil, conducted in two stages in 2006. Two hundred and forty-one of these workers completed the two stages, which corresponded to periods of low use and intense use of pesticides. Data on the property, occupational exposure to pesticides, sociodemographic data and frequency of health problems were gathered using a standardized questionnaire. Poisoning was characterized by reports of episodes, symptoms relating to pesticides and plasma cholinesterase examinations. Cases were classified according to the matrix proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). On average, each property used 12 different types of pesticides, consisting mainly of glyphosate and organophosphates. Most of the workers used tractors for pesticide application (87%), set aside the containers for selective garbage collection (86%) and used protective equipment during activities involving pesticides (> or = 94%). Among these family farmers, 4% reported occurrences of poisoning by pesticides over the 12 months preceding the investigation, and 19% at some time during their lives. According to the criterion proposed by WHO, 11% were classified as probable cases of acute poisoning. Among the workers who had used organophosphates over the ten-day period preceding the examination, 2.9% presented two or more symptoms relating to pesticides and a 20% reduction in cholinesterase. The poisoning occurrences according to the workers' perceptions were within what was expected, but the estimate based on the WHO classification picked up a larger proportion of the cases. A fall in the harvest reduced the use of insecticides and may explain the low occurrence of abnormalities in the laboratory results. The criteria for defining pesticide poisoning, as well as the official

  12. Multiple pesticide residues in live and poisoned honeybees - Preliminary exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiljanek, Tomasz; Niewiadowska, Alicja; Gaweł, Marta; Semeniuk, Stanisław; Borzęcka, Milena; Posyniak, Andrzej; Pohorecka, Krystyna

    2017-05-01

    Study combines data about the exposure of honeybees to pesticides from plant protection products and veterinary medicinal products. Residues of 200 pesticide and pesticide metabolites in 343 live and 74 poisoned honeybee samples, obtained during the years of 2014-2015, were determined by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. In 44% of live honeybee 48 different pesticide residues were found, mainly amitraz metabolites (DMF, DMPF) and chlorpyrifos. In 98% of poisoned honeybee 57 pesticides and metabolites were detected, mainly chlorpyrifos, dimethoate and clothianidin. In total 84 different pesticides were detected both in live and poisoned honeybees, they indicate 30 various modes of action. Differences between mean number of pesticide residues detected in live and poisoned honeybees clearly indicate the impact of multiple pesticides on honeybee health. Possible impact of systemic fungicides on the health of honeybees was studied. Applicability of hazard quotient counted as ratio between concentration of pesticides in honeybees and lethal dose in the interpretation whether detected concentration indicates acute toxic effects was shown. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Epidemiology and risk factors of voluntary pesticide poisoning in Morocco (2008-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabih, Zineb; Amiar, Latifa; Abidli, Zakaria; Windy, Maria; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; Mokhtari, Abdelrhani; Soulaymani-Bencheikh, Rachida

    2017-01-01

    To determine the epidemiological profile and risk factors of voluntary poisoning by pesticides. A retrospective analysis was conducted of all cases of voluntary poisoning by pesticides registered at the AntiPoison and Pharmacovigilance Center of Morocco between January 2008 and December 2014. During the study period, 2,690 cases of acute pesticide poisoning were registered. The region of Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer accounted for the largest proportion, with 598 cases. The average age of the patients was 24.63±10.29 years. The sex ratio (female-to-male) was 0.45. Adults and teenagers were most affected by this type of poisoning, with 1,667 cases (62.0%) and 806 cases (30.0%), respectively. Suicide attempts accounted for 98.4% of the cases (2,469 cases). Pesticide poisoning occurred more often in urban zones (64.8%). Insecticides were incriminated in 14.0% of cases, with a mortality rate of 4.2%. Among the 1,635 patients for whom the outcomes were known, 154 died, corresponding to a mortality rate of 5.7%. Voluntary intoxication by pesticides presents a real scourge that affects public health, and in this study, we developed an epidemiological profile of this phenomenon. Nevertheless, this study has limitations in that it did not evaluate the impact of the socioeconomic and psychological factors that are important contributors to this type of poisoning.

  14. Health information systems and pesticide poisoning at Pernambuco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Pedro Costa Cavalcanti; Gurgel, Idê Gomes Dantas; Gurgel, Aline do Monte; Augusto, Lia Giraldo da Silva; de Siqueira, Marília Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the epidemiologic profile of a particular disease is key to undertake health actions. To that end, information systems that present quality data help in the decision-making process and demonstrate the impact of the problems. To analyze the contribution of health information systems for the characterization of pesticide poisoning through SINAN, CEATOX and SIM in the State of Pernambuco. In this study, the completeness and consistency of the data were assessed, as well as the epidemiological profile of pesticide poisoning in Pernambuco in the period from 2008 to 2012, based on the following Health Information Systems: Center for Toxicological Assistance of Pernambuco (CEATOX), Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) and Mortality Information System (SIM). The data revealed incompleteness and inconsistencies in information. Regarding the profile, females are more affected in the morbidity profile, and men have a higher mortality rate. Poisoning was more frequent in young adults with low educational level. With regard to the circumstances, most of the cases were suicide attempts, unique acute cases and not related to work. Despite suggesting underreporting, the data showed that persons engaged in agriculture are most commonly affected. The strengthening of these systems is necessary for the generation of consistent information that support health policies for the population groups involved.

  15. [Pesticide poisoning in Moroccan children: epidemiological and prognostic aspects (1990-2008)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achour, Sanae; Khattabi, Asmae; Rhalem, Naïma; Ouammi, Lahcen; Mokhtari, Abdelrhani; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; Bencheikh, Rachida Soulaymani

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the epidemiological profile of acute pesticide poisoning in children (APP) treated by the Moroccan Poison Control Center (CAPM) and to analyze death cases in order to determine factors predictive of severity. the study is based on a retrospective study of all cases of APP collected by the CAPM over a period of eighteen years (January 1990 to December 2008). Univariate analysis was performed to identify risk factors. 2,672 cases of childhood poisoning by pesticide were collected. The mean age was 5.6 ± 4.57 years. The sex ratio was 1.12. The cause of poisoning was accidental in 87.1% of cases, followed by attempted suicide (12.1%). Organophosphates were the most frequent poison (50.7%), followed by alpha-chloralose (26.5%). The case fatality rate was 3.3%. Mortality was attributed to organophosphates in 30 cases, followed by inorganic derivatives (7 cases) and carbamates (6 cases). A univariate analysis comparing survivors and groups who died showed that rural origin (p = 0.04), voluntary circumstances (p = 0.001), and the type of chemical class of pesticide (p < 0.001) significantly influence fatal poisoning. Acute pesticide poisoning among children is a reality in Morocco. Preventive measures may be needed.

  16. Pesticide poisoning in Chitwan, Nepal: a descriptive epidemiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Gyenwali, Deepak; Vaidya, Abhinav; Tiwari, Sundar; Khatiwada, Prakash; Lamsal, Daya Ram; Giri, Shrikrishana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Globally, there is a growing concern over pesticides use, which has been linked to self-harm and suicide. However, there is paucity of research on the epidemiology of pesticides poisoning in Nepal. This study is aimed at assessing epidemiological features of pesticides poisoning among hospital-admitted cases in selected hospitals of Chitwan District of Nepal. Methods A hospital-based quantitative study was carried out in four major hospitals of Chitwan District. Informatio...

  17. [Pidemiological analysis of pesticide poisoning in hangzhou during 2006-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Hao, Li; Zhang, Xuhui; Chen, Jianchun; Wang, Qiang; Yu, Long

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this current investigation was to describe the distribution characteristics of pesticides poisoning in Hangzhou during 2006-2013. The registration data of pesticide poisoning in Hangzhou during 2006-2013 were collected from health disserve surveillance information system which was part of China information system for disease control and prevention. The statistical analysis method included Pearson Chi-square test and Cochran-Armitage trend test. There were totally 6232 cases with pesticide poisoning during 2006-2013, of which 414 cases died. The fatality rate of poisoning patients was 6.64%. The pesticides, especially organophosphorus pesticides, were the main poison that caused poisoning, and patients with pesticide poisoning accounted for 80.60% of all the poisoning patient. There was more female patients than male patients among non-productive pesticide poisoning, but on the contrary among productive pesticide poisoning. The incidence of pesticides poisoning had significant increase in the third season. Occupational pesticide poisoning and non-occupational pesticide poisoning had the different distribution character. Non-occupational pesticide poisoning was the chief reason of pesticide poisoning. The pesticides, especially organophosphorus pesticides, were the main poisons threatening the health of people in Hangzhou, and the effective prevention and control measures should be taken immediately.

  18. Successful Treatment of Acute Boron Poisoning Induced Neurotoxicity by Haemodialysis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Hosagoudar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Boric acid is commonly used as pesticide, disinfectant and wood preservative. Acute boron poisoning may manifest with vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, altered sensorium, seizure etc. Treatment of acute boron poisoning is conservative, no specific antidote is available.

  19. Notification of pesticide poisoning in the western Cape, 1987 - 1991 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a paucity of data on pesticide-related morbidity and mortality in South Africa. A review of notifications to the western Cape office of the Department of National Health and Population Development from 1987 to 1991 was undertaken to describe the epidemiological profile of pesticide poisoning in the region.

  20. [Epidemiological analysis for Quzhou pesticide poisoning of year 2008 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shi-guang; Liu, Si-feng

    2012-09-01

    To provide scientific evidence of making measures for prevention of pesticide poisoning, the investigation on the condition of pesticide poisoning was carried out in Quzhou. Registration data of pesticide poisoning from 2008 to 2010 in Quzhou were collected and statistically analyzed by SPSS 12.0. During the three years, there were 1222 cases reported for pesticide poisoning. Among them, the number of occupational poisoning was 225 (1 case died), with fatality rate of 0.44%. The number of non-occupational poisoning was 997 (77 cases died), and its fatality rate was 7.72% . The incidence of occupational poisoning and non-occupational poisoning accounted for 18.4% and 81.6% respectively. Male patients were in the majority in occupational pesticides poisoning (accounting for 76.4%), female patients in non-occupational poisoning (accounting for 52.1%). The pesticide poisoning mainly occurred from July to September. Occupational poisoning and non-occupational poisoning cases mainly concentrated in over 65 age group, accounting for 36.0% (81 cases) and 26.3% (262 cases) respectively. Insecticide ranks the first in the terms of total poisoning cases caused by pesticide, and organophosphate poisoning ranks the first in all insecticides. Pesticides poisoning has badly threatened the public health in Quzhou, attention should be paid to non-occupational poisoning. The pesticides poisoning was mainly caused by organophosphate insecticides.

  1. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in patients with pesticide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Zerrin Defne; Ergin, Mehmet; Koylu, Ramazan; Ozer, Rasit; Cander, Basar; Gunaydin, Yahya Kemal

    2014-09-01

    Pesticides are highly toxic to human beings, and pesticide poisoning is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The identification of powerful prognostic markers is important for the management of patients with pesticide poisoning in emergency settings. To investigate the prognostic value of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and hematological parameters measured in patients with pesticide poisoning within the first 24 h after admission to the emergency department (ED). All patients (≥15 years old) admitted to the ED from July 2008 through February 2013 due to pesticide poisoning were enrolled in the study. The written and electronic medical charts of patients were reviewed. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio were calculated for each patient using absolute neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet counts. Mechanical ventilation requirement and mortality were used as the primary endpoints. A total of 189 patients were included in the study. The mechanically ventilated patients had significantly higher leukocyte and neutrophil counts, and neutrophil-lymphocyte and platelet-lymphocyte ratios (p pesticide poisoning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A retrospective analysis of acute organophosphorus poisoning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: We have herein reported our experience with the pattern of presentation of cases of acute organophosphorus (OP) poisoning cases in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods:This retrospective study evaluated the hospital records of patients with acute OP poisoning. In a pre-structured proforma, data ...

  3. Analysis of 8000 hospital admissions for acute poisoning in a rural area of Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute poisoning, especially deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides, is an emerging global public health problem, but reliable incidence estimates are lacking. Only a few previous studies have assessed the impact of regulatory or other preventive measures. OBJECTIVE...... of the 1990s. The decline in mortality was attributed to regulatory controls for the group of highly hazardous organophosphorus compounds implemented in 1995 and for the organochlorine endosulfan in 1998. CONCLUSIONS: Regulatory control of highly toxic pesticides provides important health benefits, especially...

  4. Acute poisoning in children; changes over the years, data of pediatric clinic department of toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alije Keka

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: In our study drugs and house cleaning products are the most frequent agents causing accidental poisoning in children less than 5 years-old, this age of children is the most susceptible in terms of morbidity. Compared with the previous studies in Pediatric Clinic of Pristina, drugs are still the most frequent cause of acute poisoning in children; the number of poisoning with pesticides has fallen but has increased the number of poisoning with cleaning products. All preventive measures against poisoning should be taken including preventive strategies of education at national level especially in drug and household product storage.

  5. The role of private pesticide vendors in preventing access to pesticides for self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weerasinghe, Manjula; Pearson, Melissa; Peiris, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    In 15% to 20% of self-poisoning cases, the pesticides used are purchased from shops just prior to ingestion. We explored how pesticide vendors interacted with customers at risk of self-poisoning to identify interventions to prevent such poisonings. Two strategies were specifically discussed: sell...

  6. Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Fahim; Manuweera, Gamini; Gunnell, David

    2009-01-01

    -harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. METHODS: The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an agricultural region of Sri Lanka. Patients who had self-poisoned with pesticides and were admitted to the adult medical wards were interviewed...

  7. Analysis of Recent Situation of Pesticide Poisoning in Bangladesh: Is There a Proper Estimate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourab Dewan

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Pesticide poisoning is responsible for great number of admissions and deaths in Bangladesh. Creating a register of commercially available pesticides in each region for rapid identification of nature of the pesticide is recommended.

  8. Rhabdomyolysis in 114 patients with acute poisonings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Mousavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rhabdomyolysis is a clinical and biochemical syndrome, which is observed in some patients with acute chemical and/or pharmaceutical poisonings. We aimed to investigate rhabdomyolysis in patients with acute poisonings due to different chemicals, natural toxins or drug overdose. Materials and Methods: Following approval of the University medical research committee and obtaining informed consents from the patients or their relatives, all patients with acute poisonings who were treated between March 2009 and February 2010 in the Toxicologic Ward of Imam Reza Hospital and had serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK above 975 IU/L (as a definition for rhabdomyolysis were studied. Results: Of 3555 hospitalized poisoned patients, 114 patients had rhabdomyolysis with CPK of 5996 ± 892 IU/L (mean ± standard error. The most common intoxication to induce the rhabdomyolysis was opioid overdose (28%. Acute renal failure (ARF was diagnosed in 11 (8.7% patients. There was a linear correlation between CPK and creatinine (P < 0.001, which in turn had a significant correlation with death (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Patients with acute poisoning were at risk of rhabdomyolysis. Acute opioid poisoning was the most common cause of toxic rhabdomyolysis in the intoxicated patients, and ARF was the main complication.

  9. Cases of Acute Poisoning in Southeast Anatolia of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahfer Güloğlu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the biological effects of acute poisoning, nature ofagents involved and pattern of poisoning during 2000 in Diyarbakır City in Southeast AnatolianRegion of Turkey.Data from hospital records of all admissions to Emergency Department (ED of Dicle UniversityHospital following acute poisoning collected retrospectively were analysed for the period January toDecember in 2000. Present study included 44 (25.9% male (M and 126 (74.1% female (F, a total170 consecutive patients. A M/F ratio was found as 1.0/3.5 in the study.Mean age of cases was 23.3±6.3 years old; 63 (37.1% of them were under age of 20 years oldand 147 (86.5% of them were under age of 30 years old. Cases of intoxication have admitted insummer season (93 of 170 patients, especially in April, May and July (24, 26 and 30 patients,respectively. Sixty-two (36.5% cases due to accidental, 108 (63.5% cases due to suicidal goal. Thecases of suicidal purposeful intoxications were mostly determined in females (77 cases, 71.3%,p<0.05, and singles (74 cases, 68.5%, p<0.05. There were only two deaths (1.2% among the 170admissions of acute poisonings during hospitaliztion. One of the deaths was due to pesticides; otherone was due to abuse of medical drug. According to physical examination, tachycardia (59, 34.7%,vomit history (55, 32.4%, and unconsciousness (42, 24.7% were frequently observed; however,hypersecretion (15, 8.8%, bradycardia (5, 2.9%, convulsion (8, 4.7%, and hipertension (2, 1.2%,were seen rarely. Cases who poisoned with pesticide compared other cases have had significantlyhigher rate of convulsion (6, 10.2%, miosis (6, 10.2%, and hypersecretion (12, 20.3% (p=0.018,p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively.In our region, pesticides intoxication especially affected to young unmarried females, and mostof them resulted from suicidal purpose. The annual rate of poisoning-related ED visits and mortalitywere within the reported ranges, psychoactive agents being

  10. CLINICAL ASPECTS OF THE POISONING BY THE PESTICIDE ENDOSULFAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Patočka

    Full Text Available Endosulfan is an organochlorine insecticide, widely used in insect control. Unfortunately, it is also an acute neurotoxic compound to both insects and mammals, including humans, and has been responsible for many severe poisonings and several fatal cases. Endosulfan also imitates or enhances the effect of the female hormone estrogen, having the capability of causing reproductive and developmental damage in both, animals and humans, and its exposure has been linked to liver tissue injury. This persistent lipophilic compound is one of the most abundant organochlorine pesticides in the environment, capable of undergoing long range transport to remote locations such as the Arctic. It is practically water-insoluble, but readily adheres to clay particles and persists in soil and water for several years. Its indiscriminate and injudicious use in the control of insects on a wide range of agricultural products and in the extermination of house-hold pests, has considerably increased the hazard risk for human health. Also, this compound has a high fatality rate in humans when ingested accidentally, from food or water contaminated, or in suicidal cases. The aim of this article is to review and summarize chemical, biochemical, environmental, and toxicological data of endosulfan and draw attention to its toxicological potential risk to human health.

  11. Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Fahim; Manuweera, Gamini; Gunnell, David; Azher, Shifa; Eddleston, Michael; Dawson, Andrew; Konradsen, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    Background Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self-harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. Methods The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an agricultural region of Sri Lanka. Patients who had self-poisoned with pesticides and were admitted to the adult medical wards were interviewed by study doctors following initial resuscitation to identify the source of pesticides they have ingested. Results Of the 669 patients included in the analysis, 425 (63.5%) were male; the median age was 26 (IQR 20-36). In 511 (76%) cases, the pesticides had been stored either inside or immediately outside the house; among this group only eight patients obtained pesticides that were kept in a locked container. Ten percent (n = 67) of the patients used pesticides stored in the field while 14% (n = 91) purchased pesticides from shops within a few hours of the episode. The most common reasons for choosing the particular pesticide for self-harm were its easy accessibility (n = 311, 46%) or its popularity as a suicide agent in their village (n = 290, 43%). Conclusion Three quarters of people who ingested pesticides in acts of self-harm used products that were available within the home or in close proximity; relatively few patients purchased the pesticide for the act. The study highlights the importance of reducing the accessibility of toxic pesticides in the domestic environment. PMID:19889236

  12. 75 FR 36654 - Petition from Pesticide Poisoning Victims United; Notice of Availability; Extension of Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... AGENCY Petition from Pesticide Poisoning Victims United; Notice of Availability; Extension of Comment... Pesticide Poisoning Victims United that asks the Agency to undertake a number of actions to protect potentially affected individuals in Lane County, OR from pesticides applied to surrounding forestlands. This...

  13. Clinico-Epidemiological Study on Pesticide Poisoning in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kumar Agrawaal

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Pesticide poisoning is increasing in incidence and it is one of the preventable public health problems and includes mainly the patients’ age group 20-30 years. Due to easy availability of pesticides it is the most preferred method of suicide, the main reasons being impulsive act and increased indebtedness in the society. Keywords: pesticides; organophosphorous poisoning.

  14. Effectiveness of household lockable pesticide storage to reduce pesticide self-poisoning in rural Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, Melissa; Metcalfe, Chris; Jayamanne, Shaluka

    2017-01-01

    Background: Agricultural pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health problem in rural Asia. The use of safer household pesticide storage has been promoted to prevent deaths, but there is no evidence of effectiveness. We aimed to test the effectiveness of lockable household containers...... for prevention of pesticide self-poisoning. Methods: We did a community-based, cluster-randomised controlled trial in a rural area of North Central Province, Sri Lanka. Clusters of households were randomly assigned (1:1), with a sequence computer-generated by a minimisation process, to intervention or usual...... practice (control) groups. Intervention households that had farmed or had used or stored pesticide in the preceding agricultural season were given a lockable storage container. Further promotion of use of the containers was restricted to community posters and 6-monthly reminders during routine community...

  15. Acute Cyanide Poisoning from Jewelry Cleaning Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Bel Waer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyanide is one of the most lethal and devastating poisons. It causes acute toxicity through smoke inhalation simultaneously with carbon monoxide, or by ingestion of cyanide salts that are commonly used in metallurgy and in jewelry or textile industries. Cyanide intoxication is an extremely rare event; in the present study, we report a case of cyanide poisoning involving a 25-year-old jeweler, who ingested a jewelry cleaning solution containing potassium cyanide in a suicide attempt.

  16. Acute Cyanide Poisoning from Jewelry Cleaning Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Ines Bel Waer; Wafa Masri; Nedia Chaouali; Fathia Khlifi; Ines Gana; Anouar Nouioui; Dorra Ben Salah; Dorra Amira; Hayet Ghorbel; Abderrazzek Hedhili

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide is one of the most lethal and devastating poisons. It causes acute toxicity through smoke inhalation simultaneously with carbon monoxide, or by ingestion of cyanide salts that are commonly used in metallurgy and in jewelry or textile industries. Cyanide intoxication is an extremely rare event; in the present study, we report a case of cyanide poisoning involving a 25-year-old jeweler, who ingested a jewelry cleaning solution containing potassium cyanide in a suicide attempt.

  17. Gastric lavage in patients with acute poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat Amigó Tadín

    2012-01-01

    Acute poisonings are a frequent complaint in emergency departments and therapy which prevents the absorption of toxic products taken orally is often indicated: one such option is gastric lavage. Gastric lavage is a digestive decontamination technique whose goal is to remove the maximum amount of poison from the stomach and prevent its absorption. The procedure involves inserting a gastric tube into the stomach through the mouth or nose; firstly to aspirate all the stomach contents and then to...

  18. [Analysis of reports of cases of pesticide poisoning in Jiangsu Province, China, from 2006 to 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Ding, Bangmei; Shen, Han; Zhu, Baoli; Gao, Qianqian

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the characteristics of pesticide poisoning in Jiangsu Province, China, and to provide a scientific basis for developing effective intervention measures and prevention strategies. The data from report cards of pesticide poisoning in Jiangsu Province from 2006 to 2013 were arranged using EXCEL tables, and assessed. Statistical analysis was applied to the epidemiological data using SPSS. From 2006 to 2013, a total of 32672 cases of pesticide poisoning were reported in Jiangsu Province. Most of the cases were caused by non-occupational poisoning (life poisoning) (72.78%). A majority of patients with pesticide poisoning were 35-54 years old (40.85%) or older than 65 years (15.69%). There were more female patients (58.22%) than male patients (41.78%). Among patients with occupational poisoning, male patients (50.90%) were more than female patients. Among patients with non-occupational poisoning, female patients were more than male patients (38.37%). Pesticide poisoning mainly occurred from July to September. The case-fatality rate of occupational poisoning (0.47%) was lower than that of non-occupational poisoning (7.10%). All 13 cities in Jiangsu Province reported cases of pesticide poisoning. There were more cases in the northern regions than in the southern regions. Pesticide poisoning was mainly caused by organophosphorus insecticides including methamidophos, dichlorvos, dimethoate, omethoate, and parathion, which accounted for 65.58%of all cases. Paraquat had the highest case-fatality rate (10.06%) among all pesticides, followed by tetramine (10.00%), dimethoate or omethoate (7.85%), methamidophos (7.79%), and dimehypo (7.68%). Pesticide poisoning cannot be ignored. The management and control should be improved in production and usage of highly toxic pesticides including organophosphorus insecticides, rodenticides, and herbicides. More attention should be paid to the protection of vulnerable groups including women, children, and the elderly.

  19. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick Ii, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-10-22

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning.

  20. Diazepam in the treatment of organophosphorus ester pesticide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrs, Timothy C

    2003-01-01

    Although the main site of action of diazepam, as with other benzodiazepines, is at the gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor, the degree to which the beneficial actions of diazepam in organophosphorus (OP) ester pesticide poisoning are mediated through the GABAA receptor has been a matter of controversy. Although in most series of OP intoxications, convulsions have been relatively uncommon, it is probable that convulsions produce long-term sequelae in the central nervous system by causing structural damage. Animal studies have demonstrated that diazepam prevents and treats convulsions produced by OPs and may prevent the late effects caused by damage to the central nervous system induced by such convulsions. Consequently, the use of diazepam is an important part of the treatment regimen of severe OP poisoning as it prevents, or at least reduces the duration of, convulsions. In addition, case reports suggest that diazepam will also ameliorate muscle fasciculation, a subjectively unpleasant feature of OP pesticide poisoning. There are no data, either experimental or clinical, demonstrating any clear effect of diazepam alone on lethality in OP poisoning. In fact, in one study of large animals, diazepam, given alone, increased lethality. In animals experimentally poisoned with OPs, combined treatment with atropine and diazepam significantly lowered lethality compared with atropine treatment alone, indicating a clear beneficial effect. There are numerous case reports of the use of diazepam, generally as an adjunct to other more specific OP antidotes such as atropine and/or pyridinium oximes. Based on this evidence and pharmacodynamic studies in experimental animals, diazepam should be given to patients poisoned with OPs whenever convulsions or pronounced muscle fasciculation are present. In severe poisoning, diazepam administration should be considered even before these complications develop. Although diazepam has a large therapeutic index, there appears to be no

  1. Hyperamylasaemia and acute pancreatitis in paracetamol poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L E; Dalhoff, K

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyperamylasaemia and even acute pancreatitis have been reported in patients with paracetamol poisoning. AIMS: To describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, and prognostic implications of hyperamylasaemia in paracetamol poisoning. PATIENTS: Six hundred and two patients transferred...... to a specialized unit with severe paracetamol poisoning and 212 unselected patients admitted from the local region. METHODS: Retrospective study based on hospital charts. The optimum threshold of serum amylase to discriminate non-survivors was identified. RESULTS: An elevated serum amylase (>100 U/L) occurred...... in 28 of the unselected patients (13%), in 218 of the transferred patients (36%), and in 118 of 148 patients (80%) with fulminant hepatic failure. Only 33 cases of paracetamol-associated acute pancreatitis were diagnosed. A threshold serum amylase of 150 U/L to discriminate non-survivors had sensitivity...

  2. Poisoning cases and their management in emergency centres of government hospitals in northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getnet Mequanint Adinew

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: Young females comprise a group at increased risk for suicidal poisonings. As a developing nation, pesticide and bleaching agents remain a significant cause of acute poisonings in Ethiopia. Intentional poisoning remains the most significant identified cause of poisoning overall.

  3. Acute Poisoning with Methadone (Dolphin (Review

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    Georgy A. Livanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Most publications report on the use of methadone as a medication, however an increase of the illegal use of methadone has been demonstrated worldwide over the recent years, thus increasing the number of hospitalizations due to acute poisoning with this synthetic opioid. The aim of the present review was to summarize current data on the mechanisms of toxicity, selective toxicity, toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of methadone (Dolphin. The involvement of CNS, respiratory, cardiovascular and urinary systems in acute poisoning with methadone was dis- cussed. The practice of use of methadone in many countries as a medicine for the replacement therapy for opiate addicts was analyzed. In addition, it was suggested that the results of the use of naloxone antidote therapy in acute opioid poisoning do not always clearly demonstrate its sufficient efficacy. Ways to improve of the intensive therapy of severe acute poisoning by methadone were substantiated; in addition to general critical care methods, treatment with a complex metabolic antihypoxant cytoflavin should be considered. 

  4. New experimental Oximes in the management of organophosphorus pesticides poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelli, A; Soave, P M; Del Vicario, M; Barelli, R

    2011-12-01

    Organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) are widely used in agriculture as pesticides and occasionally in industrial settings. They have also been developed as warfare nerve agents. OPCs poisoning from intentional, accidental, and occupational exposure is a major public health problem, especially across the rural developing world. The main toxic mechanism of OPCs is the inhibition of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), resulting in accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) at the synapse with cholinergic crisis and possible death. Exposure to even small amounts of an OPC can be fatal and death is usually caused by respiratory failure. Standard treatment involves the administration of intravenous atropine and an oxime to counteract acetylcholinesterase inhibition at the synapse, but the usefulness of oximes is still debated. During more than five decades, pyridinium oximes have been developed as therapeutic agents used in the medical treatment of poisoning with OPCs. They act by reactivation of AChE inhibited by OPCs. However, their activity in poisonings with pesticides and warfare nerve agents is different, and there is still no universal oxime sufficiently effective against all known OPCs. The aim of this article was to review the most recent findings in this field and compare the protection conferred by the new K-oximes and sugar oximes with the effect of the four recommended pyridinium oximes (pralidoxime, obidoxime, trimedoxime, and HI-6), in the search for a broad-spectrum AChE reactivator.

  5. Organophosphate-pyrethroid combination pesticides may be associated with increased toxicity in human poisoning compared to either pesticide alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyyadurai, R; Peter, J V; Immanuel, S; Begum, A; Zachariah, A; Jasmine, S; Abhilash, K P P

    2014-06-01

    Organophosphate (OP) poisoning results in significant toxicity while pyrethroid poisoning is associated with extremely low fatality. OPs can inhibit the detoxification of pyrethroid and increase the toxicity of the combination. We assessed whether mixed OP-pyrethroid poisoning impacted outcome in human poisoning. Patients were identified from a prospectively collected institutional poisoning database that incorporates demographic and outcome data of patients presenting with poisoning. Of the 1177 poisoned patients admitted over 2 years, 32 presented with OP-pyrethroid (50% chlorpyrifos-5% cypermethrin mixture) poisoning (Group 1), 26 consumed 20% chlorpyrifos (Group 2), and 32 took 15% cypermethrin (Group 3). Seizures occurred in 15.6% (n = 5) with chlorpyrifos-cypermethrin poisoning, 18.8% (n = 6) with cypermethrin poisoning, and 3.9% (n = 1) with chlorpyrifos poisoning. Ventilatory requirements were 53.5% (17/32), 42.3% (11/26), and 15.7% (5/32) in Groups 1-3, respectively. Ventilator-free days (Mean ± SD) was significantly lower (p poisoning appear to have shorter ventilator-free days than patients poisoned by either of the pesticides alone. Further studies are required comparing patients poisoned by formulations with similar quantities of OP and pyrethroid or with analysis of blood pesticide concentration on admission.

  6. Acute Lead Poisoning In an Infant

    OpenAIRE

    Madhusudhanan, M.; Lall, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    A case of acute lead poisoning in an infant without overt clinical manifestations of encephalopathy is reported for the first time in Oman. The case was diagnosed at Rustaq Hospital on the basis of (i) history by the mother of giving the child a traditional remedy for treating constipation (ii) X-ray of abdomen showing radio-opaque speckles and (iii) detection of high blood lead levels (83.3 µg/dL) at the toxicology laboratory of the poison control centre. The source of lead was confirmed by ...

  7. Acute Poisoning in Children in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilton Rodrigues Mendonça MSc

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisoning is a frequent accident in childhood, particularly in children under 4 years of age. This was a descriptive study with data collected from standardized forms of the Poison Control Center and patient record charts. All the cases of acute poisoning in children aged 0 to 14 years during the period 2008 to 2012 were selected. The variables studied comprised characteristics of the events and toxic agents, clinical development, and outcome. A total of 657 cases of acute poisoning, with higher frequency in the age-group from 1 to 4 years (48.7% and male sex (53.4%, were recorded. The occurrences were accidental in 92% of the cases, and 5.8% were due to suicide attempts. Among the toxic agents, medications (28.5%, venomous animals (19.3%, nonvenomous animals (10%, household cleaning products (9.0%, and raticide agents (8.7% predominated. The majority of cases were characterized as light (73.5% and around 18% required hospitalization, and there was low lethality (0.5%.

  8. The global burden of fatal self-poisoning with pesticides 2006-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mew, Emma J.; Padmanathan, Prianka; Konradsen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    Background: Agricultural pesticide poisoning is a major contributor to the global burden of suicide. Over the last decade there has been a marked decrease in the incidence of suicide worldwide. It is unclear whether pesticide poisoning still plays a significant role in the global incidence...... was the proportion of total suicides due to pesticide poisoning. Weighted estimates were calculated for seven WHO regional and income strata. Results: We identified data from 108 countries (102 from WHO data, 6 from the literature). A conservative estimate based on these data indicates that there were approximately...... 110,000 pesticide self-poisoning deaths each year from 2010 to 2014, comprising 13.7% of all global suicides. A sensitivity analysis accounting for under-reporting of suicides in India resulted in an increased estimate of 168,000 pesticide self-poisoning deaths annually, that is, 19.7% of global...

  9. Frequency and trends of hospital treated pesticide poisonings in Germany 2000–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moebus, Susanne

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze the occurrence, trends, and patterns of hospital treated pesticide poisonings in Germany Methods: Data from the German diagnoses statistics of hospital discharges are analyzed for the years 2000–2014. ICD code specific numbers of cases as well as rates per one million and case-fatality ratios are calculated. The number of fatal pesticides poisonings is compared to the official German causes-of-death statistics.Results: During 2000 and 2014 overall 2,871 pesticides poisonings were treated in hospitals with 191 cases per year on average. The rate per 1 million dropped from 2.74 in 2000 to 1.38 in 2014. On average 5% of pesticides poisonings were fatal, this percentage also approximately halved from 2000 to 2014. The majority of pesticide poisonings occurred in men. In both sexes about 70% of all pesticide poisonings occurred below 55 years and one third of patients were younger than 25 years. With respect to fatal poisonings men shared almost 80% of incidents and more than 70% of cases occurred above 55 years of age. There is poor agreement between the different data sources studied. On average only 24% of the fatal pesticide poisoning in the mortality statistics were seen in the diagnoses statistics of hospital discharges.Conclusions: This study shows that the decrease of pesticide poisonings in Germany applies to fatal and non-fatal incidents. There seems to be a decrease also in the case fatality ratio which might point to positive preventive effects by reducing the availability of toxic pesticides. Fatal pesticides poisonings prevails in elder men while non-fatal pesticide poisoning more often affects the younger population. These different patterns should be addressed when improving preventive strategies. The discrepancy between the different data bases with respect to fatal poisoning might be explained by intoxications not admitted to a hospital. However, the difference seems rather high and calls for a deeper

  10. Frequency and trends of hospital treated pesticide poisonings in Germany 2000?2014

    OpenAIRE

    Moebus, Susanne; Boedeker, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the occurrence, trends, and patterns of hospital treated pesticide poisonings in Germany Methods: Data from the German diagnoses statistics of hospital discharges are analyzed for the years 2000-2014. ICD code specific numbers of cases as well as rates per one million and case-fatality ratios are calculated. The number of fatal pesticides poisonings is compared to the official German causes-of-death statistics.Results: During 2000 and 2014 overall 2,871 pesticides po...

  11. Accidental death from acute selenium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Katharine A; Lavercombe, Peter S; Dillon, Jasmine; Ginsberg, Riesa

    2006-10-02

    We report a fatal case of acute selenium poisoning in a 75-year-old man. After reading on the Internet about a possible role of selenium in prostate cancer, the patient ingested 10 g of sodium selenite. Despite intensive care treatment, he suffered a cardiac arrest and died 6 hours after ingestion. This case illustrates the risks of failing to critically evaluate Internet information and exposes the myth that natural therapies are inherently safe.

  12. Factors associated with the decline in suicide by pesticide poisoning in Taiwan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Eddleston, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Pesticide self-poisoning accounts for one-third of suicides worldwide, but few studies have investigated the national epidemiology of pesticide suicide in countries where it is a commonly used method. We investigated trends in pesticide suicide, and factors associated with such trends......, in Taiwan, a rapidly developing East Asian country. Methods. We conducted an ecological study using graphical approaches and Spearman's correlation coefficients to examine trends in pesticide suicide (1987-2010) in Taiwan in relation to pesticide sales, bans on selected pesticides, the proportion...... of the workforce involved in agriculture and unemployment. We compared pesticide products banned by the Taiwanese government with products that remained on the market and pesticides that accounted for the most poisoning deaths in Taiwan. Results. Age-standardised rates of pesticide suicide showed a 67% reduction...

  13. Acute poisoning: understanding 90% of cases in a nutshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, S L; Dargan, P I; Jones, A L

    2005-04-01

    The acutely poisoned patient remains a common problem facing doctors working in acute medicine in the United Kingdom and worldwide. This review examines the initial management of the acutely poisoned patient. Aspects of general management are reviewed including immediate interventions, investigations, gastrointestinal decontamination techniques, use of antidotes, methods to increase poison elimination, and psychological assessment. More common and serious poisonings caused by paracetamol, salicylates, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and cocaine are discussed in detail. Specific aspects of common paediatric poisonings are reviewed.

  14. The global distribution of fatal pesticide self-poisoning: systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnell, David; Eddleston, Michael; Phillips, Michael R

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence is accumulating that pesticide self-poisoning is one of the most commonly used methods of suicide worldwide, but the magnitude of the problem and the global distribution of these deaths is unknown. METHODS: We have systematically reviewed the worldwide literature to estimate...... the number of pesticide suicides in each of the World Health Organisation's six regions and the global burden of fatal self-poisoning with pesticides. We used the following data sources: Medline, EMBASE and psycINFO (1990-2007), papers cited in publications retrieved, the worldwide web (using Google) and our...... personal collections of papers and books. Our aim was to identify papers enabling us to estimate the proportion of a country's suicides due to pesticide self-poisoning. RESULTS: We conservatively estimate that there are 258,234 (plausible range 233,997 to 325,907) deaths from pesticide self-poisoning...

  15. Pesticide poisoning and neurobehavioral function among farm workers in Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujun; Wu, Ming; Yao, Hongyan; Yang, Yaming; Cui, Mengjing; Tu, Zhibin; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides remain an integral part of agricultural activities worldwide. Although there have been a number of studies over the last two decades concerning the adverse effects of pesticide poisoning and chronic long term exposures on neurobehavioral function, the impact of recent pesticide poisoning and long term pesticide exposure on neurobehavioral function in Chinese farm workers has not been reported. China is the largest user of pesticides worldwide and figures suggest 53,300-123,000 Chinese people are poisoned every year. A case control study was conducted to examine the impact of recent pesticide poisoning on neurobehavioral function and the relationship between years worked in agriculture and lower performance on neurobehavioral tests. A total of 121 farm workers who self-reported recent pesticide poisonings within the previous 12 months (case group) and 80 farm workers who reported no pesticide poisoning in the previous 12 months (control group) were recruited from three areas of Jiangsu Province, China. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended neurobehavioral core test battery (NCTB) was used to assess neurobehavioral functioning among cases and controls. Student's t tests and two-way covariance analysis (ANCOVA) were used to test for significant differences in the neurobehavioral test results between the groups. Scores on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in the recently poisoned group were significantly higher for anger-hostility, depression-dejection, tension-anxiety and lower for vigor-activity compared to controls (p poisoned group compared to the controls (p poisoned group and those who had worked for more than 30 years in agriculture (p pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral functioning in Chinese farm workers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Symptoms of psychological distress and suicidal ideation among banana workers with a history of poisoning by organophosphate or n-methyl carbamate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, Catharina; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Keifer, Matthew; London, Leslie; Mergler, Donna; Stallones, Lorann

    2010-11-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders and increased suicide rates have been associated with exposure to cholinesterase inhibiting organophosphates. This study examined symptoms of psychological distress, including suicidal ideation, among banana workers in Costa Rica previously exposed to a cholinesterase inhibiting pesticide. 78 workers who had received medical attention 1-3 years previously for occupational pesticide poisoning were recruited: 54 had been exposed to organophosphate, 24 to carbamate, and 43 and 35, respectively, had single and multiple poisoning episodes with a cholinesterase inhibitor. Referents were 130 non-poisoned workers randomly selected from company payrolls. Psychological distress symptoms during the month prior to interview were obtained using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), which has a general severity index and nine subscale scores. Differences in abnormal BSI scores (T score≥63) were assessed through multivariate logistic regression for all poisoned and for subcategories of poisoned as compared to non-poisoned workers. Organophosphate poisoned workers reported significantly more symptoms than non-poisoned on all but one symptom dimension. Significant trends of increasing symptoms with increasing number of previous poisonings were seen for somatisation, obsessive-compulsiveness, interpersonal sensitivity, depression and anxiety. Carbamate poisoned workers only had increased scores for somatisation. The ORs for suicidal thoughts were: all poisoned 3.58 (95% CI 1.45 to 8.84); organophosphate poisoned 3.72 (1.41 to 9.81); carbamate poisoned 2.57 (0.73 to 9.81); and 2.65 and 4.98, respectively for 1 and ≥2 poisonings (trend p=0.01). This cross-sectional study showed a relationship between acute occupational poisoning with organophosphates and psychological distress including suicidal ideation. Stronger designs are needed to address causality.

  17. Acute Respiratory Failure in Acute Poisoning by Neutrotropic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Lodyagin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of methods for diagnosing and treating critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF in acute poisoning by neurotropic substances. Subjects and methods. Two hundred and thirty-three patients with acute severe intoxication with neurotropic poisons were examined. All the patients were admitted for toxic-hypoxic coma and ARF; in this connection all the patients underwent artificial ventilation (AV. The patients were divided into 3 groups: 1 those in whom the traditional treatments (AV, detoxifying therapy, and infusional and cardiotropic support could restore the basic parameters of vital functions, as judged from the recovered oxygenation index; these patients had no metabolic shifts; 2 those who had signs of pulmonary hyperhydration, low cardiac output and moderate metabolic disorders, as suggested by elevated lactate levels; 3 seriously ill patients in whom the interval between the time of poisoning to care delivery was more than 20 hours; the patients of this group had the most significant metabolic disorders. Results. Correction of ARF in critically ill patients with acute poisoning should include, in addition to the rational parameters of AV and detoxifying therapy, agents for targeted therapy for sequels of hypoxia and energy deficiency states. For maximally rapid and effective oxygen transport recovery, the addition of perfluorane to the complex therapy cardinally improves the results of treatment and reduces mortality rates. Conclusion. The complexity of the pathogenesis of ARF and its sequels is a ground for diagnosing and correcting not only ventilation disturbances, but also pulmonary microcirculatory disorders and metabolic disturbances. Key words: acute intoxication with neu-rotropic poisons, acute respiratory failure, pulmonary hyperhydration, hypoxia, metabolic disturbances.

  18. Acute lead poisoning in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudhanan, M; Lall, S B

    2007-10-01

    A case of acute lead poisoning in an infant without overt clinical manifestations of encephalopathy is reported for the first time in Oman. The case was diagnosed at Rustaq Hospital on the basis of (i) history by the mother of giving the child a traditional remedy for treating constipation (ii) X-ray of abdomen showing radio-opaque speckles and (iii) detection of high blood lead levels (83.3 µg/dL) at the toxicology laboratory of the poison control centre. The source of lead was confirmed by high content of inorganic lead (20.2%) found in the sample of the traditional remedy (bint al dahab). The blood lead levels significantly decreased, after the intravenous calcium edetate (EDTA) therapy was given to the baby. The case highlights that early detection and treatment of acute lead poisoning in children can prevent morbidity and sequelae associated with encephalopathy. It also indicated the need for awareness and prevention programme for parents on this issue.

  19. Gastric lavage in patients with acute poisoning

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    Montserrat Amigó Tadín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisonings are a frequent complaint in emergency departments and therapy which prevents the absorption of toxic products taken orally is often indicated: one such option is gastric lavage. Gastric lavage is a digestive decontamination technique whose goal is to remove the maximum amount of poison from the stomach and prevent its absorption. The procedure involves inserting a gastric tube into the stomach through the mouth or nose; firstly to aspirate all the stomach contents and then to perform gastric washing manoeuvres. The effectiveness of gastric lavage is limited and involves a risk of iatrogenesis, and therefore the indications and contraindications should be carefully considered and the technique carried out meticulously to increase its effectiveness and reduce complications, primarily bronchoaspiration. Gastric lavage may be used in conjunction with other digestive decontamination techniques such as administration of activated charcoal. This gastric lavage protocol is based on a review of the literature on this procedure and is supported by the expertise of our research group in gastrointestinal decontamination techniques in patients with acute poisoning.

  20. Risk factors associated with purchasing pesticide from shops for self-poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weerasinghe, Manjula; Konradsen, Flemming; Eddleston, Michael

    2015-01-01

    -poisoned using pesticides from the home, home garden or farmland and (2) those who bought pesticides from the same shops as the above cases, but not did not self-poison. Logistic regression models will be used to identify risk factors of purchasing pesticides for self-poisoning from shops. ETHICS...... AND DISSEMINATION: The study has received ethical approval from the Ethical Review Committee of the Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka. A sensitive data collection technique will be used and ethical issues will be considered throughout the study. Results will be disseminated...

  1. The role of private pesticide vendors in preventing access to pesticides for self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasinghe, Manjula; Pearson, Melissa; Peiris, Ravi; Dawson, Andrew H; Eddleston, Michael; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Agampodi, Suneth; Konradsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    In 15% to 20% of self-poisoning cases, the pesticides used are purchased from shops just prior to ingestion. We explored how pesticide vendors interacted with customers at risk of self-poisoning to identify interventions to prevent such poisonings. Two strategies were specifically discussed: selling pesticides only to farmers bearing identity cards or customers bearing pesticide ‘prescriptions’. Vendors reported refusing to sell pesticides to people thought to be at risk of self-poisoning, but acknowledged the difficulty of distinguishing them from legitimate customers; vendors also stated they did want to help to improve identification of such customers. The community did not blame vendors when pesticides used for self-poison were purchased from their shops. Vendors have already taken steps to restrict access, including selling low toxic products, counselling and asking customer to return the next day. However, there was little support for the proposed interventions of ‘identity cards’ and ‘prescriptions’. Novel public health approaches are required to complement this approach. PMID:23736739

  2. The role of private pesticide vendors in preventing access to pesticides for self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasinghe, Manjula; Pearson, Melissa; Peiris, Ravi; Dawson, Andrew H; Eddleston, Michael; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Agampodi, Suneth; Konradsen, Flemming

    2014-04-01

    In 15% to 20% of self-poisoning cases, the pesticides used are purchased from shops just prior to ingestion. We explored how pesticide vendors interacted with customers at risk of self-poisoning to identify interventions to prevent such poisonings. Two strategies were specifically discussed: selling pesticides only to farmers bearing identity cards or customers bearing pesticide 'prescriptions'. Vendors reported refusing to sell pesticides to people thought to be at risk of self-poisoning, but acknowledged the difficulty of distinguishing them from legitimate customers; vendors also stated they did want to help to improve identification of such customers. The community did not blame vendors when pesticides used for self-poison were purchased from their shops. Vendors have already taken steps to restrict access, including selling low toxic products, counselling and asking customer to return the next day. However, there was little support for the proposed interventions of 'identity cards' and 'prescriptions'. Novel public health approaches are required to complement this approach.

  3. Agricultural and horticultural pesticides fatal poisoning; the Jordanian experience 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullat, Emad M; Hadidi, Mu'men S; Alhadidi, Nazir; Al-Nsour, Thair Suleiman; Hadidi, Kamal A

    2006-01-01

    A prospective autopsy study addressing fatal poisoning with agricultural and horticultural pesticides was undertaken in Jordan over a 4 year period. A total number of 140 deaths occurred during 1999-2002. The mean fatality rate was 0.68 case per 100,000 population and the age range was 2-55 years; mean 28.3 years with male to female ratio 1.03. The largest number of cases occurred in those 20-29 years (n=69, 49.3%) followed by the age group 30-39 years (n=34, 24.3%) and 40-49 years (n=17, 12.1%). Less than 3.0% of the total fatal poisoning was noticed in both children younger than 9 years of age and those in the age group 50-59 years, with no fatal poisoning in adults at the age 60 years and above. At least 64.3% of all pesticide fatalities were due to suicide with male: female ratio (1.37:1). Accidental and homicide poisoning resulted in 24.3% and 7.9% of the total fatalities, respectively; however, only five cases 3.6% of fatal poisoning were due to unknown pesticides. The main pesticide used was carbamates with 110 cases 78.6% followed by organophosphorus 23 cases 16.4%. The study showed that the present legislation on pesticides availability in Jordan failed to reduce the number of fatal pesticides poisoning since the number of fatal pesticides poisoning was increased from 25.3 to 35 cases per year over a 20 years period. Enforcement of a new legislation addressing the availability of agricultural and horticultural pesticides for self-harm, especially carbamates and organophosphorus, is the most important strategy in the long term to prevent fatal pesticides poisoning in Jordan.

  4. Acute aluminium phosphide poisoning, what is new?

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    Yatendra Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide that is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently generated interest with increasing number of cases in the past four decades because of its increased use for agricultural and nonagricultural purposes, and also its easy availability in the markets has led to its increased misuse to commit suicide. Ingestion is usually suicidal in intent, uncommonly accidental and rarely homicidal. The poison affects all systems, shock, cardiac arrhythmias with varied ECG changes and gastrointestinal features being the most prominent. Diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical suspicion, a positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination of coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Unfortunately, the lack of a specific antidote Results in very high mortality and the key to treatment lies in rapid decontamination and institution of resuscitative measures. This article aims to identify the salient features and mechanism of AlP poisoning along with its management strategies and prognostic variables.

  5. Collective acute poisoning by nitrous gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touze, M.D.; Desjars, P.; Baron, D.; Tasseau, F.; Delajartre, A.Y.; Nicolas, F.

    1983-09-01

    A collective nitrous fumes poisoning (five cases) is reported. Two patients (case 3 and case 4) were comatose, in severe respiratory distress. Shock and slate blue cyanosis were noted. Physical examination and chest X ray revealed acute pulmonary edema-Methemoglobin levels were 71,3% (case 3) and 58% (case 4). Despite treatment both of them died from severe hypoxia resulting in cardiorespiratory arrest. Post-mortem examination was performed upon these four men. On admission the last one (case 5) was conscious, and in good hemodynamic condition. Acute pulmonary edema and cyanosis were present. Methemoglobin level was 37,3%. This patient recovered appropriate therapy. For case 1 and 2 acute anoxia due to methemoglobinemia seems to be cause of death. For cases 3 and 4 death is due to hypoxemia associated with pulmonary edema.

  6. [Acute renal failure due to Cortinarius poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhbouh, Souad; Haverkamp, Leonie; Kuyper, Thomas W; de Wolff, Frederik A; Barendregt, Jos N M

    2011-01-01

    Ingestion of certain Cortinarius species may lead to renal failure. In the Netherlands, this type of poisoning has not been previously described. A 58-year-old female presented with headache, vomiting and oliguria, preceded by a few days of burning, painful thirst and malaise. She had acute and irreversible renal failure of unknown cause. History revealed that two days before the onset of her symptoms, she had eaten a ragout prepared with mushrooms that were picked in a forest. A renal biopsy demonstrated interstitial nephritis with proximal tubular necrosis. In the leftovers of the ragout two fragments of Cortinarius mushroom, probably belonging to the complex of Cortinarius cinnamomeus (cinnamon webcap), were found. First signs and symptoms, and the course are compatible with those described in the literature on Cortinarius poisoning. Despite haemodialysis and administration of acetylcysteine and glucocorticoids, her renal function did not recover. This case is the first description of mushroom poisoning by a species of the genus Cortinarius in the Netherlands.

  7. Community uptake of safe storage boxes to reduce self-poisoning from pesticides in rural Sri Lanka

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    van der Hoek Wim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute poisoning by agricultural pesticides is a well established global public health problem. Keeping pesticides under safe storage is now promoted as a potential way to reduce the number of severe poisoning cases. However, there have been no published studies documenting the feasibility of such an approach. Therefore, the objective of the study presented here was to determine community perceptions and use of in-house safe storage boxes for pesticides in rural Sri Lanka. Methods Boxes with a lock, to be used for the in-house safe storage of pesticides, were distributed to 200 randomly selected farming households in two agricultural communities. A baseline survey determined pesticide storage practices and household characteristics prior to distribution. The selected households were encouraged to make use of the box at community meetings and during a single visit to each household one month after distribution. No further encouragement was offered. A follow-up survey assessed storage practices seven months into the project. Results Following the distribution of the boxes the community identified a number of benefits including the protection of pesticide containers against exposure from the rain and sun and a reduced risk of theft. Data were analysed for 172 households that reported agricultural use of pesticides at follow-up. Of these, 141 (82% kept pesticides in the house under lock against 3 (2% at baseline. As expected, the distribution of boxes significantly reduced the number of households storing pesticides in the field, from 79 (46% at baseline to 4 (2% at follow-up. There was a significant increase in the number of households keeping pesticides safe from children between baseline (64% and seven months after the distribution of boxes (89%. The same was true for adults although less pronounced with 51% at baseline and 66% at follow-up. Conclusion The farming community appreciated the storage boxes and made storage of

  8. Community uptake of safe storage boxes to reduce self-poisoning from pesticides in rural Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konradsen, Flemming; Pieris, Ravi; Weerasinghe, Manjula; van der Hoek, Wim; Eddleston, Michael; Dawson, Andrew H

    2007-01-26

    Acute poisoning by agricultural pesticides is a well established global public health problem. Keeping pesticides under safe storage is now promoted as a potential way to reduce the number of severe poisoning cases. However, there have been no published studies documenting the feasibility of such an approach. Therefore, the objective of the study presented here was to determine community perceptions and use of in-house safe storage boxes for pesticides in rural Sri Lanka. Boxes with a lock, to be used for the in-house safe storage of pesticides, were distributed to 200 randomly selected farming households in two agricultural communities. A baseline survey determined pesticide storage practices and household characteristics prior to distribution. The selected households were encouraged to make use of the box at community meetings and during a single visit to each household one month after distribution. No further encouragement was offered. A follow-up survey assessed storage practices seven months into the project. Following the distribution of the boxes the community identified a number of benefits including the protection of pesticide containers against exposure from the rain and sun and a reduced risk of theft. Data were analysed for 172 households that reported agricultural use of pesticides at follow-up. Of these, 141 (82%) kept pesticides in the house under lock against 3 (2%) at baseline. As expected, the distribution of boxes significantly reduced the number of households storing pesticides in the field, from 79 (46%) at baseline to 4 (2%) at follow-up. There was a significant increase in the number of households keeping pesticides safe from children between baseline (64%) and seven months after the distribution of boxes (89%). The same was true for adults although less pronounced with 51% at baseline and 66% at follow-up. The farming community appreciated the storage boxes and made storage of pesticides safer, especially for children. It seems that

  9. Arsenic pesticides and environmental pollution: exposure, poisoning, hazards and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Mohammad, Amina El-Hosini; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-08-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid element. Acute high-dose exposure to arsenic can cause severe systemic toxicity and death. Lower dose chronic arsenic exposure can result in subacute toxicity that can include peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, skin eruptions, and hepatotoxicity. Long-term effects of arsenic exposure include an in Due to the physiologic effects of the arsenic on all body systems, thus, chronic arsenic-poisoned patient is a major nursing challenge. The critical care nurse provides valuable assessment and interventions that prevent major multisystem complications from arsenic toxicity.

  10. A Narrative Review of Acute Adult Poisoning in Iran

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    Samira Alinejad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning is a frequent cause of referral to medical emergencies and a major health problem around the world, especially in developing countries. We aimed to review the epidemiology and pattern of adult poisoning in Iran in order to facilitate the early diagnosis and management of poisoning. The pattern of poisoning is different in various parts of Iran. Pharmaceutical compounds were the most common cause of poisoning in most parts of Iran. Pesticide-related toxicities were more common in northern agricultural regions, whereas bites and stings were seen more commonly in southern Iran. Carbon monoxide poisoning was common in cities with many motor vehicles such as Tehran and in colder climates such as in northern and western regions due to inadequately vented gas appliances such as stoves and heaters. Majoon Birjandi (containing cannabis is a unique substance used in eastern Iran. Poisoning by opioids, tramadol, and pesticides (organophosphate and aluminum phosphide has remained a common hazard in Iran. Poisoning-associated morbidity and mortality rates vary by region and have changed over time due to the introduction of new drugs and chemicals. Early diagnosis and proper treatment may be lifesaving; thus, understanding the general pattern of poisoning in different regions is important.

  11. The global burden of fatal self-poisoning with pesticides 2006-15: Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mew, Emma J; Padmanathan, Prianka; Konradsen, Flemming; Eddleston, Michael; Chang, Shu-Sen; Phillips, Michael R; Gunnell, David

    2017-09-01

    Agricultural pesticide poisoning is a major contributor to the global burden of suicide. Over the last decade there has been a marked decrease in the incidence of suicide worldwide. It is unclear whether pesticide poisoning still plays a significant role in the global incidence of suicide. WHO method-specific suicide data were supplemented by a systematic review of the literature between 2006 and 2015, including searches of thirteen electronic databases and Google, citation searching and a review of reference lists and personal collections. Our primary outcome was the proportion of total suicides due to pesticide poisoning. Weighted estimates were calculated for seven WHO regional and income strata. We identified data from 108 countries (102 from WHO data, 6 from the literature). A conservative estimate based on these data indicates that there were approximately 110,000 pesticide self-poisoning deaths each year from 2010 to 2014, comprising 13.7% of all global suicides. A sensitivity analysis accounting for under-reporting of suicides in India resulted in an increased estimate of 168,000 pesticide self-poisoning deaths annually, that is, 19.7% of global suicides. The proportion of suicides due to pesticide self-poisoning varies considerably between regions, from 0.9% in low- and middle-income countries in the European region to 48.3% in low- and middle-income countries in the Western Pacific region. High quality method-specific suicide data were unavailable for a number of the most populous countries, particularly in the African and Eastern Mediterranean regions. It is likely we have underestimated incidence in these regions. There appears to have been a substantial decline in fatal pesticide self-poisoning in recent years, largely driven by a reduction in overall suicide rates in China. Nonetheless, pesticide self-poisoning remains a major public health challenge, accounting for at least one-in-seven suicides globally. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by

  12. Acute Pancreatitis Caused By Mushroom Poisoning

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    Samet Karahan Research Fellow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the more than 5000 species of mushrooms known, 100 types are toxic and approximately 10% of these toxic types can cause fatal toxicity. A type of mushroom called Amanita phalloides is responsible for 95% of toxic mushroom poisonings. In this article, we report 2 cases of mushroom poisonings caused by Lactarius volemus, known as Tirmit by the local people. The patient and his wife were admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting 20 hours after consuming Lactarius volemus, an edible type of mushroom. The patients reported that they had been collecting this mushroom from the mountains and eating them for several years but had never developed any clinicopathology to date. Further examination of the patients revealed a very rare case of acute pancreatitis due to mushroom intoxication. The male patient was admitted to the intensive care unit while his wife was followed in the internal medicine service, because of her relative mild clinical symptoms. Both patients recovered without sequelae and were discharged. In this article, we aimed to emphasize that gastrointestinal symptoms are often observed in mushroom intoxications and can be confused with acute pancreatitis, thus leading to misdiagnosis of patients. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve patients’ prognosis and prevent the development of complications.

  13. Acute Pancreatitis Caused By Mushroom Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Samet; Erden, Abdulsamet; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avci, Deniz; Ortakoyluoglu, Adile Irfan; Karagoz, Hatice; Bulut, Kadir; Basak, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Of the more than 5000 species of mushrooms known, 100 types are toxic and approximately 10% of these toxic types can cause fatal toxicity. A type of mushroom called Amanita phalloides is responsible for 95% of toxic mushroom poisonings. In this article, we report 2 cases of mushroom poisonings caused by Lactarius volemus, known as Tirmit by the local people. The patient and his wife were admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting 20 hours after consuming Lactarius volemus, an edible type of mushroom. The patients reported that they had been collecting this mushroom from the mountains and eating them for several years but had never developed any clinicopathology to date. Further examination of the patients revealed a very rare case of acute pancreatitis due to mushroom intoxication. The male patient was admitted to the intensive care unit while his wife was followed in the internal medicine service, because of her relative mild clinical symptoms. Both patients recovered without sequelae and were discharged. In this article, we aimed to emphasize that gastrointestinal symptoms are often observed in mushroom intoxications and can be confused with acute pancreatitis, thus leading to misdiagnosis of patients. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve patients’ prognosis and prevent the development of complications. PMID:26835473

  14. Pesticide Poisoning in South India – Opportunities for Prevention and Improved Medical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, CH Srinivas; Venkateswarlu, V; Surender, T; Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A

    2006-01-01

    Objective Warangal district in Andhra Pradesh, southern India, records over one thousand pesticide poisoning cases each year and hundreds of deaths. We aimed to describe the frequency, distribution, and assess quality of management and subsequent outcomes from pesticide poisoning in one large hospital in the district. Methods We reviewed data on all patients admitted with pesticide poisoning to a district government hospital for the years 1997 to 2002. For 2002, details of the particular pesticide ingested and management were abstracted from the medical files. Findings During these six years, 8040 patients were admitted to the hospital with pesticide poisoning. The overall case fatality ratio was 22.6%. More detailed data from 2002 reveals two thirds of the patients were less than 30 years old, 57% were male and 96% had intentionally poisoned themselves. Two compounds, monocrotophos and endosulfan, accounted for the majority of deaths with known pesticides in 2002. Low fixed dose regimens were used in the majority of cases for the most commonly used antidotes (atropine and pralidoxime). Inappropriate antidotes were also used in some patients. Conclusions It is likely that these findings reflect the situation in many rural hospitals of the Asia Pacific region. Even without an increase in resources, there appear to be significant opportunities for reducing mortality by better medical management and further restrictions on the most toxic pesticides. PMID:15941422

  15. Acute kidney injury following Paraquat poisoning in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Malleshappa

    2013-01-01

    Paraquat is highly toxic to human and is widely used in agriculture as a contact herbicide. Paraquat poisoning is associated with high mortality varying from 35% to 50%. Six cases of paraquat poisoning were treated in our center. Acute kidney injury developed in all the cases and mortality was 66%. Respiratory and multiorgan failure are the main causes for mortality.

  16. Effects of a provincial ban of two toxic organophosphorus insecticides on pesticide poisoning hospital admissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background. Pesticide self-poisoning causes one third of global suicides. Sri Lanka halved its suicide rate by banning WHO Class I organophosphorus (OP) insecticides and then endosulfan. However, poisoning with Class II toxicity OPs, particularly dimethoate and fenthion, remains a problem. We aimed to determine the effect and feasibility of a ban of the two insecticides in one Sri Lankan district. Methods. Sale was banned in June 2003 in most of Polonnaruwa District, but not Anuradhapura District. Admissions with pesticide poisoning to the district general hospitals was prospectively recorded from 2002. Results. Hospital admissions for dimethoate and fenthion poisoning fell by 43% after the ban in Polonnaruwa, while increasing by 23% in Anuradhapura. The pesticide case fatality fell from 14.4% to 9.0% in Polonnaruwa (odds ratio [OR] 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41–0.84) and 11.3% to 10.6% in Anuradhapura (OR 0.93, 95%CI 0.70–1.25; p = 0.051). This reduction was not sustained, with case fatality in Polonnaruwa rising to 12.1% in 2006–2007. Further data analysis indicated that the fall in case fatality had actually been due to a coincidental reduction in case fatality for pesticide poisoning overall, in particular for paraquat poisoning. Conclusions. We found that the insecticides could be effectively banned from agricultural practice, as shown by the fall in hospital admissions, with few negative consequences. However, the ban had only a minor effect on pesticide poisoning deaths because it was too narrow. A study assessing the agricultural and health effects of a more comprehensive ban of highly toxic pesticides is necessary to determine the balance between increased costs of agriculture and reduced health care costs and fewer deaths. PMID:22372788

  17. Effects of a provincial ban of two toxic organophosphorus insecticides on pesticide poisoning hospital admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddleston, Michael; Adhikari, Sriyantha; Egodage, Samitha; Ranganath, Hasantha; Mohamed, Fahim; Manuweera, Gamini; Azher, Shifa; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Juzczak, Edmund; Sheriff, Mh Rezvi; Dawson, Andrew H; Buckley, Nick A

    2012-03-01

    Pesticide self-poisoning causes one third of global suicides. Sri Lanka halved its suicide rate by banning WHO Class I organophosphorus (OP) insecticides and then endosulfan. However, poisoning with Class II toxicity OPs, particularly dimethoate and fenthion, remains a problem. We aimed to determine the effect and feasibility of a ban of the two insecticides in one Sri Lankan district. Sale was banned in June 2003 in most of Polonnaruwa District, but not Anuradhapura District. Admissions with pesticide poisoning to the district general hospitals was prospectively recorded from 2002. Hospital admissions for dimethoate and fenthion poisoning fell by 43% after the ban in Polonnaruwa, while increasing by 23% in Anuradhapura. The pesticide case fatality fell from 14.4% to 9.0% in Polonnaruwa (odds ratio [OR] 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41-0.84) and 11.3% to 10.6% in Anuradhapura (OR 0.93, 95%CI 0.70-1.25; p = 0.051). This reduction was not sustained, with case fatality in Polonnaruwa rising to 12.1% in 2006-2007. Further data analysis indicated that the fall in case fatality had actually been due to a coincidental reduction in case fatality for pesticide poisoning overall, in particular for paraquat poisoning. We found that the insecticides could be effectively banned from agricultural practice, as shown by the fall in hospital admissions, with few negative consequences. However, the ban had only a minor effect on pesticide poisoning deaths because it was too narrow. A study assessing the agricultural and health effects of a more comprehensive ban of highly toxic pesticides is necessary to determine the balance between increased costs of agriculture and reduced health care costs and fewer deaths.

  18. Profile of Acute Poisoning Cases Treated in a Tertiary Care Hospital: a Study in Navi Mumbai

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    Amit Patil

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodic epidemiological studies are necessary to understand the pattern of poisoning in each region. This study was designed to evaluate the pattern of acute poisoning cases treated in a tertiary care hospital in Navi Mumbai, India. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre during July 2012 to July 2013. All cases of poisoning admitted to the hospital were included in this study. The patients’ data were obtained from medical records and were documented on a pre-structured proforma. Results: A total of 74 cases of acute poisoning were studied, of which 51.4% were men. Most of the patients aged 20 to 29 years (44.6%. In majority of cases, the route of exposure to poison was oral (86.5%. Most of the patients reside in urban areas (52.7%. Most of the patients were Hindus (85.1% followed by Muslims (14.9%. The exposure mostly occurred between 6:00 pm to 12:00 am (30% of cases. The majority of poisonings (44.6% was due to consumption of household products followed by pesticides (14.9% and pharmaceutical agents (13.5%. Neurologic manifestations were the most common clinical findings (64.8% followed by gastrointestinal manifestations (37%. All patients were treated successfully with no mortality. There was a significant correlation between gender and intention of poisoning (P < 0.001, as the suicidal attempts were higher in women (69.4%. Moreover, a significant relationship existed between marital status and intention of poisoning (P = 0.016 as the suicidal poisonings were most common among married individuals (45.7%.  Conclusion:The trend in poisoning is never static. Household products were identified as the main cause of poisoning in urban areas of India. Educational programs with more emphasis on preventive measures are necessary to create awareness among the general public.   How to cite this article: Patil A, Peddawad R, Verma VCS, Gandhi H. Profile of Acute

  19. The forensic deaths caused by pesticide poisoning between the years 2006 and 2009 in Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idiz, Nuri; Karakus, Akan; Dalgıç, Mustafa

    2012-07-01

    Pesticide poisoning is still a significant health problem in Turkey. We conducted a retrospective study of autopsy cases at Izmir Branch of the Council of Forensic Medicine to describe the characteristics of deaths caused by pesticide poisoning between 2006 and 2009. The distributions of the cases according to gender and age were as follows: men 74.1% (n = 40, mean [±SD] age, 44.7 ± 14.1), women 25.9% (n = 14, mean [±SD] age, 39.2 ± 18.9). The majority of pesticide-poisoning deaths were suicides (n = 43, 80%) followed by accidents (n = 4, 8%) and homicide (n = 1, 2%). The manner of death could not be determined in six cases (11%). Suicides mostly occurred at home (n = 26, 63%) (p pesticide (n = 9, 17%) among the all cases. This study reported that most of the pesticides found in poisoning cases were highly hazardous types. Combined efforts of medical professionals and law makers are needed for enacting strict laws against highly hazardous pesticides. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Clinico-epidemiological Study on Pesticide Poisoning in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawaal, K K; Karki, P

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide poisoning is a major health problem worldwide. In Nepal the most common cause is suicidal and pesticides account for more than fifty percent of cases. The objective of the study was to look in detail regarding the pesticide poisoning cases admitted at BPKIHS; their epidemiological profile, presentation, treatment and their outcome during the hospital stay. It was a retrospective study which included 2621 patients with poisoning of which 1661 cases were related to pesticides. The mean duration of hospital stay was 6.7 days. The majority of patients 81.16% showed improvement whereas 6.6% of patients died within 24 hours of admission and 3.54% after 48 hours of admission. Among all the patients 0.5% patients were given ICU care and all others were managed in the different units of medicine ward. The total amount of atropine administered varied considerably. Most of the cases were under the influence of alcohol. All the patients had a psychiatry evaluation before discharge. Pesticide poisoning is increasing in incidence and it is one of the preventable public health problems and includes mainly the patients' age group 20-30 years. Due to easy availability of pesticides it is the most preferred method of suicide and the main reasons being impulsive act and increased indebtedness in the society.

  1. The global distribution of fatal pesticide self-poisoning: Systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnell, David; Eddleston, Michael; Phillips, Michael R; Konradsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Background Evidence is accumulating that pesticide self-poisoning is one of the most commonly used methods of suicide worldwide, but the magnitude of the problem and the global distribution of these deaths is unknown. Methods We have systematically reviewed the worldwide literature to estimate the number of pesticide suicides in each of the World Health Organisation's six regions and the global burden of fatal self-poisoning with pesticides. We used the following data sources: Medline, EMBASE and psycINFO (1990–2007), papers cited in publications retrieved, the worldwide web (using Google) and our personal collections of papers and books. Our aim was to identify papers enabling us to estimate the proportion of a country's suicides due to pesticide self-poisoning. Results We conservatively estimate that there are 258,234 (plausible range 233,997 to 325,907) deaths from pesticide self-poisoning worldwide each year, accounting for 30% (range 27% to 37%) of suicides globally. Official data from India probably underestimate the incidence of suicides; applying evidence-based corrections to India's official data, our estimate for world suicides using pesticides increases to 371,594 (range 347,357 to 439,267). The proportion of all suicides using pesticides varies from 4% in the European Region to over 50% in the Western Pacific Region but this proportion is not concordant with the volume of pesticides sold in each region; it is the pattern of pesticide use and the toxicity of the products, not the quantity used, that influences the likelihood they will be used in acts of fatal self-harm. Conclusion Pesticide self-poisoning accounts for about one-third of the world's suicides. Epidemiological and toxicological data suggest that many of these deaths might be prevented if (a) the use of pesticides most toxic to humans was restricted, (b) pesticides could be safely stored in rural communities, and (c) the accessibility and quality of care for poisoning could be improved

  2. The global distribution of fatal pesticide self-poisoning: Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddleston Michael

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence is accumulating that pesticide self-poisoning is one of the most commonly used methods of suicide worldwide, but the magnitude of the problem and the global distribution of these deaths is unknown. Methods We have systematically reviewed the worldwide literature to estimate the number of pesticide suicides in each of the World Health Organisation's six regions and the global burden of fatal self-poisoning with pesticides. We used the following data sources: Medline, EMBASE and psycINFO (1990–2007, papers cited in publications retrieved, the worldwide web (using Google and our personal collections of papers and books. Our aim was to identify papers enabling us to estimate the proportion of a country's suicides due to pesticide self-poisoning. Results We conservatively estimate that there are 258,234 (plausible range 233,997 to 325,907 deaths from pesticide self-poisoning worldwide each year, accounting for 30% (range 27% to 37% of suicides globally. Official data from India probably underestimate the incidence of suicides; applying evidence-based corrections to India's official data, our estimate for world suicides using pesticides increases to 371,594 (range 347,357 to 439,267. The proportion of all suicides using pesticides varies from 4% in the European Region to over 50% in the Western Pacific Region but this proportion is not concordant with the volume of pesticides sold in each region; it is the pattern of pesticide use and the toxicity of the products, not the quantity used, that influences the likelihood they will be used in acts of fatal self-harm. Conclusion Pesticide self-poisoning accounts for about one-third of the world's suicides. Epidemiological and toxicological data suggest that many of these deaths might be prevented if (a the use of pesticides most toxic to humans was restricted, (b pesticides could be safely stored in rural communities, and (c the accessibility and quality of care for poisoning

  3. Renal replacement therapy in acute poisonings--one center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mydlík, Miroslav; Derzsiová, Katarina; Frank, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    The authors described three groups of patients after acute poisonings. In the first group were 60 patients after carbon tetrachioride poisoning, the second group consisted of 81 patients after mushroom poisoning and 20 patients after ethylene glycol poisoning were in the third group. Besides two patients with rare poisonings after potassium dichromate and after paraquat poisoning were analysed. All groups of patients with the kidney damage were presented from the diagnostic, differential diagnostic, conservative, ntra- and extracorporeal elimination treatment point of view. In the group of patients suffering from acute carbon tetrachloride poisoning and with acute renal failure following therapy was used: conservative treatment, exchange blood transfusion--in 4 patients in hepatic coma, renal replacement therapy (peritoneal dialysis, haemodialysis, plasmapheresis). From the total number of 60 patients 58 survived and 2 patients died in liver coma. Survival of patients after mushroom poisoning depended on amount of oral use of mushroom (Amanita phalloides), on early admission in dialysis centre and on early beginning of renal replacement therapy within 24 hr after acute poisoning. Twenty four patients from 81 patients of this group died. Main clinical signs of ethylene glycol poisoning were various neurological symptoms (cramps, hemiparesis, coma), severe metabolic acidosis (pH = 7.06 +/- 0.14), leucocytosis (26.4 +/- 5.5x 10(9)/L) and the signs of acute toxic hepatitis and of acute renal failure. Calcium oxalic crystals in urine were present in 17 patients and leucocytosis was observed in every patient. In the first 4 patients we administered intravenously ethylalcohol as an antidotum and later in other patients we used ethylalcohol in dialysis solution. The concentration of ethylalcohol in dialysis solution was 100 mg%. Severe metabolic acidosis improved in 17 patients using bicarbonate haemodialysis and 3 patients died before the possibility to use bicarbonate

  4. Acute abdominal pain and constipation due to lead poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongolu, S; Sharp, P

    2013-01-01

    Although uncommon, lead poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of unexplained acute abdominal pain in both adults and children. We present the case of a 35-year-old Asian male who presented with abdominal pain and constipation secondary to lead poisoning. Initially, the source of lead exposure was not apparent; this was later found to be due to ingestion of an Ayurvedic herbal medicine for the treatment of infertility. Lead poisoning due to the ingestion of Ayurvedic remedies is well described. We discuss the diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of lead poisoning. This case illustrates one of the rarer medical causes of acute abdominal pain and emphasizes the need to take a thorough history (including specific questioning regarding the use of over-the-counter and traditional/ herbal remedies) in cases of suspected poisoning or drug toxicity.

  5. Acute Drug Poisoning in Tunisian Children: About 150 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hager Barakizou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute drug poisoning remains an important public health problem and represents the second most frequent accidental disease in children. In this study, we identified epidemiological and clinical features of children admitted for acute drug poisoning and related factors associated with suicidal poisoning. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study in the Department of Pediatrics, the Military Hospital, Tunis, over a period of 8 years (2008-2014. Children aged less than 16 yr and admitted for acute drug poisoning were included. Cases of drug addiction were excluded. Two groups were compared: accidental poisoning / suicidal poisoning. Results: We collected 150 cases. The ratio male / female was 1:1.2. The mean age was 4.3 yr. Poisoning was due to one drug in 82% of cases. Children were asymptomatic in 39% of cases, had digestive and neurologic symptoms respectively in 30% and 20% of cases, respectively. Psychotropics came in the first place (20% followed by paracetamol (16%. Two groups were identified: accidental poisoning (74 % and suicidal poisoning (26%. Four factors were significantly associated with suicidal poisoning: age ≥ 8 yr (P< 0.001, OR= 16.25, 95% IC : [6.44-40.95], female gender (P=0.011, OR= 5.4, 95% IC: [2.09-13.91], multiple drug intake (P < 0.001, OR= 9.42, 95% IC: [3.05-29.03] and use of psychotropics (P= 0.003, OR=4.81, 95%IC: [2.06-11.26] . Conclusion: Two groups had to be distinguished: accidental and suicidal drug poisoning. The identification of their characteristics and their predisposing factors is necessary in order to take appropriate preventive actions.

  6. Impulsive but fatal self-poisoning with pesticides among South Asians in Nickerie, Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Spijker, B A J; Graafsma, T; Dullaart, H I A; Kerkhof, A J F M

    2009-01-01

    Intentional self-poisoning with pesticides is a serious problem in many developing countries. It is a commonly used method among South Asians all over the world. To describe the circumstances and characteristics of suicides in Nickerie, e, in order to gain insight into why South Asians commonly use self-poisoning. An exploratory psychological autopsy study was conducted among 19 survivors of 13 suicides in the Nickerie district in Suriname. Impulsivity plays an important role in self-poisonings, as well as aggression and easy accessibility of pesticides. Possible answers to the question why South Asians often use self-poisoning as a method for suicide may be found in culture, upbringing, styles of communication and genetics. However, more research is needed to further explore these hypotheses.

  7. Pesticide poisoning trend analysis of 13 years: a retrospective study based on telephone calls at the National Poisons Information Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peshin, Sharda Shah; Srivastava, Amita; Halder, Nabanita; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2014-02-01

    The study was designed to analyze the incidence and pattern of pesticide poisoning calls reported to the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC), AIIMS, New Delhi and highlight the common classes of pesticides involved in poisoning. The telephone calls received by the Centre during the thirteen year period (1999-2012) were entered into a preset proforma and then into a retrievable database. A total of 4929 calls of pesticide poisoning were recorded. The data was analyzed with respect to age, gender, mode and type of poisoning. The age ranged from 1 to 65 years with the preponderance of males (M = 62.19%, F = 37.80%). The age group mainly involved in poisoning was 18-35 years. While 59.38% calls pertained to household pesticides, 40.61% calls related to agricultural pesticides. The common mode of poisoning was intentional (64.60%) followed by accidental (34.40%) and unknown (1%). Amongst the household pesticides, the highest number of calls were due to pyrethroids (26.23%) followed by rodenticides (17.06%), organophosphates (6.26%), carbamates (4.95%) and others (4.86%). In agricultural pesticides group, the organophosphates (9.79%) ranked the first followed by, aluminium phosphide (9.65%), organochlorines (9.31%), pyrethroids (3.87%), herbicides, weedicides and fungicides (3.20%), ethylene dibromide (2.82%), and others (1.70%). The data analysis shows a high incidence of poisoning due to household pesticides as compared to agricultural pesticides, clearly emphasizing the need for creating awareness and education about proper use and implementation of prevention programmes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Confirmed organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisonings in South African wildlife (2009–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo J. Botha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During a six-year period (from January 2009 to December 2014, specimens collected from 344 cases of suspected organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisonings in wildlife, including birds, were submitted to the Toxicology Laboratory (ARC-OVI for analysis. A positive diagnosis was made in 135 (39% of these cases. The majority of cases were from birds, which included Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres and African white-backed vultures (Gyps africanus and bateleur eagles (Terathopius ecaudatus. In one incident 49 vultures were killed when a farmer intentionally laced carcasses with carbofuran in an attempt to control jackal predation. There were 22 incidents of poisoning in helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris. On nine different occasions blue cranes (Anthropoides paradiseus were poisoned, in one incident 14 birds were reported to have been killed. Over the period of investigation, there were 20 cases of poisoning involving mammalian species, the majority being vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus. The carbamate pesticides were responsible for 57 incidents of poisoning. Aldicarb, carbofuran and methomyl were detected in 26, 18 and 12 cases respectively. The majority of organophosphorus pesticide poisonings were caused by diazinon (n = 19, monocrotophos (n = 13 and methamidophos (n = 10.

  9. Acute tramadol poisoning and its clinical and laboratory findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic with opioid and nonopioid properties, which extensively used in the relief of mild to moderate pain. Tramadol poisoning is a common cause of acute pharmaceutical poisoning in Iran. There are a few studies about clinical and laboratory findings related to acute tramadol poisoning. Therefore, the aim of this study was to demonstrate the clinical and laboratory findings in tramadol acute poisoning cases. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study of patients with acute tramadol poisoning who referred to Loghman Hakim Hospital Poison Center during January to April 2012. Data such as patient′s age, sex, time of ingestion, ingested dose, cause of poisoning, mean duration of hospitalization, patient′s clinical presentations, laboratory findings, therapeutic measures, and patient′s outcome have collected in a predesigned checklist. Results: A total of 144 patients including 111 men (77% and 33 women (23% with acute tramadol poisoning was included in this study. The mean ingested dose was 1971.2 mg (100-20000 mg. Seizure (47.91% was the most frequent clinical symptom. Blood gas on admission showed pH (7.3 ± 0.1, PCO 2 (49.7 ± 8.6 mmHg and HCO3− (24.1 ± 3.8 mEq/L, indicating pure acute respiratory acidosis may be occurred in tramadol-intoxicated patients. There were significant differences between tramadol-intoxicated cases with and without a seizure with regard to the time interval between ingestion and admission on hospital, ingested dose and PCO 2. Conclusion: Seizure and rise of PCO 2 were the most findings in this study.

  10. Acute methanol poisonings reported to the Drug and Poison Information Center in Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Sule; Cevik, Arif Alper; Cavdar, Caner; Aygoren, Oguz; Akgun, Aylin; Ergun, Nurdan; Tuncok, Yesim

    2003-12-01

    The demographics, sources and outcomes of methanol poisoning have not been described in Turkey. Our study identified the profile of acute methanol exposures reported to Drug and Poison Information Center (DPIC) in Izmir, Turkey, from 1993 to 2002. Data analysis included patient demographics, sources of methanol, reason for the exposure, clinical effects and outcomes of methanol poisoning. The DPIC recorded 30,485 calls concerning poisoning; 996 (3.3%) alcohol poisonings were recorded and 113 (11.3%) of them were methanol poisonings. There were 91 (80.5%) males and 22 (19.5%) females with a mean age of 34.7+/-1.3 y (range 19-65) and 4.8+/-0.9 y (range 1-18) in adults and children, respectively. The sources of methanol were eu de cologne (72.6%), spirits (10.6%) and antifreeze (2.7%). Accidental poisoning occurred in all children between 0 and 12 y old, abuse (55.7%) and intentional poisoning (27.3%) were predominant in adults. Clinical signs in all cases were central nervous system symptoms (45.1%), metabolic acidosis (23.0%), visual symptoms (21.2%) and gastrointestinal symptoms (10.6%). Sixteen patients (14.1%) died, 63 (55.8%) had complete recovery and 1 (0.9%) had irreversible visual problems. Most patients with methanol poisoning may die or present serious morbidity without appropriate treatment in a health care facility. Methanol for producing cheap "eu de colognes" in Turkey is the principal reason for severe poisoning and deaths. Public education about colognes and legislative control of cologne production are important in preventing methanol poisoning.

  11. Effect and Management of acute dichlovos poisoning in Wistar Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dichlorvos; organophosphorus pesticide is among the most widely used pesticides for insect control. In Nigeria and most other developing countries it is used indiscriminately by people with little or no knowledge of its toxic effects as a household and agricultural insecticide. The acute effect and antidotal therapy of ...

  12. Pesticide poisoning in Palestine: a retrospective analysis of calls received by Poison Control and Drug Information Center from 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawalha, Ansam F; O'Malley, Gerald F; Sweileh, Waleed M

    2012-01-01

    The agricultural industry is the largest economic sector in Palestine and is characterized by extensive and unregulated use of pesticides. The objective of this study was to analyze phone calls received by the Poison Control and Drug Information Center (PCDIC) in Palestine regarding pesticide poisoning. All phone calls regarding pesticide poisoning received by the PCDIC from 2006 to 2010 were descriptively analyzed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16) was used in statistical analysis and to create figures. A total of 290 calls regarding pesticide poisoning were received during the study period. Most calls (83.8%) were made by physicians. The average age of reported cases was 19.6 ± 15 years. Pesticide poisoning occurred mostly in males (56.9%). Pesticide poisoning was most common (75, 25.9%) in the age category of 20-29.9 years. The majority (51.7%) of the cases were deliberate self-harm while the remaining was accidental exposure. The majority of phone calls (250, 86.2%) described oral exposure to pesticides. Approximately one third (32.9%) of the cases had symptoms consistent with organophosphate poisoning. Gastric lavage (31.7%) was the major decontamination method used, while charcoal was only utilized in 1.4% of the cases. Follow up was performed in 45.5% of the cases, two patients died after hospital admission while the remaining had positive outcome. Pesticide poisoning is a major health problem in Palestine, and the PCDIC has a clear mission to help in recommending therapy and gathering information.

  13. [Acute lithium poisoning: epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguera Vion, Víctor; Montes, José Manuel; Del Rey, José Manuel; Rivera-Gorrín, Maite; Rodao, José María; Tenorio, Maite; Saiz-Ruiz, Jerónimo; Liaño, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    Lithium continues to be the treatment of choice for bipolar disorder. Acute lithium poisoning is a potentially serious event. We present a retrospective observational significative study of episodes of acute lithium poisoning during a 52- month period. Poisoning was defined by a blood lithium concentration of 1.5 mEq/L or higher. We analyzed treatment and epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of 70 episodes were identified (incidence density among treated patients, 1.76 per 100 patient-years). The most frequent cause of lithium poisoning was a concurrent medical condition (46%). Most poisonings were mild (74.2%), but neurologic involvement was identified in 40.3%. Electrocardiographic abnormalities were found in 8 cases. Acute renal failure, found in 23 patients (37.1%), was mild in most cases, although 11 patients required hemodialysis. We concluded that acute lithium poisoning is an uncommon complication, but risk needs to be lowered. Patients should be warned to avoid dosage errors and to take special care during concurrent illnesses and while taking other medications.

  14. Acute plant poisoning and antitoxin antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddleston, Michael; Persson, Hans

    2003-01-01

    Plant poisoning is normally a problem of young children who unintentionally ingest small quantities of toxic plants with little resulting morbidity and few deaths. In some regions of the world, however, plant poisonings are important clinical problems causing much morbidity and mortality. While deaths do occur after unintentional poisoning with plants such as Atractylis gummifera (bird-lime or blue thistle) and Blighia sapida (ackee tree), the majority of deaths globally occur following intentional self-poisoning with plants such as Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) and Cerbera manghas (pink-eyed cerbera or sea mango). Antitoxins developed against colchicine and cardiac glycosides would be useful for plant poisonings--anti-digoxin Fab fragments have been shown to be highly effective in T. peruviana poisoning. Unfortunately, their great cost limits their use in the developing world where they would make a major difference in patient management. Therapy for some other plant poisonings might also benefit from the development of antitoxins. However, until issues of cost and supply are worked out, plant antitoxins are going to remain a dream in many of the areas where they are now urgently required.

  15. Impulsive but fatal self-poisoning with pesticides among South Asians in Nickerie, Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, v.B.A.J.; Graafsma, T.; Dullaart, H.I.A.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Intentional self-poisoning with pesticides is a serious problem in many developing countries. It is a commonly used method among South Asians all over the world. Aims: To describe the circumstances and characteristics of suicides in Nickerie, Suriname, in order to gain insight into why

  16. Our experience in the treatment of acute Amanita phalloides poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Y; Andonova, S; Akabaliev, V

    1999-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating phalloid mushroom poisoning and the toxicological aid services in Plovdiv region as this pathology shows in this country high mortality rate (40-100%) and increasing incidence; it is difficult to diagnose and is far from featuring adequately in the literature in our country. A caseload of 270 patients with mushroom poisoning from Plovdiv region, Bulgaria, admitted for treatment to the Clinic of Toxicology, Higher Medical Institute, Plovdiv, for the period 1991-1998 was studied. Of these 270 patients 25 (9.26%) had an acute phalloid poisoning. The following indicators were registered: gender, age, reported type of consumed mushrooms, time of appearance of the first complaints after the mushroom consumption, time of medical aid, disease outcome. The diagnosis and the applied treatment was based on our own diagnostic-therapeutic protocol for phalloid intoxication. All phalloid poisoning cases were accidental by character. The most frequently reported type of ingested mushroom was unidentified wild edible mushrooms. Of all the patients males were 56%, females--44% with mean age of 47.71 years (SD = 17.53). From 25 phalloid poisoning cases 15 survived (60%), 10 died (40%). The summer-fall seasonal pattern of phalloid poisoning occurrence was apparent. The mean duration of the latency period was 12 hours (SD--6.66). In 4 (16%) patients the disease exhibited an unusually early onset--up to 2 hours after the mushroom ingestion. The mean time period from the mushroom ingestion to the presentation in a medical institution for first medical aid was 32 hours (SD--21.69), for men--27.59 hours, for women--43.75 hours. Almost one third (32%) of the diseased presented for medical help more than 36 hours after the poisoning. The acute mushroom poisoning cases in adults comprise 7.01% of the total acute poisoning caseload. The phalloid poisoning accounts for 9.26% of the total number of patients with mushroom poisoning admitted for treatment

  17. Identification of strategies to prevent death after pesticide self-poisoning using a Haddon matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eddleston, M; Buckley, N A; Gunnell, D

    2006-01-01

    Despite pesticide self-poisoning causing around 300 000 deaths each year in the rural Asia Pacific region, no comprehensive public health response has yet been formulated. The authors have developed a Haddon matrix to identify factors that increase the risk of fatal rather than non-fatal pesticide...... self-poisoning in Sri Lanka. Many important host factors such as age, gender, and genetics are not alterable; factors that could be changed-alcohol use and mental health-have previously proved difficult to change. Interventions affecting agent or environmental factors may be easier to implement...... and more effective, in particular those limiting the human toxicity and accessibility of the pesticides, and the quality, affordability, and accessibility of health care in the community. Controlled studies are required to identify effective strategies for prevention and harm minimization and to garner...

  18. Homeostatic Disorders in Acute Poisoning by Psychotropic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Belova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the impact of the degree of oxidative stress on homeostatic parameters in critically ill patients with acute poisoning by psychotropic agents (PTA.Materials and methods. The components of lipid peroxidation (LPO and the antioxidative system (AOS, blood rheological and immunological parameters, and the markers of endogenous intoxication were studied in 43 patients with severe acute PTA intoxication before and during intensive detoxification therapy.Results. The first hours of poisoning were marked by LPO-AOS imbalance with a significant preponderance of peroxidation processes, by impaired blood viscous properties, the manifestations of secondary immunodeficiency and endogenous intoxication. There were changes in the study parameters during detoxification therapy and at the early somatogenic stage of the disease.Conclusion. In patients with acute poisoning-induced critical conditions, the degree of oxidative stress affects the time course of homeostatic changes and determines the severity of endotoxicosis at all stages of the disease. 

  19. [Determining social factors related to pesticide poisoning among rice farmers in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varona, Marcela E; Díaz, Sonia M; Briceño, Leonardo; Sánchez-Infante, Clara I; Torres, Carlos H; Palma, Ruth M; Groot, Helena; Idrovo, Alvaro J

    2016-08-01

    Objective Large quantities of pesticides are used in rice crops. The aim of this study is to characterize how farmers are exposed to pesticides and subsequent poisoning. Materials and Methods A multilevel (individual and community) multi-method study, which included ethnographic and survey methods, as well as measurement of pesticides in water and human samples, was performed. Results The production process is described and the main risk factors are presented. Pesticides are considered the greatest danger at work and at their homes. Workers have poor working conditions and are not protected by the system of occupational risks. Azinphos-methyl, endosulfan, β-BHC, bromophos-methyl, bromophos-ethyl and 2,4- DDT were found in water samples. The survey included 381 workers with mild (12.86 %), moderate (67.98 %) and severe (5.51 %) poisonings respectively. Severe cases presented lower levels of education, lower levels of health care access to the contributory regimen of the Colombian social security system and higher incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, herpes or other viral infections. Conclusion There are precarious working conditions that favor exposure to pesticides correlated to the exclusion of farmers from the occupational risk system, to poverty and to poor education. It is urgent to include these workers to the system of occupational risk system and to improve their living conditions, thus reducing unsafe practices when handling pesticides.

  20. Spectrum of Acute Pharmaceutical and Chemical Poisoning in Northern Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendranath Sarkar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute poisoning is a major public health problem in Bangladesh. It is a common method for suicide. A clear picture regarding clinical presentation, most commonly used toxic agents, background factors and outcome of poisoned patients is necessary in every region. The aim of this study was to investigate frequency and outcome of acute pharmaceutical and chemical poisoning cases in Northern Bangladesh. Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study on poisoned patients with 18 years of age and above who were admitted to Rangpur Medical College Hospital during 1st December 2011 to 30th November 2012. Results: During the study period, a total of 956 patients were investigated. Males slightly outnumbered females (51.6%. The majority of patients (92% were in the 18-40 year age-group. Regarding occupation, housewives were the most frequent (33.6% followed by farmers (31.7% and students (20.9%. Organophosphate compounds (OPC were the most commonly used toxic agents (73.5%. Most of poisoning cases occurred following suicidal attempts (88%. Familial disharmony was the main cause of suicidal attempts (92.3%. Univariate Analysis showed that age less than 40 years, being married, living in rural areas and educational attainment below secondary level were significantly associated with an increased risk of poisoning (P

  1. Pre-hospital treatment of acute poisonings in Oslo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nore Anne K

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poisoned patients are often treated in and discharged from pre-hospital health care settings. Studies of poisonings should therefore not only include hospitalized patients. Aims: To describe the acutely poisoned patients treated by ambulance personnel and in an outpatient clinic; compare patients transferred to a higher treatment level with those discharged without transfer; and study the one-week mortality after pre-hospital discharge. Methods A one-year multi-centre study with prospective inclusion of all acutely poisoned patients ≥ 16 years of age treated in ambulances, an outpatient clinic, and hospitals in Oslo. Results A total of 3757 health service contacts from 2997 poisoning episodes were recorded: 1860 were treated in ambulances, of which 15 died and 750 (40% were discharged without transfer; 956 were treated in outpatient clinic, of which 801 (84% were discharged without transfer; and 941 episodes were treated in hospitals. Patients discharged alive after ambulance treatment were mainly poisoned by opiates (70%, were frequently comatose (35%, had respiratory depression (37%, and many received naloxone (49%. The majority of the patients discharged from the outpatient clinic were poisoned by ethanol (55%, fewer were comatose (10%, and they rarely had respiratory depression (4%. Among the hospitalized, pharmaceutical poisonings were most common (58%, 23% were comatose, and 7% had respiratory depression. Male patients comprised 69% of the pre-hospital discharges, but only 46% of the hospitalized patients. Except for one patient, who died of a new heroin overdose two days following discharge from an ambulance, there were no deaths during the first week after the poisonings in the 90% of the pre-hospital discharged patients with known identity. Conclusion More than half of the poisoned patients treated in pre-hospital treatment settings were discharged without transfer to higher levels. These poisonings were more often

  2. A profile of unintentional poisoning caused by household cleaning products, disinfectants and pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presgrave, Rosaura de Farias; Camacho, Luiz Antônio Bastos; Villas Boas, Maria Helena Simões

    2008-12-01

    Unintentional poisoning occurred mainly among children. The leading cause of such poisoning in Brazil, among consumer products was household cleaning products. For this study 2810 calls made to two poison control centers in the State of Rio de Janeiro between January 2000 and December 2002 were analyzed. Children under five were the most vulnerable group. More boys under 10 suffered accidental poisoning than girls, although above this age, the distribution was inverted. The calls received by poison control centers were mainly from health services within the first two hours following poisoning. The most frequent exposure routes were ingestion (90.4%), followed by inhalation (4.3%), skin and eye contact (2.4% and 2% respectively). The products involved were bleach, petroleum derivates, rodenticides and pesticides. The main causes were products within the children's reach, storage in soft drink bottles, food mixed with rodenticides, incorrect product use, and kitchen utensils used for measured cleaning products. The most common outcome was that the patient was cured, although a lot of cases were lost to follow-up. Education programs are necessary in order to avoid these poisonings.

  3. Acute Human Self-Poisoning with Imidacloprid Compound: A Neonicotinoid Insecticide

    OpenAIRE

    Fahim Mohamed; Indika Gawarammana; Robertson, Thomas A.; Roberts, Michael S.; Chathura Palangasinghe; Shukry Zawahir; Shaluka Jayamanne; Jaganathan Kandasamy; Michael Eddleston; Buckley, Nick A; Dawson, Andrew H.; Roberts, Darren M

    2009-01-01

    Background Deliberate self-poisoning with older pesticides such as organophosphorus compounds are commonly fatal and a serious public health problem in the developing world. The clinical consequences of self-poisoning with newer pesticides are not well described. Such information may help to improve clinical management and inform pesticide regulators of their relative toxicity. This study reports the clinical outcomes and toxicokinetics of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid following ...

  4. Factors influencing acute alcohol poisoning in adolescents in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukova, Anelia; Stankova, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to analyze the social dimensions of acute alcohol poisoning in children. We have studied the patients at the age up to 18 years with acute alcohol poisoning hospitalized in the Children Toxicology Department of Emergency Hospital Pirogov, Sofia, Bulgaria, from January 1, 2007 to June 31,2008. All of them were at teen years--between 12 and 17 years old. Data on children were retrived from hospital medical records. We have used the inquiry method - specially created for the purpose of the survey questionnaire comprising 39 questions (location and the reason for drinking, type of alcoholic beverage, age at first drink, combination alcohol - illicit drug, type of family, education and employment of parents, frequency of alcohol consumption by parents, consecutiveness of the children in family, presence of siblings, presence of children in a single room, interests etc.). We have studied 137 Adolescents with acute alcohol poisoning. 77 are boys and 60 girls. The results demonstrate tendency of increase of the poisonings in weekends and in late afternoon and evening. No repeated hospitalization for acute alcohol poisoning in the study group for that period has been registered. The most frequent alcoholic beverage leading to intoxication was vodka (63.1 %). 64 % of the children come from complete families. Both parents have secondary education in 79.7 % and in 53.3 % both parents are employed. 60 % were the first born child in the family. The most frequent reason for alcohol consumption was meeting with friends. The research concerns one important medico-social problem--alcohol consumption among children. The increasing alcohol consumption leads to increasing number of acute alcohol poisonings and associated problems. The proposed preventive program may play in important role in decreasing the consequences of alcohol consumption among young people. It should be further developed and popularized among physicians.

  5. [Analysis of the risk factors for pesticide poisoning among children in countryside of Guigang city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai; Yang, Li; Feng, Qi-ming; Li, Chun-ling

    2011-12-01

    This study was to investigate the risk factors for pesticide poisoning among rural children in Guigang. A 1:4 matched case-control study was conducted. A total of 78 rural children who were hospitalized or visited the out-patient clinic due to pesticide poisoning in Guigang from January to December in 2009 were recruited as cases, and 312 matched controls were recruited during the same time. The children's parents or guardians were surveyed with a questionnaire. The questionnaire including general information and 21 possible risk factors concerned in family structure, guardian status, educational level of parents, average annual family income, family and school health education and dangerous behavior in children. The data were analyzed by conditional logistic regression analysis. Three risk factors and five protective factors were identified significantly associated with pesticide poisoning in rural children. The risk factors included inappropriate deposit of hydrocomion and contaminated working clothes (OR = 3.529, 95%CI: 1.408 - 8.848), playing outside frequently (OR = 2.846, 95%CI: 1.513 - 5.352), grandparents being children's guardian (OR = 2.187, 95%CI: 1.187 - 4.029). The protective factors included high frequency of guardianship (OR = 0.408, 95%CI: 0.205 - 0.811), knowledge for poisoning prevention (OR = 0.412, 95%CI: 0.224 - 0.758), washing working clothes in time (OR = 0.435, 95%CI: 0.212 - 0.893), taking health educational courses in school (OR = 0.448, 95%CI: 0.232 - 0.867) and teaching children non-access to toxic agents regularly (OR = 0.462, 95%CI: 0.227 - 0.939). Childhood pesticide poisoning accidence in countryside of Guigang was caused by multiple factors including children's risk behaviors, family factors, environmental factors and health education.

  6. Cardiovascular Effects of Acute Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Laudari

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion:Cardiac effects of OP poisoning can be life-threatening. Prompt diagnosis, early supportive and definitive therapies with atropine and oximes along with vigilant monitoring of the patients for prominent cardiac effects such as QT prolongation, VT or VF during hospital stay can definitely save lives of the victims.

  7. A retrospective analysis of acute organophosphorus poisoning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mortality that poses public health problem in developing countries, including India.[1-21] World .... patients, the paucity of health care, and the lack of facilities and antidotes.[13,14,42,48] The mortality .... poisoning: A Malaysian intensive care experience of one hundred cases. Med J Malaysia 1984;39:229-33. 26.

  8. Profile of acute poisoning in three health districts of Botswana

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    Mary Kasule

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study sought to characterise acute poisoning cases seen in three health districts of Botswana.Method: A retrospective review of patients’ records was conducted and included patients treated from January 2004 to December 2005. Data on the demographic status of the patients, information about the poisonous agent(s involved, and the circumstances and outcomes of the poisoning incidents were recorded on a pre-tested data collection form.Results: A total of 590 cases of acute poisoning were included in the analysis. The most affected age category was that of children aged less than six years, who constituted 33.4% of the cases. Most incidents were recorded in the urban district of Gaborone. Seventy-eight percent (78% of the incidents were accidental, with the remainder being intentional. The poisonous agents involved were pharmaceuticals (26.6%, natural toxins (25.6%, household products (14.6%, foods (14.4%, alcohol (6.9%, traditional medicines (4.7%, unspecified agents (3.2%, and agrochemicals (2.7%. The most common route of poison exposure was by oral (82.2%, followed by dermal contact (16.5%, while the inhalation of gases occurred in 1.2% of cases. An incidence rate of 4.7/1000, a case fatality rate of 3.8/100, and 1.5% of deaths were recorded over the two-year period.Conclusion: In conclusion, it can be stated that acute poisoning involved mainly young children and resulted in an incidence rate of 4.7/1000, a case fatality rate of 3.8/100, and 1.5% of deaths over the two-year period. There were differences based on age category, gender and residence of the victims, the types of toxic agents involved, as well as the circumstances and the outcomes of the poisoning incidents. Given the fact that pharmaceuticals, natural toxins, household products and foods were the agents most commonly involved, targeted interventions should take these differences into account in addressing the problem of acute poisoning.

  9. Acute organophosphorus compound poisoning in cattle: A case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of an acute organophosphorus compound, GOLDFLEECE poisoning involving 39 cattle at Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi is reported. The animals were overexposed to the compound following routine tick spray. Within 15 minutes after the spray of the compound, 26 animals were recumbent showing ...

  10. Occurrence of a Severe Acute Livestock Poisoning by Borehole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on an outbreak of acute livestock poisoning by borehole water that occurred at Kargi in Marsabit District, Kenya in 2000. The borehole had been out of use for 3 years and after its rehabilitation, 7,000 animals died within a day after drinking the water. The most affected were shoats, cattle, camels and dogs ...

  11. Accidental Potassium Bromate Poisoning Causing Acute Renal Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Adeleke SI; Asani MO

    2009-01-01

    Accidental poisoning is common in children. Potassium bromate is commonly used additive and raising agent in many edibles especially bread which is a staple food in Nigeria. This communication is that of an unusual case of acute renal failure following accidental ingestion of potassium bromate tablets.

  12. Accidental Potassium Bromate Poisoning Causing Acute Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleke SI

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Accidental poisoning is common in children. Potassium bromate is commonly used additive and raising agent in many edibles especially bread which is a staple food in Nigeria. This communication is that of an unusual case of acute renal failure following accidental ingestion of potassium bromate tablets

  13. Pesticide poisoning in the developing world--a minimum pesticides list

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eddleston, Michael; Karalliedde, Lakshman; Buckley, Nick

    2002-01-01

    pesticides be restricted--where this has been done, suicide rates have fallen. Since an Essential Drugs List was established in 1977, use of a few essential drugs has rationalised drug use in many regions. An analogous Minimum Pesticides List would identify a restricted number of less dangerous pesticides...

  14. [Prehospital management of acute childhood poisoning in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, June; Zubiaur, Oihane; Azkunaga, Beatriz; Molina, Juan Carlos; Mintegi, Santiago

    2017-06-01

    This objective was to analyze prehospital management of acute childhood poisonings. Poisonings treated in 59 pediatric emergency departments participating in the Toxicology Observation Project of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Emergency Medicine were registered prospectively between 2008 and 2014. We analyzed consultations made and treatments received before the patient arrived in the emergency department. A total of 902 poisonings were registered; in 870 cases (96.4%) cases whether or not a prehospital consultation had been made was on record. An emergency service of come type was contacted or visited in 312 cases (35.9%). Calls were most often made to the central emergency service (122 cases [14%]), primary care centers (100 cases [11.5%]), or the National Toxicology Institute (60 cases, [6.9%]). Choice of service to call or visit varied greatly according to type of poisoning. Prehospital treatment was more often received if a service had been contacted (26.3%) than if not (6.8%) (Pprehospital service had been contacted. About half the cases that consulted a poisoning service but did not receive treatment before coming to a hospital did receive treatment in the hospital emergency department. We conclude that a substantial percentage of patients who seek care for childhood poisoning from an emergency department have also consulted a prehospital service. Better prehospital management of such cases could facilitate earlier treatment when required and also preempt unnecessary trips to pediatric emergency departments.

  15. An unusual case of insecticide poisoning presenting as acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjusha Yadla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning due to insecticides such as organophosphorus and super vasmol presenting as acute kidney injury (AKI is well-reported. Poisoning due to fipronil (phenylpyrazole is known to present with mild neurological and dermatological complaints. However, fipronil poisoning presenting as AKI and hepatic dysfunction is not known. Herein, we are presenting a case of fipronil poisoning presenting with severe AKI.

  16. Hypotension in Severe Dimethoate Self-Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, James; Roberts, Darren; Eyer, Peter; Buckley, Nick; Eddleston, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute self-poisoning with the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide dimethoate has a human case fatality three-fold higher than poisoning with chlorpyrifos despite similar animal toxicity. The typical clinical presentation of severe dimethoate poisoning is quite distinct from that of chlorpyrifos and other OP pesticides: many patients present with hypotension that progresses to shock and death within 12?48 h post-ingestion. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is not clear. Case report...

  17. Rhabdomyolysis among acute human poisoning cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaie, H; Pajouhmand, A; Abdollahi, M; Panahandeh, R; Emami, H; Hajinasrolah, S; Tghaddosinezhad, M

    2007-07-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a clinical and biochemical syndrome occurring when skeletal muscle cells erupt and result in release of creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and myoglobin into the interstitial space and plasma. Mechanical trauma, compression, excessive muscle activity and ischemia are frequent causes, but non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis is usually caused by a toxic reaction to drugs. In this study, 181 patients suspected of rhabdomyolysis were admitted to the poisoning center of Loghman-Hakim Hospital in Tehran during one year (September 2004 to September 2005) were studied. Patients were included on the basis of physical examination and blood analysis for CPK and LDH. Rhabdomyolysis was confirmed if CPK level has been greater than 975 U/L. Out of 181 patients, 64 were female and 117 were male with an age range between 13-78 years. One-hundred and forty-three (79%) patients had CPK greater than 975 U/L. In 6% of the cases, multiple drug poisoning were observed. Two patients (1.1%) had muscle pain, five patients (2.8%) had rigidity and five patients (2.8%) had muscle inflammation. One-hundred and nineteen patients (65.7%) were febrile. The most common cause of rhabdomyolysis was opium. Blood ALT showed an increase in 109 patients (60.9%), AST in 80 patients (44.7%), and LDH in 144 patients (79.6%). Fifty patients (28.2%) had higher blood direct bilirubin and 64 patients (36.4%) showed higher total bilirubin. Six percent of patients had been diagnosed as ARF by indication of creatinine greater than 1.4 mg/dL. Five percent of patients had hypernatremia and 1.1% of patients had hyperkalemia. It is concluded that rhabdomyolysis is a matter of concern in human poisonings and needs special approach to attend.

  18. Transdermal carbamate poisoning – a case of misuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Kumar Rajbanshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pesticide poisoning is a common mode of intentional self harm. Oral ingestion is the usual mode of poisoning. However, inhalation, accidental or occupational transdermal exposure leading to acute or chronic poisoning can be the other route of poisoning. It has been seen that the purpose of poising is suicidal intensity in most of the cases. We report an unusual case where the victim had acute pesticide poisoning through transdermal route that was intended for non suicidal purpose. The patient was managed successfully with immediate decontamination and adequate antidote.

  19. Acute mercury poisoning: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Mercury poisoning can occur as a result of occupational hazard or suicide attempt. This article presents a 36-year-old case admitted to emergency department (ED) due to exposure to metallic mercury. Case Presentatıon A 36-year-old woman presented to the ED with a three-day history of abdominal pain, diarrhea and fever. One week ago her daughter had brought mercury in the liquid form from the school. She had put it on the heating stove. One day later, her 14-month old sister baby got fever and died before admission to the hospital. Her blood pressure was 134/87 mmHg; temperature, 40.2°C; heart rate 105 bpm and regular; respiration, 18 bpm; O2 saturation, 96%. Nothing was remarkable on examination and routine laboratory tests. As serine or urinary mercury levels could not be tested in the city, symptomatic chelation treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) was instituted with regard to presumptive diagnosis and history. At the 7th day of admission she was discharged without any sequelae or complaint. At the discharge day blood was drawn and sent for mercury levels which turned out to be 30 μg/dL (normal range: 0 - 10 μg/dL). Conclusion Public education on poisoning and the potential hazards of mercury are of vital importance for community health. PMID:20302609

  20. Acute mercury poisoning: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aktas Can

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mercury poisoning can occur as a result of occupational hazard or suicide attempt. This article presents a 36-year-old case admitted to emergency department (ED due to exposure to metallic mercury. Case Presentatıon A 36-year-old woman presented to the ED with a three-day history of abdominal pain, diarrhea and fever. One week ago her daughter had brought mercury in the liquid form from the school. She had put it on the heating stove. One day later, her 14-month old sister baby got fever and died before admission to the hospital. Her blood pressure was 134/87 mmHg; temperature, 40.2°C; heart rate 105 bpm and regular; respiration, 18 bpm; O2 saturation, 96%. Nothing was remarkable on examination and routine laboratory tests. As serine or urinary mercury levels could not be tested in the city, symptomatic chelation treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC was instituted with regard to presumptive diagnosis and history. At the 7th day of admission she was discharged without any sequelae or complaint. At the discharge day blood was drawn and sent for mercury levels which turned out to be 30 μg/dL (normal range: 0 - 10 μg/dL. Conclusion Public education on poisoning and the potential hazards of mercury are of vital importance for community health.

  1. Acute Liver Failure Caused by Amanita phalloides Poisoning

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    Luca Santi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom poisoning is a relatively rare cause of acute liver failure (ALF. The present paper analyzes the pathogenesis, clinical features, prognostic indicators, and therapeutic strategies of ALF secondary to ingestion of Amanita phalloides, which represents the most common and deadly cause of mushroom poisoning. Liver damage from Amanita phalloides is related to the amanitins, powerful toxins that inhibit RNA polymerase II resulting in a deficient protein synthesis and cell necrosis. After an asymptomatic lag phase, the clinical picture is characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms, followed by the liver and kidney involvement. Amatoxin poisoning may progress into ALF and eventually death if liver transplantation is not performed. The mortality rate after Amanita phalloides poisoning ranges from 10 to 20%. The management of amatoxin poisoning consists of preliminary medical care, supportive measures, detoxification therapies, and orthotopic liver transplantation. The clinical efficacy of any modality of treatment is difficult to demonstrate since randomized, controlled clinical trials have not been reported. The use of extracorporeal liver assist devices as well as auxiliary liver transplantation may represent additional therapeutic options.

  2. Acute Liver Failure Caused by Amanita phalloides Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Luca; Maggioli, Caterina; Mastroroberto, Marianna; Tufoni, Manuel; Napoli, Lucia; Caraceni, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Mushroom poisoning is a relatively rare cause of acute liver failure (ALF). The present paper analyzes the pathogenesis, clinical features, prognostic indicators, and therapeutic strategies of ALF secondary to ingestion of Amanita phalloides, which represents the most common and deadly cause of mushroom poisoning. Liver damage from Amanita phalloides is related to the amanitins, powerful toxins that inhibit RNA polymerase II resulting in a deficient protein synthesis and cell necrosis. After an asymptomatic lag phase, the clinical picture is characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms, followed by the liver and kidney involvement. Amatoxin poisoning may progress into ALF and eventually death if liver transplantation is not performed. The mortality rate after Amanita phalloides poisoning ranges from 10 to 20%. The management of amatoxin poisoning consists of preliminary medical care, supportive measures, detoxification therapies, and orthotopic liver transplantation. The clinical efficacy of any modality of treatment is difficult to demonstrate since randomized, controlled clinical trials have not been reported. The use of extracorporeal liver assist devices as well as auxiliary liver transplantation may represent additional therapeutic options.

  3. A community-based cluster randomised trial of safe storage to reduce pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, Melissa; Konradsen, Flemming; Gunnell, David

    2011-01-01

    Background The WHO recognises pesticide poisoning to be the single most important means of suicide globally. Pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health and clinical problem in rural Asia, where it has led to case fatality ratios 20-30 times higher than self-poisoning in the developed world....... One approach to reducing access to pesticides is for households to store pesticides in lockable "safe-storage" containers. However, before this approach can be promoted, evidence is required on its effectiveness and safety. Methods/Design A community-based cluster randomised controlled trial has been...... partnership between provincial health services, local and international researchers, and local communities. We discuss issues in relation to randomisation and contamination, engaging control villages, the intervention, and strategies to improve adherence. Trial Registritation The trial is registered...

  4. Endotoxicosis as the Contents of Posresuscitative Disease in Acute Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. A. Luzhnikov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the specific features of the diagnosis and treatment of endothoxicosis as a manifestation of postresus-citative disease in acute exogenous poisoning.Subjects and methods. Clinical, laboratory, and statistical methods of the diagnosis of endotoxicosis complicating the course of acute poisoning by narcotics, psychopharmacological agents, and cauterants, as well as complex physicochemical detoxification were applied to 554 patients.Results. The study pathology has been ascertained to have 3 developmental stages — from functional (primary to developed and terminal clinical and laboratory manifestations as multiple organ dysfunctions. The best therapeutic results are achieved by effective therapeutic measures just in early-stage endotoxicosis, by substantially reducing the rates of death and pneumonia and the time of the latter’s resolution. The major contribution to the reduction in the rate of death due acute poisoning is associated with physicochemical detoxification that considerably lessens the influence of the intoxication factors of postresuscitative disease.Conclusion. When diagnosing endotoxicosis in patients with acute endogenous intoxication, it is necessary to keep in mind a whole spectrum of typical changes in endotoxicosis markers and homeostatic parameters: hematologi-cal, blood rheological, lipid peroxidation/antioxidative systems, which should be timely corrected by the basic efferent artificial detoxification techniques (hemosorption, hemodiafiltration, hemofiltration, by compulsorily employing physio-and chemohemotherapy (laser-ultraviolet hemotherapy, sodium hypochlorite infusion. 

  5. Acute Severe Chromium Poisoning After Dermal Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chi Lin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Severe acute chromium poisoning related to dermal involvement has rarely been reported in the literature. We report a case of acute severe chromium poisoning through skin exposure as a result of a chemical burn of 15% of the body surface area and multiple organ failure after short-term exposure. Medical interventions, including mechanical ventilation, continuous venovenous hemofiltration, and plasmapheresis were performed. In addition, a chelating agent, dimercapto-propane sulfonic acid, was infused intravenously, combined with intravenous N-acetylcysteine and ascorbic acid as adjuvant therapy. The patient was discharged on day 33 without long-term sequelae. The consequence of transdermal exposure of hexavalent chromium should not be overlooked.

  6. An unusual presentation of mad honey poisoning: acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci, Sinan; Arslan, Uğur; Karakurt, Kamber; Cengel, Atiye

    2008-09-26

    An unusual type of food poisoning is commonly seen in the Black Sea coast of Turkey due to grayanotoxin containing toxic honey so called "mad honey" ingestion. In cases of toxication bradycardia and rhythm disturbances are commonly observed. Herein, we present a case of a patient who was admitted to the hospital because of acute myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries after "mad honey" ingestion.

  7. Optimization of Treatment Policy for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Akalayev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of combination use of hyperbaric oxygenation, succinate-containing solutions, and anti-edematous agents in patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Subjects and methods. The results of treatment were analyzed in 32 patients admitted in 2009—2011 for severe acute carbon monoxide poisoning and a Glasgow coma score of 6—8. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 patients whose combination therapy involved hyperbaric oxygenation, Succinasol infusions, and L-lysine-aescinate injections; 2 those who received traditional therapy. All the patients underwent complex clinical, laboratory, and neurophysiologic examinations. Results. Just 24 hours after the combination use of Succinasol and L-lysine-aescinate, Group I patients were observed to have substantially reduced lactate, the content of the latter approached the normal value following 48 hours, which was much below the values in the control group. The similar pattern was observed when endogenous intoxication parameters were examined. During the performed therapy, the level of consciousness and that of intellect according to the MMSE and FAB scales were restored more rapidly in the study group patients than in Group 2. Conclusion. The combination use of hyperbaric oxygenation, the succinate-containing solution Succinasol, and the anti-edematous agent L-lysine-aescinate considerably enhances the efficiency of intensive therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Key words: carbon monoxide, toxic hypoxic encephalopathy, combination therapy, hyperbaric oxygenation, succinic acid, L-lysine-aescinate.

  8. Acute Renal Failure Due To Ethyleneglycol Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ihsan Ates

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene glycol is a colorless, odorless, sweet, water-soluble substance from the group of dihydric alcohols. As a result of taking ethylene-containing material for suicide purpose or as an accident, serious metabolic acidosis, central nervous system depression and oliguric acute renal failure occur. Early diagnosis and treatment can reduce mortality at a significant level. We present a case with severe metabolic acidosis, coma and acute renal failure due to ethylene glycol intoxication after drinking antifreeze accidentally. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(1.000: 67-69

  9. Effect of Intensive Atropine Doses (Rapid Incremental Loading and Titration for Management of Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning: a Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Saleh Ahmed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Acute poisoning with organophosphorus (OP pesticides is a common method of suicide and entails considerable mortality in Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and outcomes of a protocol for treatment of OP poisoning that included titrated incremental atropine as loading dose and slow infusion for maintenance.  Methods:In this prospective descriptive case series, definitive OP poisoned patients were enrolled in an adult medicine unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from April 2006 to April 2007. Clinical examinations were done as soon as the patient entered the ward. Patient’s demographics, comorbid conditions and the occurrence of specific clinical outcomes including death, need for assisted ventilation and clinical complications were recorded. The patients were treated according to the protocol. Results: A total of 56 patients were enrolled over the study period. The median age of the study population was 22.5 years. Most patients were men (67.8%. The most common clinical presentation was miosis (58.9%. In total, 11 patients died (19.6%. Intermediate syndrome developed in 12 patients (21.4% and 6 of them died. Assisted ventilation was required in 16 cases (28.5. Patients with diastolic blood pressure ≤ 70 mmHg and/or GCS ≤ 10 were significantly less likely to survive (P = 0.02, 0.006, respectively. Moreover, early respiratory failure (P < 0.001 and the need for assisted ventilation (P < 0.001 were significantly higher among deceased cases. The mortality rate in this study was similar to previous studies. The frequency of atropine toxicity in the present study (1.8% was considerably lower than conventional regimen used in previous studies. Conclusion:Using the new protocol, lower rate of atropine toxicity developed in victims. Hence, the new protocol appears to be safer and its effectiveness should be further evaluated in case control studies in Bangladesh.    How to cite this article: Ahmed AS

  10. Is oxygen required before atropine administration in organophosphorus or carbamate pesticide poisoning? – A cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konickx, L. A.; Bingham, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Early and adequate atropine administration in organophosphorus (OP) or carbamate insecticide poisoning improves outcome. However, some authors advise that oxygen must be given before atropine due to the risk of inducing ventricular dysrhythmias in hypoxic patients. Because oxygen is frequently unavailable in district hospitals of rural Asia, where the majority of patients with insecticide poisoning present, this guidance has significant implications for patient care. The published evidence for this advice is weak. We therefore performed a patient cohort analysis to look for early cardiac deaths in patients poisoned by anticholinesterase pesticides. Methods We analysed a prospective Sri Lankan cohort of OP or carbamate-poisoned patients treated with early atropine without the benefit of oxygen for evidence of early deaths. The incidence of fatal primary cardiac arrests within 3 h of admission was used as a sensitive (but non-specific) marker of possible ventricular dysrhythmias. Results The cohort consisted of 1957 patients. The incidence of a primary cardiac death within 3 h of atropine administration was 4 (0.2%) of 1957 patients. The majority of deaths occurred at a later time point from respiratory complications of poisoning. Conclusion We found no evidence of a high number of early deaths in an observational study of 1957 patients routinely given atropine before oxygen that might support guidance that oxygen must be given before atropine. The published literature indicates that early and rapid administration of atropine during resuscitation is life-saving. Therefore, whether oxygen is available or not, early atropinisation of OP- and carbamate-poisoned patients should be performed. PMID:24810796

  11. Do Bolivian small holder farmers improve and retain knowledge to reduce occupational pesticide poisonings after training on Integrated Pest Management?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Lander, Flemming; Huici, Omar

    2014-01-01

    : A baseline survey was performed in 2002 and follow-up surveys in 2004 and 2009. Farmers were selected and trained on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) from 2002 to 2004 in Farmer Field Schools (FFS). After exclusions and drop outs, 23 FFS trained farmers could be compared to 47 neighbor farmers for changes......BACKGROUND: Pesticide consumption is increasing in Bolivia as well as pest resistance, pesticide poisonings and pollution of the environment. This survey evaluates the training of small holder farmers on pesticide handling and ecological alternatives to reduce the negative pesticide effects. METHOD...

  12. Cost to government health-care services of treating acute self-poisonings in a rural district in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickramasinghe, Kanchana; Steele, Paul; Dawson, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the direct financial costs to the Sri Lanka Ministry of Health of treating patients after self-poisoning, particularly from pesticides, in a single district. METHODS: Data on staff, drug, laboratory and other inputs for each patient admitted for self-poisoning were......-poisonings. Based on the total treatment cost per self-poisoned patient estimated in this study, the cost of treating self-poisoned patients in all of Sri Lanka in 2004 was estimated at US$ 866,304. CONCLUSION: The cost of treating pesticide self-poisonings may be reduced by promoting the use of less toxic...

  13. Anticholinesterase poisoning of birds: Field monitoring and diagnosis of acute poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.; Fleming, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are cholinesterase (ChE) inhibiting chemicals that have been responsible for avian die-offs. Identification of chemicals implicated in these die-offs is difficult and sometimes conclusions are solely circumstantial. However, when marked depression (inhibition) of brain ChE activity accompanies organophosphorus or carbamate residues in body tissues or ingesta, cause-effect diagnosis is enhanced. To achieve this end, normal brain ChE activity is estimated for controls of the affected species and then die-off specimens are individually evaluated for evidence of ChE inhibition. This approach to evaluation of antiChE poisoning may also be used to monitor exposure of vertebrates to field application of organophosphorus or carbamate pesticides. Problems associated with this kind of evaluation, and the main topic of this report, include variability of brain ChE activity among species, postmortem influences of ambient conditions (storage or field) on ChE activity, and differential patterns of ChE activity when inhibited by organophosphorus or carbamate compounds. Other topics discussed are the ChE assay procedure, example case reports and interpretation, and research needed for improving the diagnostic utility of ChE activity in a field situation.

  14. Acute Mercury Poisoning in a Group of School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Olcay; Özkaya, Ahmet Kağan; Kirik, Serkan; Dalkiran, Tahir; Güngör, Gülay; Işikay, Sedat; Davutoğlu, Mehmet; Dilber, Cengiz

    2016-12-12

    Elemental mercury is a toxic liquid element that is used widely in the home, medicine, agriculture, and industry. It is readily vaporized and inhaled at room temperature. Thereby, inhalation can cause acute or chronic poisoning. Mercury can be found in environmental naturally find but some dangers sources give rise to contaminations. It can be very dangerous to all living organisms, especially children. This study presents the features of mercury poisoning in a group of pediatric cases. Data were obtained for 29 pediatric cases exposed to elemental mercury in a high school chemistry laboratory in Turkey. Patients with a blood mercury level exceeding 10 μg/L or a urine mercury level exceeding 15 μg/L were considered to have mercury poisoning. The patients were treated with 2,3-dimercaptopropane sulfonic acid or D-penicillamine. Twenty-nine children with mercury poisoning were admitted to the hospital. The median duration of exposure was 58 (range, 15-120) minutes. Ten (29%) children were asymptomatic. Physical and neurological examinations were normal in 19 (65.5%) children. The most common presenting complaint was headache. The most common neurological abnormality, partly dilated/dilated pupils, was present in 9 (31%) children. Mercury levels were measured in blood samples every 5 days, and the median blood mercury level was 51.98 (range, 24.9-86.4) μg/L. There was a positive correlation between the duration of exposure and maximum blood/urine mercury levels (P = 0.001). Elemental mercury exposure is potentially toxic; its symptomatology varies, especially in children. Secure storage of mercury and other toxic substances and provision of information about this subject to individuals who might be exposed to mercury and their families might help to prevent mercury poisoning.

  15. Outpatient treatment of acute poisonings in Oslo: poisoning pattern, factors associated with hospitalization, and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most patients with acute poisoning are treated as outpatients worldwide. In Oslo, these patients are treated in a physician-led outpatient clinic with limited diagnostic and treatment resources, which reduces both the costs and emergency department overcrowding. We describe the poisoning patterns, treatment, mortality, factors associated with hospitalization and follow-up at this Emergency Medical Agency (EMA, "Oslo Legevakt", and we evaluate the safety of this current practice. Methods All acute poisonings in adults (> or = 16 years treated at the EMA during one year (April 2008 to April 2009 were included consecutively in an observational study design. The treating physicians completed a standardized form comprising information needed to address the study's aims. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with hospitalization. Results There were 2348 contacts for 1856 individuals; 1157 (62% were male, and the median age was 34 years. The most frequent main toxic agents were ethanol (43%, opioids (22% and CO or fire smoke (10%. The physicians classified 73% as accidental overdoses with substances of abuse taken for recreational purposes, 15% as other accidents (self-inflicted or other and 11% as suicide attempts. Most (91% patients were treated with observation only. The median observation time until discharge was 3.8 hours. No patient developed sequelae or died at the EMA. Seventeen per cent were hospitalized. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, respiratory depression, paracetamol, reduced consciousness and suicidal intention were factors associated with hospitalization. Forty-eight per cent were discharged without referral to follow-up. The one-month mortality was 0.6%. Of the nine deaths, five were by new accidental overdose with substances of abuse. Conclusions More than twice as many patients were treated at the EMA compared with all hospitals in Oslo. Despite more than a doubling of

  16. Suicide by pesticide poisoning remains a priority for suicide prevention in China: Analysis of national mortality trends 2006-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Andrew; Liu, Shiwei; Gunnell, David; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi; Wang, Lijun; Zhou, Maigeng

    2017-01-15

    Despite recent declines, suicide remains a priority for China. Ease of availability of high-lethality suicide methods, such as pesticides and firearms, contributes to the overall incidence and is an important target for suicide prevention. This study investigates whether changes in the distribution of methods of suicide have contributed to the recent reduction in suicide in China. Suicide rates (2006-2013) were calculated using the Chinese Disease Surveillance Points system, stratified by gender, age group, and urban-rural residence, to investigate trends in suicide over the study period. Multilevel negative binomial regression models were used to investigate associations between socio-demographic factors and method-specific suicide. The most common method of suicide in China for both males and females was pesticide poisoning, followed by hanging. All methods declined over the study period, with the exception of suicide by jumping in males. Suicide rates for pesticide poisoning and for hanging increased exponentially with age in those aged over ≥45 years in both sexes. Pesticide poisoning declined from 55% to 49% of all suicides, while hanging increased from 27% to 31%. This was an ecological study of a time series of suicide rates, with risk factor adjustment being limited to population-level point estimates derived from a single census. Suicide by pesticide poisoning and hanging remain the leading methods of suicide in China. Changes to the safe use of pesticides and targeted prevention initiatives to restrict access, along with socio-economic development and urbanisation, are likely contributors to declines in suicide by pesticide poisoning. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Poisoning of raptors with organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides with emphasis on Canada, U.S. and U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineau, P.; Fletcher, M.R.; Glaser, L.C.; Thomas, N.J.; Brassard, C.; Wilson, L.K.; Elliott, J.E.; Lyon, L.A.; Henny, C.J.; Bollinger, T.; Porter, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    We reviewed cases of raptor mortality resulting from cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides. We compiled records from the U.S., U.K. and Canada for the period 1985-95 (520 incidents) and surveyed the relevant literature to identify the main routes of exposure and those products that led to the greatest number of poisoning cases. A high proportion of cases in the U.K. resulted from abusive uses of pesticides (willful poisoning). The proportion was smaller in North America where problems with labeled uses of pesticides were as frequent as abuse cases. Poisoning resulting from labeled use was possible with a large number of granular pesticides and some seed treatments through secondary poisoning or through the ingestion of contaminated invertebrates, notably earthworms. With the more toxic products, residue levels in freshly-sprayed insects were high enough to cause mortality. The use of organophosphorus products as avicides and for the topical treatment of livestock appeared to be common routes of intoxication. The use of insecticides in dormant oils also gave rise to exposure that can be lethal or which can debilitate birds and increase their vulnerability. A few pesticides of high toxicity were responsible for the bulk of poisoning cases. Based on limited information, raptors appeared to be more sensitive than other bird species to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Some of the more significant risk factors that resulted in raptor poisonings were: insectivory and vermivory; opportunistic taking of debilitated prey; scavenging, especially if the gastrointestinal tracts are consumed; presence in agricultural areas; perceived status as pest species; and flocking or other gregarious behavior at some part of their life cycle. Lethal or sublethal poisoning should always be considered in the diagnosis of dead or debilitated raptors even when another diagnosis (e.g., electrocution, car or building strike) is apparent. Many cases of poisoning are not currently

  18. Oral acute toxicity study of selected botanical pesticide plants used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral acute toxicity study of selected botanical pesticide plants used by subsistence farmers around the Lake Victoria Basin. M Kamatenesi-Mugisha, JP Buyungo, P Ogwal, A Kasibante, AL Deng, JO Ogendo, MJ Mihale ...

  19. Acute arsenic poisoning: clinical, toxicological, histopathological, and forensic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournel, Gilles; Houssaye, Cédric; Humbert, Luc; Dhorne, Christine; Gnemmi, Viviane; Bécart-Robert, Anne; Nisse, Patrick; Hédouin, Valéry; Gosset, Didier; Lhermitte, Michel

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a suicide case by acute arsenic intoxication via intravenous injection. A 30-year-old woman injected arsenic As (V) (sodium arseniate disodique: Disodium Hydrogena Arsenik RP) in a successful suicide attempt. Three hours following administration, the woman developed severe digestive symptoms. She was admitted to a hospital and transferred to the intensive care unit within 12 h of the massive administration of arsenic. Despite therapeutic efforts, over the next 2 h she developed multiorgan failure and died. A postmortem examination was performed. Pulmonary edema and congestion of liver were apparent. As (V) and As (III) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after mineralization of samples by concentrated nitric acid. Toxicological analysis revealed high concentrations of arsenic in biological fluids as well as in organs. Histopathological examination showed a typical indication of myocarditis. These findings were in agreement with acute arsenic poisoning. The symptoms developed by this young woman (intoxication by intravenous administration) were comparable to oral intoxication. The clinical signs, survival time, and administration type are discussed in light of the literature on acute and chronic arsenic poisoning. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Acute lead poisoning in two users of illicit methamphetamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allcott, J.V. III; Barnhart, R.A.; Mooney, L.A.

    1987-07-31

    Acute lead poisoning can present a difficult diagnostic dilemma, with symptoms that mimic those of hepatitis, nephritis, and encephalopathy. The authors report two cases in intravenous methamphetamine users who presented with abnormal liver function values, low hematocrit values, basophilic stippling of red blood cells, and elevated blood lead levels. Both patients excreted large amounts of lead in their urine after treatment with edetic acid, followed by resolution of their symptoms. Lead contamination was proved in one drug sample. Basophilic stippling of the red blood cells was the one key laboratory result that led to the definitive diagnosis in both cases.

  1. [Acute inorganic lead poisoning in workers employed on building renovation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberatori, Roberta; Romeo, R; Restieri, Rosetta; Sarrini, Daniela; Parducci, A D; Puccetti, Monica; Loi, F; Sartorelli, P

    2010-01-01

    Occupationally, there are a number of work processes that constitute a long-term risk as sources of exposure to lead. In these processes the presence of lead is not evident but represents a hidden risk of poisoning. Study of two cases of hidden exposure to lead that were discovered during renovation work on a historical building. Acute lead poisoning symptoms appeared in the 2 workers. The current protocol for treatment of lead poisoning was applied, which consisted in administration of a chelating agent (EDTA), with subsequent monitoring of indicators of dose (PbB. blood lead level, PbU: urinary lead level) and indicators of effect (erythrocyte Protoporphyrin IX, urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-U), urinary coproporphyrins). The lead colic and anaemia appeared at PbB values (102 microg/dl e 104 microg/dl) that were higher than the PbB action value (40 microg/dl) and higher than the limit value (60 microg/dl). The gravity of the symptoms, the high number of persons potentially involved, the difficulty of reclamation and probable urban contamination, with relative consequences concerning particularly infants and women infertile age, are sufficient grounds to require effective legislative action and improvement in the services available at the hospitals involved.

  2. Impulsive but fatal self-poisoning with pesticides among south asians in Nickerie, Suriname. An exploratory autopsy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spijker, B.A.J.; Graafsma, T.; Dullaart, H.I.A.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Intentional self-poisoning with pesticides is a serious problem in many developing countries. It is a commonly used method among South Asians all over the world. Aims: To describe the circumstances and characteristics of suicides in Nickerie, Suriname, in order to gain insight into why

  3. Effectiveness of household lockable pesticide storage to reduce pesticide self-poisoning in rural Asia: a community-based, cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Melissa; Metcalfe, Chris; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Gunnell, David; Weerasinghe, Manjula; Pieris, Ravi; Priyadarshana, Chamil; Knipe, Duleeka W; Hawton, Keith; Dawson, Andrew H; Bandara, Palitha; deSilva, Dhammika; Gawarammana, Indika; Eddleston, Michael; Konradsen, Flemming

    2017-10-21

    Agricultural pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health problem in rural Asia. The use of safer household pesticide storage has been promoted to prevent deaths, but there is no evidence of effectiveness. We aimed to test the effectiveness of lockable household containers for prevention of pesticide self-poisoning. We did a community-based, cluster-randomised controlled trial in a rural area of North Central Province, Sri Lanka. Clusters of households were randomly assigned (1:1), with a sequence computer-generated by a minimisation process, to intervention or usual practice (control) groups. Intervention households that had farmed or had used or stored pesticide in the preceding agricultural season were given a lockable storage container. Further promotion of use of the containers was restricted to community posters and 6-monthly reminders during routine community meetings. The primary outcome was incidence of pesticide self-poisoning in people aged 14 years or older during 3 years of follow-up. Identification of outcome events was done by staff who were unaware of group allocation. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT1146496. Between Dec 31, 2010, and Feb 2, 2013, we randomly assigned 90 rural villages to the intervention group and 90 to the control group. 27 091 households (114 168 individuals) in the intervention group and 26 291 households (109 693 individuals) in the control group consented to participate. 20 457 household pesticide storage containers were distributed. In individuals aged 14 years or older, 611 cases of pesticide self-poisoning had occurred by 3 years in the intervention group compared with 641 cases in the control group; incidence of pesticide self-poisoning did not differ between groups (293·3 per 100 000 person-years of follow-up in the intervention group vs 318·0 per 100 000 in the control group; rate ratio [RR] 0·93, 95% CI 0·80-1·08; p=0·33). We found

  4. Mortality from and incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea: findings from National Death and Health Utilization Data between 2006 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eun Shil; Khang, Young-Ho; Lee, Won Jin

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide poisoning has been recognized as an important public health issue around the world. The objectives of this study were to report nationally representative figures on mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea and to describe their epidemiologic characteristics. We calculated the age-standardized rates of mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea by gender and region from 2006 through 2010 using registered death data obtained from Statistics Korea and national healthcare utilization data obtained from the National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of South Korea. During the study period of 2006 through 2010, a total of 16,161 deaths and 45,291 patients related to pesticide poisoning were identified, marking respective mortality and incidence rates of 5.35 and 15.37 per 100,000 population. Intentional self-poisoning was identified as the major cause of death due to pesticides (85.9%) and accounted for 20.8% of all recorded suicides. The rates of mortality due to and incidence of pesticide poisoning were higher in rural than in urban areas, and this rural-urban discrepancy was more pronounced for mortality than for incidence. Both the rate of mortality due to pesticide poisoning and its incidence rate increased with age and were higher among men than women. This study provides the magnitude and epidemiologic characteristics for mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning at the national level, and strongly suggests the need for further efforts to prevent pesticide self-poisonings, especially in rural areas in South Korea.

  5. Mortality from and incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea: findings from National Death and Health Utilization Data between 2006 and 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Shil Cha

    Full Text Available Pesticide poisoning has been recognized as an important public health issue around the world. The objectives of this study were to report nationally representative figures on mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea and to describe their epidemiologic characteristics. We calculated the age-standardized rates of mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea by gender and region from 2006 through 2010 using registered death data obtained from Statistics Korea and national healthcare utilization data obtained from the National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of South Korea. During the study period of 2006 through 2010, a total of 16,161 deaths and 45,291 patients related to pesticide poisoning were identified, marking respective mortality and incidence rates of 5.35 and 15.37 per 100,000 population. Intentional self-poisoning was identified as the major cause of death due to pesticides (85.9% and accounted for 20.8% of all recorded suicides. The rates of mortality due to and incidence of pesticide poisoning were higher in rural than in urban areas, and this rural-urban discrepancy was more pronounced for mortality than for incidence. Both the rate of mortality due to pesticide poisoning and its incidence rate increased with age and were higher among men than women. This study provides the magnitude and epidemiologic characteristics for mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning at the national level, and strongly suggests the need for further efforts to prevent pesticide self-poisonings, especially in rural areas in South Korea.

  6. [Characterization of severe acute occupational poisoning accidents in China between 1989 and 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Li, Tao; Wang, Huan-Qiang; Wang, Hong-Fei; Chen, Shu-Yang; Du, Xie-Yi; Zhang, Shuang; Qin, Jian

    2006-12-01

    To analyze severe acute occupational poisoning accidents reported in China between 1989 and 2003, and to study the characteristics of severe acute occupational poisoning accidents and provide scientific evidences for prevention and control strategies. The data from the national occupational poisoning case reporting system were analyzed with descriptive methods. (1) There were 506 acute severe occupational poisoning accidents for 15 years with 4 657 workers poisoned. The total poisoning rate was 54.8%, and the total mortality was 16.5%. The average poisoning age was (31.9 +/- 9.8) years old and the average death age was (33.7 +/- 10.3) years old. The poisoning accidents occurred more in men than in women. (2) There were more than 112 chemicals which caused these poisoning accidents. Most of the accidents caused by hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, benzene and homologs, metal and metalloid and carbon dioxide, and the types of chemicals varied in different types of industries. (3) The accidents mainly occurred in chemical industry, manufacture, water disposal industry, mining and construction industry, and the risk was higher in some jobs than others, such as cleanout, machine maintenance and repair, production, mine and digging. The accidents occurred more frequently from April to August each year. (1) The control over the severe acute occupational poisoning is urgent. (2) The trend of the characteristics of severe acute occupational poisoning accidents is centralized in the high risk industries, poisons and jobs. (3) The characteristics of the accidents varied in different types of industries. (4) It is the key point to strengthen the supervision on poisoning.

  7. Severe acute caffeine poisoning due to intradermal injections: mesotherapy hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukcević, Natasa Perković; Babić, Gordana; Segrt, Zoran; Ercegović, Gordana Vuković; Janković, Snezana; Aćimović, Ljubomir

    2012-08-01

    Caffeine is indicated in the treatment of migraine headaches, as well as neonatal apnea and bradycardia syndrome. In mild poisoning, the most prevalent symptoms are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, tremor, anxiety and headache. In more severe cases, symptoms consist of heart rythym abnormalities, myocardial infarction and seizures. Due to its common lipolytic effect, caffeine is used in mesotherapy, usually in combination with drugs of similar effect. We presented a patient with acute iatrogenic caffeine poisoning. A 51-year-old woman, with preexisting hypertension and hypertensive cardiomyopathy was subjected to cosmetic treatment in order to remove fat by intradermal caffeine injections. During the treatment the patient felt sickness, an urge to vomit, and a pronounced deterioration of general condition. Upon examination, the patient exhibited somnolence, hypotension and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, which was sufficient enough evidence for further hospitalization. On admission to the intensive care unit the patient was anxious with increased heart rate, normotensive, with cold, damp skin, and visible traces of injection sites with surrounding hematomas on the anterior abdominal wall. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) on electrocardiographic monitoring was found. The laboratory analysis determined a lowered potassium level of 2.1 mmol/L (normal range 3,5 - 5.2 mmol/L), and a toxicological analysis (liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection) proved a toxic concentration of caffeine in plasma - 85.03 mg/L (toxic concentration over 25 mg/L). On application of intensive therapy, antiarrhythmics, and substitution of potassium, as well as both symptomatic and supportive therapy, there was a significant recovery. The patient was discharged without any sequele within four days. A presented rare iatrogenic acute caffeine poisoning occured due to massive absorption of caffeine from the subcutaneous adipose tissue into the circulation when injected

  8. Severe acute caffeine poisoning due to intradermal injections: Mesotherapy hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Caffeine is indicated in the treatment of migraine headaches, as well as neonatal apnea and bradycardia syndrome. In mild poisoning, the most prevalent symptoms are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, tremor, anxiety and headache. In more severe cases, symptoms consist of heart rythym abnormalities, myocardial infarction and seizures. Due to its common lipolytic effect, caffeine is used in mesotherapy, usually in combination with drugs of similar effect. We presented a patient with acute iatrogenic caffeine poisoning. Case report. A 51-year-old woman, with preexisting hypertension and hypertensive cardiomyopathy was subjected to cosmetic treatment in order to remove fat by intradermal caffeine injections. During the treatment the patient felt sickness, an urge to vomit, and a pronounced deterioration of general condition. Upon examination, the patient exhibited somnolence, hypotension and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, which was sufficient enough evidence for further hospitalization. On admission to the intensive care unit the patient was anxious with increased heart rate, normotensive, with cold, damp skin, and visible traces of injection sites with surrounding hematomas on the anterior abdominal wall. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT on electrocardiographic monitoring was found. The laboratory analysis determined a lowered potassium level of 2.1 mmol/L (normal range 3,5 - 5.2 mmol/L, and a toxicological analysis (liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection proved a toxic concentration of caffeine in plasma - 85.03 mg/L (toxic concentration over 25 mg/L. On application of intensive therapy, antiarrhythmics, and substitution of potassium, as well as both symptomatic and supportive therapy, there was a significant recovery. The patient was discharged without any sequele within four days. Conclusion. A presented rare iatrogenic acute caffeine poisoning occured due to massive absorption of caffeine from the

  9. Little field evidence of direct acute and short-term effects of current pesticides on the grey partridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, Florian; Berny, Philippe; Decors, Anouk; Bro, Elisabeth

    2015-07-01

    Direct lethal and sublethal effects of pesticides on farmland birds' populations are recurring questions and largely debated. In this context, we conducted an innovative study combining radiotelemetry, farmer surveys, residue analyses on carcasses and modelling to assess the unintentional effects of pesticides on terrestrial birds. We chose the grey partridge Perdix perdix as a case study because this typical bird of European cereal ecosystems is highly exposed to pesticides. In this paper we focused on acute and short-term impacts of pesticides on adult mortality during spring and summer in a one-substance approach (multiple exposure were not studied here) but for a large variety of active substances (a.s.) actually used in cultivated farmland of Northern France. The fate and the location of 529 partridges were monitored twice a day from early March to late August 2010 and 2011 on 12 sites (14,500 ha). Their daily potential exposure to 183 a.s. was determined by overlapping birds' habitat use and daily pesticide application data. Based on this procedure, we calculated mortality rates within 10 days following a potential exposure for 157 different a.s.. 5 a.s. were associated with a "10-day mortality rate" higher than 10% but a single one (thiacloprid) is reported to be highly toxic to birds. We recorded 261 mortalities among which 94 carcasses were in suitable condition for residue analyses. We detected at least one a.s in 39.4% of carcasses. However, only 2 mortality cases were attributed to poisoning (carbofuran). Furthermore, modelling results showed that these lethal pesticide-related poisonings decreased the population growth rate by less than 1%. In conclusion, we did not point out important direct acute and short-term effects of pesticides currently used by farmers during the breeding season on the grey partridge. This is discussed with regards to the complexity of potential effects in operational conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  10. Applied clinical pharmacology and public health in rural Asia – preventing deaths from organophosphorus pesticide and yellow oleander poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddleston, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Self-poisoning with pesticides or plants is a major clinical problem in rural Asia, killing several hundred thousand people every year. Over the last 17 years, our clinical toxicology and pharmacology group has carried out clinical studies in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka to improve treatment and reduce deaths. Studies have looked at the effectiveness of anti-digoxin Fab in cardiac glycoside plant poisoning, multiple dose activated charcoal in all poisoning, and pralidoxime in moderate toxicity organophosphorus insecticide poisoning. More recently, using a Haddon matrix as a guide, we have started conducting public health and animal studies to find strategies that may work outside of the hospital. Based on the 2009 GSK Research in Clinical Pharmacology prize lecture, this review shows the evolution of the group's research from a clinical pharmacology approach to one that studies possible interventions at multiple levels, including the patient, the community and government legislation. PMID:22943579

  11. [An investigation of an accident of occupational acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z C; Liu, J L; Jian, X D; Wang, K

    2017-07-20

    Objective: To investigate an accident of occupational acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning, and to analyze related clinical data. Methods: An investigation was performed for an accident of occupational acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning in a place in Shandong, China, in July 2016, and related clinical data were summarized. Results: This was a typical accident of occupational acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning, and a lack of occupational protection and illegal operation were the major causes of this accident. Of all five patients, four experienced coma, toxic encephalopathy, and respiratory failure and were cured at last, and one had cortical syndrome after long-term treatment and died of pulmonary infection seven months later. Conclusions: In case of occupational acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning, rescuers should help the persons who are poisoned reasonably and meanwhile ensure their own safety.

  12. Historical perspective of pesticide poisoning in Japan and measures taken by the Japanese association of rural medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagami, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    The use of pesticides has rapidly increased in Japan since the end of World War II, significantly reducing work burdens and boosting food production. In the meantime, pesticides, responsible for poisoning and environmental pollution, have for many years posed grave issues that have had to be tackled by scientists of rural medicine for a long period. The Japanese Association of Rural Medicine, founded by the late Toshikazu Wakatsuki, has grappled with those issues for many years. Above all, the association has fulfilled its social obligations, such as by bringing the toxicity of organic mercury to light in animal tests to prompt the government to prohibit its use, and by casting light on birth defects caused by defoliants aerially sprayed during the Vietnam War to urge U.S. military forces to break off herbicide warfare. As it has become possible to make less toxic pesticides available for farm work in recent years, death-inducing accidents have seldom occurred during the spraying of pesticides, and the association's activities are now at a low ebb. Now that pesticides, which after all are biologically toxic compounds, are openly used on farms, there is the need to pay constant attention to their impacts on the human body and the environment. In the future, it is necessary to epidemiologically probe into chronic impacts on the human body and contribute to the prevention of pesticide poisoning in Southeast Asia.

  13. Electromyographic and laboratory findings in acute Solanum torvum poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Robert L; Connors, Nicholas J; Stefan, Cristiana; Wong, Ernest; Hoffman, Robert S; Nelson, Lewis S; Milstein, Mark; Smith, Silas W; Swerdlow, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Solanum torvum berries, known as susumber or turkey berries, are prepared as part of traditional Jamaican dishes usually served with cod and rice. Poisoning is rare. Although toxic compounds have never been definitively isolated, previous reports suggest toxicity results from inhibition of acetylcholinesterases. We present a case of susumber berry poisoning with detailed electromyographic studies and laboratory analysis. A 54-year-old woman presented to the Emergency Department (ED) complaining of vision, speech, and gait changes; emesis; and diffuse myalgias following consumption of susumber berries. The physical examination demonstrated an intact, lucid mental status, miosis, opsoclonus, severe dysarthria, dysmetria, mild extremity tenderness and weakness, and inability to ambulate. Her symptom constellation was interpreted as a stroke. Electromyography demonstrated a pattern of early full recruitment as well as myotonia during the period of acute toxicity. Additionally, solanaceous compounds, in particular solasonine and solanidine, were identified in leftover berries and the patient's serum. Store-bought commercial berries and subsequent serum samples were free of such toxic compounds. EMG studies, together with a laboratory analysis of berries or serum can assist in the differential diagnosis of stroke, and provide both a prognostic screening and confirmation of suspected glycoside toxicity.

  14. Pattern of Acute Poisoning Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital of Western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Prasad Shakya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Poisoning with various substances is a major public health problem and a reason for significant morbidity and mortality throughout the globe. It is one of the most common presentation in an emergency department. This study was conducted to determine the sociodemographic, poisoning types, and mode of poisoning in cases attending a tertiary hospital of Western Nepal. Methods: A retrospective observational study of two years was conducted from July 2014 to June 2016. Demography details, name of poisonous substance, and reasons for poisoning were reviewed and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 65 cases of poisoning were recorded. The occurrence was more common in female (n=44, 67.7% than in male (n=21, 32.3% with a F:M ratio of 2.1:1.  Poisoning  was most  common in the age group of 11-20 years (32.3%. Most of the cases were students (37% followed by farmers (26%. The most commonly abused poisoning substance were organophosphorous compounds, zinc-phosphate,  and  kerosene in adults, adolescents, and children respectively. Oral route was the most common (99% route of administration. Suicidal attempt, as a mode of poisoning, accounted for 70.8% of total poisoning cases. Conclusion: Female and young people are at greater risk of acute poisoning. Insecticide was the most common agent and self administer poisoning was the most common mode of poisoning. The occurrence of poisoning and its morbidity and mortality can be reduced by developing and implementation of effective prevention strategies like restricting easy poison sales, establishing drug and poison information centers,  and community awareness programs.

  15. Acute ammonium dichromate poisoning in a 2 year-old child

    OpenAIRE

    Menon Narayanankutty Sunilkumar; Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan Ajith; Vadakut Krishnan Parvathy

    2014-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium compounds are most commonly used in printing, dyeing, plastics and rayon manufacturing. Poisoning in children by ammonium dichromate, an odorless and bright orange-red crystal, are rarely reported. Acute poisoning will result in death due to multi-organ failure. The target organs that are affected by this poison are the respiratory system, kidneys, liver, eyes and skin. On ingestion, initially there is a relative lack of severe symptoms and signs. Hence, the delay in seeki...

  16. Acute Human Lethal Toxicity of Agricultural Pesticides: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senarathna, Lalith; Mohamed, Fahim; Gawarammana, Indika; Bowe, Steven J.; Manuweera, Gamini; Buckley, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Agricultural pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in the developing world, killing at least 250,000–370,000 people each year. Targeted pesticide restrictions in Sri Lanka over the last 20 years have reduced pesticide deaths by 50% without decreasing agricultural output. However, regulatory decisions have thus far not been based on the human toxicity of formulated agricultural pesticides but on the surrogate of rat toxicity using pure unformulated pesticides. We aimed to determine the relative human toxicity of formulated agricultural pesticides to improve the effectiveness of regulatory policy. Methods and Findings We examined the case fatality of different agricultural pesticides in a prospective cohort of patients presenting with pesticide self-poisoning to two clinical trial centers from April 2002 to November 2008. Identification of the pesticide ingested was based on history or positive identification of the container. A single pesticide was ingested by 9,302 patients. A specific pesticide was identified in 7,461 patients; 1,841 ingested an unknown pesticide. In a subset of 808 patients, the history of ingestion was confirmed by laboratory analysis in 95% of patients. There was a large variation in case fatality between pesticides—from 0% to 42%. This marked variation in lethality was observed for compounds within the same chemical and/or WHO toxicity classification of pesticides and for those used for similar agricultural indications. Conclusion The human data provided toxicity rankings for some pesticides that contrasted strongly with the WHO toxicity classification based on rat toxicity. Basing regulation on human toxicity will make pesticide poisoning less hazardous, preventing hundreds of thousands of deaths globally without compromising agricultural needs. Ongoing monitoring of patterns of use and clinical toxicity for new pesticides is needed to identify highly toxic pesticides in a timely manner. Please see later in the

  17. Continued implication of the banned pesticides carbofuran and aldicarb in the poisoning of domestic and wild animals of the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; González-Moreo, Federico; Suárez-Pérez, Alejandro; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida-González, Maira; Del Mar Travieso-Aja, María; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-02-01

    Although nowadays the intentional poisoning of domestic and wild animals is a crime in EU, in the past the poison was used in rural areas of a number of European countries to kill animals that were considered harmful for human activities. In Spain evidences indicate that intentional poisonings continue to occur throughout the entire country nowadays. This situation seems to be of particular concern in the Canary Islands (Spain), where this study was performed. Our results confirmed that 225 animals were poisoned by pesticides over the study period (32 months; 2010-2013). The intentionality of the poisoning was confirmed in 117 cases. It has to be highlighted that the other 108 animals also died by pesticide poisoning, although the intentionality was only suspected. This incidence is currently the highest reported in any region from European Union. The pesticides carbofuran, bromadiolone, brodifacoum and aldicarb were the most frequently detected involved. Among the affected species, it has to be highlighted that endangered species are frequently affected in poisoning incidents. Notably, chemicals banned in the EU (carbofuran and aldicarb) were identified in approximately 75% of cases, and in almost 100% of baits, which suggests that these pesticides are still available to the population. Several circumstances may explain these results. Firstly, little control over the sale and possession of pesticide products, and the potential existence of an illegal market of pesticides banned in the European Union in the neighbouring African continent. In addition, the limited awareness of the population about the dangerousness of these compounds, for the environment, animals, or even people, make the situation very worrying in these islands. Stronger regulations, control of legal and illegal pesticide use, development of educational programs and legal action in poisoning incidents are needed to decrease the impact of pesticide misuse on wildlife and domestic animals. Copyright

  18. Causes of Acute Poisoning Hospital admission in Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Yasuj, 2008

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    S Mohammad Hosseini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: About 7% of patient referred to hospital are various forms of poisoning. This study was performed to determine the major causes of acute poisoning leading to Hospitalization at Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Yasuj, Iran. Methods: This descriptive study was performed from August 2007 to July 2008 on 470 cases of poisonings referred to Shahid Beheshti hospital of Yasuj. Demographic characteristics, time of poisoning, poisoning factor, history of previous poisoning, history of psychiatric disease, medication and other therapeutic intervention based on questionnaires and interviews with patients or companions of patients were recorded. Data were analyzed by Chi-Square Test. Results: Majority of poisoned patients were single females, in the age range of 21-30 years, unemployed, lived in urban areas, and had at least a diploma. The majority of cases were intentional poisoning with a history of depression, previous poisoning and attempted suicide. Significant relationship were seen between poisoning, age, sex, and job, (p0.05. Conclusion: With respect to the results of this study, the majority of these poisonings occurred among young, single and unemployed females due to suicide and drug intoxication. Necessary actions should be done in drug usage and maintenance, taking action against non-prescription drugs and giving proper public education to families.

  19. acute poisoning in the community and its associated mortality at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SITWALA COMPUTERS

    exposure and iatrogenic poisoning resulting from drug interaction, incorrect prescribing and patients. 1 misunderstanding of their medication. Cases of acute poisoning take a heavy toll on ... reliable epidemiological data. The main aim of this study ..... level, and with stable cardio-respiratory function. Thus the majority of the ...

  20. Characteristics of Acute Poisoning at Two Referral Hospitals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poisoning by household chemicals, particularly paraffin, affected mainly children under 12, while poisoning by pharmaceuticals involved mainly teenagers. With regard to outcomes, three of the female victims died, representing a case fatality rate of 2.6%. One death was due to paraffin poisoning and two to traditional ...

  1. [Clinical manifestation and influential factors in patients with acute arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Wei; Yang, Zhi-Qian; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Yi-Li; Jiang, Wen-Zhong; Wu, Yi-Xing; Liu, Yi-Min; Gu, Li-Cheng

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the clinical characteristics of acute arsenic poisoning and its influential factors. Clinical data of 47 cases of arsenic poisoning were collected and analyzed. Two cases of observation, 40 cases of mild acute poisoning, and 5 severe acute poisoning were investigated in this group. Myocardial enzyme activity was correlated with age and urine arsenic concentrations. Myocardial enzyme, the liver ALT, total bilirubin (TBil) and indirect bilirubin (IBil) were negatively correlated with vomiting frequency, with statistical significance (P arsenic concentration was correlated with vomiting frequency and amount of soup drunk, with statistically significant difference (P arsenic concentrations, cardiac enzymes and liver enzyme concentration. Acute arsenic poisoning can lead to multiple organ damage. The damage is relevant with amount of arsenic intake, vomiting, diarrhea and urinary frequency arsenic concentration. So early use of gastric lavage, vomiting, poison discharges, and adequate application of effective antidote (Na-DMPS) as soon as possible, symptomatic treatment and the reinforced monitoring, are the rescue key for patients with acute arsenic poisoning.

  2. Acute and chronic effects of organophosphate pesticides (Basudin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicity of basudin (an organophosphate pesticide) on the larval stages of the dominant amphibian; Ptychadena bibroni of the Niger Delta ecological zone of Nigeria was assessed using acute and chronic toxicity in the laboratory. Mortality and body glycogen levels were used as ecological endpoints. The American society ...

  3. Features and Prognostic Factors for Elderly With Acute Poisoning in the Emergency Department

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    Yu-Hui Hu

    2010-02-01

    Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that elderly patients with acute poisoning had a mortality rate of 9.6%. Suicide attempts resulted in more serious complications. The risk factors for mortality were herbicide intoxication, hypotension and respiratory failure.

  4. Acute organo-phosphorus pesticide poisoning in North Karnataka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oxidative damage was assessed by estimating serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC), erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels. Results: Progressive and significant decline (p< 0.001) in plasma cholinesterase in correlation ...

  5. Acute organo-phosphorus pesticide poisoning in North Karnataka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    underlying disease affecting haemoglobin among the subjects. It should be reminded that the hemoglobinopathy can affect haemoglobin level and show the figure of abnormal oxidative status3 . Sincerely,. Viroj Wiwanitkit. Visiting Professor: Hainan Medical University, China;. Faculty of Medicine, University of Nis, Serbia;.

  6. Falling through the regulatory cracks: Street selling of pesticides and poisoning among urban youth in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rother, Hanna-Andrea

    2010-01-01

    In South Africa, as in much of the developing world, youth participation in the informal, unregulated street pesticide market results in exposures and risks of acute and chronic effects, yet has gone largely undocumented. A conceptual framework for understanding youth involvement in street pesticide sales and use includes contextual factors, health outcomes, and externalities (unintended negative consequences). An exploratory study based on this framework shows that highly-toxic pesticides, such as aldicarb, methamidophos, and chlorpyrifos, are easily available in informal markets in Cape Town's urban periphery. Youth are involved in the sale, distribution, and use of street pesticides, and are exposed during handling, transportation, spillage, storage, use and other activities, with little safety information available. Demand and supply for street pesticides is driven by joblessness, poverty, and inadequate pest management strategies. National and international efforts addressing underlying contextual determinants are required to protect children from exposures to street pesticides.

  7. Lead Poisoning Can Be Easily Misdiagnosed as Acute Porphyria and Nonspecific Abdominal Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Ta Tsai; Shi-Yu Huang; Shih-Yu Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Lead poisoning (LP) is less commonly encountered in emergency departments (ED). However, lead exposure still occurs, and new sources of poisoning have emerged. LP often goes unrecognized due to a low index of suspicion and nonspecific symptoms. We present a case of a 48-year-old man who had recurring abdominal pain with anemia that was misdiagnosed. His condition was initially diagnosed as nonspecific abdominal pain and acute porphyria. Acute porphyria-like symptoms with a positive urine porp...

  8. Study of Acute Alcohol Poisoning in Children Admitted to a Emergency Hospital Pirogov in Sofia, Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Loukova, Anelia

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the current study is to analyze the medical and social dimensions of acute alcohol poisoning in children with regard of improving prevention of addictive habitis and develop effective preventative strategies for reducing underage alcohol consumption.Material and Methods: We have studied the patients at the age up to 18 years with acute alcohol poisoning hospitalized in the Children Toxicology Department of Emergency Hospital Pirogov, Sofia, Bulgaria, from January 1, 2007 to Ju...

  9. Toxicokinetics and correlation of carbamazepine salivary and serum concentrations in acute poisonings

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    Đorđević Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Saliva is a body fluid which, like serum, can be used for determination of concentrations of certain drugs, both in pharmacotherapy as well as in acute poisonings. The aim of this study was to determine carbamazepine concentrations in both saliva and serum in acute poisoning in order to show if there is a correlation between the obtained values, as well as to monitor toxicokinetics of carbamazepine in body fluides. Methods. Saliva and serum samples were obtained from 26 patients treated with carbamazepine and 20 patients acutely poisoned by the drug immediately after their admission in the Emergency Toxicology Unit. Determination of salivary and serum carbamazepine concentrations was performed by the validated high pressure liquid chromatographyultraviolet (HPLC-UV method. Results. A significant correlation of salivary and serum carbamazepine concentrations in both therapeutic application and acute poisoning (r = 0.9481 and 0.9117, respectively was confirmed. In acute poisonings the mean ratio between salivary and serum concentrations of carbamazepine (0.43 was similar to the mean ratio after its administration in therapeutic doses (0.39, but there were high inter-individual variations in carbamazepine concentrations in the acutely poisoned patients, as a consequence of different ingested doses of the drug. In acute poisoning the halftime of carbamazepine in saliva and serum was 12.57 h and 6.76 h, respectively. Conclusion. Our results suggest a possible use of saliva as an alternative biological material for determination of carbamazepine concentrations in therapeutic application and acute poisoning as well, and a possible extrapolation of the results obtained in saliva to serum concentrations of carbamazepine.

  10. A community-based cluster randomised trial of safe storage to reduce pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka: study protocol

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    Pearson Melissa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The WHO recognises pesticide poisoning to be the single most important means of suicide globally. Pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health and clinical problem in rural Asia, where it has led to case fatality ratios 20-30 times higher than self-poisoning in the developed world. One approach to reducing access to pesticides is for households to store pesticides in lockable "safe-storage" containers. However, before this approach can be promoted, evidence is required on its effectiveness and safety. Methods/Design A community-based cluster randomised controlled trial has been set up in 44,000 households in the North Central Province, Sri Lanka. A census is being performed, collecting baseline demographic data, socio-economic status, pesticide usage, self-harm and alcohol. Participating villages are then randomised and eligible households in the intervention arm given a lockable safe storage container for agrochemicals. The primary outcome will be incidence of pesticide self-poisoning over three years amongst individuals aged 14 years and over. 217,944 person years of follow-up are required in each arm to detect a 33% reduction in pesticide self-poisoning with 80% power at the 5% significance level. Secondary outcomes will include the incidence of all pesticide poisoning and total self-harm. Discussion This paper describes a large effectiveness study of a community intervention to reduce the burden of intentional poisoning in rural Sri Lanka. The study builds on a strong partnership between provincial health services, local and international researchers, and local communities. We discuss issues in relation to randomisation and contamination, engaging control villages, the intervention, and strategies to improve adherence. Trial Registritation The trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov ref: NCT1146496 (http://clinicaltrialsfeeds.org/clinical-trials/show/NCT01146496.

  11. A community-based cluster randomised trial of safe storage to reduce pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Melissa; Konradsen, Flemming; Gunnell, David; Dawson, Andrew H; Pieris, Ravi; Weerasinghe, Manjula; Knipe, Duleeka W; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Metcalfe, Chris; Hawton, Keith; Wickramasinghe, A Rajitha; Atapattu, W; Bandara, Palitha; de Silva, Dhammika; Ranasinghe, Asanga; Mohamed, Fahim; Buckley, Nicholas A; Gawarammana, Indika; Eddleston, Michael

    2011-11-21

    The WHO recognises pesticide poisoning to be the single most important means of suicide globally. Pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health and clinical problem in rural Asia, where it has led to case fatality ratios 20-30 times higher than self-poisoning in the developed world. One approach to reducing access to pesticides is for households to store pesticides in lockable "safe-storage" containers. However, before this approach can be promoted, evidence is required on its effectiveness and safety. A community-based cluster randomised controlled trial has been set up in 44,000 households in the North Central Province, Sri Lanka. A census is being performed, collecting baseline demographic data, socio-economic status, pesticide usage, self-harm and alcohol. Participating villages are then randomised and eligible households in the intervention arm given a lockable safe storage container for agrochemicals. The primary outcome will be incidence of pesticide self-poisoning over three years amongst individuals aged 14 years and over. 217,944 person years of follow-up are required in each arm to detect a 33% reduction in pesticide self-poisoning with 80% power at the 5% significance level. Secondary outcomes will include the incidence of all pesticide poisoning and total self-harm. This paper describes a large effectiveness study of a community intervention to reduce the burden of intentional poisoning in rural Sri Lanka. The study builds on a strong partnership between provincial health services, local and international researchers, and local communities. We discuss issues in relation to randomisation and contamination, engaging control villages, the intervention, and strategies to improve adherence.

  12. Neurological Effects of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

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    Coskun YARAR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity due to poisoning in all over the world. Although the incidence of COP has not been known exactly in the childhood, almost one-third of CO exposures occurred in children. The data regarding COP in children are inconclusive. Children may be more vulnerable to CO exposure than adults as a result of their high respiration and metabolic rates, high oxygen metabolism, and immature central nervous system. Recent researches proposed new theories about neurological effects of CO toxicity. The clinical presentations associated acute COP may be various and nonspecific. Unrecognized CO exposure may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. CO exposed children often become symptomatic earlier, and recover more rapidly, than similarly CO exposed adults. Mild clinical signs and symptoms associated with COP are headache, dizziness, weakness, lethargy, and myalgia; however, severe signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, syncope, convulsion, coma, cardiopulmonary arrest and death can also accompany with COP. Neurologic manifestations can include altered mental status at different degrees, neck stiffness, tremor, ataxia, and positive Babinski's sign. Delayed neurologic sequels (DNS of COP might be seen in children like adults. DNS symptoms and signs in children include memory problems, mental retardation, mutism, fecal and urinary incontinence, motor deficits, facial palsy, psychosis, chronic headache, seizures, and epilepsy. After CO exposure children must be cared to detect and treat DNS. Although hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is reported to prevent development of DNS, its indications, application duration and procedures are controversial in both of the children and adults. Although their predictive values are limited, exposing to CO more than eight hours and suffering from CO-induced coma, cardiac arrest, lactic acidosis, high COHb levels, and pathologic findings

  13. [The role of liver transplantation in the treatment of acute liver failure following Amanita phalloides poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckurts, K T; Hölscher, A H; Heidecke, C D; Zilker, T R; Natrath, W; Siewert, J R

    1997-03-21

    To formulate the indications for liver transplantation in the treatment of acute liver failure after Amanita phalloides poisoning and to determine the results of this treatment. In 1994 twelve patients with acute Amanita phalloides poisoning were treated in the intensive care unit of our hospital's toxicology department. Three of them developed irreversible signs of poisoning and were given orthotopic liver transplants. The findings and course of this group of patients were analysed retrospectively and prognostic criteria defined on the basis of this personal experience and published data. Amanita phalloides poisoning differs from other causes of acute liver failure in several respects. The following criteria make it possible reliably to distinguish a lethal from a non-lethal course: a Quick value 1.4 mg%, even after correcting water and electrolyte abnormalities, serum bilirubin > 4.6 mg%, and progressive encephalopathy indicate a lethal course. Two of three patients survived severe poisoning by being given a liver transplant. Renal failure, pancreatitis and bone marrow suppression, in addition to liver failure, were signs relevant to treatment decisions. Liver transplantation is the procedure of choice in the treatment of acute Amanita phalloides poisoning, if the criteria for a probably lethal course under conservative treatment have been met. This should be taken into account when poisoned patients are to be transferred to a centre for treatment.

  14. Clinical Profile of Acute Accidental Poisoning Among Children- A Retrospective Study

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    Tabassum Khatoon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute toxicity is a frequent but avoidable cause of morbidity and mortality in children especially in developing countries, including India. Present study assesses their pattern with relation to different age groupings. This retrospective study was conducted among all hospitalised paediatric victims of acute accidental poisoning at the King George Medical University; Lucknow during 2010 -11. Their history, baseline characteristics, clinical course and outcome was studied. Most children were male of less than three years with 4% overall mortality. Kerosene oil was implicated in most cases. Childhood poisoning is commonest during 1-3 years with a male preponderance. Household poisons; especially kerosene oil was responsible for most cases which was consumed accidentally. Parents must be educated and warned to keep these toxic ingredients safely in suitable containers and out of reach of their beloved children. Keywords: Forensic Science, Paediatric, Acute Poisoning, Kerosene, Outcome.

  15. Acute poisoning in a children's hospital: a 2-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazen, L E; Lovejoy, F H; Crone, R K

    1986-02-01

    In a 2-year retrospective review, 90 patients were treated in a children's hospital for acute overdoses. In 90%, the history was the most important indicator of poisoning. On physical examination, 64% of patients were found to have altered sensorium, and 69% of cases were confirmed with a routine qualitative toxicology screening test. Accidental overdoses were most frequently due to ingestion of petroleum distillates, digoxin, carbamazepine, and theophylline. Suicidal patients ingested alcohol, barbiturates, tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines, and aspirin. The majority of children with accidental overdoses received medical attention within 2 hours, but suicidal patients presented significantly later. Appropriate treatment with gastric lavage or emesis was used for 85% of patients on an emergency basis prior to admission. The inpatient therapy is based on continued gastrointestinal decontamination, basic organ system support, and monitoring for toxic effects and complications of therapy. Specific antidotes were available for only 10% of patients. In this study, 50% of patients were able to be discharged to their homes after one day of hospitalization. Pediatric patients treated in the intensive care unit incur less morbidity than adults in a similar setting. Adolescents who attempt suicide and are treated in the intensive care unit are likely to take prescription drugs in a similar manner as their adult counterparts.

  16. Successful Treatment of Acute Lethal Dose of Acrylamide Poisoning

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    Ali Banagozar Mohammadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acrylamide (C3H5NO is a vinyl monomer. This water-soluble crystalline solid is a colorless, odorless agent which is used in scientific laboratories and some industries. Acrylamide has cellular oxidative effects. Acute or chronic poisoning with this agent happens as a result of skin, respiratory, or oral contacts. Clinical manifestations depend on the dose, duration, and frequency of contact. Management of these patients consists of conservative and palliative therapies to reduce the oxidative effects. Case: The case was a 29-year-old girl with a Master of Sciences degree in genetics who worked in a university research center with previous history of depression. She had ingested 100cc of 30% Acrylamide solution for intentional suicide attempt. The patient was successfully managed using N-acetyl cysteine, vitamin C, and melatonin. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment with recommended agents together with supportive therapies can save the life of patients exposed to potentially lethal doses of acrylamide, although intentional or accidental.

  17. A case report of massive acute boric acid poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Francesco; Brusasco, Claudia; Palermo, Salvatore; Belvederi, Giulio

    2010-02-01

    Boric acid comes as colourless, odourless white powder and, if ingested, has potential fatal effects including metabolic acidosis, acute renal failure and shock. An 82-year-old male was brought to the emergency room 3 h after unintentional ingestion of a large amount of boric acid. Clinical course was monitored by collecting data at admittance, 12 h after admission, every 24 h for 5 days and again 1 week after admission. During the first 132 h, serum and urinary concentrations of boric acid were measured. Serum boric acid levels decreased from 1800 to 530 microg/ml after haemodialysis and from 530 to 30 microg/ml during the forced diuresis period. During dialysis, boric acid clearance averaged 235 ml/min with an extraction ratio of 70%. The overall patient's condition steadily improved over 84 h after admission. In conclusion, early treatment with forced diuresis and haemodialysis may be considered for boric acid poisoning, even if signs of renal dysfunction are not apparent, to prevent severe renal damage and its complications.

  18. Salvianolic Acids Attenuate Rat Hippocampal Injury after Acute CO Poisoning by Improving Blood Flow Properties

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    Li Guan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning causes the major injury and death due to poisoning worldwide. The most severe damage via CO poisoning is brain injury and mortality. Delayed encephalopathy after acute CO poisoning (DEACMP occurs in forty percent of the survivors of acute CO exposure. But the pathological cause for DEACMP is not well understood. And the corresponding therapy is not well developed. In order to investigate the effects of salvianolic acid (SA on brain injury caused by CO exposure from the view point of hemorheology, we employed a rat model and studied the dynamic of blood changes in the hemorheological and coagulative properties over acute CO exposure. Compared with the groups of CO and 20% mannitol + CO treatments, the severe hippocampal injury caused by acute CO exposure was prevented by SA treatment. These protective effects were associated with the retaining level of hematocrit (Hct, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, whole blood viscosities and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in red blood cells (RBCs. These results indicated that SA treatment could significantly improve the deformation of erythrocytes and prevent the damage caused by CO poisoning. Meanwhile, hemorheological indexes are good indicators for monitoring the pathological dynamic after acute CO poisoning.

  19. Acute Cardiac Toxicity of Nerium Oleander/Indicum Poisoning (Kaner) Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Ibraheem; Kant, Chandra; Sanwaria, Anil; Meena, Lokesh

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of oleander leaf extract poisoning manifested by vomiting, lightheadedness, and heart block. Practicing physicians should understand the potential lethal properties of oleander and its availability throughout the world.

  20. Acute cardiac toxicity of nerium oleander/indicum poisoning (kaner) poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ibraheem; Kant, Chandra; Sanwaria, Anil; Meena, Lokesh

    2010-10-01

    We present a case of oleander leaf extract poisoning manifested by vomiting, lightheadedness, and heart block. Practicing physicians should understand the potential lethal properties of oleander and its availability throughout the world.

  1. Emergency Room of the Hospital associated with the University of Salerno: acute poisoning registered from April 2009 to September 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Vitola

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An ever growing number of patients go to the emergency room (ER for toxic exposure to various causal agents. Yet, the actual number of acute poisoning still remains unknown and the epidemic data are only partly available. Cases of acute poisoning in the ER of Salerno Hospital from April 2009 to September 2011 (30 months’ period are reported. Data are divided according to the criteria of gender, age, aetiologic agent, place and reasons of poisoning, and risk evaluation. Out of the total 220,165 patients, the acute poisoning cases were 1,347 (0.61%. Among these, 189 (14.1% patients were admitted to hospital while 3 (0.2% died. Alcool acute poisonings are the most frequent (43.6%, followed by drugs poisonings (30.6%. Acute poisonings are more common among males (59.9% and in people aged 20-50 years. Out of all the acute poisoning cases, 27.8% requested a consult to the Anti-Poisoning Centre. The results aim at contributing to the epidemic research for acute poisoning in ER.

  2. [Acute renal failure as a sequela of mushroom poisoning with Cortinarius speciocissimus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münstermann, Susanne; Heinicke, Hans-Jürgen; Kayser, Marten; Nüsslein, Hubert

    2002-02-15

    Poisoning with the mushroom Cortinarius speciocissimus is a rare event. Within 2-17 days after ingestion unspecific symptoms appear. Characteristically, this state is soon followed by irreversible kidney damage which finally requires chronic hemodialysis. A 46-year-old man was admitted with nausea, vomiting and acute anuria 9 days after he had eaten Cortinarius speciocissimus. Hemodialysis had to be started. Kidney biopsy revealed an interstitial nephritis. This finding corresponds to earlier case reports about intoxication with orellanine, the poison of Cortinarius speciocissimus. 6 months later the kidney function had not recovered leaving the patient to chronic hemodialysis. The prognosis of poisoning with that mushroom is poor. The amount of ingested poison is crucial. Monitoring of kidney function is mandatory when poisoning is suspected. Therapy is directed to symptoms. Usually dialysis has to be commenced. To rule out other causes for kidney damage, a kidney biopsy is required.

  3. Acute lead poisoning in western Canadian cattle - A 16-year retrospective study of diagnostic case records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Vanessa; Blakley, Barry

    2016-04-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of acute lead poisoning in western Canadian cattle over the 16-year period of 1998 to 2013 and reports background bovine tissue lead concentrations. Case records from Prairie Diagnostic Services, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, identified 525 cases of acute lead toxicity over the investigational period. Poisonings were influenced by year (P poisoned (53.5%; P poisoned. Mean toxic lead concentrations (mg/kg wet weight) in the blood, liver, and kidney were 1.30 ± 1.70 (n = 301), 33.5 ± 80.5 (n = 172), and 56.3 ± 39.7 (n = 61). Mean normal lead concentrations in the blood, liver, and kidney were 0.036 ± 0.003 mg/kg (n= 1081), 0.16 ± 0.63 mg/kg (n = 382), and 0.41 ± 0.62 mg/kg (n = 64).

  4. [Radiographic and computed tomographic manifestations of chest in patients with acute chlorine gas poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen-juan; Huang, De-jian; Wang, Zhong-qiu; Wang, Zheng-ge; Chang, Shuang-hui; Wu, Zheng-can

    2010-10-26

    To investigate the radiographic and computerized tomographic features of chest in patients with acute chlorine poisoning and its diagnostic value. Twenty-eight cases of chlorine poisoning were reviewed. And their radiographic and computerized tomographic features were compared and analyzed. Radiographic findings: among 28 patients, 9 cases were normal and 2 cases had no abnormalities on the first chest X-ray and became abnormal one or two days later. And there were abnormal findings in first chest X-ray in 17 patients:acute tracheal inflammation of peribronchitis (n = 3), acute chemical bronchopneumonia (n = 6) and diffuse interstitial and central pulmonary edema (n = 8). CT manifestations: At Days 1-3, the patients of mild poisoning had scattered patchy dense shadow; those of moderate to severe poisoning showed multiple patchy or diffuse infiltration (ground-glass opacity). And partial consolidation, air bronchogram and pleural effusion could be observed. At Days 4-10, the manifestations of mild poisoning were largely absorbed; those of moderate to severe poisoning manifested the absorption of diffuse or multiple patchy effusion and a fading of shadow. And the size of lung consolidation became smaller than before. At Day 10 after onset, 4 patients completely recovered. At Days 30-40, 6 cases showed traces of fibrous shadow and one case showed small punctiform opacities in both lungs. And at Day 42, there was slight ground-glass change. Acute chlorine gas poisoning in varying degrees may manifest acute bronchial pneumonia and acute pulmonary edema. During treatment, a series of chest X-ray examinations will help to follow the changes of disease. And CT examination can offer a more accurate evaluation of lung lesions.

  5. [Peripheral circulatory support in acute poisoning: 10 years' experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, Frédéric; Lamhaut, Lionel; Jouffoy, Romain; Carli, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has become a common technique for treating refractory cardiogenic shock and cardiac arrest induced by drug overdose. The aim of this paper is to present our group's 10-year experience (2002-2012) using ECLS to treat drug-induced, refractory cardiogenic shock and cardiac arrest. We review 112 consecutive cases of acute poisoning requiring arteriovenous ECLS. We provided ECLS with a Rotaflow pump (Jostra-Maquette). In 71 cases (63%) the patient presented with refractory cardiac arrest; 41 (37%) presented with refractory cardiogenic shock. The dose ingested was very high in all cases. Survival was strongly related to presentation (cardiogenic shock vs cardiac arrest) and the type of drug taken. Survival was highest after overdoses of β-blockers and antiarrhythmic drugs and lowest after overdoses of chloroquine, colchicine, or verapamil. Survival rates were very low in the subgroup of patients presenting with cardiac arrest who had taken hypnotics or sedatives, suggesting that the heart stopped more because of anoxia than because of a direct cardiotoxic effect. In contrast, in cardiotoxic drug-induced cardiac arrest, the survival rate of 10% was significantly higher than the rate in non cardiotoxic arrests. Survival rates in drug-induced cardiogenic shock ranged from 45% to 100%. We conclude that ECLS should be considered for the management of cardiotoxic drug overdose. Close cardiovascular monitoring should be initiated if a patient has taken a particularly high dose of a cardiotoxic drug. Severe cardiotoxicity is rare but life threatening. The use of ECLS in these cases should be based on clinical criteria. Early use of ECLS in drug-induced cardiogenic shock significantly improves survival. Delays in applying ECLS in severe drug-induced cardiotoxicity-diagnosed based on type of drug, dose, and hemodynamic effects-can lead to cardiac arrest and a worse outcome.

  6. Epidemiologic study of Organophosphate and Organochlorate pesticides poisoning in hospitalized patients in khorramabad Shohada Ashayer hospital from Mars to August 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ghafar ali Mahmoudi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: poisoning is one of the most common medical emergencies. Every year many people refer to emergency wards due to poisoning and some of them are treated and some die because of severe complications. Most patients who refer to emergency wards are those who commit intentionally to suicide. This study is conducted to determine the prevalence of poisoning with pesticide (organophosphate and organochlorine in persons referred to Shohada Ashaier hospital of Khorramabad in the first six months in 2006. Metrials and methods: Required information of poisoned people with poisoning pesticide (organophosphate and organochlorine were collected using questionnaires which were distributed among the subjects. Results: In this study 153 patients including 118 patients who poisoned with organophophate and 35 patents with organochlorine were studied. Most of the patients (34.6% aged between 21-71 years including 57.5% female and 42.5% male and their education was about under secondary school, 91.5% of them attempted to suicided. The total mortality rate was 12 that 7 of them died by toxifications with organochlorine and 5 cases by organophosphate, which in turn was due to their respiratory complications like ARDS and aspiration pneumonia. Conclusion: findings indicate that due to high prevalence and mortality of poisoning with pesticides, this problem should be taken into consideration.

  7. Acute Datura Stramonium poisoning in East of Iran - a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Mahnaz; Khosrojerdi, Hamid; Afshari, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Datura Stramonium (DS) is a common weed along roadsides, in cornfields and pastures and in waste areas. It belongs to the family Solanaceae and its toxic components are tropane belladonna alkaloids. It has been used voluntarily by teenagers for its hallucinogenic effect. The plant is named in Iran as Tatoore. Symptoms and signs of acute D. Stramonium poisoning usually are similar to anticholinergic syndrome. This study is done in order to clarify the status of this poisoning in our region. This study is a case series on all patients admitted to Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, with acute D. Stramonium poisoning between 2008 and 2011. We observed their symptoms, signs, routine laboratory test results and treatment used to control their symptoms. There were 19 patients included in our study. Children were poisoned more commonly than teenagers and poisoning in adults was rare. All of the children ingested the plant accidentally. The most presenting symptom was irritability and the most common sign was sinus tachycardia. There was not any presentation of seizure or coma. Most of the symptoms were controlled by parenteral benzodiazepines and there were no need to use of cholinergic agents such as physostigmine. Our study showed most of D. Stramonium poisoned population in our region are children. We suggest decreasing accessibility to the plant in order to decrease the incidence of its poisoning.

  8. Acute Datura Stramonium poisoning in East of Iran - a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Amini

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Datura Stramonium (DS is a common weed along roadsides, in cornfields and pastures and in waste areas. It belongs to the family Solanaceae and its toxic components are tropane belladonna alkaloids. It has been used voluntarily by teenagers for its hallucinogenic effect. The plant is named in Iran as Tatoore. Symptoms and signs of acute D. Stramonium poisoning usually are similar to anticholinergic syndrome. This study is done in order to clarify the status of this poisoning in our region. Materials and Methods: This study is a case series on all patients admitted to Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, with acute D. Stramonium poisoning between 2008 and 2011. We observed their symptoms, signs, routine laboratory test results and treatment used to control their symptoms. Results: There were 19 patients included in our study. Children were poisoned more commonly than teenagers and poisoning in adults was rare. All of the children ingested the plant accidentally. The most presenting symptom was irritability and the most common sign was sinus tachycardia. There was not any presentation of seizure or coma. Most of the symptoms were controlled by parenteral benzodiazepines and there were no need to use of cholinergic agents such as physostigmine. Conclusion: Our study showed most of D. Stramonium poisoned population in our region are children. We suggest decreasing accessibility to the plant in order to decrease the incidence of its poisoning.

  9. Multi-residue method for the determination of pesticides and pesticide metabolites in honeybees by liquid and gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry--Honeybee poisoning incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiljanek, Tomasz; Niewiadowska, Alicja; Semeniuk, Stanisław; Gaweł, Marta; Borzęcka, Milena; Posyniak, Andrzej

    2016-02-26

    A method for the determination of 200 pesticides and pesticide metabolites in honeybee samples has been developed and validated. Almost 98% of compounds included in this method are approved to use within European Union, as active substances of plant protection products or veterinary medicinal products used by beekeepers to control mites Varroa destructor in hives. Many significant metabolites, like metabolites of imidacloprid, thiacloprid, fipronil, methiocarb and amitraz, are also possible to detect. The sample preparation was based on the buffered QuEChERS method. Samples of bees were extracted with acetonitrile containing 1% acetic acid and then subjected to clean-up by dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) using a new Z-Sep+ sorbent and PSA. The majority of pesticides, including neonicotionoids and their metabolites, were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) but some of pesticides, especially pyrethroid insecticides, were analyzed by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The procedure was validated according to the Guidance document SANCO/12571/2013 at four concentration levels: 1, 5, 10 and 100 ng/g bees and verified in the international proficiency test. The analysis of bee samples spiked at the limit of quantification (LOQ) showed about 98% mean recovery value (trueness) and 97% of analytes showed recovery in the required range of 70-120% and RSDr (precision) below 20%. Linearity and matrix effects were also established. The LOQs of pesticides were in the range of 1-100 ng/g. The developed method allows determination of insecticides at concentrations of 10 ng/g or less, except abamectin and tebufenozide. LOQ values are lower than the median lethal doses LD50 for bees. The method was used to investigate more than 70 honeybee poisoning incidents. Data about detected pesticides and their metabolites are included. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Acute Aquatic Risk Indicator for Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttik R; Kalf DF; CSR

    1998-01-01

    De acute aquatische risico-indicator voor bestrijdingsmiddelen kan beschouwd worden als een indicator voor de toxische druk van bestrijdingsmiddelen op het aquatische milieu. De indicator is gebaseerd op alle bestrijdingsmiddelen die in Nederland gebruikt worden of werden sinds 1984. Voor elk

  11. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H. [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2005-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  12. Acute Liver Failure Caused by Amanita phalloides Poisoning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santi, Luca; Maggioli, Caterina; Mastroroberto, Marianna; Tufoni, Manuel; Napoli, Lucia; Caraceni, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    ... and deadly cause of mushroom poisoning. Liver damage from Amanita phalloides is related to the amanitins, powerful toxins that inhibit RNA polymerase II resulting in a deficient protein synthesis and cell necrosis...

  13. Neurological Effects of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    OpenAIRE

    YARAR, Coskun

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP) is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity due to poisoning in all over the world. Although the incidence of COP has not been known exactly in the childhood, almost one-third of CO exposures occurred in children. The data regarding COP in children are inconclusive. Children may be more vulnerable to CO exposure than adults as a result of their high respiration and metabolic rates, high oxygen metabolism, and immature central nervous system. Rec...

  14. ACUTE POISONING WITH BENZODIAZEPINES AND OTHER HYPNOTICS: ETIOLOGIC CAUSE, SEX/AGE DISTRIBUTION AND CLINICAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petko Marinov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Poisoning with drugs occupies a leading position among the causes of acute intoxications. Etiological distribution of medicated poisoning in different countries, even if they are adjacent, is different. In the most studies it was reported that the highest incidence of poisoning is with benzodiazepines or other psychoactive drugs. A retrospective analysis of acute poisoning with benzodiazepines and other hypnotic drugs in the Varna region for 25 years period – from 1991 to 2015 was carried out. Material and Methods: The number of patients who received hospital treatment after poisoning with benzodiazepines is 1741, and those with other hypnotics is 293, representing respectively 26.37% and 4.44% of all drug intoxications. Results: The share of poisoning with benzodiazepines and hypnotics compared to all acute intoxications is 11.66%. They are more common in women – 1566 (77%. Men are 468 (23%, the ratio of men to women was 3.34:1. The largest number of intoxications is in the age group up to 24 years - 1123 (55.2%, and only 4.1% of patients over 60 years. Intentional suicide attempts are 1896 (93.2%. Death is registered in 8 (0.4% patients.

  15. Impact of chronic and acute pesticide exposures on periphyton communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tlili, Ahmed, E-mail: ahmed.tlili@cemagref.fr [CEMAGREF, UR MAEP, 3 quai Chauveau CP 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France); Montuelle, Bernard, E-mail: bernard.montuelle@cemagref.fr [CEMAGREF, UR MAEP, 3 quai Chauveau CP 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France); INRA UMR CARRTEL, Laboratoire de Microbiologie Aquatique, BP 511, 74203, Thonon Cedex (France); Berard, Annette, E-mail: annette.berard@avignon.inra.fr [INRA UMR EMMAH 1114, Domaine Saint-Paul-Site Agroparc 84914 Avignon Cedex 9 (France); Bouchez, Agnes, E-mail: agnes.bouchez@thonon.inra.fr [INRA UMR CARRTEL, Laboratoire de Microbiologie Aquatique, BP 511, 74203, Thonon Cedex (France)

    2011-05-01

    Aquatic ecosystems face variable exposure to pesticides, especially during floodings which are associated with short bursts of high contaminant concentrations that influence biological systems. A study was undertaken to highlight the impact of the herbicide diuron applied in mixture with the fungicide tebuconazole on natural periphyton during flooding events. Periphyton were grown in two series of two lotic outdoor mesocosms: one series was non-contaminated while the other was exposed to chronic contamination. After 4 weeks, one channel of each series was exposed to three successive pulses, with each pulse followed by one week of recovery. Impacts on periphyton were assessed by using Denaturing Gel Gradient Electrophoresis to characterize eukaryotic community structure. At a functional scale, photosynthetic efficiency was quantified during each pulse, and the induced tolerance to diuron was estimated by performing short-term inhibition tests based on photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, pesticide concentrations in the water column and periphyton matrix were measured. Diuron was adsorbed in the periphyton during each pulse and desorbed 13 h after pulse end. The different pulses affected the eukaryotic community structures of the control biofilms, but not of the chronically exposed ones. During the first pulse, photosynthetic efficiency was correlated with pesticide concentration in the water phase, and there was no difference between periphyton from chronically contaminated channels and control channels. However, during the second and third pulses, the photosynthetic efficiency of periphyton chronically exposed to pesticides appeared to be less impacted by the acute pulsed exposure of pesticide. These changes were consistent with the acquisition of induced tolerance to diuron since only after the third pulse that periphyton from chronic channel became tolerant to diuron. Our experimental study indicates that the effects of pulsed acute exposures to pesticides on

  16. Reaching for the bottle of pesticide--a cry for help. Self-inflicted poisonings in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Flemming; Hoek, Wim van der; Peiris, Pushpalatha

    2005-01-01

    in general, conveying misgiving, anger, sadness, hopelessness, frustration, or simply a way to manipulate a situation to one's own advantage. The effects of alcohol misuse are especially important in understanding self-harm at the community level in terms of the impact they have on the domestic environment....... Also, issues around "love affairs," arranged marriages and domestic physical, sexual or psychological abuse in the domestic environment are referred to by many self-harmers or their relatives as a reason for ingesting poison. Clearly, easy access to lethal pesticides by impulsive individuals often...

  17. Correction of Oxygen Transport and Metabolic Disturbances in Acute Poisoning by Neurotropic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Livanov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to examine the capacities of pharmacological correction of impairments in oxygen-transporting systems and metabolic processes with perfluorane and cytoflavin in critically ill patients with acute intoxication with neurotropic poisons.Subjects and methods. Metabolic sequels of severe hypoxia, free radical processes, and endogenous intoxications were studied in 62 patients with the severest acute intoxication with neurotropic poisons.Results. The studies have established that hypoxia and metabolic changes lead to the development of endotoxicosis. Intensifying endotoxicosis in turn enhances hypoxic lesion. Thus, the major task of intensive care is to restore oxygen delivery and to diminish metabolic disturbances and endotoxicosis. Ways of correcting hypoxia and metabolic disturbances are considered in the severe forms of acute poisoning

  18. An unusual case of reversible acute kidney injury due to chlorine dioxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathina, Gangadhar; Yadla, Manjusha; Burri, Srikanth; Enganti, Rama; Prasad Ch, Rajendra; Deshpande, Pradeep; Ch, Ramesh; Prayaga, Aruna; Uppin, Megha

    2013-09-01

    Chlorine dioxide is a commonly used water disinfectant. Toxicity of chlorine dioxide and its metabolites is rare. In experimental studies, it was shown that acute and chronic toxicity were associated with insignificant hematological changes. Acute kidney injury due to chlorine dioxide was not reported. Two cases of renal toxicity due to its metabolites, chlorate and chlorite were reported. Herein, we report a case of chlorine dioxide poisoning presenting with acute kidney injury.

  19. Successful Treatment of Severe Metabolic Acidosis Due to Acute Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning With Peritoneal Dialysis: a Report of 2 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashardoust, Bahman; Farzaneh, Esmaeil; Habibzadeh, Afshin; Seyyed Sadeghi, Mir Salim

    2017-03-01

    Aluminum phosphide poisoning is common in our region. It can cause severe metabolic acidosis and persistent hypotension, which lead to cardiogenic shock and subsequently mortality. Oliguric or anuric acute kidney injury is seen in almost all patients with aluminum phosphide poisoning. Renal replacement therapies are recommended in these patients to improve metabolic acidosis and increase the rate of survival. We report 2 cases of severe acute aluminum phosphide poisoning treated successfully with peritoneal dialysis.

  20. Awareness, among primary health care physicians, of acute cyanide poisoning being a possible consequence of fire accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, R S; Khandalkar, S; Sood, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To discern the degree of awareness amongst the primary health care physicians about the fact that cyanide poisoning is a possible consequence of fire accidents.Methods: Using an anonymous questionnaire, thirty allopath primary health care physicians were tested for awareness of acute cyanide poisoning being a possible consequence of fire accidents.Results: Only one (3%) of the physicians was aware of the possibility of Acute cyanide poisoning due to fire accidents.Conclusions: We ...

  1. Paradichlorobenzene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amounts are usually swallowed. References Holland MG. Occupational toxicology. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Pesticides Read more Poisoning Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine ...

  2. Children, Learning, and Poisons Don't Mix: Kick the Pesticide Habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY.

    This brochure examines basic information about pesticides and their use in and around schools, how children are exposed to pesticides and their health effects, and how a school can kick the habit of using pesticides. A special issues section covers the chemicals that should not be part of a school pest control effort, the restricted use of…

  3. Acute kidney injury and disseminated intravascular coagulation due to mercuric chloride poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Dhanapriya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a toxic heavy metal and occurs in organic and inorganic forms. Inorganic mercury includes elemental mercury and mercury salts. Mercury salts are usually white powder or crystals, and widely used in indigenous medicines and folk remedies in Asia. Inorganic mercury poisoning causes acute kidney injury (AKI and gastrointestinal manifestations and can be life-threatening. We describe a case with unknown substance poisoning who developed AKI and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC. Renal biopsy showed acute tubular necrosis. Later, the consumed substance was proven to be mercuric chloride. His renal failure improved over time, and his creatinine normalized after 2 months.

  4. Acute liver failure caused by mushroom poisoning: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erden A

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abdulsamet Erden,1 Kübra Esmeray,1 Hatice Karagöz,1 Samet Karahan,1 Hasan Hüseyin Gümüsçü,1 Mustafa Basak,1 Ali Çetinkaya,1 Deniz Avci,1 Orhan Kürsat Poyrazoğlu2 1Internal Medicine Department, 2Gastroenterology Department, Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey Abstract: It is estimated that there are over 5,000 species of mushrooms worldwide. Some of them are edible and some are poisonous due to containing significant toxins. In more than 95% of mushroom toxicity cases, poisoning occurs as a result of misidentification of the mushroom by an amateur mushroom hunter. The severity of mushroom poisoning may vary, depending on the geographic location where the mushroom is grown, growth conditions, the amount of toxin delivered, and the genetic characteristics of the mushroom. Amanita phalloides is the most common and fatal cause of mushroom poisoning. This mushroom contains amanitins, which are powerful hepatotoxins that inhibit RNA polymerase II in liver. Mushroom poisoning is a relatively rare cause of acute liver failure. A 63-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room with weakness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. He reported ingesting several wild mushrooms about 36 hours earlier. In this article we report a case of lethal Amanita phalloides intoxication from stored mushrooms. Keywords: acute liver failure, Amanita phalloides, mushroom, poisoning

  5. Does the clock make the poison? Circadian variation in response to pesticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa A Hooven

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circadian clocks govern daily physiological and molecular rhythms, and putative rhythms in expression of xenobiotic metabolizing (XM genes have been described in both insects and mammals. Such rhythms could have important consequences for outcomes of chemical exposures at different times of day. To determine whether reported XM gene expression rhythms result in functional rhythms, we examined daily profiles of enzyme activity and dose responses to the pesticides propoxur, deltamethrin, fipronil, and malathion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Published microarray expression data were examined for temporal patterns. Male Drosophila were collected for ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECOD, esterase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and, and uridine 5'-diphosphoglucosyltransferase (UGT enzyme activity assays, or subjected to dose-response tests at four hour intervals throughout the day in both light/dark and constant light conditions. Peak expression of several XM genes cluster in late afternoon. Significant diurnal variation was observed in ECOD and UGT enzyme activity, however, no significant daily variation was observed in esterase or GST activity. Daily profiles of susceptibility to lethality after acute exposure to propoxur and fipronil showed significantly increased resistance in midday, while susceptibility to deltamethrin and malathion varied little. In constant light, which interferes with clock function, the daily variation in susceptibility to propoxur and in ECOD and UGT enzyme activity was depressed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Expression and activities of specific XM enzymes fluctuate during the day, and for specific insecticides, the concentration resulting in 50% mortality varies significantly during the day. Time of day of chemical exposure should be an important consideration in experimental design, use of pesticides, and human risk assessment.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of hospital treatment and outcomes of acute methanol poisoning during the Czech Republic mass poisoning outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulisek, Jan; Balik, Martin; Polak, Ferdinand; Waldauf, Petr; Pelclova, Daniela; Belohlavek, Jan; Zakharov, Sergey

    2017-06-01

    During an outbreak of mass methanol poisoning in the Czech Republic in 2012-2014, we compared the total hospital costs and one-year medical costs in the patients treated with different antidotes (fomepizole versus ethanol) and modalities of hemodialysis (intermittent hemodialysis, IHD, versus continuous renal replacement therapy, CRRT). Cross-sectional study in 106 patients with confirmed diagnosis treated in 30 ICU settings. For each patient, the following data were analyzed: admission laboratory data, GCS, PSS, ICU length of stay, organ failures, treatment, outcome, and total hospital costs. Of 83 survivors, in 54 (65%) patients the follow-up examination, quality of life measurement with SF36 questionnaire two years after discharge, and one-year medical costs analysis were performed. The median total hospital costs were 7200 (IQR 1500-10,900) euros and the median one-year medical costs were 1447 (IQR 133-1163) euros in the study population. The total hospital costs were higher in the patients treated with fomepizole comparing to ethanol: 12,890 (IQR 6910-16,210) versus 5590 (IQR 1430-6940) euros (p0.05). The total hospital costs in the patients with acute methanol poisoning were more than three times higher in the patients treated with fomepizole than in the patients treated with ethanol after adjustment for the severity of poisoning. The dialysis modality did not affect the total hospital costs, but the trend to lower costs was present in IHD-group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Toxicological Investigation of Acute Cyanide Poisoning Cases: Report of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humera Shafi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyanide is a deadly poison. Acute cyanide poisoning in humans is rare and is predominantly caused by smoke inhalation from fires and much more rarely by intentional ingestion of cyanide salts as in suicide or homicide attempts. The main objective of this report is to emphasize the need to consider cyanide poisoning, even if it is rare, in differential diagnosis while evaluating cases of sudden death and the significance of gastric content analysis in acute poisoning cases. The authors reported four cases of lethal cyanide poisoning. Autopsy specimens were submitted to the author’s laboratory for analysis. A presumptive test for cyanide using Vitamin B12 indicated the presence of cyanide. Confirmation and quantification of cyanide was performed using headspace gas chromatograph coupled to flame ionization detector technique. The toxicological analysis revealed lethal hydrogen cyanide concentrations in all postmortem specimens ranging from 24 to 2600 mg/L in gastric contents, 70 to 282 mg/kg in liver specimens, 11 to 12 mg/kg in a mixture of viscera (liver, spleen, kidney and 15 mg/L in blood. The cause of deaths in the reported cases was acute respiratory failure and cardiac arrest following cyanide intoxication.

  8. The Acute Oral Toxicity of Commonly Used Pesticides in Iran, to Honeybees (Apis Mellifera Meda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasuli Farhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The honey bee is credited with approximately 85% of the pollinating activity necessary to supply about one-third of the world’s food supply. Well over 50 major crops depend on these insects for pollination. The crops produce more abundantly when honey bees are plentiful. Worker bees are the ones primarily affected by pesticides. Poisoning symptoms can vary depending on the developmental stage of the individual bee, and the kind of chemical employed. The oral toxicity of these insecticides: (phosalone and pirimicarb, acaricide (propargite, insecticide and acaricide (fenpropathrin, fungicides, and bactericides (copper oxychloride and the Bordeaux mixture, were evaluated for the purposes of this research. The results showed that fenpropathrin had high acute oral toxicity (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 0.54 and 0.3 ppm, respectively. Propargite had 7785 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-24h and 6736 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-48h in honeybees and is therefore, non-toxic to Apis mellifera. On the other hand, copper oxychloride had minimum acute oral toxicity to honeybees (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 4591.5 and 5407.9 ppm, respectively and was therefore considered non-toxic. Also, the Bordeaux mixture was safe to use around honeybees. Phosalone and primicarb were considered highly and moderately toxic to honeybees, respectively.

  9. Policymaking 'under the radar': a case study of pesticide regulation to prevent intentional poisoning in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Melissa; Zwi, Anthony B; Buckley, Nicholas A; Manuweera, Gamini; Fernando, Ravindra; Dawson, Andrew H; McDuie-Ra, Duncan

    2015-02-01

    Suicide in Sri Lanka is a major public health problem and in 1995 the country had one of the highest rates of suicide worldwide. Since then reductions in overall suicide rates have been largely attributed to efforts to regulate a range of pesticides. The evolution, context, events and implementation of the key policy decisions around regulation are examined. This study was undertaken as part of a broader analysis of policy in two parts-an explanatory case study and stakeholder analysis. This article describes the explanatory case study that included an historical narrative and in-depth interviews. A timeline and chronology of policy actions and influence were derived from interview and document data. Fourteen key informants were interviewed and four distinct policy phases were identified. The early stages of pesticide regulation were dominated by political and economic considerations and strongly influenced by external factors. The second phase was marked by a period of local institution building, the engagement of local stakeholders, and expanded links between health and agriculture. During the third phase the problem of self-poisoning dominated the policy agenda and closer links between stakeholders, evidence and policymaking developed. The fourth and most recent phase was characterized by strong local capacity for policymaking, informed by evidence, developed in collaboration with a powerful network of stakeholders, including international researchers. The policy response to extremely high rates of suicide from intentional poisoning with pesticides shows a unique and successful example of policymaking to prevent suicide. It also highlights policy action taking place 'under the radar', thus avoiding policy inertia often associated with reforms in lower and middle income countries. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  10. Policymaking ‘under the radar’: a case study of pesticide regulation to prevent intentional poisoning in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Melissa; Zwi, Anthony B; Buckley, Nicholas A; Manuweera, Gamini; Fernando, Ravindra; Dawson, Andrew H; McDuie-Ra, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide in Sri Lanka is a major public health problem and in 1995 the country had one of the highest rates of suicide worldwide. Since then reductions in overall suicide rates have been largely attributed to efforts to regulate a range of pesticides. The evolution, context, events and implementation of the key policy decisions around regulation are examined. Methods This study was undertaken as part of a broader analysis of policy in two parts—an explanatory case study and stakeholder analysis. This article describes the explanatory case study that included an historical narrative and in-depth interviews. Results A timeline and chronology of policy actions and influence were derived from interview and document data. Fourteen key informants were interviewed and four distinct policy phases were identified. The early stages of pesticide regulation were dominated by political and economic considerations and strongly influenced by external factors. The second phase was marked by a period of local institution building, the engagement of local stakeholders, and expanded links between health and agriculture. During the third phase the problem of self-poisoning dominated the policy agenda and closer links between stakeholders, evidence and policymaking developed. The fourth and most recent phase was characterized by strong local capacity for policymaking, informed by evidence, developed in collaboration with a powerful network of stakeholders, including international researchers. Conclusions The policy response to extremely high rates of suicide from intentional poisoning with pesticides shows a unique and successful example of policymaking to prevent suicide. It also highlights policy action taking place ‘under the radar’, thus avoiding policy inertia often associated with reforms in lower and middle income countries. PMID:24362640

  11. Reversible brain damage following acute organic solvents' poisoning determined by magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dujmović Irena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute exposure to the effects of volatile solvents is characterized by the abrupt onset of symptoms and signs of poisoning, and relatively fast recovery in the majority of cases. Case report. We report a 24-year-old patient with an acute, accidental poisoning with a mixture of volatile organic solvents (most probably toluene, styrene and xylene, which led to the development of upward gaze paresis, diplopia, hemiparesis, ataxic gate, and the late onset truncal ataxia episodes. After 6 weeks, he recovered completely, while his extensive brain MRI lesions in the caudate nuclei, laterobasal putaminal regions, bilateral anterior insular cortex, central midbrain tegmental area withdrew completely after 4 months. Conclusion. Acute toxic encephalopathy should be a part of the differential diagnosis in any patient with acute neurobehavioral and neurological deficit.

  12. [The effects of ethanol on the evolution of the acute benzodiazepine poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puha, Gabriela; Hurjui, J; Lupuşoru, Cătălina Elena; Sorodoc, L

    2011-01-01

    The depressing effects on the nervous central system (NCS) induced by benzodiazepines and ethanol are similar. The complications are rare in the benzodiazepine poisoning, but are a lot more frequent in association with other depressing drugs for the NCS (especially alcohol). We analyzed retrospectively patients with benzodiazepine poisoning admitted in the Internal Medicine Clinic - Toxicology during 2003 - 2009.The study attempted a complex evaluation of the consequences of acute and chronic alcoholism on the evolution of acute benzodiazepinepoisoning and the description of the clinic evolution and paraclinical particularities of the patients under investigation. 343 patients with benzodiazepine poisoning were admitted, 150 were tested through measurement of alcohol level, leading to values between 1 - 415 mg/dl. Chronic alcoholism in personal pathological antecedents of the patients determined a relative risk of intoxication 1.46 times higher. The hospitalization period varied from 1 to 8 days for patients with chronic alcoholism and from 1 to 14 days for patients with acute alcoholism, a statistically important difference. During the period under investigation, from the total of patients admitted for acute benzodiazepine poisoning, 2 deaths were registered. Of the two deaths, one patient showed ethanol coingestion.

  13. [Dynamics of blood gases and acid-base balance in patients with carbon monoxide acute poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polozova, E V; Shilov, V V; Bogachova, A S; Davydova, E V

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of blood gases and acid-base balance covered patients with carbon monoxide acute poisoning, in accordance with inhalation trauma presence. Evidence is that thermochemical injury of respiratory tract induced severe acid-base dysbalance remaining decompensated for a long time despite the treatment.

  14. An Unusual Case of Acute Psychosis With Obsessive-Compulsive Features Following Arsenic Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hanjing E; Abdel-Gawad, Noha M; Gharbaoui, Yasmine; Teixeira, Antonio L; Pigott, Teresa A

    2017-09-01

    Arsenic exposure, particularly the chronic type, can lead to poisoning with manifestations presenting in multiple organ systems. However, acute psychosis is not a commonly described manifestation of arsenic exposure. In this report, we present the case of a patient who developed acute psychosis with hallucinations, disorganized thinking, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms following chronic occupational arsenic exposure. The patient was treated with the combination of an antipsychotic and an antidepressant and he responded well with significant improvement in both the acute psychosis and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The authors concluded that patients can develop atypical symptoms, including acute psychosis, following arsenic poisoning. In the case described in this report, the patient also presented with a new onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Given this rare manifestation of arsenic poisoning for which there is no clearly defined treatment regimen, this case suggests that the use of a combination of an antipsychotic and an antidepressant may be considered in the rare event of psychosis with obsessive-compulsive features following arsenic poisoning.

  15. Evaluation of cardiac autonomic function using heart rate variability in children with acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vural, Cagdas; Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Kosger, Pelin; Bolluk, Ozge; Kilic, Zubeyir; Ucar, Birsen

    2017-11-01

    Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning may cause myocardial toxicity and cardiac autonomic dysfunction, which may contribute to the development of life-threatening arrhythmias. We investigated the potential association between acute carbon monoxide exposure and cardiac autonomic function measured by heart rate variability. The present study included 40 children aged 1-17 years who were admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit with acute carbon monoxide poisoning and 40 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Carboxyhaemoglobin and cardiac enzymes were measured at admission. Electrocardiography was performed on admission and discharge, and 24-hour Holter electrocardiography was digitally recorded. Heart rate variability was analysed at both time points - 24-hour recordings - and frequency domains - from the first 5 minutes of intensive care unit admission. Time domain and frequency indices such as high-frequency spectral power and low-frequency spectral power were similar between patient and control groups (p>0.05). The ratio of low-frequency spectral power to high-frequency spectral power was significantly lower in the carbon monoxide poisoning group (pcarbon monoxide poisoning group (pcarbon monoxide poisoning group compared with controls on discharge (p<0.05). The frequency domain indices, especially the ratio of low-frequency spectral power to high-frequency spectral power, are useful for the evaluation of the cardiac autonomic function. The decreased low-frequency spectral power-to-high-frequency spectral power ratio reflects a balance of the autonomic nervous system, which shifted to parasympathetic components.

  16. Policy Mitigating Acute Risk to Bees from Pesticide Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide risk management must be based on sound science, consistent with the laws under which pesticides are regulated in the United States. EPA has been working aggressively to protect bees and other pollinators from pesticide exposures.

  17. Translational toxicological research: investigating and preventing acute lung injury in organophosphorus insecticide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Elspeth J; Clutton, R E; Drummond, G; Eddleston, M

    2014-06-01

    Poisoning through ingestion of organophosphorus (OP) insecticide is a leading cause of suicide globally. Severe poisoning with OP compounds creates an unconscious, paralysed patient with respiratory failure. These symptoms make pulmonary aspiration of stomach contents highly likely, potentially causing an acute lung injury. To explore this hypothesis, we created a Gottingen minipig pulmonary aspiration model (n=26) to investigate the mechanism and severity of lung injury created through pulmonary instillation of 0.5 mL/kg mixtures of porcine gastric juice (GJ), OP and/or its solvent. Early results show that aspiration of OP and GJ causes pulmonary neutrophil sequestration, alveolar haemorrhage and interstitial oedema, with disruption of the alveolar-capillary membrane. Further measurements will include quantitative CT imaging, histopathology scoring, acute lung injury biomarkers and respiratory function. In order to test the validity of the minipig model, a pilot study in Sri Lanka has been devised to observe signs of lung injury in human patients who have ingested OP insecticide with or without clinical evidence of pulmonary aspiration. Lung injury will be assessed with PaO2/FIO2 ratios and physiological dead space measurement. Blood, bronchoalveolar lavage and urine will be taken at 24 and 48 h after poisoning and at 3-4 h in surgical control patients to measure acute lung injury biomarkers. An unpublished toxicology study from Sri Lanka, 2011-2012, showed that over 40% of unconscious poisoned patients with a GCS poisoned patients. We hypothesise that non-drug assisted placement of supraglottic airways may be a good tool for use in unconscious poisoned patients requiring transfer from small rural hospitals in Asia. They could confer better airway protection than no airway intervention and reduce both morbidity and mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Water Balance Estimation in Patients with Acute Poisonings due to Psychotropic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Ilyashenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to develop a procedure for an integrated assessment of changes in body hydration, by using the polyseg-mental bioimpedance analysis (PBIA of the body’s water sectors. Subjects and methods. The volumes of cellular and extracellular fluids in various body regions were estimated in 85 patients with acute poisonings by psychotropic agents, by employing the PBIA over time within three days and when the impact of various treatment options on them was evaluated. An ABC-01 MEDASS device with ABC043 software was applied. Results. The study ascertained that the changes in the volumes of extracellular and cellular fluids in the upper trunk, namely progressive extracellular fluid accumulation, are the most informative parameters for disease prognosis. On this basis, the authors proposed a formula to calculate the integral hydration index (IHI and showed its informative value when used in patients with acute poisonings due to psychotropic agents during remedial measures. Conclusion. The IHI developed on the basis of estimation of abnormal cellular and extracellular fluid volumes in patients with poisonings by psychotropic agents is sensitive and striking in the evaluation of water imbalance in patients under resuscitation and allows the detected disorders to be efficiently corrected. Key words: acute poisonings, water balance, extracellular and cellular fluid, index, hydration index.

  19. Lead Poisoning Can Be Easily Misdiagnosed as Acute Porphyria and Nonspecific Abdominal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Ta; Huang, Shi-Yu; Cheng, Shih-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Lead poisoning (LP) is less commonly encountered in emergency departments (ED). However, lead exposure still occurs, and new sources of poisoning have emerged. LP often goes unrecognized due to a low index of suspicion and nonspecific symptoms. We present a case of a 48-year-old man who had recurring abdominal pain with anemia that was misdiagnosed. His condition was initially diagnosed as nonspecific abdominal pain and acute porphyria. Acute porphyria-like symptoms with a positive urine porphyrin test result led to the misdiagnosis; testing for heme precursors in urine is the key to the differential diagnosis between LP and acute porphyria. The final definitive diagnosis of lead toxicity was confirmed based on high blood lead levels after detailed medical history taking. The lead poisoning was caused by traditional Chinese herbal pills. The abdominal pain disappeared after a course of chelating treatment. The triad for the diagnosis of lead poisoning should be a history of medicine intake, anemia with basophilic stippling, and recurrent abdominal pain.

  20. Lead Poisoning Can Be Easily Misdiagnosed as Acute Porphyria and Nonspecific Abdominal Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ta Tsai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning (LP is less commonly encountered in emergency departments (ED. However, lead exposure still occurs, and new sources of poisoning have emerged. LP often goes unrecognized due to a low index of suspicion and nonspecific symptoms. We present a case of a 48-year-old man who had recurring abdominal pain with anemia that was misdiagnosed. His condition was initially diagnosed as nonspecific abdominal pain and acute porphyria. Acute porphyria-like symptoms with a positive urine porphyrin test result led to the misdiagnosis; testing for heme precursors in urine is the key to the differential diagnosis between LP and acute porphyria. The final definitive diagnosis of lead toxicity was confirmed based on high blood lead levels after detailed medical history taking. The lead poisoning was caused by traditional Chinese herbal pills. The abdominal pain disappeared after a course of chelating treatment. The triad for the diagnosis of lead poisoning should be a history of medicine intake, anemia with basophilic stippling, and recurrent abdominal pain.

  1. Acute ammonium dichromate poisoning in a 2 year-old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunilkumar, Menon Narayanankutty; Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan; Parvathy, Vadakut Krishnan

    2014-11-01

    Hexavalent chromium compounds are most commonly used in printing, dyeing, plastics and rayon manufacturing. Poisoning in children by ammonium dichromate, an odorless and bright orange-red crystal, are rarely reported. Acute poisoning will result in death due to multi-organ failure. The target organs that are affected by this poison are the respiratory system, kidneys, liver, eyes and skin. On ingestion, initially there is a relative lack of severe symptoms and signs. Hence, the delay in seeking medical attention could lead to the increased rate of mortality. In this case study, we report the ingestion of ammonium dichromate by a child. Despite appropriate management, such as hepatic supportive measures and plasma transfusion, the toxicity progressed to multi-organ failure and death.

  2. Does the clock make the poison? Circadian variation in response to pesticides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hooven, Louisa A; Sherman, Katherine A; Butcher, Shawn; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M

    2009-01-01

    .... To determine whether reported XM gene expression rhythms result in functional rhythms, we examined daily profiles of enzyme activity and dose responses to the pesticides propoxur, deltamethrin, fipronil, and malathion...

  3. Acute liver failure caused by mushroom poisoning: a case report and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden, Abdulsamet; Esmeray, Kübra; Karagöz, Hatice; Karahan, Samet; Gümüşçü, Hasan Hüseyin; Başak, Mustafa; Çetinkaya, Ali; Avcı, Deniz; Poyrazoğlu, Orhan Kürşat

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that there are over 5,000 species of mushrooms worldwide. Some of them are edible and some are poisonous due to containing significant toxins. In more than 95% of mushroom toxicity cases, poisoning occurs as a result of misidentification of the mushroom by an amateur mushroom hunter. The severity of mushroom poisoning may vary, depending on the geographic location where the mushroom is grown, growth conditions, the amount of toxin delivered, and the genetic characteristics of the mushroom. Amanita phalloides is the most common and fatal cause of mushroom poisoning. This mushroom contains amanitins, which are powerful hepatotoxins that inhibit RNA polymerase II in liver. Mushroom poisoning is a relatively rare cause of acute liver failure. A 63-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room with weakness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. He reported ingesting several wild mushrooms about 36 hours earlier. In this article we report a case of lethal Amanita phalloides intoxication from stored mushrooms. PMID:24294010

  4. Ulinastatin suppresses endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats with acute paraquat poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-feng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung injury is the main manifestation of paraquat poisoning. Few studies have addressed brain damage after paraquat poisoning. Ulinastatin is a protease inhibitor that can effectively stabilize lysosomal membranes, prevent cell damage, and reduce the production of free radicals. This study assumed that ulinastatin would exert these effects on brain tissues that had been poisoned with paraquat. Rat models of paraquat poisoning were intraperitoneally injected with ulinastatin. Simultaneously, rats in the control group were administered normal saline. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that most hippocampal cells were contracted and nucleoli had disappeared in the paraquat group. Fewer cells in the hippocampus were concentrated and nucleoli had disappeared in the ulinastatin group. Western blot assay showed that expressions of GRP78 and cleaved-caspase-3 were significantly lower in the ulinastatin group than in the paraquat group. Immunohistochemical findings showed that CHOP immunoreactivity was significantly lower in the ulinastatin group than in the paraquat group. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining showed that the number of apoptotic cells was reduced in the paraquat and ulinastatin groups. These data confirmed that endoplasmic reticular stress can be induced by acute paraquat poisoning. Ulinastatin can effectively inhibit this stress as well as cell apoptosis, thereby exerting a neuroprotective effect.

  5. Acute liver failure caused by mushroom poisoning: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden, Abdulsamet; Esmeray, Kübra; Karagöz, Hatice; Karahan, Samet; Gümüşçü, Hasan Hüseyin; Başak, Mustafa; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avcı, Deniz; Poyrazoğlu, Orhan Kürşat

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that there are over 5,000 species of mushrooms worldwide. Some of them are edible and some are poisonous due to containing significant toxins. In more than 95% of mushroom toxicity cases, poisoning occurs as a result of misidentification of the mushroom by an amateur mushroom hunter. The severity of mushroom poisoning may vary, depending on the geographic location where the mushroom is grown, growth conditions, the amount of toxin delivered, and the genetic characteristics of the mushroom. Amanita phalloides is the most common and fatal cause of mushroom poisoning. This mushroom contains amanitins, which are powerful hepatotoxins that inhibit RNA polymerase II in liver. Mushroom poisoning is a relatively rare cause of acute liver failure. A 63-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room with weakness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. He reported ingesting several wild mushrooms about 36 hours earlier. In this article we report a case of lethal Amanita phalloides intoxication from stored mushrooms.

  6. [Epidemiological study of acute poisoning cases treated at a Galician hospital between 2005 and 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel-Bouzas, José Carlos; Castro-Tubío, Eva; Bermejo-Barrera, Ana María; Fernández-Gómez, Purificación; Estévez-Núñez, Juan Carlos; Tabernero-Duque, María Jesús

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive retrospective study of acute intoxication cases registered at the Complexo Hospitalario de Pontevedra (CHOP) between January 2005 and December 2008 was performed to find out the number and types of poisoning cases treated, their distribution according to patient's sex and age, chronology, type of toxic agents involved, intentionality, history, symptoms, clinical development, treatment and toxicological analysis used for diagnosis. Data were recorded using Clinica and IANUS software and consulting all paper records of patients with symptoms of poisoning. Data from a total of 1893 patients with a mean age of 35.6 ± 17.6 years (66% men) were included. Highest rates of poisoning were recorded on Saturdays and Sundays during the summer months (June, July and August). Drugs of abuse were the most common toxic agents (70.4%), ethyl alcohol accounting for 61% of these cases, which often involved males and with people with high degrees of dependency. In second place was poisoning resulting from the abuse of medical drugs, more commonly associated with females, and involving benzodiazepines in 73.2% of cases. The majority of these intoxications were intentional, and suicide attempts accounted for 18.8%. The problems most commonly resulting from the poisoning were neurological, and mortality rate was just 0.2%.

  7. Poisoning of cats and dogs by the carbamate pesticides aldicarb and carbofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Adriana; Salvagni, Fernanda Auciello; Yoshida, Alberto Soiti; Gonçalves-Junior, Vagner; Calefi, Atilio Sersun; Fukushima, André Rinaldi; Spinosa, Helenice de Souza; Maiorka, Paulo César

    2015-10-01

    The intentional and accidental poisoning of animals and people is a threat to public health and safety worldwide. Necropsies and histopathological examinations of 26 cats and 10 dogs poisoned by the carbamates aldicarb and carbofuran, confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) were analysed, with variable post mortem interval and conservation of the carcass. Biological matrices were collected for toxicological and histopathological analyses. High performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) was utilized to detect aldicarb and its metabolites, aldicarb sulphoxide and aldicarb sulphone, and carbofuran. The variable post mortem interval and the method of conservation of the carcass may be harmful to toxicological, necroscopic and histopathological analyses, that should be performed in order to provide reliable evidences to investigate possible poisoning of animals, which is cruel crime, and are usually linked to domestic or social conflict. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Using bosentan to treat paraquat poisoning-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongchen Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paraquat poisoning is well known for causing multiple organ function failure (MODS and high mortality. Acute lung injury and advanced pulmonary fibrosis are the most serious complications. Bosentan is a dual endothelin receptor antagonist. It plays an important role in treating PF. There is no related literature on the use of bosentan therapy for paraquat poisoning. OBJECTIVE: To study the use of bosentan to treat acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis as induced by paraquat. METHOD: A total of 120 adult Wister male rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the paraquat poisoning group (rats were intragastrically administered with paraquat at 50 mg/kg body weight once at the beginning; the bosentan therapy group (rats were administered bosentan at 100 mg/kg body weight by intragastric administration half an hour after paraquat was administered, then the same dose was administered once a day; and a control group (rats were administered intragastric physiological saline. On the 3rd, 7th, 14th, and 21st days following paraquat exposure, rats were sacrificed, and samples of lung tissue and venous blood were collected. The levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, endothelin-1 (ET-1, and hydroxyproline (HYP in the plasma and lung homogenate were determined. Optical and electronic microscopes were used to examine pathological changes. RESULT: The TGF-β1, ET-1, and HYP of the paraquat poisoning group were significantly higher than in the control group, and they were significantly lower in the 21st day therapy group than in the paraquat poisoning group on the same day. Under the optical and electronic microscopes, lung tissue damage was observed to be more severe but was then reduced after bosentan was administered. CONCLUSION: Bosentan can reduce inflammation factor release. It has a therapeutic effect on acute lung injury as induced by paraquat.

  9. Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherma, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    This review is devoted to methods for the determination of residues of pesticides and some related industrial chemicals. Topics include: residue methods, sampling, chromatography, organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, pyrethrins, fumigants, and related chemicals. (MVL)

  10. Long-term visual damage after acute methanol poisonings: Longitudinal cross-sectional study in 50 patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zakharov, S.; Pelclová, D.; Diblík, P.; Urban, P.; Kuthan, P.; Nurieva, O.; Kotíková, K.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Komarc, M.; Běláček, J.; Seidl, Z.; Vaněčková, M.; Hubáček, J. A.; Bezdíček, O.; Klempíř, J.; Yurchenko, M.; Růžička, E.; Miovský, M.; Janíková, B.; Hovda, K. E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 9 (2015), s. 884-892 ISSN 1556-3650 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : acute methanol poisoning * hospital treatment * treatment outcome Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.886, year: 2015

  11. Methodology for the identification of 117 pesticides commonly involved in the poisoning of wildlife using GC-MS-MS and LC-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valerón, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Boada, Luis D

    2014-04-01

    Poisoning with agricultural chemicals is a major threat for wildlife all over the world. We have developed and validated an analytical scheme aimed to the identification and quantification of a wide range of pesticides in fresh liver from wildlife specimens that are routinely delivered to the forensic laboratories for toxicological investigation. The proposed method is comprised of a general solid-liquid extraction followed by purification steps and three complementary liquid or gas chromatographic analyses with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry detection. The developed methodology allows for the determination of 117 highly toxic pesticides in a variety of samples from wildlife poisoning incidents. The validity of the method has been demonstrated in samples from 98 real cases submitted to our laboratory between 2010 and 2012. This method allowed the identification and quantification of poison in 78 of 94 fresh liver samples from wild animals and was successfully used for the identification of pesticides in 35 of 46 non-liver samples. Therefore, the extraction and cleanup method with minor modifications and the potency of triple quadrupole mass spectrometry allow this method to be used to simultaneously detect and quantify or semi-quantify a majority of the most toxic pesticides in a variety of complex and degraded matrices.

  12. Acute Lantana camara poisoning in a Boer goat kid : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ide

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute Lantana camara poisoning in a Boer goat kid is described. The animal was part of a flock of boer goats that was introduced from the Kalahari thornveld, where the plant does not occur, to an area where the plant grew abundantly. At necropsy, the animal was severely icteric, dehydrated and constipated, with hepatosis, distention of the gall-bladder and nephrosis, but no skin lesions. Histopathological findings of the liver confirmed moderate hepatosis with single-cell necrosis and bile stasis. The pathology is consistent with that described in acute Lantana poisoning in cattle, sheep and goats. The absence of photosensitisation may be attributed to relatively mild liver damage, or the rapid course of this toxicosis.

  13. Assessing biomarkers and neuropsychological outcomes in rural populations exposed to organophosphate pesticides in Chile - study design and protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramirez-Santana, M.; Zuniga, L.; Corral, S.; Sandoval, R.; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Velden, K. van der; Roeleveld, N.; Pancetti, F.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health effects of pesticides are easily diagnosed when acute poisonings occurs, nevertheless, consequences from chronic exposure can only be observed when neuropsychiatric, neurodegenerative or oncologic pathologies appear. Therefore, early monitoring of this type of exposure is

  14. Survival without peripheral neuropathy after massive acute arsenic poisoning: Treated by 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulphonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, P-H; Tseng, J-C; Chen, C-K; Chen, C-H

    2017-08-01

    Massive acute arsenic poisoning is rare yet potentially life-threatening. 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulphonate (DMPS) appears to have the appropriate chelating property. However, clinical experience on the use of DMPS in massive arsenic poisoning is limited. A 37-year-old woman attempted suicide by ingesting 37.5 g of arsenic trioxide. DMPS was promptly initiated based on history and clinical symptoms. The patient recovered completely, with no complications or side effects of the therapy. TDMPS is useful for the treatment of massive acute arsenic poisoning. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Guidance document for setting an Acute Reference Dose in Dutch national pesticide evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaij MTM van; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a proposal for the procedures for setting an Acute Reference Dose (ARfD) for pesticides evaluated in the Netherlands. This deals with both evaluations on the national level (on behalf of the Dutch Board for the Authorisation of Pesticides (CTB)) and evaluations at the European

  16. Acute kidney injury following rhabdomyolysis and sepsis after non-poisonous desert monitor bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Poonam; Verma, Pradeep Kumar

    2017-10-01

    The desert monitor, Varanus griseus, is a species of desert monitor lizard found in North-Western India. They are believed to be non-poisonous. We report a case of Indian desert monitor bite leading to acute renal failure following rhabdomyolysis and severe sepsis. Prompt diagnosis and treatment resulted in the favourable outcome. This is author's intent to highlight the complication that may occur after Indian desert monitor bite.

  17. Oxidative stress induced by chlorpromazine in patients treated and acutely poisoned with the drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejanović Bratislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Although chlorpromazine (CPZ is an antipsychotic drug widely used in clinical practice for a long time, its mechanism of action has not been entirely defined. An extremely difficult managing of patients acutely poisoned with CPZ is additional reason for detailed studying its toxicity mechanisms. In this clinical study, we investigated whether the oxidative stress (OS mediates CPZ toxic effects in the exposed patients. Methods. The patients were organized into 3 groups: the T-group - hospitalized patients receiving therapeutic doses of 75-150 mg CPZ/day; the overdosed group, divided into two subgroups: the group M and the group S - mildly (CPZ serum concentration: 0.21 ± 0.05 mg/L and severely (CPZ serum concentration: 2.66 ± 0.25 mg/L poisoned patients, respectively, and the group C (control group of healthy volunteers. Oxidative stress parameters [total antioxidative status (TAS and malondialdehyde (MDA in plasma] and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in erythrocytes were measured spectrophotometrically, and CPZ concentrations in serum were monitored chromatographically. One set of measurements was performed in the group C and T, whereas two sets of measurements (after 24 hours and 48 hours were done in the poisoned patients, groups M and S. Results. A decrease of TAS and increase of SOD activity were obtained in both subgroups of the poisoned patients, compared to the controls and the group receiving therapeutic doses of CPZ. A significant increase of MDA was achieved in severely poisoned patients, compared to all other groups. Conclusion. Changed oxidative stress parameters in patients poisoned with chlorpromazine indicate involvement of oxidative stress in the toxicity mechanism(s of chlorpromazine. [Military Medical Academy, Project No. МФВМА/6/15-17

  18. Research Progress on Pesticide Residue Analysis Techniques in Agro-products

    OpenAIRE

    HE Ze-ying; Liu, Xiao-Wei

    2016-01-01

    There are constant occurrences of acute pesticide poisoning among consumers and pesticide residue violations in agro-products import/export trading. Pesticide residue analysis is the important way to protect the food safety and the interest of import/export enterprises. There has been a rapid development in pesticide residue analysis techniques in recent years. In this review, the research progress in the past five years were discussed in the respects of samples preparation and instrument det...

  19. Acute toxicity of some nerve agents and pesticides in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misik, Jan; Pavlikova, Ruzena; Cabal, Jiri; Kuca, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Highly toxic organophosphorus compounds (V- and G-nerve agents) were originally synthesized for warfare or as agricultural pesticides. Data on their acute toxicity are rare and patchy. Therefore, there is a need for integrated summary comparing acute toxicity of organophosphates using different administration routes in the same animal model with the same methodology. Based on original data, a summary of in vivo acute toxicity of selected V- and G-nerve agents (tabun, sarin, soman, VX, Russian VX) and organophosphates paraoxon (POX) and diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) in rats has been investigated. Male Wistar rats were exposed to organophosphates in several administration routes (i.m., i.p., p.o, s.c., p.c.). The acute toxicity was evaluated by the assessment of median lethal dose (LD50, mg kg(-1)) 2, 4, and 24 hours post exposure. V-agents were the most toxic presented with LD50 ranged from 0.0082 mg kg(-1) (VX, i.m.) to 1.402 mg kg(-1) (Russian VX, p.o.), followed by G-agents (LD50 = 0.069 mg kg(-1)/soman, i.m./ - 117.9 mg kg(-1)/sarin, p.c./), organophosphate POX and DFP (LD50 = 0.321 mg kg(-1)/POX, i.m./ - 420 mg kg(-1)/DFP, p.c./). Generally, i.m. administration was the most toxic throughout all tested agents and ways of administration (LD50 = 0.0082 mg kg(-1)/VX/ - 1.399 mg kg(-1)/DFP/) whereas p.c. way was responsible for lowest acute toxicity (LD50 = 0.085 mg kg(-1)/VX/ - 420 mg kg(-1)/DFP/). The acute toxicity of selected organophosphorus compounds is summarized throughout this study. Although the data assessed in rats are rather illustrative prediction for human, it presents a valuable contribution, indicating the toxic potential and harmfulness of organophosphates.

  20. Acute kidney injury from Paraquat poisoning: a case report. | Slater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a fatal case of a16 year old girl who presented with dysphagia, cough and dyspnoea following ingestion of paraquat. She subsequently developed acute kidney injury (AKI) that resolved but she succumbed to respiratory complications despite use of antibiotics, corticosteroids and haemodialysis. Key words: ...

  1. Relevance of Plasma Cholinesterase to Clinical Findings in Acute Organophosphorous Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanur R.M.M. Prasad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphorus (OP poisoning is a major public health problem in developing world. OP pesticides inhibit carboxylic esterase enzymes including plasma cholinesterase (PChE. Clinical manifestations following OP poisoning can be associated with the extent of decrease of PChE. This study was designed to investigate the relevance of PChE level to clinical manifestations in OP poisoning and to evaluate usefulness of PChE in predicting clinical outcomes. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which was conducted at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Karnataka from 1st October 2009 to 30th September 2010. Seventy-six OP poisoned patients were enrolled and their clinical manifestations were recorded. 5-ml samples of intravenous blood were collected from each patient (on first day and fifth day of treatment under strict aseptic precaution and the PChE level was measured. Results: In total, mean age of patients were 25.5 (range: 21-30 years. Majority of patients were males (65.7 %, from rural areas (86.84 % and agricultural workers (25%. Main clinical findings at the time of admission were congested conjunctiva (87%, pin point pupil (83%, lacrimation (80%, vomiting (78%, non-reactive pupil (75%, respiratory distress (60% and abdominal pain (37%. Mean (SD PChE at 6 hours post-exposure was 3672.4 (4200.1 IU/L. At presentation, cyanosis, muscle weakness, convulsion, respiratory distress and fasciculation were related to cases with >75%reduction of PChE, while,  constricted and non-reactive pupil, lacrimation and congested conjunctivae were related to cases with 50-75% reduction and abdominal pain, dryness of conjunctiva, vomiting and diarrhea were related to

  2. Successful usage of intravenous lipid emulsion in treatment of acute verapamil poisoning: A case report

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    Vuković-Ercegović Gordana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. During the last few years, intravenous lipid emulsions have been effectively used in treatment of acute poisonings with lipophilic substances, including verapamil. Case report. A 37-year-old women presented 1 hour after ingestion of 2.8 g verapamil with hypotension and complete heart block. Because of the applied standard therapy failure and further patients impairment, Intralipid® 20% was used. Sinus rhythm was restored, arterial blood pressure increased and verapamile concentrations, both total and free decreased. Conclusion. Intravenous lipid emulsion can be important in treatment of severe acute intoxication and cardiotoxicity caused by verapamil.

  3. Pralidoxime in acute organophosphorus insecticide poisoning--a randomised controlled trial.

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    Michael Eddleston

    2009-06-01

    red cell acetylcholinesterase in diethyl organophosphorus pesticide poisoned patients, we found no evidence that this regimen improves survival or reduces need for intubation in patients with organophosphorus insecticide poisoning. The reason for this failure to benefit patients was not apparent. Further studies of different dose regimens or different oximes are required.

  4. Assessing the connection between organophosphate pesticide poisoning and mental health: A comparison of neuropsychological symptoms from clinical observations, animal models and epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallones, Lorann; Beseler, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatry and psychology are beginning to recognize the importance of lead, mercury and heavy metals as causal partners in the development of mental disorders. Further, mental health researchers and clinicians are embracing the idea that the combined effects of genetics and environmental exposures can result in perturbations in brain neurochemistry leading to psychiatric disorders. The purpose of this review is to examine the biological foundations for the epidemiological observations previously identified by reviewing the toxicology literature and relating it to epidemiological studies addressing the role of poisoning with organophosphate pesticides (OPs) in neurobehavioral and neuropsychological disorders. The goal of this review is to raise awareness in the mental health community about the possibility that affective disorders might be the result of contributions from environmental and occupational pesticide poisoning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prediction and validation of hemodialysis duration in acute methanol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Philippe; Mac-Way, Fabrice; Desmeules, Simon; De Serres, Sacha A; Julien, Anne-Sophie; Douville, Pierre; Ghannoum, Marc; Agharazii, Mohsen

    2015-11-01

    The duration of hemodialysis (HD) in methanol poisoning (MP) is dependent on the methanol concentration, the operational parameters used during HD, and the presence and severity of metabolic acidosis. However, methanol assays are not easily available, potentially leading to undue extension or premature termination of treatment. Here we provide a prediction model for the duration of high-efficiency HD in MP. In a retrospective cohort study, we identified 71 episodes of MP in 55 individuals who were treated with alcohol dehydrogenase inhibition and HD. Four patients had residual visual abnormality at discharge and only one patient died. In 46 unique episodes of MP with high-efficiency HD the mean methanol elimination half-life (T1/2) during HD was 108 min in women, significantly different from the 129 min in men. In a training set of 28 patients with MP, using the 90th percentile of gender-specific elimination T1/2 (147 min in men and 141 min in women) and a target methanol concentration of 4 mmol/l allowed all cases to reach a safe methanol of under 6 mmol/l. The prediction model was confirmed in a validation set of 18 patients with MP. High-efficiency HD time in hours can be estimated using 3.390 × (Ln (MCi/4)) for women and 3.534 × (Ln (MCi/4)) for men, where MCi is the initial methanol concentration in mmol/l, provided that metabolic acidosis is corrected.

  6. Methemoglobinemia in aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadnia, Shahin; Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Hassanian-Moghadam, Hossein; Sadeghi, Anahaita; Rahimzadeh, Hormat; Zamani, Nasim; Ghasemi-Toussi, Alireza; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2011-03-01

    Acute aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning is one of the most common causes of acute pesticide poisoning in Iran. Hydrogen phosphide or phosphine gas is produced following reaction of AlP with water even at ambient humidity. Methemoglobinemia is a rare finding following phosphine poisoning. In this paper, two cases of fatal AlP poisoning complicated by methemoglobinemia are reported. Two patients presented following suicidal ingestion of AlP tablets. In the Emergency Department (ED), they received gastric lavage with sodium bicarbonate and potassium permanganate. Both of them received supportive care. In each case, hematuria and hemolysis were significant events. The patients also showed a decrease in O(2) saturation in spite of high FIO(2). Methemoglobin levels of 40% and 30% were detected by co-oximetry. Neither patient responded to treatment (ascorbic acid in one case, methylene blue in the other). Both patients died due to systemic effects of phosphine poisoning. Hemolysis and methemoglobinemia may complicate the course of phosphine poisoning that seems resistant to methylene blue and ascorbic acid. Therefore, other treatments including hyperbaric oxygen therapy and exchange blood transfusion should be considered.

  7. Lipid emulsions in the treatment of acute poisoning: a systematic review of human and animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaty, Chloé; Bailey, Benoit; Larocque, Alexandre; Notebaert, Eric; Sanogo, Karine; Chauny, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    To assess the evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of intravenous fat emulsion (IFE) in the management of poisoned patients. We performed a systematic review of the literature with no time or language restriction. The electronic databases were searched from their inception until June 1, 2009 (Medline, EMBASE, ISI web of science, Biological abstract, LILACS, ChemIndex, Toxnet, and Proquest). We also examined the references of identified articles and the gray literature. The target interventions eligible for inclusion were administration of any IFE before, during, or after poisoning in human or animals. All types of studies were reviewed. Eligibility for inclusion and study quality scores, based on criteria by Jadad and the STROBE statement, were evaluated by independent investigators. The primary outcome was mortality. Secondary outcomes included neurologic, hemodynamic, and electrocardiographic variables, as well as adverse effects. Of the 938 publications identified by the search strategies, 74 met the inclusion criteria. We identified 23 animal trials, 50 human, and 1 animal case reports. Overall, the quality of evidence was weak and significant heterogeneity prevented data pooling. Available data suggest some benefits of IFE in bupivacaine, verapamil, chlorpromazine, and some tricyclic antidepressants and beta-blockers toxicity. No trial assessed the safety of IFE in the treatment of acute poisoning. The evidence for the efficacy of IFE in reducing mortality and improving hemodynamic, electrocardiographic, and neurological parameters in the poisoned patients is solely based on animal studies and human case reports. The safety of IFE has not been established.

  8. Acute collective gas poisoning at work in a manure storage tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żaba, Czesław; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Tężyk, Artur; Tobolski, Jarosław; Zaba, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    Cases of deaths in manure or septic tanks are rare in legal-medical practice, more frequently as unfortunate occupational accidents. Poisoning with toxic gases, especially with hydrogen sulfide, is reported as the cause of death, while the exhaustion of oxygen in the air is omitted with the simultaneous excess of carbon dioxide. In such cases, determination of the direct cause of death constitutes a big problem because post-mortem examination does not reveal the specific changes. A case of acute collective poisoning by gases in a manure storage tank is presented of 5 agricultural workers, 2 of whom died. While explaining the cause of poisoning and deaths, toxicological blood tests were performed in the victims of the accident, as well as gases inside the manure storage tank. The post-mortem examinations and toxicological blood tests performed did not allow determination of the direct cause of death. Toxicological tests of gases from inside the manure tank showed a very low concentration of oxygen, with a simultaneous very high concentration of carbon dioxide, and a considerable level of hydrogen sulfide. The cause of fainting of three and deaths of two workers was not the poisoning with hydrogen sulfide, but oxygen deficiency in the air of the tank.

  9. Acute methoxetamine and amphetamine poisoning with fatal outcome: A case report

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    Marek Wiergowski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Methoxetamine (MXE is a psychoactive substance distributed mostly via the Internet and is not liable to legal regulation in Poland. MXE has a toxicity profile similar to that of ketamine but longer-lasting effects. The paper describes a case of acute poisoning that resulted from recreational use of MXE and amphetamine and ended in death. In mid-July 2012, a 31-year old man was admitted to the clinical toxicology unit in Gdańsk because of poisoning with an unknown psychoactive substance. The patient was transported to the emergency department (ED at 5:15 a.m. in a very poor general condition, in a deep coma, with acute respiratory failure, hyperthermia (> 39°C and generalized seizures. Laboratory tests showed marked leukocytosis, signs of massive rhabdomyolysis, hepatic failure and beginning of acute renal failure. Despite intensive therapy, the patient died 4 weeks after the poisoning in the course of multi-organ dysfunction syndrome. Chemical and toxicological studies of serum and urine samples collected on the poisoning day at 1:40 p.m. confirmed that amphetamine and MXE had been taken earlier that day. Concentration of amphetamine in the serum (0.06 μg/ml was within the non-toxic range, while MXE (0.32 μg/ml was within the toxic range of concentrations. Amphetamine was also detected in the patient's hair, which suggested a possibility of its use within the last dozen weeks or so. The serious clinical course of intoxication and co-existence of amphetamine and MXE in the patient's blood and urine suggest the possibility of adverse interactions between them.

  10. Ammonium dichromate poisoning: A rare cause of acute kidney injury

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    H Radhakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium dichromate is an inorganic compound frequently used in screen and color printing. Being a strong oxidizing agent, it causes oxygen free radical injury resulting in organ failure. We report a 25-year-old female who presented with acute kidney injury after consumption of ammonium dichromate. She was managed successfully with hemodialysis and supportive measures. This case is reported to highlight the toxicity of ammonium dichromate.

  11. [Imaging diagnosis of 95 cases of moderate and severe acute carbon monoxide poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, N N; Tian, C; Lian, K X; Han, T; Jin, S

    2017-06-20

    Objective: To explore the difference of radiological imaging features of delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning (DECMP) and acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACMP) , and the correlation between the imaging findings and clinical prognosis of the disease. Methods: The correlation between imaging findings and clinical manifestations and prognosis of 95 patients with moderate and severe acute carbon monoxide poisoning were retrospectively analyzed. In the above 95 cases, there were 62 cases of ACMP and 33 cases of DEACMP. All patients underwent conventional CT, MRI and magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) . Circular regions of interest (ROI) measurement was used for analysis of average diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and fractional anisotropy (FA) value of the MRI and DTI imaging manifestations in different brain regions. Results: The main clinical manifestation of moderate acute carbon monoxide poisoning was consciousness disorder and fatigue; Severe poisoning patients showed deep coma as the main clinical manifestations; The most prominent clinical manifestations of DEACMP were mental disorders and neurological impairment in the extrapyramidal system. A total of 95 cases with moderate or severe CO poisoning showed unilateral or bilateral cerebral cortex, bilateral basal ganglia (white ball) , cerebral white matter around bilateral ventricles or bilateral centrum semiovale, around bilateral ventricles cerebral white matter around bilateral ventricles and bilateral centrum semiovale, cerebral cortex and subcortical involvement. CT showed normal or low density shadow.MRI showed that the lesion T(1)WI presented slightly low or equal signal, T(2)WI and FLAIR sequences showed equal, a slightly higher or high signal; DWI sequence showed slightly higher or high signal. ADC value and FA value in different brain white matter regions of DEACMP group was significantly lower than those of ACMP group (P<0.05) , especially for those around semi oval

  12. Risk assessment of lead poisoning and pesticide exposure in the declining population of red-breasted goose (Branta ruficollis) wintering in Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo, Rafael; Petkov, Nikolai; Lopez-Antia, Ana; Rodriguez-Estival, Jaime; Green, Andy J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The red-breasted goose Branta ruficollis is a globally threatened species (IUCN Vulnerable) and the only European goose species currently in decline. Working on the wintering grounds on the Black Sea Coast, we address two potential causes of decline of this species for the first time: lead poisoning, and contamination from pesticides. We quantified the densities of spent Pb shot in three wetlands used by the geese in north-east Bulgaria, and analysed the Pb concentration in the faec...

  13. Effects of acute organophosphate poisoning on pituitary target gland hormones at admission, discharge and three months after poisoning: A hospital based pilot study

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    Pinaki Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphate compound (OPC poisoning is common in the developing countries such as India. The acute and later effects of OPC poisoning on pituitary and target gland hormones is largely unknown. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted at Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research between January 2012 and March 2013. Fourteen patients (8 males, age 18-50 years with acute OPC poisoning were included in the study based on the history and clinical features, documented decreased in plasma cholinesterase activity or presence of the OPC in gastric lavage/blood samples. The hormonal parameters were done at baseline, at the time of discharge and at three months of follow-up. Results: A total of 14 patients out of 46 with the mean age of 30.1 ± 10.3 years were finally eligible for the study. Hormonal alterations at admission were similar to sick euhormonal syndrome. Overall 7 of them had nine hormonal deficits at three months of follow up, 4 having sub normal basal cortisol level and two each had low testosterone and growth hormone and only one had thyroxine deficiency. Conclusion: Acute organophosphate poisoning results in endocrine dysfunction akin to sick euhormonal syndrome. However, in a small subset of patients, varying level of hormonal insufficiency may occur either at admission or later. These observations need re-validation in a larger group of patients with specific OPC.

  14. Acute mercury poisoning among children in two provinces of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Kursat Bora; Tutkun, Engin; Yilmaz, Hinc; Dilber, Cengiz; Dalkiran, Tahir; Cakir, Baris; Arslantas, Didem; Cesaretli, Yildirim; Aykanat, Selin Aktaş

    2013-06-01

    Elemental mercury exposure occurs frequently and is potentially a toxic, particularly in children. Children are often attracted to elemental mercury because of its color, density, and tendency to form beads. Clinical manifestations of elemental mercury intoxication vary depending on its form, concentration, route of ingestion, and the duration of exposure. We present data on 179 pediatric cases of elemental mercury poisoning from exposure to mercury in schools in two different provinces of Turkey. Of all patients, 160 children had both touched/played with the mercury and inhaled its vapors, while 26 children had only inhaled the mercury vapor, two children reported having tasted the mercury. The median duration of exposure was 5 min (min 1-max 100), and 11 (6 %) children were exposed to the mercury for more than 24 h at home. More than half of the children (51.9 %) were asymptomatic at admission. Headache was the most common presenting complaint. The results of physical and neurological examinations were normal in 80 (44.6 %) children. Mid-dilated/dilated pupils were the most common neurological abnormality, and this sign was present in 90 (50.2 %) children. Mercury levels were measured in 24-h urine samples daily, and it was shown that the median urinary level of mercury was 29.80 μg/L (min, 2.40 μg/L; max, 4,687 μg/L). A positive correlation was also found between the duration of exposure and urinary mercury levels (r = 0.23, p = 0.001). All patients were followed up for 6 months. On the first follow-up visit performed 1 month after discharge, the neurological examinations of all patients were normal except for those patients with peripheral neuropathy and visual field defects. On the last follow-up visit at the sixth month, only two children still experienced visual field defects. In conclusion, this study is one of the largest case series of mercury intoxication of students in schools. Elemental mercury exposure can be potentially toxic, and its

  15. Duration of an induced resistance of sheep to acute poisoning by Crotalaria retusa seeds

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    Lisanka Angelo Maia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the duration of the resistance after the end of the ingestion of non-toxic doses of Crotalaria retusa seeds. Ten sheep were divided into 3 groups of 3 animals each and a control group with 1 sheep. To induce resistance, sheep in groups 1, 2 and 3 received 20 daily doses of 2g kg-1 of C. retusa seeds, followed by 7 daily doses of 4g kg-1. To determine the duration of resistance the sheep in groups 1, 2 and 3 were challenged orally, 3, 7 and 15 days, respectively, after receiving the last dose of 4g kg-1, with a single dose of 5g kg-1. Sheep of groups 1 and 2 did not develop overt signs of poisoning. Two sheep of group 3, challenged 15 days after the end of the resistance induction period, showed signs of acute poisoning and died. These results suggest that the induced resistance of sheep to acute poisoning by C. retusa seeds is of short duration, from 7 to 15 days.

  16. [Clinical symptoms and circumastances of acute poisonings with fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and panther cap (Amanita pantherina)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik-Głebocka, Magdalena; Druzdz, Artur; Naskret, Maciej

    2011-01-01

    Mushroom poisonings in Poland are quite common, especially in summer and autumn, but fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and panther cap (Amanita pantherina) are rather rare cause of these intoxications. Fly agaric is a cause of deliberate poisoning, whereas panther cap poisoning also happens accidentally. The main toxins of these two mushrooms are ibotenic acid (pantherine, agarine), muscimol, muscazone and muscaridine. The other bioactive substances are stizolobic and stizolobinic acids and aminodicarboxyethylthiopropanoic acids. All these compounds are responsible for diverse picture of intoxication. An analysis of patients with Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina poisoning hospitalized in the Poznan Departament of Toxicology revealed that symptoms occurred after 30 minutes to 2 hours with vomiting, hallucinations, restlessness, increased psychomotor drive and central nervous system depression. Other antycholinergic symptoms like tachycardia and increased blood pressure, mydriasis, dry and red skin were seen only in a few cases. Acute respiratory failure was the most dangerous symptom observed in the course of poisoning.

  17. Prognostic value of long QT interval in acute and severe organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadnia, Shahin; Okazi, Arash; Akhlaghi, Navid; Sasanian, Ghazal; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2009-12-01

    Suicidal poisoning with organophosphorus (OP) pesticides is common, particularly from rural areas. This highlights the importance of determining an OP poisoning prognosis to decide how aggressive treatment should be. There are reports suggesting a relationship between prolonged corrected QT (QTC) interval and the severity of poisoning. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic utility of this clinical tool in OP poisoning (OPP) patients. Patients with the primary diagnosis of OPP who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of Loghman-Hakim Hospital Poison Centre (LHHPC) were the subjects of this prospective study. Cholinesterase (CE) activity and the QTC interval was determined for each patient using the Bazett formula and considering <440 msec as normal. Comparative outcomes of the study were duration of both hospitalization and mechanical ventilation, serum CE activity on admission and its daily level, total amount of atropine administered, analysis of the QT and QTC intervals in the primary ECG on admission and at the end of hospitalization, and rate of mortality. The study included 42 patients with a diagnosis of OPP. The mean age of the patients was 32, ranged from 12 to 81 years old. The mortality rate was 37.5%. There was no significant difference between two groups (prolonged and normal QTC intervals) according to gender and age (p=.491 and p=.133, respectively). The CE level for long and normal QTC interval groups was 3.90+/-0.33 kU/L vs. 4.41+/-0.23 kU/L, respectively. The mortality rate in the long QTC group was significantly higher than that of the normal QTC group (p=.044). Moreover, the average period of hospitalization in patients with prolonged QTC interval was higher than the other group (p=.02). The average atropine required to control the muscarinic signs and symptoms such as salivation, bronchorrehea, and miosis in patients with prolonged QTC interval was 38.60 mg; in patients with normal QTC interval it was 20.02 mg (p=.013). QTC interval

  18. Pesticides

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    ... dies. Top of Page How can pesticides be dangerous to humans? While some pesticides target pathways unique ... Oral Numbing Gels Methamphetamine_FAQ Mushrooms Plants Scorpions Snakes Spiders 2013 Forensic Course Faculty Hilton Baltimore Reservations ...

  19. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... While some pesticides target pathways unique to insects, plants, bacteria, or fungi, other pesticides have a broad spectrum of activity. This means that they can have toxic effects in humans as well as in the ...

  20. Acute lead poisoning in western Canadian cattle — A 16-year retrospective study of diagnostic case records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Vanessa; Blakley, Barry

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of acute lead poisoning in western Canadian cattle over the 16-year period of 1998 to 2013 and reports background bovine tissue lead concentrations. Case records from Prairie Diagnostic Services, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, identified 525 cases of acute lead toxicity over the investigational period. Poisonings were influenced by year (P poisoned (53.5%; P poisoned. Mean toxic lead concentrations (mg/kg wet weight) in the blood, liver, and kidney were 1.30 ± 1.70 (n = 301), 33.5 ± 80.5 (n = 172), and 56.3 ± 39.7 (n = 61). Mean normal lead concentrations in the blood, liver, and kidney were 0.036 ± 0.003 mg/kg (n= 1081), 0.16 ± 0.63 mg/kg (n = 382), and 0.41 ± 0.62 mg/kg (n = 64). PMID:27041761

  1. Toxicoepidemiology of acute poisoning cases in a secondary care hospital in rural South India: A five-year analysis

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    T H Indu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To ascertain the trend of poisoning cases admitted to the Government District Headquarters Hospital, a secondary care center in Udhagamandalam, Nilgiris District, Tamil Nadu, India, over a five-year period. Materials and Methods: The number of cases that presented to the hospital annually (incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates, socio-demographic pattern, and the nature of the poison were noted. Results: A total of 1860 poisoning cases (80 deaths were reported during the period from October 2008 to September 2013. The incidence of poisoning was found to increase every year. The average incidence was 1.60 per 1000 population, while the average case fatality rate and mortality rates were 40.51 and 0.07, respectively. A total of 1148 (62% were males. The majority of cases were seen in the 21-30 age group (41.24%. The poisonings were largely deliberate self-harm (n = 1,755; 94.35%, followed by accidental (n = 85; 4.57%. Agrochemicals were the main choice of poisoning agents and among these, organophosphates were the major cause. Conclusion: The data generated can help policy makers take decisions on the sale and availability of pesticides in this region.

  2. Risk Factors for Acute Unintentional Poisoning among Children Aged 1–5 Years in the Rural Community of Sri Lanka

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    M. B. Kavinda Chandimal Dayasiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute poisoning in children is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. However, there is a wide variation in patterns of poisoning and related risk factors across different geographic regions globally. This hospital based case-control study identifies the risk factors of acute unintentional poisoning among children aged 1−5 years of the rural community in a developing Asian country. Methods. This hospital based case-control study included 600 children. Each group comprised three hundred children and all children were recruited at Anuradhapura Teaching Hospital, Sri Lanka, over two years (from February 2012 to January 2014. The two groups were compared to identify the effect of 23 proposed risk factors for unintentional poisoning using multivariate analysis in a binary logistic regression model. Results. Multivariate analysis identified eight risk factors which were significantly associated with unintentional poisoning. The strongest risk factors were inadequate supervision (95% CI: 15.4–52.6, employed mother (95% CI: 2.9–17.5, parental concern of lack of family support (95% CI: 3.65–83.3, and unsafe storage of household poisons (95% CI: 1.5–4.9. Conclusions. Since inadequate supervision, unsafe storage, and unsafe environment are the strongest risk factors for childhood unintentional poisoning, the effect of community education to enhance vigilance, safe storage, and assurance of safe environment should be evaluated.

  3. PRN 2001-2: Acute Toxicity Data Requirements For Granular Pesticide Products, Including Those With Granular Fertilizers in the Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This PR Notice announces guidance intended to streamline the acute toxicity review and classification process for certain granular pesticide products, including those products that contain granular fertilizers.

  4. Acute Compartment Syndrome Which Causes Rhabdomyolysis by Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Sciatic Nerve Injury Associated with It: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Jung-woo

    2017-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is most frequently caused by soft tissue injury with trauma to the extremities. Non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis may be caused by alcohol or drug abuse, infection, collagen disease, or intensive exercise, but incidence is low. In particular, rhabdomyolysis resulting from carbon monoxide poisoning is especially rare. If caught before death, carbon monoxide poisoning has been shown to cause severe muscle necrosis and severe muscle damage leading to acute renal failure. In cases of ca...

  5. [A case of favourable outcome of severe acute intoxication with an animal poison after a bite by the monocled cobra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livanov, G A; Batotsyrenkov, B V; Lodiagin, A N; Andrianov, A Iu; Kuznetsov, O A; Loladze, A T; Baranov, D V

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a case of severe acute intoxication with an animal poison after a bite by the monocled cobra. Combined treatment including artificial lung ventilation, infusion-detoxication and desensitizing (hormonal) therapy, hemosorption, correction of metabolic disorders with cytoflavin, antibacterial therapy had positive effect on the patient's condition and ensured the favourable outcome ofpotentially lethal poisoning without the use ofa specific anti-snake venom serum.

  6. [Acute lead poisoning: a singular case of hemolytic anemia and lead colic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, M; Goldoni, M; Sabbadini, F; Mutti, A

    2011-01-01

    Acute lead poisoning due to food intake is exceptional in adults and often associated with mental illness to describe a case report of acute lead intoxication with haemolytic anemia and lead colic. A 41-year old male patient was admitted to hospital for abdominal pain and persistent constipation. Abdominal X-ray showed a radiopaque mass in the caecum and progressive anaemia was observed The patient was discharged with a diagnosis of bowel obstruction. Due to persistence of the symptoms he was again hospitalized; abdominal X-ray showed diffuse radiopaque particles in the colon and haemoglobin (hb) had dropped to 8.7 g/dl. Blood levels of lead and zinc protoporphryin were 106.7 microg/dl and 6.6 microg/gHb, respectively. The timely start of chelating therapy led to a rapid return to normal peripheral blood counts and a decline in blood lead levels. Although acute lead poisoning due to intake with food is exceptional in adults and often associated with mental illness, in this case, it was not possible to clarify the route and vehicle of ingestion of the toxic. Lead body burden was shown as a caecal mass, probably as a result of ingesting a single bolus of lead dust which, considering the size and density of the mass, was estimated as weighing several grammes. This acute lead intake induced an acute haemolysis due to enhanced fragility of the erythrocyte membrane. In the course of acute lead intoxication, the critical organ is not the bone marrow, but rather the red blood cell, leading to haemolysis and anaemia.

  7. On the mechanisms underlying poisoning-induced rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaie, Haleh; Emam-Hadi, Mohammad; Panahandeh, Reyhaneh; Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hosein; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT The clinical syndrome of rhabdomyolysis is caused by injury of skeletal muscles resulting in release of intracellular muscle constituents. Drug poisoning is one of the causes of severe rhabdomyolysis. Severe electrolyte disorders and acute renal failure may occur in rhabdomyolysis, leading to life-threatening situations. Early initiation of renal replacement therapy can help improve outcome. In the present retrospective study, medical records of 181 patients suspected of rhabdomyolysis from Loghman-Hakim Hospital in the period of 2004 to 2005 were reviewed. A creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) value of greater than five times normal (>/=975 IU/L) was the basis for confirmation of a rhabdomyolysis diagnosis. An increased serum creatinine level of more than 30% was the basis for acute renal failure diagnosis. Out of 156 patients, 100 were male with an age range of 13 to 78 years. One hundred and two (92%) patients had CPK >975 U/L, and 36 patients (28.6%) had a 30% or more increase in their creatinine level during their admission days. Mean fluid intake was the same in patients with renal failure and those without renal failure. In 8.3% of the cases, multiple drug poisoning was observed. The most common compound overdose associated with rhabdomyolysis was opium. It is concluded that fluid therapy alone is not adequate in the management of acute renal failure in rhabdomyolysis. Therefore, other etiological factors are involved that remain to be elucidated by further studies.

  8. Potentialities of Program Analysis of Probable Outcome in Patients with Acute Poisoning by Mushrooms

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    V. I. Cherniy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors have developed a method for predicting a probable outcome in patients with acute poisoning by mushrooms, by examining the data of routine laboratory studies and dynamic interphase tensiometry and rheometry of sera from patients. Sixty-eight patients with acute mushroom intoxication were followed up. According to the outcome of the disease, they were divided into two groups: A survivors and B (deceased. In the sera of the deceased, the time of T monolayer relaxation and the angle of L1 tensiogram slope were 2.5 greater and PN3-PN4 and L2/L1 were 6 and 3.7 times less, respectively, than those in the survivors. Based on these data, by using the discriminant analysis, the authors have derived a classification rule that permits prediction of the outcome of the disease with a high degree of probability, by examining the results of dynamic interphase tensiometry and the data of routine laboratory studies of blood samples from patients with acute poisoning by mushrooms. The derived rule is of high significance (p<0.05.

  9. Quantitative Romberg's test in acute carbon monoxide poisoning treated by hyperbaric oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Daniel; Jansen, Erik Christian; Hyldegaard, Ole

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether monitoring of acute carbon monoxide-poisoned (COP) patients by means of quantitative Romberg's test (QR-test) during a hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy regimen could be a useful supplement in the evaluation of neurological status. METHODS: We...... LMM, sway prior to HBO₂ therapy was set as the fixed effect and change in sway after HBO₂ therapy was set as the response variable. Patient, treatment number, weight and age were set as random effects for all LMMs. RESULTS: From the LMMs we found that larger values of sway prior to HBO₂ produced...

  10. Effects of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning on ECG and Echocardiographic Parameters in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurt, Abdullah; Karpuz, Derya; Yucel, Aydin; Tosun, Mehtap Durukan; Kibar, Ayse Esin; Hallioglu, Olgu

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the current study is to investigate the effects of CO (carbon monoxide) on the cardiovascular system via electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and biochemical findings in children. This prospective study included 22 children with CO poisoning and 24 healthy children as a control group. The CO-intoxicated children were evaluated via electrocardiography and echocardiography 1 h after admission to the emergency department and daily until their discharge from the hospital. Blood gasses, complete blood account, troponin I and creatinine kinase-MB(CK-MB) were assessed daily. Tpeak-end (p:0.001), QTc durations (p:0.02), Tpeak-end dispersion (p:0.001) and Tpeak-end/QT ratio (p:0.001) of CO-intoxicated patients were significantly higher than those in the control group. Mitral E duration (p:0.001), mitral E/A ratio (p:0.001) and left ventricle contractile fraction (p:0.023) at admission were significantly lower, and left ventricle myocardial performance index was higher (p:0.001) in the CO poisoning group. Troponin I and CK-MB levels were higher at admission in 6 (27 %) and 4 (18 %) patients, respectively. The heart is the most critical organ in pediatric CO poisoning. These children present subclinical systolic and diastolic left ventricle dysfunction even in mild cases. Although, in children with acute CO-intoxication ventricular repolarization is impaired, it seems to be reversible like other findings.

  11. Acute mercury poisoning presenting as fever of unknown origin in an adult woman: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mercury intoxication may present in a wide range of clinical forms from a simple disease to fatal poisoning. This article presents a case of acute mercury poisoning, a rare condition that presents challenges for diagnosis with fever of unknown origin. Case presentation A 52-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to the hospital with high fever, sore throat, a rash over her entire body, itching, nausea, and extensive muscle pain. She had cervical, bilateral axillary and mediastinal lymphadenopathies. We learned that her son and husband had similar symptoms. After excluding infectious pathologies, autoimmune diseases and malignancy were investigated. Multiple organs of our patient were involved and her fever persisted at the fourth week of admission. A repeat medical history elicited that her son had brought mercury home from school and put it on the hot stove, and the family had been exposed to the fumes for a long period of time. Our patient’s serum and urine mercury levels were high. She was diagnosed with mercury poisoning and treated accordingly. Conclusions Mercury vapor is a colourless and odorless substance. Therefore, patients with various unexplained symptoms and clinical conditions should be questioned about possible exposure to mercury. PMID:25084829

  12. Acute Poisoning with Dapsone and Olanzapine: Severe Methemoglobinemia and Coma with a Favourable Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Yanko T; Zagorov, Marin Y; Grudeva-Popova, Janet G

    2015-01-01

    Dapsone is a drug commonly used in the treatment of leprosy. In Europe it is rarely prescribed, mostly for the treatment of skin diseases such as dermatitis herpetiformis. Poisoning with dapsone is rare and reports of such cases are of interest for toxicological practice. We describe the only acute dapsone poisoning in a caseload series of 21,000 intoxications treated in the Clinical Toxicology Clinic at St George University Hospital in Plovdiv, Bulgaria between 1999 and 2013. We report on a 36-year-old woman who attempted deliberate self-poisoning with an ingestion of approximately 4.5 g of dapsone and 0.3 g of olanzapine. On admission, the patient was in a state of severe intoxication and comatose. On admission to hospital 9 hours after the ingestion, the methemoglobin level was 51.7%. The patient recovered 8 days later. She received complex treatment including intubation, ventilation, repeated gastric lavage, hemodialysis, blood exchange transfusion and antidote treatment with methylene blue. She was discharged in good clinical condition with minimal organ damage such as mild toxic hepatitis.

  13. Acute Compartment Syndrome Which Causes Rhabdomyolysis by Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Sciatic Nerve Injury Associated with It: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jung-Woo

    2017-09-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is most frequently caused by soft tissue injury with trauma to the extremities. Non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis may be caused by alcohol or drug abuse, infection, collagen disease, or intensive exercise, but incidence is low. In particular, rhabdomyolysis resulting from carbon monoxide poisoning is especially rare. If caught before death, carbon monoxide poisoning has been shown to cause severe muscle necrosis and severe muscle damage leading to acute renal failure. In cases of carbon-monoxide-induced rhabdomyolsis leading to acute compartment syndrome in the buttocks and sciatic nerve injury are rare. We have experience treating patients with acute compartment syndrome due to rhabdomyolysis following carbon monoxide poisoning. We report the characteristic features of muscle necrosis observed during a decompression operation and magnetic resonance imaging findings with a one-year follow-up in addition to a review of the literature.

  14. Brain temperature measured by {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in acute and subacute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Shunrou; Nishimoto, Hideaki; Murakami, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Akira; Ogasawara, Kuniaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka, Iwate (Japan); Yoshioka, Yoshichika [Osaka University, Laboratory of Biofunctional Imaging, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka (Japan); Matsuda, Tsuyoshi [MR Applications and Workflow Asia Pacific, GE Healthcare Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Beppu, Takaaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka, Iwate (Japan); Iwate Medical University, Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, Iwate (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    Brain temperature (BT) is associated with the balance between cerebral blood flow and metabolism according to the ''heat-removal'' theory. The present study investigated whether BT is abnormally altered in acute and subacute CO-poisoned patients by using {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Eight adult CO-poisoned patients underwent 3-T magnetic resonance imaging in the acute and subacute phases after CO exposure. MRS was performed on deep cerebral white matter in the centrum semiovale, and MRS-based BT was estimated by the chemical shift difference between water and the N-acetyl aspartate signal. We defined the mean BT + 1.96 standard deviations of the BT in 15 healthy controls as the cutoff value for abnormal BT increases (p < 0.05) in CO-poisoned patients. BT of CO-poisoned patients in both the acute and subacute phases was significantly higher than that of the healthy control group. However, BT in the subacute phase was significantly lower than in the acute phase. On the other hand, no significant difference in body temperature was observed between acute and subacute CO-poisoned patients. BT weakly correlated with body temperature, but this correlation was not statistically significant (rho = 0.304, p = 0.2909). The present results suggest that BT in CO-poisoned patients is abnormally high in the acute phase and remains abnormal in the subacute phase. BT alteration in these patients may be associated with brain perfusion and metabolism rather than other factors such as systemic inflammation and body temperature. (orig.)

  15. [A prospective study on acute poisonings presenting to the Emergency Department at Landspitali University Hospital in Iceland 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsdottir, Gudborg Audur; Thordardottir, Anna Maria; Kristinsson, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the incidence and type of toxic exposures presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) at Landspitali University Hospital in Iceland over one year and compare the results to another study performed eleven years before. The study was prospective and included all visits due to acute poisoning to the ED between January 1, and December 31, 2012. A total of 977 toxic exposures were documented. Females were 554 (57%) and males 423 (43%). The age range was from 2 months to 96 years old. More than half of the patients were under 30 years old. The majority of exposures occurred in private homes and ingestion was the most common route of exposure. Deliberate poisonings accounted for 66% of all the poisonings and 76% had drugs and/or alcohol as their main cause. Exposures to chemicals other than drugs were usually unintentional and 31% of them were occupational exposures. 80% of patients received treatment and were discharged from the ED, 20% were admitted to other departments, thereof 21% to ICU. Two patients died (0.2%). A slight but statistically unsignificant increase in incidence was observed. Females outnumbered males. Self-poisonings by ingestion of drugs and/or alcohol accounted for the majority of cases. The age range was wide, but the incidence was higher with young people. Mortality was low. Key words: toxicology, acute poisoning, epidemiology, self-poisoning. Correspondence: Gudborg Audur Gudjonsdottir, gudborgg@gmail.com.

  16. Toxicological Investigation of Acute Cyanide Poisoning of a 29-year-old Man: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Anazodo Nnoli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cyanide poisoning is frequently lethal, Because of the early onset of severe symptoms and difficulty in the diagnosis. Case: The case was a 29-year-old boy who collapsed suddenly after taking a bottle of beer in a bar. Samples, such as peripheral blood, stomach contents, bile fluid, urine and mouth swabs, were prepared using standard autopsy procedure and were subjected to analysis for cyanide using visible spectrophotometric method. The cyanide contents in samples, included stomach content (260 ppm, bile fluid (272 ppm, blood (256 ppm, and mouth swab (265 ppm. Conclusion: The cause of death was acute myocardial infarction following acute poisoning from ingestion of cyanide salts. Its lethality was related to the rapid onset of toxicity, non-specific nature of the symptoms, and failure to consider the diagnosis. Regarding the absence of pathognomonic symptoms for its toxicity, delay in acquiring a full history and unexplained sudden collapse or acidosis which worsen the prognosis, cyanide intoxication needs to be expeditiously diagnosed and managed.

  17. Role of biomarkers of nephrotoxic acute kidney injury in deliberate poisoning and envenomation in less developed countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Fahim; Endre, Zoltan H; Buckley, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) has diverse causes and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. In less developed countries (LDC), nephrotoxic AKI (ToxAKI) is common and mainly due to deliberate ingestion of nephrotoxic pesticides, toxic plants or to snake envenomation. ToxAKI shares some pathophysiological pathways with the much more intensively studied ischaemic AKI, but in contrast to ischaemic AKI, most victims are young, previously healthy adults. Diagnosis of AKI is currently based on a rise in serum creatinine. However this may delay diagnosis because of the kinetics of creatinine. Baseline creatinine values are also rarely available in LDC. Novel renal injury biomarkers offer a way forward because they usually increase more rapidly in AKI and are normally regarded as absent or very low in concentration, thereby reducing the need for a baseline estimate. This should increase sensitivity and speed of diagnosis. Specificity should also be increased for urine biomarkers since many originate from the renal tubular epithelium. Earlier diagnosis of ToxAKI should allow earlier initiation of appropriate therapy. However, translation of novel biomarkers of ToxAKI into clinical practice requires better understanding of non-renal factors in poisoning that alter biomarkers and the influence of dose of nephrotoxin on biomarker performance. Further issues are establishing LDC population-based normal ranges and assessing sampling and analytical parameters for low resource settings. The potential role of renal biomarkers in exploring ToxAKI aetiologies for chronic kidney disease of unknown origin (CKDu) is a high research priority in LDC. Therefore, developing more sensitive biomarkers for early diagnosis of nephrotoxicity is a critical step to making progress against AKI and CKDu in the developing world. PMID:26099916

  18. A case report of zinc phosphide poisoning: complicated by acute renal failure and tubulo interstitial nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogendranathan, Nilukshana; Herath, H M M T B; Sivasundaram, Thenuka; Constantine, R; Kulatunga, Aruna

    2017-05-25

    Run Rat® is a rodenticide widely used against small mammals. It comprises of a minimum of 32% zinc phosphide which is highly toxic in acute exposures to humans. It may be consumed accidentally or intentionally. It enters the body via skin, respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Zinc phosphide is hydrolyzed by the gastric acid and is transformed into phosphine gas. Phosphine is a respiratory toxin that inhibits cytochrome C oxidase system resulting in renal failure and liver failure. A 35 year old Sri Lankan female presented following ingestion of 2.5 g of Run Rat®, which is a branded preparation of zinc phosphide, resulting in 61 mg/kg poison load. She developed severe acute kidney injury with acute tubular necrosis, subnephrotic ranged proteinuria and tubulointerstitial nephritis for which she underwent haemodialysis three times along with other measures of resuscitation. She also developed elevated liver enzymes with hyperblirubinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, acute pancreatitis and mild myocarditis. She improved with supportive therapy over a period of 3 weeks. Run Rat® is a commonly used rodenticide and the toxic effects are mediated through conversion of phosphide to phosphine gas. The majority of the deaths had occurred in the first 12 to 24 h and the main causes identified are refractory hypotension and arrhythmias. The late deaths (beyond 24 h) had been commonly due to adult respiratory distress syndrome, liver and renal failure. The outcome is poorer with delayed presentation, development of coagulopathy, hyperglycaemia and multiorgan failure with elevated liver enzymes. In our patient, Zinc phosphide poisoning caused severe acute kidney injury, abnormal liver profile, pancreatitis and possible myocarditis. The patient improved with repeated haemodialysis. The renal biopsy revealed acute tubulointerstitial nephritis with acute tubular necrosis. In tropical countries, the rural population engaged in agriculture has easier access to the compound, as it

  19. A task-based assessment of parental occupational exposure to pesticides and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunier, Robert B; Kang, Alice; Hammond, S Katharine; Reinier, Kyndaron; Lea, C Suzanne; Chang, Jeffrey S; Does, Monique; Scelo, Ghislaine; Kirsch, Janice; Crouse, Vonda; Cooper, Robert; Quinlan, Patricia; Metayer, Catherine

    2017-07-01

    Associations between parental occupational pesticide exposure and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) vary across studies, likely due to different exposure assessment methodologies. We assessed parental occupational pesticide exposure from the year before pregnancy to the child's third year of life for 669 children diagnosed with ALL and 1021 controls. We conducted expert rating using task-based job modules (JM) to estimate exposure to pesticides among farmer workers, gardeners, agricultural packers, and pesticide applicators. We compared this method to (1) partial JM using job titles and a brief description, but without completing the task-based questionnaire, and (2) job exposure matrix (JEM) linking job titles to the International Standard Classifications of Occupation Codes. We used unconditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for ALL cancer risk and pesticide exposure adjusting for child's sex, age, race/ethnicity and household income. Compared to complete JMs, partial JMs and JEM led to 3.1% and 9.4% of parents with pesticide exposure misclassified, respectively. Misclassification was similar in cases and controls. Using complete JMs, we observed an increased risk of ALL for paternal occupational exposure to any pesticides (OR=1.7; 95% CI=1.2, 2.5), with higher risks reported for pesticides to treat nut crops (OR=4.5; 95% CI=0.9, 23.0), and for children diagnosed before five years of age (OR=2.3; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.1). Exposure misclassification from JEM attenuated these associations by about 57%. Maternal occupational pesticide exposure before and after birth was not associated with ALL. The risk of ALL was elevated in young children with paternal occupational pesticide exposure during the perinatal period, using more detailed occupational information for exposure classification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of acceptability and use of lockable storage devices for pesticides in Sri Lanka that might assist in prevention of self-poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawton, Keith; Ratnayeke, Lakshmi; Simkin, Sue; Harriss, Louise; Scott, Vanda

    2009-02-24

    Self-poisoning with pesticides is a major reason for high suicide rates in rural areas of many developing countries. Safer storage of pesticides may be one means of prevention. We have conducted a study to assess the acceptability and use of lockable boxes for storing pesticides in rural Sri Lanka. Four hundred lockable metal storage boxes were given to farming households, 100 in each of four villages. Assessment interviews were conducted by Sumithrayo (NGO) field workers immediately after boxes were supplied (T1), 11 - 14 weeks later (T2), 30 weeks later (T3), and 18 months later (T4). Data on suicide and self-harm were collected from local police and hospitals. At T1 only 1.8% (7/396) of households reported locking up pesticides, 72.5% (279/385) easy access to pesticides for adults and 50.4% (195/387) easy access for children. At T3 most informants in households using pesticides reported using the box all (82.3%, 298/362) or most of the time (7.2%, 26/362). Informants usually reported always locking the box (92.8%, 336/362) and most boxes were locked on inspection (93.6%, 339/362). By T4 there was some reduction in reporting that the box was kept locked all of the time (75.2%, 267/355) and the box being locked on inspection (73.8%, 262/355). Easy child access to the key was reported in relatively few households (10.7% at T4), although interviewers judged that this was possible in rather more (20.6%). Most informants regarded the box as useful (100% at T3 and 99.4% at T4), with convenience for storage, security, avoiding wastage, and protection of children being major factors. A message on the box about how to deal with bad feelings and the importance of safer storage was well received. The locks had been broken or the key lost in a few households. Introduction of lockable boxes for storing pesticides to farming households in Sri Lanka appeared to be acceptable. Most households used the boxes responsibly, although there was some decline in the proper usage over

  1. Amanita poisonings resulting in acute, reversible renal failure: new cases, new toxic Amanita mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchmair, Martin; Carrilho, Patrícia; Pfab, Rudi; Haberl, Bettina; Felgueiras, Joana; Carvalho, Fernanda; Cardoso, José; Melo, Ireneia; Vinhas, José; Neuhauser, Sigrid

    2012-04-01

    Renal failure as a consequence of eating mushrooms has been reported repeatedly after ingestion of webcaps of the Cortinarius orellanus group. But mushrooms of the genus Amanita can also cause renal failure: Amanita smithiana (North America) and Amanita proxima (Mediterranean area). Here, we discuss poisonings caused by other white amanitas. A German and--independently--two Portuguese patients reported the ingestion of completely white mushrooms with ring. Similar to intoxications with A. smithiana or A. proxima, the clinical picture was characterized by nausea and vomiting 10-12 h after ingestion, severe acute renal failure and mild hepatitis. Renal biopsy showed acute interstitial nephritis and tubular necrosis. Two patients were given temporary haemodialysis. All have fully recovered their renal function. Poisonings caused by mushrooms containing the toxin of A. smithiana were suspected. We tested 20 Amanita species for the presence of this toxin. Thin layer chromatography was applied to detect A. smithiana nephrotoxin in herbarium specimens using authentic material of A. smithiana as reference. A. smithiana toxin could be detected in Amanita boudieri, Amanita gracilior and in Amanita echinocephala. A. boudieri was collected by the Portuguese patients. A. echinocephala is the only nephrotoxic Amanita growing North of the Alps and is suspected to be the cause of renal failure in the German patient. No A. smithiana toxin was detectable in the nephrotoxic A. proxima. A. boudieri, A. gracilior and A. echinocephala are nephrotoxic. These intoxications are clinically similar to that of A. smithiana, with acute reversible renal failure and mild hepatitis but are different in their clinical picture from Orellanus syndrome characterized by a delayed onset of severe and often irreversible renal failure.

  2. [Biological and toxic effects of ethanol: diagnostics and treatment of acute poisonings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołaciński, Zbigniew; Rusiński, Piotr

    2003-01-01

    Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is readily absorbed from all parts of the gastrointestinal tract due to its hydrophilic potential. The biological effects in humans refer to practically every organ and system. The basic enzyme involved in its oxidation is alcohol dehydrogenase. Another important metabolic pathway is the Microsomal Ethanol-Oxidizing System (MEOS). Toxic effect on basic cell functions is produced both by ethanol and acetic aldehyde, its oxidation product which accounts for most of the acute and delayed effects of ethanol toxicity. In acute ethanol intoxication's the CNS symptoms are the first to manifest. Ethanol affects the CNS functions mainly through stimulating opiate and benzodiazepine receptors and a number of neurotransmitters. However, the attempts to diminish the toxic effects of ethanol on CNS by blocking the affected receptors have proved to be ineffective. In acute poisoning a basic essential is to sustain vital functions by following the principles of intensive care. Each case of acute ethanol intoxication must be subject to neurological examination for possible cerebro-cranial traumas. The diagnostics and treatment procedures should take account of the possible symptoms: convulsions, respiratory and cardiac failure, hypoglycemia, hypothermia, and severe gastric dysfunction. Vital signs monitoring and control of acid-base and water-electrolyte balance are a must. The toxic properties of ethanol metabolites can be particularly hazardous to patients treated with disulfiram. The patients who develop "antabuse response" should be given immediately iron and vitamin C intravenously.

  3. Leukotriene-mediated neuroinflammation, toxic brain damage, and neurodegeneration in acute methanol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Sergey; Kotikova, Katerina; Nurieva, Olga; Hlusicka, Jiri; Kacer, Petr; Urban, Pavel; Vaneckova, Manuela; Seidl, Zdenek; Diblik, Pavel; Kuthan, Pavel; Navratil, Tomas; Pelclova, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    The role of neuroinflammation in methanol-induced toxic brain damage has not been studied. We studied acute concentrations and the dynamics of leukotrienes (LT) in serum in hospitalized patients with acute methanol poisoning and in survivors. Series of acute cysteinyl-LT and LTB4 concentration measurements were performed in 28/101 hospitalized patients (mean observation time: 88 ± 20 h). In 36 survivors, control LT measurements were performed 2 years after discharge. The acute maximum (Cmax) LT concentrations were higher than concentrations in survivors: Cmax for LTC4 was 80.7 ± 5.6 versus 47.9 ± 4.5 pg/mL; for LTD4, 51.0 ± 6.6 versus 23.1 ± 2.1 pg/mL; for LTE4, 64.2 ± 6.0 versus 26.2 ± 3.9 pg/mL; for LTB4, 59.8 ± 6.2 versus 27.2 ± 1.4 pg/mL (all p  0.05). The mean decrease in LT concentration was 30.9 ± 9.0 pg/mL for LTC4, 26.3 ± 8.6 pg/mL for LTD4, 37.3 ± 6.4 pg/mL for LTE4, and 32.0 ± 8.8 pg/mL for LTB4. Our findings suggest that leukotriene-mediated neuroinflammation may play an important role in the mechanisms of toxic brain damage in acute methanol poisoning in humans. Acute elevation of LT concentrations was moderate, transitory, and was not followed by chronic neuroinflammation in survivors.

  4. Oxime and atropine failure to prevent intermediate syndrome development in acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Slavica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intermediate syndrome (IMS was described a few decades ago, however, there is still a controversy regarding its exact etiology, risk factors, diagnostic parameters and required therapy. Considering that acute poisonings are treated in different types of medical institutions this serious complication of organophosphate insecticide (OPI poisoning is frequently overlooked. The aim of this paper was to present a case of IMS in organophosphate poisoning, which, we believe, provides additional data on the use of oxime or atropine. Case report. After a well-resolved cholinergic crisis, the patient developed clinical presentation of IMS within the first 72 h from deliberate malathion ingestion. The signs of IMS were weakness of proximal limb muscles and muscles innervated by motor cranial nerves, followed by the weakness of respiratory muscles and serious respiratory insufficiency. Malathion and its active metabolite were confirmed by analytical procedure (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pralidoxime methylsulphate, adiministered as a continuous infusion until day 8 (total dose 38.4 g, and atropine until the day 10 (total dose 922 mg did not prevent the development of IMS, hence the mechanical ventilation that was stopped after 27 h had to be continued until the day 10. Conclusion. Continuous pralidoxime methylsulphate infusion with atropine did not prevent the development of IMS, most likely due to the delayed treatment and insufficient oxime dose but also because of chemical structure and lipophilicity of ingested OPI. A prolonged intensive care monitoring and respiratory care are the key management for the intermediate syndrome. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 176018, No. 46009

  5. Acute lead poisoning with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in calves on a farm receiving land application of sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, C.R.; Tuomari, D.; Reddy, C.; Logan, T.J.

    1986-03-01

    A total of 3 cases of acute lead poisoning in calves was confirmed by atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis of biological samples, presence of an acute lead exposure source, clinical signs of impaired vision in one case and eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in another case. One of two other calves which died approximately 2 months earlier had nervous signs and it is likely that they also had lead poisoning. Dams of two of the cases did not have elevated lead levels. Municipal sewage sludge had been applied to most fields on the farm during the preceding 5 year period. There had been approximately a doubling of the lead content in the soil; however, the foodstuffs produced on the farm had low lead concentrations. The extremely high lead levels in the abomasal contents and feces of calves eliminated sludge as the source of the lead in this acute poisoning episode. The contents of oil filters, accessible to calves but not to adult cattle, had lead levels as high as 26,922 micrograms/g and was the most likely lead source responsible for this lead intoxication. It appears that the manifestation of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in lead poisoning cases may occur in young calves as well as in cows and in acute as well as in chronic intoxications.

  6. Paraquat poisoning: an experimental model of dose-dependent acute lung injury due to surfactant dysfunction

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    M.F.R. Silva

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the most characteristic feature of paraquat poisoning is lung damage, a prospective controlled study was performed on excised rat lungs in order to estimate the intensity of lesion after different doses. Twenty-five male, 2-3-month-old non-SPF Wistar rats, divided into 5 groups, received paraquat dichloride in a single intraperitoneal injection (0, 1, 5, 25, or 50 mg/kg body weight 24 h before the experiment. Static pressure-volume (PV curves were performed in air- and saline-filled lungs; an estimator of surface tension and tissue works was computed by integrating the area of both curves and reported as work/ml of volume displacement. Paraquat induced a dose-dependent increase of inspiratory surface tension work that reached a significant two-fold order of magnitude for 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight (P<0.05, ANOVA, sparing lung tissue. This kind of lesion was probably due to functional abnormalities of the surfactant system, as was shown by the increase in the hysteresis of the paraquat groups at the highest doses. Hence, paraquat poisoning provides a suitable model of acute lung injury with alveolar instability that can be easily used in experimental protocols of mechanical ventilation

  7. Hypersensitivity Reaction and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Pyrethroid Poisoning and Role of Steroid Therapy

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    Jisa George

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyrethroids are generally of low toxicity to humans, but in suicidal poisonings which are usually associated with ingestion of high doses, they lead to severe systemic effects. Case Report: A 30-year old woman presented to emergency department with a history of intentional ingestion of about 15 mL of prallethrin around 3 days earlier. She complained of shortness of breath along with chest pain for the last 2 days. She reported no vomiting or stomach pain prior to presentation to hospital. On chest auscultation, breath sounds were mildly decreased in bilateral infrascapular areas with generalized crepitation. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed respiratory alkalosis. Chest X ray and computed tomography of thorax revealed widespread confluent areas of consolidation with interlobular septal thickening involving bilateral parahilar regions suggestive of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. The patient did not respond to broad spectrum antibiotic coverage, diuretics and oxygen inhalation. Intravenous methylprednisolone (2 mg/kg/day divided 6 hourly was started and slowly tapered off during the next days. The patient discharged after 3 weeks in good health. Discussion: As pyrethroids can affect sodium channels, the osmotic gradient of alveolar epithelium probably disrupts and therefore, alveolar infiltrations gradually spread over lungs. In addition, there is a possibility of hypersensitivity reactions to pyrethroids, which can cause progressive inflammation and involve respiratory tract in severe cases. Conclusion: Pyrethroid poisoning can lead to ARDS. Steroid therapy may help such patients tide over the pulmonary crisis.

  8. Sodium Nitrite and Sodium Thiosulfate Are Effective Against Acute Cyanide Poisoning When Administered by Intramuscular Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Brittain, Matthew; Chan, Adriano; Garrett, Norma; Yoon, David; Burney, Tanya; Mukai, David; Babin, Michael; Pilz, Renate B; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Boss, Gerry R

    2017-06-01

    The 2 antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning in the United States must be administered by intravenous injection. In the out-of-hospital setting, intravenous injection is not practical, particularly for mass casualties, and intramuscular injection would be preferred. The purpose of this study is to determine whether sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate are effective cyanide antidotes when administered by intramuscular injection. We used a randomized, nonblinded, parallel-group study design in 3 mammalian models: cyanide gas inhalation in mice, with treatment postexposure; intravenous sodium cyanide infusion in rabbits, with severe hypotension as the trigger for treatment; and intravenous potassium cyanide infusion in pigs, with apnea as the trigger for treatment. The drugs were administered by intramuscular injection, and all 3 models were lethal in the absence of therapy. We found that sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate individually rescued 100% of the mice, and that the combination of the 2 drugs rescued 73% of the rabbits and 80% of the pigs. In all 3 species, survival in treated animals was significantly better than in control animals (log rank test, Pcyanide poisoning in 3 clinically relevant animal models of out-of-hospital emergency care. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Toxicological Investigation of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Four Occupants of a Fuming Sport Utility Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Nnoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This toxicological investigation involves a report on the death of four occupants of a sport utility vehicle on one of the major busy Federal roads of Nigeria where they were held for up to three hours in a traffic jam while the car was steaming. Methods: Autopsy was executed using the standard procedure and toxicological analysis was done using simple spectrophotometric method to establish the level of carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO in peripheral blood in the four occupants. Results: The autopsy report indicated generalized cyanosis, sub-conjuctival hemorrhages, marked laryngo-trachea edema with severe hyperemia with frothy fluid discharges characteristic of carbon monoxide poisoning. Toxicological report of the level of HbCO in part per million (ppm in the peripheral blood of the four occupants was A= 650 ppm; B= 500 ppm; C= 480 ppm, and D= 495 ppm against the maximum permissible level of 50 ppm. Conclusion: The sudden death of the four occupants was due to excessive inhalation of the carbon monoxide gas from the exhaust fumes leaking into the cabin of the car. The poor road network, numerous potholes, and traffic jam in most of roads in Nigeria could have exacerbated a leaky exhaust of the smoky second hand SUV car leading to the acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  10. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... off the ground. Close outdoor trash bins and compost containers securely. Remove any standing water in the ... Karr CJ, Solomon GM, Brock-Utne AC. Health effects of common home, lawn, and garden pesticides. Pediatr ...

  11. Acute Toxicity of Cypermethrin (A Pyrethroid Pesticide) to Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish treated with cypermethrin showed abnormal behavior characterised by restlessness, uncoordinated movements, loss of equilibrium, gulping of air, period of quiescence and then death. The sub-lethal responses of the fish to the pesticide were more pronounced on opercular ventilation (y=64.45+115.6x) than on tail ...

  12. Acute and chronic effects of organophosphate pesticides (Basudin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-04

    Jul 4, 2007 ... Long term effects of pesticides epoxure at various life stages of the southern leopard frog (Rana sphenocephala). Arch. Environ Contam Toxicol 39: 91–96. Brodie ED, Formanowicz DR (1983). Prey size preferences of predators: Differential vulunerability of larval amphibians. Herpetological. 39: 67–75.

  13. Acute toxicity of pesticides to the tropical freshwater shrimp Caridina laevis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sucahyo, D.; van Straalen, N.M.; Krave, A.S.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the potential risk of pesticides frequently used in Indonesia, a new toxicity test was developed using the indigenous freshwater shrimp Caridina laevis, which is representative of tropical ecosystems. The test species could easily be maintained in the laboratory. Acute toxicity tests

  14. [Development and application of poison databank and poisonous animal and plants sample databank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yu; Jiang, Shao-Feng; Cai, Jun; Luo, Tao; Xie, Li-Jing; Zhou, Jing; Sun, Cheng-Ye

    2008-03-01

    To establish a comprehensive,easily approached, operated, and searched internet poison databank as to providing professional poison data and knowledge of effective treatment for those consented such as medical staff, and emergency response team in the shortest time. We established a computer poison databank, by adopting B/S structure, using SQL Server databank, and explore technology, in which all information may easily be explored and obtained by users. The database integrated the information in relating to the substances identifiers, physical and chemical properties, toxicology data, clinical manifestation while intoxication, emergency response guides, effective treatment, anything related to the special antidotes, preventive measures, poison analysis, and manufacturers of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, herbs, pesticides, animal, plant, bacteria, fungi, productions and toxins. Otherwise some information about poison control organizations and experts, literatures about poison case reports, poison incidents, were also involved in the system, which can also provide a shortcut, convenient, and exact search. The databank might be easily used on several fields, providing important information with acute poison incidents disposal and clinic treatment.

  15. Rhabdomyolysis following Acute Extended-Release Quetiapine Poisoning: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Liolios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. During the past few years, there have been a number of case reports concerning rhabdomyolysis following quetiapine poisoning; however, there has been none concerning the medication in its extended-release form. Methods. We present the case report of a 48-year-old man presenting a major depressive disorder and borderline personality disorder, who after voluntary intoxication with 12000 mg of quetiapine extended-release developed signs of acute rhabdomyolysis. Results. The rhabdomyolysis was confirmed by the laboratory and the clinical findings, with elevated levels of creatinine, creatine phosphokinase, and CRP. Discussion. We would like to pinpoint the importance of this complication and our concern of prescribing it for psychiatric patients with chronic somatic comorbidities.

  16. Ophthalmic findings in acute mercury poisoning in adults: A case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Lokman; Aslankurt, Murat; Bozkurt, Selim; Aksoy, Adnan; Ozdemir, Murat; Gizir, Harun; Yasar, Ibrahim

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to report ophthalmic findings of acute mercury poisoning in 48 adults referred to emergency department. Full ophthalmologic examination including the best corrected visual acuity, external eye examination, reaction to light, a slit-lamp examination, funduscopy, intraocular pressure measurements, and visual field (VF) and color vision (CV) tests were performed at the presentation and repeated after 6 months. The parametric values of VF test, the mean deviation (MD), and pattern standard deviation (PSD) were recorded in order to compare patients and the 30 healthy controls. The mean parameter of color confusion index in patients was found to be statistically different than controls (p effect on the visual system, especially CV and VF. We propose that emphasizing the public education on the potential hazards of mercury is crucial for preventive community health. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Long-term visual damage after acute methanol poisonings: Longitudinal cross-sectional study in 50 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Sergey; Pelclova, Daniela; Diblik, Pavel; Urban, Pavel; Kuthan, Pavel; Nurieva, Olga; Kotikova, Katerina; Navratil, Tomas; Komarc, Martin; Belacek, Jaromir; Seidl, Zdenek; Vaneckova, Manuela; Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Bezdicek, Ondrej; Klempir, Jiri; Yurchenko, Maksim; Ruzicka, Evzen; Miovsky, Michal; Janikova, Barbara; Hovda, Knut Erik

    2015-11-01

    Visual disturbances due to the toxic effect of formic acid in acute methanol poisonings are generally transient. The subjective symptoms of visual toxicity may resolve within few weeks and fundoscopic signs of acute optic neuropathy subside within 1-2 months; therefore, the prevalence of long-term visual sequelae in the population of survivors of poisonings may be underestimated. To study the prevalence and character of long-term visual sequelae of acute methanol poisonings based on the data from the Czech mass methanol outbreak in 2012. A total of 50 patients with confirmed methanol poisoning were included in this longitudinal cross-sectional study, median age: 48 (range, 23-73) years. The following tests were performed: optical coherence tomography or OCT with evaluation of the retinal nerve fibers layer (RNFL), visual evoked potentials (VEP), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain, complete ocular examination (visual acuity/field, color vision, contrast sensitivity, and fundus), neurological examinations, and biochemical tests. Of 50 patients, 7/50 (14%) were discharged with diagnosed visual sequelae and 6/50 (12%) were discharged with both visual and central nervous system sequelae of poisoning. On the follow-up examination, 20/50 (40%) of the patients had long-term visual sequelae, with 8% of blindness. A total of 38% of the patients had abnormal (28% borderline) findings on RNFL, and 40% had abnormal (18% borderline) VEP. Among the patients discharged without detected visual sequelae, 8/37 (22%) had abnormal RNFL and VEP. Patients with visual sequelae had brain lesions more often (70% vs. 27%, p methanol, ethanol, HCO3-, formate, pH, anion gap, and base deficit (all p methanol poisonings in general.

  18. Triage vital signs predict in-hospital mortality among emergency department patients with acute poisoning: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jiun-Hao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To document the relationship between triage vital signs and in-hospital mortality among emergency department (ED patients with acute poisoning. Methods Poisoning patients who admitted to our emergency department during the study period were enrolled. Patient’s demographic data were collected and odds ratios (OR of triage vital signs to in-hospital mortality were assessed. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the proper cut-off value of vital signs that predict in-hospital mortality. Logistic regression analysis was performed to test the association of in-hospital mortality and vital signs after adjusting for different variables. Results 997 acute poisoning patients were enrolled, with 70 fatal cases (6.7%. A J-shaped relationship was found between triage vital signs and in-hospital mortality. ED triage vital signs exceed cut-off values independently predict in-hospital mortality after adjusting for variables were as follow: body temperature 37°C, p 150 mmHg, p 120 bpm, p 20 per minute, p = 0.38, OR: 1.4. Conclusions Triage vital signs could predict in-hospital mortality among ED patients with acute poisoning. A J-curve relationship was found between triage vital signs and in-hospital mortality. ED physicians should take note of the extreme initial vital signs in these patients.

  19. Acute toxicity of five pesticides to Apis mellifera larvae reared in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Pingli; Jack, Cameron J; Mortensen, Ashley N; Ellis, James D

    2017-11-01

    The reported high loss rates of managed honey bee colonies have been attributed to diverse stressors including pesticides. Honey bee larvae can be exposed to pesticides in contaminated nectar, pollen and wax. Due to the difficulties of rearing larvae in vitro, research focusing on adult bee exposure to pesticides is more common than that on larva exposure to pesticides. Herein, we aimed to assess the acute toxicity of five insecticides to honey bee larvae using an improved in vitro rearing method. LC 50 and LD 50 were calculated for larvae at 72 h following a single diet exposure administered when the larvae were 84 ± 12 h old. Solvent control larval mortalities were less than 15% at 72 h. The LC 50 values (mg L -1 ) for each tested pesticide were as follows: amitraz, 494.27; chlorpyrifos, 15.39; coumaphos, 90.01; fluvalinate, 27.69; and imidacloprid, 138.84. The LD 50 values in µg per larva were 14.83 (amitraz), 0.46 (chlorpyrifos), 2.70 (coumaphos), 0.83 (fluvalinate) and 4.17 (imidacloprid). The toxicity of the test pesticides to honey bee larvae from most to least toxic was chlorpyrifos > fluvalinate > coumaphos = imidacloprid > amitraz. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Acute Datura Stramonium poisoning in East of Iran - a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Amini

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed most of D. Stramonium poisoned population in our region are children. We suggest decreasing accessibility to the plant in order to decrease the incidence of its poisoning

  1. A 3-year survey of acute poisoning exposures in infants reported in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    minis tered by a carer, but children are inquisitive by nature, and as infants become mobile (8 12 ... Most poisoning exposures in infants are not serious and can be safely managed at home after contacting a poison centre. Identification and documentation of ..... Host and environment factors for exposure to poisons: A ...

  2. Reduced Levels of Serum Potassium and Plasma Cholinesterase in Acute Organophosphate Poisoning: Possible Predictive Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanur Prasad

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: For severe clinical features of OP poisoning, serum [K+] and PChE level are greatly reduced. Hence, these biochemical findings can be proposed as OP poisoning predictive markers. Clinicians and medical toxicologists should consider hypokalemia associated with reduced PChE level as alarming signs of poor prognosis in OP poisoned patients.

  3. Acute Poisoning in Elderly; a Five-Year Study (2008-2013 in Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Afzali

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Deliberate self-harm and poisoning with opioids especially methadone showed a high prevalence in elderly poisoned patients in Hamadan, Iran.  It seems that drug trafficking control, addiction rehabilitation therapies and suicide prevention programs for elderly can be helpful in poisoning reduction in this age group in this part of the country.

  4. Use of the molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS™) for the management of acute poisoning with or without liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittebole, Xavier; Hantson, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in recent developments in bioartificial and non-bioartificial devices, so called extracorporeal liver assist devices, which are now used widely not only to increase drug elimination, but also to enhance the removal of endogenous substances in acute liver failure. Most of the non-bioartificial techniques are based on the principle of albumin dialysis. The objective is to remove albumin-bound substances that could play a role in the pathophysiology of acute liver failure by dialysing blood against an albumin-containing solution across a high flux permeable membrane. The most widely used device is the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS™). The relevant English and French literature was identified through Medline using the terms, 'molecular adsorbent recirculating system', 'MARS', 'acute liver failure', 'acute poisoning', 'intoxication'. This search identified 139 papers of which 48 reported on a toxic cause for the use of MARS™. Of these 48 papers, 39 specified the substance (eighteen different substances were identified); two papers reported on the same group of patients. BIOARTIFICIAL AND NON-BIOARTIFICIAL SYSTEMS: Bioartificial systems based on porcine hepatocytes incorporated in the extracorporeal circuit are no longer in use due to the possibility of porcine retroviral transmission to humans. Historically, experience with such devices was limited to a few cases of paracetamol poisoning. In contrast, an abundant literature exists for the non-bioartificial systems based on albumin dialysis. The MARS™ has been used more widely than other techniques, such as the one using fractionated plasma separation and adsorption (Prometheus™). All the extracorporeal liver assist devices are able to some extent to remove biological substances (ammonia, urea, creatinine, bilirubin, bile acids, amino acids, cytokines, vasoactive agents) but the real impact on the patient's clinical course has still to be determined. Improvement in

  5. The spectrum of intermediate syndrome following acute organophosphate poisoning: a prospective cohort study from Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeepa Jayawardane

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate syndrome (IMS is a major cause of death from respiratory failure following acute organophosphate poisoning. The objective of this study was to determine repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS predictors of IMS that would assist in patient management and clinical research.Seventy-eight consenting symptomatic patients with organophosphate poisoning were assessed prospectively with daily physical examination and RNS. RNS was done on the right and left median and ulnar nerves at 1, 3, 10, 15, 20, and 30 Hz. The study was conducted as a prospective observational cohort study in the Central Province, Sri Lanka. IMS was diagnosed in ten out of 78 patients using a priori clinical diagnostic criteria, and five of them developed respiratory failure. All ten patients showed progressive RNS changes correlating with the severity of IMS. A decrement-increment was observed at intermediate and high frequencies preceding the onset of clinical signs of IMS. As the patient developed clinical signs of IMS, decrement-increment was progressively noted at low and intermediate frequencies and a combination of decrement-increment and repetitive fade or severe decrement was noted at high frequencies. Severe decrement preceded respiratory failure in four patients. Thirty patients developed forme fruste IMS with less severe weakness not progressing to respiratory failure whose RNS was characterized by decrement-increment or a combination of decrement-increment and repetitive fade but never severe decrements.Characteristic changes in RNS, preceding the development of IMS, help to identify a subgroup of patients at high risk of developing respiratory failure. The forme fruste IMS with the characteristic early changes on RNS indicates that IMS is a spectrum disorder. RNS changes are objective and precede the diagnosis and complications of IMS. Thus they may be useful in clinical management and research.

  6. Community uptake of safe storage boxes to reduce self-poisoning from pesticides in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Flemming; Pieris, Ravi; Weerasinghe, Manjula

    2007-01-01

    the feasibility of such an approach. Therefore, the objective of the study presented here was to determine community perceptions and use of in-house safe storage boxes for pesticides in rural Sri Lanka. METHODS: Boxes with a lock, to be used for the in-house safe storage of pesticides, were distributed to 200...

  7. [Impact of quality-indicator-based measures to improve the treatment of acute poisoning in pediatric emergency patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Sánchez, Lidia; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, Victoria; Azkunaga Santibáñez, Beatriz; Nogué-Xarau, Santiago; Ferrer Bosch, Nuria; García González, Elsa; Luaces I Cubells, Carles

    2016-02-01

    To analyze the impact of quality-indicator-based measures for improving quality of care for acute poisoning in pediatric emergency departments. Recent assessments of quality indicators were compared with benchmark targets and with results from previous studies. The first study evaluated 6 basic indicators in the pediatric emergency departments of members of to the working group on poisoning of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Emergency Medicine (GTI-SEUP). The second study evaluated 20 indicators in a single emergency department of GTI-SEUP members. Based on the results of those studies, the departments implemented the following corrective measures: creation of a team for gastric lavage follow-up, preparation of a new GTI-SEUP manual on poisoning, implementation of a protocol for poisoning incidents, and creation of specific poisoning-related fields for computerized patient records. The benchmark targets were reached on 4 quality indicators in the first study. Improvements were seen in the availability of protocols, as indicators exceeded the target in all the pediatric emergency departments (vs 29.2% of the departments in an earlier study, P indicators. Improvements were seen in compliance with incident reporting to the police (recently, 44.4% vs 19.2% previously, P = .036), case registration in the minimum basic data set (51.0% vs 1.9%, P trend toward increased administration of activated carbon within 2 hours (93.1% vs 83.5%, P = .099). No other significant improvements were seen. The corrective measures led to improvements in some quality indicators. There is still room for improvement in these emergency departamens' care of pediatric poisoning.

  8. Oral acute toxicity study of selected botanical pesticide plants used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    Key words: Oral acute toxicity, biopesticide, plant extracts, Lake Victoria Basin. ... Asia in the upland forest areas and open waste areas. It is used .... freeze like water. The essential oils were kept in a fridge so as to minimize their volatile behavior which is catalyzed by relatively high temperature including room temperature.

  9. Oral acute toxicity study of selected botanical pesticide plants used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    used plants were identified and selected for biosafety assessments namely: Ocimum gratissimum,. Tithonia diversifolia, Eucalyptus ... Key words: Oral acute toxicity, biopesticide, plant extracts, Lake Victoria Basin. INTRODUCTION. There is a ..... breathing (hyperventilation), excess loss of saliva. (salivation) and death of ...

  10. Highly sensitive GQDs-MnO2 based assay with turn-on fluorescence for monitoring cerebrospinal acetylcholinesterase fluctuation: A biomarker for organophosphorus pesticides poisoning and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jingjing; Lu, Dingkun; Zhang, Xiaolei; Shi, Guoyue; Zhou, Tianshu

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we demonstrated an assay with turn-on fluorescence for monitoring cerebrospinal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) fluctuation as a biomarker for organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) poisoning and management based on single layer MnO2 nanosheets with graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as signal readout. Initially, the fluorescence of GQDs was quenched by MnO2 nanosheets mainly due to the inner filter effect (IFE). However, with the presence of reductive thiocholine (TCh), the enzymatic product, hydrolyzed from acetylthiocholine (ATCh) by AChE, the redox reaction between MnO2 and TCh occurred, leading to the destruction of the MnO2 nanosheets, and thereby IFE was diminished gradually. As a consequence, the turn-on fluorescence of GQDs with the changes in the spectrum of the dispersion constituted a new mechanism for sensing of cerebrospinal AChE. With the method developed here, we could monitor cerebrospinal AChE fluctuation of rats exposed to OPs before and after therapy, and could thereby open up the pathway to a new sensing platform for better understanding the mechanism of brain dysfunctions associate with OPs poisoning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute poisonings during pregnancy and in other non-pregnant women in emergency departments of four government hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyasu, Mebrahtu; Dida, Tolesa; Worku, Yoseph; Worku, Solomon; Shafie, Mensur

    2017-10-01

    To characterise acute poisonings in pregnant and non-pregnant women treated at emergency departments of government hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, between 2010 and 2015. All data for acutely poisoned women were retrospectively collected from patient medical charts at the emergency departments of Saint Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Ras Desta Memorial Hospital, Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College and Zewditu Memorial Hospital. Data were collected by extraction questionnaire and analysed using SPSSv. 20 statistical software. During the study period, 998 cases of acutely poisoned women were listed in the hospital registries. Of these, complete data for inclusion in the study were available for 592. 36.3% of the study participants were in the age group of 20-24, with a mean (±SD) age of 23.03 (±6.3) years. 80.9% were from Addis Ababa; 4.6% were pregnant. The mean arrival time of all cases was 4.14 h. 85.5% of all study cases were due to intentional self-poisoning, of whom 42.1% were discharged without complications. The most common poisons were bleach and organophosphates; 25.9% of pregnant cases and 32.6% of non-pregnant cases were poisoned by bleach; and 18.5% of pregnant cases and 18.9% of non-pregnant cases had organophosphate poisoning. 0.7% had a history of poisoning; all were non-pregnant women. The common route of poison exposure was oral, and the case fatality rate of organophosphate poisoning in pregnant and non-pregnant women was 20 and 1.87%, respectively. The pre-hospital intervention for the majority of the women was milk, in 12.0% of cases. Acute poisoning remains a public health problem in our community. Bleach is the most common poisons. Our present findings indicate the necessity of educational programmes on preventable reasons of acute poisonings and their outcomes on pregnant and non-pregnant women. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [Acute alcohol poisonings among patients in Toxicology Unit, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in the period of time 2007-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogaczewska, Anna; Kobza-Sindlewska, Katarzyna; Krakowiak, Anna; Piekarska-Wijatkowska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to present the analysis of acute alcohol poisonings (ethanol, methanol, ethylene glycol, isopropanol) in Toxicology Unit (TU), Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (NIOM), Lódź, Poland. To further analysis were chosen all cases, whose were coded according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision. There were 10,936 acute poisonings in the analyzed period of time 2007-2012 years, 3,088 of them referred to alcohol poisonings (28%). The largest group of patients included cases with ethanol intoxication (2,883 subjects), the second and third one-cases with methanol and ethylene glycol poisonings (99 and 98 respectively), 8 cases were poisoned with isopropanol. The largest group of patients includes cases at age less than 30 years. Patients at age above 60 years formed the lowest group among the total number of poisonings. Most of the admitted cases were men (2,417 patients) and cases hospitalized due to ethanol abuseladdiction (93%). Ethylene glycol poisonings constituted the leading cause of deaths (10 subjects). The study shows, that intoxications with alcohols are a big problem in NIOM and the number of alcohol poisonings markedly increased in the years 2007-2012.

  13. Intoxicação por agrotóxicos no Brasil: os sistemas oficiais de informação e desafios para realização de estudos epidemiológicos Pesticides poisoning in Brazil: the official notification system and challenges to conducting epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neice Müller Xavier Faria

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é um dos líderes mundiais em consumo de agrotóxicos e os trabalhadores expostos são numerosos e diversificados. As intoxicações agudas são a face mais visível do impacto destes produtos na saúde. A avaliação dos vários sistemas oficiais de informação que notificam os casos de intoxicações concluiu que nenhum deles responde adequadamente ao papel de sistema de vigilância. Na prática, só se registram os casos agudos e mais graves. Uma importante lacuna é a informação de exposição a agrotóxicos: a avaliação da única fonte oficial (os Receituários Agronômicos revelou muitas limitações. A revisão das publicações brasileiras aponta um crescimento quantitativo e qualitativo dos estudos nesta área, com vários tipos de abordagens. O impacto da intensa carga química e o enorme contingente de trabalhadores expostos são duas importantes razões para o desenvolvimento da pesquisa epidemiológica sobre intoxicações por agrotóxicos, que no Brasil ainda tem um vasto campo para se desenvolver.Brazil is one of the world leaders in pesticide consumption and exposed workers are numerous and diversified. Acute poisonings are just the most visible aspect of pesticide impact on human health. An assessment of many official information systems that notify pesticide poisoning concluded that none of them performed appropriately the role of a surveillance system. Only acute and severe cases are notified. One of the main gaps concerns exposure information: the only official source (the Agronomic Prescriptions has many limitations and is not available for research. A review of published articles in Brazil shows a quantitative and qualitative increase of studies in this area with many different approaches. The impact of such a high chemical burden and the huge numbers of workers exposed are two important reasons for the development of an epidemiological research on pesticide poisoning, an issue that has still a vast field to

  14. Pesticides and Health in Vegetable Production in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Macharia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of pesticide-related cost of illness (COI and acute symptoms, using a balanced panel of 363 farmers interviewed from seven major vegetable producing districts of Kenya. Finding shows that the incidences of pesticide-related health impairments have increased. Variation in number of symptoms and symptom severity significantly explained COI. The personal protective equipment (PPE, education level, record keeping, and geographical location considerably determined health impairments. Encouraging the proper use of PPE and record keeping of pesticide use could greatly reduce poisoning cases and COI.

  15. Bioconcentration and Acute Intoxication of Brazilian Freshwater Fishes by the Methyl Parathion Organophosphate Pesticide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco de Salles, João; Matos Lopes, Renato; de Salles, Cristiane M. C.; Cassano, Vicente P. F.; de Oliveira, Manildo Marcião; Cunha Bastos, Vera L. F.; Bastos, Jayme Cunha

    2015-01-01

    Three species of freshwater Brazilian fishes (pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus; piavussu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus) were exposed to an acute dose of 5 ppm methyl parathion organophosphate pesticide. Three to five individuals per species were exposed, one at a time, to 40 liters tap water spiked with Folidol 600. Pesticide concentrations and cholinesterase (ChE) activities were evaluated in serum, liver, brain, heart, and muscle. The bioconcentration of methyl parathion was similar for all studied fishes. Brain tissue showed the highest pesticide concentration, reaching 80 ppm after exposure for 30 min to methyl parathion. Three to 5 hours of 5 ppm methyl parathion exposure provoked the death of all P. lineatus at 92% brain AChE inhibition, whereas fish from the other two species survived for up to 78 hours with less than 80% brain AChE inhibition. Our results indicate that acute toxic effects of methyl parathion to fish are correlated with brain AChE sensitivity to methyl paraoxon. PMID:26339593

  16. Bioconcentration and Acute Intoxication of Brazilian Freshwater Fishes by the Methyl Parathion Organophosphate Pesticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Bosco de Salles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of freshwater Brazilian fishes (pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus; piavussu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus were exposed to an acute dose of 5 ppm methyl parathion organophosphate pesticide. Three to five individuals per species were exposed, one at a time, to 40 liters tap water spiked with Folidol 600. Pesticide concentrations and cholinesterase (ChE activities were evaluated in serum, liver, brain, heart, and muscle. The bioconcentration of methyl parathion was similar for all studied fishes. Brain tissue showed the highest pesticide concentration, reaching 80 ppm after exposure for 30 min to methyl parathion. Three to 5 hours of 5 ppm methyl parathion exposure provoked the death of all P. lineatus at 92% brain AChE inhibition, whereas fish from the other two species survived for up to 78 hours with less than 80% brain AChE inhibition. Our results indicate that acute toxic effects of methyl parathion to fish are correlated with brain AChE sensitivity to methyl paraoxon.

  17. Intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas Acute poisoning from pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Jesús Durán-Nah; Julián Collí-Quintal

    2000-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Describir la epidemiología de la intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas (IAP) en el Hospital General O'Horán de Mérida, Yucatán, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se revisaron los expedientes de 33 pacientes ³ 13 años, tratados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI), entre 1994 y 1998. Se recopilaron variables demográficas y clínicas relevantes, y se aplicó estadística descriptiva. RESULTADOS: En la población estudiada predominó el sexo masculino (82%) del medio rural (70%), y la eda...

  18. Coagulation disorders secondary to acute liver failure in Amanita phalloides poisoning: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysal, Dilek; Cevik, Cetin; Saklamaz, Aras; Yetimalar, Yeşim; Unsal, Belkis

    2006-09-01

    Amanita mushroom poisoning is a serious occurrence. Physicians need to recognize the syndrome promptly and institute effective treatment as soon as possible in order to avoid the often fatal complications. We report a case of a young man with mushroom poisoning of the genus Amanita with a clinical spectrum that ranged from hepatic failure and coagulation disorders to an outcome with a partial recovery. The aim of this report was to emphasize the clinical outcomes and treatment regimens in this type of mushroom poisoning seen with increasing frequency in our region.

  19. Pesticide use, erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase level and self-reported acute intoxication symptoms among vegetable farmers in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Dinesh; Jors, E.; Brandt, L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: As pesticide use is increasing and proper handling training is lacking, exposure to pesticides and intoxications are an important public health problems among farmers in developing countries. This study describes pesticide use among farmers and compares symptoms of possible acute...... intoxication and Erythrocyte Acetylcholinesterase(AChE) levels among vegetable farmers with a control group of blood donors in Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 90 pesticide-exposed farmers and a control group of 90 blood donors. Participants were randomly selected and data were...... gathered through questionnaires, observation and blood test. Chi-square test, logistic regression and Student's t-test were used for data analysis to describe pesticide use and compare symptoms and AChE levels between the two groups. This study was approved by Nepal Health Research Council. Results...

  20. Coagulation disorders secondary to acute liver failure in Amanita phalloides poisoning: a case report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soysal, Dilek; Cevik, Cetin; Saklamaz, Aras; Yetimalar, Yeşim; Unsal, Belkis

    2006-01-01

    Amanita mushroom poisoning is a serious occurrence. Physicians need to recognize the syndrome promptly and institute effective treatment as soon as possible in order to avoid the often fatal complications...

  1. [Role of acute alcohol poisoning and craniocerebral trauma in the mechanism of death caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-kun; Shi, Meng; Ou, Gui-sheng; Zhao, Hu

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the relation between the expression of tPA, MMP-2, MMP-9 and AEG-1 in the human brain tissue and the ethanol concentration under the acute alcohol poison, and to analyze the role of alcohol and trauma in the mechanism of death of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Fifteen real cases were collected in this study. The brain tissues were researched by histological examination and the concentration of ethanol in heart blood were detected. The tPA, MMP-2, MMP-9 and AEG-1 in brainstem, brain and cerebellum were observed respectively by immunohistochemistry. In alcohol poisoning groups with or without trauma, the acute alcohol toxicity resulted in the swelling of brain tissues. The tPA, MMP-2, MMP-9 and AEG-1 of brainstem, brain and cerebellum showed high expression in alcohol victims, and the tPA in cerebellum showed no difference. The expression of the MMP-2, MMP-9 and AEG-1 showed good relation with the ethanol concentration in blood (P 0.6). The expressions of tPA, MMP-2, MMP-9 and AEG-1 are significant higher in alcohol victims, and expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and AEG-1 have positive correlation with the alcohol concentration. The alcohol has acute toxicity to brain cells.

  2. Hair analysis for drug abuse. XIV. Identification of substances causing acute poisoning using hair root. I. Methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Y; Kikura, R; Yasuhara, M; Mukai, T

    1997-01-17

    A hair root was evaluated as a specimen for proving acute methamphetamine (MA) poisonings using an animal model and fatal cases of MA intoxicaton. First of all, male pigmented hairy rats (n = 5) were administered with acute poisonous doses (20, 40 and 60 mg/kg) of MA and the hair roots were plucked out with a hair nipper 5 min and 0.5, 1, 2, 6 and 24 h after i.p. injection. The hair root samples were, directly or after washing with detergent, extracted with methanol/5 N HCl (20:1) under vortex mixing at room temperature for 14 h. After evaporation, the residue was derivatized with pentafluoropropionic anhydride and analyzed with GC/MS. From all samples including a 5-min sample, MA was detected at high concentrations (approximately 150 ng/mg) with a small amount of amphetamine (AP). Many animals died within 120 min of administration, but the concentrations in the hair roots increased up to 120 min and then slowly decreased until 24 h. Although MA was definitely detected anytime in the hair roots, almost no MA was found in 24-h plasma. In comparison of the drug levels in hair roots between the washed group and the unwashed group, the levels of the washed group were as a whole 4-5-fold higher than those of the unwashed group. These differences show that most of the drug incorporated into hair root is still not immobilized in the early stage. The ratios of the MA remainder in the washed samples increased with the elapse of time in all cases. However, the slope of the curves definitely dropped after the death of rats, probably due to the stopping of the hair growth and the incorporation of drug into the hair shaft. The ratios of AP/MA after death became a plateau probably due to the stoppage of the activity of metabolism after death, while those before death had increased over time. We analyzed the specimens of hair root of four men who died mainly due to acute poisonings with MA. Consequently, MA in the hair roots was detected at high concentrations, 30.5-134.6 ng

  3. Effectiveness of Continuous Veno-Venous Hemofiltration and Intermittent Hemodialysis in the Treatment of Severe Acute Phenobarbital Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Quang Thuan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phenobarbital poisoning is common in Vietnam. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH and hemodialysis (HD on clinical outcomes in the treatment of severe acute phenobarbital poisoning. Methods: This was a retrospective observational historically controlled study. 42 patients with severe phenobarbital poisoning were enrolled. 21 patients were treated with HD and 21 with CVVH. Both groups received similar supportive therapies consisting of mechanical ventilation, forced alkaline diuresis and multiple-dose activated charcoal. Results: Following one course of treatment with HD (4 hours or CVVH (~19.5 hours the mean (SD blood phenobarbital concentration (BPC had decreased to 3.9 (2.5 and 3.2 (2.3 mg/dL respectively (P=0.232. Mean percentage decrease in BPC after HD and CVVH were 62.7 (12.4 and 61.5 (22.0 % respectively, showing no significant difference (P=0.782. Mean duration of coma and mechanical ventilation in CVVH group was 31.9 (26.6 and 39.7 (27.9 hours, significantly shorter than those in HD group with 66.1 (32.5 and 66.7 (32.2 hours (P=0.002; 0.001 respectively. Conclusion: One course of treatment with CVVH and HD decreased the BPC to a similar extent but this was not associated with similar clinical outcomes. Although, CVVH was not associated with rapid fall in blood phenobarbital level, it clearly had clinical advantages by shortening the duration of coma and mechanical ventilation and with lack of coma recurrence in severe phenobarbital poisoning.

  4. Risk assessment of lead poisoning and pesticide exposure in the declining population of red-breasted goose (Branta ruficollis) wintering in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Rafael; Petkov, Nikolai; Lopez-Antia, Ana; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Green, Andy J

    2016-11-01

    The red-breasted goose Branta ruficollis is a globally threatened species (IUCN Vulnerable) and the only European goose species currently in decline. Working on the wintering grounds on the Black Sea Coast, we address two potential causes of decline of this species for the first time: lead poisoning, and contamination from pesticides. We quantified the densities of spent Pb shot in three wetlands used by the geese in north-east Bulgaria, and analysed the Pb concentration in the faeces of red-breasted geese and the more abundant greater white-fronted geese Anser albifrons, using Al concentration as an indicator of soil ingestion. Pb shot densities in sediments were low, and we found no evidence for Pb shot ingestion in red-breasted geese. On the other hand, we found that the geese were feeding on wheat whose seeds were treated with four fungicides: thiram, tebuconazole, difenoconazole and fludioxonil, and the two first were even detected in geese faecal samples. Using data on the daily food intake, we estimated the exposure levels of the geese to these fungicides, both by measuring the concentrations remaining on seeds and by estimating the amount used to coat the seeds at the time of sowing. We found that the exposure rates estimated during the sowing period for both geese species can exceed the recognized hazardous doses for thiram, and to a lesser extent for tebuconazole, which indicates that some pesticides may be playing a previously overlooked role in the decline of red-breasted geese. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Health Symptoms Among Rice Farmers in Zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marisa; Stadlinger, Nadja; Mmochi, Aviti J; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Marrone, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    The agrarian population in low- and middle-income countries suffers from a number of adverse health effects due to pesticide exposure. In Zanzibar, the government subsidizes pesticides to enhance local rice production. The objectives of this study were to assess Zanzibar smallholder rice farmers' pesticide use and self-reported health symptoms in relation to pesticide exposure, training, and use of protective measures and to raise awareness for future local policy formulation. An exploratory cross-sectional interviewer-administered study was conducted among 99 rice farmers. Participants were selected based on convenience sampling and stratified by expected exposure category. The study participants reported using pesticides in World Health Organization (WHO) Class II. Of pesticide users, 61% reported one or more symptoms of possible acute pesticide poisoning. Only 50% of pesticide users had received training in safe handling and application of pesticides, but those who had displayed a higher use of protective measures. Farmers who did not use protective measures were more likely to have reported skin irritation and headache, which, together with eye irritation, were the most commonly reported acute symptoms. The main sociodemographic differences between the expected exposure categories of pesticide users and nonusers were in gender and education level. Scaling up of training in safe handling and application of pesticides is needed. Further studies are required to better understand the mechanisms behind the choice to use pesticides or not.

  6. [The relationship between lactate clearance rate and delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-zhan; Ma, Guo-ying; Zhao, Ling-jun; Li, Jing; Wang, Pu; Li, Ya-qin; Xiao, Qing-mian; Liu, Yong-jian

    2013-10-01

    To study the relationship between lactate clearance rate (LCR) and prognosis after acute carbon monoxide poisoning in patients with delayed encephalopathy (DEACMP). Data from 354 patients with acute severe carbon monoxide poisoning (ASCOP) were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into hyperlactacidemia group (arterial lactic acid > 2 mmol/L, n=263) and low lactic acidosis group (arterial lactate ≤2 mmol/L, n=91) according to the blood lactic acid level at admission. Arterial blood (1 mL) was collected from all patients before and 6, 24, 72 hours after treatment at ambient air, and arterial blood lactic acid was determined, and LCR was calculated. The initial level of blood lactic acid and LCR at 6, 24, 72 hours were compared between two groups. At the same time, the patients with hyperlactacidemia were divided into high LCR group (LCR more than 10%, n=101) and low LCR group (LCR less than or equal to 10%, n=162) according to 6-hour LCR, and the incidence of DEACMP was compared between two groups. The relationship between LCR and the incidence of DEACMP was analyzed with Spearman linear correlation analysis. The risk factors associated with DEACMP were analyzed with logistic regression analysis. The initial level of blood lactic acid (2.73±0.57 mmol/L vs. 1.69±0.20 mmol/L, t=5.327, P=0.001) and LCR at 6, 24, 72 hours [6 hours: (9.0±2.4)% vs. (1.2±0.6)%, t=9.468, P=0.001; 24 hours: (8.6±3.7)% vs. (1.2±0.4)%, t=4.889, P=0.001; 72 hours: (14.0±3.9)% vs. (1.7±1.0)%, t=5.211, P=0.001] in hyperlactacidemia group were significantly higher than those in low lactic acidosis group. The initial level of blood lactic acid in high LCR group was significantly lower than that in low LCR group (2.41±0.23 mmol/L vs. 2.92±0.63 mmol/L, t=2.429, P=0.023), and LCR at 6 hours and 24 hours were significantly higher than those in low LCR group [6 hours: (11.0±1.2)% vs. (8.0±2.1)%, t=4.487, P=0.001; 24 hours: (12.2±3.0)% vs. (6.3±1.8)%, t=6.264, P=0.001]. But

  7. Validated analytical methodology for the simultaneous determination of a wide range of pesticides in human blood using GC-MS/MS and LC-ESI/MS/MS and its application in two poisoning cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Almeida-González, Maira; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Zumbado, Manuel; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Meilán, María José; Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D

    2015-09-01

    Pesticides are frequently responsible for human poisoning and often the information on the involved substance is lacking. The great variety of pesticides that could be responsible for intoxication makes necessary the development of powerful and versatile analytical methodologies, which allows the identification of the unknown toxic substance. Here we developed a methodology for simultaneous identification and quantification in human blood of 109 highly toxic pesticides. The application of this analytical scheme would help in minimizing the cost of this type of chemical identification, maximizing the chances of identifying the pesticide involved. In the methodology that we present here, we use a liquid-liquid extraction, followed by one single purification step, and quantitation of analytes by a combination of liquid and gas chromatography, both coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, which is operated in the mode of multiple reaction monitoring. The methodology has been fully validated, and its applicability has been demonstrated in two recent cases involving one self-poisoning fatality and one non-fatal homicidal attempt. Copyright © 2015 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. REHABILITATION OF PATIENTS WITH ENCEPHALOPATHY CAUSED BY ACUTE CHEMICAL AGENTS POISONING. P300 OF AUDITORY EVENT RELATED POTENTIALS AND ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. U. Berezina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available RELEVANCE. Patients with encephalopathy due to acute chemical agents poisoning have some brain functioning changes and a cognitive impairment during the rehabilitation program. These changes require correction of appropriate diagnostic protocol and treatment.AIM. The aim of this study was to estimate changes of electroencephalography (EEG and the P3 component of the event related potential (P300 ERP that are observed in patients with encephalopathy due to acute chemical agents poisoning during stage of rehabilitation.MATERIAL AND METHODS. The study was included 25 patients (age 37 (32; 51 poisoned different kind of neurotoxic substances (drugs, ethanol and complicated by toxic and hypoxic encephalopathy. They have got the treatment of encephalopathy by mexidol intravenously, mesodiencephalic modulation (MDM and hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT. All patients were recoded EEG (electroencephalograph of “MBN” company, Russia and P300 ERP (“Neuron-Spectrum-5/EP” of “Neurosoft”, Russia according to the international recommendations of clinical neurophysiologists. Neuropsychological testing was used for the assessment of cognitive functions.RESULTS. There were some disturbances in primary electroencephalograms of all subjects. The follow-up EEG recording showed the main group of patients who had got the treatment (mexidol, MDM, HBOT had more often (11 patients the EEG improvements compared to the controls (1 patient. The main group had more rarely the EEG impairments compared to the control group. 6 patients of main group and 3 patients of controls did not have EEG changes during the follow-up EEG recordings. All controls and 17 patients of the main group patients had different cognitive disturbances. After the treatment 15 patients of the main group had improved on neuropsychological tests (MMSE, Munsterberg test, Schulte table, Number Connecting Test. They also had a decrease in the N200, P300 peak latency and an increase in the N200, P300

  9. [Methods for the prevention and treatment of toxico-hypoxic encephalopathy in patients with acute severe poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The study included 147 patients with toxico-hypoxic encephalopathy resulting from acute poisoning. It was shown that intensive therapy with cytoflavin (20 ml in 400 ml of 5% glucose solution twice daily for 7 days) reduced severity of hypoxic brain lesions and suppression of CNS as apparent from the improvement of its bioelectric activity. The recovery of CNS regulatory action on the life-sustaining systems of the body promoted normalization of the respiratory component of oxygen transport. The improvement of the patients' conditions in the acute phase contributed to accelerated recovery of cognitive-amnestic functions and social adaptation. Cytoflavin therapy improved the clinical picture of toxico-hypoxic encephalopathy due to the reduction in the duration of the comatose state from 45.3 +/- 8.2 to 27.7 +/- 6.9 hr and the decrease in the frequency of secondary pulmonary complications from 72.7 to 35.9%.

  10. Acute toxicity assessment of Osthol content in bio-pesticides using two aquatic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Chae Yim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study focused on the assessment of acute toxicity caused by Osthol, a major component of environment-friendly biological pesticides, by using two aquatic organisms. Methods The assessment of acute toxicity caused by Osthol was conducted in Daphnia magna and by examining the morphological abnormalities in Danio rerio embryos. Results The median effective concentration value of Osthol in D. magna 48 hours after inoculation was 19.3 μM. The median lethal concentration of D. rerio embryo at 96 hours was 30.6 μM. No observed effect concentration and predicted no effect concentration values of Osthol in D. magna and D. rerio were calculated as 5.4 and 0.19 μM, respectively. There was an increase in the morphological abnormalities in D. rerio embryo due to Osthol over time. Coagulation, delayed hatching, yolk sac edema, pericardial edema, and pigmentation were observed in embryos at 24–48 hours. Symptoms of scoliosis and head edema occurred after 72 hours. In addition, bent tails, ocular defects, and symptoms of collapse were observed in fertilized embryo tissue within 96 hours. Ocular defects and pigmentation were the additional symptoms observed in this study. Conclusions Because Osthol showed considerable toxicity levels continuous toxicity evaluation in agro-ecosystems is necessary when bio-pesticides containing Osthol are used.

  11. [Acute dextromethorphan poisoning based on the records of the Department of Toxicology and Internal Diseases in Poznan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik-Głebocka, Magdalena; Sommerfeld, Karina

    2009-01-01

    The recreational usage of dextrometorphan, the popular antitussive medicine, has become alarming in Poland. The euphoric and hallucinogenic activity of this drug manifests after high doses, usually ranging from 225 to 1500 mg that may lead to acute poisoning. Currently, dextrometh-orphan is considered as addictive substance. In this article we describe the symptoms of acute dextrometorphan poisoning that have been observed in 11 patients, aged between 16 and 31 years that have been treated in the Department of Toxicology and Internal Diseases Raszeja Hospital in Poznan. In the course of intoxication the most frequent symptom was balance disturbation (12.50%), impaired motoric coordination (11.36%), confusion (11.36%) and papillary dilation (11.36%). Agitation (9.09%), tachycardia (7.95%), hallucinations (6.82%), disartria (5.68%) and hypertension (4.55%) were less common. The doses of dextromethorphan ranged from 4.28 to 16.67 mg/kg. All the patients were treated symptomatically. They recovered without sequelae and were discharged after 1-3 days of hospitalization.

  12. Oxidative Distress and Its Correction with Reamberin in Patients With Acute Poisoning by a Mixture of Psychotropic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Livanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the impact of reamberin incorporation into intensive care on the antioxidant defense system and the activity of lipid peroxidation in patients with toxic-hypoxic encephalopathy. Subjects and methods. The investigation enrolled 84 patients with acute severe poisoning by a mixture of psychotropic substances (hypnotics, neuroleptics, antidepressants, 1,4-benzodiazepine derivatives, ethanol. Oxygen balance parameters (oxygen consumption, oxygen utilization quotient, and arteriovenous oxygen difference were calculated. The antiradical defense system was evaluated determining the levels of reduced glutathione and free sulfhydryl groups of proteins activity of the antiradical enzymes glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, and catalase in red blood cells. Lipid peroxidation rate in red blood cells was determined by measuring the concentration of malondialdehyde. Results. The incorporation of reamberin into intensive care was found to be accompanied by a reduction in tissue hypoxia, more rapid recovery of the antioxidant defense system, and a decrease in the activity of lipid peroxidation processes. Сorrection of metabolic disturbances in its turn leads to the improved clinical course of acute poisoning, which manifests itself as a reduction in the duration of coma, the length of stay in the intensive care unit, and mortality. Conclusion. The reduction in the severity of metabolic disturbances associated with the development of hypoxia and free radical disorders leads to substantial improvement of the clinical course and outcomes of toxic-hypoxic encephalopathy. Key words: toxic-hypoxic encephalopathy, hypoxia, antioxidant system, lipid peroxida-tion, reamberin.

  13. Acute and chronic disability among U.S. farmers and pesticide applicators: the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Marín, O; Fleming, L E; Lee, D J; LeBlanc, W; Zheng, D; Ma, F; Jané, D; Pitman, T; Caban, A

    2004-11-01

    The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is a multipurpose household survey of the U.S. civilian non-institutionalized population conducted annually since 1957. From 1986 to 1994, over 450,000 U.S. workers, age 18 years and older, participated in a probability sampling of the entire non-institutionalized U.S. population; variables collected included a range of measures of acute and chronic disability. The objective of the present study was to assess predictors of health status, and acute and chronic disability for farmers and pesticide applicators (pesticide-exposed workers) compared to all other U.S. workers using the 1986-1994 NHIS. After adjustment for sample weights and design effects using SUDAAN, several measures of acute and chronic disability and health status were modeled with multiple logistic regression. Farmers (n = 9576) were significantly older compared to all other U.S. workers (n = 453,219) and pesticide applicators (n = 180). Farmers and pesticide applicators had a higher proportion of males, whites, and Hispanics and were less educated. After adjusting for age, gender, race-ethnicity, and education, compared to all other workers, farmers were significantly less likely to report acute and chronic disability and health conditions, while pesticide applicators were more likely to report chronic disability, health conditions, and poor health. Given the cross-sectional nature of the data and the significant job demands of farming, both leading to a relative healthy worker effect, the present results indicate that at any point in time, farmers report less acute and chronic disability, compared to other U.S. workers, whereas pesticide applicators report similar or poorer health.

  14. Pesticide Residues in Commercial Lettuce, Onion, and Potato Samples From Bolivia—A Threat to Public Health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Marlene; Renjel, Susana; Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2017-01-01

    Bolivia does not have a surveillance program for pesticide residues in food. The few published studies have suggested that pesticide contamination in food may present a public health problem. Data are lacking for all foods except tomatoes and breast milk. In this study 10 potato, 10 onion, and 10...... or together would lead to exposures that exceeded the acceptable daily intake or the acute reference dose. To protect consumers from pesticide poisonings and chronic effects, the development of measures for prevention, control, and monitoring of food contamination by pesticides in Bolivia is suggested....

  15. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary acute exposure of the population of Denmark to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christensen, Tue

    2009-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides and as such have a common mode of action. We assessed the cumulative acute exposure of the population of Denmark to 25 organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide residues from the consumption of fruit, vegetables...... and cereals. The probabilistic approach was used in the assessments. Residue data obtained from the Danish monitoring programme carried out in the period 2004-2007, which included 6704 samples of fruit, vegetables and cereals, were used in the calculations. Food consumption data were obtained from...... the nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-2002. Contributions from 43 commodities were included in the calculations. We used the relative potency factor (RPF) approach to normalize the toxicity of the various organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides to the two index compounds chlorpyriphos...

  16. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Probably Caused by Arsenic-Based Pesticides: Findings from an Investigation Study of a Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to naturally occurring arsenic, man-made arsenic-based compounds are other sources of arsenic exposure. In 2013, our group identified 12 suspected arsenicosis patients in a household (32 living members. Of them, eight members were diagnosed with skin cancer. Interestingly, all of these patients had lived in the household prior to 1989. An investigation revealed that approximately 2 tons of arsenic-based pesticides had been previously placed near a well that had supplied drinking water to the family from 1973 to 1989. The current arsenic level in the well water was 620 μg/L. No other high arsenic wells were found near the family’s residence. Based on these findings, it is possible to infer that the skin lesions exhibited by these family members were caused by long-term exposure to well water contaminated with arsenic-based pesticides. Additionally, biochemical analysis showed that the individuals exposed to arsenic had higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase than those who were not exposed. These findings might indicate the presence of liver dysfunction in the arsenic-exposed individuals. This report elucidates the effects of arsenical compounds on the occurrence of high levels of arsenic in the environment and emphasizes the severe human health impact of arsenic exposure.

  17. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Probably Caused by Arsenic-Based Pesticides: Findings from an Investigation Study of a Household.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfang; Ye, Feng; Wang, Anwei; Wang, Da; Yang, Boyi; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan; Gao, Xinghua

    2016-01-16

    In addition to naturally occurring arsenic, man-made arsenic-based compounds are other sources of arsenic exposure. In 2013, our group identified 12 suspected arsenicosis patients in a household (32 living members). Of them, eight members were diagnosed with skin cancer. Interestingly, all of these patients had lived in the household prior to 1989. An investigation revealed that approximately 2 tons of arsenic-based pesticides had been previously placed near a well that had supplied drinking water to the family from 1973 to 1989. The current arsenic level in the well water was 620 μg/L. No other high arsenic wells were found near the family's residence. Based on these findings, it is possible to infer that the skin lesions exhibited by these family members were caused by long-term exposure to well water contaminated with arsenic-based pesticides. Additionally, biochemical analysis showed that the individuals exposed to arsenic had higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase than those who were not exposed. These findings might indicate the presence of liver dysfunction in the arsenic-exposed individuals. This report elucidates the effects of arsenical compounds on the occurrence of high levels of arsenic in the environment and emphasizes the severe human health impact of arsenic exposure.

  18. A 3-year survey of acute poisoning exposures in infants reported in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmaceuticals were involved in 185 cases (16.8%) followed by biological exposures (e.g. snake and spider bites, scorpion stings, plant and mushroom poisonings) (n=109, 9.9%). Most infants (n=987, 89.6%) presented with no or only minor symptoms. In neonates, 17 (37.0%) presented with moderate to severe toxicity.

  19. A Yearlong Epidemiologic Study on Unintentional Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Fars Province, Southwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mirahmadizadeh

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Generally, the incidence and fatality rate of CO poisoning in the current study were comparable to those of the world statistics, but higher than in developed counties. Attention and emphasis on the safety of gas heaters, stoves, and other gas-powered appliances in residential places should be enforced.

  20. Acute poisoning in the community and its associated mortality at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the cases where due to self-poisoning with intent to cause selfharm. The reasons for self-harm behaviour were given in 115 cases, and 71 (62%) of these were due to interpersonal conflicts arising from disharmony in relationships. The rest were due to various psychological disorders including depressive illness.

  1. Acute poisoning in cattle due to ingestion of rattlebox weed in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of poisoning due to ingestion of Crotalaria cylindrocapa otherwise referred to as rattlebox weed in cattle was investigated and reported in this paper. High morbidity and low mortality rates were recorded in the affected cattle. Clinical signs observed were; hypersalivation, weakness, ataxia, inappetance , recumbency ...

  2. Study of trends of poisoning in the cases reported to government hospital, Yavatmal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuganti Prabhakar Vaidya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: India is a developing country in south Asia. Rural population of this country is mostly dependant on agriculture. Pesticides, mainly the organophosphorus compounds are the most frequently used substances in agriculture and thus are easily accessible. Animal bites such as snake bite, scorpion bites are also common, as people here are mainly involved in the field work. Aims: This includes, knowing the pattern of poisoning in India along with various parameters, such as mode of poisoning, type of poison, outcome of the poisoning, the most vulnerable age group involved in poisoning, so that the study will help in rapid clinical diagnosis and immediate treatment of the cases leading to decreased mortality and morbidity. Setting and design: Retrospective observational study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Govt. Hospital, Yavatmal. Poisoning cases reported to casualty and post-mortem cases of poisoning brought to the hospital from 01/06/2003 to 30/05/2004 were included in the study. Result: Total 1003 patients studied; acute poisoning in the age group of 21-30 years was the most common with higher frequency in males. Most common mode was suicidal. Most common agent responsible for poisoning was organophosphorus compounds followed by snake bite. Overall mortality due to poisoning was 12%. It was highest in insecticidal poisoning. Conclusion: It was seen that adults between 21 and 30 years of age were more prone to suicidal poisoning with organophosphorous compounds followed by accidental poisoning due to snake bite. Steps are needed to be taken to educate the people, to improve their socioeconomic status and also to provide better treatment facilities at grass root level.

  3. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Poisoning KidsHealth / For Kids / Food Poisoning What's in ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  4. Probabilistic acute dietary exposure assessments to captan and tolylfluanid using several European food consumption and pesticide concentration databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P.E.; Svensson, K.; Moussavian, S.; Voet, van der H.; Petersen, A.; Ruprich, J.; Debegnach, F.; Boer, de W.J.; Donkersgoed, van G.; Brera, C.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Busk, L.

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic dietary acute exposure assessments of captan and tolylfluanid were performed for the populations of the Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden. The basis for these assessments was national databases for food consumption and pesticide concentration data harmonised at

  5. Acute toxicity test for terrestrial hazard assessment with exposure of Folsomia candida to pesticides in an aqueous medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houx, N.W.H.; Dekker, A.; Kammen-Polman, van A.M.M.; Ronday, R.

    1996-01-01

    An acute-toxicty test is described in which the springtail Folsomia candida was exposed to pesticides in water for four days. The test method has been designed for the direct and economical chemical analyses of all the concentrations during the execution of the test. The 96-hour EC50 values

  6. Notes from the Field: Acute Sulfuryl Fluoride Poisoning in a Family - Florida, August 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulay, Prakash R; Clark, Grethel; Jackson, William L; Calvert, Geoffrey M

    2016-07-15

    On August 19, 2015, the Florida Department of Health (FDOH) was notified by the Florida Poison Information Center Network and a local hospital of possible sulfuryl fluoride poisonings affecting a family in Martin County, in southeastern Florida. Sulfuryl fluoride is a highly toxic (toxicity category I) gas fumigant used for termite control of homes and buildings.* FDOH personnel in Martin County commenced an investigation and identified a family of five (a grandmother, mother, father, son, and daughter) exposed to sulfuryl fluoride after their house was fumigated. The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Criminal Investigation Division also conducted an investigation after being notified by FDOH. Medical records were reviewed, and the father was interviewed by FDOH.

  7. Reversible cerebral periventricular white matter changes with corpus callosum involvement in acute toluene-poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Ming; Liu, Chi-Kuang

    2015-01-01

    Substance poisoning, such as toluene intoxication, has seldom been reported in the relevant literature. The documented cerebral neuroimaging has mostly described reversible symmetrical white matter changes in both the cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres. This paper presents 2 patients with toluene poisoning, whose brain magnetic resonance imaging studies showed a similar picture that included extra involvement over the corpus callosum; however, such corpus callosum involvement has never been mentioned and is quite rare in the literature. We discussed the underlying neuropathological pathways in this article. Hopefully, these cases will provide first-line clinicians with some valuable information with regard to toluene intoxication and clinical neuroimaging presentations. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  8. Recommendations for the role of extracorporeal treatments in the management of acute methanol poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Darren M; Yates, Christopher; Megarbane, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    of biomarkers of exposure and toxicity. In the absence of severe poisoning, the decision to use extracorporeal treatment is determined by balancing the cost and complications of extracorporeal treatment to that of fomepizole or ethanol. Given regional differences in cost and availability of fomepizole......OBJECTIVE: Methanol poisoning can induce death and disability. Treatment includes the administration of antidotes (ethanol or fomepizole and folic/folinic acid) and consideration of extracorporeal treatment for correction of acidemia and/or enhanced elimination. The Extracorporeal Treatments...... of fomepizole therapy, 2) greater than 600 mg/L or 18.7 mmol/L in the context of ethanol treatment, 3) greater than 500 mg/L or 15.6 mmol/L in the absence of an alcohol dehydrogenase blocker; in the absence of a methanol concentration, the osmolal/osmolar gap may be informative; or, in the context of impaired...

  9. The effect of acute carbon monoxide poisoning on micronuclei frequency and proliferation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (case-control study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ślęzak, Monika; Skalniak, Anna; Groszek, Barbara; Piątkowsk, Jakub; Pach, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) exposure is still one of the leading causes of unintentional poisonings. Although its neurological sequels have been extensively studied, the knowledge about cytogenetic conse- quences still remains very limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the genotoxic potential of carbon monoxide in the course of acute poisoning. The examined group consisted of 73 patients treated because of accidental acute CO poisoning, and 22 healthy control individuals. Poisoning severity was estimated on the basis of neurological symptoms at admission, age, duration of exposure, carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level and blood lactate concentration. The cytochalasine-B (cytokinesis blocker) micronucleus assay (CBMN) was used to analyze the cytogenetic alterations in lymphocytes from peripheral blood of the patients. Intoxicated patients displayed higher numbers of micronuclei (MN) than controls. The frequency of MN depended on the age of patients, loss of consciousness, neurological symptoms at admission, and the level of carboxyhemoglobin, but did not correlate with lactate level. We also observed differences in cell responses depending on the gender. Our results confirm the presence of cytogenetic changes after carbon monoxide poisoning. Based on these data we conclude, that CO might have genotoxic potential.

  10. Legalon® SIL: The Antidote of Choice in Patients with Acute Hepatotoxicity from Amatoxin Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengs, Ulrich; Pohl, Ralf -Torsten; Mitchell, Todd

    2012-01-01

    More than 90% of all fatal mushroom poisonings worldwide are due to amatoxin containing species that grow abundantly in Europe, South Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. Many cases have also been reported in North America. Initial symptoms of abdominal cramps, vomiting, and a severe cholera-like diarrhea generally do not manifest until at least six to eight hours following ingestion and can be followed by renal and hepatic failure. Outcomes range from complete recovery to fulminant organ failure and death which can sometimes be averted by liver transplant. There are no controlled clinical studies available due to ethical reasons, but uncontrolled trials and case reports describe successful treatment with intravenous silibinin (Legalon® SIL). In nearly 1,500 documented cases, the overall mortality in patients treated with Legalon® SIL is less than 10% in comparison to more than 20% when using penicillin or a combination of silibinin and penicillin. Silibinin, a proven antioxidative and anti-inflammatory acting flavonolignan isolated from milk thistle extracts, has been shown to interact with specific hepatic transport proteins blocking cellular amatoxin re-uptake and thus interrupting enterohepatic circulation of the toxin. The addition of intravenous silibinin to aggressive intravenous fluid management serves to arrest and allow reversal of the manifestation of fulminant hepatic failure, even in severely poisoned patients. These findings together with the available clinical experience justify the use of silibinin as Legalon® SIL in Amanita poisoning cases. PMID:22352731

  11. Acute liver failure due to zinc phosphide containing rodenticide poisoning: Clinical features and prognostic indicators of need for liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraf, Vivek; Pande, Supriya; Gopalakrishnan, Unnikrishnan; Balakrishnan, Dinesh; Menon, Ramachandran N; Sudheer, O V; Dhar, Puneet; Sudhindran, S

    2015-07-01

    Zinc phosphide (ZnP) containing rodenticide poisoning is a recognized cause of acute liver failure (ALF) in India. When standard conservative measures fail, the sole option is liver transplantation. Records of 41 patients admitted to a single centre with ZnP-induced ALF were reviewed to identify prognostic indicators for requirement of liver transplantation. Patients were analyzed in two groups: group I (n = 22) consisted of patients who either underwent a liver transplant (n = 14) or died without a transplant (n = 8); group II (n = 19) comprised those who survived without liver transplantation. International normalized ratio (INR) in group I was 9 compared to 3 in group II (p Liver Disease (MELD) score in group I was 41 compared to 24 in group II (p liver transplantation.

  12. The effects of intravenous aminophylline on level of consciousness in acute intentional benzodiazepines poisoning in comparison to flumazenil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghabiklooei, A; Sangsefidi, J

    2017-03-01

    Acute intentional benzodiazepine poisoning is marked by a significant loss of consciousness, aspiration pneumonia, and increased rates of mortality and morbidity, especially in older patients with underlying heart or lung disease. These patients may need flumazenil to reverse the respiratory effects of benzodiazepines. The positive effects of aminophylline on respiration and neonatal apnea improvement have been shown previously. However, its possible effects on increasing the level of consciousness have never been evaluated. In a placebo-controlled study, we assessed the effectiveness of aminophylline on increasing the level of consciousness. Time to full awakening was significantly shorter in those who received aminophylline (72 min vs. 881 min, p = 0.001), compared to those who received a placebo. When "flumazenil" is contraindicated or unavailable, intravenous aminophylline can be used as a second choice.

  13. A quick inexpensive laboratory method in acute paracetamol poisoning could improve risk assessment, management and resource utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senarathna, S.M.D.K. Ganga; Ranganathan, Shalini S.; Buckley, Nick; Soysa, S.S.S.B.D. Preethi; Fernandopulle, B. M. Rohini

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Acute paracetamol poisoning is an emerging problem in Sri Lanka. Management guidelines recommend ingested dose and serum paracetamol concentrations to assess the risk. Our aim was to determine the usefulness of the patient's history of an ingested dose of >150 mg/kg and paracetamol concentration obtained by a simple colorimetric method to assess risk in patients with acute paracetamol poisoning. Materials and Methods: Serum paracetamol concentrations were determined in 100 patients with a history of paracetamol overdose using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC); (reference method). The results were compared to those obtained with a colorimetric method. The utility of risk assessment by reported dose ingested and colorimetric analysis were compared. Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the history of ingested dose was 0.578 and there was no dose cut-off providing useful risk categorization. Both analytical methods had less than 5% intra- and inter-batch variation and were accurate on spiked samples. The time from blood collection to result was six times faster and ten times cheaper for colorimetry (30 minutes, US$2) than for HPLC (180 minutes, US$20). The correlation coefficient between the paracetamol levels by the two methods was 0.85. The agreement on clinical risk categorization on the standard nomogram was also good (Kappa = 0.62, sensitivity 81%, specificity 89%). Conclusions: History of dose ingested alone greatly over-estimated the number of patients who need antidotes and it was a poor predictor of risk. Paracetamol concentrations by colorimetry are rapid and inexpensive. The use of these would greatly improve the assessment of risk and greatly reduce unnecessary expenditure on antidotes. PMID:23087506

  14. A survey of acute poisonings in South Africa based on Tygerberg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a national service, 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, afford this perspective on a national scale and serve ... the only PIC offering a consultant-based service, 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, to all South Africans. .... as a tick, cattle, cow, sheep or dog dip or 'unknown pesticide') was identified by the TPIC in 89.1% (41 of ...

  15. QT Prolongation as an Isolated Long-Term Cardiac Manifestation of Dichlorvos Organophosphate Poisoning in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyovich, Arthur; Matot, Ran; Elyagon, Sigal; Liel-Cohen, Noah; Rosman, Yossi; Shrot, Shai; Kassirer, Michael; Katz, Amos; Etzion, Yoram

    2017-05-16

    Organophosphates (OP) are used extensively as pesticides and as chemical weapons. Cardiotoxicity is a major concern in survivors of the acute poisoning. To characterize the delayed cardiac effects of OP, rats were poisoned by intraperitoneal administration of dichlorvos. In group I, poisoning (0.25-, 0.75-, 1.4-LD50) was followed by application of atropine and obidoxime. In group II, poisoning (0.35-, 0.5-LD50) was done without antidotes. Cardiac evaluation included electrocardiography and echocardiography 2- and 6-week post-exposure, arrhythmia susceptibility following administration of Isoproterenol (150 mcg/kg), and histological evaluation. All poisoned animals displayed cholinergic symptoms. In group I, all animals exposed to 1.4-LD50 (n = 3) had profound convulsions and died despite antidote treatment. However, in the lower doses, all animals survived and no cardiac abnormalities were noted during follow-up. In group II, six animals had convulsions and died. Surviving animals had mild but significant prolongation of corrected QT at both 2 and 6 weeks, compared to shams. There were no notable echocardiographic, gravimetric, or histological differences between poisoned and sham animals. Our data indicate that dichlorvos poisoning is associated with QT prolongation without anatomical or histopathological abnormalities. This new model can be used to elaborate the molecular mechanism\\s of QT prolongation following OP poisoning.

  16. Outcome of patients in acute poisoning with ethylene glycol--factors which may have influence on evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanasescu, A; Macovei, R A; Tudosie, M S

    2014-01-01

    acidosis was present up to 55,55% (10 of the 18 patients) in the blood gas analysis on admission, with pH on admission between 6.9 and 7.27, with anion gap ranging between 16.3 mmol/l and 32.6 mmol/l (normal range 8-16 mmol/l). Ten patients also had an increased level of urea and creatinine with a level between 1.24 to 6.85 mg/dl for creatinine (normal range 0.5-1.2 mg/dl) and 49 to 98 mg/dl for urea (normal range 15-43 mg/dl) and developed acute kidney injury that required regular HD sessions. Mechanical ventilation was required for 7 of the 18 patients (38.88%). Five patients died (27.77%). Although metabolic acidosis was corrected under hemodialysis, there were patients who had multiple organ failure and systems: acute respiratory failure requiring ventilator support, acute renal failure requiring dialysis daily sessions, altered state of consciousness. The early diagnostic and exclusion of the other diseases and other poisoning led to a specific treatment of the intoxication. The time from the ingestion of ethylene glycol and the early establishment of therapy is very important for a favorable evolution and can prevent substantial mortality.

  17. ACUTE EXOGENOUS INTOXICATIONS WITH ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES: DURATION OF THE HOSPITAL TREATMENT AND CLINICAL CRITERIA FOR PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petko Marinov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Several criteria have been suggested to estimate the intoxication severity, yet so far no system of clinical criteria has been developed to determine the duration of hospitalisation. The forecast is linked to the influence of the extended corrected QT interval and GCS (Glasgow Coma Scale on the frequency of the developing acute pulmonary insufficiency and lethality. The average duration of hospital treatment is also crucial. First of all, it is determined by the intoxication severity and lasts from 3 to 26 days. The aim of this study is to develop an individual forecast about the duration of hospitalisation for patients suffering from acute exogenous intoxication with organophosphorus pesticides (OPP. Materials/Methods: The subjects are 160 patients. We use statistical regression analysis to study the significance of 5 of the most typical clinical indicators of organophosphorus intoxication on the duration of hospitalisation: type of conscience, presence of spasms, pulmonary oedema, shock and multi-organ insufficiency syndrome (MOIS. To forecast the treatment length, we obtain simplified mathematical expressions in the form of score estimates. Results: The significance of the clinical indicators “MOIS”, “conscience” and “spasm” has been confirmed. A forecast matrix that gives the opportunity to forecast the personal duration of hospital treatment for each patient has been built.

  18. Toxicology in the Old Testament. Did the High Priest Alcimus die of acute aconitine poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, Ferdinand P; Karenberg, Axel

    2002-01-01

    The Bible contains several interesting contributions to the history of neurology, as is the case of the High Priest Alkimos, who died suddenly in 159 BC. He was regarded as a stereotypical stroke victim for a long time. The reports on his death in the Septauginta and the later 'Jewish Antiquities' of Flavius Josephus present some typical symptoms of stroke (collapse, loss of speech and death within a short time), but they also describe severe pains, which are very unusual among patients with stroke. Similar symptoms can be found in the case of the Roman emperor Claudius, who was poisoned by his spouse Agrippina. It was thought that she used aconitine, an ingredient of the monkshood plant (Aconitum napellus L.), which imitates an apoplectic insult, but also causes vehement pains. It was therefore possible that something similar had happened to Alkimos, as aconitine was a common poison in ancient times and the surroundings of his death may confirm the suspicion. Reigning during a time of great upheaval, Alkimos was able to maintain his high office chiefly because of the help of the Seleucides. He has just begun construction work on the temple of Jerusalem, an order, which was regarded as a sacrilege by his foes. This impression was enhanced by his subsequent illness which could be considered as a divine punishment.

  19. [Paracetamol: therapeutic action, pathogenesis and treatment of acute poisonings complicated by severe liver damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołaciński, Zbigniew; Rusiński, Piotr

    2003-01-01

    The biosynthesis of prostaglandins proceeds in the presence of fatty acid cycloxygenases (COX-1, COX-2). COX-1 is responsible for the synthesis of prostaglandins indispensable for normal homeostasis, while COX-2 regulates local expression of pro-inflammatory prostaglandins. Paracetamol is a selective inhibitor of COX-2 thus having an analgesic and antipyretic potential. The drug is metabolised primarily in the liver. About 5% of the dose transforms into N-acetylo-p-benzoquinoneimine (NAPQI), a highly active compound. Ingestion of a single paracetamol dose higher than 8 g leads to a depletion of hepatic glutathione reserves and a loss of the detoxifying property of the liver. As a result, hepatic necrosis develops. The specific antidote is N-acetylcysteine (NAC). If applied within 10-15 h since the poisoning it enables complete survival. The efficacy of specific treatment decreases after 24 h but blood paracetamol is an indication for NAC therapy. The surviving patients with advanced paracetamol poisoning require long-lasting conservative treatment with ornithine and phospholipids as well as a light diet.

  20. Availability of treatment resources for the management of acute toxic exposures and poisonings in emergency departments among various types of hospitals in Palestine: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Poisoning exposures continue to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The lack of facilities, treatment resources, and antidotes in hospitals may affect the treatments provided and outcomes. This study aimed to determine the availability of gastrointestinal (GI) decontamination, stabilisation, elimination enhancement resources, and antidotes for the management of acute toxic exposures and poisonings in emergency departments (EDs) among various types of governmental and private hospitals in Palestine. Methods A cross-sectional study using semi-structured questionnaire was performed. Data were collected based on hospital resources; GI decontamination, stabilisation, elimination enhancement resources and antidotes from Palestinian hospitals. Results Eighteen hospitals (94.7%) have responded. Among them, paracetamol poisoning was the most frequently reported cases by EDs (mean frequency score = 7.6 ± 2.1), followed by bee stings (mean = 6.9 ± 2.7) and organophosphate poisoning (mean = 6.7 ± 2.7). The availabilities of most resources related to GI decontamination items varied substantially with hospital type, but these differences were not statistical significant. The availability of stabilisation resources was not significantly different between hospitals types. For the availability of techniques used to enhance the elimination of toxic substances, there were variations between the hospitals types. However, these differences were not statistical significant, except for haemodialysis (p = 0.003) which was more available in governmental hospitals. For the availability of antidotes, none of the hospitals had sufficient stock of all antidotes listed. In relation to hospital type, there was variability in the availability of antidotes, but this did not reach statistical significance, except for deferoxamine (p Palestine for the management of acute toxic exposure and poisoning. The implementation of a minimum

  1. Survival pattern in patients with acute organophosphate poisoning on mechanical ventilation: A retrospective intensive care unit-based study in a tertiary care teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed M; Das, Bikramjit; Nadeem, Abu; Samal, Rajiv K

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) compound poisoning is one of the most common poisonings in India. The aim of the study was to study the outcomes and predictors of mortality in patients with acute OP poisoning requiring mechanical ventilation. A retrospective study was conducted in the intensive care unit and 117 patients were included. Diagnosis was performed from the history taken either from the patient or from the patient's relatives. Demographic data, month of the year, mode of poisoning, common age group, duration of mechanical ventilation, time of starting pralidoxime (PAM), and mortality were recorded. Chi square test, Pearson correlation test, and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used. Data are presented as mean ± SD. 91.86% (79/86) of cases were suicidal and remaining cases were accidental. Duration of mechanical ventilation varied from less than 48 hours to more than 7 days. Mortality rate was 33.3%, 7.2%, and 100% in those who required mechanical ventilation for more than 7 days, 5 to 7 days, and 2 to 4 days, respectively. Lag time was less than 6 hrs in 13 patients and all of them survived. 17.1% and 28.1% patients died in whom PAM was started 6 to 12 hrs and 13 to 24 hrs after poisoning, respectively. There was statistically significant positive correlation between lag time of starting of PAM with duration of mechanical ventilation and total dose of PAM (P ventilation were independent predictors of death. Overall mortality rate was 18.6%. Mortality from OP compound poisoning is directly proportionate to the severity of poisoning, delay in starting PAM, and duration of mechanical ventilation. Death is not dependent on a single factor, rather contributory to these factors working simultaneously.

  2. A Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship for acute oral toxicity of pesticides on rats: Validation, domain of application and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadache, Mabrouk; Benkortbi, Othmane; Hanini, Salah; Amrane, Abdeltif; Khaouane, Latifa; Si Moussa, Cherif

    2016-02-13

    Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models are expected to play an important role in the risk assessment of chemicals on humans and the environment. In this study, we developed a validated QSAR model to predict acute oral toxicity of 329 pesticides to rats because a few QSAR models have been devoted to predict the Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) of pesticides on rats. This QSAR model is based on 17 molecular descriptors, and is robust, externally predictive and characterized by a good applicability domain. The best results were obtained with a 17/9/1 Artificial Neural Network model trained with the Quasi Newton back propagation (BFGS) algorithm. The prediction accuracy for the external validation set was estimated by the Q(2)ext and the root mean square error (RMS) which are equal to 0.948 and 0.201, respectively. 98.6% of external validation set is correctly predicted and the present model proved to be superior to models previously published. Accordingly, the model developed in this study provides excellent predictions and can be used to predict the acute oral toxicity of pesticides, particularly for those that have not been tested as well as new pesticides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute poisoning due to ingestion of Datura stramonium - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trancă, Sebastian Daniel; Szabo, Robert; Cociş, Mihaela

    2017-04-01

    Datura stramonium (DS) is a widespread annual plant, containing atropine, hyoscyamine, and scopolamine, which can produce poisoning with a severe anticholinergic syndrome. Teenagers ingest the roots, seeds or the entire plant to obtain its hallucinogenic and euphoric effects. We presented the case of a 22 year old male who was admitted to the Emergency Room in a coma after consuming Datura stramonium, 2 hours earlier. The patient presented with fever, tachycardia with right bundle branch block, and urinary retention. Rapid sequence induction and intubation was performed immediately, with sedation and assisted-control mechanical ventilation, after being transferred to the Intensive Care Unit. The patient received activated charcoal, in repeated doses, external and internal cooling was applied, and an infusion of neostigmine was started. The biological assessment revealed rhabdomyolysis and prevention of renal failure was initiated. After a proper neurological evaluation, 36 hours after using Datura stramonium, the patient was extubated and transferred to the Psychiatric ward for further assessment and care.

  4. Acute Methanol Poisoning: Prevalence and Predisposing Factors of Haemorrhagic and Non-Haemorrhagic Brain Lesions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zakharov, S.; Kotíková, K.; Vaněčková, M.; Seidl, Z.; Nurieva, O.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Caganová, B.; Pelclová, D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 2 (2016), s. 228-238 ISSN 1742-7835 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : ACUTE OPTIC NEUROPATHY * FORMATE CONCENTRATIONS * PROGNOSTIC-FACTORS Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.176, year: 2016

  5. Pesticide Knowledge and Safety Practices among Farm Workers in Kuwait: Results of a Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallow, Mustapha F A; Awadh, Dawood G; Albaho, Mohammed S; Devi, Vimala Y; Thomas, Binson M

    2017-03-24

    The unsafe and indiscriminate use of pesticides in agriculture represents a major hazard to the environment and human health. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of knowledge, attitude and practices of Kuwaiti farmers regarding the safe use of pesticides. A total of 250 farmers participated in this study through in-depth interviews and observations on-farm. The majority of the farmers acknowledged that pesticides were harmful to their health (71%) and the environment (65%). However, farmers' level of knowledge of pesticide safety is insufficient. Over 70% of the farmers did not read or follow pesticide label instructions, and 58% did not use any personal protective equipment (PPE) when handling pesticides. Educated farmers were significantly more likely to use PPE compared with famers with limited formal education (χ² = 9.89, p pesticides within living areas was reported by 20% of farmers. When disposing of pesticide wastes, respondents adopted unsafe practices such as discarding, incinerating, or burying empty pesticide containers on-farm, or reusing the containers. Farmers also reported disposing leftover pesticide solution or old pesticide stocks on-farm or in the sewer. A significant number (82%) of the farmers reported at least one symptom of acute pesticide poisoning. Although farmers' knowledge of pesticide hazards was high, the reported safety measures were poor. Comprehensive intervention measures to reduce the health and environmental risks of pesticides are needed, including pesticide safety training programs for farmers, stringent enforcement of pesticide laws, and promoting integrated pest management and non-synthetic methods of pest control.

  6. Intoxicações por agrotóxicos entre trabalhadores rurais de fruticultura, Bento Gonçalves, RS Intoxicaciones por agrotóxicos entre trabajadores rurales de fruticultura, Bento Gonçalves, Sur de Brasil Poisoning by pesticides among family fruit farmers, Bento Gonçalves, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neice Müller Xavier Faria

    2009-04-01

    ámetros oficiales de monitorización deben ser reevaluados para mejor protección de los trabajadores. La ocurrencia de intoxicaciones a partir de la percepción de los trabajadores estuvo dentro de lo esperado, pero la estimación con base en la clasificación de la OMS captó una proporción mayor de casos.OBJECTIVE: To describe the occupational exposure to acute poisoning by pesticides, especially organophosphates, and its incidence. METHODS: A descriptive study was carried out on 290 family fruit farmers in the municipality of Bento Gonçalves, Southern Brazil, conducted in two stages in 2006. Two hundred and forty-one of these workers completed the two stages, which corresponded to periods of low use and intense use of pesticides. Data on the property, occupational exposure to pesticides, sociodemographic data and frequency of health problems were gathered using a standardized questionnaire. Poisoning was characterized by reports of episodes, symptoms relating to pesticides and plasma cholinesterase examinations. Cases were classified according to the matrix proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO. RESULTS: On average, each property used 12 different types of pesticides, consisting mainly of glyphosate and organophosphates. Most of the workers used tractors for pesticide application (87%, set aside the containers for selective garbage collection (86% and used protective equipment during activities involving pesticides (= 94%. Among these family farmers, 4% reported occurrences of poisoning by pesticides over the 12 months preceding the investigation, and 19% at some time during their lives. According to the criterion proposed by WHO, 11% were classified as probable cases of acute poisoning. Among the workers who had used organophosphates over the ten-day period preceding the examination, 2.9% presented two or more symptoms relating to pesticides and a 20% reduction in cholinesterase. CONCLUSIONS: The poisoning occurrences according to the workers' perceptions were

  7. Pesticide Health and Safety Challenges Facing Informal Sector Workers: A Case of Small-scale Agricultural Workers in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. [Mercury poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

    2011-07-01

    Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds…). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication. Copyright © 2010 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficiency of acidemia correction on intermittent versus continuous hemodialysis in acute methanol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Sergey; Pelclova, Daniela; Navratil, Tomas; Belacek, Jaromir; Latta, Jiri; Pisar, Michal; Rulisek, Jan; Leps, Jiri; Zidek, Pavel; Kucera, Cyril; Bocek, Robert; Mazur, Miroslav; Belik, Zdenek; Chalupa, Josef; Talafa, Viktor; Kodras, Kamil; Nalos, Daniel; Sedlak, Ctirad; Senkyrik, Michal; Smid, Jan; Salek, Tomas; Roberts, Darren M; Hovda, Knut Erik

    2017-02-01

    Acidemia is a marker of prognosis in methanol poisoning, as well as compounding formate-induced cytotoxicity. Prompt correction of acidemia is a key treatment of methanol toxicity and methods to optimize this are poorly defined. We studied the efficiency of acidemia correction by intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in a mass outbreak of methanol poisoning. The study was designed as observational cohort study. The mean time for an increase of 1 mmol/L HCO3-, 0.01 unit arterial blood pH, and the total time for correction of HCO3- were determined in IHD- and CRRT-treated patients. Data were obtained from 18 patients treated with IHD and 13 patients treated with CRRT. At baseline, CRRT group was more acidemic than IHD group (mean arterial pH 6.79 ± 0.10 versus 7.05 ± 0.10; p = 0.001). No association was found between the rate of acidemia correction and age, weight, serum methanol, lactate, formate, and glucose on admission. The time to HCO3- correction correlated with arterial blood pH (r= -0.511; p = 0.003) and creatinine (r = 0.415; p = 0.020). There was association between the time to HCO3- correction and dialysate/effluent and blood flow rates (r= -0.738; p < 0.001 and r= -0.602; p < 0.001, correspondingly). The mean time for HCO3- to increase by 1 mmol/L was 12 ± 2 min for IHD versus 34 ± 8 min for CRRT (p < 0.001), and the mean time for arterial blood pH to increase 0.01 was 7 ± 1 mins for IHD versus 11 ± 4 min for CRRT (p = 0.024). The mean increase in HCO3- was 5.67 ± 0.90 mmol/L/h for IHD versus 2.17 ± 0.74 mmol/L/h for CRRT (p < 0.001). Our study supports the superiority of IHD over CRRT in terms of the rate of acidemia correction.

  10. [The assessment of factors affecting acute ethanol poisonings clinical status in 1974-1975, 1984-1985 and 2011-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydzik, Piotr; Paź, Ewelina; Szkolnicka, Beata; Pach, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was an evaluation of clinical factors affecting relationship between ethanol concentration and clinical status in case of acute ethanol poisoning in the 70s and the 80s of the 20th century and 2011-2013 y. Ethanol blood concentration was a criterion of ethanol dose, grade of coma was a decisive factor of toxic effect. 112 patients treated at the Department of Clinical Toxicology Jagiellonian University Medical College in 1974-1975 y, 232 treated in 1984-1985 y and 663 treated in 2011-2013 y because of acute ethanol poisoning were analyzed. The degree of coma was evaluated according to Matthew's scale. Ethanol plasma concentration in each case was measured. The lowest ethanol blood concentrations in the youngest (60 y) groups were noted also the highest in group of adults (30-49 y). The three-gradual relationship between ethanol plasma level and degree of toxic coma was distinguished. However, the average of ethanol blood concentration were statistically significant in every degree of coma in 2011-2013 y. A statistically significant increase in number of patients in 0 coma grade with severe withdrawal symptoms, alcohol psychosis or epilepsy were noted, also decrease of patient in IV degree of coma. The increase ethanol tolerance in the group of acute ethanol poisoned patients shows their ethanol addiction.

  11. Accidental Poisoning with Otapiapia: a Local Organophasphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Otapiapia': a local rodenticide to highlight the dangers inherent in un-regulated production, home use and storage of this substance. Preventive measures are discussed. Keywords: Childhood, Organophosphate, Otapiapia, Pesticide, Poisoning.

  12. Efficacious Oxime for Organophosphorus Poisoning: A Minireview ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    27 oxime is a promising candidate to replace therapeutically available oximes with respect to insecticide/pesticide organophosphorus poisoning. K27 and K48 may be candidates to replace the only approved pretreatment drug, pyridostigmine, ...

  13. Inconceivable Hypokalemia: A Case Report of Acute Severe Barium Chloride Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Tao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium is a heavy divalent alkaline earth metal that has been known as a muscle poison. Barium can cause human toxicity, which may lead to significant hypokalemia and have serious consequences. This paper reports a case of unprecedented barium intoxication in which the patient, who suffered from depression, swallowed at least 3.0 g barium chloride to commit suicide. On admission, the patient presented with nausea, vomiting, stomach burning feeling, dizziness, and weakness. Emergency biochemical testing showed that the patient was suffering from severe hypokalemia (K+ 1.7 mmol/L. His electrocardiogram (ECG prompted atrioventricular blocking, ventricular tachycardia, prolongation of PR interval, ST segment depression with U waves, and T wave inversion. Intravenous potassium supplements were given immediately to correct hypokalemia and regular monitoring of vital signs and fluid balance was arranged. After all-out rescue of our hospital personnel, the condition of the patient is currently stable and he is gradually recovering. This case exemplifies the weaknesses of the management of toxic substances and the lack of mental health education for young people. We hope to get more attention for the supervision of toxic substances and the healthy development of young people.

  14. An Enigmatic Case of Acute Mercury Poisoning: Clinical, Immunological Findings and Platelet Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka Kleffner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Severe mercury intoxication is very rare in developed countries, but still occurs as the result of volatile substance abuse, suicide attempts, occupational hazards, or endemic food ingestion as reported in the cases of public health disasters in Iraq and in Minamata Bay, Japan. Here, we describe the dramatic physical and cognitive decline of a 23-year-old patient caused by a severe methyl mercury (MeHg intoxication of unknown origin. We show serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the patient’s brain, as well as ex vivo analyses of blood and cerebrospinal fluid including multicolor flow cytometric measurements, functional assays of hemostaseologic efficacy, and evaluation of regulatory effector molecules. Together with the clinical history, our findings show the progressive neuronal degeneration accompanying the deterioration of the patient. Moreover, the ex vivo analyses display alterations of thrombocyte function and coagulation, as well as an immunological milieu facilitating autoimmunity. Despite the successful reduction of the MeHg concentration in the patient’s blood with erythrocyte apheresis and chelator therapy, his condition did not improve and led to a persistent vegetative state. This case illustrates the neurotoxicity of MeHg following severe intoxication for the first time by serial MRI. Data on immune-cell and thrombocyte function as well as on coagulation in mercury poisoning reveal potential implications for anticoagulation and immunomodulatory treatment.

  15. Acute poisoning due to ingestion of Datura stramonium – a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trancă, Sebastian Daniel; Szabo, Robert; Cociş, Mihaela

    2017-01-01

    Datura stramonium (DS) is a widespread annual plant, containing atropine, hyoscyamine, and scopolamine, which can produce poisoning with a severe anticholinergic syndrome. Teenagers ingest the roots, seeds or the entire plant to obtain its hallucinogenic and euphoric effects. We presented the case of a 22 year old male who was admitted to the Emergency Room in a coma after consuming Datura stramonium, 2 hours earlier. The patient presented with fever, tachycardia with right bundle branch block, and urinary retention. Rapid sequence induction and intubation was performed immediately, with sedation and assisted-control mechanical ventilation, after being transferred to the Intensive Care Unit. The patient received activated charcoal, in repeated doses, external and internal cooling was applied, and an infusion of neostigmine was started. The biological assessment revealed rhabdomyolysis and prevention of renal failure was initiated. After a proper neurological evaluation, 36 hours after using Datura stramonium, the patient was extubated and transferred to the Psychiatric ward for further assessment and care. PMID:28913501

  16. Confirmation of acute nitrate poisoning differentiating from anthrax in three Indian indigenous cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaresan Nagarajan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reports cases of nitrate poisoning in Indian indigenous cattle breeds comprising two Gir cows aging 4 years each, and one Barugur cow at 1.5 years of age. The cattle with case history of sudden death and oozing of partially clotted blood from the anal opening were brought to the Central University Laboratory (CUL, Center for Animal Health Studies (CAHS, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (TANUVAS for diagnostic investigation with a suspicion of anthrax. According to anamnesis, all the animals were clinically normal and did not reveal any abnormality on the previous day. The animals were fed with recently harvested sorghum leaves and stalks. Smears examined for anthrax were found negative. Biological test (mice inoculation for anthrax was also negative. Gross lesions on necropsy examination of the carcases were suggestive of nitrate intoxication. Finally, nitrate intoxication of these cattle was confirmed by chemical and toxicological analysis of fodder, rumen content, aqueous humor, liver, kidney and urine.

  17. [Study of blood concentration analysis for formate in acute methanol poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Go; Okazawa, Katsuko; Shimizu, Takahiro; Otagiri, Sayoko; Fuwa, Fumiko; Nakagawa, Saori; Yamato, Susumu

    2015-09-01

    A 53-year-old woman ingested about 300 mL of 95% methanol. After immediate ethanol antagonist therapy and hemodialysis, she recovered completely. Few days later, the plasma concentration of methanol and formate was measured. A gas chromatography was used for the plasma methanol concentration measurement, and a colorimetric method was used for plasma formate concentration measurement (Formate Colorimetric Assay Kit; BioVision, California, USA). Patient's plasma methanol concentration before hemodialysis was 676.9 mg/dL and plasma formate concentration was 16.9 mg/dL. By removing blood methanol and formate using hemodialysis before formate accumulations in the body, the patient was discharged without any sequelae. We were able to obtain correlation between a gas chromatography and colorimetric method without gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, with good correlation coefficients. The sensitivity was sufficient for analyzing blood sample. Monitoring formate concentration is useful in determining the treatment and evaluating the prognosis of methanol poisoning. We suggest that this colorimetric method is useful in a facility with no access to a gas chromatography in order to measure a plasma formate concentration.

  18. Predicting acute contact toxicity of pesticides in honeybees (Apis mellifera) through a k-nearest neighbor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Como, F; Carnesecchi, E; Volani, S; Dorne, J L; Richardson, J; Bassan, A; Pavan, M; Benfenati, E

    2017-01-01

    Ecological risk assessment of plant protection products (PPPs) requires an understanding of both the toxicity and the extent of exposure to assess risks for a range of taxa of ecological importance including target and non-target species. Non-target species such as honey bees (Apis mellifera), solitary bees and bumble bees are of utmost importance because of their vital ecological services as pollinators of wild plants and crops. To improve risk assessment of PPPs in bee species, computational models predicting the acute and chronic toxicity of a range of PPPs and contaminants can play a major role in providing structural and physico-chemical properties for the prioritisation of compounds of concern and future risk assessments. Over the last three decades, scientific advisory bodies and the research community have developed toxicological databases and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models that are proving invaluable to predict toxicity using historical data and reduce animal testing. This paper describes the development and validation of a k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) model using in-house software for the prediction of acute contact toxicity of pesticides on honey bees. Acute contact toxicity data were collected from different sources for 256 pesticides, which were divided into training and test sets. The k-NN models were validated with good prediction, with an accuracy of 70% for all compounds and of 65% for highly toxic compounds, suggesting that they might reliably predict the toxicity of structurally diverse pesticides and could be used to screen and prioritise new pesticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characteristics of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The rate of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka has increased in recent years, with associated morbidity and economic cost to the country. This review examines the published literature for the characteristics and factors associated with non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka. Methods Electronic searches were conducted in Psychinfo, Proquest, Medline and Cochrane databases from inception to October 2011. Results 26 publications (representing 23 studies) were eligible to be included in the review. A majority of studies reported non-fatal self-poisoning to be more common among males, with a peak age range of 10–30 years. Pesticide ingestion was the most commonly used method of non-fatal self-poisoning. However three studies conducted within the last ten years, in urban areas of the country, reported non-fatal self-poisoning by medicinal overdose to be more common, and also reported non-fatal self-poisoning to be more common among females. Interpersonal conflict was the most commonly reported short-term stressor associated with self-poisoning. Alcohol misuse was reported among males who self-poisoned, and data regarding other psychiatric morbidity was limited. Conclusions The findings indicate that pesticide ingestion is the commonest method of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka, and it is more common among young males, similar to other Asian countries. However there appears to be an emerging pattern of increasing medicinal overdoses, paralleled by a gender shift towards increased female non-fatal self-poisoning in urban areas. Many non-fatal self-poisoning attempts appear to occur in the context of acute interpersonal stress, with short premeditation, and associated with alcohol misuse in males. Similar to other Asian countries, strategies to reduce non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka require integrated intervention programs with several key aspects, including culturally appropriate interventions to develop interpersonal skills in young people

  20. [Simulation of parameters of alcohol-oxidizing enzyme systems and pathomorphological characteristics in situations of acute ethanol poisoning and ischemic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porodenko, V A; Korkhmazov, V T

    2011-01-01

    Morphometric characteristics and forensic chemical information used in diagnostics of acute ethanol intoxication and coronary heart disease in conjunction with macro- and microscopic pathomorphological signs of the changes in the heart, liver, and kidneys provide data that may suggest the presence of pathology but do not permit to reliably identify it. In this context, evaluation of activities of alcohol-oxidizing enzyme systems acquires clinical significance. The analysis of correlations between quantitative parameters supplemented by the construction of binary models allows to objectively interpret the conclusions about the cause of death in each concrete case of acute ethanol poisoning and coronary heart disease.

  1. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Michael C.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant cause of illness and death. Its protean symptoms probably lead to a gross underestimation of its true incidence. Low levels of carbon monoxide aggravate chronic cardiopulmonary problems, and high levels are associated with cardiac arrhythmias and cerebral edema. Patients who survive acute poisoning are at risk of delayed neurologic sequelae. The measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels does not reveal the tissue levels of carbon monoxide but is useful...

  2. [Acute poisoning with weight-loss dietary supplement falsely suggesting the use of amphetamine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik-Głebocka, Magdalena; Sommerfeld, Karina; Tezyk, Artur; Zielińska-Psuja, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    poisoning. Definitive confirmation of such intoxication requires the use of the reference methods.

  3. Hydroxyethyl Starch Could Save a Patient With Acute Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mahdi Marashi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old male patient with suicidal ingestion of one tablet of aluminium phosphide was referred to the department of toxicology emergency of Baharloo Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The garlic odor was smelled from the patient and abdominal pain and continuous vomiting as well as agitation and heartburn were the first signs and symptoms. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures at the arrival time were 95 and 67 mmHg, respectively. Gastric lavage with potassium permanganate (1:10,000, and 2 vials of sodium bicarbonate through a nasogastric tube was started for the patient and the management was continued with free intravenous infusion of 1 liter of NaCl 0.9% serum plus NaHCO3, hydrocortisone acetate (200 mg, calcium gluconate (1 g and magnesium sulfate (1 g. Regarding the large intravenous fluid therapy and vasoconstrictor administering (norepinephrine started by 5 µg/min and continued till 15 µg/min, there were no signs of response and the systolic blood pressure was 49 mmHg. At this time, hydroxyethyl starch (HES (6% hetastarch 600/0.75 in 0.9% sodium chloride with a dose of 600 cc in 6 hours was started for the patient. At the end of therapy with HES, the patient was stable with systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 110 and 77 mmHg, respectively. He was discharged on the 6th day after the psychological consultation, with normal clinical and paraclinical examinations. This is the first report of using HES in the management of AlP poisoning and its benefit to survive the patient.

  4. [Pecularities of correction of alcohol affctions of liver in patients with acute ethanol poisoning in the setting of consequence of toxic effect of ethanol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilov, V V; batotsyrenov, B V; Vasil'ev, S A; Shikalova, I A; Kuznetsov, O A

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this work was to test the usage of infusion of hepatoprotector "remaxol" in intensive therapy of acute ethanol poisoning accompanied with severe alcohol affections of the lever. In the result of the examination and treatment of 130 patients it was established that severe alcohol poisonings registered on alcohol abused patients with toxic hepatopathy, are always accompanied with serious metabolic violations. In the process of a comparative valuation of the using of heptral (ademethionin) and remaxol in the intensive therapy of alcohol poisonings it has been revealed that the using of remaxol led to improvement of the clinic of that poisonings, what had been registered as a decrease of frequency and duration of an alcohol delirium from 33,9% to 10,8%, a decrease of frequency of secondary lung complication from 18,5 to 3,1%, a decrease of a duration of treatment in intensive care unit from 7,3 +/- 0,6 to 5,6 +/- 0,3 and a hospital treatment duration from 11,8 +/- 0,5 to 9,0 +/- 0,3 days. Biochemical investigation has shown that using as heptral, as remaxol led to improvement of lever damages due to alcohol. However remaxol compared with heptral was better in the treatment of metabolic violations.

  5. DNA pooling base genome-wide association study identifies variants at NRXN3 associated with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Li

    Full Text Available Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP is more characteristic of anoxic encephalopathy than of other types of anoxia. Those who have the same poisoning degree and are of similar age and gender have a greater risk of getting DEACMP. This has made it clear that there are obvious personal differences. Genetic factors may play a very important role. The authors performed a genome-wide association study involving pooling of DNA obtained from 175 patients and 244 matched acute carbon monoxide poisoning without delayed encephalopathy controls. The Illumina HumanHap 660 Chip array was used for DNA pools. Allele frequencies of all SNPs were compared between delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning and control groups and ranked. A total of 123 SNPs gave an OR >1.4. Of these, 46 mapped in or close to known genes. Forty-eight SNPs located in 19 genes were associated with DEACMP after correction for 5% FDR in the genome-wide association of pooled DNA. Two SNPs (rs11845632 and rs2196447 locate in the Neurexin 3 gene were selected for individual genotyping in all samples and another cohort consisted of 234 and 271 controls. There were significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies of rs11845632 and rs2196447 between the DEACMP group and controls group (all P-values <0.05. This study describes a positive association between Neurexin 3 and controls in the Han Chinese population, and provides genetic evidence to support the susceptibility of DEACMP, which may be the resulting interaction of environmental and genetic factors.

  6. Acute oxalate poisoning attributable to ingestion of curly dock (Rumex crispus) in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panciera, R J; Martin, T; Burrows, G E; Taylor, D S; Rice, L E

    1990-06-15

    Ten of 100 mature ewes were afflicted with acute oxalate toxicosis within 40 hours after being temporarily penned in a lot that contained considerable growing Rumex crispus (curly dock). Clinical signs of toxicosis included excess salivation, tremors, ataxia, and recumbency. Affected ewes were markedly hypocalcemic and azotemic. Oxalate crystals were not observed in urine. Gross postmortem lesions were minimal and nondiagnostic in 2 ewes that died peracutely, but perirenal edema and renal tubular degeneration were clearly observable in ewes euthanatized on the third day of toxicosis. Diagnosis of oxalate toxicosis was confirmed by histopathologic findings. Samples of Rumex spp contained 6.6 to 11.1% oxalic acid on a dry-weight basis, a concentration comparable with that in other oxalate-containing plants that have caused acute oxalate toxicosis.

  7. Temperature changes among organophosphate poisoned patients, Tehran- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talaie Haleh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute poisoning with organophosphorus compounds (OPs is a major global clinical problem in the developing countries. There have been many animal studies and few human surveys on the effects of organophosphorus pesticide (OP poisoning on thermoregulation. The aim of this prospective study was to document the pattern of tympanic temperature changes among OP poisoned patients throughout the length of their hospital stay. Methods 60 patients with diagnose of organophosphate poisoning were included in this study. Questioner was filled out by trained nurses including demographic, clinical and paraclinical data. Tympanic temperature and Pulse rate data of the cases were collected on five- occasions after admission. Results There were 41 (68.3% male and 19 (31.7% female, with a mean age of 34.4 ±19.4 years (range 13–89 years. Forty five patients had intentional poisoning for suicidal attempt. At the time of entry, the mean tympanic temperature, pulse rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic of the OP poisoned patients were respectively 37.1+/−0.6°C (36.0- 39.5, 91+/−18 (55–145, 18+/−5.6 (8–44, 116+/−20 mm Hg (70–170 and 75+/−11.6 mm Hg (40–110. 41.7% of the cases had serum butyryl cholinesterase activities (BChE ≥ 50% normal (≥1600 mU/ml. Our patients had normal temperature at the time entry (mean = 37.1. Tympanic temperature decreasing below 36°C was not detected among the patients during the study period. A rise in mean tympanic temperature was found after atropine administration. Conclusion Our study showed hypothermia was not considerable factor among organophosphate poisoned patients, although more studies with similar situations in tropical countries are needed.

  8. Intravenous cobinamide versus hydroxocobalamin for acute treatment of severe cyanide poisoning in a swine (Sus scrofa) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Tanen, David A; Boudreau, Susan; Castaneda, Maria; Zarzabal, Lee A; Vargas, Toni; Boss, Gerry R

    2014-12-01

    Hydroxocobalamin is a Food and Drug Administration-approved antidote for cyanide poisoning. Cobinamide is a potential antidote that contains 2 cyanide-binding sites. To our knowledge, no study has directly compared hydroxocobalamin with cobinamide in a severe, cyanide-toxic large-animal model. Our objective is to compare the time to return of spontaneous breathing in swine with acute cyanide-induced apnea treated with intravenous hydroxocobalamin, intravenous cobinamide, or saline solution (control). Thirty-three swine (45 to 55 kg) were intubated, anesthetized, and instrumented (continuous mean arterial pressure and cardiac output monitoring). Anesthesia was adjusted to allow spontaneous breathing with FiO2 of 21% during the experiment. Cyanide was continuously infused intravenously until apnea occurred and lasted for 1 minute (time zero). Animals were then randomly assigned to receive intravenous hydroxocobalamin (65 mg/kg), cobinamide (12.5 mg/kg), or saline solution and monitored for 60 minutes. A sample size of 11 animals per group was selected according to obtaining a power of 80%, an α of .05, and an SD of 0.17 in mean time to detect a 20% difference in time to spontaneous breathing. We assessed differences in time to death among groups, using Kaplan-Meier estimation methods, and compared serum lactate, blood pH, cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, respiratory rate, and minute ventilation time curves with repeated-measures ANOVA. Baseline weights and vital signs were similar among groups. The time to apnea and cyanide dose required to achieve apnea were similar. At time zero, mean cyanide blood and lactate concentrations and reduction in mean arterial pressure from baseline were similar. In the saline solution group, 2 of 11 animals survived compared with 10 of 11 in the hydroxocobalamin and cobinamide groups (Pcyanide concentrations became undetectable at the end of the study in both antidote-treated groups, and no statistically significant differences

  9. Methanol poisoning: characteristic MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nirdesh; Himanshu, Dandu; Verma, Shailendra Prasad; Parihar, Anit

    2013-01-01

    Acute methanol intoxication is not an unusual poisoning. It can have serious neurological sequelae. We emphasize how neuroimaging can help in distinguishing methanol poisoning from other causes of acute unconsciousness in alcoholic patients such as hypoglycemic brain damage and carbon monoxide poisoning or head injury, which are frequently observed in alcoholic patients and are also responsible for altered sensorium. The most important findings in MR brain imaging in methanol poisoning have been bilateral putaminal hemorrhagic necrosis. Other less common findings are subcortical and deep white matter lesions, cerebral and cerebellar cortical lesions, and midbrain lesions, cerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage, and even enhancement of necrotic lesions, we found almost the entire spectrum of MRI findings in this patient with methanol poisoning. Neurological sequelae can entail the course and prognosis in methanol poisoning. The patient died because of ventilator-associated pneumonia that developed in the course of prolonged hospitalization.

  10. Prognosis for children with acute liver failure due to Amanita phalloides poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachulski, Marcin F.; Kamińska-Gocał, Diana; Dądalski, Maciej; Socha, Piotr; Mulawka, Jan J.

    2011-10-01

    The primary objective of this article is to find new effective methods of diagnosis of urgent liver transplantation after Amanita phalloides intoxication amongst pediatric patients. The research was carried out using a medical database of pediatric patients who suffered from acute liver failure after amatoxin consumption. After data preprocessing and attribute selection steps, a two-phase experiment was conducted, which incorporated a wide variety of data mining algorithms. The results deliver two equivalent classification models with simple decision structure and reasonable quality of surgery prediction.

  11. Pesticide-related illnesses associated with the use of a plant growth regulator--Italy, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-05

    During January-February 2001, eight cases of acute illness in the county of Ragusa, Italy, were reported to the Italian National Institute for Health (INIH) by the Milan Poison Control Center (MPCC) and were attributed to exposure to Dormex, a plant growth regulator with hydrogen cyanamide as the active ingredient. These cases were identified during a pilot project for acute pesticide-related illness surveillance. Subsequent active case finding at health-care clinics by the Ragusa Occupational Health Unit identified six additional cases. MPCC identified nine cases in other areas of Italy. Of the 23 cases of acute illness, 22 resulted from occupational exposure during mixing and/or applying of Dormex, and one was from unintentional ingestion. This report summarizes the investigation of these cases, which implicates a pesticide as the causative agent and demonstrates the usefulness of surveillance for detecting pesticide-related illnesses.

  12. Food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David T; Dobmeier, Stephen G; Bechtel, Laura K; Holstege, Christopher P

    2007-05-01

    Food poisoning is encountered throughout the world. Many of the toxins responsible for specific food poisoning syndromes are no longer limited to isolated geographic locations. With increased travel and the ease of transporting food products, it is likely that a patient may present to any emergency department with the clinical effects of food poisoning. Recognizing specific food poisoning syndromes allows emergency health care providers not only to initiate appropriate treatment rapidly but also to notify health departments early and thereby prevent further poisoning cases. This article reviews several potential food-borne poisons and describes each agent's mechanism of toxicity, expected clinical presentation, and currently accepted treatment.

  13. Serum Electrolyte, Acid-Base Balance, and Enzyme Changes in Acute Halogeton Glomeratus Poisoning in Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, L. F.

    1968-01-01

    Fourteen sheep were used on an acute halogeton toxicity feeding experiment. Seven sheep were fed a lethal dose of Halogeton glomeratus, an oxalate-producing plant, 7 served as controls. Various serum and tissue electrolytes and enzymes were measured. Sesum calcium decreased while magnesium and phosphorus increased. Although a severe hypocalcemia resulted from the feeding of halogeton tetany was not observed. Blood pH, pCO2 and pO2 measurements demonstrated that alkalosis did not develop. Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, and lactic dehydrogenase all increased. Succinic dehydrogenase was inhibited in the rumen wall but not in other tissues according to the methods used. This finding, as well as other work cited, indicates a possible interference with carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:4234785

  14. [Rhabdomyolysis during acute poisoning with drugs and narcotics. Experience with 7 clinical cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zele, I; De Tommaso, I; Melandri, R; Barakat, B; Pezzilli, R; Re, G; Fontana, G

    1992-12-01

    Numerous and extremely varied conditions (intense muscular activity, ischemia, metabolic and genetic disorders, infections, immunological diseases and toxic causes) may play a role in the genesis of non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis. Over the past years there has been an increased number of reports of forms due to drug or narcotic intoxication. Seven cases of rhabdomyolysis are reported in patients admitted to emergency wards in a state of coma due to heroin overdose (4 cases), cocaine overdose (1 case), carbamazepin (1 case), and tricyclic anti-depressives (1 case). In all cases it was possible to hypothesise a multifactorial pathogenesis of the disease in which other factors, such as acidosis, hypoxia, hypothermia and compression of the muscle mass during coma, were associated with the direct toxic damage caused by the drug. The most frequent complication was acute renal failure. One case of myocardial involvement with non-Q infarction characteristics was also observed.

  15. Serum electrolyte, acid-base balance, and enzyme changes in acute halogeton glomeratus poisoning in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, L F

    1968-10-01

    Fourteen sheep were used on an acute halogeton toxicity feeding experiment. Seven sheep were fed a lethal dose of Halogeton glomeratus, an oxalate-producing plant, 7 served as controls. Various serum and tissue electrolytes and enzymes were measured. Sesum calcium decreased while magnesium and phosphorus increased. Although a severe hypocalcemia resulted from the feeding of halogeton tetany was not observed. Blood pH, pCO(2) and pO(2) measurements demonstrated that alkalosis did not develop. Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, and lactic dehydrogenase all increased. Succinic dehydrogenase was inhibited in the rumen wall but not in other tissues according to the methods used. This finding, as well as other work cited, indicates a possible interference with carbohydrate metabolism.

  16. Clinical and laboratory features of acute sulfur dioxide inhalation poisoning: two-year follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabinovitch, S.; Greyson, N.D.; Weiser, W.; Hoffstein, V.

    1989-02-01

    We present clinical and laboratory results (including nuclear imaging) obtained over a period of two years in two nonsmoking miners who were exposed to high concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) after a mine explosion. Within 3 wk of the accident, both miners had evidence of severe airways obstruction, hypoxemia, markedly reduced exercise tolerance, ventilation-perfusion mismatch, and evidence of active inflammation as documented by positive gallium lung scan. Serial ventilation-perfusion scans over the first 12 months showed progressive improvement without returning to normal. After the initial recovery, there has been no significant change over the subsequent two years postinjury. Pulmonary function and exercise tests also displayed a similar pattern of initial improvement. We conclude that (1) acute exposure to high concentrations of SO/sub 2/ results in severe airways obstruction, (2) pulmonary function abnormalities are partially reversible, and (3) most of the improvement occurs within 12 months after the initial injury.

  17. Acute intentional self-poisoning with a herbicide product containing fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, ethoxysulfuron and isoxadifen ethyl. A prospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZAWAHIR, SHUKRY; ROBERTS, DARREN M.; PALANGASINGHE, CHATHURA; MOHAMED, FAHIM; EDDLESTON, MICHAEL; DAWSON, ANDREW H.; BUCKLEY, NICK A.; REN, LINGLING; MEDLEY, GREGORY A.; GAWARAMMANA, INDIKA

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Herbicides are commonly ingested for self-harm; however, relatively little has been published on poisoning with herbicides other than paraquat and glyphosate. We report here a case series of patients with acute exposure to a combination herbicide (brand name Tiller Gold or Whip Super) containing the selective phenoxy herbicide fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, the sulfonylurea herbicide ethoxysulfuron and the safener isoxadifen ethyl. METHOD Clinical data on all patients presenting with Tiller Gold or Whip Super poisoning to two General Hospital in Sri Lanka from 2002-2008 were collected prospectively until discharge. RESULTS Eighty-six patients with a history of Tiller Gold or Whip Super ingestion were included. The median time to presentation was 4 hours post-ingestion (IQR 2 to 10 hrs) and the median volume ingested was 22.5ml (IQR: 20-60; n=64). Most patients demonstrated limited clinical signs of poisoning and none required mechanical ventilation or intensive care treatment. The main clinical features were an epigastric burning sensation and vomiting; however, most of those who vomited had received gastric lavage or forced emesis. Eight patients had a reduced level of consciousness on admission (GCS 9 -14) that resolved without intervention over several hours. Only symptomatic and supportive care was required. The median hospital stay was 1 day (IQR: 1 to 2) and the case fatality was zero (95% CI: zero to 4.2%). This low case fatality compared favorably with the case fatality of other common herbicides in our cohort: paraquat >40%, propanil >10%, 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) > 5% and glyphosate >2%. CONCLUSION This combination herbicide product appears to be safe in patients with acute self-poisoning, particularly in comparison with other herbicides, and causing few clinical features PMID:19663557

  18. Ultrastructural lesions in the myocardium and kidneys of rabbits in experimental acute Amorimia exotropica poisoning

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    Mauro P. Soares

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Amorimia exotropica is an important plant associated with sudden death in cattle in Southern Brazil. In order to understand the mechanisms by which A. exotropica causes acute lesions in the heart and kidney of intoxicated animals, an experiment was conducted to determine the histopathology and ultrastructure of myocardial and renal lesions of intoxicated rabbits. After receiving 18g/kg of dried plant, six rabbits died suddenly. At necropsy, the liver was swollen and no other macroscopic lesions were observed. Histologically, centrolobular and midzonal hepatocytes were vacuolated. These vacuoles were strong PAS stained positive, suggesting that they corresponded to glycogen accumulations. In some regions of the ventricular septum and ventricles were found vacuoles of different sizes and the kidneys of two rabbits showed vacuolar degeneration on distal convoluted tubules. Ultrastructurally, the myocardium had cardiomyocytes swelling with separation of myofibrils bundles and rupture and disorganization of the sarcomeres. The mitochondria displayed swelling, disorganization, disruption of the mitochondrial cristae, and electron-dense matrix. Some mitochondria exhibited eccentric projections of their membranes with disruption of both outer and inner membranes. The sarcoplasmic reticulum had no alterations, whereas the T-tubule system was occasionally dilated and ruptured. The kidneys had mitochondrial swelling with disorganization and disruption of the mitochondrial cristae. The vacuoles result from the swelling of the endoplasmatic reticulum and usually were located between two basolateral infoldings and mitochondria, occurring preferentially around the nucleus. The myocytes and T system damages induced by A. exotropica result in acute heart failure and death. Furthermore, this mechanism of cardiotoxicity may be common to all plant containing monofluoroacetate.

  19. Acute arbeidsintoxicaties door gebruik van bestrijdingsmiddelen in de bos-, land- en tuinbouw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Laar RTH; de Vries I; Meulenbelt J

    1992-01-01

    In 1991 a prospective study on occupational pesticide poisoning in agricultural workers was conducted to determine the extent and severity of pesticide poisoning in the Netherlands and the circumstances leading to these poisonings. All cases of potential occupational pesticide poisoning in which

  20. Speciation analysis of arsenic compounds in the serum and urine of a patient with acute arsine poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamanaka K.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsine is one of the most potent hemolytic agents. It is important to clarify arsine metabolism as well as its chemical interactions with biological components. The aim of the present study was to clarify arsine metabolism by arsenic speciation analysis in serum and urine from an acute poisoning patient with hematuria, anemia, and renal and liver dysfunction. Speciation analysis of arsenics in serum and urine was performed using HPLC-ICP-MS. The total arsenic (T-As concentration in serum was 244.8 μg/l at admission and 97.1 μg/l at discharge. In the speciation analysis, four kinds of As compounds derived from arsine metabolism were detected in serum and urine. The concentration of arsenite (AsIII, arsenate (AsV, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA in serum at admission were 45.8, 5.2, 17.9 and 9.3 μg/l, respectively. The concentrations of AsIII, AsV, and MMA decreased with biological half time (BHT of 30.1, 43.0, and 96.3 h, respectively. Only DMA was increased at discharge. The urinary AsIII, AsV, MMA and DMA concentrations were 223.0, 12.1, 317.5 and 1053.5 μg/l at discharge, and decreased with BHT of 15.1, 20.8, 14.7, and 16.0 d, respectively. The results indicate that arsine was quickly metabolized to AsIII and subsequently up to DMA, with the result that the toxic effects of inorganic arsenic were added to those of arsine toxicity.

  1. Ethanol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002644.htm Ethanol poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ...

  2. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... unconscious or can't be awakened is at risk of dying. Alcohol poisoning is an emergency If you suspect that ... a short period of time, the greater your risk of alcohol poisoning. One drink is defined as: 12 ounces ( ...

  3. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention Immunizations All Around At Home At Play On ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help ...

  4. Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  5. Starch poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  6. Cologne poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ingredients in cologne can be poisonous: Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) Isopropyl alcohol (isopropanol) There may be other poisonous ... D, Hovda KE. Methanol, ethylene glycol, and other toxic alcohols. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, ...

  7. Methanol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reverse the effect of the poison (fomepizole or ethanol) Tube through the nose to remove remaining poison, ... Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2015:chap 29. White SR. Toxic alcohols. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, ...

  8. Copper poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 75. Holland MG. Pulmonary toxicology. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 9. Jones AL, Dargan PI. ...

  9. Insecticide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 76. Borron SW. Pyrethins, repellants, ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 77. Cannon RD, Ruha A- ...

  10. Amitraz: a mimicker of organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhooria, Sahajal; Behera, Digambar; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-10-01

    Amitraz is used as an ectoparasiticide for dogs and cattle. Human poisoning due to amitraz may be misdiagnosed as organophosphate/carbamate (OPC) toxicity, since amitraz poisoning shares several clinical features (miosis, bradycardia and hypotension) encountered with OPC poisoning. A 19-year-old man with an alleged history of suicidal ingestion of a pesticide presented with drowsiness and was found to have constricted pupils, hypotension and bradycardia. He was diagnosed as a case of OPC poisoning and was treated with atropine and pralidoxime prior to presentation to our centre. Absence of a hypersecretory state, and the presence of hyperglycaemia and hypothermia along with a normal serum cholinesterase level suggested an alternate possibility. Retrieval of the poison container confirmed the diagnosis of amitraz poisoning. The patient made a rapid recovery with supportive management. Clinician awareness is key to successful management of this poisoning, which carries a good prognosis. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  11. Epidemiological Study of Acute Poisoning in Children Referred to Bu-Ali Hospital of Ardabil, 2007-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Farzaneh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Poisoning is a common cause of hospital emergency visits in many countries. Incidence of poisoning is different based on cultural and economic characteristics. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of poisoning in pediatrics.   Methods: This cross sectional study was performed on 336 patients under 13 years of age referring to Bu-Ali hospital during five years (2007-2011. Variables such as age, sex, residency place, hospitalized duration, cause of the poisoning, clinical signs, treatment and outcome were obtained by a checklist. Collected data analyzed by statistical methods in SPSS v16.   Results : Among the subjects, 197 patients (58.6% were male. The average age of the children was 4.1 years and the most common age range was 1 to 4 years with (210 patients, 62.5%. The mean duration of hospitalization of children was 1.7 day (SD= 0.2, 77.7 % of the children were living in the city and the summer was accounted as a common season in which the patients referred to the hospital (32.7 %. The most used materials were drugs with 60.71% and in 86.6% of patients the cause of poisoning was accidental.   Conclusion : Results showed that the most common cause of poisoning among children are drugs and methadone was the most commonly abused substance. It requires that parents should be trained about keeping their children away from drugs somewhere.

  12. [Characteristics of the pharmacological treatment of toxic liver damage in patients with an alcohol abused syndrome and an acute severe ethanol poison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilov, V V; Shikalova, I A; Vasil'ev, S A; Loladze, A T; Batotsyrenov, B V

    2012-01-01

    The examination of 130 patients with an alcohol abused syndrome and a severe ethanol poison have revealed that ethanol action are accompanied by significant metabolic disturbances. The comparative evaluation of the inclusion of heptral and remaxol in the treatment has shown that remaxol improves the clinical course of mentioned disorders decreasing the frequency and duration of alcohol delirium. Patients treated with this drug spent less time in acute care and their treatment duration was shorter. Remaxol reduces more effectively the severity of metabolic disorders.

  13. [The impact of L-carnitine administration on the serum level of myocardium injury markers in patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhong-ji; Yang, Chao-bin; Wang, Hui; Li, Ying

    2011-12-01

    To examine the serum level of myocardial injury markers in patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, the correlation between these markers and the severity of the disease, and the therapeutic effects of L-carnitine administration. 69 patients, chosen from 309 cases of acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACOP) for abnormally high level of serum myocardial injury markers (myoglobin, Mb; MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase, CK-MB; cardiac troponin-I, cTnI) at the time of admission, were randomly divided into control group (n = 34) and observation group (n = 35). The patients in control group were given Xingnaojing (20 ml/d i.v. drip), and the observation group Xingnaojing (20 ml/d)+L-carnitine (2 g/d i.v. drip), in addition to the conventional oxygen supply and symptom-focused therapy. The plasma concentration of carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO, as index for CO poisoning severity), Mb, CK-MB, and cTnI in these patients were further examined 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week after the treatment, for difference between the two groups, and the correlation between the serum level of HbCO and the myocardial injury markers. At the time of admission, the incidence of abnormal findings in myocardial injury markers were 2.5% (5/204), 46.8% (36/77) and 100.0% (28/28) in patients with mild (HbCO: 10% ~ 19%), moderate (20% ~ 39%) and severe (≥40%) CO poisoning, respectively. The incidence of abnormal findings in injury markers was significantly correlated to the HbCO concentration (x(2)=170.3549, P 0.05] between the control and observation group. However, it was found in: Mb (24 hours: 74.0 ± 36.5 vs. 97.1 ± 35.8, 72 hours: 40.1 ± 6.8 vs. 69.0 ± 11.2), cTnI (24 hours: 1.9 ± 0.5 vs. 2.3 ± 0.7, 72 hours: 1.2 ± 0.3 vs. 1.8 ± 0.4) both 24 hours and 72 hours after the treatment, and CK-MB, 24 hours after treatment (10.6 ± 4.1 vs. 13.0 ± 3.9) with the values in observation group significantly lower (P incidence of abnormal findings in serum myocardial injury markers was positively

  14. A profile of unintentional poisoning caused by household cleaning products, disinfectants and pesticides Perfil de intoxicações não intencionais com produtos saneantes de uso doméstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaura de Farias Presgrave

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Unintentional poisoning occurred mainly among children. The leading cause of such poisoning in Brazil, among consumer products was household cleaning products. For this study 2810 calls made to two poison control centers in the State of Rio de Janeiro between January 2000 and December 2002 were analyzed. Children under five were the most vulnerable group. More boys under 10 suffered accidental poisoning than girls, although above this age, the distribution was inverted. The calls received by poison control centers were mainly from health services within the first two hours following poisoning. The most frequent exposure routes were ingestion (90.4%, followed by inhalation (4.3%, skin and eye contact (2.4% and 2% respectively. The products involved were bleach, petroleum derivates, rodenticides and pesticides. The main causes were products within the children's reach, storage in soft drink bottles, food mixed with rodenticides, incorrect product use, and kitchen utensils used for measured cleaning products. The most common outcome was that the patient was cured, although a lot of cases were lost to follow-up. Education programs are necessary in order to avoid these poisonings.Intoxicações não-intencionais ocorrem principalmente na infância. No Brasil, os produtos de limpeza doméstica são as principais causas desses eventos. Para este estudo foram analisados 2.810 casos registrados nos dois centros de controle de intoxicação do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, no período de janeiro de 2000 a dezembro 2002. O grupo mais vulnerável foi o de crianças de até cinco anos de idade. Meninos de até dez anos foram mais intoxicados do que meninas. A partir dessa faixa etária, a distribuição foi invertida. Os centros de controle de intoxicação foram chamados principalmente por serviços de saúde no período de até duas horas após o envenenamento. As vias de exposição mais freqüentes foram ingestão (90,4%, inalação (4,3%, dérmica (2,4% e

  15. OCCUPATIONAL CARBAMATE POISONING IN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongpoo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-07-01

    Carbamate insecticide is a leading cause of poisoning in Thailand. The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical manifestations and modes of occupational exposure in carbamate poisoning cases. We retrospectively studied all the cases of carbamate poisoning due to occupational exposure recorded in the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance system during 2005 to 2010. Demographic data, clinical manifestations and severity were analyzed statistically. During the study period, 3,183 cases were identified, of which 170 (5.3%) were deemed to be due to occupational exposure. Ninety-six cases (56.5%) and 35 cases (20.6%) were poisoned by carbofuran and methomyl, respectively. Carbofuran is sold as a 3% grain and applied by sowing; methomyl is sold as a liquid and is applied by spraying. The majority of poisoned patients did not wear personal protective equipment (PPE) while applying the carbamates. The clinical manifestations of occupational carbofuran poisoning recorded were nausea and vomiting (82.3%), headaches (56.3%) and miosis (19.8%). The clinical manifestations of methomyl poisoning were nausea and vomiting (74.3%), headaches (57.1%) and palpitations (11.4%). Most patients in both groups had mild symptoms. Only one case in each group required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation support. There were no deaths and the lengths of hospitalization ranged from 2 hours to 2 days. Occupational carbamate poisoning cases in our series were mostly mild and the patients recovered quickly. There were only rare cases of serious symptoms. Lack of knowledge and inadequate PPE were the major factors contributing to occupational poisoning. Educating agricultural workers about correct precautions and pesticide use could minimize this type of poisoning.

  16. Pesticide knowledge, practice and attitude and how it affects the health of small-scale farmers in Uganda: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterlund, Anna H; Thomsen, Jane F; Sekimpi, Deogratias K; Maziina, James; Racheal, Apio; Jørs, Erik

    2014-06-01

    Over the past years there has been an increase in the use of pesticides in developing countries. This study describes pesticide use among small-scale farmers in Uganda and analyses predictors of pesticide poisoning (intoxication) symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a standardized questionnaire. Some 317 small-scale farmers in two districts in Uganda were interviewed about pesticide use, knowledge and attitude, symptoms of intoxication, personal protective equipment (PPE) and hygiene. The risk of reporting symptoms was analysed using logistic regression analysis. The most frequently used pesticides belonged to WHO class II. The farmers had poor knowledge about pesticide toxicity, and the majority did not use appropriate PPE nor good hygiene when handling pesticides. There was no significant association between the number of times of spraying with pesticides and self-reported symptoms of pesticide poisoning. The only significant association was between blowing and sucking the nozzle of the knapsack sprayer and self-reported symptoms of pesticide intoxication (OR: 2.13. 95% CI: 1.09 - 4.18). Unlike the practice in several other developing countries, small-scale farmers in Uganda do not use the most hazardous pesticides (WHO class 1a and 1b). However use of WHO class II pesticides and those of lower toxicity is seen in combination with inadequate knowledge and practice among the farmers. This poses a danger of acute intoxications, chronic health problems and environmental pollution. Training of farmers in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) methods, use of proper hygiene and personal protective equipment when handling pesticides should be promoted.

  17. Research Progress on Pesticide Residue Analysis Techniques in Agro-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Ze-ying

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There are constant occurrences of acute pesticide poisoning among consumers and pesticide residue violations in agro-products import/export trading. Pesticide residue analysis is the important way to protect the food safety and the interest of import/export enterprises. There has been a rapid development in pesticide residue analysis techniques in recent years. In this review, the research progress in the past five years were discussed in the respects of samples preparation and instrument determination. The application, modification and development of the QuEChERS method in samples preparation and the application of tandem mass spectrometry and high resolution mass spectrometry were reviewed. And the implications for the future of the field were discussed.

  18. Development of a Prediction Model for Diagnosis of Acute Poisoning in Patients with Altered Mental Status and Absent History of Alcohol/Drug Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Robert

    2017-11-01

    Diagnosis of acute poisoning in patients with altered mental status and absent history is a challenging diagnostic problem in clinical practice. The aims of the study were to develop a simple clinical tool to stratify risk of acute poisoning in patients with altered mental states and no history of alcohol/drug ingestion, and develop a prediction model using initial observations from which a simple risk score could be derived. The study was carried out on non-trauma patients aged 15 years and older admitted with altered mental states and no history of alcohol or drug ingestion. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were carried out and a score was derived and validated. There were 607 patients included, with mean age of 60.3 years and 54% were male. The regression model performed moderately well on both the training and validation sets with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.834 and 0.844, respectively. The risk score correlated with the regression model (R2 = 0.969). At cutoff thresholds of 20% for the model and 2 for the score, sensitivity and specificity of the regression model (67.6% and 85.6%) and the score (67.6% and 85.4%) were moderate, while positive predictive values were low (43.4%) and negative predictive values were high (94.2%) for both the regression model and the score. A prediction model with a derived risk score was developed with a high negative predictive value and may have potential in assessing risk of poisoning in altered mental status and may have value in a prehospital environment or at triage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pesticides: an update of human exposure and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafalou, Sara; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Pesticides are a family of compounds which have brought many benefits to mankind in the agricultural, industrial, and health areas, but their toxicities in both humans and animals have always been a concern. Regardless of acute poisonings which are common for some classes of pesticides like organophosphoruses, the association of chronic and sub-lethal exposure to pesticides with a prevalence of some persistent diseases is going to be a phenomenon to which global attention has been attracted. In this review, incidence of various malignant, neurodegenerative, respiratory, reproductive, developmental, and metabolic diseases in relation to different routes of human exposure to pesticides such as occupational, environmental, residential, parental, maternal, and paternal has been systematically criticized in different categories of pesticide toxicities like carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, pulmonotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity, and metabolic toxicity. A huge body of evidence exists on the possible role of pesticide exposures in the elevated incidence of human diseases such as cancers, Alzheimer, Parkinson, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, asthma, bronchitis, infertility, birth defects, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, diabetes, and obesity. Most of the disorders are induced by insecticides and herbicides most notably organophosphorus, organochlorines, phenoxyacetic acids, and triazine compounds.

  20. Combined application of dexamethasone and hyperbaric oxygen therapy yields better efficacy for patients with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Wenping; Xue, Hui; Wang, Baojun; Li, Yuechun; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Changchun; Liang, Furu; Pang, Jiangxia; Yu, Lehua

    2017-01-01

    Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning (DEACMP) commonly occurs after recovering from acute CO poisoning. This study was performed to assess the efficacy of the combined application of dexamethasone and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy in patients with DEACMP. A total of 120 patients with DEACMP were recruited and randomly assigned into the experimental group (receiving dexamethasone 5 mg/day or 10 mg/day plus HBO therapy) and control group (HBO therapy as monotherapy). Meanwhile, the conventional treatments were provided for all the patients. We used the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scale to assess the cognitive function, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) to assess the neurological function and the remission rate (RR) to assess the clinical efficacy. Myelin basic protein (MBP) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was also measured. After 4 weeks of treatment, compared to the control group, the experimental group had a significantly higher remission rate ( P =0.032), a significantly higher average MMSE score ( P =0.037) and a significantly lower average NIHSS score ( P =0.002). Meanwhile, there was a trend toward better improvement with dexamethasone 10 mg/day, and the level of MBP in the CSF of patients was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group ( P incidence of adverse events. These results indicate that the combined application of dexamethasone and HBO therapy could yield better efficacy for patients with DEACMP and should be viewed as a potential new therapy.

  1. Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of multiple and single dose activated charcoal for acute self-poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Fahim

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The case fatality for intentional self-poisoning in rural Asia is 10–30 times higher than in the West, mostly due to the use of highly toxic poisons. Activated charcoal is a widely available intervention that may – if given early – bind to poisons in the stomach and prevent their absorption. Current guidelines recommend giving a single dose of charcoal (SDAC if patients arrive within an hour of ingestion. Multiple doses (MDAC may increase poison elimination at a later time by interrupting any enterohepatic or enterovascular circulations. The effectiveness of SDAC or MDAC is unknown. Since most patients present to hospital after one hour, we considered MDAC to have a higher likelihood of clinical benefit and set up a study to compare MDAC with no charcoal. A third arm of SDAC was added to help determine whether any benefit noted from MDAC resulted from the first dose or all doses. Methods/design We set up a randomised controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of superactivated charcoal in unselected adult self-poisoning patients admitted to the adult medical wards of three Sri Lankan secondary hospitals. Patients were randomised to standard treatment or standard treatment plus either a single 50 g dose of superactivated charcoal dissolved in 300 ml of water or six doses every four hours. All patients with a history of poison ingestion were approached concerning the study and written informed consent taken from each patient, or their relative (for unconscious patients or those 72 hrs post-ingestion, and previous recruitment. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality; secondary outcomes included the occurrence of serious complications (need for intubation, time requiring assisted ventilation, fits, cardiac dysrhythmias. Analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis; the effects of reported time to treatment after poisoning and status on admission will also be assessed. Discussion This trial will provide important

  2. Prediction of pesticide acute toxicity using two-dimensional chemical descriptors and target species classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous modelling of the median lethal dose (oral rat LD50) has indicated that local class-based models yield better correlations than global models. We evaluated the hypothesis that dividing the dataset by pesticidal mechanisms would improve prediction accuracy. A linear discri...

  3. Airborne pesticide concentrations near greenhouses [acute exposure and potential effects to humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink BJWG; Linders JBHJ; CSR

    1998-01-01

    Experimental data on airborne pesticide emissions from greenhouses are scarce due to their generally laborious, complex and costly determination. Therefore modelling may be helpful. USES 2.0 - a decision-support system for governmental institutions - includes a module to estimate airborne

  4. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child

    OpenAIRE

    KONCA, Capan; Kahramaner, Zelal; Bosnak, Mehmet; Kocamaz, Halil

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestio...

  5. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child

    OpenAIRE

    KONCA, Capan; Kahramaner, Zelal; Bosnak, Mehmet; Kocamaz, Halil

    2014-01-01

    Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestion of poi...

  6. Diagnosis of acute poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    for wood or paper). Newspaper. Talc (not inhaled). Golf ball (core may cause ... medicines). Phenolphthalein laxatives (Brooklax). Chalk (calcium carbonate). Hydrogen pero xide (medicinal 3%). Plasticine. V aseline. Charcoal. Play-Doh. V.

  7. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-16

    enterotoxemia and other bacterial enterotoxemias due to contamination of food by preformed toxins, botulism, mushroom poisoning and "other poisons of...Preformed Toxins of Bacterial Origin Enterotoxemia Protein toxins produced during the growth of Staphylococcal aureus in food cause the most common...NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subttl*e) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Food Poisoning AD A 1 2 A- S

  8. Drug Utilization Study on Acute Poisoning Cases Treated at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Western Part of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik D. Asari

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Use of antimicrobial medicines for poisoned patients was too high and irrational.  Due to high incidence of snakebites, hospital stockpiles should be regularly checked for availability of antivenom. Educational programs with emphasis on preventive measures for toxic exposures are necessary to create awareness among the general public.

  9. A CLINICAL STUDY OF 100 CASES OF ACUTE OLEANDER SEED POISONING IN KANYAKUMARI GOVERNMENT MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankar Selvaraj

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Yellow oleander (Cascabela thevetia is a poisonous plant that is widely found in India. All parts of the C. thevetia plant are toxic to humans as they contain cardiac glycosides. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 patients with alleged history of yellow oleander seed poisoning who came to Kanyakumari Government Medical College Hospital during the period of 2013-16 were enrolled in this study. Patients presenting with multiple poison consumption and those with previous history of heart disease were excluded from the study. A detailed history of the number of seeds consumed, the time of consumption, detailed clinical assessment, routine blood investigations and a 12-lead ECG were recorded. ECG was recorded at the time of admission and every 12th hourly to detect any cardiac arrhythmias. RESULTS Most symptomatic patients had conduction defects affecting the SA node, the AV node or both. Patients showing cardiac arrhythmias had significantly higher mean serum potassium concentrations ranging from 4.5-5.2 mEq/L. Yellow oleander seed poisoning is common among young females (56%. There is a poor correlation between the number of seeds ingested and the severity of cardiotoxicity. Arrhythmias has occurred after ingestion of one or two seeds; some patients are asymptomatic even after consuming five or more seeds without requiring specialised treatments. This could be explained on the basis that crushed seeds are more dangerous than whole seeds. CONCLUSION Most of these young previously healthy patients had conduction defects affecting the SA or AV nodes. Relatively, few had the atrial tachyarrhythmias or ventricular ectopic beats that are typical of digoxin poisoning. Yellow oleander induced arrhythmias were associated with high serum potassium levels when compared to patient without arrhythmias.

  10. A series of patients in the emergency department diagnosed with copper poisoning: recognition equals treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunay, Nurullah; Yildirim, Cuma; Karcioglu, Ozgur; Gunay, Nahide Ekici; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Usalan, Celalettin; Kose, Ataman; Togun, Ismail

    2006-07-01

    Only scarce data are available on chronic copper poisoning in general toxicology literature. This paper reports four patients with chronic copper poisoning and one patient with acute poisoning. The cases with chronic poisoning in our study consisted of four members of a farmer family presenting to the emergency department (ED) with malaise, weakness, abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, tightness in the chest, leg and back pain, accompanied by significant anemia (hemoglobin [Hb]: 8.7 - 9.5 g/dl). They were hospitalized and investigated thoroughly, although there were no other findings or clues enlightening the etiology of anemia. The anemia was attributed to chronic copper exposure acquired from vegetables containing copper. The diagnosis was established by ruling out other possible etiologies and history coupled with laboratory findings. The patients were discharged with the recommendation on diet to avoid consumption of pesticide-treated vegetables. Their Hb values were between 10 and 11.4 g/dl on the 15th day, and between 12 and 14 g/dl after two months. Their symptoms had also resolved completely in two months. The patient with acute intoxication (5th case) had ingested copper oxychloride with suicidal intent. He was admitted with anuria and hemolytic anemia. After being hospitalized for fifteen days, he was diagnosed with chronic renal failure and was scheduled for a dialysis program. Acute poisoning is more deliberate, while chronic exposure may result in atypical findings. In conclusion, physicians working in primary care and EDs should consider copper poisoning in patients presenting with anemia, abdominal pain, headache, tightness in the chest, and leg and back pain.

  11. Probabilistic acute dietary exposure assessments to captan and tolylfluanid using several European food consumption and pesticide concentration databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Polly E.; Svensson, Kettil; Moussavian, Shahnaz

    2009-01-01

    to national food consumption surveys. In this way it is possible to exchange or merge concentration data between countries in situations of data scarcity. This electronic platform in connection with probabilistic software can be seen as a prototype of a data warehouse, including a harmonised approach......Probabilistic dietary acute exposure assessments of captan and tolylfluanid were performed for the populations of the Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden. The basis for these assessments was national databases for food consumption and pesticide concentration data harmonised...... at the level of raw agricultural commodity. Data were obtained from national food consumption surveys and national monitoring programmes and organised in an electronic platform of databases connected to probabilistic software. The exposure assessments were conducted by linking national food consumption data...

  12. Individual and mixture acute toxicity of model pesticides chlordecone and pyriproxyfen in the estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Elena; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Restoux, Gwendal; Trémolet, Gauthier; Duflot, Aurélie; Forget-Leray, Joëlle

    2017-02-01

    Due to the increase in the use of phytosanitary products during the last few decades, the importance to study the effect of pesticide mixtures has been established. In this study, we investigated the acute toxicity of two model insecticides, chlordecone (CLD) and pyriproxyfen (PXF), alone and in mixtures, in the estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis. After 48 h of exposure, the relative LC50 were 73.24 and 131.61 μg/L for PXF and CLD, respectively. The lower concentration tested (10 μg/L) did not affect the mortality of E. affinis whatever the considered chemical compound. To understand the interaction between compounds in mixture, the results were fitted to the concentration addition, Vølund, and Hewlett models. The best fit was obtained with the Hewlett model, suggesting a synergistic effect of the mixture.

  13. Consumption of fruits and vegetables and probabilistic assessment of the cumulative acute exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides of schoolchildren in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaznik, Urška; Yngve, Agneta; Eržen, Ivan; Hlastan Ribič, Cirila

    2016-02-01

    Adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables is a part of recommendations for a healthy diet. The aim of the present study was to assess acute cumulative dietary exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides via fruit and vegetable consumption by the population of schoolchildren aged 11-12 years and the level of risk for their health. Cumulative probabilistic risk assessment methodology with the index compound approach was applied. Slovenia, primary schools. Schoolchildren (n 1145) from thirty-one primary schools in Slovenia. Children were part of the PRO GREENS study 2009/10 which assessed 11-year-olds' consumption of fruit and vegetables in ten European countries. The cumulative acute exposure amounted to 8.3 (95% CI 7.7, 10.6) % of the acute reference dose (ARfD) for acephate as index compound (100 µg/kg body weight per d) at the 99.9th percentile for daily intake and to 4.5 (95% CI 3.5, 4.7) % of the ARfD at the 99.9th percentile for intakes during school time and at lunch. Apples, bananas, oranges and lettuce contributed most to the total acute pesticides intake. The estimations showed that acute dietary exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides is not a health concern for schoolchildren with the assessed dietary patterns of fruit and vegetable consumption.

  14. Mushroom poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erguven, M; Yilmaz, O; Deveci, M; Aksu, N; Dursun, F; Pelit, M; Cebeci, N

    2007-09-01

    We aimed to review characteristics of mushrooms and mushroom poisoning and compare clinical picture, laboratory data, treatment modalities and prognostic factors in children with amanita intoxication and non-amanita mushroom poisoning. We analyzed 39 pediatric patients through 1994-2004, retrospectively from the patient files and evaluated the patients in two groups as patients with amanita intoxication and patients with non-amanita mushroom poisoning. All of the cases were admitted to the hospital in autumn. Twenty three (59%) of the patients were female and 16 (41%) were male. Mean age of the patients was 8.05 +/- 2.10 years. Amanita phalloides toxin was detected in the serum in 8 patients. Eleven (28%) of the cases were strongly suggestive of amanita poisoning but alpha amanitin level could not be studied. The average time of appearance of symptoms after mushroom consumption, duration of symptoms, hospital stay, serum AST, ALT, PT and creatinine levels were significantly higher in patients with amanita poisoning (pamanita poisoning (30%), totally 7 patients died of hepatic coma. The average time of admission to hospital, mean AST, ALT, creatinine and PT values at 3rd day were significantly higher in patients who died of hepatic coma. Prognosis was better in case of early admittance to hospital in patients with amanita poisoning. Early diagnosis and treatment in mushroom poisoning can be life saving. Public awareness is very important in prevention of intoxication as well as encouraging early admission to hospitals.

  15. Anticholinesterase pesticides: metabolism, neurotoxicity, and epidemiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Satoh, Tetsuo, Ph. D; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2010-01-01

    ...; and epidemiology of poisonings and fatalities in people from short- and long- term exposures to these pesticides in different occupational settings on a individual country basis as well as on a global basis...

  16. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukcević, Natasa Perković; Ercegović, Gordana Vuković; Segrt, Zoran; Djordjević, Snezana; Stosić, Jasmina Jović

    2016-03-01

    Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender), benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old), middle aged (41-65-year old) and elderly (older than 65). During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  17. The role of clinical laboratories in lead exposure: from diagnosis of acute poisonings to neonatal screening? A report on two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena García-González

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of clinical laboratories in lead exposure has traditionally focused on the diagnosis of poisonings that pose a risk to human health. However, the last decades of the twentieth century saw an increase in public awareness of lead exposure, which prompted the banning of both lead-containing paint and petrol. As a result, acute lead poisonings are increasingly rare in industrialized countries. However, this is always a latent danger that clinicians should be aware of. As an example of this we describe two cases that we recently diagnosed at our laboratory.Even more worrying is confirming the harmful effects of lead on children, even at concentrations hitherto considered safe. This has renewed interest in the determination of this element in clinical laboratories in order to find and control all those pregnant women and children who might have blood lead levels above a suitable threshold value, which is currently set at 50 μg L-1 for both populations. If this situation becomes the norm, the role of clinical laboratories with respect to lead determination will undergo a major change. This possibility is discussed in this paper, together with a pilot program developed at our hospital for such purpose.

  18. Association of blood lead level with neurological features in 972 children affected by an acute severe lead poisoning outbreak in Zamfara State, northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Jane; Thurtle, Natalie; Cooney, Lauren; Ariti, Cono; Ahmed, Abdulkadir Ola; Ashagre, Teshome; Ayela, Anthony; Chukwumalu, Kingsley; Criado-Perez, Alison; Gómez-Restrepo, Camilo; Meredith, Caitlin; Neri, Antonio; Stellmach, Darryl; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Shanks, Leslie; Dargan, Paul I

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) investigated reports of high mortality in young children in Zamfara State, Nigeria, leading to confirmation of villages with widespread acute severe lead poisoning. In a retrospective analysis, we aimed to determine venous blood lead level (VBLL) thresholds and risk factors for encephalopathy using MSF programmatic data from the first year of the outbreak response. We included children aged ≤5 years with VBLL ≥45 µg/dL before any chelation and recorded neurological status. Odds ratios (OR) for neurological features were estimated; the final model was adjusted for age and baseline VBLL, using random effects for village of residence. 972 children met inclusion criteria: 885 (91%) had no neurological features; 34 (4%) had severe features; 47 (5%) had reported recent seizures; and six (1%) had other neurological abnormalities. The geometric mean VBLLs for all groups with neurological features were >100 µg/dL vs 65.9 µg/dL for those without neurological features. The adjusted OR for neurological features increased with increasing VBLL: from 2.75, 95%CI 1.27-5.98 (80-99.9 µg/dL) to 22.95, 95%CI 10.54-49.96 (≥120 µg/dL). Neurological features were associated with younger age (OR 4.77 [95% CI 2.50-9.11] for 1-lead poisoning in prioritising therapy and developing chelation protocols.

  19. [Comparative evaluation of clinical efficacy of drugs remaxol and ademetionine in patients with acute ethanol poisoning complicated by the toxic damage of the liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilov, V V; Shikalova, I A; Batotsyrenov, B V; Andrianov, A Iu; Vasil'ev, S A; Loladze, A T

    2012-04-01

    As a result of survey in process of treatment of 100 patients with severe acute poisoning of ethanol on the background of the toxic damage of the liver set that the severity of poisoning depends on the duration abuse of alcohol (Binge drinking). Inclusion in the intensive care infusion hepatoprotector remaxol compared with ademetionine leads to a faster dynamics of improvement of the patients condition, evaluated by the scale assessing the severity APACHE II. Also found, Use of remaxol can reduce development of complications such is alcoholic delirium on the background of long-term abuse of alcohol in percentage from 31.9% to 16%, as well as reduces the time of stay of patients in the departments of the resuscitation and intensive care unit from 7,3±0,6 to 5,6±0,3 days and duration of treatment of patients in the hospital from 11,8±1,1 to 9,0±0,4 days.

  20. Cases of acute mercury poisoning by mercury vapor exposure during the demolition of a fluorescent lamp factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Sang Yoon; Lee, Chul Gab; Kim, Jae Yoon; Moon, Young Hoon; Kim, Min Sung; Bae, In Ho; Song, Han Soo

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, workers dismantling a fluorescent lamp factory in Korea were affected by mercury poisoning from exposure to mercury vapor. Eighteen out of the 21 workers who participated in the demolition project presented with symptoms of poisoning and, of these, 10 had persistent symptoms even at 18 months after the initial exposure to mercury vapor. Early symptoms of 18 workers included a general skin rash, pruritus, myalgia, sleep disturbance, and cough and sputum production. Following alleviation of these initial symptoms, late symptoms, such as easy fatigue, insomnia, bad dreams, and anxiety disorder, began to manifest in 10 out of 18 patients. Seven workers underwent psychiatric care owing to sleep disturbance, anxiety disorder, and depression, and three workers underwent dermatologic treatment for hyperpigmentation, erythematous skin eruption, and chloracne-like skin lesions. Furthermore, three workers developed a coarse jerky movement, two had swan neck deformity of the fingers, and two received care at an anesthesiology clinic for paresthesia, such as burning sensation, cold sensation, and pain. Two workers underwent urologic treatment for dysfunction of the urologic system and impotence. However, symptomatic treatment did not result in satisfactory relief of these symptoms. Awareness of the perils of mercury and prevention of mercury exposure are critical for preventing health hazards caused by mercury vapor. Chelation therapy should be performed promptly following mercury poisoning to minimize damage.